WorldWideScience

Sample records for interactive stereographic 3d

  1. The Allobrain: An Interactive, Stereographic, 3D Audio Immersive Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wakefield, Graham; Overholt, Dan; Putnam, Lance Jonathan

    2008-01-01

    This document describes the AlloBrain, the debut content created for presentation in the AlloSphere at the University of California, Santa Barbara, and the Cosm toolkit for the prototyping of interactive immersive environments using higher-order Ambisonics and stereographic projections. The Cosm......-computer interfaces and new audiovisual interaction methodologies within a virtual environment....

  2. FILMING UNDERWATER IN 3D RESPECTING STEREOGRAPHIC RULES

    OpenAIRE

    R. Rinaldi; H. Hordosch

    2015-01-01

    After an experimental phase of many years, 3D filming is now effective and successful. Improvements are still possible, but the film industry achieved memorable success on 3D movie’s box offices due to the overall quality of its products. Special environments such as space ("Gravity") and the underwater realm look perfect to be reproduced in 3D. "Filming in space" was possible in "Gravity" using special effects and computer graphic. The underwater realm is still difficult to be handled. Under...

  3. 3D visualization and stereographic techniques for medical research and education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydmark, M; Kling-Petersen, T; Pascher, R; Philip, F

    2001-01-01

    While computers have been able to work with true 3D models for a long time, the same does not apply to the users in common. Over the years, a number of 3D visualization techniques have been developed to enable a scientist or a student, to see not only a flat representation of an object, but also an approximation of its Z-axis. In addition to the traditional flat image representation of a 3D object, at least four established methodologies exist: Stereo pairs. Using image analysis tools or 3D software, a set of images can be made, each representing the left and the right eye view of an object. Placed next to each other and viewed through a separator, the three dimensionality of an object can be perceived. While this is usually done on still images, tests at Mednet have shown this to work with interactively animated models as well. However, this technique requires some training and experience. Pseudo3D, such as VRML or QuickTime VR, where the interactive manipulation of a 3D model lets the user achieve a sense of the model's true proportions. While this technique works reasonably well, it is not a "true" stereographic visualization technique. Red/Green separation, i.e. "the traditional 3D image" where a red and a green representation of a model is superimposed at an angle corresponding to the viewing angle of the eyes and by using a similar set of eyeglasses, a person can create a mental 3D image. The end result does produce a sense of 3D but the effect is difficult to maintain. Alternating left/right eye systems. These systems (typified by the StereoGraphics CrystalEyes system) let the computer display a "left eye" image followed by a "right eye" image while simultaneously triggering the eyepiece to alternatively make one eye "blind". When run at 60 Hz or higher, the brain will fuse the left/right images together and the user will effectively see a 3D object. Depending on configurations, the alternating systems run at between 50 and 60 Hz, thereby creating a

  4. Filming Underwater in 3d Respecting Stereographic Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, R.; Hordosch, H.

    2015-04-01

    After an experimental phase of many years, 3D filming is now effective and successful. Improvements are still possible, but the film industry achieved memorable success on 3D movie's box offices due to the overall quality of its products. Special environments such as space ("Gravity") and the underwater realm look perfect to be reproduced in 3D. "Filming in space" was possible in "Gravity" using special effects and computer graphic. The underwater realm is still difficult to be handled. Underwater filming in 3D was not that easy and effective as filming in 2D, since not long ago. After almost 3 years of research, a French, Austrian and Italian team realized a perfect tool to film underwater, in 3D, without any constrains. This allows filmmakers to bring the audience deep inside an environment where they most probably will never have the chance to be.

  5. FILMING UNDERWATER IN 3D RESPECTING STEREOGRAPHIC RULES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Rinaldi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available After an experimental phase of many years, 3D filming is now effective and successful. Improvements are still possible, but the film industry achieved memorable success on 3D movie’s box offices due to the overall quality of its products. Special environments such as space ("Gravity" and the underwater realm look perfect to be reproduced in 3D. "Filming in space" was possible in "Gravity" using special effects and computer graphic. The underwater realm is still difficult to be handled. Underwater filming in 3D was not that easy and effective as filming in 2D, since not long ago. After almost 3 years of research, a French, Austrian and Italian team realized a perfect tool to film underwater, in 3D, without any constrains. This allows filmmakers to bring the audience deep inside an environment where they most probably will never have the chance to be.

  6. Interactive 3D Mars Visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Mark W.

    2012-01-01

    The Interactive 3D Mars Visualization system provides high-performance, immersive visualization of satellite and surface vehicle imagery of Mars. The software can be used in mission operations to provide the most accurate position information for the Mars rovers to date. When integrated into the mission data pipeline, this system allows mission planners to view the location of the rover on Mars to 0.01-meter accuracy with respect to satellite imagery, with dynamic updates to incorporate the latest position information. Given this information so early in the planning process, rover drivers are able to plan more accurate drive activities for the rover than ever before, increasing the execution of science activities significantly. Scientifically, this 3D mapping information puts all of the science analyses to date into geologic context on a daily basis instead of weeks or months, as was the norm prior to this contribution. This allows the science planners to judge the efficacy of their previously executed science observations much more efficiently, and achieve greater science return as a result. The Interactive 3D Mars surface view is a Mars terrain browsing software interface that encompasses the entire region of exploration for a Mars surface exploration mission. The view is interactive, allowing the user to pan in any direction by clicking and dragging, or to zoom in or out by scrolling the mouse or touchpad. This set currently includes tools for selecting a point of interest, and a ruler tool for displaying the distance between and positions of two points of interest. The mapping information can be harvested and shared through ubiquitous online mapping tools like Google Mars, NASA WorldWind, and Worldwide Telescope.

  7. Exploring interaction with 3D volumetric displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Tovi; Wigdor, Daniel; Balakrishnan, Ravin

    2005-03-01

    Volumetric displays generate true volumetric 3D images by actually illuminating points in 3D space. As a result, viewing their contents is similar to viewing physical objects in the real world. These displays provide a 360 degree field of view, and do not require the user to wear hardware such as shutter glasses or head-trackers. These properties make them a promising alternative to traditional display systems for viewing imagery in 3D. Because these displays have only recently been made available commercially (e.g., www.actuality-systems.com), their current use tends to be limited to non-interactive output-only display devices. To take full advantage of the unique features of these displays, however, it would be desirable if the 3D data being displayed could be directly interacted with and manipulated. We investigate interaction techniques for volumetric display interfaces, through the development of an interactive 3D geometric model building application. While this application area itself presents many interesting challenges, our focus is on the interaction techniques that are likely generalizable to interactive applications for other domains. We explore a very direct style of interaction where the user interacts with the virtual data using direct finger manipulations on and around the enclosure surrounding the displayed 3D volumetric image.

  8. Techniques and architectures for 3D interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Haan, G.

    2009-01-01

    Spatial scientific datasets are all around us, and 3D visualization is a powerful tool to explore details and structures within them. When dealing with complex spatial structures, interactive Virtual Reality (VR) systems can potentially improve exploration over desktop-based systems. However, from

  9. Java 3D Interactive Visualization for Astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, K.; Edirisinghe, D.; Lingerfelt, E. J.; Guidry, M. W.

    2003-05-01

    We are developing a series of interactive 3D visualization tools that employ the Java 3D API. We have applied this approach initially to a simple 3-dimensional galaxy collision model (restricted 3-body approximation), with quite satisfactory results. Running either as an applet under Web browser control, or as a Java standalone application, this program permits real-time zooming, panning, and 3-dimensional rotation of the galaxy collision simulation under user mouse and keyboard control. We shall also discuss applications of this technology to 3-dimensional visualization for other problems of astrophysical interest such as neutron star mergers and the time evolution of element/energy production networks in X-ray bursts. *Managed by UT-Battelle, LLC, for the U.S. Department of Energy under contract DE-AC05-00OR22725.

  10. Expanding the Interaction Lexicon for 3D Graphics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pierce, Jeffrey S

    2001-01-01

    .... This research makes several contributions to 3D interaction and virtual reality. The Voodoo Dolls technique is a new technique for manipulating objects in immersive 3D environments in which users manipulate hand-held copies of objects...

  11. Interactive 3d Landscapes on Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanini, B.; Calori, L.; Ferdani, D.; Pescarin, S.

    2011-09-01

    The paper describes challenges identified while developing browser embedded 3D landscape rendering applications, our current approach and work-flow and how recent development in browser technologies could affect. All the data, even if processed by optimization and decimation tools, result in very huge databases that require paging, streaming and Level-of-Detail techniques to be implemented to allow remote web based real time fruition. Our approach has been to select an open source scene-graph based visual simulation library with sufficient performance and flexibility and adapt it to the web by providing a browser plug-in. Within the current Montegrotto VR Project, content produced with new pipelines has been integrated. The whole Montegrotto Town has been generated procedurally by CityEngine. We used this procedural approach, based on algorithms and procedures because it is particularly functional to create extensive and credible urban reconstructions. To create the archaeological sites we used optimized mesh acquired with laser scanning and photogrammetry techniques whereas to realize the 3D reconstructions of the main historical buildings we adopted computer-graphic software like blender and 3ds Max. At the final stage, semi-automatic tools have been developed and used up to prepare and clusterise 3D models and scene graph routes for web publishing. Vegetation generators have also been used with the goal of populating the virtual scene to enhance the user perceived realism during the navigation experience. After the description of 3D modelling and optimization techniques, the paper will focus and discuss its results and expectations.

  12. INTERACTIVE 3D LANDSCAPES ON LINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Fanini

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes challenges identified while developing browser embedded 3D landscape rendering applications, our current approach and work-flow and how recent development in browser technologies could affect. All the data, even if processed by optimization and decimation tools, result in very huge databases that require paging, streaming and Level-of-Detail techniques to be implemented to allow remote web based real time fruition. Our approach has been to select an open source scene-graph based visual simulation library with sufficient performance and flexibility and adapt it to the web by providing a browser plug-in. Within the current Montegrotto VR Project, content produced with new pipelines has been integrated. The whole Montegrotto Town has been generated procedurally by CityEngine. We used this procedural approach, based on algorithms and procedures because it is particularly functional to create extensive and credible urban reconstructions. To create the archaeological sites we used optimized mesh acquired with laser scanning and photogrammetry techniques whereas to realize the 3D reconstructions of the main historical buildings we adopted computer-graphic software like blender and 3ds Max. At the final stage, semi-automatic tools have been developed and used up to prepare and clusterise 3D models and scene graph routes for web publishing. Vegetation generators have also been used with the goal of populating the virtual scene to enhance the user perceived realism during the navigation experience. After the description of 3D modelling and optimization techniques, the paper will focus and discuss its results and expectations.

  13. Analysis of User Requirements in Interactive 3D Video Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyue Yuan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent development of three dimensional (3D display technologies has resulted in a proliferation of 3D video production and broadcasting, attracting a lot of research into capture, compression and delivery of stereoscopic content. However, the predominant design practice of interactions with 3D video content has failed to address its differences and possibilities in comparison to the existing 2D video interactions. This paper presents a study of user requirements related to interaction with the stereoscopic 3D video. The study suggests that the change of view, zoom in/out, dynamic video browsing, and textual information are the most relevant interactions with stereoscopic 3D video. In addition, we identified a strong demand for object selection that resulted in a follow-up study of user preferences in 3D selection using virtual-hand and ray-casting metaphors. These results indicate that interaction modality affects users’ decision of object selection in terms of chosen location in 3D, while user attitudes do not have significant impact. Furthermore, the ray-casting-based interaction modality using Wiimote can outperform the volume-based interaction modality using mouse and keyboard for object positioning accuracy.

  14. Development of 3D browsing and interactive web system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiaonan; Fu, Jian; Jin, Chaolin

    2017-09-01

    In the current market, users need to download specific software or plug-ins to browse the 3D model, and browsing the system may be unstable, and it cannot be 3D model interaction issues In order to solve this problem, this paper presents a solution to the interactive browsing of the model in the server-side parsing model, and when the system is applied, the user only needs to input the system URL and upload the 3D model file to operate the browsing The server real-time parsing 3D model, the interactive response speed, these completely follows the user to walk the minimalist idea, and solves the current market block 3D content development question.

  15. Interactive 3D segmentation using connected orthogonal contours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruin, P. W.; Dercksen, V. J.; Post, F. H.; Vossepoel, A. M.; Streekstra, G. J.; Vos, F. M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes a new method for interactive segmentation that is based on cross-sectional design and 3D modelling. The method represents a 3D model by a set of connected contours that are planar and orthogonal. Planar contours overlayed on image data are easily manipulated and linked contours

  16. Configurable Input Devices for 3D Interaction using Optical Tracking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J. van Rhijn (Arjen)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThree-dimensional interaction with virtual objects is one of the aspects that needs to be addressed in order to increase the usability and usefulness of virtual reality. Human beings have difficulties understanding 3D spatial relationships and manipulating 3D user interfaces, which

  17. Configurable input devices for 3D interaction using optical tracking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rhijn, van A.J.

    2007-01-01

    Three-dimensional interaction with virtual objects is one of the aspects that needs to be addressed in order to increase the usability and usefulness of virtual reality. Human beings have difficulties understanding 3D spatial relationships and manipulating 3D user interfaces, which require the

  18. IGLANCE: interactive free viewpoint for 3D TV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zinger, S.; Do, Q.L.; Ruijters, D.; With, de P.H.N.

    2010-01-01

    The iGLANCE project aims at making interactive free viewpoint selection possible in 3D TV broadcasted media. This means that the viewer can select and interactively change the viewpoint of a stereoscopic streamed video. The interactivity is enabled by broad-casting a number of video streams from

  19. Pedagogy of stereographic projection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blenkinsop, Tom

    1999-05-01

    Three sorts of problem are encountered by students learning stereographic projection. Lack of familiarity with compass directions and with the specification of planar and linear orientations is the most fundamental problem. The second problem is one of poor visualisation which prohibits the correct understanding of the principles and practice of projection, although students can sometimes perform remarkably well on certain exercises without this understanding. A third problem is a lack of interest or appreciation of the usefulness of the technique. A solution to the first problem is to provide a thorough grounding in compass directions, and concepts of strike, dip, dip direction, plunge and plunge bearing immediately before teaching stereographic projection. Visual aids, such as a transparent hemisphere to represent half of the projection sphere, and a large stereonet, are helpful for visualisation. Estimation and sketching exercises help to develop an understanding of the geometry of projection. Computer-aided teaching and plotting is recommended after an introduction to manual techniques. Interest can be stimulated through the use of exercises based on real geological maps.

  20. Analytical calculation of magnet interactions in 3D

    OpenAIRE

    Yonnet , Jean-Paul; Allag , Hicham

    2009-01-01

    International audience; A synthesis of all the analytical expressions of the interaction energy, force components and torque components is presented. It allows the analytical calculation of all the interactions when the magnetizations are in any direction. The 3D analytical expressions are difficult to obtain, but the torque and force expressions are very simple to use.

  1. Experiencing 3D interactions in virtual reality and augmented reality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martens, J.B.; Qi, W.; Aliakseyeu, D.; Kok, A.J.F.; Liere, van R.; Hoven, van den E.; Ijsselsteijn, W.; Kortuem, G.; Laerhoven, van K.; McClelland, I.; Perik, E.; Romero, N.; Ruyter, de B.

    2004-01-01

    We demonstrate basic 2D and 3D interactions in both a Virtual Reality (VR) system, called the Personal Space Station, and an Augmented Reality (AR) system, called the Visual Interaction Platform. Since both platforms use identical (optical) tracking hardware and software, and can run identical

  2. 3D, parallel fluid-structure interaction code

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oxtoby, Oliver F

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors describe the development of a 3D parallel Fluid–Structure–Interaction (FSI) solver and its application to benchmark problems. Fluid and solid domains are discretised using and edge-based finite-volume scheme for efficient parallel...

  3. Efficient Computation of Casimir Interactions between Arbitrary 3D Objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, M. T. Homer; Rodriguez, Alejandro W.; White, Jacob; Johnson, Steven G.

    2009-01-01

    We introduce an efficient technique for computing Casimir energies and forces between objects of arbitrarily complex 3D geometries. In contrast to other recently developed methods, our technique easily handles nonspheroidal, nonaxisymmetric objects, and objects with sharp corners. Using our new technique, we obtain the first predictions of Casimir interactions in a number of experimentally relevant geometries, including crossed cylinders and tetrahedral nanoparticles.

  4. 3D interactive topology optimization on hand-held devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nobel-Jørgensen, Morten; Aage, Niels; Christiansen, Asger Nyman

    2015-01-01

    This educational paper describes the implementation aspects, user interface design considerations and workflow potential of the recently published TopOpt 3D App. The app solves the standard minimum compliance problem in 3D and allows the user to change design settings interactively at any point...... in time during the optimization. Apart from its educational nature, the app may point towards future ways of performing industrial design. Instead of the usual geometrize, then model and optimize approach, the geometry now automatically adapts to the varying boundary and loading conditions. The app...

  5. Storytelling in Interactive 3D Geographic Visualization Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Thöny

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of interactive geographic maps is to provide geographic information to a large audience in a captivating and intuitive way. Storytelling helps to create exciting experiences and to explain complex or otherwise hidden relationships of geospatial data. Furthermore, interactive 3D applications offer a wide range of attractive elements for advanced visual story creation and offer the possibility to convey the same story in many different ways. In this paper, we discuss and analyze storytelling techniques in 3D geographic visualizations so that authors and developers working with geospatial data can use these techniques to conceptualize their visualization and interaction design. Finally, we outline two examples which apply the given concepts.

  6. Gesture Interaction Browser-Based 3D Molecular Viewer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virag, Ioan; Stoicu-Tivadar, Lăcrămioara; Crişan-Vida, Mihaela

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents an open source system that allows the user to interact with a 3D molecular viewer using associated hand gestures for rotating, scaling and panning the rendered model. The novelty of this approach is that the entire application is browser-based and doesn't require installation of third party plug-ins or additional software components in order to visualize the supported chemical file formats. This kind of solution is suitable for instruction of users in less IT oriented environments, like medicine or chemistry. For rendering various molecular geometries our team used GLmol (a molecular viewer written in JavaScript). The interaction with the 3D models is made with Leap Motion controller that allows real-time tracking of the user's hand gestures. The first results confirmed that the resulting application leads to a better way of understanding various types of translational bioinformatics related problems in both biomedical research and education.

  7. 3D Analytical Calculation of the Interactions between Permanent Magnets

    OpenAIRE

    Allag , Hicham; Yonnet , Jean-Paul

    2008-01-01

    International audience; Up to now, the analytical calculation has been made only when the magnets own parallel magnetization directions. We have succeeded in two new results of first importance for the analytical calculation: the torque between two magnets, and the force components and torque when the magnetization directions are perpendicular. The last result allows the analytical calculation of the interactions when the magnetizations are in all the directions. The 3D analytical expressions...

  8. 3D for Geosciences: Interactive Tangibles and Virtual Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pippin, J. E.; Matheney, M.; Kitsch, N.; Rosado, G.; Thompson, Z.; Pierce, S. A.

    2016-12-01

    Point cloud processing provides a method of studying and modelling geologic features relevant to geoscience systems and processes. Here, software including Skanect, MeshLab, Blender, PDAL, and PCL are used in conjunction with 3D scanning hardware, including a Structure scanner and a Kinect camera, to create and analyze point cloud images of small scale topography, karst features, tunnels, and structures at high resolution. This project successfully scanned internal karst features ranging from small stalactites to large rooms, as well as an external waterfall feature. For comparison purposes, multiple scans of the same object were merged into single object files both automatically, using commercial software, and manually using open source libraries and code. Files with format .ply were manually converted into numeric data sets to be analyzed for similar regions between files in order to match them together. We can assume a numeric process would be more powerful and efficient than the manual method, however it could lack other useful features that GUI's may have. The digital models have applications in mining as efficient means of replacing topography functions such as measuring distances and areas. Additionally, it is possible to make simulation models such as drilling templates and calculations related to 3D spaces. Advantages of using methods described here for these procedures include the relatively quick time to obtain data and the easy transport of the equipment. With regard to openpit mining, obtaining 3D images of large surfaces and with precision would be a high value tool by georeferencing scan data to interactive maps. The digital 3D images obtained from scans may be saved as printable files to create physical 3D-printable models to create tangible objects based on scientific information, as well as digital "worlds" able to be navigated virtually. The data, models, and algorithms explored here can be used to convey complex scientific ideas to a range of

  9. Interactive 3D visualization for theoretical virtual observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykes, T.; Hassan, A.; Gheller, C.; Croton, D.; Krokos, M.

    2018-06-01

    Virtual observatories (VOs) are online hubs of scientific knowledge. They encompass a collection of platforms dedicated to the storage and dissemination of astronomical data, from simple data archives to e-research platforms offering advanced tools for data exploration and analysis. Whilst the more mature platforms within VOs primarily serve the observational community, there are also services fulfilling a similar role for theoretical data. Scientific visualization can be an effective tool for analysis and exploration of data sets made accessible through web platforms for theoretical data, which often contain spatial dimensions and properties inherently suitable for visualization via e.g. mock imaging in 2D or volume rendering in 3D. We analyse the current state of 3D visualization for big theoretical astronomical data sets through scientific web portals and virtual observatory services. We discuss some of the challenges for interactive 3D visualization and how it can augment the workflow of users in a virtual observatory context. Finally we showcase a lightweight client-server visualization tool for particle-based data sets, allowing quantitative visualization via data filtering, highlighting two example use cases within the Theoretical Astrophysical Observatory.

  10. DNA Encoding Training Using 3D Gesture Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicola, Stelian; Handrea, Flavia-Laura; Crişan-Vida, Mihaela; Stoicu-Tivadar, Lăcrămioara

    2017-01-01

    The work described in this paper summarizes the development process and presents the results of a human genetics training application, studying the 20 amino acids formed by the combination of the 3 nucleotides of DNA targeting mainly medical and bioinformatics students. Currently, the domain applications using recognized human gestures of the Leap Motion sensor are used in molecules controlling and learning from Mendeleev table or in visualizing the animated reactions of specific molecules with water. The novelty in the current application consists in using the Leap Motion sensor creating new gestures for the application control and creating a tag based algorithm corresponding to each amino acid, depending on the position in the 3D virtual space of the 4 nucleotides of DNA and their type. The team proposes a 3D application based on Unity editor and on Leap Motion sensor where the user has the liberty of forming different combinations of the 20 amino acids. The results confirm that this new type of study of medicine/biochemistry using the Leap Motion sensor for handling amino acids is suitable for students. The application is original and interactive and the users can create their own amino acid structures in a 3D-like environment which they could not do otherwise using traditional pen-and-paper.

  11. Interactive 3D Visualization for Theoretical Virtual Observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykes, Tim; Hassan, A.; Gheller, C.; Croton, D.; Krokos, M.

    2018-04-01

    Virtual Observatories (VOs) are online hubs of scientific knowledge. They encompass a collection of platforms dedicated to the storage and dissemination of astronomical data, from simple data archives to e-research platforms offering advanced tools for data exploration and analysis. Whilst the more mature platforms within VOs primarily serve the observational community, there are also services fulfilling a similar role for theoretical data. Scientific visualization can be an effective tool for analysis and exploration of datasets made accessible through web platforms for theoretical data, which often contain spatial dimensions and properties inherently suitable for visualization via e.g. mock imaging in 2d or volume rendering in 3d. We analyze the current state of 3d visualization for big theoretical astronomical datasets through scientific web portals and virtual observatory services. We discuss some of the challenges for interactive 3d visualization and how it can augment the workflow of users in a virtual observatory context. Finally we showcase a lightweight client-server visualization tool for particle-based datasets allowing quantitative visualization via data filtering, highlighting two example use cases within the Theoretical Astrophysical Observatory.

  12. Novel interactive virtual showcase based on 3D multitouch technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tao; Liu, Yue; Lu, You; Wang, Yongtian

    2009-11-01

    A new interactive virtual showcase is proposed in this paper. With the help of virtual reality technology, the user of the proposed system can watch the virtual objects floating in the air from all four sides and interact with the virtual objects by touching the four surfaces of the virtual showcase. Unlike traditional multitouch system, this system cannot only realize multi-touch on a plane to implement 2D translation, 2D scaling, and 2D rotation of the objects; it can also realize the 3D interaction of the virtual objects by recognizing and analyzing the multi-touch that can be simultaneously captured from the four planes. Experimental results show the potential of the proposed system to be applied in the exhibition of historical relics and other precious goods.

  13. 3d particle simulations on ultra short laser interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishihara, Katsunobu; Okamoto, Takashi; Yasui, Hidekazu [Osaka Univ., Suita (Japan). Inst. of Laser Engineering

    1998-03-01

    Two topics related to ultra short laser interaction with matter, linear and nonlinear high frequency conductivity of a solid density hydrogen plasma and anisotropic self-focusing of an intense laser in an overdense plasma, have been investigated with the use of 3-d particle codes. Frequency dependence of linear conductivity in a dense plasma is obtained, which shows anomalous conductivity near plasma frequency. Since nonlinear conductivity decreases with v{sub o}{sup -3}, where v{sub o} is a quivering velocity, an optimum amplitude exists leading to a maximum electron heating. Anisotropic self-focusing of a linear polarized intense laser is observed in an overdense plasma. (author)

  14. Interactive initialization of 2D/3D rigid registration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong, Ren Hui; Güler, Özgür; Kürklüoglu, Mustafa; Lovejoy, John; Yaniv, Ziv

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Registration is one of the key technical components in an image-guided navigation system. A large number of 2D/3D registration algorithms have been previously proposed, but have not been able to transition into clinical practice. The authors identify the primary reason for the lack of adoption with the prerequisite for a sufficiently accurate initial transformation, mean target registration error of about 10 mm or less. In this paper, the authors present two interactive initialization approaches that provide the desired accuracy for x-ray/MR and x-ray/CT registration in the operating room setting. Methods: The authors have developed two interactive registration methods based on visual alignment of a preoperative image, MR, or CT to intraoperative x-rays. In the first approach, the operator uses a gesture based interface to align a volume rendering of the preoperative image to multiple x-rays. The second approach uses a tracked tool available as part of a navigation system. Preoperatively, a virtual replica of the tool is positioned next to the anatomical structures visible in the volumetric data. Intraoperatively, the physical tool is positioned in a similar manner and subsequently used to align a volume rendering to the x-ray images using an augmented reality (AR) approach. Both methods were assessed using three publicly available reference data sets for 2D/3D registration evaluation. Results: In the authors' experiments, the authors show that for x-ray/MR registration, the gesture based method resulted in a mean target registration error (mTRE) of 9.3 ± 5.0 mm with an average interaction time of 146.3 ± 73.0 s, and the AR-based method had mTREs of 7.2 ± 3.2 mm with interaction times of 44 ± 32 s. For x-ray/CT registration, the gesture based method resulted in a mTRE of 7.4 ± 5.0 mm with an average interaction time of 132.1 ± 66.4 s, and the AR-based method had mTREs of 8.3 ± 5.0 mm with interaction times of 58 ± 52 s. Conclusions: Based on the

  15. Interactive initialization of 2D/3D rigid registration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong, Ren Hui; Güler, Özgür [The Sheikh Zayed Institute for Pediatric Surgical Innovation, Children' s National Medical Center, Washington, DC 20010 (United States); Kürklüoglu, Mustafa [Department of Cardiac Surgery, Children' s National Medical Center, Washington, DC 20010 (United States); Lovejoy, John [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery and Sports Medicine, Children' s National Medical Center, Washington, DC 20010 (United States); Yaniv, Ziv, E-mail: ZYaniv@childrensnational.org [The Sheikh Zayed Institute for Pediatric Surgical Innovation, Children' s National Medical Center, Washington, DC 20010 and Departments of Pediatrics and Radiology, George Washington University, Washington, DC 20037 (United States)

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: Registration is one of the key technical components in an image-guided navigation system. A large number of 2D/3D registration algorithms have been previously proposed, but have not been able to transition into clinical practice. The authors identify the primary reason for the lack of adoption with the prerequisite for a sufficiently accurate initial transformation, mean target registration error of about 10 mm or less. In this paper, the authors present two interactive initialization approaches that provide the desired accuracy for x-ray/MR and x-ray/CT registration in the operating room setting. Methods: The authors have developed two interactive registration methods based on visual alignment of a preoperative image, MR, or CT to intraoperative x-rays. In the first approach, the operator uses a gesture based interface to align a volume rendering of the preoperative image to multiple x-rays. The second approach uses a tracked tool available as part of a navigation system. Preoperatively, a virtual replica of the tool is positioned next to the anatomical structures visible in the volumetric data. Intraoperatively, the physical tool is positioned in a similar manner and subsequently used to align a volume rendering to the x-ray images using an augmented reality (AR) approach. Both methods were assessed using three publicly available reference data sets for 2D/3D registration evaluation. Results: In the authors' experiments, the authors show that for x-ray/MR registration, the gesture based method resulted in a mean target registration error (mTRE) of 9.3 ± 5.0 mm with an average interaction time of 146.3 ± 73.0 s, and the AR-based method had mTREs of 7.2 ± 3.2 mm with interaction times of 44 ± 32 s. For x-ray/CT registration, the gesture based method resulted in a mTRE of 7.4 ± 5.0 mm with an average interaction time of 132.1 ± 66.4 s, and the AR-based method had mTREs of 8.3 ± 5.0 mm with interaction times of 58 ± 52 s. Conclusions: Based on

  16. Teaching seismic methods using interactive 3D Earth globe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeraratne, D. S.; Rogers, D. B.

    2011-12-01

    Instructional techniques for study of seismology are greatly enhanced by three dimensional (3D) visualization. Seismic rays that pass through the Earth's interior are typically viewed in 2D slices of the Earth's interior. Here we present the use of a 3D Earth globe manufactured by Real World Globes. This globe displays a dry-erase high resolution glossy topography and bathymetry from the Smith and Sandwell data archives at its surface for interactive measurements and hands-on marking of many seismic observations such as earthquake locations, source-receiver distances, surface wave propagation, great circle paths, ocean circulation patterns, airplane trajectories, etc.. A new interactive feature (designed collaboratively with geoscientists) allows cut away and disassembly of sections of the exterior shell revealing a full cross section depicting the Earth's interior layers displayed to scale with a dry-erase work board. The interior panel spins to any azimuth and provides a depth measurement scale to allow exact measurements and marking of earthquake depths, true seismic ray path propagation, ray path bottoming depths, shadow zones, and diffraction patterns. A demo of this globe and example activities will be presented.

  17. i3Drive, a 3D interactive driving simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambroz, Miha; Prebil, Ivan

    2010-01-01

    i3Drive, a wheeled-vehicle simulator, can accurately simulate vehicles of various configurations with up to eight wheels in real time on a desktop PC. It presents the vehicle dynamics as an interactive animation in a virtual 3D environment. The application is fully GUI-controlled, giving users an easy overview of the simulation parameters and letting them adjust those parameters interactively. It models all relevant vehicle systems, including the mechanical models of the suspension, power train, and braking and steering systems. The simulation results generally correspond well with actual measurements, making the system useful for studying vehicle performance in various driving scenarios. i3Drive is thus a worthy complement to other, more complex tools for vehicle-dynamics simulation and analysis.

  18. Hardware-accelerated autostereogram rendering for interactive 3D visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petz, Christoph; Goldluecke, Bastian; Magnor, Marcus

    2003-05-01

    Single Image Random Dot Stereograms (SIRDS) are an attractive way of depicting three-dimensional objects using conventional display technology. Once trained in decoupling the eyes' convergence and focusing, autostereograms of this kind are able to convey the three-dimensional impression of a scene. We present in this work an algorithm that generates SIRDS at interactive frame rates on a conventional PC. The presented system allows rotating a 3D geometry model and observing the object from arbitrary positions in real-time. Subjective tests show that the perception of a moving or rotating 3D scene presents no problem: The gaze remains focused onto the object. In contrast to conventional SIRDS algorithms, we render multiple pixels in a single step using a texture-based approach, exploiting the parallel-processing architecture of modern graphics hardware. A vertex program determines the parallax for each vertex of the geometry model, and the graphics hardware's texture unit is used to render the dot pattern. No data has to be transferred between main memory and the graphics card for generating the autostereograms, leaving CPU capacity available for other tasks. Frame rates of 25 fps are attained at a resolution of 1024x512 pixels on a standard PC using a consumer-grade nVidia GeForce4 graphics card, demonstrating the real-time capability of the system.

  19. 3-D interactive visualisation tools for Hi spectral line imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Hulst, J. M.; Punzo, D.; Roerdink, J. B. T. M.

    2016-01-01

    Upcoming HI surveys will deliver such large datasets that automated processing using the full 3-D information to find and characterize HI objects is unavoidable. Full 3-D visualization is an essential tool for enabling qualitative and quantitative inspection and analysis of the 3-D data, which is

  20. Interactive Scientific Visualization in 3D Virtual Reality Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip Popovski

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Scientific visualization in technology of virtual reality is a graphical representation of virtual environment in the form of images or animation that can be displayed with various devices such as Head Mounted Display (HMD or monitors that can view threedimensional world. Research in real time is a desirable capability for scientific visualization and virtual reality in which we are immersed and make the research process easier. In this scientific paper the interaction between the user and objects in the virtual environment аrе in real time which gives a sense of reality to the user. Also, Quest3D VR software package is used and the movement of the user through the virtual environment, the impossibility to walk through solid objects, methods for grabbing objects and their displacement are programmed and all interactions between them will be possible. At the end some critical analysis were made on all of these techniques on various computer systems and excellent results were obtained.

  1. Interaction of charged 3D soliton with Coulomb center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rybakov, Yu.P.

    1996-03-01

    The Einstein - de Broglie particle-soliton concept is applied to simulate stationary states of an electron in a hydrogen atom. According to this concept, the electron is described by the localized regular solutions to some nonlinear equations. In the framework of Synge model for interacting scalar and electromagnetic fields a system of integral equations has been obtained, which describes the interaction between charged 3D soliton and Coulomb center. The asymptotic expressions for physical fields, describing soliton moving around the fixed Coulomb center, have been obtained with the help of integral equations. It is shown that the electron-soliton center travels along some stationary orbit around the Coulomb center. The electromagnetic radiation is absent as the Poynting vector has non-wave asymptote O(r -3 ) after averaging over angles, i.e. the existence of spherical surface corresponding to null Poynting vector stream, has been proved. Vector lines for Poynting vector are constructed in asymptotical area. (author). 22 refs, 2 figs

  2. An interactive 3D framework for anatomical education

    OpenAIRE

    Vázquez Alcocer, Pere Pau; Götzelmann, Timo; Hartmann, Knut; Nürnberger, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    Object: This paper presents a 3D framework for Anatomy teaching. We are mainly concerned with the proper understanding of human anatomical 3D structures. Materials and methods: The main idea of our approach is taking an electronic book such as Henry Gray’s Anatomy of the human body, and a set of 3D models properly labeled, and constructing the correct linking that allows users to perform mutual searches between both media. Results: We implemented a system where learners can intera...

  3. Interactive 3D geodesign tool for multidisciplinary wind turbine planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiee, Azarakhsh; Van der Male, Pim; Dias, Eduardo; Scholten, Henk

    2018-01-01

    Wind turbine site planning is a multidisciplinary task comprising of several stakeholder groups from different domains and with different priorities. An information system capable of integrating the knowledge on the multiple aspects of a wind turbine plays a crucial role on providing a common picture to the involved groups. In this study, we have developed an interactive and intuitive 3D system (Falcon) for planning wind turbine locations. This system supports iterative design loops (wind turbine configurations), based on the emerging field of geodesign. The integration of GIS, game engine and the analytical models has resulted in an interactive platform with real-time feedback on the multiple wind turbine aspects which performs efficiently for different use cases and different environmental settings. The implementation of tiling techniques and open standard web services support flexible and on-the-fly loading and querying of different (massive) geospatial elements from different resources. This boosts data accessibility and interoperability that are of high importance in a multidisciplinary process. The incorporation of the analytical models in Falcon makes this system independent from external tools for different environmental impacts estimations and results in a unified platform for performing different environmental analysis in every stage of the scenario design. Game engine techniques, such as collision detection, are applied in Falcon for the real-time implementation of different environmental models (e.g. noise and visibility). The interactivity and real-time performance of Falcon in any location in the whole country assist the stakeholders in the seamless exploration of various scenarios and their resulting environmental effects and provides a scope for an interwoven discussion process. The flexible architecture of the system enables the effortless application of Falcon in other countries, conditional to input data availability. The embedded open web

  4. In Depth: Interactive Copyright Education for 3D Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille Thomas

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The growth of makerspaces and 3D services in libraries means new opportunities to utilize library expertise, partnerships, and exemptions to inform patrons about copyright in creative environments. Wide access to 3D printing, trademarks, and patents are relevant topics, but this paper only focuses on copyright. Little to no literature has been produced about how to educate makers about copyright for 3D objects. This paper will present a framework to encourage creators of 3D objects to analyze and interpret copyright information for their own purposes. It also discusses the process of designing and embedding learning tools into the database for SHAPES, a project for inter-library loans of 3D renderings. NOTE: New information about the methods and progress of this project has been added since the Kraemer Copyright Conference.

  5. Force interaction and 3D pole movement in double poling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöggl, T; Holmberg, H-C

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze double poling using combined kinetic and 3D kinematic analysis at high skiing speeds as regards pole force components, pole angles and pole behavior during the poling and swing phase. The hypothesis was that a horizontal pole force is more predictive for maximal skiing speed (V(max)) than the resultant pole force. Sixteen elite skiers performed a double-poling V(max) test while treadmill roller skiing. Pole forces and 3D kinematics of pole movement at a speed of 30 km/h were analyzed and related to V(max). The duration of the "preparation phase" showed the strongest relationship with V(max) (r=0.87, Pmax) compared with the resultant pole force. Impact force was not related to V(max). At high skiing speeds, skiers should aim to combine high pole forces with appropriate timing of pole forces and appropriate pole and body positions during the swing and poling phase. The emphasis in training should be on the development of specific strength capacities for pole force production and the utilization of these capacities in double-poling training sessions. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  6. Visualizing the process of interaction in a 3D environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidya, Vivek; Suryanarayanan, Srikanth; Krishnan, Kajoli; Mullick, Rakesh

    2007-03-01

    As the imaging modalities used in medicine transition to increasingly three-dimensional data the question of how best to interact with and analyze this data becomes ever more pressing. Immersive virtual reality systems seem to hold promise in tackling this, but how individuals learn and interact in these environments is not fully understood. Here we will attempt to show some methods in which user interaction in a virtual reality environment can be visualized and how this can allow us to gain greater insight into the process of interaction/learning in these systems. Also explored is the possibility of using this method to improve understanding and management of ergonomic issues within an interface.

  7. Airflow Interaction Interface: Playful 3-D CAD and Gaming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wendrich, Robert E.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the vision and development of a tangible user interface (TUI) that allows ‘glassblowing-like’ interaction (IA) with a computer. The premise is that human fidelity in exerting pressure and airflow (i.e. breathing, blowing) could stimulate intuition, creative processing, and

  8. Education System Using Interactive 3D Computer Graphics (3D-CG) Animation and Scenario Language for Teaching Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Hiroshi; Shindo, Yoshiaki

    2006-01-01

    The 3D computer graphics (3D-CG) animation using a virtual actor's speaking is very effective as an educational medium. But it takes a long time to produce a 3D-CG animation. To reduce the cost of producing 3D-CG educational contents and improve the capability of the education system, we have developed a new education system using Virtual Actor.…

  9. The interactive presentation of 3D information obtained from reconstructed datasets and 3D placement of single histological sections with the 3D portable document format

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Bouke A.; Soufan, Alexandre T.; Hagoort, Jaco; Mohun, Timothy J.; van den Hoff, Maurice J. B.; Hasman, Arie; Voorbraak, Frans P. J. M.; Moorman, Antoon F. M.; Ruijter, Jan M.

    2011-01-01

    Interpretation of the results of anatomical and embryological studies relies heavily on proper visualization of complex morphogenetic processes and patterns of gene expression in a three-dimensional (3D) context. However, reconstruction of complete 3D datasets is time consuming and often researchers

  10. Interactive browsing of 3D environment over the Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cha; Li, Jin

    2000-12-01

    In this paper, we describe a system for wandering in a realistic environment over the Internet. The environment is captured by the concentric mosaic, compressed via the reference block coder (RBC), and accessed and delivered over the Internet through the virtual media (Vmedia) access protocol. Capturing the environment through the concentric mosaic is easy. We mount a camera at the end of a level beam, and shoot images as the beam rotates. The huge dataset of the concentric mosaic is then compressed through the RBC, which is specifically designed for both high compression efficiency and just-in-time (JIT) rendering. Through the JIT rendering function, only a portion of the RBC bitstream is accessed, decoded and rendered for each virtual view. A multimedia communication protocol -- the Vmedia protocol, is then proposed to deliver the compressed concentric mosaic data over the Internet. Only the bitstream segments corresponding to the current view are streamed over the Internet. Moreover, the delivered bitstream segments are managed by a local Vmedia cache so that frequently used bitstream segments need not be streamed over the Internet repeatedly, and the Vmedia is able to handle a RBC bitstream larger than its memory capacity. A Vmedia concentric mosaic interactive browser is developed where the user can freely wander in a realistic environment, e.g., rotate around, walk forward/backward and sidestep, even under a tight bandwidth of 33.6 kbps.

  11. A Topological Framework for Interactive Queries on 3D Models in the Web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Figueiredo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Several technologies exist to create 3D content for the web. With X3D, WebGL, and X3DOM, it is possible to visualize and interact with 3D models in a web browser. Frequently, three-dimensional objects are stored using the X3D file format for the web. However, there is no explicit topological information, which makes it difficult to design fast algorithms for applications that require adjacency and incidence data. This paper presents a new open source toolkit TopTri (Topological model for Triangle meshes for Web3D servers that builds the topological model for triangular meshes of manifold or nonmanifold models. Web3D client applications using this toolkit make queries to the web server to get adjacent and incidence information of vertices, edges, and faces. This paper shows the application of the topological information to get minimal local points and iso-lines in a 3D mesh in a web browser. As an application, we present also the interactive identification of stalactites in a cave chamber in a 3D web browser. Several tests show that even for large triangular meshes with millions of triangles, the adjacency and incidence information is returned in real time making the presented toolkit appropriate for interactive Web3D applications.

  12. A Topological Framework for Interactive Queries on 3D Models in the Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Mauro; Rodrigues, José I.; Silvestre, Ivo; Veiga-Pires, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Several technologies exist to create 3D content for the web. With X3D, WebGL, and X3DOM, it is possible to visualize and interact with 3D models in a web browser. Frequently, three-dimensional objects are stored using the X3D file format for the web. However, there is no explicit topological information, which makes it difficult to design fast algorithms for applications that require adjacency and incidence data. This paper presents a new open source toolkit TopTri (Topological model for Triangle meshes) for Web3D servers that builds the topological model for triangular meshes of manifold or nonmanifold models. Web3D client applications using this toolkit make queries to the web server to get adjacent and incidence information of vertices, edges, and faces. This paper shows the application of the topological information to get minimal local points and iso-lines in a 3D mesh in a web browser. As an application, we present also the interactive identification of stalactites in a cave chamber in a 3D web browser. Several tests show that even for large triangular meshes with millions of triangles, the adjacency and incidence information is returned in real time making the presented toolkit appropriate for interactive Web3D applications. PMID:24977236

  13. 3D rendering and interactive visualization technology in large industry CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Yongshun; Zhang Li; Chen Zhiqiang; Kang Kejun

    2001-01-01

    This paper introduces the applications of interactive 3D rendering technology in the large ICT. It summarizes and comments on the iso-surfaces rendering and the direct volume rendering methods used in ICT. The paper emphasizes on the technical analysis of the 3D rendering process of ICT volume data sets, and summarizes the difficulties of the inspection subsystem design in large ICT

  14. A new multimodal interactive way of subjective scoring of 3D video quality of experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Taewan; Lee, Kwanghyun; Lee, Sanghoon; Bovik, Alan C.

    2014-03-01

    People that watch today's 3D visual programs, such as 3D cinema, 3D TV and 3D games, experience wide and dynamically varying ranges of 3D visual immersion and 3D quality of experience (QoE). It is necessary to be able to deploy reliable methodologies that measure each viewers subjective experience. We propose a new methodology that we call Multimodal Interactive Continuous Scoring of Quality (MICSQ). MICSQ is composed of a device interaction process between the 3D display and a separate device (PC, tablet, etc.) used as an assessment tool, and a human interaction process between the subject(s) and the device. The scoring process is multimodal, using aural and tactile cues to help engage and focus the subject(s) on their tasks. Moreover, the wireless device interaction process makes it possible for multiple subjects to assess 3D QoE simultaneously in a large space such as a movie theater, and at di®erent visual angles and distances.

  15. 3D rendering and interactive visualization technology in large industry CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Yongshun; Zhang Li; Chen Zhiqiang; Kang Kejun

    2002-01-01

    The author introduces the applications of interactive 3D rendering technology in the large ICT. It summarizes and comments on the iso-surfaces rendering and the direct volume rendering methods used in ICT. The author emphasizes on the technical analysis of the 3D rendering process of ICT volume data sets, and summarizes the difficulties of the inspection subsystem design in large ICT

  16. Use of Colour and Interactive Animation in Learning 3D Vectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iskander, Wejdan; Curtis, Sharon

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of two computer-implemented techniques (colour and interactive animation) on learning 3D vectors. The participants were 43 female Saudi Arabian high school students. They were pre-tested on 3D vectors using a paper questionnaire that consisted of calculation and visualization types of questions. The students…

  17. S3D depth-axis interaction for video games: performance and engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerebecki, Chris; Stanfield, Brodie; Hogue, Andrew; Kapralos, Bill; Collins, Karen

    2013-03-01

    Game developers have yet to embrace and explore the interactive stereoscopic 3D medium. They typically view stereoscopy as a separate mode that can be disabled throughout the design process and rarely develop game mechanics that take advantage of the stereoscopic 3D medium. What if we designed games to be S3D-specific and viewed traditional 2D viewing as a separate mode that can be disabled? The design choices made throughout such a process may yield interesting and compelling results. Furthermore, we believe that interaction within a stereoscopic 3D environment is more important than the visual experience itself and therefore, further exploration is needed to take into account the interactive affordances presented by stereoscopic 3D displays. Stereoscopic 3D displays allow players to perceive objects at different depths, thus we hypothesize that designing a core mechanic to take advantage of this viewing paradigm will create compelling content. In this paper, we describe Z-Fighter a game that we have developed that requires the player to interact directly along the stereoscopic 3D depth axis. We also outline an experiment conducted to investigate the performance, perception, and enjoyment of this game in stereoscopic 3D vs. traditional 2D viewing.

  18. An interactive display system for large-scale 3D models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zijian; Sun, Kun; Tao, Wenbing; Liu, Liman

    2018-04-01

    With the improvement of 3D reconstruction theory and the rapid development of computer hardware technology, the reconstructed 3D models are enlarging in scale and increasing in complexity. Models with tens of thousands of 3D points or triangular meshes are common in practical applications. Due to storage and computing power limitation, it is difficult to achieve real-time display and interaction with large scale 3D models for some common 3D display software, such as MeshLab. In this paper, we propose a display system for large-scale 3D scene models. We construct the LOD (Levels of Detail) model of the reconstructed 3D scene in advance, and then use an out-of-core view-dependent multi-resolution rendering scheme to realize the real-time display of the large-scale 3D model. With the proposed method, our display system is able to render in real time while roaming in the reconstructed scene and 3D camera poses can also be displayed. Furthermore, the memory consumption can be significantly decreased via internal and external memory exchange mechanism, so that it is possible to display a large scale reconstructed scene with over millions of 3D points or triangular meshes in a regular PC with only 4GB RAM.

  19. Bringing VR and spatial 3D interaction to the masses through video games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaViola, Joseph J

    2008-01-01

    This article examines why innovations such as the Sony EyeToy and Nintendo Wii have been so successful and discusses the research opportunities presented by the latest commercial push for spatial 3D interaction in games.

  20. Web based Interactive 3D Learning Objects for Learning Management Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Hesse

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present an approach to create and integrate interactive 3D learning objects of high quality for higher education into a learning management system. The use of these resources allows to visualize topics, such as electro-technical and physical processes in the interior of complex devices. This paper addresses the challenge of combining rich interactivity and adequate realism with 3D exercise material for distance elearning.

  1. The role of 3-D interactive visualization in blind surveys of H I in galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punzo, D.; van der Hulst, J. M.; Roerdink, J. B. T. M.; Oosterloo, T. A.; Ramatsoku, M.; Verheijen, M. A. W.

    2015-09-01

    Upcoming H I surveys will deliver large datasets, and automated processing using the full 3-D information (two positional dimensions and one spectral dimension) to find and characterize H I objects is imperative. In this context, visualization is an essential tool for enabling qualitative and quantitative human control on an automated source finding and analysis pipeline. We discuss how Visual Analytics, the combination of automated data processing and human reasoning, creativity and intuition, supported by interactive visualization, enables flexible and fast interaction with the 3-D data, helping the astronomer to deal with the analysis of complex sources. 3-D visualization, coupled to modeling, provides additional capabilities helping the discovery and analysis of subtle structures in the 3-D domain. The requirements for a fully interactive visualization tool are: coupled 1-D/2-D/3-D visualization, quantitative and comparative capabilities, combined with supervised semi-automated analysis. Moreover, the source code must have the following characteristics for enabling collaborative work: open, modular, well documented, and well maintained. We review four state of-the-art, 3-D visualization packages assessing their capabilities and feasibility for use in the case of 3-D astronomical data.

  2. Images of Women in American Stereographs, 1870-1920.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Constance B.

    American stereographs of the late 19th and early 20th centuries are discussed in the context of the Victorian stylized stereotype of women which they so graphically capture. Stereograph cards and early motion pictures from the Library of Congress were the major sources studied. Stereograph cards were as ubiquitous in their time as television is…

  3. Review of Dactyl: an Interactive 3D Osteology App [iPad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reviewed by Alison Atkin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of human osteology has always relied on access to real skeletal remains from collections for teaching, learning, and reference. it has long been supplemented by representational and replica materials, some two-dimensional, such as illustrations and photographs, and others three-dimensional, such as casts and, more recently, 3D digital objects. All are important aids in the study of osteology; however, some of the most exciting advances have recently been made in interactive 3D digital osteology objects. In recent years with the adoption of 3D scanning technology in osteology, such as CT, MRI, laser, and structured light scanners, these 3D digital objects are no longer limited to computer-generated representations, and now include replicas of real human skeletal remains. These can be presented with photo-realistic colours, dynamic textures, and detailed features, and as such they represent a major shift forward in interactive 3D digital osteology. Dactyl, the focus of this review, is the newest addition to this area and is the first to incorporate all of the key advances into one resource: an app that uses tactile response to interact with high-quality replica 3D digital objects.

  4. A Novel and Freely Available Interactive 3d Model of the Internal Carotid Artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valera-Melé, Marc; Puigdellívol-Sánchez, Anna; Mavar-Haramija, Marija; Juanes-Méndez, Juan A; San-Román, Luis; de Notaris, Matteo; Prats-Galino, Alberto

    2018-03-05

    We describe a new and freely available 3D interactive model of the intracranial internal carotid artery (ICA) and the skull base that also allows to display and compare its main segment classifications. High-resolution 3D human angiography (isometric voxel's size 0.36 mm) and Computed Tomography angiography images were exported to Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML) format for processing in a 3D software platform and embedding in a 3D Portable Document Format (PDF) document that can be freely downloaded at http://diposit.ub.edu/dspace/handle/2445/112442 and runs under Acrobat Reader on Mac and Windows computers and Windows 10 tablets. The 3D-PDF allows for visualisation and interaction through JavaScript-based functions (including zoom, rotation, selective visualization and transparentation of structures or a predefined sequence view of the main segment classifications if desired). The ICA and its main branches and loops, the Gasserian ganglion, the petrolingual ligament and the proximal and distal dural rings within the skull base environment (anterior and posterior clinoid processes, silla turcica, ethmoid and sphenoid bones, orbital fossae) may be visualized from different perspectives. This interactive 3D-PDF provides virtual views of the ICA and becomes an innovative tool to improve the understanding of the neuroanatomy of the ICA and surrounding structures.

  5. A semi-interactive panorama based 3D reconstruction framework for indoor scenes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dang, T.K.; Worring, M.; Bui, T.D.

    2011-01-01

    We present a semi-interactive method for 3D reconstruction specialized for indoor scenes which combines computer vision techniques with efficient interaction. We use panoramas, popularly used for visualization of indoor scenes, but clearly not able to show depth, for their great field of view, as

  6. Interactive 3D audio: Enhancing awareness of details in immersive soundscapes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Mikkel Nørgaard; Schwartz, Stephen; Larsen, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Spatial audio and the possibility of interacting with the audio environment is thought to increase listeners' attention to details in a soundscape. This work examines if interactive 3D audio enhances listeners' ability to recall details in a soundscape. Nine different soundscapes were constructed...

  7. USER–APPROPRIATE VIEWER FOR HIGH RESOLUTION INTERACTIVE ENGAGEMENT WITH 3D DIGITAL CULTURAL ARTEFACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Gillespie

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Three dimensional (3D laser scanning is an important documentation technique for cultural heritage. This technology has been adopted from the engineering and aeronautical industry and is an invaluable tool for the documentation of objects within museum collections (La Pensée, 2008. The datasets created via close range laser scanning are extremely accurate and the created 3D dataset allows for a more detailed analysis in comparison to other documentation technologies such as photography. The dataset can be used for a range of different applications including: documentation; archiving; surface monitoring; replication; gallery interactives; educational sessions; conservation and visualization. However, the novel nature of a 3D dataset is presenting a rather unique challenge with respect to its sharing and dissemination. This is in part due to the need for specialised 3D software and a supported graphics card to display high resolution 3D models. This can be detrimental to one of the main goals of cultural institutions, which is to share knowledge and enable activities such as research, education and entertainment. This has limited the presentation of 3D models of cultural heritage objects to mainly either images or videos. Yet with recent developments in computer graphics, increased internet speed and emerging technologies such as Adobe's Stage 3D (Adobe, 2013 and WebGL (Khronos, 2013, it is now possible to share a dataset directly within a webpage. This allows website visitors to interact with the 3D dataset allowing them to explore every angle of the object, gaining an insight into its shape and nature. This can be very important considering that it is difficult to offer the same level of understanding of the object through the use of traditional mediums such as photographs and videos. Yet this presents a range of problems: this is a very novel experience and very few people have engaged with 3D objects outside of 3D software packages or games

  8. User-Appropriate Viewer for High Resolution Interactive Engagement with 3d Digital Cultural Artefacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, D.; La Pensée, A.; Cooper, M.

    2013-07-01

    Three dimensional (3D) laser scanning is an important documentation technique for cultural heritage. This technology has been adopted from the engineering and aeronautical industry and is an invaluable tool for the documentation of objects within museum collections (La Pensée, 2008). The datasets created via close range laser scanning are extremely accurate and the created 3D dataset allows for a more detailed analysis in comparison to other documentation technologies such as photography. The dataset can be used for a range of different applications including: documentation; archiving; surface monitoring; replication; gallery interactives; educational sessions; conservation and visualization. However, the novel nature of a 3D dataset is presenting a rather unique challenge with respect to its sharing and dissemination. This is in part due to the need for specialised 3D software and a supported graphics card to display high resolution 3D models. This can be detrimental to one of the main goals of cultural institutions, which is to share knowledge and enable activities such as research, education and entertainment. This has limited the presentation of 3D models of cultural heritage objects to mainly either images or videos. Yet with recent developments in computer graphics, increased internet speed and emerging technologies such as Adobe's Stage 3D (Adobe, 2013) and WebGL (Khronos, 2013), it is now possible to share a dataset directly within a webpage. This allows website visitors to interact with the 3D dataset allowing them to explore every angle of the object, gaining an insight into its shape and nature. This can be very important considering that it is difficult to offer the same level of understanding of the object through the use of traditional mediums such as photographs and videos. Yet this presents a range of problems: this is a very novel experience and very few people have engaged with 3D objects outside of 3D software packages or games. This paper

  9. The 3d8-(3d74p + 3p53d9) transitions in Br X: A striking case of configuration interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleef, T.A.M. van; Uylings, P.H.M.; Ryabtsev, A.N.; Podobedova, L.I.; Joshi, Y.N.

    1988-01-01

    The spectrum of nine times ionized bromine (Br X) was photographed in the 90-120 A wavelength region on a variety of grazing incidence spectrographs using an open spark and a triggered spark as light sources. The analysis of the 3d 8 -(3d 7 4p + 3p 5 3d 9 ) transitions has resulted in establishing all 9 levels of the 3d 8 configuration, all 12 levels of the 3p 5 3d 9 configuration and 99 out of 110 levels of the 3d 7 4p configuration. The excitation probability of the 3p inner-shell electron increases with nuclear charge and in Br X is comparable with the excitation probability of the optical electrons resulting in a very strong configuration interaction between the 3p 5 3d 9 and 3d 7 4p configurations. Parametric calculations treating these configurations as one super configuration support the analysis. Two hundred and thirty two lines have been classified in this spectrum. (orig.)

  10. Interactive and Stereoscopic Hybrid 3D Viewer of Radar Data with Gesture Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goenetxea, Jon; Moreno, Aitor; Unzueta, Luis; Galdós, Andoni; Segura, Álvaro

    This work presents an interactive and stereoscopic 3D viewer of weather information coming from a Doppler radar. The hybrid system shows a GIS model of the regional zone where the radar is located and the corresponding reconstructed 3D volume weather data. To enhance the immersiveness of the navigation, stereoscopic visualization has been added to the viewer, using a polarized glasses based system. The user can interact with the 3D virtual world using a Nintendo Wiimote for navigating through it and a Nintendo Wii Nunchuk for giving commands by means of hand gestures. We also present a dynamic gesture recognition procedure that measures the temporal advance of the performed gesture postures. Experimental results show how dynamic gestures are effectively recognized so that a more natural interaction and immersive navigation in the virtual world is achieved.

  11. Mental practice with interactive 3D visual aids enhances surgical performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiasemidou, Marina; Glassman, Daniel; Mushtaq, Faisal; Athanasiou, Christos; Williams, Mark-Mon; Jayne, David; Miskovic, Danilo

    2017-10-01

    Evidence suggests that Mental Practice (MP) could be used to finesse surgical skills. However, MP is cognitively demanding and may be dependent on the ability of individuals to produce mental images. In this study, we hypothesised that the provision of interactive 3D visual aids during MP could facilitate surgical skill performance. 20 surgical trainees were case-matched to one of three different preparation methods prior to performing a simulated Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy (LC). Two intervention groups underwent a 25-minute MP session; one with interactive 3D visual aids depicting the relevant surgical anatomy (3D-MP group, n = 5) and one without (MP-Only, n = 5). A control group (n = 10) watched a didactic video of a real LC. Scores relating to technical performance and safety were recorded by a surgical simulator. The Control group took longer to complete the procedure relative to the 3D&MP condition (p = .002). The number of movements was also statistically different across groups (p = .001), with the 3D&MP group making fewer movements relative to controls (p = .001). Likewise, the control group moved further in comparison to the 3D&MP condition and the MP-Only condition (p = .004). No reliable differences were observed for safety metrics. These data provide evidence for the potential value of MP in improving performance. Furthermore, they suggest that 3D interactive visual aids during MP could potentially enhance performance, beyond the benefits of MP alone. These findings pave the way for future RCTs on surgical preparation and performance.

  12. Employing WebGL to develop interactive stereoscopic 3D content for use in biomedical visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Semay; Renambot, Luc; Sauter, Daniel

    2013-03-01

    Web Graphics Library (WebGL), the forthcoming web standard for rendering native 3D graphics in a browser, represents an important addition to the biomedical visualization toolset. It is projected to become a mainstream method of delivering 3D online content due to shrinking support for third-party plug-ins. Additionally, it provides a virtual reality (VR) experience to web users accommodated by the growing availability of stereoscopic displays (3D TV, desktop, and mobile). WebGL's value in biomedical visualization has been demonstrated by applications for interactive anatomical models, chemical and molecular visualization, and web-based volume rendering. However, a lack of instructional literature specific to the field prevents many from utilizing this technology. This project defines a WebGL design methodology for a target audience of biomedical artists with a basic understanding of web languages and 3D graphics. The methodology was informed by the development of an interactive web application depicting the anatomy and various pathologies of the human eye. The application supports several modes of stereoscopic displays for a better understanding of 3D anatomical structures.

  13. A 3D network of helicates fully assembled by pi-stacking interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, Miguel; Taglietti, Angelo; Gatteschi, Dante; Sorace, Lorenzo; Sangregorio, Claudio; González, Ana M; Maneiro, Marcelino; Pedrido, Rosa M; Bermejo, Manuel R

    2003-08-07

    The neutral dinuclear dihelicate [Cu2(L)2] x 2CH3CN (1) forms a unique 3D network in the solid state due to pi-stacking interactions, which are responsible for intermolecular antiferromagnetic coupling between Cu(II) ions.

  14. High-order finite difference solution for 3D nonlinear wave-structure interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ducrozet, Guillaume; Bingham, Harry B.; Engsig-Karup, Allan Peter

    2010-01-01

    This contribution presents our recent progress on developing an efficient fully-nonlinear potential flow model for simulating 3D wave-wave and wave-structure interaction over arbitrary depths (i.e. in coastal and offshore environment). The model is based on a high-order finite difference scheme O...

  15. Interactive WebGL-based 3D visualizations for EAST experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia, J.Y.; Xiao, B.J.; Li, Dan; Wang, K.R.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Developing a user-friendly interface to visualize the EAST experimental data and the device is important to scientists and engineers. • The Web3D visualization system is based on HTML5 and WebGL, which runs without the need for plug-ins or third party components. • The interactive WebGL-based 3D visualization system is a web-portal integrating EAST 3D models, experimental data and plasma videos. • The original CAD model was discretized into different layers with different simplification to enable realistic rendering and improve performance. - Abstract: In recent years EAST (Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak) experimental data are being shared and analyzed by an increasing number of international collaborators. Developing a user-friendly interface to visualize the data, meta data and the relevant parts of the device is becoming more and more important to aid scientists and engineers. Compared with the previous virtual EAST system based on VRML/Java3D [1] (Li et al., 2014), a new technology is being adopted to create a 3D visualization system based on HTML5 and WebGL, which runs without the need for plug-ins or third party components. The interactive WebGL-based 3D visualization system is a web-portal integrating EAST 3D models, experimental data and plasma videos. It offers a highly interactive interface allowing scientists to roam inside EAST device and view the complex 3-D structure of the machine. It includes technical details of the device and various diagnostic components, and provides visualization of diagnostic metadata with a direct link to each signal name and its stored data. In order for the quick access to the device 3D model, the original CAD model was discretized into different layers with different simplification. It allows users to search for plasma videos in any experiment and analyze the video frame by frame. In this paper, we present the implementation details to enable realistic rendering and improve performance.

