WorldWideScience

Sample records for interactive budget analysis

  1. A Content Analysis of Defense Budget Rhetoric

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    President’s budget. 14. SUBJECT TERMS Defense Budget, Content Analysis, Political Discourse, Budget Rhetoric, Political Communication , Senate Armed...represent the most recent paradigm shift in political communication research (Scheufele & Tewksbury, 2007, p. 10). These three models combine to construct...this study was to fill the gap on political communication by examining whether Congress was responsive to framing by the President’s budget. To

  2. The interaction between motivational disposition and participative budgeting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandalgaard, Niels; Bukh, Per Nikolaj; Poulsen, Carsten Stig

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to report the findings of a study of how dispositional factors of motivation rooted in personality interact with participative budgeting to affect budget goal commitment. The results indicate that the effect of increased budgetary participation on budget goal commitment...

  3. The interaction between motivational disposition and participative budgeting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandalgaard, Niels; Bukh, Per Nikolaj; Poulsen, Carsten Stig

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to report the findings of a study of how dispositional factors of motivation rooted in personality interact with participative budgeting to affect budget goal commitment. The results indicate that the effect of increased budgetary participation on budget goal commitment...

  4. Predicting Nigeria budget allocation using regression analysis: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Predicting Nigeria budget allocation using regression analysis: A data mining approach. ... Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ... Budget is used by the Government as a guiding tool for planning and management of its resources to aid in ...

  5. Input-output analysis and the hospital budgeting process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleverly, W O

    1975-01-01

    Two hospitals budget systems, a conventional budget and an input-output budget, are compared to determine how they affect management decisions in pricing, output, planning, and cost control. Analysis of data from a 210-bed not-for-profit hospital indicates that adoption of the input-output budget could cause substantial changes in posted hospital rates in individual departments but probably would have no impact on hospital output determination. The input-output approach promises to be a more accurate system for cost control and planning because, unlike the conventional approach, it generates objective signals for investigating variances of expenses from budgeted levels. PMID:1205865

  6. Stress Analysis in Managing the Region’s Budget Risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya Pavlovna Pazdnikova

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article addresses the implementation of budget risk management methods into the practices of governmental authorities. Drawing on the example of a particular region the article aims to demonstrate the possible methods of budget risk management. The authors refine the existing approaches to the notion of risk in its relation to budget system by introducing the notion of “budget risk.” Here the focus is the risk of default of budget spending in full which causes underfunding of territories and decrease in quality of life in the region. The authors have particularized the classification of budget risks and grouped together the criteria and factors which significantly influence the assessment and choice of method to manage budget risks. They hypothesize that budget risk is a financial risk. Therefore, the methods of financial risks management can be applied to budget risks management. The authors suggest a methodological approach to risk assessment based on correlation and regression analysis of program financing. The application of Kendall rank correlation coefficient allowed to assess the efficiency of budget spending on the implementation of state programs in Perm Krai. Two clusters — “Nature management and infrastructure” and “Public security” — turned out to be in the zone of high budget risk. The method of stress analysis, which consists in calculating Value at Risk (VaR, was applied to budget risks that in terms of probability are classified as critical. In order to assess risk as probability rate, the amount of Perm Krai deficit budget was calculated as induced variable from budget revenues and spending. The results demonstrate that contemporary management of public resources in the regions calls for the implementation of new management tools of higher quality and budget risk management is one of them.

  7. CAUT Analysis of Federal Budget 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canadian Association of University Teachers, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The 2012 federal Budget marks the beginning of a painful and unnecessary fiscal retrenchment. Despite boasting one of the lowest debt-to-GDP ratios amongst industrialized countries, the Conservative government is pressing ahead with deep cuts of more than $5 billion across departmental budgets by 2014-15. For post-secondary education and research,…

  8. CAUT Analysis of Federal Budget 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canadian Association of University Teachers, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The 2013 federal Budget was delivered ironically the same day as the Parliamentary Budget Officer was in court seeking more information about the impact of the government's $5.2 billion in spending cuts announced last year. The lack of budgetary transparency and accountability has become a hallmark of the Conservative government. Anyone expecting…

  9. Discovery and New Frontiers Project Budget Analysis Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newhouse, Marilyn E.

    2011-01-01

    The Discovery and New Frontiers (D&NF) programs are multi-project, uncoupled programs that currently comprise 13 missions in phases A through F. The ability to fly frequent science missions to explore the solar system is the primary measure of program success. The program office uses a Budget Analysis Tool to perform "what-if" analyses and compare mission scenarios to the current program budget, and rapidly forecast the programs ability to meet their launch rate requirements. The tool allows the user to specify the total mission cost (fixed year), mission development and operations profile by phase (percent total mission cost and duration), launch vehicle, and launch date for multiple missions. The tool automatically applies inflation and rolls up the total program costs (in real year dollars) for comparison against available program budget. Thus, the tool allows the user to rapidly and easily explore a variety of launch rates and analyze the effect of changes in future mission or launch vehicle costs, the differing development profiles or operational durations of a future mission, or a replan of a current mission on the overall program budget. Because the tool also reports average monthly costs for the specified mission profile, the development or operations cost profile can easily be validate against program experience for similar missions. While specifically designed for predicting overall program budgets for programs that develop and operate multiple missions concurrently, the basic concept of the tool (rolling up multiple, independently-budget lines) could easily be adapted to other applications.

  10. salinity Budget analysis of of Western Pacific Warm Pool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shan; nie, xunwei; Qu, Tangdong

    2013-04-01

    Western pacific warm pool plays an important role in governing global climate variability. In particular, the unique salinity structures of warm pool, barrier layer and salinity front, have significant impacts on the heat content accumulation and zonal migration of warm pool surface water, which further modulate the formation and development of tropical climate phenomenon, such as El Niño, MJO and EAM. In order to have better understanding of how warm pool salinity contributes to climate change the salinity budget of warm pool are investigated using results from a model of the Consortium for Estimating the Circulation and Climate of the Ocean (ECCO). The results show that the salinity budget of warm pool and its components have significant seasonal and annual variability. The surface freshwater flux is the dominant element of salinity budget, which is well balanced by the other ocean dynamic terms. However among all the terms of ocean dynamics, mixing is most significant, whereas advection and entrainment are not dominant, unlike most other region. The further analysis of lagged correlation coefficient between the salinity budget, salinity budget components and NIÑO 3.4 reveals that the salinity budget is highly related to El Niño and Southern Oscillation (ENSO). The results indicate that the annual variability of warm pool salinity budget has a notable correlation coefficient with NIÑO 3.4 (0.7); Mealwhile,variabilities of each components of Ocean dynamics,including diffusion, advection and mixing are found to be highly correlated to ENSO.The local barrier layer is believed to be a major reason.

  11. Budget of Turbulent Kinetic Energy in a Shock Wave Boundary-Layer Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Manan A.; Waindim, Mbu; Gaitonde, Datta V.

    2016-01-01

    Implicit large-eddy simulation (ILES) of a shock wave/boundary-layer interaction (SBLI) was performed. Quantities present in the exact equation of the turbulent kinetic energy transport were accumulated and used to calculate terms like production, dissipation, molecular diffusion, and turbulent transport. The present results for a turbulent boundary layer were validated by comparison with direct numerical simulation data. It was found that a longer development domain was necessary for the boundary layer to reach an equilibrium state and a finer mesh resolution would improve the predictions. In spite of these findings, trends of the present budget match closely with that of the direct numerical simulation. Budgets for the SBLI region are presented at key axial stations. These budgets showed interesting dynamics as the incoming boundary layer transforms and the terms of the turbulent kinetic energy budget change behavior within the interaction region.

  12. An Analysis of the Role of the Budget Committees in the Congressional Budget Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-01

    Quarterly, 10 Jan. 1987, pp. 44-50. 17. Ibid., p. 44 67 18. Stephen Gettinger, "Party Unity, Not Bipartisanship , Sets Tone for Budget Debate...New in $1 Trillion 1988 Budget Request." Congressional Quarterly, (10 Jan. 1987). "Party Unity, Not Bipartisanship , Sets Tone for Budget Debate

  13. Reorienting programme budgeting and marginal analysis (PBMA towards disinvestment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mortimer Duncan

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Remarkable progress has been made over the past 40 years in developing rational, evidence-based mechanisms for the allocation of health resources. Much of this progress has centred on mechanisms for commissioning new medical devices and pharmaceuticals. The attention of fund-managers and policy-makers is only now turning towards development of mechanisms for decommissioning, disinvesting or redeploying resources from currently funded interventions. While Programme Budgeting and Marginal Analysis would seem well-suited to this purpose, past applications include both successes and failures in achieving disinvestment and resource release. Discussion Drawing on recent successes/failures in achieving disinvestment and resource release via PBMA, this paper identifies four barriers/enablers to disinvestment via PBMA: (i specification of the budget constraint, (ii scope of the programme budget, (iii composition and role of the advisory group, and (iv incentives for/against contributing to a 'shift list' of options for disinvestment and resource release. A number of modifications to the PBMA process are then proposed with the aim of reorienting PBMA towards disinvestment. Summary The reoriented model is differentiated by four features: (i hard budget constraint with budgetary pressure; (ii programme budgets with broad scope but specific investment proposals linked to disinvestment proposals with similar input requirements; (iii advisory/working groups that include equal representation of sectional interests plus additional members with responsibility for advocating in favour of disinvestment, (iv 'shift lists' populated and developed prior to 'wish lists' and investment proposals linked to disinvestment proposals within a relatively narrow budget area. While the argument and evidence presented here suggest that the reoriented model will facilitate disinvestment and resource release, this remains an empirical question. Likewise

  14. Financial Analysis, Budgeting, Decision and Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Rodica TIRLEA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The economic processes taking place in the economic environment are stochastic processes that involve and imply risks, arising from product diversification, competition, financial derivatives transactions: swaps, futures, options and from the large number of actors involved in the stock market with a higher or a smaller uncertainty degree. Competition and competitiveness, led to major and rapid change in the business environment, they determined actors participating in the economy to find solutions and methods of collecting and processing data, in such a way that, after being transformed into information they quickly help based on their analysis in decision making, planning and financial forecasting, having an effect on increasing their economic efficiency. In these circumstances the financial analysis, decision, forecasting and control, should be based on quality information that should be a value creation source. The active nature of the financial function implies the existence of a substantially large share of financial analysis, financial decision, forecasting and control.

  15. Sediment Budget Analysis; Masonboro Inlet, North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-15

    littoral sediments or sediments derived principally from the beaches, consisting of generally sandy material. Other sediments consisting of fine-grain...propagate only from the seaward boundary toward shore . It includes features such as wave generation, wave reflection, and bottom frictional dissipation...analysis. The regional shore line adopted in the study is oriented at 36.17o clockwise from north, as shown in Figure 8. Statistics were performed for

  16. An Empirical Analysis of the Budget Deficit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Talpos

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Economic policies and, particularly, fiscal policies are not designed and implemented in an “empty space”: the structural characteristics of the economic systems, the institutional architecture of societies, the cultural paradigm and the power relations between different social groups define the borders of these policies. This paper tries to deal with these borders, to describe their nature and the implications of their existence to the fiscal policies’ quality and impact at a theoretical level as well as at an empirical one. The main results of the proposed analysis support the ideas that the mentioned variables matters both for the social mandate entrusted by the society to the state and thus to the role and functions of the state and for the economic growth as a support of the resources collected at distributed by the public authorities.

  17. An Analysis of the President’s 2013 Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    CONGRESS OF THE UNITED STATES An Analysis of the President’s 2013 Budget March 2012 Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public...unclassified c. THIS PAGE unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 Notes Unless otherwise indicated, the years referred to...in the tax treatment of certain investments in equipment by small businesses. As estimated by the staff of the Joint Committee on Taxa- tion ( JCT

  18. A budget impact analysis of natalizumab use in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dee, A

    2011-10-20

    BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis is the commonest cause of disability in young Irish adults. Natalizumab reduces disability progression in those patients with relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis who are suitable for it. First line disease modifying therapies are given in the community and are paid for by the hi-tech drug scheme. Natalizumab is given in hospital and is paid for from the hospital\\'s budget. Access to natalizumab has been problematic in some Irish hospitals. A budget impact analysis was performed to look at the overall cost to the Health Service Executive of giving natalizumab. METHODS: A budget impact analysis was performed from the perspective of the Health Service Executive comparing the use of natalizumab with first line disease modifying therapies for 2009-2011. RESULTS: The study showed that currently, the use of natalizumab is likely to be cost saving to the Health Service Executive overall, because some of the costs for natalizumab are borne by private insurers, whereas, all of the costs of disease modifying therapies are borne by the Health Service Executive. CONCLUSIONS: Although the use of natalizumab is cost saving, current funding arrangements in the Health Service Executive do not allow for the transfer of money saved from drugs paid for in the hi-tech scheme, to hospitals who are supplying alternative treatments.

  19. Analysis of Budget deficit in Romania during 2000-2013

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide, over time, the years of economic crisis were defined by significant increases in the levels of budget deficits. Discussions on sizing budget deficits, financing, especially the volume of public debt became more intense, both politically and academically. The impact of budget deficit on economic growth is a common theme found in the economic policies adopted. The present paper aims to analyze the evolution of budget deficit and the structural budget deficit in Romania during 2000-20...

  20. Interaction Operators with State through Public Consolidated Budget

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luhan Ionuţ Dragos

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Operation of a proper market economy is influenced in an important measure ofthe interaction with operators, respectively, how to run the financial relations between thepublic and strengthened economic resources for the purposes of training and public budgetaryallocation of resources in economic benefit. In the above still trying to achieve severalimportant issues relating to financial relations between the private and the public enhanced.

  1. A Functional Analysis of the 1979-1980 New York City Board of Education Budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Marshall A.

    This report presents a concise picture of the fiscal year 1979-1980 New York City Board of Education budget. Section I overviews the budget, defines and discusses important terms, and presents a framework for examining the budget. A more detailed analysis of the total expenditures for public school pupils, direct instructional programs, and city…

  2. A Historical Analysis of the Biennial Budget Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-04-01

    impaired. The malady of the program phase also infected the budget phase. Decision making late in the budget process becomes shrouded in urgency...chair.(b Iude o s t dote bi nniu e alatly, aiebu deIt reviewedlon annuimicfo ally mratf ilont Commite and f~iwsoeemmntatiee, caipminted bytj ’peuh r...Budget Committee, became infected . In 1984, he observed "I dn think there needs to be some (budget) reform. But there is no reform that can substitute fur

  3. Outcomes analysis of hospital management model in restricted budget conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virsavia Vaseva

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Facing conditions of market economy and financial crisis, the head of any healthcare facility has to take adequate decisions about the cost-effective functioning of the hospital. Along with cost reduction, the main problem is how to maintain a high level of health services. The aim of our study was to analyse the quality of healthcare services after the implementation of control over expenses due to a reduction in the budgetary resources in Military Medical Academy (MMA, Sofia, Bulgaria. Data from the hospital information system and the Financial Department about the incomes and expenditures for patient treatment were used. We conducted a retrospective study on the main components of clinical indicators in 2013 to reveal the main problems in the hospital management. In 2014, control was imposed on the use of the most expensive medicines and consumables. Comparative analysis was made of the results of the medical services in MMA for 2013 and 2014. Our results showed that despite the limited budget in MMA over the last year, the policy of control over operational costs succeeded in maintaining the quality of healthcare services. While reducing the expenses for medicines, consumables and laboratory investigations by ∼26%, some quality criteria for healthcare services were observed to be improved by ∼9%. Financial crisis and budget reduction urge healthcare economists to create adequate economical instruments to assist the normal functioning of hospital facilities. Our analysis showed that when a right policy is chosen, better results may be achieved with fewer resources.

  4. Power Budget Analysis for Waveguide-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zilong; Pearce, Stuart J; Lin, Yung-Chun; Zervas, Michalis N; Bartlett, Philip N; Wilkinson, James S

    2016-08-01

    Waveguide-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (WERS) is emerging as an attractive alternative to plasmonic surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy approaches as it can provide more reproducible quantitative spectra on a robust chip without the need for nanostructured plasmonic materials. Realizing portable WERS systems with high sensitivity using low-cost laser diodes and compact spectrometers requires a detailed analysis of the power budget from laser to spectrometer chip. In this paper, we describe theoretical optimization of planar waveguides for maximum Raman excitation efficiency, demonstrate WERS for toluene on a silicon process compatible high index contrast tantalum pentoxide waveguide, measure the absolute conversion efficiency from pump power to received power in an individual Raman line, and compare this with a power budget analysis of the complete system including collection with an optical fiber and interfacing to a compact spectrometer. Optimized 110 nm thick Ta2O5 waveguides on silica substrates excited at a wavelength of 637 nm are shown experimentally to yield overall system power conversion efficiency of ∼0.5 × 10(-12) from the pump power in the waveguide to the collected Raman power in the 1002 cm(-1) Raman line of toluene, in comparison with a calculated efficiency of 3.9 × 10(-12) Collection efficiency is dictated by the numerical and physical apertures of the spectral detection system but may be improved by further engineering the spatial and angular Raman scattering distributions.

  5. ANALYSIS OF BUDGET DEFICIT AND ITS PROBLEMS IN LITHUANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Jaseviciene

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Budget deficit is one of the most important parts of macroeconomics. Since 1990, the government of the Lithuanian Republic has been faced with problems in balancing the budget deficit; most of the years, the country’s budget was deficit with the lack of incoming money flow. The budget deficit value in Lithuania has been a significant theme since 2004, when Lithuania became part of the European Union, and one of the liabilities was to insure the litas replacement with euro currency and the budget deficit was one of the Maastricht’s criteria. Also it is very important to maintain effective management of public finances. The government is responsible for managing the country’s budget in respect to various economical parameters, for example, GDP, inflation rate, unemployment rate, etc., in order to plan income level and distribute it to the relevant economic areas. Also, the budget deficit’s problems are revealed in this article.

  6. Fiscal Policy in Indonesia: Analysis of State Budget 2017 in Islamic Economic Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Jaelani, Aan

    2017-01-01

    This study of fiscal policy in State Budget (APBN) 2017 that the task of the Indonesian government to run them to create prosperity for the community. The state budget is prepared using the rules of public economics consisting of state revenues, state expenditures, and budget financing have the posture of the budget, the issues of fiscal policy, and the role of the government in carrying out its functions. With the analysis of Islamic economics, fiscal policy in the State Budget 2017 is the d...

  7. Fiscal policy in Indonesia: Analysis of state budget 2017 in Islamic economic perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Jaelani, Aan

    2016-01-01

    This study of fiscal policy in State Budget (APBN) 2017 that the task of the Indonesian government to run them to create prosperity for the community. The state budget is prepared using the rules of public economics consisting of state revenues, state expenditures, and budget financing have the posture of the budget, the issues of fiscal policy, and the role of the government in carrying out its functions. With the analysis of Islamic economics, fiscal policy in the State Budget 2017 is the d...

