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Sample records for interaural level difference

  1. Speech segregation based-on binaural cue: interaural time difference (itd) and interaural level difference (ild)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nur Farid, Mifta; Arifianto, Dhany

    2016-11-01

    A person who is suffering from hearing loss can be helped by using hearing aids and the most optimal performance of hearing aids are binaural hearing aids because it has similarities to human auditory system. In a conversation at a cocktail party, a person can focus on a single conversation even though the background sound and other people conversation is quite loud. This phenomenon is known as the cocktail party effect. In an early study, has been explained that binaural hearing have an important contribution to the cocktail party effect. So in this study, will be performed separation on the input binaural sound with 2 microphone sensors of two sound sources based on both the binaural cue, interaural time difference (ITD) and interaural level difference (ILD) using binary mask. To estimate value of ITD, is used cross-correlation method which the value of ITD represented as time delay of peak shifting at time-frequency unit. Binary mask is estimated based on pattern of ITD and ILD to relative strength of target that computed statistically using probability density estimation. Results of sound source separation performing well with the value of speech intelligibility using the percent correct word by 86% and 3 dB by SNR.

  2. Effects of interaural level differences on the externalization of sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Catic, Jasmina; Santurette, Sébastien; Dau, Torsten

    2012-01-01

    Distant sound sources in our environment are perceived as externalized and are thus properly localized in both direction and distance. This is due to the acoustic filtering by the head, torso, and external ears, which provides frequency-dependent shaping of binaural cues such as interaural level...... differences (ILDs) and interaural time differences (ITDs). In rooms, the sound reaching the two ears is further modified by reverberant energy, which leads to increased fluctuations in short-term ILDs and ITDs. In the present study, the effect of ILD fluctuations on the externalization of sound...... was investigated. A psychoacoustic experiment was performed in a standard IEC 268-13 listening room by normal-hearing listeners. Individual binaural room impulse responses were used to simulate a distant speech source delivered via headphones. The speech signal was then processed such that the naturally occurring...

  3. Temporal weighting of binaural information at low frequencies: Discrimination of dynamic interaural time and level differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diedesch, Anna C; Stecker, G Christopher

    2015-07-01

    The importance of sound onsets in binaural hearing has been addressed in many studies, particularly at high frequencies, where the onset of the envelope may carry much of the useful binaural information. Some studies suggest that sound onsets might play a similar role in the processing of binaural cues [e.g., fine-structure interaural time differences (ITD)] at low frequencies. This study measured listeners' sensitivity to ITD and interaural level differences (ILD) present in early (i.e., onset) and late parts of 80-ms pure tones of 250-, 500-, and 1000-Hz frequency. Following previous studies, tones carried static interaural cues or dynamic cues that peaked at sound onset and diminished to zero at sound offset or vice versa. Although better thresholds were observed in static than dynamic conditions overall, ITD discrimination was especially impaired, regardless of frequency, when cues were not available at sound onset. Results for ILD followed a similar pattern at 1000 Hz; at lower frequencies, ILD thresholds did not differ significantly between dynamic-cue conditions. The results support the "onset" hypothesis of Houtgast and Plomp [(1968). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 44, 807-812] for ITD discrimination, but not necessarily ILD discrimination, in low-frequency pure tones.

  4. Interaural level difference-dependent gain control and synaptic scaling underlying binaural computation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Xiaorui R; Liang, Feixue; Li, Haifu; Mesik, Lukas; Zhang, Ke K; Polley, Daniel B; Tao, Huizhong W; Xiao, Zhongju; Zhang, Li I

    2013-08-21

    Binaural integration in the central nucleus of inferior colliculus (ICC) plays a critical role in sound localization. However, its arithmetic nature and underlying synaptic mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we showed in mouse ICC neurons that the contralateral dominance is created by a "push-pull"-like mechanism, with contralaterally dominant excitation and more bilaterally balanced inhibition. Importantly, binaural spiking response is generated apparently from an ipsilaterally mediated scaling of contralateral response, leaving frequency tuning unchanged. This scaling effect is attributed to a divisive attenuation of contralaterally evoked synaptic excitation onto ICC neurons with their inhibition largely unaffected. Thus, a gain control mediates the linear transformation from monaural to binaural spike responses. The gain value is modulated by interaural level difference (ILD) primarily through scaling excitation to different levels. The ILD-dependent synaptic scaling and gain adjustment allow ICC neurons to dynamically encode interaural sound localization cues while maintaining an invariant representation of other independent sound attributes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Commissural connections mediate inhibition for the computation of interaural level difference in the barn owl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, T T; Keller, C H

    1992-02-01

    In the barn owl (Tyto alba), the posterior nucleus of the ventral lateral lemniscus (VLVp) is the first site of binaural convergence in the pathway that processes interaural level difference (ILD), an important sound-localization cue. The neurons of VLVp are sensitive to ILD because of an excitatory input from the contralateral ear and an inhibitory input from the ipsilateral ear. A previously described projection from the contralateral cochlear nucleus, can account for the excitation. The present study addresses the source of the inhibitory input. We demonstrate with standard axonal transport methods that the left and right VLVps are interconnected via fibers of the commissure of Probst. We further show that the anesthetization of one VLVp renders ineffective the inhibition that is normally evoked by stimulation of the ipsilateral ear. Thus, one cochlear nucleus (driven by the ipsilateral ear) appears to provide inhibition to the ipsilateral VLVp by exciting commissurally-projecting inhibitory neurons in the contralateral VLVp.

  6. Synaptic mechanisms underlying interaural level difference selectivity in rat auditory cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyweriga, Michael; Stewart, Whitney; Cahill, Carolyn

    2014-01-01

    The interaural level difference (ILD) is a sound localization cue that is extensively processed in the auditory brain stem and midbrain and is also represented in the auditory cortex. Here, we asked whether neurons in the auditory cortex passively inherit their ILD tuning from subcortical sources or whether their spiking preferences were actively shaped by local inhibition. If inherited, the ILD selectivity of spiking output should match that of excitatory synaptic input. If shaped by local inhibition, by contrast, excitation should be more broadly tuned than spiking output with inhibition suppressing spiking for nonpreferred stimuli. To distinguish between these two processing strategies, we compared spiking responses with excitation and inhibition in the same neurons across a range of ILDs and average binaural sound levels. We found that cells preferring contralateral ILDs (often called EI cells) followed the inheritance strategy. In contrast, cells that were unresponsive to monaural sounds but responded predominantly to near-zero ILDs (PB cells) instead showed evidence of the local processing strategy. These PB cells received excitatory inputs that were similar to those received by the EI cells. However, contralateral monaural sounds and ILDs >0 dB elicited strong inhibition, quenching the spiking output. These results suggest that in the rat auditory cortex, EI cells do not utilize inhibition to shape ILD sensitivity, whereas PB cells do. We conclude that an auditory cortical circuit computes sensitivity for near-zero ILDs. PMID:25185807

  7. Effect of background noise on neuronal coding of interaural level difference cues in rat inferior colliculus

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    Mokri, Yasamin; Worland, Kate; Ford, Mark; Rajan, Ramesh

    2015-01-01

    Humans can accurately localize sounds even in unfavourable signal-to-noise conditions. To investigate the neural mechanisms underlying this, we studied the effect of background wide-band noise on neural sensitivity to variations in interaural level difference (ILD), the predominant cue for sound localization in azimuth for high-frequency sounds, at the characteristic frequency of cells in rat inferior colliculus (IC). Binaural noise at high levels generally resulted in suppression of responses (55.8%), but at lower levels resulted in enhancement (34.8%) as well as suppression (30.3%). When recording conditions permitted, we then examined if any binaural noise effects were related to selective noise effects at each of the two ears, which we interpreted in light of well-known differences in input type (excitation and inhibition) from each ear shaping particular forms of ILD sensitivity in the IC. At high signal-to-noise ratios (SNR), in most ILD functions (41%), the effect of background noise appeared to be due to effects on inputs from both ears, while for a large percentage (35.8%) appeared to be accounted for by effects on excitatory input. However, as SNR decreased, change in excitation became the dominant contributor to the change due to binaural background noise (63.6%). These novel findings shed light on the IC neural mechanisms for sound localization in the presence of continuous background noise. They also suggest that some effects of background noise on encoding of sound location reported to be emergent in upstream auditory areas can also be observed at the level of the midbrain. PMID:25865218

  8. Effect of background noise on neuronal coding of interaural level difference cues in rat inferior colliculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokri, Yasamin; Worland, Kate; Ford, Mark; Rajan, Ramesh

    2015-07-01

    Humans can accurately localize sounds even in unfavourable signal-to-noise conditions. To investigate the neural mechanisms underlying this, we studied the effect of background wide-band noise on neural sensitivity to variations in interaural level difference (ILD), the predominant cue for sound localization in azimuth for high-frequency sounds, at the characteristic frequency of cells in rat inferior colliculus (IC). Binaural noise at high levels generally resulted in suppression of responses (55.8%), but at lower levels resulted in enhancement (34.8%) as well as suppression (30.3%). When recording conditions permitted, we then examined if any binaural noise effects were related to selective noise effects at each of the two ears, which we interpreted in light of well-known differences in input type (excitation and inhibition) from each ear shaping particular forms of ILD sensitivity in the IC. At high signal-to-noise ratios (SNR), in most ILD functions (41%), the effect of background noise appeared to be due to effects on inputs from both ears, while for a large percentage (35.8%) appeared to be accounted for by effects on excitatory input. However, as SNR decreased, change in excitation became the dominant contributor to the change due to binaural background noise (63.6%). These novel findings shed light on the IC neural mechanisms for sound localization in the presence of continuous background noise. They also suggest that some effects of background noise on encoding of sound location reported to be emergent in upstream auditory areas can also be observed at the level of the midbrain.

  9. Interaural phase difference modulates the neural activity in the nucleus angularis and improves the processing of level difference cue in the lateral lemniscal nucleus in the chicken.

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    Sato, Tatsuo; Fukui, Iwao; Ohmori, Harunori

    2010-02-01

    We investigated the chicken auditory system to understand how an interaural level difference (ILD) is processed. Sound intensity is extracted in the nucleus angularis (NA) and an ILD is processed in the dorsal lateral lemniscal nucleus (LLD). We found that the neural activity in these nuclei is affected by the interaural phase difference (IPD). Activity in the NA was suppressed by strong contralateral sound when binaural stimuli were presented in-phase, but the activity was enhanced by out-of-phase stimuli. These IPD dependent suppression or enhancement probably occurs through acoustic interference across the interaural canal connecting the middle ears of the two sides. The LLD neurons were excited by contralateral sound and inhibited by ipsilateral sound, reflecting excitation by the contralateral NA and inhibition from the ipsilateral NA, probably through the contralateral LLD as in the barn owl. The LLD unit activity encoded an ILD and was strongly modulated by the IPD. We propose a simple model to explain the interaural coupling effects and IPD modulation of LLD activity, and conclude that the modulation of neuronal activity by IPD may improve ILD processing and the direction sensitivity of LLD neurons to the contralateral ear, compensating for the small ILD cues.

  10. Blind people are more sensitive than sighted people to binaural sound-location cues, particularly inter-aural level differences.

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    Nilsson, Mats E; Schenkman, Bo N

    2016-02-01

    Blind people use auditory information to locate sound sources and sound-reflecting objects (echolocation). Sound source localization benefits from the hearing system's ability to suppress distracting sound reflections, whereas echolocation would benefit from "unsuppressing" these reflections. To clarify how these potentially conflicting aspects of spatial hearing interact in blind versus sighted listeners, we measured discrimination thresholds for two binaural location cues: inter-aural level differences (ILDs) and inter-aural time differences (ITDs). The ILDs or ITDs were present in single clicks, in the leading component of click pairs, or in the lagging component of click pairs, exploiting processes related to both sound source localization and echolocation. We tested 23 blind (mean age = 54 y), 23 sighted-age-matched (mean age = 54 y), and 42 sighted-young (mean age = 26 y) listeners. The results suggested greater ILD sensitivity for blind than for sighted listeners. The blind group's superiority was particularly evident for ILD-lag-click discrimination, suggesting not only enhanced ILD sensitivity in general but also increased ability to unsuppress lagging clicks. This may be related to the blind person's experience of localizing reflected sounds, for which ILDs may be more efficient than ITDs. On the ITD-discrimination tasks, the blind listeners performed better than the sighted age-matched listeners, but not better than the sighted young listeners. ITD sensitivity declines with age, and the equal performance of the blind listeners compared to a group of substantially younger listeners is consistent with the notion that blind people's experience may offset age-related decline in ITD sensitivity. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Linear processing of interaural level difference underlies spatial tuning in the nucleus of the brachium of the inferior colliculus.

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    Slee, Sean J; Young, Eric D

    2013-02-27

    The spatial location of sounds is an important aspect of auditory perception, but the ways in which space is represented are not fully understood. No space map has been found within the primary auditory pathway. However, a space map has been found in the nucleus of the brachium of the inferior colliculus (BIN), which provides a major auditory projection to the superior colliculus. We measured the spectral processing underlying auditory spatial tuning in the BIN of unanesthetized marmoset monkeys. Because neurons in the BIN respond poorly to tones and are broadly tuned, we used a broadband stimulus with random spectral shapes (RSSs) from which both spatial receptive fields and frequency sensitivity can be derived. Responses to virtual space (VS) stimuli, based on the animal's own ear acoustics, were compared with the predictions of a weight-function model of responses to the RSS stimuli. First-order (linear) weight functions had broad spectral tuning (approximately three octaves) and were excitatory in the contralateral ear, inhibitory in the ipsilateral ear, and biased toward high frequencies. Responses to interaural time differences and spectral cues were relatively weak. In cross-validation tests, the first-order RSS model accurately predicted the measured VS tuning curves in the majority of neurons, but was inaccurate in 25% of neurons. In some cases, second-order weighting functions led to significant improvements. Finally, we found a significant correlation between the degree of binaural weight asymmetry and the best azimuth. Overall, the results suggest that linear processing of interaural level difference underlies spatial tuning in the BIN.

  12. Responses of Neurons in the Marmoset Primary Auditory Cortex to Interaural Level Differences: Comparison of Pure Tones and Vocalizations.

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    Leo L Lui

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Interaural level differences (ILDs are the dominant cue for localizing the sources of high frequency sounds that differ in azimuth. Neurons in the primary auditory cortex (A1 respond differentially to ILDs of simple stimuli such as tones and noise bands, but the extent to which this applies to complex natural sounds, such as vocalizations, is not known. In sufentanil/N2O anaesthetized marmosets, we compared the responses of 76 A1 neurons to three vocalizations (Ock, Tsik and Twitter and pure tones at cells’ characteristic frequency. Each stimulus was presented with ILDs ranging from 20dB favouring the contralateral ear to 20dB favouring the ipsilateral ear to cover most of the frontal azimuthal space. The response to each stimulus was tested at three average binaural levels (ABLs. Most neurons were sensitive to ILDs of vocalizations and pure tones. For all stimuli, the majority of cells had monotonic ILD sensitivity functions favouring the contralateral ear, but we also observed ILD sensitivity functions that peaked near the midline and functions favouring the ipsilateral ear. Representation of ILD in A1 was better for pure tones and the Ock vocalization in comparison to the Tsik and Twitter calls; this was reflected by higher discrimination indices and greater modulation ranges. ILD sensitivity was heavily dependent on ABL: changes in ABL by ±20 dB SPL from the optimal level for ILD sensitivity led to significant decreases in ILD sensitivity for all stimuli, although ILD sensitivity to pure tones and Ock calls was most robust to such ABL changes. Our results demonstrate differences in ILD coding for pure tones and vocalizations, showing that ILD sensitivity in A1 to complex sounds cannot be simply extrapolated from that to pure tones. They also show A1 neurons do not show level-invariant representation of ILD, suggesting that such a representation of auditory space is likely to require population coding, and further processing at subsequent

  13. The effect of interaural-level-difference fluctuations on the externalization of sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Catic, Jasmina; Santurette, Sébastien; Buchholz, Jörg M.

    2013-01-01

    in a standard listening room. Next, the effect of ILD fluctuations on the degree of externalization was investigated in a psychoacoustic experiment performed in the same listening room. Individual binaural impulse responses were used to simulate a distant sound source delivered via headphones. The ILDs were......Real-world sound sources are usually perceived as externalized and thus properly localized in both direction and distance. This is largely due to (1) the acoustic filtering by the head, torso, and pinna, resulting in modifications of the signal spectrum and thereby a frequency-dependent shaping...... with the analysis of short-term ILDs at different distances showing that a decreased distance to the sound source also reduced the ILD fluctuations. © 2013 Acoustical Society of America....

  14. Effects of Interaural Level and Time Differences on the Externalization of Sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dau, Torsten; Catic, Jasmina; Santurette, Sébastien;

    - such as wide dynamic range compression - affects the ILDs and thereby potentially reduces the perceived degree of externalization. In the present study, the effect of room reverberation on the spectro-temporal behavior of ILDs was investigated. This was done by analyzing speech played at different distances...... and recorded on a head-andtorso simulator in a standard IEC 268-13 listening room. Next, the effect of ILD fluctuations on the degree of externalization was investigated in a listening experiment with normal-hearing listeners. The experiment was performed in the same standard listening room and a distant...... speech source was simulated via headphones using individual binaural impulse responses. The speech signal was then processed such that the naturally occurring ILD fluctuations were compressed. This manipulation reduced the perceived degree of externalization in the listening experiment, which...

  15. Early monaural occlusion alters the neural map of interaural level differences in the inferior colliculus of the barn owl.

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    Mogdans, J; Knudsen, E I

    1993-08-13

    Monaural occlusion during early life causes adaptive changes in the tuning of units in the owl's optic tectum to interaural level differences (ILD) that tend to align the auditory with the visual map of space. We investigated whether these changes could be due to experience-dependent plasticity occurring in the auditory pathway prior to the optic tectum. Units were recorded in the external nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICx), which is a major source of auditory input to the optic tectum. The tuning of ICx units to ILD was measured in normal barn owls and in barn owls raised with one ear occluded. ILD tuning at each recording site was measured with dichotic noise bursts, presented at a constant average binaural level, 20 dB above threshold. The best ILD at each site was defined as the midpoint of the range of ILD values which elicited more than 50% of the maximum response. A physiological map of ILD was found in the ICx of normal owls: best ILDs changed systematically from right-ear-greater to left-ear-greater as the electrode progressed from dorsal to ventral. Best ILDs ranged from 13 dB right-ear-greater to 15 dB left-ear-greater and progressed at an average rate of 12 dB/mm. The representations of ILD were similar on both sides of the brain. In the ICx of owls raised with one ear occluded, the map of ILD was shifted in the adaptive direction: ILD tuning was shifted towards values favoring the non-occluded ear (the direction that would restore a normal space map). The average magnitude of the shift was on the order of 8-10 dB in each of 4 owls. In one owl, the mean shift in ILD tuning was almost identical on both sides of the brain. In another owl, the mean shift was much larger on the side ipsilateral to the occlusion than on the contralateral side. In both cases, the mean shifts measured in each ICx were comparable to the mean shifts measured in the optic tectum on the same sides of the brain. Thus, the adjustments in ILD tuning that have been observed in

  16. The effect of interaural-time-difference fluctuations on apparent source width

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Käsbach, Johannes; May, Tobias; Oskarsdottir, Gudrun

    2014-01-01

    For the perception of spaciousness, the temporal fluctuations of the interaural time differences (ITDs) and interaural level differences (ILDs) provide important binaural cues. One major characteristic of spatial perception is apparent source width (ASW), which describes the perceived width of a ...

  17. Anatomical limits on interaural time differences: An ecological perspective

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    WILLIAM MORRIS HARTMANN

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Human listeners, and other animals too, use interaural time differences (ITDto localize sounds. If the sounds are pure tones, a simple frequency factorrelates the ITD to the interaural phase difference (IPD, for which there areknown iso-IPD boundaries, 90$^circ$, 180$^circ$~ldots defining regions ofspatial perception. In this article, iso-IPD boundaries for humans aretranslated into azimuths using a spherical head model, and the calculationsare checked by free-field measurements. The translated boundaries providequantitative tests of an ecological interpretation for the dramatic onset ofITD insensitivity at high frequencies. According to this interpretation, theinsensitivity serves as a defense against misinformation and can be attributedto limits on binaural processing in the brainstem. Calculations show that theecological explanation passes the tests only if the binaural brainstemproperties evolved or developed consistent with heads that are 50% smallerthan current adult heads. Measurements on more realistic head shapes relaxthat requirement only slightly. The problem posed by the discrepancy betweenthe current head size and a smaller, ideal head size was apparently solved bythe evolution or development of central processes that discount large IPDs infavor of interaural level differences. The latter become more important withincreasing head size.

  18. Interaural intensity and latency difference in the dolphin's auditory system.

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    Popov, V V; Supin AYa

    1991-12-09

    Binaural hearing mechanisms were measured in dolphins (Inia geoffrensis) by recording the auditory nerve evoked response from the body surface. The azimuthal position of a sound source at 10-15 degrees from the longitudinal axis elicited interaural intensity disparity up to 20 dB and interaural latency difference as large as 250 microseconds. The latter was many times greater than the acoustical interaural time delay. This latency difference seems to be caused by the intensity disparity. The latency difference seems to be an effective way of coding of intensity disparity.

  19. Sensitivity to a break in interaural correlation is co-modulated by intensity level and interaural delay.

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    Kong, Lingzhi; Xie, Zilong; Lu, Lingxi; Wu, Xihong; Li, Liang

    2012-08-01

    This study investigated whether sound intensity affects listeners' sensitivity to a break in interaural correlation (BIC) embedded in wideband noise at different interaural delays. The results show that the detection duration threshold remained stable at the intensity between 60 and 70 dB SPL, but increased in accelerating fashion as the intensity decreased toward 40 dB SPL. Moreover, the threshold elevated linearly as the interaural delay increased from 0 to 4 ms, and the elevation slope became larger as the intensity decreased from 50 to 40 dB SPL. Thus, detecting the BIC is co-modulated by both intensity and interaural delay.

  20. Localization by interaural time difference (ITD): Effects of interaural frequency mismatch

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    Bonham, B.H. [Department of Otolaryngology and W. M. Keck Center for Integrative Neuroscience, Box 0732, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143-0732 (United States); Lewis, E.R. [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    1999-07-01

    A commonly accepted physiological model for lateralization of low-frequency sounds by interaural time delay (ITD) stipulates that binaural comparison neurons receive input from frequency-matched channels from each ear. Here, the effects of hypothetical interaural frequency mismatches on this model are reported. For this study, the cat{close_quote}s auditory system peripheral to the binaural comparison neurons was represented by a neurophysiologically derived model, and binaural comparison neurons were represented by cross-correlators. The results of the study indicate that, for binaural comparison neurons receiving input from one cochlear channel from each ear, interaural CF mismatches may serve to either augment or diminish the effective difference in ipsilateral and contralateral axonal time delays from the periphery to the binaural comparison neuron. The magnitude of this increase or decrease in the effective time delay difference can be up to 400 {mu}s for CF mismatches of 0.2 octaves or less for binaural neurons with CFs between 250 Hz and 2.5 kHz. For binaural comparison neurons with nominal CFs near 500 Hz, the 25-{mu}s effective time delay difference caused by a 0.012-octave CF mismatch is equal to the ITD previously shown to be behaviorally sufficient for the cat to lateralize a low-frequency sound source. {copyright} {ital 1999 Acoustical Society of America.}

  1. Trading of dynamic interaural time and level difference cues and its effect on the auditory motion-onset response measured with electroencephalography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altmann, Christian F; Ueda, Ryuhei; Bucher, Benoit; Furukawa, Shigeto; Ono, Kentaro; Kashino, Makio; Mima, Tatsuya; Fukuyama, Hidenao

    2017-07-27

    Interaural time (ITD) and level differences (ILD) constitute the two main cues for sound localization in the horizontal plane. Despite extensive research in animal models and humans, the mechanism of how these two cues are integrated into a unified percept is still far from clear. In this study, our aim was to test with human electroencephalography (EEG) whether integration of dynamic ITD and ILD cues is reflected in the so-called motion-onset response (MOR), an evoked potential elicited by moving sound sources. To this end, ITD and ILD trajectories were determined individually by cue trading psychophysics. We then measured EEG while subjects were presented with either static click-trains or click-trains that contained a dynamic portion at the end. The dynamic part was created by combining ITD with ILD either congruently to elicit the percept of a right/leftward moving sound, or incongruently to elicit the percept of a static sound. In two experiments that differed in the method to derive individual dynamic cue trading stimuli, we observed an MOR with at least a change-N1 (cN1) component for both the congruent and incongruent conditions at about 160-190 ms after motion-onset. A significant change-P2 (cP2) component for both the congruent and incongruent ITD/ILD combination was found only in the second experiment peaking at about 250 ms after motion onset. In sum, this study shows that a sound which - by a combination of counter-balanced ITD and ILD cues - induces a static percept can still elicit a motion-onset response, indicative of independent ITD and ILD processing at the level of the MOR - a component that has been proposed to be, at least partly, generated in non-primary auditory cortex. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Reproduction of nearby sources by imposing true interaural differences on a sound field control approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badajoz, Javier; Chang, Ji-ho; Agerkvist, Finn T.

    2015-01-01

    In anechoic conditions, the Interaural Level Difference (ILD) is the most significant auditory cue to judge the distance to a sound source located within 1 m of the listener's head. This is due to the unique characteristics of a point source in its near field, which result in exceptionally high, ...

  3. Effects of Interaural Intensity Difference on the Processing of Interaural Time Difference in the Owl’s Nucleus Laminaris

    OpenAIRE

    Viete, Svenja; Peña, José Luis; Konishi, Masakazu

    1997-01-01

    Interaural time and intensity differences (ITD and IID) are processed independently in the owl’s auditory system. This paper examines whether this independence is established in nucleus laminaris (NL), the first site of ITD processing. A plot of discharge rate against time difference (ITD curve) is sinusoidal in NL. The ITDs that produce the peaks are called the most favorable ITDs, and those that produce the troughs are called the least favorable ITDs. IID had little effect on the discharge ...

  4. Interaural difference values of vestibular evoked myogenic.

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    Marziyeh Moallemi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Migraine is a neurologic disease, which often is associated with a unilateral headache. Vestibular abnormalities are common in migraine. Vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMPs assess otolith function in particular functional integrity of the saccule and the inferior vestibular nerve. We used VEMP to evaluate if the migraine headache can affect VEMP asymmetry parameters. A total of 25 patients with migraine (22 females and 3 males who were diagnosed according to the criteria of IHS-1988 were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Control group consisted of 26 healthy participants (18 female and 8 male, without neurotological symptoms and history of migraine. The short tone burst (95 dB nHL, 500 Hz was presented to ears. VEMP was recorded with surface electromyography over the contracted ipsilateral sternocleidomastoid (SCM muscle. Although current results showed that the amplitude ratio is greater in migraine patients than normal group, there was no statistical difference between two groups in mean asymmetry parameters of VEMP. Asymmetry measurements in vestibular evoked myogenic potentials probably are not indicators of unilateral deficient in saccular pathways of migraine patients.

  5. Detection of Interaural Time Differences in the Alligator

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    Carr, Catherine E.; Soares, Daphne; Smolders, Jean; Simon, Jonathan Z.

    2011-01-01

    The auditory systems of birds and mammals use timing information from each ear to detect interaural time difference (ITD). To determine whether the Jeffress-type algorithms that underlie sensitivity to ITD in birds are an evolutionarily stable strategy, we recorded from the auditory nuclei of crocodilians, who are the sister group to the birds. In alligators, precisely timed spikes in the first-order nucleus magnocellularis (NM) encode the timing of sounds, and NM neurons project to neurons in the nucleus laminaris (NL) that detect interaural time differences. In vivo recordings from NL neurons show that the arrival time of phase-locked spikes differs between the ipsilateral and contralateral inputs. When this disparity is nullified by their best ITD, the neurons respond maximally. Thus NL neurons act as coincidence detectors. A biologically detailed model of NL with alligator parameters discriminated ITDs up to 1 kHz. The range of best ITDs represented in NL was much larger than in birds, however, and extended from 0 to 1000 μs contralateral, with a median ITD of 450 μs. Thus, crocodilians and birds employ similar algorithms for ITD detection, although crocodilians have larger heads. PMID:19553438

  6. Neuronal specializations for the processing of interaural difference cues in the chick

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    Harunori eOhmori

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Sound information is encoded as a series of spikes of the auditory nerve fibers (ANFs, and then transmitted to the brainstem auditory nuclei. Features such as timing and level are extracted from ANFs activity and further processed as the interaural time difference (ITD and the interaural level difference (ILD, respectively. These two interaural difference cues are used for sound source localization by behaving animals. Both cues depend on the head size of animals and are extremely small, requiring specialized neural properties in order to process these cues with precision. Moreover, the sound level and timing cues are not processed independently from one another. Neurons in the nucleus angularis (NA are specialized for coding sound level information in birds and the ILD is processed in the posterior part of the dorsal lateral lemniscus nucleus (LLDp. Processing of ILD is affected by the phase difference of binaural sound. Temporal features of sound are encoded in the pathway starting in nucleus magnocellularis (NM, and ITD is processed in the nucleus laminaris (NL. In this pathway a variety of specializations are found in synapse morphology, neuronal excitability, distribution of ion channels and receptors along the tonotopic axis, which reduces spike timing fluctuation in the ANFs-NM synapse, and imparts precise and stable ITD processing to the NL. Moreover, the contrast of ITD processing in NL is enhanced over a wide range of sound level through the activity of GABAergic inhibitory systems from both the superior olivary nucleus (SON and local inhibitory neurons that follow monosynaptic to NM activity.

  7. Response of auditory units in the barn owl's inferior colliculus to continuously varying interaural phase differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moiseff, A; Haresign, T

    1992-06-01

    1. We studied the response of single units in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICc) of the barn owl (Tyto alba) to continuously varying interaural phase differences (IPDs) and static IPDs. Interaural phase was varied in two ways: continuously, by delivering tones to each ear that varied by a few hertz (binaural beat, Fig. 1), and discretely, by delaying in fixed steps the phase of sound delivered to one ear relative to the other (static phase). Static presentations were repeated at several IPDs to characterize interaural phase sensitivity. 2. Units sensitive to IPDs responded to the binaural beat stimulus over a broad range of delta f(Fig. 4). We selected a 3-Hz delta f for most of our comparative measurements on the basis of constraints imposed by our stimulus generation system and because it allowed us to reduce the influence of responses to stimulus onset and offset (Fig. 3A). 3. Characteristic interaural time or phase sensitivity obtained by the use of the binaural beat stimulus were comparable with those obtained by the use of the static technique (Fig. 5; r2 = 0.93, Fig. 6). 4. The binaural beat stimulus facilitated the measurement of characteristic delay (CD) and characteristic phase (CP) of auditory units. We demonstrated that units in the owl's inferior colliculus (IC) include those that are maximally excited by specific IPDs (CP = 0 or 1.0) as well as those that are maximally suppressed by specific IPDs (CP = 0.5; Figs. 7 and 8). 5. The selectivity of units sensitive to IPD or interaural time difference (ITD) were weakly influenced by interaural intensity difference (IID).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Direction-dependent spectral sensitivity and interaural spectral difference in a dolphin: evoked potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supin AYa; Popov, V V

    1993-06-01

    Sensitivity and interaural intensity difference (IID) dependence on sound frequency and direction was measured in an Amazon river dolphin Inia geoffrensis by recording the auditory nerve evoked response from the body surface. The maximal sensitivity in the horizontal plane was found when the sound direction was 5 degrees to 10 degrees ipsilateral to the recorded ear; the direction dependence of sensitivity was more pronounced at higher frequencies than at lower ones. The IID reached its peak at small azimuthal angles (7.5 degrees to 15 degrees) and higher sound frequencies (100 kHz), or at large azimuthal angles (30 degrees to 45 degrees) and lower sound frequencies (20 to 30 kHz). Each sound direction featured its specific pattern of spectral sensitivity and of interaural spectral difference. The interaural spectral difference fluctuated within a range of more than 20 dB depending on sound direction. The data indicate that interaural intensity as well as spectral difference may be cues for binaural localization of sound direction by dolphins.

  9. Electrophysiological study of interaural sound intensity difference in the dolphin Inia geoffrensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supin AYa; Popov, V V; Klishin, V O

    1991-09-15

    A wave observed in the auditory brainstem responses (ABR), sensitive to the side of sound presentation, is described in a dolphin (Inia geoffrensis). Dependence of the wave threshold on location of the sound source showed that the interaural intensity difference was more than 20 dB.

  10. Representation of interaural time difference in the central nucleus of the barn owl's inferior colliculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, H; Takahashi, T; Konishi, M

    1987-10-01

    This paper investigates the role of the central nucleus of the barn owl's inferior colliculus in determination of the sound-source azimuth. The central nucleus contains many neurons that are sensitive to interaural time difference (ITD), the cue for azimuth in the barn owl. The response of these neurons varies in a cyclic manner with the ITD of a tone or noise burst. Response maxima recur at integer multiples of the period of the stimulating tone, or, if the stimulus is noise, at integer multiples of the period corresponding to the neuron's best frequency. Such neurons can signal, by means of their relative spike rate, the phase difference between the sounds reaching the left and right ears. Since an interaural phase difference corresponds to more than one ITD, these neurons represent ITD ambiguously. We call this phenomenon phase ambiguity. The central nucleus is tonotopically organized and its neurons are narrowly tuned to frequency. Neurons in an array perpendicular to isofrequency laminae form a physiological and anatomical unit; only one ITD, the array-specific ITD, activates all neurons in an array at the same relative level. We, therefore, may say that, in the central nucleus, an ITD is conserved in an array of neurons. Array-specific ITDs are mapped and encompass the entire auditory space of the barn owl. Individual space-specific neurons of the external nucleus, which receive inputs from a wide range of frequency channels (Knudsen and Konishi, 1978), are selective for a unique ITD. Space-specific neurons do not show phase ambiguity when stimulated with noise (Takahashi and Konishi, 1986). Space-specific neurons receive inputs from arrays that are selective for the same ITD. The collective response of the neurons in an array may be the basis for the absence of phase ambiguity in space-specific neurons.

  11. Acoustic and perceptual effects of magnifying interaural difference cues in a simulated "binaural" hearing aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Taillez, Tobias; Grimm, Giso; Kollmeier, Birger; Neher, Tobias

    2017-04-10

    To investigate the influence of an algorithm designed to enhance or magnify interaural difference cues on speech signals in noisy, spatially complex conditions using both technical and perceptual measurements. To also investigate the combination of interaural magnification (IM), monaural microphone directionality (DIR), and binaural coherence-based noise reduction (BC). Speech-in-noise stimuli were generated using virtual acoustics. A computational model of binaural hearing was used to analyse the spatial effects of IM. Predicted speech quality changes and signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) improvements were also considered. Additionally, a listening test was carried out to assess speech intelligibility and quality. Listeners aged 65-79 years with and without sensorineural hearing loss (N = 10 each). IM increased the horizontal separation of concurrent directional sound sources without introducing any major artefacts. In situations with diffuse noise, however, the interaural difference cues were distorted. Preprocessing the binaural input signals with DIR reduced distortion. IM influenced neither speech intelligibility nor speech quality. The IM algorithm tested here failed to improve speech perception in noise, probably because of the dispersion and inconsistent magnification of interaural difference cues in complex environments.

  12. Monaural and interaural intensity discrimination: Level effects and the ``binaural advantage''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stellmack, Mark A.; Viemeister, Neal F.; Byrne, Andrew J.

    2004-08-01

    This study examined whether the level effects seen in monaural intensity discrimination (Weber's law and the ``near miss'') in a two-interval task are also observed in discrimination of interaural intensity differences (IIDs) in a single-interval task. Both tasks were performed for various standard levels of 4-kHz pure tones and broadband noise. The Weber functions (10 log ΔI/I versus I in dB) in the monaural and binaural conditions were parallel. For noise, the Weber functions had slopes close to zero (Weber's law) while the Weber functions for the tones had a mean slope of -0.089 (near miss). The near miss for the monaural and binaural tasks with tones was eliminated when a high-pass masker was gated with the listening intervals. The near-miss was also observed for 250- and 1000-Hz tones in the binaural task despite overall decreased sensitivity to changes in IID at 1000 Hz. The binaural thresholds showed a small (about 2-dB) advantage over monaural thresholds only in the broadband noise conditions. More important, however, is the fact that the level effects seen monaurally are also seen binaurally. This suggests that the basic mechanisms responsible for Weber's law and the near miss are common to monaural and binaural processing.

  13. Trading of interaural differences in high-rate Gabor click trains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecker, G. Christopher

    2010-01-01

    In this study, combinations of interaraural time differences (ITD) and interaural level differences (ILD) were applied to trains of 4000 Hz Gabor clicks (Gaussian-filtered impulses) and presented to listeners over headphones. ITD / ILD equivalence functions, or “trading ratios” (TR) were estimated using two different procedures: a “closed-loop” procedure in which subjects adjusted (via head-turn) the ILD of a target click train to counteract the effects of an imposed ITD, and an “open-loop” procedure in which subjects indicated (also via head-turn) the lateral position of click trains containing independent combinations of ITD and ILD. For both tasks, TR values increasingly favored ILD over ITD as inter-click interval (ICI) decreased from 10 to 2 ms. Subsequent analysis confirmed that this change reflected a loss of sensitivity to envelope ITD at short ICI rather than a gain in sensitivity to ILD, consistent with prior studies demonstrating rate-limited processing of ongoing envelope ITD. Significant intersubject differences in the data included two subjects whose TR values obtained under both procedures were consistently lower (greater influence of ITD) than other subjects', and did not vary with ICI. Such differences suggest that multiple mechanisms of ITD/ILD combination may be utilized to varying degrees by individual listeners. By at least one of those mechanisms, ITD sensitivity (but not ILD sensitivity) is limited to low modulation rates. PMID:20547218

  14. Regularly firing neurons in the inferior colliculus have a weak interaural intensity difference sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasimi, Ali; Rees, Adrian

    2010-12-01

    The spike discharge regularity may be important in the processing of information in the auditory pathway. It has already been shown that many cells in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus fire regularly in response to monaural stimulation by the best frequency tones. The aim of this study was to find how the regularity of units was affected by adding ipsilateral tone, and how interaural intensity difference sensitivity is related to regularity. Single unit recordings were performed from 66 units in the inferior colliculus of the anaesthetized guinea pig in response to the best frequency tone. Regularity of firing was measured by calculating the coefficient of variation as a function of time of a unit's response. There was a positive correlation between coefficient of variation and interaural intensity difference sensitivity, indicating that highly regular units had very weak and irregular units had strong interaural intensity difference sensitivity responses. Three effects of binaural interaction on the sustained regularity were observed: constant coefficient of variation despite change in rate (66% of the units), negative (20%) and positive (13%) rate-CV relationships. A negative rate-coefficient of variation relationship was the dominant pattern of binaural interaction on the onset regularity.

  15. Neural maps of interaural time and intensity differences in the optic tectum of the barn owl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, J F; Knudsen, E I; Esterly, S D

    1989-07-01

    This report describes the binaural basis of the auditory space map in the optic tectum of the barn owl (Tyto alba). Single units were recorded extracellularly in ketamine-anesthetized birds. Unit tuning for interaural differences in timing and intensity of wideband noise was measured using digitally synthesized sound presented through earphones. Spatial receptive fields of the same units were measured with a free field sound source. Auditory units in the optic tectum are sharply tuned for both the azimuth and the elevation of a free field sound source. To determine the binaural cues that could be responsible for this spatial tuning, we measured in the ear canals the amplitude and phase spectra produced by a free field noise source and calculated from these measurements the interaural differences in time and intensity associated with each of 178 locations throughout the frontal hemisphere. For all frequencies, interaural time differences (ITDs) varied systematically and most strongly with source azimuth. The pattern of variation of interaural intensity differences (IIDs) depended on frequency. For low frequencies (below 4 kHz) IID varied primarily with source azimuth, whereas for high frequencies (above 5 kHz) IID varied primarily with source elevation. Tectal units were tuned for interaural differences in both time and intensity of dichotic stimuli. Changing either parameter away from the best value for the unit decreased the unit's response. The tuning of units to either parameter was sharp: the width of ITD tuning curves, measured at 50% of the maximum response with IID held constant (50% tuning width), ranged from 18 to 82 microsecs. The 50% tuning widths of IID tuning curves, measured with ITD held constant, ranged from 8 to 37 dB. For most units, tuning for ITD was largely independent of IID, and vice versa. A few units exhibited systematic shifts of the best ITD with changes in IID (or shifts of the best IID with changes in ITD); for these units, a change in

  16. Modelling of human low frequency sound localization acuity demonstrates dominance of spatial variation of interaural time difference and suggests uniform just-noticeable differences in interaural time difference.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosanna C G Smith

    Full Text Available Sound source localization is critical to animal survival and for identification of auditory objects. We investigated the acuity with which humans localize low frequency, pure tone sounds using timing differences between the ears. These small differences in time, known as interaural time differences or ITDs, are identified in a manner that allows localization acuity of around 1° at the midline. Acuity, a relative measure of localization ability, displays a non-linear variation as sound sources are positioned more laterally. All species studied localize sounds best at the midline and progressively worse as the sound is located out towards the side. To understand why sound localization displays this variation with azimuthal angle, we took a first-principles, systemic, analytical approach to model localization acuity. We calculated how ITDs vary with sound frequency, head size and sound source location for humans. This allowed us to model ITD variation for previously published experimental acuity data and determine the distribution of just-noticeable differences in ITD. Our results suggest that the best-fit model is one whereby just-noticeable differences in ITDs are identified with uniform or close to uniform sensitivity across the physiological range. We discuss how our results have several implications for neural ITD processing in different species as well as development of the auditory system.

  17. Representation of dynamic interaural phase difference in auditory cortex of awake rhesus macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Brian H; Malone, Brian J; Semple, Malcolm N

    2009-04-01

    Neurons in auditory cortex of awake primates are selective for the spatial location of a sound source, yet the neural representation of the binaural cues that underlie this tuning remains undefined. We examined this representation in 283 single neurons across the low-frequency auditory core in alert macaques, trained to discriminate binaural cues for sound azimuth. In response to binaural beat stimuli, which mimic acoustic motion by modulating the relative phase of a tone at the two ears, these neurons robustly modulate their discharge rate in response to this directional cue. In accordance with prior studies, the preferred interaural phase difference (IPD) of these neurons typically corresponds to azimuthal locations contralateral to the recorded hemisphere. Whereas binaural beats evoke only transient discharges in anesthetized cortex, neurons in awake cortex respond throughout the IPD cycle. In this regard, responses are consistent with observations at earlier stations of the auditory pathway. Discharge rate is a band-pass function of the frequency of IPD modulation in most neurons (73%), but both discharge rate and temporal synchrony are independent of the direction of phase modulation. When subjected to a receiver operator characteristic analysis, the responses of individual neurons are insufficient to account for the perceptual acuity of these macaques in an IPD discrimination task, suggesting the need for neural pooling at the cortical level.

  18. Maps of interaural time difference in the chicken’s brainstem nucleus laminaris

    OpenAIRE

    Köppl, Christine; Carr, Catherine E.

    2008-01-01

    Animals, including humans, use interaural time differences (ITDs) that arise from different sound path lengths to the two ears as a cue of horizontal sound source location. The nature of the neural code for ITD is still controversial. Current models differentiate between two population codes: either a map-like rate-place code of ITD along an array of neurons, consistent with a large body of data in the barn owl, or a population rate code, consistent with data from small mammals. Recently, it ...

  19. Sensitivity to Interaural Time Differences with Combined Cochlear Implant and Acoustic Stimulation

    OpenAIRE

    Francart, Tom; Brokx, Jan; Wouters, Jan

    2008-01-01

    The interaural time difference (ITD) is an important cue to localize sound sources. Sensitivity to ITD was measured in eight users of a cochlear implant (CI) in the one ear and a hearing aid (HA) in the other severely impaired ear. The stimulus consisted of an electric pulse train of 100 pps and an acoustic filtered click train. Just-noticeable differences (JNDs) in ITD were measured using a lateralization paradigm. Four subjects exhibited median JNDs in ITD of 156, 341, 254, and 91 mus; the ...

  20. Neural map of interaural phase difference in the owl's brainstem.

    OpenAIRE

    Sullivan, W. E.; Konishi, M

    1986-01-01

    Neurons of the barn owl's (Tyto alba) nucleus laminaris, the first site of binaural convergence, respond in a phase-locked fashion to a tone delivered to either ear. It may take longer to elicit phase-locked spikes from one ear than from the other. This disparity in delay differs from neuron to neuron and is independent of tonal frequency. In binaural stimulation, neurons respond best when sound in one ear leads that in the other by an amount equal to their delay disparities but opposite in s...

  1. A Novel Model of Interaural Time Difference Based on Spatial Fourier Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG Xiao-Li; XIE Bo-Sun

    2007-01-01

    Based on the spatial Fourier analysis, a statistical model of the individualized interaural time difference (ITD) is derived from the head-related transfer function database for a Chinese subject. The model reflects the spatial left-right symmetry and front-back asymmetry of ITD. Moreover, by using three anatomical parameters of head and pinna, the model is able to predict individualized ITD in the horizontal plane. Performance of the four subjects outside the database demonstrates that the mean of the total error is less than 20 us, while the lateral performance is inferior to that at other directions.

  2. Functional modelling of interaural time difference discrimination in acoustical and electrical hearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokopiou, Andreas; Moncada-Torres, Arturo; Wouters, Jan; Francart, Tom

    2017-08-01

    Objective. Interaural time differences (ITDs) are important for sound source localisation. We present a model to predict the just noticeable differences (JNDs) in ITD discrimination for normal hearing and electric stimulation through a cochlear implant. Approach. We combined periphery models of acoustic and electric stimulation with a novel JND in the ITD estimation stage, which consists of a shuffled cross correlogram and a binary classifier characterisation method. Furthermore, an evaluation framework is presented based on a large behavioural dataset. Main results. The model correctly predicts behavioural observations for unmodulated stimuli (such as pure tones and electric pulse trains) and modulated stimuli for modulation frequencies below 30 Hz. For higher modulation frequencies, the model predicts the observed behavioural trends, but tends to estimate higher ITD sensitivity. Significance. The presented model can be used to investigate the implications of modifying the stimulus waveform on ITD sensitivity, and as such be applied in investigating sound encoding strategies.

  3. Sensitivity to interaural time differences with combined cochlear implant and acoustic stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francart, Tom; Brokx, Jan; Wouters, Jan

    2009-03-01

    The interaural time difference (ITD) is an important cue to localize sound sources. Sensitivity to ITD was measured in eight users of a cochlear implant (CI) in the one ear and a hearing aid (HA) in the other severely impaired ear. The stimulus consisted of an electric pulse train of 100 pps and an acoustic filtered click train. Just-noticeable differences (JNDs) in ITD were measured using a lateralization paradigm. Four subjects exhibited median JNDs in ITD of 156, 341, 254, and 91 mus; the other subjects could not lateralize the stimuli consistently. Only the subjects who could lateralize had average acoustic hearing thresholds at 1,000 and 2,000 Hz better than 100-dB SPL. The electric signal had to be delayed by 1.5 ms to achieve synchronous stimulation at the auditory nerves.

  4. Maps of interaural time difference in the chicken's brainstem nucleus laminaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köppl, Christine; Carr, Catherine E

    2008-06-01

    Animals, including humans, use interaural time differences (ITDs) that arise from different sound path lengths to the two ears as a cue of horizontal sound source location. The nature of the neural code for ITD is still controversial. Current models differentiate between two population codes: either a map-like rate-place code of ITD along an array of neurons, consistent with a large body of data in the barn owl, or a population rate code, consistent with data from small mammals. Recently, it was proposed that these different codes reflect optimal coding strategies that depend on head size and sound frequency. The chicken makes an excellent test case of this proposal because its physical prerequisites are similar to small mammals, yet it shares a more recent common ancestry with the owl. We show here that, like in the barn owl, the brainstem nucleus laminaris in mature chickens displayed the major features of a place code of ITD. ITD was topographically represented in the maximal responses of neurons along each isofrequency band, covering approximately the contralateral acoustic hemisphere. Furthermore, the represented ITD range appeared to change with frequency, consistent with a pressure gradient receiver mechanism in the avian middle ear. At very low frequencies, below 400 Hz, maximal neural responses were symmetrically distributed around zero ITD and it remained unclear whether there was a topographic representation. These findings do not agree with the above predictions for optimal coding and thus revive the discussion as to what determines the neural coding strategies for ITDs.

  5. Asymmetric excitatory synaptic dynamics underlie interaural time difference processing in the auditory system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo E Jercog

    Full Text Available Low-frequency sound localization depends on the neural computation of interaural time differences (ITD and relies on neurons in the auditory brain stem that integrate synaptic inputs delivered by the ipsi- and contralateral auditory pathways that start at the two ears. The first auditory neurons that respond selectively to ITD are found in the medial superior olivary nucleus (MSO. We identified a new mechanism for ITD coding using a brain slice preparation that preserves the binaural inputs to the MSO. There was an internal latency difference for the two excitatory pathways that would, if left uncompensated, position the ITD response function too far outside the physiological range to be useful for estimating ITD. We demonstrate, and support using a biophysically based computational model, that a bilateral asymmetry in excitatory post-synaptic potential (EPSP slopes provides a robust compensatory delay mechanism due to differential activation of low threshold potassium conductance on these inputs and permits MSO neurons to encode physiological ITDs. We suggest, more generally, that the dependence of spike probability on rate of depolarization, as in these auditory neurons, provides a mechanism for temporal order discrimination between EPSPs.

  6. [Auditory-evoked responses to a monaural or a binaural click, recorded from the vertex, as in two temporal derivations; effect of interaural time differences (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botte, M C; Chocholle, R

    1976-01-01

    The auditory-evoked responses have been recorded on 5 subject by vertex, right temporal and left temporal electrodes simultaneously. 30 dB sensation level clicks were used as stimuli; one click was presented only to the right ear, or one click only to the left ear, or one click to the right ear and another click to the left ear with a variable interaural time difference in this latter case (0-150 ms). The N-P amplitude variations and the N and P latency variations have been studied and compared to those observed in the perceived lateralizations of the sound source.

  7. On the use of click-evoked electric brainstem responses in audiological diagnosis. IV. Interaural latency differences (wave V) in cochlear hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenhamer, H J; Lindström, B; Lundborg, T

    1981-01-01

    Interaural latency differences (ILDs) of wave V of the brainstem electric response (BSER) were studied (1) in 20 normal-hearing subjects at 90, 80, 60 and 40 dB HL click level, (2) in 22 patients with symmetrical cochlear hearing loss at 90 dB HL, corresponding to 45-80 dB SL, and (3) in 45 patients with asymetrical cochlear hearing loss with interaural recruitment, at 90 dB HL on one hand and at a click sensation level corresponding to 90 dB HL in the poorer ear (range 10-75 dB SL) on the other hand. In the normal hearing group the ILDs did not exceed 0.2 ms except in one case at 40 dB HL (0.3 ms). In the symmetrical cochlear loss group the ILD did not exceed 0.2 ms in any patient. In the asymmetrical cochlear loss group the ILD at 90 dB HL exceeded 0.2 ms in 12 cases, but only in four cases after correction for pure tone hearing loss at 4 kHz by 0.1 for each 10 dB above 50 dB HL; at equal sensation levels the ILDs were all zero or negative meaning that the wave V latency was shorter on stimulation of the poorer ear. Assuming ILD to be a valid discriminator between cochlear and retrocochlear lesions, the corrected ILD at equal click hearing levels (90 dB HL), with the critical value set at 0.2 ms, thus gave a 9% false-positive rate whereas the ILS at equal sensation levels, with the critical value set at zero, gave no false-positives. It still remains to be shown that the latter criterion will not increase the number of false-negative results in retrocochlear lesions.

  8. Room Volume Estimation Based on Ambiguity of Short-Term Interaural Phase Differences Using Humanoid Robot Head

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryuichi Shimoyama

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Humans can recognize approximate room size using only binaural audition. However, sound reverberation is not negligible in most environments. The reverberation causes temporal fluctuations in the short-term interaural phase differences (IPDs of sound pressure. This study proposes a novel method for a binaural humanoid robot head to estimate room volume. The method is based on the statistical properties of the short-term IPDs of sound pressure. The humanoid robot turns its head toward a sound source, recognizes the sound source, and then estimates the ego-centric distance by its stereovision. By interpolating the relations between room volume, average standard deviation, and ego-centric distance experimentally obtained for various rooms in a prepared database, the room volume was estimated by the binaural audition of the robot from the average standard deviation of the short-term IPDs at the estimated distance.

  9. Cochlear efferent feedback balances interaural sensitivity

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Neurons in the lateral superior olive (LSO) compute sound location based on differences in interaural intensity, coded in ascending signals from the two cochleas. Unilateral destruction of the neuronal feedback from the LSO to the cochlea, the lateral olivocochlear efferents, disrupted the normal interaural correlation in response amplitudes to sounds of equal intensity. Thus, lateral olivocochlear feedback maintains the binaural balance in neural excitability required for accurate localizati...

  10. Translational Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex and Motion Perception During Interaural Linear Acceleration: Comparison of Different Motion Paradigms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaton, K. H.; Holly, J. E.; Clement, G. R.; Wood, S. J.

    2011-01-01

    The neural mechanisms to resolve ambiguous tilt-translation motion have been hypothesized to be different for motion perception and eye movements. Previous studies have demonstrated differences in ocular and perceptual responses using a variety of motion paradigms, including Off-Vertical Axis Rotation (OVAR), Variable Radius Centrifugation (VRC), translation along a linear track, and tilt about an Earth-horizontal axis. While the linear acceleration across these motion paradigms is presumably equivalent, there are important differences in semicircular canal cues. The purpose of this study was to compare translation motion perception and horizontal slow phase velocity to quantify consistencies, or lack thereof, across four different motion paradigms. Twelve healthy subjects were exposed to sinusoidal interaural linear acceleration between 0.01 and 0.6 Hz at 1.7 m/s/s (equivalent to 10 tilt) using OVAR, VRC, roll tilt, and lateral translation. During each trial, subjects verbally reported the amount of perceived peak-to-peak lateral translation and indicated the direction of motion with a joystick. Binocular eye movements were recorded using video-oculography. In general, the gain of translation perception (ratio of reported linear displacement to equivalent linear stimulus displacement) increased with stimulus frequency, while the phase did not significantly vary. However, translation perception was more pronounced during both VRC and lateral translation involving actual translation, whereas perceptions were less consistent and more variable during OVAR and roll tilt which did not involve actual translation. For each motion paradigm, horizontal eye movements were negligible at low frequencies and showed phase lead relative to the linear stimulus. At higher frequencies, the gain of the eye movements increased and became more inphase with the acceleration stimulus. While these results are consistent with the hypothesis that the neural computational strategies for

  11. Interaural time sensitivity of high-frequency neurons in the inferior colliculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, T C; Kuwada, S; Sujaku, Y

    1984-11-01

    Recent psychoacoustic experiments have shown that interaural time differences provide adequate cues for lateralizing high-frequency sounds, provided the stimuli are complex and not pure tones. We present here physiological evidence in support of these findings. Neurons of high best frequency in the cat inferior colliculus respond to interaural phase differences of amplitude modulated waveforms, and this response depends upon preservation of phase information of the modulating signal. Interaural phase differences were introduced in two ways: by interaural delays of the entire waveform and by binaural beats in which there was an interaural frequency difference in the modulating waveform. Results obtained with these two methods are similar. Our results show that high-frequency cells can respond to interaural time differences of amplitude modulated signals and that they do so by a sensitivity to interaural phase differences of the modulating waveform.

  12. Functional dissociation of transient and sustained fMRI BOLD components in human auditory cortex revealed with a streaming paradigm based on interaural time differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schadwinkel, Stefan; Gutschalk, Alexander

    2010-12-01

    A number of physiological studies suggest that feature-selective adaptation is relevant to the pre-processing for auditory streaming, the perceptual separation of overlapping sound sources. Most of these studies are focused on spectral differences between streams, which are considered most important for streaming. However, spatial cues also support streaming, alone or in combination with spectral cues, but physiological studies of spatial cues for streaming remain scarce. Here, we investigate whether the tuning of selective adaptation for interaural time differences (ITD) coincides with the range where streaming perception is observed. FMRI activation that has been shown to adapt depending on the repetition rate was studied with a streaming paradigm where two tones were differently lateralized by ITD. Listeners were presented with five different ΔITD conditions (62.5, 125, 187.5, 343.75, or 687.5 μs) out of an active baseline with no ΔITD during fMRI. The results showed reduced adaptation for conditions with ΔITD ≥ 125 μs, reflected by enhanced sustained BOLD activity. The percentage of streaming perception for these stimuli increased from approximately 20% for ΔITD = 62.5 μs to > 60% for ΔITD = 125 μs. No further sustained BOLD enhancement was observed when the ΔITD was increased beyond ΔITD = 125 μs, whereas the streaming probability continued to increase up to 90% for ΔITD = 687.5 μs. Conversely, the transient BOLD response, at the transition from baseline to ΔITD blocks, increased most prominently as ΔITD was increased from 187.5 to 343.75 μs. These results demonstrate a clear dissociation of transient and sustained components of the BOLD activity in auditory cortex.

  13. Similar Impacts of the Interaural Delay and Interaural Correlation on Binaural Gap Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Lingzhi; Xie, Zilong; Lu, Lingxi; Qu, Tianshu; Wu, Xihong; Yan, Jun; Li, Liang

    2015-01-01

    The subjective representation of the sounds delivered to the two ears of a human listener is closely associated with the interaural delay and correlation of these two-ear sounds. When the two-ear sounds, e.g., arbitrary noises, arrive simultaneously, the single auditory image of the binaurally identical noises becomes increasingly diffuse, and eventually separates into two auditory images as the interaural correlation decreases. When the interaural delay increases from zero to several milliseconds, the auditory image of the binaurally identical noises also changes from a single image to two distinct images. However, measuring the effect of these two factors on an identical group of participants has not been investigated. This study examined the impacts of interaural correlation and delay on detecting a binaurally uncorrelated fragment (interaural correlation = 0) embedded in the binaurally correlated noises (i.e., binaural gap or break in interaural correlation). We found that the minimum duration of the binaural gap for its detection (i.e., duration threshold) increased exponentially as the interaural delay between the binaurally identical noises increased linearly from 0 to 8 ms. When no interaural delay was introduced, the duration threshold also increased exponentially as the interaural correlation of the binaurally correlated noises decreased linearly from 1 to 0.4. A linear relationship between the effect of interaural delay and that of interaural correlation was described for listeners participating in this study: a 1 ms increase in interaural delay appeared to correspond to a 0.07 decrease in interaural correlation specific to raising the duration threshold. Our results imply that a tradeoff may exist between the impacts of interaural correlation and interaural delay on the subjective representation of sounds delivered to two human ears.

  14. Similar Impacts of the Interaural Delay and Interaural Correlation on Binaural Gap Detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingzhi Kong

    Full Text Available The subjective representation of the sounds delivered to the two ears of a human listener is closely associated with the interaural delay and correlation of these two-ear sounds. When the two-ear sounds, e.g., arbitrary noises, arrive simultaneously, the single auditory image of the binaurally identical noises becomes increasingly diffuse, and eventually separates into two auditory images as the interaural correlation decreases. When the interaural delay increases from zero to several milliseconds, the auditory image of the binaurally identical noises also changes from a single image to two distinct images. However, measuring the effect of these two factors on an identical group of participants has not been investigated. This study examined the impacts of interaural correlation and delay on detecting a binaurally uncorrelated fragment (interaural correlation = 0 embedded in the binaurally correlated noises (i.e., binaural gap or break in interaural correlation. We found that the minimum duration of the binaural gap for its detection (i.e., duration threshold increased exponentially as the interaural delay between the binaurally identical noises increased linearly from 0 to 8 ms. When no interaural delay was introduced, the duration threshold also increased exponentially as the interaural correlation of the binaurally correlated noises decreased linearly from 1 to 0.4. A linear relationship between the effect of interaural delay and that of interaural correlation was described for listeners participating in this study: a 1 ms increase in interaural delay appeared to correspond to a 0.07 decrease in interaural correlation specific to raising the duration threshold. Our results imply that a tradeoff may exist between the impacts of interaural correlation and interaural delay on the subjective representation of sounds delivered to two human ears.

  15. Low frequency eardrum directionality in the barn owl induced by sound transmission through the interaural canal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kettler, Lutz; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Larsen, Ole Næsbye

    2016-01-01

    The middle ears of birds are typically connected by interaural cavities that form a cranial canal. Eardrums coupled in this manner may function as pressure difference receivers rather than pressure receivers. Hereby, the eardrum vibrations become inherently directional. The barn owl also has...... a large interaural canal, but its role in barn owl hearing and specifically in sound localization has been controversial so far. We discuss here existing data and the role of the interaural canal in this species and add a new dataset obtained by laser Doppler vibrometry in a free-field setting....... Significant sound transmission across the interaural canal occurred at low frequencies. The sound transmission induces considerable eardrum directionality in a narrow band from 1.5 to 3.5 kHz. This is below the frequency range used by the barn owl for locating prey, but may conceivably be used for locating...

  16. Low frequency eardrum directionality in the barn owl induced by sound transmission through the interaural canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettler, Lutz; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Larsen, Ole Næsbye; Wagner, Hermann

    2016-10-01

    The middle ears of birds are typically connected by interaural cavities that form a cranial canal. Eardrums coupled in this manner may function as pressure difference receivers rather than pressure receivers. Hereby, the eardrum vibrations become inherently directional. The barn owl also has a large interaural canal, but its role in barn owl hearing and specifically in sound localization has been controversial so far. We discuss here existing data and the role of the interaural canal in this species and add a new dataset obtained by laser Doppler vibrometry in a free-field setting. Significant sound transmission across the interaural canal occurred at low frequencies. The sound transmission induces considerable eardrum directionality in a narrow band from 1.5 to 3.5 kHz. This is below the frequency range used by the barn owl for locating prey, but may conceivably be used for locating conspecific callers.

  17. Binaural interaction in low-frequency neurons in inferior colliculus of the cat. II. Effects of changing rate and direction of interaural phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, T C; Kuwada, S

    1983-10-01

    We used the binaural beat stimulus to study the interaural phase sensitivity of inferior colliculus (IC) neurons in the cat. The binaural beat, produced by delivering tones of slightly different frequencies to the two ears, generates continuous and graded changes in interaural phase. Over 90% of the cells that exhibit a sensitivity to changes in the interaural delay also show a sensitivity to interaural phase disparities with the binaural beat. Cells respond with a burst of impulses with each complete cycle of the beat frequency. The period histogram obtained by binning the poststimulus time histogram on the beat frequency gives a measure of the interaural phase sensitivity of the cell. In general, there is good correspondence in the shapes of the period histograms generated from binaural beats and the interaural phase curves derived from interaural delays and in the mean interaural phase angle calculated from them. The magnitude of the beat frequency determines the rate of change of interaural phase and the sign determines the direction of phase change. While most cells respond in a phase-locked manner up to beat frequencies of 10 Hz, there are some cells tht will phase lock up to 80 Hz. Beat frequency and mean interaural phase angle are linearly related for most cells. Most cells respond equally in the two directions of phase change and with different rates of change, at least up to 10 Hz. However, some IC cells exhibit marked sensitivity to the speed of phase change, either responding more vigorously at low beat frequencies or at high beat frequencies. In addition, other cells demonstrate a clear directional sensitivity. The cells that show sensitivity to the direction and speed of phase changes would be expected to demonstrate a sensitivity to moving sound sources in the free field. Changes in the mean interaural phase of the binaural beat period histograms are used to determine the effects of changes in average and interaural intensity on the phase sensitivity

  18. Bat Azimuthal Echolocation Using Interaural Level Differences: Modeling and Implementation by a VLSI-Based Hardware System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    system ( Tsividis , 1997). Vdd Vτ Vw spkIn isyn v i M1 M4 M5 M2 M3 M6 M8 M7 C vc Iτ Figure 7.2: The basic synapse circuit. The pin “spkIn” receives the...Comput. Neurosci. 20(2):137–152. Tsividis Y (1997) Externally linear, time-invariant systems and their application to companding signal processors

  19. Atenuação interaural: estudo comparativo com dois tipos de transdutores Interaural attenuation: comparative study with two types of transducers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Maria Pires Ramos

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar os valores da atenuação interaural em um grupo de indivíduos com anacusia unilateral utilizando os fones de inserção e os supraaurais. MÉTODOS: Quinze indivíduos com anacusia unilateral foram submetidos à pesquisa do limiar de detecção de voz e à audiometria tonal liminar com os diferentes transdutores: fones TDH39 supraaurais e os fones de inserção ER-3A. Estes procedimentos foram realizados sem mascaramento contralateral. A subtração entre o limiar da melhor orelha e o limiar não mascarado da orelha anacúsica forneceu o tamanho da atenuação interaural para as frequências de 250 a 8000 Hz e para os estímulos de fala. RESULTADOS: Em todas as frequências e para os estímulos de fala, houve diferença significativa favorecendo o ER-3A. Não houve diferença significativa entre sexo e grupo etário. CONCLUSÃO: Os fones de inserção forneceram maior atenuação interaural quando comparados aos supraaurais. Esta maior atenuação pode ser muito útil na prática da audiologia, especialmente em relação ao uso do mascaramento.PURPOSE: To compare interaural attenuation values in a group of individuals with unilateral anacusis using supra-aural earphones and insert earphones. METHODS: Fifteen subjects with complete unilateral deafness underwent pure-tone audiometry and determination of speech detection threshold with two different transducers: TDH-39 supra-aural earphones, and ER-3A insert earphone. These procedures were carried out without contralateral masking. Interaural attenuation effects for the frequencies ranging from 250 to 8000 Hz were obtained by subtracting the unmasked threshold of the deaf ear from the threshold obtained for the normal ear. RESULTS: Interaural attenuation values were significantly greater when obtained with ER-3A earphones, for all frequencies and for speech stimuli. No differences were found between genders and age ranges. CONCLUSION: Insert earphones provided greater interaural

  20. Binaural model for artificial spatial sound localization based on interaural time delays and movements of the interaural axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneip, Laurent; Baumann, Claude

    2008-11-01

    This paper presents a mathematical model for sound localization in space using two-microphone devices that possess at least two degrees of freedom. It proves a series of theorems and lemmas that are based on time difference of arrival measurements and movements of the interaural axis, forming a powerful instrument for practical robot applications. For instance, it shows that a single determined rotation of the interaural axis is sufficient to exactly yield the azimuth or the elevation of an immobile sound source in the far field, independently of microphone spacing and the speed of sound and hence of the surrounding medium. It proves that at any moment the knowledge of one value determines the magnitude of the other, with the restriction that the sign of the second value is undefined, which means that, depending on the rotation, either the back-front or the up-down ambiguity is kept unsolved. This paper also shows that parallax motion unlocks essential information about the distance and the Cartesian coordinates of the sound source. Shifting the microphone system sideways fixes the distance and the coordinate on the interaural axis. Combining rotation and translation movements completely solves the localization problem. In order to illustrate the efficacy of the model, this paper presents experiments with a low cost robot developer kit during which the azimuth, the elevation, and the distance of continuous sound sources are determined at a precision of 10 degrees and 0.5 m, respectively. Achieving this performance with low power material demonstrates how easily the model can be implemented into any robotic system.