  16. Interactive WebGL-based 3D visualizations for EAST experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia, J.Y., E-mail: jyxia@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui (China); University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui (China); Xiao, B.J. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui (China); University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui (China); Li, Dan [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui (China); Wang, K.R. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui (China); University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui (China)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Developing a user-friendly interface to visualize the EAST experimental data and the device is important to scientists and engineers. • The Web3D visualization system is based on HTML5 and WebGL, which runs without the need for plug-ins or third party components. • The interactive WebGL-based 3D visualization system is a web-portal integrating EAST 3D models, experimental data and plasma videos. • The original CAD model was discretized into different layers with different simplification to enable realistic rendering and improve performance. - Abstract: In recent years EAST (Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak) experimental data are being shared and analyzed by an increasing number of international collaborators. Developing a user-friendly interface to visualize the data, meta data and the relevant parts of the device is becoming more and more important to aid scientists and engineers. Compared with the previous virtual EAST system based on VRML/Java3D [1] (Li et al., 2014), a new technology is being adopted to create a 3D visualization system based on HTML5 and WebGL, which runs without the need for plug-ins or third party components. The interactive WebGL-based 3D visualization system is a web-portal integrating EAST 3D models, experimental data and plasma videos. It offers a highly interactive interface allowing scientists to roam inside EAST device and view the complex 3-D structure of the machine. It includes technical details of the device and various diagnostic components, and provides visualization of diagnostic metadata with a direct link to each signal name and its stored data. In order for the quick access to the device 3D model, the original CAD model was discretized into different layers with different simplification. It allows users to search for plasma videos in any experiment and analyze the video frame by frame. In this paper, we present the implementation details to enable realistic rendering and improve performance.

  17. Effect of 3D fractal dimension on contact area and asperity interactions in elastoplastic contact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdeljalil Jourani

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Few models are devoted to investigate the effect of 3D fractal dimension Ds on contact area and asperity interactions. These models used statistical approaches or two-dimensional deterministic simulations without considering the asperity interactions and elastic–plastic transition regime. In this study, a complete 3D deterministic model is adopted to simulate the contact between fractal surfaces which are generated using a modified two-variable Weierstrass–Mandelbrot function. This model incorporates the asperity interactions and considers the different deformation modes of surface asperities which range from entirely elastic through elastic-plastic to entirely plastic contact. The simulations reveal that the elastoplastic model is more appropriate to calculate the contact area ratio and pressure field. It is also shown that the influence of the asperity interactions cannot be neglected, especially at lower fractal dimension Ds and higher load.

  18. An Innovative Direct-Interaction-Enabled Augmented-Reality 3D System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Hsiung Chang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous augmented-reality (AR applications have required users to observe the integration of real and virtual images on a display. This study proposes a novel concept regarding AR applications. By integrating AR techniques with marker identification, virtual-image output, imaging, and image-interaction processes, this study rendered virtual images that can interact with predefined markers in a real three-dimensional (3D environment.

  19. An Interactive 3D Virtual Anatomy Puzzle for Learning and Simulation - Initial Demonstration and Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messier, Erik; Wilcox, Jascha; Dawson-Elli, Alexander; Diaz, Gabriel; Linte, Cristian A

    2016-01-01

    To inspire young students (grades 6-12) to become medical practitioners and biomedical engineers, it is necessary to expose them to key concepts of the field in a way that is both exciting and informative. Recent advances in medical image acquisition, manipulation, processing, visualization, and display have revolutionized the approach in which the human body and internal anatomy can be seen and studied. It is now possible to collect 3D, 4D, and 5D medical images of patient specific data, and display that data to the end user using consumer level 3D stereoscopic display technology. Despite such advancements, traditional 2D modes of content presentation such as textbooks and slides are still the standard didactic equipment used to teach young students anatomy. More sophisticated methods of display can help to elucidate the complex 3D relationships between structures that are so often missed when viewing only 2D media, and can instill in students an appreciation for the interconnection between medicine and technology. Here we describe the design, implementation, and preliminary evaluation of a 3D virtual anatomy puzzle dedicated to helping users learn the anatomy of various organs and systems by manipulating 3D virtual data. The puzzle currently comprises several components of the human anatomy and can be easily extended to include additional organs and systems. The 3D virtual anatomy puzzle game was implemented and piloted using three display paradigms - a traditional 2D monitor, a 3D TV with active shutter glass, and the DK2 version Oculus Rift, as well as two different user interaction devices - a space mouse and traditional keyboard controls.

  20. Interaction of 3D dewetting nanodroplets on homogeneous and chemically heterogeneous substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asgari, M; Moosavi, A

    2014-01-01

    Long-time interaction of dewetting nanodroplets is investigated using a long-wave approximation method. Although three-dimensional (3D) droplets evolution dynamics exhibits qualitative behavior analogous to two-dimensional (2D) dynamics, there is an extensive quantitative difference between them. 3D dynamics is substantially faster than 2D dynamics. This can be related to the larger curvature and, as a consequence, the larger Laplace pressure difference between the droplets in 3D systems. The influence of various chemical heterogeneities on the behavior of droplets has also been studied. In the case of gradient surfaces, it is shown how the gradient direction could change the dynamics. For a chemical step located between the droplets, the dynamics is enhanced or weakened depending on the initial configuration of the system. (paper)

  1. 3D MODELLING AND INTERACTIVE WEB-BASED VISUALIZATION OF CULTURAL HERITAGE OBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. N. Koeva

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, there are rapid developments in the fields of photogrammetry, laser scanning, computer vision and robotics, together aiming to provide highly accurate 3D data that is useful for various applications. In recent years, various LiDAR and image-based techniques have been investigated for 3D modelling because of their opportunities for fast and accurate model generation. For cultural heritage preservation and the representation of objects that are important for tourism and their interactive visualization, 3D models are highly effective and intuitive for present-day users who have stringent requirements and high expectations. Depending on the complexity of the objects for the specific case, various technological methods can be applied. The selected objects in this particular research are located in Bulgaria – a country with thousands of years of history and cultural heritage dating back to ancient civilizations. \\this motivates the preservation, visualisation and recreation of undoubtedly valuable historical and architectural objects and places, which has always been a serious challenge for specialists in the field of cultural heritage. In the present research, comparative analyses regarding principles and technological processes needed for 3D modelling and visualization are presented. The recent problems, efforts and developments in interactive representation of precious objects and places in Bulgaria are presented. Three technologies based on real projects are described: (1 image-based modelling using a non-metric hand-held camera; (2 3D visualization based on spherical panoramic images; (3 and 3D geometric and photorealistic modelling based on architectural CAD drawings. Their suitability for web-based visualization are demonstrated and compared. Moreover the possibilities for integration with additional information such as interactive maps, satellite imagery, sound, video and specific information for the objects are described. This

  2. Enabling Symmetric Collaboration in Public Spaces through 3D Mobile Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayra Donaji Barrera Machuca

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Collaboration has been common in workplaces in various engineering settings and in our daily activities. However, how to effectively engage collaborators with collaborative tasks has long been an issue due to various situational and technical constraints. The research in this paper addresses the issue in a specific scenario, which is how to enable users to interact with public information from their own perspective. We describe a 3D mobile interaction technique that allows users to collaborate with other people by creating a symmetric and collaborative ambience. This in turn can increase their engagement with public displays. In order to better understand the benefits and limitations of this technique, we conducted a usability study with a total of 40 participants. The results indicate that the 3D mobile interaction technique promotes collaboration between users and also improves their engagement with the public displays.

  3. Interactive virtual simulation using a 3D computer graphics model for microvascular decompression surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Makoto; Fukuda, Masafumi; Hiraishi, Tetsuya; Yajima, Naoki; Sato, Yosuke; Fujii, Yukihiko

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to report on the authors' advanced presurgical interactive virtual simulation technique using a 3D computer graphics model for microvascular decompression (MVD) surgery. The authors performed interactive virtual simulation prior to surgery in 26 patients with trigeminal neuralgia or hemifacial spasm. The 3D computer graphics models for interactive virtual simulation were composed of the brainstem, cerebellum, cranial nerves, vessels, and skull individually created by the image analysis, including segmentation, surface rendering, and data fusion for data collected by 3-T MRI and 64-row multidetector CT systems. Interactive virtual simulation was performed by employing novel computer-aided design software with manipulation of a haptic device to imitate the surgical procedures of bone drilling and retraction of the cerebellum. The findings were compared with intraoperative findings. In all patients, interactive virtual simulation provided detailed and realistic surgical perspectives, of sufficient quality, representing the lateral suboccipital route. The causes of trigeminal neuralgia or hemifacial spasm determined by observing 3D computer graphics models were concordant with those identified intraoperatively in 25 (96%) of 26 patients, which was a significantly higher rate than the 73% concordance rate (concordance in 19 of 26 patients) obtained by review of 2D images only (p computer graphics model provided a realistic environment for performing virtual simulations prior to MVD surgery and enabled us to ascertain complex microsurgical anatomy.

  4. Complex interactions between human myoblasts and the surrounding 3D fibrin-based matrix.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Chiron

    Full Text Available Anchorage of muscle cells to the extracellular matrix is crucial for a range of fundamental biological processes including migration, survival and differentiation. Three-dimensional (3D culture has been proposed to provide a more physiological in vitro model of muscle growth and differentiation than routine 2D cultures. However, muscle cell adhesion and cell-matrix interplay of engineered muscle tissue remain to be determined. We have characterized cell-matrix interactions in 3D muscle culture and analyzed their consequences on cell differentiation. Human myoblasts were embedded in a fibrin matrix cast between two posts, cultured until confluence, and then induced to differentiate. Myoblasts in 3D aligned along the longitudinal axis of the gel. They displayed actin stress fibers evenly distributed around the nucleus and a cortical mesh of thin actin filaments. Adhesion sites in 3D were smaller in size than in rigid 2D culture but expression of adhesion site proteins, including α5 integrin and vinculin, was higher in 3D compared with 2D (p<0.05. Myoblasts and myotubes in 3D exhibited thicker and ellipsoid nuclei instead of the thin disk-like shape of the nuclei in 2D (p<0.001. Differentiation kinetics were faster in 3D as demonstrated by higher mRNA concentrations of α-actinin and myosin. More important, the elastic modulus of engineered muscle tissues increased significantly from 3.5 ± 0.8 to 7.4 ± 4.7 kPa during proliferation (p<0.05 and reached 12.2 ± 6.0 kPa during differentiation (p<0.05, thus attesting the increase of matrix stiffness during proliferation and differentiation of the myocytes. In conclusion, we reported modulations of the adhesion complexes, the actin cytoskeleton and nuclear shape in 3D compared with routine 2D muscle culture. These findings point to complex interactions between muscle cells and the surrounding matrix with dynamic regulation of the cell-matrix stiffness.

  5. Canine neuroanatomy: Development of a 3D reconstruction and interactive application for undergraduate veterinary education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffan, Hazel; Guevar, Julien; Poyade, Matthieu; Rea, Paul M

    2017-01-01

    Current methods used to communicate and present the complex arrangement of vasculature related to the brain and spinal cord is limited in undergraduate veterinary neuroanatomy training. Traditionally it is taught with 2-dimensional (2D) diagrams, photographs and medical imaging scans which show a fixed viewpoint. 2D representations of 3-dimensional (3D) objects however lead to loss of spatial information, which can present problems when translating this to the patient. Computer-assisted learning packages with interactive 3D anatomical models have become established in medical training, yet equivalent resources are scarce in veterinary education. For this reason, we set out to develop a workflow methodology creating an interactive model depicting the vasculature of the canine brain that could be used in undergraduate education. Using MR images of a dog and several commonly available software programs, we set out to show how combining image editing, segmentation and surface generation, 3D modeling and texturing can result in the creation of a fully interactive application for veterinary training. In addition to clearly identifying a workflow methodology for the creation of this dataset, we have also demonstrated how an interactive tutorial and self-assessment tool can be incorporated into this. In conclusion, we present a workflow which has been successful in developing a 3D reconstruction of the canine brain and associated vasculature through segmentation, surface generation and post-processing of readily available medical imaging data. The reconstructed model was implemented into an interactive application for veterinary education that has been designed to target the problems associated with learning neuroanatomy, primarily the inability to visualise complex spatial arrangements from 2D resources. The lack of similar resources in this field suggests this workflow is original within a veterinary context. There is great potential to explore this method, and introduce

  6. Exploring Direct 3D Interaction for Full Horizontal Parallax Light Field Displays Using Leap Motion Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vamsi Kiran Adhikarla

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the design and evaluation of direct 3D gesture interaction with a full horizontal parallax light field display. A light field display defines a visual scene using directional light beams emitted from multiple light sources as if they are emitted from scene points. Each scene point is rendered individually resulting in more realistic and accurate 3D visualization compared to other 3D displaying technologies. We propose an interaction setup combining the visualization of objects within the Field Of View (FOV of a light field display and their selection through freehand gesture tracked by the Leap Motion Controller. The accuracy and usefulness of the proposed interaction setup was also evaluated in a user study with test subjects. The results of the study revealed high user preference for free hand interaction with light field display as well as relatively low cognitive demand of this technique. Further, our results also revealed some limitations and adjustments of the proposed setup to be addressed in future work.

  7. Exploring direct 3D interaction for full horizontal parallax light field displays using leap motion controller.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikarla, Vamsi Kiran; Sodnik, Jaka; Szolgay, Peter; Jakus, Grega

    2015-04-14

    This paper reports on the design and evaluation of direct 3D gesture interaction with a full horizontal parallax light field display. A light field display defines a visual scene using directional light beams emitted from multiple light sources as if they are emitted from scene points. Each scene point is rendered individually resulting in more realistic and accurate 3D visualization compared to other 3D displaying technologies. We propose an interaction setup combining the visualization of objects within the Field Of View (FOV) of a light field display and their selection through freehand gesture tracked by the Leap Motion Controller. The accuracy and usefulness of the proposed interaction setup was also evaluated in a user study with test subjects. The results of the study revealed high user preference for free hand interaction with light field display as well as relatively low cognitive demand of this technique. Further, our results also revealed some limitations and adjustments of the proposed setup to be addressed in future work.

  8. LATIS3D: The Gold Standard for Laser-Tissue-Interaction Modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    London, R.A.; Makarewicz, A.M.; Kim, B.M.; Gentile, N.A.; Yang, Y.B.; Brlik, M.; Vincent, L.

    2000-01-01

    The goal of this LDRD project has been to create LATIS3D--the world's premier computer program for laser-tissue interaction modeling. The development was based on recent experience with the 2D LATIS code and the ASCI code, KULL. With LATIS3D, important applications in laser medical therapy were researched including dynamical calculations of tissue emulsification and ablation, photothermal therapy, and photon transport for photodynamic therapy. This project also enhanced LLNL's core competency in laser-matter interactions and high-energy-density physics by pushing simulation codes into new parameter regimes and by attracting external expertise. This will benefit both existing LLNL programs such as ICF and SBSS and emerging programs in medical technology and other laser applications

  9. LATIS3D The Gold Standard for Laser-Tissue-Interaction Modeling

    CERN Document Server

    London, R A; Gentile, N A; Kim, B M; Makarewicz, A M; Vincent, L; Yang, Y B

    2000-01-01

    The goal of this LDRD project has been to create LATIS3D--the world's premier computer program for laser-tissue interaction modeling. The development was based on recent experience with the 2D LATIS code and the ASCI code, KULL. With LATIS3D, important applications in laser medical therapy were researched including dynamical calculations of tissue emulsification and ablation, photothermal therapy, and photon transport for photodynamic therapy. This project also enhanced LLNL's core competency in laser-matter interactions and high-energy-density physics by pushing simulation codes into new parameter regimes and by attracting external expertise. This will benefit both existing LLNL programs such as ICF and SBSS and emerging programs in medical technology and other laser applications.

  10. DYNA3D, INGRID, and TAURUS: an integrated, interactive software system for crashworthiness engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benson, D.J.; Hallquist, J.O.; Stillman, D.W.

    1985-04-01

    Crashworthiness engineering has always been a high priority at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory because of its role in the safe transport of radioactive material for the nuclear power industry and military. As a result, the authors have developed an integrated, interactive set of finite element programs for crashworthiness analysis. The heart of the system is DYNA3D, an explicit, fully vectorized, large deformation structural dynamics code. DYNA3D has the following four capabilities that are critical for the efficient and accurate analysis of crashes: (1) fully nonlinear solid, shell, and beam elements for representing a structure, (2) a broad range of constitutive models for representing the materials, (3) sophisticated contact algorithms for the impact interactions, and (4) a rigid body capability to represent the bodies away from the impact zones at a greatly reduced cost without sacrificing any accuracy in the momentum calculations. To generate the large and complex data files for DYNA3D, INGRID, a general purpose mesh generator, is used. It runs on everything from IBM PCs to CRAYS, and can generate 1000 nodes/minute on a PC. With its efficient hidden line algorithms and many options for specifying geometry, INGRID also doubles as a geometric modeller. TAURUS, an interactive post processor, is used to display DYNA3D output. In addition to the standard monochrome hidden line display, time history plotting, and contouring, TAURUS generates interactive color displays on 8 color video screens by plotting color bands superimposed on the mesh which indicate the value of the state variables. For higher quality color output, graphic output files may be sent to the DICOMED film recorders. We have found that color is every bit as important as hidden line removal in aiding the analyst in understanding his results. In this paper the basic methodologies of the programs are presented along with several crashworthiness calculations

  11. 3D interactive augmented reality-enhanced digital learning systems for mobile devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Kai-Ten; Tseng, Po-Hsuan; Chiu, Pei-Shuan; Yang, Jia-Lin; Chiu, Chun-Jie

    2013-03-01

    With enhanced processing capability of mobile platforms, augmented reality (AR) has been considered a promising technology for achieving enhanced user experiences (UX). Augmented reality is to impose virtual information, e.g., videos and images, onto a live-view digital display. UX on real-world environment via the display can be e ectively enhanced with the adoption of interactive AR technology. Enhancement on UX can be bene cial for digital learning systems. There are existing research works based on AR targeting for the design of e-learning systems. However, none of these work focuses on providing three-dimensional (3-D) object modeling for en- hanced UX based on interactive AR techniques. In this paper, the 3-D interactive augmented reality-enhanced learning (IARL) systems will be proposed to provide enhanced UX for digital learning. The proposed IARL systems consist of two major components, including the markerless pattern recognition (MPR) for 3-D models and velocity-based object tracking (VOT) algorithms. Realistic implementation of proposed IARL system is conducted on Android-based mobile platforms. UX on digital learning can be greatly improved with the adoption of proposed IARL systems.

  12. Interactive visualization and analysis of 3D medical images for neurosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyazawa, Tatsuo; Otsuki, Taisuke.

    1994-01-01

    We propose a method that makes it possible to interactively rotate and zoom a volume-rendered object and to interactively manipulate a function for transferring data values to color and opacity. The method ray-traces a Value-Intensity-Strength volume (VIS volume) instead of a color-opacity volume, and uses an adaptive refinement technique in generating images. The VIS volume tracing method can reduce by 20-90 percent the computational time of re-calculation necessitated by changing the function for transferring data values to color and opacity, and can reduce the computational time of pre-processing by 20 percent. It can also reduce the required memory space by 40 percent. The combination of VIS volume tracing and adaptive refinement method makes it possible to interactively visualize and analyze 3D medical image data. Once we can see detailed image of 3D objects to determine their orientation, we can easily manipulate the viewing and rendering parameters even while viewing rough, blurred images. The increase in the computation time for generating full-resolution images by using the adaptive refinement technique is approximately five to ten percent. Its effectiveness is evaluated by using the results of visualization for some 3D medical image data. (author)

  13. 3D FE simulation of PCMI (Pellet-Cladding Mechanical Interaction) considering frictionless contact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Sang-Kyu; Lee, Sung-Uk; Lee, Eun-Ho; Yang, Dong-Yol; Kim, Hyo-Chan; Yang, Yong-Sik

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this code is coupling every aspect of physical phenomenon. Monodimensional FE model has been made for METEOR. It is good to evaluate the global behavior in high burn up levels. However, the multi-dimensional PCI analysis code is necessary to precisely analyze the stress distribution especially in case of the crack analysis. CAST3M 3D finite element code has been developed considering thermo-mechanical interaction in detail for TOUTATIS code. The advanced multidimensional code called ALCYONE has been developed considering chemical-physics and thermomechanical aspects. Although there are many codes that analyze pellet and cladding interaction, it is difficult to consider every physical aspect. In this paper, pellet to cladding mechanical interaction in 3D has been simulated with frictionless contact using the developed module, which is written in FORTRANN90. In this paper, 3D PCMI FE model is simulated with frictionless contact and elastic deformation. From the frictionless contact analysis, the interfacial pressure has been calculated and then this is used to obtain the solid heat coefficient which is a main factor to analyze the thermal distribution

  14. 3D Modeling of Ultrasonic Wave Interaction with Disbonds and Weak Bonds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leckey, C.; Hinders, M.

    2011-01-01

    Ultrasonic techniques, such as the use of guided waves, can be ideal for finding damage in the plate and pipe-like structures used in aerospace applications. However, the interaction of waves with real flaw types and geometries can lead to experimental signals that are difficult to interpret. 3-dimensional (3D) elastic wave simulations can be a powerful tool in understanding the complicated wave scattering involved in flaw detection and for optimizing experimental techniques. We have developed and implemented parallel 3D elastodynamic finite integration technique (3D EFIT) code to investigate Lamb wave scattering from realistic flaws. This paper discusses simulation results for an aluminum-aluminum diffusion disbond and an aluminum-epoxy disbond and compares results from the disbond case to the common artificial flaw type of a flat-bottom hole. The paper also discusses the potential for extending the 3D EFIT equations to incorporate physics-based weak bond models for simulating wave scattering from weak adhesive bonds.

  15. Studying Host-Pathogen Interactions In 3-D: Organotypic Models For Infectious Disease And Drug Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickerson, Cheryl A.; Richter, Emily G.; Ott, C. Mark

    2006-01-01

    Representative, reproducible and high-throughput models of human cells and tissues are critical for a meaningful evaluation of host-pathogen interactions and are an essential component of the research developmental pipeline. The most informative infection models - animals, organ explants and human trials - are not suited for extensive evaluation of pathogenesis mechanisms and screening of candidate drugs. At the other extreme, more cost effective and accessible infection models such as conventional cell culture and static co-culture may not capture physiological and three-dimensional aspects of tissue biology that are important in assessing pathogenesis, and effectiveness and cytotoxicity of therapeutics. Our lab has used innovative bioengineering technology to establish biologically meaningful 3-D models of human tissues that recapitulate many aspects of the differentiated structure and function of the parental tissue in vivo, and we have applied these models to study infectious disease. We have established a variety of different 3-D models that are currently being used in infection studies - including small intestine, colon, lung, placenta, bladder, periodontal ligament, and neuronal models. Published work from our lab has shown that our 3-D models respond to infection with bacterial and viral pathogens in ways that reflect the infection process in vivo. By virtue of their physiological relevance, 3-D cell cultures may also hold significant potential as models to provide insight into the neuropathogenesis of HIV infection. Furthermore, the experimental flexibility, reproducibility, cost-efficiency, and high throughput platform afforded by these 3-D models may have important implications for the design and development of drugs with which to effectively treat neurological complications of HIV infection.

  16. Methylation of zebularine: a quantum mechanical study incorporating interactive 3D pdf graphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvam, Lalitha; Vasilyev, Vladislav; Wang, Feng

    2009-08-20

    Methylation of a cytidine deaminase inhibitor, 1-(beta-D-ribofuranosyl)-2-pyrimidone (i.e., zebularine (zeb)), which produces 1-(beta-D-ribofuranosyl)-5-methyl-2-pyrimidinone (d5), has been investigated using density functional theory models. The optimized structures of zeb and d5 and the valence orbitals primarily responsible for the methylation in d5 are presented using state-of-the-art interactive (on a computer or online) three-dimensional (3D) graphics in a portable document format (pdf) file, 3D-PDF (http://www.web3d.org/x3d/vrml/ ). The facility to embed 3D molecular structures into pdf documents has been developed jointly at Swinburne University of Technology and the National Computational Infrastructure, the Australian National University. The methyl fragment in the base moiety shows little effect on the sugar puckering but apparently affects anisotropic properties, such as condensed Fukui functions. Binding energy spectra, both valence space and core space, are noticeably affected; in particular, in the outer-valence space (e.g., IP < 20 eV). The methyl fragment delocalizes and diffuses into almost all valence space, but orbitals 8 (57a, IP = 12.57 eV), 18 (47a, IP = 14.70 eV), and 37 (28a, IP = 22.15 eV) are identified as fingerprint for the methyl fragment. In the inner shell, however, the impact of the methyl can be localized and identified by chemical shift. A small, global, red shift is found for the O-K, N-K and sugar C-K spectra, whereas the base C-K spectrum exhibits apparent methyl-related changes.

  17. TOUCH INTERACTION WITH 3D GEOGRAPHICAL VISUALIZATION ON WEB: SELECTED TECHNOLOGICAL AND USER ISSUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Herman

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of both 3D visualization and devices with touch displays is increasing. In this paper, we focused on the Web technologies for 3D visualization of spatial data and its interaction via touch screen gestures. At the first stage, we compared the support of touch interaction in selected JavaScript libraries on different hardware (desktop PCs with touch screens, tablets, and smartphones and software platforms. Afterward, we realized simple empiric test (within-subject design, 6 participants, 2 simple tasks, LCD touch monitor Acer and digital terrain models as stimuli focusing on the ability of users to solve simple spatial tasks via touch screens. An in-house testing web tool was developed and used based on JavaScript, PHP, and X3DOM languages and Hammer.js libraries. The correctness of answers, speed of users’ performances, used gestures, and a simple gesture metric was recorded and analysed. Preliminary results revealed that the pan gesture is most frequently used by test participants and it is also supported by the majority of 3D libraries. Possible gesture metrics and future developments including the interpersonal differences are discussed in the conclusion.

  18. Seamless 3D interaction for virtual tables, projection planes, and CAVEs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Encarnacao, L. M.; Bimber, Oliver; Schmalstieg, Dieter; Barton, Robert J., III

    2000-08-01

    The Virtual Table presents stereoscopic graphics to a user in a workbench-like setting. This device shares with other large- screen display technologies (such as data walls and surround- screen projection systems) the lack of human-centered unencumbered user interfaces and 3D interaction technologies. Such shortcomings present severe limitations to the application of virtual reality (VR) technology to time- critical applications as well as employment scenarios that involve heterogeneous groups of end-users without high levels of computer familiarity and expertise. Traditionally such employment scenarios are common in planning-related application areas such as mission rehearsal and command and control. For these applications, a high grade of flexibility with respect to the system requirements (display and I/O devices) as well as to the ability to seamlessly and intuitively switch between different interaction modalities and interaction are sought. Conventional VR techniques may be insufficient to meet this challenge. This paper presents novel approaches for human-centered interfaces to Virtual Environments focusing on the Virtual Table visual input device. It introduces new paradigms for 3D interaction in virtual environments (VE) for a variety of application areas based on pen-and-clipboard, mirror-in-hand, and magic-lens metaphors, and introduces new concepts for combining VR and augmented reality (AR) techniques. It finally describes approaches toward hybrid and distributed multi-user interaction environments and concludes by hypothesizing on possible use cases for defense applications.

  19. Immersive Interaction, Manipulation and Analysis of Large 3D Datasets for Planetary and Earth Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pariser, O.; Calef, F.; Manning, E. M.; Ardulov, V.

    2017-12-01

    We will present implementation and study of several use-cases of utilizing Virtual Reality (VR) for immersive display, interaction and analysis of large and complex 3D datasets. These datasets have been acquired by the instruments across several Earth, Planetary and Solar Space Robotics Missions. First, we will describe the architecture of the common application framework that was developed to input data, interface with VR display devices and program input controllers in various computing environments. Tethered and portable VR technologies will be contrasted and advantages of each highlighted. We'll proceed to presenting experimental immersive analytics visual constructs that enable augmentation of 3D datasets with 2D ones such as images and statistical and abstract data. We will conclude by presenting comparative analysis with traditional visualization applications and share the feedback provided by our users: scientists and engineers.

  20. A substructure method to compute the 3D fluid-structure interaction during blowdown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guilbaud, D.; Axisa, F.; Gantenbein, F.; Gibert, R.J.

    1983-08-01

    The waves generated by a sudden rupture of a PWR primary pipe have an important mechanical effect on the internal structures of the vessel. This fluid-structure interaction has a strong 3D aspect. 3D finite element explicit methods can be applied. These methods take into account the non linearities of the problem but the calculation is heavy and expensive. We describe in this paper another type of method based on a substructure procedure: the vessel, internals and contained fluid are axisymmetrically described (AQUAMODE computer code). The pipes and contained fluid are monodimensionaly described (TEDEL-FLUIDE Computer Code). These substructures are characterized by their natural modes. Then, they are connected to another (connection of both structural and fluid nodes) the TRISTANA Computer Code. This method allows to compute correctly and cheaply the 3D fluid-structure effects. The treatment of certain non linearities is difficult because of the modal characterization of the substructures. However variations of contact conditions versus time can be introduced. We present here some validation tests and comparison with experimental results of the litterature

  1. A 3D printed nano bone matrix for characterization of breast cancer cell and osteoblast interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wei; Castro, Nathan J.; Cui, Haitao; Zhou, Xuan; Boualam, Benchaa; McGrane, Robert; Glazer, Robert I.; Zhang, Lijie Grace

    2016-08-01

    Bone metastasis is one of the most prevalent complications of late-stage breast cancer, in which the native bone matrix components, including osteoblasts, are intimately involved in tumor progression. The development of a successful in vitro model would greatly facilitate understanding the underlying mechanism of breast cancer bone invasion as well as provide a tool for effective discovery of novel therapeutic strategies. In the current study, we fabricated a series of in vitro bone matrices composed of a polyethylene glycol hydrogel and nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite of varying concentrations to mimic the native bone microenvironment for the investigation of breast cancer bone metastasis. A stereolithography-based three-dimensional (3D) printer was used to fabricate the bone matrices with precisely controlled architecture. The interaction between breast cancer cells and osteoblasts was investigated in the optimized bone matrix. Using a Transwell® system to separate the two cell lines, breast cancer cells inhibited osteoblast proliferation, while osteoblasts stimulated breast cancer cell growth, whereas, both cell lines increased IL-8 secretion. Breast cancer cells co-cultured with osteoblasts within the 3D bone matrix formed multi-cellular spheroids in comparison to two-dimensional monolayers. These findings validate the use of our 3D printed bone matrices as an in vitro metastasis model, and highlights their potential for investigating breast cancer bone metastasis.

  2. Formalizing the potential of stereoscopic 3D user experience in interactive entertainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schild, Jonas; Masuch, Maic

    2015-03-01

    The use of stereoscopic 3D vision affects how interactive entertainment has to be developed as well as how it is experienced by the audience. The large amount of possibly impacting factors and variety as well as a certain subtlety of measured effects on user experience make it difficult to grasp the overall potential of using S3D vision. In a comprehensive approach, we (a) present a development framework which summarizes possible variables in display technology, content creation and human factors, and (b) list a scheme of S3D user experience effects concerning initial fascination, emotions, performance, and behavior as well as negative feelings of discomfort and complexity. As a major contribution we propose a qualitative formalization which derives dependencies between development factors and user effects. The argumentation is based on several previously published user studies. We further show how to apply this formula to identify possible opportunities and threats in content creation as well as how to pursue future steps for a possible quantification.

  3. COMPARISON OF USER PERFORMANCE WITH INTERACTIVE AND STATIC 3D VISUALIZATION – PILOT STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Herman

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Interactive 3D visualizations of spatial data are currently available and popular through various applications such as Google Earth, ArcScene, etc. Several scientific studies have focused on user performance with 3D visualization, but static perspective views are used as stimuli in most of the studies. The main objective of this paper is to try to identify potential differences in user performance with static perspective views and interactive visualizations. This research is an exploratory study. An experiment was designed as a between-subject study and a customized testing tool based on open web technologies was used for the experiment. The testing set consists of an initial questionnaire, a training task and four experimental tasks. Selection of the highest point and determination of visibility from the top of a mountain were used as the experimental tasks. Speed and accuracy of each task performance of participants were recorded. The movement and actions in the virtual environment were also recorded within the interactive variant. The results show that participants deal with the tasks faster when using static visualization. The average error rate was also higher in the static variant. The findings from this pilot study will be used for further testing, especially for formulating of hypotheses and designing of subsequent experiments.

  4. Co-simulation coupling spectral/finite elements for 3D soil/structure interaction problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuchowski, Loïc; Brun, Michael; De Martin, Florent

    2018-05-01

    The coupling between an implicit finite elements (FE) code and an explicit spectral elements (SE) code has been explored for solving the elastic wave propagation in the case of soil/structure interaction problem. The coupling approach is based on domain decomposition methods in transient dynamics. The spatial coupling at the interface is managed by a standard coupling mortar approach, whereas the time integration is dealt with an hybrid asynchronous time integrator. An external coupling software, handling the interface problem, has been set up in order to couple the FE software Code_Aster with the SE software EFISPEC3D.

  5. Real-time interactive 3D manipulation of particles viewed in two orthogonal observation planes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perch-Nielsen, I.; Rodrigo, P.J.; Glückstad, J.

    2005-01-01

    The generalized phase contrast (GPC) method has been applied to transform a single TEM00 beam into a manifold of counterpropagating-beam traps capable of real-time interactive manipulation of multiple microparticles in three dimensions (3D). This paper reports on the use of low numerical aperture...... for imaging through each of the two opposing objective lenses. As a consequence of the large working distance, simultaneous monitoring of the trapped particles in a second orthogonal observation plane is demonstrated. (C) 2005 Optical Society of America....

  6. Charge as the Stereographic Projection of Geometric Precession on Pseudospheres

    CERN Document Server

    Binder, B

    2002-01-01

    In this paper geometric phases (Berry and Aharonov-Bohm) are generalized to nonlinear topological phase fields on pseudospheres, where the coordinate vector field is parallel transported along the signal/soliton vector field with Levi--Civita connection. Projective $PSL(2,{\\Bbb R})$ symmetry describes the relativistic self-interacting bosonic sine-Gordon field. A Coulomb potential can be induced as the stereographic projection of a harmonic oscillator potential mapping angles or phases to distances and vice versa resulting in mutual coupling with a generalized coupling constant given by a nonlinear iteration. With single-valuedness requirement in 137-gonal symmetry it fits within a few ppb uncertainty to the Sommerfeld fine structure constant.

  7. Towards a gestural 3D interaction for tangible and three-dimensional GIS visualizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partsinevelos, Panagiotis; Agadakos, Ioannis; Pattakos, Nikolas; Maragakis, Michail

    2014-05-01

    The last decade has been characterized by a significant increase of spatially dependent applications that require storage, visualization, analysis and exploration of geographic information. GIS analysis of spatiotemporal geographic data is operated by highly trained personnel under an abundance of software and tools, lacking interoperability and friendly user interaction. Towards this end, new forms of querying and interaction are emerging, including gestural interfaces. Three-dimensional GIS representations refer to either tangible surfaces or projected representations. Making a 3D tangible geographic representation touch-sensitive may be a convenient solution, but such an approach raises the cost significantly and complicates the hardware and processing required to combine touch-sensitive material (for pinpointing points) with deformable material (for displaying elevations). In this study, a novel interaction scheme upon a three dimensional visualization of GIS data is proposed. While gesture user interfaces are not yet fully acceptable due to inconsistencies and complexity, a non-tangible GIS system where 3D visualizations are projected, calls for interactions that are based on three-dimensional, non-contact and gestural procedures. Towards these objectives, we use the Microsoft Kinect II system which includes a time of flight camera, allowing for a robust and real time depth map generation, along with the capturing and translation of a variety of predefined gestures from different simultaneous users. By incorporating these features into our system architecture, we attempt to create a natural way for users to operate on GIS data. Apart from the conventional pan and zoom features, the key functions addressed for the 3-D user interface is the ability to pinpoint particular points, lines and areas of interest, such as destinations, waypoints, landmarks, closed areas, etc. The first results shown, concern a projected GIS representation where the user selects points

  8. Linking market interaction intensity of 3D Ising type financial model with market volatility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Wen; Ke, Jinchuan; Wang, Jun; Feng, Ling

    2016-11-01

    Microscopic interaction models in physics have been used to investigate the complex phenomena of economic systems. The simple interactions involved can lead to complex behaviors and help the understanding of mechanisms in the financial market at a systemic level. This article aims to develop a financial time series model through 3D (three-dimensional) Ising dynamic system which is widely used as an interacting spins model to explain the ferromagnetism in physics. Through Monte Carlo simulations of the financial model and numerical analysis for both the simulation return time series and historical return data of Hushen 300 (HS300) index in Chinese stock market, we show that despite its simplicity, this model displays stylized facts similar to that seen in real financial market. We demonstrate a possible underlying link between volatility fluctuations of real stock market and the change in interaction strengths of market participants in the financial model. In particular, our stochastic interaction strength in our model demonstrates that the real market may be consistently operating near the critical point of the system.

  9. Development of the pulmonary vein and the systemic venous sinus: an interactive 3D overview.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gert van den Berg

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the normal formation of the heart is crucial for the understanding of cardiac pathologies and congenital malformations. The understanding of early cardiac development, however, is complicated because it is inseparably associated with other developmental processes such as embryonic folding, formation of the coelomic cavity, and vascular development. Because of this, it is necessary to integrate morphological and experimental analyses. Morphological insights, however, are limited by the difficulty in communication of complex 3D-processes. Most controversies, in consequence, result from differences in interpretation, rather than observation. An example of such a continuing debate is the development of the pulmonary vein and the systemic venous sinus, or "sinus venosus". To facilitate understanding, we present a 3D study of the developing venous pole in the chicken embryo, showing our results in a novel interactive fashion, which permits the reader to form an independent opinion. We clarify how the pulmonary vein separates from a greater vascular plexus within the splanchnic mesoderm. The systemic venous sinus, in contrast, develops at the junction between the splanchnic and somatic mesoderm. We discuss our model with respect to normal formation of the heart, congenital cardiac malformations, and the phylogeny of the venous tributaries.

  10. First-principles calculations of the interaction between hydrogen and 3d alloying atom in nickel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Wenguan, E-mail: liuwenguan@sinap.ac.cn [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Key Laboratory of Nuclear Radiation and Nuclear Energy Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Qian, Yuan; Zhang, Dongxun [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Key Laboratory of Nuclear Radiation and Nuclear Energy Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Liu, Wei, E-mail: liuwei@sinap.ac.cn [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Key Laboratory of Nuclear Radiation and Nuclear Energy Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Han, Han [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Key Laboratory of Nuclear Radiation and Nuclear Energy Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China)

    2015-10-15

    Knowledge of the behavior of hydrogen (H) in Ni-based alloy is essential for the prediction of Tritium behavior in Molten Salt Reactor. First-principles calculations were performed to investigate the interaction between H and 3d transition metal (TM) alloying atom in Ni-based alloy. H prefers the octahedral interstitial site to the tetrahedral interstitial site energetically. Most of the 3d TM elements (except Zn) attract H. The attraction to H in the Ni–TM–H system can be mainly attributed to the differences in electronegativity. With the large electronegativity, H and Ni gain electrons from the other TM elements, resulting in the enhanced Ni–H bonds which are the source of the attraction to H in the Ni–TM–H system. The obviously covalent-like Cr–H and Co–H bindings are also beneficial to the attraction to H. On the other hand, the repulsion to H in the Ni–Zn–H system is due to the stable electronic configuration of Zn. We mainly utilize the results calculated in 32-atom supercell which corresponds to the case of a relatively high concentration of hydrogen. Our results are in good agreement with the experimental ones.

  11. Virtual reality hardware for use in interactive 3D data fusion and visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourley, Christopher S.; Abidi, Mongi A.

    1997-09-01

    Virtual reality has become a tool for use in many areas of research. We have designed and built a VR system for use in range data fusion and visualization. One major VR tool is the CAVE. This is the ultimate visualization tool, but comes with a large price tag. Our design uses a unique CAVE whose graphics are powered by a desktop computer instead of a larger rack machine making it much less costly. The system consists of a screen eight feet tall by twenty-seven feet wide giving a variable field-of-view currently set at 160 degrees. A silicon graphics Indigo2 MaxImpact with the impact channel option is used for display. This gives the capability to drive three projectors at a resolution of 640 by 480 for use in displaying the virtual environment and one 640 by 480 display for a user control interface. This machine is also the first desktop package which has built-in hardware texture mapping. This feature allows us to quickly fuse the range and intensity data and other multi-sensory data. The final goal is a complete 3D texture mapped model of the environment. A dataglove, magnetic tracker, and spaceball are to be used for manipulation of the data and navigation through the virtual environment. This system gives several users the ability to interactively create 3D models from multiple range images.

  12. 3D Finite Element Analysis of PWA-Oil Sand Terrain System Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A simulator for analyzing the interaction between the oil sand terrain and a pipe wagon articulating (PWA system has been developed in this paper. An elastic-plastic oil sand model was built based on the finite element analysis (FEA method and von Mises yield criterion using the Algor mechanical event simulation (MES software. The three-dimensional (3D distribution of the stress, strain, nodal displacement, and deformed shape of the oil sands was animated at an environmental temperature of 25°C. The 3D behavior of the oil sand terrain was investigated with different loading conditions. The effect of the load and contact area on the stress and nodal displacement was analyzed, respectively. The results indicate that both the max stress and max nodal displacement increase with the load varying from 0 to 3.6+7 N and decrease with the contact area varying from 2 to 10 m2. The method presented in this paper forms the basis for evaluating the bearing capacity of oil sand ground.

  13. Nonlinear plasma wave models in 3D fluid simulations of laser-plasma interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Thomas; Berger, Richard; Arrighi, Bill; Langer, Steve; Banks, Jeffrey; Brunner, Stephan

    2017-10-01

    Simulations of laser-plasma interaction (LPI) in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) conditions require multi-mm spatial scales due to the typical laser beam size and durations of order 100 ps in order for numerical laser reflectivities to converge. To be computationally achievable, these scales necessitate a fluid-like treatment of light and plasma waves with a spatial grid size on the order of the light wave length. Plasma waves experience many nonlinear phenomena not naturally described by a fluid treatment, such as frequency shifts induced by trapping, a nonlinear (typically suppressed) Landau damping, and mode couplings leading to instabilities that can cause the plasma wave to decay rapidly. These processes affect the onset and saturation of stimulated Raman and Brillouin scattering, and are of direct interest to the modeling and prediction of deleterious LPI in ICF. It is not currently computationally feasible to simulate these Debye length-scale phenomena in 3D across experimental scales. Analytically-derived and/or numerically benchmarked models of processes occurring at scales finer than the fluid simulation grid offer a path forward. We demonstrate the impact of a range of kinetic processes on plasma reflectivity via models included in the LPI simulation code pF3D. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  14. Novel 3D/VR interactive environment for MD simulations, visualization and analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doblack, Benjamin N; Allis, Tim; Dávila, Lilian P

    2014-12-18

    The increasing development of computing (hardware and software) in the last decades has impacted scientific research in many fields including materials science, biology, chemistry and physics among many others. A new computational system for the accurate and fast simulation and 3D/VR visualization of nanostructures is presented here, using the open-source molecular dynamics (MD) computer program LAMMPS. This alternative computational method uses modern graphics processors, NVIDIA CUDA technology and specialized scientific codes to overcome processing speed barriers common to traditional computing methods. In conjunction with a virtual reality system used to model materials, this enhancement allows the addition of accelerated MD simulation capability. The motivation is to provide a novel research environment which simultaneously allows visualization, simulation, modeling and analysis. The research goal is to investigate the structure and properties of inorganic nanostructures (e.g., silica glass nanosprings) under different conditions using this innovative computational system. The work presented outlines a description of the 3D/VR Visualization System and basic components, an overview of important considerations such as the physical environment, details on the setup and use of the novel system, a general procedure for the accelerated MD enhancement, technical information, and relevant remarks. The impact of this work is the creation of a unique computational system combining nanoscale materials simulation, visualization and interactivity in a virtual environment, which is both a research and teaching instrument at UC Merced.

  15. Control of the interaction strength of photonic molecules by nanometer precise 3D fabrication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawlings, Colin D; Zientek, Michal; Spieser, Martin; Urbonas, Darius; Stöferle, Thilo; Mahrt, Rainer F; Lisunova, Yuliya; Brugger, Juergen; Duerig, Urs; Knoll, Armin W

    2017-11-28

    Applications for high resolution 3D profiles, so-called grayscale lithography, exist in diverse fields such as optics, nanofluidics and tribology. All of them require the fabrication of patterns with reliable absolute patterning depth independent of the substrate location and target materials. Here we present a complete patterning and pattern-transfer solution based on thermal scanning probe lithography (t-SPL) and dry etching. We demonstrate the fabrication of 3D profiles in silicon and silicon oxide with nanometer scale accuracy of absolute depth levels. An accuracy of less than 1nm standard deviation in t-SPL is achieved by providing an accurate physical model of the writing process to a model-based implementation of a closed-loop lithography process. For transfering the pattern to a target substrate we optimized the etch process and demonstrate linear amplification of grayscale patterns into silicon and silicon oxide with amplification ratios of ∼6 and ∼1, respectively. The performance of the entire process is demonstrated by manufacturing photonic molecules of desired interaction strength. Excellent agreement of fabricated and simulated structures has been achieved.

  16. Landslide/reservoir interaction: 3D numerical modelling of the Vajont rockslide and generated water wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosta, G.; Imposimato, S.; Roddeman, D.; Frattini, P.

    2012-04-01

    -plastic continuum and water as nearly incompressible. In particular we modeled the Vajont rockslide both in 2D and 3D considering the landslide water interaction. More simulations have been performed to validate the model against 2D and 3D tank experiments considering different slope geometries and water depth.

  17. 3D Thermo-Mechanical Models of Plume-Lithosphere Interactions: Implications for the Kenya rift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheck-Wenderoth, M.; Koptev, A.; Sippel, J.

    2017-12-01

    We present three-dimensional (3D) thermo-mechanical models aiming to explore the interaction of an active mantle plume with heterogeneous pre-stressed lithosphere in the Kenya rift region. As shown by the recent data-driven 3D gravity and thermal modeling (Sippel et al., 2017), the integrated strength of the lithosphere for the region of Kenya and northern Tanzania appears to be strongly controlled by the complex inherited crustal structure, which may have been decisive for the onset, localization and propagation of rifting. In order to test this hypothesis, we have performed a series of ultra-high resolution 3D numerical experiments that include a coupled mantle/lithosphere system in a dynamically and rheologically consistent framework. In contrast to our previous studies assuming a simple and quasi-symmetrical initial condition (Koptev et al., 2015, 2016, 2017), the complex 3D distribution of rock physical properties inferred from geological and geophysical observations (Sippel et al., 2017) has been incorporated into the model setup that comprises a stratified three-layer continental lithosphere composed of an upper and lower crust and lithospheric mantle overlaying the upper mantle. Following the evidence of the presence of a broad low-velocity seismic anomaly under the central parts of the East African Rift system (e.g. Nyblade et al, 2000; Chang et al., 2015), a 200-km radius mantle plume has been seeded at the bottom of a 635 km-depth model box representing a thermal anomaly of 300°C temperature excess. In all model runs, results show that the spatial distribution of surface deformation is indeed strongly controlled by crustal structure: within the southern part of the model box, a localized narrow zone stretched in NS direction (i.e. perpendicularly to applied far-field extension) is aligned along a structural boundary within the lower crust, whereas in the northern part of the model domain, deformation is more diffused and its eastern limit coincides with

  18. A Method for Interactive 3D Reconstruction of Piecewise Planar Objects from Single Images

    OpenAIRE

    Sturm , Peter; Maybank , Steve

    1999-01-01

    International audience; We present an approach for 3D reconstruction of objects from a single image. Obviously, constraints on the 3D structure are needed to perform this task. Our approach is based on user-provided coplanarity, perpendicularity and parallelism constraints. These are used to calibrate the image and perform 3D reconstruction. The method is described in detail and results are provided.

  19. Static/dynamic fluid-structure interaction analysis for 3-D rotary blade model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dong Hyun; Kim, Yu Sung; Kim, Dong Man; Park, Kang Kyun

    2009-01-01

    In this study, static/dynamic fluid-structure interaction analyses have been conducted for a 3D rotary blade model like a turbo-machinery or wind turbine blade. Advanced computational analysis system based on Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and Computational Structural Dynamics (CSD) has been developed in order to investigate detailed dynamic responses of rotary type models. Fluid domains are modeled using the computational grid system with local grid deforming techniques. Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations with various turbulence model are solved for unsteady flow problems of the rotating blade model. Detailed static/dynamic responses and instantaneous pressure contours on the blade surfaces considering flow-separation effects are presented to show the multi-physical phenomenon of the rotating blades.

  20. Virtual reality and interactive 3D as effective tools for medical training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, George; Norcliffe, Alex; Cannings, Peter; Sharkey, Paul; Roberts, Dave

    2003-01-01

    CAVE-like displays allow a user to walk in to a virtual environment, and use natural movement to change the viewpoint of virtual objects which they can manipulate with a hand held device. This maps well to many surgical procedures offering strong potential for training and planning. These devices may be networked together allowing geographically remote users to share the interactive experience. This maps to the strong need for distance training and planning of surgeons. Our paper shows how the properties of a CAVE-Like facility can be maximised in order to provide an ideal environment for medical training. The implementation of a large 3D-eye is described. The resulting application is that of an eye that can be manipulated and examined by trainee medics under the guidance of a medical expert. The progression and effects of different ailments can be illustrated and corrective procedures, demonstrated.

  1. Dissolved organic carbon--contaminant interaction descriptors found by 3D force field calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govers, H A J; Krop, H B; Parsons, J R; Tambach, T; Kubicki, J D

    2002-03-01

    Enthalpies of transfer at 300 K of various partitioning processes were calculated in order to study the suitability of 3D force fields for the calculation of partitioning constants. A 3D fulvic acid (FA) model of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was built in a MM+ force field using AMI atomic charges and geometrical optimization (GO). 3,5-Dichlorobiphenyl (PCB14), 4,4'-dichlorobiphenyl (PCB15), 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis-(4-chlorophenyl)-ethane (PPDDT) and 2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-s-triazine (Atrazine) were inserted into different sites and their interaction energies with FA were calculated. Energies of hydration were calculated and subtracted from FA-contaminant interactions of selected sites. The resulting values for the enthalpies of transfer from water to DOC were 2.8, -1.4, -6.4 and 0.0 kcal/mol for PCB 14, PCB15, PPDDT and Atrazine, respectively. The value of PPDDT compared favorably with the experimental value of -5.0 kcal/mol. Prior to this, the method was studied by the calculation of the enthalpies of vaporization and aqueous solution using various force fields. In the MM + force field GO predicted enthalpies of vaporization deviated by +0.7 (PCB14), +3.6 (PCB15) and -0.7 (PPDDT)kcal/mol from experimental data, whereas enthalpies of aqueous solution deviated by -3.6 (PCB14), +5.8 (PCB15) and +3.7 (PPDDT) kcal/mol. Only for PCB14 the wrong sign of this enthalpy value was predicted. Potential advantages and limitations of the approach were discussed.

  2. 3D DD modelling of the prismatic loops and dislocations interaction in pure iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novokshanov, R.; Roberts, S.

    2007-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Neutron irradiation can increase the yield stress and reduce the ductility of metals. These effects are mainly caused by the interaction of dislocations with damage produced during irradiation. In iron irradiated with fast neutrons the damage takes the form of 1/2 and 1/2 prismatic dislocation loops (the size of the loops varies from 2 nm to 20 nm depending on the dose of irradiation). The interaction between such loops and dislocations is the subject of this research. 3D dislocation dynamics simulations have been carried out to model the interaction between prismatic loops and dis- locations in pure iron subject to uniaxial loading conditions. The primary goal was to understand the mechanism of interaction of a a/2 loop and a mobile dislocation. The simulations have shown a complicated 3D interaction resulting in either bowing around an obstacle (prismatic loop, Orowan mechanism) or cutting it through, carrying part of the loop away and leaving the other part behind. Cross-slip can be important, in a manner depending on the type of mobile dislocation, size, type and orientation of prismatic loop. The secondary goal was to investigate the dependence of the critical stress needed for dislocations to overcome the obstacles as a function of: size of loops, initial separation between loops, the direction of motion of the mobile dislocation and its type (pure edge or screw), and type of a loop (interstitial or vacancy). Many different configurations have been simulated. The size of the loops was varied from 10 nm to 100 nm; the separation between the loops in a row was varied from one to four loop diameters; the distance between the glide plane and the loop plane was varied from 0 to 20 nm. The glide plane of the mobile dislocation was either perpendicular to and or inclined to the loop plane. The results show a strong dependence of the critical stress on the size of the loops and the initial configuration. (authors)

  3. Potentiometric and spectroscopic study of the interaction of 3d transition metal ions with inositol hexakisphosphate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga, Nicolás; Macho, Israel; Gómez, Kerman; González, Gabriel; Kremer, Carlos; Torres, Julia

    2015-10-01

    Among myo-inositol phosphates, the most abundant in nature is the myo-inositol hexakisphosphate, InsP6. Although it is known to be vital to cell functioning, the biochemical research into its metabolism needs chemical and structural analysis of all the protonation, complexation and precipitation processes that it undergoes in the biological media. In view of its high negative charge at physiological level, our group has been leading a thorough research into the InsP6 chemical and structural behavior in the presence of the alkali and alkaline earth metal ions essential for life. The aim of this article is to extend these studies, dealing with the chemical and structural features of the InsP6 interaction with biologically relevant 3d transition metal ions (Fe(II), Fe(III), Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II)), in a non-interacting medium and under simulated physiological conditions. The metal-complex stability constants were determined by potentiometry, showing under ligand-excess conditions the formation of mononuclear species in different protonation states. Under metal ion excess, polymetallic species were detected for Fe(II), Fe(III), Zn(II) and Cu(II). Additionally, the 31P NMR and UV-vis spectroscopic studies provided interesting structural aspects of the strong metal ion-InsP6 interaction.

  4. Three-Dimensional Reconstructions Come to Life – Interactive 3D PDF Animations in Functional Morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Kamp, Thomas; dos Santos Rolo, Tomy; Vagovič, Patrik; Baumbach, Tilo; Riedel, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Digital surface mesh models based on segmented datasets have become an integral part of studies on animal anatomy and functional morphology; usually, they are published as static images, movies or as interactive PDF files. We demonstrate the use of animated 3D models embedded in PDF documents, which combine the advantages of both movie and interactivity, based on the example of preserved Trigonopterus weevils. The method is particularly suitable to simulate joints with largely deterministic movements due to precise form closure. We illustrate the function of an individual screw-and-nut type hip joint and proceed to the complex movements of the entire insect attaining a defence position. This posture is achieved by a specific cascade of movements: Head and legs interlock mutually and with specific features of thorax and the first abdominal ventrite, presumably to increase the mechanical stability of the beetle and to maintain the defence position with minimal muscle activity. The deterministic interaction of accurately fitting body parts follows a defined sequence, which resembles a piece of engineering. PMID:25029366

  5. A 3D character animation engine for multimodal interaction on mobile devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandali, Enrico; Lavagetto, Fabio; Pisano, Paolo

    2005-03-01

    Talking virtual characters are graphical simulations of real or imaginary persons that enable natural and pleasant multimodal interaction with the user, by means of voice, eye gaze, facial expression and gestures. This paper presents an implementation of a 3D virtual character animation and rendering engine, compliant with the MPEG-4 standard, running on Symbian-based SmartPhones. Real-time animation of virtual characters on mobile devices represents a challenging task, since many limitations must be taken into account with respect to processing power, graphics capabilities, disk space and execution memory size. The proposed optimization techniques allow to overcome these issues, guaranteeing a smooth and synchronous animation of facial expressions and lip movements on mobile phones such as Sony-Ericsson's P800 and Nokia's 6600. The animation engine is specifically targeted to the development of new "Over The Air" services, based on embodied conversational agents, with applications in entertainment (interactive story tellers), navigation aid (virtual guides to web sites and mobile services), news casting (virtual newscasters) and education (interactive virtual teachers).

  6. Stereographic images acquired with gamma rays and thermal neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Maria Ines Silvani; Almeida, Gevaldo L. de; Furieri, Rosanne C.; Lopes, Ricardo T.

    2011-01-01

    Full text: The inner structure of an object, which should not be submitted to an invasive assay, can only be perceived by using a suitable technique in order to render it transparent. A widely employed technique for this purpose involves the using of a radiation capable to pass through the object, collecting the transmitted radiation by a proper device, which furnishes a radiographic attenuation map of the object. This map, however, does not display the spatial distribution of the inner components of the object, but a convoluted view for each specific attitude of the object with regard to the set beam-detector. A 3D tomographic approach would show that distribution but it would demand a large number of projections requiring special equipment and software, not always available or affordable. In some circumstances however, a 3D tomography can be replaced by a stereographic view of the object under inspection, as done in this work, where instead of tens of radiographic projections, only two of them taken at suitable object attitudes are employed. Once acquired, these projections are properly processed and observed through a red and green eyeglass. For monochromatic images, this methodology requires the transformation of the black and white radiographs into red and white and green and white ones, which are afterwards merged to yield a single image. All the process is carried out with the software Image J . In this work, the Argonauta reactor at the Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear in Rio de Janeiro has been used as a source of thermal neutrons to acquire the neutron radiographic images, as well as to produce 198 Au sources employed in the acquisition of gamma-ray radiographic ones. X-ray or neutron-sensitive imaging plates have been used as detector, which after exposure were developed by a reader using a 0.5μm-diameter laser beam. (author)

  7. Curvilinear immersed boundary method for simulating fluid structure interaction with complex 3D rigid bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borazjani, Iman; Ge, Liang; Sotiropoulos, Fotis

    2008-08-01

    The sharp-interface CURVIB approach of Ge and Sotiropoulos [L. Ge, F. Sotiropoulos, A numerical method for solving the 3D unsteady incompressible Navier-Stokes equations in curvilinear domains with complex immersed boundaries, Journal of Computational Physics 225 (2007) 1782-1809] is extended to simulate fluid structure interaction (FSI) problems involving complex 3D rigid bodies undergoing large structural displacements. The FSI solver adopts the partitioned FSI solution approach and both loose and strong coupling strategies are implemented. The interfaces between immersed bodies and the fluid are discretized with a Lagrangian grid and tracked with an explicit front-tracking approach. An efficient ray-tracing algorithm is developed to quickly identify the relationship between the background grid and the moving bodies. Numerical experiments are carried out for two FSI problems: vortex induced vibration of elastically mounted cylinders and flow through a bileaflet mechanical heart valve at physiologic conditions. For both cases the computed results are in excellent agreement with benchmark simulations and experimental measurements. The numerical experiments suggest that both the properties of the structure (mass, geometry) and the local flow conditions can play an important role in determining the stability of the FSI algorithm. Under certain conditions the FSI algorithm is unconditionally unstable even when strong coupling FSI is employed. For such cases, however, combining the strong coupling iteration with under-relaxation in conjunction with the Aitken's acceleration technique is shown to effectively resolve the stability problems. A theoretical analysis is presented to explain the findings of the numerical experiments. It is shown that the ratio of the added mass to the mass of the structure as well as the sign of the local time rate of change of the force or moment imparted on the structure by the fluid determine the stability and convergence of the FSI

  8. Novel 3D Approach to Flare Modeling via Interactive IDL Widget Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nita, G. M.; Fleishman, G. D.; Gary, D. E.; Kuznetsov, A.; Kontar, E. P.

    2011-12-01

    Currently, and soon-to-be, available sophisticated 3D models of particle acceleration and transport in solar flares require a new level of user-friendly visualization and analysis tools allowing quick and easy adjustment of the model parameters and computation of realistic radiation patterns (images, spectra, polarization, etc). We report the current state of the art of these tools in development, already proved to be highly efficient for the direct flare modeling. We present an interactive IDL widget application intended to provide a flexible tool that allows the user to generate spatially resolved radio and X-ray spectra. The object-based architecture of this application provides full interaction with imported 3D magnetic field models (e.g., from an extrapolation) that may be embedded in a global coronal model. Various tools provided allow users to explore the magnetic connectivity of the model by generating magnetic field lines originating in user-specified volume positions. Such lines may serve as reference lines for creating magnetic flux tubes, which are further populated with user-defined analytical thermal/non thermal particle distribution models. By default, the application integrates IDL callable DLL and Shared libraries containing fast GS emission codes developed in FORTRAN and C++ and soft and hard X-ray codes developed in IDL. However, the interactive interface allows interchanging these default libraries with any user-defined IDL or external callable codes designed to solve the radiation transfer equation in the same or other wavelength ranges of interest. To illustrate the tool capacity and generality, we present a step-by-step real-time computation of microwave and X-ray images from realistic magnetic structures obtained from a magnetic field extrapolation preceding a real event, and compare them with the actual imaging data obtained by NORH and RHESSI instruments. We discuss further anticipated developments of the tools needed to accommodate

  9. Earthscape, a Multi-Purpose Interactive 3d Globe Viewer for Hybrid Data Visualization and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarthou, A.; Mas, S.; Jacquin, M.; Moreno, N.; Salamon, A.

    2015-08-01

    The hybrid visualization and interaction tool EarthScape is presented here. The software is able to display simultaneously LiDAR point clouds, draped videos with moving footprint, volume scientific data (using volume rendering, isosurface and slice plane), raster data such as still satellite images, vector data and 3D models such as buildings or vehicles. The application runs on touch screen devices such as tablets. The software is based on open source libraries, such as OpenSceneGraph, osgEarth and OpenCV, and shader programming is used to implement volume rendering of scientific data. The next goal of EarthScape is to perform data analysis using ENVI Services Engine, a cloud data analysis solution. EarthScape is also designed to be a client of Jagwire which provides multisource geo-referenced video fluxes. When all these components will be included, EarthScape will be a multi-purpose platform that will provide at the same time data analysis, hybrid visualization and complex interactions. The software is available on demand for free at france@exelisvis.com.

  10. EARTHSCAPE, A MULTI-PURPOSE INTERACTIVE 3D GLOBE VIEWER FOR HYBRID DATA VISUALIZATION AND ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sarthou

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The hybrid visualization and interaction tool EarthScape is presented here. The software is able to display simultaneously LiDAR point clouds, draped videos with moving footprint, volume scientific data (using volume rendering, isosurface and slice plane, raster data such as still satellite images, vector data and 3D models such as buildings or vehicles. The application runs on touch screen devices such as tablets. The software is based on open source libraries, such as OpenSceneGraph, osgEarth and OpenCV, and shader programming is used to implement volume rendering of scientific data. The next goal of EarthScape is to perform data analysis using ENVI Services Engine, a cloud data analysis solution. EarthScape is also designed to be a client of Jagwire which provides multisource geo-referenced video fluxes. When all these components will be included, EarthScape will be a multi-purpose platform that will provide at the same time data analysis, hybrid visualization and complex interactions. The software is available on demand for free at france@exelisvis.com.