  8. Economic Growth and Budget Constraints: EU Countries Panel Data Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zimčík Petr

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to identify the impacts of different taxes and expenditures on economic growth. The research is focused on 20 selected European Union Member States. These countries are equally divided into four groups based on their average tax burden as presented in the World Tax Index. A comparison of fiscal attributes among these groups is important for the analysis. Annual government finance data from the years 1995 to 2012 are used for an empirical study. The indicators observed are real GDP change, the composition and volume of total government expenditures, tax quotas of individual taxes and total budget balance. These indicators are used within an endogenous growth model together with capital stock and an approximation of human capital. A panel regression with fixed effects is used as an analytic tool. The main results are that an increase in social contributions, property, production and personal income tax quotas has an adverse effect on economic growth.

  9. An analysis of budget execution in Zimbabwe and suggested improvements

    OpenAIRE

    Mudzinganyama, Morgan.

    2001-01-01

    In Zimbabwe, the Government has been experiencing problems with budget formulation and control of expenditures by Ministries and departments. Through the adoption of a three-year-rolling budget in 1995, ministries were forced to forecast, focus and justify their requirements hence better planning. Despite this forward planning approach, budget execution problems have persisted as evidenced by over-expenditures, fraudulent activities and other related problems leading to centralize expenditure...

  10. Hydrological budget of Lake Chad: assessment of lake-groundwater interaction by coupling Bayesian approach and chemical budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchez, Camille; Goncalves, Julio; Deschamps, Pierre; Seidel, Jean-Luc; Doumnang, Jean-Claude; Sylvestre, Florence

    2014-05-01

    Estimation of lake-groundwater interactions is a crucial step to constrain water balance of lacustrine and aquifer systems. Located in the Sahel, the Lake Chad is at the center of an endorheic basin of 2,5.106 km2. One of the most remarkable features of this terminal lake is that, despite the semi-arid context and high evaporation rates of the area, its waters are fresh. It is proposed in the literature that the solutes are evacuated in the underlying quaternary aquifer bearing witness to the importance of surface water and groundwater exchanges for the chemical regulation of the lake. The water balance of this system is still not fully understood. The respective roles of evaporation versus infiltration into the quaternary aquifer are particularly under constrained. To assess lake-groundwater flows, we used the previous conceptual hydrological model of the lake Chad proposed by Bader et al. (Hydrological Sciences Journal, 2011). This model involves six parameters including infiltration rate. A probabilistic inversion of parameters, based on an exploration of the parameters space through a Metropolis algorithm (a Monte Carlo Markov Chain method), allows the construction of an a posteriori Probability Density Function of each parameter yielding to the best fits between observed lake levels and simulated. Then, a chemical budget of a conservative element, such as chloride, is introduced in the water balance model using the optimal parameters resulting from the Bayesian inverse approach. The model simulates lake level and chloride concentration variations of lake Chad from 1956 up to 2008. Simulated lake levels are in overall agreement with the observations, with a Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency coefficient above 0.94 for all sets of parameters retained. The infiltration value, obtained by such probabilistic inversion approach, accounts for 120±20 mm/yr, representing 5% of the total outputs of the lake. However, simulated chloride concentrations are overestimated in

  11. Estimation of the ATLAS Inner Detector material budget by use of hadronic interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Pettersson, Nora Emilia; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The dominant inefficiency in track reconstruction comes from particle interactions with the material in the detector. A good understanding of the material in the Inner Detector (ID) of the ATLAS detector is therefore a vital part of track and object reconstruction. In recent years a new technique has been developed, which by reconstructing nuclear interactions with the detector material allows one to quantify the material budget. The relatively low momentum interactions yields large opening angles between the outgoing particles. This makes it feasible to pinpoint the location of the interaction with excellent spatial resolutions, both perpendicular and parallel to the beam axis, permitting detailed comparisons of even minute detector elements. Utilising a second-pass tracking, specially designed to reconstruct secondary tracks with large impact parameters, the technique maps 0.3 $m^{3}$ of the ID volume. The collected results from the Run-1 and the Run-2 analyses will be presented.

  12. Contemporary Social Work: an Analysis based on the federal budget

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Janaina Albuquerque de Camargo Schmidt; Mossicléía Mendes da Silva

    2015-01-01

      This study presents a critical reflection about Social Assistance policy, based on considerations about funds allocated to this policy in the federal budget highlighting the years of 2005, a landmark...

  13. A Descriptive and Normative Analysis of Marketing Budgeting

    OpenAIRE

    Wagner, Nils

    2011-01-01

    Marketing budgeting is one of the most important aspects of management and of highly relevance for business success. Due to rising competitive pressure and a considerable increase in marketing investments the importance of this subject has additionally grown in the last years. For this reason, marketing budgeting receives a huge amount of attention by research and practitioners alike. Accordingly, it is stated in the CMO Council Report of 2007: „The number-one challenge for most chief marketi...

  14. Metrology Optical Power Budgeting in SIM Using Statistical Analysis Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuan, Gary M

    2008-01-01

    The Space Interferometry Mission (SIM) is a space-based stellar interferometry instrument, consisting of up to three interferometers, which will be capable of micro-arc second resolution. Alignment knowledge of the three interferometer baselines requires a three-dimensional, 14-leg truss with each leg being monitored by an external metrology gauge. In addition, each of the three interferometers requires an internal metrology gauge to monitor the optical path length differences between the two sides. Both external and internal metrology gauges are interferometry based, operating at a wavelength of 1319 nanometers. Each gauge has fiber inputs delivering measurement and local oscillator (LO) power, split into probe-LO and reference-LO beam pairs. These beams experience power loss due to a variety of mechanisms including, but not restricted to, design efficiency, material attenuation, element misalignment, diffraction, and coupling efficiency. Since the attenuation due to these sources may degrade over time, an accounting of the range of expected attenuation is needed so an optical power margin can be book kept. A method of statistical optical power analysis and budgeting, based on a technique developed for deep space RF telecommunications, is described in this paper and provides a numerical confidence level for having sufficient optical power relative to mission metrology performance requirements.

  15. Budget impact analysis of 8 hormonal contraceptive options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespi, Simone; Kerrigan, Matthew; Sood, Vipan

    2013-07-01

    To develop a model comparing costs of 8 hormonal contraceptives and determine whether acquisition costs for implants and intrauterine devices (IUDs) were offset by decreased pregnancy-related costs over a 3-year time horizon from a managed care perspective. A model was developed to assess the budget impact of branded or generic oral contraceptives (OCs), quarterly intramuscular depot medroxyprogesterone, etonogestrel/ethinyl estradiol vaginal ring, etonogestrel implant, levonorgestrel IUD, norelgestromin/ethinyl estradiol transdermal contraceptive, and ethinyl estradiol/levonorgestrel extended-cycle OC. Major variables included drug costs, typical use failure rates, discontinuation rates, and pregnancy costs. The base case assessed costs for 1000 women initiating each of the hormonal contraceptives. The etonogestrel implant and levonorgestrel IUD resulted in the fewest pregnancies, 63 and 85, respectively, and the least cost, $1.75 million and $2.0 million, respectively. In comparison, generic OC users accounted for a total of 243 pregnancies and $3.4 million in costs. At the end of year 1, costs for the etonogestrel implant ($800,471) and levonorgestrel IUD ($949,721) were already lower than those for generic OCs ($1,146,890). Sensitivity analysis showed that the cost of pregnancies, not product acquisition cost, was the primary cost driver. Higher initial acquisition costs for the etonogestrel implant and levonorgestrel IUD were offset within 1 year by lower contraceptive failure rates and consequent pregnancy costs. Thus, after accounting for typical use failure rates of contraceptive products, the etonogestrel implant and levonorgestrel IUD emerged as the least expensive hormonal contraceptives.

  16. ‘FLEXIBLE’ BUDGETS ARE ALREADY BUDGETING PROCESS ANALYSIS OF PRODUCTION COSTS FOR OIL AND FAT ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Shvetz’

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The problems of methodological fundamentals of managerial accounting of manufacturing costs in information provision for budgeting, not only at the enterprise level, but also as it is required by current conditions of advanced control, in the context of structural production units of “responsibility centers” using “flexible” budgets, which are prepared during the manufacturing process are examined. Unlike a simple comparison of the regular budgets (scheduled amount of work divided by regulatory costs per unit, “flexible” budget makes adjustments to the planned budget because it represents the actual amount of work divided by regulatory costs, which is included with the comparison of the amount of work that are not fulfilled, or carried to a greater or lesser extent compared with the expected budget. Thus, “Flexible” budgets reveal the actual extent of the changes compared with the expected budget.

  17. Photon budget analysis for fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, Q.; Young, I.T.; De Jong, J.G.S.

    2011-01-01

    We have constructed a mathematical model to analyze the photon efficiency of frequency-domain fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM). The power of the light source needed for illumination in a FLIM system and the signal-to-noise ratio of the detector have led us to a photon “budget.” These

  18. Wave energy budget analysis in the Earth's radiation belts uncovers a missing energy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Artemyev, A V; Agapitov, O V; Mourenas, D; Krasnoselskikh, V V; Mozer, F S

    2015-01-01

    .... Here, we report an analysis of 10-year Cluster data, statistically evaluating the full wave energy budget in the Earth's magnetosphere, revealing that a significant fraction of the energy corresponds...

  19. Wave energy budget analysis in the Earth's radiation belts uncovers a missing energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artemyev, A V; Agapitov, O V; Mourenas, D; Krasnoselskikh, V V; Mozer, F S

    2015-05-15

    Whistler-mode emissions are important electromagnetic waves pervasive in the Earth's magnetosphere, where they continuously remove or energize electrons trapped by the geomagnetic field, controlling radiation hazards to satellites and astronauts and the upper-atmosphere ionization or chemical composition. Here, we report an analysis of 10-year Cluster data, statistically evaluating the full wave energy budget in the Earth's magnetosphere, revealing that a significant fraction of the energy corresponds to hitherto generally neglected very oblique waves. Such waves, with 10 times smaller magnetic power than parallel waves, typically have similar total energy. Moreover, they carry up to 80% of the wave energy involved in wave-particle resonant interactions. It implies that electron heating and precipitation into the atmosphere may have been significantly under/over-valued in past studies considering only conventional quasi-parallel waves. Very oblique waves may turn out to be a crucial agent of energy redistribution in the Earth's radiation belts, controlled by solar activity.

  20. Benefits of customer profitability analysis reports in repeated budget allocation decision making

    OpenAIRE

    Cardinaels, Eddy; Roodhooft, Filip; Warlop, Luk

    2000-01-01

    We study how decision makers learn to improve performance across repeated budget allocation decisions. The costing system they use should be able to provide information that is of incremental value over mere outcome feedback. We report an experiment demonstrating that customer profitability analysis (CPA) using activity based costing facilitates learning of the most appropriate allocation of a marketing budget among customers. In a difficult learning environment, participants receiving CPA in...

  1. Channel-floodplain sediment interactions along large rivers: hydrological connectivity and sediment budgets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latrubesse, E. M.; Park, E.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the patterns of sediment delivery processes and their budgets between channel and floodplains of large rivers is important because both hydrogeomorphic and biogeochemical alterations in floodplains take place through these interactions. The Amazon River has continuous exchange of sediment with floodplains, which may exceed over 3500 Mt/yr in both directions. However, characterizing the sediment transport and deposition patterns in floodplains and quantifying their budgets still remains a challenge. In this study, geomorphic units in floodplains are digitized and their hydrological connectivity are assessed by identifying recharge thresholds from the main channel. Historical floodplain recharge records are examined from daily water level data measured at nearby gauge stations by calculating number of days falling in between the connection and disconnection thresholds within a hydrological cycle. Historical recharge patterns of each unit is assessed using Mann-Kendall test. Intensity of hydrological connectivity is further investigated for by building power spectrum of over 15 years water extent time series data through fast Fourier transform, which the power spectral density indicates the intensity of flooding pulses from the main channel. To quantify the sediment budget stored in floodplains, PALSAR DEM acquired during the lowest water level season is used with the MODIS 8-day composite data. First, shoreline grids derived from MODIS-MNDWI is overlaid on PALSAR image to identify the water level at each floodplain lake unit (h). Total imported Sediment Fluxes (TiSF) entering each floodplain lake during a given period will be calculated as sum of (ht1-ht2) x (SSC(x,y)x1000) x 2502, where htn is the water level in floodplain lake at time tn; SSC(x, y) denotes sediment concentration at x, y coordinate; 1000 is a scale factor; and 2502 is the area of MODIS pixel (m2). Successively summing up TiSF derived from each period will retrieve the amount of total

  2. Managing healthcare budgets in times of austerity: the role of program budgeting and marginal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitton, Craig; Dionne, Francois; Donaldson, Cam

    2014-04-01

    Given limited resources, priority setting or choice making will remain a reality at all levels of publicly funded healthcare across countries for many years to come. The pressures may well be even more acute as the impact of the economic crisis of 2008 continues to play out but, even as economies begin to turn around, resources within healthcare will be limited, thus some form of rationing will be required. Over the last few decades, research on healthcare priority setting has focused on methods of implementation as well as on the development of approaches related to fairness and legitimacy and on more technical aspects of decision making including the use of multi-criteria decision analysis. Recently, research has led to better understanding of evaluating priority setting activity including defining 'success' and articulating key elements for high performance. This body of research, however, often goes untapped by those charged with making challenging decisions and as such, in line with prevailing public sector incentives, decisions are often reliant on historical allocation patterns and/or political negotiation. These archaic and ineffective approaches not only lead to poor decisions in terms of value for money but further do not reflect basic ethical conditions that can lead to fairness in the decision-making process. The purpose of this paper is to outline a comprehensive approach to priority setting and resource allocation that has been used in different contexts across countries. This will provide decision makers with a single point of access for a basic understanding of relevant tools when faced with having to make difficult decisions about what healthcare services to fund and what not to fund. The paper also addresses several key issues related to priority setting including how health technology assessments can be used, how performance can be improved at a practical level, and what ongoing resource management practice should look like. In terms of future

  3. Analysis of Water and Energy Budgets and Trends Using the NLDAS Monthly Data Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, B.; Rui, H.; Mocko, D. M.; Teng, W. L.; Lei, G.

    2012-12-01

    The North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS, http://ldas.gsfc.nasa.gov/nldas/) data set, with high spatial and temporal resolutions (0.125° x 0.125°, hourly and monthly), long temporal coverage (Jan. 1979 - present), and various water- and energy-related variables (precipitation, soil moisture, evapotranspiration, radiation, latent heat, and runoff, etc.), is an excellent data source for supporting water and energy cycle studies. NLDAS hourly data, accessible from NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC; Hydrology Data Holdings Portal http://disc.sci.gsfc.nasa.gov/hydrology/data-holdings), have been broadly used by various user communities in modeling, research, and applications, such as drought and flood monitoring, watershed and water quality management, and case studies for extreme events. NLDAS data sets consist of a Forcing data set for land surface models, comprising a synthesis of best available near-surface observations and reanalyses, and separate land surface model output data sets of NLDAS models driven by the Forcing. To further facilitate analysis of water and energy budgets and trends, NLDAS monthly data products have been recently released by NASA GES DISC. The NLDAS monthly data were generated from NLDAS hourly data, as monthly accumulation for precipitation and monthly average for other variables. NLDAS monthly climatology data set will further be generated based on the monthly data and become accessible also from the Hydrology Data Holdings Portal. This presentation describes the major characteristics of the NLDAS data set. Some preliminary analysis results of water and energy budgets and trends from the NLDAS monthly data are shown and discussed. The NLDAS hourly, monthly, and monthly climatology terrestrial hydrological data could play an important role in characterizing the spatial and temporal variability of water and energy cycles and, thereby, improve our understanding of land

  4. Analysis of a pharmaceutical risk sharing agreement based on the purchaser's total budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaric, Gregory S; O'brien, Bernie J

    2005-08-01

    Many public and private healthcare payers use formularies as a tool for controlling drug costs and quality. Although the price per dose is often negotiated as part of the formulary listing, payers may still face unlimited financial risk if demand is much greater than expected at the time of listing. The requirement for drug manufacturers to submit a budget impact analysis as part of the drug approval process suggests that payers are concerned not only with the cost effectiveness of a proposed drug but also with the potential increase in total expenditures that may result from new formulary listings. In this paper we define and analyze a model for financial risk sharing based on the total budget. Our analysis focuses on optimal decision making by manufacturers in the presence of a specific risk sharing agreement. We derive a manufacturer's optimal statement of budget impact and discuss several properties of the optimal solution. (c) 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Designing budgeting tool and sensitivity analysis for a start-up. : Case: Witrafi Oy

    OpenAIRE

    Arafath, Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    This study presents a thesis on the topic of designing budgeting tool and sensitivi-ty analysis for the commissioning company. The commissioning company is a Finnish Star-up and currently focusing on developing Intelligent Transport Sys-tems by using network based parking system. The aim of this thesis is to provide a ready-made budgeting tool therefore, the commissioning company can use the tool for its own purpose. This is a product-oriented thesis and it includes five project tasks. Pro...

  6. Sleep budgets in a globalizing world: biocultural interactions influence sleep sufficiency among Egyptian families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthman, Carol M; Brown, Ryan A

    2013-02-01

    Declines in self-reported sleep quotas with globalizing lifestyle changes have focused attention on their possible role in rising global health problems such as obesity or depression. Cultural factors that act across the life course and support sleep sufficiency have received scant attention, nor have the potential interactions of cultural and biological factors in age-related changes in sleep behavior been systematically investigated. This study examines the effects of cultural norms for napping and sleeping arrangements along with sleep schedules, age, and gender on sleep budgets among Egyptian households. Data were collected in 2000 from 16 households with 78 members aged 3-56 years at two sites in Egypt (Cairo and an agrarian village). Each participant provided one week of continuous activity records and details of each sleep event. Records showed that nighttime sleep onsets were late and highly variable. Napping was common and, along with wake time flexibility, played a key role in maintaining sleep sufficiency throughout the life course into later middle age. Cosleeping was prevalent and exhibited contrasting associations with reduced duration and sufficiency of both nocturnal and total sleep, and with earlier, more regular, and less disrupted sleep. Daily sleep quotas met published guidelines and showed age-related changes similar to existing reports, but differed in how they were achieved. Cultural norms organizing sleep practices by age and gender appear to tap their intrinsic biological properties as well. Moreover, flexibility in how sleep was achieved contributed to sleep sufficiency. The findings suggest how biocultural dynamics can play key roles in sleep patterns that sustain favorable sleep quotas from infancy onwards in populations pursuing globalizing contemporary lifestyles.

  7. Ground water budget analysis and cross-formational leakage in an arid basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchison, William R; Hibbs, Barry J

    2008-01-01

    Ground water budget analysis in arid basins is substantially aided by integrated use of numerical models and environmental isotopes. Spatial variability of recharge, storage of water of both modern and pluvial age, and complex three-dimensional flow processes in these basins provide challenges to the development of a good conceptual model. Ground water age dating and mixing analysis with isotopic tracers complement standard hydrogeologic data that are collected and processed as an initial step in the development and calibration of a numerical model. Environmental isotopes can confirm or refute a priori assumptions of ground water flow, such as the general assumption that natural recharge occurs primarily along mountains and mountain fronts. Isotopes also serve as powerful tools during postaudits of numerical models. Ground water models provide a means of developing ground water budgets for entire model domains or for smaller regions within the model domain. These ground water budgets can be used to evaluate the impacts of pumping and estimate the magnitude of capture in the form of induced recharge from streams, as well as quantify storage changes within the system. The coupled analyses of ground water budget analysis and isotope sampling and analysis provide a means to confirm, refute, or modify conceptual models of ground water flow.