  1. Transformation of binaural response properties in the ascending auditory pathway: influence of time-varying interaural phase disparity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitzer, M W; Semple, M N

    1998-12-01

    Transformation of binaural response properties in the ascending auditory pathway: influence of time-varying interaural phase disparity. J. Neurophysiol. 80: 3062-3076, 1998. Previous studies demonstrated that tuning of inferior colliculus (IC) neurons to interaural phase disparity (IPD) is often profoundly influenced by temporal variation of IPD, which simulates the binaural cue produced by a moving sound source. To determine whether sensitivity to simulated motion arises in IC or at an earlier stage of binaural processing we compared responses in IC with those of two major IPD-sensitive neuronal classes in the superior olivary complex (SOC), neurons whose discharges were phase locked (PL) to tonal stimuli and those that were nonphase locked (NPL). Time-varying IPD stimuli consisted of binaural beats, generated by presenting tones of slightly different frequencies to the two ears, and interaural phase modulation (IPM), generated by presenting a pure tone to one ear and a phase modulated tone to the other. IC neurons and NPL-SOC neurons were more sharply tuned to time-varying than to static IPD, whereas PL-SOC neurons were essentially uninfluenced by the mode of stimulus presentation. Preferred IPD was generally similar in responses to static and time-varying IPD for all unit populations. A few IC neurons were highly influenced by the direction and rate of simulated motion, but the major effect for most IC neurons and all SOC neurons was a linear shift of preferred IPD at high rates-attributable to response latency. Most IC and NPL-SOC neurons were strongly influenced by IPM stimuli simulating motion through restricted ranges of azimuth; simulated motion through partially overlapping azimuthal ranges elicited discharge profiles that were highly discontiguous, indicating that the response associated with a particular IPD is dependent on preceding portions of the stimulus. In contrast, PL-SOC responses tracked instantaneous IPD throughout the trajectory of simulated

  2. Binaural masking level differences with a variety of waveforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, G B; Gaskell, H

    1981-05-01

    Binaural masking level differences (BMLDs) were measured in a standard two-interval forced-choice detection task. The signals were (a) 250-ms bursts of pure tones, (b) amplitude-modulated waveforms with either high- or low-frequency carriers, and (c) 20-microseconds clicks. The pure tones and clicks were presented either eith zero phase difference between the ears or with an 180 degrees phase difference between the ears: the AM tones were presented in several different interaural phase conditions, only some of which lead to changes in the apparent location of the signal source. The noise against which all the signals were detected was white, broad-band, and identical at the ears. BMLDs were invariably small with high-frequency signals and with clicks. Although the magnitude of the BMLD obtained with low-frequency signals appeared to be related to the Observers' ability to lateralize the signal, there is a simpler explanation based on the assumption that detection of low-frequency AM signals is determined by independent detection of its components.

  3. Binaural dereverberation based on interaural coherence histograms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westermann, Adam; Buchholz, Jorg M.; Dau, Torsten

    2013-01-01

    A binaural dereverberation algorithm is presented that utilizes the properties of the interaural coherence (IC) inspired by the concepts introduced in Allen et al. [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 62, 912-915 (1977)]. The algorithm introduces a non-linear sigmoidal coherence-to-gain mapping that is controlled...... of the proposed algorithm was objectively and subjectively evaluated in terms of its impacts on the amount of reverberation and overall quality. A binaural spectral subtraction method based on Lebart et al. [Acta Acust. Acust. 87, 359-366 (2001)] and a binaural version of the original method of Allen et al. were...... considered as reference systems. The results revealed that the proposed coherence-based approach is most successful in acoustic scenarios that exhibit a significant spread in the coherence distribution where direct sound and reverberation can be segregated. This dereverberation algorithm is thus particularly...

  4. Binaural dereverberation based on interaural coherence histograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westermann, Adam; Buchholz, Jörg M; Dau, Torsten

    2013-05-01

    A binaural dereverberation algorithm is presented that utilizes the properties of the interaural coherence (IC) inspired by the concepts introduced in Allen et al. [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 62, 912-915 (1977)]. The algorithm introduces a non-linear sigmoidal coherence-to-gain mapping that is controlled by an online estimate of the present coherence statistics. The algorithm automatically adapts to a given acoustic environment and provides a stronger dereverberation effect than the original method presented in Allen et al. [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 62, 912-915 (1977)] in most acoustic conditions. The performance of the proposed algorithm was objectively and subjectively evaluated in terms of its impacts on the amount of reverberation and overall quality. A binaural spectral subtraction method based on Lebart et al. [Acta Acust. Acust. 87, 359-366 (2001)] and a binaural version of the original method of Allen et al. were considered as reference systems. The results revealed that the proposed coherence-based approach is most successful in acoustic scenarios that exhibit a significant spread in the coherence distribution where direct sound and reverberation can be segregated. This dereverberation algorithm is thus particularly useful in large rooms for short source-receiver distances.

  5. Effects of envelope shape on interaural envelope delay sensitivity in acoustic and electric hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laback, Bernhard; Zimmermann, Inge; Majdak, Piotr; Baumgartner, Wolf-Dieter; Pok, Stefan-Marcel

    2011-09-01

    The envelope shape is important for the perception of interaural time difference (ITD) in the envelope as supported by the improved sensitivity for transposed tones compared to sinusoidally amplitude-modulated (SAM) tones. The present study investigated the effects of specific envelope parameters in nine normal-hearing (NH) and seven cochlear-implant (CI) listeners, using high-rate carriers with 27-Hz trapezoidal modulation. In NH listeners, increasing the off time (the silent interval in each modulation cycle) up to 12 ms, increasing the envelope slope from 6 to 8 dB/ms, and increasing the peak level improved ITD sensitivity. The combined effect of the off time and slope accounts for the gain in sensitivity for transposed tones relative to SAM tones. In CI listeners, increasing the off time up to 20 ms improved sensitivity, but increasing the slope showed no systematic effect. A 27-pulses/s electric pulse train, representing a special case of modulation with infinitely steep slopes and maximum possible off time, yielded considerably higher sensitivity compared to the best condition with trapezoidal modulation. Overall, the results of this study indicate that envelope-ITD sensitivity could be improved by using CI processing schemes that simultaneously increase the off time and the peak level of the signal envelope. © 2011 Acoustical Society of America

  6. Investigation of Persian Speech Interaural Attenuation in Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahimeh Hajiabolhassan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: As clinical audiometry assessment of each ear needs to know interaural attenuation (IA, the aim of this study was to investigate Persian speech IA in adults.Methods: This cross-sectional, analytic study was performed on 50 normal hearing students (25 males, 25 females, aged 18-25 years old in Faculty of Rehabilitation, Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Speech reception threshold (SRT was determined with descending method with and without noise. Then speech IA for Persian spondaic words was caculated with TDH-39 earphones.Results: Mean speech IA was 53.06±3.25 dB. There was no significant difference between mean IA in males (53.88±2.93 dB and females (52.24±3.40 dB(p>0.05. The lowest IA was in females (45 dB and the highest IA was in males (60 dB. Mother’s language has no significant effect on speech IA.Conclusion: We may consider 45 dB as the lowest IA for Persian speech assessment, however generalization needs more study on a larger sample.

  7. Investigating Interaural Frequency-Place Mismatches via Bimodal Vowel Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guérit, François; Santurette, Sébastien; Chalupper, Josef;

    2014-01-01

    For patients having residual hearing in one ear and a cochlear implant (CI) in the opposite ear, interaural place-pitch mismatches might be partly responsible for the large variability in individual benefit. Behavioral pitch-matching between the two ears has been suggested as a way to individuali...

  8. The binaural masking-level difference of mandarin tone detection and the binaural intelligibility-level difference of mandarin tone recognition in the presence of speech-spectrum noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Cheng-Yu; Li, Pei-Chun; Chiang, Yuan-Chuan; Young, Shuenn-Tsong; Chu, Woei-Chyn

    2015-01-01

    Binaural hearing involves using information relating to the differences between the signals that arrive at the two ears, and it can make it easier to detect and recognize signals in a noisy environment. This phenomenon of binaural hearing is quantified in laboratory studies as the binaural masking-level difference (BMLD). Mandarin is one of the most commonly used languages, but there are no publication values of BMLD or BILD based on Mandarin tones. Therefore, this study investigated the BMLD and BILD of Mandarin tones. The BMLDs of Mandarin tone detection were measured based on the detection threshold differences for the four tones of the voiced vowels /i/ (i.e., /i1/, /i2/, /i3/, and /i4/) and /u/ (i.e., /u1/, /u2/, /u3/, and /u4/) in the presence of speech-spectrum noise when presented interaurally in phase (S0N0) and interaurally in antiphase (SπN0). The BILDs of Mandarin tone recognition in speech-spectrum noise were determined as the differences in the target-to-masker ratio (TMR) required for 50% correct tone recognitions between the S0N0 and SπN0 conditions. The detection thresholds for the four tones of /i/ and /u/ differed significantly (pMandarin tones were all lower in the SπN0 condition than in the S0N0 condition, and the BMLDs ranged from 7.3 to 11.5 dB. The TMR for 50% correct Mandarin tone recognitions differed significantly (pMandarin tone detection and recognition in the presence of speech-spectrum noise are improved when phase inversion is applied to the target speech. The average BILDs of Mandarin tones are smaller than the average BMLDs of Mandarin tones.

  9. Spiking models for level-invariant encoding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romain eBrette

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Levels of ecological sounds vary over several orders of magnitude,but the firing rate and membrane potential of a neuron are much more limited in range.In binaural neurons of the barn owl, tuning to interaural delays is independent oflevel differences. Yet a monaural neuron with a fixed threshold should fire earlier in responseto louder sounds, which would disrupt the tuning of these neurons. %, resulting in shifts in delay tuning for interaural level differences.How could spike timing be independent of input level?Here I derive theoretical conditions for a spiking model tobe insensitive to input level.The key property is a dynamic change in spike threshold.I then show how level invariance can be physiologically implemented,with specific ionic channel properties.It appears that these ingredients are indeed present inmonaural neurons of the sound localization pathway of birds and mammals.

  10. Binaural masking level difference in skilled reading children and children with dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putter-Katz, Hanna; Feldman, Irit; Hildesheimer, Minka

    2011-09-05

    Combining stimuli arriving at both ears makes it possible to locate sounds in the environment and to better detect signals or understand speech in noise when the sound sources are separated spatially. The sensitivity of the binaural system to interaural differences in time and amplitude can be investigated by means of the binaural masking level difference (BMLD). The age at which the BMLD reaches adult levels appears to depend partly upon masker bandwidth. Less is known about the effect of masker's level on the development of BMLD in children. In the present study we assessed the effect of masker level on the BMLD of 3rd and 5th grade skilled reading children. In view of possible binaural hearing effects in dyslexia, the BMLD of a group of 5th grade children with reading difficulties was measured. Detection thresholds of 500 Hz pure tone were measured at noise levels of 40 dBHL, 50 dBHL and 60 dBHL. All subjects presented increased MLD values with the rise of noise intensity between 40 dBHL and 60 dBHL. Among the skilled readers the results showed that younger children had smaller BMLDs than older children at all masker levels. However, a significant group-by-intensity interaction indicated that although the reading disabled group had reduced BMLD values than older skilled readers at noise levels of 50 dBHL and 60 dBHL, no difference was found between their BMLD values and those of the young skilled readers at noise levels of 50 dBHL and 60 dBHL. Moreover, their BMLD values at noise level of 40 dBHL were higher than those of the 3rd grade typically reading students while no difference was found between them and 5th grade efficient readers. These results support the existence of both quantitative and qualitative differences in binaural hearing of children with developmental dyslexia.

  11. Interaural Place-Mismatch Estimation With Two-Formant Vowels in Unilateral Cochlear- Implant Users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guérit, François; Santurette, Sébastien; Chalupper, Josef

    procedures such as interaural pitch-matching are rather tedious and time-consuming. Here, an alternative method using two-formant vowels was developed and tested. Methods Eight normal-hearing (NH) listeners were presented synthesized two-formant vowels embedded between consonants /t/ and /k/, with first......-choice task which of 6 vowels they perceived for different [F1, F2] combinations. Ten CI users (5 bimodal and 5 single-sided deaf) performed the same task for F1 presented acoustically to the non-CI ear and F2 presented either acoustically to the same ear or electrically to the CI ear. Results After some...... training, all NH listeners were able to fuse the unaltered F1 and vocoded F2 into a single vowel percept, and vowel distributions could be reliably derived in 7 listeners. Vocoder simulations of reduced CI insertion depth led to clear vowel-distribution shifts in these listeners. However, these shifts were...

  12. Sex differences in glucose levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faerch, K; Borch-Johnsen, Knut; Vaag, A

    2010-01-01

    We aimed to examine whether sex differences in fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2 h post-OGTT plasma glucose (2hPG) and HbA(1c) could be explained by differences in body size and/or body composition between men and women in a general non-diabetic Danish population. Moreover, we aimed to study to what...

  13. The across frequency independence of equalization of interaural time delay in the equalization-cancellation model of binaural unmasking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akeroyd, Michael A.

    2004-08-01

    The equalization stage in the equalization-cancellation model of binaural unmasking compensates for the interaural time delay (ITD) of a masking noise by introducing an opposite, internal delay [N. I. Durlach, in Foundations of Modern Auditory Theory, Vol. II., edited by J. V. Tobias (Academic, New York, 1972)]. Culling and Summerfield [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 98, 785-797 (1995)] developed a multi-channel version of this model in which equalization was ``free'' to use the optimal delay in each channel. Two experiments were conducted to test if equalization was indeed free or if it was ``restricted'' to the same delay in all channels. One experiment measured binaural detection thresholds, using an adaptive procedure, for 1-, 5-, or 17-component tones against a broadband masking noise, in three binaural configurations (N0S180, N180S0, and N90S270). The thresholds for the 1-component stimuli were used to normalize the levels of each of the 5- and 17-component stimuli so that they were equally detectable. If equalization was restricted, then, for the 5- and 17-component stimuli, the N90S270 and N180S0 configurations would yield a greater threshold than the N0S180 configurations. No such difference was found. A subsequent experiment measured binaural detection thresholds, via psychometric functions, for a 2-component complex tone in the same three binaural configurations. Again, no differential effect of configuration was observed. An analytic model of the detection of a complex tone showed that the results were more consistent with free equalization than restricted equalization, although the size of the differences was found to depend on the shape of the psychometric function for detection.

  14. The binaural masking-level difference of mandarin tone detection and the binaural intelligibility-level difference of mandarin tone recognition in the presence of speech-spectrum noise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Yu Ho

    Full Text Available Binaural hearing involves using information relating to the differences between the signals that arrive at the two ears, and it can make it easier to detect and recognize signals in a noisy environment. This phenomenon of binaural hearing is quantified in laboratory studies as the binaural masking-level difference (BMLD. Mandarin is one of the most commonly used languages, but there are no publication values of BMLD or BILD based on Mandarin tones. Therefore, this study investigated the BMLD and BILD of Mandarin tones. The BMLDs of Mandarin tone detection were measured based on the detection threshold differences for the four tones of the voiced vowels /i/ (i.e., /i1/, /i2/, /i3/, and /i4/ and /u/ (i.e., /u1/, /u2/, /u3/, and /u4/ in the presence of speech-spectrum noise when presented interaurally in phase (S0N0 and interaurally in antiphase (SπN0. The BILDs of Mandarin tone recognition in speech-spectrum noise were determined as the differences in the target-to-masker ratio (TMR required for 50% correct tone recognitions between the S0N0 and SπN0 conditions. The detection thresholds for the four tones of /i/ and /u/ differed significantly (p<0.001 between the S0N0 and SπN0 conditions. The average detection thresholds of Mandarin tones were all lower in the SπN0 condition than in the S0N0 condition, and the BMLDs ranged from 7.3 to 11.5 dB. The TMR for 50% correct Mandarin tone recognitions differed significantly (p<0.001 between the S0N0 and SπN0 conditions, at -13.4 and -18.0 dB, respectively, with a mean BILD of 4.6 dB. The study showed that the thresholds of Mandarin tone detection and recognition in the presence of speech-spectrum noise are improved when phase inversion is applied to the target speech. The average BILDs of Mandarin tones are smaller than the average BMLDs of Mandarin tones.

  15. Laws, Causation and Dynamics at Different Levels

    CERN Document Server

    Butterfield, Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    I have two main aims. The first is general, and more philosophical (Section 2). The second is specific, and more closely related to physics (Sections 3 and 4). The first aim is to state my general views about laws and causation at different 'levels'. The main task is to understand how the higher levels sustain notions of law and causation that 'ride free' of reductions to the lower level or levels. I endeavour to relate my views to those of other symposiasts. The second aim is to give a framework for describing dynamics at different levels, emphasising how the various levels' dynamics can mesh or fail to mesh. This framework is essentially that of elementary dynamical systems theory. The main idea will be, for simplicity, to work with just two levels, dubbed 'micro' and 'macro' which are related by coarse-graining. I use this framework to describe, in part, the first four of Ellis' five types of top-down causation.

  16. Sound localization, sound lateralization, and binaural masking level differences in young children with normal hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Deun, Lieselot; van Wieringen, Astrid; Van den Bogaert, Tim; Scherf, Fanny; Offeciers, F Erwin; Van de Heyning, Paul H; Desloovere, Christian; Dhooge, Ingeborg J; Deggouj, Naïma; De Raeve, Leo; Wouters, Jan

    2009-04-01

    In this study, procedures for measuring sound localization, sound lateralization, and binaural masking level differences (BMLDs) in young children were developed. Sensitivity for these tasks was assessed in large groups of children between 4 and 9 yr of age to investigate potential developmental trends. Sound localization was measured in the sound field, with a broadband bell-ring presented from one of nine loudspeakers positioned in the frontal horizontal field. A group of 33 children between 4 and 6 yr of age and 5 adults took part in this experiment. Sound lateralization based on interaural time differences was measured with headphones in 49 children between 4 and 9 yr of age and 10 adults. A low-frequency stimulus containing harmonics 2 to 5 from a click train with a rate of 160 Hz was used. In the BMLD test, the same filtered click train was presented diotically or dichotically (phase reversed or time delayed) in a broadband (200 to 1000 Hz) frozen noise to 23 children between 4 and 6 yr of age and 10 adults. For comparison with literature, additional measurements with a 500-Hz sinusoid were administered to adults. All tasks were adapted to the interest and attention span of young children. Children of 5 yr of age did not perform significantly different from adults on the sound localization task, but mean absolute errors were larger for the 4-yr-olds. Also on the BMLD task, 5-yr-old children performed at the adult level, whereas the 4-yr-old children obtained significantly less binaural unmasking compared with the adults. Concerning sound lateralization, a small but significant difference between adults and children existed, but no age effects were apparent in the 4- to 9-yr-old group. Overall, the variation was relatively large in the 4-yr-old group, with some of the children performing at adult level, in all three tasks. The results of this study show that the modified procedures are suitable for testing children from the age of 4 to 5 yr. Furthermore, it

  17. Differences between mean tide level and mean sea level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodworth, P. L.

    2016-07-01

    This paper discusses the differences between mean tide level (MTL) and mean sea level (MSL) as demonstrated using information from a global tide gauge data set. The roles of the two main contributors to differences between MTL and MSL (the M4 harmonic of the M2 semidiurnal tide, and the combination of the diurnal tides K1 and O1) are described, with a particular focus on the spatial scales of variation in MTL-MSL due to each contributor. Findings from the tide gauge data set are contrasted with those from a state-of-the-art global tide model. The study is of interest within tidal science, but also has practical importance regarding the type of mean level used to define land survey datums. In addition, an appreciation of MTL-MSL difference is important in the use of the historical sea level data used in climate change research, with implications for some of the data stored in international databanks. Particular studies are made of how MTL and MSL might differ through the year, and if MTL is measured in daylight hours only, as has been the practice of some national geodetic agencies on occasions in the past.

  18. Differences between mean tide level and mean sea level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodworth, P. L.

    2017-01-01

    This paper discusses the differences between mean tide level (MTL) and mean sea level (MSL) as demonstrated using information from a global tide gauge data set. The roles of the two main contributors to differences between MTL and MSL (the M4 harmonic of the M2 semidiurnal tide, and the combination of the diurnal tides K1 and O1) are described, with a particular focus on the spatial scales of variation in MTL-MSL due to each contributor. Findings from the tide gauge data set are contrasted with those from a state-of-the-art global tide model. The study is of interest within tidal science, but also has practical importance regarding the type of mean level used to define land survey datums. In addition, an appreciation of MTL-MSL difference is important in the use of the historical sea level data used in climate change research, with implications for some of the data stored in international databanks. Particular studies are made of how MTL and MSL might differ through the year, and if MTL is measured in daylight hours only, as has been the practice of some national geodetic agencies on occasions in the past.

  19. Lateralization of noise-burst trains based on onset and ongoing interaural delays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freyman, Richard L; Balakrishnan, Uma; Zurek, Patrick M

    2010-07-01

    The lateralization of 250-ms trains of brief noise bursts was measured using an acoustic pointing technique. Stimuli were designed to assess the contribution of the interaural time delay (ITD) of the onset binaural burst relative to that of the ITDs in the ongoing part of the train. Lateralization was measured by listeners' adjustments of the ITD of a pointer stimulus, a 50-ms burst of noise, to match the lateral position of the target train. Results confirmed previous reports of lateralization dominance by the onset burst under conditions in which the train is composed of frozen tokens and the ongoing part contains multiple ambiguous interaural delays. In contrast, lateralization of ongoing trains in which fresh noise tokens were used for each set of two alternating (left-leading/right-leading) binaural pairs followed the ITD of the first pair in each set, regardless of the ITD of the onset burst of the entire stimulus and even when the onset burst was removed by gradual gating. This clear lateralization of a long-duration stimulus with ambiguous interaural delay cues suggests precedence mechanisms that involve not only the interaural cues at the beginning of a sound, but also the pattern of cues within an ongoing sound.

  20. Physical fitness differences of students with different cardiorespiratory endurance levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Darko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine physical fitness differences in students with different cardiorespiratory endurance levels, a study was conducted on a sample of students of the Faculty of Sport and Physical Education at the University of Nis. The sample was divided into two subsamples, where the first subsample comprised 27 female students and the other 35 male students. Physical fitness was assessed using eight tests from the Eurofit battery of tests: the single-leg balance test - for the assessment of general balance, plate tapping - for the assessment of speed of movement, sit-and-reach - for the assessment of flexibility, the standing broad jump - for the assessment of explosive strength, the handgrip test - for the assessment of static strength, sit-ups - for the assessment of repetitive trunk strength, the bent arm hang - for the assessment of muscular endurance and the 10x5 meter shuttle run - for the assessment of the speed/agility. Cardiorespiratory endurance was estimated with the aid of 20 m endurance shuttle-run test. Based on the level of cardiorespiratory endurance, the participants in each subsample, were divided into three groups using a cluster analysis: high (VKRI, average (PKRI and low level (NKRI. The physical fitness differences of students with different cardiorespiratory endurance levels were calculated using the one-way analysis of variance. The results showed that there were no differences in physical fitness of students with different cardiorespiratory endurance levels. Based on the results it can be concluded that the level of cardiorespiratory endurance does not affect the components of physical fitness among students of both sexes.

  1. Examining punishment at different explanatory levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Miguel; Wedekind, Claus

    2012-02-01

    Experimental studies on punishment have sometimes been over-interpreted not only for the reasons Guala lists, but also because of a frequent conflation of proximate and ultimate explanatory levels that Guala's review perpetuates. Moreover, for future analyses we may need a clearer classification of different kinds of punishment.

  2. Perceptions Versus National-Level Differences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dow, Douglas; Håkanson, Lars; Ambos, Björn

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This chapter bridges the gap between two distinct approaches to the concept of psychic distance – measuring it in terms of people’s perceptions of distance or in terms of exogenous national-level differences. The two approaches are reconciled in a “refined and integrative” definition...

  3. Circuits for Processing Dynamic Interaural Intensity Disparities in the Inferior Colliculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollak, George D.

    2013-01-01

    Interaural intensity disparities (IIDs), the cues all animals use to localize high frequency sounds, are initially processed in the lateral superior olive (LSO) by a subtractive process where inputs from one ear excite and inputs from the other ear inhibit LSO neurons. Such cells are called excitatory-inhibitory (EI) neurons and are prominent not only in the LSO but also in higher nuclei, which include the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus (DNLL) and inferior colliculus (IC). The IC is of particular interest since its EI cells receive diverse innervation patterns from a large number of lower nuclei, which include the DNLLs and LSOs, and thus comprise a population with diverse binaural properties. The first part of this review focuses on the circuits that create EI cells in the LSO, DNLL and IC. The second section then turns to the responses evoked by dynamic IIDs that change over time, as with multiple sounds that emanate from different regions of space or moving sound sources. I show that many EI neurons in the IC respond to dynamic IIDs in ways that are not predictable from their responses to static IIDs, IIDs presented one at a time. In the final section, results from in vivo whole cell recording in the IC are presented and address the connectional basis for the responsiveness to dynamic IIDs. The principal conclusion is that EI cells comprise a diverse population. The diversity is created by the particular set of inputs each EI type receives and is expressed in the differences in the responses to dynamic IIDs that are generated by those inputs. These results show that the construction of EI neurons in the IC imparts features that not only encode the location of an individual sound source, but also that allow animals to determine the direction of a moving sound and to focus and localize a single sound in midst of many sounds, as typically occurs in the daily lives of all animals. PMID:22343068

  4. Abstract Level Parallelization of Finite Difference Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Vollebregt

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available A formalism is proposed for describing finite difference calculations in an abstract way. The formalism consists of index sets and stencils, for characterizing the structure of sets of data items and interactions between data items (“neighbouring relations”. The formalism provides a means for lifting programming to a more abstract level. This simplifies the tasks of performance analysis and verification of correctness, and opens the way for automaticcode generation. The notation is particularly useful in parallelization, for the systematic construction of parallel programs in a process/channel programming paradigm (e.g., message passing. This is important because message passing, unfortunately, still is the only approach that leads to acceptable performance for many more unstructured or irregular problems on parallel computers that have non-uniform memory access times. It will be shown that the use of index sets and stencils greatly simplifies the determination of which data must be exchanged between different computing processes.

  5. Envelope enhancement increases cortical sensitivity to interaural envelope delays with acoustic and electric hearing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas E H Hartley

    Full Text Available Evidence from human psychophysical and animal electrophysiological studies suggests that sensitivity to interaural time delay (ITD in the modulating envelope of a high-frequency carrier can be enhanced using half-wave rectified stimuli. Recent evidence has shown potential benefits of equivalent electrical stimuli to deaf individuals with bilateral cochlear implants (CIs. In the current study we assessed the effects of envelope shape on ITD sensitivity in the primary auditory cortex of normal-hearing ferrets, and profoundly-deaf animals with bilateral CIs. In normal-hearing animals, cortical sensitivity to ITDs (±1 ms in 0.1-ms steps was assessed in response to dichotically-presented i sinusoidal amplitude-modulated (SAM and ii half-wave rectified (HWR tones (100-ms duration; 70 dB SPL presented at the best-frequency of the unit over a range of modulation frequencies. In separate experiments, adult ferrets were deafened with neomycin administration and bilaterally-implanted with intra-cochlear electrode arrays. Electrically-evoked auditory brainstem responses (EABRs were recorded in response to bipolar electrical stimulation of the apical pair of electrodes with singe biphasic current pulses (40 µs per phase over a range of current levels to measure hearing thresholds. Subsequently, we recorded cortical sensitivity to ITDs (±800 µs in 80-µs steps within the envelope of SAM and HWR biphasic-pulse trains (40 µs per phase; 6000 pulses per second, 100-ms duration over a range of modulation frequencies. In normal-hearing animals, nearly a third of cortical neurons were sensitive to envelope-ITDs in response to SAM tones. In deaf animals with bilateral CI, the proportion of ITD-sensitive cortical neurons was approximately a fifth in response to SAM pulse trains. In normal-hearing and deaf animals with bilateral CI the proportion of ITD sensitive units and neural sensitivity to ITDs increased in response to HWR, compared with SAM stimuli

  6. Polonium-210 levels in different environmental samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonollosa, E; Peñalver, A; Aguilar, C; Borrull, F

    2015-12-01

    Polonium-210 is analysed in different samples which can be affected by the presence of a dicalcium phosphate plant (DCP). Particularly, it was determined in sludge samples from a drinking water treatment plant located downstream of the phosphate plant. From the obtained results, it was not possible to establish a correlation with the industrial activities carried out in the DCP plant since the measured activities were comparable to the reported in the literature for normal soils. This isotope was also monitored in different biota species (as mussels) taken also downstream of the DCP, and the potential risk of their ingestion by calculating the total effective doses was evaluated. As a result, it is important to highlight that the ingestion of these mussels does not constitute a risk for the population since the found doses were lower than the values published by UNSCEAR.

  7. The influence of aging on interaural asymmetries in middle latency response amplitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weihing, Jeffrey; Musiek, Frank

    2014-04-01

    ear effects, variability for absolute amplitude measures was compared to ear effect variability using the Pitman t-test. To examine potential effects of background noise and aging, data were analyzed using a mixed-factorial analysis of variance with the within-subjects factor "background noise" and the between-subjects factor "age group." Within-group variability was significantly reduced by calculating ear effects for the youngest group only. Additionally, the oldest adults in the present sample showed significantly larger ear effects than younger and middle-aged adults. This effect did not appear to be a result of differences in peripheral hearing sensitivity. Finally, introducing noise into the paradigm did not influence the observed effects. Ear effects become larger in older adults possibly as a result of age-related changes in the subcortical and/or cortical generators of the MLR. Failure of the ear effect calculation to reduce within-group variability in the middle-aged and older adults suggests that interaural asymmetries in MLR amplitude become more variable across participants who are older than 50 yr. Information obtained from this measure may benefit the development of treatment plans for older adults with hearing difficulties. American Academy of Audiology.

  8. Interaural bimodal pitch matching with two-formant vowels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    practice. Behavioral pitch matching between the two ears has also been suggested, but has been shown to be tedious and unreliable. Here, an alternative method using two-formant vowels was developed and tested with a vocoder system simulating different CI insertion depths. The hypothesis was that patients...... may more easily identify vowels than perform a classical pitch-matching task. A spectral shift is inferred by comparing vowel spaces, measured by presenting the first formant in the HA and the second either in the HA or the CI. Preliminary results suggest that pitch mismatches can be derived from...... such vowel spaces. In order to take auditory adaptation in individual patients into account, the method will be tested with CI patients with contralateral residual hearing....

  9. Interaural bimodal pitch matching with two-formant vowels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerit, Francois Marie Louis Paul; Chalupper, Josef; Santurette, Sébastien

    practice. Behavioral pitch matching between the two ears has also been suggested, but has been shown to be tedious and unreliable. Here, an alternative method using two-formant vowels was developed and tested with a vocoder system simulating different CI insertion depths. The hypothesis was that patients...... may more easily identify vowels than perform a classical pitch-matching task. A spectral shift is inferred by comparing vowel spaces, measured by presenting the first formant in the HA and the second either in the HA or the CI. Preliminary results suggest that pitch mismatches can be derived from...... such vowel spaces. In order to take auditory adaptation in individual patients into account, the method will be tested with CI patients with contralateral residual hearing....

  10. Exploratory analysis on the binaural characteristics of the rowing sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Pablo F.; Hammershøi, Dorte; Ruffaldi, Emanuele

    2011-01-01

    Differences between the signals captured at the entrances to the left and right ears are generally quantified by interaural time differences (ITDs), interaural level differences (ILDs) and interaural crosscorrelation (IC). Here, we attempt to gain knowledge on the changes of these interaural param...

  11. Development Path of Different County-Level Towns

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haijiao; ZHANG; Zhenghe; ZHANG

    2015-01-01

    County-level town is important space carrier of China’s urbanization and the emphasis and key of strategic distribution for urbanization. Backwardness of county-level towns limits nearby transfer of surplus labor. To promote development of county-level towns,on the basis of classifying county-level towns,this paper analyzed motive and resistance factors of evolution of different county-level towns using historical data collection and statistical method,comparative approach,typical case study method,and studied development path for different county-level towns. From analysis,it reached the conclusion that industry exerts the most direct and fundamental influence on development of county-level towns,while the industrial development in county-level towns must base on their actual conditions. The county-level towns are not isolated,and their development should be established within the framework of national policy environment and superior and subordinate town system.

  12. Gender differences in cadmium and cotinine levels in prepubertal children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fucic, A; Plavec, D; Casteleyn, L

    2015-01-01

    and exposure data are scarce. In the current study levels of cadmium (Cd), cotinine and creatinine in urine were analyzed in a subsample 216 children from 12 European countries within the DEMOCOPHES project. The children were divided into six age-sex groups: boys (6-8 years, 9-10 years and 11 years old...... between levels of cadmium and creatinine in all children of both genders. This shows that even at such low levels the possible effect of cadmium on kidney function was present and measurable. An increase in Cd levels was evident with age. Cadmium levels were significantly different between 6-7 year old...

  13. Causation at Different Levels: Tracking the Commitments of Mechanistic Explanations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fazekas, Peter; Kertész, Gergely

    2011-01-01

    This paper tracks the commitments of mechanistic explanations focusing on the relation between activities at different levels. It is pointed out that the mechanistic approach is inherently committed to identifying causal connections at higher levels with causal connections at lower levels. For th...... their autonomy at the same time than standard reductive accounts are, and that what mechanistic explanations are able to do at best is showing that downward causation does not exist....

  14. Different level of population differentiation among human genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Ya-Ping

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During the colonization of the world, after dispersal out of African, modern humans encountered changeable environments and substantial phenotypic variations that involve diverse behaviors, lifestyles and cultures, were generated among the different modern human populations. Results Here, we study the level of population differentiation among different populations of human genes. Intriguingly, genes involved in osteoblast development were identified as being enriched with higher FST SNPs, a result consistent with the proposed role of the skeletal system in accounting for variation among human populations. Genes involved in the development of hair follicles, where hair is produced, were also found to have higher levels of population differentiation, consistent with hair morphology being a distinctive trait among human populations. Other genes that showed higher levels of population differentiation include those involved in pigmentation, spermatid, nervous system and organ development, and some metabolic pathways, but few involved with the immune system. Disease-related genes demonstrate excessive SNPs with lower levels of population differentiation, probably due to purifying selection. Surprisingly, we find that Mendelian-disease genes appear to have a significant excessive of SNPs with high levels of population differentiation, possibly because the incidence and susceptibility of these diseases show differences among populations. As expected, microRNA regulated genes show lower levels of population differentiation due to purifying selection. Conclusion Our analysis demonstrates different level of population differentiation among human populations for different gene groups.

  15. Equal autophonic level curves under different room acoustics conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pelegrin Garcia, David; Mendizábal, Oier Fuentes; Brunskog, Jonas

    2011-01-01

    The indirect auditory feedback from one’s own voice arises from sound reflections at the room boundaries or from sound reinforcement systems. The relative variations of indirect auditory feedback are quantified through room acoustic parameters such as the room gain and the voice support, rather...... than the reverberation time. Fourteen subjects matched the loudness level of their own voice (the autophonic level) to that of a constant and external reference sound, under different synthesized room acoustics conditions. The matching voice levels are used to build a set of equal autophonic level...... curves. These curves give an indication of the amount of variation in voice level induced by the acoustic environment as a consequence of the sidetone compensation or Lombard effect. In the range of typical rooms for speech, the variations in overall voice level that result in a constant autophonic level...

  16. Goleman's Leadership styles at different hierarchical levels in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Anurag; Desanghere, Loni; Stobart, Kent; Walker, Keith

    2017-09-19

    With current emphasis on leadership in medicine, this study explores Goleman's leadership styles of medical education leaders at different hierarchical levels and gain insight into factors that contribute to the appropriateness of practices. Forty two leaders (28 first-level with limited formal authority, eight middle-level with wider program responsibility and six senior- level with higher organizational authority) rank ordered their preferred Goleman's styles and provided comments. Eight additional senior leaders were interviewed in-depth. Differences in ranked styles within groups were determined by Friedman tests and Wilcoxon tests. Based upon style descriptions, confirmatory template analysis was used to identify Goleman's styles for each interviewed participant. Content analysis was used to identify themes that affected leadership styles. There were differences in the repertoire and preferred styles at different leadership levels. As a group, first-level leaders preferred democratic, middle-level used coaching while the senior leaders did not have one preferred style and used multiple styles. Women and men preferred democratic and coaching styles respectively. The varied use of styles reflected leadership conceptualizations, leader accountabilities, contextual adaptations, the situation and its evolution, leaders' awareness of how they themselves were situated, and personal preferences and discomfort with styles. The not uncommon use of pace-setting and commanding styles by senior leaders, who were interviewed, was linked to working with physicians and delivering quickly on outcomes. Leaders at different levels in medical education draw from a repertoire of styles. Leadership development should incorporate learning of different leadership styles, especially at first- and mid-level positions.

  17. Seismic response of reinforced concrete frames at different damage levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-González, Merangeli; Vidot-Vega, Aidcer L.

    2017-03-01

    Performance-based seismic engineering is focused on the definition of limit states to represent different levels of damage, which can be described by material strains, drifts, displacements or even changes in dissipating properties and stiffness of the structure. This study presents a research plan to evaluate the behavior of reinforced concrete (RC) moment resistant frames at different performance levels established by the ASCE 41-06 seismic rehabilitation code. Sixteen RC plane moment frames with different span-to-depth ratios and three 3D RC frames were analyzed to evaluate their seismic behavior at different damage levels established by the ASCE 41-06. For each span-to-depth ratio, four different beam longitudinal reinforcement steel ratios were used that varied from 0.85 to 2.5% for the 2D frames. Nonlinear time history analyses of the frames were performed using scaled ground motions. The impact of different span-to-depth and reinforcement ratios on the damage levels was evaluated. Material strains, rotations and seismic hysteretic energy changes at different damage levels were studied.

  18. Individual differences in activity levels in zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Steven; Gerlai, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Individual differences and variation in behavioural responses have been identified in many animal species. These differences may be the result of genetic or environmental factors or the interaction between them. Analysis of individual differences in behaviour may be important for many reasons. The zebrafish is a powerful model organism that is rapidly gaining popularity in behavioural brain research. However, individual differences have rarely been explored in zebrafish although significant variation in their performance has been reported. In the current study we identified individual differences in activity levels of zebrafish using a genetically heterogeneous population. Groups of zebrafish classified as high, medium, or low activity performers demonstrated consistent activity levels over a period of 7 days, and also in a subsequent open field task, suggesting stable individual differences as opposed to stochastic variation among subjects. We also uncovered a sex dependent relationship between behavioural measures. Female zebrafish in the high activity group preferred the top portion of the tank, whereas low activity females preferred the lower portion but males did not show such a relationship. The relationship between these two behaviours in females implies the potential existence of a behavioural syndrome persisting between contexts. Furthermore, females demonstrated a higher level of consistency in their behaviour as compared to males, and the behavioural differences were found to be independent of both body size and weight of the tested subjects. The identification of individual differences in activity levels in zebrafish will allow the investigation of underlying genetic and/or environmental underpinnings. PMID:24084583

  19. Mineral Levels in Thalassaemia Major Patients Using Different Iron Chelators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genc, Gizem Esra; Ozturk, Zeynep; Gumuslu, Saadet; Kupesiz, Alphan

    2016-03-01

    The goal of the present study was to determine the levels of minerals in chronically transfused thalassaemic patients living in Antalya, Turkey and to determine mineral levels in groups using different iron chelators. Three iron chelators deferoxamine, deferiprone and deferasirox have been used to remove iron from patients' tissues. There were contradictory results in the literature about minerals including selenium, zinc, copper, and magnesium in thalassaemia major patients. Blood samples from the 60 thalassaemia major patients (the deferoxamine group, n = 19; the deferiprone group, n = 20 and the deferasirox group, n = 21) and the controls (n = 20) were collected. Levels of selenium, zinc, copper, magnesium, and iron were measured, and all of them except iron showed no significant difference between the controls and the patients regardless of chelator type. Serum copper levels in the deferasirox group were lower than those in the control and deferoxamine groups, and serum magnesium levels in the deferasirox group were higher than those in the control, deferoxamine and deferiprone groups. Iron levels in the patient groups were higher than those in the control group, and iron levels showed a significant correlation with selenium and magnesium levels. Different values of minerals in thalassaemia major patients may be the result of different dietary intake, chelator type, or regional differences in where patients live. That is why minerals may be measured in thalassaemia major patients at intervals, and deficient minerals should be replaced. Being careful about levels of copper and magnesium in thalassaemia major patients using deferasirox seems to be beneficial.

  20. Gender differences in cadmium and cotinine levels in prepubertal children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fucic, A., E-mail: afucic@imi.hr [Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health, Ksaverska c 2, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Plavec, D [Children Hospital Srebrnjak (Croatia); Casteleyn, L. [KU Leuven (Belgium); Aerts, D. [Federal Public Service Health, Food Chain Safety and Environment - DG Environment (Belgium); Biot, P. [DG Environment, Multilateral and Strategic Affairs (Belgium); Katsonouri, A. [State General Laboratory, Ministry of Health (Cyprus); Cerna, M. [Laboratoire National de Sante (Luxembourg); National Institute of Public Health (Czech Republic); Knudsen, L.E. [University of Copenhagen (Denmark); Castano, A. [Instituto de Salud Carlos III (Spain); Rudnai, P. [National Institute of Environmental Health (Hungary); Gutleb, A. [Centre de Recherche Public - Gabriel Lippmann (Luxembourg); Ligocka, D. [Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine (Poland); Lupsa, I-R. [Environmental Health Center (Romania); Berglund, M. [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet (Sweden); Horvat, M. [Institute Josef Stefan (Slovenia); Halzlova, K. [Public Health Authority (Slovakia); State General Laboratory, Ministry of Health (Cyprus); Schoeters, G.; Koppen, G. [Flemish Institute for Technological Research (VITO), Environmental Risk and Health (Netherlands); Hadjipanayis, A. [Larnaca General Hospital, Ministry of Health, Republic of Cyprus (Cyprus); Krskova, A. [Laboratoire National de Sante (Luxembourg); National Institute of Public Health (Czech Republic); and others

    2015-08-15

    Susceptibility to environmental stressors has been described for fetal and early childhood development. However, the possible susceptibility of the prepubertal period, characterized by the orchestration of the organism towards sexual maturation and adulthood has been poorly investigated and exposure data are scarce. In the current study levels of cadmium (Cd), cotinine and creatinine in urine were analyzed in a subsample 216 children from 12 European countries within the DEMOCOPHES project. The children were divided into six age–sex groups: boys (6–8 years, 9–10 years and 11 years old), and girls (6–7 years, 8–9 years, 10–11 years). The number of subjects per group was between 23 and 53. The cut off values were set at 0.1 µg/L for Cd, and 0.8 µg/L for cotinine defined according to the highest limit of quantification. The levels of Cd and cotinine were adjusted for creatinine level. In the total subsample group, the median level of Cd was 0.180 µg/L (range 0.10–0.69 µg/L), and for cotinine the median wet weight value was 1.50 µg/L (range 0.80–39.91 µg/L). There was no significant difference in creatinine and cotinine levels between genders and age groups. There was a significant correlation between levels of cadmium and creatinine in all children of both genders. This shows that even at such low levels the possible effect of cadmium on kidney function was present and measurable. An increase in Cd levels was evident with age. Cadmium levels were significantly different between 6–7 year old girls, 11 year old boys and 10–11 year old girls. As there was a balanced distribution in the number of subjects from countries included in the study, bias due to data clustering was not probable. The impact of low Cd levels on kidney function and gender differences in Cd levels needs further investigation. - Highlights: • In 216 children from 6 to 11 years old the median level of Cd was 0.18 µg/L. • The median level of cotinine was 1.50 µg/L.

  1. Weight loss practices in Taekwondo athletes of different competitive levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Santos, Jonatas Ferreira; Takito, Monica Yuri; Artioli, Guilherme Giannini; Franchini, Emerson

    2016-06-01

    This study investigated the prevalence, magnitude, and methods of rap-id weight loss among male and female Taekwondo athletes from all competitive levels. A questionnaire was administered to 72 men (regional/state level, n=31; national/international level, n=41) and 44 women (regional/state level, n=9; national/international, n=35). Among the male athletes, 77.4% of the regional/state level and 75.6% of the national/international athletes declared to have reduced weight to compete in lighter weight categories. Among women, 88.9% of regional/state level and 88.6% of national/international level reported the use of rapid weight loss strategies. Athletes reported to usually lose ~3% of their body weight, with some athletes reaching ~7% of their body weight. The methods used to achieve weight loss are potentially dangerous to health and no difference between sexes was found. Four methods were more frequently used by men athletes in higher competitive levels as compared to lower levels, as follows: skipping meals (Z=2.28, P=0.023, η(2)=0.21), fasting (Z=2.337, P=0.019, η(2)=0.22), restricting fluids (Z=2.633, P=0.009, η(2)=0.24) and spitting (Z=2.363, P=0.018, η(2)=0.22). Taekwondo athletes lost ~3% of their body mass, using methods potentially dangerous for their health. Although no difference was found between sexes, lower level athletes more frequently used methods such as skipping meals, fasting, restricting fluids and spitting. Considering that these health-threating methods are more commonly used by lower level athletes, specific education programs should be directed to them.

  2. A comparison of inter-aural attenuation with the Etymotic ER-3A insert earphone and the Telephonics TDH-39 supra-aural earphone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, K J; Agnew, N

    1999-08-01

    One of the many reported advantages of the insert earphone over the supra-aural earphone is increased inter-aural attenuation (IA). Minimum values of IA determine the need for masking of the non-test ear in air-conduction audiometry. The aim of the present study was to measure inter-aural attenuation for the Etymotic Research ER-3A insert earphone (with deep and shallow insertion of the ear plug within the ear canal) and compare this with the supra-aural Telephonics TDH-39/MX41-AR earphone/cushion combination. Subjects were 18 adults ranging in age from 38 to 68 years (mean 50 years). Each subject had no hearing in one ear following translabyrinthine surgery for removal of an acoustic neuroma. The opposite ear had hearing thresholds better than 40 dB HL and an air-bone gap of less than 10 dB at any audiometric frequency. Pure tone air-conduction thresholds were obtained in the range 0.25-8 kHz. Deep insertion of the insert earphone was deemed to occur when the outside edge of the ear plug was flush with the entrance of the ear canal. Shallow insertion was deemed to occur when half of the ear plug (6 mm) was inside the entrance of the ear canal. IA was defined operationally as the difference between the good-ear and poor-ear not-masked air conduction threshold for a given audiometric frequency and earphone. The results show that the TDH-39/MX41-AR combination provides a median IA of approximately 60 dB with a lower limit of approximately 45 dB. Greater IA was obtained with the ER-3A insert earphone but this depended on the depth of insertion. With a deep insertion, the 1A values were some 15-20 dB greater than with the supra-aural earphone. Although frequency-specific IA values are provided, a simple rule of thumb is to apply masking to the non-test ear when the pure tone airconduction signal from the ER-3A insert earphone exceeds the bone conduction threshold of the non-test ear by 55 dB HL or more. If it is not possible to obtain a deep insertion depth this value

  3. Racial Differences in Serum Cotinine Levels of Smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa B. Signorello

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to estimate black/white differences in cotinine levels for current smokers of both sexes, and to explore the potential contribution of mentholated cigarettes to these differences. Sera from 255 current smokers sampled from Southern Community Cohort Study participants (65 black men, 65 black women, 63 white men, 62 white women were analyzed for cotinine, and linear regression was used to model the effect of race on cotinine level, adjusting for the number of cigarettes smoked within the last 24 hours, use of menthol vs. non-menthol cigarettes, exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, and age. Black smokers smoked fewer cigarettes than white smokers, yet had crude mean cotinine levels nearly as high or higher than white smokers. After multivariate adjustment, cotinine levels were an average of 50 ng/ml higher among black than white women (p=0.008 and non-significantly 12 ng/ml higher among black than white men (p=0.52. We observed no increase in cotinine levels associated with menthol cigarette use. We conclude that differences in cotinine levels among smokers suggest racial variation in exposure to and/or metabolism of tobacco smoke constituents, but our findings do not support a role for menthol preference in this disparity.

  4. Sea level differences across the Gulf Stream and Kuroshio extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlotnicki, Victor

    1991-01-01

    The sea level differences between the Sargasso Sea and the slope waters across the Gulf Stream region, averaged between 73 and 61 deg W, and the comparable areas across the Kuroshio extension region, averaged between 143 and 156 deg E, were estimated using the Geosat altimeter data obtained between November 1986 and December 1988. The sea-level differences between the two regions showed a strong correlation between the northwest Atlantic and Pacific, dominated by annual cycles that peak in late-September to mid-October, with about 9 cm (the Gulf Stream region) and about 6.9 cm (Kuroshio region) amplitudes.

  5. Reading Processing Skills among EFL Learners in Different Proficiency Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanapala, Kusumi Vasantha; Yamada, Jun

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to understand how EFL learners in different reading proficiency levels comprehend L2 texts, using five-component skills involving measures of (1) vocabulary knowledge, (2) drawing inferences and predictions, (3) knowledge of text structure and discourse organization, (4) identifying the main idea and summarizing skills, and (5)…

  6. Measuring differentiation among populations at different levels of genetic integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregorius Hans-Rolf

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most genetic studies of population differentiation are based on gene-pool frequencies. Population differences for gene associations that show up as deviations from Hardy-Weinberg proportions (homologous association or gametic disequilibria (non-homologous association are disregarded. Thus little is known about patterns of population differentiation at higher levels of genetic integration nor the causal forces. Results To fill this gap, a conceptual approach to the description and analysis of patterns of genetic differentiation at arbitrary levels of genetic integration (single or multiple loci, varying degrees of ploidy is introduced. Measurement of differentiation is based on the measure Δ of genetic distance between populations, which is in turn based on an elementary genic difference between individuals at any given level of genetic integration. It is proven that Δ does not decrease when the level of genetic integration is increased, with equality if the gene associations at the higher level follow the same function in both populations (e.g. equal inbreeding coefficients, no association between loci. The pattern of differentiation is described using the matrix of pairwise genetic distances Δ and the differentiation snail based on the symmetric population differentiation ΔSD. A measure of covariation compares patterns between levels. To show the significance of the observed differentiation among possible gene associations, a special permutation analysis is proposed. Applying this approach to published genetic data on oak, the differentiation is found to increase considerably from lower to higher levels of integration, revealing variation in the forms of gene association among populations. Conclusion This new approach to the analysis of genetic differentiation among populations demonstrates that the consideration of gene associations within populations adds a new quality to studies on population differentiation that is

  7. Radiation efficiency of earthquake sources at different hierarchical levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kocharyan, G. G., E-mail: gevorgkidg@mail.ru [Institute of Dynamics of Geospheres RAS, Moscow, 119334 (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (State University), Dolgoprudny, 117303 (Russian Federation)

    2015-10-27

    Such factors as earthquake size and its mechanism define common trends in alteration of radiation efficiency. The macroscopic parameter that controls the efficiency of a seismic source is stiffness of fault or fracture. The regularities of this parameter alteration with scale define several hierarchical levels, within which earthquake characteristics obey different laws. Small variations of physical and mechanical properties of the fault principal slip zone can lead to dramatic differences both in the amplitude of released stress and in the amount of radiated energy.

  8. Connectivity biomarkers can differentiate patients with different levels of consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höller, Yvonne; Thomschewski, Aljoscha; Bergmann, Jürgen; Kronbichler, Martin; Crone, Julia S; Schmid, Elisabeth V; Butz, Kevin; Höller, Peter; Nardone, Raffaele; Trinka, Eugen

    2014-08-01

    In the present study, we searched for resting-EEG biomarkers that distinguish different levels of consciousness on a single subject level with an accuracy that is significantly above chance. We assessed 44 biomarkers extracted from the resting EEG with respect to their discriminative value between groups of minimally conscious (MCS, N=22) patients, vegetative state patients (VS, N=27), and - for a proof of concept - healthy participants (N=23). We applied classification with support vector machines. Partial coherence, directed transfer function, and generalized partial directed coherence yielded accuracies that were significantly above chance for the group distinction of MCS vs. VS (.88, .80, and .78, respectively), as well as healthy participants vs. MCS (.96, .87, and .93, respectively) and VS (.98, .84, and .96, respectively) patients. The concept of connectivity is crucial for determining the level of consciousness, supporting the view that assessing brain networks in the resting state is the golden way to examine brain functions such as consciousness. The present results directly show that it is possible to distinguish patients with different levels of consciousness on the basis of resting-state EEG. Copyright © 2013 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A multiple index integrating different levels of organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortes, Rui; Hughes, Samantha; Coimbra, Ana; Monteiro, Sandra; Pereira, Vítor; Lopes, Marisa; Pereira, Sandra; Pinto, Ana; Sampaio, Ana; Santos, Cátia; Carrola, João; de Jesus, Joaquim; Varandas, Simone

    2016-10-01

    Many methods in freshwater biomonitoring tend to be restricted to a few levels of biological organization, limiting the potential spectrum of measurable of cause-effect responses to different anthropogenic impacts. We combined distinct organisational levels, covering biological biomarkers (histopathological and biochemical reactions in liver and fish gills), community based bioindicators (fish guilds, invertebrate metrics/traits and chironomid pupal exuviae) and ecosystem functional indicators (decomposition rates) to assess ecological status at designated Water Framework Directive monitoring sites, covering a gradient of human impact across several rivers in northern Portugal. We used Random Forest to rank the variables that contributed more significantly to successfully predict the different classes of ecological status and also to provide specific cut levels to discriminate each WFD class based on reference condition. A total of 59 Biological Quality Elements and functional indicators were determined using this procedure and subsequently applied to develop the integrated Multiple Ecological Level Index (MELI Index), a potentially powerful bioassessment tool. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Developmental Effects in the Masking-Level Difference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Joseph W.; Buss, Emily; Grose, John H.; Dev, Madhu B.

    2004-01-01

    Adults and children (aged 5 years 1 month to 10 years 8 months) were tested in a masking-level difference (MLD) paradigm in which detection of brief signals was contrasted for signal placement in masker envelope maxima versus masker envelope minima. Maskers were 50-Hz-wide noise bands centered on 500 Hz, and the signals were So or S[pi] 30-ms,…

  11. Socio–emotional competences and creativity in different intelligence levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Almeida

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This aim of this paper is two–fold: to analyze the relationship between socio–emotional competence and creativity in different intelligence levels (high, medium and low intelligence and to study the differences on emotional socio–competence and creativity depending on those intelligence levels. A total of 679 Secondary Education Spanish students, aged between 12 and 18 years (M = 13.90, SD = 1.28, took part in this study. The following instruments were used: a socio–emotional competence was assessed using Bar–On’s Emotional Intelligence Inventory–Youth Version (EQ–i:YV, Bar–On and Parker, 2000; b cognitive ability was assessed using the Differential Aptitude Test (DAT–5, Bennett, Seashore and Wesman, 2000; and c creativity was assessed using Torrance’s Test of Creative Thinking (TTCT, Torrance, 1974. The data showed statistically significant differences in the total self–perceived emotional competence and in the elaboration of creativity dimension depending on the participants’ intellectual level. Finally, no statistically significant correlations were found between socio–emotional competence and creativity.

  12. Merging aeromagnetic data collected at different levels: the GEOMAUD survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Damaske

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available As part of the German GEOMAUD-expedition an aeromagnetic survey was carried out in Central Queen Maud Land. The helicopter-borne survey was designed in a conventional form of a regional survey with a spacing of profile-lines of 4.4 km. Due to terrain considerations - surveying from the coast across the mountain ranges to the high altitudes of the polar plateau - the survey was split into two sections flown at different constant levels. Over the coastal part survey elevation was 570 m (above sea level while for the mountain section 2845 m was chosen. Both survey parts were processed separately. The low level section was upward continued before merging with the high level section. Though this leads to a homogeneous magnetic anomaly map, in some applications it may be more advantageous to present the anomalies of the magnetic field in original survey levels as a simple combined map because small scale features are preserved and can be used in recognizing magnetic units and patterns for geological/geophysical interpretation.

  13. An adaptation model for trabecular bone at different mechanical levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lv Linwei

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bone has the ability to adapt to mechanical usage or other biophysical stimuli in terms of its mass and architecture, indicating that a certain mechanism exists for monitoring mechanical usage and controlling the bone's adaptation behaviors. There are four zones describing different bone adaptation behaviors: the disuse, adaptation, overload, and pathologic overload zones. In different zones, the changes of bone mass, as calculated by the difference between the amount of bone formed and what is resorbed, should be different. Methods An adaptation model for the trabecular bone at different mechanical levels was presented in this study based on a number of experimental observations and numerical algorithms in the literature. In the proposed model, the amount of bone formation and the probability of bone remodeling activation were proposed in accordance with the mechanical levels. Seven numerical simulation cases under different mechanical conditions were analyzed as examples by incorporating the adaptation model presented in this paper with the finite element method. Results The proposed bone adaptation model describes the well-known bone adaptation behaviors in different zones. The bone mass and architecture of the bone tissue within the adaptation zone almost remained unchanged. Although the probability of osteoclastic activation is enhanced in the overload zone, the potential of osteoblasts to form bones compensate for the osteoclastic resorption, eventually strengthening the bones. In the disuse zone, the disuse-mode remodeling removes bone tissue in disuse zone. Conclusions The study seeks to provide better understanding of the relationships between bone morphology and the mechanical, as well as biological environments. Furthermore, this paper provides a computational model and methodology for the numerical simulation of changes of bone structural morphology that are caused by changes of mechanical and biological

  14. Electrical characterization of different DEPFET designs on die level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergbauer, B.; Aschauer, S.; Bähr, A.; Hermenau, K.; Horstmann, J.; Lauf, T.; Lechner, P.; Majewski, P.; Meidinger, N.; Reiffers, J.; Richter, R.; Sandow, C.; Schaller, G.; Schopper, F.; Stefanescu, A.; Strüder, L.; Treis, J.

    2014-01-01

    For the future X-ray astronomy project Advanced Telescope for High ENergy Astrophysics plus (ATHENA+) wafer-scale DEpleted P-channel Field Effect Transistor (DEPFET) detectors are proposed as Focal Plane Array (FPA) for the Wide Field Imager (WFI). Prototype structures with different pixel layouts, each consisting of 64 x 64 pixels, were fabricated to study four different DEPFET designs. We report on the results of the electrical characterization of the different DEPFET designs. The transistor properties of the DEPFET structures are investigated in order to determine whether the design intentions are reflected in the transistor characteristics. In addition yield and homogeneity of the prototypes can be studied on die, wafer and batch level for further improvement of the production technology with regard to wafer-scale devices. These electrical characterization measurements prove to be a reliable tool to pre-select the best detector dies for further integration into full detector systems.

  15. DIFFERENCES IN THE LEVEL OF SITUATIONAL –MOTOR ABILITIES OF FOOTBALL PLAYERS OF DIFFERENT LEVEL COMPETITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer Špirtović

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted on 170 subjects, football players - senior citizens, aged 18-27 years from the territory of Montenegro.Utilizes a system of 16 variables, situational-motor abilities. Our aim was to determine the discriminatory ability of their rank according to the modalities of which belong to the players tested (second and third league competitions. Results of canonical discriminant analysis of the players in situational-motor variables that belong to different ranks of the competitions, significant at the .00 level. Therefore, we can speak of two quantitatively and qualitatively different groups of patients.

  16. Individual differences in dopamine level modulate the ego depletion effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Junhua; Xiao, Shanshan; Liu, Ying; Jiang, Yumeng; Mao, Lihua

    2016-01-01

    Initial exertion of self-control impairs subsequent self-regulatory performance, which is referred to as the ego depletion effect. The current study examined how individual differences in dopamine level, as indexed by eye blink rate (EBR), would moderate ego depletion. An inverted-U-shaped relationship between EBR and subsequent self-regulatory performance was found when participants initially engaged in self-control but such relationship was absent in the control condition where there was no initial exertion, suggesting individuals with a medium dopamine level may be protected from the typical ego depletion effect. These findings are consistent with a cognitive explanation which considers ego depletion as a phenomenon similar to "switch costs" that would be neutralized by factors promoting flexible switching.

  17. Land Sea Level Difference Impacts on Socio-Hydrological System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, K.; Yu, D. J.; Oh, W. S.; Sangwan, N.

    2016-12-01

    Allowing moderate shocks can be a new solution that helps to build adaptive capacity in society is a rising issue. In Social-Ecological field, Carpenter et al. (2015) suggested that exposure to short-term variability leads to long term resilience by enlarging safe operating space (SOS). The SOS refers to the boundary of favorable state that ecosystem can maintain resilience without imposing certain conditions (Carpenter et al. 2015). Our work is motivated by defining SOS in socio-hydrological system(SHS) because it can be an alternative way for flood management beyond optimized or robust flood control. In this context, large flood events that make system to cross the SOS should be fully managed, but frequent small floods need to be allowed if the system is located in SOS. Especially, land sea level change is critical factor to change flood resilience since it is one of the most substantial disturbance that changes the entire boundary of SOS. In order to have broader perspective of vulnerability and resilience of the coastal region, it is crucial to understand the land sea level dynamics changed with human activities and natural variances.The risk of land sea level change has been researched , but most of these researches have focused on explain cause and effect of land sea level change, paying little attention to its dynamics interacts with human activities. Thus, an objective of this research is to study dynamics of human work, land sea level change and resilience to flood with SOS approach. Especially, we focus on the case in Ganges-Brahmaputra, Bangladesh where has high vulnerability to flood, and is faced with relatively rapid land sea level change problem. To acheive the goal, this study will develop a stylized model by extending the human - flood interaction model combined with relative sea level difference equation. The model describes the dynamics of flood protection system which is changed by SHS and land sea level chage. we will focus on the aggradation

  18. SLEEP COMPLAINTS AFFECTING SCHOOL PERFORMANCE AT DIFFERENT EDUCATIONAL LEVELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James F Pagel

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The clear association between reports of sleep disturbance and poor school performance has been documented for sleepy adolescents. This study extends that research to students outside the adolescent age grouping in an associated school setting (98 middle school students, 67 high school students, and 64 college students. Reported restless legs and periodic limb movements are significantly associated with lower GPA’s in junior high students. Consistent with previous studies, daytime sleepiness was the sleep variable most likely to negatively affects high school students. Sleep onset and maintenance insomnia were the reported sleep variables significantly correlated with poorer school performance in college students. This study indicates that different sleep disorder variables negatively affect performance at different age and educational levels.

  19. Sleep complaints affecting school performance at different educational levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagel, James F; Kwiatkowski, Carol F

    2010-01-01

    The clear association between reports of sleep disturbance and poor school performance has been documented for sleepy adolescents. This study extends that research to students outside the adolescent age grouping in an associated school setting (98 middle school students, 67 high school students, and 64 college students). Reported restless legs and periodic limb movements are significantly associated with lower GPA's in junior high students. Consistent with previous studies, daytime sleepiness was the sleep variable most likely to negatively affects high school students. Sleep onset and maintenance insomnia were the reported sleep variables significantly correlated with poorer school performance in college students. This study indicates that different sleep disorder variables negatively affect performance at different age and educational levels.

  20. Sound power and vibration levels for two different piano soundboards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squicciarini, Giacomo; Valiente, Pablo Miranda; Thompson, David J.

    2016-09-01

    This paper compares the sound power and vibration levels for two different soundboards for upright pianos. One of them is made of laminated spruce and the other of solid spruce (tone-wood). These differ also in the number of ribs and manufacturing procedure. The methodology used is defined in two major steps: (i) acoustic power due to a unit force is obtained reciprocally by measuring the acceleration response of the piano soundboards when excited by acoustic waves in reverberant field; (ii) impact tests are adopted to measure driving point and spatially-averaged mean-square transfer mobility. The results show that, in the midhigh frequency range, the soundboard made of solid spruce has a greater vibrational and acoustic response than the laminated soundboard. The effect of string tension is also addressed, showing that is only relevant at low frequencies.