  11. Effects of geometry and cell-matrix interactions on the mechanics of 3D engineered microtissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Prasenjit; Eyckmans, Jeroen; Chen, Christopher; Reich, Daniel

    Approaches to measure and control cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) interactions in a dynamic mechanical environment are important both for studies of mechanobiology and for tissue design for bioengineering applications. We have developed a microtissue-based platform capable of controlling the ECM alignment of 3D engineered microtissues while simultaneously permitting measurement of cellular contractile forces and the tissues' mechanical properties. The tissues self-assemble from cell-laden collagen gels placed in micro-fabricated wells containing sets of flexible elastic pillars. Tissue geometry and ECM alignment are controlled by the pillars' number, shape and location. Optical tracking of the pillars provides readout of the tissues' contractile forces. Magnetic materials bound to selected pillars allow quasi-static or dynamic stretching of the tissue, and together with simultaneous measurements of the tissues' local dynamic strain field, enable characterization of the mechanical properties of the system, including their degree of anisotropy. Results on the effects of symmetry and degree of ECM alignment and organization on the role of cell-ECM interactions in determining tissue mechanical properties will be discussed. This work is supported by NSF CMMI-1463011 and CMMI-1462710.

  12. 3D magnetospheric parallel hybrid multi-grid method applied to planet–plasma interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leclercq, L., E-mail: ludivine.leclercq@latmos.ipsl.fr [LATMOS/IPSL, UVSQ Université Paris-Saclay, UPMC Univ. Paris 06, CNRS, Guyancourt (France); Modolo, R., E-mail: ronan.modolo@latmos.ipsl.fr [LATMOS/IPSL, UVSQ Université Paris-Saclay, UPMC Univ. Paris 06, CNRS, Guyancourt (France); Leblanc, F. [LATMOS/IPSL, UPMC Univ. Paris 06 Sorbonne Universités, UVSQ, CNRS, Paris (France); Hess, S. [ONERA, Toulouse (France); Mancini, M. [LUTH, Observatoire Paris-Meudon (France)

    2016-03-15

    We present a new method to exploit multiple refinement levels within a 3D parallel hybrid model, developed to study planet–plasma interactions. This model is based on the hybrid formalism: ions are kinetically treated whereas electrons are considered as a inertia-less fluid. Generally, ions are represented by numerical particles whose size equals the volume of the cells. Particles that leave a coarse grid subsequently entering a refined region are split into particles whose volume corresponds to the volume of the refined cells. The number of refined particles created from a coarse particle depends on the grid refinement rate. In order to conserve velocity distribution functions and to avoid calculations of average velocities, particles are not coalesced. Moreover, to ensure the constancy of particles' shape function sizes, the hybrid method is adapted to allow refined particles to move within a coarse region. Another innovation of this approach is the method developed to compute grid moments at interfaces between two refinement levels. Indeed, the hybrid method is adapted to accurately account for the special grid structure at the interfaces, avoiding any overlapping grid considerations. Some fundamental test runs were performed to validate our approach (e.g. quiet plasma flow, Alfven wave propagation). Lastly, we also show a planetary application of the model, simulating the interaction between Jupiter's moon Ganymede and the Jovian plasma.

  13. Chemical Structure-Biological Activity Models for Pharmacophores’ 3D-Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai V. Putz

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Within medicinal chemistry nowadays, the so-called pharmaco-dynamics seeks for qualitative (for understanding and quantitative (for predicting mechanisms/models by which given chemical structure or series of congeners actively act on biological sites either by focused interaction/therapy or by diffuse/hazardous influence. To this aim, the present review exposes three of the fertile directions in approaching the biological activity by chemical structural causes: the special computing trace of the algebraic structure-activity relationship (SPECTRAL-SAR offering the full analytical counterpart for multi-variate computational regression, the minimal topological difference (MTD as the revived precursor for comparative molecular field analyses (CoMFA and comparative molecular similarity indices analysis (CoMSIA; all of these methods and algorithms were presented, discussed and exemplified on relevant chemical medicinal systems as proton pump inhibitors belonging to the 4-indolyl,2-guanidinothiazole class of derivatives blocking the acid secretion from parietal cells in the stomach, the 1-[(2-hydroxyethoxy-methyl]-6-(phenylthiothymine congeners’ (HEPT ligands antiviral activity against Human Immunodeficiency Virus of first type (HIV-1 and new pharmacophores in treating severe genetic disorders (like depression and psychosis, respectively, all involving 3D pharmacophore interactions.

  14. The Hologram in My Hand: How Effective is Interactive Exploration of 3D Visualizations in Immersive Tangible Augmented Reality?

    KAUST Repository

    Bach, Benjamin

    2017-08-29

    We report on a controlled user study comparing three visualization environments for common 3D exploration. Our environments differ in how they exploit natural human perception and interaction capabilities. We compare an augmented-reality head-mounted display (Microsoft HoloLens), a handheld tablet, and a desktop setup. The novel head-mounted HoloLens display projects stereoscopic images of virtual content into a user\\'s real world and allows for interaction in-situ at the spatial position of the 3D hologram. The tablet is able to interact with 3D content through touch, spatial positioning, and tangible markers, however, 3D content is still presented on a 2D surface. Our hypothesis is that visualization environments that match human perceptual and interaction capabilities better to the task at hand improve understanding of 3D visualizations. To better understand the space of display and interaction modalities in visualization environments, we first propose a classification based on three dimensions: perception, interaction, and the spatial and cognitive proximity of the two. Each technique in our study is located at a different position along these three dimensions. We asked 15 participants to perform four tasks, each task having different levels of difficulty for both spatial perception and degrees of freedom for interaction. Our results show that each of the tested environments is more effective for certain tasks, but that generally the desktop environment is still fastest and most precise in almost all cases.

  15. The Hologram in My Hand: How Effective is Interactive Exploration of 3D Visualizations in Immersive Tangible Augmented Reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Benjamin; Sicat, Ronell; Beyer, Johanna; Cordeil, Maxime; Pfister, Hanspeter

    2018-01-01

    We report on a controlled user study comparing three visualization environments for common 3D exploration. Our environments differ in how they exploit natural human perception and interaction capabilities. We compare an augmented-reality head-mounted display (Microsoft HoloLens), a handheld tablet, and a desktop setup. The novel head-mounted HoloLens display projects stereoscopic images of virtual content into a user's real world and allows for interaction in-situ at the spatial position of the 3D hologram. The tablet is able to interact with 3D content through touch, spatial positioning, and tangible markers, however, 3D content is still presented on a 2D surface. Our hypothesis is that visualization environments that match human perceptual and interaction capabilities better to the task at hand improve understanding of 3D visualizations. To better understand the space of display and interaction modalities in visualization environments, we first propose a classification based on three dimensions: perception, interaction, and the spatial and cognitive proximity of the two. Each technique in our study is located at a different position along these three dimensions. We asked 15 participants to perform four tasks, each task having different levels of difficulty for both spatial perception and degrees of freedom for interaction. Our results show that each of the tested environments is more effective for certain tasks, but that generally the desktop environment is still fastest and most precise in almost all cases.

  16. EFFECTIVE 3D DIGITIZATION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL ARTIFACTS FOR INTERACTIVE VIRTUAL MUSEUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Tucci

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a set of results of an on-going research on digital 3D reproduction of medium and small size archaeological artifacts which is intended to support the elaboration of a virtual and interactive exhibition environment, and also to provide a scientific archive of highly accurate models for specialists. After a short illustration of the background project and its finalities, we present the data acquisition through triangulation-based laser scanning and the post-processing methods we used to face the challenge of obtaining a large number of reliable digital copies at reasonable costs and within a short time frame, giving an account of the most recurrent problematic issues of the established work-flow and how they were solved (the careful placing of the artifacts to be digitized so to achieve the best results, the cleaning operations in order to build a coherent single polygon mesh, how to deal with unavoidable missing parts or defected textures in the generated model, etc..

  17. Infrared tomographic PIV and 3D motion tracking system applied to aquatic predator–prey interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adhikari, Deepak; Longmire, Ellen K

    2013-01-01

    Infrared tomographic PIV and 3D motion tracking are combined to measure evolving volumetric velocity fields and organism trajectories during aquatic predator–prey interactions. The technique was used to study zebrafish foraging on both non-evasive and evasive prey species. Measurement volumes of 22.5 mm × 10.5 mm × 12 mm were reconstructed from images captured on a set of four high-speed cameras. To obtain accurate fluid velocity vectors within each volume, fish were first masked out using an automated visual hull method. Fish and prey locations were identified independently from the same image sets and tracked separately within the measurement volume. Experiments demonstrated that fish were not influenced by the infrared laser illumination or the tracer particles. Results showed that the zebrafish used different strategies, suction and ram feeding, for successful capture of non-evasive and evasive prey, respectively. The two strategies yielded different variations in fluid velocity between the fish mouth and the prey. In general, the results suggest that the local flow field, the direction of prey locomotion with respect to the predator and the relative accelerations and speeds of the predator and prey may all be significant in determining predation success. (paper)

  18. 3D virtual facilities with interactive instructions for nuclear education and training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satoh, Yoshinori; Li, Ye; Zhu, Yuefeng; Rizwan-uddin

    2015-01-01

    Efficient and effective education and training of nuclear engineering students and future operators are critical for the safe operation and maintenance of nuclear power plants. Students and future operators used to receive some of the education and training at university laboratories and research reactors. With many university research reactors now shutdown, both students and future operators are deprived of this valuable training source. With an eye toward this need and to take advantage of recent developments in human machine interface technologies, we have focused on the development of 3D virtual laboratories for nuclear engineering education and training as well as to conduct virtual experiments. These virtual laboratories are expected to supplement currently available resources and education and training experiences. Resent focus is on adding interactivity and physics model to allow trainees to conduct virtual experiments. This paper reports some recent extensions to our virtual nuclear education laboratory and research reactor laboratory. These include head mounted display as well as hand tracking devices for virtual operations. (author)

  19. 3D Finite Element Simulation of Pellet-Cladding Mechanical Interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Sang Kyu; Lee, Sung Uk; Lee, Eun Ho; Yang, Dong Yol; Kim, Hyo Chan; Yang, Dong Yol

    2016-01-01

    In a nuclear power plant, the fuel assembly, which is composed of fuel rods, burns, and the high temperature can generate power. The fuel rod consists of pellets and a cladding that covers the pellets. It is important to understand the pellet-cladding mechanical interaction with regard to nuclear safety. This paper proposes simulation of the PCMI. The gap between the pellets and the cladding, and the contact pressure are very important for conducting thermal analysis. Since the gap conductance is not known, it has to be determined by a suitable method. This paper suggests a solution. In this study, finite element (FE) contact analysis is conducted considering thermal expansion of the pellets. As the contact causes plastic deformation, this aspect is considered in the analysis. A 3D FE module is developed to analyze the PCMI using FORTRAN 90. The plastic deformation due to the contact between the pellets and the cladding is the major physical phenomenon. The simple analytical solution of a cylinder is proposed and compared with the fuel rod performance code results

  20. First evaluations of ex-vessel fuel-coolant interaction with MC3D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meignen, R.; Dupas, J.; Chaumont, B.

    2003-01-01

    In the frame of severe accident nuclear safety studies, we evaluate for French PWR's the potential of Steam Explosion in the reactor pit, consecutively to a vessel failure and to the mixing of the corium with the water that might be present. The evaluations are made with MC3D. This thermalhydraulic multiphasic code has firstly been qualified and its main parameters chosen so that a sufficient validation is obtained with regards to reactor situations. The safety study for ex-vessel situations is a step-by-step procedure that leads to a progressive process of hypotheses relaxations. We find that it is important to adequately model the corium ejection from the RPV. The rapid transition of the flow at the breach towards 2-phase dispersed flow leads to an important mixing of corium and water. The vessel pressurization is a very important parameter and strong pressure cases lead to a fine fragmentation and thus a high voiding. The small pressure cases are more dangerous for two reasons: the corium is dispersed in larger drops, and some important interactions (in the premixing sense) are reported

  1. Biomimetic Proteoglycan Interactions with Type I Collagen Investigated via 2D and 3D TEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorehead, Carli

    Collagen is one of the leading components in extracellular matrix (ECM), providing durability, structural integrity, and functionality for many tissues. Regulation of collagen fibrillogenesis and degradation is important in the treatment of a number of diseases from orthopedic injuries to genetic deficiencies. Recently, novel, biocompatible, semi-synthetic biomimetic proteoglycans (BPGs) were developed, which consist of an enzymatically resistant synthetic polymer core and natural chondroitin sulfate bristles. It was demonstrated that BPGs affect type I collagen fibrillogenesis in vitro, as reflected by their impact delaying the kinetic formation of gels similar to native PGs. This indicates that the morphology of collagen scaffolds as well as endogenous ECM could also be modulated by these proteoglycan mimics. However, the imaging modality used previously, reflectance confocal microscopy, did not yield the resolution necessary to spatially localize BPGs within the collagen network or investigate the effect of BPGs on the quality of collagen fibrils produced in an in vitro fibrillogenesis model which is important for understanding the method of interaction. Consequently, a histological technique, electron tomography, was adapted and utilized to 3D image the nano-scale structures within this simplified tissue model. BPGs were found to aid in lateral growth and enhance fibril banding periodicity resulting in structures more closely resembling those in tissue, in addition to attaching to the collagen surface despite the lack of a protein core.

  2. 3d-4f magnetic interaction with density functional theory plus u approach: local Coulomb correlation and exchange pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yachao; Yang, Yang; Jiang, Hong

    2013-12-12

    The 3d-4f exchange interaction plays an important role in many lanthanide based molecular magnetic materials such as single-molecule magnets and magnetic refrigerants. In this work, we study the 3d-4f magnetic exchange interactions in a series of Cu(II)-Gd(III) (3d(9)-4f(7)) dinuclear complexes based on the numerical atomic basis-norm-conserving pseudopotential method and density functional theory plus the Hubbard U correction approach (DFT+U). We obtain improved description of the 4f electrons by including the semicore 5s5p states in the valence part of the Gd-pseudopotential. The Hubbard U correction is employed to treat the strongly correlated Cu-3d and Gd-4f electrons, which significantly improve the agreement of the predicted exchange constants, J, with experiment, indicating the importance of accurate description of the local Coulomb correlation. The high efficiency of the DFT+U approach enables us to perform calculations with molecular crystals, which in general improve the agreement between theory and experiment, achieving a mean absolute error smaller than 2 cm(-1). In addition, through analyzing the physical effects of U, we identify two magnetic exchange pathways. One is ferromagnetic and involves an interaction between the Cu-3d, O-2p (bridge ligand), and the majority-spin Gd-5d orbitals. The other one is antiferromagnetic and involves Cu-3d, O-2p, and the empty minority-spin Gd-4f orbitals, which is suppressed by the planar Cu-O-O-Gd structure. This study demonstrates the accuracy of the DFT+U method for evaluating the 3d-4f exchange interactions, provides a better understanding of the exchange mechanism in the Cu(II)-Gd(III) complexes, and paves the way for exploiting the magnetic properties of the 3d-4f compounds containing lanthanides other than Gd.

  3. 2D and 3D finite element analysis of buffer-backfill interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leoni, M.

    2013-08-01

    Methods for backfilling and sealing of disposal tunnels in an underground repository for spent nuclear fuel are studied in cooperation between Finland (Posiva Oy) and Sweden (Svensk Kaernbraenslehantering AB, SKB) in 'BAckfilling and CLOsure of the deep repository' (Baclo) programme. Baclo phase III included modelling task force SP1: Finite element modelling of deformation of the backfill due to swelling of the buffer. The objective of the finite element modelling of the backfill was to study the interaction between the buffer and backfilling. The calculations aimed to find out how large deformations can happen in the buffer-backfill interface causing loosening of the buffer bentonite above the canister. The criterion used was that the saturated density of the buffer right above the canister should be higher than 1990 kg/m 3 . This report presents the results of finite element numerical analyses carried out by Wesi Geotecnica Srl. The modelling calculations were conducted with the so-called OL1-2 deposition tunnel geometry (Juvankoski 2009). Several parameters have been considered, varying from geometry variations to different mechanical constitutive models for different components of the model. In all analyses it has been assumed that the buffer material is fully saturated, thus exerting the isotropic swelling pressure estimated in the range 7 MPa .. 15 MPa, against a fully-dry backfill, which is no doubt the 'worst case scenario' with the highest risk to lead in decrease in dry density of the buffer. Friedland clay has been considered for backfill blocks and 30/70 mixture for foundation bed on which backfill blocks are installed. Preliminarily, finite element analyses have been performed with newly released PLAXIS 2D 2010 within the assumption of axial symmetry, the purpose of this first set of calculations being the evaluation of most relevant parameters influencing the deformations of buffer material. Hence, full 3D calculations have been performed with PLAXIS

  4. Tiny but complex - interactive 3D visualization of the interstitial acochlidian gastropod Pseudunela cornuta (Challis, 1970

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heß Martin

    2009-09-01

    in a mesopsammic gastropod, though functionally not yet fully understood. Such organ complexity as shown herein by interactive 3D visualization is not plesiomorphically maintained from a larger, benthic ancestor, but newly evolved within small marine hedylopsacean ancestors of P. cornuta. The common picture of general organ regression within mesopsammic acochlidians thus is valid for microhedylacean species only.

  5. A possible concept for an interactive 3D visualization system for training and planning of liver surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bro-Nielsen, Morten; Darvann, T.; Damgaard, K.

    1996-01-01

    A demonstration of a fully interactive (20 frames per second) 3D graphics display of the blood vessels supporting the biliary tree and bileduct, automatically segmented from CT data, is given. Emphasis is on speed of interaction, modularity and programmer friendliness of graphics programming...

  6. Integrality and separability of multitouch interaction techniques in 3D manipulation tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinet, Anthony; Casiez, Géry; Grisoni, Laurent

    2012-03-01

    Multitouch displays represent a promising technology for the display and manipulation of data. While the manipulation of 2D data has been widely explored, 3D manipulation with multitouch displays remains largely unexplored. Based on an analysis of the integration and separation of degrees of freedom, we propose a taxonomy for 3D manipulation techniques with multitouch displays. Using that taxonomy, we introduce Depth-Separated Screen-Space (DS3), a new 3D manipulation technique based on the separation of translation and rotation. In a controlled experiment, we compared DS3 with Sticky Tools and Screen-Space. Results show that separating the control of translation and rotation significantly affects performance for 3D manipulation, with DS3 performing faster than the two other techniques.

  7. Art-Science-Technology collaboration through immersive, interactive 3D visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellogg, L. H.

    2014-12-01

    At the W. M. Keck Center for Active Visualization in Earth Sciences (KeckCAVES), a group of geoscientists and computer scientists collaborate to develop and use of interactive, immersive, 3D visualization technology to view, manipulate, and interpret data for scientific research. The visual impact of immersion in a CAVE environment can be extremely compelling, and from the outset KeckCAVES scientists have collaborated with artists to bring this technology to creative works, including theater and dance performance, installations, and gamification. The first full-fledged collaboration designed and produced a performance called "Collapse: Suddenly falling down", choreographed by Della Davidson, which investigated the human and cultural response to natural and man-made disasters. Scientific data (lidar scans of disaster sites, such as landslides and mine collapses) were fully integrated into the performance by the Sideshow Physical Theatre. This presentation will discuss both the technological and creative characteristics of, and lessons learned from the collaboration. Many parallels between the artistic and scientific process emerged. We observed that both artists and scientists set out to investigate a topic, solve a problem, or answer a question. Refining that question or problem is an essential part of both the creative and scientific workflow. Both artists and scientists seek understanding (in this case understanding of natural disasters). Differences also emerged; the group noted that the scientists sought clarity (including but not limited to quantitative measurements) as a means to understanding, while the artists embraced ambiguity, also as a means to understanding. Subsequent art-science-technology collaborations have responded to evolving technology for visualization and include gamification as a means to explore data, and use of augmented reality for informal learning in museum settings.

  8. The effects of 3D interactive animated graphics on student learning and attitudes in computer-based instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Hye Sun

    Visuals are most extensively used as instructional tools in education to present spatially-based information. Recent computer technology allows the generation of 3D animated visuals to extend the presentation in computer-based instruction. Animated visuals in 3D representation not only possess motivational value that promotes positive attitudes toward instruction but also facilitate learning when the subject matter requires dynamic motion and 3D visual cue. In this study, three questions are explored: (1) how 3D graphics affects student learning and attitude, in comparison with 2D graphics; (2) how animated graphics affects student learning and attitude, in comparison with static graphics; and (3) whether the use of 3D graphics, when they are supported by interactive animation, is the most effective visual cues to improve learning and to develop positive attitudes. A total of 145 eighth-grade students participated in a 2 x 2 factorial design study. The subjects were randomly assigned to one of four computer-based instructions: 2D static; 2D animated; 3D static; and 3D animated. The results indicated that: (1) Students in the 3D graphic condition exhibited more positive attitudes toward instruction than those in the 2D graphic condition. No group differences were found between the posttest score of 3D graphic condition and that of 2D graphic condition. However, students in the 3D graphic condition took less time for information retrieval on posttest than those in the 2D graphic condition. (2) Students in the animated graphic condition exhibited slightly more positive attitudes toward instruction than those in the static graphic condition. No group differences were found between the posttest score of animated graphic condition and that of static graphic condition. However, students in the animated graphic condition took less time for information retrieval on posttest than those in the static graphic condition. (3) Students in the 3D animated graphic condition

  9. MGLab3D: An interactive environment for iterative solvers for elliptic PDEs in two and three dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bordner, J.; Saied, F. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States)

    1996-12-31

    GLab3D is an enhancement of an interactive environment (MGLab) for experimenting with iterative solvers and multigrid algorithms. It is implemented in MATLAB. The new version has built-in 3D elliptic pde`s and several iterative methods and preconditioners that were not available in the original version. A sparse direct solver option has also been included. The multigrid solvers have also been extended to 3D. The discretization and pde domains are restricted to standard finite differences on the unit square/cube. The power of this software studies in the fact that no programming is needed to solve, for example, the convection-diffusion equation in 3D with TFQMR and a customized V-cycle preconditioner, for a variety of problem sizes and mesh Reynolds, numbers. In addition to the graphical user interface, some sample drivers are included to show how experiments can be composed using the underlying suite of problems and solvers.

  10. Analysis of interactions of Salmonella type three secretion mutants with 3-D intestinal epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea L Radtke

    Full Text Available The prevailing paradigm of Salmonella enteropathogenesis based on monolayers asserts that Salmonella pathogenicity island-1 Type Three Secretion System (SPI-1 T3SS is required for bacterial invasion into intestinal epithelium. However, little is known about the role of SPI-1 in mediating gastrointestinal disease in humans. Recently, SPI-1 deficient nontyphoidal Salmonella strains were isolated from infected humans and animals, indicating that SPI-1 is not required to cause enteropathogenesis and demonstrating the need for more in vivo-like models. Here, we utilized a previously characterized 3-D organotypic model of human intestinal epithelium to elucidate the role of all characterized Salmonella enterica T3SSs. Similar to in vivo reports, the Salmonella SPI-1 T3SS was not required to invade 3-D intestinal cells. Additionally, Salmonella strains carrying single (SPI-1 or SPI-2, double (SPI-1/2 and complete T3SS knockout (SPI-1/SPI-2: flhDC also invaded 3-D intestinal cells to wildtype levels. Invasion of wildtype and TTSS mutants was a Salmonella active process, whereas non-invasive bacterial strains, bacterial size beads, and heat-killed Salmonella did not invade 3-D cells. Wildtype and T3SS mutants did not preferentially target different cell types identified within the 3-D intestinal aggregates, including M-cells/M-like cells, enterocytes, or Paneth cells. Moreover, each T3SS was necessary for substantial intracellular bacterial replication within 3-D cells. Collectively, these results indicate that T3SSs are dispensable for Salmonella invasion into highly differentiated 3-D models of human intestinal epithelial cells, but are required for intracellular bacterial growth, paralleling in vivo infection observations and demonstrating the utility of these models in predicting in vivo-like pathogenic mechanisms.

  11. The solvent at antigen-binding site regulated C3d-CR2 interactions through the C-terminal tail of C3d at different ion strengths: insights from molecular dynamics simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Guo, Jingjing; Li, Lanlan; Liu, Xuewei; Yao, Xiaojun; Liu, Huanxiang

    2016-10-01

    The interactions of complement receptor 2 (CR2) and the degradation fragment C3d of complement component C3 play important links between the innate and adaptive immune systems. Due to the importance of C3d-CR2 interaction in the design of vaccines and inhibitors, a number of studies have been performed to investigate C3d-CR2 interaction. Many studies have indicated C3d-CR2 interactions are ionic strength-dependent. To investigate the molecular mechanism of C3d-CR2 interaction and the origin of effects of ionic strength, molecular dynamics simulations for C3d-CR2 complex together with the energetic and structural analysis were performed. Our results revealed the increased interactions between charged protein and ions weaken C3d-CR2 association, as ionic strengths increase. Moreover, ion strengths have similar effects on antigen-binding site and CR2 binding site. Meanwhile, Ala17 and Gln20 will transform between the activated and non-activated states mediated by His133 and Glu135 at different ion strengths. Our results reveal the origins of the effects of ionic strengths on C3d-CR2 interactions are due to the changes of water, ion occupancies and distributions. This study uncovers the origin of the effect of ionic strength on C3d-CR2 interaction and deepens the understanding of the molecular mechanism of their interaction, which is valuable for the design of vaccines and small molecule inhibitors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Prototype Development Capabilities of 3D Spatial Interactions and Failures During Scenario Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven Prescott; Ramprasad Sampath; Curtis Smith; Tony Koonce

    2014-09-01

    Computers have been used for 3D modeling and simulation, but only recently have computational resources been able to give realistic results in a reasonable time frame for large complex models. This report addressed the methods, techniques, and resources used to develop a prototype for using 3D modeling and simulation engine to improve risk analysis and evaluate reactor structures and components for a given scenario. The simulations done for this evaluation were focused on external events, specifically tsunami floods, for a hypothetical nuclear power facility on a coastline.

  13. BioPhotonics Workstation: 3D interactive manipulation, observation and characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glückstad, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    In ppo.dk we have invented the BioPhotonics Workstation to be applied in 3D research on regulated microbial cell growth including their underlying physiological mechanisms, in vivo characterization of cell constituents and manufacturing of nanostructures and new materials.......In ppo.dk we have invented the BioPhotonics Workstation to be applied in 3D research on regulated microbial cell growth including their underlying physiological mechanisms, in vivo characterization of cell constituents and manufacturing of nanostructures and new materials....

  14. The (un)usefulness of interactive exploration in building 3D- mental representations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, F.; van den Broek, Egon

    The generation of mental representations from visual images is crucial in 3-D object recognition. In two experiments, thirty-six participants were divided into a low, middle, and high visuospatial ability (VSA) group, which was determined by Vandenberg and Kuse's MRT-A test (1978 Perception and

  15. Interactive 3D visualization of structural changes in the brain of a person with corticobasal syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia eHänel

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The visualization of the progression of brain tissue loss, which occurs in neurodegenerative diseases like corticobasal syndrome (CBS, is an important prerequisite to understand the course and the causes of this neurodegenerative disorder. Common workflows for visual analysis are often based on single 2D sections since in 3D visualizations more internally situated structures may be occluded by structures near the surface. The reduction of dimensions from 3D to 2D allows for an holistic view onto internal and external structures, but results in a loss of spatial information. Here, we present an application with two 3D visualization designs to resolve these challenges. First, in addition to the volume changes, the semi-transparent anatomy is displayed with an anatomical section and cortical areas for spatial orientation. Second, the principle of importance-driven volume rendering is adapted to give an unrestricted line-of-sight to relevant structures by means of a frustum-like cutout. To strengthen the benefits of the 3D visualization, we decided to provide the application next to standard desktop environments in immersive virtual environments with stereoscopic viewing as well. This improves the depth perception in general and in particular for the second design. Thus, the application presented in this work allows for aneasily comprehensible visual analysis of the extent of brain degeneration and the corresponding affected regions.

  16. Cellular Interaction and Tumoral Penetration Properties of Cyclodextrin Nanoparticles on 3D Breast Tumor Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamze Varan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Amphiphilic cyclodextrins are biocompatible oligosaccharides that can be used for drug delivery especially for the delivery of drugs with solubility problems thanks to their unique molecular structures. In this paper, Paclitaxel was used as a model anticancer drug to determine the inclusion complex properties of amphiphilic cyclodextrins with different surface charge. Paclitaxel-loaded cyclodextrin nanoparticles were characterized in terms of mean particle diameter, zeta potential, encapsulation efficacy, drug release profile and cell culture studies. It was determined that the nanoparticles prepared from the inclusion complex according to characterization studies have a longer release profile than the conventionally prepared nanoparticles. In order to mimic the tumor microenvironment, breast cancer cells and healthy fibroblast cells were used in 3-dimensional (3D cell culture studies. It was determined that the activities of nanoparticles prepared by conventional methods behave differently in 2-dimensional (2D and 3D cell cultures. In addition, it was observed that the nanoparticles prepared from the inclusion complex have a stronger anti-tumoral activity in the 3D multicellular tumor model than the drug solution. Furthermore, polycationic amphiphilic cyclodextrin nanoparticles can diffuse and penetrate through multilayer cells in a 3D tumor model, which is crucial for an eventual antitumor effect.

  17. Geometric characterization and interactive 3D visualization of historical and cultural heritage in the province of Cáceres (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Naranjo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The three-dimensional (3D visualization of historical and cultural heritage in the province of Cáceres is essential for tourism promotion. This study uses panoramic spherical photography and terrestrial laser scanning (TLS for the geometric characterization and cataloguing of sites of cultural interest, according to the principles of the Charter of Krakow. The benefits of this project include improved knowledge dissemination of the cultural heritage of Cáceres in a society that demands state-of-the-art tourist information. In this sense, this study has three specific aims: to develop a highly reliable methodology for modeling heritage based on a combination of non-destructive geomatics methods; to design and develop software modules for interactive 3D visualization of models; and to promote knowledge of the historical and cultural heritage of Cáceres by creating a hypermedia atlas accessible via the Internet. Through this free-of-charge hypermedia atlas, the tourist accesses 3D photographic and interactive scenes, videos created by 3D point clouds obtained from laser scanning and 3D models available for downloading in ASCII format, and thus acquire a greater knowledge of the touristic attractions in the province of Cáceres.

  18. EUROPEANA AND 3D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Pletinckx

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The current 3D hype creates a lot of interest in 3D. People go to 3D movies, but are we ready to use 3D in our homes, in our offices, in our communication? Are we ready to deliver real 3D to a general public and use interactive 3D in a meaningful way to enjoy, learn, communicate? The CARARE project is realising this for the moment in the domain of monuments and archaeology, so that real 3D of archaeological sites and European monuments will be available to the general public by 2012. There are several aspects to this endeavour. First of all is the technical aspect of flawlessly delivering 3D content over all platforms and operating systems, without installing software. We have currently a working solution in PDF, but HTML5 will probably be the future. Secondly, there is still little knowledge on how to create 3D learning objects, 3D tourist information or 3D scholarly communication. We are still in a prototype phase when it comes to integrate 3D objects in physical or virtual museums. Nevertheless, Europeana has a tremendous potential as a multi-facetted virtual museum. Finally, 3D has a large potential to act as a hub of information, linking to related 2D imagery, texts, video, sound. We describe how to create such rich, explorable 3D objects that can be used intuitively by the generic Europeana user and what metadata is needed to support the semantic linking.

  19. 3D Aerosol-Cloud Radiative Interaction Observed in Collocated MODIS and ASTER Images of Cumulus Cloud Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Guoyong; Marshak, Alexander; Cahalan, Robert F.; Remer, Lorraine A.; Kleidman, Richard G.

    2007-01-01

    3D aerosol-cloud interaction is examined by analyzing two images containing cumulus clouds in biomass burning regions in Brazil. The research consists of two parts. The first part focuses on identifying 3D clo ud impacts on the reflectance of pixel selected for the MODIS aerosol retrieval based purely on observations. The second part of the resea rch combines the observations with radiative transfer computations to identify key parameters in 3D aerosol-cloud interaction. We found that 3D cloud-induced enhancement depends on optical properties of nearb y clouds as well as wavelength. The enhancement is too large to be ig nored. Associated biased error in 1D aerosol optical thickness retrie val ranges from 50% to 140% depending on wavelength and optical prope rties of nearby clouds as well as aerosol optical thickness. We caution the community to be prudent when applying 1D approximations in comp uting solar radiation in dear regions adjacent to clouds or when usin g traditional retrieved aerosol optical thickness in aerosol indirect effect research.

  20. 3D Discrete Dislocation Dynamics Applied to Interactions between Dislocation Walls and Particles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Záležák, Tomáš; Dlouhý, Antonín

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 122, č. 3 (2012), s. 450-452 ISSN 0587-4246. [International Symposium on Physics of Materials /12./ - ISPMA 12. Prague, 04.09.2011-08.09.2011] R&D Projects: GA ČR GD106/09/H035; GA ČR GA202/09/2073; GA MŠk OC 162 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : 3D discrete dislocation dynamics * tilt boundary * migration * diffusion * pecipitation hardening Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy Impact factor: 0.531, year: 2012

  1. Pionic 4f→3d transition in 181Ta, natural Re, and 209Bi and the strong interaction level shift and the strong interaction level shift and width of the pionic 3d state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konijn, J.; Panman, J.K.; Koch, J.H.; Doesburg, W. van; Ewan, G.T.; Johansson, T.; Tibell, G.; Fransson, K.; Tauscher, L.

    1979-01-01

    Owing to a powerful Compton-suppression technique it was possible to observe for the first time the pionic 4f→3d X-ray transition in elements heavier than A=150. The strong interaction monopole shifts epsilon 0 and widths GAMMA 0 as well as the quadrupole splitting of the 3d levels have been measured in Ta, Re and Bi. Thus in addition to the strongly shifted and broadened 5g→4f transitions, a second, strongly affected line is available for these elements. For the pionic 4f levels, standard optical potentials fit the strong interaction shifts and broadenings quite well. The now observed, deeper-lying 3d states in Ta, Re and Bi have shifts and widths that differ by a factor of 2 or more from the standard optical potential predictions. From the observed relative X-ray intensities of the pionic cascade the strong interaction widths of the 5g and 4f levels are also extracted. (Auth.)

  2. Interactive 3D Models and Simulations for Nuclear Security Education, Training, and Analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warner, David K. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dickens, Brian Scott [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Heimer, Donovan J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Knudsen, Ryan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-11-01

    By providing examples of products that have been produced in the past, it is the hopes of the authors that the audience will have a more thorough understanding of 3D modeling tools, potential applications, and capabilities that they can provide. Truly the applications and capabilities of these types of tools are only limited by one’s imagination. The future of three-dimensional models lies in the expansion into the world of virtual reality where one will experience a fully immersive first-person environment. The use of headsets and hand tools will allow students and instructors to have a more thorough spatial understanding of facilities and scenarios that they will encounter in the real world.

  3. A LOW-COST AND LIGHTWEIGHT 3D INTERACTIVE REAL ESTATE-PURPOSED INDOOR VIRTUAL REALITY APPLICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Ozacar

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Interactive 3D architectural indoor design have been more popular after it benefited from Virtual Reality (VR technologies. VR brings computer-generated 3D content to real life scale and enable users to observe immersive indoor environments so that users can directly modify it. This opportunity enables buyers to purchase a property off-the-plan cheaper through virtual models. Instead of showing property through 2D plan or renders, this visualized interior architecture of an on-sale unbuilt property is demonstrated beforehand so that the investors have an impression as if they were in the physical building. However, current applications either use highly resource consuming software, or are non-interactive, or requires specialist to create such environments. In this study, we have created a real-estate purposed low-cost high quality fully interactive VR application that provides a realistic interior architecture of the property by using free and lightweight software: Sweet Home 3D and Unity. A preliminary study showed that participants generally liked proposed real estate-purposed VR application, and it satisfied the expectation of the property buyers.

  4. a Low-Cost and Lightweight 3d Interactive Real Estate-Purposed Indoor Virtual Reality Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozacar, K.; Ortakci, Y.; Kahraman, I.; Durgut, R.; Karas, I. R.

    2017-11-01

    Interactive 3D architectural indoor design have been more popular after it benefited from Virtual Reality (VR) technologies. VR brings computer-generated 3D content to real life scale and enable users to observe immersive indoor environments so that users can directly modify it. This opportunity enables buyers to purchase a property off-the-plan cheaper through virtual models. Instead of showing property through 2D plan or renders, this visualized interior architecture of an on-sale unbuilt property is demonstrated beforehand so that the investors have an impression as if they were in the physical building. However, current applications either use highly resource consuming software, or are non-interactive, or requires specialist to create such environments. In this study, we have created a real-estate purposed low-cost high quality fully interactive VR application that provides a realistic interior architecture of the property by using free and lightweight software: Sweet Home 3D and Unity. A preliminary study showed that participants generally liked proposed real estate-purposed VR application, and it satisfied the expectation of the property buyers.

  5. Interactive reconstructions of cranial 3D implants under MeVisLab as an alternative to commercial planning software.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Egger

    Full Text Available In this publication, the interactive planning and reconstruction of cranial 3D Implants under the medical prototyping platform MeVisLab as alternative to commercial planning software is introduced. In doing so, a MeVisLab prototype consisting of a customized data-flow network and an own C++ module was set up. As a result, the Computer-Aided Design (CAD software prototype guides a user through the whole workflow to generate an implant. Therefore, the workflow begins with loading and mirroring the patients head for an initial curvature of the implant. Then, the user can perform an additional Laplacian smoothing, followed by a Delaunay triangulation. The result is an aesthetic looking and well-fitting 3D implant, which can be stored in a CAD file format, e.g. STereoLithography (STL, for 3D printing. The 3D printed implant can finally be used for an in-depth pre-surgical evaluation or even as a real implant for the patient. In a nutshell, our research and development shows that a customized MeVisLab software prototype can be used as an alternative to complex commercial planning software, which may also not be available in every clinic. Finally, not to conform ourselves directly to available commercial software and look for other options that might improve the workflow.

  6. An extracellular-matrix-specific GEF-GAP interaction regulates Rho GTPase crosstalk for 3D collagen migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutys, Matthew L; Yamada, Kenneth M

    2014-09-01

    Rho-family GTPases govern distinct types of cell migration on different extracellular matrix proteins in tissue culture or three-dimensional (3D) matrices. We searched for mechanisms selectively regulating 3D cell migration in different matrix environments and discovered a form of Cdc42-RhoA crosstalk governing cell migration through a specific pair of GTPase activator and inhibitor molecules. We first identified βPix, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF), as a specific regulator of migration in 3D collagen using an affinity-precipitation-based GEF screen. Knockdown of βPix specifically blocks cell migration in fibrillar collagen microenvironments, leading to hyperactive cellular protrusion accompanied by increased collagen matrix contraction. Live FRET imaging and RNAi knockdown linked this βPix knockdown phenotype to loss of polarized Cdc42 but not Rac1 activity, accompanied by enhanced, de-localized RhoA activity. Mechanistically, collagen phospho-regulates βPix, leading to its association with srGAP1, a GTPase-activating protein (GAP), needed to suppress RhoA activity. Our results reveal a matrix-specific pathway controlling migration involving a GEF-GAP interaction of βPix with srGAP1 that is critical for maintaining suppressive crosstalk between Cdc42 and RhoA during 3D collagen migration.

  7. Interactive reconstructions of cranial 3D implants under MeVisLab as an alternative to commercial planning software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egger, Jan; Gall, Markus; Tax, Alois; Ücal, Muammer; Zefferer, Ulrike; Li, Xing; von Campe, Gord; Schäfer, Ute; Schmalstieg, Dieter; Chen, Xiaojun

    2017-01-01

    In this publication, the interactive planning and reconstruction of cranial 3D Implants under the medical prototyping platform MeVisLab as alternative to commercial planning software is introduced. In doing so, a MeVisLab prototype consisting of a customized data-flow network and an own C++ module was set up. As a result, the Computer-Aided Design (CAD) software prototype guides a user through the whole workflow to generate an implant. Therefore, the workflow begins with loading and mirroring the patients head for an initial curvature of the implant. Then, the user can perform an additional Laplacian smoothing, followed by a Delaunay triangulation. The result is an aesthetic looking and well-fitting 3D implant, which can be stored in a CAD file format, e.g. STereoLithography (STL), for 3D printing. The 3D printed implant can finally be used for an in-depth pre-surgical evaluation or even as a real implant for the patient. In a nutshell, our research and development shows that a customized MeVisLab software prototype can be used as an alternative to complex commercial planning software, which may also not be available in every clinic. Finally, not to conform ourselves directly to available commercial software and look for other options that might improve the workflow. PMID:28264062

  8. Sign Language for K-8 Mathematics by 3D Interactive Animation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamo-Villani, Nicoletta; Doublestein, John; Martin, Zachary

    2005-01-01

    We present a new highly interactive computer animation tool to increase the mathematical skills of deaf children. We aim at increasing the effectiveness of (hearing) parents in teaching arithmetic to their deaf children, and the opportunity of deaf children to learn arithmetic via interactive media. Using state-of-the-art computer animation…

  9. Modeling object pursuit for 3D interactive tasks in virtual reality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, L.; Liere, van R.

    2011-01-01

    Models of interaction tasks are quantitative descriptions of relationships between human temporal performance and the spatial characteristics of the interactive tasks. Examples include Fitts' law for modeling the pointing task and Accot and Zhai's steering law for the path steering task, etc. Models

  10. Human Lumbar Ligamentum Flavum Anatomy for Epidural Anesthesia: Reviewing a 3D MR-Based Interactive Model and Postmortem Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reina, Miguel A; Lirk, Philipp; Puigdellívol-Sánchez, Anna; Mavar, Marija; Prats-Galino, Alberto

    2016-03-01

    The ligamentum flavum (LF) forms the anatomic basis for the loss-of-resistance technique essential to the performance of epidural anesthesia. However, the LF presents considerable interindividual variability, including the possibility of midline gaps, which may influence the performance of epidural anesthesia. We devise a method to reconstruct the anatomy of the digitally LF based on magnetic resonance images to clarify the exact limits and edges of LF and its different thickness, depending on the area examined, while avoiding destructive methods, as well as the dissection processes. Anatomic cadaveric cross sections enabled us to visually check the definition of the edges along the entire LF and compare them using 3D image reconstruction methods. Reconstruction was performed in images obtained from 7 patients. Images from 1 patient were used as a basis for the 3D spinal anatomy tool. In parallel, axial cuts, 2 to 3 cm thick, were performed in lumbar spines of 4 frozen cadavers. This technique allowed us to identify the entire ligament and its exact limits, while avoiding alterations resulting from cutting processes or from preparation methods. The LF extended between the laminas of adjacent vertebrae at all vertebral levels of the patients examined, but midline gaps are regularly encountered. These anatomical variants were reproduced in a 3D portable document format. The major anatomical features of the LF were reproduced in the 3D model. Details of its structure and variations of thickness in successive sagittal and axial slides could be visualized. Gaps within LF previously studied in cadavers have been identified in our interactive 3D model, which may help to understand their nature, as well as possible implications for epidural techniques.

  11. 3D Virtual CH Interactive Information Systems for a smart web browsing experience for desktop PCs and mobile devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Scianna

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the diffusion of knowledge on Cultural Heritage (CH has become an element of primary importance for its valorization. At the same time, the diffusion of surveys based on UAV Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV technologies and new methods of photogrammetric reconstruction have opened new possibilities for 3D CH representation. Furthermore the recent development of faster and more stable internet connections leads people to increase the use of mobile devices. In the light of all this, the importance of the development of Virtual Reality (VR environments applied to CH is strategic for the diffusion of knowledge in a smart solution. In particular, the present work shows how, starting from a basic survey and the further photogrammetric reconstruction of a cultural good, is possible to built a 3D CH interactive information system useful for desktop and mobile devices. For this experimentation the Arab-Norman church of the Trinity of Delia (in Castelvetrano-Sicily-Italy has been adopted as case study. The survey operations have been carried out considering different rapid methods of acquisition (UAV camera, SLR camera and smartphone camera. The web platform to publish the 3D information has been built using HTML5 markup language and WebGL JavaScript libraries (Three.js libraries. This work presents the construction of a 3D navigation system for a web-browsing of a virtual CH environment, with the integration of first person controls and 3D popup links. This contribution adds a further step to enrich the possibilities of open-source technologies applied to the world of CH valorization on web.

  12. Interactive Classification of Construction Materials: Feedback Driven Framework for Annotation and Analysis of 3d Point Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, M. R.; Petrovic, V.; Kuester, F.

    2017-08-01

    Digital documentation of cultural heritage structures is increasingly more common through the application of different imaging techniques. Many works have focused on the application of laser scanning and photogrammetry techniques for the acquisition of threedimensional (3D) geometry detailing cultural heritage sites and structures. With an abundance of these 3D data assets, there must be a digital environment where these data can be visualized and analyzed. Presented here is a feedback driven visualization framework that seamlessly enables interactive exploration and manipulation of massive point cloud data. The focus of this work is on the classification of different building materials with the goal of building more accurate as-built information models of historical structures. User defined functions have been tested within the interactive point cloud visualization framework to evaluate automated and semi-automated classification of 3D point data. These functions include decisions based on observed color, laser intensity, normal vector or local surface geometry. Multiple case studies are presented here to demonstrate the flexibility and utility of the presented point cloud visualization framework to achieve classification objectives.

  13. Halfway between 2D and Animal Models: Are 3D Cultures the Ideal Tool to Study Cancer-Microenvironment Interactions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Hoarau-Véchot

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available An area that has come to be of tremendous interest in tumor research in the last decade is the role of the microenvironment in the biology of neoplastic diseases. The tumor microenvironment (TME comprises various cells that are collectively important for normal tissue homeostasis as well as tumor progression or regression. Seminal studies have demonstrated the role of the dialogue between cancer cells (at many sites and the cellular component of the microenvironment in tumor progression, metastasis, and resistance to treatment. Using an appropriate system of microenvironment and tumor culture is the first step towards a better understanding of the complex interaction between cancer cells and their surroundings. Three-dimensional (3D models have been widely described recently. However, while it is claimed that they can bridge the gap between in vitro and in vivo, it is sometimes hard to decipher their advantage or limitation compared to classical two-dimensional (2D cultures, especially given the broad number of techniques used. We present here a comprehensive review of the different 3D methods developed recently, and, secondly, we discuss the pros and cons of 3D culture compared to 2D when studying interactions between cancer cells and their microenvironment.

  14. Halfway between 2D and Animal Models: Are 3D Cultures the Ideal Tool to Study Cancer-Microenvironment Interactions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoarau-Véchot, Jessica; Rafii, Arash; Touboul, Cyril; Pasquier, Jennifer

    2018-01-18

    An area that has come to be of tremendous interest in tumor research in the last decade is the role of the microenvironment in the biology of neoplastic diseases. The tumor microenvironment (TME) comprises various cells that are collectively important for normal tissue homeostasis as well as tumor progression or regression. Seminal studies have demonstrated the role of the dialogue between cancer cells (at many sites) and the cellular component of the microenvironment in tumor progression, metastasis, and resistance to treatment. Using an appropriate system of microenvironment and tumor culture is the first step towards a better understanding of the complex interaction between cancer cells and their surroundings. Three-dimensional (3D) models have been widely described recently. However, while it is claimed that they can bridge the gap between in vitro and in vivo, it is sometimes hard to decipher their advantage or limitation compared to classical two-dimensional (2D) cultures, especially given the broad number of techniques used. We present here a comprehensive review of the different 3D methods developed recently, and, secondly, we discuss the pros and cons of 3D culture compared to 2D when studying interactions between cancer cells and their microenvironment.

  15. Control rod interaction models for use in 2D and 3D reactor geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bannerman, R.C.

    1985-11-01

    Control rod interaction models are developed for use in two-dimensional and three-dimensional reactor geometries. These models allow the total worth of any combination of control rods inserted to be determined from the individual worths in conjunction with an algorithm representing interaction effects between them. The validity of the assumptions is demonstrated for fast and thermal systems showing modelling errors of 1#percent# or less in inserted control rod worths. The models are ideally suited for most reactor systems. (UK)

  16. Tweek: Merging 2D and 3D Interaction in Immersive Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick L Hartling

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Developers of virtual environments (VEs face an oftendifficult problem: users must have some way to interact with the virtual world. The application designers must determine how to map available inputs (button presses, hand gestures, etc. to actions within the VE. As a result, interaction within a VE is perhaps the most limiting factor for the development of complex virtual reality (VR applications. For example, interactions with large amounts of data, alphanumeric information, or abstract operations may not map well to current VR interaction methods, which are primarily spatial. Instead, twodimensional (2D interaction could be more effective. Current practices often involve the development of customized interfaces for each application. The custom interfaces try to match the capabilities of the available input devices. To address these issues, we have developed a middleware tool called Tweek. Tweek presents users with an extensible 2D Java graphical user interface (GUI that communicates with VR applications. Using this tool, developers are free to create a GUI that provides extended capabilities for interacting with a VE. This paper covers in detail the design of Tweek and its use with VR Juggler, an open source virtual reality development tool.

  17. Prediction of protein-protein interaction sites in sequences and 3D structures by random forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mile Sikić

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Identifying interaction sites in proteins provides important clues to the function of a protein and is becoming increasingly relevant in topics such as systems biology and drug discovery. Although there are numerous papers on the prediction of interaction sites using information derived from structure, there are only a few case reports on the prediction of interaction residues based solely on protein sequence. Here, a sliding window approach is combined with the Random Forests method to predict protein interaction sites using (i a combination of sequence- and structure-derived parameters and (ii sequence information alone. For sequence-based prediction we achieved a precision of 84% with a 26% recall and an F-measure of 40%. When combined with structural information, the prediction performance increases to a precision of 76% and a recall of 38% with an F-measure of 51%. We also present an attempt to rationalize the sliding window size and demonstrate that a nine-residue window is the most suitable for predictor construction. Finally, we demonstrate the applicability of our prediction methods by modeling the Ras-Raf complex using predicted interaction sites as target binding interfaces. Our results suggest that it is possible to predict protein interaction sites with quite a high accuracy using only sequence information.

  18. Validation of a numerical 3-D fluid-structure interaction model for a prosthetic valve based on experimental PIV measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guivier-Curien, Carine; Deplano, Valérie; Bertrand, Eric

    2009-10-01

    A numerical 3-D fluid-structure interaction (FSI) model of a prosthetic aortic valve was developed, based on a commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software program using an Arbitrary Eulerian Lagrangian (ALE) formulation. To make sure of the validity of this numerical model, an equivalent experimental model accounting for both the geometrical features and the hydrodynamic conditions was also developed. The leaflet and the flow behaviours around the bileaflet valve were investigated numerically and experimentally by performing particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements. Through quantitative and qualitative comparisons, it was shown that the leaflet behaviour and the velocity fields were similar in both models. The present study allows the validation of a fully coupled 3-D FSI numerical model. The promising numerical tool could be therefore used to investigate clinical issues involving the aortic valve.

  19. A multimodal virtual reality interface for 3D interaction with VTK

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, A.J.F.; Liere, van R.

    2007-01-01

    The object-oriented visualization Toolkit (VTK) is widely used for scientific visualization. VTK is a visualization library that provides a large number of functions for presenting three-dimensional data. Interaction with the visualized data is controlled with two-dimensional input devices, such as

  20. SlicerAstro : A 3-D interactive visual analytics tool for HI data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Punzo, D.; van der Hulst, J. M.; Roerdink, J. B. T. M.; Fillion-Robin, J. C.; Yu, L.

    SKA precursors are capable of detecting hundreds of galaxies in HI in a single 12 h pointing. In deeper surveys one will probe more easily faint HI structures, typically located in the vicinity of galaxies, such as tails, filaments, and extraplanar gas. The importance of interactive visualization in

  1. Exploring individual user differences in the 2D/3D interaction with medical image data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zudilova-Seinstra, E.; van Schooten, B.; Suinesiaputra, A.; van der Geest, R.; van Dijk, B.; Reiber, J.; Sloot, P.

    2010-01-01

    User-centered design is often performed without regard to individual user differences. In this paper, we report results of an empirical study aimed to evaluate whether computer experience and demographic user characteristics would have an effect on the way people interact with the visualized medical

  2. Exploring individual user differences in the 2D/3D interaction with medical image data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zudilova-Seinstra, Elena; van Schooten, B.W.; Suinesiaputra, Avan; van der Geest, Rob; van Dijk, Elisabeth M.A.G.; Reiber, Johan; Sloot, Peter

    2009-01-01

    User-centered design is often performed without regard to individual user differences. In this paper, we report results of an empirical study aimed to evaluate whether computer experience and demographic user characteristics would have an effect on the way people interact with the visualized medical

  3. Real-Time Climate Simulations in the Interactive 3D Game Universe Sandbox ²

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenson, N. L.

    2014-12-01

    Exploration in an open-ended computer game is an engaging way to explore climate and climate change. Everyone can explore physical models with real-time visualization in the educational simulator Universe Sandbox ² (universesandbox.com/2), which includes basic climate simulations on planets. I have implemented a time-dependent, one-dimensional meridional heat transport energy balance model to run and be adjustable in real time in the midst of a larger simulated system. Universe Sandbox ² is based on the original game - at its core a gravity simulator - with other new physically-based content for stellar evolution, and handling collisions between bodies. Existing users are mostly science enthusiasts in informal settings. We believe that this is the first climate simulation to be implemented in a professionally developed computer game with modern 3D graphical output in real time. The type of simple climate model we've adopted helps us depict the seasonal cycle and the more drastic changes that come from changing the orbit or other external forcings. Users can alter the climate as the simulation is running by altering the star(s) in the simulation, dragging to change orbits and obliquity, adjusting the climate simulation parameters directly or changing other properties like CO2 concentration that affect the model parameters in representative ways. Ongoing visuals of the expansion and contraction of sea ice and snow-cover respond to the temperature calculations, and make it accessible to explore a variety of scenarios and intuitive to understand the output. Variables like temperature can also be graphed in real time. We balance computational constraints with the ability to capture the physical phenomena we wish to visualize, giving everyone access to a simple open-ended meridional energy balance climate simulation to explore and experiment with. The software lends itself to labs at a variety of levels about climate concepts including seasons, the Greenhouse effect

  4. Evaluation of Binocular Eye Trackers and Algorithms for 3D Gaze Interaction in Virtual Reality Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Thies Pfeiffer; Ipke Wachsmuth; Marc E. Latoschik

    2009-01-01

    Tracking user's visual attention is a fundamental aspect in novel human-computer interaction paradigms found in Virtual Reality. For example, multimodal interfaces or dialogue-based communications with virtual and real agents greatly benefit from the analysis of the user's visual attention as a vital source for deictic references or turn-taking signals. Current approaches to determine visual attention rely primarily on monocular eye trackers. Hence they are restricted to the interpretation of...

  5. A new 3D immersed boundary method for non-Newtonian fluid-structure-interaction with application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Luoding

    2017-11-01

    Motivated by fluid-structure-interaction (FSI) phenomena in life sciences (e.g., motions of sperm and cytoskeleton in complex fluids), we introduce a new immersed boundary method for FSI problems involving non-Newtonian fluids in three dimensions. The non-Newtonian fluids are modelled by the FENE-P model (including the Oldroyd-B model as an especial case) and numerically solved by a lattice Boltzmann scheme (the D3Q7 model). The fluid flow is modelled by the lattice Boltzmann equations and numerically solved by the D3Q19 model. The deformable structure and the fluid-structure-interaction are handled by the immersed boundary method. As an application, we study a FSI toy problem - interaction of an elastic plate (flapped at its leading edge and restricted nowhere else) with a non-Newtonian fluid in a 3D flow. Thanks to the support of NSF-DMS support under research Grant 1522554.

  6. Quantitative characterization of 3D deformations of cell interactions with soft biomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franck, Christian

    In recent years, the importance of mechanical forces in directing cellular function has been recognized as a significant factor in biological and physiological processes. In fact, these physical forces are now viewed equally as important as biochemical stimuli in controlling cellular response. Not only do these cellular forces, or cell tractions, play an important role in cell migration, they are also significant to many other physiological and pathological processes, both at the tissue and organ level, including wound healing, inflammation, angiogenesis, and embryogenesis. A complete quantification of cell tractions during cell-material interactions can lead to a deeper understanding of the fundamental role these forces play in cell biology. Thus, understanding the function and role of a cell from a mechanical framework can have important implications towards the development of new implant materials and drug treatments. Previous research has contributed significant descriptions of cell-tissue interactions by quantifying cell tractions in two-dimensional environments; however, most physiological processes are three-dimensional in nature. Recent studies have shown morphological differences in cells cultured on two-dimensional substrates versus three-dimensional matrices, and that the intrinsic extracellular matrix interactions and migration behavior are different in three dimensions versus two dimensions. Hence, measurement techniques are needed to investigate cellular behavior in all three dimensions. This thesis presents a full-field imaging technique capable of quantitatively measuring cell traction forces in all three spatial dimensions, and hence addresses the need of a three-dimensional quantitative imaging technique to gain insight into the fundamental role of physical forces in biological processes. The technique combines laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM) with digital volume correlation (DVC) to track the motion of fluorescent particles during cell

  7. Hybrid 3D model for the interaction of plasma thruster plumes with nearby objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cichocki, Filippo; Domínguez-Vázquez, Adrián; Merino, Mario; Ahedo, Eduardo

    2017-12-01

    This paper presents a hybrid particle-in-cell (PIC) fluid approach to model the interaction of a plasma plume with a spacecraft and/or any nearby object. Ions and neutrals are modeled with a PIC approach, while electrons are treated as a fluid. After a first iteration of the code, the domain is split into quasineutral and non-neutral regions, based on non-neutrality criteria, such as the relative charge density and the Debye length-to-cell size ratio. At the material boundaries of the former quasineutral region, a dedicated algorithm ensures that the Bohm condition is met. In the latter non-neutral regions, the electron density and electric potential are obtained by solving the coupled electron momentum balance and Poisson equations. Boundary conditions for both the electric current and potential are finally obtained with a plasma sheath sub-code and an equivalent circuit model. The hybrid code is validated by applying it to a typical plasma plume-spacecraft interaction scenario, and the physics and capabilities of the model are finally discussed.

  8. High-quality and interactive animations of 3D time-varying vector fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helgeland, Anders; Elboth, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we present an interactive texture-based method for visualizing three-dimensional unsteady vector fields. The visualization method uses a sparse and global representation of the flow, such that it does not suffer from the same perceptual issues as is the case for visualizing dense representations. The animation is made by injecting a collection of particles evenly distributed throughout the physical domain. These particles are then tracked along their path lines. At each time step, these particles are used as seed points to generate field lines using any vector field such as the velocity field or vorticity field. In this way, the animation shows the advection of particles while each frame in the animation shows the instantaneous vector field. In order to maintain a coherent particle density and to avoid clustering as time passes, we have developed a novel particle advection strategy which produces approximately evenly-spaced field lines at each time step. To improve rendering performance, we decouple the rendering stage from the preceding stages of the visualization method. This allows interactive exploration of multiple fields simultaneously, which sets the stage for a more complete analysis of the flow field. The final display is rendered using texture-based direct volume rendering.

  9. A new computational method for studies of 3-D dislocation-precipitate interactions in reactor steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, A.; Gohniem, N.M.

    2008-01-01

    To enable computational design of advanced steels for reactor pressure vessels and core structural components, we present a new computational method for studies of the interaction between dislocations and precipitates. The method is based on three-dimensional parametric dislocation dynamics, Eshelby's inclusion and inhomogeneity solutions, and boundary and volume element numerical models. Results from this new method are successfully compared to recent molecular dynamics (MD) simulation results, and show good agreement with atomistic simulations. Then the method is first applied to the investigation of the critical shear stress (CSS) of precipitates sheared by successive dislocation cuttings. The simulations reveal that the CSS is reduced when dislocations cut precipitates, and that it can be as low as half the original value for a completely sheared precipitate. The influence of precipitate geometry and the ratio of precipitate-to-matrix elastic shear modulus on the CSS is presented, and the dependence of the interaction stress between dislocations and precipitates on their relative geometry is discussed. Finally an extension of the method to incorporate the dislocation core contribution to the CSS is highlighted. (author)

  10. Interaction of particles with complex electrostatic structures and 3D clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonova, Tetyana

    2007-01-01

    Particles of micrometer size externally introduced in plasmas usually find their positions of levitation in the plasma sheath, where the gravity force is compensated by the strong electric field. Here due to electrostatic interaction they form different structures, which are interesting objects for the investigation of strongly coupled systems and critical phenomena. Because of the low damping (e.g. in comparison to colloidal suspension) it is possible to measure the dynamics up to the relevant highest frequency (e.g. Einstein frequency) at the most elementary level of single particle motion. The task of this work was to analyze the three dimensional structure, dynamical processes and the limit of the cooperative behavior in small plasma crystals. In addition to the study of the systems formed, the immersed particles themselves may be used for diagnostics of the plasma environment: estimation of parameters or monitoring of the processes inside plasma. The laboratory experiments are performed in two radio-frequency (RF) plasma reactors with parallel plate electrodes, where the lower electrode is a so-called ''adaptive electrode''. This electrode is segmented into 57 small ''pixels'' independently driven in DC (direct current) and/or RF voltage. When RF voltage is applied to one of these pixels, a bright localized glow, ''secondary plasma ball'', appears above. Three dimensional dust crystals with less than 100 particles are formed inside this ''plasma ball'' - the ideal conditions for the investigation of the transition from cluster systems to collective systems. The investigation of the particle interactions in crystals is performed with an optical diagnostic, which allows determination of all three particle coordinates simultaneously with time resolution of 0.04 sec. The experimental results are: 1. The binary interaction among particles in addition to the repelling Coulomb force exhibits also an attractive part, which is experimentally determined for the first

  11. Interaction of particles with complex electrostatic structures and 3D clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonova, Tetyana

    2007-10-16

    Particles of micrometer size externally introduced in plasmas usually find their positions of levitation in the plasma sheath, where the gravity force is compensated by the strong electric field. Here due to electrostatic interaction they form different structures, which are interesting objects for the investigation of strongly coupled systems and critical phenomena. Because of the low damping (e.g. in comparison to colloidal suspension) it is possible to measure the dynamics up to the relevant highest frequency (e.g. Einstein frequency) at the most elementary level of single particle motion. The task of this work was to analyze the three dimensional structure, dynamical processes and the limit of the cooperative behavior in small plasma crystals. In addition to the study of the systems formed, the immersed particles themselves may be used for diagnostics of the plasma environment: estimation of parameters or monitoring of the processes inside plasma. The laboratory experiments are performed in two radio-frequency (RF) plasma reactors with parallel plate electrodes, where the lower electrode is a so-called 'adaptive electrode'. This electrode is segmented into 57 small 'pixels' independently driven in DC (direct current) and/or RF voltage. When RF voltage is applied to one of these pixels, a bright localized glow, 'secondary plasma ball', appears above. Three dimensional dust crystals with less than 100 particles are formed inside this 'plasma ball' - the ideal conditions for the investigation of the transition from cluster systems to collective systems. The investigation of the particle interactions in crystals is performed with an optical diagnostic, which allows determination of all three particle coordinates simultaneously with time resolution of 0.04 sec. The experimental results are: 1. The binary interaction among particles in addition to the repelling Coulomb force exhibits also an attractive part, which is

  12. 3D Interactions between Virtual Worlds and Real Life in an E-Learning Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Lucke

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Virtual worlds became an appealing and fascinating component of today's internet. In particular, the number of educational providers that see a potential for E-Learning in such new platforms increases. Unfortunately, most of the environments and processes implemented up to now do not exceed a virtual modelling of real-world scenarios. In particular, this paper shows that Second Life can be more than just another learning platform. A flexible and bidirectional link between the reality and the virtual world enables synchronous and seamless interaction between users and devices across both worlds. The primary advantages of this interconnection are a spatial extension of face-to-face and online learning scenarios and a closer relationship between virtual learners and the real world.