  8. A Comparative Analysis Of Congressional Budget Adjustments For U.S. Special Operations Command

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    set for the Department (Harrison, 2011). The Center for Strategic and Budgetary Assesments report, Analysis of the FY 2010 Defense Budget, by Todd...funds for financing, including anticipated reimbursements and other resources ; and history and workload data for the projected program and activities

  9. Reef Habitat Type and Spatial Extent as Interacting Controls on Platform-Scale Carbonate Budgets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris T. Perry

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A coral reefs carbonate budget strongly influences reef structural complexity and net reef growth potential, and thus is increasingly recognized as a key “health” metric. Despite this, understanding of habitat specific budget states, how these scale across reef platforms, and our ability to quantify both framework and sediment production values remains limited. Here, we use in-situ census data from an atoll rim reef platform in the central Maldives to quantify rates of both reef framework and sediment production and loss within different platform habitats, and then combine these data with high-resolution habitat maps to quantify contributions to platform wide carbonate budgets. The net reef framework budget for the entire platform is extremely low (0.12 G, where G = Kg CaCO3 m−2 year−1, with a very high proportion (143,745 kg or 65.1% of total framework production generated within the platform margin reef zones, despite these comprising only ~8% of platform area. Net platform-scale sediment budgets are higher (1.04 G, but most is produced in the reef and platform margin hardground habitats, of which ~80% derives from parrotfish bioerosion. Significant quantities of new sediment (up to ~1 G derived from the calcareous green algae Halimeda are produced only in one habitat. All lagoonal habitats have negative or neutral net carbonate budgets. These data demonstrate the marked inter-habitat differences in reef carbonate budgets that occur across reef platforms, and the major dampening effect on overall platform scale budgets when rates are factored for habitat type and size. Furthermore, the data highlights the disproportionately important role that relatively small areas of reef habitat can have on the maintenance of net positive platform scale budgets. Because of the intrinsic link between carbonate production rates and reef-associated landform development and maintenance, these findings also have implications for understanding reef

  10. 77 FR 35391 - Franklin Budget Car Sales, Inc.; Analysis of Proposed Consent Order To Aid Public Comment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-13

    ... Franklin Budget Car Sales, Inc.; Analysis of Proposed Consent Order To Aid Public Comment AGENCY: Federal... costs, sales statistics, inventories, formulas, patterns, devices, manufacturing processes, or customer... Budget Car Sales, Inc., also doing business as Franklin Toyota/Scion (``Franklin Toyota''). The proposed...

  11. Scenario analysis of the impacts of forest management and climate change on the European forest sector carbon budget

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karjalainen, T.; Pusinen, A.; Liski, J.; Nabuurs, G.J.; Eggers, T.; Lapveteläinen, T.; Kaipainen, T.

    2003-01-01

    Analysis of the impacts of forest management and climate change on the European forest sector carbon budget between 1990 and 2050 are presented in this article. Forest inventory based carbon budgeting with large scale scenario modelling was used. Altogether 27 countries and 128.5 million hectare of

  12. Modern Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) Global Water and Energy Budgets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosilovich, Michael G.; Chen, Junye

    2009-01-01

    In the Summer of 2009, NASA's Modern Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) will have completed 28 years of global satellite data analyses. Here, we characterize the global water and energy budgets of MERRA, compared with available observations and the latest reanalyses. In this analysis, the climatology of the global average components are studied as well as the separate land and ocean averages. In addition, the time series of the global averages are evaluated. For example, the global difference of precipitation and evaporation generally shows the influence of water vapor observations on the system. Since the observing systems change in time, especially remotely sensed observations of water, significant temporal variations can occur across the 28 year record. These then are also closely connected to changes in the atmospheric energy and water budgets. The net imbalance of the energy budget at the surface can be large and different signs for different reanalyses. In MERRA, the imbalance of energy at the surface tends to improve with time being the smallest during the most recent and abundant satellite observations.

  13. Modern Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) Global Water and Energy Budgets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosilovich, Michael G.; Chen, Junye

    2009-01-01

    In the Summer of 2009, NASA's Modern Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) will have completed 28 years of global satellite data analyses. Here, we characterize the global water and energy budgets of MERRA, compared with available observations and the latest reanalyses. In this analysis, the climatology of the global average components are studied as well as the separate land and ocean averages. In addition, the time series of the global averages are evaluated. For example, the global difference of precipitation and evaporation generally shows the influence of water vapor observations on the system. Since the observing systems change in time, especially remotely sensed observations of water, significant temporal variations can occur across the 28 year record. These then are also closely connected to changes in the atmospheric energy and water budgets. The net imbalance of the energy budget at the surface can be large and different signs for different reanalyses. In MERRA, the imbalance of energy at the surface tends to improve with time being the smallest during the most recent and abundant satellite observations.

  14. National Security Mission, Members and Budgeting in the United States and Australia: A Comparative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    4. We talk about the managerial state because we want to locate managerialism as a cultural formation and a distinctive set of ideologies and...Tuesday of May. The Government presents the Budget Papers and budget-related documents. The Treasurer summarises the budget in his Budget Speech

  15. Interaction of a river with an alluvial basin aquifer: Stable isotopes, salinity and water budgets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastoe, Christopher J.; Hutchison, William R.; Hibbs, Barry J.; Hawley, John; Hogan, James F.

    2010-12-01

    SummaryDetailed sets of tracer data (isotopes, salinity) and the results of MODFLOW modeling of water budgets provide an unprecedented opportunity for comparing modeling with field data in the area where the Rio Grande enters the Hueco Bolson basin of Texas and Chihuahua. Water from the Rio Grande has recharged the Hueco Bolson aquifer to a depth of 300 m below the surface in the El Paso-Ciudad Juárez area, the depth of infiltration corresponding to the depth of ancestral Rio Grande fluvial sediments. Groundwater beneath the river exhibits complex isotope and salinity stratification. Post-dam (post -1916, type A) river water has infiltrated to depths up to 80 m. Pre-dam (type B) river water has infiltrated to 300 m depth near downtown El Paso, and has mixed with, or been displaced further downstream by high-salinity native Hueco Bolson groundwater (type C, present in the basin north of the river). Salinity and isotope boundaries do not correspond precisely. Isotope stratification corresponds to water residence time and (for type C) to degree of evaporation; the highest salinities are associated with the most evaporated water. Modeling of water budgets in the basin fill beneath the river predicts present-day mixing of water types B and C where changing rates of pumping have caused a reversal of groundwater flow direction between El Paso and Ciudad Juárez, and deep recharge of type B water under conditions prevailing in the 1960s.

  16. Water Budget Analysis in Arid Regions, Application to the United Arab Emirates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocio Gonzalez

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Population growth and economic development have impacted the capacity of water resources to meet demands in a number of arid countries. This study focuses on the United Arab Emirates (UAE where low rainfall, high rate of growth and agricultural development are resulting in a dramatic depletion of groundwater resources and an increased dependence on desalination. A water budget for the region was developed. It represents the variations in groundwater storage as a balance of total precipitation, desalinated water and evapotranspiration. The components of the water budget are obtained from ground observations, documented information, models and remote sensing data, using Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE satellites to estimate changes in groundwater storage and Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM satellites and Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS data to obtain precipitation and soil moisture respectively. Results show a negative trend of 0.5 cm/year in groundwater levels corresponding to an average decrease of 0.86 km3/year during the study period (2003 to 2012. This negative trend indicates that the aquifers are not being recharged fast enough to compensate for human withdrawals. Most of the precipitation was found to be lost through evapotranspiration. A discussion of the current water budget components is presented and propositions are made for a sustainable use of water resources in the UAE, including a more efficient use of recycled water. This analysis is applicable to other Gulf countries and it can help to determine the optimal allocation of water resources to optimize agricultural productivity.

  17. Budget impact and cost-utility analysis of universal infant rotavirus vaccination in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imaz, Iñaki; Rubio, Beltrán; Cornejo, Ana M; González-Enríquez, Jesús

    2014-04-01

    Rotavirus is not included in the Spanish mass infant vaccination schedule but has also not been economically evaluated for its inclusion. We analysed cost-utility of the universal infant rotavirus vaccination using RotaTeq® versus no vaccination in Spain. We also carried out a budget impact analysis and determined the effect on results of different variables introduced in the model. A deterministic Markov model was built considering loss of quality of life for children and their parents, and introducing direct and indirect costs updated to 2011. The introduction of the vaccination using RotaTeq® as a universal infant vaccination would increase the annual health care budget in 10.43 million euro and would result in a gain of an additional Quality Adjusted Life Year at a cost of 280,338€ from the healthcare system perspective and 210,167€ from the societal perspective. The model was stable to variable modifications. To sum up, according to our model and estimates, the introduction of a universal infant rotavirus vaccination with RotaTeq® in Spain would cause a large impact on the health care budget and would not be efficient unless significant variations in vaccine price, vaccine efficacy and/or utilities took place. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. INCA- INTERACTIVE CONTROLS ANALYSIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, F. H.

    1994-01-01

    The Interactive Controls Analysis (INCA) program was developed to provide a user friendly environment for the design and analysis of linear control systems, primarily feedback control systems. INCA is designed for use with both small and large order systems. Using the interactive graphics capability, the INCA user can quickly plot a root locus, frequency response, or time response of either a continuous time system or a sampled data system. The system configuration and parameters can be easily changed, allowing the INCA user to design compensation networks and perform sensitivity analysis in a very convenient manner. A journal file capability is included. This stores an entire sequence of commands, generated during an INCA session into a file which can be accessed later. Also included in INCA are a context-sensitive help library, a screen editor, and plot windows. INCA is robust to VAX-specific overflow problems. The transfer function is the basic unit of INCA. Transfer functions are automatically saved and are available to the INCA user at any time. A powerful, user friendly transfer function manipulation and editing capability is built into the INCA program. The user can do all transfer function manipulations and plotting without leaving INCA, although provisions are made to input transfer functions from data files. By using a small set of commands, the user may compute and edit transfer functions, and then examine these functions by using the ROOT_LOCUS, FREQUENCY_RESPONSE, and TIME_RESPONSE capabilities. Basic input data, including gains, are handled as single-input single-output transfer functions. These functions can be developed using the function editor or by using FORTRAN- like arithmetic expressions. In addition to the arithmetic functions, special functions are available to 1) compute step, ramp, and sinusoid functions, 2) compute closed loop transfer functions, 3) convert from S plane to Z plane with optional advanced Z transform, and 4) convert from Z

  19. INCA- INTERACTIVE CONTROLS ANALYSIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, F. H.

    1994-01-01

    The Interactive Controls Analysis (INCA) program was developed to provide a user friendly environment for the design and analysis of linear control systems, primarily feedback control systems. INCA is designed for use with both small and large order systems. Using the interactive graphics capability, the INCA user can quickly plot a root locus, frequency response, or time response of either a continuous time system or a sampled data system. The system configuration and parameters can be easily changed, allowing the INCA user to design compensation networks and perform sensitivity analysis in a very convenient manner. A journal file capability is included. This stores an entire sequence of commands, generated during an INCA session into a file which can be accessed later. Also included in INCA are a context-sensitive help library, a screen editor, and plot windows. INCA is robust to VAX-specific overflow problems. The transfer function is the basic unit of INCA. Transfer functions are automatically saved and are available to the INCA user at any time. A powerful, user friendly transfer function manipulation and editing capability is built into the INCA program. The user can do all transfer function manipulations and plotting without leaving INCA, although provisions are made to input transfer functions from data files. By using a small set of commands, the user may compute and edit transfer functions, and then examine these functions by using the ROOT_LOCUS, FREQUENCY_RESPONSE, and TIME_RESPONSE capabilities. Basic input data, including gains, are handled as single-input single-output transfer functions. These functions can be developed using the function editor or by using FORTRAN- like arithmetic expressions. In addition to the arithmetic functions, special functions are available to 1) compute step, ramp, and sinusoid functions, 2) compute closed loop transfer functions, 3) convert from S plane to Z plane with optional advanced Z transform, and 4) convert from Z

  20. Interactions between reactive nitrogen and the Canadian landscape: A budget approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clair, Thomas A.; Pelletier, Nathan; Bittman, Shabtai; Leip, Adrian; Arp, Paul; Moran, Michael D.; Dennis, Ian; Niemi, David; Sterling, Shannon; Drury, Craig F.; Yang, Jingyi

    2014-11-01

    The movement of excess reactive nitrogen (Nr) from anthropogenic activities to natural ecosystems has been described as one of the most serious environmental threats facing modern society. One of the approaches for tracking this movement is the use of budgets that quantify fluxes. We constructed an Nr budget for Canada using measured and modeled values from the scientific literature, government databases, and data from new agri-environmental indicators, in order to produce information for policy makers and scientists to understand the major flows of nitrogen to allow a better assessment of risks to the Canadian environment. We divided the Canadian territory south of 60°N into areas dominated by natural ecosystems, as well as by agricultural and urban/industrial activities to evaluate Nr flows within, between, and out of these units. We show that Canada is a major exporter of Nr due to the availability of inexpensive commercial fertilizers. The large land area suitable for agriculture makes Canada a significant agricultural Nr exporter of both grain crops and livestock. Finally, Canada exports petroleum N mainly to the United States. Because of its location and prevailing atmospheric transport patterns, Canada is a net receptor of Nr air pollution from the United States, receiving approximately 20% of the Nr leaving the U.S. airshed. We found that overall, terrestrial natural ecosystems as well as the atmosphere are in balance between Nr inputs and outputs when all N reactive and nonreactive fluxes are included. However, when only reactive forms are considered, almost 50% of N entering the Canadian atmosphere cannot be accounted for and is assumed to be lost to the Atlantic and Arctic oceans or to unmeasured dry deposition. However, agricultural and freshwater landscapes are showing large differences between measured inputs and outputs of N as our data suggest that denitrification in soils and aquatic systems is larger than what models predict. Our work also shows

  1. CORRELATION ANALYSIS BETWEEN THE PUBLIC DEBT AND THE BUDGET DEFICIT AND GDP IN ROMANIA COMPARED TO SWEDEN

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The modality in which the state manages the public debt has always represented and will continue to represent a subject of real importance, and the discussions regarding the level of budget deficit, the indebtedness degree and its implications on the social wellness are representing a big actuality at national level as also at European Union level. In this paper is presented a comparative analysis between Romania and Sweden in what regards the dependence between public debt and budget deficit...

  2. Long-term Radiation Budget Variability in the Northern Eurasian Region: Assessing the Interaction with Fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stackhouse, P. W.; Soja, A. J.; Zhang, T.; Mikovitz, J. C.

    2013-12-01

    In terms of global change, boreal regions are particularly important, because significant warming and change are already evident and significant future warming is predicted. Mean global air temperature has increased by 0.74°C in the last century, and temperatures are predicted to increase by 1.8°C to 4°C by 2090, depending on the Inter-governmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) scenario. Some of the greatest temperature increases are currently found in the Northern Eurasian winter and spring, which has led to longer growing seasons, increased potential evapotranspiration and extreme fire weather [Groisman et al., 2007]. In the Siberian Sayan, winter temperatures have already exceeded a 2090 Hadley Centre scenario (HadCM3GGa1) [Soja et al., 2007]. There is evidence of climate-induced change across the circumboreal in terms of increased infestations, alterations in vegetation and increased fire regimes (area burned, fire frequency, severity and number of extreme fire seasons). In this paper, we analyzed long-term surface radiation data sets from the NASA/GEWEX (Global Energy and Water Exchanges) Surface Radiation Budget data products, CERES Surface EBAF and SYN data products and also the available surface radiation measurements in the region. First, we show that during overlap years SRB and CERES data products agree very well in terms of anomalies and we'll use this fact to evaluate 30 years of satellite based estimates of the variability of downwelling SW parameters first corresponding to locations of surface measurements and then for the region as a whole. We also show the observed variability of other SW components such as the net SW and the albedo. Next we assess the variability of the downward and LW fluxes over time and compare these to variability observed in the surface temperature and other meteorological measurements. We assess anomalies on various spatial scales. Finally, we assess the correlation of this variability in specific locations to known fire

  3. Interactive Controls Analysis (INCA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Frank H.

    1989-01-01

    Version 3.12 of INCA provides user-friendly environment for design and analysis of linear control systems. System configuration and parameters easily adjusted, enabling INCA user to create compensation networks and perform sensitivity analysis in convenient manner. Full complement of graphical routines makes output easy to understand. Written in Pascal and FORTRAN.

  4. Interactive Controls Analysis (INCA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Frank H.

    1989-01-01

    Version 3.12 of INCA provides user-friendly environment for design and analysis of linear control systems. System configuration and parameters easily adjusted, enabling INCA user to create compensation networks and perform sensitivity analysis in convenient manner. Full complement of graphical routines makes output easy to understand. Written in Pascal and FORTRAN.

  5. Ozone budget in the West African lower troposphere during the AMMA (African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Saunois

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available A bi-dimensional latitudinal-vertical meterological model coupled with O3-NOx-VOC chemistry is used to reproduce the distribution of ozone and precursors in the boundary layer over West Africa during the African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis (AMMA campaign as observed on board the Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements (FAAM BAe 146 Atmospheric Research Aircraft. The model reproduces the increase of ozone mixing ratios in the boundary layer observed between the forested region south of 13° N and the Sahelian area northward. Sensitivity and budget analysis reveals that the intertropical convergence zone is a moderate source of O3 rich-air in the boundary layer due to convective downdrafts. Dry deposition drives the ozone minimum over the vegetated area. The combination of high NOx emissions from soil north of 13° N and northward advection by the monsoon flux of VOC-enriched air masses contributes to the ozone maximum simulated at higher latitudes. Simulated OH exhibit a well marked latitudinal gradient with minimum concentrations over the vegetated region where the reactions with biogenic compounds predominate. The model underestimates the observed OH mixing ratios, however this model discrepancy has slight effect on ozone budget and does not alter the conclusions.

  6. Late Budgets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Asger Lau; Lassen, David Dreyer; Nielsen, Lasse Holbøll Westh

    The budget forms the legal basis of government spending. If a budget is not in place at the beginning of the fiscal year, planning as well as current spending are jeopardized and government shutdown may result. This paper develops a continuous-time war-of-attrition model of budgeting...... in a presidential style-democracy to explain the duration of budget negotiations. We build our model around budget baselines as reference points for loss averse negotiators. We derive three testable hypotheses: there are more late budgets, and they are more late, when fiscal circumstances change; when such changes...... are negative rather than positive; and when there is divided government. We test the hypotheses of the model using a unique data set of late budgets for US state governments, based on dates of budget approval collected from news reports and a survey of state budget o¢ cers for the period 1988...

  7. Late Budgets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Asger Lau; Lassen, David Dreyer; Nielsen, Lasse Holbøll Westh

    are negative rather than positive; and when there is divided government. We test the hypotheses of the model using a unique data set of late budgets for US state governments, based on dates of budget approval collected from news reports and a survey of state budget o¢ cers for the period 1988......The budget forms the legal basis of government spending. If a budget is not in place at the beginning of the fiscal year, planning as well as current spending are jeopardized and government shutdown may result. This paper develops a continuous-time war-of-attrition model of budgeting...... in a presidential style-democracy to explain the duration of budget negotiations. We build our model around budget baselines as reference points for loss averse negotiators. We derive three testable hypotheses: there are more late budgets, and they are more late, when fiscal circumstances change; when such changes...