  1. Kalanchoe crop development under different levels of irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fátima Cibele Soares

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Despite its importance in the floriculture sector, irrigation management of kalanchoe is characterized by empiricism, being necessary further studies on the use of water by this crop. Thus, the objective of this study is to analyze the several effects of irrigation levels on the growth of kalanchoe crop conducted in greenhouse in the municipality of Alegrete, state of Rio Grande do Sul. The experiment was conducted in a 7 x 15 m protected environment. The experimental design was completely randomized, with four treatments (irrigation levels corresponding to 40, 60, 80 and 100% of the pot water retention capacity - PC and four repetitions, totaling sixteen plots. The crop cycle was 224 days after transplanting and the applied average depths were: 451.82; 367.38; 282.94; 198.51 mm for treatments: 100; 80; 60 and 40% of PC, respectively. Canopy area and number of leaves per plant were evaluated over the crop cycle. In the end of the cycle, the canopy diameter, number of inflorescences per plant and the number of flowers per plant were evaluated. No significant differences were found only to the canopy area, by the F test. Irrigation water depths between 40 and 70% of the pot capacity were more appropriate for the crop growth in the study region. The cultivar presented the best development at irrigation levels below the maximum vessel water retention capacity, that is, it is resistant to drought.

  2. Congenital vs acquired deafness: differences in reading and mathematics levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLeon, B; Berg, R A; Battin, R R

    1979-04-01

    Measures of reading ability and math skills were taken in 22 adults who were either congenitally deaf or had acquired deafness in the second or third year of life. Both groups were equivalent with respect to I.Q., education level and degree of loss. The following tests were administered: (1) the performance scale of the Weschler Adult Intelligence Scale, (2) the math section of the Wide Range Achievement Test, (3) the Reading Comprehension subtest of the Peabody Individual Achievement Test, and (4) the Raven Test of Progressive Matrices. There were no significant differences between the two groups on reading level, but a significantly higher math level was found in the congenital group. It was suggested that the pathology in the acquired group may have affected other neural centers in addition to the auditory, or that the acquired group may have been handicapped by the possibility of switching from one coding system (auditory) to another (visual), while in the congenital group the coding remained confined to the visual mode.

  3. Bread wheat varieties as influenced by different nitrogen levels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUSSAIN Iqtidar; KHAN Muhammad Ayyaz; KHAN Ejaz Ahmad

    2006-01-01

    Experiment was conducted to determine the effect of different nitrogen levels on four bread wheat varieties (Triticurm aestivum L.) viz. Inqilab-91, Daman-98, Dera-98 and Punjab-96 at Gomal University, Dera Ismail Khan (NWFP), Pakistan during 2000~2001. The experiment was laid out in split plot design having four replications using a net plot size of 2 m×5 m. Nitrogen doses used were 0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 kg/ha. The results showed that different nitrogen levels had significant effects on plant height, total number of plants/m2, number of grains/spike, number of spike/m2, spike weight, biological yield, grain yield and grain protein content. Maximum plant height, total number of plants/m2, number of spikes/m2, spike weight, biological yield and grain protein content were observed at 200 kg N/ha. Among wheat varieties Daman-98 had maximum plant height, spike weight,grains/spike, 1000-grain weight, biological yield and grain yield. Inqilab-91 had heavier grains and the most grain protein content,while Dera-98 had the maximum plant population and spikes/m2. Grain yield and biological yield were statistically similar at doses of 150 kg N/ha and 200 kg N/ha. However, dose of 200 kg N/ha, compared to dose of 150 Kg N/ha, significantly increased the protein content.

  4. Dried sausages fermented with Staphylococcus xylosus at different temperatures and with different ingredient levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stahnke, Marie Louise Heller

    1995-01-01

    Sausages, with added Staphylococcus xylosus, were fermented at different temperatures and with different added levels of salt, glucose, nitrite, nitrate and Pediococcus pentosaceus in accordance with a six factor fractional design. The volatile compounds from the sausages were collected by dynamic...... fermented under modern production conditions (high temperature, addition of glucose, nitrite, Pediococcus pentosaceus) in contrast to 'old-fashioned' sausages (added nitrate and fermented at low temperature) are likely to contain higher amounts of volatile acids, but lower levels of ethyl esters, certain...

  5. Paired galaxies with different activity levels and their supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Nazaryan, T A; Hakobyan, A A; Adibekyan, V Zh; Kunth, D; Mamon, G A; Turatto, M; Aramyan, L S

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the influence of close neighbor galaxies on the properties of supernovae (SNe) and their host galaxies using 56 SNe located in pairs of galaxies with different levels of star formation (SF) and nuclear activity. The statistical study of SN hosts shows that there is no significant difference between morphologies of hosts in our sample and the larger general sample of SN hosts in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 8 (DR8). The mean distance of type II SNe from nuclei of hosts is greater by about a factor of 2 than that of type Ibc SNe. The distributions and mean distances of SNe are consistent with previous results compiled with the larger sample. For the first time it is shown that SNe Ibc are located in pairs with significantly smaller difference of radial velocities between components than pairs containing SNe Ia and II. We consider this as a result of higher star formation rate (SFR) of these closer systems of galaxies. SN types are not correlated with the luminosity ratio of ho...

  6. Nutritional Balance of broilers fed diets containing two calcium levels and supplemented with different phytase levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DCZ Donato

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of diets containing different calcium and phytase levels on the nutritional balance of broilers.A total of 108 male AG Ross 308 broilers were used in each of the replicates phases used in the study: starter (1-21 days, grower (29-35 days and finisher (36-42 days. A completely randomized experimental design in a 3 x 2 factorial arrangement, with three phytase levels (0, 600 or 1200 FTU/kg and two calcium levels (0.94 and 0.66%; 0.84 and 0.59%; e 0.78 and 0.54% in the starter, grower, and finisher phases, respectively, totaling six treatments with six replicates each.The experimental feeds also contained reduced available phosphorus levels and minimum crude protein level.The method of total excreta collection was applied to determine dry matter, nitrogen, gross energy, calcium, and phosphorus nutritional balance.Reducing dietary calcium levels to 0.66, 0.59, and 0.54%, and using 0.27, 0.22, and 0.20% available phosphorus, 18.50, 17.50, and 16.00% crude protein, and 600 FTU phytase/kg in the diets of the starter, grower, and finisher phases, respectively, allow higher nitrogen, phosphorus, and calcium retention in broilers.During the grower phase, there was positive linear effect of increasing phytase levels in high-calcium diets on AMEn utilization, and the optimal phytase levels for low-calcium diets was 598.71 FTU/kg.In the finisher phase, the best AMEn utilization was obtained with the high-calcium diets.

  7. Information Fusion for Collaborating Commanders at Different Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    e.g. according to the JDL model, where the lowest level deals with describing single objects, the next level sets the object(s) in a setting that can...connection to levels used in other contexts such as command- or JDL levels. In reality there may be more levels involved, but the figure shows the

  8. Changes in plasma taurine levels after different endurance events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, R J; Francaux, M; Cuisinier, C; Sturbois, X; De Witte, P

    1999-01-01

    The sulphonated amino acid taurine increased significantly in the plasma of trained athletes after three endurance exercises of different duration and intensity, a 90 min run on a treadmill at 75% of an individual's VO2 peak, a Marathon, 42.2 km and a 100 km run, by 19%, 77% and 36%, respectively. Such results indicated that the speed at which the exercise is performed, referred to as the intensity, rather than the duration of the exercise, correlated with the elevated taurine levels possibly indicating its release from muscle fibres. The plasma amino acid pool decreased significantly in relationship with the duration of the exercise, caused by their utilisation for glucogenesis. The possible sources of the increased plasma taurine are discussed.

  9. Plasma Level of IL-4 Differs in Patients Infected with Different Modern Lineages of M. tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adane Mihret

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological evidence from tuberculosis outbreaks revealed that some genotypes of M. tuberculosis are more transmissible and capable of causing disease than others. We analysed the plasma cytokine levels of pulmonary tuberculosis patients infected with different strains of M. tuberculosis to test the hypothesis that immune responses would be linked to the bacterial genotype. Spoligotyping was carried out for genotyping, and we used Luminex technology to measure 17 cytokines (EGF, fractalkine, GM-CSF, IFN-γ, IL-1, IL-10, IL-12, IL-17, IL-4, IL-7, IL-9, IP-10, MCP-1, MCP-3, MIP-1β, TNF, and VEGF from plasma samples of tuberculosis patients. The levels of IL-12 (p40, IL-4, IL-7, and MIP-1beta were higher in patients infected with lineage 3, however, it was only IL-4 which showed statistically significant difference (P<0.05 between lineage 3 and lineage 4. We further grouped the lineages into families (CAS, H and T families, and we found that the plasma level of IL-4 was significantly higher in patients infected with the CAS family (P<0.05 in comparison with T and H families. However, there was no difference between T and H families. Therefore, the higher level of IL-4 in lineage 3 families might indicate that possible differences in the response elicited from host depend on strain lineages in the studied population.

  10. P, C and T: Different Properties on the Kinematical Level

    CERN Document Server

    Dvoeglazov, Valeriy V

    2016-01-01

    We study the discrete symmetries (P,C and T) on the kinematical level within the extended Poincare Group. On the basis of the Silagadze research, we investigate the question of the definitions of the discrete symmetry operators both on the classical level, and in the secondary-quantization scheme. We study the physical contents within several bases: light-front formulation, helicity basis, angular momentum basis, and so on, on several practical examples. We analise problems in construction of the neutral particles in the the (1/2,0)+(0,1/2) representation, the (1,0)+(0,1) and the (1/2,1/2) representations of the Lorentz Group. As well known, the photon has the quantum numbers 1^-, so the (1,0)+(0,1) representation of the Lorentz group is relevant to its description. We have ambiguities in the definitions of the corresponding operators P, C; T, which lead to different physical consequences. It appears that the answers are connected with the helicity basis properties, and commutations/anticommutations of the co...

  11. Trophic level responses differ as climate warms in Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Alison; Yu, Rong; Liu, Lingling

    2015-08-01

    Effective ecosystem functioning relies on successful species interaction. However, this delicate balance may be disrupted if species do not respond to environmental change at a similar rate. Here we examine trends in the timing of spring phenophases of groups of species occupying three trophic levels as a potential indicator of ecosystem response to climate warming in Ireland. The data sets were of varying length (1976-2009) and from varying locations: (1) timing of leaf unfolding and May Shoot of a range of broadleaf and conifer tree species, (2) first appearance dates of a range of moth species, and (3) first arrival dates of a range of spring migrant birds. All three groups revealed a statistically significant ( Psupply and demand. These differing trophic level response rates demonstrate the potential for a mismatch in the timing of interdependent phenophases as temperatures rise. Even though these data were not specifically collected to examine climate warming impacts, we conclude that such data may be used as an early warning indicator and as a means to monitor the potential for future ecosystem disruption to occur as climate warms.

  12. The Leeway of Shipping Containers at Different Immersion Levels

    CERN Document Server

    Breivik, Øyvind; Maisondieu, Christophe; Roth, Jens-Christian; Forest, Bertrand

    2012-01-01

    The leeway of 20-foot containers in typical distress conditions is established through field experiments in a Norwegian fjord and in open-ocean conditions off the coast of France with wind speed ranging from calm to 14 m/s. The experimental setup is described in detail and certain recommendations given for experiments on objects of this size. The results are compared with the leeway of a scaled-down container before the full set of measured leeway characteristics are compared with a semi-analytical model of immersed containers. Our results are broadly consistent with the semi-analytical model, but the model is found to be sensitive to choice of drag coefficient and makes no estimate of the cross-wind leeway of containers. We extend the results from the semi-analytical immersion model by extrapolating the observed leeway divergence and estimates of the experimental uncertainty to various realistic immersion levels. The sensitivity of these leeway estimates at different immersion levels are tested using a stoch...

  13. Public health knowledge levels of different types of jordanian teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalili, K Y

    1986-01-01

    This study examines the level of health knowledge of specific categories of Jordanian teachers to see which category is competent enough to teach health as a separate school subject. The Health Awareness Test (HAT) was administered to 670 teachers of whom there were seventy-four science teachers at the compulsory stage, 139 Arabic language teachers at the upper elementary stage, 342 elementary grades teachers, thirty-four high school physics teachers, thirty-three high school chemistry teachers, and forty-eight high school biology teachers. The data analysis revealed that of the target groups, only female teachers of biology, chemistry, and physics and male teachers of biology, reached the acceptable level in knowledge about health as measured by HAT. Sex as well as specialization (the subject the teacher teaches) differences were found to be significant favoring female over male and biology teachers followed by chemistry teachers over the rest of the groups. The interaction between sex and specialization was not significant The implications of the above results for curriculum planning are discussed.

  14. STROKE VOLUME DYNAMICS IN MALES WITH DIFFERENT FITNESS LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klemen Lavrenčak

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Stroke volume (SV is well known as a routine clinical cardiodynamic measure. It represents the amount of blood ejected by the left ventricle in one beat. Our aim in present study was to evaluate, both, the stroke volume dynamics in males with different fitness level and the relationship between maximal SV value measured during graded exercise testing (GXT on treadmill and VO2 max. One hundred male participants of age 43,06 ± 9.03 years, height 175 ± 8.25 cm, body mass 76.94 ± 15.42 kg, BSA 2.01 ± 0,15 m2 and peak oxygen consumption 46.55 ± 7.03 ml kg-1 min-1 volunteered to participate in this study. All tests were performed in Exercise Physiology Laboratory (University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Sport, The group of expirienced recreational runners differed from sedentary or less trained recreational runners in higher cardiac output (Q; 20.92 ± 4.57 vs 16,90 ± 4,34 l · min-1 (p ≤ 0,001, bigger SV: 136,43 ± 34,59 vs 112,04 ± 30,11 ml · beat -1 (p ≤ 0,001 and higher SI: 73,41 ± 13,42 vs 60,66 ± 11,58 ml · beat -1 · m-2 (p ≤ 0,001. Interestingly, both groups reached maximal SV at practically identical level of test (58.62 ± 17.81 % vs 59,85 ± 14,27 % VO2max. Also, the pattern of SV fall according to VO2max in both groups tested, were similar (12.08 ± 6.26 % vs 11,33 ± 6,23 %.

  15. Dried sausages fermented with Staphylococcus xylosus at different temperatures and with different ingredient levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waade, C.; Waade, Charlotte

    1997-01-01

    Sausages with added Staphylococcus xylosus were fermented at different temperatures and with different added levels of salt, glucose, nitrite, nitrate and Pediococcus pentosaceus in accordance with a six-factor fractional design. The amounts of individual amino acids were measured and the effects...... was significantly affected by the different factors. High fermentation temperature and nitrite content increased the amount, while high contents of salt, nitrate, glucose and P. pentosaceus lowered the amount of free amino acids. In general, temperature and nitrate had the greatest influence. It was shown...

  16. The Preferred Initial Time Delay Gap and Inter-Aural Cross Correlation for a Javanese Gamelan Performance Hall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarwono, J.; Lam, Y. W.

    2002-11-01

    This paper discusses the application of a method based on human subjective preference to the acoustic design of a Javanese gamelan performance hall. Some important distinctions between Javanese gamelan ensembles and Western classical orchestra are the tuning system, orchestral blending process, and technique of playing. The results of subjective preference test using the rank order method showed that the subjects preferred 24·25 ms for the initial time delay gap ( ITDG) and the smallest value of the inter-aural cross-correlation ( IACC). The preferred ITDG agree with the ITDG from the room response measured in a traditional pendopo in Indonesia, which is not a common concert hall but an open-sided hall. However, the preferred IACC is not in agreement with the measured ITDG in the pendopo .

  17. Cope's Rule in the Pterosauria, and differing perceptions of Cope's Rule at different taxonomic levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hone, D W E; Benton, M J

    2007-05-01

    The remarkable extinct flying reptiles, the pterosaurs, show increasing body size over 100 million years of the Late Jurassic and Cretaceous, and this seems to be a rare example of a driven trend to large size (Cope's Rule). The size increases continue throughout the long time span, and small forms disappear as larger pterosaurs evolve. Mean wingspan increases through time. Examining for Cope's Rule at a variety of taxonomic levels reveals varying trends within the Pterosauria as a whole, as pterodactyloid pterosaurs increase in size at all levels of examination, but rhamphorhynchoid pterosaurs show both size increase and size decrease in different analyses. These results suggest that analyses testing for Cope's Rule at a single taxonomic level may give misleading results.

  18. Dried sausages fermented with Staphylococcus xylosus at different temperatures and with different ingredient levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stahnke, Marie Louise Heller

    1995-01-01

    Sausages with added Staphylococcus xylosus were fermented at different temperatures and with different added levels of salt, glucose, nitrite, nitrate and Pediococcus pentosaceus in accordance with a six factor fractional design. The odour of the sausages was evaluated by a quantitative descriptive...... tested using multiple linear regression and analysis of variance. The study showed that salami odour was more pronounced in sausages fermented at low temperature than in sausages fermented at high temperature and added nitrite, glucose and P. pentosaceus. High temperature sausages had a more sour...

  19. Soil properties discriminating Araucaria forests with different disturbance levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertini, Simone Cristina Braga; Azevedo, Lucas Carvalho Basilio; Stromberger, Mary E; Cardoso, Elke Jurandy Bran Nogueira

    2015-04-01

    Soil biological, chemical, and physical properties can be important for monitoring soil quality under one of the most spectacular vegetation formation on Atlantic Forest Biome, the Araucaria Forest. Our aim was to identify a set of soil variables capable of discriminating between disturbed, reforested, and native Araucaria forest soils such that these variables could be used to monitor forest recovery and maintenance. Soil samples were collected at dry and rainy season under the three forest types in two state parks at São Paulo State, Brazil. Soil biological, chemical, and physical properties were evaluated to verify their potential to differentiate the forest types, and discriminant analysis was performed to identify the variables that most contribute to the differentiation. Most of physical and chemical variables were sensitive to forest disturbance level, but few biological variables were significantly different when comparing native, reforested, and disturbed forests. Despite more than 20 years following reforestation, the reforested soils were chemically and biologically distinct from native and disturbed forest soils, mainly because of the greater acidity and Al3+ content of reforested soil. Disturbed soils, in contrast, were coarser in texture and contained greater concentrations of extractable P. Although biological properties are generally highly sensitive to disturbance and amelioration efforts, the most important soil variables to discriminate forest types in both seasons included Al3+, Mg2+, P, and sand, and only one microbial attribute: the NO2- oxidizers. Therefore, these five variables were the best candidates, of the variables we employed, for monitoring Araucaria forest disturbance and recovery.

  20. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF EUCALIPT WOOD WITH DIFFERENT LEVELS OF THINNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio José Vinha Zanuncio

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509812359The objective of this study was to evaluate different thinning regimes in forest plantations of eucalypt(Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla clones to produce timber for cellulose and charcoal to verifywhether this effect could affect the proportion of the chemical components of wood. The average initialspacing between plants was 3x3 m and the treatments were: T1= control, T2, T3and T4 with thinning 20%,35% and 50% of the basal area, respectively. The results were analyzed by Tukey test at 5% probability.According to the results found the lignin content from treatment T4 was higher than that of the others; thegroups of uronic acids of the T1 was similar to all other treatments, but the levels of T2 and T4 differedbetween them. The extractives content of T1was similar to the T2 and T3 and lower than that of theT4; thecarbohydrates of T1 were similar to that of T3 and higher than the others. It was concluded that thinningincreases the quality of the wood to be used as energy purposes, such as charcoal production, but it did notincrease productivity for wood pulp and paper production.

  1. Characteristics of interhemisphere interactions at different levels of consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusalova, M N

    2005-10-01

    The relationship between the level of consciousness and the level of brain activation was studied. A model for a gradual decrease in the level of consciousness was provided by the transition from waking to drowsiness. Measures of the level of consciousness, assessed by the subjects themselves, consisted of changes in the content of consciousness, i.e., the intensity and quality of involuntarily arising mental processes. In each subject, the level of consciousness was found to correspond to a pert EEG profile. The results obtained from these studies showed that the lowest level of activation corresponded to the state in which the subject noted inhibition of "inner speech," a "lapse of thoughts," and in this state the interhemisphere associations involving the major mechanism of transmission of cognitive information, i.e., the high-frequency EEG rhythm, was weakened.

  2. Inferring Parametric Energy Consumption Functions at Different Software Levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liqat, Umer; Georgiou, Kyriakos; Kerrison, Steve;

    2016-01-01

    written in the XC language running on XCore architectures, but is general enough to be applied to other languages. Experimental results show that our LLVM IR level analysis is reasonably accurate (less than 6.4% average error vs. hardware measurements) and more powerful than analysis at the ISA level...... on the input data sizes of programs. We have developed a tool for experimentation with static analysis which infers such energy functions at two levels, the instruction set architecture (ISA) and the intermediate code (LLVM IR) levels, and reflects it upwards to the higher source code level. This required...... the development of a translation from LLVM IR to an intermediate representation and its integration with existing components, a translation from ISA to the same representation, a resource analyzer, an ISA-level energy model, and a mapping from this model to LLVM IR. The approach has been applied to programs...

  3. Headwater biodiversity among different levels of stream habitat hierarchy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Göthe, Emma; Friberg, Nikolai; Kahlert, Maria

    2014-01-01

    of a- and b-diversity to y-diversity between two levels of stream habitat hierarchy (catchment and region level). The relationship between species community structure and local environmental factors was also assessed. Our results show that both a- and b-diversity made a significant contribution to y......-diversity. b-diversity remained relatively constant between the two levels of habitat hierarchy even though local environmental control of the biota decreased from the catchment to the region level. To capture most of headwater y-diversity, management should therefore target sites that are locally diverse...

  4. Beyond Different Levels: Embodiment and the Developmental System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J Marshall

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The value of studying a phenomenon at multiple levels of analysis is often emphasized in psychology, but a lack of clarity about the nature of levels and the relations among them remains an impediment to progress. The suggestion here is that an approach combining the tenets of embodiment with the construct of the developmental system provides a way forward. Embodiment opposes the splitting off and elevation of a level of mechanisms that has characterized much of cognitive science. In contrast, a constructivist embodied approach places a level of mechanisms in the context of a formal or systems level of analysis, with developmental process framing the interpenetrating relations between levels. Such an approach stems from a relational worldview that opposes conceptual splits and posits that levels of structure and process comprise an indissociable complementarity. The combination of embodiment and developmental systems within a relational worldview is discussed and elaborated through outlining the integrative approach of relational developmental systems, which has been proposed by its proponents as a scientific paradigm within which formulations of the interrelations among brain, body, and mind can be advanced.

  5. Comparison of contaminants from different trophic levels and ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietz, R.; Riget, F.; Cleemann, M.

    2000-01-01

    ecosystems. Of the nine compounds presented, seven (Cd, Hg, Se, Sigma PCB, Sigma DDT, Sigma HCH, HCB) increased in concentration towards higher trophic levels. For these contaminants the concentrations in soil and aquatic sediment were in the same order of magnitude, whereas the concentrations in marine...... considerably less mercury but higher levels of Sigma PCB, Sigma DDT and HCB than other Arctic marine top consumers. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....

  6. 19 CFR 351.412 - Levels of trade; adjustment for difference in level of trade; constructed export price offset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... difference in level of trade; constructed export price offset. (a) Introduction. In comparing United States... different levels of trade if they are made at different marketing stages (or their equivalent). Substantial... a difference in the stage of marketing. Some overlap in selling activities will not preclude...

  7. Fluorescence: An Interdisciplinary Phenomenon for Different Education Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, J. A.; Moreno, J. M.; Perales, F. J.; Romero, J.; Sánchez, P.; Gómez-Robledo, L.

    2012-01-01

    This paper shows the scientific foundations of a natural phenomenon of undoubted interest and applicability in our day, fluorescence, and its possibilities for teaching at three educational levels: primary, secondary and university. It begins by describing the nature of the phenomenon and continues by explaining how we work with students of the…

  8. Comprehensive actions of PSF on different health care levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabela Corrêa Vogel Koury

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This case report is referring to the summary care of a patient with history. Lower limb pain. that had initially made the diagnosis of osteoarthritis in a service of Attendance. The post was evaluated at the Family Health Unit and together with the local Health Department and Reference Center in another municipality, where he established a conclusive diagnosis of acute arterial insufficiency and abdominal aortic aneurysm. The trajectory of the patient until the diagnosis and enca-spect to timely and appropriate interventions demonstrates the importance of customer service based on the principles of bonding, continuity, comprehensiveness, with the rear of a reference system and cross-reference structured. Health services need to be organized into levels of increasing complexity, with appropriate technology for each level, increasing the resolution. The Primary Health Care-guard mutually complementary relationship of authority with other levels of health care, and therefore not independent. When seeking to guide the organization of health services by the principles of completeness, what is sought is to increase awareness of the needs of groups and wonder about the best ways to respond to these needs. Thus, the Family Health should work closely with other levels of health care that can address the problems adequately.

  9. Concentrated vs. distributed energy: employment based community level differences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoover, L. J.; Santini, D. J.; Smeltzer, K. K.; Stenehjem, E. J.

    1980-01-01

    Consideration is given to the differences between concentrated options (central station electric, synfuels) and distributed options (SHACOB) for residential space conditioning. Employment, geographic location, community stability, and locational equity are the factors discussed.

  10. Performance Comparison Of Different Controllers For A Level Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Abirami

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The analysis study has been done for a First Order plus Delay Time (FOPDT model controlled by Proportional Integral Derivative (PID, proportional integral (PI and Model Predictive Control (MPC using MATLAB software. The study has been done for both MPC and conventional control methods to design the controller for the level tank system and the results has been compared in terms of rise time,settling time and maximum overshoot. The conventional PID controller gives corrective action only after error has developed but not in advance but MPC provides corrective action in advance. The objective of this study is to investigate the Model predictive control (MPC strategy, analyze and compare the control effects with conventional control strategy in maintaining a water level system. A Comparison between the performance of Conventional controller and MPC Controller has been performed in which MPC Controller gives better system parameter in terms of Rise time (tr, Settling time (ts and maximum overshoot (Mp.

  11. DIFFERENCES IN MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS BETWEEN JUNIOR BASKETBALL PLAYERS WHO HAVE DIFFERENT LEVELS OF EXPLOSIVE STRENGTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedim Sisic

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was to determine differences in morphological characteristics between junior basketball players who have different levels of explosive strength. Methods: The study was conducted on a sample of 84 junior basketball players from (B&H Bosnia and Herzegovina (16-18 years in spring 2013th. The sample of morphological variables consited of: body height, leg length, body weight, upper arm girth in extension, calf girth, triceps skinfold, abdominal skinfold, front thigh skinfold, BMI, the relative body fat percentage. The variables of explosive strength were: vertical jump (VJ, broad jump (BJ and throwing a medicine ball from chest with 3 kg from a standing position. Ward's method of cluster analysis, based on variables of explosive strength we formed four homogeneous groups. Subsequently, using the ANOVA and post-hoc analysis, these groups are differentiated with regard to morphological characteristics. Results: Clusters differed significantly in BJ and VJ. ANOVA found significant differences between clusters in variables of skinfolds, such as the: triceps, abdomen and thigh. Discussion: Defined the influence of morphological variables on explosive strength can be regarded as expected, given that it is primarily about a negative influence of the amount of body fat on relative explosive strength type. This research has shown that junior basketball players in B&H are shorter and ligther when compared to top-level European juniors (Jelicic et al., 2002. Subjects with the lowest skinfolds of the upper limbs and body weight, achieved the best results in the manifestation of relative explosive strength, which has so far rarely been found in samples of trained subjects (Milanese et al., 2010. Possible explanations can be required in a number of training, the intensity and quality of training. Although at this point with certainty, we can't determine on which of these factors involved. This can be confirmed by the results of

  12. Psychological Peculiarities of Teachers with Different Work Capacity Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. I. Dorogina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the issue of teacher’s work capacity optimization. The research is aimed at defining teachers’ psychological peculiarities relating to their work capacity level and creating the assistance program for its optimization. In the course of the program implementation, its effectiveness has being proved, the low work capacity being optimized by developing self-control, emotional stability and decreasing the aggressive reactions in frustrating situations. The research findings can be applied while creating programs for teachers’ further training as well as for students training courses. 

  13. Scientific Creativity and High Ability: Gender and academic level differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Javier ESPARZA MOLINA

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available  The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of gender and educational level on scientific creativity among gifted/talented students. A cohort of creatividad científica y alta habilidad: diferencias de género y nivel educativo 78 secondary school students from 12 to 16 years old participated in this research. The scientific creativity was measured using the Creative Scientific Ability Test (Sak & Ayas, 2011 designed for secondary school students from 11 to 14 years old. Its theoretical framework sets up the measurement of a three dimensional structure: general creative abilities (fluency, flexibility and creativity, scientific creative abilities (hypothesis generation, hypothesis testing and evidence evaluation and scientific knowledge. This test has the right adequate psychometric properties with a Cronbach’s alpha coefficient of 0.848 (Sak & Ayas, 2013. Results indicated that male students scored significantly higher in a task named Interaction Graph which measures hypothesis generation in interdisciplinary science. The analysis also showed that students involved in upper education levels scores significantly higher in general fluency and in the task called The Food Chain which measures evidence evaluation in the area of ecology.

  14. Visual attention in orienteers at different levels of experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eccles, David W; Walsh, Susanne E; Ingledew, David K

    2006-01-01

    This study explored how differences in orienteering experience are related to differences in how visual attention is allocated to the map, the environment and to travel. Twenty more experienced and 20 less experienced individuals orienteered while wearing a head-mounted video camera with microphone. The participants verbalized what they were attending to (map, environment or travel) at any given time. Each recorded film was coded at each point in time in terms of what the participant was attending to and whether the participant was moving or stationary. More experienced orienteers attended to the map markedly more while moving and spent less time stationary than less experienced orienteers. The participants' performance was significantly related to the ability to attend to the map while moving. The strategic control of attention is proposed to explain this ability. It is proposed that attentional training might enhance performance in sports characterized by multiple and dynamically varying elements.

  15. Environmental Financial Information: differences in disclosure levels among Brazilian companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaína da Silva Ferreira

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Issues related to the environment and sustainability have motivated interests of the academic community and organizations. The current model of society is permeated by excessive production and consumption, which is exacerbating man's relationship with nature. It is a fact that, to subsist, society needs the manufacturing of products and delivery of services, but it is also known that manufacturing products and providing services impact the environment. The impact also differs according to the activity that is developed. In Brazil, Law No. 10.165/2000 determines on the National Environmental Policy and ranks companies according to the environmental impact they cause. This research analyzed the voluntary disclosure of environmental financial information in Brazilian companies, classified into sectors with different environmental impacts. Therefore, we investigated the Standardized Financial Statements of the companies that make up the IBRX-50 index, in its portfolio from May to August 2014, in the years 2011, 2012 and 2013. The measure ranked the environmental financial information, distributing the data into seven categories and 30 subcategories. The most evidenced category relates to environmental investments, with 58% of the information disclosed. The highest amount presented was in the category of environmental liabilities and contingencies, with R$259.84 billion. The results show that there is a difference in the disclosure of environmental financial information compared to the amount of sentences disclosed without the number of subcategories evidenced. The nonparametric test and content analysis showed that, in the years analyzed, companies with high environmental impact disclose more environmental financial information.

  16. Solar Activity, Different Geomagnetic Activity Levels and Acute Myocardial Infarction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrova, Svetla; Jordanova, Malina; Stoilova, Irina; Taseva, Tatiana; Maslarov, Dimitar

    Results on revealing a possible relationship between solar activity (SA) and geomagnetic activity (GMA) and acute myocardial infarction (AMI) morbidity are presented. Studies were based on medical data covering the period from 1.12.1995 to 31.12.2004 and concerned daily distribution of patients with AMI diagnose (in total 1192 cases) from Sofia region on the day of admission at the hospital. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was applied to check the significance of GMA intensity effect and the type of geomagnetic storms, those caused by Magnetic Clouds (MC) and by High Speed Solar Wind Streams (HSSWS), on AMI morbidity. Relevant correlation coefficients were calculated. Results revealed statistically significant positive correlation between considered GMA indices and AMI. ANOVA revealed that AMI number was signifi- cantly increased from the day before (-1st) till the day after (+1st) geomagnetic storms with different intensities. Geomagnetic storms caused by MC were related to significant increase of AMI number in comparison with the storms caused by HSSWS. There was a trend for such different effects even on -1st and +1st day.

  17. Dual purpose wheat production with different levels of nitrogen topdressing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éderson Luis Henz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the practice of Crop-Livestock Integration is stimulated as a way of increasing the generation of foreign exchange for Brazil. Integrated systems improve land use efficiency as well as preserve, recover and increment or soil fertility. The aim of this research was to evaluate how different doses of nitrogen fertilization can affect production and quality of dual purpose wheat submitted to grazing. The experimental designed was randomized block with five treatments (0, 75, 150, 225 and 300 Kg N ha-1, like ammonium nitrate and four repetitions. The forage yield, the percentage crude protein (P=.0001 and acid detergent insoluble protein (P=.0054 had a linear increased because of the nitrogen addition doses. The crude protein percentage changed the estimate of all soluble carbohydrates (P=.0001 and non-fibrous carbohydrates (P=.0186, but did not influence the, nitrogen detergent fiber corrected with ash and proteins percentage contributing for content cell. The crops production (P=.0001 and the number of kernels per ear (P=.0001 showed significantly difference because of the nitrogen additions dose, increasing the number of fertile flowers. The nitrogen topdressing alters forage production, the chemical composition and the production of dual purpose wheat grains subjected to grazing.

  18. Tritium activity levels in environmental water samples from different origins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palomo, M.; Penalver, A.; Aguilar, C. [Unitat de Radioquimica Ambiental i Sanitaria, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Edifici CTT-FURV, Av. Paisos Catalans 18, 43007 Tarragona (Spain); Borrull, F. [Unitat de Radioquimica Ambiental i Sanitaria, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Edifici CTT-FURV, Av. Paisos Catalans 18, 43007 Tarragona (Spain)], E-mail: francesc.borrull@urv.cat

    2007-09-15

    Tritium activity was determined in environmental waters from different areas of Catalonia, using a distillation procedure before liquid scintillation counting. The developed method was validated by analysing two samples from proficiency tests. In most of water samples (from rivers, rain, mineral bottled waters and tap waters) analysed, the activity values were lower or close to the minimum detectable activity (MDA) for our method which has a value of 0.6 Bq/l. However, the Ebro river samples had a mean activity around 3.6{+-}0.6Bq/l. The nuclear power station of Asco, which is located on the banks of this river, can be a source of tritium production and introduction into the environment, so a more exhaustive study of these waters was carried out. Tritium activities in this river were a long way above the normative limit in Spain for waters intended for human consumption, which is 100 Bq/l.

  19. Muscular activity of different shooting distances, different release techniques, and different performance levels, with and without stabilizers, in target archery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarys, J P; Cabri, J; Bollens, E; Sleeckx, R; Taeymans, J; Vermeiren, M; Van Reeth, G; Voss, G

    1990-01-01

    The quadruple approach in the title refers to four different studies over a period of 3 years. The common factor in these studies is the methodology of the (Brussels) Electromyographic Signal Processing and Analysis System (ESPAS), a hardware and software EMG data acquisition system that has constantly been improved. Therefore, the ESPAS methodology is described extensively (i.e. the electrodes, amplifier, tape-recorder and processing hardware). Experiment 1 investigated muscular behaviour in target shooting, both indoors (18 and 25 m) and outdoors (50, 70 and 90 m). It was found (via iEMG) that a significant increase in activity only exists between 25 and 50 m, and that there is no linear increase of activity with increased distance. No differences in muscular pattern (IDANCO system: Clarys and Cabri, 1988) or activity between the indoor distances and between the outdoor distances were found. Experiment 2 investigated the muscular economy of four string grips: the three-finger grip, two-finger grip, thumb grip and reversed grip. The largest variations in activity were found for the two most unfamiliar grips, i.e. the thumb and reversed grips; however, low iEMG and the rapid precision improvement (over a limited number of shots) suggest that the thumb grip, if practised long enough, might be the most economical technique. Experiment 3 attempted to differentiate muscular activity and a number of performance variables in three different populations of archers--Olympic athletes, National competitors and beginners--in order to obtain feedback regarding improved performance. Apparently, overall muscle pattern, intensities and arrow speed were not discriminatory. The differences found between the groups (or levels of skill) were affected by the ability to reproduce identical patterns and arrow velocities in consecutive shots and by the constancy of neuromuscular control of the M. trapezius, M. biceps brachii and M. extensor digitorum. Finally, Experiment 4 investigated

  20. Translation of a High-Level Temporal Model into Lower Level Models: Impact of Modelling at Different Description Levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraft, Peter; Sørensen, Jens Otto

    2001-01-01

    the existences in time can be mapped precisely and consistently securing a consistent handling of the temporal properties. We translate the high level temporal model into an entity-relationship model, with the information in a two-dimensional graph, and finally we look at the translations into relational...

  1. The effect of different cochlear implant microphones on acoustic hearing individuals’ binaural benefits for speech perception in noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronoff, Justin M.; Freed, Daniel J.; Fisher, Laurel M.; Pal, Ivan; Soli, Sigfrid D.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Cochlear implant microphones differ in placement, frequency response, and other characteristics such as whether they are directional. Although normal hearing individuals are often used as controls in studies examining cochlear implant users’ binaural benefits, the considerable differences across cochlear implant microphones make such comparisons potentially misleading. The goal of this study was to examine binaural benefits for speech perception in noise for normal hearing individuals using stimuli processed by head-related transfer functions (HRTFs) based on the different cochlear implant microphones. Design HRTFs were created for different cochlear implant microphones and used to test participants on the Hearing in Noise Test. Experiment 1 tested cochlear implant users and normal hearing individuals with HRTF-processed stimuli and with sound field testing to determine whether the HRTFs adequately simulated sound field testing. Experiment 2 determined the measurement error and performance-intensity function for the Hearing in Noise Test with normal hearing individuals listening to stimuli processed with the various HRTFs. Experiment 3 compared normal hearing listeners’ performance across HRTFs to determine how the HRTFs affected performance. Experiment 4 evaluated binaural benefits for normal hearing listeners using the various HRTFs, including ones that were modified to investigate the contributions of interaural time and level cues. Results The results indicated that the HRTFs adequately simulated sound field testing for the Hearing in Noise Test. They also demonstrated that the test-retest reliability and performance-intensity function were consistent across HRTFs, and that the measurement error for the test was 1.3 dB, with a change in signal-to-noise ratio of 1 dB reflecting a 10% change in intelligibility. There were significant differences in performance when using the various HRTFs, with particularly good thresholds for the HRTF based on the

  2. The effect of different cochlear implant microphones on acoustic hearing individuals' binaural benefits for speech perception in noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronoff, Justin M; Freed, Daniel J; Fisher, Laurel M; Pal, Ivan; Soli, Sigfrid D

    2011-01-01

    Cochlear implant microphones differ in placement, frequency response, and other characteristics such as whether they are directional. Although normal-hearing (NH) individuals are often used as controls in studies examining cochlear implant users' binaural benefits, the considerable differences across cochlear implant microphones make such comparisons potentially misleading. The goal of this study was to examine binaural benefits for speech perception in noise for NH individuals using stimuli processed by head-related transfer functions (HRTFs) based on the different cochlear implant microphones. HRTFs were created for different cochlear implant microphones and used to test participants on the Hearing in Noise Test. Experiment 1 tested cochlear implant users and NH individuals with HRTF-processed stimuli and with sound field (SF) testing to determine whether the HRTFs adequately simulated SF testing. Experiment 2 determined the measurement error and performance-intensity function for the Hearing in Noise Test with NH individuals listening to stimuli processed with the various HRTFs. Experiment 3 compared NH listeners' performance across HRTFs to determine how the HRTFs affected performance. Experiment 4 evaluated binaural benefits for NH listeners using the various HRTFs, including ones that were modified to investigate the contributions of interaural time and level cues. The results indicated that the HRTFs adequately simulated SF testing for the Hearing in Noise Test. They also demonstrated that the test-retest reliability and performance-intensity function were consistent across HRTFs, and that the measurement error for the test was 1.3 dB, with a change in signal-to-noise ratio of 1 dB reflecting a 10% change in intelligibility. There were significant differences in performance when using the various HRTFs, with particularly good thresholds for the HRTF based on the directional microphone when the speech and masker were spatially separated, emphasizing the

  3. Dried sausages fermented with Staphylococcus xylosus at different temperatures and with different ingredient levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stahnke, Marie Louise Heller

    1995-01-01

    xylosus were reduced by high fermentation temperature, especially when salt concentration was low and glucose concentration high. High levels of nitrite and addition of Pediococcus pentosaceus had adverse effects as well. pH was lowered by high fermentation temperature, low salt concentration and addition...

  4. The Score Difference of Emotional Intelligence among Engineering Students at Different Levels of Academic Year

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saibani, Nizaroyani; Sabtu, Idham; Muhamad, Norhamidi; Wahab, Dzuraidah Abd.; Sahari, Ja'afar

    2013-01-01

    The number of students from the under-graduate level who have successfully completed their studies is on the increase every year. In the selection process for the best employee-candidate, employers have to take into consideration several factors other than academic excellence, including values that depict EQ or emotional intelligence. This study…

  5. Different levels of food restriction reveal genotype-specific differences in learning a visual discrimination task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalina Makowiecki

    Full Text Available In behavioural experiments, motivation to learn can be achieved using food rewards as positive reinforcement in food-restricted animals. Previous studies reduce animal weights to 80-90% of free-feeding body weight as the criterion for food restriction. However, effects of different degrees of food restriction on task performance have not been assessed. We compared learning task performance in mice food-restricted to 80 or 90% body weight (BW. We used adult wildtype (WT; C57Bl/6j and knockout (ephrin-A2⁻/⁻ mice, previously shown to have a reverse learning deficit. Mice were trained in a two-choice visual discrimination task with food reward as positive reinforcement. When mice reached criterion for one visual stimulus (80% correct in three consecutive 10 trial sets they began the reverse learning phase, where the rewarded stimulus was switched to the previously incorrect stimulus. For the initial learning and reverse phase of the task, mice at 90%BW took almost twice as many trials to reach criterion as mice at 80%BW. Furthermore, WT 80 and 90%BW groups significantly differed in percentage correct responses and learning strategy in the reverse learning phase, whereas no differences between weight restriction groups were observed in ephrin-A2⁻/⁻ mice. Most importantly, genotype-specific differences in reverse learning strategy were only detected in the 80%BW groups. Our results indicate that increased food restriction not only results in better performance and a shorter training period, but may also be necessary for revealing behavioural differences between experimental groups. This has important ethical and animal welfare implications when deciding extent of diet restriction in behavioural studies.

  6. Stress levels of student population in Costa Rica. Differences according to socioeconomic, academic achievement, educational level, and geographic location variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastien Belhumeur

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available : In this paper are described the stress levels of the student population about the variables: socioeconomic status, academic performance, academic level, geographical area and gender. For this purpose, a survey was administered to a randomized sample of 112 students of different careers from the main campus of the University of Costa Rica. Results showed that the major sources of stress in students are academic and financial pressures. Also, results showed that students whose place of origin is far from the main campus of the university have higher levels of stress and finally, women tend to handle higher levels of stress than men.

  7. Ground Reaction Force Differences in the Countermovement Jump in Girls with Different Levels of Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floría, Pablo; Harrison, Andrew J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to ascertain the biomechanical differences between better and poorer performers of the vertical jump in a homogeneous group of children. Method: Twenty-four girls were divided into low-scoring (LOW; M [subscript age] = 6.3 ± 0.8 years) and high-scoring (HIGH; M [subscript age] = 6.6 ± 0.8 years) groups based on…

  8. Differences in salivary α-amylase levels among women with different taste sensitivities

    OpenAIRE

    Sequeira, Márcia; Rodrigues, Lénia; Costa, Ana R; Pinheiro, C.; Antunes, Célia M.; Lamy, Elsa

    2013-01-01

    Saliva is the main component of taste receptor cells external environment, and consequently it may have a decisive role in taste perception. Taste sensitivity varies among different individuals. Sensitivity to the compound n-6-propylthiouracil (PROP) has been considerably studied and besides the known influence of genetic background, the contribution of perireceptor environment is not completely clear yet. Salivary α-amylase (one of the main proteins of saliva) is involved in carbohydrate dig...

  9. Differences in salivary α-amylase levels among women ith different taste sensitivities.

    OpenAIRE

    Sequeira, Márcia; Rodrigues, Lénia; R Costa, Ana; Antunes, Célia; Pinheiro, Cristina; Lamy, Elsa

    2012-01-01

    Saliva is the main component of taste receptor cells external environment, and consequently it may have a decisive role in taste perception. Taste sensitivity varies among different individuals. Sensitivity to the compound n-6-propylthiouracil (PROP) has been considerably studied and besides the known influence of genetic background, the contribution of perireceptor environment is not completely clear yet. Salivary α-amylase (one of the main proteins of saliva) is involved in carbohydrate dig...

  10. The different time courses of reading different levels of Chinese characters: an ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Qilin; Tang, Yi-Yuan; Zhou, Li; Yu, Qingbao

    2011-07-12

    The dual route processing was generally accepted in the reading of alphabetic languages, which suggests alphabetic words can be read by either addressed pathway or assembled pathway. However, it was still unclear whether there was a particular 'dual route mechanism' during reading Chinese characters. In our previous fMRI study, the result showed that there might be a particular 'dual route mechanism', and its addressed pathway was similar between Chinese and English, whereas for the need of spatial analysis, the assembled pathway of Chinese was different from that of English which involved grapheme-to-phoneme correspondences. The present study, using event-related potential, which provide more temporal information, aimed to further support our previous view, and peered inside the different time courses of reading different types of Chinese characters. It was found that reading high frequency Chinese characters increased the N170 component which was believed to enhance attention to the addressed pathway in the left occipital-temporal area. Pseudo Chinese characters could be read by a particular assembled pathway, which caused the largest amplitude of P320 component in the right occipital-temporal area, which considered as a key brain area for radical analysis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Age-related Differences of Individuals’ Arithmetic Strategy Utilization with Different Level of Math Anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiwei Si

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study used the choice/no-choice method to investigate the effect of math anxiety on the strategy used in computational estimation and mental arithmetic tasks and to examine age-related differences in this regard. 57 fourth graders, 56 sixth graders, and 60 adults were randomly selected to participate in the experiment. Results showed the following: (1 High-anxious individuals were more likely to use a rounding-down strategy in the computational estimation task under the best-choice condition. Additionally, sixth-grade students and adults performed faster than fourth-grade students on the strategy execution parameter. Math anxiety affected response times (RTs and the accuracy with which strategies were executed. (2 The execution of the partial-decomposition strategy was superior to that of the full-decomposition strategy on the mental arithmetic task. Low-math-anxious persons provided more accurate answers than did high-math-anxious participants under the no-choice condition. This difference was significant for sixth graders. With regard to the strategy selection parameter, the RTs for strategy selection varied with age.

  12. Change of plasma visfatin level in the population with different glucose tolerances

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨媚

    2006-01-01

    Objective To investigate the change of plasma visfatin level and the relationship of plasma visfatin level to body mass index (BMI) , waist hip ratio (WHR) , blood glucose, plasma insulin levels as well as other factors in the subjects with different glucose tolerances. Methods Fasting and glucose loading 2 h plasma visfatin levels were assayed by ELISA in patients with type 2 diabetes

  13. Instructional strategy effects on the retention and transfer of procedures of different difficulty level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jelsma, Otto; Pieters, Jules M.

    1989-01-01

    In the present study, the effects of two instructional strategies on the retention and transfer of procedures of different difficulty level were investigated. Difficulty level was manipulated by providing a different number of cues during training. The instructional strategies differed with respect

  14. Hair cortisol levels determined at different body sites in the New Zealand White rabbit

    OpenAIRE

    Antonella Comin; Valentina Zufferli; Tanja Peric; Federico Canavese; Davide Barbetta; Alberto Prandi

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to determine hair cortisol levels in the New Zealand White (NZW) rabbit and to examine possible differences in the cortisol levels of hair samples collected from different body regions in stable environmental conditions. The experiment was performed on eight 18 month-old female NZW rabbits. All animals were shaved to collect hair samples from 26 different body regions. Hair cortisol levels were determined by the RIA method. The mean hair cortisol concentration for the ...

  15. Second-order asymptotics in level crossing for differences of renewal processes

    OpenAIRE

    Kroese, D. P.; Kallenberg, W.C.M.

    1992-01-01

    We consider level crossing for the difference of independent renewal processes. Second-order expansions for the distribution function of the crossing time of level n are found, as n - oo. As a by-product several other results on the difference process are found. The expected minimum of the difference process appears to play an important role in the analysis. This makes this problem essentially harder than the level crossing for the sum process which was studied earlier.

  16. Definition of zones with different levels of productivity within an agricultural field using fuzzy modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoning of agricultural fields is an important task for utilization of precision farming technology. One method for the definition of zones with different levels of productivity is based on fuzzy indicator model. Fuzzy indicator model for identification of zones with different levels of productivit...

  17. Second-order asymptotics in level crossing for differences of renewal processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroese, D.P.; Kallenberg, W.C.M.

    1992-01-01

    We consider level crossing for the difference of independent renewal processes. Second-order expansions for the distribution function of the crossing time of level n are found, as n - oo. As a by-product several other results on the difference process are found. The expected minimum of the differenc

  18. MODELS OF EVALUATION OF TEST TASKS OF DIFFERENT TYPES AND DETERMINATION OF THEIR LEVEL OF COMLICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Martsenyuk

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to the test items marking technology and distribution of different types items by the levels of complication. At distribution of test items on complication levels it is offered to use the integrated functional model which allows to apply different ways of the test items distribution included in the test.

  19. Responses of hydraulics at the whole-plant level to simulated nitrogen deposition of different levels in Fraxinus mandshurica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ai-Ying; Wang, Miao; Yang, Da; Song, Jia; Zhang, Wei-Wei; Han, Shi-Jie; Hao, Guang-You

    2016-08-01

    Nitrogen (N) deposition is expected to have great impact on forest ecosystems by affecting many aspects of plant-environmental interactions, one of which involves its influences on plant water relations through modifications of plant hydraulic architecture. However, there is a surprising lack of integrative study on tree hydraulic architecture responses to N deposition, especially at the whole-plant level. In the present study, we used a 5-year N addition experiment to simulate the effects of six different levels of N deposition (20-120 kg ha(-1) year(-1)) on growth and whole-plant hydraulic conductance of a dominant tree species (Fraxinus mandshurica Rupr.) from the typical temperate forest of NE China. The results showed that alleviation of N limitation by moderate concentrations of fertilization (20-80 kg ha(-1) year(-1)) promoted plant growth, but further N additions on top of the threshold level showed negative effects on plant growth. Growth responses of F. mandshurica seedlings to N addition of different concentrations were accompanied by corresponding changes in whole-plant hydraulic conductance; higher growth rate was accompanied by reduced whole-plant hydraulic conductance (Kplant) and higher leaf water-use efficiency. A detailed analysis on hydraulic conductance of different components of the whole-plant water transport pathway revealed that changes in root and leaf hydraulic conductance, rather than that of the stem, were responsible for Kplant responses to N fertilization. Both plant growth and hydraulic architecture responses to increasing levels of N addition were not linear, i.e., the correlation between measured parameters and N availability exhibited bell-shaped curves with peak values observed at medium levels of N fertilization. Changes in hydraulic architecture in response to fertilization found in the present study may represent an important underlying mechanism for the commonly observed changes in water-related tree performances

  20. Influence of age and sex on hearing threshold levels in workers exposed to different intensity levels of occupational noise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szanto, C.; Ionescu, M.

    1983-01-01

    The influence of age, sex and duration of exposure on hearing threshold level (HTL) was assessed in male and female workers exposed to occupational noise. The noise intensities were of 84 and 98 dB(A) continuous equivalent level. Large differences were noted between males and females exposed to 98 dB(A) as well as between males exposed to 98 and 83 dB(A). We concluded that exposure to 98 dB(A) accelerates the evolution of hearing loss, this trend being more pronounced in males. The 83-dB(A) intensity apparently induces a hearing loss above the values due to socioacusis. To evaluate the noxious effect of noise, the HTLs obtained in the group exposed to 98 and 83-dB(A) were compared to those of the non-exposed group of Royster and Thomas. The highest difference was found in males exposed to 98 dB(A).

  1. Hair cortisol levels determined at different body sites in the New Zealand White rabbit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Comin

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to determine hair cortisol levels in the New Zealand White (NZW rabbit and to examine possible differences in the cortisol levels of hair samples collected from different body regions in stable environmental conditions. The experiment was performed on eight 18 month-old female NZW rabbits. All animals were shaved to collect hair samples from 26 different body regions. Hair cortisol levels were determined by the RIA method. The mean hair cortisol concentration for the 26 samples in the 8 animals was 2.12±0.05 pg/mg (mean±standard error. This study reveals individual hair cortisol distributions in the 8 animals (P<0.001 and no statistical differences (P>0.05 in hair cortisol levels among the different body sites in each of the animals.

  2. Anxiety towards Mathematics and Educational Level: A Study on Means Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalera-Chávez, Milka Elena; García-Santillán, Arturo; Córdova-Rangel, Arturo; González-Gómez, Santiago; Tejada-Peña, Esmeralda

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research work is to analyze whether there is a difference in the degree of anxiety towards mathematics among students of different educational levels. The study is not experimental and cross sectional, and it is based on difference of means between groups. The sample is not probabilistic, and consisted of 226 students from…

  3. Differences in vertical jumping and mae-geri kicking velocity between international and national level karateka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Balsalobre-Fernández

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Lower limb explosive strength and mae-geri kicking velocity are fundamental in karate competition; although it is unclear whether these variables could differentiate the high-level athletes. The objective of this research is to analyze the differences in the mae-geri kicking velocity and the counter-movement jump (CMJ between a group of international top level karateka and another group of national-level karateka.Methods: Thirteen international-level karateka and eleven national-level karateka participated in the study. After a standard warm-up, CMJ height (in cm and mae-geri kicking velocity (in m/s was measured using an IR-platform and a high-speed camera, respectively.Results: Proceeding with MANCOVA to analyze the differences between groups controlling the effect of age, the results show that the international-level karateka demonstrated significantly higher levels of CMJ than national-level competitors (+22.1%, F = 9.47, p = 0.006, η2 = 0.311. There were no significant differences between groups in the mae-geri kicking velocity (+5,7%, F=0.80; p=0.38; η2=0.03.Conclusion: Our data shows, first, the importance of CMJ assessment as a tool to detect talent in karate and, second, that to achieve international-level in karate it may be important to increase CMJ levels to values ​​similar to those offered here.

  4. Limited segregation of different types of sound localization information among classes of units in the inferior colliculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, Steven M; Young, Eric D

    2005-08-17

    The auditory system uses three cues to decode sound location: interaural time differences (ITDs), interaural level differences (ILDs), and spectral notches (SNs). Initial processing of these cues is done in separate brainstem nuclei, with ITDs in the medial superior olive, ILDs in the lateral superior olive, and SNs in the dorsal cochlear nucleus. This work addresses the nature of the convergence of localization information in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICC). Ramachandran et al. (1999) argued that ICC neurons of types V, I, and O, respectively, receive their predominant inputs from ITD-, ILD-, and SN-sensitive brainstem nuclei, suggesting that these ICC response types should be differentially sensitive to localization cues. Here, single-unit responses to simultaneous manipulation of pairs of localization cues were recorded, and the mutual information between discharge rate and individual cues was quantified. Although rate responses to cue variation were generally consistent with those expected from the hypothesized anatomical connections, the differences in information were not as large as expected. Type I units provide the most information, especially about SNs in the physiologically useful range. Type I and O units provide information about ILDs, even at low frequencies at which actual ILDs are very small. ITD information is provided by a subset of all low-frequency neurons. Type V neurons provide information mainly about ITDs and the average binaural intensity. These results are the first to quantify the relative representation of cues in terms of information and suggest a variety of degrees of cue integration in the ICC.

  5. Expert-novice knowledge of computer programming at different levels of abstraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, N; Salvendy, G

    1996-03-01

    Computer programming knowledge can be classified into five levels of abstraction: objective, conceptual, functional, logical, and physical. An experiment was carried out to determine whether the mastering of knowledge at different levels of abstraction changed with the level of skill. Ten experts and ten novices in C computer programming participated in the experiment. The subjects' knowledge at the five levels of abstraction was tested through 20 multiple-choice questions. The experimental results indicated that knowledge differences between experts and novices at an abstract level or a concrete level depended on what abstract or concrete knowledge was implied. Experts had better abstract knowledge than novices at the conceptual and functional levels but not at the objective level. Experts had better concrete knowledge than novices at the physical level but not at the logical level. The classification of computer programming knowledge in levels of abstraction and the experimental results helped in clarifying a general finding from previous studies that experts had better abstract knowledge than novices.

  6. Growth response of yearling buffalo male calves to different dietary energy levels

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    FAZAELI, Hassan; MAHMOUDZADEH, Homayoun

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate different levels of energy for optimum growth in Iranian regional buffalo male calves, a completely randomized study was conducted, using 27 yearling buffalo male calves with initial live weight of 201 ± 14 kg...

  7. Consumer patronage and willingness-to-pay at different levels of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Utility theories such as multi-attribute theory (MAUT) and subjective expected utility ... Consumer patronage and willingness-to-pay at different levels of restaurant attributes: A study from Kenya ... in the marketing literature. Kara, Kaynak and ...

  8. Growth and food conversion efficiency in the fish Etroplus suratensis in relation to different feeding levels

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sumitra-Vijayaraghavan; Royan, J.P.; Rao, T.S.S.

    Based on chemical composition of feed and body constituents, food utilization at maintenance and different production levels was estimated. On theoretical derivations, 175, 450 and 650 kcal/kg super(0.8)/week represented the maintenance, optimum...

  9. Modeling Caspian Sea water level oscillations under different scenarios of increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations

    OpenAIRE

    Roshan GholamReza; Moghbel Masumeh; Grab Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The rapid rise of Caspian Sea water level (about 2.25 meters since 1978) has caused much concern to all five surrounding countries, primarily because flooding has destroyed or damaged buildings and other engineering structures, roads, beaches and farm lands in the coastal zone. Given that climate, and more specifically climate change, is a primary factor influencing oscillations in Caspian Sea water levels, the effect of different climate change scenarios on future Caspian Sea levels...

  10. Detection of infliximab levels and anti-infliximab antibodies : a comparison of three different assays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Casteele, N. Vande; Buurman, D. J.; Sturkenboom, M. G. G.; Kleibeuker, J. H.; Vermeire, S.; Rispens, T.; van der Kleij, D.; Gils, A.; Dijkstra, G.

    2012-01-01

    Background Formation of antibodies to infliximab (ATI) inversely correlates with functional drug levels and clinical outcome. Comparison of drug levels and anti-drug antibody monitoring is hampered by lack of standardisation. Aim To determine the correlation between three different assays for measur

  11. Ion fluxes in silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen) juveniles exposed to different dissolved oxygen levels

    OpenAIRE

    Felipe Link de Rosso; Keidi C. S. Bolner; Bernardo Baldisserotto

    2006-01-01

    Low dissolved oxygen levels in the water (hypoxia) can be provoked by oxygen consumption by fish and other organisms, organic matter decomposition, phytoplankton blooms, and temperature increase. The objective of the present study was to investigate Na+, Cl-, K+, and ammonia fluxes in silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen) exposed to different dissolved oxygen levels. Juveniles (9 ± 1g) maintained at 6.0 mg.L-1 dissolved oxygen were transferred to four 40 L aquaria with different dissolved oxygen le...

  12. Differences among fastball, curveball, and change-up pitching biomechanics across various levels of baseball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleisig, Glenn S; Laughlin, Walter A; Aune, Kyle T; Cain, E Lyle; Dugas, Jeffrey R; Andrews, James R

    2016-06-01

    Controversy continues whether curveballs are stressful for young baseball pitchers. Furthermore, it is unproven whether professional baseball pitchers have fewer kinematic differences between fastballs and off-speed pitches than lower level pitchers. Kinematic and kinetic data were measured for 111 healthy baseball pitchers (26 youth, 21 high school, 20 collegiate, 26 minor league, and 18 major league level) throwing fastballs, curveballs, and change-ups in an indoor biomechanics laboratory with a high-speed, automated digitising system. Differences between pitch types and between competition levels were analysed with repeated measures ANOVA. Shoulder and elbow kinetics were greater in fastballs than in change-ups, while curveball kinetics were not different from the other two types of pitches. Kinematic angles at the instant of ball release varied between pitch types, while kinematic angles at the instant of lead foot contact varied between competition levels. There were no significant interactions between pitch type and competition level, meaning that kinetic and kinematic differences between pitch types did not vary by competition level. Like previous investigations, this study did not support the theory that curveballs are relatively more stressful for young pitchers. Although pitchers desire consistent kinematics, there were differences between pitch types, independent of competition level.

  13. County-level hurricane exposure and birth rates: application of difference-in-differences analysis for confounding control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabich, Shannon C; Robinson, Whitney R; Engel, Stephanie M; Konrad, Charles E; Richardson, David B; Horney, Jennifer A

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological analyses of aggregated data are often used to evaluate theoretical health effects of natural disasters. Such analyses are susceptible to confounding by unmeasured differences between the exposed and unexposed populations. To demonstrate the difference-in-difference method our population included all recorded Florida live births that reached 20 weeks gestation and conceived after the first hurricane of 2004 or in 2003 (when no hurricanes made landfall). Hurricane exposure was categorized using ≥74 mile per hour hurricane wind speed as well as a 60 km spatial buffer based on weather data from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. The effect of exposure was quantified as live birth rate differences and 95 % confidence intervals [RD (95 % CI)]. To illustrate sensitivity of the results, the difference-in-differences estimates were compared to general linear models adjusted for census-level covariates. This analysis demonstrates difference-in-differences as a method to control for time-invariant confounders investigating hurricane exposure on live birth rates. Difference-in-differences analysis yielded consistently null associations across exposure metrics and hurricanes for the post hurricane rate difference between exposed and unexposed areas (e.g., Hurricane Ivan for 60 km spatial buffer [-0.02 births/1000 individuals (-0.51, 0.47)]. In contrast, general linear models suggested a positive association between hurricane exposure and birth rate [Hurricane Ivan for 60 km spatial buffer (2.80 births/1000 individuals (1.94, 3.67)] but not all models. Ecological studies of associations between environmental exposures and health are susceptible to confounding due to unmeasured population attributes. Here we demonstrate an accessible method of control for time-invariant confounders for future research.

  14. Generation of tobacco lines with widely different reduction in nicotine levels via RNA silencing approaches

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Peng Wang; Zhifeng Liang; Jia Zeng Wenchao; Wenchao Li; Xiaofen Sun; Zhiqi Miao; Kexuan Tang

    2008-06-01

    Issues related to the nicotine content of tobacco have been public concerns. Several reports have described decreasing nicotine levels by silencing the putrescine N-methyltransferase (PMT) genes, but the reported variations of nicotine levels among transgenic lines are relatively low in general. Here we describe the generation in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) lines with widely different, reduced nicotine levels using three kinds of RNA-silencing approaches. The relative efficacies of suppression were compared among the three approaches regarding the aspect of nicotine level in tobacco leaves. By suppressing expression of the PMT genes, over 200 transgenic lines were obtained with nicotine levels reduced by 9.1–96.7%. RNA interference (RNAi) was the most efficient method of reducing the levels of nicotine, whereas cosuppression and antisense methods were less effective. This report gives clues to the efficient generation of plants with a variety of metabolite levels, and the results demonstrate the relative efficiencies of various RNA-silencing methods.

  15. Human and great ape red blood cells differ in plasmalogen levels and composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ely John J

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plasmalogens are ether phospholipids required for normal mammalian developmental, physiological, and cognitive functions. They have been proposed to act as membrane antioxidants and reservoirs of polyunsaturated fatty acids as well as influence intracellular signaling and membrane dynamics. Plasmalogens are particularly enriched in cells and tissues of the human nervous, immune, and cardiovascular systems. Humans with severely reduced plasmalogen levels have reduced life spans, abnormal neurological development, skeletal dysplasia, impaired respiration, and cataracts. Plasmalogen deficiency is also found in the brain tissue of individuals with Alzheimer disease. Results In a human and great ape cohort, we measured the red blood cell (RBC levels of the most abundant types of plasmalogens. Total RBC plasmalogen levels were lower in humans than bonobos, chimpanzees, and gorillas, but higher than orangutans. There were especially pronounced cross-species differences in the levels of plasmalogens with a C16:0 moiety at the sn-1 position. Humans on Western or vegan diets had comparable total RBC plasmalogen levels, but the latter group showed moderately higher levels of plasmalogens with a C18:1 moiety at the sn-1 position. We did not find robust sex-specific differences in human or chimpanzee RBC plasmalogen levels or composition. Furthermore, human and great ape skin fibroblasts showed only modest differences in peroxisomal plasmalogen biosynthetic activity. Human and chimpanzee microarray data indicated that genes involved in plasmalogen biosynthesis show cross-species differential expression in multiple tissues. Conclusion We propose that the observed differences in human and great ape RBC plasmalogens are primarily caused by their rates of biosynthesis and/or turnover. Gene expression data raise the possibility that other human and great ape cells and tissues differ in plasmalogen levels. Based on the phenotypes of humans and

  16. Physical activity affects plasma coenzyme Q10 levels differently in young and old humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Pozo-Cruz, Jesús; Rodríguez-Bies, Elisabet; Ballesteros-Simarro, Manuel; Navas-Enamorado, Ignacio; Tung, Bui Thanh; Navas, Plácido; López-Lluch, Guillermo

    2014-04-01

    Coenzyme Q (Q) is a key lipidic compound for cell bioenergetics and membrane antioxidant activities. It has been shown that also has a central role in the prevention of oxidation of plasma lipoproteins. Q has been associated with the prevention of cholesterol oxidation and several aging-related diseases. However, to date no clear data on the levels of plasma Q during aging are available. We have measured the levels of plasmatic Q10 and cholesterol in young and old individuals showing different degrees of physical activity. Our results indicate that plasma Q10 levels in old people are higher that the levels found in young people. Our analysis also indicates that there is no a relationship between the degree of physical activity and Q10 levels when the general population is studied. However, very interestingly, we have found a different tendency between Q10 levels and physical activity depending on the age of individuals. In young people, higher activity correlates with lower Q10 levels in plasma whereas in older adults this ratio changes and higher activity is related to higher plasma Q10 levels and higher Q10/Chol ratios. Higher Q10 levels in plasma are related to lower lipoperoxidation and oxidized LDL levels in elderly people. Our results highlight the importance of life habits in the analysis of Q10 in plasma and indicate that the practice of physical activity at old age can improve antioxidant capacity in plasma and help to prevent cardiovascular diseases.