  13. Natural interaction in Virtual Environments for Cultural Heritage: Giotto in 3D and Etruscanning study cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Pietroni

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A basic limit of most of VR applications created by the scientific community and reproducing cultural sites or artefacts is that they do not fire up the attention of public, in comparison with the great potentialities of VR system for cultural transmission: they are often lacking in emotional storytelling and difficult to manage. An important factor is the need of more natural and simple interfaces, especially for applications hosted inside museums. Starting from our experience in this domain, we propose new metaphors of narration and paradigm of interaction based on natural interfaces (body movements, presenting three study cases: “The Rule confirmation: virtual experience among Giotto's characters”, “Etruscanning3D”, “Virtual Exploration of the ancient Pharmacy of S. Maria della Scaletta Hospital at Imola”.

  14. a Web-Based Interactive Tool for Multi-Resolution 3d Models of a Maya Archaeological Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agugiaro, G.; Remondino, F.; Girardi, G.; von Schwerin, J.; Richards-Rissetto, H.; De Amicis, R.

    2011-09-01

    Continuous technological advances in surveying, computing and digital-content delivery are strongly contributing to a change in the way Cultural Heritage is "perceived": new tools and methodologies for documentation, reconstruction and research are being created to assist not only scholars, but also to reach more potential users (e.g. students and tourists) willing to access more detailed information about art history and archaeology. 3D computer-simulated models, sometimes set in virtual landscapes, offer for example the chance to explore possible hypothetical reconstructions, while on-line GIS resources can help interactive analyses of relationships and change over space and time. While for some research purposes a traditional 2D approach may suffice, this is not the case for more complex analyses concerning spatial and temporal features of architecture, like for example the relationship of architecture and landscape, visibility studies etc. The project aims therefore at creating a tool, called "QueryArch3D" tool, which enables the web-based visualisation and queries of an interactive, multi-resolution 3D model in the framework of Cultural Heritage. More specifically, a complete Maya archaeological site, located in Copan (Honduras), has been chosen as case study to test and demonstrate the platform's capabilities. Much of the site has been surveyed and modelled at different levels of detail (LoD) and the geometric model has been semantically segmented and integrated with attribute data gathered from several external data sources. The paper describes the characteristics of the research work, along with its implementation issues and the initial results of the developed prototype.

  15. High-Resolution Multibeam Sonar Survey and Interactive 3-D Exploration of the D-Day Wrecks off Normandy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, L. A.; Calder, B.; Schmidt, J. S.

    2003-12-01

    Historically, archaeological investigations use sidescan sonar and marine magnetometers as initial search tools. Targets are then examined through direct observation by divers, video, or photographs. Magnetometers can demonstrate the presence, absence, and relative susceptibility of ferrous objects but provide little indication of the nature of the target. Sidescan sonar can present a clear image of the overall nature of a target and its surrounding environment, but the sidescan image is often distorted and contains little information about the true 3-D shape of the object. Optical techniques allow precise identification of objects but suffer from very limited range, even in the best of situations. Modern high-resolution multibeam sonar offers an opportunity to cover a relatively large area from a safe distance above the target, while resolving the true three-dimensional (3-D) shape of the object with centimeter-level resolution. The combination of 3-D mapping and interactive 3-D visualization techniques provides a powerful new means to explore underwater artifacts. A clear demonstration of the applicability of high-resolution multibeam sonar to wreck and artifact investigations occurred when the Naval Historical Center (NHC), the Center for Coastal and Ocean Mapping (CCOM) at the University of New Hampshire, and Reson Inc., collaborated to explore the state of preservation and impact on the surrounding environment of a series of wrecks located off the coast of Normandy, France, adjacent to the American landing sectors The survey augmented previously collected magnetometer and high-resolution sidescan sonar data using a Reson 8125 high-resolution focused multibeam sonar with 240, 0.5° (at nadir) beams distributed over a 120° swath. The team investigated 21 areas in water depths ranging from about three -to 30 meters (m); some areas contained individual targets such as landing craft, barges, a destroyer, troop carrier, etc., while others contained multiple smaller

  16. 3D upper crustal seismic structure across Santorini volcanic field: Constraints on magmatic and tectonic interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, B.; Hooft, E. E. E.; Toomey, D. R.; Papazachos, C. V.; Walls, K.; Paulatto, M.; Morgan, J. V.; Nomikou, P.; Warner, M.

    2017-12-01

    To investigate magmatic-tectonic interactions at an arc volcano, we collected a dense, active-source, seismic dataset across the Santorini Volcano, Greece, with 90 ocean bottom seismometers, 65 land seismometers, and 14,300 marine sound sources. We use over 140,000 travel-time picks to obtain a P-wave tomography model of the upper crustal structure of the Santorini volcano and surrounding tectonically extended region. Regionally, the shallow (Bouguer gravity anomalies and preliminary shallow attenuation results (using waveform amplitudes and t* values). We find regional Pliocene and younger faults bounding basement grabens and horsts to be predominately oriented in a NE-SW direction with Santorini itself located in a graben bounded by faults striking in this direction. In contrast, volcanic vents and dikes expressed at the surface seem to strike about 20° clockwise relative to these regional faults. In the northern caldera of Santorini, a 4-km wide region of anomalously low velocities and high attenuation directly overlies an inferred source of 2011-2012 inflation (4-4.5 km depth), however it is located at shallower depths ( 1-2km). The imaged low-velocity anomaly may correspond to hydrothermal activity (due to increased porosity and alteration) and/or brecciation from a prior episode of caldera collapse. It is bounded by anomalously fast velocities (at 1-2 km depth) that parallel the regional fault orientation and are correspondingly rotated 20° to surface dikes. At 4-5 km depth beneath the northern caldera basin, low-velocity anomalies and attenuated seismic arrivals provide preliminary evidence for a magma body; the low-velocity anomaly is elongated in the same direction as regional volcanic vents. The difference in strike of volcanic and tectonic features indicates oblique extension and potential time-variation in the minimum stress direction.

  17. Depth camera-based 3D hand gesture controls with immersive tactile feedback for natural mid-air gesture interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kwangtaek; Kim, Joongrock; Choi, Jaesung; Kim, Junghyun; Lee, Sangyoun

    2015-01-08

    Vision-based hand gesture interactions are natural and intuitive when interacting with computers, since we naturally exploit gestures to communicate with other people. However, it is agreed that users suffer from discomfort and fatigue when using gesture-controlled interfaces, due to the lack of physical feedback. To solve the problem, we propose a novel complete solution of a hand gesture control system employing immersive tactile feedback to the user's hand. For this goal, we first developed a fast and accurate hand-tracking algorithm with a Kinect sensor using the proposed MLBP (modified local binary pattern) that can efficiently analyze 3D shapes in depth images. The superiority of our tracking method was verified in terms of tracking accuracy and speed by comparing with existing methods, Natural Interaction Technology for End-user (NITE), 3D Hand Tracker and CamShift. As the second step, a new tactile feedback technology with a piezoelectric actuator has been developed and integrated into the developed hand tracking algorithm, including the DTW (dynamic time warping) gesture recognition algorithm for a complete solution of an immersive gesture control system. The quantitative and qualitative evaluations of the integrated system were conducted with human subjects, and the results demonstrate that our gesture control with tactile feedback is a promising technology compared to a vision-based gesture control system that has typically no feedback for the user's gesture inputs. Our study provides researchers and designers with informative guidelines to develop more natural gesture control systems or immersive user interfaces with haptic feedback.

  18. Depth Camera-Based 3D Hand Gesture Controls with Immersive Tactile Feedback for Natural Mid-Air Gesture Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwangtaek Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vision-based hand gesture interactions are natural and intuitive when interacting with computers, since we naturally exploit gestures to communicate with other people. However, it is agreed that users suffer from discomfort and fatigue when using gesture-controlled interfaces, due to the lack of physical feedback. To solve the problem, we propose a novel complete solution of a hand gesture control system employing immersive tactile feedback to the user’s hand. For this goal, we first developed a fast and accurate hand-tracking algorithm with a Kinect sensor using the proposed MLBP (modified local binary pattern that can efficiently analyze 3D shapes in depth images. The superiority of our tracking method was verified in terms of tracking accuracy and speed by comparing with existing methods, Natural Interaction Technology for End-user (NITE, 3D Hand Tracker and CamShift. As the second step, a new tactile feedback technology with a piezoelectric actuator has been developed and integrated into the developed hand tracking algorithm, including the DTW (dynamic time warping gesture recognition algorithm for a complete solution of an immersive gesture control system. The quantitative and qualitative evaluations of the integrated system were conducted with human subjects, and the results demonstrate that our gesture control with tactile feedback is a promising technology compared to a vision-based gesture control system that has typically no feedback for the user’s gesture inputs. Our study provides researchers and designers with informative guidelines to develop more natural gesture control systems or immersive user interfaces with haptic feedback.

  19. Interchannel interaction in orientation and alignment of Kr 4p4mp states in the region of 3d9np resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagutin, B M; Petrov, I D; Sukhorukov, V L; Werner, L; Klumpp, S; Ehresmann, A; Schartner, K-H; Schmoranzer, H

    2009-01-01

    The interaction between intermediate channels which influence the population of Kr 4p 4 mp ionic states in the region of the 3d 9 np resonances by the photon-induced Auger decay was investigated. The most important influence on the investigated process stems from 4p 5 ε'l and 3d 9 ε'l channels.

  20. R3D3 in the Wild: Using A Robot for Turn Management in Multi-Party Interaction with a Virtual Human

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theune, Mariet; Wiltenburg, Daan; Bode, Max; Linssen, Jeroen

    R3D3 is a combination of a virtual human with a non-speaking robot capable of head gestures and emotive gaze behaviour. We use the robot to implement various turn management functions for use in multi-party interaction with R3D3, and present the results of a field study investigating their effects

  1. Numerical method for calculation of 3D viscous turbomachine flow taking into account stator/rotor unsteady interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rusanov, A V; Yershov, S V [Institute of Mechanical Engineering Problems of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine Kharkov (Ukraine)

    1998-12-31

    The numerical method is suggested for the calculation of the 3D periodically unsteady viscous cascade flow evoked by the aerodynamics interaction of blade rows. Such flow is described by the thin-layer Reynolds-averaged unsteady Navier-Stokes equations. The turbulent effects are simulated with the modified Baldwin-Lomax turbulence model. The problem statement allows to consider an unsteady flow through either a single turbo-machine stage or a multi stage turbomachine. The sliding mesh techniques and the time-space non-oscillatory square interpolation are used in axial spacings to calculate the flow in a computational domain that contains the reciprocally moving elements. The gasdynamical equations are integrated numerically with the implicit quasi-monotonous Godunov`s type ENO scheme of the second or third order of accuracy. The suggested numerical method is incorporated in the FlowER code developed by authors for calculations of the 3D viscous compressible flows through multi stage turbomachines. The numerical results are presented for unsteady turbine stage throughflows. The method suggested is shown to simulate qualitatively properly the main unsteady cascade effects in particular the periodically blade loadings, the propagation of stator wakes through rotor blade passage and the unsteady temperature flowfields for stages with cooled stator blades. (author) 21 refs.

  2. Numerical method for calculation of 3D viscous turbomachine flow taking into account stator/rotor unsteady interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rusanov, A.V.; Yershov, S.V. [Institute of Mechanical Engineering Problems of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine Kharkov (Ukraine)

    1997-12-31

    The numerical method is suggested for the calculation of the 3D periodically unsteady viscous cascade flow evoked by the aerodynamics interaction of blade rows. Such flow is described by the thin-layer Reynolds-averaged unsteady Navier-Stokes equations. The turbulent effects are simulated with the modified Baldwin-Lomax turbulence model. The problem statement allows to consider an unsteady flow through either a single turbo-machine stage or a multi stage turbomachine. The sliding mesh techniques and the time-space non-oscillatory square interpolation are used in axial spacings to calculate the flow in a computational domain that contains the reciprocally moving elements. The gasdynamical equations are integrated numerically with the implicit quasi-monotonous Godunov`s type ENO scheme of the second or third order of accuracy. The suggested numerical method is incorporated in the FlowER code developed by authors for calculations of the 3D viscous compressible flows through multi stage turbomachines. The numerical results are presented for unsteady turbine stage throughflows. The method suggested is shown to simulate qualitatively properly the main unsteady cascade effects in particular the periodically blade loadings, the propagation of stator wakes through rotor blade passage and the unsteady temperature flowfields for stages with cooled stator blades. (author) 21 refs.

  3. Development of a system based on 3D vision, interactive virtual environments, ergonometric signals and a humanoid for stroke rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarra Zannatha, Juan Manuel; Tamayo, Alejandro Justo Malo; Sánchez, Angel David Gómez; Delgado, Jorge Enrique Lavín; Cheu, Luis Eduardo Rodríguez; Arévalo, Wilson Alexander Sierra

    2013-11-01

    This paper presents a stroke rehabilitation (SR) system for the upper limbs, developed as an interactive virtual environment (IVE) based on a commercial 3D vision system (a Microsoft Kinect), a humanoid robot (an Aldebaran's Nao), and devices producing ergonometric signals. In one environment, the rehabilitation routines, developed by specialists, are presented to the patient simultaneously by the humanoid and an avatar inside the IVE. The patient follows the rehabilitation task, while his avatar copies his gestures that are captured by the Kinect 3D vision system. The information of the patient movements, together with the signals obtained from the ergonometric measurement devices, is used also to supervise and to evaluate the rehabilitation progress. The IVE can also present an RGB image of the patient. In another environment, that uses the same base elements, four game routines--Touch the balls 1 and 2, Simon says, and Follow the point--are used for rehabilitation. These environments are designed to create a positive influence in the rehabilitation process, reduce costs, and engage the patient. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A novel 3-D bio-microfluidic system mimicking in vivo heterogeneous tumour microstructures reveals complex tumour–stroma interactions

    KAUST Repository

    Fan, Qihui

    2017-07-10

    A 3-D microfluidic system consisting of microchamber arrays embedded in a collagen hydrogel with tuneable biochemical gradients that mimics the tumour microenvironment of mammary glands was constructed for the investigation on the interactions between invasive breast cancer cells and stromal cells. The hollow microchambers in collagen provide a very similar 3-D environment to that in vivo that regulates collective cellular dynamics and behaviour, while the microfluidic channels surrounding the collagen microchamber arrays allow one to impose complex concentration gradients of specific biological molecules or drugs. We found that breast epithelial cells (MCF-10A) seeded in the microchambers formed lumen-like structures similar to those in epithelial layers. When MCF-10A cells were co-cultured with invasive breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231), the formation of lumen-like structures in the microchambers was inhibited, indicating the capability of cancer cells to disrupt the structures formed by surrounding cells for further invasion and metastasis. Subsequent mechanism studies showed that down regulation of E-cad expression due to MMPs produced by the cancer cells plays a dominant role in determining the cellular behaviour. Our microfluidic system offers a robust platform for high throughput studies that aim to understand combinatorial effects of multiple biochemical and microenvironmental factors.

  5. MEVA--An Interactive Visualization Application for Validation of Multifaceted Meteorological Data with Multiple 3D Devices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolin Helbig

    Full Text Available To achieve more realistic simulations, meteorologists develop and use models with increasing spatial and temporal resolution. The analyzing, comparing, and visualizing of resulting simulations becomes more and more challenging due to the growing amounts and multifaceted character of the data. Various data sources, numerous variables and multiple simulations lead to a complex database. Although a variety of software exists suited for the visualization of meteorological data, none of them fulfills all of the typical domain-specific requirements: support for quasi-standard data formats and different grid types, standard visualization techniques for scalar and vector data, visualization of the context (e.g., topography and other static data, support for multiple presentation devices used in modern sciences (e.g., virtual reality, a user-friendly interface, and suitability for cooperative work.Instead of attempting to develop yet another new visualization system to fulfill all possible needs in this application domain, our approach is to provide a flexible workflow that combines different existing state-of-the-art visualization software components in order to hide the complexity of 3D data visualization tools from the end user. To complete the workflow and to enable the domain scientists to interactively visualize their data without advanced skills in 3D visualization systems, we developed a lightweight custom visualization application (MEVA - multifaceted environmental data visualization application that supports the most relevant visualization and interaction techniques and can be easily deployed. Specifically, our workflow combines a variety of different data abstraction methods provided by a state-of-the-art 3D visualization application with the interaction and presentation features of a computer-games engine. Our customized application includes solutions for the analysis of multirun data, specifically with respect to data uncertainty and

  6. multi-grids method development for the 3D modeling of the pellet-sheath mechanical interaction. Laboratory internship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leclerc, Willy

    2010-10-01

    In order to use a better approach to understand fuel behaviour by numerical simulation, Adaptive Mesh Refinement methods could become very useful. Today, the use of classical Finite Element methods do not enable a easy study of the different phenomenon undergone by the fuel. Important nodes number and calculus time are the two first reasons making the simulation hard to use and visualize. Moreover results reliability is difficult to ensure with a such kind of method. Adaptive Mesh Refinement methods advantages are important particularly if we need a quick convergence and a better mesh structure. The purpose of our study will be to push the method forward by explaining his qualities and putting into place 2D and 3D pellet/sheath interaction problem. (author) [fr

  7. Preliminary development of a global 3-D magnetohydrodynamic computational model for solar wind-cometary and planetary interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stahara, S.S.

    1986-05-01

    This is the final summary report by Resource Management Associates, Inc., of the first year's work under Contract No. NASW-4011 to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The work under this initial phase of the contract relates to the preliminary development of a global, 3-D magnetohydrodynamic computational model to quantitatively describe the detailed continuum field and plasma interaction process of the solar wind with cometary and planetary bodies throughout the solar system. The work extends a highly-successful, observationally-verified computational model previously developed by the author, and is appropriate for the global determination of supersonic, super-Alfvenic solar wind flows past planetary obstacles. This report provides a concise description of the problems studied, a summary of all the important research results, and copies of the publications

  8. Assemble: an interactive graphical tool to analyze and build RNA architectures at the 2D and 3D levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jossinet, Fabrice; Ludwig, Thomas E; Westhof, Eric

    2010-08-15

    Assemble is an intuitive graphical interface to analyze, manipulate and build complex 3D RNA architectures. It provides several advanced and unique features within the framework of a semi-automated modeling process that can be performed by homology and ab initio with or without electron density maps. Those include the interactive editing of a secondary structure and a searchable, embedded library of annotated tertiary structures. Assemble helps users with performing recurrent and otherwise tedious tasks in structural RNA research. Assemble is released under an open-source license (MIT license) and is freely available at http://bioinformatics.org/assemble. It is implemented in the Java language and runs on MacOSX, Linux and Windows operating systems.

  9. Soil-Structure Interaction Effect on Fragility Curve of 3D Models of Concrete Moment-Resisting Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Anvarsamarin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the probabilistic generation of collapse fragility curves for evaluating the performance of 3D, reinforced concrete (RC moment-resisting building models, considering soil-structure interaction (SSI by concentration on seismic uncertainties. It considers collapse as the loss of lateral load-resisting capacity of the building structures due to severe ground shaking and consequent large interstory drifts intensified by P-Δ effects as well as the strength and stiffness deterioration of their lateral load carrying systems. The estimation of the collapse performance of structures requires the relation between the intensity measure (IM and the probability of collapse that is determined using the generated collapse fragility curves. Considering a number of 6-, 12-, and 18-story, 3D, RC moment-resisting buildings, two scalar IMs are employed to estimate their collapse fragility curve. On the other hand, the effect of the site soil type on the collapse fragility curves was taken into account by considering the soil-structure interaction. According to the obtained results, adopting the average of spectral acceleration (Saavg intensity measure is more efficient in capturing the effect of the inherent uncertainties of the strong ground motions on the structural response parameters. In addition, considering the SSI for soil type D with shear-wave velocity of 180 m/s to 360 m/s reduces the median of intensity measure (IM = Sa(T1 of fragility curve in 6-, 12-, and 18-story buildings by 4.92%, 22.26%, and 23.03%, respectively.

  10. SSI 2D/3D soil structure interaction: A program system for the calculation of structure-soil interactions using the boundary element method. Project C1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmid, G.; Willms, G.; Huh, Y.; Gibhardt, M.

    1988-12-01

    SSI 2D/3D is a computer programm to calculate dynamic stiffness matrices for soil-structure-interaction problems in frequency domain. It is applicable to two- or three-dimensional situations. The present report is a detailed manual for the use of the computer code written in FORTRAN 77. In addition it gives a survey of the possibilities of the Boundary Element Method applied to dynamic problems in infinite domains. (orig.) [de

  11. On a generalized Dirac oscillator interaction for the nonrelativistic limit 3 D generalized SUSY model oscillator Hamiltonian of Celka and Hussin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayaraman, Jambunatha; Lima Rodrigues, R. de

    1994-01-01

    In the context of the 3 D generalized SUSY model oscillator Hamiltonian of Celka and Hussin (CH), a generalized Dirac oscillator interaction is studied, that leads, in the non-relativistic limit considered for both signs of energy, to the CH's generalized 3 D SUSY oscillator. The relevance of this interaction to the CH's SUSY model and the SUSY breaking dependent on the Wigner parameter is brought out. (author). 6 refs

  12. Stereographic processing of CT figures in the hip joints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomihara, Mitsuo (Kinki Univ., Osakasayama, Osaka (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1990-12-01

    CT scan is widely used in orthopedic examinations. By three-dimentional display of the form of bone and joint, the change of form can be identified and the lesion can be located. CT figures were stereographically processed using a personal computer to display the images of the hip joints. The outlines of the bone seen on the CT film were directly traced with a digitizer, then the A/D converted coordinate data were obtained. The data for each slice were input to the personal computer. After conversion to normal coordinate and magnification, the data were filed on the floppy disc. These data were regained from the disk and made affin transformation to display the stereographic images of the hip joints. In a case of solitary bone cyst of the coxal bone, this method helped us to decide the appropriated surgical approach. For the congenital dysplasia of the hip, acetabular coverage was examined three-dimensionally and postoperative changes were assessed in the cases of shelf operation and intertrochanteric extension osteotomy. In the cases of aseptic necrosis of the femoral head, location and size of the necrotic area were clearly visualized and the appropriate surgical procedure could be decided. Moreover, it was useful to decide the degree of rotation of the femoral head in rotational osteotomy. (author) 61 refs.

  13. Mechanical evolution of transpression zones affected by fault interactions: Insights from 3D elasto-plastic finite element models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabavi, Seyed Tohid; Alavi, Seyed Ahmad; Mohammadi, Soheil; Ghassemi, Mohammad Reza

    2018-01-01

    The mechanical evolution of transpression zones affected by fault interactions is investigated by a 3D elasto-plastic mechanical model solved with the finite-element method. Ductile transpression between non-rigid walls implies an upward and lateral extrusion. The model results demonstrate that a, transpression zone evolves in a 3D strain field along non-coaxial strain paths. Distributed plastic strain, slip transfer, and maximum plastic strain occur within the transpression zone. Outside the transpression zone, fault slip is reduced because deformation is accommodated by distributed plastic shear. With progressive deformation, the σ3 axis (the minimum compressive stress) rotates within the transpression zone to form an oblique angle to the regional transport direction (∼9°-10°). The magnitude of displacement increases faster within the transpression zone than outside it. Rotation of the displacement vectors of oblique convergence with time suggests that transpression zone evolves toward an overall non-plane strain deformation. The slip decreases along fault segments and with increasing depth. This can be attributed to the accommodation of bulk shortening over adjacent fault segments. The model result shows an almost symmetrical domal uplift due to off-fault deformation, generating a doubly plunging fold and a 'positive flower' structure. Outside the overlap zone, expanding asymmetric basins subside to 'negative flower' structures on both sides of the transpression zone and are called 'transpressional basins'. Deflection at fault segments causes the fault dip fall to less than 90° (∼86-89°) near the surface (∼1.5 km). This results in a pure-shear-dominated, triclinic, and discontinuous heterogeneous flow of the transpression zone.

  14. Fragility of ferromagnetic double exchange interactions and pressure tuning of magnetism in 3 d -5 d double perovskite Sr2FeOsO6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga, L. S. I.; Fabbris, G.; van Veenendaal, M.; Souza-Neto, N. M.; Feng, H. L.; Yamaura, K.; Haskel, D.

    2015-06-01

    The ability to tune exchange (magnetic) interactions between 3 d transition metals in perovskite structures has proven to be a powerful route to discovery of novel properties. Here we demonstrate that the introduction of 3 d -5 d exchange pathways in double perovskites enables additional tunability, a result of the large spatial extent of 5 d wave functions. Using x-ray probes of magnetism and structure at high pressure, we show that compression of Sr2FeOsO6 drives an unexpected continuous change in the sign of Fe-Os exchange interactions and a transition from antiferromagnetic to ferrimagnetic order. We analyze the relevant electron-electron interactions, shedding light into fundamental differences with the more thoroughly studied 3 d -3 d systems.

  15. 3D FEM Analysis of a Pile-Supported Riverine Platform under Environmental Loads Incorporating Soil-Pile Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise-Penelope N. Kontoni

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available An existing riverine platform in Egypt, together with its pile group foundation, is analyzed under environmental loads using 3D FEM structural analysis software incorporating soil-pile interaction. The interaction between the transfer plate and the piles supporting the platform is investigated. Two connection conditions were studied assuming fixed or hinged connection between the piles and the reinforced concrete platform for the purpose of comparison of the structural behavior. The analysis showed that the fixed or hinged connection condition between the piles and the platform altered the values and distribution of displacements, normal force, bending moments, and shear forces along the length of each pile. The distribution of piles in the pile group affects the stress distribution on both the soil and platform. The piles were found to suffer from displacement failure rather than force failure. Moreover, the resulting bending stresses on the reinforced concrete plate in the case of a fixed connection between the piles and the platform were almost doubled and much higher than the allowable reinforced concrete stress and even exceeded the ultimate design strength and thus the environmental loads acting on a pile-supported riverine offshore platform may cause collapse if they are not properly considered in the structural analysis and design.

  16. A computational study of magnetic exchange interactions of 3d and 4f electrons in Ti-Ce co-doped AlN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majid, Abdul, E-mail: abdulmajid40@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, University of Gujrat, Gujrat (Pakistan); Department of Adaptive Machine Systems, Osaka University, Osaka (Japan); Azmat, Mian [Department of Physics, University of Gujrat, Gujrat (Pakistan); Rana, Usman Ali; Khan, Salah Ud-Din [Sustainable Energy Technologies Center, College of Engineering, King Saud University, PO-Box 800, Riyadh 11421 (Saudi Arabia); Alzahrani, Eman [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Taif University, 888 Taif (Saudi Arabia)

    2016-08-15

    To investigate the nature of 3d-4f exchange interactions in III-Nitride semiconductors, Ti-Ce co-doped AlN were studied using first principles calculations. The calculations were performed using supercell approach with varying dopant concentration and different inter-dopant separation. The configuration with dopant located as nearest neighbor distance and diluted concentration of 3.125% was found most stable. The results exhibited prominent evidence of 3d-4f-5d strong hybridization suggesting 3d-4f direct exchange interactions which may play valuable role to exploit the system as high Curie temperature ferromagnetic semiconductors for use in spintronics. Moreover, metal to metal charge transfer was also observed in the materials which may be exploited for their use in electrochemical applications. The 4f-5d and 3d-5d hybridizations were observed that predicts excellent luminescence phenomena in the materials. The presence of impurity related deep intermediate bands suggest applications of the materials in opto-electronic and spintronics devices. - Highlights: • Double exchange interaction in Ti:AlN. • Impurity induced narrowing of band gap. • Superexchange interaction in Ce:AlN. • 3d-4f exchange interaction between Ti-3d and Ce-4f states. • High Curie temperature n-type ferromagnetic semiconductors.

  17. A computational study of magnetic exchange interactions of 3d and 4f electrons in Ti-Ce co-doped AlN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majid, Abdul; Azmat, Mian; Rana, Usman Ali; Khan, Salah Ud-Din; Alzahrani, Eman

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the nature of 3d-4f exchange interactions in III-Nitride semiconductors, Ti-Ce co-doped AlN were studied using first principles calculations. The calculations were performed using supercell approach with varying dopant concentration and different inter-dopant separation. The configuration with dopant located as nearest neighbor distance and diluted concentration of 3.125% was found most stable. The results exhibited prominent evidence of 3d-4f-5d strong hybridization suggesting 3d-4f direct exchange interactions which may play valuable role to exploit the system as high Curie temperature ferromagnetic semiconductors for use in spintronics. Moreover, metal to metal charge transfer was also observed in the materials which may be exploited for their use in electrochemical applications. The 4f-5d and 3d-5d hybridizations were observed that predicts excellent luminescence phenomena in the materials. The presence of impurity related deep intermediate bands suggest applications of the materials in opto-electronic and spintronics devices. - Highlights: • Double exchange interaction in Ti:AlN. • Impurity induced narrowing of band gap. • Superexchange interaction in Ce:AlN. • 3d-4f exchange interaction between Ti-3d and Ce-4f states. • High Curie temperature n-type ferromagnetic semiconductors.

  18. Molecular Docking and 3D-Pharmacophore Modeling to Study the Interactions of Chalcone Derivatives with Estrogen Receptor Alpha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muchtaridi Muchtaridi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Tamoxifen is the most frequently used anti-estrogen adjuvant treatment for estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer. However, it is associated with an increased risk of several serious side–effects, such as uterine cancer, stroke, and pulmonary embolism. The 2′,4′-dihydroxy-6-methoxy-3,5-dimethylchalcone (ChalcEA from plant leaves of Eugenia aquea, has been found to inhibit the proliferation of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner, with an IC50 of 74.5 μg/mL (250 μM. The aim of this work was to study the molecular interactions of new ChalcEA derivatives formed with the Estrogen Receptor α (ERα using computer aided drug design approaches. Molecular docking using Autodock 4.2 was employed to explore the modes of binding of ChalcEA derivatives with ERα. The 3D structure-based pharmacophore model was derived using LigandScout 4.1 Advanced to investigate the important chemical interactions of the ERα-tamoxifen complex structure. The binding energy and the tamoxifen-pharmacophore fit score of the best ChalcEA derivative (HNS10 were −12.33 kcal/mol and 67.07 kcal/mol, respectively. The HNS10 interacted with Leu346, Thr347, Leu349, Ala350, Glu353, Leu387, Met388, Leu391, Arg394, Met421, and Leu525. These results suggest that the new ChalcEA derivatives could serve as the lead compound for potent ERα inhibitor in the fight against breast cancer.

  19. LB3D : A parallel implementation of the Lattice-Boltzmann method for simulation of interacting amphiphilic fluids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmieschek, S.; Shamardin, L.; Frijters, S.; Krüger, T.; Schiller, U.D.; Harting, J.; Coveney, P.V.

    2017-01-01

    We introduce the lattice-Boltzmann code LB3D, version 7.1. Building on a parallel program and supporting tools which have enabled research utilising high performance computing resources for nearly two decades, LB3D version 7 provides a subset of the research code functionality as an open source

  20. Sea-town interactions over Marseille: 3D urban boundary layer and thermodynamic fields near the surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemonsu, A.; Pigeon, G.; Masson, V.; Moppert, C.

    2006-02-01

    3D numerical simulations with the Meso-NH atmospheric model including the Town Energy Balance urban parameterization, are conducted over the south-east of France and the one million inhabitants city of Marseille in the frameworks of the ESCOMPTE-UBL program. The geographic situation of the area is relatively complex, because of the proximity of the Mediterranean Sea and the presence of numerous massifs, inducing complex meteorological flows. The present work is focused on six days of the campaign, characterized by the development of strong summer sea-breeze circulations. A complete evaluation of the model is initially realized at both regional- and city-scales, by using the large available database. The regional evaluation shows a good behavior of the model, during the six days of simulation, either for the parameters near the surface or for the vertical profiles describing the structure of the atmosphere. The urban-scale evaluation indicates that the fine structure of the horizontal fields of air temperature above the city is correctly simulated by the model. A specific attention is then pointed to the 250-m horizontal resolution outputs, focused on the Marseille area, for two days of the campaign. From the study of the vertical structure of the Urban Boundary Layer and the thermodynamic fields near the surface, one underscores the important differences due to the regional and local flows, and the complex interactions that occur between the urban effects and the effects of sea breezes.

  1. A Real-Time Magnetoencephalography Brain-Computer Interface Using Interactive 3D Visualization and the Hadoop Ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilbert A. McClay

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Ecumenically, the fastest growing segment of Big Data is human biology-related data and the annual data creation is on the order of zetabytes. The implications are global across industries, of which the treatment of brain related illnesses and trauma could see the most significant and immediate effects. The next generation of health care IT and sensory devices are acquiring and storing massive amounts of patient related data. An innovative Brain-Computer Interface (BCI for interactive 3D visualization is presented utilizing the Hadoop Ecosystem for data analysis and storage. The BCI is an implementation of Bayesian factor analysis algorithms that can distinguish distinct thought actions using magneto encephalographic (MEG brain signals. We have collected data on five subjects yielding 90% positive performance in MEG mid- and post-movement activity. We describe a driver that substitutes the actions of the BCI as mouse button presses for real-time use in visual simulations. This process has been added into a flight visualization demonstration. By thinking left or right, the user experiences the aircraft turning in the chosen direction. The driver components of the BCI can be compiled into any software and substitute a user’s intent for specific keyboard strikes or mouse button presses. The BCI’s data analytics OPEN ACCESS Brain. Sci. 2015, 5 420 of a subject’s MEG brainwaves and flight visualization performance are stored and analyzed using the Hadoop Ecosystem as a quick retrieval data warehouse.

  2. 3D DDD modelling of dislocation-precipitate interaction in a nickel-based single crystal superalloy under cyclic deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Bing; Huang, Minsheng; Zhao, Liguo; Roy, Anish; Silberschmidt, Vadim; Barnard, Nick; Whittaker, Mark; McColvin, Gordon

    2018-06-01

    Strain-controlled cyclic deformation of a nickel-based single crystal superalloy has been modelled using three-dimensional (3D) discrete dislocation dynamics (DDD) for both [0 0 1] and [1 1 1] orientations. The work focused on the interaction between dislocations and precipitates during cyclic plastic deformation at elevated temperature, which has not been well studied yet. A representative volume element with cubic γ‧-precipitates was chosen to represent the material, with enforced periodical boundary conditions. In particular, cutting of superdislocations into precipitates was simulated by a back-force method. The global cyclic stress-strain responses were captured well by the DDD model when compared to experimental data, particularly the effects of crystallographic orientation. Dislocation evolution showed that considerably high density of dislocations was produced for [1 1 1] orientation when compared to [0 0 1] orientation. Cutting of dislocations into the precipitates had a significant effect on the plastic deformation, leading to material softening. Contour plots of in-plane shear strain proved the development of heterogeneous strain field, resulting in the formation of shear-band embryos.

  3. Fluid-structure interaction and structural analyses using a comprehensive mitral valve model with 3D chordal structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toma, Milan; Einstein, Daniel R; Bloodworth, Charles H; Cochran, Richard P; Yoganathan, Ajit P; Kunzelman, Karyn S

    2017-04-01

    Over the years, three-dimensional models of the mitral valve have generally been organized around a simplified anatomy. Leaflets have been typically modeled as membranes, tethered to discrete chordae typically modeled as one-dimensional, non-linear cables. Yet, recent, high-resolution medical images have revealed that there is no clear boundary between the chordae and the leaflets. In fact, the mitral valve has been revealed to be more of a webbed structure whose architecture is continuous with the chordae and their extensions into the leaflets. Such detailed images can serve as the basis of anatomically accurate, subject-specific models, wherein the entire valve is modeled with solid elements that more faithfully represent the chordae, the leaflets, and the transition between the two. These models have the potential to enhance our understanding of mitral valve mechanics and to re-examine the role of the mitral valve chordae, which heretofore have been considered to be 'invisible' to the fluid and to be of secondary importance to the leaflets. However, these new models also require a rethinking of modeling assumptions. In this study, we examine the conventional practice of loading the leaflets only and not the chordae in order to study the structural response of the mitral valve apparatus. Specifically, we demonstrate that fully resolved 3D models of the mitral valve require a fluid-structure interaction analysis to correctly load the valve even in the case of quasi-static mechanics. While a fluid-structure interaction mode is still more computationally expensive than a structural-only model, we also show that advances in GPU computing have made such models tractable. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Liver segmentation in contrast enhanced CT data using graph cuts and interactive 3D segmentation refinement methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beichel, Reinhard; Bornik, Alexander; Bauer, Christian; Sorantin, Erich

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Liver segmentation is an important prerequisite for the assessment of liver cancer treatment options like tumor resection, image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT), radiofrequency ablation, etc. The purpose of this work was to evaluate a new approach for liver segmentation. Methods: A graph cuts segmentation method was combined with a three-dimensional virtual reality based segmentation refinement approach. The developed interactive segmentation system allowed the user to manipulate volume chunks and/or surfaces instead of 2D contours in cross-sectional images (i.e, slice-by-slice). The method was evaluated on twenty routinely acquired portal-phase contrast enhanced multislice computed tomography (CT) data sets. An independent reference was generated by utilizing a currently clinically utilized slice-by-slice segmentation method. After 1 h of introduction to the developed segmentation system, three experts were asked to segment all twenty data sets with the proposed method. Results: Compared to the independent standard, the relative volumetric segmentation overlap error averaged over all three experts and all twenty data sets was 3.74%. Liver segmentation required on average 16 min of user interaction per case. The calculated relative volumetric overlap errors were not found to be significantly different [analysis of variance (ANOVA) test, p = 0.82] between experts who utilized the proposed 3D system. In contrast, the time required by each expert for segmentation was found to be significantly different (ANOVA test, p = 0.0009). Major differences between generated segmentations and independent references were observed in areas were vessels enter or leave the liver and no accepted criteria for defining liver boundaries exist. In comparison, slice-by-slice based generation of the independent standard utilizing a live wire tool took 70.1 min on average. A standard 2D segmentation refinement approach applied to all twenty data sets required on average 38.2 min of

  5. Liver segmentation in contrast enhanced CT data using graph cuts and interactive 3D segmentation refinement methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beichel, Reinhard; Bornik, Alexander; Bauer, Christian; Sorantin, Erich [Departments of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Internal Medicine, Iowa Institute for Biomedical Imaging, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States); Institute for Computer Graphics and Vision, Graz University of Technology, Inffeldgasse 16, A-8010 Graz (Austria); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Iowa Institute for Biomedical Imaging, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States); Department of Radiology, Medical University Graz, Auenbruggerplatz 34, A-8010 Graz (Austria)

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: Liver segmentation is an important prerequisite for the assessment of liver cancer treatment options like tumor resection, image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT), radiofrequency ablation, etc. The purpose of this work was to evaluate a new approach for liver segmentation. Methods: A graph cuts segmentation method was combined with a three-dimensional virtual reality based segmentation refinement approach. The developed interactive segmentation system allowed the user to manipulate volume chunks and/or surfaces instead of 2D contours in cross-sectional images (i.e, slice-by-slice). The method was evaluated on twenty routinely acquired portal-phase contrast enhanced multislice computed tomography (CT) data sets. An independent reference was generated by utilizing a currently clinically utilized slice-by-slice segmentation method. After 1 h of introduction to the developed segmentation system, three experts were asked to segment all twenty data sets with the proposed method. Results: Compared to the independent standard, the relative volumetric segmentation overlap error averaged over all three experts and all twenty data sets was 3.74%. Liver segmentation required on average 16 min of user interaction per case. The calculated relative volumetric overlap errors were not found to be significantly different [analysis of variance (ANOVA) test, p = 0.82] between experts who utilized the proposed 3D system. In contrast, the time required by each expert for segmentation was found to be significantly different (ANOVA test, p = 0.0009). Major differences between generated segmentations and independent references were observed in areas were vessels enter or leave the liver and no accepted criteria for defining liver boundaries exist. In comparison, slice-by-slice based generation of the independent standard utilizing a live wire tool took 70.1 min on average. A standard 2D segmentation refinement approach applied to all twenty data sets required on average 38.2 min of

  6. Liver segmentation in contrast enhanced CT data using graph cuts and interactive 3D segmentation refinement methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beichel, Reinhard; Bornik, Alexander; Bauer, Christian; Sorantin, Erich

    2012-03-01

    Liver segmentation is an important prerequisite for the assessment of liver cancer treatment options like tumor resection, image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT), radiofrequency ablation, etc. The purpose of this work was to evaluate a new approach for liver segmentation. A graph cuts segmentation method was combined with a three-dimensional virtual reality based segmentation refinement approach. The developed interactive segmentation system allowed the user to manipulate volume chunks and∕or surfaces instead of 2D contours in cross-sectional images (i.e, slice-by-slice). The method was evaluated on twenty routinely acquired portal-phase contrast enhanced multislice computed tomography (CT) data sets. An independent reference was generated by utilizing a currently clinically utilized slice-by-slice segmentation method. After 1 h of introduction to the developed segmentation system, three experts were asked to segment all twenty data sets with the proposed method. Compared to the independent standard, the relative volumetric segmentation overlap error averaged over all three experts and all twenty data sets was 3.74%. Liver segmentation required on average 16 min of user interaction per case. The calculated relative volumetric overlap errors were not found to be significantly different [analysis of variance (ANOVA) test, p = 0.82] between experts who utilized the proposed 3D system. In contrast, the time required by each expert for segmentation was found to be significantly different (ANOVA test, p = 0.0009). Major differences between generated segmentations and independent references were observed in areas were vessels enter or leave the liver and no accepted criteria for defining liver boundaries exist. In comparison, slice-by-slice based generation of the independent standard utilizing a live wire tool took 70.1 min on average. A standard 2D segmentation refinement approach applied to all twenty data sets required on average 38.2 min of user interaction

  7. Leishmania amazonensis promastigotes in 3D Collagen I culture: an in vitro physiological environment for the study of extracellular matrix and host cell interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debora B. Petropolis

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Leishmania amazonensis is the causative agent of American cutaneous leishmaniasis, an important neglected tropical disease. Once Leishmania amazonensis is inoculated into the human host, promastigotes are exposed to the extracellular matrix (ECM of the dermis. However, little is known about the interaction between the ECM and Leishmania promastigotes. In this study we established L. amazonensis promastigote culture in a three-dimensional (3D environment mainly composed of Collagen I (COL I. This 3D culture recreates in vitro some aspects of the human host infection site, enabling the study of the interaction mechanisms of L. amazonensis with the host ECM. Promastigotes exhibited “freeze and run” migration in the 3D COL I matrix, which is completely different from the conventional in vitro swimming mode of migration. Moreover, L. amazonensis promastigotes were able to invade, migrate inside, and remodel the 3D COL I matrix. Promastigote trans-matrix invasion and the freeze and run migration mode were also observed when macrophages were present in the matrix. At least two classes of proteases, metallo- and cysteine proteases, are involved in the 3D COL I matrix degradation caused by Leishmania. Treatment with a mixture of protease inhibitors significantly reduced promastigote invasion and migration through this matrix. Together our results demonstrate that L. amazonensis promastigotes release proteases and actively remodel their 3D environment, facilitating their migration. This raises the possibility that promastigotes actively interact with their 3D environment during the search for their cellular “home”—macrophages. Supporting this hypothesis, promastigotes migrated faster than macrophages in a novel 3D co-culture model.

  8. A novel 3-D bio-microfluidic system mimicking in vivo heterogeneous tumour microstructures reveals complex tumour–stroma interactions

    KAUST Repository

    Fan, Qihui; Liu, Ruchuan; Jiao, Yang; Tian, Chunxiu; Farrell, James D.; Diao, Wenwen; Wang, Xiaochen; Zhang, Fengrong; Yuan, Wei; Han, Haibo; Chen, Jinfeng; Yang, Yue; Zhang, Xixiang; Ye, Fangfu; Li, Ming; Ouyang, Zhongcan; Liu, Liyu

    2017-01-01

    between invasive breast cancer cells and stromal cells. The hollow microchambers in collagen provide a very similar 3-D environment to that in vivo that regulates collective cellular dynamics and behaviour, while the microfluidic channels surrounding

  9. Simulations of ex-vessel fuel coolant interactions in a Nordic BWR using MC3D code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thakre, S.; Ma, W.

    2013-08-01

    Nordic Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs) employ a drywell cavity flooding technique as a nuclear severe accident management strategy. In case of core melt accident where the reactor pressure vessel will fail and the melt will eject from the lower head and fall into a water pool, may be in the form of a continuous jet. It is assumed that the melt jet will fragment, quench and form a coolable debris bed into the water pool. The melt interaction with a water pool may cause an energetic steam explosion which creates a potential risk towards the integrity of containment, leading to fission products release into the atmosphere. The results of the APRI-7 project suggest that the significant damage to containment structures by steam explosion cannot be ruled according to the state-of-the-art knowledge about corresponding accident scenario. In the follow-up project APRI-8 (2012-2016) one of the goals of the KTH research is to resolve the steam explosion energetics (SEE) issue, developing a risk-oriented framework for quantifying conditional threats to containment integrity for a Nordic type BWR. The present study deals with the premixing and explosion phase calculations of a Nordic BWR dry cavity, using MC3D, a multiphase CFD code for fuel coolant interactions. The main goal of the study is the assessment of pressure buildup in the cavity and the impact loading on the side walls. The conditions for the calculations are used from the SERENA-II BWR case exercise. The other objective was to do the sensitivity analysis of the parameters in modeling of fuel coolant interactions, which can help to reduce uncertainty in assessment of steam explosion energetics. The results show that the amount of liquid melt droplets in the water (region of void<0.6) is maximum even before reaching the jet at the bottom. In the explosion phase, maximum pressure is attained at the bottom and the maximum impulse on the wall is at the bottom of the wall. The analysis is carried out using two different

  10. Simulations of ex-vessel fuel coolant interactions in a Nordic BWR using MC3D code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thakre, S.; Ma, W. [Royal Institute of Technology, KTH. Div. of Nuclear Power Safety, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2013-08-15

    Nordic Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs) employ a drywell cavity flooding technique as a nuclear severe accident management strategy. In case of core melt accident where the reactor pressure vessel will fail and the melt will eject from the lower head and fall into a water pool, may be in the form of a continuous jet. It is assumed that the melt jet will fragment, quench and form a coolable debris bed into the water pool. The melt interaction with a water pool may cause an energetic steam explosion which creates a potential risk towards the integrity of containment, leading to fission products release into the atmosphere. The results of the APRI-7 project suggest that the significant damage to containment structures by steam explosion cannot be ruled according to the state-of-the-art knowledge about corresponding accident scenario. In the follow-up project APRI-8 (2012-2016) one of the goals of the KTH research is to resolve the steam explosion energetics (SEE) issue, developing a risk-oriented framework for quantifying conditional threats to containment integrity for a Nordic type BWR. The present study deals with the premixing and explosion phase calculations of a Nordic BWR dry cavity, using MC3D, a multiphase CFD code for fuel coolant interactions. The main goal of the study is the assessment of pressure buildup in the cavity and the impact loading on the side walls. The conditions for the calculations are used from the SERENA-II BWR case exercise. The other objective was to do the sensitivity analysis of the parameters in modeling of fuel coolant interactions, which can help to reduce uncertainty in assessment of steam explosion energetics. The results show that the amount of liquid melt droplets in the water (region of void<0.6) is maximum even before reaching the jet at the bottom. In the explosion phase, maximum pressure is attained at the bottom and the maximum impulse on the wall is at the bottom of the wall. The analysis is carried out using two different

  11. 3D Numerical Model of Continental Breakup via Plume Lithosphere Interaction Near Cratonic Blocks: Implications for the Tanzanian Craton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koptev, A.; Calais, E.; Burov, E. B.; Leroy, S. D.; Gerya, T.

    2014-12-01

    Although many continental rift basins and their successfully rifted counterparts at passive continental margins are magmatic, some are not. This dichotomy prompted end-member views of the mechanism driving continental rifting, deep-seated and mantle plume-driven for some, owing to shallow lithospheric stretching for others. In that regard, the East African Rift (EAR), the 3000 km-long divergent boundary between the Nubian and Somalian plates, provides a unique setting with the juxtaposition of the eastern, magma-rich, and western, magma-poor, branches on either sides of the 250-km thick Tanzanian craton. Here we implement high-resolution rheologically realistic 3D numerical model of plume-lithosphere interactions in extensional far-field settings to explain this contrasted behaviour in a unified framework starting from simple, symmetrical initial conditions with an isolated mantle plume rising beneath a craton in an east-west tensional far field stress. The upwelling mantle plume is deflected by the cratonic keel and preferentially channelled along one of its sides. This leads to the coeval development of a magma-rich branch above the plume head and a magma-poor one along the opposite side of the craton, the formation of a rotating microplate between the two rift branches, and the feeding of melt to both branches form a single mantle source. The model bears strong similarities with the evolution of the eastern and western branches of the central EAR and the geodetically observed rotation of the Victoria microplate. This result reconciles the passive (plume-activated) versus active (far-field tectonic stresses) rift models as our experiments shows both processes in action and demonstrate the possibility of developing both magmatic and amagmatic rifts in identical geotectonic environments.

  12. Enhance the performance of current scoring functions with the aid of 3D protein-ligand interaction fingerprints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Su, Minyi; Liu, Zhihai; Li, Jie; Li, Yan; Wang, Renxiao

    2017-07-18

    In structure-based drug design, binding affinity prediction remains as a challenging goal for current scoring functions. Development of target-biased scoring functions provides a new possibility for tackling this problem, but this approach is also associated with certain technical difficulties. We previously reported the Knowledge-Guided Scoring (KGS) method as an alternative approach (BMC Bioinformatics, 2010, 11, 193-208). The key idea is to compute the binding affinity of a given protein-ligand complex based on the known binding data of an appropriate reference complex, so the error in binding affinity prediction can be reduced effectively. In this study, we have developed an upgraded version, i.e. KGS2, by employing 3D protein-ligand interaction fingerprints in reference selection. KGS2 was evaluated in combination with four scoring functions (X-Score, ChemPLP, ASP, and GoldScore) on five drug targets (HIV-1 protease, carbonic anhydrase 2, beta-secretase 1, beta-trypsin, and checkpoint kinase 1). In the in situ scoring test, considerable improvements were observed in most cases after application of KGS2. Besides, the performance of KGS2 was always better than KGS in all cases. In the more challenging molecular docking test, application of KGS2 also led to improved structure-activity relationship in some cases. KGS2 can be applied as a convenient "add-on" to current scoring functions without the need to re-engineer them, and its application is not limited to certain target proteins as customized scoring functions. As an interpolation method, its accuracy in principle can be improved further with the increasing knowledge of protein-ligand complex structures and binding affinity data. We expect that KGS2 will become a practical tool for enhancing the performance of current scoring functions in binding affinity prediction. The KGS2 software is available upon contacting the authors.

  13. In situ assembly of fibrinogen/hyaluronic acid hydrogel via knob-hole interaction for 3D cellular engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengjie Huang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Hyaluronic acid (HA-based hydrogels have applied widely for biomedical applications due to its biocompatibility and biodegradability. However, the use of initiators or crosslinkers during the hydrogel formation may cause cytotoxicity and thereby impair the biocompatibility. Inspired by the crosslinking mechanism of fibrin gel, a novel HA-based hydrogel was developed via the in situ supramolecular assembly based on knob-hole interactions between fibrinogen and knob-grafted HA (knob-g-HA in this study. The knob-grafted HA was synthesized by coupling knob peptides (GPRPAAC, a mimic peptide of fibrin knob A to HA via Michael addition. Then the translucent fibrinogen/knob-g-HA hydrogels were prepared by simply mixing the solutions of knob-g-HA and fibrinogen at the knob/hole ratio of 1.2. The rheological behaviors of the fibrinogen/knob-g-HA hydrogels with the fibrinogen concentrations of 50, 100 and 200 mg/mL were evaluated, and it was found that the dynamic storage moduli (G′ were higher than the loss moduli (G″ over the whole frequency range for all the groups. The SEM results showed that fibrinogen/knob-g-HA hydrogels presented the heterogeneous mesh-like structures which were different from the honeycomb-like structures of fibrinogen/MA-HA hydrogels. Correspondingly, a higher swelling ratio was obtained in the groups of fibrinogen/knob-g-HA hydrogel. Finally, the cytocompatibility of fibrinogen/knob-g-HA hydrogels was proved by live/dead stainings and MTT assays in the 293T cells encapsulation test. All these results highlight the biological potential of the fibrinogen/knob-g-HA hydrogels for 3D cellular engineering.

  14. 3D Projection Installations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halskov, Kim; Johansen, Stine Liv; Bach Mikkelsen, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Three-dimensional projection installations are particular kinds of augmented spaces in which a digital 3-D model is projected onto a physical three-dimensional object, thereby fusing the digital content and the physical object. Based on interaction design research and media studies, this article ...... Fingerplan to Loop City, is a 3-D projection installation presenting the history and future of city planning for the Copenhagen area in Denmark. The installation was presented as part of the 12th Architecture Biennale in Venice in 2010....

  15. Near-threshold photoionization of the Xe 3d spin-orbit doublet: Relativistic, relaxation, and intershell interaction effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radojevic, V.; Davidovic, D.M.; Amusia, M.Ya.

    2003-01-01

    Results of calculations of the near-threshold photoionization of the xenon 3d spin-orbit doublet are reported. Our theoretical analysis is undertaken in order to interpret and enlighten the very detailed measurements of this process [A. Kivimaeki et al., Phys. Rev. A 63, 012716 (2001)], which revealed a previously unobserved interesting feature--an additional broad maximum--in the partial xenon 3d 5/2 cross section. This double maximum was not produced by earlier calculations, except in the recent study by Amusia et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 093002 (2002)], which, in contrast to the present one, is not ab initio and relativistic in character. The partial photoionization cross sections of 3d 5/2 and 3d 3/2 subshells, photoelectron anisotropy parameters, and spin-polarization parameters that were so far not studied either experimentally or theoretically are calculated. Many-electron correlations, relativistic effects, and relaxation effects of the ionic core in the ionization process are taken into account by using the relativistic random-phase approximation, modified to include the relaxation of the considered subshell

  16. The Avenor Virtual Trainer Project--A 3D Interactive Training Module on Energy Control Procedures: Development and First Validation Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giardina, Max

    This paper examines the implementation of 3D simulation through the development of the Avenor Virtual Trainer and how situated learning and fidelity of model representation become the basis for more effective Interactive Multimedia Training Situations. The discussion will focus of some principles concerned with situated training, simulation,…

  17. Creating and Using Interactive, 3D-Printed Models to Improve Student Comprehension of the Bohr Model of the Atom, Bond Polarity, and Hybridization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smiar, Karen; Mendez, J. D.

    2016-01-01

    Molecular model kits have been used in chemistry classrooms for decades but have seen very little recent innovation. Using 3D printing, three sets of physical models were created for a first semester, introductory chemistry course. Students manipulated these interactive models during class activities as a supplement to existing teaching tools for…

  18. The influence of regulatory fit and interactivity on brand satisfaction and trust in E-health marketing inside 3D virtual worlds (Second Life).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Seung-A Annie; Lee, Kwan Min

    2010-12-01

    Interactive three-dimensional (3D) virtual environments like Second Life have great potential as venues for effective e-health marketing and e-brand management. Drawing from regulatory focus and interactivity literatures, this study examined the effects of the regulatory fit that consumers experience in interactive e-health marketing on their brand satisfaction and brand trust. The results of a two-group comparison experiment conducted within Second Life revealed that consumers in the regulatory fit condition show greater brand satisfaction and brand trust than those in the regulatory misfit condition, thus confirming the persuasive influence of regulatory fit in e-brand management inside 3D virtual worlds. In addition, a structural equation modeling analysis demonstrated the mediating role of consumers' perceived interactivity in explaining the processional link between regulatory fit and brand evaluation. Theoretical contributions and managerial implications of these findings are discussed.

  19. 3D for Graphic Designers

    CERN Document Server

    Connell, Ellery

    2011-01-01

    Helping graphic designers expand their 2D skills into the 3D space The trend in graphic design is towards 3D, with the demand for motion graphics, animation, photorealism, and interactivity rapidly increasing. And with the meteoric rise of iPads, smartphones, and other interactive devices, the design landscape is changing faster than ever.2D digital artists who need a quick and efficient way to join this brave new world will want 3D for Graphic Designers. Readers get hands-on basic training in working in the 3D space, including product design, industrial design and visualization, modeling, ani

  20. INTERACTIVE 3D SYSTEMS OF VIRTUAL REALITY AS ONE OF THE DIRECTIONS FOR EVOLUTION OF DISTANCE LEARNING TECHNOLOGIES IN HIGHER SCOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Д В Сенашенко

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article describes history of 3D virtual interactive technology developing and gives story of it’s using for different business companies and universities. Statistical analysis of target audience is provided. Features of such systems are described. Particularly author mentions functionality and advantages of 3D-systmes as one of long-term distant learning technology during educational program realization and formulates arguments for introduction of this technology to distant education systems of Russian Higher school. Discusses usability of it for distance learning in high school.

  1. 3D Surgical Simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Cevidanes, Lucia; Tucker, Scott; Styner, Martin; Kim, Hyungmin; Chapuis, Jonas; Reyes, Mauricio; Proffit, William; Turvey, Timothy; Jaskolka, Michael

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses the development of methods for computer-aided jaw surgery. Computer-aided jaw surgery allows us to incorporate the high level of precision necessary for transferring virtual plans into the operating room. We also present a complete computer-aided surgery (CAS) system developed in close collaboration with surgeons. Surgery planning and simulation include construction of 3D surface models from Cone-beam CT (CBCT), dynamic cephalometry, semi-automatic mirroring, interactive ...

  2. Software-controlled, highly automated intrafraction prostate motion correction with intrafraction stereographic targeting: System description and clinical results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutanga, Theodore F.; Boer, Hans C. J. de; Rajan, Vinayakrishnan; Dirkx, Maarten L. P.; Os, Marjolein J. H. van; Incrocci, Luca; Heijmen, Ben J. M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: A new system for software-controlled, highly automated correction of intrafraction prostate motion,'' intrafraction stereographic targeting'' (iSGT), is described and evaluated. Methods: At our institute, daily prostate positioning is routinely performed at the start of treatment beam using stereographic targeting (SGT). iSGT was implemented by extension of the SGT software to facilitate fast and accurate intrafraction motion corrections with minimal user interaction. iSGT entails megavoltage (MV) image acquisitions with the first segment of selected IMRT beams, automatic registration of implanted markers, followed by remote couch repositioning to correct for intrafraction motion above a predefined threshold, prior to delivery of the remaining segments. For a group of 120 patients, iSGT with corrections for two nearly lateral beams was evaluated in terms of workload and impact on effective intrafraction displacements in the sagittal plane. Results: SDs of systematic (Σ) and random (σ) displacements relative to the planning CT measured directly after initial SGT setup correction were eff eff eff eff eff eff < 0.7 mm, requiring corrections in 82.4% of the fractions. Because iSGT is highly automated, the extra time added by iSGT is <30 s if a correction is required. Conclusions: Without increasing imaging dose, iSGT successfully reduces intrafraction prostate motion with minimal workload and increase in fraction time. An action level of 2 mm is recommended.

  3. Mean deformation metrics for quantifying 3D cell–matrix interactions without requiring information about matrix material properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stout, David A.; Bar-Kochba, Eyal; Estrada, Jonathan B.; Toyjanova, Jennet; Kesari, Haneesh; Reichner, Jonathan S.; Franck, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Mechanobiology relates cellular processes to mechanical signals, such as determining the effect of variations in matrix stiffness with cell tractions. Cell traction recorded via traction force microscopy (TFM) commonly takes place on materials such as polyacrylamide- and polyethylene glycol-based gels. Such experiments remain limited in physiological relevance because cells natively migrate within complex tissue microenvironments that are spatially heterogeneous and hierarchical. Yet, TFM requires determination of the matrix constitutive law (stress–strain relationship), which is not always readily available. In addition, the currently achievable displacement resolution limits the accuracy of TFM for relatively small cells. To overcome these limitations, and increase the physiological relevance of in vitro experimental design, we present a new approach and a set of associated biomechanical signatures that are based purely on measurements of the matrix's displacements without requiring any knowledge of its constitutive laws. We show that our mean deformation metrics (MDM) approach can provide significant biophysical information without the need to explicitly determine cell tractions. In the process of demonstrating the use of our MDM approach, we succeeded in expanding the capability of our displacement measurement technique such that it can now measure the 3D deformations around relatively small cells (∼10 micrometers), such as neutrophils. Furthermore, we also report previously unseen deformation patterns generated by motile neutrophils in 3D collagen gels. PMID:26929377

  4. Using 3D in Visualization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wood, Jo; Kirschenbauer, Sabine; Döllner, Jürgen

    2005-01-01

    to display 3D imagery. The extra cartographic degree of freedom offered by using 3D is explored and offered as a motivation for employing 3D in visualization. The use of VR and the construction of virtual environments exploit navigational and behavioral realism, but become most usefil when combined...... with abstracted representations embedded in a 3D space. The interactions between development of geovisualization, the technology used to implement it and the theory surrounding cartographic representation are explored. The dominance of computing technologies, driven particularly by the gaming industry...

  5. Synergism of the method of characteristic, R-functions and diffusion solution for accurate representation of 3D neutron interactions in research reactors using the AGENT code system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hursin, Mathieu; Xiao Shanjie; Jevremovic, Tatjana

    2006-01-01

    This paper summarizes the theoretical and numerical aspects of the AGENT code methodology accurately applied for detailed three-dimensional (3D) multigroup steady-state modeling of neutron interactions in complex heterogeneous reactor domains. For the first time we show the fine-mesh neutron scalar flux distribution in Purdue research reactor (that was built over forty years ago). The AGENT methodology is based on the unique combination of the three theories: the method of characteristics (MOC) used to simulate the neutron transport in two-dimensional (2D) whole core heterogeneous calculation, the theory of R-functions used as a mathematical tool to describe the true geometry and fuse with the MOC equations, and one-dimensional (1D) higher-order diffusion correction of 2D transport model to account for full 3D heterogeneous whole core representation. The synergism between the radial 2D transport and the 1D axial transport (to take into account the axial neutron interactions and leakage), called the 2D/1D method (used in DeCART and CHAPLET codes), provides a 3D computational solution. The unique synergism between the AGENT geometrical algorithm capable of modeling any current or future reactor core geometry and 3D neutron transport methodology is described in details. The 3D AGENT accuracy and its efficiency are demonstrated showing the eigenvalues, point-wise flux and reaction rate distributions in representative reactor geometries. The AGENT code, comprising this synergism, represents a building block of the computational system, called the virtual reactor. Its main purpose is to perform 'virtual' experiments and demonstrations of various mainly university research reactor experiments

  6. Intraplaque hemorrhage is associated with higher structural stresses in human atherosclerotic plaques: an in vivo MRI-based 3d fluid-structure interaction study

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Xueying; Teng, Zhongzhao; Canton, Gador; Ferguson, Marina; Yuan, Chun; Tang, Dalin

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Studies using medical images have shown that intraplaque hemorrhage may accelerate plaque progression and may produce a stimulus for atherosclerosis development by increasing lipid core and plaque volume and creating new destabilizing factors. Image-based 3D computational models with fluid-structure interactions (FSI) will be used to perform plaque mechanical analysis and investigate possible associations between intraplaque hemorrhage and both plaque wall stress (PWS) and...