  8. Visual Interactive Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirchmeier-Andersen, Sabine; Møller Christensen, Jakob; Lihn Jensen, Bente

    2004-01-01

    This article presents the latest version of VIA (version 3.0). The development of the program was initiated by a demand for more systematic training of language analysis in high schools and universities. The system is now web-based, which enables teachers and students to share exercises across th...

  9. Prophylaxis against febrile neutropenia with pegfilgrastim in Italy: a budget impact analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Rosti

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: prophylaxis with granulocyte colony-stimulating factors (G-CSF is indicated for reduction in the duration of neutropenia and the incidence of febrile neutropenia in patients treated with cytotoxic chemotherapy for malignancy.
Objective: to evaluate the budgetary impact for the Italian NHS.
Design: a decision-analytic model has been developed to analyze the budget impact from the national health care system perspective. Costs include direct healthcare costs to the public payer of G-CSFs as well as their administration costs and costs of FN-related events. The comparison has been done using prophylaxis with G‑CSF (filgrastim for 11 days, pegfilgrastim, lenograstim for 11 days and antibiotics.
Patients and participants: The population of interest for the analysis were patients with breast cancer in stage II and III and patients with non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL.
Main outcome measures and results: for all the three patients group (NHL, Breast II and III, and for all the chemotherapy regimens (CHOP 21 and R-CHOP 21 for NHL, AC-T, TAC and TC for Breast stage II and III the budget impact analyses shows a cost reduction for the Italian NHS, as a result of an increase of the use of pegfilgrastim.
Conclusions: in Italy, a treatment strategy including pegfilgrastim as either primary or secondary prophylaxis provides value for money.


  10. Visual Interactive Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirchmeier-Andersen, Sabine; Møller Christensen, Jakob; Lihn Jensen, Bente

    2004-01-01

    This article presents the latest version of VIA (version 3.0). The development of the program was initiated by a demand for more systematic training of language analysis in high schools and universities. The system is now web-based, which enables teachers and students to share exercises across...... the globe. A new dictionary feature has been added which contains detailed morphological information used by the system to produce intelligent feed-back on student performance. VIA contains more than 1700 exercises for Danish, German, English, Spanish, Latin, French and Italian. For VIA 3.0, a new module...

  11. Budget analysis of Escherichia coli at a Southern Lake Michigan Beach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thupaki, Pramod; Phanikumar, Mantha S; Beletsky, Dmitry; Schwab, David J; Nevers, Meredith B; Whitman, Richard L

    2010-02-01

    Escherichia coli (EC) concentrations at two beaches impacted by river plume dynamics in southern Lake Michigan were analyzed using three-dimensional hydrodynamic and transport models. The relative importance of various physical and biological processes influencing the fate and transport of EC were examined via budget analysis and a first-order sensitivity analysis of model parameters. The along-shore advective flux of EC (CFU/m(2).s) was found to be higher compared to its cross-shore counterpart; however, the sum of diffusive and advective components was of a comparable magnitude in both directions showing the importance of cross-shore exchange in EC transport. Examination of individual terms in the EC mass balance equation showed that vertical turbulent mixing in the water column dominated the overall EC transport for the summer conditions simulated. Dilution due to advection and diffusion accounted for a large portion of the total EC budget in the nearshore, and the net EC loss rate within the water column (CFU/m(3).s) was an order of magnitude smaller compared to the horizontal and vertical transport rates. This result has important implications for modeling EC at recreational beaches; however, the assessment of the magnitude of EC loss rate is complicated due to the strong coupling between vertical exchange and depth-dependent EC loss processes such as sunlight inactivation and settling. Sensitivity analysis indicated that solar inactivation has the greatest impact on EC loss rates. Although these results are site-specific, they clearly bring out the relative importance of various processes involved.

  12. Budget impact analysis of conversion from cyclosporine to sirolimus as immunosuppressive medication in renal transplantation therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foroutan N

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Naghmeh Foroutan,1 Hamid R Rasekh,1 Jamshid Salamzadeh,1 Hamid R Jamshidi,1 Mohsen Nafar2 1Department of Pharmacoeconomics and Pharmaceutical Management, School of Pharmacy, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, 2Department of Kidney Transplantation, Urinary Nephrology Research Center (UNRC, Shahid Labbafinejad Medical Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine budget impact of conversion from cyclosporine (CsA to sirolimus (SRL in renal transplant therapy (RTT from the perspective of insurance organizations in Iran. Methods: An Excel-based model was developed to determine cost of RTT, comparing current CsA based therapy to an mTOR inhibitor-based therapy regimen. Total cost included both cost of immunosuppressive agents and relative adverse events. The inputs were derived from database of Ministry of Health and insurance organizations, hospital and pharmacy based registries, and available literature that were varied through a one-way sensitivity analysis. According to the model, there were almost 17,000 patients receiving RTT in Iran, out of which about 2,200 patients underwent the operation within the study year. The model was constructed based on the results of a local RCT, in which test and control groups received CsA, SRL, and steroids over the first 3 months posttransplantation and, from the fourth month on, CsA, mycophenolate mofetil (MMF, and steroids were used in the CsA group and SRL, MMF, and steroids were administered in the SRL group, respectively. Results: The estimated cost of RTT with CsA was US$4,850,000 versus US$4,300,000 receiving SRL. These costs corresponded to the cost saving of almost US$550,000 for the payers. Conclusion: To evaluate the financial consequence of adding mTOR inhibitors to the insurers’ formulary, in the present study, a budget impact analysis was conducted on sirolimus. Fewer cases of costly adverse events along with

  13. Analysis of Water and Energy Budgets and Trends Using the NLDAS Monthly Data Sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, Bruce E.; Rui, Hualan; Mocko, David M.; Teng, William L.; Lei, Guang-Dih

    2012-01-01

    The North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) is a collaborative project between NASA GSFC, NOAA, Princeton University, and the University of Washington. NLDAS has created surface meteorological forcing data sets using the best-available observations and reanalyses. The forcing data sets are used to drive four separate land-surface models (LSMs), Mosaic, Noah, VIC, and SAC, to produce data sets of soil moisture, snow, runoff, and surface fluxes. NLDAS hourly data, accessible from the NASA GES DISC Hydrology Data Holdings Portal, http://disc.sci.gsfc.nasa.gov/hydrology/data-holdings, are widely used by various user communities in modeling, research, and applications, such as drought and flood monitoring, watershed and water quality management, and case studies of extreme events. More information is available at http://ldas.gsfc.nasa.gov/. To further facilitate analysis of water and energy budgets and trends, NLDAS monthly data sets have been recently released by NASA GES DISC.

  14. Quantitative analysis of optical power budget of bismuth oxide-based erbium-doped fiber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, Hideaki [Graduate School of Human and Environmental Studies, Kyoto University, Yoshida nihonmatsu-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Research Center, Asahi Glass Co., Ltd., 1150 Hazawa-cho, Kanagawa-ku, Yokohama 221-8755 (Japan)], E-mail: hideaki-hayasi@agc.co.jp; Tanabe, Setsuhisa [Graduate School of Human and Environmental Studies, Kyoto University, Yoshida nihonmatsu-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Sugimoto, Naoki [Research Center, Asahi Glass Co., Ltd., 1150 Hazawa-cho, Kanagawa-ku, Yokohama 221-8755 (Japan)

    2008-03-15

    We investigated optical power budget of Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}-based erbium-doped fiber (BIEDF). Lateral spontaneous emissions and scattering laser powers in the BIEDF were measured quantitatively by using an integrating sphere. Compared with the power of amplified spontaneous emission and signal detected at the output fiber end, it was found that considerable powers were consumed by the laterally emitting lights. As an optically undetected loss limits power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the fiber amplifier, the effect of nonradiative decay from the termination level of pump excited state absorption (pump ESA) was estimated from decay rate analyses of the relevant levels. The nonradiative loss was comparable to amplified signal power in the BIEDF when pumped with a 980-nm LD. Nonradiative decay following cooperative upconversion (CUP) process is also discussed using rate equations analysis.

  15. Macroeconomic Factors Affecting Budget Deficit in Pakistan: A Time Series Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayesha Mushtaq

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study is to empirically investigate the relationship between budget deficit and macroeconomic factors i.e., financial development indicator, economic growth, changes in price level and real exchange rate, by using data from1980-2011 for Pakistan. The results reveal that there is a positive and significant relationship between real effective exchange rate and budget deficit on one hand, while economic growth and financial development indicator with reference to budget deficit on the other hand. Changes in price level have a significant and negative relationship with the budget deficit in Pakistan.

  16. Multi-Year Program under Budget Constraints Using Multi-Criteria Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surya Adiguna

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Road investment appraisal requires joint consideration of multiple criteria which are related to engineering, economic, social and environmental impacts. The investment consideration could be based on the economic analysis but however for some factors, such as environmental, social, and political, are difficult to quantify in monetary term. The multi-criteria analysis is the alternative tool which caters the requirements of the issues above. The research, which is based on 102 class D and class E paved road sections in Kenya, is about to optimize road network investment under budget constraints by applying a multi-criteria analysis (MCA method and compare it with the conventional economic analysis. The MCA is developed from hierarchy structure which is considered as the analytical framework. The framework is based on selected criteria and weights which are assigned from Kenya road policy. The HDM-4 software is applied as decision-making tool to obtain the best investment alternatives and road work programs from both MCA and economic analysis. The road work programs will be the results from the analysis using both MCA and economic analysis within HDM-4 software to see the difference and compare the results between both programs. The results from MCA show 51 road sections need periodic work, which is overlay or resealing. Meanwhile, 51 others need rehabilitation or reconstruction. The five years road work program which based on economic analysis result shows that it costs almost Kenyan Shilling (KES 130 billion to maintain the class D and E paved road in Kenya. Meanwhile, the MCA only requires KES 59.5 billion for 5 years program. These results show huge margin between two analyses and somehow MCA result provides more efficient work program compared to economic analysis.

  17. Disaster budgeting of Banda Aceh’s local government: Trends and analysis of post-tsunami Aceh 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oktari, R. S.; Fahlevi, H.; Irawati, W.

    2017-02-01

    This study aimed to analyze Disaster Risk Management (DRM) related funds that budgeted by the government of Banda Aceh. The specific objectives of this study were: i) to assess and analyze the budget allocation related the DRM investment in the government of Banda Aceh, ii) to provide an update on achievements and key trends in DRM investments in government of Banda Aceh, iii) to evaluate the implementation of DRM budget and challenges on mainstreaming with DRM perspectives into policy of local budgeting, and iii) to propose appropriate recommendations for improvement. The study utilized both primary and secondary sources of data to achieve the objective. The method in this study included the following steps: searching/ collecting, checking, compiling, classifying, measuring, accounting and analyzing the existing budget document. The results of the data analysis showed that a large proportion of DRM investments was allocated after 2011. This study recommended some actions to be taken by the government and related stakeholder to increase the quantity and quality of DRM investments.

  18. Evaporation tagging and atmospheric water budget analysis with WRF: A regional precipitation recycling study for West

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnault, Joel; Knoche, Richard; Wei, Jianhui; Kunstmann, Harald

    2016-04-01

    Regional precipitation recycling is the measure of the contribution of local evaporation E to local precipitation. This study provides a set of two methods developed in the Weather Research and Forecasting WRF model system for investigating regional precipitation recycling mechanisms: (1) tracking of tagged atmospheric water species originating from evaporation in a source region, ie E-tagging, and (2) three-dimensional budgets of total and tagged atmospheric water species. These methods are used to quantify the effect of return flow and non-well vertical mixing neglected in the computation of the bulk precipitation recycling ratio. The developed algorithms are applied to a WRF simulation of the West African Monsoon 2003. The simulated region is characterized by vertical wind shear condition, i.e. southwesterlies in the low levels and easterlies in the mid-levels, which favours return flow and non-well vertical mixing. Regional precipitation recycling is investigated in 100x100 and 1000x1000 km2 areas. A prerequisite condition for evaporated water to contribute to the precipitation process in both areas is that it is lifted to the mid-levels where hydrometeors are produced. In the 100x100 (1000x1000) km2 area the bulk precipitation recycling ratio is 0.9 (7.3) %. Our budget analysis reveals that return flow and non-well vertically mixed outflow increase this value by about +0.2 (2.9) and +0.2 (1.6) %, respectively, thus strengthening the well-known scale-dependency of regional precipitation recycling.

  19. Budget impact analysis of the use of lapatinib in the treatment of breast cancer in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Bamfi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to estimate the impact of lapatinib utilization within the Italian National Health Service (NHS resources consumption. Lapatinib is an oral inhibitor of kinase protein, approved as dual therapy with capecitabine for the treatment of metastatic breast cancer patients with HER2 overexpression who experience disease progression despite trastuzumab treatment. Methods: the analysis is based on a model, which structure can be summarized as follows: a national cancer registries-based estimate of the yearly number of HER2+ breast cancer patients who develop metastatic disease in Italy; b literature-based identification of the rate of patients eligible to receive lapatinib; c identification of the current therapeutic strategy-mix; d costing of the alternatives, and e calculation of budget impact. Direct NHS costs (drug acquisition and administration, and monitoring for 8 cycles of 21 days are estimated based on current Italian prices and tariffs. Results: the annual number of patients eligible for lapatinib-based therapy can vary from 1,676 to 2,172, according to the expected extent of the trastuzumab use as adjuvant therapy. The current strategy-mix beyond progression is based on drugs used in the clinical practice, with a portion of patients continuing trastuzumab. Pharmaceutical cost of lapatinib results higher than the average cost of the current pattern of treatments. This cost increase would be partially offset by the reduction of laboratory tests and hospital personnel work for the oral administration of lapatinib, as compared to intravenous strategies. Furthermore, a risk sharing agreement has been adopted by NHS and manufacturer, according to which the NHS pays only for responding patients. As a consequence, lapatinib-based therapy would increase yearly NHS expenditure by about 3.8-4.9 millions of euro. Conclusions: lapatinib is the only treatment option specifically indicated for the management of HER2+, metastatic breast cancer in

  20. Observations of the thermal environment on Red Sea platform reefs: a heat budget analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Davis, K. A.

    2011-03-11

    Hydrographic measurements were collected on nine offshore reef platforms in the eastern Red Sea shelf region, north of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. The data were analyzed for spatial and temporal patterns of temperature variation, and a simple heat budget analysis was performed with the goal of advancing our understanding of the physical processes that control temperature variability on the reef. In 2009 and 2010, temperature variability on Red Sea reef platforms was dominated by diurnal variability. The daily temperature range on the reefs, at times, exceeded 5°C-as large as the annual range of water temperature on the shelf. Additionally, our observations reveal the proximity of distinct thermal microclimates within the bounds of one reef platform. Circulation on the reef flat is largely wave driven. The greatest diurnal variation in water temperature occurs in the center of larger reef flats and on reefs protected from direct wave forcing, while smaller knolls or sites on the edges of the reef flat tend to experience less diurnal temperature variability. We found that both the temporal and spatial variability in water temperature on the reef platforms is well predicted by a heat budget model that includes the transfer of heat at the air-water interface and the advection of heat by currents flowing over the reef. Using this simple model, we predicted the temperature across three different reefs to within 0.4°C on the outer shelf using only information about bathymetry, surface heat flux, and offshore wave conditions. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  1. A Qualitative Evaluation of Program Budgeting and Marginal Analysis in a Canadian Pediatric Tertiary Care Institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Neale; Mitton, Craig; Hiltz, Mary-Ann; Campbell, Matthew; Dowling, Laura; Magee, J Fergall; Gujar, Shashi Ashok

    2016-10-01

    Hospitals in Canada are being asked by governments to improve efficiency and do more with fewer resources. Healthcare decision makers are thus driven to find better ways to manage budgets and deliver on their mission. Formal processes of priority setting and resource allocation (PSRA) are one means to this end. This paper reports an evaluation of one such approach, Program Budgeting and Marginal Analysis (PBMA), as applied at a children and women's tertiary care facility in Nova Scotia, Canada. A brief evaluation conducted immediately after the conclusion of the PBMA process was supplemented with a larger retrospective evaluation. The retrospective evaluation included 26 face-to-face individual interviews with senior and middle managers who took part in PBMA. Interview transcripts were analyzed against a template consisting of 19 elements of structure, process, attitudes, and outcomes associated with high performance in PSRA. Respondents had a good experience with the implementation of PBMA, and considered it an improvement over past practice. Success was attributed to effective leadership, and substantial efforts to engage staff members. Understanding of economic and ethical principles of decision making was reportedly increased. Areas for improvement included ensuring that everyone participated in good faith, better communication of final results, and stronger follow-through to determine if anticipated changes and benefits in fact occurred. The evaluation framework employed here proved useful in assessing the quality of this resource allocation exercise. The results are directly useful to local decision makers, and the identified strengths and weaknesses are broadly consistent with those reported in studies of other organizations.

  2. An Analysis and Allocation System for Library Collections Budgets: The Comprehensive Allocation Process (CAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Lucy Eleonore; Blosser, John

    2012-01-01

    The "Comprehensive Allocation Process" (CAP) is a reproducible decision-making structure for the allocation of new collections funds, for the reallocation of funds within stagnant budgets, and for budget cuts in the face of reduced funding levels. This system was designed to overcome common shortcomings of current methods. Its philosophical…

  3. An Analysis and Allocation System for Library Collections Budgets: The Comprehensive Allocation Process (CAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Lucy Eleonore; Blosser, John

    2012-01-01

    The "Comprehensive Allocation Process" (CAP) is a reproducible decision-making structure for the allocation of new collections funds, for the reallocation of funds within stagnant budgets, and for budget cuts in the face of reduced funding levels. This system was designed to overcome common shortcomings of current methods. Its philosophical…

  4. Difference and Relation Analysis of Comprehensive Budget and Financial Budget%浅析全面预算和财务预算的区别与联系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李艳

    2013-01-01

    The financial budget and the budget as an important means of enterprise management, financial budget management is an impor⁃tant part of the overall budget management, on the other hand, implementation of a comprehensive budget management is an effective mecha⁃nism and important means of strengthening the financial management function.%  财务预算与全面预算作为企业管理资源的重要手段,财务预算管理是全面预算管理的重要组成部分,另一方面实施全面预算管理则是强化财务管理功能的有效机制和重要手段。

  5. Analysis of Reynolds stress budgets in LES of Langmuir supercells under crosswind currents in a coastal ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejada-Martinez, Andres; Zhang, Jie

    2016-11-01

    Langmuir supercells (LSCs) in coastal oceans consist of parallel counter rotating vortices engulfing the water column in unstratified conditions. These cells have been observed in continental shelf regions 15-30 meters deep during the passage of storms. LSCs are aligned roughly in the wind direction and are generated via interaction of the wind-driven shear current and Stokes drift velocity induced by surface gravity waves. LSCs have been determined to be an important contributor to the suspension of sediments and their overall transport across shelves. It has also been shown that tidal forcing distorts and weakens LSCs, inhibiting their potential for sediment suspension. Large-eddy simulations of LSCs in flows driven by a surface wind stress and a constant crosswind pressure gradient (representative of crosswind tidal forcing) have been performed. Although a crosswind tidal current stronger than the wind-driven current is able to break up the LSCs giving rise to smaller scale, weaker Langmuir cells (LCs), analysis of Reynolds shear stress budgets reveals that non-local transport remains significant relative to flow without LCs. This demonstrates the need for a non-local transport term in Reynolds shear stress and turbulent scalar flux closures for coastal flows with LCs. Support from the US National Science Foundation and the Gulf of Mexico Research Initiative is gratefully acknowledged.