  17. Comparison of Masking Level Difference in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis and Healthy Control Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soghrat Faghihzadeh

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Multiple sclerosis (MS is a neurological disorder that involves central nervous system. Studies have showed that multiple sclerosis affects behavioral central auditory tests, such as masking release or masking level difference (MLD. The purpose of this study is to compare the masking level difference between multiple sclerosis patients and normal subjects.Methods: This cross sectional and non-interventional study was conducted on 32 multiple sclerosis patients aged between 20-50 years and 32 controls matched for age and gender in Faculty of Rehabilitation, Tehran University of Medical Sciences. masking level difference test was performed on each subject.Results: The mean masking level difference in the two groups was significantly different (p<0.01 however, gender did not prove to play a role in this difference.Conclusion: As part of the multiple sclerosis diagnosis panel, masking level difference test is an efficient modality for evaluation of hearing impairment and monitoring of rehabilitation progress.

  18. Gender Differences in Public and Private Drinking Contexts: A Multi-Level GENACIS Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason C. Bond

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This multi-national study hypothesized that higher levels of country-level gender equality would predict smaller differences in the frequency of women’s compared to men’s drinking in public (like bars and restaurants settings and possibly private (home or party settings. GENACIS project survey data with drinking contexts included 22 countries in Europe (8; the Americas (7; Asia (3; Australasia (2, and Africa (2, analyzed using hierarchical linear models (individuals nested within country. Age, gender and marital status were individual predictors; country-level gender equality as well as equality in economic participation, education, and political participation, and reproductive autonomy and context of violence against women measures were country-level variables. In separate models, more reproductive autonomy, economic participation, and educational attainment and less violence against women predicted smaller differences in drinking in public settings. Once controlling for country-level economic status, only equality in economic participation predicted the size of the gender difference. Most country-level variables did not explain the gender difference in frequency of drinking in private settings. Where gender equality predicted this difference, the direction of the findings was opposite from the direction in public settings, with more equality predicting a larger gender difference, although this relationship was no longer significant after controlling for country-level economic status. Findings suggest that country-level gender equality may influence gender differences in drinking. However, the effects of gender equality on drinking may depend on the specific alcohol measure, in this case drinking context, as well as on the aspect of gender equality considered. Similar studies that use only global measures of gender equality may miss key relationships. We consider potential implications for alcohol related consequences, policy and public

  19. Gender differences in public and private drinking contexts: a multi-level GENACIS analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Jason C; Roberts, Sarah C M; Greenfield, Thomas K; Korcha, Rachael; Ye, Yu; Nayak, Madhabika B

    2010-05-01

    This multi-national study hypothesized that higher levels of country-level gender equality would predict smaller differences in the frequency of women's compared to men's drinking in public (like bars and restaurants) settings and possibly private (home or party) settings. GENACIS project survey data with drinking contexts included 22 countries in Europe (8); the Americas (7); Asia (3); Australasia (2), and Africa (2), analyzed using hierarchical linear models (individuals nested within country). Age, gender and marital status were individual predictors; country-level gender equality as well as equality in economic participation, education, and political participation, and reproductive autonomy and context of violence against women measures were country-level variables. In separate models, more reproductive autonomy, economic participation, and educational attainment and less violence against women predicted smaller differences in drinking in public settings. Once controlling for country-level economic status, only equality in economic participation predicted the size of the gender difference. Most country-level variables did not explain the gender difference in frequency of drinking in private settings. Where gender equality predicted this difference, the direction of the findings was opposite from the direction in public settings, with more equality predicting a larger gender difference, although this relationship was no longer significant after controlling for country-level economic status. Findings suggest that country-level gender equality may influence gender differences in drinking. However, the effects of gender equality on drinking may depend on the specific alcohol measure, in this case drinking context, as well as on the aspect of gender equality considered. Similar studies that use only global measures of gender equality may miss key relationships. We consider potential implications for alcohol related consequences, policy and public health.

  20. Vegetation Community Convergence of Pastoralists’ Pasture at Different Economic Levels in Desert Steppe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN Yan-ting; REN Ji-zhou; HOU Xiang-yang

    2014-01-01

    Vegetation characteristics of pastoralist households’ pastures at different economic levels were quantiifed to compare the grassland conditions in Sunite Right Banner, Inner Mongolia, China in 2011 and 2012. The results showed that the heights of Stipa klemenzis and Cleistogenes songorica were similar among economic treatments. And the height of Allium polyrhizm had no signiifcant differences between high-economic-level (HEL) and low-economic-level (LEL) treatments. There were no signiifcant difference among treatments in the canopy cover of C. songorica. The densities of dominant species (S. klemenzis, C. songorica and A. polyrhizm) were signiifcantly similar among treatments. Aboveground community biomass in reference area (CK) was higher than that in other three treatments in 2011, but their biomass showed no signiifcant difference among three economic treatments;for 2012, biomass in HEL was higher than low-economic-level treatment (LEL), while the biomass in middle-economic-level treatment (MEL) and CK was similar to that in HEL and LEL, respectively. Aboveground biomass of S. klemenzis and C. songorica was similar among treatments in both 2011 and 2012. Biomass of A. polyrhizum had no signiifcant difference between HEL and MEL. Households of LEL had rented out excess lands and those of HEL had leased their available lands thus resulting uniform utilization and convergence of pastoralist households’ pastures across all economic levels.

  1. EXPLORING THE QUALITY OF EMPLOYMENT IN ROMANIA AT DIFFERENT TERRITORIAL LEVELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena MOCANU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to explore the quality of employment at different territorial levels (national, macro-regional, regional, county and local level. The first section of the study approaches the quality of employment in terms of several perspectives (sociological, economic and geographical. Methodological aspects are discussed in the second section, with focus on the selection of statistical indicators by two main criteria: the relevance of the indicators and their availability for all the mentioned territorial levels. The largest part of the paper presents the analysis results, basically the typologies of the mentioned territorial levels in terms of selected indicators mirroring the quality of employment. The study shows that there exists a relationship between the situation of the quality of employment (weak, average or good and the different territorial levels analysed.

  2. Effects of Multiple Simulation Presentation among Students of Different Anxiety Levels in the Learning of Probability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Soon Fook; Por, Fei Ping; Tang, Ai Ling

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of multiple simulation presentation in interactive multimedia are on the achievement of students with different levels of anxiety in the learning of Probability. The interactive multimedia courseware was developed in two different modes, which were Multiple Simulation Presentation (MSP) and…

  3. Measurement Error Correction Formula for Cluster-Level Group Differences in Cluster Randomized and Observational Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sun-Joo; Preacher, Kristopher J.

    2016-01-01

    Multilevel modeling (MLM) is frequently used to detect cluster-level group differences in cluster randomized trial and observational studies. Group differences on the outcomes (posttest scores) are detected by controlling for the covariate (pretest scores) as a proxy variable for unobserved factors that predict future attributes. The pretest and…

  4. Investigating the Psychological Well-Being and Job Satisfaction Levels in Different Occupations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isgör, Isa Yücel; Haspolat, Namik Kemal

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the relationship between job satisfaction and psychological well-being levels of different occupational employees (education, security, health, justice, worker, engineer, and religious official) carrying on their duties in different institutions and organizations in a mid-scale provincial center of…

  5. The Relevance of Resources for Resilience at Different Organizational Levels within the Military Deployment Cycle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamphuis, W.; Delahaij, R.

    2014-01-01

    In the current study, the relative importance of different resources for psychological resilience of service members is investigated. The study employs a model of psychological resilience developed for the Netherlands Armed Forces, which identifies 25 resources for resilience at 5 different levels (

  6. Effective Levels of Adaptation to Different Types of Users in Interactive Museum Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterno, F.; Mancini, C.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses user interaction with museum application interfaces and emphasizes the importance of adaptable and adaptive interfaces to meet differing user needs. Considers levels of support that can be given to different users during navigation of museum hypermedia information, using examples from the Web site for the Marble Museum (Italy).…

  7. The Relevance of Resources for Resilience at Different Organizational Levels within the Military Deployment Cycle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamphuis, W.; Delahaij, R.

    2014-01-01

    In the current study, the relative importance of different resources for psychological resilience of service members is investigated. The study employs a model of psychological resilience developed for the Netherlands Armed Forces, which identifies 25 resources for resilience at 5 different levels

  8. Comparative analysis of indexes of physical preparedness of footballers of professional commands of different level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalenko V.V.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with results of the research of physical preparedness of professional teams of footballers of different level. The pedagogical testing program of the physical skills level includes control exercised recommended by the scientific-methodical committee of Ukrainian Federation of Football. The article presents indices of physical preparedness of footballers of different playing roles of the top league teams of Ukrainian championship and first league of Ukrainian team championship. Differences of physical preparedness structure of goalkeepers, defenders, halfbacks and forwards are revealed.

  9. Your mind wanders weakly, your mind wanders deeply: objective measures reveal mindless reading at different levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schad, Daniel J; Nuthmann, Antje; Engbert, Ralf

    2012-11-01

    When the mind wanders, attention turns away from the external environment and cognitive processing is decoupled from perceptual information. Mind wandering is usually treated as a dichotomy (dichotomy-hypothesis), and is often measured using self-reports. Here, we propose the levels of inattention hypothesis, which postulates attentional decoupling to graded degrees at different hierarchical levels of cognitive processing. To measure graded levels of attentional decoupling during reading we introduce the sustained attention to stimulus task (SAST), which is based on psychophysics of error detection. Under experimental conditions likely to induce mind wandering, we found that subjects were less likely to notice errors that required high-level processing for their detection as opposed to errors that only required low-level processing. Eye tracking revealed that before errors were overlooked influences of high- and low-level linguistic variables on eye fixations were reduced in a graded fashion, indicating episodes of mindless reading at weak and deep levels. Individual fixation durations predicted overlooking of lexical errors 5s before they occurred. Our findings support the levels of inattention hypothesis and suggest that different levels of mindless reading can be measured behaviorally in the SAST. Using eye tracking to detect mind wandering online represents a promising approach for the development of new techniques to study mind wandering and to ameliorate its negative consequences. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Interspecific and locational differences in metal levels in edible fish tissue from Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael; Batang, Zenon; Alikunhi, Nabeel; Al-Jahdali, Ramzi; Al-Jebreen, Dalal; Aziz, Mohammed A M; Al-Suwailem, Abdulaziz

    2014-10-01

    Metal levels in fish have been extensively studied, but little data currently exists for the Middle East. We examined the levels of metals and metalloids (aluminum, arsenic, copper, manganese, selenium, zinc, and mercury) in the flesh of 13 fish species collected from three fishing sites and a local fish market in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. We tested the following null hypotheses: (1) there are no interspecific differences in metal levels, (2) there are no differences in metal levels in fishes between market and fishing sites, (3) there are no size-related differences in metal levels, and (4) there are no differences in selenium:mercury molar ratio among different fish species. There were significant interspecific differences in concentrations for all metals. There was an order of magnitude difference in the levels of aluminum, arsenic, mercury, manganese, and selenium, indicating wide variation in potential effects on the fish themselves and on their predators. Fishes from Area II, close to a large commercial port, had the highest levels of arsenic, mercury, and selenium, followed by market fishes. Mercury was positively correlated with body size in 6 of the 13 fish species examined. Mercury was correlated positively with arsenic and selenium, but negatively with aluminum, cobalt, copper, manganese, and zinc. Selenium:mercury molar ratios varied significantly among species, with Carangoides bajad, Cephalopholis argus, Variola louti, and Ephinephelus tauvina having ratios below 10:1. These findings can be used in risk assessments, design of mercury reduction plans, development of fish advisories to protect public health, and future management decision-making.

  11. Interspecific and locational differences in metal levels in edible fish tissue from Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Burger, Joanna

    2014-07-06

    Metal levels in fish have been extensively studied, but little data currently exists for the Middle East. We examined the levels of metals and metalloids (aluminum, arsenic, copper, manganese, selenium, zinc, and mercury) in the flesh of 13 fish species collected from three fishing sites and a local fish market in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. We tested the following null hypotheses: (1) there are no interspecific differences in metal levels, (2) there are no differences in metal levels in fishes between market and fishing sites, (3) there are no size-related differences in metal levels, and (4) there are no differences in selenium:mercury molar ratio among different fish species. There were significant interspecific differences in concentrations for all metals. There was an order of magnitude difference in the levels of aluminum, arsenic, mercury, manganese, and selenium, indicating wide variation in potential effects on the fish themselves and on their predators. Fishes from Area II, close to a large commercial port, had the highest levels of arsenic, mercury, and selenium, followed by market fishes. Mercury was positively correlated with body size in 6 of the 13 fish species examined. Mercury was correlated positively with arsenic and selenium, but negatively with aluminum, cobalt, copper, manganese, and zinc. Selenium:mercury molar ratios varied significantly among species, with Carangoides bajad, Cephalopholis argus, Variola louti, and Ephinephelus tauvina having ratios below 10:1. These findings can be used in risk assessments, design of mercury reduction plans, development of fish advisories to protect public health, and future management decision-making.

  12. Levels of Intra-specific AFLP Diversity in Tuber-Bearing Potato Species with Different Breeding Systems and Ploidy Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenn J. Bryan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available DNA-based marker analysis of plant genebank material has become a useful tool in the evaluation of levels of genetic diversity and for the informed use and maintenance of germplasm. In this study, we quantify levels of amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP in representative accessions of wild and cultivated potato species of differing geographic origin, ploidy, and breeding system. We generated 449 polymorphic AFLP fragments in 619 plants, representing multiple plants (16–23 from 17 accessions of 14 potato taxa as well as single plants sampled from available accessions (from 3 to 56 of the same 14 taxa. Intra-accession diversities were compared to those of a synthetic ‘taxon-wide’ population comprising a single individual from a variable number of available accessions of each sampled taxon. Results confirm the expected considerably lower levels of polymorphism within accessions of self-compatible as compared to self-incompatible taxa. We observed broadly similar levels of ‘taxon-wide’ polymorphism among self-compatible and self-incompatible species, with self-compatible taxa showing only slightly lower rates of polymorphism. The most diverse accessions were the two cultivated potato accessions examined, the least diverse being the Mexican allohexaploids Solanum demissum and S. iopetalum. Generally allopolyploid self-compatible accessions exhibited lower levels of diversity. Some purported self-incompatible accessions showed relatively low levels of marker diversity, similar to the more diverse self-compatible material surveyed. Our data indicate that for self-compatible species a single plant is highly representative of a genebank accession. The situation for self-incompatible taxa is less clear, and sampling strategies used will depend on the type of investigation. These results have important implications for those seeking novel trait variation (e.g., disease resistance in gene banks as well as for the selection of individuals

  13. Response of Iron Content in Milled Rice to Nitrogen Levels and Its Genotypic Differences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Hai-yan; ZHANG Hong-cheng; DAI Qi-gen; MA Qun; LI Jie; ZHANG Qing; HUO Zhong-yang; XU Ke

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the effect of nitrogen (N) level on iron (Fe) content in milled rice, a field experiment was carried out under three N application levels including 0, 150 and 300 kg/hm2 by using 120 rice genotypes. In addition to the genotypic differences of iron content in milled rice, grain yield, 1000-grain weight and N content in grains under the same N level, there were also variations in the response of Fe content in milled rice to N levels. Based on the range and variation coefficient of Fe content in milled rice under the three N levels, the response of Fe content in milled rice to N levels could be classified into four types including highly insensitive, insensitive, sensitive and highly sensitive types. A significant quadratic correlation was found between the Fe content in milled rice and 1000-grain weight or the N content in grains. However, no significant correlation between the Fe content in milled rice and grain yield was detected. In conclusion, there are genotypic differences in the effects of N levels on Fe content in milled rice, which is favorable to breeding of Fe-rich rice under different N environments. Furthermore, high yield and Fe-rich rice could be grown through the regulation of nitrogen on Fe content in milled rice, 1000-grain weight and N content in milled rice.

  14. Effects of Different Protein Levels on the Growth Performance and Metabolic Rate of Nutrition in Broilers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Hongda

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the effect of different protein levels on the growth performance and metabolic rate of nutrition in broilers. Total 360 healthy and weight closed local broilers of 3 weeks were chosen and then divided into three groups randomly by one factor. Each group contains three handlings, each handling consists of 40 broilers. The period of experiment was 7 weeks. The metabolic experiment was performed at the 7th week. Three different protein levels were used in broilers' diet. The levels of protein were 19%, 17.5% and 16%. The results showed that the different levels of protein in crude dietary had significant difference between 19% group and the other two groups. The average daily weight gain and daily efficiency were significantly higher than that of the other two groups (P0.05), and the metabolic rate of the impact of phosphorus was significantly different (P<0.05). The result showed that when protein level was 19%, the growth of the local broiler was the best.

  15. Variation of Serum Protein Level in Xiang Piglets at Different Month of Age

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ChiYujie; GaoXuejung; 等

    1995-01-01

    Usual clinieal methods were used to determine the concentrations of serum protein,albumin and globulin in Xiang piglets from the lst month to the 6th month of age.Thirteen piglets(eight males and five females)born is Spring were selected from the Livestock Experimental Station of NEAU.The results showed that the serum protein level was different at different month of age.The lowest level was found at the 1st month of age,and the highest at the 4th month of age.The difference in serum protein concentration was significant between different months of age.There was ,however,no significant difference between sexes at the same month of age.

  16. A network-level explanation for the differences in HIV prevalence in South Africa's racial groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Chris; Dlamini, Sipho; Boulle, Andrew; White, Richard G; Badri, Motasim

    2009-09-01

    Analyses of individual-level risk factors have not been able to adequately explain why HIV has spread so extensively in southern Africa and why this has occurred especially within certain racial or ethnic groups. Using data from a longitudinal study of a representative sample of adolescents aged 14-22 living in Cape Town, South Africa, this article presents evidence of how differences in individual-level risk factors as well as sexual network structures between different racial or ethnic groups may help explain the differential spread of HIV in South Africa. Particular emphasis is placed on how levels of partner concurrency, respondent concurrency, mutual concurrency, serial concurrency and numbers of sexual partners and an average early age of sexual debut combine in different ways in the different racial or ethnic groups to create networks of sexual partnerships that differ in the density of their interconnections and hence potential for HIV spread. These network-level differences offer a potential explanation for the observed generalised HIV epidemic seen among the population of black South Africans.

  17. Antioxidant enzymatic defenses and oxidative damage in Dentex dentex fed on different dietary macronutrient levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Jiménez, Amalia; Hidalgo, M Carmen; Morales, Amalia E; Arizcun, Marta; Abellán, Emilia; Cardenete, Gabriel

    2009-11-01

    A wide range of antioxidant mechanisms are present in fish maintaining an adequate "oxidative balance". When this balance tilts in favor of the oxidant agents "oxidative stress" arises with detrimental effects in molecules of great biological importance. Little has been reported about the influence of different dietary energy sources on antioxidant defenses in fish. The influence of different dietary macronutrient combinations on the key antioxidant enzyme activity, the oxidative damage to lipids and proteins and the possible modifications in the SOD isoenzymatic pattern were evaluated in liver, white muscle, heart and erythrocytes of common dentex (Dentex dentex). Four experimental diets with different protein:lipid:carbohydrate ratios (43/16/28; 43/24/4; 38/19/28 and 38/24/13) were formulated. In general, neither different dietary macronutrient levels nor the interaction among them induces substantial modifications in enzymatic antioxidant defense mechanisms. Two constitutive SOD isoforms, CuZn-SOD I and Mn-SOD, were detected in the tissues analyzed in all experimental groups, independently of diet formulation, but, a third SOD isoenzyme, CuZn-SOD II seems to be induced in white muscle by higher dietary protein levels. Densitometric analyses of western blotting membranes revealed higher CuZn-SOD expression in the heart of dentex fed on lower dietary protein levels, although these differences did not correlate with the SOD activity. Finally, a direct relation exists between the lipid or protein intake level and occurrence of oxidative damage in different tissue components.

  18. Mental toughness of mixed martial arts athletes at different levels of competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mark A; Cheesman, David J

    2013-06-01

    This study investigated whether mental toughness distinguishes mixed martial arts (MMA) athletes competing at different levels. It was theorized that higher mental toughness would separate those competing at the professional level compared to lower levels. Male MMA competitors (N = 136, M age = 27.1 yr., SD = 4.8) were categorized as amateur, semi-professional, or professional and assessed by questionnaire using the Psychological Performance Inventory-A and the Sports Mental Toughness Questionnaire. There were statistically significant differences between the three groups on mental toughness. The professional group had higher scores compared to semi-professional and amateur groups with regard to confidence, positive cognition, and determination. The findings supported previous work that athletes performing at higher levels have superior mental toughness.

  19. Effects of Mg on C and N Metabolism of Soybean at Different Nitrogen Supplying Levels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LANG Man; LIU Yuanying; PENG Xianlong; ZHANG Wenzhao

    2006-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to study the effects of magnesium on carbon and nitrogen metabolism of soybean at different nitrogen supplying levels. The results showed that the effects of magnesium at low nitrogen rate on N content, soluble protein, soluble sugar contents were not alike at different growth stage, although nodule dry weights raised, the yield and protein content of seeds decreased, however, the oil content was improved.The application of magnesium at medium and high nitrogen supplying levels promoted the uptake of N effectively,increased the soluble protein and soluble sugar contents, but the nodule dry weights of application magnesium at medium nitrogen supplying level decreased and the yield increased only a little despite the improved quality.Application of magnesium at high nitrogen supplying level raised nodule dry weights and soybean yield significantly, the quality of seeds was also improved.

  20. Effect of Different Levels of Extruded Soybean and Avizyme Enzyme on Broiler Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Nasiri Mogadam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to examine the effect of different levels of extruded soybean and enzyme on broiler performance. In a completely randomized design with 2×3 factorial arrangement, 480 one day-old, Ross broiler chickens were divided into 40 groups, 12 chicks per pen. Treatments were consisting of combination of four levels of extruded soybean (0.0, 5.0, 10.0 and 15.0 % and two levels of enzyme (0.0 and 500 g per ton. Different levels of extruded soybean and enzyme had no significant effect on blood factors such as cholesterol, triglyceride and the weight of liver and heart. The usage of extruded soybean and enzyme showed significantly higher weight gain and better feed conversion (p

  1. Oxidative costs of reproduction in mouse strains selected for different levels of food intake and which differ in reproductive performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jothery, Aqeel H. Al; Vaanholt, Lobke M.; Mody, Nimesh

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative damage caused by reactive oxygen species has been hypothesised to underpin the trade-off between reproduction and somatic maintenance, i.e., the life-history-oxidative stress theory. Previous tests of this hypothesis have proved equivocal, and it has been suggested that the variation...... in responses may be related to the tissues measured. Here, we measured oxidative damage (protein carbonyls, 8-OHdG) and antioxidant protection (enzymatic antioxidant activity and serum antioxidant capacity) in multiple tissues of reproductive (R) and non-reproductive (N) mice from two mouse strains selectively...... bred for high (H) or low (L) food intake, which differ in their reproductive performance, i.e., H mice have increased milk energy output (MEO) and wean larger pups. Levels of oxidative damage were unchanged (liver) or reduced (brain and serum) in R versus N mice, and no differences in multiple measures...

  2. Influence of different dietary zinc levels on cashmere growth, plasma testosterone level and zinc status in male Liaoning Cashmere goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, H Y; Sun, M H; Yang, G Q; Jia, C L; Zhang, M; Zhu, Y J; Zhang, Y

    2015-10-01

    The experiment was conducted to investigate the influence of different levels of zinc (Zn) on cashmere growth, plasma testosterone and Zn profile in male Cashmere goats. Twenty-eight male Liaoning Cashmere goats, 3 years old and body weight at 56.2 ± 2.45 kg, were assigned to four groups. The animals were fed a basal diet containing of 45.9 mg Zn/kg dry matter (DM) basis and supplemented with 0, 20, 40 or 80 mg Zn (reagent grade ZnSO₄ ·7H₂ O) per kg DM for 90 days. There was no significant effect on growth and diameter of cashmere fibre for Zn supplemented in diets. However, the length and growth rate of wool were improved (p goats fed on the diet supplemented with 40 or 80 mg Zn/kg DM compared with those fed on basal diet. Plasma Zn concentrations increased (p 0.05). The activity of plasma alkaline phosphatase was increased (p 0.05). In conclusion, Zn content (45.9 mg Zn/kg DM) in control diet was insufficient for optimal wool growth performance, and we recommended the level of dietary Zn for such goats is 86 mg/kg DM during the breeding season and cashmere fibre growing period. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. Level of Education and Health Status of the Different Social Groups: Case Study Macedonia

    OpenAIRE

    Mirchevska, Lenche; Donev, Doncho; Mojsoska, Snezhana

    2008-01-01

    The educational level is an important indicator within the socioeconomical status for health evaluation and a powerful instrument in promotion of population’s health. In 2000 a study conducted in R. Macedonia, in 15 municipalities with different gross national product per capita, encompassing 1129 examinees older than 18 years. The results of the conducted research showed statistically significant association of the educational level with the morbidity. Higher morbidity emerges in persons tha...

  4. Differences between men and women in substance use: the role of educational level and employment status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixidó-Compañó, Ester; Espelt, Albert; Sordo, Luis; Bravo, María J; Sarasa-Renedo, Ana; Indave, B Iciar; Bosque-Prous, Marina; Brugal, M Teresa

    2017-03-15

    To determine differences between men and women in hazardous drinking, heavy cannabis use and hypnosedative use according to educational level and employment status in the economically active population in Spain. Cross-sectional study with data from 2013 Spanish Household Survey on Alcohol and Drugs on individuals aged 25-64 [n=14,113 (women=6,171; men=7,942)]. Dependent variables were hazardous drinking, heavy cannabis use and hypnosedative consumption; the main independent variables were educational level and employment situation. Associations between dependent and independent variables were calculated with Poisson regression models with robust variance. All analyses were stratified by sex. Hazardous drinking and heavy cannabis use were higher in men, while women consumed more hypnosedatives. The lower the educational level, the greater the gender differences in the prevalence of this substances owing to different consumption patterns in men and women. While men with a lower educational level were higher hazardous drinkers [RII=2.57 (95%CI: 1.75-3.78)] and heavy cannabis users [RII=3.03 (95%CI: 1.88-4.89)] compared to higher educational level, in women the prevalence was the same. Women with a lower education level and men with a higher education level had higher hypnosedative consumption. Unemployment was associated with increased heavy cannabis use and hypnosedative use in both women and men and with lower hazardous drinking only in women. There are differences between men and women in the use of psychoactive substances that can be explained by the unequal distribution of substance use in them according to educational level. Unemployment was associated with substance use in both men and women. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Taxonomic and trophic-level differences in the climate sensitivity of seasonal events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Høye, T. T.; Thackeray, S.; Henrys, P. A.; Hemming, D.; Bell, J. R.; Botham, M. S.; Burthe, S.; Helaouet, P.; Johns, D.; Jones, I. D.; Leech, D. I.; Mackay, E. B.; Massimino, D.; Atkinson, S.; Bacon, P. J.; Brereton, T. M.; Carvalho, L.; Clutton-Brock, T. H.; Duck, C.; Edwards, M.; Elliott, J. M.; Hall, S.; Harrington, R.; Pearce-Higgins, J. W.; Kruuk, L. E.; Pemberton, J. M.; Sparks, T. H.; Thompson, P. M.; White, I.; Winfield, I. J.; Wanless, S.

    2015-12-01

    Among-species differences in phenological responses to climate change are of sufficient magnitude to desynchronise key ecological interactions, threatening ecosystem function and services. To assess these threats, it is vital to quantify the relative impact of climate change on species at different trophic levels. Here we apply a novel Climate Sensitivity Profile approach to 10,003 terrestrial and aquatic phenological data sets, spatially matched to temperature and precipitation data, quantifying among-species variation in climate sensitivity. The direction, magnitude and timing of climate sensitivity varied markedly among organisms sharing taxonomic affinities or trophic position. Despite this, we detected a systematic difference in the direction and magnitude, but not seasonal timing, of phenological climate sensitivity among trophic levels. Secondary consumers showed consistently lower climate sensitivity than other groups and are projected to lag behind phenological changes at lower trophic levels, potentially making them at higher risk of disconnection with seasonal resources.

  6. Management Modes at Different Levels and Management Effectiveness of Nature Reserve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoping; TANG

    2013-01-01

    Classification management is one of nature reserves management system in China. But state nature reserves and local administration nature reserves under the regulations are only the approval system and embody the concept of protection. Management pattern of nature reserves can be divided into nine types. There are big differences in the nine patterns in management foundation and coordination ability of management because different management pattern occupies different resources of administration,personnel,financial and law enforcement. By analyzing management pattern,thirty-eight indexes in thirteen categories were selected to evaluate the management effectiveness of national nature reserves subordinate to the State Forestry Administration (SFA) . Results show that the management effectiveness of national nature reserves is good as a whole,and the management effectiveness is direct proportional to administration level. Provincial administration has the higher efficiency than municipal and county administration. Direct administration by governments at all levels has the higher efficiency than departments’ administration at the same level.

  7. An Investigation of Vocabulary Learning Strategies by Iranian EFL Students in Different Proficiency Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samaneh Jafari

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to find out the various strategies used in learning vocabularies among Iranian EFL learners in three different proficiency levels (beginner, intermediate and advanced in Zanjan province. The vocabulary learning strategies which have been used in this research include determination, social, memory, cognitive, and meta-cognitive which follow Schmitt’s taxonomy. 110 students were randomly selected from two language institutes in Zanjan. Schmitt’s (1997 Vocabulary Learning Strategies’ questionnaire was administered to the learners with three proficiency levels. Then, descriptive statistics and Anova were utilized to analyze the data. Descriptive statistics revealed that the participants of the study regardless of their proficiency levels were generally medium strategy users who used all these strategies moderately except for the determination strategies that were used in high level. In addition, basic learners used all different types of strategies more frequently than intermediate and advanced learners. By comparing two other proficiency levels, advanced learners used determination strategies and meta-cognitive strategies more frequently than intermediate learners, while social, memory and cognitive strategies were used more frequently by Intermediates. In order to perceive if the results were statistically significant, Anova for between group mean differences was conducted. It revealed the fact that there is no significant difference among learners with different proficiency levels in application of determination and meta-cognitive strategies while the learners with lower proficiency level used social, memory and cognitive strategies more frequently, that is, these three strategies were used more frequently by basic, intermediate and advanced learners respectively. Keywords: Vocabulary learning strategies, Language learning strategies, Vocabulary learning strategy questionnaire

  8. Serum Macromineral Levels in Estrual, Fertile, Subfertile and Pregnant Mares Kept Under Two Different Managemental Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farah Ali*, L. A. Lodhi, Z. I. Qureshi and M. Younis

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted on 300 mares kept under one of the two managemental conditions: field (individual management and farm (organizational management. Mares were categorized as estrual, fertile, subfertile or pregnant. Any possible relationship between fertility and serum levels of sodium, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium and calcium was investigated. The serum sodium level differed significantly (P<0.05 among all groups of mares at both conditions, with pregnant mares having the highest and subfertile the lowest levels. Also, independent of the condition, the pregnant mares had significantly higher (P<0.05 serum potassium levels compared with subfertile ones. Serum calcium levels were significantly higher in estrual mares when compared with those of pregnant mares under farm management or subfertile mares under field conditions. In each group, mares kept under farm management had significantly higher serum magnesium levels but significantly lower serum calcium levels than those of mares kept under field. In estrual group, mares raised under field condition had significantly higher serum phosphorus levels. These results sufficiently provide the foundation for more rigorous and controlled studies to establish a firm basis for fertility versus serum-mineral-profile relationship. Moreover, due to marginally adequate serum mineral levels in mares kept under both managements, supplementation with mineral mixture was recommended for optimum fertility.

  9. Comparison of different EEG features in estimation of hypnosis susceptibility level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghdadi, Golnaz; Nasrabadi, Ali Motie

    2012-05-01

    Hypnosis has long been known to be associated with heightened control over physical processes and researchers put it under consideration because of its usage as a therapeutic tool in many medical and psychological problems. Determination of hypnosis susceptibility level is important before prescribing any hypnotic treatment. In this study different features are introduced to classify hypnotizability levels. These features were extracted from electroencephalogram (EEG) signals which were recorded from 32 subjects during hypnosis suggestion. Based on the obtained result, a method was suggested to estimate the hypnosis susceptibility level from hypnosis EEG signals instead of using traditional clinical subjective tests.

  10. Effects of broadband noise on cortical evoked auditory responses at different loudness levels in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Mridula; Purdy, Suzanne C; Munro, Kevin J; Sawaya, Kathleen; Peter, Varghese

    2014-03-26

    Young adults with no history of hearing concerns were tested to investigate their /da/-evoked cortical auditory evoked potentials (P1-N1-P2) recorded from 32 scalp electrodes in the presence and absence of noise at three different loudness levels (soft, comfortable, and loud), at a fixed signal-to-noise ratio (+3 dB). P1 peak latency significantly increased at soft and loud levels, and N1 and P2 latencies increased at all three levels in the presence of noise, compared with the quiet condition. P1 amplitude was significantly larger in quiet than in noise conditions at the loudest level. N1 amplitude was larger in quiet than in noise for the soft level only. P2 amplitude was reduced in the presence of noise to a similar degree at all loudness levels. The differential effects of noise on P1, N1, and P2 suggest differences in auditory processes underlying these peaks. The combination of level and signal-to-noise ratio should be considered when using cortical auditory evoked potentials as an electrophysiological indicator of degraded speech processing.

  11. Approximation of lateral distribution of atmospheric Cherenkov light at different observation levels. Comparison with previous results

    CERN Document Server

    Mishev, A; Stamenov, J

    2005-01-01

    This work summarizes the results presented at 29th International Cosmic Ray Conference in Pune India. Generally the aim of this work is to obtain the lateral distribution of the atmospheric Cherenkov light in extensive air showers produced by different primary particles in wide energy range and at several observation levels and to fit the obtained lateral distributions. Using one large detector and partially modified CORSIKA code version are obtained the lateral distributions of Cherenkov light flux densities at several observation levels for different particle primaries precisely at 536 g/cm2 Chacaltaya, 700 g/cm2 Moussala and 875 g/cm2 Kartalska field observation levels for hadronic primaries and gamma quanta in the energy range 1011 eV-1016 eV. On the basis of the solution of over-determined inverse problem the approximation of these distributions is obtained. The same model function for all the primaries is used and for the different observation levels. The different model parameters for the different pri...

  12. Basketball shot types and shot success in different levels of competitive basketball.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frane Erčulj

    Full Text Available The purpose of our research was to investigate the relative frequencies of different types of basketball shots (above head, hook shot, layup, dunk, tip-in, some details about their technical execution (one-legged, two-legged, drive, cut, …, and shot success in different levels of basketball competitions. We analysed video footage and categorized 5024 basketball shots from 40 basketball games and 5 different levels of competitive basketball (National Basketball Association (NBA, Euroleague, Slovenian 1st Division, and two Youth basketball competitions. Statistical analysis with hierarchical multinomial logistic regression models reveals that there are substantial differences between competitions. However, most differences decrease or disappear entirely after we adjust for differences in situations that arise in different competitions (shot location, player type, and attacks in transition. Differences after adjustment are mostly between the Senior and Youth competitions: more shots executed jumping or standing on one leg, more uncategorised shot types, and more dribbling or cutting to the basket in the Youth competitions, which can all be attributed to lesser technical and physical ability of developing basketball players. The two discernible differences within the Senior competitions are that, in the NBA, dunks are more frequent and hook shots are less frequent compared to European basketball, which can be attributed to better athleticism of NBA players. The effect situational variables have on shot types and shot success are found to be very similar for all competitions.

  13. Basketball shot types and shot success in different levels of competitive basketball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erčulj, Frane; Štrumbelj, Erik

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of our research was to investigate the relative frequencies of different types of basketball shots (above head, hook shot, layup, dunk, tip-in), some details about their technical execution (one-legged, two-legged, drive, cut, …), and shot success in different levels of basketball competitions. We analysed video footage and categorized 5024 basketball shots from 40 basketball games and 5 different levels of competitive basketball (National Basketball Association (NBA), Euroleague, Slovenian 1st Division, and two Youth basketball competitions). Statistical analysis with hierarchical multinomial logistic regression models reveals that there are substantial differences between competitions. However, most differences decrease or disappear entirely after we adjust for differences in situations that arise in different competitions (shot location, player type, and attacks in transition). Differences after adjustment are mostly between the Senior and Youth competitions: more shots executed jumping or standing on one leg, more uncategorised shot types, and more dribbling or cutting to the basket in the Youth competitions, which can all be attributed to lesser technical and physical ability of developing basketball players. The two discernible differences within the Senior competitions are that, in the NBA, dunks are more frequent and hook shots are less frequent compared to European basketball, which can be attributed to better athleticism of NBA players. The effect situational variables have on shot types and shot success are found to be very similar for all competitions.

  14. Metabolic responses to Wii Fit™ video games at different game levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worley, Jennifer R; Rogers, Sharon N; Kraemer, Robert R

    2011-03-01

    The Wii Fit™ is a form of interactive gaming designed to elicit health and fitness benefits to replace sedentary gaming. This study was designed to determine the effectiveness of Wii Fit™ fitness games. The purpose of the study was to determine the %VO2max and energy expenditure from different Wii Fit™ games at different levels including the step and hula games. Eight healthy young women completed a preliminary trial to determine VO2max and later played the Wii Fit™ during 2 separate counterbalanced trials. During each session, subjects played levels of Wii Fit™ games for 10 minutes each level. One session involved beginning and intermediate hula, and the other session involved beginning and intermediate steps. The VO2 was measured continuously via metabolic cart, and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) was assessed at the end of each game level. The lowest %VO2max, kcal·min, and RPE occurred during the beginning step game and the highest values occurred during the intermediate hula game. Respiratory exchange ratio was significantly higher in the intermediate hula than beginning hula game but was not significantly different between step game levels. The intermediate hula and step games produced the greatest energy expenditure with an equivalent effect of a walking speed of >5.63 km·h (>3.5 miles·h). This is the first study to determine the percentage of VO2max and caloric expenditure elicited by different Wii Fit™ video games at different game levels in adults. Findings suggest that the Wii Fit™ can be used as an effective activity for promoting physical health in this population.

  15. Comparison Criteria and Performance Levels for Soundproofing Panels Made in Different Constructive Variants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Gheorghe

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of the performance lavels and comparison criteria for panels made from different soundproofing materials, in different constructive variants. Setting the performance level, on the basis of normative and regulatory documents, for soundproofing materials contained inside of noise reduction devices, is determined so that it can be defined, tested and established feasible technical solutions for sound absorbing protection, through a dissemination of obtained results as well for ensuring requirements for implementing the technology transfer for manufacturing.

  16. Differences in academic achievement according to the levels of cognitive and of self-regulation strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Valle; Susana Rodríguez; Ramón Cabanach; José Núñez; Julio González-Pienda; Pedro Rosário

    2013-01-01

    Understanding study as a strategic and self-regulated activity and having in mind the distinction between cognitive and self-regulated learning strategies suggested in the literature, this paper analyses whether the differences in the use of this kind of strategies leads to different levels of academic achievement. Data were collected using a sample of 447 (12 to 16 years-old) students from Spanish Secondary Compulsive Education. Various instruments were applied to assess students’ cognitive ...

  17. Role of Learning Styles in the Quality of Learning at Different Levels

    OpenAIRE

    Farooq, Muhammad Shahid; Jean-Claude REGNIER

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this descriptive, co-relational investigation was to identify the preferred learning styles and their role in quality of performance at secondary, intermediary and university level for language students from six different fields. The association and differences in students’ learning styles related to their demographics were also explored. Data analysis showed that the majority of the students from all the fields in sample showed the diverging style and the accommodating style as ...

  18. Bacterial communities in Malagasy soils with differing levels of disturbance affecting botanical diversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leah C Blasiak

    Full Text Available Madagascar is well-known for the exceptional biodiversity of its macro-flora and fauna, but the biodiversity of Malagasy microbial communities remains relatively unexplored. Understanding patterns of bacterial diversity in soil and their correlations with above-ground botanical diversity could influence conservation planning as well as sampling strategies to maximize access to bacterially derived natural products. We present the first detailed description of Malagasy soil bacterial communities from a targeted 16S rRNA gene survey of greater than 290,000 sequences generated using 454 pyrosequencing. Two sampling plots in each of three forest conservation areas were established to represent different levels of disturbance resulting from human impact through agriculture and selective exploitation of trees, as well as from natural impacts of cyclones. In parallel, we performed an in-depth characterization of the total vascular plant morphospecies richness within each plot. The plots representing different levels of disturbance within each forest did not differ significantly in bacterial diversity or richness. Changes in bacterial community composition were largest between forests rather than between different levels of impact within a forest. The largest difference in bacterial community composition with disturbance was observed at the Vohibe forest conservation area, and this difference was correlated with changes in both vascular plant richness and soil pH. These results provide the first survey of Malagasy soil bacterial diversity and establish a baseline of botanical diversity within important conservation areas.

  19. Bacterial communities in Malagasy soils with differing levels of disturbance affecting botanical diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasiak, Leah C; Schmidt, Alex W; Andriamiarinoro, Honoré; Mulaw, Temesgen; Rasolomampianina, Rado; Applequist, Wendy L; Birkinshaw, Chris; Rejo-Fienena, Félicitée; Lowry, Porter P; Schmidt, Thomas M; Hill, Russell T

    2014-01-01

    Madagascar is well-known for the exceptional biodiversity of its macro-flora and fauna, but the biodiversity of Malagasy microbial communities remains relatively unexplored. Understanding patterns of bacterial diversity in soil and their correlations with above-ground botanical diversity could influence conservation planning as well as sampling strategies to maximize access to bacterially derived natural products. We present the first detailed description of Malagasy soil bacterial communities from a targeted 16S rRNA gene survey of greater than 290,000 sequences generated using 454 pyrosequencing. Two sampling plots in each of three forest conservation areas were established to represent different levels of disturbance resulting from human impact through agriculture and selective exploitation of trees, as well as from natural impacts of cyclones. In parallel, we performed an in-depth characterization of the total vascular plant morphospecies richness within each plot. The plots representing different levels of disturbance within each forest did not differ significantly in bacterial diversity or richness. Changes in bacterial community composition were largest between forests rather than between different levels of impact within a forest. The largest difference in bacterial community composition with disturbance was observed at the Vohibe forest conservation area, and this difference was correlated with changes in both vascular plant richness and soil pH. These results provide the first survey of Malagasy soil bacterial diversity and establish a baseline of botanical diversity within important conservation areas.

  20. MEASUREMENT OF SERUM GRANULOCYTE COLONYSTIMULATING FACTOR LEVELS IN PATIENTS WITH DIFFERENT PHASE OF INFECTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴文; 胡炯; 赵维莅; 闫骅; 唐伟; 徐岚; 石广宁; 沈志祥; 孙关林; 王振义

    2005-01-01

    Objective To detect the serum granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) levels between the patients with frequently repeated infection (repeaters) and others (non-repeaters) in different phase of infection.Methods An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method was used to detect serum G-CSF levels in 50cases (32 non-repeaters and 18 repeaters ) with acute phase of infection. Serum G-CSF levels were detected in recovery phase in 10 cases. Results Serum G-CSF levels were significantly higher ( 1429. 97 ± 506. 43ng/L) in 32 non-repeaters with acute infection. There was a positive correlation between white blood cell count (WBC) and serum G-CSF level ( r =0. 396, P <0. 05). There was also a positive correlation between absolute neutrophil count (ANC) and serum G-CSF level ( r =0. 346,P <0. 05). Serum G-CSF levels were higher (98. 62 ±56. 40ng/L ) in 18 repeaters with acute infection. It was showed that serum G-CSF levels were significantly higher in non-repeaters than in repeaters with acute phase of infection ( P <0. 001 ). In the meanwhile, the body temperature was significantly higher in non-repeaters than in repeaters with acute infection (37. 95 ±0.14℃ vs 36. 91 ±0. 13℃ , P <0. 001 ). There were no significant differences in age, WBC, ANC, type of bacterial, liver function and renal function ( P >0. 05). Serum G-CSF levels in recovery phase of the two groups were below the sensitivity of the assay ( <60 ng/L). Conclusion It is suggested that application of recombinant G-CSF may be useful for the patients with repeated infection.

  1. Differences in levels of disability and quality of life between genders in schizophrenia remission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishi Suchita Kujur

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: QOL (Quality of life and Disability have been considered inevitable components of schizophrenia from the Biopsychosocial point of view. Studies from over the world have reported significantly lower levels of QOL and higher levels of disability in schizophrenia; but there are equivocal results revealing differences in levels of disability and QOL between genders in schizophrenia. Aim: To find out the difference in the levels of QOL and disability in both the genders in schizophrenia remission. Materials and Methods: This is cross-sectional study. Sixty patients who gave consent for their participation in the study and satisfying the criterion of remission of schizophrenia, in the age group of 18-60 years, were selected. A purposive sampling technique was used. There were 34 males and 26 females in the study sample. WHO-QOL-BREF ( World Health Organization, Quality of life BREF and WHO-DAS (World Health Organization-Disability Assessment Schedule were administered. Results: There was a statistically significant difference in the levels of QOL and disability between the genders. Higher scores of WHO-QOL-BREF were seen in the male group, and higher scores of WHO-DAS were seen in the female group. Conclusion: Male group had better QOL, and the female group had higher disability.

  2. VARIATION IN THYROID HORMONES LEVEL AMONG PEOPLE OF DIFFERENT AGE, GENDER AND SEASONS, PIPARIA, GUJARAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallavi Chaurasia

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Thyroid is an endocrine gland located below the larynx. The principal thyroid hormones are thyroxine (T4, tri-iodothyroxine (T3. The current study was carried out to investigate the impact of age, gender and seasons on the level of Thyroxine (T4, Triiodothyronine (T3 and Thyroid Stimulating Hormone in individuals free of thyroid diseases. Methods: - Serum levels of T3, T4 and TSH in 198 individuals attending Dhiraj General Hospital in different seasons were examined. Hormonal assay was done by using AIA 360 immunoassay. Results: - Levels of T3, T4 and TSH ranged from 0.98-4.8ng/dl, 0.56-3-25ng/dl and 0.01-5.3μIU/L. There is significant change in thyroid hormone levels in both genders of different age group in different seasons. Conclusion:- It is concluded that the age, gender and seasons have an appreciable effects on the levels T3, T4 and TSH. [National J of Med Res 2011; 1(2.000: 57-59

  3. Cellular Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Coffee Extracts with Different Roasting Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Soohan; Kim, Min Hyung; Park, Jae Hee; Jeong, Yoonhwa; Ko, Kwang Suk

    2017-06-01

    During roasting, major changes occur in the composition and physiological effects of coffee beans. In this study, in vitro antioxidant effects and anti-inflammatory effects of Coffea arabica green coffee extracts were investigated at different roasting levels corresponding to Light, Medium, City, and French roast. Total caffeine did not show huge difference according to roasting level, but total chlorogenic acid contents were higher in light roasted coffee extract than other roasted groups. In addition, light roasted coffee extract had the highest antioxidant activity in the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. To determine the in vitro antioxidant property, coffee extracts were used to treat AML-12 cells. Intracellular glutathione (GSH) concentration and mRNA expression levels of genes related to GSH synthesis were negatively related to roasting levels. The anti-inflammatory effects of coffee extracts were investigated in lipopolysaccharide-treated RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. The cellular antioxidant activity of coffee extracts exhibited similar patterns as the AML-12 cells. The expression of mRNA for tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6 was decreased in cells treated with the coffee extracts and the expression decreased with increasing roasting levels. These data suggest that coffee has physiological antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities and these effects are negatively correlated with roasting levels in the cell models.

  4. Digestible Threonine Levels in the Starter Diet of Broilers Derived from Breeders of Different Ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CBGS Tanure

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of digestible threonine supplementation in the starter diet on the performance, intestinal parameters, and nutrient metabolism of broilers derived from breeders of different ages. In total, 480 one-day-old Cobb chicks, derived from 38-or 49-week-oldbreeders, were housed in experimental battery cages until 21 days of age and fed four different threonine levels (800, 900, 1,000, or 1,100 mg/kg in the starter feed. A completely randomized experimental design in a 2x4 factorial arrangement (breeder age x threonine levels was applied, totaling eight treatments with five replicates of 12 birds each. Broilers from older breeders fed 800 mg digestible threonine/kg of diet presented higher weight gain, with a positive linear effect. There was also an interaction between breeder age and threonine levels for the weight gain of 21-d-old broilers supplemented at maximum level of 1,003 mg Thr/kg diet during the starter phase. There was no effect of breeder age or threonine levels on nutrient metabolism during the period of 17-21 days. There was no influence of breeder age or threonine levels in the starter diet on intestinal morphometric measurements, absorption area, or percentage of goblet cells.

  5. Serum Levels of Stress Hormones and Oxidative Stress Biomarkers Differ according to Sasang Constitutional Type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeong Geug Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. This study investigated whether Sasang constitutional type is associated with differences in the serum levels of stress hormones and oxidative stress. Methods. A total of 236 participants (77 males and 159 females were enrolled. The serum levels of cortisol, adrenaline, reactive oxygen species (ROS, and malondialdehyde (MDA were analyzed. Results. The distribution of Sasang constitutional types was as follows: Taeumin, 35.6%; Soumin, 33.0%; and Soyangin, 31.4%. The serum cortisol levels of Taeumin were significantly lower than Soumin (p<0.1 in both sexes and Soyangin (p<0.05 in males and p<0.1 in females. The adrenaline levels were also significantly lower in Taeumin than in Soumin (p<0.05 in males and p<0.1 in females and Soyangin (p<0.1 in males. Serum ROS levels were significantly higher in Soyangin than in Taeumin and Soumin (p<0.05 in males, whereas MDA levels were significantly lower in Taeumin compared with Soumin and Soyangin (p<0.05 in males and p<0.1 in females. Conclusion. Taeumin type may tolerate psychological or oxidative stress better than other types, which suggests a biological mechanism to explain the different pathophysiological features of Sasang constitutional types.

  6. Age and gender differences in mate selection criteria for various involvement levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buunk, Abraham (Bram); Dijkstra, Pieternel; Fetchenhauer, D.; Kenrick, D.T.

    2002-01-01

    The present study investigated mate preferences for five different levels of relationship involvement-marriage, serious relationship, falling in love, casual sex, and sexual fantasies-among individuals of 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 years of age. Consistent with an evolutionary perspective, men preferred

  7. Differences in Music Performance Anxiety Levels between Underclassmen and Upperclassmen Music Education Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonson, Jordan M.

    2012-01-01

    Research looking specifically at the performance anxiety levels of undergraduate music education majors is sparse. In one of the few studies that examined this issue, Conway, Eros, Pellegrino, and West (2010) found that the different emphases placed on music education majors made for a wider array of activities and foci. Undergraduates who focus…

  8. Anthropometric, Physical, and Age Differences by the Player Position and the Performance Level in Volleyball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palao José M.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper was to study the ranges in height, weight, age, spike reach, and block reach of volleyball players in relation to the player position and the level of their respective teams in peak performance. The analysed sample included 1454 male and 1452 female players who participated in the volleyball competitions of the Olympic Games and World Championships in the 2000-2012 period. A descriptive, correlational, and longitudinal design was used. The variables studied were: the player position, body height, weight, body mass index, spike reach, block reach, age, and team level. The results show differences between body height, spike and block reaches, and the age of the players by their position. These differences are related to the needs of the different positions with regard to the actions they execute. Middle-blockers, outside-hitters, and opposites have the characteristics that are most suitable for blocking and spiking, and the setters and liberos appear to have characteristics conducive to setting and receiving as well as digging, respectively. The differences found in the studied variables with regard to the playing position are related to players' needs regarding the actions they perform. Player´s age was a variable that differentiated first teams at this level of competition for males, and physical capacities (body height, weight, spike reach, and block reach were variables that differentiated first teams at this level of competition for females.

  9. The difference of two renewal processes level crossing and the infimum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroese, D.P.

    1992-01-01

    We consider the difference process N of two independent renewal (counting) processes. Second-order approximations to the distribution function of the level crossing time are given. Direct application of the second-order approximation is complicated by the occurrence of an (in general) unknown term E

  10. Evaluation of the choline status in mink fed different levels and sources of choline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedemann, Mette Skou; Damgaard, Birthe Marie; Clausen, T.N.

    2012-01-01

    with choline added either as choline chloride or as soy lecithin to provide four different levels of choline for 18 days. In the second experiment full-grown mink were fed a synthetic diet with varying choline content for three weeks. Blood samples were collected at the end of the experimental periods. All...

  11. Age and gender differences in mate selection criteria for various involvement levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buunk, Abraham (Bram); Dijkstra, Pieternel; Fetchenhauer, D.; Kenrick, D.T.

    The present study investigated mate preferences for five different levels of relationship involvement-marriage, serious relationship, falling in love, casual sex, and sexual fantasies-among individuals of 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 years of age. Consistent with an evolutionary perspective, men preferred

  12. The Communicative Competences of Students and Teachers in Different Levels of Education in North Cyprus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hursen, Cigdem; Ozcinar, Zehra; Ozdamli, Fezile; Uzunboylu, Huseyin

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted in order to determine the beliefs of students and teachers in different levels of education about their communicative competences. The study group of this research is consisted of 600 secondary school, high school and undergraduate students and 41 of their teachers. In this study, it is observed that not a significant…

  13. Investigating Teacher Efficacy: Comparing Preservice and Inservice Teachers with Different Levels of Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putman, S. Michael

    2012-01-01

    Teacher efficacy represents a powerful influence on the behaviors of teachers due to its impact on instructional choice, effort, and persistence. Yet few studies have been conducted examining differences in efficacy among groups of teachers with varying levels of experience, including those still engaged in teacher preparation programs. This study…

  14. Effects of Segmented Animated Graphics among Students of Different Spatial Ability Levels: A Cognitive Load Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Soon Fook

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of segmented animated graphics utilized to facilitate learning of electrolysis of aqueous solution. A total of 171 Secondary Four chemistry students with two different spatial ability levels were randomly assigned to one of the experimental conditions: (a) text with multiple static graphics (MSG), (b) text with…

  15. The Communicative Competences of Students and Teachers in Different Levels of Education in North Cyprus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hursen, Cigdem; Ozcinar, Zehra; Ozdamli, Fezile; Uzunboylu, Huseyin

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted in order to determine the beliefs of students and teachers in different levels of education about their communicative competences. The study group of this research is consisted of 600 secondary school, high school and undergraduate students and 41 of their teachers. In this study, it is observed that not a significant…

  16. Differences in the Course of Daily Activity Level Between Persons with and Without Chronic Pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raijmakers, Bart G.; Nieuwenhuizen, Mieke G.; Beckerman, Heleen; de Groot, Sonja

    Objective: The aim of this study was to determine differences in (the course of) daily activity level between persons with and persons without chronic pain. Design: A total of 18 participants with chronic pain and 19 age-matched healthy controls wore an accelerometer for 7 days, of which two

  17. Response to Specific Training for Students with Different Levels of Mathematical Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Re, Anna Maria; Pedron, Martina; Tressoldi, Patrizio Emanuele; Lucangeli, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of specific, individualized training for students with different levels of mathematical difficulties. Fifty-four students, with either severe or mild math difficulties, were assigned to individualized training or to a control condition. Ten students with severe math difficulties…

  18. Electromyographical manifestations of muscle fatigue during different levels of simulated light manual assembly work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, T.; Looze, M.P. de; Kingma, I.; Visser, B.; Dieën, J.H. van

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether objective electromyographical manifestations of muscle fatigue develop in the upper trapezius muscle in two assembly tasks involving contractions of different low-intensity levels (8% and 12% MVC) and whether these indications of fatigue are homogen

  19. Electromyographical manifestations of muscle fatigue during different levels of simulated light manual assembly work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, T.; Looze, M.P. de; Kingma, I.; Visser, B.; Dieën, J.H. van

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether objective electromyographical manifestations of muscle fatigue develop in the upper trapezius muscle in two assembly tasks involving contractions of different low-intensity levels (8% and 12% MVC) and whether these indications of fatigue are

  20. Learning Nanotechnology with Texts and Comics: The Impacts on Students of Different Achievement Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shu-Fen; Lin, Huann-shyang

    2016-01-01

    Comics are popular with adolescents because of their features of humor, narrative, and visual imagery. The purposes of this study were to examine the learning outcomes and emotional perceptions of reading a science comic book and a science text booklet for students of different levels of achievement, and to explore the main factors of the two…

  1. Anthropometric, Physical, and Age Differences by the Player Position and the Performance Level in Volleyball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palao, José M.; Manzanares, Policarpo; Valadés, David

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to study the ranges in height, weight, age, spike reach, and block reach of volleyball players in relation to the player position and the level of their respective teams in peak performance. The analysed sample included 1454 male and 1452 female players who participated in the volleyball competitions of the Olympic Games and World Championships in the 2000–2012 period. A descriptive, correlational, and longitudinal design was used. The variables studied were: the player position, body height, weight, body mass index, spike reach, block reach, age, and team level. The results show differences between body height, spike and block reaches, and the age of the players by their position. These differences are related to the needs of the different positions with regard to the actions they execute. Middle-blockers, outside-hitters, and opposites have the characteristics that are most suitable for blocking and spiking, and the setters and liberos appear to have characteristics conducive to setting and receiving as well as digging, respectively. The differences found in the studied variables with regard to the playing position are related to players’ needs regarding the actions they perform. Player’s age was a variable that differentiated first teams at this level of competition for males, and physical capacities (body height, weight, spike reach, and block reach) were variables that differentiated first teams at this level of competition for females. PMID:25713683

  2. Electromyographical manifestations of muscle fatigue during different levels of simulated light manual assembly work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, T.; Looze, M.P. de; Kingma, I.; Visser, B.; Dieën, J.H. van

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether objective electromyographical manifestations of muscle fatigue develop in the upper trapezius muscle in two assembly tasks involving contractions of different low-intensity levels (8% and 12% MVC) and whether these indications of fatigue are homogen

  3. Performance Level Differences in Swimming: A Meta-Analysis of Passive Drag Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havriluk, Rod

    2005-01-01

    The streamline is a basic position for competitive swimming starts mid turns and has been used in many studies on resistive forces. However, there is a wide yahweh, of theoretical interpretations in these studies, leading to diverse and questionable conclusions. The purpose of this study was to determine performance level differences in the…

  4. Brain Activity Associated with Logical Inferences in Geometry: Focusing on Students with Different Levels of Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waisman, Ilana; Leikin, Mark; Leikin, Roza

    2016-01-01

    Mathematical processing associated with solving short geometry problems requiring logical inference was examined among students who differ in their levels of general giftedness (G) and excellence in mathematics (EM) using ERP research methodology. Sixty-seven male adolescents formed four major research groups designed according to various…

  5. Comparative growth of triazine-susceptible and -resistant biotypes of Solanum nigrum at different light levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kremer, E.; Kropff, M.J.

    1999-01-01

    Effects of variation in light intensity on growth of plants from five different populations of triazine-susceptible and -resistantSolanum nigrumwere studied in growth chambers at three light levels. Plants were grown without intraspecific competition and with optimal mineral nutrition. After 29 d, t

  6. Learning Nanotechnology with Texts and Comics: The Impacts on Students of Different Achievement Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shu-Fen; Lin, Huann-shyang

    2016-01-01

    Comics are popular with adolescents because of their features of humor, narrative, and visual imagery. The purposes of this study were to examine the learning outcomes and emotional perceptions of reading a science comic book and a science text booklet for students of different levels of achievement, and to explore the main factors of the two…

  7. Peculiarities of psychical stability among basketball players of different performance level

    OpenAIRE

    Malinauskas R.; Brusokas A.

    2010-01-01

    This article deals with questions of psychical stability among basketball players of different performance level. The research was carried out in two Lithuanian basketball leagues: Lithuanian Basketball League (elite division) and the Lithuanian student's basketball league. It was established statistically significant (p

  8. Variation of DNA damage levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells isolated in different laboratories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godschalk, Roger W L; Ersson, Clara; Stępnik, Maciej

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the levels of DNA strand breaks and formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase (FPG) sensitive sites, as assessed by the comet assay, in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from healthy women from five different countries in Europe. The laboratory in each country (referred ...

  9. Impact behaviour of Napier/polyester composites under different energy levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahmi, I.; Majid, M. S. Abdul; Afendi, M.; Haslan, M.; Helmi E., A.; M. Haameem J., A.

    2016-07-01

    The effects of different energy levels on the impact behaviour of Napier fibre/polyester reinforced composites were investigated. Napier fibre was extracted using traditional water retting process to be utilized as reinforcing materials in polyester composite laminates. 25% fibre loading composite laminates were prepared and impacted at three different energy levels; 2.5,5 and 7.5 J using an instrumented drop weight impact testing machine (IMATEK IM10). The outcomes show that peak force and contact time increase with increased impact load. The energy absorption was then calculated from the force displacement curve. The results indicated that the energy absorption decreases with increasing energy levels of the impact. Impacted specimens were observed visually for fragmentation fracture using an optical camera to identify the failure mechanisms. Fracture fragmentation pattern from permanent dent to perforation with radial and circumferential was observed.

  10. [Asymmetry of the bioelectrical activity of the human brain at different levels of consciousness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusalova, M N

    2006-12-01

    Asymmetry of different human EEG indices was studied at different levels of consciousness. Subjects' self-reported changes in the content of consciousness: the intensity and quality of involuntary mental processes served as indicator of the level of consciousness. It was shown that a certain profile of EEG asymmetry corresponded to each the observed level of consciousness. In active state of consciousness, the connections in the high-frequency bands: beta-2 and gamma, were more pronounced in the left hemisphere of the brain. At the same time, transition of the focus of coherent connections to the right hemisphere was characteristic of the state of inhibition of "internal speech". The interhemisphere dynamics of autospectra amplitude and foci of coherent connections supports the notion that the character of interhemisphere asymmetry of the brain bioelectrical activity depends on its functional state.

  11. CT and MRI Determination of Intermuscular Space within Lumbar Paraspinal Muscles at Different Intervertebral Disc Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shidong; Zhang, Yu; Han, Hui; Zheng, Dengquan; Ding, Zihai; Wong, Kelvin K. L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Recognition of the intermuscular spaces within lumbar paraspinal muscles is critically important for using the paramedian muscle-splitting approach to the lumbar spine. As such, it is important to determine the intermuscular spaces within the lumbar paraspinal muscles by utilizing modern medical imaging such as computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods A total of 30 adult cadavers were studied by sectional anatomic dissection, and 60 patients were examined using CT (16 slices, 3-mm thickness, 3-mm intersection gap, n = 30) and MRI (3.0T, T2-WI, 5-mm thickness, 1-mm intersection gap, n = 30). The distances between the midline and the superficial points of the intermuscular spaces at different intervertebral disc levels were measured. Results Based on study of our cadavers, the mean distances from the midline to the intermuscular space between multifidus and longissimus, from intervertebral disc levels L1–L2 to L5–S1, were 0.9, 1.1, 1.7, 3.0, and 3.5 cm, respectively. Compared with the upper levels (L1–L3), the superficial location at the lower level (L4–S1) is more laterally to the midline (Pquadratus lumborum, and that between longissimus and iliocostalis did not exist at L4–S1. The intermuscular spaces in patients also varied at different levels of the lumbar spine showing a low discontinuous density in CT and a high signal in MRI. There were no significant differences between the observations in cadavers and those made using CT and MRI. Conclusion The intermuscular spaces within the paraspinal muscles vary at different intervertebral disc levels. Preoperative CT and MRI can facilitate selection of the muscle-splitting approach to the lumbar spine. This paper demonstrates the efficacy of medical imaging techniques in surgical planning. PMID:26458269

  12. CT and MRI Determination of Intermuscular Space within Lumbar Paraspinal Muscles at Different Intervertebral Disc Levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuefei Deng

    Full Text Available Recognition of the intermuscular spaces within lumbar paraspinal muscles is critically important for using the paramedian muscle-splitting approach to the lumbar spine. As such, it is important to determine the intermuscular spaces within the lumbar paraspinal muscles by utilizing modern medical imaging such as computed tomography (CT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI.A total of 30 adult cadavers were studied by sectional anatomic dissection, and 60 patients were examined using CT (16 slices, 3-mm thickness, 3-mm intersection gap, n = 30 and MRI (3.0T, T2-WI, 5-mm thickness, 1-mm intersection gap, n = 30. The distances between the midline and the superficial points of the intermuscular spaces at different intervertebral disc levels were measured.Based on study of our cadavers, the mean distances from the midline to the intermuscular space between multifidus and longissimus, from intervertebral disc levels L1-L2 to L5-S1, were 0.9, 1.1, 1.7, 3.0, and 3.5 cm, respectively. Compared with the upper levels (L1-L3, the superficial location at the lower level (L4-S1 is more laterally to the midline (P<0.05. The intermuscular space between sacrospinalis and quadratus lumborum, and that between longissimus and iliocostalis did not exist at L4-S1. The intermuscular spaces in patients also varied at different levels of the lumbar spine showing a low discontinuous density in CT and a high signal in MRI. There were no significant differences between the observations in cadavers and those made using CT and MRI.The intermuscular spaces within the paraspinal muscles vary at different intervertebral disc levels. Preoperative CT and MRI can facilitate selection of the muscle-splitting approach to the lumbar spine. This paper demonstrates the efficacy of medical imaging techniques in surgical planning.