  7. 3D Animation Essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Beane, Andy

    2012-01-01

    The essential fundamentals of 3D animation for aspiring 3D artists 3D is everywhere--video games, movie and television special effects, mobile devices, etc. Many aspiring artists and animators have grown up with 3D and computers, and naturally gravitate to this field as their area of interest. Bringing a blend of studio and classroom experience to offer you thorough coverage of the 3D animation industry, this must-have book shows you what it takes to create compelling and realistic 3D imagery. Serves as the first step to understanding the language of 3D and computer graphics (CG)Covers 3D anim

  8. 3D video

    CERN Document Server

    Lucas, Laurent; Loscos, Céline

    2013-01-01

    While 3D vision has existed for many years, the use of 3D cameras and video-based modeling by the film industry has induced an explosion of interest for 3D acquisition technology, 3D content and 3D displays. As such, 3D video has become one of the new technology trends of this century.The chapters in this book cover a large spectrum of areas connected to 3D video, which are presented both theoretically and technologically, while taking into account both physiological and perceptual aspects. Stepping away from traditional 3D vision, the authors, all currently involved in these areas, provide th

  9. 3D numerical modelling of graben interaction and linkage: a case study of the Canyonlands grabens, Utah

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allken, V.; Huismans, R.S.; Fossen, H.; Thieulot, C.

    2013-01-01

    Graben systems in extensional settings tend to be segmented with evidence of segment interaction. To gain a better understanding of the evolution of structures formed during graben growth and interaction, we here study the Grabens area of Canyonlands National Park, Utah, where a wide range of such

  10. Stroke atlas: a 3D interactive tool correlating cerebrovascular pathology with underlying neuroanatomy and resulting neurological deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowinski, W L; Chua, B C

    2013-02-01

    Understanding stroke-related pathology with underlying neuroanatomy and resulting neurological deficits is critical in education and clinical practice. Moreover, communicating a stroke situation to a patient/family is difficult because of complicated neuroanatomy and pathology. For this purpose, we created a stroke atlas. The atlas correlates localized cerebrovascular pathology with both the resulting disorder and surrounding neuroanatomy. It also provides 3D display both of labeled pathology and freely composed neuroanatomy. Disorders are described in terms of resulting signs, symptoms and syndromes, and they have been compiled for ischemic stroke, hemorrhagic stroke, and cerebral aneurysms. Neuroanatomy, subdivided into 2,000 components including 1,300 vessels, contains cerebrum, cerebellum, brainstem, spinal cord, white matter, deep grey nuclei, arteries, veins, dural sinuses, cranial nerves and tracts. A computer application was developed comprising: 1) anatomy browser with the normal brain atlas (created earlier); 2) simulator of infarcts/hematomas/aneurysms/stenoses; 3) tools to label pathology; 4) cerebrovascular pathology database with lesions and disorders, and resulting signs, symptoms and/or syndromes. The pathology database is populated with 70 lesions compiled from textbooks. The initial view of each pathological site is preset in terms of lesion location, size, surrounding surface and sectional neuroanatomy, and lesion and neuroanatomy labeling. The atlas is useful for medical students, residents, nurses, general practitioners, and stroke clinicians, neuroradiologists and neurologists. It may serve as an aid in patient-doctor communication helping a stroke clinician explain the situation to a patient/family. It also enables a layman to become familiarized with normal brain anatomy and understand what happens in stroke.

  11. An iterative approach to dynamic simulation of 3D rigid body motions for real-time interactive computer animation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overveld, van C.W.A.M.

    1991-01-01

    A method is presented for approximating the motions of linked 3-dimensional rigid body systems that may be applied in the context of interactive motion specification for computer animation. The method is based on decoupling the ballistic (free) component of the motion of the points that constitute

  12. The Hologram in My Hand: How Effective is Interactive Exploration of 3D Visualizations in Immersive Tangible Augmented Reality?

    KAUST Repository

    Bach, Benjamin; Sicat, Ronell; Beyer, Johanna; Cordeil, Maxime; Pfister, Hanspeter

    2017-01-01

    of difficulty for both spatial perception and degrees of freedom for interaction. Our results show that each of the tested environments is more effective for certain tasks, but that generally the desktop environment is still fastest and most precise in almost

  13. Factors controlling the mode of rift interaction in brittle-ductile coupled systems: A 3D numerical study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allken, V.; Huismans, R.S.; Thieulot, C.

    2012-01-01

    The way individual faults and rift segments link up is a fundamental aspect of lithosphere extension and continental break-up. Little is known however about the factors that control the selection of the different modes of rift interaction observed in nature. Here we use state-of-the-art large

  14. Numerical simulations of a 3D fluid-structure interaction model for blood flow in an atherosclerotic artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafi, Oualid; Khatib, Nader El; Tiago, Jorge; Sequeira, Adelia

    2017-02-01

    The inflammatory process of atherosclerosis leads to the formation of an atheromatous plaque in the intima of the blood vessel. The plaque rupture may result from the interaction between the blood and the plaque. In each cardiac cycle, blood interacts with the vessel, considered as a compliant nonlinear hyperelastic. A three dimensional idealized fluid-structure interaction (FSI) model is constructed to perform the blood-plaque and blood-vessel wall interaction studies. An absorbing boundary condition (BC) is imposed directly on the outflow in order to cope with the spurious reflexions due to the truncation of the computational domain. The difference between the Newtonian and non-Newtonian effects is highlighted. It is shown that the von Mises and wall shear stresses are significantly affected according to the rigidity of the wall. The numerical results have shown that the risk of plaque rupture is higher in the case of a moving wall, while in the case of a fixed wall the risk of progression of the atheromatous plaque is higher.

  15. Interaction between the magnetic moments of the 3d and the 4f electrons in manganite, probed by Ga substitution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ling Langsheng; Zhang Lei; Tong Wei; Qu Zhe; Pi Li; Zhang Yuheng

    2012-01-01

    The substitution of Ga for Mn in manganite Nd 0.6 Dy 0.1 Sr 0.3 MnO 3 with a ferromagnetic (FM) ground state has been performed to study the influence of the Mn-sublattice magnetic ordering on the magnetic rare-earth sublattice. It is found that the substitution of Mn 3+ with Ga 3+ ions results in a sharp decrease of T C , reflecting the reduction of the double-exchange interactions strength J Mn–Mn . At the same time, a depinning effect of the rare-earth magnetic moment has been observed. This behavior unambiguously proves that the exchange interaction between Mn and rare-earth ions J Mn–R strongly influences the rare-earth magnetic ordering at temperatures below T C and stabilizes the rare-earth magnetic ground state.

  16. Investigation of 3D Shock-Boundary Layer Interaction: A Combined Approach using Experiments, Numerical Simulations and Stability Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-02

    layer , the non-reflecting boundary condition suggested by Poinsot and Lele is adopted.38 On the flat – plate surface, the no-penetration (v = 0) and the no...Introduction Shock-wave boundary layer interactions (SBLIs) occur in most supersonic flight applications and have been the subject of many studies...generator plate is emulated to create an oblique shock that impinges on the boundary layer causing separation. This is similar to the experimental

  17. IMPLEMENTATION OF 3D TOOLS AND IMMERSIVE EXPERIENCE INTERACTION FOR SUPPORTING LEARNING IN A LIBRARY-ARCHIVE ENVIRONMENT. VISIONS AND CHALLENGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Angeletaki

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present an experimental environment of 3D books combined with a game application that has been developed by a collaboration project between the Norwegian University of Science and Technology in Trondheim, Norway the NTNU University Library, and the Percro laboratory of Santa Anna University in Pisa, Italy. MUBIL is an international research project involving museums, libraries and ICT academy partners aiming to develop a consistent methodology enabling the use of Virtual Environments as a metaphor to present manuscripts content through the paradigms of interaction and immersion, evaluating different possible alternatives. This paper presents the results of the application of two prototypes of books augmented with the use of XVR and IL technology. We explore immersive-reality design strategies in archive and library contexts for attracting new users. Our newly established Mubil-lab has invited school classes to test the books augmented with 3D models and other multimedia content in order to investigate whether the immersion in such environments can create wider engagement and support learning. The metaphor of 3D books and game designs in a combination allows the digital books to be handled through a tactile experience and substitute the physical browsing. In this paper we present some preliminary results about the enrichment of the user experience in such environment.

  18. Implementation of 3d Tools and Immersive Experience Interaction for Supporting Learning in a Library-Archive Environment. Visions and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeletaki, A.; Carrozzino, M.; Johansen, S.

    2013-07-01

    In this paper we present an experimental environment of 3D books combined with a game application that has been developed by a collaboration project between the Norwegian University of Science and Technology in Trondheim, Norway the NTNU University Library, and the Percro laboratory of Santa Anna University in Pisa, Italy. MUBIL is an international research project involving museums, libraries and ICT academy partners aiming to develop a consistent methodology enabling the use of Virtual Environments as a metaphor to present manuscripts content through the paradigms of interaction and immersion, evaluating different possible alternatives. This paper presents the results of the application of two prototypes of books augmented with the use of XVR and IL technology. We explore immersive-reality design strategies in archive and library contexts for attracting new users. Our newly established Mubil-lab has invited school classes to test the books augmented with 3D models and other multimedia content in order to investigate whether the immersion in such environments can create wider engagement and support learning. The metaphor of 3D books and game designs in a combination allows the digital books to be handled through a tactile experience and substitute the physical browsing. In this paper we present some preliminary results about the enrichment of the user experience in such environment.

  19. Hyaluronan (HA) interacting proteins RHAMM and hyaluronidase impact prostate cancer cell behavior and invadopodia formation in 3D HA-based hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurski, Lisa A; Xu, Xian; Labrada, Lyana N; Nguyen, Ngoc T; Xiao, Longxi; van Golen, Kenneth L; Jia, Xinqiao; Farach-Carson, Mary C

    2012-01-01

    To study the individual functions of hyaluronan interacting proteins in prostate cancer (PCa) motility through connective tissues, we developed a novel three-dimensional (3D) hyaluronic acid (HA) hydrogel assay that provides a flexible, quantifiable, and physiologically relevant alternative to current methods. Invasion in this system reflects the prevalence of HA in connective tissues and its role in the promotion of cancer cell motility and tissue invasion, making the system ideal to study invasion through bone marrow or other HA-rich connective tissues. The bio-compatible cross-linking process we used allows for direct encapsulation of cancer cells within the gel where they adopt a distinct, cluster-like morphology. Metastatic PCa cells in these hydrogels develop fingerlike structures, "invadopodia", consistent with their invasive properties. The number of invadopodia, as well as cluster size, shape, and convergence, can provide a quantifiable measure of invasive potential. Among candidate hyaluronan interacting proteins that could be responsible for the behavior we observed, we found that culture in the HA hydrogel triggers invasive PCa cells to differentially express and localize receptor for hyaluronan mediated motility (RHAMM)/CD168 which, in the absence of CD44, appears to contribute to PCa motility and invasion by interacting with the HA hydrogel components. PCa cell invasion through the HA hydrogel also was found to depend on the activity of hyaluronidases. Studies shown here reveal that while hyaluronidase activity is necessary for invadopodia and inter-connecting cluster formation, activity alone is not sufficient for acquisition of invasiveness to occur. We therefore suggest that development of invasive behavior in 3D HA-based systems requires development of additional cellular features, such as activation of motility associated pathways that regulate formation of invadopodia. Thus, we report development of a 3D system amenable to dissection of

  20. Independent components analysis coupled with 3D-front-face fluorescence spectroscopy to study the interaction between plastic food packaging and olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassouf, Amine; El Rakwe, Maria; Chebib, Hanna; Ducruet, Violette; Rutledge, Douglas N; Maalouly, Jacqueline

    2014-08-11

    Olive oil is one of the most valued sources of fats in the Mediterranean diet. Its storage was generally done using glass or metallic packaging materials. Nowadays, plastic packaging has gained worldwide spread for the storage of olive oil. However, plastics are not inert and interaction phenomena may occur between packaging materials and olive oil. In this study, extra virgin olive oil samples were submitted to accelerated interaction conditions, in contact with polypropylene (PP) and polylactide (PLA) plastic packaging materials. 3D-front-face fluorescence spectroscopy, being a simple, fast and non destructive analytical technique, was used to study this interaction. Independent components analysis (ICA) was used to analyze raw 3D-front-face fluorescence spectra of olive oil. ICA was able to highlight a probable effect of a migration of substances with antioxidant activity. The signals extracted by ICA corresponded to natural olive oil fluorophores (tocopherols and polyphenols) as well as newly formed ones which were tentatively identified as fluorescent oxidation products. Based on the extracted fluorescent signals, olive oil in contact with plastics had slower aging rates in comparison with reference oils. Peroxide and free acidity values validated the results obtained by ICA, related to olive oil oxidation rates. Sorbed olive oil in plastic was also quantified given that this sorption could induce a swelling of the polymer thus promoting migration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Precise Steric Control over 2D versus 3D Self-Assembly of Antimony(III) Alkoxide Cages through Strong Secondary Bonding Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moaven, Shiva; Yu, Jingze; Yasin, Jason; Unruh, Daniel K; Cozzolino, Anthony F

    2017-07-17

    Antimony(III) alkoxide cages were designed as building blocks for predictable supramolecular self-assembly. Supramolecular synthons featuring two Sb···O secondary bonding interactions (SBIs), each SBI stronger than 30 kJ/mol, were used to drive the formation of the supramolecular architectures. Judicious choice of pendant groups provided predictable control over the formation of self-assembled 3D columnar helices, which crystallized with hollow morphologies, or a self-assembled 2D bilayer. The Sb-O stretching frequency provides a spectroscopic signature of Sb···O SBI formation.

  2. Saturn's Magnetosphere Interaction with Titan for T9 Encounter: 3D Hybrid Modeling and Comparison with CAPS Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipatov, A. S.; Sittler, E. C., Jr.; Hartle, R. E.; Cooper, J. F.; Simpson, D. G.

    2011-01-01

    Global dynamics of ionized and neutral gases in the environment of Titan plays an important role in the interaction of Saturn s magnetosphere with Titan. Several hybrid simulations of this problem have already been done (Brecht et al., 2000; Kallio et al., 2004; Modolo et al., 2007a; Simon et al., 2007a, 2007b; Modolo and Chanteur, 2008). Observational data from CAPS for the T9 encounter (Sittler et al., 2009) indicates an absence of O(+) heavy ions in the upstream that change the models of interaction which were discussed in current publications (Kallio et al., 2004; Modolo et al., 2007a; Simon et al., 2007a, 2007b; Ma et al., 2007; Szego et al., 2007). Further analysis of the CAPS data shows very low density or even an absence of H(+) ions in upstream. In this paper we discuss two models of the interaction of Saturn s magnetosphere with Titan: (A) high density of H(+) ions in the upstream flow (0.1/cu cm), and (B) low density of H(+) ions in the upstream flow (0.02/cu cm). The hybrid model employs a fluid description for electrons and neutrals, whereas a particle approach is used for ions. We also take into account charge-exchange and photoionization processes and solve self-consistently for electric and magnetic fields. The model atmosphere includes exospheric H(+), H(2+), N(2+)and CH(4+) pickup ion production as well as an immobile background ionosphere and a shell distribution for active ionospheric ions (M(sub i)=28 amu). The hybrid model allows us to account for the realistic anisotropic ion velocity distribution that cannot be done in fluid simulations with isotropic temperatures. Our simulation shows an asymmetry of the ion density distribution and the magnetic field, including the formation of Alfven wing-like structures. The results of the ion dynamics in Titan s environment are compared with Cassini T9 encounter data (CAPS).

  3. 3D Surgical Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cevidanes, Lucia; Tucker, Scott; Styner, Martin; Kim, Hyungmin; Chapuis, Jonas; Reyes, Mauricio; Proffit, William; Turvey, Timothy; Jaskolka, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the development of methods for computer-aided jaw surgery. Computer-aided jaw surgery allows us to incorporate the high level of precision necessary for transferring virtual plans into the operating room. We also present a complete computer-aided surgery (CAS) system developed in close collaboration with surgeons. Surgery planning and simulation include construction of 3D surface models from Cone-beam CT (CBCT), dynamic cephalometry, semi-automatic mirroring, interactive cutting of bone and bony segment repositioning. A virtual setup can be used to manufacture positioning splints for intra-operative guidance. The system provides further intra-operative assistance with the help of a computer display showing jaw positions and 3D positioning guides updated in real-time during the surgical procedure. The CAS system aids in dealing with complex cases with benefits for the patient, with surgical practice, and for orthodontic finishing. Advanced software tools for diagnosis and treatment planning allow preparation of detailed operative plans, osteotomy repositioning, bone reconstructions, surgical resident training and assessing the difficulties of the surgical procedures prior to the surgery. CAS has the potential to make the elaboration of the surgical plan a more flexible process, increase the level of detail and accuracy of the plan, yield higher operative precision and control, and enhance documentation of cases. Supported by NIDCR DE017727, and DE018962 PMID:20816308

  4. ARC+(Registered Trademark) and ARC PC Welding Simulators: Teach Welders with Virtual Interactive 3D Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choquet, Claude

    2011-01-01

    123 Certification Inc., a Montreal based company, has developed an innovative hands-on welding simulator solution to help build the welding workforce in the most simple way. The solution lies in virtual reality technology, which has been fully tested since the early 90's. President and founder of 123 Certification Inc., Mr. Claude Choquet Ing. Msc. IWE. acts as a bridge between the welding and the programming world. Working in these fields for more than 20 years. he has filed 12 patents world-wide for a gesture control platform with leading edge hardware related to simulation. In the summer of 2006. Mr Choquet was proud to be invited to the annual IIW International Weld ing Congress in Quebec City to launch the ARC+ welding simulator. A 100% virtual reality system and web based training center was developed to simulate multi process. multi-materiaL multi-position and multi pass welding. The simulator is intended to train welding students and apprentices in schools or industries. The welding simulator is composed of a real welding e[eetrode holder (SMAW-GTAW) and gun (GMAW-FCAW). a head mounted display (HMD), a 6 degrees of freedom tracking system for interaction between the user's hands and head. as well as external audio speakers. Both guns and HMD are interacting online and simultaneously. The welding simulation is based on the law of physics and empirical results from detailed analysis of a series of welding tests based on industrial applications tested over the last 20 years. The simulation runs in real-time, using a local logic network to determine the quality and shape of the created weld. These results are based on the orientation distance. and speed of the welding torch and depth of penetration. The welding process and resulting weld bc.1d are displayed in a virtual environment with screenplay interactive training modules. For review. weld quality and recorded process values can be displayed and diagnosed after welding. To help in the le.tming process, a

  5. Interactive registration of 2D histology and 3D CT data for assessment of radiofrequency ablation treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Seise

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Histological investigation of a lesion induced by radiofrequency ablation (RFA treatment provides ground-truth about the true lesion size, thus verifying the success or failure of the RFA treatment. This work presents a framework for registration of two-dimensional large-scale histological sections and three-dimensional CT data typically used to guide the RFA intervention. The focus is on the developed interactive methods for reconstruction of the histological volume data by fusion of histological and high-resolution CT (MicroCT data and registration into CT data based on natural feature points. The framework is evaluated using RFA interventions in a porcine liver and applying medically relevant metrics. The results of registration are within clinically required precision targets; thus the developed methods are suitable for validation of the RFA treatment.

  6. Interaction of intermetallic compounds formed by rare earths, scandium, yttrium and 3d-transition metals, with gaseous ammonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shilkin, S.P.; Volkova, L.S.

    1992-01-01

    Interaction of the RT n intermetallic compounds, where R Sc, Y, rare earths, T = Fe, Co, Ni; n = 2,3,5, with gaseous ammonia under pressure of 1MPa and at temperatures of 293, 723 and 798 K is studied. It is established on the basis of roentgenographic studied, chemical analysis data, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and specific surface measurements that metallic matrixes of intermetallides decompose into nitrides and transition metal phases at temperatures of 723 and 798 K under effect of ammonia and independent of structural types of the source materials; partial or complete decomposition of intermetallides through ammonia with formation of transition metal mixture, binary hydrides and nitrides of the most electropositive metal the above systems occurs at the temperature of 293 K depending on the heat of the source compounds and their tendency to decomposition under ammonia effect

  7. The GPlates Portal: Cloud-Based Interactive 3D Visualization of Global Geophysical and Geological Data in a Web Browser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, R Dietmar; Qin, Xiaodong; Sandwell, David T; Dutkiewicz, Adriana; Williams, Simon E; Flament, Nicolas; Maus, Stefan; Seton, Maria

    2016-01-01

    The pace of scientific discovery is being transformed by the availability of 'big data' and open access, open source software tools. These innovations open up new avenues for how scientists communicate and share data and ideas with each other and with the general public. Here, we describe our efforts to bring to life our studies of the Earth system, both at present day and through deep geological time. The GPlates Portal (portal.gplates.org) is a gateway to a series of virtual globes based on the Cesium Javascript library. The portal allows fast interactive visualization of global geophysical and geological data sets, draped over digital terrain models. The globes use WebGL for hardware-accelerated graphics and are cross-platform and cross-browser compatible with complete camera control. The globes include a visualization of a high-resolution global digital elevation model and the vertical gradient of the global gravity field, highlighting small-scale seafloor fabric such as abyssal hills, fracture zones and seamounts in unprecedented detail. The portal also features globes portraying seafloor geology and a global data set of marine magnetic anomaly identifications. The portal is specifically designed to visualize models of the Earth through geological time. These space-time globes include tectonic reconstructions of the Earth's gravity and magnetic fields, and several models of long-wavelength surface dynamic topography through time, including the interactive plotting of vertical motion histories at selected locations. The globes put the on-the-fly visualization of massive data sets at the fingertips of end-users to stimulate teaching and learning and novel avenues of inquiry.

  8. The GPlates Portal: Cloud-Based Interactive 3D Visualization of Global Geophysical and Geological Data in a Web Browser.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Dietmar Müller

    Full Text Available The pace of scientific discovery is being transformed by the availability of 'big data' and open access, open source software tools. These innovations open up new avenues for how scientists communicate and share data and ideas with each other and with the general public. Here, we describe our efforts to bring to life our studies of the Earth system, both at present day and through deep geological time. The GPlates Portal (portal.gplates.org is a gateway to a series of virtual globes based on the Cesium Javascript library. The portal allows fast interactive visualization of global geophysical and geological data sets, draped over digital terrain models. The globes use WebGL for hardware-accelerated graphics and are cross-platform and cross-browser compatible with complete camera control. The globes include a visualization of a high-resolution global digital elevation model and the vertical gradient of the global gravity field, highlighting small-scale seafloor fabric such as abyssal hills, fracture zones and seamounts in unprecedented detail. The portal also features globes portraying seafloor geology and a global data set of marine magnetic anomaly identifications. The portal is specifically designed to visualize models of the Earth through geological time. These space-time globes include tectonic reconstructions of the Earth's gravity and magnetic fields, and several models of long-wavelength surface dynamic topography through time, including the interactive plotting of vertical motion histories at selected locations. The globes put the on-the-fly visualization of massive data sets at the fingertips of end-users to stimulate teaching and learning and novel avenues of inquiry.

  9. 3D Fluid-Structure Interaction Simulation of Aortic Valves Using a Unified Continuum ALE FEM Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeannette H. Spühler

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Due to advances in medical imaging, computational fluid dynamics algorithms and high performance computing, computer simulation is developing into an important tool for understanding the relationship between cardiovascular diseases and intraventricular blood flow. The field of cardiac flow simulation is challenging and highly interdisciplinary. We apply a computational framework for automated solutions of partial differential equations using Finite Element Methods where any mathematical description directly can be translated to code. This allows us to develop a cardiac model where specific properties of the heart such as fluid-structure interaction of the aortic valve can be added in a modular way without extensive efforts. In previous work, we simulated the blood flow in the left ventricle of the heart. In this paper, we extend this model by placing prototypes of both a native and a mechanical aortic valve in the outflow region of the left ventricle. Numerical simulation of the blood flow in the vicinity of the valve offers the possibility to improve the treatment of aortic valve diseases as aortic stenosis (narrowing of the valve opening or regurgitation (leaking and to optimize the design of prosthetic heart valves in a controlled and specific way. The fluid-structure interaction and contact problem are formulated in a unified continuum model using the conservation laws for mass and momentum and a phase function. The discretization is based on an Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian space-time finite element method with streamline diffusion stabilization, and it is implemented in the open source software Unicorn which shows near optimal scaling up to thousands of cores. Computational results are presented to demonstrate the capability of our framework.

  10. 3D Fluid-Structure Interaction Simulation of Aortic Valves Using a Unified Continuum ALE FEM Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spühler, Jeannette H; Jansson, Johan; Jansson, Niclas; Hoffman, Johan

    2018-01-01

    Due to advances in medical imaging, computational fluid dynamics algorithms and high performance computing, computer simulation is developing into an important tool for understanding the relationship between cardiovascular diseases and intraventricular blood flow. The field of cardiac flow simulation is challenging and highly interdisciplinary. We apply a computational framework for automated solutions of partial differential equations using Finite Element Methods where any mathematical description directly can be translated to code. This allows us to develop a cardiac model where specific properties of the heart such as fluid-structure interaction of the aortic valve can be added in a modular way without extensive efforts. In previous work, we simulated the blood flow in the left ventricle of the heart. In this paper, we extend this model by placing prototypes of both a native and a mechanical aortic valve in the outflow region of the left ventricle. Numerical simulation of the blood flow in the vicinity of the valve offers the possibility to improve the treatment of aortic valve diseases as aortic stenosis (narrowing of the valve opening) or regurgitation (leaking) and to optimize the design of prosthetic heart valves in a controlled and specific way. The fluid-structure interaction and contact problem are formulated in a unified continuum model using the conservation laws for mass and momentum and a phase function. The discretization is based on an Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian space-time finite element method with streamline diffusion stabilization, and it is implemented in the open source software Unicorn which shows near optimal scaling up to thousands of cores. Computational results are presented to demonstrate the capability of our framework.

  11. Crossing Phenomena in Overhead Line Equipment (OHLE) Structure in 3D Space Considering Soil-Structure Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngamkhanong, Chayut; Kaewunruen, Sakdirat; Baniotopoulos, Charalampos; Papaelias, Mayorkinos

    2017-10-01

    Nowadays, the electric train becomes one of the efficient railway systems that are lighter, cleaner, quieter, cheaper and faster than a conventional train. Overhead line equipment (OHLE), which supplies electric power to the trains, is designed on the principle of overhead wires placed over the railway track. The OHLE is supported by mast structure which located at the lineside along the track. Normally, mast structure is a steel column or truss structure which supports the overhead wire carrying the power. Due to the running train and severe periodic force, such as an earthquake, in surrounding area may cause damage to the OHLE structure especially mast structure which leads to the failure of the electrical system. The mast structure needs to be discussed in order to resist the random forces. Due to the vibration effect, the natural frequencies of the structure are necessary. This is because when the external applied force occurs within a range of frequency of the structure, resonance effect can be expected which lead to the large oscillations and deflections. The natural frequency of a system is dependent only on the stiffness of the structure and the mass which participates with the structure, including self-weight. The modal analysis is used in order to calculate the mode shapes and natural frequencies of the mast structure during free vibration. A mast structure with varying rotational soil stiffness is used to observe the influence of soil-structure action. It is common to use finite element analysis to perform a modal analysis. This paper presents the fundamental mode shapes, natural frequencies and crossing phenomena of three-dimensional mast structure considering soil-structure interaction. The sensitivity of mode shapes to the variation of soil-structure interaction is discussed. The outcome of this study will improve the understanding of the fundamental dynamic behaviour of the mast structure which supports the OHLE. Moreover, this study will be a

  12. Open 3D Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felician ALECU

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Many professionals and 3D artists consider Blender as being the best open source solution for 3D computer graphics. The main features are related to modeling, rendering, shading, imaging, compositing, animation, physics and particles and realtime 3D/game creation.

  13. Predictive 3D modelling of the interactions of pyrethroids with the voltage-gated sodium channels of ticks and mites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Andrias O; Williamson, Martin S; González-Cabrera, Joel; Turberg, Andreas; Field, Linda M; Wallace, B A; Davies, T G Emyr

    2014-03-01

    The pyrethroid insecticides are a very successful group of compounds that target invertebrate voltage-gated sodium channels and are widely used in the control of insects, ticks and mites. It is well established that some pyrethroids are good insecticides whereas others are more effective as acaricides. This species specificity is advantageous for controlling particular pest(s) in the presence of another non-target invertebrate, for example controlling the Varroa mite in honeybee colonies. We applied in silico techniques to compare the voltage-gated sodium channels of insects versus ticks and mites and their interactions with a range of pyrethroids and DDT analogues. We identified a single amino acid difference within the pyrethroid binding pocket of ticks/mites that may have significant impact on the effectiveness of pyrethroids as acaricides. Other individual amino acid differences within the binding pocket in distinct tick and mite species may provide a basis for future acaricidal selectivity. Three-dimensional modelling of the pyrethroid/DDT receptor site has led to a new hypothesis to explain the preferential binding of acaricidal pyrethroids to the sodium channels of ticks/mites. This is important for understanding pyrethroid selectivity and the potential effects of mutations that can give rise to resistance to pyrethroids in commercially-important pest species. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Simulation of 3D parachute fluid–structure interaction based on nonlinear finite element method and preconditioning finite volume method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Yuxin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A fluid–structure interaction method combining a nonlinear finite element algorithm with a preconditioning finite volume method is proposed in this paper to simulate parachute transient dynamics. This method uses a three-dimensional membrane–cable fabric model to represent a parachute system at a highly folded configuration. The large shape change during parachute inflation is computed by the nonlinear Newton–Raphson iteration and the linear system equation is solved by the generalized minimal residual (GMRES method. A membrane wrinkling algorithm is also utilized to evaluate the special uniaxial tension state of membrane elements on the parachute canopy. In order to avoid large time expenses during structural nonlinear iteration, the implicit Hilber–Hughes–Taylor (HHT time integration method is employed. For the fluid dynamic simulations, the Roe and HLLC (Harten–Lax–van Leer contact scheme has been modified and extended to compute flow problems at all speeds. The lower–upper symmetric Gauss–Seidel (LU-SGS approximate factorization is applied to accelerate the numerical convergence speed. Finally, the test model of a highly folded C-9 parachute is simulated at a prescribed speed and the results show similar characteristics compared with experimental results and previous literature.

  15. NASA's "Eyes On The Solar System:" A Real-time, 3D-Interactive Tool to Teach the Wonder of Planetary Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussey, K.

    2014-12-01

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory is using video game technology to immerse students, the general public and mission personnel in our solar system and beyond. "Eyes on the Solar System," a cross-platform, real-time, 3D-interactive application that can run on-line or as a stand-alone "video game," is of particular interest to educators looking for inviting tools to capture students interest in a format they like and understand. (eyes.nasa.gov). It gives users an extraordinary view of our solar system by virtually transporting them across space and time to make first-person observations of spacecraft, planetary bodies and NASA/ESA missions in action. Key scientific results illustrated with video presentations, supporting imagery and web links are imbedded contextually into the solar system. Educators who want an interactive, game-based approach to engage students in learning Planetary Science will see how "Eyes" can be effectively used to teach its principles to grades 3 through 14.The presentation will include a detailed demonstration of the software along with a description/demonstration of how this technology is being adapted for education. There will also be a preview of coming attractions. This work is being conducted by the Visualization Technology Applications and Development Group at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, the same team responsible for "Eyes on the Earth 3D," and "Eyes on Exoplanets," which can be viewed at eyes.nasa.gov/earth and eyes.nasa.gov/exoplanets.

  16. Use of the ARM Measurements of Spectral Zenith Radiance for Better Understanding of 3D Cloud-Radiation Processes & Aerosol-Cloud Interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander Marshak; Warren Wiscombe; Yuri Knyazikhin; Christine Chiu

    2011-05-24

    We proposed a variety of tasks centered on the following question: what can we learn about 3D cloud-radiation processes and aerosol-cloud interaction from rapid-sampling ARM measurements of spectral zenith radiance? These ARM measurements offer spectacular new and largely unexploited capabilities in both the temporal and spectral domains. Unlike most other ARM instruments, which average over many seconds or take samples many seconds apart, the new spectral zenith radiance measurements are fast enough to resolve natural time scales of cloud change and cloud boundaries as well as the transition zone between cloudy and clear areas. In the case of the shortwave spectrometer, the measurements offer high time resolution and high spectral resolution, allowing new discovery-oriented science which we intend to pursue vigorously. Research objectives are, for convenience, grouped under three themes: • Understand radiative signature of the transition zone between cloud-free and cloudy areas using data from ARM shortwave radiometers, which has major climatic consequences in both aerosol direct and indirect effect studies. • Provide cloud property retrievals from the ARM sites and the ARM Mobile Facility for studies of aerosol-cloud interactions. • Assess impact of 3D cloud structures on aerosol properties using passive and active remote sensing techniques from both ARM and satellite measurements.

  17. Fluid-Structure Interaction Analysis of Papillary Muscle Forces Using a Comprehensive Mitral Valve Model with 3D Chordal Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toma, Milan; Jensen, Morten Ø; Einstein, Daniel R; Yoganathan, Ajit P; Cochran, Richard P; Kunzelman, Karyn S

    2016-04-01

    Numerical models of native heart valves are being used to study valve biomechanics to aid design and development of repair procedures and replacement devices. These models have evolved from simple two-dimensional approximations to complex three-dimensional, fully coupled fluid-structure interaction (FSI) systems. Such simulations are useful for predicting the mechanical and hemodynamic loading on implanted valve devices. A current challenge for improving the accuracy of these predictions is choosing and implementing modeling boundary conditions. In order to address this challenge, we are utilizing an advanced in vitro system to validate FSI conditions for the mitral valve system. Explanted ovine mitral valves were mounted in an in vitro setup, and structural data for the mitral valve was acquired with [Formula: see text]CT. Experimental data from the in vitro ovine mitral valve system were used to validate the computational model. As the valve closes, the hemodynamic data, high speed leaflet dynamics, and force vectors from the in vitro system were compared to the results of the FSI simulation computational model. The total force of 2.6 N per papillary muscle is matched by the computational model. In vitro and in vivo force measurements enable validating and adjusting material parameters to improve the accuracy of computational models. The simulations can then be used to answer questions that are otherwise not possible to investigate experimentally. This work is important to maximize the validity of computational models of not just the mitral valve, but any biomechanical aspect using computational simulation in designing medical devices.

  18. Alpha5beta1 integrin-fibronectin interactions specify liquid to solid phase transition of 3D cellular aggregates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos E Caicedo-Carvajal

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Tissue organization during embryonic development and wound healing depends on the ability of cells on the one hand to exchange adhesive bonds during active rearrangement and on the other to become fixed in place as tissue homeostasis is reached. Cells achieve these contradictory tasks by regulating either cell-cell adhesive bonds, mediated by cadherins, or cell-extracellular matrix (ECM connections, regulated by integrins. Integrin alpha5beta1 and soluble fibronectin (sFN are key players in cell-ECM force generation and in ECM polymerization. Here, we explore the interplay between integrin alpha5beta1 and sFN and its influence on tissue mechanical properties and cell sorting behavior.We generated a series of cell lines varying in alpha5beta1 receptor density. We then systematically explored the effects of different sFN concentrations on aggregate biomechanical properties using tissue surface tensiometry. We found previously unreported complex behaviors including the observation that interactions between fibronectin and integrin alpha5beta1 generates biphasic tissue cohesion profiles. Specifically, we show that at constant sFn concentration, aggregate cohesion increases linearly as alpha5beta1 receptor density is increased from low to moderate levels, producing a transition from viscoelastic-liquid to pseudo viscoelastic-solid behavior. However, further increase in receptor density causes an abrupt drop in tissue cohesion and a transition back to viscoelastic-liquid properties. We propose that this may be due to depletion of sFn below a critical value in the aggregate microenvironment at high alpha5beta1 levels. We also show that differential expression of alpha5beta1 integrin can promote phase-separation between cells.The interplay between alpha5-integrin and sFn contributes significantly to tissue cohesion and, depending on their level of expression, can mediate a shift from liquid to elastic behavior. This interplay represents a tunable level

  19. YouDash3D: exploring stereoscopic 3D gaming for 3D movie theaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schild, Jonas; Seele, Sven; Masuch, Maic

    2012-03-01

    Along with the success of the digitally revived stereoscopic cinema, events beyond 3D movies become attractive for movie theater operators, i.e. interactive 3D games. In this paper, we present a case that explores possible challenges and solutions for interactive 3D games to be played by a movie theater audience. We analyze the setting and showcase current issues related to lighting and interaction. Our second focus is to provide gameplay mechanics that make special use of stereoscopy, especially depth-based game design. Based on these results, we present YouDash3D, a game prototype that explores public stereoscopic gameplay in a reduced kiosk setup. It features live 3D HD video stream of a professional stereo camera rig rendered in a real-time game scene. We use the effect to place the stereoscopic effigies of players into the digital game. The game showcases how stereoscopic vision can provide for a novel depth-based game mechanic. Projected trigger zones and distributed clusters of the audience video allow for easy adaptation to larger audiences and 3D movie theater gaming.

  20. Discovering new methods of data fusion, visualization, and analysis in 3D immersive environments for hyperspectral and laser altimetry data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, C. A.; Gertman, V.; Olsoy, P.; Mitchell, J.; Glenn, N. F.; Joshi, A.; Norpchen, D.; Shrestha, R.; Pernice, M.; Spaete, L.; Grover, S.; Whiting, E.; Lee, R.

    2011-12-01

    Immersive virtual reality environments such as the IQ-Station or CAVE° (Cave Automated Virtual Environment) offer new and exciting ways to visualize and explore scientific data and are powerful research and educational tools. Combining remote sensing data from a range of sensor platforms in immersive 3D environments can enhance the spectral, textural, spatial, and temporal attributes of the data, which enables scientists to interact and analyze the data in ways never before possible. Visualization and analysis of large remote sensing datasets in immersive environments requires software customization for integrating LiDAR point cloud data with hyperspectral raster imagery, the generation of quantitative tools for multidimensional analysis, and the development of methods to capture 3D visualizations for stereographic playback. This study uses hyperspectral and LiDAR data acquired over the China Hat geologic study area near Soda Springs, Idaho, USA. The data are fused into a 3D image cube for interactive data exploration and several methods of recording and playback are investigated that include: 1) creating and implementing a Virtual Reality User Interface (VRUI) patch configuration file to enable recording and playback of VRUI interactive sessions within the CAVE and 2) using the LiDAR and hyperspectral remote sensing data and GIS data to create an ArcScene 3D animated flyover, where left- and right-eye visuals are captured from two independent monitors for playback in a stereoscopic player. These visualizations can be used as outreach tools to demonstrate how integrated data and geotechnology techniques can help scientists see, explore, and more adequately comprehend scientific phenomena, both real and abstract.

  1. Map Learning with a 3D Printed Interactive Small-Scale Model: Improvement of Space and Text Memorization in Visually Impaired Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphanie Giraud

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Special education teachers for visually impaired students rely on tools such as raised-line maps (RLMs to teach spatial knowledge. These tools do not fully and adequately meet the needs of the teachers because they are long to produce, expensive, and not versatile enough to provide rapid updating of the content. For instance, the same RLM can barely be used during different lessons. In addition, those maps do not provide any interactivity, which reduces students’ autonomy. With the emergence of 3D printing and low-cost microcontrollers, it is now easy to design affordable interactive small-scale models (SSMs which are adapted to the needs of special education teachers. However, no study has previously been conducted to evaluate non-visual learning using interactive SSMs. In collaboration with a specialized teacher, we designed a SSM and a RLM representing the evolution of the geography and history of a fictitious kingdom. The two conditions were compared in a study with 24 visually impaired students regarding the memorization of the spatial layout and historical contents. The study showed that the interactive SSM improved both space and text memorization as compared to the RLM with braille legend. In conclusion, we argue that affordable home-made interactive small scale models can improve learning for visually impaired students. Interestingly, they are adaptable to any teaching situation including students with specific needs.

  2. Map Learning with a 3D Printed Interactive Small-Scale Model: Improvement of Space and Text Memorization in Visually Impaired Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraud, Stéphanie; Brock, Anke M; Macé, Marc J-M; Jouffrais, Christophe

    2017-01-01

    Special education teachers for visually impaired students rely on tools such as raised-line maps (RLMs) to teach spatial knowledge. These tools do not fully and adequately meet the needs of the teachers because they are long to produce, expensive, and not versatile enough to provide rapid updating of the content. For instance, the same RLM can barely be used during different lessons. In addition, those maps do not provide any interactivity, which reduces students' autonomy. With the emergence of 3D printing and low-cost microcontrollers, it is now easy to design affordable interactive small-scale models (SSMs) which are adapted to the needs of special education teachers. However, no study has previously been conducted to evaluate non-visual learning using interactive SSMs. In collaboration with a specialized teacher, we designed a SSM and a RLM representing the evolution of the geography and history of a fictitious kingdom. The two conditions were compared in a study with 24 visually impaired students regarding the memorization of the spatial layout and historical contents. The study showed that the interactive SSM improved both space and text memorization as compared to the RLM with braille legend. In conclusion, we argue that affordable home-made interactive small scale models can improve learning for visually impaired students. Interestingly, they are adaptable to any teaching situation including students with specific needs.

  3. The Virtual 3D Reconstruction of the East Pediment of the Temple of Zeus at Olympia – Presentation of an Interactive CD-ROM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    András PATAY-HORVÁTH Patay-Horváth

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives an overview of a two-years project concerning a major monument of ancient Greek art and presents the interactive, bilingual (English/Hungarian CD-ROM, which is intended to summarize and visualize its final results. The presented project approaches a century-old controversy in a new way by producing a virtual 3D reconstruction of a monumental marble group. Digital models of the statues were produced by scanning the original fragments and by reconstructing them virtually. The virtual model of the pediment surrounding the sculptures was prepared on the basis of the latest architectural studies and afterwards the reconstructed models were inserted in this frame, in order to test the technical feasibility and aesthetic effects the four possible arrangements. The resulting models enable easy and very instructive experimentation, which would be otherwise impossible with the originals and/or very expensive and not very practicable with traditional tools (e.g. real-size plaster models. The complete model can effectively be used to verify the results of earlier or more recent reconstructions presented only in simple drawings. In addition, the 3D models of the individual fragments can be used for further research and for visualization.  The documentary CD-ROM presenting the full background, the methods and the conclusions of the project contains beside a comprehensive text various kinds of supporting documents (images, 3D models, papers, broadcasts, audiovisual material. It is addressed to a mixed audience: a picture gallery, a short documentary movie some other attachments including a selected bibliography is intended for the general public, but scholarly publications, presentations on related problems are also included for specialists interested in certain details.

  4. Role of Magnetic Exchange Interactions in the Magnetization Relaxation of {3d-4f} Single-Molecule Magnets: A Theoretical Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Saurabh Kumar; Beg, Mohammad Faizan; Rajaraman, Gopalan

    2016-01-11

    Combined density functional and ab initio calculations are performed on two isomorphous tetranuclear {Ni3 (III) Ln(III) } star-type complexes [Ln=Gd (1), Dy (2)] to shed light on the mechanism of magnetic exchange in 1 and the origin of the slow magnetization relaxation in complex 2. DFT calculations correctly reproduce the sign and magnitude of the J values compared to the experiments for complex 1. Acute ∢Ni-O-Gd bond angles present in 1 instigate a significant interaction between the 4fxyz orbital of the Gd(III) ion and 3d${{_{x{^{2}}- y{^{2}}}}}$ orbital of the Ni(II) ions, leading to rare and strong antiferromagnetic Ni⋅⋅⋅Gd interactions. Calculations reveal the presence of a strong next-nearest-neighbour Ni⋅⋅⋅Ni antiferromagnetic interaction in complex 1 leading to spin frustration behavior. CASSCF+RASSI-SO calculations performed on complex 2 suggest that the octahedral environment around the Dy(III) ion is neither strong enough to stabilize the mJ |±15/2〉 as the ground state nor able to achieve a large ground-state-first-excited-state gap. The ground-state Kramers doublet for the Dy(III) ion is found to be the mJ |±13/2〉 state with a significant transverse anisotropy, leading to very strong quantum tunneling of magnetization (QTM). Using the POLY_ANISO program, we have extracted the JNiDy interaction as -1.45 cm(-1) . The strong Ni⋅⋅⋅Dy and next-nearest-neighbour Ni⋅⋅⋅Ni interactions are found to quench the QTM to a certain extent, resulting in zero-field SMM behavior for complex 2. The absence of any ac signals at zero field for the structurally similar [Dy(AlMe4 )3 ] highlights the importance of both the Ni⋅⋅⋅Dy and the Ni⋅⋅⋅Ni interactions in the magnetization relaxation of complex 2. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that the roles of both the Ni⋅⋅⋅Dy and Ni⋅⋅⋅Ni interactions in magnetization relaxation of a {3d-4f} molecular magnet have been established. © 2016

  5. Refined 3d-3d correspondence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alday, Luis F.; Genolini, Pietro Benetti; Bullimore, Mathew; Loon, Mark van [Mathematical Institute, University of Oxford, Andrew Wiles Building,Radcliffe Observatory Quarter, Woodstock Road, Oxford, OX2 6GG (United Kingdom)

    2017-04-28

    We explore aspects of the correspondence between Seifert 3-manifolds and 3d N=2 supersymmetric theories with a distinguished abelian flavour symmetry. We give a prescription for computing the squashed three-sphere partition functions of such 3d N=2 theories constructed from boundary conditions and interfaces in a 4d N=2{sup ∗} theory, mirroring the construction of Seifert manifold invariants via Dehn surgery. This is extended to include links in the Seifert manifold by the insertion of supersymmetric Wilson-’t Hooft loops in the 4d N=2{sup ∗} theory. In the presence of a mass parameter for the distinguished flavour symmetry, we recover aspects of refined Chern-Simons theory with complex gauge group, and in particular construct an analytic continuation of the S-matrix of refined Chern-Simons theory.

  6. "Eyes On The Solar System": A Real-time, 3D-Interactive Tool to Teach the Wonder of Planetary Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussey, K. J.

    2011-10-01

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory is using videogame technology to immerse students, the general public and mission personnel in our solar system and beyond. "Eyes on the Solar System," a cross-platform, real-time, 3D-interactive application that runs inside a Web browser, was released worldwide late last year (solarsystem.nasa.gov/eyes). It gives users an extraordinary view of our solar system by virtually transporting them across space and time to make first-person observations of spacecraft and NASA/ESA missions in action. Key scientific results illustrated with video presentations and supporting imagery are imbedded contextually into the solar system. The presentation will include a detailed demonstration of the software along with a description/discussion of how this technology can be adapted for education and public outreach, as well as a preview of coming attractions. This work is being conducted by the Visualization Technology Applications and Development Group at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, the same team responsible for "Eyes on the Earth 3D," which can be viewed at climate.nasa.gov/Eyes.html.

  7. CROSS DRIVE: A New Interactive and Immersive Approach for Exploring 3D Time-Dependent Mars Atmospheric Data in Distributed Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerndt, Andreas M.; Engelke, Wito; Giuranna, Marco; Vandaele, Ann C.; Neary, Lori; Aoki, Shohei; Kasaba, Yasumasa; Garcia, Arturo; Fernando, Terrence; Roberts, David; CROSS DRIVE Team

    2016-10-01

    Atmospheric phenomena of Mars can be highly dynamic and have daily and seasonal variations. Planetary-scale wavelike disturbances, for example, are frequently observed in Mars' polar winter atmosphere. Possible sources of the wave activity were suggested to be dynamical instabilities and quasi-stationary planetary waves, i.e. waves that arise predominantly via zonally asymmetric surface properties. For a comprehensive understanding of these phenomena, single layers of altitude have to be analyzed carefully and relations between different atmospheric quantities and interaction with the surface of Mars have to be considered. The CROSS DRIVE project tries to address the presentation of those data with a global view by means of virtual reality techniques. Complex orbiter data from spectrometer and observation data from Earth are combined with global circulation models and high-resolution terrain data and images available from Mars Express or MRO instruments. Scientists can interactively extract features from those dataset and can change visualization parameters in real-time in order to emphasize findings. Stereoscopic views allow for perception of the actual 3D behavior of Mars's atmosphere. A very important feature of the visualization system is the possibility to connect distributed workspaces together. This enables discussions between distributed working groups. The workspace can scale from virtual reality systems to expert desktop applications to web-based project portals. If multiple virtual environments are connected, the 3D position of each individual user is captured and used to depict the scientist as an avatar in the virtual world. The appearance of the avatar can also scale from simple annotations to complex avatars using tele-presence technology to reconstruct the users in 3D. Any change of the feature set (annotations, cutplanes, volume rendering, etc.) within the VR is immediately exchanged between all connected users. This allows that everybody is always

  8. A 3d-3d appetizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pei, Du; Ye, Ke [Walter Burke Institute for Theoretical Physics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA, 91125 (United States)

    2016-11-02

    We test the 3d-3d correspondence for theories that are labeled by Lens spaces. We find a full agreement between the index of the 3d N=2 “Lens space theory” T[L(p,1)] and the partition function of complex Chern-Simons theory on L(p,1). In particular, for p=1, we show how the familiar S{sup 3} partition function of Chern-Simons theory arises from the index of a free theory. For large p, we find that the index of T[L(p,1)] becomes a constant independent of p. In addition, we study T[L(p,1)] on the squashed three-sphere S{sub b}{sup 3}. This enables us to see clearly, at the level of partition function, to what extent G{sub ℂ} complex Chern-Simons theory can be thought of as two copies of Chern-Simons theory with compact gauge group G.

  9. Towards a universal method for calculating hydration free energies: a 3D reference interaction site model with partial molar volume correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, David S; Frolov, Andrey I; Ratkova, Ekaterina L; Fedorov, Maxim V

    2010-12-15

    We report a simple universal method to systematically improve the accuracy of hydration free energies calculated using an integral equation theory of molecular liquids, the 3D reference interaction site model. A strong linear correlation is observed between the difference of the experimental and (uncorrected) calculated hydration free energies and the calculated partial molar volume for a data set of 185 neutral organic molecules from different chemical classes. By using the partial molar volume as a linear empirical correction to the calculated hydration free energy, we obtain predictions of hydration free energies in excellent agreement with experiment (R = 0.94, σ = 0.99 kcal mol (- 1) for a test set of 120 organic molecules).

  10. Self-assembling hydrogels crosslinked solely by receptor-ligand interactions: tunability, rationalization of physical properties, and 3D cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Michael S; Tsurkan, Mikhail V; Chwalek, Karolina; Bornhauser, Martin; Schlierf, Michael; Werner, Carsten; Zhang, Yixin

    2015-02-16

    We report a novel, noncovalent hydrogel system crosslinked solely by receptor-ligand interactions between biotin and avidin. The simple hydrogel synthesis and functionalization together with the widespread use of biotinylated ligands in biosciences make this versatile system suitable for many applications. The gels possess a range of tunable physical properties, including stiffness, lifetime, and swelling. The erosion rates, unexpectedly fast compared to the kinetic parameters for biotin-avidin, are explored in terms of stretching tensions on the polymers, a concept well-known on the single-molecule level, but largely unexplored in supramolecular systems. As proof of utility, the gels were functionalized with different peptide sequences to control human mesenchymal stromal cell morphology in 3D culture. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Towards a universal method for calculating hydration free energies: a 3D reference interaction site model with partial molar volume correction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, David S; Frolov, Andrey I; Ratkova, Ekaterina L; Fedorov, Maxim V

    2010-01-01

    We report a simple universal method to systematically improve the accuracy of hydration free energies calculated using an integral equation theory of molecular liquids, the 3D reference interaction site model. A strong linear correlation is observed between the difference of the experimental and (uncorrected) calculated hydration free energies and the calculated partial molar volume for a data set of 185 neutral organic molecules from different chemical classes. By using the partial molar volume as a linear empirical correction to the calculated hydration free energy, we obtain predictions of hydration free energies in excellent agreement with experiment (R = 0.94, σ = 0.99 kcal mol -1 for a test set of 120 organic molecules). (fast track communication)

  12. Paracrine interactions between LNCaP prostate cancer cells and bioengineered bone in 3D in vitro culture reflect molecular changes during bone metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieh, Shirly; Taubenberger, Anna V; Lehman, Melanie L; Clements, Judith A; Nelson, Colleen C; Hutmacher, Dietmar W

    2014-06-01

    As microenvironmental factors such as three-dimensionality and cell-matrix interactions are increasingly being acknowledged by cancer biologists, more complex 3D in vitro models are being developed to study tumorigenesis and cancer progression. To better understand the pathophysiology of bone metastasis, we have established and validated a 3D indirect co-culture model to investigate the paracrine interactions between prostate cancer (PCa) cells and human osteoblasts. Co-culture of the human PCa, LNCaP cells embedded within polyethylene glycol hydrogels with human osteoblasts in the form of a tissue engineered bone construct (TEB), resulted in reduced proliferation of LNCaP cells. LNCaP cells in both monoculture and co-culture were responsive to the androgen analog, R1881, as indicated by an increase in the expression (mRNA and/or protein induction) of androgen-regulated genes including prostate specific antigen and fatty acid synthase. Microarray gene expression analysis further revealed an up-regulation of bone markers and other genes associated with skeletal and vasculature development and a significant activation of transforming growth factor β1 downstream genes in LNCaP cells after co-culture with TEB. LNCaP cells co-cultured with TEB also unexpectedly showed similar changes in classical androgen-responsive genes under androgen-deprived conditions not seen in LNCaP monocultures. The molecular changes of LNCaP cells after co-culturing with TEBs suggest that osteoblasts exert a paracrine effect that may promote osteomimicry and modulate the expression of androgen-responsive genes in LNCaP cells. Taken together, we have presented a novel 3D in vitro model that allows the study of cellular and molecular changes occurring in PCa cells and osteoblasts that are relevant to metastatic colonization of bone. This unique in vitro model could also facilitate cancer biologists to dissect specific biological hypotheses via extensive genomic or proteomic assessments to

  13. 3D virtuel udstilling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tournay, Bruno; Rüdiger, Bjarne

    2006-01-01

    3d digital model af Arkitektskolens gård med virtuel udstilling af afgangsprojekter fra afgangen sommer 2006. 10 s.......3d digital model af Arkitektskolens gård med virtuel udstilling af afgangsprojekter fra afgangen sommer 2006. 10 s....

  14. Underwater 3D filming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Rinaldi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available After an experimental phase of many years, 3D filming is now effective and successful. Improvements are still possible, but the film industry achieved memorable success on 3D movie’s box offices due to the overall quality of its products. Special environments such as space (“Gravity” and the underwater realm look perfect to be reproduced in 3D. “Filming in space” was possible in “Gravity” using special effects and computer graphic. The underwater realm is still difficult to be handled. Underwater filming in 3D was not that easy and effective as filming in 2D, since not long ago. After almost 3 years of research, a French, Austrian and Italian team realized a perfect tool to film underwater, in 3D, without any constrains. This allows filmmakers to bring the audience deep inside an environment where they most probably will never have the chance to be.

  15. 3D accelerator magnet calculations using MAGNUS-3D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pissanetzky, S.; Miao, Y.

    1989-01-01

    The steady trend towards increased magnetic and geometric complexity in the design of accelerator magnets has caused a need for reliable 3D computer models and a better understanding of the behavior of magnetic system in three dimensions. The capabilities of the MAGNUS-3D family of programs are ideally suited to solve this class of problems and provide insight into 3D effects. MAGNUS-3D can solve any problem of magnetostatics involving permanent magnets, nonlinear ferromagnetic materials and electric conductors. MAGNUS-3D uses the finite element method and the two-scalar-potentials formulation of Maxwell's equations to obtain the solution, which can then be used interactively to obtain tables of field components at specific points or lines, plots of field lines, function graphs representing a field component plotted against a coordinate along any line in space (such as the beam line), and views of the conductors, the mesh and the magnetic bodies. The magnetic quantities that can be calculated include the force or torque on conductors or magnetic parts, the energy, the flux through a specified surface, line integrals of any field component along any line in space, and the average field or potential harmonic coefficients. We describe the programs with emphasis placed on their use for accelerator magnet design, and present an advanced example of actual calculations. (orig.)

  16. What is an attractive body? Using an interactive 3D program to create the ideal body for you and your partner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kara L Crossley

    Full Text Available What is the ideal body size and shape that we want for ourselves and our partners? What are the important physical features in this ideal? And do both genders agree on what is an attractive body? To answer these questions we used a 3D interactive software system which allows our participants to produce a photorealistic, virtual male or female body. Forty female and forty male heterosexual Caucasian observers (females mean age 19.10 years, s.d. 1.01; 40 males mean age 19.84, s.d. 1.66 set their own ideal size and shape, and the size and shape of their ideal partner using the DAZ studio image manipulation programme. In this programme the shape and size of a 3D body can be altered along 94 independent dimensions, allowing each participant to create the exact size and shape of the body they want. The volume (and thus the weight assuming a standard density and the circumference of the bust, waist and hips of these 3D models can then be measured. The ideal female body set by women (BMI = 18.9, WHR = 0.70, WCR = 0.67 was very similar to the ideal partner set by men, particularly in their BMI (BMI = 18.8, WHR = 0.73, WCR = 0.69. This was a lower BMI than the actual BMI of 39 of the 40 women. The ideal male body set by the men (BMI = 25.9, WHR = 0.87, WCR = 0.74 was very similar to the ideal partner set by the women (BMI = 24.5, WHR = 0.86, WCR = 0.77. This was a lower BMI than the actual BMI of roughly half of the men and a higher BMI than the other half. The results suggest a consistent preference for an ideal male and female body size and shape across both genders. The results also suggest that both BMI and torso shape are important components for the creation of the ideal body.

  17. Intraplaque hemorrhage is associated with higher structural stresses in human atherosclerotic plaques: an in vivo MRI-based 3D fluid-structure interaction study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xueying; Teng, Zhongzhao; Canton, Gador; Ferguson, Marina; Yuan, Chun; Tang, Dalin

    2010-12-31

    Studies using medical images have shown that intraplaque hemorrhage may accelerate plaque progression and may produce a stimulus for atherosclerosis development by increasing lipid core and plaque volume and creating new destabilizing factors. Image-based 3D computational models with fluid-structure interactions (FSI) will be used to perform plaque mechanical analysis and investigate possible associations between intraplaque hemorrhage and both plaque wall stress (PWS) and flow shear stress (FSS). In vivo MRI data of carotid plaques from 5 patients with intraplaque hemorrhage confirmed by histology were acquired. 3D multi-component FSI models were constructed for each plaque to obtain mechanical stresses. Plaque Wall Stress (PWS) and Flow Shear Stress (FSS) were extracted from all nodal points on the lumen surface of each plaque for analysis. The mean PWS value from all hemorrhage nodes of the 5 plaques combined was higher than that from non-hemorrhage nodes (75.6 versus 68.1 kPa, P = 0.0003). The mean PWS values from hemorrhage nodes for each of the 5 plaques were all significantly higher (5 out of 5) than those from non-hemorrhage nodes (P shear stress values from individual cases showed mixed results: only one out of five plaques showed mean FSS value from hemorrhage nodes was higher than that from non-hemorrhage nodes; three out of five plaques showed that their mean FSS values from hemorrhage nodes were lower than those from non-hemorrhage nodes; and one plaque showed that the difference had no statistical significance. The results of this study suggested that intraplaque hemorrhage nodes were associated with higher plaque wall stresses. Compared to flow shear stress, plaque wall stress has a better correlation with plaque component feature (hemorrhage) linked to plaque progression and vulnerability. With further validation, plaque stress analysis may provide additional stress indicators for image-based vulnerability assessment.

  18. Intraplaque hemorrhage is associated with higher structural stresses in human atherosclerotic plaques: an in vivo MRI-based 3d fluid-structure interaction study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canton Gador

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies using medical images have shown that intraplaque hemorrhage may accelerate plaque progression and may produce a stimulus for atherosclerosis development by increasing lipid core and plaque volume and creating new destabilizing factors. Image-based 3D computational models with fluid-structure interactions (FSI will be used to perform plaque mechanical analysis and investigate possible associations between intraplaque hemorrhage and both plaque wall stress (PWS and flow shear stress (FSS. Methods In vivo MRI data of carotid plaques from 5 patients with intraplaque hemorrhage confirmed by histology were acquired. 3D multi-component FSI models were constructed for each plaque to obtain mechanical stresses. Plaque Wall Stress (PWS and Flow Shear Stress (FSS were extracted from all nodal points on the lumen surface of each plaque for analysis. Results The mean PWS value from all hemorrhage nodes of the 5 plaques combined was higher than that from non-hemorrhage nodes (75.6 versus 68.1 kPa, P = 0.0003. The mean PWS values from hemorrhage nodes for each of the 5 plaques were all significantly higher (5 out of 5 than those from non-hemorrhage nodes (P 2, P = 0.0002. However, the mean flow shear stress values from individual cases showed mixed results: only one out of five plaques showed mean FSS value from hemorrhage nodes was higher than that from non-hemorrhage nodes; three out of five plaques showed that their mean FSS values from hemorrhage nodes were lower than those from non-hemorrhage nodes; and one plaque showed that the difference had no statistical significance. Conclusion The results of this study suggested that intraplaque hemorrhage nodes were associated with higher plaque wall stresses. Compared to flow shear stress, plaque wall stress has a better correlation with plaque component feature (hemorrhage linked to plaque progression and vulnerability. With further validation, plaque stress analysis may provide

  19. Underwater 3D filming

    OpenAIRE

    Rinaldi, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    After an experimental phase of many years, 3D filming is now effective and successful. Improvements are still possible, but the film industry achieved memorable success on 3D movie’s box offices due to the overall quality of its products. Special environments such as space (“Gravity” ) and the underwater realm look perfect to be reproduced in 3D. “Filming in space” was possible in “Gravity” using special effects and computer graphic. The underwater realm is still difficult to be handled. Unde...

  20. Blender 3D cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Valenza, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    This book is aimed at the professionals that already have good 3D CGI experience with commercial packages and have now decided to try the open source Blender and want to experiment with something more complex than the average tutorials on the web. However, it's also aimed at the intermediate Blender users who simply want to go some steps further.It's taken for granted that you already know how to move inside the Blender interface, that you already have 3D modeling knowledge, and also that of basic 3D modeling and rendering concepts, for example, edge-loops, n-gons, or samples. In any case, it'

  1. A 3D, fully Eulerian, VOF-based solver to study the interaction between two fluids and moving rigid bodies using the fictitious domain method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Ashish; Raessi, Mehdi

    2016-04-01

    We present a three-dimensional (3D) and fully Eulerian approach to capturing the interaction between two fluids and moving rigid structures by using the fictitious domain and volume-of-fluid (VOF) methods. The solid bodies can have arbitrarily complex geometry and can pierce the fluid-fluid interface, forming contact lines. The three-phase interfaces are resolved and reconstructed by using a VOF-based methodology. Then, a consistent scheme is employed for transporting mass and momentum, allowing for simulations of three-phase flows of large density ratios. The Eulerian approach significantly simplifies numerical resolution of the kinematics of rigid bodies of complex geometry and with six degrees of freedom. The fluid-structure interaction (FSI) is computed using the fictitious domain method. The methodology was developed in a message passing interface (MPI) parallel framework accelerated with graphics processing units (GPUs). The computationally intensive solution of the pressure Poisson equation is ported to GPUs, while the remaining calculations are performed on CPUs. The performance and accuracy of the methodology are assessed using an array of test cases, focusing individually on the flow solver and the FSI in surface-piercing configurations. Finally, an application of the proposed methodology in simulations of the ocean wave energy converters is presented.