  6. Vegetation cover analysis using a low budget hyperspectral proximal sensing system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Daquino

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This report describes the implementation of a hyperspectral proximal sensing low-budget acquisition system and its application to the detection of terrestrian vegetation cover anomalies in sites of high environmental quality. Anomalies can be due to stress for lack of water and/or pollution phenomena and weed presence in agricultural fields. The hyperspectral cube (90-bands ranging from 450 to 900 nm was acquired from the hill near Segni (RM, approximately 500 m far from the target, by means of electronically tunable filters and 8 bit CCD cameras. Spectral libraries were built using both endmember identification method and extraction of centroids of the clusters obtained from a k-means analysis of the image itself. Two classification methods were applied on the hyperspectral cube: Spectral Angle Mapper (hard and Mixed Tuned Matching Filters (MTMF. Results show the good capability of the system in detecting areas with an arboreal, shrub or leafage cover, distinguishing between zones with different spectral response. Better results were obtained using spectral library originated by the k-means method. The detected anomalies not correlated to seasonal phenomena suggest a ground true analysis to identify their origin.

  7. Budgeting for PACS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Lh

    2008-10-01

    There are a number of models for the acquisition of digital image management systems. The specific details for development of a budget for a PACS/RIS acquisition will depend upon the acquisition model - although there are similarities in the overarching principles and general information, particularly concerning the radiology service requirements that will drive budget considerations.While budgeting for PACS/RIS should follow the same principles as budgeting for any new technology, it is important to understand how far the implementation of digital image management systems can reach in a healthcare setting. Accurate identification of those elements of the healthcare service that will be affected by a PACS/RIS implementation is a critical component of successful budget formation and of the success of any business case and subsequent project that relies on those budget estimates.A budget for a PACS/RIS capital acquisition project should contain capital and recurrent elements. The capital is associated with the acquisition of the system in a purchase model and capital budget may also be required for upgrade - depending upon a facility's financial management processes.The recurrent (or operational) cost component for the PACS/RIS is associated with maintaining the system(s) in a sustainable operational state.It is also important to consider the service efficiencies, cost savings and service quality improvements that PACS/RIS can generate and include these factors into the economic analysis of any proposal for a PACS/RIS project.

  8. Water budget and the role of land-sea interactions of a coastal wetland at the German Baltic Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronstert, Axel; Thomas, Graeff; Konrad, Miegel; Selle, Benny; Thomas, Salzmann; Christian, Franck

    2017-04-01

    Coastal low moors are characteristic elements of the landscapes along Germany's Baltic Sea coastline. Under natural conditions, their hydrological peculiarities include exchange processes between the fens and the Baltic Sea. Due to human interventions such as the construction of dunes and dykes, drainage systems and lately also renaturation measures, their hydrological regime has been changed various times during the past centuries. The nature reserve "Hütelmoor und Heiligensee" northeast of the city Rostock has been selected as a natural observatory, instrumented with a number of measurement devices, and is therefore well-suited for investigating the effects of past and future changes. This contribution presents the observational programme and aims at identifying the relevant hydrological processes that affect the water balance of such wetlands. The investigations are based on a monitoring network measuring groundwater levels and electric conductivity within the moor's body since 2009, as well as on measurements of the surface water fluxes across the catchment boundaries and of meteorological parameters. The measurements enable the identification of the governing hydrological processes and patterns. On the basis of a system water budgeting approach we derived balancing of the different water flows across the system's borders (precipitation, evapotranspiration, inflows from the neighbouring parts of the catchment area, subterranean exchange processes with the Baltic Sea and the area's superficial discharge). Furthermore, the episodic input of salty water in case of heavy storm tides may provide a natural tracer. This tracer allows to better identify both vertical processes in the lowland (precipitation, evaporation and rising groundwater levels) as well as lateral transport processes (such as, e.g., water fluxes between groundwater bodies and the area`s trench system or land-sea interactions).

  9. System Budgets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Palle

    1996-01-01

    The lecture note is aimed at introducing system budgets for optical communication systems. It treats optical fiber communication systems (six generations), system design, bandwidth effects, other system impairments and optical amplifiers.......The lecture note is aimed at introducing system budgets for optical communication systems. It treats optical fiber communication systems (six generations), system design, bandwidth effects, other system impairments and optical amplifiers....

  10. Budget timetable

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a timetable for congressional action under the Balanced Budget and Emergency Deficit Control Act of 1985 (Gramm-Rudman-Hollings). These deadlines apply to fiscal years (FY) 1987-1991. The Congress missed a number of these deadlines last year. The deficit reduction measures in Gramm-Rudman-Hollings would lead to a balanced budget in 1991.

  11. Sustainability of Public Debt and Budget Deficit: Panel cointegration analysis for the European Union Member countries

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    In this study, we analyse the sustainability of fiscal policy of EU member countries within the panel cointegration and error-correction frameworks. Unlike the previous empirical papers in this area, we apply the test for panel cointegration between the primary budget deficit and the public debt defined in GDP ratios. Based on the cointegration test results, we conclude that the fiscal policy is consistent with the intertemporal budget constraint, i.e., it is sustainable in the panel of fifte...

  12. DCS Budget Tracking System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — DCS Budget Tracking System database contains budget information for the Information Technology budget and the 'Other Objects' budget. This data allows for monitoring...

  13. Budget impact analysis of the use of rituximab in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Benucci

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: a Budget Impact analysis was performed to evaluate cost implications for the Italian National Health Service (NHS of the introduction of rituximab (RTX in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA. Methods: RA patients eligible to treatment with a second-line biologic DMARD (Disease Modifying Antirheumatic Drugs were identified and quantified and available strategies for their management were explored. Costs associated with the different alternatives were estimated, and the impact on the NHS budget was estimated using a cohort simulation based on a Markov chain with a time horizon of 5 years and 1-year cycles. Seven alternative strategies were analyzed, each of them starting after the failure of a first anti-TNFα: 1 the use of a second and a third anti-TNFα; 2 the use of a second anti-TNFα followed by RTX; 3 the use of a second anti-TNFα followed by abatacept (ABAT; 4 the use of RTX as a second biological line, followed by an anti-TNFα; 5 the use of ABAT as a second biological line, followed by an anti-TNFα; 6 the use of RTX as a second biological line, followed by ABAT; 7 the use of ABAT as a second biological line, followed by RTX. Only direct medical costs were considered: drug acquisition, administration, incidental premedication and monitoring exams. Results: Italian patients eligible to second biological line therapies (RA patients refractory or intolerant to at least one anti-TNFα therapy were estimated in about 650 per year. The adoption of RTX as a second line therapy produced a substantial saving in total costs (-33% at the fifth year with respect to the strategy with RTX as third line and the one with only anti-TNFα (the last two resulting substantially cost-equivalent. The number of patients in active treatment (biologic DMARD per unit cost resulted of about 8.1 patient-years/100,000 € with the strategy based only on anti-TNFα and increased of 10% with RTX as a third line. The strategy of RTX as a second line

  14. An Analysis of Thermally-Related Surface Rainfall Budgets Associated with Convective and Stratiform Rainfall

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Yushu; Xiaofan LI

    2011-01-01

    Both water vapor and heat processes play key roles in producing surface rainfall.While the water vapor effects of sea surface temperature and cloud radiative and microphysical processes on surface rainfall have been investigated in previous studies,the thermal effects on rainfall are analyzed in this study using a series of two-dimensional equilibrium cloud-resolving model experiments forced by zonally-uniform,constant,large-scale zonal wind and zero large-scale vertical velocity.The analysis of thermally-related surface rainfall budget reveals that the model domain mean surface rain rate is primarily associated with the mean infrared cooling rate.Convective rainfall and transport of hydrometeor concentration from convective regions to raining stratiform regions corresponds to the heat divergence over convective regions,whereas stratiform rainfall corresponds to the transport of hydrometeor concentration from convective regions and heat divergence over raining stratiform regions.The heat divergence over convective regions is mainly balanced by the heat convergence over rainfall-free regions,which is,in turn,offset by the radiative cooling over rainfall-free regions.The sensitivity experiments of rainfall to the effects of sea surface temperature and cloud radiative and microphysical processes show that the sea surface temperature and cloud processes affect convective rainfall through the changes in infrared cooling rate over rainfall-free regions and transport rate of heat from convective regions to rainfall-free regions.

  15. Error Consistency Analysis Scheme for Infrared Ultraspectral Sounding Retrieval Error Budget Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Daniel K.; Larar, Allen M.; Liu, Xu; Smith, William L.; Strow, Larry, L.

    2013-01-01

    Great effort has been devoted towards validating geophysical parameters retrieved from ultraspectral infrared radiances obtained from satellite remote sensors. An error consistency analysis scheme (ECAS), utilizing fast radiative transfer model (RTM) forward and inverse calculations, has been developed to estimate the error budget in terms of mean difference and standard deviation of error in both spectral radiance and retrieval domains. The retrieval error is assessed through ECAS without relying on other independent measurements such as radiosonde data. ECAS establishes a link between the accuracies of radiances and retrieved geophysical parameters. ECAS can be applied to measurements from any ultraspectral instrument and any retrieval scheme with its associated RTM. In this manuscript, ECAS is described and demonstrated with measurements from the MetOp-A satellite Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI). This scheme can be used together with other validation methodologies to give a more definitive characterization of the error and/or uncertainty of geophysical parameters retrieved from ultraspectral radiances observed from current and future satellite remote sensors such as IASI, the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), and the Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS).

  16. Evaluation of the Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) Global Water and Energy Budgets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosilovich, Michael G.; Robertson, F. R.; Chen, J.

    2010-01-01

    The Modern Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) reanalyses has completed 27 years of data) soon to be caught up to present. Here) we present an evaluation of those years currently available) including comparisons with the existing long reanalyses (ERA40) JRA25 and NCEP I and II) as well as with global data sets for the water and energy cycle. Time series shows that the MERRA budgets can change with some of the variations in observing systems, but that the magnitude of energy imbalance in the system is improved with more observations. We will present all terms of the budgets in MERRA including the time rates of change and analysis increments (tendency due to the analysis of observations).

  17. 科研预算方法及财务管理分析%Research Budgeting and Financial Management Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周勇

    2014-01-01

    根据国家针对科技经费投入、预算和科研财务管理制定的政策,从科研经费的使用效果和财务管理分析入手,运用趋势分析法和对比分析法,分析了科研预算、财务管理实践中的主要问题和不足,并在此基础上,提出了创新科研预算方法、构建财务管理体系的措施。%According to the national policy for science and technology funding, budgeting and financial management of the development of scientific research, from the use of research funding and financial management analysis start using trend analysis and comparative analysis, analysis of the research budget, financial management practices of the main problems and deficiencies, and on this basis, the proposed budget for innovative research methods, building measures in the financial management system.

  18. An initial investigation into the impact of tourism of local budgets:A comparative analysis of Spanish municipalities

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The Spanish Federation of Municipalities has, particularly since 2008, been vocal about a “chronic deficit” situation caused by high public expenditures in tourist areas. Within this context, new strategies to increase revenues have been proposed, including the introduction of tourist taxes. This paper contributes to this debate by determining if tourism activity actually has a negative impact on local finances in Spain. To that end, a comparative analysis of budget structures between tourism...

  19. CORRELATION ANALYSIS BETWEEN THE PUBLIC DEBT AND THE BUDGET DEFICIT AND GDP IN ROMANIA COMPARED TO HOLLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANA-PETRINA PĂUN

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The modality in which the state manages the public debt has always represented and will continue to represent a subject of real importance, and the discussions regarding the level of budget deficit, the indebtedness degree and its implications on the social wellness are representing an major actuality at national level and also at European Union level. In this paper it is presented a comparative analysis between Romania and Holland in what regards the dependence between public debt and budget deficit and its GDP, as also the real public debt’s variation in time series for Romania and Holland, in tandem with the variation in time of ARX model, highlighting the residuum.

  20. CORRELATION ANALYSIS BETWEEN THE PUBLIC DEBT AND THE BUDGET DEFICIT AND GDP IN ROMANIA COMPARED TO SWEDEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANA-PETRINA PĂUN

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The modality in which the state manages the public debt has always represented and will continue to represent a subject of real importance, and the discussions regarding the level of budget deficit, the indebtedness degree and its implications on the social wellness are representing a big actuality at national level as also at European Union level. In this paper is presented a comparative analysis between Romania and Sweden in what regards the dependence between public debt and budget deficit and its GDP, as also the real public debt’s variation in time series for Romania and Sweden, in tandem with the variation in time of ARX model, highlighting the residuum.

  1. Atmospheric photochemistry of aromatic hydrocarbons: Analysis of OH budgets during SAPHIR chamber experiments and evaluation of MCMv3.2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehr, S.; Bohn, B.; Brauers, T.; Dorn, H.; Fuchs, H.; Häseler, R.; Hofzumahaus, A.; Li, X.; Lu, K.; Rohrer, F.; Tillmann, R.; Wahner, A.

    2012-12-01

    Aromatic hydrocarbons, almost exclusively originating from anthropogenic sources, comprise a significant fraction of volatile organic compounds observed in urban air. The photo-oxidation of aromatics results in the formation of secondary pollutants and impacts air quality in cities, industrialized areas, and districts of dense traffic. Up-to-date photochemical oxidation schemes of the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCMv3.2) exhibit moderate performance in simulating aromatic compound degradation observed during previous environmental chamber studies. To obtain a better understanding of aromatic photo-oxidation mechanisms, we performed experiments with a number of aromatic hydrocarbons in the outdoor atmosphere simulation chamber SAPHIR located in Jülich, Germany. These chamber studies were designed to derive OH turnover rates exclusively based on experimental data. Simultaneous measurements of NOx (= NO + NO2), HOx (= OH + HO2), and the total OH loss rate constant k(OH) facilitate a detailed analysis of the OH budgets during photo-oxidation experiments. The OH budget analysis was complemented by numerical model simulations using MCMv3.2. Despite MCM's tendency to overestimate k(OH) and to underpredict radical concentrations, the OH budgets are reasonably balanced for all investigated aromatics. However, the results leave some scope for OH producing pathways that are not considered in the current MCMv3.2. An improved reaction mechanism, derived from MCMv3.2 sensitivity studies, is presented. The model performance is basically improved by changes of the mechanistic representation of ring fragmentation channels.

  2. A Comparative Analysis of the Budget Process in the Venezuelan and U.S. Navies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-12-01

    los Organismo de la Administracion Central" CAccounting System of Financial Execution of the budget for the Central Administration Offices), which is...Venezuelan budgetary process no distinction is made between an authorization and an appropriation. The Escuela Nacional de Administracion Publica - The

  3. BEYOND BUDGETING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edo Cvrkalj

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditional budgeting principles, with strictly defined business goals, have been, since 1998, slowly growing into more sophisticated and organization-adjusted alternative budgeting concepts. One of those alternative concepts is the “Beyond budgeting” model with an implemented performance effects measuring process. In order for the model to be practicable, budget planning and control has to be reoriented to the “bottom up” planning and control approach. In today’s modern business surroundings one has to take both present and future opportunities and threats into consideration, by valorizing them in a budget which would allow a company to realize a whole pallet of advantages over the traditional budgeting principles which are presented later in the article. It is essential to emphasize the importance of successfully implementing the new budgeting principles within an organization. If the implementation has been lacking and done without a higher goal in mind, it is easily possible that the process has been implemented without coordination, planning and control framework within the organization itself. Further in the article we present an overview of managerial techniques and instruments within the “Beyond budgeting” model such as balanced scorecard, rolling forecast, dashboard, KPI and other supporting instruments. Lastly we define seven steps for implementing the “Beyond budgeting” model and offer a comparison of “Beyond budgeting” model against traditional budgeting principles which lists twelve reasons why “Beyond budgeting” is better suited to modern and market-oriented organizations. Each company faces those challenges in their own characteristic way but implementing new dynamic planning models will soon become essential for surviving in the market.

  4. Design and Performance Analysis of a C Band Micro-strip Patch Feed Reflector Antenna and Link Budget Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjida Sharmin Mohona

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the design and performance analysis of a very small size, low-cost, lowprofile, high gain and high directivity C Band Micro strip Patch Feed Reflector Antenna considering the link budget optimization. The proposed antenna system has a gain of -4.45dB, directivity of 7.062dBi, return loss of - 16.817327dB at 5.532 GHz and -15.998dB at 6.532GHz, Voltage Standing Wave Ratio (VSWR of 1.338 at 5.5302GHz and 1.3766 at 6.5309 GHz, at C band it operates in two regions with bandwidth of 184MHz (5.4431 to 5.6275GHz and 422MHz (6.3356 to 6.7576 GHz. The resonant frequencies of the antenna are 5.532GHzand 6.532GHz. The proposed antenna system can be used for C-band like satellite communications transmissions, VSAT, Wi-Fi, weather radar systems, medical applications and other wireless systems. The antenna system is designed and simulated in the CST Microwave Studio. Link budget optimization is performed in order to analyze the critical factors in the transmission chain and to optimize the performance characteristics. The link budget determines what size antenna is to use, power requirements and in general, the overall customer satisfaction.

  5. Improved predictive ability of climate-human-behaviour interactions with modifications to the COMFA outdoor energy budget model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanos, J. K.; Warland, J. S.; Gillespie, T. J.; Kenny, N. A.