  13. Differential internalin A levels in biofilms of Listeria monocytogenes grown on different surfaces and nutrient conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmartin, Niamh; Gião, Maria S; Keevil, Charles W; O'Kennedy, Richard

    2016-02-16

    Listeria monoctyogenes is a foodborne pathogen containing the surface protein, internalin A (InlA). The expression of this protein permits the invasion of L. monocytogenes into intestinal epithelial cells expressing the receptor E-cadherin, thus crossing the intestinal barrier and resulting in listerosis. The main aim of this work was to investigate InlA levels in different L. monocytogenes strains in both planktonic and sessile states using an anti-InlA antibody. Biofilms were grown in high and low nutrient environments on glass, stainless steel and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE). This study demonstrated that InlA levels varied greatly between strains and serotypes of L. monocytogenes. However, the serotypes 1/2a, 1/2b and 4b, associated with the largest number of outbreaks of listerosis consistently showed the highest InlA levels, regardless of nutrient content or planktonic or sessile state. Differences in InlA levels were also observed in biofilms grown on different surfaces such as glass, stainless steel and PTFE, with a significant reduction in InlA levels observed in biofilms on PTFE. Interestingly, although a large number of the total cells observed in biofilms formed in tap-water were non-cultivable, the virulence factor, InlA, was expressed at levels between 78 and 85%, thus indicating that these cells may still be virulent. A greater understanding of the factors that affect the levels of InlA on the surface of L. monocytogenes, is essential in the appreciation of the role of InlA in the persistence of biofilms containing L. monocytogenes and their potential to cause food borne disease.

  14. Growth performance and carcass characteristics of feedlot cattle fed different levels of macadamia oil cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acheampong-Boateng, O; Mikasi, M S; Benyi, K; Amey, A K A

    2008-04-01

    Eighteen cattle (six Bonsmara males, seven Simmanteler x Beefmaster males and five Simmanteler x Beefmaster females) were assigned to three diets containing 0% (Control), 10% and 20% Macadamia oil cake to evaluate the effects of different levels of Macadamia oilcake (MOC) on feed intake, growth performance and carcass characteristics of feedlot cattle. Differences in average feed intake were not significant (P > 0.05). Average daily gains on the 0% and 20% MOC diets were not significantly different (P 0.05). There were no condemned livers, suggesting that either there were no toxic factors in the feed or, even if present, were probably inactive in the liver.

  15. Evolution of Marine Organisms under Climate Change at Different Levels of Biological Organisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben P. Harvey

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Research to date has suggested that both individual marine species and ecological processes are expected to exhibit diverse responses to the environmental effects of climate change. Evolutionary responses can occur on rapid (ecological timescales, and yet studies typically do not consider the role that adaptive evolution will play in modulating biological responses to climate change. Investigations into such responses have typically been focused at particular biological levels (e.g., cellular, population, community, often lacking interactions among levels. Since all levels of biological organisation are sensitive to global climate change, there is a need to elucidate how different processes and hierarchical interactions will influence species fitness. Therefore, predicting the responses of communities and populations to global change will require multidisciplinary efforts across multiple levels of hierarchy, from the genetic and cellular to communities and ecosystems. Eventually, this may allow us to establish the role that acclimatisation and adaptation will play in determining marine community structures in future scenarios.

  16. Performance improvement by discharge from different levels in solar storage tanks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Simon; Andersen, Elsa; Thür, Alexander

    2005-01-01

    The thermal advantages by utilizing discharge from different levels in solar storage tanks are investigated, both for a small SDHW system and for a solar combisystem. The investigations showed that it is possible to increase the thermal performance of both types of systems by using two draw......-off levels from the solar tanks instead of one draw-off level at a fixed position. The best position of the second draw-off level is in the middle or just above the middle of the tank. For the investigated small SDHW system with a realistic draw off hot water temperature of 40°C and 45°C and an auxiliary...

  17. Salinity Tolerance and Growth Response of Juvenile Oreochromis mossambicus at Different Salinity Levels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Khalid Jamil; Muhammad Shoaib; Faisal Ameer; LIN Hong

    2004-01-01

    Juveniles of Oreochromis mossambicus with initial wet weights of 0.0382±0.0859 g and initial total lengths of 0.735±1.425 cm were tested for their salinity tolerance. The juveniles were subjected to five salinity levels for a period of seventy-five days. These salinity levels correspond to the salinities found along the creek and in estuarine regions. Each set of experiments was conducted at a fifteen day intervals. The weight, length and survival rate were calculated. No mortality was observed at salinity levels 0, 5, 10 and 15, while the juveniles faced slight mortality at 20 in the same environmental conditions, including the diet. There was no significant difference in specific growth rate at all salinity levels. The juveniles of O.mossambicus could survive up to 20 salinity. These results suggest that this species can grow and be exploited commercially in brackish waters, rivers and estuarine regions.

  18. Different types of exposure to the 2004 tsunami are associated with different levels of psychological distress and posttraumatic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlström, Lars; Michélsen, Hans; Schulman, Abbe; Backheden, Magnus

    2008-10-01

    The impact of traumatic exposure on psychological distress and posttraumatic stress was investigated at 14 months through self-report in 1,505 Swedish tourists who survived the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami. Exposure, differentiated in single and multiple types, was associated with different levels of impaired mental health measured by General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) and Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R). Additionally, having sole exposure to subjective life threat brought about specific psychological effects. Some demographic factors are associated with outcome on either the GHQ or the IES-R. Identifying specific types of exposure of disaster survivors may be a way to identify individuals who could be screened for psychological ill health at a later point in time.

  19. The Suitability of Different Nighttime Light Data for GDP Estimation at Different Spatial Scales and Regional Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaoxin Dai

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Nighttime light data offer a unique view of the Earth’s surface and can be used to estimate the spatial distribution of gross domestic product (GDP. Historically, using a simple regression function, the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program’s Operational Linescan System (DMSP/OLS has been used to correlate regional and global GDP values. In early 2013, the first global Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP visible infrared imaging radiometer suite (VIIRS nighttime light data were released. Compared with DMSP/OLS, they have a higher spatial resolution and a wider radiometric detection range. This paper aims to study the suitability of the two nighttime light data sources for estimating the GDP relationship between the provincial and city levels in Mainland China, as well as of different regression functions. First, NPP/VIIRS nighttime light data for 2014 are corrected with DMSP/OLS data for 2013 to reduce the background noise in the original data. Subsequently, three regression functions are used to estimate the relationship between nighttime light data and GDP statistical data at the provincial and city levels in Mainland China. Then, through the comparison of the relative residual error (RE and the relative root mean square error (RRMSE parameters, a systematical assessment of the suitability of the GDP estimation is provided. The results show that the NPP/VIIRS nighttime light data are better than the DMSP/OLS data for GDP estimation, whether at the provincial or city level, and that the power function and polynomial models are better for GDP estimation than the linear regression model. This study reveals that the accuracy of GDP estimation based on nighttime light data is affected by the resolution of the data and the spatial scale of the study area, as well as by the land cover types and industrial structures of the study area.

  20. Heavy Metal Level in Human Semen with Different Fertility: a Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jiantao; Yu, Guangxia; Zhang, Yucheng; Liu, Xi; Du, Chuang; Wang, Lu; Li, Zhen; Wang, Chunhong

    2017-03-01

    There are conflicting reports on the heavy metal levels in human semen with different fertilities. The purpose of this analysis is to merge and analyze the differences of heavy metal lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), zinc (Zn), and copper (Cu) levels in male semen with normal and low fertilities. All documents in both Chinese and English were collected from the PubMed, Web of Science, and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) database from inception date to February 19, 2016. We have used RevMan software (version 5.2) for the meta-analysis and Stata software (version 12.0) for the meta-regression and sensitivity analyses. A total of 20 literatures were included in the study. The results of the meta-analysis indicate a significant difference between fertility with three metal ions (Pb, Cd, Zn) while no significant difference with copper, detailed as follows: (i) 10 studies on the lead concentrations with a standardized mean difference (SMD) = 2.07, 95 %CI (0.97, 3.17), P < 0.01; (ii) 13 studies on the cadmium concentrations with an SMD = 0.75, 95 %CI (0.44, 1.07), P < 0.01; (iii) 8 studies on the concentrations of zinc with an SMD = -0.61, 95 %CI (-1.08, -0.14), P < 0.01; and (iv) 9 studies on the copper concentrations with an SMD = 0.42, 95 %CI (-0.29, 1.13), P = 0.247. The results indicate that the men with low fertility have higher semen Pb and Cd levels and lower semen Zn levels; more studies are needed to indicate the association of the semen copper level with fertility.

  1. Nutrient digestibility and growth of five breeds of sheep under different levels of undegradable protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulistiani D

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of feeding different levels of rumen undegradable protein (UDP in concentrate on performance of five breeds of sheep. Namely: Compass Agrinak (CA; Garut Composite breed (KG; Barbados Cross breed (BC; St Croix breed (SC; and Local Garut (GL breed. Ten heads of sheep were used from each breed, in which each breed was grouped into 5 groups according to their body weight, and each sheep in each group was assigned to one of two treatments diet. The diet treatment consisted of concentrate containing different levels of undegradable protein (UDP. The levels of undegradable protein were 4.5% and 7.5%. Concentrate were formulated in iso nitrogen (CP content 16.7% and iso energy (ME content 2.5 Mcal/kg. During feeding trial the sheep were kept in individual pen for three months. Study was conducted in randomized complete block design in factorial 5 x 2 arrangement, 5 levels of breeds sheep and 2 levels of UDP content. Results shows that there was no interaction effect of breed and levels UDP on feed consumption, average daily gain and feed conversion. These variables were significantly (P0.05 by interaction between breed of sheep and UDP levels in the diet except for OM digestibility. While breed of sheep did not affect nutrient digestibility and UDP levels only affected NDF digestibility. From this study, it is concluded that increasing UDP in the diet did not improve growth performance of sheep. At similar quality of feed the growth performance was affected by breed of sheep in which KG and GL sheep had similar average daily gain (86.01 vs 82.38 g/day.

  2. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal phylogenetic groups differ in affecting host plants along heavy metal levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Lei; Yang, Haishui; Yu, Zhenxing; Tang, Jianjun; Xu, Ligen; Chen, Xin

    2014-10-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are important components of soil microbial communities, and play important role in plant growth. However, the effects of AMF phylogenetic groups (Glomeraceae and non-Glomeraceae) on host plant under various heavy metal levels are not clear. Here we conducted a meta-analysis to compare symbiotic relationship between AMF phylogenetic groups (Glomeraceae and non-Glomeraceae) and host plant functional groups (herbs vs. trees, and non-legumes vs. legumes) at three heavy metal levels. In the meta-analysis, we calculate the effect size (ln(RR)) by taking the natural logarithm of the response ratio of inoculated to non-inoculated shoot biomass from each study. We found that the effect size of Glomeraceae increased, but the effect size of non-Glomeraceae decreased under high level of heavy metal compared to low level. According to the effect size, both Glomeraceae and non-Glomeraceae promoted host plant growth, but had different effects under various heavy metal levels. Glomeraceae provided more benefit to host plants than non-Glomeraceae did under heavy metal condition, while non-Glomeraceae provided more benefit to host plants than Glomeraceae did under no heavy metal. AMF phylogenetic groups also differed in promoting plant functional groups under various heavy metal levels. Interacting with Glomeraceae, herbs and legumes grew better than trees and non-legumes did under high heavy metal level, while trees and legumes grew better than herbs and non-legumes did under medium heavy metal level. Interacting with non-Glomeraceae, herbs and legumes grew better than trees and non-legumes did under no heavy metal. We suggested that the combination of legume with Glomeraceae could be a useful way in the remediation of heavy metal polluted environment.

  3. Texture Feature Analysis for Different Resolution Level of Kidney Ultrasound Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kairuddin, Wan Nur Hafsha Wan; Mahmud, Wan Mahani Hafizah Wan

    2017-08-01

    Image feature extraction is a technique to identify the characteristic of the image. The objective of this work is to discover the texture features that best describe a tissue characteristic of a healthy kidney from ultrasound (US) image. Three ultrasound machines that have different specifications are used in order to get a different quality (different resolution) of the image. Initially, the acquired images are pre-processed to de-noise the speckle to ensure the image preserve the pixels in a region of interest (ROI) for further extraction. Gaussian Low- pass Filter is chosen as the filtering method in this work. 150 of enhanced images then are segmented by creating a foreground and background of image where the mask is created to eliminate some unwanted intensity values. Statistical based texture features method is used namely Intensity Histogram (IH), Gray-Level Co-Occurance Matrix (GLCM) and Gray-level run-length matrix (GLRLM).This method is depends on the spatial distribution of intensity values or gray levels in the kidney region. By using One-Way ANOVA in SPSS, the result indicated that three features (Contrast, Difference Variance and Inverse Difference Moment Normalized) from GLCM are not statistically significant; this concludes that these three features describe a healthy kidney characteristics regardless of the ultrasound image quality.

  4. Serum and BAL cytokine and antioxidant enzyme levels at different stages of pneumoconiosis in coal workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulker, O.C.; Yucesoy, B.; Demir, O.; Tekin, I.O.; Karakaya, A. [Ankara University, Ankara (Turkey). Dept. of Toxicology

    2008-12-15

    Coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP) is an occupational pulmonary disease that occurs by chronic inhalation of coal dust. CWP is divided into two stages depending on the extent of the disease, as simple pneumoconiosis (SP) and progressive massive fibrosis (PMF). In the present study, serum and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cytokine (interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta), IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta)) and antioxidant enzymes levels, their relation with the disease severity, and whether they can be considered as biological markers were investigated. Serum and BAL levels of IL-1 beta, IL-6, and TNF-alpha were higher in SP and PMF patient groups compared with that in active and retired miner groups. Serum and BAL IL-1 beta, IL-6, and TNF-alpha levels were also found to be higher in patients with PMF compared with the SP group. BAL superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase, and catalase levels and serum SOD level were increased in both patient groups compared with the control group. In addition, mean serum and BAL TGF-beta levels were found to be increased in patients with SP compared with PMF group. Based on these results, BAL and serum cytokine and antioxidant enzymes levels were evaluated and discussed as potential biomarkers for different stages of CWP.

  5. Exploring Different Order Decision Behaviors with Bullwhip Effect and Service Level Measures in Supply Chain System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuoqun Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Since decision makers’ bounded rationality would impact supply chain performance, it is necessary to explore how the individual decisions work in the supply chain. This paper investigates bullwhip effect variation and service level tendency while the decisions are made by different decision makers. Based on the existing study results, the paper establishes a system dynamics model of supply chain conforming to modern supply chain characters. In the model, two adjustment parameters are adopted to describe individual differences in decision makers. The simulation result demonstrates that the behavioral adjustment with different extent results in different supply chain performance. The impact of two parameters is very different. The decision makers should try to avoid the overadjustment to the scarcity of supply from their upstream member.

  6. Synthesis and role of salicylic acid in wheat varieties with different levels of cadmium tolerance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovács, Viktória; Gondor, Orsolya K.; Szalai, Gabriella; Darkó, Éva; Majláth, Imre; Janda, Tibor; Pál, Magda, E-mail: pal.magda@agrar.mta.hu

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • Cd induces the salicylic acid metabolism in wheat. • Salicylic acid is synthesized via benzoic acid and/or ortho-hydroxy-cinnamic acid. • Cd tolerance can be explained by the highly induced glutathione metabolism. • Salicylic acid signalling is correlated with glutathione-related mechanisms. - Abstract: Wheat genotypes with different endogenous SA contents were investigated, in order to reveal how cadmium influences salicylic acid (SA) synthesis, and to find possible relationships between SA and certain protective compounds (members of the antioxidants and the heavy metal detoxification system) and between the SA content and the level of cadmium tolerance. Cadmium exposure induced SA synthesis, especially in the leaves, and it is suggested that the phenyl-propanoid synthesis pathway is responsible for the accumulation of SA observed after cadmium stress. Cadmium influenced the synthesis and activation of protective compounds to varying extents in wheat genotypes with different levels of tolerance; the roots and leaves also responded differently to cadmium stress. Although a direct relationship was not found between the initial SA levels and the degree of cadmium tolerance, the results suggest that the increase in the root SA level during cadmium stress in the Mv varieties could be related with the enhancement of the internal glutathione cycle, thus inducing the antioxidant and metal detoxification systems, which promote Cd stress tolerance in wheat seedlings. The positive correlation between certain SA-related compounds and protective compounds suggests that SA-related signalling may also play a role in the acclimation to heavy metal stress.

  7. Quality in the pepper under different fertigation managements and levels of nitrogen and potassium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco de Assis de Oliveira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe rational use of nutrients is of fundamental importance for obtaining high productivity of high nutritional quality. This work was developed with the aim of evaluating the quality of pepper fruit grown under different fertigation managements and different levels of nitrogen and potassium. The experimental design was of randomised blocks in a 3 x 6 factorial scheme with four replications. The treatments resulted from the combination of three fertigation managements (M1-based on the rate of absorption; M2-monitoring the conductivity of the soil solution; M3-monitoring concentrations of N and K ions in the soil solution with six levels of N and K (N0K0, N50K50, N100K100, N150K150, N200K200 and N300K300 as a percentage of the recommended dosage for the crop under conventional fertigation (M1 or hydroponics (M2 and M3. Fruit quality was evaluated for the following characteristics: pH, soluble solids, titratable acidity, vitamin C content and the ratio of soluble solids to titratable acidity. The different fertigation managements only affected the levels of soluble solids (SS and titratable acidity (TA, reducing the SS and TA. The variables under study were adjusted for the levels of N and K using quadratic models.

  8. Synthesis and role of salicylic acid in wheat varieties with different levels of cadmium tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, Viktória; Gondor, Orsolya K; Szalai, Gabriella; Darkó, Eva; Majláth, Imre; Janda, Tibor; Pál, Magda

    2014-09-15

    Wheat genotypes with different endogenous SA contents were investigated, in order to reveal how cadmium influences salicylic acid (SA) synthesis, and to find possible relationships between SA and certain protective compounds (members of the antioxidants and the heavy metal detoxification system) and between the SA content and the level of cadmium tolerance. Cadmium exposure induced SA synthesis, especially in the leaves, and it is suggested that the phenyl-propanoid synthesis pathway is responsible for the accumulation of SA observed after cadmium stress. Cadmium influenced the synthesis and activation of protective compounds to varying extents in wheat genotypes with different levels of tolerance; the roots and leaves also responded differently to cadmium stress. Although a direct relationship was not found between the initial SA levels and the degree of cadmium tolerance, the results suggest that the increase in the root SA level during cadmium stress in the Mv varieties could be related with the enhancement of the internal glutathione cycle, thus inducing the antioxidant and metal detoxification systems, which promote Cd stress tolerance in wheat seedlings. The positive correlation between certain SA-related compounds and protective compounds suggests that SA-related signalling may also play a role in the acclimation to heavy metal stress.

  9. Analysis of Current Source PWM Inverter for Different Levels with No-Insulating Switching Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Abhishek

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives the new set-up of inverter having DC current source (CSI having no insulated switching device. In the proposed new CSI topology every switching device are connected across a common-source level, thus a single power supply gate drive circuit is required and no insulated power supply and the customary bootstrap circuit is applied. This CSI topology is even legitimate for utmost level of current waveform output, where the power switches number increases. As a turn up, gate drive complexity is reduced, and it also eliminates the cost of capacitors and transformers in switching devices, driver circuits. In addition, this new topology of current-source PWM inverter (CSI can operate even at utmost switching frequency, as every switches will be connected across a common source level. In this paper the different level of proposed CSI operation principle, its design using computer simulation (MATLAB with its total harmonic distortion (THD is analyzed. The computer simulation using MATLAB determines the feasibility of this topology with the analysis of different level which results in reduction of its complexity and the physical size.

  10. Zootechnical and economic performance indexes of milk production systems with different technological levels

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    Rodrigo de Andrade Ferrazza

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to estimate reference zootechnical and economic performance indexes, examine the influence of different technological levels on technical and economic results on dairy farms and identify the components that had higher representativeness on total and effective operational cost. Thirty-eight size, zootechnical and economic indicators of 61 milk production systems, grouped according to three technological levels, were analyzed. The data were collected during January 2002 to December 2011 period. It was adopted the structure of the operating cost and the total cost as methodology for calculating the costs. The results were compared by ANOVA test (normal distribution, complemented by LSD test, and Kruskal-Wallis test (non-normal distribution, also complemented by LSD test. The stratification of milk production systems according to technological level does not seem to be a good criterion to be used when it wants to make comparisons between different groups of producers, evidenced by the lack of statistical significance (P>0.05 in comparing of size and zootechnical indexes between low and medium technological level groups. Producers of high technological level made investments without proper analysis of return on investment and risk. The items of total and effective operational cost that had higher representativeness were, in descending order, feeding and labor.

  11. Locational differences in mercury and selenium levels in 19 species of saltwater fish from New Jersey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Joanna; Jeitner, Christian; Gochfeld, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Individuals who fish, and their families that ingest self-caught fish, make decisions about where to fish, what type of fish to eat, and the quantity of fish to eat. While federal and state agencies often issue consumption advisories for some fish with high mercury (Hg) concentrations, advisories seldom provide the actual metal levels to the general public. There are few data for most saltwater fish, and even less information on variations in Hg levels in fish within a state or geographical region. The objective of this study was to provide Hg concentrations from 19 species of fish caught in different locations in New Jersey to (1) test the hypothesis that mean metal levels vary geographically, (2) provide this information to individuals who fish these coastal waters, and (3) provide a range of values for risk assessors who deal with saltwater fish exposure in the Northeastern United States. Selenium (Se) was also examined because of its purported moderating effect on the toxicity of Hg. Hg levels showed significant geographical variation for 10 of 14 species that were caught in more than one region of New Jersey, but there were significant locational differences for Se in only 5 of the fish. Mercury levels were significantly lower in fish collected from northern New Jersey (except for ling, Molva molva), compared to other regions. As might be expected, locational differences in Hg levels were greatest for fish species with the highest Hg concentrations (shark, Isurus oxyrinchus; tuna, Thunnus thynnus and T. albacares; striped bass, Morone saxatilis; bluefish, Pomatomus saltatrix). Fishers and their families might reduce their risk from Hg exposure not only by selecting fish generally lower in Hg, but by fishing predominantly in some regions over others, further lowering the potential risk. Health professionals might use these data to advise patients on which fish are safest to consume (in terms of Hg exposure) from particular geographical regions.

  12. LEVEL OF COMPETENCIES OF FAMILY PHYSICIANS IN KOSOVO FROM DIFFERENT PERSPECTIVES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojaj, Gazmend; Skeraj, Fitim; Czabanowska, Katarzyna; Burazeri, Genc

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this analysis was to compare the level of self-perceived competencies of primary health care physicians in Kosovo with patients' viewpoint, as well as the necessary (required) level of such competencies from decision-makers' standpoint. Three cross-sectional studies were carried out in Kosovo in 2013 including: i) a representative sample of 1340 primary health care users aged ≥18 years (49% men; overall mean age: 50.5±17.9 years; response rate: 89%); ii) a representative sample of 597 primary health care physicians (49% men; overall mean age: 46.0±9.4 years; response rate: 90%), and; iii) a nationwide representative sample of 100 decision-makers operating at different primary health care institutions or public health agencies in Kosovo (63% men; mean age: 47.7±5.7 years). A structured self-administered questionnaire (consisting of 37 items) was used in the three surveys in order to assess physicians' competencies regarding different domains of the quality of health care. There was a significant gap in the level of self-perceived physicians' competencies and patients' perspective in transitional Kosovo. Furthermore, there was a gap in the level of self-perceived physicians' competencies and the necessary (required) level of physicians' competencies from decision-makers perspective which was less evident in Prishtina, but considerable in the other regions of Kosovo. Our analysis provides valuable evidence about the level of competencies of primary health care physicians in Kosovo from different stakeholders' perspectives. There is an urgent need for continuous professional development of family physicians in post-war Kosovo.

  13. VARIATION IN FOOTBALL PLAYERS' SPRINT TEST PERFORMANCE ACROSS DIFFERENT AGES AND LEVELS OF COMPETITION

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    Jaime Sampaio

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare sprint test performance performed by football players of different ages and levels of competition. One hundred and forty six Portuguese players from different teams completed the test (seven maximal sprints interspersed with 25 s active recovery. A 6 (level of competition: 1st national division, 2nd national division, 1st regional division, sub 16, sub 14, sub 12 7 (sprint trial: sprint 1, sprint 2, sprint 3, sprint 4, sprint 5, sprint 6, sprint 7 repeated measures ANOVA was carried out on subjects sprint times. The main effect of level of competition was statistically significant, F(5, 140 = 106.28, p < 0.001. Subjects from 1st national division were significantly faster than subjects from 2nd national division; subjects from 1st regional division obtained similar performances when compared to sub 16 and sub 14 level; subjects from sub 12 level were the slowest. The main effect of sprint trial was also statistically significant, F (6, 840 = 7.37, p < 0.001. Mean sprint times from the first trial were significantly slower than mean sprint times from the second, third and fourth trial. Results from the fifth, sixth and seventh trials were slower, denoting a decrement in performance. The two main effects were qualified by a significant level of competition x sprint trial interaction, F (30, 840 = 9.47 p < 0.001, identifying markedly different performance profiles. Coaches should be aware that normative data regarding this test can play a very important role if used frequently and consistently during the whole season.

  14. Growth and survival of Hippocampus erectus (Perry, 1810 juveniles fed on Artemia with different HUFA levels

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    Nicolás Vite-Garcia

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Survival during first months after birth is one of the bottlenecks for consolidating the seahorse farming industry. In this work, Artemia metanauplii enriched with two highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA rich commercial emulsions with different docosahexaenoic acid (DHA levels (63% and 14% of total lipids, a vegetable oil with no DHA, and non-enriched Artemia as control, were used to feed 5-day-old juvenile Hippocampus erectus for 60 days. Enriched Artemia had similar levels of DHA (13% and 9%, despite great differences of DHA in the emulsions, with traces of DHA in non-enriched and vegetable oil enriched Artemia. More than 20% of DHA was found in 24 h starved juveniles fed both DHA-enriched treatments, similar to values in newly born juveniles, but those fed vegetable oil enriched Artemia or non-enriched Artemia had 5% of DHA. Total lipid and protein levels were similar in juveniles from the four treatments. The n-3/n-6 ratio was almost four-fold higher in seahorses fed DHA-enriched treatments compared to juveniles fed the non-enriched treatments. Survival of seahorses only partially reflected the DHA levels: it was lower in the vegetable oil treatment, similar in the seahorses fed Artemia with higher DHA and in the control treatment, and higher in seahorses fed the HUFA-enriched Artemia with lower DHA levels, although growth was similar in the two DHA-enriched Artemia treatments. Juvenile H. erectus seahorses perform better when they have at least 20% of DHA in their tissues, and these levels can be attained with no more than 14% of DHA in emulsions, eliminating the need for more expensive emulsions with higher DHA levels.

  15. Physical fitness of primary school children in the reflection of different levels of gross motor coordination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Ružbarská

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lower level of motor competences may result in unsuccessful engaging of children in physical activities as early as pre-school age and also prepubescent ages. This may subsequently lead to a spiral of forming negative attitudes towards an active lifestyle and may be accompanied by a negative trend in weight status and physical fitness outcomes. Objective: The aim of the study was to identify and analyze differences in physical fitness and somatic parameters of primary school-aged children according to level of their gross motor coordination. Methods:  A sample of 436 children aged 7 to 10 years, of which were 222 girls and 214 boys, performed physical fitness tests - Eurofit test battery. The level of motor coordination was assessed using the test battery Körperkoordination-Test-für-Kinder (KTK. The anthropometric data (body mass, body height, sum of five skinfolds were measured. The one-way ANOVA was used to assess differences in physical fitness test items and anthropometry parameters between children with normal motor quotient (MQ ≥ 86 and decreased levels of gross motor coordination (MQ ≤ 85. Results: Research findings indicate a strongly negative trend in physical development of children with motor deficits (MQ ≤ 85. The results of ANOVA revealed significantly less favourable level of most of the assessed physical fitness parameters in children with decreased level of motor coordination. Conclusions: The findings suggest that physical fitness outcomes of primary school-aged children are associated with a lower level of motor coordination. Motor coordination probably plays an important role in preventing, or moderating the so-called negative trajectory leading to childhood overweight or obesity.

  16. Different Levels of DNA Methylation Detected in Human Sperms after Morphological Selection Using High Magnification Microscopy

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    Nino Guy Cassuto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To analyze DNA methylation levels between two groups of spermatozoa taken from the same sample, following morphological selection by high magnification (HM at 6100x microscopy. A prospective study was conducted and studied 876 spermatozoa from 10 randomly selected men. Sperm morphology was characterized at HM according to criteria previously established. High-scoring Score 6 and low-scoring Score 0 sperm were selected. Sperm DNA methylation level was assessed using an immunoassay method targeting 5-methylcytosine residues by fluorescence microscopy with imaging analysis system to detect DNA methylation in single spermatozoon. Results. In total, 448 S6 spermatozoa and 428 S0 spermatozoa were analyzed. A strong relationship was found between sperm DNA methylation levels and sperm morphology observed at HM. Sperm DNA methylation level in the S6 group was significantly lower compared with that in the S0 group (p<10-6, OR = 2.4; and p<0.001, as determined using the Wilcoxon test. Conclusion. Differences in DNA methylation levels are associated with sperm morphology variations as observed at HM, which allows spermatozoa with abnormal levels to be discarded and ultimately decrease birth defects, malformations, and epigenetic diseases that may be transmitted from sperm to offspring in ICSI.

  17. Different Levels of DNA Methylation Detected in Human Sperms after Morphological Selection Using High Magnification Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassuto, Nino Guy; Montjean, Debbie; Siffroi, Jean-Pierre; Bouret, Dominique; Marzouk, Flora; Copin, Henri; Benkhalifa, Moncef

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To analyze DNA methylation levels between two groups of spermatozoa taken from the same sample, following morphological selection by high magnification (HM) at 6100x microscopy. A prospective study was conducted and studied 876 spermatozoa from 10 randomly selected men. Sperm morphology was characterized at HM according to criteria previously established. High-scoring Score 6 and low-scoring Score 0 sperm were selected. Sperm DNA methylation level was assessed using an immunoassay method targeting 5-methylcytosine residues by fluorescence microscopy with imaging analysis system to detect DNA methylation in single spermatozoon. Results. In total, 448 S6 spermatozoa and 428 S0 spermatozoa were analyzed. A strong relationship was found between sperm DNA methylation levels and sperm morphology observed at HM. Sperm DNA methylation level in the S6 group was significantly lower compared with that in the S0 group (p < 10−6), OR = 2.4; and p < 0.001, as determined using the Wilcoxon test. Conclusion. Differences in DNA methylation levels are associated with sperm morphology variations as observed at HM, which allows spermatozoa with abnormal levels to be discarded and ultimately decrease birth defects, malformations, and epigenetic diseases that may be transmitted from sperm to offspring in ICSI. PMID:27148551

  18. The effect of food with different glycaemic index on the blood glucose level

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    Lenka Kouřimská

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Blood glucose levels are affected by many factors including the type of foods consumed, processing technology and cooking method. Hormone insulin lowers blood glucose to its constant level, while glucagon, growth hormone, adrenalin and glucocorticoids have the opposite effect. High steepness of the blood glucose level rise after meals may be unfavourable for the organism. Sugars are transferred into the blood at different speeds according to the type of food. Therefore the aim of this study was to confirm experimentally the effect of food on blood glucose levels in men and women of different ages. Two types of low, medium and high-glycaemic index (GI foods were given to 4 men and 4 women of different age (from 35 to 65 years. All volunteers were healthy, slightly overweight, and without any regular sporting activity. None of them had any idea about their daily carbohydrates consumption and what the term glycaemic index meant. The volunteers came to the GI determination fasted in the morning. Their rise in blood glucose level was monitored by glucometer before the meal and after 1 and 2 hours of the consumption of baked potatoes (GI 85, white bread bun (GI 70, boiled potatoes (GI 64, rye bread (GI 62, potato dumplings (GI 52 and white cooked spaghetti (GI 41. Fasting blood sugar levels of volunteers highly depended on their age (p <0.0001 and gender (p <0.0001. The blood glucose values increased with age and were higher in men than in women. Significant influence of food GI on blood glucose levels in both men and women in all the age categories was observed (p <0.0001. An interaction between age and gender was also statistically highly significant (p <0.0001. One hour after consuming food the blood glucose values were significantly different from the values of fasting (p = 0.0035. The differences of these values did not depend on the age (p = 0.0574 and sex (p = 0.8256 of volunteers, but there was a significant difference on the GI value of food

  19. Gender difference of alanine aminotransferase elevation may be associated with higher hemoglobin levels among male adolescents.

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    Solomon Chih-Cheng Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To explore the gender difference of ALT elevation and its association with high hemoglobin levels. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 3547 adolescents (2005 females, mean age of 16.5?.3 years who were negative for hepatitis B surface antigen received health checkups in 2006. Body mass index (BMI, levels of hemoglobin, ALT and cholesterol were measured. ALT >42 U/L was defined as elevated ALT. Elevated ALT levels were detected in 112 of the 3547 participants (3.3%, more prevalent in males than in females (5.4% vs. 1.4%, p11 g/dl in females or >13.5 g/dl in males, but the cumulative cases of elevated ALT increased more quickly in males. Proportion of elevated ALT increased as either the BMI or hemoglobin level rise, more apparent in male adolescents. Logistic regression modeling showed odds ratio (95% confidence interval were 24.7 (15.0-40.6 for BMI ≥27 kg/m(2; 5.5 (2.9-10.4 for BMI 24-27 kg/m(2; 2.7 (1.3-5.5 for Q5 (top 20th percentile hemoglobin level; and 2.6 (1.6-4.1 for male gender. Further separately fitting the logistic models for two genders, the significance of Q5 hemoglobin level only appeared in the males. CONCLUSIONS: High hemoglobin level is a significant risk factor of ALT elevation after control hepatitis B, obesity and gender. Males have greater risk of abnormal liver function which may be associated with higher hemoglobin levels.

  20. Ethnic differences in integration levels and return migration intentions: A study of Estonian migrants in Finland

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    Kristi Anniste

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Immigrants' desire to stay in the host country or return to the country of origin depends largely on the balance between their degree of integration in the host country and their level of attachment to the country of origin. Ethnic diversity is growing rapidly in European countries, including in migrant-sending countries. It may be expected that members of the ethnic minority population and the majority population have different degrees of willingness to engage in return migration depending on their different levels of attachment to their country of origin. Objective: This study examines differences in the return migration intentions of members of the ethnic minority population and members of the majority population in the sending country. Specifically, we seek to answer two main research questions: (1 To what extent do members of the sending country's ethnic minority and majority groups differ in their desire to return to the sending country? (2 How does the degree of integration in the host country shape differences in the return migration intentions of members of the sending country's ethnic minority and majority groups? Methods: We use representative survey data on Estonian migrants in Finland and apply binary logistic regression on our data. Results: Results suggest that there are important differences in the integration levels and in the return migration intentions of the ethnic Estonians and the ethnic Russians from Estonia living in Finland. Despite being much better integrated into Finnish society than ethnic Russians, the ethnic Estonians are much more likely to want to return to Estonia. Indeed, our study shows that ethnicity is one of the most important personal characteristics predicting return migration. Conclusions: There is no obvious negative relationship between integration and return migration. Being a member of the sending country majority population is associated with a stronger intention to return, even when the

  1. Gene flow among populations of two rare co-occurring fern species differing in ploidy level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucharová, Anna; Münzbergová, Zuzana

    2012-01-01

    Differences in ploidy levels among different fern species have a vast influence on their mating system, their colonization ability and on the gene flow among populations. Differences in the colonization abilities of species with different ploidy levels are well known: tetraploids, in contrast to diploids, are able to undergo intra-gametophytic selfing. Because fertilization is a post-dispersal process in ferns, selfing results in better colonization abilities in tetraploids because of single spore colonization. Considerably less is known about the gene flow among populations of different ploidy levels. The present study examines two rare fern species that differ in ploidy. While it has already been confirmed that tetraploid species are better at colonizing, the present study focuses on the gene flow among existing populations. We analyzed the genetic structure of a set of populations in a 10×10 km study region using isoenzymes. Genetic variation in tetraploid species is distributed mainly among populations; the genetic distance between populations is correlated with the geographical distance, and larger populations host more genetic diversity than smaller populations. In the diploid species, most variability is partitioned within populations; the genetic distance is not related to geographic distance, and the genetic diversity of populations is not related to the population size. This suggests that in tetraploid species, which undergo selfing, gene flow is limited. In contrast, in the diploid species, which experience outcrossing, gene flow is extensive and the whole system behaves as one large population. Our results suggest that in ferns, the ability to colonize new habitats and the gene flow among existing populations are affected by the mating system.

  2. Reversibility of endocrine disruption in zebrafish (Danio rerio) - comparison of different effect levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumann, Lisa; Holbech, Henrik; Schiller, V.S.;

    -term effects on populations, it is essential to know whether such EDC-related effects are reversible. Three different substances selected for different modes of action were tested for their long-term impact on sex ratio, gonadal development, vitellogenin (VTG) induction and aromatase activity in zebrafish...... to estrogens. All compounds have previously been shown to cause striking effects in zebrafish, but recovery has never been studied in detail. In order to test whether EDC-related effects are reversible, an exposure scenario limited to 60 d was followed by (a) a recovery period of 40 d or (b) continued exposure...... of effects at all levels, but clear-cut differences between the two different exposure groups. We conclude that endocrine disruption in zebrafish following discontinuous exposure is only partially reversible and may thus have serious implications for fish....

  3. Sensory acceptance and survival of probiotic bacteria in ice cream produced with different overrun levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraz, Juliana L; Cruz, Adriano G; Cadena, Rafael S; Freitas, Monica Q; Pinto, Uelinton M; Carvalho, Celio C; Faria, Jose A F; Bolini, Helena M A

    2012-01-01

    The effect of different overrun levels on the sensory acceptance and survival of probiotic bacteria in ice cream was investigated. Vanilla ice creams supplemented with Lactobacillus acidophilus were processed with overruns of 45%, 60%, and 90%. Viable probiotic bacterial counts and sensory acceptance were assessed. All the ice creams presented a minimum count of 6 log CFU/g at the end of 60 d of frozen storage. However, higher overrun levels negatively influenced cell viability, being reported a decrease of 2 log CFU/g for the 90% overrun treatment. In addition, it was not reported an influence about acceptability with respect to appearance, aroma, and taste of the ice creams (P > 0.05). Overall, the results suggest that lower overrun levels should be adopted during the manufacture of ice cream in order to maintain its probiotic status through the shelf life.

  4. Influence of Different Genotypes on Trypsin Inhibitor Levels and Activity in Soybeans

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    Viktor A. Nedovic

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the relationship between the two major trypsin inhibitors (TI in soybean, i.e., the Kunitz (KTI and Bowman-Birk (BBI trypsin inhibitors, as well as between them and the corresponding trypsin inhibitor activity (TIA. Twelve investigated soybean genotypes showed significant differences in TI levels and TIA. A very strong positive correlation was found between the levels of KTI and total BBI (r = 0.94, P < 0.05. No relationship was found between KTI, BBI or total TI and TIA. Based on this data, it appears that the levels of major TI in soybean are related. Understanding the relationship between trypsin inhibitors and their activities could be useful for further improvement of the health impacts of soy proteins.

  5. Carcass characteristics and meat quality of heavy swine fed different citrus pulp levels

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    P.H. Watanabe

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available An assay with 36 swine initially weighting 83.7±5.1kg body weight (BW was carried out to evaluate the effects of the use of different dietary citrus pulp levels, 0, 10%, 20%, and 30%, upon digestive organs weights, carcass characteristics, and meat quality of animals subjected to qualitative feed restriction program, and slaughtered at 130kg BW. Linear response (P0.05. Higher levels of citrus pulp neither decreased backfat thickness nor increased amount of lean meat, indicative that qualitative feed restriction was not efficient. Positive linear effect (P<0.05 on pH measured 24 hours after slaughter and negative linear effect (P<0.05 on color characteristics as function of citrus pulp dietary levels were verified. Citrus pulp addition in qualitative feed restriction program may not be effective. As no deleterious effects upon meat qualities were observed, citrus pulp can be used as an alternative feedstuff for finishing swine.

  6. Level of choreographic preparedness of sportsmen of different age groups in sports aerobics

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    Valentina Todorova

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: the analysis of choreographic preparedness of different age groups of sportsmen on sports aerobics. Material & Methods: videos of competitive programs of the sportsmen, who are specialized in aerobics, different age groups, method of expert evaluations are used for the quantitative analysis of choreographic preparedness; methods of mathematical analysis and synthesis are used for the determination of level of choreographic preparedness of sportsmen. Results: the level of choreographic preparedness is determined on the basis of the rating scale of the criteria of implementation of the competitive programs (Competition rules of 2013–2016 of teams-participants of the Championship of Ukraine for sports aerobics. Conclusions: indicators, to which it is necessary to pay attention in the course of choreographic preparation at stages of long-term training of sportsmen, are defined.

  7. Parasitosis gastrointestinal and hematocrit value in ewe fed with different levels of crude protein

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    Francisco de Assis Fonseca de Macedo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the parasitological behavior of sheep females fed with different levels of crude protein, by the value of hematocrit and egg counts per gram of feces (EPG in identifying severely infected animals. Were used 47 female sheep of Santa Ines, Texel and Ile de France, aged between eight and 12 months, wormed 30 days before the first data of crops, which were held every two weeks. Within each race, the animals were divided into two treatments, deferred by 12% or 16%, crude protein in the diet. It is obtained, laboratory, the value of hematocrit of each animal and the amount of EPG. The value of hematocrit showed a variation (28.5 a 34.0 throughout the experimental period, arising from changes (800 a 5400 of EPG values. No differences were identified for EPG and hematocrit levels between 12 and 16% of PB. Diet recommendation with 12% crude protein, by inferring lower commercial cost in feed.

  8. Nitrogen removal and microbial characteristics in CANON biofilters fed with different ammonia levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yuhai; Li, Dong; Zhang, Xiaojing; Zeng, Huiping; Yang, Zhuo; Cui, Shaoming; Zhang, Jie

    2014-11-01

    The nitrogen removal performance and microbial characteristics of four completely autotrophic nitrogen removal over nitrite (CANON) biofilters were investigated. These four reactors were simultaneously seeded from a stable CANON biofilter with a seeding ratio of 1:1, which were fed with different ammonia levels. Results suggested that with the ammonia of 200-400 mg L(-1), aerobic ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AerAOB) and anaerobic ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AnAOB) could perform harmonious work. The bioactivity and population of the two groups of bacteria were both high, which then resulted in excellent nitrogen removal, while too low or too high ammonia would both lead to worse performance. When ammonia was too high, the bioactivity, biodiversity and population of AerAOB all decreased and then resulted in the lowest nitrogen removal. Nitrosomonas and Candidatus Brocadia were detected as predominant functional microbes in all the four reactors. Finally, strategies for treating sewage with different ammonia levels were proposed.

  9. Determination of Glucose Levels during Dialysis Treatment: Different Sensors and Technologies

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    Stefano Sbrignadello

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The measurement of glycemia in subjects with renal failure, thus treated with hemodialysis, or peritoneal dialysis, is clinically relevant, since glucose levels may influence the determination of other solutes, such as creatinine, as well as some ions, such as sodium, whose degree of removal during dialysis sessions should be controlled carefully. Also, glucose levels should be controlled to avoid possible events of hypoglycemia during the treatment, especially in diabetic subjects. Indeed, even cases of hypoglycemic coma are documented. The glucose measurement during the dialysis treatment can be performed with different sensors and technologies: for instance, with traditional glucose meters, with instruments for continuous glucose monitoring, or with optical sensors. The aim of this review study was to analyze these different approaches and briefly discuss possible advantages and limitations.

  10. Differences in academic achievement according to the levels of cognitive and of self-regulation strategies

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    Antonio Valle

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Understanding study as a strategic and self-regulated activity and having in mind the distinction between cognitive and self-regulated learning strategies suggested in the literature, this paper analyses whether the differences in the use of this kind of strategies leads to different levels of academic achievement. Data were collected using a sample of 447 (12 to 16 years-old students from Spanish Secondary Compulsive Education. Various instruments were applied to assess students’ cognitive and self-regulated learning strategies. Students’ marks in Maths, Spanish, English (Foreign language, Science, Social studies and Music were taken as indicators of academic achievement. Data suggest that the more students use cognitive and self-regulated learning strategies in a specifi c subject the better their level of achievement in that same subject.

  11. Peculiarities of brain electric activity in young males and females of different creativity levels

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    Ermakov, Pavel N.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article shows that the peculiarities of divergent and convergent thinking in young males and females of various creativity levels are stipulated by a definite EEG frequency-and-spatial arrangement. Young males and females of mixed and left lateral arrangement profiles demonstrate an expressed activity of occipital, central, and temporal areas of both cerebral hemispheres. In young males and females of right LAP (lateral arrangement profile, connections are clearly localized in case of solution of both convergent and divergent tasks. Solution of divergent and convergent tasks may condition certain frequency-and-spatial arrangement of EEG in young males and females with different levels of academic progress and a different lateral arrangement profile (LAP.

  12. Physical development of primary class students with different level of educational achievements

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    Kravchuk Y.I.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The research results show that the length, weight and chest circumference are within age norms. Indicators of pupil's physical development are constantly but unevenly growing, which is conditioned by physiological mechanisms of pubescent period. Physical development of pupils with different level of educational achievements does not differ significantly. Therefore, we may state that the indicators of height and weight of primary class pupils do not significantly affect the grades in physical training and do not regulate the quality of exercises performance.

  13. Plasma corticosterone levels in laying hens from three different housing systems: preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giampaolo Asdrubali

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Adrenocortical and thyroidal hormones are physiological indicators of various forms of stress in the fowl. In order to establish possible variations in corticosterone levels, blood samples were collected from ISA Brown hens reared in three different housing systems (cage, floor and organic way. Results showed that corticosterone concentrations were highest in caged hens, intermediate in organic reared hens and lowest in floor reared hens. It could be assumed that in the last one system birds have an adequate space in controlled environment that permits them to satisfy, though partially, their behavioural needs without the presence of different chronic stress factors acting in the other systems.

  14. Does Higher Education Level the Playing Field? Socio-Economic Differences in Graduate Earnings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Crawford

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Education—and in particular higher education—is often regarded as a route to social mobility. For this to be the case, however, the link between family background and adult outcomes must be broken (or at least reduced once we take account of an individual’s education history. This paper provides new evidence on differences in graduates’ earnings by socio-economic background, exploiting rich individual-level data to account for more of the ways in which graduates from different socio-economic backgrounds differ from each other than has been possible in previous research on this topic. We continue to find significant differences between the earnings of graduates from lower and higher socio-economic backgrounds, even after accounting for a rich array of characteristics, skills and experiences from before individuals went to university, as well as their labour market experiences subsequently. These results suggest that it is not enough simply to encourage more young people to go to university, or even to ensure that they graduate with “good” degrees; policymakers interested in increasing social mobility also need to focus on what happens to them once they leave university to ensure that higher education is truly able to “level the playing field” between those from different socio-economic backgrounds.

  15. Variation in low-frequency estimates of sound levels based on different units of analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Russell S; Miksis-Olds, Jennifer L; Smith, Chad M

    2014-02-01

    The measurement and analysis of underwater sound is a complicated process because of the variable durations of contributing sources and constantly changing water column dynamics. Because the ambient sound distribution does not always follow a Gaussian structure and may be nonstationary in time, analysis over an extended period is required to accurately characterize the data. Utilizing recordings from the Indian Ocean, the temporal variation in ambient sound including transient signals was examined using multiple processing window lengths and subsampling intervals. Results illustrate the degree of uncertainty in sound levels based on different units of analysis. The average difference between sound level estimates in the 10-30 Hz band due to subsampling was 2 dB and as high as 4 dB. The difference in the full band (5-110 Hz) was as high as 6 dB. Longer averaging windows (200 vs 60 s) resulted in larger variations over different subsampling intervals. This work demonstrates how sampling protocols within a single dataset can influence results and acknowledges that comparative studies at the same location but with different sampling protocols can be substantial if signal processing parameters are not statistically accounted for to confirm interpretation of results and observed trends.

  16. High content analysis at single cell level identifies different cellular responses dependent on nanomaterial concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manshian, Bella B; Munck, Sebastian; Agostinis, Patrizia; Himmelreich, Uwe; Soenen, Stefaan J

    2015-09-08

    A mechanistic understanding of nanomaterial (NM) interaction with biological environments is pivotal for the safe transition from basic science to applied nanomedicine. NM exposure results in varying levels of internalized NM in different neighboring cells, due to variances in cell size, cell cycle phase and NM agglomeration. Using high-content analysis, we investigated the cytotoxic effects of fluorescent quantum dots on cultured cells, where all effects were correlated with the concentration of NMs at the single cell level. Upon binning the single cell data into different categories related to NM concentration, this study demonstrates, for the first time, that quantum dots activate both cytoprotective and cytotoxic mechanisms, resulting in a zero net result on the overall cell population, yet with significant effects in cells with higher cellular NM levels. Our results suggest that future NM cytotoxicity studies should correlate NM toxicity with cellular NM numbers on the single cell level, as conflicting mechanisms in particular cell subpopulations are commonly overlooked using classical toxicological methods.

  17. Municipal Solid Waste Characterization according to Different Income Levels: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huseyin Kurtulus Ozcan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Solid waste generation and characterization are some of the most important parameters which affect environmental sustainability. Municipal solid waste (MSW characterization depends on social structure and income levels. This study aims to determine the variations in waste components within MSW mass by income levels and seasonal conditions following the analysis conducted on the characterization of solid wastes produced in the Kartal district of the province of Istanbul, which is the research area of this study. To this end, 1.9 tons of solid waste samples were collected to represent four different lifestyles (high, medium, and low income levels, and downtown in the winter and summer periods, and characterization was made on these samples. In order to support waste characterization, humidity content and calorific value analyses were also conducted and various suggestions were brought towards waste management in line with the obtained findings. According to the results obtained in the study, organic waste had the highest rate of waste mass by 57.69%. Additionally, significant differences were found in municipal solid waste components (MSWC based on income level. Average moisture content (MC of solid waste samples was 71.1% in moisture analyses. The average of calorific (heating value (HHV was calculated as 2518.5 kcal·kg−1.

  18. Different sodium levels and electrolyte balances in pre-starter diets for broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Maiorka

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available An experiment with 400 one-day-old male chicks (Ross was conducted to evaluate the effects of different Na levels (0.10, 0.22, 0.34 and 0.46% and different cation/anion balances (Na+K-Cl (100, 150, 200, 250 and 300 meq/kg in pre-starter diets on broiler performance. The corn and soybean-based diets had 22% crude protein and 2,900 kcal/kg metabolizable energy and were fed ad libitum. Performance data showed a positive quadratic effect of increasing Na levels on feed and water consumption, weight gain and feed conversion. Na+K-Cl also had a quadratic influence on feed intake and weight gain. None of the effects tested affected the amount of water measured in excreta. Derivatives of obtained regression equations pointed to optimal Na levels of 0.45% for water consumption, 0.40% for feed intake and weight gain and 0.38% for feed conversion. As to the effect of dietary Na+K-Cl balances on performance, regression equation values were 174 meq/kg for feed consumption and 163 meq/kg for weight gain. These results show that both Na level and Na+K-Cl balance interfere on broiler performance.

  19. Associations of monocyte miRNA levels with different kinds of heart failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG FAN-fang; WANG Li-li; LONG Juan; JI Jun; YI Wen-ya; LUO Ying

    2016-01-01

    Background Although miRNAs have been shown to associate with a variety of diseases,whether miRNAs in monocyte associate heart failure (HF) has been not well studied.Methods Eight patients with ischemic HF (IHF),8 patients with non-ischemic HF (NIHF) and 8 healthy volunteers were recruited.Clinical characteristics of all participants were collected.Peripheral blood samples were drawn for analysis of miRNA expression in monocytes.Results All participants were male and the participants in IHF group were older and had higher percentage of smoker and diabetes mellitus than in the other two groups (P < 0.05).Serum levels of creatinine and NT-proBNP were significantly higher in IHF patients compared to the other two groups (P < 0.05).More participants in IHF group were treated with ACEI/ARB,beta-blocker and statins.Participants with NYHA grade Ⅲ accounted for 62.5% in IHF group,while participants with NYHA grade Ⅳ accounted for 87.5% in NIHF group.The levels of 11 miRNAs in monocytes were significantly higher in the IHF group,and the levels of 7 miRNAs were significantly increased in the NIHF group.Other differences in miRNAs levels between IHF and NIHF groups were also observed.Conclusion our present study revealed that there are substantial differences in miRNAs between HF patients and healthy volunteer.

  20. High content analysis at single cell level identifies different cellular responses dependent on nanomaterial concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manshian, Bella B.; Munck, Sebastian; Agostinis, Patrizia; Himmelreich, Uwe; Soenen, Stefaan J.

    2015-09-01

    A mechanistic understanding of nanomaterial (NM) interaction with biological environments is pivotal for the safe transition from basic science to applied nanomedicine. NM exposure results in varying levels of internalized NM in different neighboring cells, due to variances in cell size, cell cycle phase and NM agglomeration. Using high-content analysis, we investigated the cytotoxic effects of fluorescent quantum dots on cultured cells, where all effects were correlated with the concentration of NMs at the single cell level. Upon binning the single cell data into different categories related to NM concentration, this study demonstrates, for the first time, that quantum dots activate both cytoprotective and cytotoxic mechanisms, resulting in a zero net result on the overall cell population, yet with significant effects in cells with higher cellular NM levels. Our results suggest that future NM cytotoxicity studies should correlate NM toxicity with cellular NM numbers on the single cell level, as conflicting mechanisms in particular cell subpopulations are commonly overlooked using classical toxicological methods.

  1. The effect of applying different water levels and irrigation frequencies in propagating rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Giovanni Álvarez Herrera

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Rosemary seedlings are obtained by vegetative propagation because the seeds present low viability. Despite being an expanding crop, there is little information on water consumption during the propagation stage. Water levels and irrigation frequencies were therefore applied using a completely randomised design having a 4 x 2 factorial arrangement. The first factor concerned irrigation frequency (4 and 8 days and the second concerned water level (0.6, 0.8, 1.0 and 1.2 evaporation inside the greenhouse. A 1.0 coefficient combined with 4-day irrigation frequency presented the best results regarding height (39.3 cm, fresh weight, dry weight and branch length (146 cm. Water level affected the fresh and dry weight of leaves regardless of frequency. Relative water content in leaves did not present differences due to environmental conditions minimising treatment effect. Rooting percent- tage showed no significant differences regarding irrigation frequency or water level. Irrigation frequency did not affect rosemary growing pattern because sphagnum retains high moisture content. The best branch number (34 was obtained with 1.0 coefficient and 4-day frequency, this being important from the production point of view because this is the material which is sold. Water management changes photoassimilate distribution in rosemary plants.

  2. Serum Levels of Tryptophan, 5-Hydroxytryptophan and Serotonin in Patients Affected with Different Forms of Amenorrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Comai

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Tryptophan (Trp is present in the serum, partly bound to albumine and in the free form. The unbound portion of circulating tryptophan has the property of crossing the hematoencephalic barrier and being converted within the brain into serotonin (5-HT through the enzymatic processes of hydroxylation and decarboxylation. The serotoninergic system plays an important role in neuroendocrine control of reproductive hormone secretion, and in particular, it may influence GnRH pulsatility, a function essential for reproductive processes. In this study, we analysed serum levels of tryptophan, serotonin and 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP in women with three different forms of amenorrhea: 16 patients were diagnosed with anorexia nervosa, 60 patients with functional hypothalamic amenorrhea, and 14 patients with hyperprolactinemia. Data were compared with those of a group of 25 healthy women. Serum Trp levels were significantly (P ≤ 0.05 lower in the anorexic (11.64 ± 0.53 µg/ml, mean ± S.E. than in the control (12.98 ± 0.37 µg/ml groups. In addition, in the anorexic group a statistical dispersion of Trp values was shown indicating a bimodal data distribution suggesting the existence of two different subgroups of patients. Regarding 5-HTP, an increase of its serum level was observed in all the groups with amenorrhea with the highest value in hyperprolactinemic patients. On the contrary, no statistical differences in serum 5-HT levels among the four analyzed groups were observed. This study shows that women affected by various forms of amenorrhea present an altered metabolism of tryptophan via serotonin and, in particular, markedly high differences are observed between the two subgroups of anorexic patients.

  3. EVALUATION OF BPA LEVELS RELEASED FROM DIFFERENT DENTAL RESTORATIVE MATERIALS USING HPLC METHOD

    OpenAIRE

    ASCİ, Ali; DERELİOGLU, Sera Simsek; YİLMAZ, Bilal; GURBUZ, Taskin; SONGUR, Fatma

    2017-01-01

    Bisphenol A(BPA) is a chemical produced in large quantities for use primarily in theproduction of polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins. BPA is also present indental materials used to treat and prevent caries. There have been concernsraised regarding the safety of bisphenol A in dental sealants and composites.The aim of the study is to measure BPA levels which were released fromcomposite resins after curing with different polymerization conditions. Fourcomposite resins which are commonly us...

  4. Environmental determinants of different Blood Lead Levels in children: a quantile analysis from a nationwide survey.

    OpenAIRE

    Etchevers, Anne; Le Tertre, Alain; Lucas, Jean-Paul; Bretin, Philippe; Oulhote, Youssef; Le Bot, Barbara; Glorennec, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Background: Blood Lead Levels (BLLs) have substantially decreased in recent decades in children in France. However, further reducing exposure is a public health goal because there is no clear toxicological threshold. The identification of the environmental determinants of BLLs as well as risk factors associated with high BLLs is important to update prevention strategies. We aimed to estimate the contribution of environmental sources of lead to different BLLs in childre...

  5. Assessment of Fluoride Levels in Different Brands of Black and Green Tea Consumed in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Mojarad, F.; E. Khanlary

    2013-01-01

    Introduction & Objective: Tea is one of the most commonly consumed drinks in the world. Tea is recognized as a source of fluoride whose intake may increase the risk of developing dental fluorosis, particularly if other sources of fluoride augment the intake. Since the amount of fluoride in different types of tea consumed in our country is unknown, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the fluoride level of 22 commercial brands of tea popular in Iran. Materials & Methods: This descriptive ...

  6. Effect of Different Levels of Zinc on the Performance and Humoral Immunity Response in Broiler Chicken

    OpenAIRE

    S Sharbatdar; M Shamse Shargh; A Hesabi Namaghi; S. Hasani; R Hadadian

    2012-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of different levels of zinc on the performance and humoral immunity response in broiler chickens with 250 Ross broiler chickens with five experimental treatments consisted of five replicates in a completely randomized design. Treatments were diets containing: basal diet (control) and basal diet plus 40, 80, 120 and 160 mg Zn/kg. Results of the experiment indicated that birds were fed on diets containing 120 mg Zn/kg and control showed the ...

  7. Effects of breakfast with different calorigenic amounts on blood glucose, insulin and glucagon levels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Su-xia(黄素霞); FU Yun-xing(傅运兴); WANG Hui-ming(王慧铭); GIANG Sylvia

    2003-01-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the relationship between breakfast and serum glucose, insulin and glucagon concentrations in order to establish a model breakfast appropriate for Chinese. Twenty-four volunteers were randomly assigned to four study groups: high carbohydrate breakfast, high fat and protein breakfast, the typical breakfast and fasting. Each subject had serum and urine samples collected while fasting and at 1,2 and 3.5 hours following the meal. The concentration of serum glucose, insulin and glucagon was measured. The levels of serum glucose in group A,B and C differed significantly at 1 and 2 hour after meal compared to those at fasting (P<0.05). The serum glucose in group A increased insignificantly after meal. The serum insulin levels were in group A,B and C significant different compared with control group(P<0.05).Those peaked at 1 hour after meal ,with group C rising the furthest. Compared with the fasting group, the serum glucagons rose and maintained the increase after breakfast in group A,B and C (P<0.05).The data suggested that various diets with different calorigenic amounts increased hormone concentration to various extents. We found that a breakfast rich in carbohydrates could maintain proper blood glucose level.

  8. DO CUSTOMERS’ INVOLVEMENT, SATISFACTION AND LOYALTY LEVELS DIFFER ACCORDING TO GENDER?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volkan Özbek

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this study is to reveal whether consumers’ product involvement, satisfaction and loyalty levels differentiate in terms of smart phones and perfume. In order to achieve this goal, a research was implemented by using survey method on 665 Balıkesir University Burhaniye School of Applied Science students who are determined with convenience sampling method. The reason of using this sample is the anticipation of that university students’ consciousness and involvement levels about smart phones and perfumes might be higher than other populations. The research results demonstrate that there are differences according to gender in symbolic value, risk probability, and hedonic value dimensions of involvement terms of smart phones. In terms of perfume products involvement, the results also indicate that there are differences according to gender in interest and hedonic value dimensions of involvement. In addition, it is identified that satisfaction and loyalty towards perfume brands is higher for women than men. However, it is found that satisfaction and loyalty levels towards smart phones do not show any difference according to gender.

  9. Comparative study of different control techniques for the regulation of blood glucose level in diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibbini, Mohammed S

    2009-01-01

    Blood glucose regulation is of a great concern for insulin-dependant patients with excessive glucose in blood (hyperglycaemia), or low glucose profile (hypoglycaemia) due to excess insulin delivery. Both conditions can cause dangerous complications for diabetic patients, and hence glucose regulation in blood is of prime importance. Insulin pumps are used to deliver insulin in small quantities, allowing the glucose level to remain as close as possible to that of non-diabetics (near 100 mg dl(-1)). Different control techniques are used to maintain the glucose level and most of them depend on an exact mathematical or empirical model of insulin-glucose interaction. Recently, we have proposed different controllers that are based on fuzzy logic and so do not use mathematical modelling, which in general is nonlinear, complex and suffers from uncertainties. PI fuzzy controllers are physically related to classical PI and PID controllers, which are extremely popular. The parameter settings of classical and fuzzy logic controllers are based on deep common physical background. In this manuscript, a comparative study is proposed to evaluate the use of fuzzy logic controllers over other conventional controllers such as PI and PID controllers to maintain the blood glucose level within a normoglycaemic average especially when a diabetic patient is subjected to different conditions.

  10. The Use of Gamification at Different Levels of E-Recruitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek WOŹNIAK

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available E-recruitment is a field of human resources where ICT tools are frequently used. We popularly assume that the scope with which they are used differs between countries, and that technical structure is the main reason for these differences. However, we lack the tools to explain why e-recruitment is considered more common in the US than in Poland, for instance, despite similar access to the Internet among employees and employers in both countries. The article presents a typology of four levels of e-recruitment methods, as a tool for explaining the differences in the maturity of using e-recruitment methods in these two countries. Additionally, for each of the four groups of e-recruitment methods, strong and weak points are shown, and the keys to their successful use are described. It has been also shown that a positive image of a company’s brand is a necessary condition for higher levels of e-recruitment to be successful. A special analysis is conducted of the use of gamification and games for e-recruitment purposes, and examples are given of their use on each of the four e-recruitment levels.

  11. [Heart rhythm in humans with different processing levels of acoustic information].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarenko, M V; Lyzohub, V S; Iukhymenko, L I; Khomenko, S M

    2011-01-01

    The peculiarities of the heart rhythm regulation were investigated in humans during the processing of acoustic information. Statistically significant differences were found in individuals with different levels of auditory-motor reactions according to the heart rhythm characteristics. Individuals with the high level of reactions were characterized by significantly lower total power spectrum (TP=1276.2 ms2), by the power spectrum of high (HL=280.1 ms12) and very low frequencies (VLF-469.8 ms2), as well as by low indexes of standard deviation of R-R intervals (SDNN=37.4 ms), when compared with the persons with the low level of reactions (5248.8; 866.7; 1937.0; 69.8 ms2). The correlation analysis confirmed the dif- ferences between the groups ol persons with adtierent number of processed information and variable (r=0.41, P<0.05) and spectral characteristics of heart rate (r=-0.49--0.56, P<0.05). Different strategies of activation of non-specific brain systems in formation of psycho-physiological reactions and participation of heart rhythm regulatory mechanisms in vegetative support of auditory information processing are discussed.