  2. Studying Axon-Astrocyte Functional Interactions by 3D Two-Photon Ca2+ Imaging: A Practical Guide to Experiments and "Big Data" Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savtchouk, Iaroslav; Carriero, Giovanni; Volterra, Andrea

    2018-01-01

    Recent advances in fast volumetric imaging have enabled rapid generation of large amounts of multi-dimensional functional data. While many computer frameworks exist for data storage and analysis of the multi-gigabyte Ca 2+ imaging experiments in neurons, they are less useful for analyzing Ca 2+ dynamics in astrocytes, where transients do not follow a predictable spatio-temporal distribution pattern. In this manuscript, we provide a detailed protocol and commentary for recording and analyzing three-dimensional (3D) Ca 2+ transients through time in GCaMP6f-expressing astrocytes of adult brain slices in response to axonal stimulation, using our recently developed tools to perform interactive exploration, filtering, and time-correlation analysis of the transients. In addition to the protocol, we release our in-house software tools and discuss parameters pertinent to conducting axonal stimulation/response experiments across various brain regions and conditions. Our software tools are available from the Volterra Lab webpage at https://wwwfbm.unil.ch/dnf/group/glia-an-active-synaptic-partner/member/volterra-andrea-volterra in the form of software plugins for Image J (NIH)-a de facto standard in scientific image analysis. Three programs are available: MultiROI_TZ_profiler for interactive graphing of several movable ROIs simultaneously, Gaussian_Filter5D for Gaussian filtering in several dimensions, and Correlation_Calculator for computing various cross-correlation parameters on voxel collections through time.

  3. DELTA 3D PRINTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ȘOVĂILĂ Florin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available 3D printing is a very used process in industry, the generic name being “rapid prototyping”. The essential advantage of a 3D printer is that it allows the designers to produce a prototype in a very short time, which is tested and quickly remodeled, considerably reducing the required time to get from the prototype phase to the final product. At the same time, through this technique we can achieve components with very precise forms, complex pieces that, through classical methods, could have been accomplished only in a large amount of time. In this paper, there are presented the stages of a 3D model execution, also the physical achievement after of a Delta 3D printer after the model.

  4. Professional Papervision3D

    CERN Document Server

    Lively, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Professional Papervision3D describes how Papervision3D works and how real world applications are built, with a clear look at essential topics such as building websites and games, creating virtual tours, and Adobe's Flash 10. Readers learn important techniques through hands-on applications, and build on those skills as the book progresses. The companion website contains all code examples, video step-by-step explanations, and a collada repository.

  5. Development of an innovative 3D cell culture system to study tumour--stroma interactions in non-small cell lung cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arno Amann

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: We describe a novel 3D co-culture model using non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC cell lines in combination with lung fibroblasts. This model allows the investigation of tumour-stroma interactions and addresses the importance of having a more in vivo like cell culture model. METHODS: Automation-compatible multi-well hanging drop microtiter plates were used for the production of 3D mono- and co-cultures. In these hanging drops the two NSCLC cell lines A549 and Colo699 were cultivated either alone or co-cultured with lung fibroblasts. The viability of tumour spheroids was confirmed after five and ten days by using Annexin V/Propidium Iodide staining for flow-cytometry. Tumour fibroblast spheroid formation was characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM, semi-thin sections, fluorescence microscope and immunohistochemistry (IHC. In addition to conventional histology, protein expression of E-Cadherin, vimentin, Ki67, fibronectin, cytokeratin 7 and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA was investigated by IHC. RESULTS: Lower viability was observed in A549 monocultures compared to co-cultures, whereas Colo699 monocultures showed better viability compared to co-cultures. Ki67 expression varied significantly between mono- and co-cultures in both tumour cell lines. An increase of vimentin and decreased E-Cadherin expression could be detected during the course of the cultivation suggesting a transition to a more mesenchymal phenotype. Furthermore, the fibroblast cell line showed an expression of α-SMA only in co-culture with the cancer cell line A549, thereby indicating a mesenchymal to mesenchymal shift to an even more myofibroblast phenotype. CONCLUSION: We demonstrate that our method is a promising tool for the generation of tumour spheroid co-cultures. Furthermore, these spheroids allow the investigation of tumour-stroma interactions and a better reflection of in vivo conditions of cancer cells in their microenvironment. Our method holds

  6. Synchronized 2D/3D optical mapping for interactive exploration and real-time visualization of multi-function neurological images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi; Alexander, Murray; Ryner, Lawrence

    2013-01-01

    Efficient software with the ability to display multiple neurological image datasets simultaneously with full real-time interactivity is critical for brain disease diagnosis and image-guided planning. In this paper, we describe the creation and function of a new comprehensive software platform that integrates novel algorithms and functions for multiple medical image visualization, processing, and manipulation. We implement an opacity-adjustment algorithm to build 2D lookup tables for multiple slice image display and fusion, which achieves a better visual result than those of using VTK-based methods. We also develop a new real-time 2D and 3D data synchronization scheme for multi-function MR volume and slice image optical mapping and rendering simultaneously through using the same adjustment operation. All these methodologies are integrated into our software framework to provide users with an efficient tool for flexibly, intuitively, and rapidly exploring and analyzing the functional and anatomical MR neurological data. Finally, we validate our new techniques and software platform with visual analysis and task-specific user studies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The Interaction of the Solar Wind with Solar Probe Plus - 3D Hybrid Simulation. Report 1; The Study for the Distance 4.5Rs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipatov, Alexander S.; Sittler, Edward C.; Hartle, Richard E.; Cooper, John F.

    2010-01-01

    Our report devotes a 3D numerical hybrid model of the interaction of the solar wind with the Solar Probe spacecraft. The Solar Probe Plus (SPP) model includes 3 main parts, namely, a non-conducting heat shield, a support system, and cylindrical section or spacecraft bus that contains the particle analysis devices and antenna. One observes an excitation of the low frequency Alfven and whistler type wave directed by the magnetic field with an amplitude of about (0.06-0.6) V/m. The compression waves and the jumps in an electric field with an amplitude of about (0.15-0.7) V/m were also observed. The wave amplitudes are comparable to or greater than previously estimated max wave amplitudes that SPP is expected to measure. The results of our hybrid simulation will be useful for understanding the plasma environment near the SPP spacecraft at the distance 4.5 Rs. Future simulation will take into account the charging of the spacecraft, the charge separation effects, an outgassing from heat shield, a photoionization and an electron impact ionization effects near the spacecraft.

  8. Study of morphology effects on magnetic interactions and band gap variations for 3d late transition metal bi-doped ZnO nanostructures by hybrid DFT calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Datta, Soumendu, E-mail: soumendu@bose.res.in; Baral, Sayan; Mookerjee, Abhijit [Department of Condensed Matter Physics and Material Sciences, S.N. Bose National Centre for Basic Sciences, JD Block, Sector-III, Salt Lake City, Kolkata 700 098 (India); Kaphle, Gopi Chandra [Central Department of Physics, Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu (Nepal)

    2015-08-28

    Using density functional theory (DFT) based electronic structure calculations, the effects of morphology of semiconducting nanostructures on the magnetic interaction between two magnetic dopant atoms as well as a possibility of tuning band gaps have been studied in the case of the bi-doped (ZnO){sub 24} nanostructures with the impurity dopant atoms of the 3d late transition metals—Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, and Cu. To explore the morphology effect, three different structures of the host (ZnO){sub 24} nano-system, having different degrees of spatial confinement, have been considered: a two dimensional nanosheet, a one dimensional nanotube, and a finite cage-shaped nanocluster. The present study employs hybrid density functional theory to accurately describe the electronic structure of all the systems. It is shown here that the magnetic coupling between the two dopant atoms remains mostly anti-ferromagnetic in the course of changing the morphology from the sheet geometry to the cage-shaped geometry of the host systems, except for the case of energetically most stable bi-Mn doping, which shows a transition from ferromagnetic to anti-ferromagnetic coupling with decreasing aspect ratio of the host system. The effect of the shape change, however, has a significant effect on the overall band gap variations of both the pristine as well as all the bi-doped systems, irrespective of the nature of the dopant atoms and provides a means for easy tunability of their optoelectronic properties.

  9. Effect of river excavation on a bank filtration site - assessing transient surface water - groundwater interaction by 3D heat and solute transport modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, W.; Oswald, S. E.; Munz, M.; Strasser, D.

    2017-12-01

    Bank filtration is widely used either as main- or pre-treatment process for water supply. The colmation of the river bottom as interface to groundwater plays a key role for hydraulic control of flow paths and location of several beneficial attenuation processes, such as pathogen filtration, mixing, biodegradation and sorption. Along the flow path, mixing happens between the `young' infiltrated water and ambient `old' groundwater. To clarify the mechanisms and their interaction, modelling is often used for analysing spatial and temporal distribution of the travelling time, quantifying mixing ratios, and estimating the biochemical reaction rates. As the most comprehensive tool, 2-D or 3-D spatially-explicit modelling is used in several studies, and for area with geological heterogeneity, the adaptation of different natural tracers could constrain the model in respect to model non-uniqueness and improve the interpretation of the flow field. In our study, we have evaluated the influence of a river excavation and bank reconstruction project on the groundwater-surface water exchange at a bank filtration site. With data from years of field site monitoring, we could include besides heads and temperature also the analysis of stable isotope data and ions to differentiate between infiltrated water and groundwater. Thus, we have set up a 3-D transient heat and mass transport groundwater model, taking the strong local geological heterogeneity into consideration, especially between river and water work wells. By transferring the effect of the river excavation into a changing hydraulic conductivity of the riverbed, model could be calibrated against both water head and temperature time-series observed. Finally, electrical conductivity dominated by river input was included as quasi-conservative tracer. The `triple' calibrated, transient model was then used to i) understand the flow field and quantify the long term changes in infiltration rate and distribution brought by the

  10. Wearable 3D measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manabe, Yoshitsugu; Imura, Masataka; Tsuchiya, Masanobu; Yasumuro, Yoshihiro; Chihara, Kunihiro

    2003-01-01

    Wearable 3D measurement realizes to acquire 3D information of an objects or an environment using a wearable computer. Recently, we can send voice and sound as well as pictures by mobile phone in Japan. Moreover it will become easy to capture and send data of short movie by it. On the other hand, the computers become compact and high performance. And it can easy connect to Internet by wireless LAN. Near future, we can use the wearable computer always and everywhere. So we will be able to send the three-dimensional data that is measured by wearable computer as a next new data. This paper proposes the measurement method and system of three-dimensional data of an object with the using of wearable computer. This method uses slit light projection for 3D measurement and user"s motion instead of scanning system.

  11. 3D Digital Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hundebøl, Jesper

    wave of new building information modelling tools demands further investigation, not least because of industry representatives' somewhat coarse parlance: Now the word is spreading -3D digital modelling is nothing less than a revolution, a shift of paradigm, a new alphabet... Research qeustions. Based...... on empirical probes (interviews, observations, written inscriptions) within the Danish construction industry this paper explores the organizational and managerial dynamics of 3D Digital Modelling. The paper intends to - Illustrate how the network of (non-)human actors engaged in the promotion (and arrest) of 3...... important to appreciate the analysis. Before turning to the presentation of preliminary findings and a discussion of 3D digital modelling, it begins, however, with an outline of industry specific ICT strategic issues. Paper type. Multi-site field study...

  12. 3D ARCHITECTURAL VIDEOMAPPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Catanese

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available 3D architectural mapping is a video projection technique that can be done with a survey of a chosen building in order to realize a perfect correspondence between its shapes and the images in projection. As a performative kind of audiovisual artifact, the real event of the 3D mapping is a combination of a registered video animation file with a real architecture. This new kind of visual art is becoming very popular and its big audience success testifies new expressive chances in the field of urban design. My case study has been experienced in Pisa for the Luminara feast in 2012.

  13. Interaktiv 3D design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villaume, René Domine; Ørstrup, Finn Rude

    2002-01-01

    Projektet undersøger potentialet for interaktiv 3D design via Internettet. Arkitekt Jørn Utzons projekt til Espansiva blev udviklet som et byggesystem med det mål, at kunne skabe mangfoldige planmuligheder og mangfoldige facade- og rumudformninger. Systemets bygningskomponenter er digitaliseret som...... 3D elementer og gjort tilgængelige. Via Internettet er det nu muligt at sammenstille og afprøve en uendelig  række bygningstyper som  systemet blev tænkt og udviklet til....

  14. Herramientas SIG 3D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco R. Feito Higueruela

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Applications of Geographical Information Systems on several Archeology fields have been increasing during the last years. Recent avances in these technologies make possible to work with more realistic 3D models. In this paper we introduce a new paradigm for this system, the GIS Thetrahedron, in which we define the fundamental elements of GIS, in order to provide a better understanding of their capabilities. At the same time the basic 3D characteristics of some comercial and open source software are described, as well as the application to some samples on archeological researchs

  15. Bootstrapping 3D fermions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iliesiu, Luca [Joseph Henry Laboratories, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Kos, Filip; Poland, David [Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Pufu, Silviu S. [Joseph Henry Laboratories, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Simmons-Duffin, David [School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Yacoby, Ran [Joseph Henry Laboratories, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

    2016-03-17

    We study the conformal bootstrap for a 4-point function of fermions 〈ψψψψ〉 in 3D. We first introduce an embedding formalism for 3D spinors and compute the conformal blocks appearing in fermion 4-point functions. Using these results, we find general bounds on the dimensions of operators appearing in the ψ×ψ OPE, and also on the central charge C{sub T}. We observe features in our bounds that coincide with scaling dimensions in the Gross-Neveu models at large N. We also speculate that other features could coincide with a fermionic CFT containing no relevant scalar operators.

  16. LandSIM3D: modellazione in real time 3D di dati geografici

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lambo Srl Lambo Srl

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available LandSIM3D: realtime 3D modelling of geographic data LandSIM3D allows to model in 3D an existing landscape in a few hours only and geo-referenced offering great landscape analysis and understanding tools. 3D projects can then be inserted into the existing landscape with ease and precision. The project alternatives and impact can then be visualized and studied into their immediate environmental. The complex evolution of the landscape in the future can also be simulated and the landscape model can be manipulated interactively and better shared with colleagues. For that reason, LandSIM3D is different from traditional 3D imagery solutions, normally reserved for computer graphics experts. For more information about LandSIM3D, go to www.landsim3d.com.

  17. Shaping 3-D boxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenholt, Rasmus; Madsen, Claus B.

    2011-01-01

    Enabling users to shape 3-D boxes in immersive virtual environments is a non-trivial problem. In this paper, a new family of techniques for creating rectangular boxes of arbitrary position, orientation, and size is presented and evaluated. These new techniques are based solely on position data...

  18. 3D Wire 2015

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordi, Moréton; F, Escribano; J. L., Farias

    This document is a general report on the implementation of gamification in 3D Wire 2015 event. As the second gamification experience in this event, we have delved deeply in the previous objectives (attracting public areas less frequented exhibition in previous years and enhance networking) and have...

  19. 3D Harmonic Echocardiography:

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.M. Voormolen (Marco)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThree dimensional (3D) echocardiography has recently developed from an experimental technique in the ’90 towards an imaging modality for the daily clinical practice. This dissertation describes the considerations, implementation, validation and clinical application of a unique

  20. The GPlates Portal: Cloud-based interactive 3D and 4D visualization of global geological and geophysical data and models in a browser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Dietmar; Qin, Xiaodong; Sandwell, David; Dutkiewicz, Adriana; Williams, Simon; Flament, Nicolas; Maus, Stefan; Seton, Maria

    2017-04-01

    stimulate teaching and learning and novel avenues of inquiry. This technology offers many future opportunities for providing additional functionality, especially on-the-fly big data analytics. Müller, R.D., Qin, X., Sandwell, D.T., Dutkiewicz, A., Williams, S.E., Flament, N., Maus, S. and Seton, M, 2016, The GPlates Portal: Cloud-based interactive 3D visualization of global geophysical and geological data in a web browser, PLoS ONE 11(3): e0150883. doi:10.1371/ journal.pone.0150883

  1. NeuroMap: A spline-based interactive open-source software for spatiotemporal mapping of 2D and 3D MEA data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oussama eAbdoun

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A major characteristic of neural networks is the complexity of their organization at various spatial scales, from microscopic local circuits to macroscopic brain-scale areas. Understanding how neural information is processed thus entails the ability to study them at multiple scales simultaneously. This is made possible using microelectrodes array (MEA technology. Indeed, high-density MEAs provide large-scale covering (several mm² of whole neural structures combined with microscopic resolution (about 50µm of unit activity. Yet, current options for spatiotemporal representation of MEA-collected data remain limited. Here we present NeuroMap, a new interactive Matlab-based software for spatiotemporal mapping of MEA data. NeuroMap uses thin plate spline interpolation, which provides several assets with respect to conventional mapping methods used currently. First, any MEA design can be considered, including 2D or 3D, regular or irregular, arrangements of electrodes. Second, spline interpolation allows the estimation of activity across the tissue with local extrema not necessarily at recording sites. Finally, this interpolation approach provides a straightforward analytical estimation of the spatial Laplacian for better current sources localization. In this software, coregistration of 2D MEA data on the anatomy of the neural tissue is made possible by fine matching of anatomical data with electrode positions using rigid deformation based correction of anatomical pictures. Overall, NeuroMap provides substantial material for detailed spatiotemporal analysis of MEA data. The package is distributed under GNU General Public License (GPL and available at http://sites.google.com/site/neuromapsoftware.

  2. NeuroMap: A Spline-Based Interactive Open-Source Software for Spatiotemporal Mapping of 2D and 3D MEA Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdoun, Oussama; Joucla, Sébastien; Mazzocco, Claire; Yvert, Blaise

    2011-01-01

    A major characteristic of neural networks is the complexity of their organization at various spatial scales, from microscopic local circuits to macroscopic brain-scale areas. Understanding how neural information is processed thus entails the ability to study them at multiple scales simultaneously. This is made possible using microelectrodes array (MEA) technology. Indeed, high-density MEAs provide large-scale coverage (several square millimeters) of whole neural structures combined with microscopic resolution (about 50 μm) of unit activity. Yet, current options for spatiotemporal representation of MEA-collected data remain limited. Here we present NeuroMap, a new interactive Matlab-based software for spatiotemporal mapping of MEA data. NeuroMap uses thin plate spline interpolation, which provides several assets with respect to conventional mapping methods used currently. First, any MEA design can be considered, including 2D or 3D, regular or irregular, arrangements of electrodes. Second, spline interpolation allows the estimation of activity across the tissue with local extrema not necessarily at recording sites. Finally, this interpolation approach provides a straightforward analytical estimation of the spatial Laplacian for better current sources localization. In this software, coregistration of 2D MEA data on the anatomy of the neural tissue is made possible by fine matching of anatomical data with electrode positions using rigid-deformation-based correction of anatomical pictures. Overall, NeuroMap provides substantial material for detailed spatiotemporal analysis of MEA data. The package is distributed under GNU General Public License and available at http://sites.google.com/site/neuromapsoftware.

  3. A framework for inverse planning of beam-on times for 3D small animal radiotherapy using interactive multi-objective optimisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balvert, Marleen; Den Hertog, Dick; Van Hoof, Stefan J; Granton, Patrick V; Trani, Daniela; Hoffmann, Aswin L; Verhaegen, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Advances in precision small animal radiotherapy hardware enable the delivery of increasingly complicated dose distributions on the millimeter scale. Manual creation and evaluation of treatment plans becomes difficult or even infeasible with an increasing number of degrees of freedom for dose delivery and available image data. The goal of this work is to develop an optimisation model that determines beam-on times for a given beam configuration, and to assess the feasibility and benefits of an automated treatment planning system for small animal radiotherapy.The developed model determines a Pareto optimal solution using operator-defined weights for a multiple-objective treatment planning problem. An interactive approach allows the planner to navigate towards, and to select the Pareto optimal treatment plan that yields the most preferred trade-off of the conflicting objectives. This model was evaluated using four small animal cases based on cone-beam computed tomography images. Resulting treatment plan quality was compared to the quality of manually optimised treatment plans using dose-volume histograms and metrics.Results show that the developed framework is well capable of optimising beam-on times for 3D dose distributions and offers several advantages over manual treatment plan optimisation. For all cases but the simple flank tumour case, a similar amount of time was needed for manual and automated beam-on time optimisation. In this time frame, manual optimisation generates a single treatment plan, while the inverse planning system yields a set of Pareto optimal solutions which provides quantitative insight on the sensitivity of conflicting objectives. Treatment planning automation decreases the dependence on operator experience and allows for the use of class solutions for similar treatment scenarios. This can shorten the time required for treatment planning and therefore increase animal throughput. In addition, this can improve treatment standardisation and

  4. An analysis of TA-Student Interaction and the Development of Concepts in 3-d Space Through Language, Objects, and Gesture in a College-level Geoscience Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, S. L.

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study is twofold: 1) to describe how a teaching assistant (TA) in an undergraduate geology laboratory employs a multimodal system in order to mediate the students' understanding of scientific knowledge and develop a contextualization of a concept in three-dimensional space and 2) to describe how a linguistic awareness of gestural patterns can be used to inform TA training assessment of students' conceptual understanding in situ. During the study the TA aided students in developing the conceptual understanding and reconstruction of a meteoric impact, which produces shatter cone formations. The concurrent use of speech, gesture, and physical manipulation of objects is employed by the TA in order to aid the conceptual understanding of this particular phenomenon. Using the methods of gestural analysis in works by Goldin-Meadow, 2000 and McNeill, 1992, this study describes the gestures of the TA and the students as well as the purpose and motivation of the meditational strategies employed by TA in order to build the geological concept in the constructed 3-dimensional space. Through a series of increasingly complex gestures, the TA assists the students to construct the forensic concept of the imagined 3-D space, which can then be applied to a larger context. As the TA becomes more familiar with the students' meditational needs, the TA adapts teaching and gestural styles to meet their respective ZPDs (Vygotsky 1978). This study shows that in the laboratory setting language, gesture, and physical manipulation of the experimental object are all integral to the learning and demonstration of scientific concepts. Recognition of the gestural patterns of the students allows the TA the ability to dynamically assess the students understanding of a concept. Using the information from this example of student-TA interaction, a brief short course has been created to assist TAs in recognizing the mediational power as well as the assessment potential of gestural

  5. Premixing of corium into water during a Fuel-Coolant Interaction. The models used in the 3 field version of the MC3D code and two examples of validation on Billeau and FARO experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berthoud, G.; Crecy, F. de; Duplat, F.; Meignen, R.; Valette, M. [CEA/Grenoble, DRN/DTP, 17 Avenue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents the <> application of the multiphasic 3D computer code MC3D. This application is devoted to the premixing phase of a Fuel Coolant Interaction (FCI) when large amounts of molten corium flow into water and interact with it. A description of the new features of the model is given (a more complete description of the full model is given in annex). Calculations of Billeau experiments (cold or hot spheres dropped into water) and of a FARO test (<> corium dropped into 5 MPa saturated water) are presented. (author)

  6. 3D Printed Robotic Hand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizarro, Yaritzmar Rosario; Schuler, Jason M.; Lippitt, Thomas C.

    2013-01-01

    Dexterous robotic hands are changing the way robots and humans interact and use common tools. Unfortunately, the complexity of the joints and actuations drive up the manufacturing cost. Some cutting edge and commercially available rapid prototyping machines now have the ability to print multiple materials and even combine these materials in the same job. A 3D model of a robotic hand was designed using Creo Parametric 2.0. Combining "hard" and "soft" materials, the model was printed on the Object Connex350 3D printer with the purpose of resembling as much as possible the human appearance and mobility of a real hand while needing no assembly. After printing the prototype, strings where installed as actuators to test mobility. Based on printing materials, the manufacturing cost of the hand was $167, significantly lower than other robotic hands without the actuators since they have more complex assembly processes.

  7. Mortars for 3D printing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demyanenko Olga

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is aimed at developing scientifically proven compositions of mortars for 3D printing modified by a peat-based admixture with improved operational characteristics. The paper outlines the results of experimental research on hardened cement paste and concrete mixture with the use of modifying admixture MT-600 (thermally modified peat. It is found that strength of hardened cement paste increases at early age when using finely dispersed admixtures, which is the key factor for formation of construction and technical specifications of concrete for 3D printing technologies. The composition of new formations of hardened cement paste modified by MT-600 admixture were obtained, which enabled to suggest the possibility of their physico-chemical interaction while hardening.

  8. Dual-beam focused ion beam/electron microscopy processing and metrology of redeposition during ion-surface 3D interactions, from micromachining to self-organized picostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moberlychan, Warren J

    2009-06-03

    Focused ion beam (FIB) tools have become a mainstay for processing and metrology of small structures. In order to expand the understanding of an ion impinging a surface (Sigmund sputtering theory) to our processing of small structures, the significance of 3D boundary conditions must be realized. We consider ion erosion for patterning/lithography, and optimize yields using the angle of incidence and chemical enhancement, but we find that the critical 3D parameters are aspect ratio and redeposition. We consider focused ion beam sputtering for micromachining small holes through membranes, but we find that the critical 3D considerations are implantation and redeposition. We consider ion beam self-assembly of nanostructures, but we find that control of the redeposition by ion and/or electron beams enables the growth of nanostructures and picostructures.

  9. Tangible 3D Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hejlesen, Aske K.; Ovesen, Nis

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental approach to teaching 3D modelling techniques in an Industrial Design programme. The approach includes the use of tangible free form models as tools for improving the overall learning. The paper is based on lecturer and student experiences obtained through...... facilitated discussions during the course as well as through a survey distributed to the participating students. The analysis of the experiences shows a mixed picture consisting of both benefits and limits to the experimental technique. A discussion about the applicability of the technique and about...

  10. Investigation of antigen-antibody interactions of sulfonamides with a monoclonal antibody in a fluorescence polarization immunoassay using 3D-QSAR models

    Science.gov (United States)

    A three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D-QSAR) model of sulfonamide analogs binding a monoclonal antibody (MAbSMR) produced against sulfamerazine was carried out by Distance Comparison (DISCOtech), comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA), and comparative molecular si...

  11. Realistic non-local potentials from inverse scattering theory for the3S1−3D1nucleon-nucleon interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.H.L. Groenenboom

    1978-03-01

    Full Text Available Rank-three and -four separable3S1−3D1potentials have been constructed which reproduce the experimental phase shifts and a realistic deuteron wave function. The off-shell behaviour has been investigated and triton binding energies were calculated.

  12. Fostering Verbal and Non-Verbal Social Interactions in a 3D Collaborative Virtual Learning Environment: A Case Study of Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorders Learning Social Competence in iSocial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xianhui; Laffey, James; Xing, Wanli; Galyen, Krista; Stichter, Janine

    2017-01-01

    This case study describes the verbal and nonverbal social interaction of 11 youth with Autism Spectrum Disorders in a 3D Collaborative Virtual Learning Environment-iSocial. The youth were developing social competence through participation in a social competence intervention curriculum implemented online so as to provide access to high quality…

  13. Interactive 3D imaging technologies: application in advanced methods of jaw bone reconstruction using stem cells/pre-osteoblasts in oral surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Wojtowicz, Andrzej; Jodko, Monika; Perek, Jan; Popowski, Wojciech

    2014-01-01

    Cone beam computed tomography has created a specific revolution in maxillofacial imaging, facilitating the transition of diagnosis from 2D to 3D, and expanded the role of imaging from diagnosis to the possibility of actual planning. There are many varieties of cone beam computed tomography-related software available, from basic DICOM viewers to very advanced planning modules, such as InVivo Anatomage, and SimPlant (Materialise Dental). Through the use of these programs scans can be processed ...

  14. Interactive navigation-guided ophthalmic plastic surgery: the utility of 3D CT-DCG-guided dacryolocalization in secondary acquired lacrimal duct obstructions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali MJ

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Mohammad Javed Ali,1 Swati Singh,1 Milind N Naik,1 Swathi Kaliki,2 Tarjani Vivek Dave1 1Govindram Seksaria Institute of Dacryology, 2The Operation Eyesight Universal Institute for Eye Cancer, L V Prasad Eye Institute, Hyderabad, Telangana, India Aim: The aim of this study was to report the preliminary experience with the techniques and utility of navigation-guided, 3D, computed tomography–dacryocystography (CT-DCG in the management of secondary acquired lacrimal drainage obstructions.Methods: Stereotactic surgeries using CT-DCG as the intraoperative image-guiding tool were performed in 3 patients. One patient had nasolacrimal duct obstruction (NLDO following a complete maxillectomy for a sinus malignancy, and the other 2 had NLDO following extensive maxillofacial trauma. All patients underwent a 3D CT-DCG. Image-guided dacryolocalization (IGDL was performed using the intraoperative image-guided StealthStation™ system in the electromagnetic mode. All patients underwent navigation-guided powered endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR. The utility of intraoperative dacryocystographic guidance and the ability to localize the lacrimal drainage system in the altered endoscopic anatomical milieu were noted.Results: Intraoperative geometric localization of the lacrimal sac and the nasolacrimal duct could be easily achieved. Constant orientation of the lacrimal drainage system was possible while navigating in the vicinity of altered endoscopic perilacrimal anatomy. Useful clues with regard to modifications while performing a powered endoscopic DCR could be obtained. Surgeries could be performed with utmost safety and precision, thereby avoiding complications. Detailed preoperative 3D CT-DCG reconstructions with constant intraoperative dacryolocalization were found to be essential for successful outcomes.Conclusion: The 3D CT-DCG-guided navigation procedure is very useful while performing endoscopic DCRs in cases of secondary acquired and complex

  15. Functional interactions between 17 β -estradiol and progesterone regulate autophagy during acini formation by bovine mammary epithelial cells in 3D cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielniok, Katarzyna; Motyl, Tomasz; Gajewska, Malgorzata

    2014-01-01

    Mammary gland epithelium forms a network of ducts and alveolar units under control of ovarian hormones: 17-beta-estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4). Mammary epithelial cells (MECs) cultured on reconstituted basement membrane (rBM) form three-dimensional (3D) acini composed of polarized monolayers surrounding a lumen. Using the 3D culture of BME-UV1 bovine MECs we previously demonstrated that autophagy was induced in the centrally located cells of developing spheroids, and sex steroids increased this process. In the present study we showed that E2 and P4 enhanced the expression of ATG3, ATG5, and BECN1 genes during acini formation, and this effect was accelerated in the presence of both hormones together. The stimulatory action of E2 and P4 was also reflected by increased levels of Atg5, Atg3, and LC3-II proteins. Additionally, the activity of kinases involved in autophagy regulation, Akt, ERK, AMPK, and mTOR, was examined. E2 + P4 slightly increased the level of phosphorylated AMPK but diminished phosphorylated Akt and mTOR on day 9 of 3D culture. Thus, the synergistic actions of E2 and P4 accelerate the development of bovine mammary acini, which may be connected with stimulation of ATGs expression, as well as regulation of signaling pathways (PI3K/Akt/mTOR; AMPK/mTOR) involved in autophagy induction.

  16. The 3d4-3d34p transitions of triply ionized manganese (Mn IV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tchang-Brillet, W.Ue.L.; Artru, M.C.; Wyart, J.F.

    1986-01-01

    The analysis of Mn IV is extended in the wavelength range 473-847 A. A total of 600 classified lines are given, of which 372 are newly observed. All of them are due to 3d 4 -3d 3 4p transitions. Their classification and the identification of 59 new levels are supported by the parametric studies of the 3d 4 and 3d 3 4p configurations. The ground configuration 3d 4 is calculated by taking into account the effective magnetic interactions which improve by an order of magnitude the theoretical fine structure of the quintet and triplet terms. The analysis was guided by the prediction of relative line strengths in intermediate coupling. Calculated energies and LS composition are given for all levels of the configuration, 3d 4 and 3d 3 4p. (orig).

  17. A 3D model of ovarian cancer cell lines on peptide nanofiber scaffold to explore the cell–scaffold interaction and chemotherapeutic resistance of anticancer drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zehong Yang

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Zehong Yang1, Xiaojun Zhao1,21Nanomedicine Laboratory, West China Hospital and Institute for Nanobiomedical Technology and Membrane Biology, Sichuan University, Chengdu, People’s Republic of China; 2Center for Biomedical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USAAbstract: RADA16-I peptide hydrogel, a type of nanofiber scaffold derived from self-assembling peptide RADA16-I, has been extensively applied to regenerative medicine and tissue repair in order to develop novel nanomedicine systems. In this study, using RADA16-I peptide hydrogel, a three-dimensional (3D cell culture model was fabricated for in vitro culture of three ovarian cancer cell lines. Firstly, the peptide nanofiber scaffold was evaluated by transmission electron microscopy and atom force microscopy. Using phase contrast microscopy, the appearance of the representative ovarian cancer cells encapsulated in RADA16-I peptide hydrogel on days 1, 3, and 7 in 24-well Petri dishes was illustrated. The cancer cell–nanofiber scaffold construct was cultured for 5 days, and the ovarian cancer cells had actively proliferative potential. The precultured ovarian cancer cells exhibited nearly similar adhesion properties and invasion potentials in vitro between RADA16-I peptide nanofiber and type I collagen, which suggested that RADA16-I peptide hydrogel had some similar characteristics to type I collagen. The precultured ovarian cancer cells had two-fold to five-fold higher anticancer drug resistance than the conventional two-dimensional Petri dish culture. So the 3D cell model on peptide nanofiber scaffold is an optimal type of cell pattern for anticancer drug screening and tumor biology.Keywords: 3D culture, anticancer drug, nanofiber scaffold, cell viability, ovarian cancer

  18. Mobile 3D tomograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Illerhaus, Bernhard; Goebbels, Juergen; Onel, Yener; Sauerwein, Christoph

    2008-01-01

    Mobile tomographs often have the problem that high spatial resolution is impossible owing to the position or setup of the tomograph. While the tree tomograph developed by Messrs. Isotopenforschung Dr. Sauerwein GmbH worked well in practice, it is no longer used as the spatial resolution and measuring time are insufficient for many modern applications. The paper shows that the mechanical base of the method is sufficient for 3D CT measurements with modern detectors and X-ray tubes. CT measurements with very good statistics take less than 10 min. This means that mobile systems can be used, e.g. in examinations of non-transportable cultural objects or monuments. Enhancement of the spatial resolution of mobile tomographs capable of measuring in any position is made difficult by the fact that the tomograph has moving parts and will therefore have weight shifts. With the aid of tomographies whose spatial resolution is far higher than the mechanical accuracy, a correction method is presented for direct integration of the Feldkamp algorithm [de

  19. Looking for Broken TAD Boundaries and Changes on DNA Interactions: Clinical Guide to 3D Chromatin Change Analysis in Complex Chromosomal Rearrangements and Chromothripsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yauy, Kevin; Gatinois, Vincent; Guignard, Thomas; Sati, Satish; Puechberty, Jacques; Gaillard, Jean Baptiste; Schneider, Anouck; Pellestor, Franck

    2018-01-01

    Apparition of next-generation sequencing (NGS) was a breakthrough on knowledge of genome structure. Bioinformatic tools are a key point to analyze this huge amount of data from NGS and characterize the three-dimensional organization of chromosomes. This chapter describes usage of different browsers to explore publicly available online data and to search for possible 3D chromatin changes involved during complex chromosomal rearrangements as chromothripsis. Their pathogenic impact on clinical phenotype and gene misexpression can also be evaluated with annotated databases.

  20. The NIH 3D Print Exchange: A Public Resource for Bioscientific and Biomedical 3D Prints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coakley, Meghan F; Hurt, Darrell E; Weber, Nick; Mtingwa, Makazi; Fincher, Erin C; Alekseyev, Vsevelod; Chen, David T; Yun, Alvin; Gizaw, Metasebia; Swan, Jeremy; Yoo, Terry S; Huyen, Yentram

    2014-09-01

    The National Institutes of Health (NIH) has launched the NIH 3D Print Exchange, an online portal for discovering and creating bioscientifically relevant 3D models suitable for 3D printing, to provide both researchers and educators with a trusted source to discover accurate and informative models. There are a number of online resources for 3D prints, but there is a paucity of scientific models, and the expertise required to generate and validate such models remains a barrier. The NIH 3D Print Exchange fills this gap by providing novel, web-based tools that empower users with the ability to create ready-to-print 3D files from molecular structure data, microscopy image stacks, and computed tomography scan data. The NIH 3D Print Exchange facilitates open data sharing in a community-driven environment, and also includes various interactive features, as well as information and tutorials on 3D modeling software. As the first government-sponsored website dedicated to 3D printing, the NIH 3D Print Exchange is an important step forward to bringing 3D printing to the mainstream for scientific research and education.

  1. 3D Printing and 3D Bioprinting in Pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayavenkataraman, Sanjairaj; Fuh, Jerry Y H; Lu, Wen Feng

    2017-07-13

    Additive manufacturing, commonly referred to as 3D printing, is a technology that builds three-dimensional structures and components layer by layer. Bioprinting is the use of 3D printing technology to fabricate tissue constructs for regenerative medicine from cell-laden bio-inks. 3D printing and bioprinting have huge potential in revolutionizing the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. This paper reviews the application of 3D printing and bioprinting in the field of pediatrics.

  2. 3D Printing and 3D Bioprinting in Pediatrics

    OpenAIRE

    Vijayavenkataraman, Sanjairaj; Fuh, Jerry Y H; Lu, Wen Feng

    2017-01-01

    Additive manufacturing, commonly referred to as 3D printing, is a technology that builds three-dimensional structures and components layer by layer. Bioprinting is the use of 3D printing technology to fabricate tissue constructs for regenerative medicine from cell-laden bio-inks. 3D printing and bioprinting have huge potential in revolutionizing the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. This paper reviews the application of 3D printing and bioprinting in the field of pediatrics.

  3. 3D printing for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Hausman, Kalani Kirk

    2014-01-01

    Get started printing out 3D objects quickly and inexpensively! 3D printing is no longer just a figment of your imagination. This remarkable technology is coming to the masses with the growing availability of 3D printers. 3D printers create 3-dimensional layered models and they allow users to create prototypes that use multiple materials and colors.  This friendly-but-straightforward guide examines each type of 3D printing technology available today and gives artists, entrepreneurs, engineers, and hobbyists insight into the amazing things 3D printing has to offer. You'll discover methods for

  4. 3dRPC: a web server for 3D RNA-protein structure prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yangyu; Li, Haotian; Xiao, Yi

    2018-04-01

    RNA-protein interactions occur in many biological processes. To understand the mechanism of these interactions one needs to know three-dimensional (3D) structures of RNA-protein complexes. 3dRPC is an algorithm for prediction of 3D RNA-protein complex structures and consists of a docking algorithm RPDOCK and a scoring function 3dRPC-Score. RPDOCK is used to sample possible complex conformations of an RNA and a protein by calculating the geometric and electrostatic complementarities and stacking interactions at the RNA-protein interface according to the features of atom packing of the interface. 3dRPC-Score is a knowledge-based potential that uses the conformations of nucleotide-amino-acid pairs as statistical variables and that is used to choose the near-native complex-conformations obtained from the docking method above. Recently, we built a web server for 3dRPC. The users can easily use 3dRPC without installing it locally. RNA and protein structures in PDB (Protein Data Bank) format are the only needed input files. It can also incorporate the information of interface residues or residue-pairs obtained from experiments or theoretical predictions to improve the prediction. The address of 3dRPC web server is http://biophy.hust.edu.cn/3dRPC. yxiao@hust.edu.cn.

  5. Combinatorial Drug Testing in 3D Microtumors Derived from GBM Patient-Derived Xenografts Reveals Cytotoxic Synergy in Pharmacokinomics-informed Pathway Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Ashley N; Anderson, Joshua C; Duarte, Christine W; Shevin, Rachael S; Langford, Catherine P; Singh, Raj; Gillespie, G Yancey; Willey, Christopher D

    2018-05-30

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), the most common form of primary malignant brain cancer in adults, is a devastating disease for which effective treatment has remained elusive for over 75 years. One reason for the minimal progress during this time is the lack of accurate preclinical models to represent the patient's tumor's in vivo environment, causing a disconnect in drug therapy effectiveness between the laboratory and clinic. While patient-derived xenografts (PDX's or xenolines) are excellent human tumor representations, they are not amenable to high throughput testing. Therefore, we developed a miniaturized xenoline system (microtumors) for drug testing. Nineteen GBM xenolines were profiled for global kinase (kinomic) activity revealing actionable kinase targets associated with intracranial tumor growth rate. Kinase inhibitors for these targets (WP1066, selumetinib, crizotinib, and cediranib) were selected for single and combination therapy using a fully human-derived three-dimensional (3D) microtumor model of GBM xenoline cells embedded in HuBiogel for subsequent molecular and phenotype assays. GBM microtumors closely resembled orthotopically-implanted tumors based on immunohistochemical analysis and displayed kinomic and morphological diversity. Drug response testing could be reproducibly performed in a 96-well format identifying several synergistic combinations. Our findings indicate that 3D microtumors can provide a suitable high-throughput model for combination drug testing.

  6. Eyes on the Earth 3D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulikov, anton I.; Doronila, Paul R.; Nguyen, Viet T.; Jackson, Randal K.; Greene, William M.; Hussey, Kevin J.; Garcia, Christopher M.; Lopez, Christian A.

    2013-01-01

    Eyes on the Earth 3D software gives scientists, and the general public, a realtime, 3D interactive means of accurately viewing the real-time locations, speed, and values of recently collected data from several of NASA's Earth Observing Satellites using a standard Web browser (climate.nasa.gov/eyes). Anyone with Web access can use this software to see where the NASA fleet of these satellites is now, or where they will be up to a year in the future. The software also displays several Earth Science Data sets that have been collected on a daily basis. This application uses a third-party, 3D, realtime, interactive game engine called Unity 3D to visualize the satellites and is accessible from a Web browser.

  7. 3D Volume Rendering and 3D Printing (Additive Manufacturing).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katkar, Rujuta A; Taft, Robert M; Grant, Gerald T

    2018-07-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) volume-rendered images allow 3D insight into the anatomy, facilitating surgical treatment planning and teaching. 3D printing, additive manufacturing, and rapid prototyping techniques are being used with satisfactory accuracy, mostly for diagnosis and surgical planning, followed by direct manufacture of implantable devices. The major limitation is the time and money spent generating 3D objects. Printer type, material, and build thickness are known to influence the accuracy of printed models. In implant dentistry, the use of 3D-printed surgical guides is strongly recommended to facilitate planning and reduce risk of operative complications. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. 3D game environments create professional 3D game worlds

    CERN Document Server

    Ahearn, Luke

    2008-01-01

    The ultimate resource to help you create triple-A quality art for a variety of game worlds; 3D Game Environments offers detailed tutorials on creating 3D models, applying 2D art to 3D models, and clear concise advice on issues of efficiency and optimization for a 3D game engine. Using Photoshop and 3ds Max as his primary tools, Luke Ahearn explains how to create realistic textures from photo source and uses a variety of techniques to portray dynamic and believable game worlds.From a modern city to a steamy jungle, learn about the planning and technological considerations for 3D modelin

  9. Interactive 3D imaging technologies: application in advanced methods of jaw bone reconstruction using stem cells/pre-osteoblasts in oral surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtowicz, Andrzej; Jodko, Monika; Perek, Jan; Popowski, Wojciech

    2014-09-01

    Cone beam computed tomography has created a specific revolution in maxillofacial imaging, facilitating the transition of diagnosis from 2D to 3D, and expanded the role of imaging from diagnosis to the possibility of actual planning. There are many varieties of cone beam computed tomography-related software available, from basic DICOM viewers to very advanced planning modules, such as InVivo Anatomage, and SimPlant (Materialise Dental). Through the use of these programs scans can be processed into a three-dimensional high-quality simulation which enables planning of the overall treatment. In this article methods of visualization are demonstrated and compared, in the example of 2 cases of reconstruction of advanced jaw bone defects using tissue engineering. Advanced imaging methods allow one to plan a miniinvasive treatment, including assessment of the bone defect's shape and localization, planning a surgical approach and individual graft preparation.

  10. 3D Visualization Development of SIUE Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nellutla, Shravya

    Geographic Information Systems (GIS) has progressed from the traditional map-making to the modern technology where the information can be created, edited, managed and analyzed. Like any other models, maps are simplified representations of real world. Hence visualization plays an essential role in the applications of GIS. The use of sophisticated visualization tools and methods, especially three dimensional (3D) modeling, has been rising considerably due to the advancement of technology. There are currently many off-the-shelf technologies available in the market to build 3D GIS models. One of the objectives of this research was to examine the available ArcGIS and its extensions for 3D modeling and visualization and use them to depict a real world scenario. Furthermore, with the advent of the web, a platform for accessing and sharing spatial information on the Internet, it is possible to generate interactive online maps. Integrating Internet capacity with GIS functionality redefines the process of sharing and processing the spatial information. Enabling a 3D map online requires off-the-shelf GIS software, 3D model builders, web server, web applications and client server technologies. Such environments are either complicated or expensive because of the amount of hardware and software involved. Therefore, the second objective of this research was to investigate and develop simpler yet cost-effective 3D modeling approach that uses available ArcGIS suite products and the free 3D computer graphics software for designing 3D world scenes. Both ArcGIS Explorer and ArcGIS Online will be used to demonstrate the way of sharing and distributing 3D geographic information on the Internet. A case study of the development of 3D campus for the Southern Illinois University Edwardsville is demonstrated.

  11. The Future Is 3D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Luke

    2015-01-01

    3D printers are a way of producing a 3D model of an item from a digital file. The model builds up in successive layers of material placed by the printer controlled by the information in the computer file. In this article the author argues that 3D printers are one of the greatest technological advances of recent times. He discusses practical uses…

  12. The 3D additivist cookbook

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allahyari, Morehshin; Rourke, Daniel; Rasch, Miriam

    The 3D Additivist Cookbook, devised and edited by Morehshin Allahyari & Daniel Rourke, is a free compendium of imaginative, provocative works from over 100 world-leading artists, activists and theorists. The 3D Additivist Cookbook contains .obj and .stl files for the 3D printer, as well as critical

  13. 3D light robotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glückstad, Jesper; Palima, Darwin; Villangca, Mark Jayson

    2016-01-01

    As celebrated by the Nobel Prize 2014 in Chemistry light-based technologies can now overcome the diffraction barrier for imaging with nanoscopic resolution by so-called super-resolution microscopy1. However, interactive investigations coupled with advanced imaging modalities at these small scale ...... research discipline that could potentially be able to offer the full packet needed for true "active nanoscopy" by use of so-called light-driven micro-robotics or Light Robotics in short....

  14. Characterizing 3D sensors using the 3D modulation transfer function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellner, Timo; Breitbarth, Andreas; Zhang, Chen; Notni, Gunther

    2018-03-01

    The fields of optical 3D measurement system applications are continuously expanding and becoming more and more diverse. To evaluate appropriate systems for various measurement tasks, comparable parameters are necessary, whereas the 3D modulation transfer function (3D-MTF) has been established as a further criterion. Its aim is the determination of the system response between the measurement of a straight, sharp-edged cube and its opposite ideal calculated one. Within the scope of this work simulations and practical investigations regarding the 3D-MTF’s influences and its main issues are specifically investigated. Therefore, different determined edge radii representing the high-frequency spectra lead to various decreasing 3D-MTF characteristics. Furthermore, rising sampling frequencies improve its maximum transfer value to a saturation point in dependence of the radius. To approve these results of previous simulations, three fringe projection scanners were selected to determine the diversity. As the best 3D-MTF characteristic, a saturated transfer value of H_3D( f_N, 3D) = 0.79 has been identified at a sufficient sampling frequency, which is reached at four times the Nyquist limit. This high 3D resolution can mainly be achieved due to an improved camera projector interaction. Additionally, too small sampling ratios lead to uncertainties in the edge function determination, while higher ratios do not show major improvements. In conclusion, the 3D-MTF algorithm has thus been practically verified and its repeatability as well as its robustness have been confirmed.

  15. MODELES ET CALCUL DES SYSTEMES DE SUSPENSION MAGNETIQUE PASSIVE -DEVELOPPEMENTS ET CALCULS ANALYTIQUES EN 2D ET 3D DES INTERACTIONS ENTRE AIMANTS PERMANENTS-

    OpenAIRE

    Allag , Hicham

    2010-01-01

    The passive magnetic suspensions operate using attractive or repulsive forces exerted between permanent magnets. After giving an overview of different possible configurations of magnetic suspensions, the calculation of interactions between permanent magnets was developed. The calculations are realised for parallelepipeds magnets, where the magnetization is represented by distributions of charges or poles (Coulombian approach). All interactions (energy, forces, torques, etc ....) was calculate...

  16. 3D Viscoelastic Traction Force Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyjanova, Jennet; Hannen, Erin; Bar-Kochba, Eyal; Darling, Eric M.; Henann, David L.; Franck, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Native cell-material interactions occur on materials differing in their structural composition, chemistry, and physical compliance. While the last two decades have shown the importance of traction forces during cell-material interactions, they have been almost exclusively presented on purely elastic in-vitro materials. Yet, most bodily tissue materials exhibit some level of viscoelasticity, which could play an important role in how cells sense and transduce tractions. To expand the realm of cell traction measurements and to encompass all materials from elastic to viscoelastic, this paper presents a general, and comprehensive approach for quantifying 3D cell tractions in viscoelastic materials. This methodology includes the experimental characterization of the time-dependent material properties for any viscoelastic material with the subsequent mathematical implementation of the determined material model into a 3D traction force microscopy (3D TFM) framework. Utilizing this new 3D viscoelastic TFM (3D VTFM) approach, we quantify the influence of viscosity on the overall material traction calculations and quantify the error associated with omitting time-dependent material effects, as is the case for all other TFM formulations. We anticipate that the 3D VTFM technique will open up new avenues of cell-material investigations on even more physiologically relevant time-dependent materials including collagen and fibrin gels. PMID:25170569

  17. Fabrication of type I collagen microcarrier using a microfluidic 3D T-junction device and its application for the quantitative analysis of cell-ECM interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Junghyo; Kim, Jaehoon; Jeong, Hyo Eun; Sudo, Ryo; Park, Myung-Jin; Chung, Seok

    2016-08-26

    We presented a new quantitative analysis for cell and extracellular matrix (ECM) interactions, using cell-coated ECM hydrogel microbeads (hydrobeads) made of type I collagen. The hydrobeads can carry cells as three-dimensional spheroidal forms with an ECM inside, facilitating a direct interaction between the cells and ECM. The cells on hydrobeads do not have a hypoxic core, which opens the possibility for using as a cell microcarrier for bottom-up tissue reconstitution. This technique can utilize various types of cells, even MDA-MB-231 cells, which have weak cell-cell interactions and do not form spheroids in conventional spheroid culture methods. Morphological indices of the cell-coated hydrobead visually present cell-ECM interactions in a quantitative manner.

  18. Extra Dimensions: 3D in PDF Documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graf, Norman A

    2012-01-01

    Experimental science is replete with multi-dimensional information which is often poorly represented by the two dimensions of presentation slides and print media. Past efforts to disseminate such information to a wider audience have failed for a number of reasons, including a lack of standards which are easy to implement and have broad support. Adobe's Portable Document Format (PDF) has in recent years become the de facto standard for secure, dependable electronic information exchange. It has done so by creating an open format, providing support for multiple platforms and being reliable and extensible. By providing support for the ECMA standard Universal 3D (U3D) and the ISO PRC file format in its free Adobe Reader software, Adobe has made it easy to distribute and interact with 3D content. Until recently, Adobe's Acrobat software was also capable of incorporating 3D content into PDF files from a variety of 3D file formats, including proprietary CAD formats. However, this functionality is no longer available in Acrobat X, having been spun off to a separate company. Incorporating 3D content now requires the additional purchase of a separate plug-in. In this talk we present alternatives based on open source libraries which allow the programmatic creation of 3D content in PDF format. While not providing the same level of access to CAD files as the commercial software, it does provide physicists with an alternative path to incorporate 3D content into PDF files from such disparate applications as detector geometries from Geant4, 3D data sets, mathematical surfaces or tesselated volumes.

  19. The interaction of neutral evolutionary processes with climatically-driven adaptive changes in the 3D shape of the human os coxae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betti, Lia; von Cramon-Taubadel, Noreen; Manica, Andrea; Lycett, Stephen J

    2014-08-01

    Differences in the breadth of the pelvis among modern human populations and among extinct hominin species have often been interpreted in the light of thermoregulatory adaptation, whereby a larger pelvic girdle would help preserve body temperature in cold environments while a narrower pelvis would help dissipate heat in tropical climates. There is, however, a theoretical problem in interpreting a pattern of variation as evidence of selection without first accounting for the effects of neutral evolutionary processes (i.e., mutation, genetic drift and migration). Here, we analyse 3D configurations of 27 landmarks on the os coxae of 1494 modern human individuals representing 30 male and 23 female populations from five continents and a range of climatic conditions. We test for the effects of climate on the size and shape of the pelvic bone, while explicitly accounting for population history (i.e., geographically-mediated gene flow and genetic drift). We find that neutral processes account for a substantial proportion of shape variance in the human os coxae in both sexes. Beyond the neutral pattern due to population history, temperature is a significant predictor of shape and size variation in the os coxae, at least in males. The effect of climate on the shape of the pelvic bone, however, is comparatively limited, explaining only a small percentage of shape variation in males and females. In accordance with previous hypotheses, the size of the os coxae tends to increase with decreasing temperature, although the significance of the association is reduced when population history is taken into account. In conclusion, the shape and size of the human os coxae reflect both neutral evolutionary processes and climatically-driven adaptive changes. Neutral processes have a substantial effect on pelvic variation, suggesting such factors will need to be taken into account in future studies of human and fossil hominin coxal variation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  20. Preparation and characterization of malonic acid cross-linked chitosan and collagen 3D scaffolds: an approach on non-covalent interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Tapas; Sailakshmi, G; Gnanamani, A; Mandal, A B

    2012-05-01

    The present study emphasizes the influence of non-covalent interactions on the mechanical and thermal properties of the scaffolds of chitosan/collagen origin. Malonic acid (MA), a bifuncitonal diacid was chosen to offer non-covalent cross-linking. Three dimensional scaffolds was prepared using chitosan at 1.0% (w/v) and MA at 0.2% (w/v), similarly collagen 0.5% (w/v) and MA 0.2% (w/v) and characterized. Results on FT-IR, TGA, DSC, SEM and mechanical properties (tensile strength, stiffness, Young's modulus, etc.) assessment demonstrated the existence of non-covalent interaction between MA and chitosan/collagen, which offered flexibility and high strength to the scaffolds suitable for tissue engineering research. Studies using NIH 3T3 fibroblast cells suggested biocompatibility nature of the scaffolds. Docking simulation study further supports the intermolecular hydrogen bonding interactions between MA and chitosan/collagen.

  1. 3D Spectroscopy in Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mediavilla, Evencio; Arribas, Santiago; Roth, Martin; Cepa-Nogué, Jordi; Sánchez, Francisco

    2011-09-01

    Preface; Acknowledgements; 1. Introductory review and technical approaches Martin M. Roth; 2. Observational procedures and data reduction James E. H. Turner; 3. 3D Spectroscopy instrumentation M. A. Bershady; 4. Analysis of 3D data Pierre Ferruit; 5. Science motivation for IFS and galactic studies F. Eisenhauer; 6. Extragalactic studies and future IFS science Luis Colina; 7. Tutorials: how to handle 3D spectroscopy data Sebastian F. Sánchez, Begona García-Lorenzo and Arlette Pécontal-Rousset.

  2. 3D Elevation Program—Virtual USA in 3D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukas, Vicki; Stoker, J.M.

    2016-04-14

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) uses a laser system called ‘lidar’ (light detection and ranging) to create a virtual reality map of the Nation that is very accurate. 3D maps have many uses with new uses being discovered all the time.  

  3. 3D IBFV : Hardware-Accelerated 3D Flow Visualization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Telea, Alexandru; Wijk, Jarke J. van

    2003-01-01

    We present a hardware-accelerated method for visualizing 3D flow fields. The method is based on insertion, advection, and decay of dye. To this aim, we extend the texture-based IBFV technique for 2D flow visualization in two main directions. First, we decompose the 3D flow visualization problem in a

  4. 3D IBFV : hardware-accelerated 3D flow visualization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Telea, A.C.; Wijk, van J.J.

    2003-01-01

    We present a hardware-accelerated method for visualizing 3D flow fields. The method is based on insertion, advection, and decay of dye. To this aim, we extend the texture-based IBFV technique presented by van Wijk (2001) for 2D flow visualization in two main directions. First, we decompose the 3D

  5. Qademah Fault 3D Survey

    KAUST Repository

    Hanafy, Sherif M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Collect 3D seismic data at Qademah Fault location to 1. 3D traveltime tomography 2. 3D surface wave migration 3. 3D phase velocity 4. Possible reflection processing Acquisition Date: 26 – 28 September 2014 Acquisition Team: Sherif, Kai, Mrinal, Bowen, Ahmed Acquisition Layout: We used 288 receiver arranged in 12 parallel lines, each line has 24 receiver. Inline offset is 5 m and crossline offset is 10 m. One shot is fired at each receiver location. We use the 40 kgm weight drop as seismic source, with 8 to 15 stacks at each shot location.

  6. 3D Bayesian contextual classifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Rasmus

    2000-01-01

    We extend a series of multivariate Bayesian 2-D contextual classifiers to 3-D by specifying a simultaneous Gaussian distribution for the feature vectors as well as a prior distribution of the class variables of a pixel and its 6 nearest 3-D neighbours.......We extend a series of multivariate Bayesian 2-D contextual classifiers to 3-D by specifying a simultaneous Gaussian distribution for the feature vectors as well as a prior distribution of the class variables of a pixel and its 6 nearest 3-D neighbours....

  7. 3-D printers for libraries

    CERN Document Server

    Griffey, Jason

    2014-01-01

    As the maker movement continues to grow and 3-D printers become more affordable, an expanding group of hobbyists is keen to explore this new technology. In the time-honored tradition of introducing new technologies, many libraries are considering purchasing a 3-D printer. Jason Griffey, an early enthusiast of 3-D printing, has researched the marketplace and seen several systems first hand at the Consumer Electronics Show. In this report he introduces readers to the 3-D printing marketplace, covering such topics asHow fused deposition modeling (FDM) printing workBasic terminology such as build

  8. Using an in Silico Approach to Teach 3D Pharmacodynamics of the Drug-Target Interaction Process Focusing on Selective COX2 Inhibition by Celecoxib

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Maurício T.; Primi, Marina C.; Silva, Nuno A. T. F.; Carvalho, Camila F.; Cunha, Micael R.; Parise-Filho, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    Teaching the molecular aspects of drug-target interactions and selectivity is not always an easy task. In this context, the use of alternative and engaging approaches could help pharmacy and chemistry students better understand this important topic of medicinal chemistry. Herein a 4 h practical exercise that uses freely available software as a…

  9. Electronic structure of CoPc adsorbed on Ag(100): Evidence for molecule-substrate interaction mediated by Co 3d orbitals

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Salomon, E.; Amsalem, P.; Marom, N.; Vondráček, Martin; Kronik, L.; Koch, N.; Angot, T.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 87, č. 7 (2013), "075407-1"-"075407-9" ISSN 1098-0121 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LG12003 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : cobalt-phthalocyanine * molecule-substrate interaction * photoemission spectroscopy Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.664, year: 2013

  10. 3D Structure and Interaction of p24β and p24δ Golgi Dynamics Domains: Implication for p24 Complex Formation and Cargo Transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagae, Masamichi; Hirata, Tetsuya; Morita-Matsumoto, Kana; Theiler, Romina; Fujita, Morihisa; Kinoshita, Taroh; Yamaguchi, Yoshiki

    2016-10-09

    The p24 family consists of four subfamilies (p24α, p24β, p24γ, and p24δ), and the proteins are thought to form hetero-oligomeric complexes for efficient transport of cargo proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi apparatus. The proteins possess a conserved luminal Golgi dynamics (GOLD) domain, whose functions are largely unknown. Here, we present structural and biochemical studies of p24β1 and p24δ1 GOLD domains. Use of GOLD domain-deleted mutants revealed that the GOLD domain of p24δ1 is required for proper p24 hetero-oligomeric complex formation and efficient transport of GPI-anchored proteins. The p24β1 and p24δ1 GOLD domains share a common β-sandwich fold with a characteristic intrasheet disulfide bond. The GOLD domain of p24δ1 crystallized as dimers, allowing the analysis of a homophilic interaction site. Surface plasmon resonance and solution NMR analyses revealed that p24β1 and p24δ1 GOLD domains interact weakly (K d = ~10 -4 M). Bi-protein titration provided interaction site maps. We propose that the heterophilic interaction of p24 GOLD domains contributes to the formation of the p24 hetero-oligomeric complex and to efficient cargo transport. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Simulating 3D deformation using connected polygons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarigan, J. T.; Jaya, I.; Hardi, S. M.; Zamzami, E. M.

    2018-03-01

    In modern 3D application, interaction between user and the virtual world is one of an important factor to increase the realism. This interaction can be visualized in many forms; one of them is object deformation. There are many ways to simulate object deformation in virtual 3D world; each comes with different level of realism and performance. Our objective is to present a new method to simulate object deformation by using a graph-connected polygon. In this solution, each object contains multiple level of polygons in different level of volume. The proposed solution focusses on performance rather while maintaining the acceptable level of realism. In this paper, we present the design and implementation of our solution and show that this solution is usable in performance sensitive 3D application such as games and virtual reality.