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this paper is to implement current and novel research techniques in human energy budget estimations to give more accurate and efficient application of models by a variety of users. Using the COMFA model, the conditioning level of an individual is incorporated into overall energy budget predictions, giving more realistic estimations of the metabolism experienced at various fitness levels. Through the use of VO2 reserve estimates, errors are found when an elite athlete is modelled as an unconditioned or a conditioned individual, giving budgets underpredicted significantly by -173 and -123 W m-2, respectively. Such underprediction can result in critical errors regarding heat stress, particularly in highly motivated individuals; thus this revision is critical for athletic individuals. A further improvement in the COMFA model involves improved adaptation of clothing insulation ( I cl), as well clothing non-uniformity, with changing air temperature ( T a) and metabolic activity ( M act). Equivalent T a values (for I cl estimation) are calculated in order to lower the I cl value with increasing M act at equal T a. Furthermore, threshold T a values are calculated to predict the point at which an individual will change from a uniform I cl to a segmented I cl (full ensemble to shorts and a T-shirt). Lastly, improved relative velocity ( v r) estimates were found with a refined equation accounting for the degree angle of wind to body movement. Differences between the original and improved v r equations increased with higher wind and activity speeds, and as the wind to body angle moved away from 90°. Under moderate microclimate conditions, and wind from behind a person, the convective heat loss and skin temperature estimates were 47 W m-2 and 1.7°C higher when using the improved v r equation. These model revisions improve the applicability and usability of the COMFA energy budget model for subjects performing physical activity in outdoor environments

  6. A Budget Impact Analysis of Newly Available Hepatitis C Therapeutics and the Financial Burden on a State Correctional System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, John T; Rich, Josiah D; Brockmann, Bradley W; Vohr, Fred; Spaulding, Anne; Montague, Brian T

    2015-08-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection continues to disproportionately affect incarcerated populations. New HCV drugs present opportunities and challenges to address HCV in corrections. The goal of this study was to evaluate the impact of the treatment costs for HCV infection in a state correctional population through a budget impact analysis comparing differing treatment strategies. Electronic and paper medical records were reviewed to estimate the prevalence of hepatitis C within the Rhode Island Department of Corrections. Three treatment strategies were evaluated as follows: (1) treating all chronically infected persons, (2) treating only patients with demonstrated fibrosis, and (3) treating only patients with advanced fibrosis. Budget impact was computed as the percentage of pharmacy and overall healthcare expenditures accrued by total drug costs assuming entirely interferon-free therapy. Sensitivity analyses assessed potential variance in costs related to variability in HCV prevalence, genotype, estimated variation in market pricing, length of stay for the sentenced population, and uptake of newly available regimens. Chronic HCV prevalence was estimated at 17% of the total population. Treating all sentenced inmates with at least 6 months remaining of their sentence would cost about $34 million-13 times the pharmacy budget and almost twice the overall healthcare budget. Treating inmates with advanced fibrosis would cost about $15 million. A hypothetical 50% reduction in total drug costs for future therapies could cost $17 million to treat all eligible inmates. With immense costs projected with new treatment, it is unlikely that correctional facilities will have the capacity to treat all those afflicted with HCV. Alternative payment strategies in collaboration with outside programs may be necessary to curb this epidemic. In order to improve care and treatment delivery, drug costs also need to be seriously reevaluated to be more accessible and equitable now that HCV

  7. Research and Development in the Federal Budget, FY 1977.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapley, Willis H.

    Described is the federal government's budgeting process for allocating resources to research and development (R&D). The report includes: an overview of R&D in context of the total budget, a review of R&D budget data, identification of recurring issues and issues concerning the analysis of R&D budgets, an analysis of the FY 1977 budget, and a…

  8. Budget impact analysis of use of aliskiren in hypertension on the Italian Health Care System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orietta Zaniolo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular (CV disease management and prevention has been the leading cost driver in health care expenditures of industrialized Countries for many years, and this trend is not expected to change in the next future. Although drugs used for the treatment of arterial hypertension and heart failure account for three fourths of the total Italian pharmaceutical expenditures in this disease area, population studies indicate that only about half of all hypertensive patients are treated for this condition, and that, among treated individuals, only a minority achieves a satisfactory and stable blood pressure control. A complementary observation is that drug expenditures, as high as they seem to be, actually account for only about a fourth of the total direct cost of CV illness, as they are exceeded by costs of hospitalizations required for the acute management of the clinical events that should be, at least partially, prevented by the same cardiovascular drugs. An often pointed out corollary to these findings is that an increase in the rate of controlled hypertension in the population, although surely linked to a further increase in pharmaceutical expenditures, carries the potential to reduce overall health care costs for the management of CV patients. As far as drug treatment is concerned, there seem to be three applicable strategies capable of increasing blood pressure control rates, i.e. interventions directed toward the increase of the treated population, interventions aimed at improving compliance, and the introduction of innovative drugs to cover unmet needs. Aliskiren is the first agent of the new direct renin inhibitors drug class, and has been recently approved in Italy under strict reimbursement restrictions. In this paper, the Authors present a budget impact analysis in the perspective of the National Health Service, conducted by estimating eligible populations according to reimbursement limitations, calculating differential costs by

  9. Coordinated analysis and quantification of sedimentary fluxes and budgets in cold environments: The SEDIBUD Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beylich, Achim A.; Lamoureux, Scott F.

    2010-05-01

    Amplified climate change and ecological sensitivity of polar and high-altitude cold environments has been highlighted as a key global environmental issue. Projected climate change in cold climate environments is expected to alter melt season duration and intensity, along with the number of extreme rainfall events, total annual precipitation and the balance between snowfall and rainfall. Similarly, changes to the thermal balance are expected to reduce the extent of permafrost and seasonal ground frost and increase active layer depth. These effects will undoubtedly change surface environments in cold environments and alter fluxes of sediments, nutrients and solutes, but the absense of data and coordinated analysis to understand the sensitivity of the surface environment are acute in cold climate environments. The SEDIBUD (Sediment Budgets in Cold Environments) Programme of the International Association of Geomorphologists (I.A.G./A.I.G.) was formed in 2005 to address this key knowledge gap. SEDIBUD has currently about 400 members worldwide and the Steering Committee of this international programme is composed of ten scientists from nine different countries. The central research question of this global group of scientists is to Assess the contemporary sedimentary fluxes in cold climates, with emphasis on both particulate and dissolved components. Research carried out at currently 38 defined SEDIBUD Key Test Sites varies by programme, logistics and available ressources, but typically represent interdisciplinary collaborations of geomorphologists, hydrologists, ecologists, and permafrost scientists and glaciologists with different levels of detail. SEDIBUD key test sites provide data on annual climate conditions, total runoff and particulate and dissolved fluxes as well as information on other relevant surface processes. A number of selected key test sites are providing high-resolution data on climatic conditions, runoff and fluvial fluxes, which in addition to the

  10. Time transfer by laser link: a complete analysis of the uncertainty budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samain, E.; Exertier, P.; Courde, C.; Fridelance, P.; Guillemot, P.; Laas-Bourez, M.; Torre, J.-M.

    2015-04-01

    The Time Transfer by Laser Experiment (T2L2) on the Jason 2 satellite is a mission allowing remote clocks synchronization at the picosecond level. It is based on laser ranging technologies, with a laser station network on the ground and a dedicated instrument on board the satellite. It was launched in June 2008 and has been working continuously since then. T2L2 performances are very promising for time and frequency metrology and also for fundamental physics. The scientific objectives of the whole experiment rely on a rigorous uncertainty budget. This is governed by the characteristics of the space instrument and the laser stations network, the post treatment done on the ground, and also the process used to calibrate the laser stations. The uncertainty budget demonstrates that T2L2 is able to perform common-view time transfers between remote sites with an expanded uncertainty better than 140 ps (coverage factor = 2).

  11. Analysis on Enterprise Plan and Budget%浅析企业计划与预算

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张凯

    2014-01-01

    本文通过对计划与预算定义的描述,分析了两者的异同,澄清了人们对计划的误解和对两者的混淆,强调计划与预算的紧密关系和注意事项,并进一步就预算如何很好地执行计划提出了一些建议。%Through the description of the plan and budget definition, this paper analyzes the similarities and differences, clarifies misunderstandings and confusion for people on plans, and further proposes suggestions for how the budget should well implement the plan.

  12. Analysis of Camp Pendleton California Medical Treatment Facility Budget and Execution Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    Supervisor), Navy Medicine West, BUMED, and literature review of BUMED instructions and manuals . Naval Hospital (NH) Camp Pendleton FY-08 Budget Annual...hospitals during that time, set the conditions for the implementation of a nationally standardized fee schedule, RBRVS ( Bergey , 1991). The initial...service, the higher the worth ( Bergey , 1991). To calculate a simple RVU, an administrator adds physician work (RVUw), practice expense (RVUpe), and

  13. LTE Link Budget Study and Analysis%LTE链路预算研究及分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄芷辛; 冯健; 麦磊鑫

    2013-01-01

    Link budget is fundamental for wireless network planning, significant for the estimation of network coverage capacity as well as network construction cost. In this paper, the method and major parameters affected of LTE link budget are studied, the typical values of key parameters are given, and the impact on link budget and coverage ability under different scenes and duplex mode is analyzed and summarized.%  链路预算是无线网络规划的基础环节,对网络覆盖能力和建设成本的估算具有十分重要的意义。重点对LTE链路预算的方式及主要参数进行研究,给出了关键参数的典型取值,并分析总结不同的场景或双工方式对链路预算及覆盖能力的影响。

  14. Drought as a modifier of interaction between adult beech and spruce - impacts on tree water use, C budgets and biotic interactions above- and belowground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grams, Thorsten

    2017-04-01

    Understanding biotic interactions among tree species with their microbial associates under drought will be crucial for silviculture in meeting ecological challenges of the future. This contribution gives an overview on a project integrating a throughfall-exclusion experiment (TEE) on adult trees with a natural precipitation gradient (PGR) in central European forests. Focus is on drought affecting species interaction above and belowground, including associated ectomycorrhizal (ECM) communities. Study objects are pure and mixed forests dominated by adult European beech and Norway spruce trees (c. 70-years old). At the throughfall-exclusion experiment (TEE), trees are readily accessible via scaffolding and canopy crane (Kranzberg Forest, southern Germany). Effects of experimentally induced, repeated summer drought are assessed with roughly 100 trees assigned to a total of 12 plots (Kranzberg forest ROOF experiment, kroof.wzw.tum.de). The summer drought treatment started in 2014 and was repeated in 2015 and 2106. The focus on species interaction is intensified by a parallel study along a natural precipitation gradient with plot triplets of monocultures and mixed cultures of European beech and Norway spruce at each of the five study sites. Complementary resource use, effects of competitive vs. facilitation and related changes in ECM communities are exemplified for the two tree species of contrasting foliage (i.e. deciduous vs. evergreen) and stomatal sensitivity to drought (i.e. an-isohydric vs. isohydric behavior). At the TEE site, precipitation throughfall was completely excluded from early spring to late fall (i.e. March to November), resulting in pre-dawn leaf water potentials of both beech and spruce as low as -2.5 MPa. Despite significant reductions in growth and rate of photosynthesis by up to 80% under drought, NSC budget of trees was hardly affected. Moreover, phloem functionality, tested as phloem transport velocity through 13C-labeling of recent

  15. TRADITIONAL BUDGETING VERSUS BEYOND BUDGETING: A LITERATURE REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARDOS ILDIKO REKA

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Budgets are an important part of the business environment since 1920 and are considered to be the key drivers and evaluators of managerial performance; and the key elements for planning and control. Budgets are the most powerful tool for management control; they can play an essential role in the organization’s power politics because it can increase the power and authority of top management and limit the autonomy of lower-level managers. Besides its advantages traditional budgeting presents disadvantages also. In recent years criticism towards traditional budgeting has increased. The basis of this criticism is that traditional budgeting is a relic of the past; it prevents reactions to changes in the market, it cannot keep up with the changes and requirements of today’s business world and it isn’t useful for business management. In order to eliminate criticism researchers and practitioners have developed more systematic and alternative concepts of budgeting that suits better for the needs of the modern business environment. Beyond budgeting, better budgeting, rolling forecasts, activity-based budgeting are the main alternatives developed in the last years. From the mentioned alternatives this article examines only beyond budgeting. Our paper discusses how budgeting has evolved into its current state, before examining why this universal technique has come under such heavy criticism of late. The paper is a literature analysis, it contributes to the existing managerial accounting literature and it is structured as follows. In the first part the background and evolution of budgeting is presented, followed by the analysis of related theories in traditional budgeting, emphasizing both the advantages and disadvantages of traditional budgeting. The second part of the paper continues with the discussion about alternative budgeting methods highlighting pros and cons of alternative methods, especially beyond budgeting. In the third part conducted

  16. EXECUTION OF BUDGET INDICATORS IN ROMANIA’S PUBLIC BUDGET; IMPROVEMENT METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IONELA POPA

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In Romania, the aspects concerning the budget process are laid down in Law 500/2002 regarding public finance. According to this law, budget inputs and outputs as well as the specific regulations of a fiscal year are provided and authorized for a budget year by an annual budget law. As to the budgets making up the general consolidated budget, it should be mentioned that only two of them act as laws; they are the law of public budget and the law of public social insurance budget (and implicitly their amending laws. The present paper envisages the analysis of how effective the execution methods of budget indicators is in the public budget which from the perspective of revenues and expenses means the most important component of the general consolidated budget.

  17. Activity budget and social interactions in semi-captive gray woolly monkeys (Lagothrix lagotricha cana) living in an ex situ conservation area in Central Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartagena-Matos, Bárbara; Gasnier, Thierry; Cravo-Mota, Mariana; Martins Bezerra, Bruna

    2017-01-01

    Areas holding primates in semi-captivity conditions represent an excellent opportunity for collecting data on rare, little known, and endangered taxa, contributing with insightful information to help in their conservation. Here, we present information on the activity budget and social interactions of the elusive gray woolly monkeys, Lagothrix lagotricha cana, in an ex situ conservation area in central Amazonia. We studied the behavior of 18 semi-captive individuals through instantaneous scan and focal animal samplings during 4 months in the wet season. The most frequent activity registered was resting (45%). The remaining time was dedicated to foraging (29%), travelling (23%), social interactions (3%), and self-grooming (1%). Resting and travelling time may be correlated to fruit availability in the area through different seasons. Huddling was the most frequent social interaction, being more common from young individuals toward adult females, which may be associated with breastfeeding. Playing was more common among young males. This activity prepares them to defend themselves from possible attacks and allows them to develop their role in the social group, as future adult males. Aggression was most frequent among adults, primarily from males toward females, likely to demonstrate their dominance over females. Social grooming occurred predominantly from mother to offspring. This interaction can reduce the risk of young predation, directly increasing the female reproductive success. Our data not only add to our understanding of the sociality and behaviors of the genus Lagothrix, but may also serve as a tool to identify environments that support an adequate activity budget for these monkeys. Zoo Biol. 36:21-29, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Environmental budget and policy goal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noh, Sang Hwan [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    The assigned budget for environmental sector is quite insufficient to meet enormous environmental demand. Under this circumstance, there is only one way to solve environmental problems efficiently, i.e. to use a given budget efficiently. Therefore, the study on efficient utilization of a given environmental invested finance is needed by customizing a diagnosis of present condition on the operation of environmental budget and environmental investment analysis. In this respect, an entire national budget of 1999 and environmental budget were analyzed in this study. By analyzing economic efficiency of sewage disposal program, integrated septic tank system, VOC regulation, incinerator construction program, food waste disposal program, and recycling program, an efficient budget policy was presented. 19 refs., 18 figs., 169 tabs.

  19. Budget impact analysis of botulinum toxin A therapy for upper limb spasticity in the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abogunrin S

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Seye Abogunrin,1 Linda Hortobagyi,2 Edit Remak,3 Jerome Dinet,4 Sylvie Gabriel,5 Abdel Magid O Bakheit6 1Meta Research, 2Health Economics, Evidera, London, UK; 3Health Economics, Evidera, Budapest, Hungary; 4Health Economics and Outcomes Research (Global, 5Global Market Access and Pricing, Ipsen Pharma, Boulogne-Billancourt, France; 6Neurological Rehabilitation, Moseley Hall Hospital, Birmingham, UK Background: Botulinum toxin A (BoNT-A is an effective treatment for patients with upper limb spasticity (ULS, which is a debilitating feature of upper motor neuron lesions. BoNT-A preparations available in the UK are associated with different costs. Methods: We developed a budget impact model to assess the effect of changing market shares of different BoNT-A formulations – abobotulinumtoxinA, onabotulinumtoxinA, and incobotulinumtoxinA – and best supportive care, from the UK payer perspective, over a 5-year time horizon. Epidemiological and resource use data were derived from published literature and clinical expert opinion. One-way sensitivity analyses were performed to determine parameters most influential on budget impact. Results: Base-case assumptions showed that an increased uptake of abobotulinumtoxinA resulted in a 5-year savings of £6,283,829. Treatment with BoNT-A costs less than best supportive care per patient per year, although treating a patient with onabotulinumtoxinA (£20,861 and incobotulinumtoxinA (£20,717 cost more per patient annually than with abobotulinumtoxinA (£19,800. Sensitivity analyses showed that the most influential parameters on budget were percentage of cerebral palsy and stroke patients developing ULS, and the prevalence of stroke. Conclusion: Study findings suggest that increased use of abobotulinumtoxinA for ULS in the UK could potentially reduce total ULS cost for the health system and society. Keywords: stroke, cerebral palsy, multiple sclerosis, traumatic brain injury 

  20. France, Germany, Greece and the United Kingdom: An Analysis and Comparison of Budget Deficits and Defense Spending

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    different from their budgeted expenditure. Differences in national tax regimes and the treatment of pension contributions can lead to significant...budget deficit and military spending. These findings might be justified by legislative inertia and contractural obligations. Results for a

  1. Water Budget Analysis of Red Soils in Central Jiangxi Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jia-Zhou; HE Yuan-Qiu; CHEN Ming-Liang

    2004-01-01

    The daily soil water budgets in the red soil areas of central Jiangxi Province,southern China,were investigated with a large-scale weighing lysimeter and runoff plots. From 1998 to 2000,peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L.) and rape (Brassica napus L.) were planted in the lysimeter and in 1999,peanuts were planted in the runoff plots. The soil water budget components including rainfall,runoff,percolation and evapotranspiration were measured directly or calculated by Richards' equation and water balance equation. The results showed that most rainfall,including rainstorms,occurred from March to July,and induced the greatest soil water percolation during the year. The evapotranspiration was still large from July to September when rainfall was minimal. Thus,the lack of synchronization in soil water inputs and losses was disadvantageous to crops growing in this region. Among the soil water losses,percolation was the largest,followed by evapotranspiration,and then soil runoff. Runoff was very small on farmland with crops. It was significantly different from the uncultivated uplands where large-scale runoff was usually reported. The soil water storage fluctuated sinusoidally,with a large amplitude in the rainy season and a small amplitude in the dry season.

  2. Large-scale dynamical influence of a gravity wave generated over the Antarctic Peninsula – regional modelling and budget analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOEL Arnault

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The case study of a mountain wave triggered by the Antarctic Peninsula on 6 October 2005, which has already been documented in the literature, is chosen here to quantify the associated gravity wave forcing on the large-scale flow, with a budget analysis of the horizontal wind components and horizontal kinetic energy. In particular, a numerical simulation using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model is compared to a control simulation with flat orography to separate the contribution of the mountain wave from that of other synoptic processes of non-orographic origin. The so-called differential budgets of horizontal wind components and horizontal kinetic energy (after subtracting the results from the simulation without orography are then averaged horizontally and vertically in the inner domain of the simulation to quantify the mountain wave dynamical influence at this scale. This allows for a quantitative analysis of the simulated mountain wave's dynamical influence, including the orographically induced pressure drag, the counterbalancing wave-induced vertical transport of momentum from the flow aloft, the momentum and energy exchanges with the outer flow at the lateral and upper boundaries, the effect of turbulent mixing, the dynamics associated with geostrophic re-adjustment of the inner flow, the deceleration of the inner flow, the secondary generation of an inertia–gravity wave and the so-called baroclinic conversion of energy between potential energy and kinetic energy.