  12. Drought Responses of Leaf Tissues from Wheat Cultivars of Differing Drought Tolerance at the Metabolite Level

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jairus B.Bowne; Tim A.Erwin; Juan Juttner; Thorsten Schnurbusch; Peter Langridge; Antony Bacic; Ute Roessner

    2012-01-01

    Drought has serious effects on the physiology of cereal crops.At the cellular and specifically the metabolite level,many individual compounds are increased to provide osmoprotective functions,prevent the dissociation of enzymes,and to decrease the number of reactive oxygen species present in the cell.We have used a targeted GC-MS approach to identify compounds that differ in three different cultivars of bread wheat characterized by different levels of tolerance to drought under drought stress (Kukri,intolerant; Excalibur and RAC875,tolerant).Levels of amino acids,most notably proline,tryptophan,and the branched chain amino acids leucine,isoleucine,and valine were increased under drought stress in all cultivars.In the two tolerant cultivars,a small decrease in a large number of organic acids was also evident.Excalibur,a cultivar genotypically related to Kukri,showed a pattern of response that was more similar to Kukri under well-watered conditions.Under drought stress,Excalibur and RAC875 had a similar response; however,Excalibur did not have the same magnitude of response as RAC875.Here,the results are discussed in the context of previous work in physiological and proteomic analyses of these cultivars under drought stress.

  13. Regional difference of infant 25OHD levels in Pilot Study of Japan Environment and Children's Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayabe, Tadayuki; Yamamoto-Hanada, Kiwako; Mezawa, Hidetoshi; Konishi, Mizuho; Ishitsuka, Kazue; Saito, Mayako; Fukami, Maki; Michikawa, Takehiro; Yamazaki, Shin; Senju, Ayako; Kusuhara, Koichi; Kawamoto, Toshihiro; Sanefuji, Masafumi; Kato, Kiyoko; Oda, Masako; Mitsubuchi, Hiroshi; Katoh, Takahiko; Monden, Yukifumi; Mise, Nathan; Kayama, Fujio; Saito, Hirohisa; Ohya, Yukihiro

    2017-08-18

    In recent years, a resurgence in the number of infants with vitamin D deficiency has been noted. In addition to seasonal differences in exposure to ultraviolet (UV) rays, regional differences in dietary habits and lifestyles may affect susceptibility to vitamin D deficiency. However, no studies have been conducted on infants in multiple regions of Japan to determine the extent of differences in vitamin D status. The levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) were measured by radioimmunoassay in 126 infants aged 2 to 4 years, who participated in the Pilot Study of the Japan Environment and Children's Study (JECS) by the Ministry of Environment of Japan. A multiple regression model with 25OHD level as the outcome variable, and season and region as explanatory variables was generated. A Wald test revealed that both region and season during which infants participated in this study significantly affected 25OHD levels (p-value = 0.0087 and rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  14. [Proteomics of rice leaf and grain at late growth stage under different nitrogen fertilization levels].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Shu-ju; Zhao, Min; Xiang, Xiao-liang; Wei, Dao-zhi

    2010-10-01

    Taking super-rice Liangyoupeijiu as test material, and by the method of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE), this paper studied the changes in the leaf and grain proteomics of the variety at its late growth stage under different levels of nitrogen fertilization (1/2 times of normal nitrogen level, 20 mg x L(-1); normal nitrogen level, 40 mg x L(-1); 2 times of normal nitrogen level, 80 mg x L(-1)), with the biological functions of 16 leaf proteins, 9 inferior grain proteins, and 4 superior grain proteins identified and analyzed. Nitrogen fertilization could affect and regulate the plant photosynthesis via affecting the activation of photosynthesis-related enzymes and of CO2, the light system unit, and the constitution of electron transfer chain at the late growth stage of the variety. It could also promote the expression of the enzymes related to the energy synthesis and growth in inferior grains. High nitrogen fertilization level was not beneficial to the synthesis of starch in superior grain, but sufficient nitrogen supply was still important for the substance accumulation and metabolism. Therefore, rational nitrogen fertilization could increase the photosynthesis rate of flag leaves, enhance the source function, delay the functional early ageing, and promote the grain-filling at late growth stage.

  15. Comparative studies on histological and ultra-structure of the pituitary of different ploidy level fishes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LONG Yu; LIU Shaojun; HUANG Weiren; ZHANG Jian; SUN Yuandong; ZHANG Chun; CHEN Song; LIU Jinghui; LIU Yun

    2006-01-01

    The histological and ultra-structure of the pituitary in diploid red crucian carp (Carassius auratus red var.), triploid crucian carp and allotetraploid hybrids within and after the breeding season were comparatively studied. The result showed that there were six endocrine cell types in the pituitary of these three kinds of fishes, and there was an obvious difference in cell size among different ploidy level fishes. As for the same type of pituitary cells, the cell size was increased gradually with the increasing ploidy level. In the breeding season, the allotetraploid hybrids had higher proportion of gonadotropin cells (GTH) than triploids, and the triploids had higher proportion of GTH than diploids. The results were related to the earlier sexual maturity of allotetraploid hybrids and sterility of triploid cruclan carp. On the other hand, among the three kinds of fishes, the proportion of somatotropin (STH)cells in triploids crucian carp was the highest, whereas that in allotetraploid hybrids was the lowest.The results might be connected with the faster growth rate of triploids and slower growth rate of allotetraploid hybrids. In addition, in GTH cells of meso-adenohypophysis after the breeding season,there were many endocrine particles in triploids, while those endocrine particles were released from the cells in allotetraploids and diploids. This result showed that the sterility of triploid crucian carp might be related to the hormone which was not released from the GTH cells. In a word, the present study indicated that the differences in the structure of pituitary among different ploidy level fishes contributed to their difference in the growth rate and gonadal development.

  16. Blood and urine 8-iso-PGF2α levels in babies of different gestational ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sitao; Hao, Hu; Zhou, Ping; Gao, Ping Ming; Xiao, Xin

    2014-01-01

    We measured cord blood and urine 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α (8-iso-PGF2α) levels in babies of different gestational ages to determine lipid peroxidation status. Babies at gestational ages of 28-43 weeks were divided into group A (28-32 weeks), group B (33-36 weeks), group C (37-41 weeks), and group D (42-43 weeks). 8-iso-PGF2α in umbilical cord blood (UCB) at birth and urine at 6 hours after birth was and tested by ELISA. UCB and urine 8-iso-PGF2α levels in group C were 130.09 ± 31.73 pg/ml and 27.14 ± 6.73 pg/ml, respectively. UCB 8-iso-PGF2α levels in group A and B were 188.42 ± 59.34 pg/ml and 189.37 ± 68.46 pg/ml, and urine 8-iso-PGF2α were 32.14 ± 7.32 pg/ml and 30.46 ± 8.83 pg/ml, respectively. Blood and urine 8-iso-PGF2α levels in group D (post-term) were 252.01 ± 46.42 pg/ml and 44.00 ± 8.50 pg/ml. For all babies, UCB and urine iso-PGF2α levels were significantly correlated (r = 0.65, P iso-PGF2α levels in normal full-term babies. Urine 8-iso-PGF2α levels may reflect the extent of lipid peroxidation in babies. In pre-term and post-term babies, there was evidence for increased lipid peroxidation.

  17. Modeling Caspian Sea water level oscillations under different scenarios of increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roshan GholamReza

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The rapid rise of Caspian Sea water level (about 2.25 meters since 1978 has caused much concern to all five surrounding countries, primarily because flooding has destroyed or damaged buildings and other engineering structures, roads, beaches and farm lands in the coastal zone. Given that climate, and more specifically climate change, is a primary factor influencing oscillations in Caspian Sea water levels, the effect of different climate change scenarios on future Caspian Sea levels was simulated. Variations in environmental parameters such as temperature, precipitation, evaporation, atmospheric carbon dioxide and water level oscillations of the Caspian sea and surrounding regions, are considered for both past (1951-2006 and future (2025-2100 time frames. The output of the UKHADGEM general circulation model and five alternative scenarios including A1CAI, BIASF, BIMES WRE450 and WRE750 were extracted using the MAGICC SCENGEN Model software (version 5.3. The results suggest that the mean temperature of the Caspian Sea region (Bandar-E-Anzali monitoring site has increased by ca. 0.17°C per decade under the impacts of atmospheric carbon dioxide changes (r=0.21. The Caspian Sea water level has increased by ca. +36cm per decade (r=0.82 between the years 1951-2006. Mean results from all modeled scenarios indicate that the temperature will increase by ca. 3.64°C and precipitation will decrease by ca. 10% (182 mm over the Caspian Sea, whilst in the Volga river basin, temperatures are projected to increase by ca. 4.78°C and precipitation increase by ca. 12% (58 mm by the year 2100. Finally, statistical modeling of the Caspian Sea water levels project future water level increases of between 86 cm and 163 cm by the years 2075 and 2100, respectively.

  18. Modeling Caspian Sea water level oscillations under different scenarios of increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshan, Gholamreza; Moghbel, Masumeh; Grab, Stefan

    2012-12-12

    The rapid rise of Caspian Sea water level (about 2.25 meters since 1978) has caused much concern to all five surrounding countries, primarily because flooding has destroyed or damaged buildings and other engineering structures, roads, beaches and farm lands in the coastal zone. Given that climate, and more specifically climate change, is a primary factor influencing oscillations in Caspian Sea water levels, the effect of different climate change scenarios on future Caspian Sea levels was simulated. Variations in environmental parameters such as temperature, precipitation, evaporation, atmospheric carbon dioxide and water level oscillations of the Caspian sea and surrounding regions, are considered for both past (1951-2006) and future (2025-2100) time frames. The output of the UKHADGEM general circulation model and five alternative scenarios including A1CAI, BIASF, BIMES WRE450 and WRE750 were extracted using the MAGICC SCENGEN Model software (version 5.3). The results suggest that the mean temperature of the Caspian Sea region (Bandar-E-Anzali monitoring site) has increased by ca. 0.17°C per decade under the impacts of atmospheric carbon dioxide changes (r=0.21). The Caspian Sea water level has increased by ca. +36cm per decade (r=0.82) between the years 1951-2006. Mean results from all modeled scenarios indicate that the temperature will increase by ca. 3.64°C and precipitation will decrease by ca. 10% (182 mm) over the Caspian Sea, whilst in the Volga river basin, temperatures are projected to increase by ca. 4.78°C and precipitation increase by ca. 12% (58 mm) by the year 2100. Finally, statistical modeling of the Caspian Sea water levels project future water level increases of between 86 cm and 163 cm by the years 2075 and 2100, respectively.

  19. Anatomy and morphology character of five Indonesian banana cultivars (Musa spp. of different ploidy level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ISSIREP SUMARDI

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Sumardi I, Wulandari M (2011 Anatomy and morphology character of five Indonesian banana cultivars (Musa spp. of different ploidy level. Biodiversitas 12: 167-175. In Indonesia there are many cultivars of banana, and some of them produce edible fruits. Beside their morphology, the character which necessary as a tool for classification is anatomical character. The aim of this research were to describe the anatomical character and morphology of fives Indonesian banana cultivars based on their level of ploidy. The cultivars were collected from Banana Germplasm Plantation, Yogyakarta District, Indonesia. The samples of roots, rhizome, and leaf were collected from five banana cultivars i.e.: Musa acuminata cv Penjalin, M.balbisiana cv Kluthuk warangan, M.acuminata cv Ambon warangan, M.paradisiaca cv Raja nangka , and M. paradisiaca cv Kluthuk susu. For anatomy observation samples were prepared using paraffin method, stained with 1% safranin in 70% ethanol. To observe the structure of stomata and epidermis surface, slide were prepared using modification of whole mount method. Slides were observed using Olympus BHB microscope completed with Olympus camera BM-10A. Stem and leaf morphology character of diploid level (AA and BB genome is different with triploid level (AAA, AAB, and ABB genome. Anatomy and morphology character of root and rhizome of banana in diploid level (AA and BB genome and triploid level (AAA, AAB, and ABB genome is quite similar. Distribution of stomata is found in leaf and pseudostem. Stomata is found in adaxial and abaxial epidermis layer. The size of guard cells in triploid cultivars was longer than that diploid cultivars. The root composse of epidermis layer, cortex and cylinder vascular of five cultivar’s root show anomalous structure. Rhizome consist of peripheric and centre zone. Anatomically, this was no differences in the rizome structur among five banana cultivars. The row of vascular bundles act as demarcation area

  20. DENTAL CARIES AND FLOUROSIS IN DIFFERENT LEVELS OF DRINKING WATER FLOURIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H KHADEMI

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. In some area of our country for example: Bushehre, some parts of Hormozgan, Yazd, Azarbayjan provinces, the levels of fIouride in drinking water is over optimom level. So because of this reason the incidence of flourosis in these areas is high. Determination of dental flourosis in four areas of Najafabad, Filor, Joozdan and Rahmatabad with different levels of flourosis with DMFT index is the aim of this study. Methods. This study is a cross sectional study. Samples have been selected by simple accidental manner. 254 school children aged 7-12 years old in four different areas have been examined which all of them have been lived in same areas from birth so far. To collect the necessary information, a checklist was prepared. It was contained demographic information, the intensity of flourosis of Dean classification, DMFT index on base on WHO. Results. The levels of drinking water fluoride of four areas determined which 0.23ppm Najafabad, 0.6ppm Joozdan, 1.35ppm Rahmatabad and 0.78ppm Filor. Also the intensity of flourosis on base of Dean classification have been: 15.5 percent normal sitution, 23.2 percent questionable, 31.1 percent very mild, 19.3 percent mild. 6.7 percent moderate, 4.7 percent severe. DMFT index have been 6.6 in Najafabad, 3.37 in Filor, 5.51 in Joozdan and 3.13 in Rahmatabad. Increasing of dental flourosis in persons who using drinking water observed. There was direct relationship between the drinking water containing flouride and incidence of flourosis. The relationship between of average DMF and fluoride in drinking water of Filor and Rahmatabad with Najafabad and Joozdan showes significant differences. Discussion. The results shows that flourosis observe in four areas. The mean of DMF with different levels of fluoride in drinking water are different. Most of necessary fluoride for body could be earned by drinking water, so low lavel incidence of DMF in school children in areas with high fluoride had showed.

  1. Cobalt serum levels differ in well functioning Birmingham resurfacing and Birmingham modular THA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renner, Lisa; Faschingbauer, Martin; Schmidt-Braekling, Tom; Boettner, Friedrich

    2016-05-01

    Metal-on-metal (MoM) bearings are known to release metal ions secondary to wear and corrosion. This may cause local reactions (adverse soft tissue reactions and osteolysis) and systemic effects. Little is known about the exact pattern and the differences between large head MoM total hip replacements (THA) and resurfacings (HR). (1) Is there a difference in metal ion concentrations between HR and MoM-THR using the same bearing design (Birmingham Hip Resurfacing System, Smith & Nephew, Inc. Memphis, TN, USA)? (2) Are metal ion levels changing over time in MoM-THA or HR? (3) Do acetabular inclination angle and femoral component size influence cobalt and chromium levels? Is there a correlation between clinical outcome and metal ion levels? A retrospective analysis was conducted in 77 well functioning unilateral Birmingham HR and 42 well functioning unilateral modular Birmingham MoM-THA (Smith & Nephew, Inc. Memphis, TN, USA) operated on between 2007 and 2012. Blood samples were taken at a minimum of 13 months and subsequent during annual follow-ups. (1) Cobalt levels were significantly higher in MoM-THA compared to HR (p Cobalt is increasing over time in MoM-THA (p = 0.030) whereas metal ions remain stable in HR. (3) Metal ion levels were not affected by acetabular inclination angle and femoral component size in MoM-THA. Chromium levels correlate with the femoral component size (r = -0.240; p = 0.037), the UCLA activity score (r = -0.344; p = 0.003) and the VAS (r = 0.263; p = 0.38) in HR. Considering that HR and MoM-THA used the same MoM bearing design, increased cobalt levels may be related to trunnion wear or corrosion. Elevated cobalt levels should raise concern for corrosion related failure in MoM-THA.

  2. Distributed Dynamic Traffic Modeling and Implementation Oriented Different Levels of Induced Travelers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to respond to the variable state of traffic network in time, a distributed dynamic traffic assignment strategy is proposed which can improve the intelligent traffic management. The proposed dynamic assignment method is based on utility theory and is oriented to different levels of induced users. A distributed model based on the marginal utility is developed which combines the advantages of both decentralized paradigm and traveler preference, so as to provide efficient and robust dynamic traffic assignment solutions under uncertain network conditions. Then, the solution algorithm including subroute update and subroute calculation is proposed. To testify the effectiveness of the proposed model in optimizing traffic network operation and minimizing traveler’s cost on different induced levels, a sequence numerical experiment is conducted. In the experiment, there are two test environments: one is in different network load conditions and the other is in different deployment coverage of local agents. The numerical results show that the proposed model not only can improve the running efficiency of road network but also can significantly decrease the average travel time.

  3. Influence of paradoxical sleep deprivation and sleep recovery on testosterone level in rats of different ages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mi Mi Oh; Jin Wook Kim; Myeong Heon Jin; Je Jong Kim; Du Geon Moon

    2012-01-01

    This study was performed to assess serurm testosterone alterations induced by paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD) and to verify their attenuation during sleep recovery (SR) based on different durations and ages.Wistar male rats aged 12 weeks for the younger group and 20 weeks for the elder group were randomly distributed into one of the following groups:a control group (cage and platform),3-day SD,5-day SD,7-day SD,1-day SR,3-day SR and 5-day SR groups.For PSD,the modified multiple platform method was used to specifically limit rapid eye movement (REM) sleep.Differences in the testosterone and luteinizing hormone levels between the younger group and the elder group according to duration of PSD and SR recovery were analysed.Testosterone continued to fall during the sleep deprivation period in a time-dependent manner in both the younger (P=-0.001,correlation coefficient r=-0.651) and elder groups (P=0.001,correlation coefficient r=-0.840).The elder group showed a significantly lower level of testosterone compared with the younger group after PSD.Upon SR after 3 days of PSD,the testosterone level continued to rise for 5 days after sleep recovery in the younger group (P=0.013),whereas testosterone concentrations failed to recover until day 5 in the elder group.PSD caused a more detrimental effect on serum testosterone in the elder group compared to the younger group with respect to decreases in luteinizing hormone (LH) levels.The replenishment of serum testosterone level was prohibited in the elder group suggesting that the effects of SD/SR may be age-dependent.The mechanism by which SD affects serum testosterone and how age may modify the process are still unclear.

  4. Similar serotonin-2A receptor binding in rats with different coping styles or levels of aggression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Visser, Anniek Kd; Ettrup, Anders; Klein, Anders Bue

    2015-01-01

    Individual differences in coping style emerge as a function of underlying variability in the activation of a mesocorticolimbic brain circuitry. Particularly serotonin seems to play an important role. For this reason, we assessed serotonin-2A receptor (5-HT2A R) binding in the brain of rats...... with different coping styles. We compared proactive and reactive males of two rat strains, Wild-type Groningen (WTG) and Roman high- and low avoidance (RHA, RLA). 5-HT2A R binding in (pre)frontal cortex (FC) and hippocampus was investigated using a radiolabeled antagonist ([(3) H]MDL-100907) and agonist ([(3) H...... is not an important molecular marker for coping style. Since neither an antagonist nor an agonist tracer showed any binding differences, it is unlikely that the affinity state of the 5-HT2A R is co-varying with levels of aggression or active avoidance in WTG, RHA and RLA. This article is protected by copyright. All...

  5. Differences in micronucleus frequency and acrylamide adduct levels with hemoglobin between vegetarians and non-vegetarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotova, Natalia; Frostne, Cecilia; Abramsson-Zetterberg, Lilianne; Tareke, Eden; Bergman, Rolf; Haghdoost, Siamak; Paulsson, Birgit; Törnqvist, Margareta; Segerbäck, Dan; Jenssen, Dag; Grawé, Jan

    2015-10-01

    Nutrients and food constituents can prevent or contribute to genotoxicity. In this study, the possible influence of a vegetarian/non-vegetarian diet on genotoxic effects was investigated in 58 non-smoking healthy vegetarians (V) and non-vegetarians (NV), age 21-37 years from the Stockholm area in Sweden. Physical activity and dietary habits were similar in both groups, with the exception of the intake of meat and fish. Using flow cytometry, we determined the formation of micronuclei (MN) in transferrin-positive immature peripheral blood reticulocytes (Trf-Ret) (Total: n = 53; V: n = 27; NV: n = 26). Dietary exposure to acrylamide was measured through hemoglobin (Hb) adducts in peripheral erythrocytes (Total: n = 53; V: n = 29; NV: n = 24). Hb adducts of both acrylamide and its genotoxic metabolite glycidamide were monitored as a measure of the corresponding in vivo doses. Our data demonstrated that compared with the non-vegetarians, the vegetarians exhibited lower frequencies of MN (fMN) in the Trf-Ret (p vegetarians and non-vegetarians. Furthermore, there were no significant relationships between the adduct levels and fMN in the individuals. The ratio of the Hb adduct levels from glycidamide and acrylamide, however, showed a significant difference (p vegetarian diet might be beneficial in lowering genomic instability in healthy individuals. The measured Hb adduct levels indicate that the total intake of acrylamide does not differ between the two studied groups and does not contribute to the observed difference in fMN, although an influence of the diet on the metabolic rates of acrylamide was indicated. In addition, the observed significant difference in the background fMN in the two groups demonstrated that the MN analysis method has a sensitivity applicable to the biomonitoring of human lifestyle factors.

  6. Mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer patients display different levels of redox-active CSF iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavados, Manuel; Guillón, Marta; Mujica, María Cristina; Rojo, Leonel E; Fuentes, Patricio; Maccioni, Ricardo B

    2008-03-01

    Oxidative stress constitutes a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Recent studies also point to redox active metals such as iron, copper and zinc in mediating oxidative stress in AD pathogenesis. However, the reactivity of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) iron and its possible correlation with the severity of cognitive decline in both Alzheimer's patients and subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is still unknown. Here we show that different stages of cognitive and functional impairment are associated with changes in CSF reactive iron. In this work, we compared CSF samples from 56 elders, classified into 4 groups according to their scores on the Clinical Dementia Rating scale (CDR). Total CSF iron was analyzed by atomic absorption spectrometry. Redox-active iron was analyzed by a novel fluorimetric assay. One-way ANOVA was used to test differences in mean values, and Newman-Keuls Multiple Comparison Test was used for multi group comparisons. No difference in total CSF iron was found between different groups. Significant amounts of redox-active iron were found in CSF and their levels correlated with the extent of cognitive impairment. Redox-active CSF iron levels increased with the degree of cognitive impairment from normal to MCI subjects, while AD patients showed an abrupt decrease to levels close to zero. Given the relevance of oxidative damage in neurodegeneration, it might be possible to associate the development of cognitive and functional decline with the presence of redox-active iron in the CSF. The decrease in redox-active iron found in AD patients may represent a terminal situation, whereby the central nervous system attempts to minimize iron-associated toxicity.

  7. Neural correlates of erotic stimulation under different levels of female sexual hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abler, Birgit; Kumpfmüller, Daniela; Grön, Georg; Walter, Martin; Stingl, Julia; Seeringer, Angela

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated variable influences of sexual hormonal states on female brain activation and the necessity to control for these in neuroimaging studies. However, systematic investigations of these influences, particularly those of hormonal contraceptives as compared to the physiological menstrual cycle are scarce. In the present study, we investigated the hormonal modulation of neural correlates of erotic processing in a group of females under hormonal contraceptives (C group; N = 12), and a different group of females (nC group; N = 12) not taking contraceptives during their mid-follicular and mid-luteal phases of the cycle. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to measure hemodynamic responses as an estimate of brain activation during three different experimental conditions of visual erotic stimulation: dynamic videos, static erotic pictures, and expectation of erotic pictures. Plasma estrogen and progesterone levels were assessed in all subjects. No strong hormonally modulating effect was detected upon more direct and explicit stimulation (viewing of videos or pictures) with significant activations in cortical and subcortical brain regions previously linked to erotic stimulation consistent across hormonal levels and stimulation type. Upon less direct and less explicit stimulation (expectation), activation patterns varied between the different hormonal conditions with various, predominantly frontal brain regions showing significant within- or between-group differences. Activation in the precentral gyrus during the follicular phase in the nC group was found elevated compared to the C group and positively correlated with estrogen levels. From the results we conclude that effects of hormonal influences on brain activation during erotic stimulation are weak if stimulation is direct and explicit but that female sexual hormones may modulate more subtle aspects of sexual arousal and behaviour as involved in sexual expectation. Results

  8. Neural correlates of erotic stimulation under different levels of female sexual hormones.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgit Abler

    Full Text Available Previous studies have demonstrated variable influences of sexual hormonal states on female brain activation and the necessity to control for these in neuroimaging studies. However, systematic investigations of these influences, particularly those of hormonal contraceptives as compared to the physiological menstrual cycle are scarce. In the present study, we investigated the hormonal modulation of neural correlates of erotic processing in a group of females under hormonal contraceptives (C group; N = 12, and a different group of females (nC group; N = 12 not taking contraceptives during their mid-follicular and mid-luteal phases of the cycle. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to measure hemodynamic responses as an estimate of brain activation during three different experimental conditions of visual erotic stimulation: dynamic videos, static erotic pictures, and expectation of erotic pictures. Plasma estrogen and progesterone levels were assessed in all subjects. No strong hormonally modulating effect was detected upon more direct and explicit stimulation (viewing of videos or pictures with significant activations in cortical and subcortical brain regions previously linked to erotic stimulation consistent across hormonal levels and stimulation type. Upon less direct and less explicit stimulation (expectation, activation patterns varied between the different hormonal conditions with various, predominantly frontal brain regions showing significant within- or between-group differences. Activation in the precentral gyrus during the follicular phase in the nC group was found elevated compared to the C group and positively correlated with estrogen levels. From the results we conclude that effects of hormonal influences on brain activation during erotic stimulation are weak if stimulation is direct and explicit but that female sexual hormones may modulate more subtle aspects of sexual arousal and behaviour as involved in sexual

  9. Influence of Physiological Loading on the Lumbar Spine of National Level Athletes in Different Sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozan Mansoorehossadat

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The lumbar spine is subjected to considerable stress during many athletic efforts. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of physiological loading on the lumbar spine in national male players of different games, which may be predictive of the future development of low back pain and injury symptoms. Thirty-four national players (12 cricket players, 12 field hockey players, and 10 basketball players underwent magnetic resonance imaging, and selected geometric variables including intervertebral disc angles, the Farfan ratio, the lumbar body index, the compression deformity ratio, the biconcave deformity ratio and the anterior wedge deformity ratio were measured using KINOVEA-0.8.15 software and syngo fast view software and calculated using specific formulas. The results indicated a significant difference in the intervertebral disc angle between the three groups at the L2/3, L3/4 and L4/5 levels. In relation to the lumbar vertebral body shape and size, significant differences were found in the lumbar index at the L2 level, in the biconcave deformity at the L1 and L2 levels and in relation to the anterior wedge deformity at L2 between the three selected groups. Our data suggest that the different physiological loadings in the selected sports play an important role in the development of degenerative changes of the lumbar spine, which may be considered a risk factor for future injury and/or low back pain in each specific sport because of the unique demands of each discipline.

  10. Differences between weekend and weekday ozone levels over rural and urban sites in Southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schipa, Ilenia; Tanzarella, Annalisa; Mangia, Cristina

    2009-09-01

    Air quality data from a network of 11 monitoring stations in the Apulia region of southern Italy during the summer of 2005 reveal a high frequency of ozone law limit violations. Since ozone is a secondary pollutant, air quality control strategies aimed at reducing ozone concentration are not immediate. Herein, we analyse weekly changes in concentration levels of ozone (O(3)), nitrogen oxides (NO(x)), carbon monoxide (CO), and volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and evaluate how the differences in primary emissions cause changes in the production of ozone. The comparison between weekend and weekday levels of O(3) and its precursors are direct evidence for the existence of the "ozone weekend effect." This effect was observed at all stations with a considerable variation in the overall ozone magnitude, including both traffic stations and non-traffic stations. Data from VOC measurements at traffic stations primarily indicated elevated levels of benzene, toluene, and xylenes (BTX); all of these substances showed an overall decrease over the weekend. A single station indicated levels of non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC) and PM10, both of which did not demonstrate any weekly cycle. Analysis of weekly and diurnal cycles of O(3), NO(x), CO, NMHC, and PM10 indicates that higher weekend ozone levels result from a reduction in the emission of nitrogen oxides on weekends in VOC-sensitive regimes. This indicates that a reduction in VOC and NO(x) levels would be more effective than NO(x) reduction alone. Our results underscore the need for improved and more efficient VOC measurements.

  11. EFFECT OF DIFFERENT LEVELS OF LOCALIZED MUSCLE FATIGUE ON KNEE POSITION SENSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William S. Gear

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available There is little information available regarding how proprioceptive abilities decline as the amount of exertion increases during exercise. The purpose of this study was to determine the role of different levels of fatigue on knee joint position sense. A repeated measures design was used to examine changes in active joint reposition sense (AJRS prior to and following three levels of fatigue. Eighteen participants performed knee extension and flexion isokinetic exercise until torque output was 90%, 70%, or 50% of the peak hamstring torque for three consecutive repetitions. Active joint reposition sense at 15, 30, or 45 degrees was tested following the isokinetic exercise session. Following testing of the first independent measure, participants were given a 20 minute rest period. Testing procedures were repeated for two more exercise sessions following the other levels of fatigue. Testing of each AJRS test angle was conducted on three separate days with 48 hours between test days. Significant main effect for fatigue was indicated (p = 0.001. Pairwise comparisons indicated a significant difference between the pre-test and following 90% of peak hamstring torque (p = 0.02 and between the pre-test and following 50% of peak hamstring torque (p = 0.02. Fatigue has long been theorized to be a contributing factor in decreased proprioceptive acuity, and therefore a contributing factor to joint injury. The findings of the present study indicate that fatigue may have an effect on proprioception following mild and maximum fatigue.

  12. Small intestine development of laying hens fed different fiber sources diets and crude protein levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MFFM Praes

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the presente study was to evaluate the effects on different dietary fiber sources and crude protein levels on the intestinal morphometry of commercial layers. Isa Brown® layers with 48 weeks of age were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design with a 3 x 2 + 1 factorial arrangement, resulting in seven treatments with seven replicates of eight birds each. At the end of the fourth experimental period (28 days each, birds were 64 weeks of age and were randomly chosen (two birds per replicate, totaling 14 birds per treatment, weighed and sacrificed by neck dislocation. Their intestine was dissected and the duodenum, jejunum and ileum were collected for subsequent analysis of intestinal morphometry. Treatments consisted of diets containing three different fiber sources (cottonseed hulls, soybean hulls or rice husks and two crude protein levels (12% or 16%. Soybean hulls and 16% crude protein level promoted, in general, an increase in villus height and crypt depth in the three intestinal segments. In the duodenum, the control diet resulted in higher villus height and crypt depth relative to the diets containing fiber. In the jejunum, higher crypt depth values. In the ileum, dietary fiber increased villus height as compared to the control diet.

  13. Pedagogical Reflections by Secondary Science Teachers at Different NOS Implementation Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Benjamin C.; Clough, Michael P.; Olson, Joanne K.

    2017-02-01

    This study investigated what 13 secondary science teachers at various nature of science (NOS) instruction implementation levels talked about when they reflected on their teaching. We then determined if differences exist in the quality of those reflections between high, medium, and low NOS implementers. This study sought to answer the following questions: (1) What do teachers talk about when asked general questions about their pedagogy and NOS pedagogy and (2) what qualitative differences, if any, exist within variables across teachers of varying NOS implementation levels? Evidence derived from these teachers' reflections indicated that self-efficacy and perceptions of general importance for NOS instruction were poor indicators of NOS implementation. However, several factors were associated with the extent that these teachers implemented NOS instruction, including the utility value they hold for NOS teaching, considerations of how people learn, understanding of NOS pedagogy, and their ability to accurately and deeply self-reflect about teaching. Notably, those teachers who effectively implemented the NOS at higher levels value NOS instruction for reasons that transcend immediate instructional objectives. That is, they value teaching NOS for achieving compelling ends realized long after formal schooling (e.g., lifelong socioscientific decision-making for civic reasons), and they deeply reflect about how to teach NOS by drawing from research about how people learn. Low NOS implementers' simplistic notions and reflections about teaching and learning appeared to be impeding factors to accurate and consistent NOS implementation. This study has implications for science teacher education efforts that promote NOS instruction.

  14. Factors that affect the ecological footprint depending on the different income levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Tung Chen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The ecological footprint provides a method for measuring how much lands can support the consumption of the natural resources. Development and biocapacity debates revolve mainly around the factors that affect the ecological footprint and the approaches to improve the environmental quality. Therefore, we conducted the panel analysis of data for 99 countries from 1981 to 2006 to determine what factors affect the ecological footprint. The empirical results show that the effect of GDP per capita on the ecological footprint varies for different income levels. The effect of urbanization is significantly positive across income levels, which means that the higher the rate of urbanization in high or low income country, the higher the ecological footprint. As developing countries pursue economic development, there will be an impact on the environment. The developed countries may seek to develop their economies through activities that are more detrimental to the environment. Additionally, the export of goods and services divided by GDP is significant, which means that the higher the volume of exports, the greater the burden on the environment. However, this effect is not significant across different income level models. The income effect may explain the diverse effects of export on the environment. Therefore, panel data analysis and income classification are necessary to discuss the effect of export on the environment.

  15. Economic performance of dairy cows fed diets with different levels of oregano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julinessa Silva Oliveira de Oliveira

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the economic viability of using different levels of oregano in diets for lactating cows fed sugar cane. We used 12 crossbred Holstein x Zebu cows assigned to three 4 x 4 Latin squares. The four treatments consisted of different levels of oregano: oregano free-control diet (0% and diets added with 0.8, 1.6, and 2.4% oregano. Diets were formulated to meet the requirements for maintenance and milk production of 15 kg day-1. For economic analysis, we employed two economic indicators, net present value and internal rate of return. The total cost per animal and per liter of milk produced has increased with the inclusion of oregano. The inclusion of oregano was not effective for both productivity and profitability, with prices equal to R$ 0.87, 0.97, 1.09, 1.22, and R$ 0.78, 1.03, 1.28, and 1.52 of milk and concentrate, respectively for each level of inclusion. The internal rate of return was more advantageous when not adding oregano in the diet, indicating the viability of using oregano up to 0.8% inclusion to the diet of dairy cows under the conditions of this experiment. The net present value demonstrated that this investment is interesting for all discount rates used in the diet without the addition of oregano, pointing out that, in this treatment, the activity was feasible for any opportunity cost.

  16. The relationship between personality traits and anxiety/depression levels in different drug abusers' groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatalović Vorkapić, Sanja; Dadić-Hero, Elizabeta; Ružić, Klementina

    2013-01-01

    Aim. Since psychosocial characteristics of drug abuse involve mainly specific personality and emotional changes, it is very important to investigate characteristics of addictive personality in relationship with emotional state of the individual. Considering that, the objective of this study was to analyse the relationship between personality structure and emotional state of two different groups: heroin addicts and recreate drug abusers. Methods. The total of 288 (219 males and 69 females; 191 heroin addicts and 97 recreate drug users) clients of Centre for the prevention and treatment of drug abuse in Rijeka completed Eysenck's Personality Questionnaire (EPQ R/A), Beck's Anxiety Inventory (BAI) and Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI). Their average age was 22. Results. In the group of heroin addicts, higher levels of anxiety and depression were significantly correlated with higher levels of psychoticism, neuroticism, criminality and addiction. In the group of recreate drug users, higher extraversion and social conformity were determined. Furthermore, in the first group was found even higher depression. However when the anxiety level was compared between these two groups, there was no significant difference. Conclusion. Overall, the findings implied that the used measurement instruments could serve as the useful diagnostic tools that could ensure advantageous treatment directions.

  17. Differences in pollution levels among civil law countries: A possible interpretation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Vita, Giuseppe [Faculty of Law, University of Catania, Via Gallo no. 24, 95124 Catania (Italy)], E-mail: gdivita@lex.unict.it

    2008-10-15

    The aim of this paper is to shed light on the way the legal systems of different countries can explain the discrepancies in their pollution levels. In particular, we underline the factors of capital accumulation and the financial market development, that are driven, among other things, by the various levels of protection accorded by the legal system to both shareholders and creditors. The research develops in two directions. Firstly, we supply a theoretical analysis to explain how constraints on the process of capital accruement affect the pollution level. In the model, a crucial role is assigned to the rate of interest, and its relationship with discount rates, which constitutes an important variable in decisions to implement anti-pollution devices. Secondly, we perform an econometric analysis using the data of eighty-five countries belonging to the legal family of civil law, for the period from 1992 to 2003, adopting four pollution indicators as dependent variables. Our main findings are that legal families and financial market development can help to explain the differences in environmental indicators observed among nations.

  18. Differences in pollution levels among civil law countries. A possible interpretation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Vita, Giuseppe [Faculty of Law, University of Catania, Via Gallo no. 24, 95124 Catania (Italy)

    2008-10-15

    The aim of this paper is to shed light on the way the legal systems of different countries can explain the discrepancies in their pollution levels. In particular, we underline the factors of capital accumulation and the financial market development, that are driven, among other things, by the various levels of protection accorded by the legal system to both shareholders and creditors. The research develops in two directions. Firstly, we supply a theoretical analysis to explain how constraints on the process of capital accruement affect the pollution level. In the model, a crucial role is assigned to the rate of interest, and its relationship with discount rates, which constitutes an important variable in decisions to implement anti-pollution devices. Secondly, we perform an econometric analysis using the data of eighty-five countries belonging to the legal family of civil law, for the period from 1992 to 2003, adopting four pollution indicators as dependent variables. Our main findings are that legal families and financial market development can help to explain the differences in environmental indicators observed among nations. (author)

  19. Characteristics of Omega-Optimized Portfolios at Different Levels of Threshold Returns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renaldas Vilkancas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available There is little literature considering effects that the loss-gain threshold used for dividing good and bad outcomes by all downside (upside risk measures has on portfolio optimization and performance. The purpose of this study is to assess the performance of portfolios optimized with respect to the Omega function developed by Keating and Shadwick at different levels of the threshold returns. The most common choices of the threshold values used in various Omega studies cover the risk-free rate and the average market return or simply a zero return, even though the inventors of this measure for risk warn that “using the values of the Omega function at particular points can be critically misleading” and that “only the entire Omega function contains information on distribution”. The obtained results demonstrate the importance of the selected values of the threshold return on portfolio performance – higher levels of the threshold lead to an increase in portfolio returns, albeit at the expense of a higher risk. In fact, within a certain threshold interval, Omega-optimized portfolios achieved the highest net return, compared with all other strategies for portfolio optimization using three different test datasets. However, beyond a certain limit, high threshold values will actually start hurting portfolio performance while meta-heuristic optimizers typically are able to produce a solution at any level of the threshold, and the obtained results would most likely be financially meaningless.

  20. Performance, qualitative and microbiogy characteristics of laying hens fed with different levels of enzyme complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Oba

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the performance of laying hens fed different levels of the enzyme complex (phytase, cellulase, pectinase, protease, amylase, beta-glucanase e xylanase. 328 laying hens were used Shaver White strain at 60 weeks of age. The birds were distributed into five treatments, involving different levels of enzyme complex (0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 ppm. We evaluated the performance of laying hens, egg shell quality, internal egg quality, pH and viscosity of the intestinal contents, dry matter and mineral in the excreta and microbiology of the contents in the small intestine. The results showed that the addition of the enzyme complex in diets based on corn and soybean meal for laying hens old did not improve on broiler performance, eggshell and internal egg quality, dry matter and mineral content in the excreta and microbiology of the contents in the small intestine. However there was a significant linear response when increased levels of the enzyme complex, where it caused an increase in pH and a lower viscosity of digesta within the small intestine.

  1. The relationship between personality traits and anxiety/depression levels in different drug abusers' groups

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    Tatalović Vorkapić Sanja

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Since psychosocial characteristics of drug abuse involve mainly specific personality and emotional changes, it is very important to investigate characteristics of addictive personality in relationship with emotional state of the individual. Considering that, the objective of this study was to analyse the relationship between personality structure and emotional state of two different groups: heroin addicts and recreate drug abusers. METHODS: The total of 288 (219 males and 69 females; 191 heroin addicts and 97 recreate drug users clients of Centre for the prevention and treatment of drug abuse in Rijeka completed Eysenck's Personality Questionnaire (EPQ R/A, Beck's Anxiety Inventory (BAI and Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI. Their average age was 22. RESULTS: In the group of heroin addicts, higher levels of anxiety and depression were significantly correlated with higher levels of psychoticism, neuroticism, criminality and addiction. In the group of recreate drug users, higher extraversion and social conformity were determined. Furthermore, in the first group was found even higher depression. However when the anxiety level was compared between these two groups, there was no significant difference. CONCLUSION: Overall, the findings implied that the used measurement instruments could serve as the useful diagnostic tools that could ensure advantageous treatment directions.

  2. Circulating Antigens Levels in Different Clinical Forms of the Schistosoma mansoni Infection

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    Yerkes Pereira e Silva

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available With the aim to evaluate the circulating cathodic antigen (CCA levels in relation to the different clinical phases of Schistosoma sp. infection a sandwich ELISA using monoclonal antibody 5H11 was performed. The sera of three groups of 25 Brazilian patients with acute, intestinal and hepatosplenic forms of S. mansoni infection were tested and compared to a non-infected control group. Patients and control groups were matched for age and sex and the number of eggs per gram of feces was equally distributed among the three patient groups. Sensitivity of 100%, 72%, 52% of the assay was observed for the intestinal, hepatosplenic and acute toxemic groups respectively. The specificity was 100%. Intestinal and hepatosplenic groups presented CCA levels significantly higher in comparison to those observed for acute patients (F-ratio = 2,524; p = 0.000 and F-ratio = 6,314; p = 0.015 respectively. There was no significant difference of CCA serum levels between hepatosplenic and intestinal groups (F-ratio = 1,026; p = 0.316.

  3. Exploring students' interactions, arguments, and reflections in general chemistry laboratories with different levels of inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Haozhi

    Students' learning in inquiry-based investigations has drawn considerable attention of the science education community. Inquiry activities can be viewed as knowledge construction processes in which students are expected to develop conceptual understanding and critical thinking abilities. Our study aimed to explore the effect of experiments with different levels of inquiry on students' interactions in the laboratory setting, as well as on students' written arguments and reflections. Our results are based on direct observations of group work in college general chemistry laboratories and analysis of associated written lab reports. The analysis of students' interactions in the laboratory was approached from three major analytic dimensions: Functional analysis, cognitive processing, and social processing. According to our results, higher levels of inquiry were associated with an increase in the relative frequency of episodes where students were engaged in proposing ideas versus asking and answering each others' questions. Higher levels of inquiry also favored episodes in which experimental work was approached in a more exploratory (versus procedural) manner. However, no major changes were observed in the extent to which students were engaged in either interpretive discussions of central scientific concepts and ideas. As part of our study we were also interested in characterizing the effects of experiments involving different levels of inquiry on the structure and adequacy of university general chemistry students' written arguments, as well as on the nature of their reflections about laboratory work. Our findings indicate that the level of inquiry of the observed experiments had no significant impact on the structure or adequacy of arguments generated by students. However, the level of inquiry of the experiments seemed to have a major impact on several areas of students' written reflections about laboratory work. In general, our results elicit trends and highlight issues

  4. Comparison of cellular responses induced by low level light in different cell types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ying-Ying; Chen, Aaron C.-H.; Sharma, Sulbha K.; Wu, Qiuhe; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2010-02-01

    Discoveries are rapidly being made in multiple laboratories that shed "light" on the fundamental molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the use of low level light therapy (LLLT) in vitro, in animal models and in clinical practice. Increases in cellular levels of respiration, in cytochrome c oxidase activity, in ATP levels and in cyclic AMP have been found. Increased expression of reactive oxygen species and release of nitric oxide have also been shown. In order for these molecular changes to have a major effect on cell behavior, it is likely that various transcription factors will be activated, possibly via different signal transduction pathways. In this report we compare and contrast the effects of LLLT in vitro on murine embryonic fibroblasts, primary cortical neurons, cardiomyocytes and bone-marrow derived dendritic cells. We also examined two human cell lines, HeLa cancer cells and HaCaT keratinocytes. The effects of 810-nm near-infra-red light delivered at low and high fluences were addressed. Reactive oxygen species generation, transcription factor activation and ATP increases are reported. The data has led to the hypothesis that cells with a high level of mitochondrial activity (mitochondrial membrane potential) have a higher response to light than cells with low mitochondrial activity.

  5. High levels of protein expression using different mammalian CMV promoters in several cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Wei; Bringmann, Peter; McClary, John; Jones, Patrick P; Manzana, Warren; Zhu, Ying; Wang, Soujuan; Liu, Yi; Harvey, Susan; Madlansacay, Mary Rose; McLean, Kirk; Rosser, Mary P; MacRobbie, Jean; Olsen, Catherine L; Cobb, Ronald R

    2006-01-01

    With the recent completion of the human genome sequencing project, scientists are faced with the daunting challenge of deciphering the function of these newly found genes quickly and efficiently. Equally as important is to produce milligram quantities of the therapeutically relevant gene products as quickly as possible. Mammalian expression systems provide many advantages to aid in this task. Mammalian cell lines have the capacity for proper post-translational modifications including proper protein folding and glycosylation. In response to the needs described above, we investigated the protein expression levels driven by the human CMV in the presence or absence of intron A, the mouse and rat CMV promoters with intron A, and the MPSV promoter in plasmid expression vectors. We evaluated the different promoters using an in-house plasmid vector backbone. The protein expression levels of four genes of interest driven by these promoters were evaluated in HEK293EBNA and CHO-K1 cells. Stable and transient transfected cells were utilized. In general, the full-length human CMV, in the presence of intron A, gave the highest levels of protein expression in transient transfections in both cell lines. However, the MPSV promoter resulted in the highest levels of stable protein expression in CHO-K1 cells. Using the CMV driven constitutive promoters in the presence of intron A, we have been able to generate >10 microg/ml of recombinant protein using transient transfections.

  6. Racial/Ethnic Differences in Knowledge of Personal and Target Levels of Cardiovascular Health Indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Mindy; Ma, Alyson

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to examine ethnic differences in knowledge of personal and target levels of cardiovascular health indicators between non-Hispanic whites and African Americans. A secondary objective was to evaluate the associations between knowledge of cardiovascular health indicators and health promotion behaviors. Participants (66.7% female) consisted of 265 whites and 428 African Americans, ages 18 and older recruited from primary care clinics and churches. Respondents completed a brief survey on blood pressure (BP), total cholesterol, blood glucose, body mass index (BMI), diet, and physical activity. Whites were more likely than African Americans to report knowing their personal and target levels of cardiovascular health indicators. Knowledge of personal BP and/or BMI was positively associated with actual physical activity, and awareness of personal blood glucose was positively associated with healthy dietary practices for participants in both groups. Among whites, awareness of personal BP and knowledge of target levels for BP, total cholesterol, and BMI were also associated with healthy diet. Results suggest there are racial/ethnic disparities in knowledge of personal and ideal levels of cardiovascular health indicators, and that this knowledge is related to health promotion behaviors. Targeted educational efforts are warranted to enhance knowledge of personal risk indicators among African Americans.

  7. Limit growth of ice crystals under different temperature oscillations levels in nile Tilapia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirko Salomon Chávez GUTIÉRREZ

    Full Text Available Abstract The degenerative effect of temperature fluctuations during storage time is a critical condition that needs to be quantitatively characterized in products where drip losses are appreciable. In this work, real storage conditions were reproduced using freezers modified to cause 3 levels of temperature fluctuation (± 0, ± 3, ± 5; ± 7 during storage of Tilapia (Oreochromis sp, at temperature of –18 °C. The fast frozen tilapia muscle (freezing cabinet was chosen to quantify the growth of ice crystals according to temperature fluctuations. The identification of crystals in the optical microscope as well as histological treatments and measurements using specific software has shown that the growth of ice crystals in the first days of storage follows an asymptote, whose final value is conditioned only by the level of temperature fluctuations regardless of initial diameter, which begins storage. It has also been found that the growth of crystals formed during rapid freezing rapidly develops according to temperature fluctuations to which the product has been subjected. This work also identified statistically significant differences in the equivalent diameter of crystals formed at the four proposed levels of temperature fluctuation with significance level of p < 0.05.

  8. Mineral abundances and different levels of alteration around Mawrth Vallis, Mars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheng Gou; Zongyu Yue; Kaichang Di; Jinnian Wang

    2015-01-01

    Spectral indices from OMEGA hyperspectral data show that there are two main phyllosilicates exposed in and around Mawrth Vallis: Al phyllosilicates and Fe/Mg phyllosilicates. Detailed analysis of CRISM spectra shows that Al phyllosilicates such as montmorillonite, hydrated silica, kaolinite; Fe/Mg phyllo-silicates such as nontronite, saponite, serpentine are widespread on the light-toned outcrops. Though similar stratigraphical sequences, morphologies and textures are observed on both sides of Mawrth Vallis from HiRISE images, suggesting that the geological processes that formed these units must have operated at a regional scale; the multiple endmember spectral mixture analysis (MESMA) derived mineral abundance indicates that there is a higher level of alteration in the western side relative to the eastern side. We suggest that the observed phyllosilicates, stratigraphical sequences and different levels of alteration might have been caused by sedimentary deposition processes in which the composition of the external source sediment or the local solution was different, or by a pedogenic process closely related to the leaching of abundant liquid water with different chemical properties.

  9. EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT IRRIGATION LEVELS ON YIELD OF LETTUCE GROWN IN AN UNHEATED GREENHOUSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halil Kirnak

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out in an unheated greenhouse in order to determine effects of different irrigation levels on lettuce yield (cv. Hazar grown from December to February in Şanlıurfa, Turkey. Different irrigation water amounts based on Class-A-Pan evaporation were applied to the plants by drip irrigation system at four irrigation levels (Kp1= 1.0, Kp2=0.75, Kp3=0.50, Kp4=0.25 in one week irrigation interval. Applied irrigation water and evapotranspiration of Kp1 treatment were 118 and 125 mm, respectively. The highest average lettuce yield of 7.8 ton da-1 was obtained from the full-irrigation treatment (Kp1. Significant differences were not observed between Kp1 and Kp2 treatments in terms of lettuce yield. Maximum irrigation water use efficiency and total water use efficiency were obtained from Kp4 treatment respectively with 0.117 and 0.074 ton da-1 mm-1. Yield response factor (ky was found to be 0.88. The research results showed that a 7 day irrigation interval with Kp2 treatment could be used for irrigating lettuce under the unheated greenhouse conditions without any significant yield loss but increased water use efficiencies.

  10. Explicit control of adaptive automation under different levels of environmental stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Jürgen; Kao, Chung-Shan; Wastell, David; Nickel, Peter

    2011-08-01

    This article examines the effectiveness of three different forms of explicit control of adaptive automation under low- and high-stress conditions, operationalised by different levels of noise. In total, 60 participants were assigned to one of three types of automation design (free, prompted and forced choice). They were trained for 4 h on a highly automated simulation of a process control environment, called AutoCAMS. This was followed by a 4-h testing session under noise exposure and quiet conditions. Measures of performance, psychophysiology and subjective reactions were taken. The results showed that all three modes of explicit control of adaptive automation modes were able to attenuate the negative effects of noise. This was partly due to the fact that operators opted for higher levels of automation under noise. It also emerged that forced choice showed marginal advantages over the two other automation modes. Statement of Relevance: This work is relevant to the design of adaptive automation since it emphasises the need to consider the impact of work-related stressors during task completion. During the presence of stressors, different forms of operator support through automation may be required than under more favourable working conditions.

  11. Dynamic Pricing Strategy of Provider with Different QoS Levels in Web Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Pan

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the service provider profit, the pricing strategies in service network have been studied, but primarily in static pricing setting without considering different quality of service (QoS levels. However, in real situation, providers usually dynamically adjust their prices and offer multiple class services to meet different customers. Moreover, because service provider will satisfy demands of customers on a specific future date, customers may cancel order. In this paper, we establish a new dynamic pricing model to consider order cancellation ration and different QoS levels for maximizing provider revenue. The analytical results from this new model reveal that the optimal capacity and prices are derived via closed-form solutions. Finally, a numerical example is presented to illustrate that the proposed method is effective for determining the optimal capacity and prices. In addition, sensitivity analysis of the optimal capacity and profit with respect to some important parameters are also conducted to illustrate the optimal decision characteristics.

  12. Acculturation attitudes and ethnic prejudice in different education levels: a comparative approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Retortillo Osuna

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Immigration has important demographic, economic, social and educational consequences in receiving countries. Nowadays international migrations cause essential changes in host countries, both at the macro and micro levels and both as a group and individually. From a mainly psychosocial perspective, the present paper points out the need to research, from a comparative approach, on the way students (at different education levels, both public and private regard newcomers living in their society. In addition, this research focuses on the preferences of the host population about immigrants’ social inclusion, in other words, acculturation attitudes. Because we behave with others according to the way we perceive them, we consider it necessary to try and get to know what image native students have of newcomers.

  13. Silage quality of Brachiaria brizantha cultivars ensiled with different levels of millet meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.A.P Costa

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The silage quality of Brachiaria brizantha cultivars ensiled with different levels of millet meal was evaluated. The experimental design was a completely randomized with three replications in a factorial 3 x 4, with three cultivars of Brachiaria brizantha: marandu, xaraés, and piatã and four levels of millet meal 0, 5, 10, and 15%. The addition of millet meal improved the quality of B. brizantha silage. The inclusion of the additive at 15% provided the best nutritional values. The piatã silage had the lowest contents of neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, and lignin and the highest content of total digestible nutrients, being a better quality silage as compared to those of xaraés and marandu grasses.

  14. In the company we keep: social physique anxiety levels differ around parents and peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunet, Jennifer; Sabiston, Catherine M

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the psychometric properties of two scales which assessed social physique anxiety (SPA) in the context of peers (peer SPA) and parents (parent SPA), and differences in reported levels of peer SPA and parent SPA. Young adults (N = 381, 161 males, M(age) = 18.69 years) completed self-report measures. Results supported the internal consistency, convergent validity and factor structure of the peer SPA and parent SPA scales. Also, participants reported significantly higher levels of peer SPA compared to parent SPA. Findings offer preliminary support for the investigation of contextualized SPA using the scales tested in this study, and suggest more research is needed to better understand the processes that may increase or decrease SPA when surrounded by peers and parents.

  15. Comparison of Different Methods of Grading a Level Turn Task on a Flight Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Bruce E.; Crier, tomyka

    2003-01-01

    With the advancements in the computing power of personal computers, pc-based flight simulators and trainers have opened new avenues in the training of airplane pilots. It may be desirable to have the flight simulator make a quantitative evaluation of the progress of a pilot's training thereby reducing the physical requirement of the flight instructor who must, in turn, watch every flight. In an experiment, University students conducted six different flights, each consisting of two level turns. The flights were three minutes in duration. By evaluating videotapes, two certified flight instructors provided separate letter grades for each turn. These level turns were also evaluated using two other computer based grading methods. One method determined automated grades based on prescribed tolerances in bank angle, airspeed and altitude. The other method used was deviations in altitude and bank angle for performance index and performance grades.

  16. PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF IMAGE DENOISING WITH WAVELET THRESHOLDING METHODS FOR DIFFERENT LEVELS OF DECOMPOSITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anutam

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Image Denoising is an important part of diverse image processing and computer vision problems. The important property of a good image denoising model is that it should completely remove noise as far as possible as well as preserve edges. One of the most powerful and perspective approaches in this area is image denoising using discrete wavelet transform (DWT. In this paper, comparison of various Wavelets at different decomposition levels has been done. As number of levels increased, Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR of image gets decreased whereas Mean Absolute Error (MAE and Mean Square Error (MSE get increased . A comparison of filters and various wavelet based methods has also been carried out to denoise the image. The simulation results reveal that wavelet based Bayes shrinkage method outperforms other methods.

  17. Influence of different disease control pesticide strategies on multiple pesticide residue levels in apple

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mette Erecius; Naef, A.; Gasser, S.;

    2009-01-01

    % of European Maximum Residue Levels (EU MRL) and that the number of residues present at levels above 0.01 mg kg(-1) should be limited to a maximum of four. The strategies fulfilled the requirement to use combinations of different active substances in order to prevent the emergence of resistance to pesticides......Seven pesticide application strategies were investigated to control apple scab (Venturia inaequalis) and powdery mildew (Podosphaera leucotricha) and, at the same time.. fulfil the new quality standards implemented by some German retailers. These demand that pesticide residues should be below 80....... The trials were conducted at two sites in Switzerland, in 2007, and all strategies and applications were in accordance with actual practice. Four replicates of apple samples from each strategy were then analysed for pesticide residues. The incidence of infection with apple scab and powdery mildew were...

  18. Differences in leisure-time activities according to level of physical activity in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Jorge; Santos, Maria Paula; Ribeiro, Jose Carlos

    2008-03-01

    The main goals of this study were: (1) to examine the relationship between physical activity (PA) involvement and other leisure activities in a sample of Portuguese youth and (2) to analyze gender differences in PA and leisure-time activity structure. The sample comprised 1123 adolescents that were classified according to PA levels as active (n = 589) and nonactive (n = 534). A questionnaire assessing leisure-time activities was used. Girls were significantly more engaged in social leisure, dutiful, and individual artistic activities during leisure time, whereas boys were more involved in sports and computer and TV viewing activities. Significant associations between PA and social leisure were found in girls (r = .18, P artistic activities. This study has certain implications for health-related PA promotion efforts. Our data give additional reinforcement to the importance of organized and nonorganized sports/PA during leisure time for overall levels of PA in adolescents.

  19. Organochlorine pesticide level differences among female inhabitants from Veracruz, Puebla and Tabasco, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waliszewski, Stefan M; Caba, M; Saldarriaga-Noreña, H; Martínez, A J; Meza, E; Valencia Quintana, R; Zepeda, R

    2014-08-01

    Organochlorine pesticides have been used in Mexico in malaria control programs and against ectoparasites. The objective of this study was to compare the levels of organochlorine pesticides: HCB, α-β-γ-HCH, pp'-DDE, op'-DDT and pp'-DDT in adipose tissue of female inhabitants from three Mexican states: Veracruz, Puebla and Tabasco. Data analyses indicated higher β-HCH levels in Puebla inhabitants. When comparing the mean values of the pp'-DDE concentrations among the three states, no statistically significant differences were noted. A trend of increasing concentrations of op'-DDT from Veracruz to Puebla and Tabasco was observed. Significantly higher pp'-DDT concentrations in Veracruz as compared to Puebla and Tabasco were determined. Using factorial analysis of three age categories (>30, 31-50, <51) organochlorine pesticide concentrations increases with age of participants, indicating time of exposure as a principal factor of organochlorine pesticides accumulation in adipose tissue.

  20. INTERCONNECTING NETWORKS WITH DIFFERENT LEVELS OF SECURITY – A PRESENT NATO PROBLEM

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    LIVIU TATOMIR

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A situation often met in the Romanian Armed Forces in recent years is the need for interconnecting two networks (domains with different levels of classification. Considering that the Romanian armed troops are involved in numerous missions with NATO partners, solutions, already implemented across the organization, are considered to be applied in domestic systems, also. This paper presents the solutions adopted by NATO in order to solve the problem of cross -domains interconnections. We present the maturity level reached by these solutions and the possibility of implementing these solutions in the Romanian Armed Forces, with or without specific adaptation to our own rules and regulations. The goal is to use a NATO already proved solution to our national classified networks.

  1. Elastins from patients with Williams-Beuren syndrome and healthy individuals differ on the molecular level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz, Andrea; Huertas, Angela C Mora; Schräder, Christoph U; Pankau, Rainer; Gosch, Angela; Schmelzer, Christian E H

    2016-07-01

    Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS) is a congenital disorder, which involves the heterozygous deletion of the elastin gene and other genes on chromosome 7. Clinical symptoms that are associated with hemizygosity of the essential extracellular matrix protein elastin include premature aging of the skin and supravalvular aortic stenosis. However, only little is known about the molecular basis of structural abnormalities in the connective tissue of WBS patients. Therefore, for the first time this study aimed to systematically characterize and compare the structure and amount of elastin present in skin and aortic tissue from WBS patients and healthy individuals. Elastin fibers were isolated from tissue biopsies, and it was found that skin of WBS patients contains significantly less elastin compared to skin of healthy individuals. Scanning electron microscopy and mass spectrometric measurements combined with bioinformatics data analysis were used to investigate the molecular-level structure of elastin. Scanning electron microscopy revealed clear differences between WBS and healthy elastin. With respect to the molecular-level structure, it was found that the proline hydroxylation degree differed between WBS and healthy elastin, while the tropoelastin isoform appeared to be the same. In terms of cross-linking, no differences in the content of the tetrafunctional cross-links desmosine and isodesmosine were found between WBS and healthy elastin. However, principal component analysis revealed differences between enzymatic digests of elastin from healthy probands and WBS patients, which indicates differing susceptibility toward enzymatic cleavage. Overall, the study contributes to a better understanding of the correlation between genotypic and elastin-related phenotypic features of WBS patients. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Drivers of hemispheric differences in return dates of mid-latitude stratospheric ozone to historical levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Garny

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Chemistry-climate models (CCMs project an earlier return of northern mid-latitude total column ozone to 1980 values compared to the southern mid-latitudes. The chemical and dynamical drivers of this hemispheric difference are investigated in this study. The hemispheric asymmetry in return dates is a robust result across different CCMs and is qualitatively independent of the method used to estimate return dates. However, the differences in dates of return to 1980 levels between the southern and northern mid-latitudes can vary between 0 and 30 yr across the range of CCM projections analyzed. An attribution analysis performed with two CCMs shows that chemically-induced changes in ozone are the major driver of the earlier return of ozone to 1980 levels in northern mid-latitudes; transport changes are of minor importance. This conclusion is supported by the fact that the spread in the simulated hemispheric difference in return dates across an ensemble of twelve models is only weakly related to the spread in the simulated hemispheric asymmetry of trends in the strength of the Brewer–Dobson circulation. The causes for chemically-induced asymmetric ozone trends relevant for the total column ozone return date differences are found to be (i stronger increases in ozone production due to enhanced NOx concentrations in the Northern Hemisphere lowermost stratosphere and troposphere, (ii stronger decreases in the destruction rates of ozone by the NOx cycle in the Northern Hemisphere lower stratosphere linked to effects of dynamics and temperature on NOx concentrations and (iii an increasing efficiency of heterogeneous ozone destruction by Cly in the Southern Hemisphere mid-latitudes as a result of decreasing temperatures.

  3. Relating ASD symptoms to well-being: moving across different construct levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deserno, M K; Borsboom, D; Begeer, S; Geurts, H M

    2017-09-11

    Little is known about the specific factors that contribute to the well-being (WB) of individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). A plausible hypothesis is that ASD symptomatology has a direct negative effect on WB. In the current study, the emerging tools of network analysis allow to explore the functional interdependencies between specific symptoms of ASD and domains of WB in a multivariate framework. We illustrate how studying both higher-order (total score) and lower-order (subscale) representations of ASD symptomatology can clarify the interrelations of factors relevant for domains of WB. We estimated network structures on three different construct levels for ASD symptomatology, as assessed with the Adult Social Behavior Questionnaire (item, subscale, total score), relating them to daily functioning (DF) and subjective WB in 323 adult individuals with clinically identified ASD (aged 17-70 years). For these networks, we assessed the importance of specific factors in the network structure. When focusing on the highest representation level of ASD symptomatology (i.e. a total score), we found a negative connection between ASD symptom severity and domains of WB. However, zooming in on lower representation levels of ASD symptomatology revealed that this connection was mainly funnelled by ASD symptoms related to insistence on sameness and experiencing reduced contact and that those symptom scales, in turn, impact different domains of WB. Zooming in across construct levels of ASD symptom severity into subscales of ASD symptoms can provide us with important insights into how specific domains of ASD symptoms relate to specific domains of DF and WB.

  4. Dominant Indicators of Bank Crises: Comparative Analysis for States with Different Levels of Economic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozlov Vladislav I.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to identification of common and distinctive regularities of development of banking systems with different levels of development of economy through study of the most important macro-economic and financial indicators. The article uses instruments of the applied statistics. The study is based on comparison of mean values of indicators in two groups of countries (countries with a high level of income and countries with a medium level of income, each of which is divided into two sub-groups based on whether there was banking crisis in 2008 or not. In the result of the study the article shows that there are both common and distinctive features of development of banking systems of countries with different levels of economic development. Thus, a typical scenario, characteristic for countries with developed economy that had banking crisis in 2008, includes availability of a relatively large-scale crediting of the economy under conditions of relatively low rates of economic growth and close connections of the national banking systems with banking systems of other countries. Development of banking systems of developing countries during the pre-crisis period is characterised with the following specific features: relatively high rates of growth of scales of crediting of the economy and high rates of economic growth under conditions of use of significant volumes of resources, borrowed in financial markets, and close connection of the national banking systems with banking systems of other countries. The study allows a more efficient use of experience of states with developed economy, since the described results give a possibility to adjust experience of other states, taking into account characteristic features of banking systems of developing countries. Also the study identified states, experience of which should be studied. The conducted analysis of interrelations of indicators could be used for building models of assessment of

  5. Root Exudates, Rhizosphere Zn Fractions, and Zn Accumulation of Ryegrass at Different Soil Zn Levels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Wei-Hong; LIU Huai; MA Qi-Fu; XIONG Zhi-Ting

    2007-01-01

    A glasshouse experiment was conducted using a root-bag technique to study the root exudates, rhizosphere Zn fractions, and Zn concentrations and accumulations of two ryegrass cultivars (Lolium perenne L. cvs. Airs and Tede) at different soil Zn levels (0, 2, 4, 8, and 16 mmol kg-1 soil). Results indicated that plant growth of the two cultivars was not adversely affected at soil Zn level≤8 mmol kg-1. Plants accumulated more Zn as soil Zn levels increased, and Zn concentrations of shoots were about 540 /μg g-1 in Aris and 583.9μg g-1 in Tede in response to 16 mmol Zn kg-1 soil. Zn ratios of shoots to roots across the soil Zn levels were higher in Tede than in Airs, corresponding with higher rhizosphere available Zn fractions (exchangeable, bound to manganese oxides, and bound to organic matter) in Airs than in Tede. Low-molecular-weight (LMW) organic acids (oxalic, tartaric, malic, and succinic acids) and amino acids (proline, threonine, glutamic acid, and aspartic acid, etc.) were detected in root exudates, and the concentrations of LMW organic acids and amino acids increased with addition of 4 mmol Zn kg-1 soil compared with zero Zn addition. Higher rhizosphere concentrations of oxalic acid, glutamic acid, alanine, phenylalanine, leucine, and proline in Tede than in Airs likely resulted in increased Zn uptake from the soil by Tede than by Airs. The results suggested that genotypic differences in Zn accumulations were mainly because of different root exudates and rhizosphere Zn fractions.