  12. Drug-Drug Interactions Between the Anti-Hepatitis C Virus 3D Regimen of Ombitasvir, Paritaprevir/Ritonavir, and Dasabuvir and Eight Commonly Used Medications in Healthy Volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polepally, Akshanth R; King, Jennifer R; Ding, Bifeng; Shuster, Diana L; Dumas, Emily O; Khatri, Amit; Chiu, Yi-Lin; Podsadecki, Thomas J; Menon, Rajeev M

    2016-08-01

    The three direct-acting antiviral regimen of ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir and dasabuvir (3D regimen) is approved for treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1 infection. Drug-drug interaction (DDI) studies of the 3D regimen and commonly used medications were conducted in healthy volunteers to provide information on coadministering these medications with or without dose adjustments. Three phase I studies evaluated DDIs between the 3D regimen (ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir 25/150/100 mg once daily + dasabuvir 250 mg twice daily) and hydrocodone bitartrate/acetaminophen (5/300 mg), metformin hydrochloride (500 mg), diazepam (2 mg), cyclobenzaprine hydrochloride (5 mg), carisoprodol (250 mg), or sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (SMZ/TMP) (800/160 mg twice daily), all administered orally. DDI magnitude was determined using geometric mean ratios and 90 % confidence intervals for the maximum plasma concentration (C max) and area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC). Changes in exposures (C max and AUC geometric mean ratios) of acetaminophen, metformin, sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim, and diazepam were ≤25 % upon coadministration with the 3D regimen. The C max and AUC of nordiazepam, an active metabolite of diazepam, increased by 10 % and decreased by 44 %, respectively. Exposures of cyclobenzaprine and carisoprodol decreased by ≤40 and ≤46 %, respectively, whereas exposures of hydrocodone increased up to 90 %. Ombitasvir, paritaprevir, ritonavir, and dasabuvir exposures changed by ≤25 %, except for a 37 % decrease in paritaprevir C max with metformin and a 33 % increase in dasabuvir AUC with SMZ/TMP. Acetaminophen, metformin, sulfamethoxazole, and trimethoprim can be coadministered with the 3D regimen without dose adjustment. Higher doses may be needed for diazepam, cyclobenzaprine, and carisoprodol based on clinical monitoring. A 50 % lower dose and/or clinical monitoring should be considered for hydrocodone. No dose

  13. Effects of 3d-4f magnetic exchange interactions on the dynamics of the magnetization of Dy(III)-M(II)-Dy(III) trinuclear clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pointillart, Fabrice; Bernot, Kevin; Sessoli, Roberta; Gatteschi, Dante

    2007-01-01

    [{Dy(hfac)(3)}(2){Fe(bpca)(2)}] x CHCl(3) ([Dy(2)Fe]) and [{Dy(hfac)(3)}(2){Ni(bpca)(2)}]CHCl(3) ([Dy(2)Ni]) (in which hfac(-)=1,1,1,5,5,5-hexafluoroacetylacetonate and bpca(-)=bis(2-pyridylcarbonyl)amine anion) were synthesized and characterized. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction shows that [Dy(2)Fe] and [Dy(2)Ni] are linear trinuclear complexes. Static magnetic susceptibility measurements reveal a weak ferromagnetic exchange interaction between Ni(II) and Dy(III) ions in [Dy(2)Ni], whereas the use of the diamagnetic Fe(II) ion leads to the absence of magnetic exchange interaction in [Dy(2)Fe]. Dynamic susceptibility measurements show a thermally activated behavior with the energy barrier of 9.7 and 4.9 K for the [Dy(2)Fe] and [Dy(2)Ni] complexes, respectively. A surprising negative effect of the ferromagnetic exchange interaction has been found and has been attributed to the structural conformation of these trinuclear complexes.

  14. Reactivity of phosphorene with a 3d element trioxide (CrO3) considering van der Waals molecular interactions: a DFT-D2 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Pereda, Pamela; Cocoletzi, Gregorio H

    2017-02-01

    First-principle calculations are performed to investigate the interaction between clean black phosphorene and the CrO 3 molecule which is known to be a powerful oxidizer and a suspected carcinogen. Van der Waals forces are included in all calculations through empirical corrections. Energetics studies are first done to determine the structural stability. Then charge density, Löwdin population analysis and electronic states are evaluated. Results show that the CrO 3 molecule, with an acceptor electron character, is chemisorbed on the phosphorene surface inducing minimal geometrical distortions, however, after adsorption, a partial charge gradient is produced between the P atoms located at the phosphorene upper and lower planes. Furthermore, variations on the CrO 3 concentration causes different interaction strengths. At high concentrations of adsorbed CrO 3 molecules, the interaction with the surface becomes stronger due to an increased steric effect between neighboring molecules. Nevertheless, this effect along with the geometrical distortions produced on the phosphorene structure, due to the large number of molecules adsorbed, leads to a decrement on the adsorption energy. It is expected that the reported results may render phosphorene as a promising material for application as a gas sensor.

  15. 3D modelling of interaction of strongly nonlinear internal seiches with a concave lake topography and a phenomenon of the "lake monsters".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terletska, Kateryna; Maderich, Vladimir; Brovchenko, Igor; Jung, Kyung Tae

    2013-04-01

    In the freshwater lakes in moderate latitudes stratification occurs as a result of the seasonal warming of the surface water layer. Than the intense wind surges (usually in autumn) tilt the surface and generate long basin-scale low-frequency standing internal waves (seiches). Depending on the initial interface tilt and stratification wide spectra of possible flow regimes can be observed [1]-[2].They varied from small amplitude symmetric seiches to large amplitude nonlinear waves.Nonlinearity leads to an asymmetry of internal waves and appearance of the surge or bore and further disintegration of it on a sequence of solitary waves. In present study degeneration of the strongly nonlinear internal seiches in elongated lakes with a concave "spoon-like" topography is investigated.Two different three-dimensional non-hydrostatic free-surface numerical models are used to investigate degeneration of large internal waves and its subsequent interaction with the concave lake slope. One of this model is non-hydrostatic model [3] and the other is a well-known MIT model. At first we consider idealized elongated elliptic-shape lake with the dimension of 5 km X 1 km with the maximal depth 30 m. The stratification in lake is assumed to be given in a form of the tangent function with a density difference between upper and lower layers 2 kgm-3 . It is assumed that motion in such lake is initiated by inclination of thermocline on a certain angle. Than lake adjusts to return to its original state producing internal seiches which begin interacting with a bottom topography. The process of degeneration of internal seiches in the lake with concave ends consist of chain of elementary processes: 1) steeping of long basin scale large amplitude wave, that evolve into internal surge, 2) surge interact with concave lake ends that leads the concentration of the flow and formation of down slope bottom jet along the lake axis, 3) due to cumulative effect local velocity in the jet accelerates up to

  16. 3D MHD Flux emergence experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hood, A.W.; Archontis, V.; Mactaggart, David

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews some of the many 3D numerical experiments of the emergence of magnetic fields from the solar interior and the subsequent interaction with the pre-existing coronal magnetic field. The models described here are idealised, in the sense that the internal energy equation only involves...

  17. Abusir 3D survey 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukinori Kawae

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2015, in collaboration with the Czech Institute of Egyptology, we, a Japanese consortium, initiated the Abusir 3D Survey (A-3DS for the 3D documentation of the site’s pyramids, which have not been updated since the time of the architectural investigations of Vito Maragioglio and Celeste Rinaldi in the 1960s to the 1970s. The first season of our project focused on the exterior of Neferirkare’s pyramid, the largest pyramid at Abusir. By developing a strategic mathematical 3D survey plan, step-by-step 3D documentation to suit specific archaeological needs, and producing a new display method for the 3D data, we successfully measured the dimensions of the pyramid in a cost-effective way.

  18. Advanced 3-D Ultrasound Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Morten Fischer

    The main purpose of the PhD project was to develop methods that increase the 3-D ultrasound imaging quality available for the medical personnel in the clinic. Acquiring a 3-D volume gives the medical doctor the freedom to investigate the measured anatomy in any slice desirable after the scan has...... been completed. This allows for precise measurements of organs dimensions and makes the scan more operator independent. Real-time 3-D ultrasound imaging is still not as widespread in use in the clinics as 2-D imaging. A limiting factor has traditionally been the low image quality achievable using...... a channel limited 2-D transducer array and the conventional 3-D beamforming technique, Parallel Beamforming. The first part of the scientific contributions demonstrate that 3-D synthetic aperture imaging achieves a better image quality than the Parallel Beamforming technique. Data were obtained using both...

  19. 3D vector flow imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pihl, Michael Johannes

    The main purpose of this PhD project is to develop an ultrasonic method for 3D vector flow imaging. The motivation is to advance the field of velocity estimation in ultrasound, which plays an important role in the clinic. The velocity of blood has components in all three spatial dimensions, yet...... are (vx, vy, vz) = (-0.03, 95, 1.0) ± (9, 6, 1) cm/s compared with the expected (0, 96, 0) cm/s. Afterwards, 3D vector flow images from a cross-sectional plane of the vessel are presented. The out of plane velocities exhibit the expected 2D circular-symmetric parabolic shape. The experimental results...... verify that the 3D TO method estimates the complete 3D velocity vectors, and that the method is suitable for 3D vector flow imaging....

  20. 3D printing in dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawood, A; Marti Marti, B; Sauret-Jackson, V; Darwood, A

    2015-12-01

    3D printing has been hailed as a disruptive technology which will change manufacturing. Used in aerospace, defence, art and design, 3D printing is becoming a subject of great interest in surgery. The technology has a particular resonance with dentistry, and with advances in 3D imaging and modelling technologies such as cone beam computed tomography and intraoral scanning, and with the relatively long history of the use of CAD CAM technologies in dentistry, it will become of increasing importance. Uses of 3D printing include the production of drill guides for dental implants, the production of physical models for prosthodontics, orthodontics and surgery, the manufacture of dental, craniomaxillofacial and orthopaedic implants, and the fabrication of copings and frameworks for implant and dental restorations. This paper reviews the types of 3D printing technologies available and their various applications in dentistry and in maxillofacial surgery.

  1. E3D, 3-D Elastic Seismic Wave Propagation Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, S.; Harris, D.; Schultz, C.; Maddix, D.; Bakowsky, T.; Bent, L.

    2004-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: E3D is capable of simulating seismic wave propagation in a 3D heterogeneous earth. Seismic waves are initiated by earthquake, explosive, and/or other sources. These waves propagate through a 3D geologic model, and are simulated as synthetic seismograms or other graphical output. 2 - Methods: The software simulates wave propagation by solving the elasto-dynamic formulation of the full wave equation on a staggered grid. The solution scheme is 4-order accurate in space, 2-order accurate in time

  2. Magnetic interactions and magnetic anisotropy in exchange coupled 4f-3d systems: a case study of a heterodinuclear Ce3+-Fe3+ cyanide-bridged complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorace, Lorenzo; Sangregorio, Claudio; Figuerola, Albert; Benelli, Cristiano; Gatteschi, Dante

    2009-01-01

    We report here a detailed single-crystal EPR and magnetic study of a homologous series of complexes of the type Ln-M (Ln = La(III), Ce(III); M = Fe(III), Co(III)). We were able to obtain a detailed picture of the low-lying levels of Ce(III) and Fe(III) centres through the combined use of single-crystal EPR and magnetic susceptibility data. We show that classical ligand field theory can be of great help in rationalising the energies of the low-lying levels of both the transition-metal and rare-earth ions. The combined analysis of single-crystal EPR and magnetic data of the coupled system Ce-Fe confirmed the great complexity of the interactions involving rare-earth elements. With little uncertainty, it turned out clearly that the description of the interaction involving the lowest lying spin levels requires the introduction of the isotropic, anisotropic and antisymmetric terms.

  3. The rendering context for stereoscopic 3D web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qinshui; Wang, Wenmin; Wang, Ronggang

    2014-03-01

    3D technologies on the Web has been studied for many years, but they are basically monoscopic 3D. With the stereoscopic technology gradually maturing, we are researching to integrate the binocular 3D technology into the Web, creating a stereoscopic 3D browser that will provide users with a brand new experience of human-computer interaction. In this paper, we propose a novel approach to apply stereoscopy technologies to the CSS3 3D Transforms. Under our model, each element can create or participate in a stereoscopic 3D rendering context, in which 3D Transforms such as scaling, translation and rotation, can be applied and be perceived in a truly 3D space. We first discuss the underlying principles of stereoscopy. After that we discuss how these principles can be applied to the Web. A stereoscopic 3D browser with backward compatibility is also created for demonstration purposes. We take advantage of the open-source WebKit project, integrating the 3D display ability into the rendering engine of the web browser. For each 3D web page, our 3D browser will create two slightly different images, each representing the left-eye view and right-eye view, both to be combined on the 3D display to generate the illusion of depth. And as the result turns out, elements can be manipulated in a truly 3D space.

  4. A 3D Multi-fluid MHD Study of the Interaction of the Solar Wind with the Ionosphere/Atmosphere System of Venus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najib, D.; Nagy, A.; Toth, G.; Ma, Y.-J.

    2011-10-01

    We use the latest version of our four species multifluid model to study the interaction of the solar wind with Venus. The model solves simultaneously the continuity, momentum and energy equations of the different ions. The lower boundary of our model is at 100 km, below the main ionospheric peak, and the radial resolution is about 10 km in the ionosphere, thus the model does a very good job in reproducing the ionosphere and the associated processes. We carry out calculations for high and low solar activity conditions and establish the importance of mass loading by the extended exosphere of Venus. We demonstrate the importance of using the multi-fluid rather than a single fluid model. We also calculate the atmospheric escape of the ionospheric species and compare our model results with the observed parameters from Pioneer Venus and Venus Express.

  5. Charge collection characterization of a 3D silicon radiation detector by using 3D simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Kalliopuska, J; Orava, R

    2007-01-01

    In 3D detectors, the electrodes are processed within the bulk of the sensor material. Therefore, the signal charge is collected independently of the wafer thickness and the collection process is faster due to shorter distances between the charge collection electrodes as compared to a planar detector structure. In this paper, 3D simulations are used to assess the performance of a 3D detector structure in terms of charge sharing, efficiency and speed of charge collection, surface charge, location of the primary interaction and the bias voltage. The measured current pulse is proposed to be delayed due to the resistance–capacitance (RC) product induced by the variation of the serial resistance of the pixel electrode depending on the depth of the primary interaction. Extensive simulations are carried out to characterize the 3D detector structures and to verify the proposed explanation for the delay of the current pulse. A method for testing the hypothesis experimentally is suggested.

  6. 3D shape detection of the indoor space based on 3D-Hough method

    OpenAIRE

    安齋, 達也; ANZAI, Tatsuya

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes methods for detecting the 3D shapes of the indoor space that is represented as a combination of planes such as a wall, desk, or whatnot. Detecting the planes makes it possible to perform calibration of multiple sensors and 3D mapping, and then produces various services such as the acquisition of life logs, AR interaction, and invader detection. This paper proposes and verifies three algorithms. First, it mentions a way to use2D-Hough.The proposed technique converts 3D dat...

  7. Delivering 3D advertising to mobile phones.

    OpenAIRE

    Chehimi, Fadi; Coulton, Paul; Edwards, Reuben

    2006-01-01

    Directing advertising to mobile phones currently is limited to commercial text messages, short-code text-back messages, two dimensional (2D) images, or wireless access protocol (WAP) clickable push links. All of these traditional methods do not facilitate advertising approach were consumers can interact with prospective purchases. In this paper we introduce a novel and highly interactive location- and permission-based advertising system that allows 3D product adverts to be displayed on users'...

  8. Deriving a time series of 3D glacier motion to investigate interactions of a large mountain glacial system with its glacial lake: Use of Synthetic Aperture Radar Pixel Offset-Small Baseline Subset technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia; Li, Zhi-wei; Wu, Li-xin; Xu, Bing; Hu, Jun; Zhou, Yu-shan; Miao, Ze-lang

    2018-04-01

    We investigated the interactions of Lake Merzbacher with the Southern Inylchek Glacier (Central Tien Shan) using the Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Pixel Offset-Small Baseline Subset (PO-SBAS) to derive a time series of three-dimensional (3D) glacier motion. The measurements of 3D glacier velocity were ∼17% more precise than a previous study that did not use the SBAS estimation. The velocities of the glacier were up to 58 cm/day east, 70 cm/day north, and 113 cm/day vertically. Combining these data with Landsat images indicated that movement of the glacier is sensitive to changes of Lake Merzbacher. Specifically, the entry of more lake water into the glacier during the ablation season increased englacial ablation due to thermal erosion. Moreover, ice calving begins when the lake water gradually lifts the ice dam. Calving can cause greater loss of glacier mass than normal ablation. Trying to replenish the front mass loss, the distributary accelerates and the mass loss further intensifies. A time series of the vertical velocity indicates that the glacier tongue has a huge englacial cavity. We suggest that the lake outburst is directly related to the crack of this cavity. Bursting of the lake triggers a mini-surge at the glacier tongue. The vertical velocity at the ice dam was ∼+60 cm/day before the lake outburst, and ∼-113 cm/day afterwards. After drainage of the lake, flow velocities at the distributary, do not sharply decrease because pre-drainage mass loss needs to be replenished by fast flow. Based on comparisons with previous measurements, our results indicate that the lake had an increasing influence on the glacier from 2005 to 2009. This study demonstrates that a time series of 3D glacier motion based on the PO-SBAS technique is effective for assessing the dynamics of a mountain glacial system and interactions with its glacial lake.

  9. 3-D neutron transport benchmarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, T.; Ikeda, H.

    1991-03-01

    A set of 3-D neutron transport benchmark problems proposed by the Osaka University to NEACRP in 1988 has been calculated by many participants and the corresponding results are summarized in this report. The results of K eff , control rod worth and region-averaged fluxes for the four proposed core models, calculated by using various 3-D transport codes are compared and discussed. The calculational methods used were: Monte Carlo, Discrete Ordinates (Sn), Spherical Harmonics (Pn), Nodal Transport and others. The solutions of the four core models are quite useful as benchmarks for checking the validity of 3-D neutron transport codes

  10. Handbook of 3D integration

    CERN Document Server

    Garrou , Philip; Ramm , Peter

    2014-01-01

    Edited by key figures in 3D integration and written by top authors from high-tech companies and renowned research institutions, this book covers the intricate details of 3D process technology.As such, the main focus is on silicon via formation, bonding and debonding, thinning, via reveal and backside processing, both from a technological and a materials science perspective. The last part of the book is concerned with assessing and enhancing the reliability of the 3D integrated devices, which is a prerequisite for the large-scale implementation of this emerging technology. Invaluable reading fo

  11. Interannual control of plankton communities by deep winter mixing and prey/predator interactions in the NW Mediterranean: Results from a 30-year 3D modeling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auger, P. A.; Ulses, C.; Estournel, C.; Stemmann, L.; Somot, S.; Diaz, F.

    2014-05-01

    A realistic modeling approach is designed to address the role of winter mixing on the interannual variability of plankton dynamics in the north-western (NW) Mediterranean basin. For the first time, a high-resolution coupled hydrodynamic-biogeochemical model (Eco3m-S) covering a 30-year period (1976-2005) is validated on available in situ and satellite data for the NW Mediterranean. In this region, cold, dry winds in winter often lead to deep convection and strong upwelling of nutrients into the euphotic layer. High nutrient contents at the end of winter then support the development of a strong spring bloom of phytoplankton. Model results indicate that annual primary production is not affected by winter mixing due to seasonal balance (minimum in winter and maximum in spring). However, the total annual water column-integrated phytoplankton biomass appears to be favored by winter mixing because zooplankton grazing activity is low in winter and early spring. This reduced grazing is explained here by the rarefaction of prey due to both light limitation and the effect of mixing-induced dilution on prey/predator interactions. A negative impact of winter mixing on winter zooplankton biomass is generally simulated except for mesozooplankton. This difference is assumed to stem from the lower parameterized mortality, top trophic position and detritivorous diet of mesozooplankton in the model. Moreover, model suggests that the variability of annual mesozooplankton biomass is principally modulated by the effects of winter mixing on winter biomass. Thus, interannual variability of winter nutrient contents in the euphotic layer, resulting from winter mixing, would control spring primary production and thus annual mesozooplankton biomass. Our results show a bottom-up control of mesozooplankton communities, as observed at a coastal location of the Ligurian Sea.

  12. The Essential Guide to 3D in Flash

    CERN Document Server

    Olsson, Ronald A

    2010-01-01

    If you are an ActionScript developer or designer and you would like to work with 3D in Flash, this book is for you. You will learn the core Flash 3D concepts, using the open source Away3D engine as a primary tool. Once you have mastered these skills, you will be able to realize the possibilities that the available Flash 3D engines, languages, and technologies have to offer you with Flash and 3D.* Describes 3D concepts in theory and their implementation using Away3D* Dives right in to show readers how to quickly create an interactive, animated 3D scene, and builds on that experience throughout

  13. 3-D observations of short fatigue crack interaction with la2mellar and duplex microstructures in a two-phase titanium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birosca, S.; Buffiere, J.Y.; Karadge, M.; Preuss, M.

    2011-01-01

    In situ observations of short crack growth in powder-processed Ti-6246 have been undertaken using synchrotron X-ray microtomography to investigate crack tip interaction with microstructure. Together with post-mortem analysis using electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), it was possible to identify a number of microstructural features that affect crack propagation rates by causing crack bifurcation, crack bridging and crack deflection. Three samples with different microstructures were tested in this way: lamellar, duplex and a heterogeneous microstructure that showed regions of lamellar and duplex microstructure. The in situ fatigue experiments were carried out with a maximum stress of 410 MPa and R = 0.1. The three microstructures showed significantly different short crack propagation rates, with the lamellar microstructure displaying the fastest and the duplex microstructure the slowest rate. It was found that the lamellar microstructure develops a deeper crack than the duplex microstructure that is related to significant crack bifurcation taking place near the surface region in the lamellar but not duplex microstructure. It was also found that a columnar lamellar microstructure creates a relatively smooth crack front while a basket-weave-type microstructure forces the crack tip to undulate on the lath width scale. Crack bridging of the fine lamellar region of the duplex microstructure was observed, which seems to hinder significant crack bifurcation to occur, but still provides improved crack growth resistance that explains the low crack propagation rate. In the third microstructure the crack tended to grow slightly asymmetrically due to the heterogeneous nature of the microstructure, resulting in the intermediate growth rate. EBSD grain orientation and Schmid factor analysis of regions including the crack revealed that the crack path is strongly influenced by the crystallographic orientation of the α lamellae and grains. While in the lamellar microstructure

  14. 3D Models of Immunotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    This collaborative grant is developing 3D models of both mouse and human biology to investigate aspects of therapeutic vaccination in order to answer key questions relevant to human cancer immunotherapy.

  15. AI 3D Cybug Gaming

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Zeeshan

    2010-01-01

    In this short paper I briefly discuss 3D war Game based on artificial intelligence concepts called AI WAR. Going in to the details, I present the importance of CAICL language and how this language is used in AI WAR. Moreover I also present a designed and implemented 3D War Cybug for AI WAR using CAICL and discus the implemented strategy to defeat its enemies during the game life.

  16. 3D Face Apperance Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lading, Brian; Larsen, Rasmus; Astrom, K

    2006-01-01

    We build a 3D face shape model, including inter- and intra-shape variations, derive the analytical Jacobian of its resulting 2D rendered image, and show example of its fitting performance with light, pose, id, expression and texture variations......We build a 3D face shape model, including inter- and intra-shape variations, derive the analytical Jacobian of its resulting 2D rendered image, and show example of its fitting performance with light, pose, id, expression and texture variations...

  17. Narratives from the Agora 3D world

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Sanne Fejfer; Siggaard Jensen, Sisse; Bolander, Klara

    2004-01-01

    is on presence and knowledge sharing in interaction with avatars communicating in chat while building a 3D Agora AWEDU world (www.activeworlds.com). The narratives and reflections on knowledge sharing are all produced in explorative sessions carried out in a special interest group (SIG 5) on ?Knowledge sharing...... across knowledge cultures? in the EU project EQUEL on quality in e-learning. The understanding of social interaction and knowledge sharing in the Agora 3D world is based on explorative and experiential approaches and sessions. Joint explorations have been carried out to facilitate the sharing...... of experience among participants in the Agora world SIG. The idea with these sessions has been to build a community of shared knowledge based on practicing, acting and interacting with avatars. The underlying assumption being that first hand experience with collaboration and knowledge sharing are essential...

  18. 3D X-Ray Luggage-Screening System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Kenneth

    2006-01-01

    A three-dimensional (3D) x-ray luggage- screening system has been proposed to reduce the fatigue experienced by human inspectors and increase their ability to detect weapons and other contraband. The system and variants thereof could supplant thousands of xray scanners now in use at hundreds of airports in the United States and other countries. The device would be applicable to any security checkpoint application where current two-dimensional scanners are in use. A conventional x-ray luggage scanner generates a single two-dimensional (2D) image that conveys no depth information. Therefore, a human inspector must scrutinize the image in an effort to understand ambiguous-appearing objects as they pass by at high speed on a conveyor belt. Such a high level of concentration can induce fatigue, causing the inspector to reduce concentration and vigilance. In addition, because of the lack of depth information, contraband objects could be made more difficult to detect by positioning them near other objects so as to create x-ray images that confuse inspectors. The proposed system would make it unnecessary for a human inspector to interpret 2D images, which show objects at different depths as superimposed. Instead, the system would take advantage of the natural human ability to infer 3D information from stereographic or stereoscopic images. The inspector would be able to perceive two objects at different depths, in a more nearly natural manner, as distinct 3D objects lying at different depths. Hence, the inspector could recognize objects with greater accuracy and less effort. The major components of the proposed system would be similar to those of x-ray luggage scanners now in use. As in a conventional x-ray scanner, there would be an x-ray source. Unlike in a conventional scanner, there would be two x-ray image sensors, denoted the left and right sensors, located at positions along the conveyor that are upstream and downstream, respectively (see figure). X-ray illumination

  19. 3D-ICONS Ireland – fulfilling the potential of a rich 3D resource

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Corns

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available As a partner in the EU co-funded 3D-ICONS project, the Discovery Programme undertook the 3D documentation of some of the most iconic cultural heritage sites in Ireland. This pan-European project aimed to establish a complete pipeline for the production of 3D replicas of archaeological monuments and historic buildings, and to publish the content to Europeana for public access. The list of Irish icons range from wider cultural landscapes to smaller ornately carved stones and includes a wide range of chronological periods: from Neolithic rock art from 2500 BC to Derry's 17th-century fortifications. The primary digitisation methods include airborne laser scanning (ALS, phase-based terrestrial laser scanning (Faro Focus 3D and close range structured light scanning (Artec EVA. These are now mainstream approaches for surveying historic landscapes, structures and objects, generating precise, high-resolution point cloud data, primarily for viewing and interaction in proprietary software applications. The challenge was to convert these complex high-volume datasets into textured 3D models, retaining the geometric integrity of the original data. The article highlights the development of a pipeline to produce a lightweight 3D model that enables the public to interact with a photorealistic model based upon accurate survey and texture data. 3D-ICONS ended in January 2015, but a new website 3dicons.ie was launched to offer continued access to the Irish 3D models and associated content and media generated during the project. The article will consider the impact of this online content, particularly how it has been used as a teaching aid in secondary schools and how this may be extended in the future. It will also demonstrate how content from the project has been remodelled to develop an interactive and immersive experience for the great mound at Knowth, a development in partnership with the operators of the Brú na Bóinne visitor centre.

  20. Scalable Multi-Platform Distribution of Spatial 3d Contents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimke, J.; Hagedorn, B.; Döllner, J.

    2013-09-01

    Virtual 3D city models provide powerful user interfaces for communication of 2D and 3D geoinformation. Providing high quality visualization of massive 3D geoinformation in a scalable, fast, and cost efficient manner is still a challenging task. Especially for mobile and web-based system environments, software and hardware configurations of target systems differ significantly. This makes it hard to provide fast, visually appealing renderings of 3D data throughout a variety of platforms and devices. Current mobile or web-based solutions for 3D visualization usually require raw 3D scene data such as triangle meshes together with textures delivered from server to client, what makes them strongly limited in terms of size and complexity of the models they can handle. In this paper, we introduce a new approach for provisioning of massive, virtual 3D city models on different platforms namely web browsers, smartphones or tablets, by means of an interactive map assembled from artificial oblique image tiles. The key concept is to synthesize such images of a virtual 3D city model by a 3D rendering service in a preprocessing step. This service encapsulates model handling and 3D rendering techniques for high quality visualization of massive 3D models. By generating image tiles using this service, the 3D rendering process is shifted from the client side, which provides major advantages: (a) The complexity of the 3D city model data is decoupled from data transfer complexity (b) the implementation of client applications is simplified significantly as 3D rendering is encapsulated on server side (c) 3D city models can be easily deployed for and used by a large number of concurrent users, leading to a high degree of scalability of the overall approach. All core 3D rendering techniques are performed on a dedicated 3D rendering server, and thin-client applications can be compactly implemented for various devices and platforms.

  1. Spacecraft 3D Augmented Reality Mobile App

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussey, Kevin J.; Doronila, Paul R.; Kumanchik, Brian E.; Chan, Evan G.; Ellison, Douglas J.; Boeck, Andrea; Moore, Justin M.

    2013-01-01

    The Spacecraft 3D application allows users to learn about and interact with iconic NASA missions in a new and immersive way using common mobile devices. Using Augmented Reality (AR) techniques to project 3D renditions of the mission spacecraft into real-world surroundings, users can interact with and learn about Curiosity, GRAIL, Cassini, and Voyager. Additional updates on future missions, animations, and information will be ongoing. Using a printed AR Target and camera on a mobile device, users can get up close with these robotic explorers, see how some move, and learn about these engineering feats, which are used to expand knowledge and understanding about space. The software receives input from the mobile device's camera to recognize the presence of an AR marker in the camera's field of view. It then displays a 3D rendition of the selected spacecraft in the user's physical surroundings, on the mobile device's screen, while it tracks the device's movement in relation to the physical position of the spacecraft's 3D image on the AR marker.

  2. From 3D view to 3D print

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dima, M.; Farisato, G.; Bergomi, M.; Viotto, V.; Magrin, D.; Greggio, D.; Farinato, J.; Marafatto, L.; Ragazzoni, R.; Piazza, D.

    2014-08-01

    In the last few years 3D printing is getting more and more popular and used in many fields going from manufacturing to industrial design, architecture, medical support and aerospace. 3D printing is an evolution of bi-dimensional printing, which allows to obtain a solid object from a 3D model, realized with a 3D modelling software. The final product is obtained using an additive process, in which successive layers of material are laid down one over the other. A 3D printer allows to realize, in a simple way, very complex shapes, which would be quite difficult to be produced with dedicated conventional facilities. Thanks to the fact that the 3D printing is obtained superposing one layer to the others, it doesn't need any particular work flow and it is sufficient to simply draw the model and send it to print. Many different kinds of 3D printers exist based on the technology and material used for layer deposition. A common material used by the toner is ABS plastics, which is a light and rigid thermoplastic polymer, whose peculiar mechanical properties make it diffusely used in several fields, like pipes production and cars interiors manufacturing. I used this technology to create a 1:1 scale model of the telescope which is the hardware core of the space small mission CHEOPS (CHaracterising ExOPlanets Satellite) by ESA, which aims to characterize EXOplanets via transits observations. The telescope has a Ritchey-Chrétien configuration with a 30cm aperture and the launch is foreseen in 2017. In this paper, I present the different phases for the realization of such a model, focusing onto pros and cons of this kind of technology. For example, because of the finite printable volume (10×10×12 inches in the x, y and z directions respectively), it has been necessary to split the largest parts of the instrument in smaller components to be then reassembled and post-processed. A further issue is the resolution of the printed material, which is expressed in terms of layers

  3. 3D imaging, 3D printing and 3D virtual planning in endodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Pratik; Chong, B S

    2018-03-01

    The adoption and adaptation of recent advances in digital technology, such as three-dimensional (3D) printed objects and haptic simulators, in dentistry have influenced teaching and/or management of cases involving implant, craniofacial, maxillofacial, orthognathic and periodontal treatments. 3D printed models and guides may help operators plan and tackle complicated non-surgical and surgical endodontic treatment and may aid skill acquisition. Haptic simulators may assist in the development of competency in endodontic procedures through the acquisition of psycho-motor skills. This review explores and discusses the potential applications of 3D printed models and guides, and haptic simulators in the teaching and management of endodontic procedures. An understanding of the pertinent technology related to the production of 3D printed objects and the operation of haptic simulators are also presented.

  4. 3D coordination polymers with nitrilotriacetic and 4,4'-bipyridyl mixed ligands: structural variation based on dinuclear or tetranuclear subunits assisted by Na-O and/or O-H...O interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Xing-Qiang; Jiang, Ji-Jun; Chen, Chun-Long; Kang, Bei-Sheng; Su, Cheng-Yong

    2005-06-27

    The reactions of Cu(II) with the mixed nitrilotriacetic acid (H3NTA) and 4,4'-bipyridyl (4,4'-bpy) ligands in different metal-to-ligand ratios in the presence of NaOH and NaClO4 afforded two complexes, Na3[Cu2(NTA)2(4,4'-bpy)]ClO4 x 5H2O (1) and [Cu2(NTA) (4,4'-bpy)2]ClO4 x 4H2O (2). The two complexes have been characterized by elemental analysis, IR, XRD, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. 1 contains a basic doubly negatively charged [Cu2(NTA)2(4,4'-bpy)]2- dinuclear unit which was further assembled via multiple Na-O and O-H...O interactions into a three-dimensional (3D) pillared-layer structure. 2 features a two-dimensional (2D) undulated brick-wall architecture containing a basic doubly positively charged [Cu4(NTA)2(4,4'-bpy)2]2+ tetranuclear unit. The 2D network possesses large cavities hosting guest molecules and was further assembled via O-H...O hydrogen bonds into a 3D structure with several channels running in different directions.

  5. A Case Study in Astronomical 3-D Printing: The Mysterious Eta Carinae

    OpenAIRE

    Madura, Thomas I.

    2016-01-01

    3-D printing moves beyond interactive 3-D graphics and provides an excellent tool for both visual and tactile learners, since 3-D printing can now easily communicate complex geometries and full color information. Some limitations of interactive 3-D graphics are also alleviated by 3-D printable models, including issues of limited software support, portability, accessibility, and sustainability. We describe the motivations, methods, and results of our work on using 3-D printing (1) to visualize...

  6. CASTLE3D - A Computer Aided System for Labelling Archaeological Excavations in 3D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houshiar, H.; Borrmann, D.; Elseberg, J.; Nüchter, A.; Näth, F.; Winkler, S.

    2015-08-01

    Documentation of archaeological excavation sites with conventional methods and tools such as hand drawings, measuring tape and archaeological notes is time consuming. This process is prone to human errors and the quality of the documentation depends on the qualification of the archaeologist on site. Use of modern technology and methods in 3D surveying and 3D robotics facilitate and improve this process. Computer-aided systems and databases improve the documentation quality and increase the speed of data acquisition. 3D laser scanning is the state of the art in modelling archaeological excavation sites, historical sites and even entire cities or landscapes. Modern laser scanners are capable of data acquisition of up to 1 million points per second. This provides a very detailed 3D point cloud of the environment. 3D point clouds and 3D models of an excavation site provide a better representation of the environment for the archaeologist and for documentation. The point cloud can be used both for further studies on the excavation and for the presentation of results. This paper introduces a Computer aided system for labelling archaeological excavations in 3D (CASTLE3D). Consisting of a set of tools for recording and georeferencing the 3D data from an excavation site, CASTLE3D is a novel documentation approach in industrial archaeology. It provides a 2D and 3D visualisation of the data and an easy-to-use interface that enables the archaeologist to select regions of interest and to interact with the data in both representations. The 2D visualisation and a 3D orthogonal view of the data provide cuts of the environment that resemble the traditional hand drawings. The 3D perspective view gives a realistic view of the environment. CASTLE3D is designed as an easy-to-use on-site semantic mapping tool for archaeologists. Each project contains a predefined set of semantic information that can be used to label findings in the data. Multiple regions of interest can be joined under

  7. Materialedreven 3d digital formgivning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Flemming Tvede

    2010-01-01

    Formålet med forskningsprojektet er for det første at understøtte keramikeren i at arbejde eksperimenterende med digital formgivning, og for det andet at bidrage til en tværfaglig diskurs om brugen af digital formgivning. Forskningsprojektet fokuserer på 3d formgivning og derved på 3d digital...... formgivning og Rapid Prototyping (RP). RP er en fællesbetegnelse for en række af de teknikker, der muliggør at overføre den digitale form til 3d fysisk form. Forskningsprojektet koncentrerer sig om to overordnede forskningsspørgsmål. Det første handler om, hvordan viden og erfaring indenfor det keramiske...... fagområde kan blive udnyttet i forhold til 3d digital formgivning. Det andet handler om, hvad en sådan tilgang kan bidrage med, og hvordan den kan blive udnyttet i et dynamisk samspil med det keramiske materiale i formgivningen af 3d keramiske artefakter. Materialedreven formgivning er karakteriseret af en...

  8. 3D future internet media

    CERN Document Server

    Dagiuklas, Tasos

    2014-01-01

    This book describes recent innovations in 3D media and technologies, with coverage of 3D media capturing, processing, encoding, and adaptation, networking aspects for 3D Media, and quality of user experience (QoE). The main contributions are based on the results of the FP7 European Projects ROMEO, which focus on new methods for the compression and delivery of 3D multi-view video and spatial audio, as well as the optimization of networking and compression jointly across the Future Internet (www.ict-romeo.eu). The delivery of 3D media to individual users remains a highly challenging problem due to the large amount of data involved, diverse network characteristics and user terminal requirements, as well as the user’s context such as their preferences and location. As the number of visual views increases, current systems will struggle to meet the demanding requirements in terms of delivery of constant video quality to both fixed and mobile users. ROMEO will design and develop hybrid-networking solutions that co...

  9. Novel 3D media technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Dagiuklas, Tasos

    2015-01-01

    This book describes recent innovations in 3D media and technologies, with coverage of 3D media capturing, processing, encoding, and adaptation, networking aspects for 3D Media, and quality of user experience (QoE). The contributions are based on the results of the FP7 European Project ROMEO, which focuses on new methods for the compression and delivery of 3D multi-view video and spatial audio, as well as the optimization of networking and compression jointly across the future Internet. The delivery of 3D media to individual users remains a highly challenging problem due to the large amount of data involved, diverse network characteristics and user terminal requirements, as well as the user’s context such as their preferences and location. As the number of visual views increases, current systems will struggle to meet the demanding requirements in terms of delivery of consistent video quality to fixed and mobile users. ROMEO will present hybrid networking solutions that combine the DVB-T2 and DVB-NGH broadcas...

  10. Heat capacity of RFe{sub x}Mn{sub 12-x} (R = Gd, Tb and Dy) compounds: wiping out a cooperative 4f-4f exchange interaction by breaking the 3d-4f magnetic symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pique, C; Blanco, J A; Abad, E [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Oviedo, Campus de Viesques, E-33204 Gijon (Spain); Burriel, R; Artigas, M [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragon (CSIC-Universidad de Zaragoza), E-50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Fernandez-RodrIguez, J [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, BP 220, F-38043 Grenoble Cedex (France)], E-mail: pique@uniovi.es

    2008-08-27

    Using adiabatic calorimetry the heat capacity of a series of RFe{sub x}Mn{sub 12-x} (R = Gd, Tb and Dy) compounds has been measured from 3 to 350 K. The substitution of Fe for Mn in RFe{sub x}Mn{sub 12-x} influences both the magnetic interactions on the 3d sublattice and the magnetism of R (the Neel temperature doubles on going from x = 0 to 6 and the compounds become ferromagnetic for x = 8 with Curie temperatures of around 300 K). In pure TbMn{sub 12} the heat-capacity data shows a {lambda}-type anomaly associated with the independent cooperative magnetic ordering of the R sublattice ({approx}5 K), while the anomaly related to the Mn magnetic ordering ({approx}100 K) is rather smooth, as observed in other itinerant magnetic systems such as YMn{sub 12}. In contrast, the substitution of Fe for Mn leads, on the one hand, to a more localized magnetic behaviour of the 3d sublattice, and, on the other, to magnetic polarization effects between the 3d and 4f sublattices, together with the disappearance of the cooperative magnetic ordering of the R sublattice due to the breaking of the antiferromagnetic symmetry in the 3d sublattice. This is reflected in the heat-capacity curve through a smooth Schottky-like anomaly. In the case of Gd compounds the magnitude of the exchange molecular-field parameter has been deduced by fitting the magnetic contribution to the heat capacity within a simple mean-field model. From this analysis we found that this molecular field acting on the rare-earth site increases with the iron concentration, reaching values as large as 48 T for the concentration x = 6. A similar analysis of the heat capacity in the ordered phase on the Tb compounds also leads to an enhancement of the molecular field with increasing Fe content. These results allow checking the possible crystal-field parameters for these RFe{sub x}Mn{sub 12-x} compounds.

  11. Modification of 3D milling machine to 3D printer

    OpenAIRE

    Taska, Abraham

    2014-01-01

    Tato práce se zabývá přestavbou gravírovací frézky na 3D tiskárnu. V první části se práce zabývá možnými technologiemi 3D tisku a možností jejich využití u přestavby. Dále jsou popsány a vybrány vhodné součásti pro přestavbu. V další části je realizováno řízení ohřevu podložky, trysky a řízení posuvu drátu pomocí softwaru TwinCat od společnosti Beckhoff na průmyslovém počítači. Výsledkem práce by měla být oživená 3D tiskárna. This thesis deals with rebuilding of engraving machine to 3D pri...

  12. Aspects of defects in 3d-3d correspondence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gang, Dongmin; Kim, Nakwoo; Romo, Mauricio; Yamazaki, Masahito

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we study supersymmetric co-dimension 2 and 4 defects in the compactification of the 6d (2,0) theory of type A_N_−_1 on a 3-manifold M. The so-called 3d-3d correspondence is a relation between complexified Chern-Simons theory (with gauge group SL(N,ℂ)) on M and a 3d N=2 theory T_N[M]. We study this correspondence in the presence of supersymmetric defects, which are knots/links inside the 3-manifold. Our study employs a number of different methods: state-integral models for complex Chern-Simons theory, cluster algebra techniques, domain wall theory T[SU(N)], 5d N=2 SYM, and also supergravity analysis through holography. These methods are complementary and we find agreement between them. In some cases the results lead to highly non-trivial predictions on the partition function. Our discussion includes a general expression for the cluster partition function, which can be used to compute in the presence of maximal and certain class of non-maximal punctures when N>2. We also highlight the non-Abelian description of the 3d N=2T_N[M] theory with defect included, when such a description is available. This paper is a companion to our shorter paper http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1751-8113/49/30/30LT02, which summarizes our main results.

  13. MSX-3D: a tool to validate 3D protein models using mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heymann, Michaël; Paramelle, David; Subra, Gilles; Forest, Eric; Martinez, Jean; Geourjon, Christophe; Deléage, Gilbert

    2008-12-01

    The technique of chemical cross-linking followed by mass spectrometry has proven to bring valuable information about the protein structure and interactions between proteic subunits. It is an effective and efficient way to experimentally investigate some aspects of a protein structure when NMR and X-ray crystallography data are lacking. We introduce MSX-3D, a tool specifically geared to validate protein models using mass spectrometry. In addition to classical peptides identifications, it allows an interactive 3D visualization of the distance constraints derived from a cross-linking experiment. Freely available at http://proteomics-pbil.ibcp.fr

  14. Stereoscopic 3D graphics generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi; Liu, Jianping; Zan, Y.

    1997-05-01

    Stereoscopic display technology is one of the key techniques of areas such as simulation, multimedia, entertainment, virtual reality, and so on. Moreover, stereoscopic 3D graphics generation is an important part of stereoscopic 3D display system. In this paper, at first, we describe the principle of stereoscopic display and summarize some methods to generate stereoscopic 3D graphics. Secondly, to overcome the problems which came from the methods of user defined models (such as inconvenience, long modifying period and so on), we put forward the vector graphics files defined method. Thus we can design more directly; modify the model simply and easily; generate more conveniently; furthermore, we can make full use of graphics accelerator card and so on. Finally, we discuss the problem of how to speed up the generation.

  15. 3-D Vector Flow Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holbek, Simon

    , if this significant reduction in the element count can still provide precise and robust 3-D vector flow estimates in a plane. The study concludes that the RC array is capable of estimating precise 3-D vector flow both in a plane and in a volume, despite the low channel count. However, some inherent new challenges...... ultrasonic vector flow estimation and bring it a step closer to a clinical application. A method for high frame rate 3-D vector flow estimation in a plane using the transverse oscillation method combined with a 1024 channel 2-D matrix array is presented. The proposed method is validated both through phantom...... hampers the task of real-time processing. In a second study, some of the issue with the 2-D matrix array are solved by introducing a 2-D row-column (RC) addressing array with only 62 + 62 elements. It is investigated both through simulations and via experimental setups in various flow conditions...

  16. 3D Printed Bionic Nanodevices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Yong Lin; Gupta, Maneesh K; Johnson, Blake N; McAlpine, Michael C

    2016-06-01

    The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological and functional materials could enable the creation of bionic devices possessing unique and compelling geometries, properties, and functionalities. Indeed, interfacing high performance active devices with biology could impact a variety of fields, including regenerative bioelectronic medicines, smart prosthetics, medical robotics, and human-machine interfaces. Biology, from the molecular scale of DNA and proteins, to the macroscopic scale of tissues and organs, is three-dimensional, often soft and stretchable, and temperature sensitive. This renders most biological platforms incompatible with the fabrication and materials processing methods that have been developed and optimized for functional electronics, which are typically planar, rigid and brittle. A number of strategies have been developed to overcome these dichotomies. One particularly novel approach is the use of extrusion-based multi-material 3D printing, which is an additive manufacturing technology that offers a freeform fabrication strategy. This approach addresses the dichotomies presented above by (1) using 3D printing and imaging for customized, hierarchical, and interwoven device architectures; (2) employing nanotechnology as an enabling route for introducing high performance materials, with the potential for exhibiting properties not found in the bulk; and (3) 3D printing a range of soft and nanoscale materials to enable the integration of a diverse palette of high quality functional nanomaterials with biology. Further, 3D printing is a multi-scale platform, allowing for the incorporation of functional nanoscale inks, the printing of microscale features, and ultimately the creation of macroscale devices. This blending of 3D printing, novel nanomaterial properties, and 'living' platforms may enable next-generation bionic systems. In this review, we highlight this synergistic integration of the unique properties of nanomaterials with the

  17. 3D Printed Bionic Nanodevices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Yong Lin; Gupta, Maneesh K.; Johnson, Blake N.; McAlpine, Michael C.

    2016-01-01

    Summary The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological and functional materials could enable the creation of bionic devices possessing unique and compelling geometries, properties, and functionalities. Indeed, interfacing high performance active devices with biology could impact a variety of fields, including regenerative bioelectronic medicines, smart prosthetics, medical robotics, and human-machine interfaces. Biology, from the molecular scale of DNA and proteins, to the macroscopic scale of tissues and organs, is three-dimensional, often soft and stretchable, and temperature sensitive. This renders most biological platforms incompatible with the fabrication and materials processing methods that have been developed and optimized for functional electronics, which are typically planar, rigid and brittle. A number of strategies have been developed to overcome these dichotomies. One particularly novel approach is the use of extrusion-based multi-material 3D printing, which is an additive manufacturing technology that offers a freeform fabrication strategy. This approach addresses the dichotomies presented above by (1) using 3D printing and imaging for customized, hierarchical, and interwoven device architectures; (2) employing nanotechnology as an enabling route for introducing high performance materials, with the potential for exhibiting properties not found in the bulk; and (3) 3D printing a range of soft and nanoscale materials to enable the integration of a diverse palette of high quality functional nanomaterials with biology. Further, 3D printing is a multi-scale platform, allowing for the incorporation of functional nanoscale inks, the printing of microscale features, and ultimately the creation of macroscale devices. This blending of 3D printing, novel nanomaterial properties, and ‘living’ platforms may enable next-generation bionic systems. In this review, we highlight this synergistic integration of the unique properties of nanomaterials with

  18. Ideal 3D asymmetric concentrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Botella, Angel [Departamento Fisica Aplicada a los Recursos Naturales, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, E.T.S.I. de Montes, Ciudad Universitaria s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Fernandez-Balbuena, Antonio Alvarez; Vazquez, Daniel; Bernabeu, Eusebio [Departamento de Optica, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Fac. CC. Fisicas, Ciudad Universitaria s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2009-01-15

    Nonimaging optics is a field devoted to the design of optical components for applications such as solar concentration or illumination. In this field, many different techniques have been used for producing reflective and refractive optical devices, including reverse engineering techniques. In this paper we apply photometric field theory and elliptic ray bundles method to study 3D asymmetric - without rotational or translational symmetry - concentrators, which can be useful components for nontracking solar applications. We study the one-sheet hyperbolic concentrator and we demonstrate its behaviour as ideal 3D asymmetric concentrator. (author)

  19. Markerless 3D Face Tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walder, Christian; Breidt, Martin; Bulthoff, Heinrich

    2009-01-01

    We present a novel algorithm for the markerless tracking of deforming surfaces such as faces. We acquire a sequence of 3D scans along with color images at 40Hz. The data is then represented by implicit surface and color functions, using a novel partition-of-unity type method of efficiently...... the scanned surface, using the variation of both shape and color as features in a dynamic energy minimization problem. Our prototype system yields high-quality animated 3D models in correspondence, at a rate of approximately twenty seconds per timestep. Tracking results for faces and other objects...

  20. 3D+time acquisitions of 3D cell culture by means of lens-free tomographic microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdeu, Anthony; Laperrousaz, Bastien; Bordy, Thomas; Morales, S.; Gidrol, Xavier; Picollet-D'hahan, Nathalie; Allier, Cédric

    2018-02-01

    We propose a three-dimensional (3D) imaging platform based on lens-free microscopy to perform multi-angle acquisitions on 3D cell cultures embedded in extracellular matrix (ECM). We developed algorithms based on the Fourier diffraction theorem to perform fully 3D reconstructions of biological samples and we adapted the lens-free microscope to incubator conditions. Here we demonstrate for the first time, 3D+time lens-free acquisitions of 3D cell culture over 8 days directly into the incubator. The 3D reconstructed volume is as large as 5 mm3 and provides a unique way to observe in the same 3D cell culture experiment multiple cell migration strategies. Namely, in a 3D cell culture of prostate epithelial cells embedded within a Matrigel® matrix, we are able to distinguish single cell 'leaders', migration of cell clusters, migration of large aggregates of cells, and also close-gap and large-scale branching. In addition, we observe long-scale 3D deformations of the ECM that modify the geometry of the 3D cell culture. Interestingly, we also observed the opposite, i.e. we found that large aggregates of cells may deform the ECM by generating traction forces over very long distances. In sum we put forward a novel 3D lens-free microscopy tomographic technique to study the single and collective cell migrations, the cell-to-cell interactions and the cell-to-matrix interactions.

  1. Immersive 3D geovisualisation in higher education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philips, Andrea; Walz, Ariane; Bergner, Andreas; Graeff, Thomas; Heistermann, Maik; Kienzler, Sarah; Korup, Oliver; Lipp, Torsten; Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Zeilinger, Gerold

    2014-05-01

    Through geovisualisation we explore spatial data, we analyse it towards a specific questions, we synthesise results, and we present and communicate them to a specific audience (MacEachren & Kraak 1997). After centuries of paper maps, the means to represent and visualise our physical environment and its abstract qualities have changed dramatically since the 1990s - and accordingly the methods how to use geovisualisation in teaching. Whereas some people might still consider the traditional classroom as ideal setting for teaching and learning geographic relationships and its mapping, we used a 3D CAVE (computer-animated virtual environment) as environment for a problem-oriented learning project called "GEOSimulator". Focussing on this project, we empirically investigated, if such a technological advance like the CAVE make 3D visualisation, including 3D geovisualisation, not only an important tool for businesses (Abulrub et al. 2012) and for the public (Wissen et al. 2008), but also for educational purposes, for which it had hardly been used yet. The 3D CAVE is a three-sided visualisation platform, that allows for immersive and stereoscopic visualisation of observed and simulated spatial data. We examined the benefits of immersive 3D visualisation for geographic research and education and synthesized three fundamental technology-based visual aspects: First, the conception and comprehension of space and location does not need to be generated, but is instantaneously and intuitively present through stereoscopy. Second, optical immersion into virtual reality strengthens this spatial perception which is in particular important for complex 3D geometries. And third, a significant benefit is interactivity, which is enhanced through immersion and allows for multi-discursive and dynamic data exploration and knowledge transfer. Based on our problem-oriented learning project, which concentrates on a case study on flood risk management at the Wilde Weisseritz in Germany, a river

  2. Planetary Torque in 3D Isentropic Disks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fung, Jeffrey; Masset, Frédéric; Velasco, David; Lega, Elena

    2017-01-01

    Planetary migration is inherently a three-dimensional (3D) problem, because Earth-size planetary cores are deeply embedded in protoplanetary disks. Simulations of these 3D disks remain challenging due to the steep resolution requirements. Using two different hydrodynamics codes, FARGO3D and PEnGUIn, we simulate disk–planet interaction for a one to five Earth-mass planet embedded in an isentropic disk. We measure the torque on the planet and ensure that the measurements are converged both in resolution and between the two codes. We find that the torque is independent of the smoothing length of the planet’s potential ( r s ), and that it has a weak dependence on the adiabatic index of the gaseous disk ( γ ). The torque values correspond to an inward migration rate qualitatively similar to previous linear calculations. We perform additional simulations with explicit radiative transfer using FARGOCA, and again find agreement between 3D simulations and existing torque formulae. We also present the flow pattern around the planets that show active flow is present within the planet’s Hill sphere, and meridional vortices are shed downstream. The vertical flow speed near the planet is faster for a smaller r s or γ , up to supersonic speeds for the smallest r s and γ in our study.

  3. 3D Cell Culture in Alginate Hydrogels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Therese Andersen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This review compiles information regarding the use of alginate, and in particular alginate hydrogels, in culturing cells in 3D. Knowledge of alginate chemical structure and functionality are shown to be important parameters in design of alginate-based matrices for cell culture. Gel elasticity as well as hydrogel stability can be impacted by the type of alginate used, its concentration, the choice of gelation technique (ionic or covalent, and divalent cation chosen as the gel inducing ion. The use of peptide-coupled alginate can control cell–matrix interactions. Gelation of alginate with concomitant immobilization of cells can take various forms. Droplets or beads have been utilized since the 1980s for immobilizing cells. Newer matrices such as macroporous scaffolds are now entering the 3D cell culture product market. Finally, delayed gelling, injectable, alginate systems show utility in the translation of in vitro cell culture to in vivo tissue engineering applications. Alginate has a history and a future in 3D cell culture. Historically, cells were encapsulated in alginate droplets cross-linked with calcium for the development of artificial organs. Now, several commercial products based on alginate are being used as 3D cell culture systems that also demonstrate the possibility of replacing or regenerating tissue.

  4. Planetary Torque in 3D Isentropic Disks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fung, Jeffrey [Department of Astronomy, University of California at Berkeley, Campbell Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Masset, Frédéric; Velasco, David [Instituto de Ciencias Físicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Av. Universidad s/n, 62210 Cuernavaca, Mor. (Mexico); Lega, Elena, E-mail: jeffrey.fung@berkeley.edu [Université de la Côte d’Azur, Observatoire de la Côte d’Azur, CNRS, Laboratoire Lagrange UMR 7293, Nice (France)

    2017-03-01

    Planetary migration is inherently a three-dimensional (3D) problem, because Earth-size planetary cores are deeply embedded in protoplanetary disks. Simulations of these 3D disks remain challenging due to the steep resolution requirements. Using two different hydrodynamics codes, FARGO3D and PEnGUIn, we simulate disk–planet interaction for a one to five Earth-mass planet embedded in an isentropic disk. We measure the torque on the planet and ensure that the measurements are converged both in resolution and between the two codes. We find that the torque is independent of the smoothing length of the planet’s potential ( r {sub s}), and that it has a weak dependence on the adiabatic index of the gaseous disk ( γ ). The torque values correspond to an inward migration rate qualitatively similar to previous linear calculations. We perform additional simulations with explicit radiative transfer using FARGOCA, and again find agreement between 3D simulations and existing torque formulae. We also present the flow pattern around the planets that show active flow is present within the planet’s Hill sphere, and meridional vortices are shed downstream. The vertical flow speed near the planet is faster for a smaller r {sub s} or γ , up to supersonic speeds for the smallest r {sub s} and γ in our study.

  5. 3D Virtual Reality for Teaching Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speck, Angela; Ruzhitskaya, L.; Laffey, J.; Ding, N.

    2012-01-01

    We are developing 3D virtual learning environments (VLEs) as learning materials for an undergraduate astronomy course, in which will utilize advances both in technologies available and in our understanding of the social nature of learning. These learning materials will be used to test whether such VLEs can indeed augment science learning so that it is more engaging, active, visual and effective. Our project focuses on the challenges and requirements of introductory college astronomy classes. Here we present our virtual world of the Jupiter system and how we plan to implement it to allow students to learn course material - physical laws and concepts in astronomy - while engaging them into exploration of the Jupiter's system, encouraging their imagination, curiosity, and motivation. The VLE can allow students to work individually or collaboratively. The 3D world also provides an opportunity for research in astronomy education to investigate impact of social interaction, gaming features, and use of manipulatives offered by a learning tool on students’ motivation and learning outcomes. Use of this VLE is also a valuable source for exploration of how the learners’ spatial awareness can be enhanced by working in 3D environment. We will present the Jupiter-system environment along with a preliminary study of the efficacy and usability of our Jupiter 3D VLE.

  6. 3D Terahertz Beam Profiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Pernille Klarskov; Strikwerda, Andrew; Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2013-01-01

    We present a characterization of THz beams generated in both a two-color air plasma and in a LiNbO3 crystal. Using a commercial THz camera, we record intensity images as a function of distance through the beam waist, from which we extract 2D beam profiles and visualize our measurements into 3D beam...

  7. 3D Printing: Exploring Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Kyle; Flowers, Jim

    2015-01-01

    As 3D printers become more affordable, schools are using them in increasing numbers. They fit well with the emphasis on product design in technology and engineering education, allowing students to create high-fidelity physical models to see and test different iterations in their product designs. They may also help students to "think in three…

  8. 3D Pit Stop Printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Lael; Shaw, Daniel; Gaidds, Kimberly; Lyman, Gregory; Sorey, Timothy

    2018-01-01

    Although solving an engineering design project problem with limited resources or structural capabilities of materials can be part of the challenge, students making their own parts can support creativity. The authors of this article found an exciting solution: 3D printers are not only one of several tools for making but also facilitate a creative…

  9. 3D histomorphometric quantification from 3D computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, L.F. de; Lopes, R.T.

    2004-01-01

    The histomorphometric analysis is based on stereologic concepts and was originally applied to biologic samples. This technique has been used to evaluate different complex structures such as ceramic filters, net structures and cancellous objects that are objects with inner connected structures. The measured histomorphometric parameters of structure are: sample volume to total reconstructed volume (BV/TV), sample surface to sample volume (BS/BV), connection thickness (Tb Th ), connection number (Tb N ) and connection separation (Tb Sp ). The anisotropy was evaluated as well. These parameters constitute the base of histomorphometric analysis. The quantification is realized over cross-sections recovered by cone beam reconstruction, where a real-time microfocus radiographic system is used as tomographic system. The three-dimensional (3D) histomorphometry, obtained from tomography, corresponds to an evolution of conventional method that is based on 2D analysis. It is more coherent with morphologic and topologic context of the sample. This work shows result from 3D histomorphometric quantification to characterize objects examined by 3D computer tomography. The results, which characterizes the internal structures of ceramic foams with different porous density, are compared to results from conventional methods

  10. DYNA3D2000*, Explicit 3-D Hydrodynamic FEM Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, J.

    2002-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: DYNA3D2000 is a nonlinear explicit finite element code for analyzing 3-D structures and solid continuum. The code is vectorized and available on several computer platforms. The element library includes continuum, shell, beam, truss and spring/damper elements to allow maximum flexibility in modeling physical problems. Many materials are available to represent a wide range of material behavior, including elasticity, plasticity, composites, thermal effects and rate dependence. In addition, DYNA3D has a sophisticated contact interface capability, including frictional sliding, single surface contact and automatic contact generation. 2 - Method of solution: Discretization of a continuous model transforms partial differential equations into algebraic equations. A numerical solution is then obtained by solving these algebraic equations through a direct time marching scheme. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Recent software improvements have eliminated most of the user identified limitations with dynamic memory allocation and a very large format description that has pushed potential problem sizes beyond the reach of most users. The dominant restrictions remain in code execution speed and robustness, which the developers constantly strive to improve

  11. Streamlined, Inexpensive 3D Printing of the Brain and Skull

    OpenAIRE

    Naftulin, Jason S.; Kimchi, Eyal Y.; Cash, Sydney S.

    2015-01-01

    Neuroimaging technologies such as Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Computed Tomography (CT) collect three-dimensional data (3D) that is typically viewed on two-dimensional (2D) screens. Actual 3D models, however, allow interaction with real objects such as implantable electrode grids, potentially improving patient specific neurosurgical planning and personalized clinical education. Desktop 3D printers can now produce relatively inexpensive, good quality prints. We describe our process for...

  12. 3-D Discrete Analytical Ridgelet Transform

    OpenAIRE

    Helbert , David; Carré , Philippe; Andrès , Éric

    2006-01-01

    International audience; In this paper, we propose an implementation of the 3-D Ridgelet transform: the 3-D discrete analytical Ridgelet transform (3-D DART). This transform uses the Fourier strategy for the computation of the associated 3-D discrete Radon transform. The innovative step is the definition of a discrete 3-D transform with the discrete analytical geometry theory by the construction of 3-D discrete analytical lines in the Fourier domain. We propose two types of 3-D discrete lines:...

  13. Postoperative assessment of surgical results using three dimensional surface reconstruction CT (3D-CT) in a craniofacial anomaly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Jiro; Sato, Kaoru; Nishimoto, Hiroshi; Tsukiyama, Takashi; Fujioka, Mutsuhisa; Akagawa, Tetsuya.

    1988-01-01

    In 1983, Michael W. Vannier and Jeffrey L. Marsh developed a computer method that reconstructs three dimensional (3D) born and soft tissue surfaces, given a high resolution CT scan-series of the facial skeleton. This method has been applied to craniofacial anomalies, basal encephaloceles, and musculoskeletal anomalies. In this study, a postoperative assessment of the craniofacial surgical results has been accomplished using this 3D-CT in 2 children with craniofacial dysmorphism. The authors discuss the advantages of this 3D-CT imaging method in the postoperative assessments of craniofacial anomalies. Results are detailed in the following listing : 1) a postoperative 3D-CT reveals the anatomical details corrected by the craniofacial surgery more precisely and stereographically than conventional radiological methods ; 2) secondary changes of the cranium after the surgery, such as bony formation in the area of the osteotomy and postoperative asymmetric deformities, are detected early by the 3D-CT imaging technique, and, 3) 3D-CT mid-sagittal and top axial views of the intracranial skull base are most useful in postoperative assessments of the surgical results. Basesd on our experience, we expect that three dimensional surface reconstructions from CT scans will become to be used widely in the postoperative assessments of the surgical results of craniofacial anomalies. (author)

  14. 3D integrated superconducting qubits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, D.; Kim, D.; Das, R.; Yost, D.; Gustavsson, S.; Hover, D.; Krantz, P.; Melville, A.; Racz, L.; Samach, G. O.; Weber, S. J.; Yan, F.; Yoder, J. L.; Kerman, A. J.; Oliver, W. D.

    2017-10-01

    As the field of quantum computing advances from the few-qubit stage to larger-scale processors, qubit addressability and extensibility will necessitate the use of 3D integration and packaging. While 3D integration is well-developed for commercial electronics, relatively little work has been performed to determine its compatibility with high-coherence solid-state qubits. Of particular concern, qubit coherence times can be suppressed by the requisite processing steps and close proximity of another chip. In this work, we use a flip-chip process to bond a chip with superconducting flux qubits to another chip containing structures for qubit readout and control. We demonstrate that high qubit coherence (T1, T2,echo > 20 μs) is maintained in a flip-chip geometry in the presence of galvanic, capacitive, and inductive coupling between the chips.