  3. Cost-effectiveness analysis and efficient use of the pharmaceutical budget: the key role of clinical pharmacologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edlin, Richard; Round, Jeff; Hulme, Claire; McCabe, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide information about cost-effectiveness analysis and the roles of clinical pharmacologists generally in providing efficient health care. The paper highlights the potential consequences of ‘off-label prescribing’ and ‘indication creep’ behaviour given slower growth (or potential cuts) in the NHS budget. This paper highlights the key roles of clinical pharmacologists in delivering an efficient health care system when resources are allocated using cost-effectiveness analyses. It describes what cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) is and how incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) are used to identify efficient options. After outlining the theoretical framework within which using CEA can promote the efficient allocation of the health care budget, it considers the place of disinvestment within achieving efficient resource allocation. Clinical pharmacologists are argued to be critical to providing improved population health under CEA-based resource allocation processes because of their roles in implementation and disinvestment. Given that the challenges facing the United Kingdom National Health Service (NHS) are likely to increase, this paper sets out the stark choices facing clinical pharmacologists. PMID:20716234

  4. AbobotulinumtoxinA in the management of cervical dystonia in the United Kingdom: a budget impact analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abogunrin S

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Seye Abogunrin,1 Sarah Brand,2 Kamal Desai,3 Jerome Dinet,4 Sylvie Gabriel,5 Timothy Harrower61Meta Research, Evidera, London, UK; 2Health Economics, Evidera, Bethesda, MD, USA; 3Health Economics, Evidera, London, UK; 4Health Economics and Outcomes Research (Global, 5Global Market Access and Pricing, Ipsen Pharma, Boulogne-Billancourt, France; 6Royal Devon and Exeter NHS Foundation Trust, Exeter, UKBackground: Cervical dystonia (CD can be effectively managed by a combination of botulinum neurotoxin A (BoNT-A and conventional therapy (skeletal muscle relaxants and rehabilitative therapy, but the costs of different interventions in the UK vary.Methods: A budget impact model was developed from the UK payer perspective with a 5-year time horizon to evaluate the effects of changing market shares of abobotulinumtoxinA, nabotulinumtoxinA, and incobotulinumtoxinA, and best supportive care from the UK payer perspective. Epidemiological and resource use data were retrieved from the published literature and clinical expert opinion. Deterministic sensitivity analyses were performed to determine the parameters most influential on the budgetary findings under base case assumptions.Results: Under base case assumptions, an increased uptake of abobotulinumtoxinA showed an accumulated savings of £2,250,992 by year 5. Treatment per patient per year with onabotulinumtoxinA and incobotulinumtoxinA costs more when compared to treatment with abobotulinumtoxinA. One-way sensitivity analyses showed that the prevalence of CD, dose per injection of each of the BoNT-As, and time to reinjection of incobotulinumtoxinA and abobotulinumtoxinA influenced the base case findings most.Conclusion: There is potential for cost savings associated with the greater use of abobotulinumtoxinA rather than other BoNT-A treatments, permitting more patients to benefit more from effective BoNT-A treatment with a fixed budget. Keywords: cervical dystonia, torticollis, botulinum toxin A, budget

  5. European Union Budget Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Citi, Manuele

    2015-01-01

    The marginal involvement of the European Union (EU) in redistributive policies and its limited fiscal resources have led to a notable lack of attention by EU scholars towards the EU budget and its dynamics. Yet the nature of the budgetary data and their high usability for statistical analysis make...

  6. [Analysis of individual spending on smoking based on the Brazilian Family Budget Survey, 2002-2003].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeff, Locimara Ramos; Mengue, Sotero Serrate

    2010-12-01

    In order to discuss new parameters for assessing personal spending on smoking in Brazil, this study aimed to describe the population's socio-demographic characteristics and the proportions of spending on smoking. The sample included individuals that spend money on smoking, according to the Brazilian Family Budget Survey for 2002-2003, conducted by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics. In the lowest income bracket, the proportion of spending on smoking for expenses greater than the median varied negatively by as much as 10% as compared to the proportion of spending on smoking for income greater than the median. For intermediate income brackets, the two proportions were similar, and in the higher income brackets there was a reversal, with a positive difference of up to 15%. The percentage of spending on smoking doubled for all the groups with low schooling. As income and schooling increased, there was a proportional reduction in spending on smoking.

  7. Rationale, design, and analysis of combined Brazilian household budget survey and food intake individual data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasconcellos ABPA

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Data on food intake at the individual level and its statistical distribution in population groups defined by age, gender, or geographic areas are important in planning public health and nutrition programs. However, individual-based surveys in representative population samples are expensive to perform. Methods/Design In Brazil, an individual based survey is under consideration to be conducted alongside the household budget survey (HBS, which will be carried out in 2008–2009. This paper presents the methodological framework of dietary data collection and indicates the directions to combining both sources of data. The 2008–2009 Brazilian HBS sample will include 60,000 households. Of the selected HBS households, 30% will be randomly sampled to gather data on individual food intake. Therefore, individual dietary intake data is expected to be gathered for 70,000 individuals. Data collection procedures will comprise: completion of a diary with information regarding food purchases during a seven-day period; registration of all items consumed during two non-consecutive days for all 10 year-old or older members of the household. The sample will be large enough to capture the variation between individuals, and the two records will assure the estimation of the variation within individuals for food groups, energy and nutrients. Data on individual dietary intake and food family budget will be stratified by the five regions of the country and by rural or urban. A pilot study has been conducted in two states, and it indicated that combining individual and budgetary data in a survey is feasible. Discussion This kind of study will allow us to estimate correlations between individual intake and household purchases, overcoming the limitations of individual dietary surveys, and enhancing the HBS with information on eating out and intra-familiar distribution of food.

  8. Budget Impact Analysis of Peritoneal Dialysis versus Conventional In-Center Hemodialysis in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavanandan, Sunita; Ahmad, Ghazali; Teo, Ai-Hong; Chen, Lilian; Liu, Frank Xiaoqing

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the 5-year health care budget impact of variable distribution of adult patients treated with peritoneal dialysis (PD) and in-center hemodialysis (ICHD) on government funding in Malaysia. An Excel-based budget impact model was constructed to assess dialysis-associated costs when changing dialysis modalities between PD and ICHD. The model incorporates the current modality distribution and accounts for Malaysian government dialysis payments and erythropoiesis-stimulating agent costs. Epidemiological data including dialysis prevalence, incidence, mortality, and transplant rates from the Malaysian renal registry reports were used to estimate the dialysis patient population for the next 5 years. The baseline scenario assumed a stable distribution of PD (8%) and ICHD (92%) over 5 years. Alternative scenarios included the prevalence of PD increasing by 2.5%, 5.0%, and 7.5% or decreasing 1% yearly over 5 years. All four scenarios were accompanied with commensurate changes in ICHD. Under the current best available cost information, an increase in the prevalent PD population from 8% in 2014 to 18%, 28%, or 38% in 2018 is predicted to result in 5-year cumulative savings of Ringgit Malaysia (RM) 7.98 million, RM15.96 million, and RM23.93 million, respectively, for the Malaysian government. If the prevalent PD population were to decrease from 8% in 2014 to 4.0% by 2018, the total expenditure for dialysis treatments would increase by RM3.19 million over the next 5 years. Under the current cost information associated with PD and HD paid by the Malaysian government, increasing the proportion of patients on PD could potentially reduce dialysis-associated costs in Malaysia. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. An observational heat budget analysis of a coral reef, Heron Reef, Great Barrier Reef, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKellar, Mellissa C.; McGowan, Hamish A.; Phinn, Stuart R.

    2013-03-01

    Measurements of the surface energy balance, the structure and evolution of the convective atmospheric reef layer (CARL), and local meteorology and hydrodynamics were made during June 2009 and February 2010 at Heron Reef, Australia, to establish the relative partitioning of heating within the water and atmosphere. Horizontal advection was shown to moderate temperature in the CARL and the water, having a cooling influence on the atmosphere, and providing an additional source or sink of energy to the water overlying the reef, depending on tide. The key driver of atmospheric heating was surface sensible heat flux, while heating of the reef water was primarily due to solar radiation, and thermal conduction and convection from the reef substrate. Heating and cooling processes were more defined during winter due to higher sensible and latent heat fluxes and strong diurnal evolution of the CARL. Sudden increases in water temperature were associated with inundation of warmer oceanic water during the flood tide, particularly in winter due to enhanced nocturnal cooling of water overlying the reef. Similarly, cooling of the water over the reef occurred during the ebb tide as heat was transported off the reef to the surrounding ocean. While these results are the first to shed light on the heat budget of a coral reef and overlying CARL, longer-term, systematic measurements of reef thermal budgets are needed under a range of meteorological and hydrodynamic conditions, and across various reef types to elucidate the influence on larger-scale oceanic and atmospheric processes. This is essential for understanding the role of coral reefs in tropical and sub-tropical meteorology; the physical processes that take place during coral bleaching events, and coral and algal community dynamics on coral reefs.

  10. Influence of low and decreasing food levels on Daphnia -algal interactions: Numerical experiments with a new dynamic energy budget model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, F.; Li, J.; Straile, D.; Rothhaupt, K.-O.; Vijverberg, J.

    2010-01-01

    Based on numerical experiments with a new physiologically structured population model we demonstrate that predator physiology under low food and under starving conditions can have substantial implications for population dynamics in predator–prey interactions. We focused on Daphnia-algae interactions

  11. The effect of motivation profile and participative budgeting on budget goal commitment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandalgaard, Niels; Bukh, Per Nikolaj; Poulsen, Carsten Stig

    2009-01-01

    The effect of participative budgeting on motivation is often considered in management accounting research. In this study we focus on dispositional factors of motivation rooted in personality that affect budgeting. Especially we focus on the effect of personality traits in the form of achievement......, power and affiliation motives on budget goal commitment in interaction with participative budgeting. The study is based on a survey among bank managers at different organizational levels of a Scandinavian regional bank and the results indicate that the effect of participative budgeting on budget goal...

  12. Hamiltonian analysis of interacting fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, Rabin; Mitra, Arpan Krishna [S. N. Bose National Centre for Basic Sciences, Kolkata (India); Ghosh, Subir [Indian Statistical Institute, Kolkata (India)

    2015-05-15

    Ideal fluid dynamics is studied as a relativistic field theory with particular stress on its hamiltonian structure. The Schwinger condition, whose integrated version yields the stress tensor conservation, is explicitly verified both in equal-time and light-cone coordinate systems. We also consider the hamiltonian formulation of fluids interacting with an external gauge field. The complementary roles of the canonical (Noether) stress tensor and the symmetric one obtained by metric variation are discussed. (orig.)

  13. Analysis of Cell Planning and Link Budgeting in WiMAX Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Masud Hasan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This thesis is related with the WiMAX (Worldwide Interoperatibility for Microwave Access technology. Today, different types of cellular networks are actively working on the radio links. For instance, the Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM is being used in nearly all of the countries of the world and currently it has around three billion users all over the world. Universal Mobile Telecommunication System (UMTS is currently deployed in many countries and it is providing increased data rates, coverage and mobility as compared to GSM. Wireless Local Area Networks (WLAN are very famous when we have a small area and none real time services. Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMAX is a new technology and it is in deployment phase. In all these cellular technologies, we have very limited resources and we have to make best use of them by proper management. Radio Resource Management (RRM is a control mechanism for the overall system which is being used to manage radio resources in the air interface inside a cellular network. The main objective is to utilize the available spectral resources as efficiently as possible. Our aim is to use them in the best possible way to maximize the performance and spectral efficiency in such a way that we have maximum number of users in our network and Quality of Service (QoS is up to the mark. In a cellular communication system, a service area or a geographical region is divided into a number of cells and each cell is served by an infrastructure element called the base station which works through a radio interface. The frequency license fees, real estate, distribution network and maintenance are the issues which dominates the cost for deploying a cellular network. In RRM, we control parameters like Radio Frequency (RF planning, link budgeting, modulation schemes, channel access schemes etc. RF planning includes cell planning, coverage of the network and capacity of the network. Our main focus in

  14. Economic evaluation and budget impact analysis of the surveillance program for hepatocellular carcinoma in Thai chronic hepatitis B patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangmala, Pannapa; Chaikledkaew, Usa; Tanwandee, Tawesak; Pongchareonsuk, Petcharat

    2014-01-01

    The incidence rate and the treatment costs of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are high, especially in Thailand. Previous studies indicated that early detection by a surveillance program could help by down-staging. This study aimed to compare the costs and health outcomes associated with the introduction of a HCC surveillance program with no program and to estimate the budget impact if the HCC surveillance program were implemented. A cost utility analysis using a decision tree and Markov models was used to compare costs and outcomes during the lifetime period based on a societal perspective between alternative HCC surveillance strategies with no program. Costs included direct medical, direct non-medical, and indirect costs. Health outcomes were measured as life years (LYs), and quality adjusted life years (QALYs). The results were presented in terms of the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) in Thai THB per QALY gained. One- way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were applied to investigate parameter uncertainties. Budget impact analysis (BIA) was performed based on the governmental perspective. Semi-annual ultrasonography (US) and semi-annual ultrasonography plus alpha-fetoprotein (US plus AFP) as the first screening for HCC surveillance would be cost-effective options at the willingness to pay (WTP) threshold of 160,000 THB per QALY gained compared with no surveillance program (ICER=118,796 and ICER=123,451 THB/QALY), respectively. The semi-annual US plus AFP yielded more net monetary benefit, but caused a substantially higher budget (237 to 502 million THB) than semi-annual US (81 to 201 million THB) during the next ten fiscal years. Our results suggested that a semi-annual US program should be used as the first screening for HCC surveillance and included in the benefit package of Thai health insurance schemes for both chronic hepatitis B males and females aged between 40-50 years. In addition, policy makers considered the program could be feasible

  15. Current and Future Carbon Budgets of Tropical Rain Forest: A Cross Scale Analysis. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oberbauer, S. F.

    2004-01-16

    The goal of this project was to make a first assessment of the major carbon stocks and fluxes and their climatic determinants in a lowland neotropical rain forest, the La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica. Our research design was based on the concurrent use of several of the best available approaches, so that data could be cross-validated. A major focus of our effort was to combine meteorological studies of whole-forest carbon exchange (eddy flux), with parallel independent measurements of key components of the forest carbon budget. The eddy flux system operated from February 1998 to February 2001. To obtain field data that could be scaled up to the landscape level, we monitored carbon stocks, net primary productivity components including tree growth and mortality, litterfall, woody debris production, root biomass, and soil respiration in a series of replicated plots stratified across the major environmental gradients of the forest. A second major focus of this project was on the stocks and changes of carbon in the soil. We used isotope studies and intensive monitoring to investigate soil organic stocks and the climate-driven variation of soil respiration down the soil profile, in a set of six 4m deep soil shafts stratified across the landscape. We measured short term tree growth, climate responses of sap flow, and phenology in a suite of ten canopy trees to develop individual models of tree growth to daytime weather variables.

  16. Accelerator physics analysis with interactive tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holt, J.A.; Michelotti, L.

    1993-05-01

    Work is in progress on interactive tools for linear and nonlinear accelerator design, analysis, and simulation using X-based graphics. The BEAMLINE and MXYZPTLK class libraries, were used with an X Windows graphics library to build a program for interactively editing lattices and studying their properties.

  17. Scientific and theoretical principles of personnel costs’ budgeting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.P. Gutsal

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The object of this article is to determine the main purpose of company’s budgeting, to study its functions in terms of personnel management, to identify the main advantages and disadvantages of budgeting and to determine the stages of realization budgeting in the company. There have been considered the purpose and aim of budgeting. The main functions of budgeting, which include such ones as: planning, forecasting, information and analysis function, motivational, coordinative, control and involvement function have been identified (determined. In terms of defined functions of budgeting their essence in budgeting personnel costs has been outlined. The main advantages and disadvantages of budgeting have been found. There has been determined the implementing and realization company’s budgeting. The process of budgeting is realized according to the following consecutive stages: preparatory and analytical stage; definition of budget constraints; drafting up the budget; discussion and adjustment of budget indicators; adoption of budget; analysis and control of the budget. There also has been considered budget organization structure which includes budget committee, budget planning and analysis department, financial responsibility center.

  18. Analysis of the climate variability on Lake Nasser evaporation based on the Bowen ratio energy budget method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsawwaf, Mohamed; Willems, Patrick

    2012-04-01

    Variations in lake evaporation have a significant impact on the energy and water budgets of lakes. Understanding these variations and the role of climate is important for water resources management as well as predicting future changes in lake hydrology as a result of climate change. This study presents a comprehensive, 10-year analysis of seasonal, intraseasonal, and interannual variations in lake evaporation for Lake Nasser in South Egypt. Meteorological and lake temperature measurements were collected from an instrumented platform (Raft floating weather station) at 2 km upstream ofthe Aswan High Dam. In addition to that, radiation measurements at three locations on the lake: Allaqi, Abusembel and Arqeen (respectively at 75, 280 and 350 km upstream of the Aswan High Dam) are used. The data were analyzed over 14-day periods from 1995 to 2004 to provide bi-weekly energy budget estimates of evaporation rate. The mean evaporation rate for lake Nasser over the study period was 5.88 mm day(-1), with a coefficient of variation of 63%. Considerable variability in evaporation rates was found on a wide range of timescales, with seasonal changes having the highest coefficient of variation (32%), followed by the intraseasonal (28%) and interannual timescales (11.6%; for summer means). Intraseasonal changes in evaporation were primarily associated with synoptic weather variations, with high evaporation events tending to occur during incursions of cold, dry air (due, in part, to the thermal lag between air and lake temperatures). Seasonal variations in evaporation were largely driven by temperature and net energy advection, but are out-of-phase with changes in wind speed. On interannual timescales, changes in summer evaporation rates were strongly associated with changes in net energy advection and showed only moderate connections to variations in temperature or humidity.

  19. [Contribution of economic evaluation and budget impact analysis to public decision in health: the example of breast cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrier, L; Philip, T

    2010-03-01

    The aim of this paper is to draw the reader's attention to the problem of dissemination of costly innovations, particularly in the field of oncology, in a context of scarce resources.Comparison of five economic aggregates related to health and the gross domestic product captures the weight of this sector in the national economy but also its cost to the community. A focus on oncology shows that during the year 2004, the cost of cancer in France, all sites being taken into account, amounted to 10.9 billion euros and the societal cost to 32 billion euros (2% of gross domestic product). The cost of breast cancer (36% of all female cancers) reached 1.5 billion euros for treatment and 3.5 billion euros for societal expenses (0.2% of gross domestic product). Due to the significant, rapid expansion of these costs (+19.2% in 2006 and 18.5% in 2007 for diagnosis-related group outliers) but also to the scarcity of resources, the development of costly innovations remains problematic. This article, based on concrete examples of breast cancer treatment, provides information on the contribution of health technology assessment (particularly cost-utility and budget impact analyses) to public decision. Economic evaluation, in particular, cost-utility assessment, allows comparison of costs and consequences (generic result usually expressed in quality-adjusted life years) in order to prioritize diagnostic and/or therapeutic strategies and to make choices based on social acceptability. Budget impact analysis, without consideration of efficacy, makes it possible to balance the financing needs arising from the adoption of a costly innovation with the paying capabilities of a given institution.