  6. First results on enzymatic activities in two salt marsh soils under different hydromorphic level and vegetation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Trasar-Cepeda

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Salt-marsh soils are soils characterized by non-permanent hydric saturation that, depending on factors like duration of submersion periods, are dominated by different salt-tolerant plant species. The composition of microbial communities is an essential component in trophic dynamics and biogeochemical processes in salt marshes, and determines the level of enzymatic activities, which catalyze the conversion of complex molecules into simpler ones. Despite of this, the enzymatic activities in marsh-soils has not yet been investigated. The aim of this study was to analyze the enzymatic activities in two soil profiles of marsh-soils under different water saturation level and dominated by different plant species [Juncus maritimus Lam and Spartina maritima (Curtis Fernald (Sp]. In both soils, the enzymatic activities were much lower than the levels typically found in terrestrial ecosystems. The enzymatic activities were measured both in air-dried and in re-moistened and incubated soil samples. In air-dried samples, the enzymatic activities were higher in Juncus than in Spartina soil and tended to decrease with depth, being sharper the decrease in Juncus than in Spartina soil. Re-moistened and pre-incubated soils showed a general increase in all the enzymatic activities and throughout the whole soil profile, especially in Spartina soils. Hydrolase activities showed a strong and positive relationship with organic matter content both in air-dried and in re-moistened soil samples, higher in these latter. In general, oxidoreductase activities only showed this relationship in re-moistened soil samples. More studies, preferably using freshly collected soil samples, are needed to understand the relationship between enzymatic activities and these environmental conditions.

  7. Cell apoptosis of caprine spleen induced by toxicity of cadmium with different levels of molybdenum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xiaolong; Chen, Rongrong; Hu, Guoliang; Zhuang, Yu; Luo, Junrong; Zhang, Caiying; Guo, Xiaoquan; Huang, Aiming; Cao, Huabin

    2015-07-01

    In order to clarify the effects of the combination of Mo and Cd on goat and relationship between the two elements, combined chronic toxicity of cadmium with different levels of molybdenum in vivo on apoptosis gene and ultrastructure of spleen was evaluated with the methods of RT-qPCR and transmission electron microscopy. A total of thirty-six goats were randomly distributed in equal number into four groups. These groups were randomly assigned with one of three oral treatments of CdCl2 (0.5 mgCd kg(-1)) and [(NH4)6Mo7O24·4H2O] (15 mg Mo kg(-1), group I; 30 mg Mo kg(-1), group II; 45 mg Mo kg(-1), group III), while the control group received deionized water. Spleen tissues were taken from individual goat at different time intervals to measure the levels of apoptosis genes including Bcl-2, Bax, Cyt c, Caspase-3, Smac and ceruloplasmin (Cp). The results revealed that a significant suppression in Bcl-2 expression and increase in Cyt c, Caspase-3 and Cp expression in splenic cells. The Bax expression in group I and II was up-regulated, however, it displayed reduction in group III, whereas no statistical significance was observed on Smac expression. In addition, histopathologic injury revealed remarkable morphplogical changes on the splenocytes in the means of apoptosis including fragmentized nucleus, apoptotic body and vesiculation of cytoplasma and mitochondria. Taken together, combined chronic toxicity of cadmium with different levels of molybdenum induce goat spleen cell apoptosis associated with mitochondrial intrinsic pathway, and the two elements showed possible antergic relationship.

  8. Economic viability of feeding dairy cows on diets containing different levels of soybean oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Aurélio Lopes

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the economic viability of feeding dairy cows with diets containing different levels of soybean oil. Cows were fed diets based on tropical forage (Pennisetum purpureum Schum supplemented with different levels of soybean oil (0.0, 1.5, 3.0, and 4.5% of diet DM. The calculations were made considering the prices of the dietary ingredients and the daily consumption of each dietary treatment. The milk quality-based payment was estimated on the bonus paid for milk fat and protein contents according to two systems used by companies of the dairy sector. The economic benefit was calculated as the difference between the income obtained from milk sale and the cost associated with animal feeding. The MOP scenario analysis (most likely - optimistic - pessimistic was performed on the basis of the real scenario and variations in milk price and inputs observed in season and off-season periods over the years under study. The diet with 1.5% soybean oil had higher economic benefit when compared with those containing 3.0 and 4.5% soybean oil. All the dietary soybean oil levels would result in bonuses for milk protein content (higher than 3.03 and 3.21. Only the control diet showed a positive economic balance. The bonuses paid for milk protein content were insufficient to cover the additional costs associated with the inclusion of soybean oil in the diets, resulting in negative balances for the treatments with 1.5; 3.0 and 4.5% soybean oil, demonstrating the economic non-viability of supplementing diets of lactating cows with soybean oil.

  9. Different levels of taxonomic resolution in bioassessment: a case study of oligochaeta in lowland streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustina Cortelezzi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: This study evaluated the use of oligochaetes at different levels of taxonomic resolution as environmental indicators in Argentine lowland streams affected by different land uses. METHODS: Sampling sites were grouped based on the physicochemical and habitat characteristics (low-, moderate-, and high-impact disturbance. Collection of the oligochaetes samples was carried out seasonally in sediment and vegetation habitats. RESULTS: The increases in nutrients and organic matter produced elevated densities of the Oligochaeta, but when the disturbance also involved changes in the physical habitat or enhancements in toxic substances, the abundance decreased significantly to values even lower than those of non-impacted environments. The responses of Naidinae and Tubificinae were similar. The density of the Pristininae decreased with increasing impact, but those of the Enchytraeidae and Rhyacodrilinae increased at the most highly impacted sites. The Opistocystidae were not recorded in high-impact sites. Species richness and diversity (H' were lower in high-impact sites and even lower in sediments. Some species presented no restrictions in the habitat type or with the contamination level: Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri, Dero furcatus, D. digitata, D. pectinata, Pristina longiseta, and P. aequiseta. Moreover, Trieminentia corderoi, Slavina appendiculata, and Aulodrilus pigueti exhibited the highest abundances at low-impact sites and were not registered in high-impact sites. CONCLUSIONS: The Oligochaeta show a relatively wide ecological valence through their extensive number of species. Although lower taxonomic levels can give information about environmental status, test-species' sensitivities to different types and degrees of contamination will be of utmost relevance to the evaluation of ecological quality.

  10. Associations between neuromuscular function and levels of physical activity differ for boys and girls during puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudroff, Thorsten; Kelsey, Megan M; Melanson, Edward L; McQueen, Matthew B; Enoka, Roger M

    2013-08-01

    To compare the associations between neuromuscular performance and anthropometric characteristics with habitual levels of physical activity in boys and girls during the initial stages of puberty. In a cross-sectional study of 72 healthy children (39 boys and 33 girls) ranging in age from 8 to 14 years, sex differences in anthropometric and motor performance characteristics were compared at 3 Tanner stages (T1-T3). Outcome variables included dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry measurements of body composition, assessments of neuromuscular function, and levels of physical activity (steps/day) measured by accelerometry. Physical activity was lower in girls than boys at T2 and T3, but there was no sex difference at T1. Physical activity increased with Tanner stage for boys but did not differ between Tanner stages in girls. Physical activity at each Tanner stage was strongly associated (R(2) > 0.85) with neuromuscular characteristics for both boys and girls, but percentage of body fat also was associated with physical activity for T3 girls. The attenuated gains in neuromuscular function experienced by girls in early stages of puberty were strongly associated with lower levels of physical activity, whereas the increase in physical activity exhibited by boys was mostly related to increases in the strength and endurance of leg muscles. Because sedentary activity is a known contributor to the development of obesity and type 2 diabetes in youth, this study helps to identify possible contributors to decreases in physical activity in young girls and provides potential targets for early intervention. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Levels of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether (PBDE) flame retardants in animals representing different trophic levels of the North Sea food web

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boon, J.P.; Lewis, W.E.; Tjoen-A-Choy, M.R.; Allchin, C.R.; Law, R.J.; Boer, de J.

    2002-01-01

    The levels of individual PBDE congeners were investigated in the invertebrate species whelk (Buccinum undatum), seastar (Asterias rubens), and hermit crab (Pagurus bernhardus), the gadoid fish species whiting (Merlangius merlangus) and cod (Gadus morhua), and the marine mammal species harbor seal (P

  12. A Comparison of Levels of Quality of Life, Depression and Loneliness among Athletes with Different Levels of Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unver, Saban; Atan, Tulin; Cavusoglu, Gul; Erim, Vedat; Yamak, Bade

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the levels of life quality, depression and loneliness among the students of the Faculty of Sports Sciences (FSS), national wrestlers and non national wrestlers in terms of some demographic variables. The participants of the study included 37 students from the Faculty of Sports Sciences of Ondokuz Mayis…

  13. Quality of aged shoulder from lambs fed with different oldman saltbush hay levels (Atriplex nummularia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tharcilla Isabella Rodrigues Costa Alvarenga

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the effects of different levels of oldman saltbush hay and ageing time on the physical characteristics of Santa Inês lamb meat. Sixty shoulders from 32 male lambs fed with 30, 40, 50 or 60% oldman saltbush hay for 60 days were vacuum-packaged and stored in a refrigerator at 0 ± 1°C for 0, 7 or 14 days of ageing. The shear force, cooking loss and water holding capacity were 3.06kgf cm-2, 37.28% and 76.71%, respectively, and there were no significant changed by studied factors (P>0.05

  14. Changes during hibernation in different phospholipid and free and esterified cholesterol serum levels in black bears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, V.; Sheikh, A.; Chauhan, A.; Tsiouris, J.; Malik, M.; Vaughan, M.

    2002-01-01

    During hibernation, fat is known to be the preferred source of energy. A detailed analysis of different phospholipids, as well as free and esterified cholesterol, was conducted to investigate lipid abnormalities during hibernation. The levels of total phospholipids and total cholesterol in the serum of black bears were found to increase significantly in hibernation as compared with the active state. Both free and esterified cholesterol were increased in the hibernating state in comparison with the active state (P biochimie et biologie mole??culaire. All rights reserved.

  15. Nutrient digestibility and growth of five breeds of sheep under different levels of undegradable protein

    OpenAIRE

    Yulistiani D; Naufaliah N; Kardaya D; Subandriyo

    2015-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of feeding different levels of rumen undegradable protein (UDP) in concentrate on performance of five breeds of sheep. Namely: Compass Agrinak (CA); Garut Composite breed (KG); Barbados Cross breed (BC); St Croix breed (SC); and Local Garut (GL) breed. Ten heads of sheep were used from each breed, in which each breed was grouped into 5 groups according to their body weight, and each sheep in each group was assigned to one of two treatments diet. Th...

  16. Morse taper implants at different bone levels: a finite element analysis of stress distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Toniollo, Marcelo Bighetti; Macedo, Ana Paula; Palhares, Daniel; Calefi, Paulo Linares; Sorgini, Danilo Balero; Mattos, Maria da Gloria Chiarello de

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To explore the biomechanical effects of the different implantation bone levels of Morse taper implants, employing a finite element analysis (FEA). METHODS: Dental implants (TitamaxCM) with 4x13 mm and 4x11 mm, and their respective abutments with 3.5 mm height, simulating a screwed premolar metal-ceramic crown, had their design performed using the software AnsysWorkbench 10.0. They were positioned in bone blocks, covered by 2.5 mm thickness of mucosa. The cortical bone was designed with 1...

  17. The impact of different demand allocation rules on total stock levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Wanke

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This manuscript compares two different rules for allocating demands to serving facilities and their impact on total stock levels: the one proposed by Tyagi & Das (1998 and the cross filling practice. The EOQ and the ROP methods are used for setting cycle and safety stocks. Its is demonstrated that the minimization of the consolidated inventory levels within these rules leads to different allocation policies, frequently adopted by companies: one single facility sharing, dedicated facilities and full decentralization. Sensitivity analyses are conducted to identify the most relevant variables accountable for the differences in total stock levels among these three policies. Results suggest different benefit opportunities that may favor one policy to the detriment of the others. A framework synthesizing the findings is presented, so as to help in decision making. Potential impacts in terms of service levels and distribution costs are also evaluated qualitatively.Esse artigo compara duas diferentes regras para alocação da demanda às instalações de serviço e seus impactos nos níveis totais de estoque: a regra proposta por Tyagi & Das (1998 e a prática de transferência entre instalações. Os métodos do lote econômico de compras e do ponto de pedido são usados para determinação dos níveis de estoque de ciclo e de segurança. É demonstrado que a minimização dos níveis agregados de estoque nessas regras leva a diferentes políticas de alocação freqüentemente adotadas pelas empresas: compartilhamento de uma única instalação de serviço, instalações de serviço dedicadas e descentralização total do atendimento. Análises de sensibilidade são conduzidas para identificar as variáveis mais relevantes, responsáveis pela diferença nos níveis totais de estoque entre essas três políticas. Os resultados sugerem diferentes oportunidades que podem favorecer uma dada política em detrimento das outras. Um quadro conceitual

  18. Bronchial responsiveness in children living in areas with different air pollution levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forastiere, F.; Michelozzi, P.; Agabiti, N.; Brancato, G.; Perucci, C.A. (Latium Regional Health Authority, Rome (Italy)); Corbo, G.M.; Pistelli, R.; Ciappi, G. (Catholic Univ., Rome (Italy))

    This study evaluated the prevalence of increased bronchial responsiveness (BR) in children living in two areas with different air pollution levels. A total of 1 215 methacholine challenge tests were performed among a random sample of primary school children in an industrial town polluted by oil-fired thermoelectric power plants and in a rural area chosen as a control. The two groups showed similar lung function data (forced vital capacity [FVC] and forced expiratory volume in 1 s [FEV[sub 1.0

  19. [Differences in the levels of serum immunoglobulins in various cancer patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imir, T; Gülmezoğlu, E

    1976-10-01

    IgG and IgM were purified from human peripheral blood sera and IgA from human colostrum. A method is established to measure the Ig classes quantitatively which is a modification of Mancini's radialimmundiffusion technique. Three Ig clases were detected from 136 cancer patients and compared with 34 healthy controls. In sarcoma there was an increase in the 3 classes of Ig in serum. These differences were also significant in patients with bone tumors. A raised level of three classes of Ig was seen.

  20. Ambient Light An integrative, LED based interaction concept for different levels of automation

    OpenAIRE

    Dziennus, Marc; Kelsch, Johann; Schieben, Anna

    2016-01-01

    In the present paper an innovative approach for the driver-automation interaction based on visual signals is presented. A 360° LED stripe which is installed in the interior of the car communicates to the driver via his peripheral vision (Ambient light). A consistent, color-coded interaction design in the peripheral field of vision is used to guide the driver’s attention and to support him in different level of automation by providing automation-related information. The HMI concept uses situat...

  1. Can upwelling signals be detected in intertidal fishes of different trophic levels?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulgar, J; Poblete, E; Alvarez, M; Morales, J P; Aranda, B; Aldana, M; Pulgar, V M

    2013-11-01

    For intertidal fishes belonging to three species, the herbivore Scartichthys viridis (Blenniidae), the omnivore Girella laevifrons (Kyphosidae) and the carnivore Graus nigra (Kyphosidae), mass and body size relationships were higher in individuals from an upwelling zone compared with those from a non-upwelling zone. RNA:DNA were higher in the herbivores and omnivores from the upwelling zone. Higher biomass and RNA:DNA in the upwelling intertidal fishes may be a consequence of an increased exposure to higher nutrient availability, suggesting that increased physiological conditioning in vertebrates from upwelling areas can be detected and measured using intertidal fishes of different trophic levels.

  2. Chemical composition of elephant grass silages supplemented with different levels of dehydrated cashew bagasse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danillo Glaydson Farias Guerra

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the chemical composition of elephant grass silages supplemented with different levels dried cashew bagasse (DCB. Our experiment used a randomized design replicated four times, each replicate consisting of the following five treatments: 100% elephant grass; 95% elephant grass + 5% DCB; 90% elephant grass + 10% DCB; 85% elephant grass + 15% DCB; and 80% elephant grass + 20% DCB. The elephant grass was cut manually to a residual height of 5 cm at 80 days of age, and cashew bagasse was obtained from the processing of cashew stalks used in fruit pulp manufacturing in Mossoró/RN. Plastic buckets were used as experimental silos, and 90 days after ensiling the experimental silos were opened and the contents analyzed. The addition of dried cashew bagasse to silage linearly increased the levels of dried matter and crude protein by 0.59% and 0.13%, respectively, for each 1% addition (P < 0.05. The neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent content of the silages was reduced by 0.22% and 0.09%, respectively, for each 1% addition of the bagasse. The total carbohydrate content was not influenced by the bagasse addition (P > 0.05, and averaged 82.29%. The levels of non-fiber carbohydrate showed linear growth (P < 0.05 as the dehydrated cashew bagasse was added, and pH and ammoniacal nitrogen levels were reduced. The addition of the dehydrated bagasse to elephant grass silage improves its chemical composition, and it can be effectively added up to the level of 20%.

  3. CONSISTENCY IN ACCELERATION PATTERNS OF FOOTBALL PLAYERS WITH DIFFERENT SKILL LEVELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinar Arpinar-Avsar

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the present study were to compare the consistency in the lower limb acceleration patterns during inside and instep kicks performed by players with different skill levels, and to investigate the correlation between subjective rating scores for skill level relative to their kicking performance and knee acceleration repeatability. Thirteen club-level male soccer players of ages between 15-16 years participated in this study. Skill levels of individual players were quantified previously by evaluating shooting performance as a numerical value ranging from 1 to 10. Further evaluations were held through tri-axial acceleration data recorded at proximal tibial tuberosity beneath each patella on the players' knees, in a procedure in which players were asked to complete four randomly ordered shooting trials of inside and instep kicks with 2-minute resting intervals. Hence, the mainstream data used in consistency calculations are in the form 4 by 1200 matrices (acceleration vs. time per subject. In order to evaluate the consistency of acceleration data, the mean of the standard deviations (mSD were calculated, and the associated Pearson-r correlation coefficients were incorporated to obtain mSD vs. skill correlations. As a result, repeatability was found to increase with skill level at z-axis acceleration for instep kicks only. However, it is possible to find the most appropriate orientation (for the two kicks for meaningful correlations using vector rotations on the 3 orthogonal acceleration data, and this study shows that, after such suitable vector rotations, positive repeatability results could also be acquired for the inside kicks.

  4. Androgen receptors and serum testosterone levels identify different subsets of postmenopausal breast cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Secreto Giorgio

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Androgen receptors (AR are frequently expressed in breast cancers, but their implication in cancer growth is still controversial. In the present study, we further investigated the role of the androgen/AR pathway in breast cancer development. Methods AR expression was evaluated by immunochemistry in a cohort of 528 postmenopausal breast cancer patients previously examined for the association of serum testosterone levels with patient and tumor characteristics. AR expression was classified according to the percentage of stained cells: AR-absent (0% and AR-poorly (1%-30%, AR-moderately (>30%-60%, and AR-highly (>60% positive. Results Statistical analysis was performed in 451 patients who experienced natural menopause. AR-high expression was significantly related with low histologic grade and estrogen receptor (ER- and progesterone receptor (PR-positive status (P trendP=0.022, although a trend across the AR expression categories was not present. When women defined by ER status were analyzed separately, regression analysis in the ER-positive group showed a significant association of high testosterone levels with AR-highly-positive expression (OR 1.86; 95% CI, 1.10-3.16, but the association was essentially due to patients greater than or equal to 65 years (OR 2.42; 95% CI, 1.22-4.82. In ER-positive group, elevated testosterone levels appeared also associated with AR-absent expression, although the small number of patients in this category limited the appearance of significant effects (OR 1.92; 95% CI, 0.73–5.02: the association was present in both age groups ( Conclusions The findings in the present study confirm that testosterone levels are a marker of hormone-dependent breast cancer and suggest that the contemporary evaluation of ER status, AR expression, and circulating testosterone levels may identify different subsets of cancers whose growth may be influenced by androgens.

  5. Characterizing the spatiotemporal variability of groundwater levels of alluvial aquifers in different settings using drought indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Johannes Christoph; Birk, Steffen

    2017-05-01

    To improve the understanding of how aquifers in different alluvial settings respond to extreme events in a changing environment, we analyze standardized time series of groundwater levels (Standardized Groundwater level Index - SGI), precipitation (Standardized Precipitation Index - SPI), and river stages of three subregions within the catchment of the river Mur (Austria). Using correlation matrices, differences and similarities between the subregions, ranging from the Alpine upstream part of the catchment to its shallow foreland basin, are identified and visualized. Generally, river stages exhibit the highest correlations with groundwater levels, frequently affecting not only the wells closest to the river, but also more distant parts of the alluvial aquifer. As a result, human impacts on the river are transferred to the aquifer, thus affecting the behavior of groundwater levels. Hence, to avoid misinterpretation of groundwater levels in this type of setting, it is important to account for the river and human impacts on it. While the river is a controlling factor in all of the subregions, an influence of precipitation is evident too. Except for deep wells found in an upstream Alpine basin, groundwater levels show the highest correlation with a precipitation accumulation period of 6 months (SPI6). The correlation in the foreland is generally higher than that in the Alpine subregions, thus corresponding to a trend from deeper wells in the Alpine parts of the catchment towards more shallow wells in the foreland. Extreme events are found to affect the aquifer in different ways. As shown with the well-known European 2003 drought and the local 2009 floods, correlations are reduced under flood conditions, but increased under drought. Thus, precipitation, groundwater levels and river stages tend to exhibit uniform behavior under drought conditions, whereas they may show irregular behavior during floods. Similarly, correlations are found to be weaker in years with little

  6. Calorimetry of high-T{sub c} superconductors at different doping levels obtained with ultrafast spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheuch, Martin; Wolf, Martin [Fachbereich Physik, Freie Universitaet Berlin, Arnimallee 14, 14195 Berlin (Germany); Fritz-Haber-Institut der MPG, Faradayweg 4-6, 14195 Berlin (Germany); Perfetti, Luca [Laboratoire des Solides Irradies, Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau cedex (France); Kampfrath, Tobias [Fritz-Haber-Institut der MPG, Faradayweg 4-6, 14195 Berlin (Germany); Frischkorn, Christian [Fachbereich Physik, Freie Universitaet Berlin, Arnimallee 14, 14195 Berlin (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    A new approach for obtaining the electronic part of the heat capacity of highly correlated electron systems is discussed. When energy is absorbed from an incident femtosecond laser pulse, it is first deposited in the electronic system of a solid and, subsequently, transferred to the lattice. Using a THz probe pulse directly after optical excitation, before energy is transferred to the lattice, one can determine the instantaneous temperature of the electrons. This has been done for the high-T{sub c} superconductor Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8+{delta}}. In combination with time-domain THz spectroscopy at different sample temperatures, the equivalence of photo- and heat-induced conductivity-changes, especially regarding the phase transition, was shown. With this the electronic heat capacity of Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8+{delta}} was extracted for different doping levels {delta}.

  7. Self-rated literacy level does not explain educational differences in health and disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fransen, Mirjam P; Rowlands, Gillian; Leenaars, Karlijn Ef;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although literacy is increasingly considered to play a role in socioeconomic inequalities in health, its contribution to the explanation of educational differences in health has remained unexplored. The aim of this study was to investigate the contribution of self-rated literacy...... to educational differences in health. METHODS: Data was collected from the Healthy Foundation and Lifestyle Segmentation Dataset (n = 4257). Self-rated literacy was estimated by individuals' self-reported confidence in reading written English. We used logistic regression analyses to assess the association...... between educational level and health (long term conditions and self-rated health). Self-rated literacy and other potential explanatory variables were separately added to each model. For each added variable we calculated the percentage change in odds ratio to assess the contribution to the explanation...

  8. Evaluation of Spatial Perspective Taking Skills using a Digital Game with Different Levels of Immersion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Freina

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The present paper presents the results of an experiment aimed at assessing the impact of different levels of immersion on performance in a Spatial Perspective Taking (SPT task. Since SPT is an embodied skill, the hypothesis was that the more immersive a tool is, the better the performance should be. Ninety-eight students from a local primary school have played with three different versions of a game: (i completely immersive with a Head Mounted Display, (ii semi immersive on a computer screen and (iii non-immersive where no movements were possible for the player. Results showed that in the immersive versions of the game, players obtained higher scores than in the non-immersive version, suggesting that an immersive tool can better support performance in a SPT task.

  9. Accumulation and localization of cadmium in potato (Solanum tuberosum) under different soil Cd levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhifan; Zhao, Ye; Gu, Lei; Wang, Shuifeng; Li, Yongliang; Dong, Fangli

    2014-06-01

    Phytoavailability and uptake mechanism of Cd in edible plant tissues grown on metal polluted agricultural soils has become a growing concern worldwide. Uptake, transport, accumulation and localization of cadmium in potato organs under different soil Cd levels were investigated using inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry and energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis. Results indicated that Cd contents in potato organs increased with increasing soil Cd concentrations, and the order of Cd contents in different organs was leaves > stems/roots > tubers. Root-to-stem Cd translocation coefficients ranged from 0.89 to 1.81. Cd localization in potato tissues suggested that leaves and stems should be the main compartment of Cd storage and uptake. Although low concentrations of Cd migrated from the root to tuber, Cd accumulation in the tuber exceeded the standard for food security. Therefore, the planting of potato plants in farmland containing Cd should be closely evaluated due to its potential to present health risks.

  10. The effects of different salt, biostimulant and temperature levels on seed germination of some vegetable species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ertan Yildirim

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted to determine the effects of two biostimulants (humic acid and biozyme or three different salt (NaCl concentrations at the temperature 10, 15, 20 and 25°C on parsley, leek, celery, tomato, onion, lettuce, basil, radish and garden cress seed germination. Two applications of both biostimulants increased seed germination of parsley, celery and leek at all temperature treatments. Germination rate decreased depending on high salt concentrations. At different salt and temperature levels garden cress was characterised by the highest germination percentage compared to other vegetable species.Interactions between NaCl concentrations and temperatures, as welI as biostimulants and temperatures were significant at p=0.001 in for all vegetable species except onion in NaCl concentrations and temperatures compared to that of the control.

  11. Evaluation of the level of residual monomer in acrylic denture base materials having different polymerization properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalipçilar, B; Karaağaçlioğlu, L; Hasanreisoğlu, U

    1991-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the level of residual monomer in acrylic denture base materials having different polymerization properties. The investigation included a conventional-type acrylic cured under heat and pressure, as well as a pour-type resin polymerized by an injection-moulding technique at room temperature and under pressure. It was found that the residual monomer content ranged from 0.22-0.54% in pour-type resin, and from 0.23-0.52% in routinely used resins when the specimens were analysed by high performance liquid chromatography. These findings revealed that there were no significant differences between the two types of acrylic in terms of their residual monomer content.

  12. Using radioaerosols to monitor physiotherapy-enhanced mucus clearance at different levels of the bronchial tree

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasani, A.; Pavia, D.; Clarke, S.W.; Agnew, J.E. (Royal Free Hospital, London (United Kingdom))

    1993-01-01

    Patients with airways obstruction often find it difficult to clear excess lung secretions. Frequent coughing can clear the larger airways but may itself further damage the airways ciliated epithelium. Various physiotherapy regimes have been proposed yet objective evidence of their efficacy is sparse. Deposited aerosol particles - with an appropriate label for gamma imaging - can track clearance from different lung regions. Published reports have however tended to be equivocal in respect of clearance from the more distal conducting airways. Questions also arise as to coordination of transport rates at different levels of the bronchial tree. We therefore sought to re-assess requirements for effective analysis of physiotherapy-enhanced clearance to yield data on both peripheral and central airways clearance. (author).

  13. Differences in whole blood serotonin levels based on a typology of parasuicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rilke, O; Safar, C; Israel, M; Barth, T; Felber, W; Oehler, J

    1998-01-01

    Suicidal behavior has to be considered as a multifactorial phenomenon, which can be analyzed in a classifying-phenomenological manner. We have examined the relation of parasuicide typology to whole blood concentrations of serotonin, HVA, and tryptophan in 58 patients classified into 4 groups of parasuicide typology compared to 22 nonsuicidal depressed patients and 20 healthy subjects. Suicidal patients classified as impetuous, desperate and ambivalent types had significantly reduced whole blood 5-HT levels in comparison with the appealing type as well as nonsuicidal subjects. No differences were detected in the HVA content, but whole blood tryptophan concentrations were significantly reduced in impetuous suicidal patients and depressed patients compared to healthy subjects. This study provides evidence for reduced whole blood serotonin content based on different types of parasuicide.

  14. Lead levels in human teeth from the inhabitants of Mexico City from three different historical periods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mansilla, J.; Solis, C.; Chavez, M.E. [Instituto Nacional de Antropologia e Historia, Direccion de Antropologia Fisica, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    Human teeth from pre-Columbian, colonial and contemporary population groups were analyzed by PIXE in order to evaluate the lead contents in the inhabitants of Mexico City through different historical periods. Lead contents showed significant differences among the three groups, in Pre-Columbian teeth no lead was found, colonial teeth showed higher lead levels than contemporary ones. This results suggest that the native americans had no exposure to this toxic metal. The lead-glaze pottery introduced by the Spaniards, utilized in pottery and lead pipes, was the main source of lead in the colonial period. In recent teeth the deposited lead is mainly due to the absorption from the contaminated atmosphere. (Author)

  15. Does achilles tendon cross sectional area differ after downhill, level and uphill running in trained runners?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Katy Andrews; Johnson, A Wayne; Hunter, Iain; Myrer, J William

    2014-12-01

    In this study we examined how hill running affects the Achilles tendon, a common location for injuries in runners. Twenty females ran for 10 min on each of three randomly ordered grades (-6%, 0 and +6%) at speeds selected to match the metabolic rates. Achilles tendon (AT) cross-sectional area (CSA) was imaged using Doppler ultrasound and peak vertical forces were analyzed using an instrumented treadmill. A metabolic cart and gas analyzer ensured a similar metabolic cost across grades. Data were analyzed using a forward selection regression. Results showed similar decreases in AT CSA from pre- to post-run for all three conditions of ~5 to 7% (p = 0.0001). Active peak vertical forces were different across grades (p = 0.0001) with the largest occurring during downhill running and smallest during uphill running. Since changes in AT CSA were not different between grades, each form of running appears equal and acceptable in regards to how the Achilles tendon reacts. That is, the results suggest that the Achilles tendon is affected by downhill, level, and uphill running and a decrease in CSA appears to be a normal response. Key PointsDownhill (- 6%), level and uphill (+ 6%) running at different speeds each caused a statistically significant decrease in the Achilles tendon cross-sectional area in healthy, trained runners.The magnitude of change in Achilles tendon cross-sectional area did not differ between grades when metabolic cost of running was matched.Downhill running resulted in the largest peak vertical force, while uphill running resulted in the smallest.

  16. Physiological Characterization of Zn-efficient Rice (Oryza sativa) Genotype at Different Zn2+ Levels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Guang-cai; WANG Ren-min; Alfread QUAMPAH; YANG Xiao-e

    2003-01-01

    Physiological characteristics of rice at different Zn2+ levels[pZn2+>11.5, 11.3, 11.0, 10.6, 10. 3, 9.7] were studied with the Zn-efficient rice cultivars IR34, IR36, IR8192, and Zn-inefficient rice cultivars IR26, Ce 64-7, Biyuzaonuo,which grew in chelator-buffered nutrient solution. There were significant differences in tolerance to zinc deficiency among different rice genotypes. Obvious effects of low zinc activity on the physiological characteristic of rice seedlings were noted.There were significant differences in chlorophyll content, photosynthesis rate, MDA concentration in rice leaf, and H+ excretion of root. As pZn2+ decreased, chlorophyll content and photosynthesis rate decreased at a slower pace in Zn-efficient cultivars compared to Zn-inefficient ones, MDA concentration increased slower while H+ excretion of root increased faster in Zn-efficient cultivars than those in Zn-inefficient ones. It was suggested that the above indications could be used as indexes to Zn-efficiency of rice.

  17. Comparison of different methods to assess natural backgrond levels in groundwater bodies in southern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preziosi, Elisabetta; Parrone, Daniele; Ghergo, Stefano; Ducci, Daniela; Sellerino, Mariangela; Condesso de Melo, Maria Teresa; Oliveira, Juana; Ribeiro, Luis

    2014-05-01

    The assessment of the natural background levels (NBLs) of a substance or element is important to distinguish anthropogenic pollution from contamination of natural origin in groundwater bodies. NBLs are the result of different atmospheric, geological, chemical and biological interaction processes during groundwater infiltration and circulation. Rainfall composition, water-rock interactions in both vadose and saturated zone, exchanges with other water bodies and residence time also contribute to determine the groundwater natural composition. Nowadays there are different methods to assess NBLs but the main concern is that they may provide different results. In the European legislative context, the Groundwater Directive (2006/118/EC) requests to EU Member States to derive appropriate threshold values (TV) for several potentially harmful substances, taking into account NBLs when necessary, in order to assess the chemical status of groundwater bodies. In the framework of a common project between Italy (CNR) and Portugal (FCT), several groundwater bodies were taken into account in different regions of Italy (Latium and Campania) and Portugal. The general objective is the definition of a sound comprehensive methodology for NBL assessment at groundwater body scale, suitable to different hydrogeological settings through comparing diverse case studies and different approaches. The Italian case studies are located in volcanic or volcano-sedimentary geological contexts, where high concentrations of substances such as As, F, Fe, Mn among others in groundwater are well known. The Portuguese case studies are located in carbonate and porous media aquifers. Several data sets were explored with the use of statistical as well as mathematical procedures in order to determine a threshold between natural and anthropogenic concentration. Today essentially two groups of methods are proposed, the first ascribed to the probability plots (PP method), the second based on the selection of the

  18. Plant diseases in landrace varieties and hybrid maize cultivated using different technology levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alisson Vinicius de Araujo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Local soil and climate conditions as well as management techniques used in maize cropping affect disease development. In the present study, the incidence and severity of diseases were evaluated in four maize genotypes cultured in three management systems with different technology levels. We tested two landrace varieties from the North of Minas Gerais state, one double-cross hybrid and 1 singlecross hybrid. The experiment was carried out using a randomized block in lays (four varieties and three management systems and three repetitions. Disease incidence was determined by calculating the percentage of plants with symptoms, and its severity was assessed using a scale diagram to categorize symptom levels from 0 to 5. Results were analyzed using analysis of variance followed by mean contrasts using the Scott-Knott test at a significance level of 0.05. In conclusion, cropping system affects the incidence and severity of southern rust, which is increased by high technology systems. Landrace varieties Argentino and BR da Várzea and double-cross hybrid SHS 4080 have higher resistance to southern rust than single-cross hybrid IAC 8333.

  19. Research of hands' strength and endurance indications of arm sport athletes having different levels of skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Podrigalo L.V.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : comparative study of indicators of hands’ strength and endurance at athletes of arm sport of different skill levels. Material : the study involved 50 athletes. Athletes were divided into two groups: 1 - 15 athletes with high skill levels (age 25,25 ± 0,62 years and 2 - 35 athletes and fans of mass categories (age 22,21 ± 0,35 years. Results : it is shown that the results of carpal dynamometry right and left hands were significantly higher in group 1 (respectively: 60,50 ± 0,91 kg and 53,75 ± 0,83 kg against 52,35 ± 0,51 kg and 48 53 ± 0,46 kg. Strength endurance was significantly higher in group 2 (respectively: 32,97 ± 0,61 sec 33,09 ± 0,62 sec against 23,78 ± 0,85 sec and 24,66 ± 0,78 sec. Found that carpal dynamometry has a maximum contribution to the system (in group 1 for the right hand - 18.17, for the left - 23.50, in group 2 - 7.44 and 7.10. Correlation coefficients dynamometry in group 1 were significantly higher. Strength endurance had almost no connection with the study of reliable performance. Conclusions : it is proved that the level of carpal dynamometry is an important informative and adequate criterion. This indicator is characterized by a maximum contribution backbone.

  20. Response of Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) to different pheromone emission levels in greenhouse tomato crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacas, Sandra; López, Jesús; Primo, Jaime; Navarro-Llopis, Vicente

    2013-10-01

    The response of Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) to different emission rates of its pheromone, (3E, 8Z, 11Z)-tetradecatrienyl acetate, was measured in two greenhouse trials with traps baited with mesoporous dispensers. For this purpose, weekly moth trap catches were correlated with increasing pheromone emission levels by multiple regression analysis. Pheromone release profiles of the dispensers were obtained by residual pheromone extraction and gas chromatography quantification. In the first trial carried out in summer 2010, effect of pheromone emission was significant as catches increased linearly with pheromone release rates up to the highest studied level of 46.8 μg/d. A new trial was carried out in spring 2011 to measure the effect of the emission factor when pheromone release rates were higher. Results demonstrated that trap catches and pheromone emission fitted to a quadratic model, with maximum catches obtained with a release level of 150.3 μg/d of (3E, 8Z, 11Z)-tetradecatrienyl acetate. This emission value should provide enhanced attraction of T. absoluta and improve mass trapping, attract-and-kill, or monitoring techniques under greenhouse conditions in the Mediterranean area.

  1. Features coping strategies convicted with different levels of resilience are registered as suicidal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolesnikova A.I.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper shows the relevance of further study of psychological mechanisms that contribute to suicide convicted, suggesting that this would more effectively psychoprophylactic work with this category of citizens. As the features of the psychological mechanisms of coping strategies of behavior condemned with different levels of resilience. There is currently no evidence-based studies on the relationship of these mechanisms with suicidal behavior and convicted person in particular. The study was conducted on the basis of one of the prisons of the Central Federal District of the Russian Federation. Theoretical basis for the study were conceptual approaches to the study of personality DA Leontiev, the concept of resilience S. Muddy, scientific understanding of suicidal behavior AG Ambrumovoy., VA Tihonenko, GV Starshenbaum, modern studies of suicidal behavior convicted. The paper analyzes the typical coping strategies of behavior for prisoners who are prone to suicidal behavior and the control sample are shown resilience in particular manifestations of convicts and its relationship with the level of coping strategies of behavior of prisoners. The article identified promising areas for further research aimed at reducing the level of suicides among prisoners.

  2. Effect of Diets with Different Energy and Protein Levels on Breast Muscle Characteristics at Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adela Marcu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE In this paper was studied the effect of dietary energy and protein levels on breast muscle characteristics at broiler chickens, which were sacrificed at 42 days old. The genetic material was represented by broiler chickens that belonged to the „Ross-308” hybrid, with three groups (LC-control group, L1 and L2 experimental groups. In the growth periods (starter, growing and finishing have received compound feed ad libitum, with different energy and protein levels (LC-was conforming to recommendations of Aviagen Company; L1-higher with 10%; L2-lower with 10%. After evisceration, from each group were sampled breasts from 10 carcasses (five per sex and were determined: muscle mass, meat:bones ratio, chemical composition of meat, pH value (after evisceration up to 24 h of refrigeration and the thickness of myocytes in the superficial pectoral muscle. For these characteristics, highest values were obtained at L1 group, and the lowest values were at L2 group. At the L1 group, high levels of dietary proteins and energy has significantly influenced: muscle mass, meat:bones ratio, chemical composition of meat (water, proteins and lipids, pH value and the thickness of myocytes in the superficial pectoral muscle, as compared with LC and L2.

  3. Designing automation for complex work environments under different levels of stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Juergen; Nickel, Peter; Wastell, David

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the effectiveness of different forms of static and adaptable automation under low- and high-stress conditions. Forty participants were randomly assigned to one of four experimental conditions, comparing three levels of static automation (low, medium and high) and one level of adaptable automation, with the environmental stressor (noise) being varied as a within-subjects variable. Participants were trained for 4 h on a simulation of a process control environment, called AutoCAMS, followed by a 2.5-h testing session. Measures of performance, psychophysiology and subjective reactions were taken. The results showed that operators preferred higher levels of automation under noise than under quiet conditions. A number of parameters indicated negative effects of noise exposure, such as performance impairments, physiological stress reactions and higher mental workload. It also emerged that adaptable automation provided advantages over low and intermediate static automation, with regard to mental workload, effort expenditure and diagnostic performance. The article concludes that for the design of automation a wider range of operational scenarios reflecting adverse as well as ideal working conditions needs to be considered.

  4. Inclusion of Yucca schidigera extract in diets with different protein levels for dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Reis, Jéssica S; Zangerônimo, Márcio G; Ogoshi, Rosana C S; França, Janine; Costa, Adriano C; Almeida, Thomás N; Dos Santos, João P F; Pires, Carolina P; Chizzotti, Ana F; Leite, Carlos A L; Saad, Flávia M O B

    2016-08-01

    This study evaluated the effects of inclusion of Yucca schidigera extract (YSE) in two diets with different levels of crude protein (CP) for dogs on facal odour, nutrient digestibility, ammonia concentration in feces and hematological and serum biochemical profiles. Twenty adults Beagles were used, distributed in a randomized block design in a 2 × 4 factorial design (two diets, 25% and 34% CP, and four YSE levels: 0, 250, 500 and 750 mg/kg) with five replicates, obtained during two experimental periods. The fecal odour reduced (P < 0.05) when 500 mg/kg of YSE was used in diets with higher CP. The inclusion of YSE reduced (P < 0.05) fecal ammonia, and the inclusion of 250 and 500 mg/kg YSE reduced intestinal gas. The inclusion of 750 mg/kg YSE increased the mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity and tended to increase the serum cholesterol concentration, regardless of the protein level of the diets. There was no effect on the digestibility of nutrients, fecal consistency, nitrogen balance and thickness of the intestinal wall. The inclusion of 500 mg/kg YSE is effective in reducing fecal odour in dogs receiving diets with 34% of CP. Regardless of the protein content, YSE reduces fecal ammonia, but may cause adverse effects if included at higher doses. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  5. Greatly enhanced intensity-difference squeezing via energy-level modulations in hot atomic media

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Da; Zhang, Zhaoyang; Zhang, Yiqi; Zhang, Yanpeng; Xiao, Min

    2016-01-01

    Narrow-band intensity-difference squeezing (IDS) beams have important applications in quantum metrology and quantum information. The best way to generate narrow-band IDS is to employ parametrically-amplified (PA) four-wave mixing (FWM) process in high-gain atomic media. Such IDS can be further enhanced by cascading multiple PA-FWM processes in separate atomic media. The complicated experimental setup, added losses and mechanical stability can limit the wide uses of such scheme in practical applications. Here, we show that by modulating/dressing the internal energy level(s) with additional laser(s), the degree of original IDS can be substantially increased. With an initial IDS of $-4.0\\pm0.1$ dB using PA-non-degenerate-FWM process in a three-level $\\Lambda$-type configuration, the degree of IDS can be enhanced to $-7.0\\pm0.1$ dB/$-8.1\\pm0.1$ dB when we use one/two laser beam(s) to modulate the involved ground/excited state(s). Our results show a low-loss, robust and efficient way to produce high degree of IDS ...

  6. Acute radiation effects on saliva composition in rats with different vitamin a levels in serum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funegard, U.; Johansson, I.; Franzen, L.; Ericson, T. (Dept. of Cardiology, Univ. Umeaa (Sweden) Dept. of Oncology, Univ. Umeaa (Sweden))

    1991-01-01

    Irradiation of the head and neck often causes loss of salivary gland function which may lead to severe oral discomfort. The effects of a single dose of 25 Gy given to rats with different serum levels of vitamin A were studied. The salivary secretion rate as well as concentrations of protein, hexosamine, amylase and electrolytes, and the activities of two antibacterial glycoproteins were measured. At an adequates of two antibacterial glycoproteins were measured. At an adequate level of vitamin A in the diet, irradiation significantly reduced whole saliva secretion rate, and decreased the concentration of salivary sodium, calcium and hexosamine as well as the activity of a glycoprotein agglutinating a serotype c strain of S. mutans. Peroxidase, amylase and potassium were not significantly affected. The reductions seen at an adequate level of vitamin A were not reduced by supplementation of excess dietary retinol. The damage caused by irradiation was enhanced by vitamin A deficiency as seen in the reduced protein and hexosamine concentrations. (orig.).

  7. Growth response and survival of Heterobranchus longifilis cultured at different water levels in outdoor concrete tanks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony A. Nlewadim

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Thirteen-day-old hatchery-raised fry obtained from hormonally-induced spawns of mature African catfish H. longifilis brood stock were introduced to three different water levels (0.35, 0.50 and 0.65m in four replicates in 12 units of 2x2x1m3 outdoor concrete tanks. The fry were similarly stocked initially at 50 fry m-2 and later thinned down to 5 fish m-2 and cultured for 6 months. Fish were fed twice daily with commercial pellet feeds (Coppens™ while adjusting the feeding rate from 10 to 4% body weight and pellet size from 0.2 to 4.5 mm. The effects of pond water levels were evaluated in growth responses and survival. Water quality variables were similar (p > 0.05 in all compartments. Temperature, dissolved oxygen and pH were at the optimum level for fish. The results reveal significant (P H. longifilis from fry to sub-adult and from the grow-out/fattening of sub-adult to adult, respectively, in outdoor concrete tanks.

  8. Shapes of Differential Pulse Voltammograms and Level of Metallothionein at Different Animal Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Vojtech; Beklova, Miroslava; Pikula, Jiri; Hubalek, Jaromir; Trnkova, Libuse; Kizek, Rene

    2007-01-01

    Metallothioneins play a key role in maintaining homeostasis of essential metals and in protecting of cells against metal toxicity as well as oxidative damaging. Excepting humans, blood levels of metallothionein have not yet been reported from any animal species. Blood plasma samples of 9 animal species were analysed by the adsorptive transfer stripping technique to obtain species specific voltammograms. Quite distinct records were obtained from the Takin (Budorcas taxicolor), while other interesting records were observed in samples from the European Bison (Bison bonasus bonasus) and the Red-eared Slider (Trachemys scripta elegans). To quantify metallothionein the catalytic peak Cat2 was used, well developed in the Domestic Fowl (Gallus gallus f. domestica) and showing a very low signal in the Red Deer (Cervus elaphus). The highest levels of metallothionein reaching over 20 µM were found in the Domestic Fowl. High levels of MT were also found in the Bearded Dragon (Pogona vitticeps) and the Grey Wolf (Canis lupus lupus). The lowest values of about 1-3 µM were determined in the Red-eared Slider, Takin and Red Deer. Employing a simple electrochemical detection it was possible to examine variation in blood metallothionein in different species of vertebrates. PMID:28903235

  9. Shapes of Differential Pulse Voltammograms and Level of Metallothionein at Different Animal Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rene Kizek

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Metallothioneins play a key role in maintaining homeostasis of essential metalsand in protecting of cells against metal toxicity as well as oxidative damaging. Exceptinghumans, blood levels of metallothionein have not yet been reported from any animalspecies. Blood plasma samples of 9 animal species were analysed by the adsorptive transferstripping technique to obtain species specific voltammograms. Quite distinct records wereobtained from the Takin (Budorcas taxicolor, while other interesting records were observedin samples from the European Bison (Bison bonasus bonasus and the Red-eared Slider(Trachemys scripta elegans. To quantify metallothionein the catalytic peak Cat2 was used,well developed in the Domestic Fowl (Gallus gallus f. domestica and showing a very lowsignal in the Red Deer (Cervus elaphus. The highest levels of metallothionein reachingover 20 μM were found in the Domestic Fowl. High levels of MT were also found in theBearded Dragon (Pogona vitticeps and the Grey Wolf (Canis lupus lupus. The lowestvalues of about 1-3 μM were determined in the Red-eared Slider, Takin and Red Deer. Employing a simple electrochemical detection it was possible to examine variation in blood metallothionein in different species of vertebrates.

  10. Genes involved in arsenic transformation and resistance associated with different levels of arsenic-contaminated soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Gejiao

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Arsenic is known as a toxic metalloid, which primarily exists in inorganic form [As(III and As(V] and can be transformed by microbial redox processes in the natural environment. As(III is much more toxic and mobile than As(V, hence microbial arsenic redox transformation has a major impact on arsenic toxicity and mobility which can greatly influence the human health. Our main purpose was to investigate the distribution and diversity of microbial arsenite-resistant species in three different arsenic-contaminated soils, and further study the As(III resistance levels and related functional genes of these species. Results A total of 58 arsenite-resistant bacteria were identified from soils with three different arsenic-contaminated levels. Highly arsenite-resistant bacteria (MIC > 20 mM were only isolated from the highly arsenic-contaminated site and belonged to Acinetobacter, Agrobacterium, Arthrobacter, Comamonas, Rhodococcus, Stenotrophomonas and Pseudomonas. Five arsenite-oxidizing bacteria that belonged to Achromobacter, Agrobacterium and Pseudomonas were identified and displayed a higher average arsenite resistance level than the non-arsenite oxidizers. 5 aoxB genes encoding arsenite oxidase and 51 arsenite transporter genes [18 arsB, 12 ACR3(1 and 21 ACR3(2] were successfully amplified from these strains using PCR with degenerate primers. The aoxB genes were specific for the arsenite-oxidizing bacteria. Strains containing both an arsenite oxidase gene (aoxB and an arsenite transporter gene (ACR3 or arsB displayed a higher average arsenite resistance level than those possessing an arsenite transporter gene only. Horizontal transfer of ACR3(2 and arsB appeared to have occurred in strains that were primarily isolated from the highly arsenic-contaminated soil. Conclusion Soils with long-term arsenic contamination may result in the evolution of highly diverse arsenite-resistant bacteria and such diversity was probably caused in

  11. Development of a questionnaire to assess interprofessional collaboration between two different care levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuño-Solinís, Roberto; Berraondo Zabalegui, Iñaki; Sauto Arce, Regina; San Martín Rodríguez, Leticia; Toro Polanco, Nuria

    2013-01-01

    Introduction This paper reports the development and validation of a questionnaire to assess collaboration between clinical professionals from two different care levels (primary and specialised care), according to the clinicians’ own perceptions. This questionnaire has been elaborated to be used as part of the monitoring and evaluation process of the integrated care pilots in the public Basque Health Service. Methods The process was carried out in four phases: development of the first version of the questionnaire, validation of the content, pre-testing, and evaluation of its construct validity and homogeneity in a sample of doctors and nurses. This last phase involved confirmatory factor analysis, as well as the calculation of Cronbach’s α and various correlation coefficients. Results The process demonstrated that the theoretical content of the questionnaire was appropriate, and also that its items were clear, relevant and intelligible. The fit indices for the confirmatory factor analysis were: χ2 of 45.51 (p=0.089), RMSEA of 0.043, RMR of 0.046, GFI of 0.92 and CFI of 0.99. Discussion The statistics indicate a good fit between the data and a conceptual two-factor structure, in which both personal relationships between professionals and characteristics of the organisational environment are understood to underlie interprofessional collaboration. Conclusion The end-product is a new instrument with good validity to assess the degree of interprofessional collaboration between clinicians working at two different levels of care. PMID:23882165

  12. Development of a questionnaire to assess interprofessional collaboration between two different care levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Nuño Solinís

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This paper reports the development and validation of a questionnaire to assess collaboration between clinical professionals from two different care levels (primary and specialised care, according to the clinicians' own perceptions. This questionnaire has been elaborated to be used as part of the monitoring and evaluation process of the integrated care pilots in the public Basque Health Service. Methods. The process was carried out in four phases: development of the first version of the questionnaire, validation of the content, pre-testing, and evaluation of its construct validity and homogeneity in a sample of doctors and nurses. This last phase involved confirmatory factor analysis, as well as the calculation of Cronbach's α and various correlation coefficients. Results. The process demonstrated that the theoretical content of the questionnaire was appropriate, and also that its items were clear, relevant and intelligible. The fit indices for the confirmatory factor analysis were: c2 of 45.51 (p = 0.089, RMSEA of 0.043, RMR of 0.046, GFI of 0.92 and CFI of 0.99. Discussion. The statistics indicate a good fit between the data and a conceptual two-factor structure, in which both personal relationships between professionals and characteristics of the organisational environment are understood to underlie interprofessional collaboration. Conclusion. The end-product is a new instrument with good validity to assess the degree of interprofessional collaboration between clinicians working at two different levels of care.

  13. Development of a questionnaire to assess interprofessional collaboration between two different care levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Nuño Solinís

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This paper reports the development and validation of a questionnaire to assess collaboration between clinical professionals from two different care levels (primary and specialised care, according to the clinicians' own perceptions. This questionnaire has been elaborated to be used as part of the monitoring and evaluation process of the integrated care pilots in the public Basque Health Service.Methods. The process was carried out in four phases: development of the first version of the questionnaire, validation of the content, pre-testing, and evaluation of its construct validity and homogeneity in a sample of doctors and nurses. This last phase involved confirmatory factor analysis, as well as the calculation of Cronbach's α and various correlation coefficients.Results. The process demonstrated that the theoretical content of the questionnaire was appropriate, and also that its items were clear, relevant and intelligible. The fit indices for the confirmatory factor analysis were: c2 of 45.51 (p = 0.089, RMSEA of 0.043, RMR of 0.046, GFI of 0.92 and CFI of 0.99.Discussion. The statistics indicate a good fit between the data and a conceptual two-factor structure, in which both personal relationships between professionals and characteristics of the organisational environment are understood to underlie interprofessional collaboration.Conclusion. The end-product is a new instrument with good validity to assess the degree of interprofessional collaboration between clinicians working at two different levels of care.

  14. Haemodynamic changes in human masseter and temporalis muscles induced by different levels of isometric contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y J; Kuboki, T; Tsukiyama, Y; Koyano, K; Clark, G T

    1999-08-01

    This study evaluated the influence of low contraction forces on intramuscular haemodynamics in human masseter and temporalis using near-infrared tissue spectroscopy. This method allowed the intramuscular haemoglobin (Hb) to be assessed dynamically before, during and after a 5, 15, 25 and 100% maximum voluntary contraction (MVC). Twenty volunteers, 10 males and 10 females, without pain or dysfunction in the masticatory system were included in this study. Data were recorded for 30 s before, 30 s during and 5 min after the four sustained contraction tasks. The results showed that all four levels of voluntary contraction produced a clear haemodynamic response (during and after contraction) in both muscles. For analytical purposes, the maximum Hb achieved after 100% MVC was set equal to 1.00. In the masseter the mean peak Hb during the 5, 15, 25 and 100% MVC was 0.49, 0.92, 1.30 and 1.73 while after the contractions it was 0.50, 0.65, 0.78 and 1.00, respectively. In the temporalis the peak Hb during the contractions was 0.23, 0.36, 0.48 and 0.66 and after the contractions 0.32, 0.45, 0.56 and 1.00, respectively. Repeated-measures analysis of variance revealed a significant main effect for the different contraction levels both in the masseter (during contraction, p = 0.001; after contraction, parchitecture between the two muscles contributes to these differences in blood flow.

  15. Is the Quality of Judging in Women Artistic Gymnastics Equivalent at Major Competitions of Different Levels?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajek, Maja Bučar; Čuk, Ivan; Pajek, Jernej; Kovač, Marjeta; Leskošek, Bojan

    In the present study, the reliability and validity of judging at the European championship in Berlin 2011 were analysed and the results were compared to a different level gymnastic competition – Universiade 2009 in Belgrade. For reliability and consistency assessment, mean absolute judge deviation from final execution score, Cronbach’s alpha coefficient, intra-class correlations (ICC) and Armor’s theta coefficient were calculated. For validity assessment mean deviations of judges’ scores, Kendall’s coefficient of concordance W and ANOVA eta-squared values were used. For Berlin 2011 in general Cronbach’s alpha was above 0.95, minima of item-total correlations were above 0.8, and the ICC of average scores and Armor’s theta were above 0.94. Comparison with Universiade 2009 identified vault and floor scores at both competitions to have inferior reliability indices. At both competitions average deviations of judges from the final E score were close to zero (p=0.84) but Berlin 2011 competition showed a higher number of apparatuses with significant Kendall’s W (5 vs. 2 for Universiade 2009) and higher eta-squared values indicating higher judge panel bias in all-round and apparatus finals. In conclusion, the quality of judging was comparable at examined gymnastics competitions of different levels. Further work must be done to analyse the inferior results at vault and floor apparatuses. PMID:24146718

  16. Rational use of medicines: prescribing indicators at different levels of health care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Beatriz Cardoso Ferreira

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This multicenter study aimed to investigate prescribing patterns of drugs at different levels of health care delivery in university-affiliated outpatient clinics located in eight cities in the South and Midwest of Brazil. All prescriptions collected were analyzed for various items, including WHO prescribing indicators. A total of 2,411 prescriptions were analyzed, and 469 drugs were identified. The number of drugs prescribed per encounter, the frequency of polypharmacy, and the percentage of encounters with at least one injection or antibiotic prescribed were higher in centers providing primary health care services, compared to those where this type of care is not provided. Most drugs (86.1% were prescribed by generic name. In centers with primary health care services, drug availability was higher, drugs included in the National and Municipal Lists of Essential Medicines were more frequently prescribed, and patients were given more instructions. However, warnings and non-pharmacological measures were less frequently recommended. This study reveals trends in drug prescribing at different levels of health care delivery in university-affiliated outpatient clinics and indicates possible areas for improvement in prescribing practices.

  17. Sympatric Masticophis flagellum and Coluber constrictor select vertebrate prey at different levels of taxonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halstead, B.J.; Mushinsky, H.R.; McCoy, E.D.

    2008-01-01

    Masticophis flagellum (Coachwhip) and Coluber constrictor (Eastern Racer) are widespread North American snakes with similar foraging modes and habits. Little is known about the selection of prey by either species, and despite their apparently similar foraging habits, comparative studies of the foraging ecology of sympatric M. flagellum and C. constrictor are lacking. We examined the foraging ecology and prey selection of these actively foraging snakes in xeric, open-canopied Florida scrub habitat by defining prey availability separately for each snake to elucidate mechanisms underlying geographic, temporal, and interspecific variation in predator diets. Nineteen percent of M. flagellum and 28% of C. constrictor contained stomach contents, and most snakes contained only one prey item. Mean relative prey mass for both species was less than 10%. Larger C. constrictor consumed larger prey than small individuals, but this relationship disappeared when prey size was scaled to snake size. Masticophis flagellum was selective at the prey category level, and positively selected lizards and mammals; however, within these categories it consumed prey species in proportion to their availability. In contrast, C. constrictor preyed upon prey categories opportunistically, but was selective with regard to species. Specifically, C. constrictor positively selected Hyla femoralis (Pine Woods Treefrog) and negatively selected Bufo querclcus (Oak Toad), B. terrestris (Southern Toad), and Gastrophryne carolinensis (Eastern Narrowmouth Toad). Thus, despite their similar foraging habits, M. flagellum and C. constrictor select different prey and are selective of prey at different levels of taxonomy. ?? 2008 by the American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists.

  18. EFL Learners’ Beliefs about Language Learning along Gender, Further Education in Language Institutes & Different Proficiency Levels

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    Naemeh Nahavandi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to understand the beliefs of Iranian EFL learners’ about language learning. This study was an attempt to understand if there was any relationship between gender, proficiency level and further education in language institutes on beliefs about language learning. Accordingly, 369 EFL engineering students studying in Azad University of Tabriz, Iran were selected based on random sampling. Data were collected using two questionnaires: a demographical questionnaire, and the Beliefs about Language Learning Inventory (BALLI. Data were analyzed using ANOVA, LSD & t-test. The results of the study showed that the highest mean average among the five components of beliefs about language learning was nature of language learning (M=3.91, followed by Foreign Language Aptitude (M=3.85, Difficulty of Language Learning (M=3.42, Learning and Communication Strategies (M=3.35 and Motivation and Expectations (M=3.25. The findings showed that there was a significant difference between learners’ beliefs, gender and further education in language institutes. However, there was not any significant difference between learners’ beliefs and their proficiency level. The study concluded with some pedagogical implications.

  19. Individualized prostate biopsy strategy for Chinese patients with different prostate-specific antigen levels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo Dai; Ding-Wei Ye; Yun-Yi Kong; Yi-Jin Shen; Bo-Hua Wang

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the best individualized prostate biopsy strategies for Chinese patients with suspected prostate cancer. Methods: The present study included 221 Chinese patients who underwent transrectal ultrasound guided prostate biopsies for the first time. All patients underwent the same 10-core biopsy protocol. In addition to the Hodge sextant technique, four more biopsies were obtained from the base and middle regions of bilateral peripheral zones.The differences between 10-core and sextant strategies in cancer detection among patients with different prostate specific anitgen (PSA) levels were evaluated. The relationship between PSA level, number of positive biopsy cores and organ-confined cancer rate in prostate cancer patients was also analyzed. Results: The overall prostate cancer detection rate was 40.7% in the 221 patients. The 10-core strategy increased cancer detection by 6.67% (6/90) in our patients (P 50 ng/mL (P 50 ng/mL. For patients with PSA ranging from 20.1 ng/mL to 50 ng/mL, the 10-core strategy should be applied in patients with life expectancy > 10 years and the sextant strategy should be applied in those with life expectancy < 10 years.

  20. Development of a questionnaire to assess interprofessional collaboration between two different care levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuño-Solinís, Roberto; Berraondo Zabalegui, Iñaki; Sauto Arce, Regina; San Martín Rodríguez, Leticia; Toro Polanco, Nuria

    2013-04-01

    This paper reports the development and validation of a questionnaire to assess collaboration between clinical professionals from two different care levels (primary and specialised care), according to the clinicians' own perceptions. This questionnaire has been elaborated to be used as part of the monitoring and evaluation process of the integrated care pilots in the public Basque Health Service. THE PROCESS WAS CARRIED OUT IN FOUR PHASES: development of the first version of the questionnaire, validation of the content, pre-testing, and evaluation of its construct validity and homogeneity in a sample of doctors and nurses. This last phase involved confirmatory factor analysis, as well as the calculation of Cronbach's α and various correlation coefficients. The process demonstrated that the theoretical content of the questionnaire was appropriate, and also that its items were clear, relevant and intelligible. The fit indices for the confirmatory factor analysis were: χ(2) of 45.51 (p=0.089), RMSEA of 0.043, RMR of 0.046, GFI of 0.92 and CFI of 0.99. The statistics indicate a good fit between the data and a conceptual two-factor structure, in which both personal relationships between professionals and characteristics of the organisational environment are understood to underlie interprofessional collaboration. The end-product is a new instrument with good validity to assess the degree of interprofessional collaboration between clinicians working at two different levels of care.

  1. Hygienic Behaviour of Honeybee Colonies with Different Levels of Polyandry and Genotypic Composition

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    Gerula Dariusz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Honey bee queens were inseminated with diluted, homogenised semen collected from a few dozen drones. This procedure was carried out to increase the diversity of the queens’ offspring, which is in comparison to the offspring of queens inseminated with semen from only a few drones coming from one colony. Queens and drones were mated within carniolan bee (Apis mellifera carnica subspecies, but 3 selected lines were used. Queens were reared from one line and drones from the same line, and two additional lines differing in hygienic behaviour wherein in one of them that trait was strongly evident. The aim of this study was to examine whether the level of enhanced genetic variability in colonies and simultaneously the participation of hygienic bees, would increase the performance of hygienic behaviour. Overall hygienic behaviour of colonies with a lower and greater genetic variability did not differ significantly and amounted to 52.1 and 47.0%, respectively. Colonies within the lower variability group, in which drones from line selected in hygienic behaviour performance were used for inseminating queens, had a significantly greater percent of cleaned pupae than other colonies (63.2%. Hygienic behaviour in other colonies was more dependent on the gene quotas of hygienic bees in the colonies rather than on the level of polyandry.

  2. Effect of Different Sodium Bentonite Levels on Performance, Carcass Traits and Passage Rate of Broilers

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    Hojat Damiri, Morteza Chaji*, Mohammad Bojarpour and Morteza Mamuei

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate effects of different sodium bentonite (SB levels on performance, carcass characteristics and passage rate of broilers. Two hundred eighty eight day-old Ross strain mix broilers were allocated to 6 experimental diets with 4 replications in a completely randomized design. Treatments levels of sodium bentonite were 0.00, 0.75, 1.50, 2.25, 3.00 and 3.75%. Broilers fed SB containing diets consumed more feeds (P0.05 with no difference across treatments containing SB. The diet with 3.75% SB had the best FCR. Relative weight of liver decreased as percentage of SB increased in diet while control group had highest relative weight of breast (P<0.05. Supplementation of diets by SB increased retention time and decreased gastrointestinal passage rate. The use of SB in broiler diets had no adverse effects on performance; addition SB to broiler diets had beneficial effects on performance, carcass characteristics and passage rate and resulted in improved efficiency of production.