  15. Automated 3-D Radiation Mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarpinian, J. E.

    1991-01-01

    This work describes an automated radiation detection and imaging system which combines several state-of-the-art technologies to produce a portable but very powerful visualization tool for planning work in radiation environments. The system combines a radiation detection system, a computerized radiation imaging program, and computerized 3-D modeling to automatically locate and measurements are automatically collected and imaging techniques are used to produce colored, 'isodose' images of the measured radiation fields. The isodose lines from the images are then superimposed over the 3-D model of the area. The final display shows the various components in a room and their associated radiation fields. The use of an automated radiation detection system increases the quality of radiation survey obtained measurements. The additional use of a three-dimensional display allows easier visualization of the area and associated radiological conditions than two-dimensional sketches

  16. Forensic 3D Scene Reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LITTLE, CHARLES Q.; PETERS, RALPH R.; RIGDON, J. BRIAN; SMALL, DANIEL E.

    1999-01-01

    Traditionally law enforcement agencies have relied on basic measurement and imaging tools, such as tape measures and cameras, in recording a crime scene. A disadvantage of these methods is that they are slow and cumbersome. The development of a portable system that can rapidly record a crime scene with current camera imaging, 3D geometric surface maps, and contribute quantitative measurements such as accurate relative positioning of crime scene objects, would be an asset to law enforcement agents in collecting and recording significant forensic data. The purpose of this project is to develop a feasible prototype of a fast, accurate, 3D measurement and imaging system that would support law enforcement agents to quickly document and accurately record a crime scene

  17. 3D neutron transport modelization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warin, X.

    1996-12-01

    Some nodal methods to solve the transport equation in 3D are presented. Two nodal methods presented at an OCDE congress are described: a first one is a low degree one called RTN0; a second one is a high degree one called BDM1. The two methods can be made faster with a totally consistent DSA. Some results of parallelization show that: 98% of the time is spent in sweeps; transport sweeps are easily parallelized. (K.A.)

  18. 3D Printing A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Zulkifl Hasan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Solid free fabrication SFF are produced to enhance the printing instrument utilizing distinctive strategies like Piezo spout control multi-spout injet printers or STL arrange utilizing cutting information. The procedure is utilized to diminish the cost and enhance the speed of printing. A few techniques take long at last because of extra process like dry the printing. This study will concentrate on SFFS utilizing UV gum for 3D printing.

  19. 3D neutron transport modelization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warin, X.

    1996-12-01

    Some nodal methods to solve the transport equation in 3D are presented. Two nodal methods presented at an OCDE congress are described: a first one is a low degree one called RTN0; a second one is a high degree one called BDM1. The two methods can be made faster with a totally consistent DSA. Some results of parallelization show that: 98% of the time is spent in sweeps; transport sweeps are easily parallelized. (K.A.). 10 refs.

  20. Conducting polymer 3D microelectrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sasso, Luigi; Vazquez, Patricia; Vedarethinam, Indumathi

    2010-01-01

    Conducting polymer 3D microelectrodes have been fabricated for possible future neurological applications. A combination of micro-fabrication techniques and chemical polymerization methods has been used to create pillar electrodes in polyaniline and polypyrrole. The thin polymer films obtained...... showed uniformity and good adhesion to both horizontal and vertical surfaces. Electrodes in combination with metal/conducting polymer materials have been characterized by cyclic voltammetry and the presence of the conducting polymer film has shown to increase the electrochemical activity when compared...

  1. [Real time 3D echocardiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, F.; Shiota, T.; Thomas, J. D.

    2001-01-01

    Three-dimensional representation of the heart is an old concern. Usually, 3D reconstruction of the cardiac mass is made by successive acquisition of 2D sections, the spatial localisation and orientation of which require complex guiding systems. More recently, the concept of volumetric acquisition has been introduced. A matricial emitter-receiver probe complex with parallel data processing provides instantaneous of a pyramidal 64 degrees x 64 degrees volume. The image is restituted in real time and is composed of 3 planes (planes B and C) which can be displaced in all spatial directions at any time during acquisition. The flexibility of this system of acquisition allows volume and mass measurement with greater accuracy and reproducibility, limiting inter-observer variability. Free navigation of the planes of investigation allows reconstruction for qualitative and quantitative analysis of valvular heart disease and other pathologies. Although real time 3D echocardiography is ready for clinical usage, some improvements are still necessary to improve its conviviality. Then real time 3D echocardiography could be the essential tool for understanding, diagnosis and management of patients.

  2. 3D treatment planning systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saw, Cheng B; Li, Sicong

    2018-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) treatment planning systems have evolved and become crucial components of modern radiation therapy. The systems are computer-aided designing or planning softwares that speed up the treatment planning processes to arrive at the best dose plans for the patients undergoing radiation therapy. Furthermore, the systems provide new technology to solve problems that would not have been considered without the use of computers such as conformal radiation therapy (CRT), intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). The 3D treatment planning systems vary amongst the vendors and also the dose delivery systems they are designed to support. As such these systems have different planning tools to generate the treatment plans and convert the treatment plans into executable instructions that can be implemented by the dose delivery systems. The rapid advancements in computer technology and accelerators have facilitated constant upgrades and the introduction of different and unique dose delivery systems than the traditional C-arm type medical linear accelerators. The focus of this special issue is to gather relevant 3D treatment planning systems for the radiation oncology community to keep abreast of technology advancement by assess the planning tools available as well as those unique "tricks or tips" used to support the different dose delivery systems. Copyright © 2018 American Association of Medical Dosimetrists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Compact 3D quantum memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Edwar; Deppe, Frank; Renger, Michael; Repp, Daniel; Eder, Peter; Fischer, Michael; Goetz, Jan; Pogorzalek, Stefan; Fedorov, Kirill G.; Marx, Achim; Gross, Rudolf

    2018-05-01

    Superconducting 3D microwave cavities offer state-of-the-art coherence times and a well-controlled environment for superconducting qubits. In order to realize at the same time fast readout and long-lived quantum information storage, one can couple the qubit to both a low-quality readout and a high-quality storage cavity. However, such systems are bulky compared to their less coherent 2D counterparts. A more compact and scalable approach is achieved by making use of the multimode structure of a 3D cavity. In our work, we investigate such a device where a transmon qubit is capacitively coupled to two modes of a single 3D cavity. External coupling is engineered so that the memory mode has an about 100 times larger quality factor than the readout mode. Using an all-microwave second-order protocol, we realize a lifetime enhancement of the stored state over the qubit lifetime by a factor of 6 with a fidelity of approximately 80% determined via quantum process tomography. We also find that this enhancement is not limited by fundamental constraints.

  4. 3D Graphics with Spreadsheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Benacka

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article, the formulas for orthographic parallel projection of 3D bodies on computer screen are derived using secondary school vector algebra. The spreadsheet implementation is demonstrated in six applications that project bodies with increasing intricacy – a convex body (cube with non-solved visibility, convex bodies (cube, chapel with solved visibility, a coloured convex body (chapel with solved visibility, and a coloured non-convex body (church with solved visibility. The projections are revolvable in horizontal and vertical plane, and they are changeable in size. The examples show an unusual way of using spreadsheets as a 3D computer graphics tool. The applications can serve as a simple introduction to the general principles of computer graphics, to the graphics with spreadsheets, and as a tool for exercising stereoscopic vision. The presented approach is usable at visualising 3D scenes within some topics of secondary school curricula as solid geometry (angles and distances of lines and planes within simple bodies or analytic geometry in space (angles and distances of lines and planes in E3, and even at university level within calculus at visualising graphs of z = f(x,y functions. Examples are pictured.

  5. 3D composite image, 3D MRI, 3D SPECT, hydrocephalus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mito, T.; Shibata, I.; Sugo, N.; Takano, M.; Takahashi, H.

    2002-01-01

    The three-dimensional (3D)SPECT imaging technique we have studied and published for the past several years is an analytical tool that permits visual expression of the cerebral circulation profile in various cerebral diseases. The greatest drawback of SPECT is that the limitation on precision of spacial resolution makes intracranial localization impossible. In 3D SPECT imaging, intracranial volume and morphology may vary with the threshold established. To solve this problem, we have produced complimentarily combined SPECT and helical-CT 3D images by means of general-purpose visualization software for intracranial localization. In hydrocephalus, however, the key subject to be studied is the profile of cerebral circulation around the ventricles of the brain. This suggests that, for displaying the cerebral ventricles in three dimensions, CT is a difficult technique whereas MRI is more useful. For this reason, we attempted to establish the profile of cerebral circulation around the cerebral ventricles by the production of combined 3D images of SPECT and MRI. In patients who had shunt surgery for hydrocephalus, a difference between pre- and postoperative cerebral circulation profiles was assessed by a voxel distribution curve, 3D SPECT images, and combined 3D SPECT and MRI images. As the shunt system in this study, an Orbis-Sigma valve of the automatic cerebrospinal fluid volume adjustment type was used in place of the variable pressure type Medos valve currently in use, because this device requires frequent changes in pressure and a change in pressure may be detected after MRI procedure. The SPECT apparatus used was PRISM3000 of the three-detector type, and 123I-IMP was used as the radionuclide in a dose of 222 MBq. MRI data were collected with an MAGNEXa+2 with a magnetic flux density of 0.5 tesla under the following conditions: field echo; TR 50 msec; TE, 10 msec; flip, 30ueK; 1 NEX; FOV, 23 cm; 1-mm slices; and gapless. 3D images are produced on the workstation TITAN

  6. 3D silicon strip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parzefall, Ulrich; Bates, Richard; Boscardin, Maurizio; Dalla Betta, Gian-Franco; Eckert, Simon; Eklund, Lars; Fleta, Celeste; Jakobs, Karl; Kuehn, Susanne; Lozano, Manuel; Pahn, Gregor; Parkes, Chris; Pellegrini, Giulio; Pennicard, David; Piemonte, Claudio; Ronchin, Sabina; Szumlak, Tomasz; Zoboli, Andrea; Zorzi, Nicola

    2009-01-01

    While the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN has started operation in autumn 2008, plans for a luminosity upgrade to the Super-LHC (sLHC) have already been developed for several years. This projected luminosity increase by an order of magnitude gives rise to a challenging radiation environment for tracking detectors at the LHC experiments. Significant improvements in radiation hardness are required with respect to the LHC. Using a strawman layout for the new tracker of the ATLAS experiment as an example, silicon strip detectors (SSDs) with short strips of 2-3 cm length are foreseen to cover the region from 28 to 60 cm distance to the beam. These SSD will be exposed to radiation levels up to 10 15 N eq /cm 2 , which makes radiation resistance a major concern for the upgraded ATLAS tracker. Several approaches to increasing the radiation hardness of silicon detectors exist. In this article, it is proposed to combine the radiation hard 3D-design originally conceived for pixel-style applications with the benefits of the established planar technology for strip detectors by using SSDs that have regularly spaced doped columns extending into the silicon bulk under the detector strips. The first 3D SSDs to become available for testing were made in the Single Type Column (STC) design, a technological simplification of the original 3D design. With such 3D SSDs, a small number of prototype sLHC detector modules with LHC-speed front-end electronics as used in the semiconductor tracking systems of present LHC experiments were built. Modules were tested before and after irradiation to fluences of 10 15 N eq /cm 2 . The tests were performed with three systems: a highly focused IR-laser with 5μm spot size to make position-resolved scans of the charge collection efficiency, an Sr 90 β-source set-up to measure the signal levels for a minimum ionizing particle (MIP), and a beam test with 180 GeV pions at CERN. This article gives a brief overview of the results obtained with 3D-STC-modules.

  7. 3D silicon strip detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parzefall, Ulrich [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Str. 3, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany)], E-mail: ulrich.parzefall@physik.uni-freiburg.de; Bates, Richard [University of Glasgow, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Boscardin, Maurizio [FBK-irst, Center for Materials and Microsystems, via Sommarive 18, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy); Dalla Betta, Gian-Franco [INFN and Universita' di Trento, via Sommarive 14, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy); Eckert, Simon [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Str. 3, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Eklund, Lars; Fleta, Celeste [University of Glasgow, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Jakobs, Karl; Kuehn, Susanne [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Str. 3, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Lozano, Manuel [Instituto de Microelectronica de Barcelona, IMB-CNM, CSIC, Barcelona (Spain); Pahn, Gregor [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Str. 3, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Parkes, Chris [University of Glasgow, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Pellegrini, Giulio [Instituto de Microelectronica de Barcelona, IMB-CNM, CSIC, Barcelona (Spain); Pennicard, David [University of Glasgow, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Piemonte, Claudio; Ronchin, Sabina [FBK-irst, Center for Materials and Microsystems, via Sommarive 18, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy); Szumlak, Tomasz [University of Glasgow, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Zoboli, Andrea [INFN and Universita' di Trento, via Sommarive 14, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy); Zorzi, Nicola [FBK-irst, Center for Materials and Microsystems, via Sommarive 18, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy)

    2009-06-01

    While the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN has started operation in autumn 2008, plans for a luminosity upgrade to the Super-LHC (sLHC) have already been developed for several years. This projected luminosity increase by an order of magnitude gives rise to a challenging radiation environment for tracking detectors at the LHC experiments. Significant improvements in radiation hardness are required with respect to the LHC. Using a strawman layout for the new tracker of the ATLAS experiment as an example, silicon strip detectors (SSDs) with short strips of 2-3 cm length are foreseen to cover the region from 28 to 60 cm distance to the beam. These SSD will be exposed to radiation levels up to 10{sup 15}N{sub eq}/cm{sup 2}, which makes radiation resistance a major concern for the upgraded ATLAS tracker. Several approaches to increasing the radiation hardness of silicon detectors exist. In this article, it is proposed to combine the radiation hard 3D-design originally conceived for pixel-style applications with the benefits of the established planar technology for strip detectors by using SSDs that have regularly spaced doped columns extending into the silicon bulk under the detector strips. The first 3D SSDs to become available for testing were made in the Single Type Column (STC) design, a technological simplification of the original 3D design. With such 3D SSDs, a small number of prototype sLHC detector modules with LHC-speed front-end electronics as used in the semiconductor tracking systems of present LHC experiments were built. Modules were tested before and after irradiation to fluences of 10{sup 15}N{sub eq}/cm{sup 2}. The tests were performed with three systems: a highly focused IR-laser with 5{mu}m spot size to make position-resolved scans of the charge collection efficiency, an Sr{sup 90}{beta}-source set-up to measure the signal levels for a minimum ionizing particle (MIP), and a beam test with 180 GeV pions at CERN. This article gives a brief overview of

  8. Evaluation of 3D Positioned Sound in Multimodal Scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Anders Kalsgaard

    present but interacts with the other meeting members using different virtual reality technologies. The thesis also dealt with a 3D sound system in trucks. it was investigated if 3D-sound could be used to give the truck driver an audible and lifelike experience of the cyclists’ position, in relation......This Ph.D. study has dealt with different binaural methods for implementing 3D sound in selected multimodal applications, with the purpose of evaluating the feasibility of using 3D sound in these applications. The thesis dealt with a teleconference application in which one person is not physically...

  9. Magmatic Systems in 3-D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, G. M.; Harding, A. J.; Babcock, J. M.; Orcutt, J. A.; Bazin, S.; Singh, S.; Detrick, R. S.; Canales, J. P.; Carbotte, S. M.; Diebold, J.

    2002-12-01

    Multichannel seismic (MCS) images of crustal magma chambers are ideal targets for advanced visualization techniques. In the mid-ocean ridge environment, reflections originating at the melt-lens are well separated from other reflection boundaries, such as the seafloor, layer 2A and Moho, which enables the effective use of transparency filters. 3-D visualization of seismic reflectivity falls into two broad categories: volume and surface rendering. Volumetric-based visualization is an extremely powerful approach for the rapid exploration of very dense 3-D datasets. These 3-D datasets are divided into volume elements or voxels, which are individually color coded depending on the assigned datum value; the user can define an opacity filter to reject plotting certain voxels. This transparency allows the user to peer into the data volume, enabling an easy identification of patterns or relationships that might have geologic merit. Multiple image volumes can be co-registered to look at correlations between two different data types (e.g., amplitude variation with offsets studies), in a manner analogous to draping attributes onto a surface. In contrast, surface visualization of seismic reflectivity usually involves producing "fence" diagrams of 2-D seismic profiles that are complemented with seafloor topography, along with point class data, draped lines and vectors (e.g. fault scarps, earthquake locations and plate-motions). The overlying seafloor can be made partially transparent or see-through, enabling 3-D correlations between seafloor structure and seismic reflectivity. Exploration of 3-D datasets requires additional thought when constructing and manipulating these complex objects. As numbers of visual objects grow in a particular scene, there is a tendency to mask overlapping objects; this clutter can be managed through the effective use of total or partial transparency (i.e., alpha-channel). In this way, the co-variation between different datasets can be investigated

  10. Automated classification of RNA 3D motifs and the RNA 3D Motif Atlas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Anton I.; Zirbel, Craig L.; Leontis, Neocles B.

    2013-01-01

    The analysis of atomic-resolution RNA three-dimensional (3D) structures reveals that many internal and hairpin loops are modular, recurrent, and structured by conserved non-Watson–Crick base pairs. Structurally similar loops define RNA 3D motifs that are conserved in homologous RNA molecules, but can also occur at nonhomologous sites in diverse RNAs, and which often vary in sequence. To further our understanding of RNA motif structure and sequence variability and to provide a useful resource for structure modeling and prediction, we present a new method for automated classification of internal and hairpin loop RNA 3D motifs and a new online database called the RNA 3D Motif Atlas. To classify the motif instances, a representative set of internal and hairpin loops is automatically extracted from a nonredundant list of RNA-containing PDB files. Their structures are compared geometrically, all-against-all, using the FR3D program suite. The loops are clustered into motif groups, taking into account geometric similarity and structural annotations and making allowance for a variable number of bulged bases. The automated procedure that we have implemented identifies all hairpin and internal loop motifs previously described in the literature. All motif instances and motif groups are assigned unique and stable identifiers and are made available in the RNA 3D Motif Atlas (http://rna.bgsu.edu/motifs), which is automatically updated every four weeks. The RNA 3D Motif Atlas provides an interactive user interface for exploring motif diversity and tools for programmatic data access. PMID:23970545

  11. Bologna 3D: la pianificazione partecipata del Piano Strutturale Comunale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Deiana

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Bologna 3D: the Municipal Structural Plan partecipated planning The Bologna Municipality used 3D GIS solutions by Skyline for opening to citizens the decision process which leaded to its new urban plan (PSC: 3D prospective is enhancing understanding of territory strategical planning, even to nontechnical and common people. A Skyline 3D terrain, produced in TerraBuilder environment from 10 meters DTM and from 50 centimeters per pixel colour imagery, is served online by TerraGate streaming server as basis layer for the delivering of interactive 3D GIS applications made using TerraExplorer Pro’s authoring environment, integrating all the significant GIS layers and various informations into many 3D projects, now also available online by installing the free plugin TerraExplorer Viewer.

  12. Bologna 3D: la pianificazione partecipata del Piano Strutturale Comunale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Deiana

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Bologna 3D: the Municipal Structural Plan partecipated planningThe Bologna Municipality used 3D GIS solutions by Skyline for opening to citizens the decision process which leaded to its new urban plan (PSC: 3D prospective is enhancing understanding of territory strategical planning, even to nontechnical and common people. A Skyline 3D terrain, produced in TerraBuilder environment from 10 meters DTM and from 50 centimeters per pixel colour imagery, is served online by TerraGate streaming server as basis layer for the delivering of interactive 3D GIS applications made using TerraExplorer Pro’s authoring environment, integrating all the significant GIS layers and various informations into many 3D projects, now also available online by installing the free plugin TerraExplorer Viewer.

  13. Wireless 3D Chocolate Printer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FROILAN G. DESTREZA

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study is for the BSHRM Students of Batangas State University (BatStateU ARASOF for the researchers believe that the Wireless 3D Chocolate Printer would be helpful in their degree program especially on making creative, artistic, personalized and decorative chocolate designs. The researchers used the Prototyping model as procedural method for the successful development and implementation of the hardware and software. This method has five phases which are the following: quick plan, quick design, prototype construction, delivery and feedback and communication. This study was evaluated by the BSHRM Students and the assessment of the respondents regarding the software and hardware application are all excellent in terms of Accuracy, Effecitveness, Efficiency, Maintainability, Reliability and User-friendliness. Also, the overall level of acceptability of the design project as evaluated by the respondents is excellent. With regard to the observation about the best raw material to use in 3D printing, the chocolate is good to use as the printed material is slightly distorted,durable and very easy to prepare; the icing is also good to use as the printed material is not distorted and is very durable but consumes time to prepare; the flour is not good as the printed material is distorted, not durable but it is easy to prepare. The computation of the economic viability level of 3d printer with reference to ROI is 37.14%. The recommendation of the researchers in the design project are as follows: adding a cooling system so that the raw material will be more durable, development of a more simplified version and improving the extrusion process wherein the user do not need to stop the printing process just to replace the empty syringe with a new one.

  14. Virtual 3-D Facial Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Paul Evison

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Facial reconstructions in archaeology allow empathy with people who lived in the past and enjoy considerable popularity with the public. It is a common misconception that facial reconstruction will produce an exact likeness; a resemblance is the best that can be hoped for. Research at Sheffield University is aimed at the development of a computer system for facial reconstruction that will be accurate, rapid, repeatable, accessible and flexible. This research is described and prototypical 3-D facial reconstructions are presented. Interpolation models simulating obesity, ageing and ethnic affiliation are also described. Some strengths and weaknesses in the models, and their potential for application in archaeology are discussed.

  15. iCAVE: an open source tool for visualizing biomolecular networks in 3D, stereoscopic 3D and immersive 3D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liluashvili, Vaja; Kalayci, Selim; Fluder, Eugene; Wilson, Manda; Gabow, Aaron; Gümüs, Zeynep H

    2017-08-01

    Visualizations of biomolecular networks assist in systems-level data exploration in many cellular processes. Data generated from high-throughput experiments increasingly inform these networks, yet current tools do not adequately scale with concomitant increase in their size and complexity. We present an open source software platform, interactome-CAVE (iCAVE), for visualizing large and complex biomolecular interaction networks in 3D. Users can explore networks (i) in 3D using a desktop, (ii) in stereoscopic 3D using 3D-vision glasses and a desktop, or (iii) in immersive 3D within a CAVE environment. iCAVE introduces 3D extensions of known 2D network layout, clustering, and edge-bundling algorithms, as well as new 3D network layout algorithms. Furthermore, users can simultaneously query several built-in databases within iCAVE for network generation or visualize their own networks (e.g., disease, drug, protein, metabolite). iCAVE has modular structure that allows rapid development by addition of algorithms, datasets, or features without affecting other parts of the code. Overall, iCAVE is the first freely available open source tool that enables 3D (optionally stereoscopic or immersive) visualizations of complex, dense, or multi-layered biomolecular networks. While primarily designed for researchers utilizing biomolecular networks, iCAVE can assist researchers in any field. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  16. Social Interaction and Its Realization in 3-D Virtual Learning Environment%社会性交互及其在三维虚拟学习环境中的实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘永娜; 张树玲; 孙波

    2015-01-01

    Learning is a social process, while the teaching interaction is an important factor affecting the learning effect. Teaching interaction includes individual interaction and social interaction. The social interaction plays a significant role in learning. Its teaching function can strengthen the cognitive process of students, and its social function can enhance the social emotion and social process of students. Though with inconsistent starting time and different attention, the study and cognition of social interaction at home and abroad both developed from the media attribute theory with the narrowest social presence at the beginning gradually to the understanding that the social presence is dynamic, and the key to promote social interaction is to establish and cultivate social presence. Although traditional 2-D virtual learning environment has realized the important value of teaching intelligent agent in supporting teaching interaction, its support to social interaction is still limited. By contrary, 3-D virtual reality learning environment has unique characteristics in the scope, time, and depth of the interaction with its incarnation technology, intelligent virtual agent technology, and 3I specialty. Therefore, it provides a more effective environment and tool in establishing and cultivating social presence and learning social emotion. The support system for social emotion learning based on 3-D virtual learning environment improves the feedback speed of social interaction and promotes the production and deepening of social interaction in virtual learning environment by giving social interaction capability to virtual teachers.%学习是一种社会化的过程,教学交互是影响学习效果的重要因素。教学交互分为个别化交互和社会性交互,社会性交互在学习过程中起着非常重要的作用,其教学功能可以强化学生的认知过程,社会功能可以强化学生的社会情感以及社会过程。国内外对社会性

  17. Analysis of 3-D images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wani, M. Arif; Batchelor, Bruce G.

    1992-03-01

    Deriving generalized representation of 3-D objects for analysis and recognition is a very difficult task. Three types of representations based on type of an object is used in this paper. Objects which have well-defined geometrical shapes are segmented by using a fast edge region based segmentation technique. The segmented image is represented by plan and elevation of each part of the object if the object parts are symmetrical about their central axis. The plan and elevation concept enables representing and analyzing such objects quickly and efficiently. The second type of representation is used for objects having parts which are not symmetrical about their central axis. The segmented surface patches of such objects are represented by the 3-D boundary and the surface features of each segmented surface. Finally, the third type of representation is used for objects which don't have well-defined geometrical shapes (for example a loaf of bread). These objects are represented and analyzed from its features which are derived using a multiscale contour based technique. Anisotropic Gaussian smoothing technique is introduced to segment the contours at various scales of smoothing. A new merging technique is used which enables getting the current best estimate of break points at each scale. This new technique enables elimination of loss of accuracy of localization effects at coarser scales without using scale space tracking approach.

  18. 3D Printed Bionic Ears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannoor, Manu S.; Jiang, Ziwen; James, Teena; Kong, Yong Lin; Malatesta, Karen A.; Soboyejo, Winston O.; Verma, Naveen; Gracias, David H.; McAlpine, Michael C.

    2013-01-01

    The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological tissue with functional electronics could enable the creation of bionic organs possessing enhanced functionalities over their human counterparts. Conventional electronic devices are inherently two-dimensional, preventing seamless multidimensional integration with synthetic biology, as the processes and materials are very different. Here, we present a novel strategy for overcoming these difficulties via additive manufacturing of biological cells with structural and nanoparticle derived electronic elements. As a proof of concept, we generated a bionic ear via 3D printing of a cell-seeded hydrogel matrix in the precise anatomic geometry of a human ear, along with an intertwined conducting polymer consisting of infused silver nanoparticles. This allowed for in vitro culturing of cartilage tissue around an inductive coil antenna in the ear, which subsequently enables readout of inductively-coupled signals from cochlea-shaped electrodes. The printed ear exhibits enhanced auditory sensing for radio frequency reception, and complementary left and right ears can listen to stereo audio music. Overall, our approach suggests a means to intricately merge biologic and nanoelectronic functionalities via 3D printing. PMID:23635097

  19. 3D DNA Origami Crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Hartl, Caroline; Frank, Kilian; Heuer-Jungemann, Amelie; Fischer, Stefan; Nickels, Philipp C; Nickel, Bert; Liedl, Tim

    2018-05-18

    3D crystals assembled entirely from DNA provide a route to design materials on a molecular level and to arrange guest particles in predefined lattices. This requires design schemes that provide high rigidity and sufficiently large open guest space. A DNA-origami-based "tensegrity triangle" structure that assembles into a 3D rhombohedral crystalline lattice with an open structure in which 90% of the volume is empty space is presented here. Site-specific placement of gold nanoparticles within the lattice demonstrates that these crystals are spacious enough to efficiently host 20 nm particles in a cavity size of 1.83 × 10 5 nm 3 , which would also suffice to accommodate ribosome-sized macromolecules. The accurate assembly of the DNA origami lattice itself, as well as the precise incorporation of gold particles, is validated by electron microscopy and small-angle X-ray scattering experiments. The results show that it is possible to create DNA building blocks that assemble into lattices with customized geometry. Site-specific hosting of nano objects in the optically transparent DNA lattice sets the stage for metamaterial and structural biology applications. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. 3D printed bionic ears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannoor, Manu S; Jiang, Ziwen; James, Teena; Kong, Yong Lin; Malatesta, Karen A; Soboyejo, Winston O; Verma, Naveen; Gracias, David H; McAlpine, Michael C

    2013-06-12

    The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological tissue with functional electronics could enable the creation of bionic organs possessing enhanced functionalities over their human counterparts. Conventional electronic devices are inherently two-dimensional, preventing seamless multidimensional integration with synthetic biology, as the processes and materials are very different. Here, we present a novel strategy for overcoming these difficulties via additive manufacturing of biological cells with structural and nanoparticle derived electronic elements. As a proof of concept, we generated a bionic ear via 3D printing of a cell-seeded hydrogel matrix in the anatomic geometry of a human ear, along with an intertwined conducting polymer consisting of infused silver nanoparticles. This allowed for in vitro culturing of cartilage tissue around an inductive coil antenna in the ear, which subsequently enables readout of inductively-coupled signals from cochlea-shaped electrodes. The printed ear exhibits enhanced auditory sensing for radio frequency reception, and complementary left and right ears can listen to stereo audio music. Overall, our approach suggests a means to intricately merge biologic and nanoelectronic functionalities via 3D printing.

  1. Amazing Space: Explanations, Investigations, & 3D Visualizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, Frank

    2011-05-01

    The Amazing Space website is STScI's online resource for communicating Hubble discoveries and other astronomical wonders to students and teachers everywhere. Our team has developed a broad suite of materials, readings, activities, and visuals that are not only engaging and exciting, but also standards-based and fully supported so that they can be easily used within state and national curricula. These products include stunning imagery, grade-level readings, trading card games, online interactives, and scientific visualizations. We are currently exploring the potential use of stereo 3D in astronomy education.

  2. Postoperative follow-up study of craniosynostosis using three-dimensional surface reconstruction CT (3D-CT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimoto, Hiroshi; Tsukiyama, Takashi; Nishimura, Jiro; Fujioka, Mutsuhisa; Tsubokawa, Takashi.

    1988-12-01

    In 1983, Michael W. Vannier and Jeffrey L. Marsh developed a computer method that reconstructs three-dimensional images from high-resolution CT-scan series of the facial skeleton. This method has been applied to craniofacial anomalies, basal encephalocele, and other skeletal pathologies. In this study, the postoperative assessment of craniofacial surgical results has been accomplished using 3D-CT techniques in craniosynostosis. The results are as follows: (1) Postoperative 3D-CTs reveal the bony anatomical details corrected by the craniofacial surgery more precisely and more stereographically than do conventional radiological techniques. (2) Secondary changes in the cranium after the surgery, such as reossification at the area of osteotomies or postoperative asymmetric skull deformities, are more early detected by the 3D-CT imaging technique than by a craniogram. (3) In 3D-CT images, internal views of the skull, such mid-sagittal, rear internal, or top axial views of the intracranial skull base, are most useful in postoperative assessments of the surgical results and of postoperative secondary changes in the cranium. Based on our experience, we expect that 3D-CT imaging techniques will become more important in the management of craniosynostosis.

  3. Postoperative follow-up study of craniosynostosis using three-dimensional surface reconstruction CT (3D-CT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimoto, Hiroshi; Tsukiyama, Takashi; Nishimura, Jiro; Fujioka, Mutsuhisa; Tsubokawa, Takashi.

    1988-01-01

    In 1983, Michael W. Vannier and Jeffrey L. Marsh developed a computer method that reconstructs three-dimensional images from high-resolution CT-scan series of the facial skeleton. This method has been applied to craniofacial anomalies, basal encephalocele, and other skeletal pathologies. In this study, the postoperative assessment of craniofacial surgical results has been accomplished using 3D-CT techniques in craniosynostosis. The results are as follows: 1) Postoperative 3D-CTs reveal the bony anatomical details corrected by the craniofacial surgery more precisely and more stereographically than do conventional radiological techniques. 2) Secondary changes in the cranium after the surgery, such as reossification at the area of osteotomies or postoperative asymmetric skull deformities, are more early detected by the 3D-CT imaging technique than by a craniogram. 3) In 3D-CT images, internal views of the skull, such mid-sagittal, rear internal, or top axial views of the intracranial skull base, are most useful in postoperative assessments of the surgical results and of postoperative secondary changes in the cranium. Based on our experience, we expect that 3D-CT imaging techniques will become more important in the management of craniosynostosis. (author)

  4. RELAP5-3D User Problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riemke, Richard Allan

    2001-01-01

    The Reactor Excursion and Leak Analysis Program with 3D capability (RELAP5-3D) is a reactor system analysis code that has been developed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE). The 3D capability in RELAP5-3D includes 3D hydrodynamics and 3D neutron kinetics. Assessment, verification, and validation of the 3D capability in RELAP5-3D is discussed in the literature. Additional assessment, verification, and validation of the 3D capability of RELAP5-3D will be presented in other papers in this users seminar. As with any software, user problems occur. User problems usually fall into the categories of input processing failure, code execution failure, restart/renodalization failure, unphysical result, and installation. This presentation will discuss some of the more generic user problems that have been reported on RELAP5-3D as well as their resolution

  5. LOTT RANCH 3D PROJECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larry Lawrence; Bruce Miller

    2004-01-01

    The Lott Ranch 3D seismic prospect located in Garza County, Texas is a project initiated in September of 1991 by the J.M. Huber Corp., a petroleum exploration and production company. By today's standards the 126 square mile project does not seem monumental, however at the time it was conceived it was the most intensive land 3D project ever attempted. Acquisition began in September of 1991 utilizing GEO-SEISMIC, INC., a seismic data contractor. The field parameters were selected by J.M. Huber, and were of a radical design. The recording instruments used were GeoCor IV amplifiers designed by Geosystems Inc., which record the data in signed bit format. It would not have been practical, if not impossible, to have processed the entire raw volume with the tools available at that time. The end result was a dataset that was thought to have little utility due to difficulties in processing the field data. In 1997, Yates Energy Corp. located in Roswell, New Mexico, formed a partnership to further develop the project. Through discussions and meetings with Pinnacle Seismic, it was determined that the original Lott Ranch 3D volume could be vastly improved upon reprocessing. Pinnacle Seismic had shown the viability of improving field-summed signed bit data on smaller 2D and 3D projects. Yates contracted Pinnacle Seismic Ltd. to perform the reprocessing. This project was initiated with high resolution being a priority. Much of the potential resolution was lost through the initial summing of the field data. Modern computers that are now being utilized have tremendous speed and storage capacities that were cost prohibitive when this data was initially processed. Software updates and capabilities offer a variety of quality control and statics resolution, which are pertinent to the Lott Ranch project. The reprocessing effort was very successful. The resulting processed data-set was then interpreted using modern PC-based interpretation and mapping software. Production data, log data

  6. Stereographic Targeting in Prostate Radiotherapy: Speed and Precision by Daily Automatic Positioning Corrections Using Kilovoltage/Megavoltage Image Pairs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutanga, Theodore F.; Boer, Hans C.J. de; Wielen, Gerard J. van der; Wentzler, Davy; Barnhoorn, Jaco; Incrocci, Luca; Heijmen, Ben J.M.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: A fully automated, fast, on-line prostate repositioning scheme using implanted markers, kilovoltage/megavoltage imaging, and remote couch movements has been developed and clinically applied. The initial clinical results of this stereographic targeting (SGT) method, as well as phantom evaluations, are presented. Methods and Materials: Using the SGT method, portal megavoltage images are acquired with the first two to six monitor units of a treatment beam, immediately followed by acquisition of an orthogonal kilovoltage image without gantry motion. The image pair is automatically analyzed to obtain the marker positions and three-dimensional prostate displacement and rotation. Remote control couch shifts are applied to correct for the displacement. The SGT performance was measured using both phantom images and images from 10 prostate cancer patients treated using SGT. Results: With phantom measurements, the accuracy of SGT was 0.5, 0.2, and 0.3 mm (standard deviation [SD]) for the left-right, craniocaudal, and anteroposterior directions, respectively, for translations and 0.5 o (SD) for the rotations around all axes. Clinically, the success rate for automatic marker detection was 99.5%, and the accuracy was 0.3, 0.5 and 0.8 mm (SD) in the left-right, craniocaudal, and anteroposterior axes. The SDs of the systematic center-of-mass positioning errors (Σ) were reduced from 4.0 mm to <0.5 mm for all axes. The corresponding SD of the random (σ) errors was reduced from 3.0 to <0.8 mm. These small residual errors were achieved with a treatment time extension of <1 min. Conclusion: Stereographic targeting yields systematic and random prostate positioning errors of <1 mm with <1 min of added treatment time

  7. 3D-e-Chem-VM: Structural Cheminformatics Research Infrastructure in a Freely Available Virtual Machine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McGuire, R.; Verhoeven, S.; Vass, M.; Vriend, G.; Esch, I.J. de; Lusher, S.J.; Leurs, R.; Ridder, L.; Kooistra, A.J.; Ritschel, T.; Graaf, C. de

    2017-01-01

    3D-e-Chem-VM is an open source, freely available Virtual Machine ( http://3d-e-chem.github.io/3D-e-Chem-VM/ ) that integrates cheminformatics and bioinformatics tools for the analysis of protein-ligand interaction data. 3D-e-Chem-VM consists of software libraries, and database and workflow tools

  8. 3D-e-Chem-VM : Structural Cheminformatics Research Infrastructure in a Freely Available Virtual Machine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McGuire, Ross; Verhoeven, Stefan; Vass, Márton; Vriend, Gerrit; De Esch, Iwan J P; Lusher, Scott J.; Leurs, Rob; Ridder, Lars; Kooistra, Albert J.; Ritschel, Tina; de Graaf, C.

    2017-01-01

    3D-e-Chem-VM is an open source, freely available Virtual Machine ( http://3d-e-chem.github.io/3D-e-Chem-VM/ ) that integrates cheminformatics and bioinformatics tools for the analysis of protein-ligand interaction data. 3D-e-Chem-VM consists of software libraries, and database and workflow tools

  9. 3D Technology Selection for a Virtual Learning Environment by Blending ISO 9126 Standard and AHP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin, Aydin; Guler, Inan

    2011-01-01

    Web3D presents many opportunities for learners in a virtual world or virtual environment over the web. This is a great opportunity for open-distance education institutions to benefit from web3d technologies to create courses with interactive 3d materials. There are many open source and commercial products offering 3d technologies over the web…

  10. Web3D Technologies in Learning, Education and Training: Motivations, Issues, Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chittaro, Luca; Ranon, Roberto

    2007-01-01

    Web3D open standards allow the delivery of interactive 3D virtual learning environments through the Internet, reaching potentially large numbers of learners worldwide, at any time. This paper introduces the educational use of virtual reality based on Web3D technologies. After briefly presenting the main Web3D technologies, we summarize the…

  11. Optimization Techniques for 3D Graphics Deployment on Mobile Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskela, Timo; Vatjus-Anttila, Jarkko

    2015-03-01

    3D Internet technologies are becoming essential enablers in many application areas including games, education, collaboration, navigation and social networking. The use of 3D Internet applications with mobile devices provides location-independent access and richer use context, but also performance issues. Therefore, one of the important challenges facing 3D Internet applications is the deployment of 3D graphics on mobile devices. In this article, we present an extensive survey on optimization techniques for 3D graphics deployment on mobile devices and qualitatively analyze the applicability of each technique from the standpoints of visual quality, performance and energy consumption. The analysis focuses on optimization techniques related to data-driven 3D graphics deployment, because it supports off-line use, multi-user interaction, user-created 3D graphics and creation of arbitrary 3D graphics. The outcome of the analysis facilitates the development and deployment of 3D Internet applications on mobile devices and provides guidelines for future research.

  12. Measurable realistic image-based 3D mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, W.; Wang, J.; Wang, J. J.; Ding, W.; Almagbile, A.

    2011-12-01

    Maps with 3D visual models are becoming a remarkable feature of 3D map services. High-resolution image data is obtained for the construction of 3D visualized models.The3D map not only provides the capabilities of 3D measurements and knowledge mining, but also provides the virtual experienceof places of interest, such as demonstrated in the Google Earth. Applications of 3D maps are expanding into the areas of architecture, property management, and urban environment monitoring. However, the reconstruction of high quality 3D models is time consuming, and requires robust hardware and powerful software to handle the enormous amount of data. This is especially for automatic implementation of 3D models and the representation of complicated surfacesthat still need improvements with in the visualisation techniques. The shortcoming of 3D model-based maps is the limitation of detailed coverage since a user can only view and measure objects that are already modelled in the virtual environment. This paper proposes and demonstrates a 3D map concept that is realistic and image-based, that enables geometric measurements and geo-location services. Additionally, image-based 3D maps provide more detailed information of the real world than 3D model-based maps. The image-based 3D maps use geo-referenced stereo images or panoramic images. The geometric relationships between objects in the images can be resolved from the geometric model of stereo images. The panoramic function makes 3D maps more interactive with users but also creates an interesting immersive circumstance. Actually, unmeasurable image-based 3D maps already exist, such as Google street view, but only provide virtual experiences in terms of photos. The topographic and terrain attributes, such as shapes and heights though are omitted. This paper also discusses the potential for using a low cost land Mobile Mapping System (MMS) to implement realistic image 3D mapping, and evaluates the positioning accuracy that a measureable

  13. 3D biometrics systems and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, David

    2013-01-01

    Includes discussions on popular 3D imaging technologies, combines them with biometric applications, and then presents real 3D biometric systems Introduces many efficient 3D feature extraction, matching, and fusion algorithms Techniques presented have been supported by experimental results using various 3D biometric classifications

  14. Streamlined, Inexpensive 3D Printing of the Brain and Skull.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naftulin, Jason S; Kimchi, Eyal Y; Cash, Sydney S

    2015-01-01

    Neuroimaging technologies such as Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Computed Tomography (CT) collect three-dimensional data (3D) that is typically viewed on two-dimensional (2D) screens. Actual 3D models, however, allow interaction with real objects such as implantable electrode grids, potentially improving patient specific neurosurgical planning and personalized clinical education. Desktop 3D printers can now produce relatively inexpensive, good quality prints. We describe our process for reliably generating life-sized 3D brain prints from MRIs and 3D skull prints from CTs. We have integrated a standardized, primarily open-source process for 3D printing brains and skulls. We describe how to convert clinical neuroimaging Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) images to stereolithography (STL) files, a common 3D object file format that can be sent to 3D printing services. We additionally share how to convert these STL files to machine instruction gcode files, for reliable in-house printing on desktop, open-source 3D printers. We have successfully printed over 19 patient brain hemispheres from 7 patients on two different open-source desktop 3D printers. Each brain hemisphere costs approximately $3-4 in consumable plastic filament as described, and the total process takes 14-17 hours, almost all of which is unsupervised (preprocessing = 4-6 hr; printing = 9-11 hr, post-processing = Printing a matching portion of a skull costs $1-5 in consumable plastic filament and takes less than 14 hr, in total. We have developed a streamlined, cost-effective process for 3D printing brain and skull models. We surveyed healthcare providers and patients who confirmed that rapid-prototype patient specific 3D models may help interdisciplinary surgical planning and patient education. The methods we describe can be applied for other clinical, research, and educational purposes.

  15. Streamlined, Inexpensive 3D Printing of the Brain and Skull.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason S Naftulin

    Full Text Available Neuroimaging technologies such as Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI and Computed Tomography (CT collect three-dimensional data (3D that is typically viewed on two-dimensional (2D screens. Actual 3D models, however, allow interaction with real objects such as implantable electrode grids, potentially improving patient specific neurosurgical planning and personalized clinical education. Desktop 3D printers can now produce relatively inexpensive, good quality prints. We describe our process for reliably generating life-sized 3D brain prints from MRIs and 3D skull prints from CTs. We have integrated a standardized, primarily open-source process for 3D printing brains and skulls. We describe how to convert clinical neuroimaging Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM images to stereolithography (STL files, a common 3D object file format that can be sent to 3D printing services. We additionally share how to convert these STL files to machine instruction gcode files, for reliable in-house printing on desktop, open-source 3D printers. We have successfully printed over 19 patient brain hemispheres from 7 patients on two different open-source desktop 3D printers. Each brain hemisphere costs approximately $3-4 in consumable plastic filament as described, and the total process takes 14-17 hours, almost all of which is unsupervised (preprocessing = 4-6 hr; printing = 9-11 hr, post-processing = <30 min. Printing a matching portion of a skull costs $1-5 in consumable plastic filament and takes less than 14 hr, in total. We have developed a streamlined, cost-effective process for 3D printing brain and skull models. We surveyed healthcare providers and patients who confirmed that rapid-prototype patient specific 3D models may help interdisciplinary surgical planning and patient education. The methods we describe can be applied for other clinical, research, and educational purposes.

  16. Streamlined, Inexpensive 3D Printing of the Brain and Skull

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cash, Sydney S.

    2015-01-01

    Neuroimaging technologies such as Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Computed Tomography (CT) collect three-dimensional data (3D) that is typically viewed on two-dimensional (2D) screens. Actual 3D models, however, allow interaction with real objects such as implantable electrode grids, potentially improving patient specific neurosurgical planning and personalized clinical education. Desktop 3D printers can now produce relatively inexpensive, good quality prints. We describe our process for reliably generating life-sized 3D brain prints from MRIs and 3D skull prints from CTs. We have integrated a standardized, primarily open-source process for 3D printing brains and skulls. We describe how to convert clinical neuroimaging Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) images to stereolithography (STL) files, a common 3D object file format that can be sent to 3D printing services. We additionally share how to convert these STL files to machine instruction gcode files, for reliable in-house printing on desktop, open-source 3D printers. We have successfully printed over 19 patient brain hemispheres from 7 patients on two different open-source desktop 3D printers. Each brain hemisphere costs approximately $3–4 in consumable plastic filament as described, and the total process takes 14–17 hours, almost all of which is unsupervised (preprocessing = 4–6 hr; printing = 9–11 hr, post-processing = Printing a matching portion of a skull costs $1–5 in consumable plastic filament and takes less than 14 hr, in total. We have developed a streamlined, cost-effective process for 3D printing brain and skull models. We surveyed healthcare providers and patients who confirmed that rapid-prototype patient specific 3D models may help interdisciplinary surgical planning and patient education. The methods we describe can be applied for other clinical, research, and educational purposes. PMID:26295459

  17. Telerobotics and 3-d TV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Able, E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on the development of telerobotic techniques that can be used in the nuclear industry. The approach has been to apply available equipment, modify available equipment, or design and build anew. The authors have successfully built an input controller which can be used with standard industrial robots, converting them into telerobots. A clean room industrial robot has been re-engineered into an advanced telerobot engineered for the nuclear industry, using a knowledge of radiation tolerance design principles and collaboration with the manufacturer. A powerful hydraulic manipulator has been built to respond to a need for more heavy duty devices for in-cell handling. A variety of easy to use 3-D TV systems has been developed

  18. Conducting Polymer 3D Microelectrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Emnéus

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Conducting polymer 3D microelectrodes have been fabricated for possible future neurological applications. A combination of micro-fabrication techniques and chemical polymerization methods has been used to create pillar electrodes in polyaniline and polypyrrole. The thin polymer films obtained showed uniformity and good adhesion to both horizontal and vertical surfaces. Electrodes in combination with metal/conducting polymer materials have been characterized by cyclic voltammetry and the presence of the conducting polymer film has shown to increase the electrochemical activity when compared with electrodes coated with only metal. An electrochemical characterization of gold/polypyrrole electrodes showed exceptional electrochemical behavior and activity. PC12 cells were finally cultured on the investigated materials as a preliminary biocompatibility assessment. These results show that the described electrodes are possibly suitable for future in-vitro neurological measurements.

  19. Embedding complex objects with 3d printing

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2017-10-12

    A CMOS technology-compatible fabrication process for flexible CMOS electronics embedded during additive manufacturing (i.e. 3D printing). A method for such a process may include printing a first portion of a 3D structure; pausing the step of printing the 3D structure to embed the flexible silicon substrate; placing the flexible silicon substrate in a cavity of the first portion of the 3D structure to embed the flexible silicon substrate in the 3D structure; and resuming the step of printing the 3D structure to form the second portion of the 3D structure.

  20. Supernova Remnant in 3-D

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    of the wavelength shift is related to the speed of motion, one can determine how fast the debris are moving in either direction. Because Cas A is the result of an explosion, the stellar debris is expanding radially outwards from the explosion center. Using simple geometry, the scientists were able to construct a 3-D model using all of this information. A program called 3-D Slicer modified for astronomical use by the Astronomical Medicine Project at Harvard University in Cambridge, Mass. was used to display and manipulate the 3-D model. Commercial software was then used to create the 3-D fly-through. The blue filaments defining the blast wave were not mapped using the Doppler effect because they emit a different kind of light synchrotron radiation that does not emit light at discrete wavelengths, but rather in a broad continuum. The blue filaments are only a representation of the actual filaments observed at the blast wave. This visualization shows that there are two main components to this supernova remnant: a spherical component in the outer parts of the remnant and a flattened (disk-like) component in the inner region. The spherical component consists of the outer layer of the star that exploded, probably made of helium and carbon. These layers drove a spherical blast wave into the diffuse gas surrounding the star. The flattened component that astronomers were unable to map into 3-D prior to these Spitzer observations consists of the inner layers of the star. It is made from various heavier elements, not all shown in the visualization, such as oxygen, neon, silicon, sulphur, argon and iron. High-velocity plumes, or jets, of this material are shooting out from the explosion in the plane of the disk-like component mentioned above. Plumes of silicon appear in the northeast and southwest, while those of iron are seen in the southeast and north. These jets were already known and Doppler velocity measurements have been made for these structures, but their orientation and

  1. Virtual VMASC: A 3D Game Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manepalli, Suchitra; Shen, Yuzhong; Garcia, Hector M.; Lawsure, Kaleen

    2010-01-01

    The advantages of creating interactive 3D simulations that allow viewing, exploring, and interacting with land improvements, such as buildings, in digital form are manifold and range from allowing individuals from anywhere in the world to explore those virtual land improvements online, to training military personnel in dealing with war-time environments, and to making those land improvements available in virtual worlds such as Second Life. While we haven't fully explored the true potential of such simulations, we have identified a requirement within our organization to use simulations like those to replace our front-desk personnel and allow visitors to query, naVigate, and communicate virtually with various entities within the building. We implemented the Virtual VMASC 3D simulation of the Virginia Modeling Analysis and Simulation Center (VMASC) office building to not only meet our front-desk requirement but also to evaluate the effort required in designing such a simulation and, thereby, leverage the experience we gained in future projects of this kind. This paper describes the goals we set for our implementation, the software approach taken, the modeling contribution made, and the technologies used such as XNA Game Studio, .NET framework, Autodesk software packages, and, finally, the applicability of our implementation on a variety of architectures including Xbox 360 and PC. This paper also summarizes the result of our evaluation and the lessons learned from our effort.

  2. Natural fibre composites for 3D Printing

    OpenAIRE

    Pandey, Kapil

    2015-01-01

    3D printing has been common option for prototyping. Not all the materials are suitable for 3D printing. Various studies have been done and still many are ongoing regarding the suitability of the materials for 3D printing. This thesis work discloses the possibility of 3D printing of certain polymer composite materials. The main objective of this thesis work was to study the possibility for 3D printing the polymer composite material composed of natural fibre composite and various different ...

  3. 3-D discrete analytical ridgelet transform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helbert, David; Carré, Philippe; Andres, Eric

    2006-12-01

    In this paper, we propose an implementation of the 3-D Ridgelet transform: the 3-D discrete analytical Ridgelet transform (3-D DART). This transform uses the Fourier strategy for the computation of the associated 3-D discrete Radon transform. The innovative step is the definition of a discrete 3-D transform with the discrete analytical geometry theory by the construction of 3-D discrete analytical lines in the Fourier domain. We propose two types of 3-D discrete lines: 3-D discrete radial lines going through the origin defined from their orthogonal projections and 3-D planes covered with 2-D discrete line segments. These discrete analytical lines have a parameter called arithmetical thickness, allowing us to define a 3-D DART adapted to a specific application. Indeed, the 3-D DART representation is not orthogonal, It is associated with a flexible redundancy factor. The 3-D DART has a very simple forward/inverse algorithm that provides an exact reconstruction without any iterative method. In order to illustrate the potentiality of this new discrete transform, we apply the 3-D DART and its extension to the Local-DART (with smooth windowing) to the denoising of 3-D image and color video. These experimental results show that the simple thresholding of the 3-D DART coefficients is efficient.

  4. TeCo3D: a 3D telecooperation application based on VRML and Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauve, Martin

    1998-12-01

    In this paper we present a method for sharing collaboration- unaware VRML content, e.g. 3D models which were not specifically developed for use in a distributed environment. This functionality is an essential requirement for the inclusion of arbitrary VRML content, as generated by standard CAD or animation software, into teleconferencing sessions. We have developed a 3D TeleCooperation (TeCo3D) prototype to demonstrate the feasibility of our approach. The basic services provided by the prototype are the distribution of cooperation unaware VRML content, the sharing of user interactions, and the joint viewing of the content. In order to achieve maximum portability, the prototype was developed completely in Java. This paper presents general aspects of sharing VRML content as well as the concepts, the architecture and the services of the TeCo3D prototype. Our approach relies on existing VRML browsers as the VRML presentation and execution engines while reliable multicast is used as the means of communication to provide for scalability.

  5. The unique deep sea—land connection: interactive 3D visualization and molecular phylogeny of Bathyhedyle boucheti n. sp. (Bathyhedylidae n. fam.—the first panpulmonate slug from bathyal zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timea P. Neusser

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The deep sea comprises vast unexplored areas and is expected to conceal significant undescribed invertebrate species diversity. Deep waters may act as a refuge for many relictual groups, including elusive and enigmatic higher taxa, but the evolutionary pathways by which colonization of the deep sea has occurred have scarcely been investigated. Sister group relationships between shallow water and deep sea taxa have been documented in several invertebrate groups, but are unknown between amphibious/terrestrial and deep-sea species. Here we describe in full and interactive 3D morphoanatomical detail the new sea slug species Bathyhedyle boucheti n. sp., dredged from the continental slope off Mozambique. Molecular and morphological analyses reveal that it represents a novel heterobranch gastropod lineage which we establish as the new family Bathyhedylidae. The family is robustly supported as sister to the recently discovered panpulmonate acochlidian family Aitengidae, which comprises amphibious species living along the sea shore as well as fully terrestrial species. This is the first marine-epibenthic representative among hedylopsacean Acochlidiida, the first record of an acochlidian from deep waters and the first documented panpulmonate deep-sea slug. Considering a marine mesopsammic ancestor, the external morphological features of Bathyhedyle n. gen. may be interpreted as independent adaptations to a benthic life style in the deep sea, including the large body size, broad foot and propodial tentacles. Alternatively, the common ancestor of Bathyhedylidae and Aitengidae may have been a macroscopic amphibious or even terrestrial species. We hypothesize that oophagy in the common ancestor of Aitengidae and Bathyhedylidae might explain the impressive ecological and evolutionary flexibility in habitat choice in the Acochlidiida.

  6. ORMGEN3D, 3-D Crack Geometry FEM Mesh Generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bass, B.R.; Bryson, J.W.

    1994-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: ORMGEN3D is a finite element mesh generator for computational fracture mechanics analysis. The program automatically generates a three-dimensional finite element model for six different crack geometries. These geometries include flat plates with straight or curved surface cracks and cylinders with part-through cracks on the outer or inner surface. Mathematical or user-defined crack shapes may be considered. The curved cracks may be semicircular, semi-elliptical, or user-defined. A cladding option is available that allows for either an embedded or penetrating crack in the clad material. 2 - Method of solution: In general, one eighth or one-quarter of the structure is modelled depending on the configuration or option selected. The program generates a core of special wedge or collapsed prism elements at the crack front to introduce the appropriate stress singularity at the crack tip. The remainder of the structure is modelled with conventional 20-node iso-parametric brick elements. Element group I of the finite element model consists of an inner core of special crack tip elements surrounding the crack front enclosed by a single layer of conventional brick elements. Eight element divisions are used in a plane orthogonal to the crack front, while the number of element divisions along the arc length of the crack front is user-specified. The remaining conventional brick elements of the model constitute element group II. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Maxima of 5,500 nodes, 4 layers of clad elements

  7. Hands-on guide for 3D image creation for geological purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frehner, Marcel; Tisato, Nicola

    2013-04-01

    Geological structures in outcrops or hand specimens are inherently three dimensional (3D), and therefore better understandable if viewed in 3D. While 3D models can easily be created, manipulated, and looked at from all sides on the computer screen (e.g., using photogrammetry or laser scanning data), 3D visualizations for publications or conference posters are much more challenging as they have to live in a 2D-world (i.e., on a sheet of paper). Perspective 2D visualizations of 3D models do not fully transmit the "feeling and depth of the third dimension" to the audience; but this feeling is desirable for a better examination and understanding in 3D of the structure under consideration. One of the very few possibilities to generate real 3D images, which work on a 2D display, is by using so-called stereoscopic images. Stereoscopic images are two images of the same object recorded from two slightly offset viewpoints. Special glasses and techniques have to be used to make sure that one image is seen only by one eye, and the other image is seen by the other eye, which together lead to the "3D effect". Geoscientists are often familiar with such 3D images. For example, geomorphologists traditionally view stereographic orthophotos by employing a mirror-steroscope. Nowadays, petroleum-geoscientists examine high-resolution 3D seismic data sets in special 3D visualization rooms. One of the methods for generating and viewing a stereoscopic image, which does not require a high-tech viewing device, is to create a so-called anaglyph. The principle is to overlay two images saturated in red and cyan, respectively. The two images are then viewed through red-cyan-stereoscopic glasses. This method is simple and cost-effective, but has some drawbacks in preserving colors accurately. A similar method is used in 3D movies, where polarized light or shuttering techniques are used to separate the left from the right image, which allows preserving the original colors. The advantage of red

  8. Crowdsourcing Based 3d Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somogyi, A.; Barsi, A.; Molnar, B.; Lovas, T.

    2016-06-01

    Web-based photo albums that support organizing and viewing the users' images are widely used. These services provide a convenient solution for storing, editing and sharing images. In many cases, the users attach geotags to the images in order to enable using them e.g. in location based applications on social networks. Our paper discusses a procedure that collects open access images from a site frequently visited by tourists. Geotagged pictures showing the image of a sight or tourist attraction are selected and processed in photogrammetric processing software that produces the 3D model of the captured object. For the particular investigation we selected three attractions in Budapest. To assess the geometrical accuracy, we used laser scanner and DSLR as well as smart phone photography to derive reference values to enable verifying the spatial model obtained from the web-album images. The investigation shows how detailed and accurate models could be derived applying photogrammetric processing software, simply by using images of the community, without visiting the site.

  9. CROWDSOURCING BASED 3D MODELING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Somogyi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Web-based photo albums that support organizing and viewing the users’ images are widely used. These services provide a convenient solution for storing, editing and sharing images. In many cases, the users attach geotags to the images in order to enable using them e.g. in location based applications on social networks. Our paper discusses a procedure that collects open access images from a site frequently visited by tourists. Geotagged pictures showing the image of a sight or tourist attraction are selected and processed in photogrammetric processing software that produces the 3D model of the captured object. For the particular investigation we selected three attractions in Budapest. To assess the geometrical accuracy, we used laser scanner and DSLR as well as smart phone photography to derive reference values to enable verifying the spatial model obtained from the web-album images. The investigation shows how detailed and accurate models could be derived applying photogrammetric processing software, simply by using images of the community, without visiting the site.

  10. SU-E-J-209: Verification of 3D Surface Registration Between Stereograms and CT Images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, T; Gifford, K [UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Smith, B [MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Salehpour, M [M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Stereography can provide a visualization of the skin surface for radiation therapy patients. The aim of this study was to verify the registration algorithm in a commercial image analysis software, 3dMDVultus, for the fusion of stereograms and CT images. Methods: CT and stereographic scans were acquired of a head phantom and a deformable phantom. CT images were imported in 3dMDVultus and the surface contours were generated by threshold segmentation. Stereograms were reconstructed in 3dMDVultus. The resulting surfaces were registered with Vultus algorithm and then exported to in-house registration software and compared with four algorithms: rigid, affine, non-rigid iterative closest point (ICP) and b-spline algorithm. RMS (root-mean-square residuals of the surface point distances) error between the registered CT and stereogram surfaces was calculated and analyzed. Results: For the head phantom, the maximum RMS error between registered CT surfaces to stereogram was 6.6 mm for Vultus algorithm, whereas the mean RMS error was 0.7 mm. For the deformable phantom, the maximum RMS error was 16.2 mm for Vultus algorithm, whereas the mean RMS error was 4.4 mm. Non-rigid ICP demonstrated the best registration accuracy, as the mean of RMS errors were both within 1 mm. Conclusion: The accuracy of registration algorithm in 3dMDVultus was verified and exceeded RMS of 2 mm for deformable cases. Non-rigid ICP and b-spline algorithms improve the registration accuracy for both phantoms, especially in deformable one. For those patients whose body habitus deforms during radiation therapy, more advanced nonrigid algorithms need to be used.

  11. 3D-Printing for Analytical Ultracentrifugation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhiksha Desai

    Full Text Available Analytical ultracentrifugation (AUC is a classical technique of physical biochemistry providing information on size, shape, and interactions of macromolecules from the analysis of their migration in centrifugal fields while free in solution. A key mechanical element in AUC is the centerpiece, a component of the sample cell assembly that is mounted between the optical windows to allow imaging and to seal the sample solution column against high vacuum while exposed to gravitational forces in excess of 300,000 g. For sedimentation velocity it needs to be precisely sector-shaped to allow unimpeded radial macromolecular migration. During the history of AUC a great variety of centerpiece designs have been developed for different types of experiments. Here, we report that centerpieces can now be readily fabricated by 3D printing at low cost, from a variety of materials, and with customized designs. The new centerpieces can exhibit sufficient mechanical stability to withstand the gravitational forces at the highest rotor speeds and be sufficiently precise for sedimentation equilibrium and sedimentation velocity experiments. Sedimentation velocity experiments with bovine serum albumin as a reference molecule in 3D printed centerpieces with standard double-sector design result in sedimentation boundaries virtually indistinguishable from those in commercial double-sector epoxy centerpieces, with sedimentation coefficients well within the range of published values. The statistical error of the measurement is slightly above that obtained with commercial epoxy, but still below 1%. Facilitated by modern open-source design and fabrication paradigms, we believe 3D printed centerpieces and AUC accessories can spawn a variety of improvements in AUC experimental design, efficiency and resource allocation.

  12. Vrste i tehnike 3D modeliranja

    OpenAIRE

    Bernik, Andrija

    2010-01-01

    Proces stvaranja 3D stvarnih ili imaginarnih objekata naziva se 3D modeliranje. Razvoj računalne tehnologije omogućuje korisniku odabir raznih metoda i tehnika kako bi se postigla optimalna učinkovitost. Odabir je vezan za klasično 3D modeliranje ili 3D skeniranje pomoću specijaliziranih programskih i sklopovskih rješenja. 3D tehnikama modeliranja korisnik može izraditi 3D model na nekoliko načina: koristi poligone, krivulje ili hibrid dviju spomenutih