  3. Learning nanotechnology with texts and comics: the impacts on students of different achievement levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shu-Fen; Lin, Huann-shyang

    2016-05-01

    Comics are popular with adolescents because of their features of humor, narrative, and visual imagery. The purposes of this study were to examine the learning outcomes and emotional perceptions of reading a science comic book and a science text booklet for students of different levels of achievement, and to explore the main factors of the two media which attract high-school students to learn science. A mixed-method quasi-experimental design was adopted. The participants were 697 grade ten students from eight schools with different levels of academic achievement. Two similar classes in each of the eight schools were assigned as the comic group or the text group. The results indicated that the science comic book benefited medium achievers more than the science text booklet did, but the contrary result was found for the high achievers. In comparison, the two media benefited the low achievers equally, but both had only a limited effect due to the students' lack of prior knowledge. We conclude four kinds of evidence, including perceived difficulty of comprehension, reasons for interest/disinterest, emotional perceptions of learning science, and learning time, to support the phenomenon of the learning benefit of media specific to certain achievers' science learning.

  4. COMPARISON OF SLAUGHTER, CARCASS VALUES OF SUDAN GOAT ECOTYPES FED DIFFERENT LEVELS OF ENERGY/PROTEIN

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    A.A. TAMEEM ELDAR

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This experiment aimed to assess the slaughter and carcass values of different Sudan goat ecotypes (Nubian, Desert and Swiss Nubian fed different levels of energy/protein. Nine male goat kids (2-3 months and average weight 9.23 kg of either ecotypes were used in a 3x3x3 arrangement, fed three experimental diets A (control, B and C, with varying energy: protein 1:0.14, 1:0.16 and 1:0.18 respectively. The study showed that Nubian goats possessed heavier slaughter weight; empty body weight, warm and cold carcass weight than the Desert and Swiss Nubian goats in the ration B and C. Dressing percentage on both basis (slaughter weight and empty body weight of Nubian were higher for ration B and C. Warm carcass weights of all goat ecotypes increased directly with energy: protein ratio. Highest weight of leg, loin, rack and neck and shoulder were recorded by Nubian goats for ration B and C. It was concluded that, all ecotype kids respond well to increasing energy protein levels. According to the results obtained local goat ecotypes, mainly Nubian goats, responded well to improved nutrition, therefore results obtained can be applied for the local goat ecotypes studied to encourage goat meat consumption and exportation.

  5. THE INFLUENCE OF SWIMMING IN DIFFERENT LOAD REGIMES ON THE LEVEL OF ANXIOUSNESS

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    Dragan Krivokapić

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available On the sample of 32 males aged between 18 and 19 characterized asambicious amateur athletes and good swimmers, an experiment was carried out with parallel groups with a view to evaluating the effects of two different programmes of swimming training. The specimen was divided into two homogenous subspecimens of 15 and 17 examinees.The groups were evened out according to the level of specific anxiousnes.The initial and the final approximation was carried out according to two equivalent tests (Martens- SCAT and Martens CSI-2 already standardized in the previous researches. The experiment lasted eight weeks with three training sessions per week. Sessions were different depending on the specific group i.e. program .The first group of examinees always swam in the regime of aerobic load while the other was occasionally exposed to anaerobic load. In ten sity of swimming was based on the criterion of anaerobic threshold. The results of the discriminatory statistics showed the absence of significant changes in both experimental groups which remained quite levelled after the final test.

  6. Plant volatiles induced by herbivore egg deposition affect insects of different trophic levels.

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    Nina E Fatouros

    Full Text Available Plants release volatiles induced by herbivore feeding that may affect the diversity and composition of plant-associated arthropod communities. However, the specificity and role of plant volatiles induced during the early phase of attack, i.e. egg deposition by herbivorous insects, and their consequences on insects of different trophic levels remain poorly explored. In olfactometer and wind tunnel set-ups, we investigated behavioural responses of a specialist cabbage butterfly (Pieris brassicae and two of its parasitic wasps (Trichogramma brassicae and Cotesia glomerata to volatiles of a wild crucifer (Brassica nigra induced by oviposition of the specialist butterfly and an additional generalist moth (Mamestra brassicae. Gravid butterflies were repelled by volatiles from plants induced by cabbage white butterfly eggs, probably as a means of avoiding competition, whereas both parasitic wasp species were attracted. In contrast, volatiles from plants induced by eggs of the generalist moth did neither repel nor attract any of the tested community members. Analysis of the plant's volatile metabolomic profile by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and the structure of the plant-egg interface by scanning electron microscopy confirmed that the plant responds differently to egg deposition by the two lepidopteran species. Our findings imply that prior to actual feeding damage, egg deposition can induce specific plant responses that significantly influence various members of higher trophic levels.

  7. Plant volatiles induced by herbivore egg deposition affect insects of different trophic levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatouros, Nina E; Lucas-Barbosa, Dani; Weldegergis, Berhane T; Pashalidou, Foteini G; van Loon, Joop J A; Dicke, Marcel; Harvey, Jeffrey A; Gols, Rieta; Huigens, Martinus E

    2012-01-01

    Plants release volatiles induced by herbivore feeding that may affect the diversity and composition of plant-associated arthropod communities. However, the specificity and role of plant volatiles induced during the early phase of attack, i.e. egg deposition by herbivorous insects, and their consequences on insects of different trophic levels remain poorly explored. In olfactometer and wind tunnel set-ups, we investigated behavioural responses of a specialist cabbage butterfly (Pieris brassicae) and two of its parasitic wasps (Trichogramma brassicae and Cotesia glomerata) to volatiles of a wild crucifer (Brassica nigra) induced by oviposition of the specialist butterfly and an additional generalist moth (Mamestra brassicae). Gravid butterflies were repelled by volatiles from plants induced by cabbage white butterfly eggs, probably as a means of avoiding competition, whereas both parasitic wasp species were attracted. In contrast, volatiles from plants induced by eggs of the generalist moth did neither repel nor attract any of the tested community members. Analysis of the plant's volatile metabolomic profile by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and the structure of the plant-egg interface by scanning electron microscopy confirmed that the plant responds differently to egg deposition by the two lepidopteran species. Our findings imply that prior to actual feeding damage, egg deposition can induce specific plant responses that significantly influence various members of higher trophic levels.

  8. Characteristics of the Respiratory Muscle Strength of Women and Men at Different Training Levels

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    Klusiewicz Andrzej

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The objective of the study was to determine the maximal inspiratory mouth pressure (PImax of highly trained male and female athletes competing in endurance sports and of non-training students of both sexes. Analysis was conducted of the dependence of PImax levels on somatic indices and training experience. The reproducibility of the method for measuring PImax index was determined. Material and methods. The study examined a total of 234 training and non-training individuals (78 women and 156 men. The test subjects were measured for PImax, as well as inspiratory time, active time, passive time and diaphragm relaxation time. A group of 59 women and men (training and non-training were tested a second time within 5-7 days of the first test to determine the reproducibility of the PImax measurements. Results and conclusion. The measurements were found to be highly reproducible (between the first and second tests no statistically significant differences were found, all spirometric indices included in the study were shown to demonstrate a significant correlation, and total error for all of the analyzed indexes was between 11.1 and 24.3%. Reference ranges for PImax were determined for women and men at different training levels. PImax was shown to have a positive dependence on somatic indices characterizing male and female body mass.

  9. Identity recognition in response to different levels of genetic relatedness in commercial soya bean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Acker, Rene; Rajcan, Istvan; Swanton, Clarence J.

    2017-01-01

    Identity recognition systems allow plants to tailor competitive phenotypes in response to the genetic relatedness of neighbours. There is limited evidence for the existence of recognition systems in crop species and whether they operate at a level that would allow for identification of different degrees of relatedness. Here, we test the responses of commercial soya bean cultivars to neighbours of varying genetic relatedness consisting of other commercial cultivars (intraspecific), its wild progenitor Glycine soja, and another leguminous species Phaseolus vulgaris (interspecific). We found, for the first time to our knowledge, that a commercial soya bean cultivar, OAC Wallace, showed identity recognition responses to neighbours at different levels of genetic relatedness. OAC Wallace showed no response when grown with other commercial soya bean cultivars (intra-specific neighbours), showed increased allocation to leaves compared with stems with wild soya beans (highly related wild progenitor species), and increased allocation to leaves compared with stems and roots with white beans (interspecific neighbours). Wild soya bean also responded to identity recognition but these responses involved changes in biomass allocation towards stems instead of leaves suggesting that identity recognition responses are species-specific and consistent with the ecology of the species. In conclusion, elucidating identity recognition in crops may provide further knowledge into mechanisms of crop competition and the relationship between crop density and yield. PMID:28280587

  10. Assessment of Fluoride Levels in Different Brands of Black and Green Tea Consumed in Iran

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    F. Mojarad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Tea is one of the most commonly consumed drinks in the world. Tea is recognized as a source of fluoride whose intake may increase the risk of developing dental fluorosis, particularly if other sources of fluoride augment the intake. Since the amount of fluoride in different types of tea consumed in our country is unknown, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the fluoride level of 22 commercial brands of tea popular in Iran. Materials & Methods: This descriptive study was conducted to assess the fluoride content of black tea (10 brands, bagged black tea (9 brands, and green tea (3 brands. 2 g from three samples of each tea brand taken out randomly were added to 200 ml deionized water and boiled for 10 minutes. After the infusion temperature coming down to the room temperature, the infusion was filtered and its volume made up to 200 ml by adding deionized water. The fluoride levels were measured using ion-selective electrode, and reported as mg/lit. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey test. Results: The Fluoride content was found 1.51 mg/lit in black tea bag, 1.038 mg/lit in green tea and 0.869±0.360 mg/lit in black tea sticks. (P<0.05, However, there was no statistically sig-nificant difference of fluoride concentration between green tea and black tea sticks(P= 0.52. Conclusion: This study showed that fluoride content of some tea brands were so high that drinking a few cups daily may increase the risk of developing dental fluorosis. Therefore, their consumption must be limited particularly in children, and in all inhabitants of regions with high fluoride levels in water supply.(Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2013; 19 (4:36-42

  11. CO2 sequestration in two mediterranean dune areas subjected to a different level of anthropogenic disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonito, Andrea; Ricotta, Carlo; Iberite, Mauro; Gratani, Loretta; Varone, Laura

    2017-09-01

    Coastal sand dunes are among the most threatened habitats, especially in the Mediterranean Basin, where the high levels of human pressure impair the presence of plant species, putting at risk the maintenance of the ecosystem services, such as CO2 sequestration provided by these habitats. The aim of this study was to analyze how disturbance-induced changes in plant species abundance patterns account for variations in annual CO2 sequestration flow (CS) of Mediterranean sand dune areas. Two sites characterized by a high (site HAD) and a lower (site LAD) anthropogenic disturbance level were selected. At both sites, plant species number, cover, height and CS based on net photosynthesis measurements were sampled. At the plant species level, our results highlighted that Ammophila arenaria and Pancratium maritimum, had a key role in CS. Moreover, the results revealed a patchy species assemblage in both sites. In particular, HAD was characterized by a higher extension of the anthropogenic aphytoic zone (64% of the total transect length) than LAD. In spite of the observed differences in plant species composition, there were not significant differences between HAD and LAD in structural and functional traits, such as plant height and net photosynthesis. As a consequence, HAD and LAD had a similar CS (443 and 421 Mg CO2 ha-1 y-1, respectively). From a monetary point of view, our estimates based on the social costs of carbon revealed that the flow of sequestered CO2 valued on an average 3181 ± 114 ha-1 year-1 (mean value for the two sites). However, considering also the value of the CO2 negative flow related to loss of vegetated area, the annual net benefit arising from CO2 sequestration amounted to 1641 and 1772 for HAD and LAD, respectively. Overall, the results highlighted the importance to maximize the efforts to preserve dune habitats by applying an effective management policy, which could allow maintaining also a regulatory ecosystem service such as CO2 sequestration.

  12. Nematode and mercury content in freshwater fish belonging to different trophic levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivero-Verbel, Jesus; Caballero-Gallardo, Karina

    2013-06-01

    Fish are a protein source for many people in Colombia. However, environmental pollution of some aquatic ecosystems may pose health risks to humans. The aim of this study was to assess the levels of total mercury (T-Hg) in muscle and their relationship with nematode infections in fish from Dique Channel, a freshwater ecosystem located Northern Colombia. Eight hundred ninety fish specimens belonging to 13 different species were collected. T-Hg concentration was measured using atomic absorption spectroscopy, previous electrothermal atomization. Nematodes were identified as Contracaecum sp. Species such as Hoplias malabaricus and Sorubim cuspicaudus presented the highest values for Hg and parasite infection (0.09 ± 0.01, 0.12 ± 0.02 μg/g; prevalence 100, 100 %, respectively), whereas the lowest were detected in Prochilodus magdalenae (0.02 ± 0.002 μg/g; 0 %). Pooled data revealed a high correlation between trophic level and parasite abundance (ρ = 0.771; P = 0.002) as well as with T-Hg (ρ = 0.786; P < 0.001). The overall correlation between parasite abundance and T-Hg was moderately to low but positive (ρ = 0.217; P < 0.001). However, when individual species were considered, pair relationships between parasite abundance, morphometric parameters, and Hg concentration, varied between positive and negative values. These data suggest the presence of nematodes is determined by the trophic level of the fish species, similarly to what occurs with Hg. Moreover, the co-occurrence of these two stressors involves different types of interactions with morphometric variables that are species-specific. These observations open new doors to the understanding of the interaction between chemical pollutants and organisms.

  13. Leaf Chlorophyll Fluorescence and Gas Exchange Response to Different Light Levels in Platycerium bifurcatum

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    Ruzana-Adibah M. Sanusi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Platycerium bifurcatum (Cav. C. Chr. is epiphytes which lives in forest canopy and commonly used for its ornamental value. In these environments, they were always exposed to many types of stresses such as high light intensity. Light intensity plays an important role in affecting plants physiological performance. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate physiological responses of P. bifurcatum to light stress. Approach: In this study, P. bifurcatum were grown under four different Photosynthetic Active Radiation (PAR levels which were 20 µmol m-2 s-1 (T1, 70 µmol m-2 s-1 (T2, 200 µmol m-2 s-1 (T3 and 1500 µmol m-2 s-1 (T4. Leaf gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence were used to evaluate the stress response of various levels of light intensity. All measurements were carried out on weekly basis for twelve weeks. Results: Results showed that Anet value of T1, T2 and T3 in the range near to the average Anet value for most epiphytes. Conversely, T4 showed lower value in Anet with 1.797 µmol CO2 m-2 s-1. Fv/Fm ratio in T3 and T4 were below 0.8 indicates that there was a sign of stress occurred in these treatments. However Anet of T3 was not affected although there have been event of photoinhibition observed in the treatment. On the contrary, T4 was fully affected by high light intensity as there was a reduction of Fv/Fm ratio and also Anet. T1 and T2 of Anet and Fv/Fm ratio values ranged of unstressed plants after subjected to light treatment. Conclusion: Measurement of leaf chlorophyll fluorescence and gas exchange are useful to detection of light stress in P. bifurcatum. Different levels of light intensity were significantly affecting physiological attributes of P. bifurcatum.

  14. Evaluation of dairy cows intake behavior grazing Brachiaria brizantha fed different levels of concentrate at diet

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    Fabrício Bacelar Lima Mendes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective with this research was to evaluate the dairy cows intake behavior grazing Brachiaria brizantha submitted to different levels of concentrate supplementation in the diet. Used 16 lactating cows ½ Holstein x ½ Zebu, with an average of 80 ±10.14 days of lactation and body weight of 454.7 ± 54.51 kg. The animals were distributed in four treatments, using a 4x4 Latin square. The evaluation of behavior was done every ten minutes, during 24 hours on the 16th day of period. We used analysis of variance and regression probability of 0.05. The time spent grazing, ruminating and other activities, the numbers of grazing, ruminating, of bites per day and chews per cake, the grazing times, total power and total chewing, bit rate, time to swallow; time per bolus ruminated; chewing speed and power efficiency for NDF were not altered by increased levels of concentrate. The time of trough, the trough period, the bit size, the chews time for bolus, feeding efficiency for DM, NFC, and TDN and rumination efficiency linearly increased. Periods of rumination, deglutition bits, number of rumination chews per day, decreased linearly with increasing levels of concentrate. Significant quadratic effect of concentrate level on the number of periods in other activities and over time on other activities. Supplementation with 33.8% concentrate in the diet of cows grazing not promote changes in the activity of grazing, ruminating and other activities, but increases the time of trough. The increase in concentrate diet improves the efficiencies of feeding and rumination

  15. Low perfusion index affects the difference in glucose level between capillary and venous blood

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    Acar N

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Nurdan Acar,1 Hamit Ozcelik,1 Arif Alper Cevik,1 Engin Ozakin,1 Goknur Yorulmaz,2 Nur Kebapci,2 Ugur Bilge,3 Muzaffer Bilgin4 1Emergency Department, 2Endocrinology Department, 3Family Medicine Department, 4Biostatistics Department, Medical School, Eskisehir Osmangazi University, Eskisehir, Turkey Aim: In emergency cases, finger stick testing is primarily used to check the blood glucose value of patients since it takes longer to obtain the venous value. In critical patients, under conditions that cause an increase in metabolic state and level of stress, there occurs considerable difference in glucose levels between capillary and venous measurements. This study aimed to investigate the comparability of capillary and venous glucose values, according to the perfusion index level obtained with the Masimo Radical-7® device, in critical patients aged 18 years and over.Method: We conducted this prospective and observational study in the emergency department of the Eskisehir Osmangazi University hospital between November 3, 2008 and February 2, 2009.Results: The blood glucose of 300 critical patients was checked by finger stick in the emergency unit. The participants with normal vital signs had perfusion index between 0 and 5; the results obtained by the two methods were more consistent for perfusion index values of 6 and over. The results were most consistent in aged participants with normal vital sign findings and low perfusion index and in young patients with high perfusion index. In the cases where at least one of the vital signs was abnormal, the glucose values obtained by the two methods were more consistent when the perfusion index was 6 or over. In this group, independently from the perfusion index value, the consistency was higher in younger patients compared with aged patients.Conclusion: In the emergency department, perfusion index value measured by Masimo Radical-7 and capillary blood glucose levels can serve in blood sugar management in

  16. Nitric oxide levels in the aqueous humor vary in different ocular hypertension experimental models

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    Da-Wen Lu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the relationships among intraocular pressure (IOP, nitric oxide (NO levels, and aqueous flow rates in experimental ocular hypertension models. A total of 75 rabbits were used. One of four different materials [i.e., α-chymotrypsin, latex microspheres (Polybead, red blood cell ghosts, or sodium hyaluronate (Healon GV] was injected into the eyes of the 15 animals in each experimental group; the remaining 15 rabbits were reserved for a control group. The IOP changes in the five groups were recorded on postinduction Days 1–3, Day 7, Day 14, Day 30, Day 60, Day 90, and Day 120. On postinduction Day 7, the dynamics and NO levels in the aqueous humor were recorded. Significant IOP elevations were induced by α-chymotrypsin (p < 0.01 and Polybead (p < 0.01 on each postinduction day. In the red blood cell ghosts model, significant elevations (p < 0.01 were found on postinduction Days 1–3; Healon GV significantly elevated IOP (p < 0.01 on postinduction Day 1 and Day 2. On postinduction Day 7, the aqueous humor NO levels increased significantly in the models of α-chymotrypsin, Polybead, and red blood cell ghosts (all p < 0.01, while the aqueous flow rates were significantly reduced in the models of α-chymotrypsin and Polybead (p < 0.005. Persistent ocular hypertension models were induced with α-chymotrypsin and Polybead in the rabbits. The Polybead model exhibited the characteristic of an increased aqueous humor NO level, similar to human eyes with acute angle-closure glaucoma and neovascular glaucoma.

  17. Transcript profiling of candidate genes in testis of pigs exhibiting large differences in androstenone levels

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    Oeth Paul

    2010-01-01

    highly extreme androstenone levels is investigated. The current study contributes to the knowledge about which genes that is differentially expressed regard to the levels of androstenone in pigs. Results in this paper suggest that several genes are important in the regulation of androstenone level in boars and warrant further evaluation of the above mentioned candidate genes, including analyses in different breeds, identification of causal mutations and possible gene interactions.

  18. Alkali metals levels in the human brain tissue: Anatomical region differences and age-related changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Patrícia; Santos, Agostinho; Pinto, Edgar; Pinto, Nair Rosas; Mendes, Ricardo; Magalhães, Teresa; Almeida, Agostinho

    2016-12-01

    The link between trace elements imbalances (both "toxic" and "essential") in the human brain and neurodegenerative disease has been subject of extensive research. More recently, some studies have highlighted the potential role of the homeostasis deregulation of alkali metals in specific brain regions as key factor in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases such as multiple sclerosis and Alzheimer's disease. Using flame atomic emission spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry after microwave-assisted acid digestion of the samples, alkali metals (Na, K, Li, Rb and Cs) were determined in 14 different areas of the human brain (frontal cortex, superior and middle temporal gyri, caudate nucleus, putamen, globus pallidus, cingulated gyrus, hippocampus, inferior parietal lobule, visual cortex of the occipital lobe, midbrain, pons, medulla and cerebellum) of adult individuals (n=42; 71±12, range: 50-101 years old) with no known history and evidence of neurodegenerative, neurological or psychiatric disorder. Potassium was found as the most abundant alkali metal, followed by Na, Rb, Cs and Li. Lithium, K and Cs distribution showed to be quite heterogeneous. On the contrary, Rb and Na appeared quite homogeneously distributed within the human brain tissue. The lowest levels of Na, K, Rb and Li were found in the brainstem (midbrain, medulla and pons) and cerebellum, while the lowest levels of Cs were found in the frontal cortex. The highest levels of K (mean±sd; range 15.5±2.5; 8.9-21.8mg/g) Rb (17.2±6.1; 3.9-32.4μg/g and Cs (83.4±48.6; 17.3-220.5ng/g) were found in putamen. The highest levels of Na and Li were found in the frontal cortex (11.6±2.4; 6.6-17.1mg/g) and caudate nucleus (7.6±4.6 2.2-21.3ng/g), respectively. Although K, Cs and Li levels appear to remain largely unchanged with age, some age-related changes were observed for Na and Rb levels in particular brain regions (namely in the hippocampus). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All

  19. Psychological balance in high level athletes: gender-based differences and sport-specific patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Schaal

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Few epidemiological studies have focused on the psychological health of high level athletes. This study aimed to identify the principal psychological problems encountered within French high level athletes, and the variations in their prevalence based on sex and the sport practiced. METHODS: Multivariate analyses were conducted on nationwide data obtained from the athletes' yearly psychological evaluations. RESULTS: A representative sample of 13% of the French athlete population was obtained. 17% of athletes have at least one ongoing or recent disorder, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD being the most prevalent (6%, followed by non-specific eating disorders (4.2%. Overall, 20.2% of women had at least one psychopathology, against 15.1% in men. This female predominance applied to anxiety and eating disorders, depression, sleep problems and self-harming behaviors. The highest rates of GAD appeared in aesthetic sports (16.7% vs. 6.8% in other sports for men and 38.9% vs. 10.3% for women; the lowest prevalence was found in high risk sports athletes (3.0% vs. 3.5%. Eating disorders are most common among women in racing sports (14% vs. 9%, but for men were found mostly in combat sports (7% vs. 4.8%. DISCUSSION: This study highlights important differences in psychopathology between male and female athletes, demonstrating that the many sex-based differences reported in the general population apply to elite athletes. While the prevalence of psychological problems is no higher than in the general population, the variations in psychopathology in different sports suggest that specific constraints could influence the development of some disorders.

  20. Differences in aerobic capacity among students with regard to their level of nutritional status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateja Kunješić

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to contemporary lifestyle, nutritional status of students is poorer and therefore it negatively affects the aerobic capacity. The purpose of this study was to determine the differences in aerobic capacity among female students of Faculty of Teacher Education with regard to their level of nutritional status. The study included 281 female students of the Faculty of Teacher Education, University of Zagreb. The sample of variables consisted of anthropometric measures: body height, body weight, sub-scapular and triceps skinfolds. Aerobic capacity was measured by 20 meter shuttle run test and nutritional status was determined by the body mass index (BMI. The subjects were divided into four groups according to their nutritional status: underweight, normal body weight, overweight and obese. Mean values of the BMI place the students into normal weight group, however, mean values of aerobic capacity show that students achieved poor results. Kruskal Wallis test and its post-hoc test (multiple comparisons for all groups with Bonferroni adjustment for determining the difference between subsamples according to the level of nutritional status among students show that the subsamples differ in four of the five variables that describe the morphological characteristics (body weight, BMI, sub-scapular skinfold, triceps skinfold as well as in aerobic capacity. The results obtained in this study show that the increased body mass have extremely high impact on the aerobic capacity results. It can be concluded that the tested students' aerobic capacity is poor and students with normal body weight have better aerobic capacity than overweight or obese students.

  1. RNA-SEQ reveals transcriptional level changes of poplar roots in different forms of nitrogen treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunpu eQu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Poplar has emerged as a model plant for understanding molecular mechanisms of tree growth, development and response to environment. Long-term application of different forms of nitrogen (such as NO3--N and NH4+-N may cause morphological changes of poplar roots; however, the molecular level changes are still not well known. In this study, we analyzed the expression profiling of poplar roots treated by three forms of nitrogen: S1 (NH4+, S2 (NH4NO3 and S3 (NO3- by using RNA-SEQ technique. We found 463 genes significantly differentially expressed in roots by different N treatments, of which a total of 116 genes were found to differentially express between S1 and S2, 173 genes between S2 and S3, and 327 genes between S1 and S3. A cluster analysis shows significant difference in many transcription factor families and functional genes family under different N forms. Through an analysis of Mapman metabolic pathway, we found that the significantly differentially expressed genes are associated with fermentation, glycolysis and tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA, secondary metabolism, hormone metabolism, and transport processing. Interestingly, we did not find significantly differentially expressed genes in N metabolism pathway, mitochondrial electron transport / ATP synthesis and mineral nutrition. We also found abundant candidate genes (20 transcription factors and 30 functional genes regulating morphology changes of poplar roots under the three N forms. The results obtained are beneficial to a better understanding of the potential molecular and cellular mechanisms regulating root morphology changes under different N treatments.

  2. GROWTH AND PRODUCTIVITY OF SPECIALITY CORN AS INFLUENCED BY DIFFERENT LEVELS OF NITROGEN UNDER PONGAMIA PLANTATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Prathyusha

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted during kharif 2011 at the Student’s Farm, College of Agriculture, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad on red sandy loam soils to study the effect of nitrogen management in speciality corn under Pongamia + maize agri-silvi system. All the growth and yield attributes such as plant height, dry matter production, leaf area index, cob length, cob girth, number of cobs plant-1, number of rows cob-1, number of kernals cob-1 and 100 kernel weight were found maximum at 120 kg N ha-1 than at the remaining nitrogen levels. Whereas, cob weight (with husk was found maximum at 120 kg ha-1 but was on par with 90 kg N ha-1. Similarly cob yield (with husk, green fodder/stover yield, harvest index, kernel yield of popcorn and shelling percentage of popcorn were found significantly higher at 120 kg N ha-1 than the other two lower doses of nitrogen. The different types of corn were found significantly different from each other regarding growth parameters such as plant height, days to 50 per cent silking and days to maturity. Regarding the effect on yield attributes and yield, all the three types of corn were found significantly different from each other in cob length, cob girth, cob weight (with husk, green cob yield as well as green fodder/stover yield

  3. The risk of water scarcity at different levels of global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schewe, Jacob; Sharpe, Simon

    2015-04-01

    Water scarcity is a threat to human well-being and economic development in many countries today. Future climate change is expected to exacerbate the global water crisis by reducing renewable freshwater resources different world regions, many of which are already dry. Studies of future water scarcity often focus on most-likely, or highest-confidence, scenarios. However, multi-model projections of water resources reveal large uncertainty ranges, which are due to different types of processes (climate, hydrology, human) and are therefore not easy to reduce. Thus, central estimates or multi-model mean results may be insufficient to inform policy and management. Here we present an alternative, risk-based approach. We use an ensemble of multiple global climate and hydrological models to quantify the likelihood of crossing a given water scarcity threshold under different levels of global warming. This approach allows assessing the risk associated with any particular, pre-defined threshold (or magnitude of change that must be avoided), regardless of whether it lies in the center or in the tails of the uncertainty distribution. We show applications of this method on the country and river basin scale, illustrate the effects of societal processes on the resulting risk estimates, and discuss the further potential of this approach for research and stakeholder dialogue.

  4. Factors Influencing Local Communities' Satisfaction Levels with Different Forest Management Approaches of Kakamega Forest, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthiga, Paul M.; Mburu, John; Holm-Mueller, Karin

    2008-05-01

    Satisfaction of communities living close to forests with forest management authorities is essential for ensuring continued support for conservation efforts. However, more often than not, community satisfaction is not systematically elicited, analyzed, and incorporated in conservation decisions. This study attempts to elicit levels of community satisfaction with three management approaches of Kakamega forest in Kenya and analyze factors influencing them. Three distinct management approaches are applied by three different authorities: an incentive-based approach of the Forest Department (FD), a protectionist approach of the Kenya Wildlife Service (KWS), and a quasi-private incentive-based approach of Quakers Church Mission (QCM). Data was obtained from a random sample of about 360 households living within a 10-km radius around the forest margin. The protectionist approach was ranked highest overall for its performance in forest management. Results indicate that households are influenced by different factors in their ranking of management approaches. Educated households and those located far from market centers are likely to be dissatisfied with all the three management approaches. The location of the households from the forest margin influences negatively the satisfaction with the protectionist approach, whereas land size, a proxy for durable assets, has a similar effect on the private incentive based approach of the QCM. In conclusion, this article indicates a number of policy implications that can enable the different authorities and their management approaches to gain approval of the local communities.

  5. Effect of Different Protein Levels On Nutrient Digestion Metabolism and Serum Biochemical Parameters in Calves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hui; DIAO Qi-yu; ZHANG Nai-feng; TU Yan; WANG Ji-feng

    2008-01-01

    The current study has been performed to examine the effects of different dietary protein levels on the growth,nutrient digestion and absorption,as well as biochemical parameters in calves.Nine healthy newborn calves were selected,randomly divided into 3 groups and fed 3 milk replacers with different protein levels(18,22,and 26%),respectively.Five period-digestion-metabolism trials were taken between 12-20,22-30,32-40,42-50,and 52-60 days after birth.All 3 groups showed a similar growth curve during 11 to 61 experimental days,however,the growth rate of the 22%crude protein(CP) group was 8.89%higher than that of the 18%CP group and 19.48%higher than that of the 26%CP group.respectively. The apparent digestibility of dry material(DM)declined gradually with age,whereas,the apparent digestibility of N,extract ether(EE)rose slightly.Compared to the 22%CP and 26%CP group,calves fed with 18%CP apparently had a lower digestibility than DM,EE,and nitrogen(N).The average apparent digestibilities of N were 69.39,75.36,and 74.55%, respectively.Both the apparent digestibility and retention of calcium(Ca)and phosphorus(P)were steady throughout the experiment,but the average apparent digestibility of P in the 26%CP group was only 63.83%,which was markedly lower than that of the 18%CP group(70.40%)and 22%CP group(69.73%).In addition,the sernm concentrations of total protein(TP),albumin(ALB),and globulin(GLOB)of the 22%CP group were higher than those in the 18%CP and 26%CP groups.The urea N(BUN)content in the 18%CP group,on the other hand,was significantly lower than that of the other two groups.The highest glucose(GLU)concentration was found in the 22%CP group(5.38 mmol L-1),at the end of the trials.The protein levels in the milk replacer affected the digestion metabolism of nutrition and the serum biochemical parameters of calves at different physiological phases.Calves fed with 22%CP milk replacer had a better growth performance than the other groups.

  6. Job Requirements for Marketing Graduates: Are There Differences in the Knowledge, Skills, and Personal Attributes Needed for Different Salary Levels?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlee, Regina Pefanis; Karns, Gary L.

    2017-01-01

    Several studies in the business press and in the marketing literature point to a "transformation" of marketing caused by the availability of large amounts of data for marketing analysis and planning. However, the effects of the integration of technology on entry-level jobs for marketing graduates have not been fully explored. This study…

  7. Studies on the growth of penaeid prawns: 2. Growth of @iPenaeus indicus@@ under different levels of feeding

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, S.R.S.; Iyer, H.K.; Balasubramanian, T.; Kutty, M.K.

    @iPenaeus indicus@@ was subjected to four different levels of feeding with live earthworm. The growth increments irrespective of the feeding levels did not show any decreasing trend throughout the experimental period. This is probably because...

  8. Studies on the growth of penaeid prawns: 1. Length-weight relation and condition factor under different levels of feeding

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, S.R.S.; Iyer, H.K.; Devi, C.B.L.; Kutty, M.K.

    Length-weight relation and earthworm feeding conditions under different levels for @iPenaeus indicus@@ and @iMetapenaeus dobsoni@@ were estimated. Length-weight exponent in both species was unaffected by the feeding levels and the consequent...

  9. Animal performance and stress: responses and tolerance limits at different levels of biological organisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassahn, Karin S; Crozier, Ross H; Pörtner, Hans O; Caley, M Julian

    2009-05-01

    Recent advances in molecular biology and the use of DNA microarrays for gene expression profiling are providing new insights into the animal stress response, particularly the effects of stress on gene regulation. However, interpretation of the complex transcriptional changes that occur during stress still poses many challenges because the relationship between changes at the transcriptional level and other levels of biological organisation is not well understood. To confront these challenges, a conceptual model linking physiological and transcriptional responses to stress would be helpful. Here, we provide the basis for one such model by synthesising data from organismal, endocrine, cellular, molecular, and genomic studies. We show using available examples from ectothermic vertebrates that reduced oxygen levels and oxidative stress are common to many stress conditions and that the responses to different types of stress, such as environmental, handling and confinement stress, often converge at the challenge of dealing with oxygen imbalance and oxidative stress. As a result, a common set of stress responses exists that is largely independent of the type of stressor applied. These common responses include the repair of DNA and protein damage, cell cycle arrest or apoptosis, changes in cellular metabolism that reflect the transition from a state of cellular growth to one of cellular repair, the release of stress hormones, changes in mitochondrial densities and properties, changes in oxygen transport capacities and changes in cardio-respiratory function. Changes at the transcriptional level recapitulate these common responses, with many stress-responsive genes functioning in cell cycle control, regulation of transcription, protein turnover, metabolism, and cellular repair. These common transcriptional responses to stress appear coordinated by only a limited number of stress-inducible and redox-sensitive transcription factors and signal transduction pathways, such as the

  10. Dioxin Levels in Mainstream Smoke from Cigarettes with Different TPM Deliveries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith CJ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The presence of dioxin-like compounds, such as chlorinated dibenzodioxins, chlorinated dibenzofurans and chlorinated biphenyls, in mainstream cigarette smoke has been investigated for seven cigarette brands covering a range of ‘tar’ deliveries from 1 mg to 14 mg. Adjusted per milligram of total particulate matter (TPM, ultra-light cigarettes had the highest concentrations of toxic equivalents (TEQ of 10 fg/mg TPM. As the ‘tar’ delivery increased, lower concentration values were found in lights and full-flavor cigarettes. Calculated on the basis of a pack of twenty cigarettes, mainstream smoke from the ultra-lights and lights products produced values around 200 fg TEQ, and the full-flavor brand produced 575 fg TEQ per pack. Levels of TEQ from dioxin-like compounds in the tobacco section of four cigarette brands did not show significant differences and were similar to previous literature findings.

  11. Improvement of lipase production at different stirring speeds and oxygen levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.O.M. Alonso

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Lipase production by a Brazilian wild strain of Yarrowia lipolytica at different stirring speeds and air flow rates was studied. The relationship among lipid consumption, cell growth and lipase production by this microorganism is presented. The most pronounced effect of oxygen on lipase production was determined by stirring speed. Maximum lipase activity was detected in the late stationary phase at 200 rpm and an air flow rate of 1-2 dm³/min (0.8-1.7 vvm when the lipid source had been fully consumed. Higher stirring speeds resulted in mechanical and/or oxidative stress, while lower stirring speeds seemed to limit oxygen levels. An increase in the availability of oxygen at higher air flow rates led to faster lipid uptake and anticipation of enzyme release into the culture medium. The highest lipase production was obtained at 200 rpm and 1 dm³/min (0.8 vvm.

  12. THE CHANGES OF IL-1β AND IL-6 LEVEL AT DIFFERENT ALTITUDE AND THEIR SIGNIFICANCE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia Mian; Geng Paili; Zhu Haihong; Wu Hongfu

    2006-01-01

    Objective To investigate the changes of the concentration of interkeukine β 1(IL-1β) and Interleukine 6(IL-6) in the serum of the people who live in the different altitude, and try to find the relation between the cytokines (CK) and the hypoxia adaptation and some diseases caused by hypoxia. Methods Using enzyme linked immunoabsorbent assay (ELISA) to detect the level of the concentration of IL-1β and IL-6 in the serum. Results The concentration of IL-1β showed significant increase in values (P<0.05) at 4050m. IL-6 in same altitude showed obvious changes as well (P<0.05). Conclusion The results showed that the concentration of IL-1β and IL-6 have significant changes in the serum. This means that they may be involved in the process of the adaptation and some sickness because of hypoxia.

  13. Dynamic Properties of the Painter Street Overpass at Different Levels of Vibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ventura, C. E.; Brincker, Rune; Andersen, P.

    2005-01-01

    in California. Strong motion instruments were installed on the bridge in 1977, and since then it has recorded the motions from more than ten significant earthquakes. Because of the valuable amount of strong motion data available, the aim of the ambient vibration tests was to determine the dynamic...... from analyses of selected strong motion records. The magnitude of the events investigated ranges from ML=4.4 to ML=6.9, which produced accelerations of up to 0.54g at the free field site, 1.3g at the abutments, and 0.86g on the deck. The results of this study indicate that the overall dynamic...... properties of the bridge are very sensitive to the level of ground shaking and that soil-structure interaction is very important for this type structural system. Although the superstructure exhibited a nearly elastic response, the motions at the abutments and base of piers were significantly different...

  14. Morphological awareness and vocabulary development among kindergartners with different ability levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Gloria; Walton, Patrick; Roberts, William

    2014-01-01

    Our goal was to investigate the growth of vocabulary and morphological awareness over time in the context of an intervention for kindergartners with different ability levels in these skills. Participants in this exploratory study were 108 children from schools serving socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods. Results indicated that children significantly improved their morphological awareness skills and vocabulary over a period of 4 months ( eta(p)(2) = .61 for morphological awareness and eta(p)(2) = .53 for vocabulary), with the greatest gains made by children who were initially low on these measures. Morphological awareness and vocabulary skills were reciprocally related; each made a unique contribution to growth in the other. The results suggest that it may be beneficial to combine instruction in vocabulary and morphological awareness and that kindergarten teachers can successfully do so with guidance.

  15. Comparison of results from different NDE techniques from ceramic matrix composites with varying porosity levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Imelda; Ojard, Greg; Santhosh, Unni; Ahmad, Jalees; Gowayed, Yasser

    2015-03-01

    Ceramic matrix composites (CMC's) are attractive materials for use in advanced turbine engines. Due to the nature of available processing techniques, however, the amount and distribution of porosity in CMC's can vary greatly. This can be particularly true in parts with complex geometries. It is therefore important to characterize the porosity with non-destructive techniques and understand its effect on properties. A series of CMC samples were fabricated with varying levels of porosity and analyzed with different NDE techniques. The results were categorized and analyzed with respect to ease of interpretation and degree to which they could be quantified and used in models to determine the effects of defects. The results were also correlated with microstructural examination and mechanical properties.

  16. [Level of IgE at different stages of HIV infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalialieva, M V

    2005-01-01

    The content of total IgE in 109 patients at different stages of HIV infection are presented. The infection was at the asymptomatic stage in 30 patients, the stage of generalized lymphadenopathy in 29 patients, the stage of secondary manifestations in 36 patients, the stage of AIDS in 14 patients. The concentration of IgE was found to increase, on the average, at all stages of HIV infection (p < 0.001), the maximum level being observed at the stage of AIDS. The occurrence of high and low concentrations of total IgE was the same at the asymptomatic stage and the stage of generalized lymphadenopathy. At the stage of secondary manifestations the occurrence of low concentrations of IgE increased twofold. In the presence of parasitosis a significant rise in the content of total IgE was registered in HIV-infected patients.

  17. DYNAMIC COMPUTER SIMULATION OF CONCRETE ON DIFFERENT LEVELS OF THE MICROSTRUCTURE – PART 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piet Stroeven

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The establishment of an experimental basis for the dependence of a mechanical property on certain structural features (and the associated micro-mechanical properties would require extensive, cumbersome and complicated testing: mechanical testing for defining the very property, quantitative (section image analysis and stereological three-dimensional assessment of the relevant structural features. 'Realistic' simulation of material structure by computer would therefore offer an interesting alternative. This paper introduces the SPACE system (Software Package for the Assessment of Compositional Evolution as the most recent development in this field. It has been developed to assess the composition as well as configuration characteristics of dense random packing situations in opaque materials. This paper presents an introduction to the system and will thereupon highlight by means of illustrative examples of typical applications on different levels of the microstructure the system's capabilities. Although only a single application can be presented in this framework, they all concern areas of major engineering interest.

  18. DYNAMIC COMPUTER SIMULATION OF CONCRETE ON DIFFERENT LEVELS OF THE MICROSTRUCTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piet Stroeven

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The establishment of an experimental basis for the dependence of a mechanical property on certain structural features (and the associated micro-mechanical properties would require extensive, cumbersome and complicated testing: mechanical testing for defining the very property, quantitative (section image analysis and stereological three-dimensional assessment of the relevant structural features. 'Realistic' simulation of material structure by computer would therefore offer an interesting alternative. This paper introduces the SPACE system (Software Package for the Assessment of Compositional Evolution as the most recent development in this field. It has been developed to assess the composition as well as configuration characteristics of dense random packing situations in opaque materials. This paper presents an introduction to the system and will thereupon highlight by means of illustrative examples of typical applications on different levels of the microstructure the system's capabilities. Although only a single application can be presented in this framework, they all concern areas of major engineering interest.

  19. Serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels in different neurological diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventriglia, Mariacarla; Zanardini, Roberta; Bonomini, Cristina; Zanetti, Orazio; Volpe, Daniele; Pasqualetti, Patrizio; Gennarelli, Massimo; Bocchio-Chiavetto, Luisella

    2013-01-01

    Consistent evidence indicates the involvement of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD). In the present study, we compared serum BDNF in 624 subjects: 266 patients affected by AD, 28 by frontotemporal dementia (FTD), 40 by Lewy body dementia (LBD), 91 by vascular dementia (VAD), 30 by PD, and 169 controls. Our results evidenced lower BDNF serum levels in AD, FTD, LBD, and VAD patients (P benzodiazepines (P = 0.020). In conclusion, our results support the role of BDNF alterations in neurodegenerative mechanisms common to different forms of neurological disorders and underline the importance of including drug treatment in the analyses to avoid confounding effects.

  20. Ethnic differences in leptin and adiponectin levels between Greenlandic Inuit and Danish children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch-Andersen, Thor; Sorensen, Kaspar; Aachmann-Andersen, Niels-Jacob

    2013-01-01

    Objective. In a recent study, we found that Greenlandic Inuit children had a more adverse metabolic profile than Danish children. Aerobic fitness and adiposity could only partly account for the differences. Therefore, we set out to evaluate and compare plasma leptin and adiponectin levels in Danish...... and Inuit children. Methods. In total, 187 Inuit and 132 Danish children (5.7–17.1 years) had examinations of anthropometrics, body fat content, pubertal staging, fasting blood and aerobic fitness. Results. Plasma leptin was higher in Danish boys [3,774 (4,741–3,005)] [pg/mL unadjusted geometric mean (95......leptin/adiponectin ratio was higher in Danish boys and tended to be higher in Danish girls compared to northern living Inuit boys and girls, respectively...

  1. The impact of quantum interferences between different J-levels on scattering polarization in spectral lines

    CERN Document Server

    Belluzzi, Luca

    2011-01-01

    The spectral line polarization produced by optically pumped atoms contains a wealth of information on the thermal and magnetic structure of a variety of astrophysical plasmas, including that of the solar atmosphere. A correct decoding of such information from the observed Stokes profiles requires a clear understanding of the effects that radiatively induced quantum interferences (or coherences) between pairs of magnetic sublevels produce on these observables, in the absence and in the presence of magnetic fields of arbitrary strength. Here we present a detailed theoretical investigation on the role of coherences between pairs of sublevels pertaining to different fine-structure J-levels, clarifying when they can be neglected for facilitating the modeling of the linear polarization produced by scattering processes in spectral lines. To this end, we apply the quantum theory of spectral line polarization and calculate the linear polarization patterns of the radiation scattered at 90 degrees by a slab of stellar a...

  2. Dyeing Behaviour of Unmodified and Modified Polyamide 6.6 Fibers of Different Levels of Fineness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhlouf, Chahira; Kacem, Chiraz; Roudesli, Sadok; Sakli, Faouzi

    In present study, the dyeing behaviour of unmodified and modified polyamide 6.6 fibers of different levels of fineness was investigated. The color strength of all the dyeings as well as their color fastness properties were studied. The obtained results revealed that with the use of acid or disperse dyes, color strength of dyeings decreased for microfibers compared to conventional fibers. Thus, the unmodified microfibers appeared to be more accessible to dyes than conventional ones, especially when small dye molecules were used. Both microfibers and conventional polyamide 6.6 fibers were modified with acrylic acid monomer using the free radical polymerization method. The dyeability of both modified fibers with basic dyes was significantly improved due to the incorporation of carboxylic groups. The consequences were an increase of color strength and an improvement of light fastness properties of basic dyeings by increasing the percent of graftings.

  3. Contrasting effects of rising CO2 on primary production and ecological stoichiometry at different nutrient levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verspagen, Jolanda M H; Van de Waal, Dedmer B; Finke, Jan F; Visser, Petra M; Huisman, Jef

    2014-08-01

    Although rising CO2 concentrations are thought to promote the growth and alter the carbon : nutrient stoichiometry of primary producers, several studies have reported conflicting results. To reconcile these contrasting results, we tested the following hypotheses: rising CO2 levels (1) will increase phytoplankton biomass more at high nutrient loads than at low nutrient loads, but (2) will increase their carbon : nutrient stoichiometry more at low than at high nutrient loads. We formulated a mathematical model to predict dynamic changes in phytoplankton population density, elemental stoichiometry and inorganic carbon chemistry in response to rising CO2 . The model was tested in chemostat experiments with the freshwater cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa. The model predictions and experimental results confirmed the hypotheses. Our findings provide a novel theoretical framework to understand and predict effects of rising CO2 concentrations on primary producers and their nutritional quality as food for herbivores under different nutrient conditions.

  4. BIOMASS AND WOOD CHARACTERISTICS OF THE Sclerolobium paniculatum IN DIFFERENT LEVELS OF FERTILIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuri da Rocha Marmo de Oliveira

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The present work studied the production of biomass and the anatomical, physical and energy characteristics ofSclerolobium paniculatum Vogel var. subvelutinum wood of a plantation of 18 years old, under different levels of soil fertilization. Theinfluences of fertilization in the production of biomass and the anatomical, physical and energy characteristics showed no significantresults. The results showed an average production of biomass per hectare of 92.55t. The results disclose that the cultivated carvoeiro,with 18 years old, have fibers with 14.03mm of diameter; 3.41mm of thickness and 708mm length; basic specific gravity of 0.52g/cm3;83.84% of volatile material; 15.65% of fixed carbon; calorific power of 4,671kcal/kg.

  5. [Biomechanical risk in two dairy industries with different levels of mechanization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marras, T; Murgia, L; Pazzona, A

    2005-01-01

    Risks of biomechanical overload of the upper limbs and of altered posture are not well investigated in dairy industry. This study carries out an evaluation of ergonomic and postural risk in two cheese factories in North Sardinia, characterized by a different level of automation, in order to point out at the more dangerous activities for biomechanical overload and to check possible improvements determined by mechanization. Ergonomic analysis has been performed by using NIOSH and OSHA check-lists, and then using the Strain Index method for repetitive movements. Results show that mechanization has a great importance in reducting ergonomic risk, mainly in the salting phase, where SI was lowered from 40.5 to 4.5, and in the cheese shaping (SI 9 vs. 36). Some simple ergonomic solutions and preventive measures have been suggested.

  6. Preliminary notes on brain weight variation across labrid fish species with different levels of cooperative behaviour

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marta C.SOARES; Gon(c)alo I.ANDR(E); José R.PAULA

    2015-01-01

    Brain size and weight vary tremendously in the animal kingdom.It has been suggested that brain structural development must evolve balanced between the advantages of dealing with greater social challenges and the energetic costs of maintaining and developing larger brains.Here we ask if interspecific differences in cooperative behaviour (i.e.cleaning behaviour) are related to brain weight variations in four close-related species of Labrid fish:two are obligatory cleanerfish throughout their entire life (Labroides dimidiatus and L.bicolor),one facultative cleaner fish Labropsis australis and one last species that never engage in cleaning Labrichthys unilineatus.We first search for the link between the rate of species' cooperation and its relative brain weight,and finally,if the degree of social complexity and cooperation are reflected in the weight of its major brain substructures.Overall,no differences were found in relative brain weight (in relation to body weight) across species.Fine-scale differences were solely demonstrated for the facultative cleaner L.australis,at the brainstem level.Furthermore,data visual examination indicates that the average cerebellum and brainstem weights appear to be larger for L.dimidiatus.Because variation was solely found at specific brain areas (such as cerebellum and brainstem) and not for the whole brain weight values,it suggests that species social-ecological and cognitive demands may be directly contributing to a selective investment in relevant brain areas.This study provides first preliminary evidence that links potential differences in cognitive ability in cooperative behaviour to how these may mediate the evolution of brain structural development in non-mammal vertebrate groups [Current Zoology 61 (2):274-280,2015].

  7. Supplementation of corn-soybean based layer diets with different levels of acid protease

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    Satrijo Widi Purbojo

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was held in Institute of Animal Science farm, University of the Philippines Los Banos, was to know the effects of acid protease supplementation in layer diets. Ninety-four-week old pullets were caged individually. Five treatments were randomly arranged to 95 pullets following a completely randomized design. Each treatment was replicated 19 times. The feeding trial lasted for 16 weeks. The same management practices were provided to all treatments throughout the feeding period. Pullets were fed once a day in the morning and clean drinking water was available to the pullets at all times. A basal layer diet that contained 18% crude protein (CP and 2800 Kcal ME/kg supplemented with required vitamins, minerals and amino acids were formulated. The diets with reduced protein of 17% and 2800 kcal ME/kg was also formulated. The diet with the reduced crude protein was supplemented with different levels of protease (0.05, 0.075 and 0.1%. Six birds from each treatment were randomly selected and placed in individual digestion cages. They were fed with their respective diets with chromic oxide as indicator for 7 days. Chromic oxide was added to the different diets at 0.2%. On the 3rd to 6th day of feeding, feces were collected using stainless fecal trays installed under each cage. At the end of the collection period, fecal samples collected from each replicate of treatment were dried then subjected to proximate analysis and chromic oxide determination. Result showed that no significant difference on biweekly feed consumption and overall observations. Reduced CP + 0.1% protease was the highest on the hen day production (93.75% and the lowest of feed conversion (1.85 while reduced CP + 0.075% protease was the highest of egg weight (58.82 g and eggshell thickness (0.392 mm. There was no significant difference on digestibility coefficient.

  8. Effect of different levels of copper on growth performance and cecal ecosystem of newly weaned piglets

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    Dai-Wen Chen

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The current study aimed to investigate the effects of different levels of copper sulfate on the growth performance and cecal ecosystem in newly weaned piglets. One hundred piglets weaned at 28±2 d were randomly allocated to 4 treatments with 5 replicates of 5 piglets each. Piglets received for 28 d the base diet with i no addition (control or with copper addition (from copper sulfate at ii 100, iii 175, and iv 250 mg/kg-1. On day 21, twenty piglets were randomly selected (one from each replicate to slaughter and investigate the population and diversity of cecal microorganisms. The results showed that the diets containing 175 and 250 mg/kg-1 copper improved the average daily gain (ADG by 51% and 60% and decreased the feed to gain ratio (F/G by 21% and 16%, respectively. Adding 175 or 250 mg/kg-1 copper improved crude protein, ether extract, calcium and phosphorus digestibility. Viable counts of Enterobacteriaceae and Lactobacilli in cecum tended to be reduced, while the concentrations of cecal volatile fatty acids (VFA were increased in pigs fed diet supplemented as copper level increased. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR results showed that adding 175 or 250 mg/kg-1 copper reduced the lactobacilli in cecum. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE maps showed that band numbers and intensity of cecal bacterial 16S rDNA decreased as the copper levels increased. The results suggested that the effects of high dietary copper on microflora and their activities and metabolic products might contribute to the intestinal health and result in improved growth performance.

  9. Effect of different levels of copper on growth performance and cecal ecosystem of newly weaned piglets

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    Shao-Feng Mei

    Full Text Available The current study aimed to investigate the effects of different levels of copper sulfate on the growth performance and cecal ecosystem in newly weaned piglets. One hundred piglets weaned at 28±2 d were randomly allocated to 4 treatments with 5 replicates of 5 piglets each. Piglets received for 28 d the base diet with i no addition (control or with copper addition (from copper sulfate at ii 100, iii 175, and iv 250 mg/kg–1. On day 21, twenty piglets were randomly selected (one from each replicate to slaughter and investigate the population and diversity of cecal microorganisms. The results showed that the diets containing 175 and 250 mg/kg–1 copper improved the average daily gain (ADG by 51% and 60% and decreased the feed to gain ratio (F/G by 21% and 16%, respectively. Adding 175 or 250 mg/kg–1 copper improved crude protein, ether extract, calcium and phosphorus digestibility. Viable counts of Enterobacteriaceae and Lactobacilli in cecum tended to be reduced, while the concentrations of cecal volatile fatty acids (VFA were increased in pigs fed diet supplemented as copper level increased. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR results showed that adding 175 or 250 mg/kg–1 copper reduced the lactobacilli in cecum. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE maps showed that band numbers and intensity of cecal bacterial 16S rDNA decreased as the copper levels increased. The results suggested that the effects of high dietary copper on microflora and their activities and metabolic products might contribute to the intestinal health and result in improved growth performance.

  10. Growth of castor bean plant under different types of wastewaters and soil water levels

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    Vera Lúcia Antunes de Lima

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This work evaluated the effect of different levels of water into the soil and types of treated wastewaters from industries of Campina Grande city, Paraíba state, on the growth of castor bean plant, variety BRS Nordestina. The experiment was conducted in greenhouse of the National Center of Research of Cotton. The experimental design was in entirely randomized blocks with 15 treatments in scheme of additional factorial analysis [(4 x 3 + 3] with three replications, having the following factors: three types of treated wastewaters and water of provisioning (A1 = IPELSA - Industry of Cellulose and Paper of Paraíba S/A; A2 = COTEMINAS - Industry of improvement of cotton fiber S/A; A3 = ILCASA - Industry of dairy products of Grande S/A (LEBOM; A4 = Water of the network of public provisioning of Campina Grande city, three levels of available soil water (AW (N1 = 100%, N2 = 80% and N3 = 70% and three controls, one for each AW with water of provisioning and with inorganic fertilizer in the foundation (A4C. In order to evaluate the growth of the castor bean plant during a period of 135 days, biweekly measures of the plant height, diameter of the stem and total foliar area variables were accomplished. For all growth variables there were significant interactions among the studied factors, denoting the interdependence among them, what was reflected on the growth of the plants. The castor bean plant, variety BRS Nordestina, responded well to irrigation with treated wastewater, especially from COTEMINAS industry mainly when associated to the level of 100% of the available soil water.

  11. Effect of different levels of L-carnitine and lysine-methionine on broiler blood parameters

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    Babak Hosseintabar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetive. In the present study a completely randomized 3×3 factorial design was used to analyze the effects of different levels of L-Carnitine, lysine(Lys and methionine (Met on the blood concentrations of energy, protein and lipid metabolites of male broiler chickens. Materials and methods. A total of 270 newly hatched male broiler chickens (Ross 308 were randomly assigned to 9 groups (ten broilers per replicate and three replicates per treatment. The control group was fed a basal diet, whereas the treatment groups were fed basal diets supplemented with L-Carnitine (0 mg/kg, 75 mg/kg and 150 mg/kg and lysine-methionine (0, 15 and 30% for 42 days. On day 42, one bird was randomly chosen per replication, a blood sample was taken and the blood concentrations of glucose (GLU, uric acid (UAc, triglyceride (TG, VLDL, HDL, LDL, total protein (TP, albumin (Alb and total cholesterol (TC were analyzed. Results. Dietary L-carnitine supplementation had a significant effect (p<0.05 on uric acid (UAc, HDL, LDL, and total cholesterol (TC. The birds feed L-carnitine plus Lys and Met presented the highest plasmatic UAc level and the lowest plasmatic TC and LDL level. Moreover, L-carnitine significantly reduced total cholesterol (TC when compared with both the control group and the birds feed Lys and Met without L-carnitine. Conclusions. A diet with 150 mg/kg L-carnitine plus 15% Lys and Met seems to be enough to sustain low plasmatic TC, LDL and HDL concentrations on male broiler.

  12. Regional differences in plant levels and investigations on the phytotoxicity of lithium.

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    Franzaring, Jürgen; Schlosser, Sonja; Damsohn, Walter; Fangmeier, Andreas

    2016-09-01

    The growing use of lithium (Li) in industrial and energetic applications and the inability to completely recycle the alkali metal will most likely increase anthropogenic emissions and environmental concentrations in the future. Although non-essential to plants, Li(+) is an important ultra-trace element in the animal and human diet and is also used in the treatment of e.g. mental disorders. Most of the lithium is consumed with the drinking water and vegetables, but concentrations in foodstuffs vary with the geochemistry of the element. In order to identify potential risks and to avoid an overmedication due to consumption of Li rich or Li contaminated foods it is advisable to identify background levels and to derive recommended Daily Allowances (RDAs) for the element. Although Germany does not possess large amounts of primary or secondary resources of lithium, geochemical investigations (mineral and ground waters and soils) in this country confirm a wide variation of environmental concentrations with generally higher levels in the southwest. Despite the large number of soil and water data, only very few data exist on lithium concentrations in plants and its phytotoxicity. Within the scope of present study common grassland plant species were sampled in regions of SW-Germany with reportedly high geogenic levels of Li. The data are discussed with regard to literature surveys and existing reference values. Since lithium has phytotoxic effects a greenhouse experiment was performed with different Li salts (LiCl and Li2CO3) and plant species (maize, bean and buckwheat) to derive dose-response relationships for the endpoint shoot growth. While corn growth was not reduced significantly by soil concentrations of 118 ppm, EC50 values in buckwheat were 47 and 16 ppm for lithium derived from LiCl and Li2CO3, respectively.

  13. Feeding behavior of dairy cows fed different levels of castor meal in the diet

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    Dicastro Dias de Souza

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the inclusion of castor meal in the diet of lactating cows in grazing system and its implications in feeding behavior. Eight Holstein x Zebu crossbred cows, with average milk production adjusted to 300 days in the previous lactation, between 5000 and 6000 kg and 100.33 ± 13.33 days of lactation and average body weight of 509.47 ± 61.90 kg, were distributed in two 4 x 4 Latin squares, with 4 levels of castor meal inclusion in the total diet, and using Brachiaria brizantha pasture as roughage. The experiment consisted of four experimental periods, lasting 21 days each. In each trial, the roughage and supplements were collected for evaluation of chemical composition. Animals were subjected to visual observation for evaluation of feeding behavior for 24 hours, from the 20th to the 21st day of each experimental period. The observations of the activities were recorded every five minutes. We determined the number of ruminating chews and the time spent in rumination of each ruminal bolus with the use of digital stopwatch. There was a quadratic effect for the grazing time with maximum point of inclusion of castor meal at 4.61% in the diet; other variables did not differ: rumination, idleness, trough, rumination efficiency, feeding and grazing time, rumination and idleness. Castor meal can be included in the diet with levels up to 10%, for little changes in the feeding behavior of animals.

  14. Sexism and alexithymia: correlations and differences as a function of gender, age, and educational level

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    Maite Garaigordobil

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The goals of the study were to analyze differences as a function of gender, age, and educational level in sexism and alexithymia in a nonclinical and in a clinical sample, and to explore the relation between these constructs. A descriptive and correlational cross-sectional methodology was used. The Ambivalent Sexism Inventory (Glick & Fiske, 1996 and the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (Parker et al. 1993 were administered. The sample comprised 989 participants from the Basque Country, aged between 18 and 65 years. The results revealed: 1 Significantly higher scores in the males in sexism (hostile, benevolent, and ambivalent and in alexithymia (difficulties to express emotions and external-oriented thinking in both samples; in the total alexithymia score, the males had significantly higher scores only in the nonclinical sample; 2 As of 55 years of age, a significant increase in benevolent and ambivalent sexism, and in difficulties to identify emotions, external-oriented thinking, and in the total alexithymia score were observed (only in the nonclinical sample; however, no changes with age were observed in hostile sexism and in difficulties to express emotions; 3 A decrease in sexism and alexithymia as the educational level increased; and 4 Significant positive correlations between sexism and alexithymia.

  15. Performance and economic viability of feedlot sheep fed different levels of roughage, concentrate, and water

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    Claudete Maria da Silva

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate performance and economic viability of producing sheep fed different levels of roughage, concentrate, and water. Forty Santa Inês crossbred sheep with an average initial weight of 18.85 ± 2.80 kg and an average age of 5.0 ± 2.0 months were distributed in a completely randomized design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement composed of two proportions of roughage and concentrate (30:70 and 70:30 and two levels of water supply (ad libitum, and 50% restriction, with 10 replicates. Water restriction had a negative effect (P0.05 feed conversion or feed conversion. Total weight gain, average daily gain, feed conversion, and feed efficiency were influenced by the proportions of roughage and concentrate. In conclusion, the diet with 70% roughage, associated with a water restriction of 50%, reduced the uptake of energy and protein, compromising the animal performance. The combination of the diet plus concentrate and water restricted to 50% of the free consumption provides a better cost-benefit ratio.

  16. Serum Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Levels in Different Neurological Diseases

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    Mariacarla Ventriglia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Consistent evidence indicates the involvement of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF in neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD and Parkinson’s disease (PD. In the present study, we compared serum BDNF in 624 subjects: 266 patients affected by AD, 28 by frontotemporal dementia (FTD, 40 by Lewy body dementia (LBD, 91 by vascular dementia (VAD, 30 by PD, and 169 controls. Our results evidenced lower BDNF serum levels in AD, FTD, LBD, and VAD patients (P<0.001 and a higher BDNF concentration in patients affected by PD (P=0.045. Analyses of effects of pharmacological treatments suggested significantly higher BDNF serum levels in patients taking mood stabilizers/antiepileptics (P=0.009 and L-DOPA (P<0.001 and significant reductions in patients taking benzodiazepines (P=0.020. In conclusion, our results support the role of BDNF alterations in neurodegenerative mechanisms common to different forms of neurological disorders and underline the importance of including drug treatment in the analyses to avoid confounding effects.

  17. Effects on performance of growing pigs fed diets containing different levels of dried cashew pulp.

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    Oddoye, E O K; Takrama, J F; Anchirina, V; Agyente-Badu, K

    2009-10-01

    The purpose was to investigate the use of dried cashew pulp (DrCP), the sun-dried residue after juice has been extracted from the cashew apple, as a feed ingredient in growing pig diets. The growth rate, feed intake, feed to gain ratio and cost of gain of grower pigs fed diets containing 0 (0DrCP), 100 (100DrCP), 150 (150DrCP) or 200 (200DrCP) g kg(-1) of dried cashew pulp was investigated in a feeding trial set up as a Completely randomized design with 4 treatments replicated 3 times and lasting 112 days. There were no significant differences (P > 0.05) among treatments in the parameters measured. It was concluded that dried cashew pulp could be used in growing pig diets up to a level of 200 g kg(-1) without any deleterious effects. Future work will look at higher levels of DrCP inclusion in the diets of growing pigs.

  18. Enactment of Scientific Inquiry: Observation of Two Cases at Different Grade Levels in China Mainland

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    Wang, Lei; Zhang, Ronghui; Clarke, David; Wang, Weizhen

    2014-04-01

    Enactment of scientific inquiry in classroom has attracted a great attention of science educators around the world. In this study, we examined two competent teachers' (one Grade 9 chemistry teacher and one Grade 4 science teacher) enactment of scientific inquiry in selected teaching units to reveal the characteristics of enacted inquiry at different grade levels by analyzing lesson sequence videos. The coding schemes for enacted inquiry consist of ontological properties and instructional practices. Pre-topic and post-topic teacher interviews and the two teachers' responses to a questionnaire were adopted to identify the factors influencing teacher's enactment. The results indicate that the two case teachers' enactment involved a range of inquiry activities. The enacted inquiry at fourth-grade level covered all the inquiry elements, tending to engage students in the whole procedure of inquiry. The ninth-grade chemistry class placed emphasis on the elements "making plans" to solve problems in authentic context. Important factors influencing the enactment include teacher's understanding about scientific inquiry, textbooks, assessment, students and resource. Implications for inquiry enactment and instruction improvement have been provided.

  19. Mineral composition of legumes forages cultivated under different levels of shade

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    João Carlos de Carvalho Almeida

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the composition of calcium, phosphorus and potassium, and the leaf: stem ratio of four tropical forage legumes: Calopogonium mucunoides (calopo, Pueraria phaseoloides (puero, Macrotyloma axillare (archer and Neonotonia wightii (perennial soybean, under different levels of artificial shade (0, 30, 50 and 70% in the summer and autumn seasons of 2006 and 2007, respectively. The experimental design was a randomized complete block in factorial 4x4 design with four replications. Was used SNK test at 5% probability to evaluate the effect of the legume species and regression analysis to test the effect of the level of shading. There was a trend of increase in the concentration of 3 independe