  20. An Evaluation of Satellite-Based and Re-Analysis Radiation Budget Datasets Using CERES EBAF Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Shashi; Stackhouse, Paul; Wong, Takmeng; Mikovitz, Colleen; Cox, Stephen; Zhang, Taiping

    2016-04-01

    Top-of-atmosphere (TOA) and surface radiative fluxes from CERES Energy Balanced and Filled (EBAF; Loeb et al., 2009; Kato et al. 2013) products are used to evaluate the performance of several widely used long-term radiation budget datasets. Two of those are derived from satellite observations and five more are from re-analysis products. Satellite-derived datasets are the NASA/GEWEX Surface and TOA Radiation Budget Dataset Release-3 and the ISCCP-FD Dataset. The re-analysis datasets are taken from NCEP-CFSR, ERA-Interim, Japanese Re-Analysis (JRA-55), MERRA and the newly released MERRA2 products. Close examination is made of the differences between MERRA and MERRA2 products for the purpose of identifying improvements achieved for MERRA2. Many of these datasets have undergone quality assessment under the GEWEX Radiative Flux Assessment (RFA) project. For the purposes of the present study, EBAF datasets are treated as reference and other datasets are compared with it. All-sky and clear-sky, SW and LW, TOA and surface fluxes are included in this study. A 7-year period (2001-2007) common to all datasets is chosen for comparisons of global and zonal averages, monthly and annual average timeseries, and their anomalies. These comparisons show significant differences between EBAF and the other datasets. Certain anomalies and trends observed in the satellite-derived datasets are attributable to corresponding features in satellite datasets used as input, especially ISCCP cloud properties. Comparisons of zonal averages showed significant differences especially over higher latitudes even when those differences are not obvious in the global averages. Special emphasis is placed on the analysis of the correspondence between spatial patterns of geographical distribution of the above fluxes on a 7-year average as well as on a month-by-month basis using the Taylor (2001) methodology. Results showed that for 7-year average fields correlation coefficients between spatial patterns

  1. Wavelet Analysis of the Conditional Vorticity Budget in Fully Developed Homogeneous Isotropic Turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilczek, M; Friedrich, R [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Muenster, Wilhelm-Klemm-Str. 9, 48149 Muenster (Germany); Kadoch, B [Aix-Marseille Universite and M2P2-CNRS Ecole Centrale de Marseille, 38 Rue Joliot-Curie, 13451 Marseille Cedex 20 (France); Schneider, K [M2P2-CNRS and CMI, Universite de Provence, 39 Rue Joliot-Curie, 13453 Marseille Cedex 13 (France); Farge, M, E-mail: mwilczek@uni-muenster.de [LMD-CNRS, Ecole Normale Superieure, 24 Rue Lhomond, 75231 Paris Cedex 5 (France)

    2011-12-22

    We study the conditional balance of vortex stretching and vorticity diffusion of fully developed three-dimensional homogeneous isotropic turbulence with respect to coherent and incoherent flow contributions. This decomposition is achieved by the Coherent Vorticity Extraction based on orthogonal wavelets applied to DNS data, which yields insights into the influence of the different contributions as well as their interaction.

  2. Automated Budget System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Automated Budget System (ABS) automates management and planning of the Mike Monroney Aeronautical Center (MMAC) budget by providing enhanced capability to plan,...

  3. Budget impact analysis of apixaban versus other NOACs for the prevention of stroke in Italian atrial fibrillation patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Pradelli

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study aims to perform a budget impact analysis of the use of three available novel oral anticoagulant agents (NOACs for preventing thromboembolic events in Italian patients with non‑valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF.METHODS: Estimated Italian population of patients was run through a previously published lifetime decision tree/Markov model simulating their treatment with the available therapeutic options: dabigatran at two dose levels (110 mg/bid for the over 80 years old, 150 mg/bid for younger NVAF patients, rivaroxaban (20 mg/uid, and apixaban (5 mg/bid. Effectiveness and safety estimates derive from an adjusted indirect treatment comparison using warfarin as link. The main clinical events considered in the model are ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke, systemic thromboembolism, bleeds (both major and clinically relevant minor and cardiovascular hospitalizations, besides treatment discontinuations. Epidemiological data and unit costs, actualized to 2013, are collected from Italian published sources. The budget impact analysis evaluates the financial impact of apixaban introduction by comparing expected 1,2, and 3 years costs in hypothetical scenarios: with and without apixaban. Italian NVAF patient population estimation is based on official apixaban reimbursement criteria, applying the characteristics of the trial population to national epidemiologic data. Numbers of patients for each regimen are estimated by projecting share evolution. Sensitivity analysis is performed on an alternative non‑experimental population of NVAF patients.RESULTS: Among available NOACs, apixaban was expected to be the least expensive in an estimated patient population of 364,000 Italian patients, allowing for savings of € 1,180,549, € 3,841,429 and € 5,368,918 at 1,2, and 3 years, respectively. Results of the simulation run on an alternative non‑experimental population of NVAF patients yields comparable estimates.CONCLUSIONS: The different

  4. Acamprosate in the treatment of alcoholism: a budget impact analysis for the National Health Service in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colombo GL

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Giorgio L Colombo,1,2 Sergio Di Matteo,2 Giacomo Bruno21Department of Drug Sciences, School of Pharmacy, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy; 2S.A.V.E. – Studi Analisi Valutazioni Economiche, Milan, ItalyObjective: Alcohol dependence is a common condition associated with high direct and indirect health care costs. The purpose of this analysis was to estimate the economic consequences of acamprosate used as adjuvant therapy in the treatment of alcoholism, defining a budget impact analysis (BIA from the point of view of the Italian National Health Service (NHS.Methods: We developed a model of disease evolution related to alcoholism using data from the PRAMA study. The hypothetical population included in the decision model was obtained from data from the Ministry of Health. We compared the following treatment strategies: no treatment, standard care (psychotherapy, sodium oxybate (sodium salt-4-hydroxybutyric acid, and acamprosate. The time horizon of the model was 10 years. The costs were evaluated from the NHS perspective.Results: We simulated the path for 69,348 patients treated at the outpatient clinics of the Addiction Services (SerT, and 38,911 patients discharged from hospital. Patients in the acamprosate group had lower alcohol-related events, with a reduction of the total cost. The BIA shows that the increase in the use of acamprosate was associated with a progressive decrease of total costs, calculated as the sum of the diagnosis-related groups (DRG, rehabilitation, and drug costs. The increasing use of acamprosate instead of standard care and sodium oxybate would generate cost savings up to over €6 million over 10 years of simulation.Conclusion: The estimates in the model are based on hypothetical situations; the assumptions of the model as well as their specific impact on treatment effect estimations and clinical implications should be validated in real life. Public health care authorities would benefit from mathematical models

  5. Mass spectrometric analysis of protein interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borch, Jonas; Jørgensen, Thomas J. D.; Roepstorff, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Mass spectrometry is a powerful tool for identification of interaction partners and structural characterization of protein interactions because of its high sensitivity, mass accuracy and tolerance towards sample heterogeneity. Several tools that allow studies of protein interaction are now...... available and recent developments that increase the confidence of studies of protein interaction by mass spectrometry include quantification of affinity-purified proteins by stable isotope labeling and reagents for surface topology studies that can be identified by mass-contributing reporters (e.g. isotope...... labels, cleavable cross-linkers or fragment ions. The use of mass spectrometers to study protein interactions using deuterium exchange and for analysis of intact protein complexes recently has progressed considerably....

  6. Understanding Budget Reality in The Perspective of Symbolic Interactionism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilis Ardini

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to interpret the meaning of budget on one of the StateOwned Enterprises (SOEs to minimize conflict between principal and agent. Analysis is done using symbolic interactionism method in interpretive paradigm. Data collection is conducted using in-depth interviews with informants who are very familiar with budgeting in PT Perkebunan Nusantara (PTPN. The results of this study reveal that budgeting process involves the interaction and action between the principal and the agent based on their own experiences in preparing the budget. Decision making is sorely needed, especially in a condition where an individual is able to free himself from the crisis called epiphany. Epiphany is a moment of experience that makes an impression on one’s life so as to form a character is called epiphany. It could be said that epiphany is the most critical moment ever experienced by someone that cannot be forgotten(Denzim, 1989Social fact describes that a capitalistic company ownership thinks of itself with the purpose of fulfilling personal desires and prosperity, so in implementing budget preparation consisting of the symbol of numbers, it is always covered by passion of greed. Conflict of interest is very noticeable when the preparation and adoption of the budget is filled with a variety of interests. Regulatory system is becoming part of legitimate stage of budgeting that has become the elements of capitalist company ownership that eventually reap capitalist values in the accounting information, in which the decisions and the economic actions are also based on the capitalist values. The implication of this research is expected to provide practical recommendations to the good cooperation between the agent and principal in preparing the budget.

  7. Use of programme budgeting and marginal analysis as a framework for resource reallocation in respiratory care in North Wales, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, J.M.; Brown, G.; Thomas, K.; Johnstone, F.; Vandenblink, V.; Pethers, B.; Jones, A.; Edwards, R.T.

    2016-01-01

    Background Since the global financial crisis, UK NHS spending has reduced considerably. Respiratory care is a large cost driver for Betsi Cadwaladr University Health Board, the largest health board in Wales. Under the remit of ‘prudent healthcare’ championed by the Welsh Health Minister, a Programme Budgeting Marginal Analysis (PBMA) of the North Wales respiratory care pathway was conducted. Methods A PBMA panel of directors of medicines management, therapies finance, planning, public health and healthcare professionals used electronic voting to establish criteria for decision-making and vote on candidate interventions in which to disinvest and invest. Results A sum of £86.9 million was spent on respiratory care in 2012–13. Following extensive discussion of 13 proposed candidate interventions facilitated by a chairperson, 4 candidates received recommendations to disinvest, 7 to invest and 2 to maintain current activity. Marginal analysis prioritized mucolytics and high antibiotic prescribing as areas for disinvestment, and medicines waste management and pulmonary rehabilitation for investment. Conclusions This exercise demonstrates the potential for health boards to use evidence-based approaches to reach potentially controversial disinvestment and investment decisions. Initial progress has begun with communication from the Medical Director in relation to the disinvestment in mucolytics prescribing and possible redirection of funding options being explored. PMID:26377991

  8. Interactive Data Analysis. Development of an Interactive Data Manipulation System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-06-01

    8217 .°- .. .’". .. ....... ... . ., . . .’.’_. _ .. _. Aplication L a -iza e S iulIa tinet. 1st programs Ianalys’.s.. steo 2nd Results on r RqAWr step disK storage DAAfor data K...1 and 21; (b) the IDA from SPSS (Interactive Data Analysis from the Software Package for Social Sciences); and (c) the presented system, IDAMAN. 14...are the Bio- MeDical Package (BMDP, 1981), and the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences ( SPSS , 1983). 16 BMDP and SPSS are comnlete statistical

  9. Combining the benefits of decision science and financial analysis in public health management: a county-specific budgeting and planning model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fos, Peter J; Miller, Danny L; Amy, Brian W; Zuniga, Miguel A

    2004-01-01

    State public health agencies are charged with providing and overseeing the management of basic public health services on a population-wide basis. These activities have a re-emphasized focus as a result of the events of September 11, 2001, the subsequent anthrax events, and the continuing importance placed on bioterrorism preparedness, West Nile virus, and emerging infectious diseases (eg, monkeypox, SARS). This has added to the tension that exists in budgeting and planning, given the diverse constituencies that are served in each state. State health agencies must be prepared to allocate finite resources in a more formal manner to be able to provide basic public health services on a routine basis, as well as during outbreaks. This article describes the use of an analytical approach to assist financial analysis that is used for budgeting and planning in a state health agency. The combined benefits of decision science and financial analysis are needed to adequately and appropriately plan and budget to meet the diverse needs of the populations within a state. Health and financial indicators are incorporated into a decision model, based on multicriteria decision theory, that has been employed to acquire information about counties and public health programs areas within a county, that reflect the impact of planning and budgeting efforts. This information can be used to allocate resources, to distribute funds for health care services, and to guide public health finance policy formulation and implementation.

  10. Expert system interaction with existing analysis codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ransom, V.H.; Fink, R.K.; Bertch, W.J.; Callow, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    Coupling expert systems with existing engineering analysis codes is a promising area in the field of artificial intelligence. The added intelligence can provide for easier and less costly use of the code and also reduce the potential for code misuse. This paper will discuss the methods available to allow interaction between an expert system and a large analysis code running on a mainframe. Concluding remarks will identify potential areas of expert system application with specific areas that are being considered in a current research program. The difficulty of interaction between an analysis code and an expert system is due to the incompatibility between the FORTRAN environment used for the analysis code and the AI environment used for the expert system. Three methods, excluding file transfer techniques, are discussed to help overcome this incompatibility. The first method is linking the FORTRAN routines to the LISP environment on the same computer. Various LISP dialects available on mainframes and their interlanguage communication capabilities are discussed. The second method involves network interaction between a LISP machine and a mainframe computer. Comparisons between the linking method and networking are noted. The third method involves the use of an expert system tool that is campatible with a FORTRAN environment. Several available tools are discussed. With the interaction methods identified, several potential application areas are considered. Selection of the specific areas that will be developed for the pilot project and applied to a thermal-hydraulic energy analysis code are noted.

  11. Groundwater dynamics and water budget analysis at a wetland-dominated forested floodplain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, S.; Callahan, T. J.; Senn, L.; Shelley, D.

    2013-12-01

    This study investigated the preliminary relationships between groundwater behavior, vegetation communities, and soil characteristics in a mature, protected forested floodplain at Congaree National Park, South Carolina. Time series analysis of groundwater level data were collected hourly at ten different piezometers from 2009 to 2013. Piezometers were screened 4-7 m deep in the surficial aquifer and arrayed from the floodplain bluff along a 3-km, valley-perpendicular transect to Cedar Creek, a local tributary of the Congaree River. Eight of the ten sites were in an unconfined portion of the floodplain aquifer, and the other two sites closer to Cedar Creek were locally confined due to a 1.5 - 3-m thick clay layer above the piezometer screen. Time series analysis, including depth below ground surface, response to storm events, and diurnal evapotranspiration (ET) signals was used to functionally group piezometer sites with similar characteristics. Lithologic logs collected during piezometer installation and forest community structure at each site were inspected to look for relationships to explain groundwater behavior. A separate analysis of ET signals helped assess potential feedbacks between vegetation and groundwater in this wetland-dominated setting. This project stemmed from hydrology class trips to Congaree National Park sponsored by the park's education and outreach program. Students learned field methods and data collection, management, and analysis techniques to reinforce hydrology concepts and principles.

  12. Increase voted to NSF Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    The Subcommittee on Science, Research, and Technology of the House Committee on Science and Technology voted by a narrow margin on March 10 to increase the National Science Foundation (NSF) budget authorization by $30 million, pushing the total budget to $1099.5 million. The increase is targeted solely for science and engineering education (see table). Although the total for research and related activities in NSF remained the same as in President Reagan's budget request, the subcommittee shifted funds among directorates, including an $8.9 million decrease from the budget of the Directorate for Astronomical, Atmospheric, Earth, and Ocean Sciences (AAEO). The subcommittee action also calls for $1.6 million to be allocated to United States participation in the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (NASA).

  13. DOE FY 2010 Budget Request and Recovery Act Funding for Energy Research, Development, Demonstration, and Deployment: Analysis and Recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anadon, Laura Diaz; Gallagher, Kelly Sims; Bunn, Matthew

    2009-06-01

    The combination of the FY 2010 budget request for the Department of Energy (DOE) and the portion of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) funds likely to be available in 2010 would (assuming that they would be split evenly between FY 2010 and FY 2011) result in a doubling in funding available for energy research, development, and deployment (ERD and D) from $3.6 billion in FY 2009 to $7.2 billion in FY 2010. Without the stimulus funds, DOE ERD and D investments in FY 2010 would decrease very slightly when compared to FY 2009. Excluding the $7.5 billion for the Advanced Technology Vehicles Manufacturing Loans in FY 2009, the FY 2010 budget request for deployment represents a 33 percent decrease from the FY 2009 levels from $520 million to $350 million. This decrease is largely due to the large amounts of funds appropriated in ARRA for DOE deployment programs, or $23.6 billion, which are three times greater than those appropriated in the FY 2009 budget. These very substantial funding amounts, coupled with the broad range of institutional innovations the administration is putting in place and movement toward putting a price on carbon emissions, will help accelerate innovation for a broad range of energy technologies. DOE's Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy (ARPA-E) and the Energy Innovation Hubs are important initiatives that could contribute to two weak points of the government's energy innovation effort, namely funding high-risk projects in transformational technologies and in companies that have not traditionally worked with the government and strengthening the integration of basic and applied research in priority areas. Increasing the funding for different types of energy storage research, providing some support for exploring opportunities in coal-to-liquids with carbon capture and storage (CCS) and coal-and-biomass-to-liquids with CCS, and reducing funding for fission RD and D are other actions that Congress could take in the

  14. Oviposition by Female Plodia interpunctella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae): Description and Time Budget Analysis of Behaviors in Laboratory Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambaraju, Kishan R; Donelson, Sarah L; Bozic, Janko; Phillips, Thomas W

    2016-01-22

    The oviposition behavior of the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), a major insect pest of durable stored foods, was studied in small experimental arenas under laboratory conditions using videography, and a time budget analysis of its behaviors was documented. Resting gravid females typically became active shortly after the start of the scotophase. The characteristic behaviors exhibited by mated females prior to oviposition included antennal movement, grooming of antennae and mouth parts using the forelegs, walking or flying, and abdomen bending and dragging. Pre-oviposition behaviors such as antennal grooming and walking or flying were observed to alternate several times before females commenced the abdominal dragging behavior that preceded egg laying. Eggs were laid singly or sometimes in groups, either freely or stuck to food material. Gravid females showed little or no movement during the photophase; however, they actively flew and oviposited during the scotophase. Females allocated only a small portion of their time to oviposition while the rest of the time was spent away from food. Females oviposited on food material by making repeated visits, predominantly during the first four hours of the scotophase. Visits and time spent on food declined as the scotophase advanced.

  15. Oviposition by Female Plodia interpunctella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae: Description and Time Budget Analysis of Behaviors in Laboratory Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kishan R. Sambaraju

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The oviposition behavior of the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae, a major insect pest of durable stored foods, was studied in small experimental arenas under laboratory conditions using videography, and a time budget analysis of its behaviors was documented. Resting gravid females typically became active shortly after the start of the scotophase. The characteristic behaviors exhibited by mated females prior to oviposition included antennal movement, grooming of antennae and mouth parts using the forelegs, walking or flying, and abdomen bending and dragging. Pre-oviposition behaviors such as antennal grooming and walking or flying were observed to alternate several times before females commenced the abdominal dragging behavior that preceded egg laying. Eggs were laid singly or sometimes in groups, either freely or stuck to food material. Gravid females showed little or no movement during the photophase; however, they actively flew and oviposited during the scotophase. Females allocated only a small portion of their time to oviposition while the rest of the time was spent away from food. Females oviposited on food material by making repeated visits, predominantly during the first four hours of the scotophase. Visits and time spent on food declined as the scotophase advanced.

  16. Oviposition by Female Plodia interpunctella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae): Description and Time Budget Analysis of Behaviors in Laboratory Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambaraju, Kishan R.; Donelson, Sarah L.; Bozic, Janko; Phillips, Thomas W.

    2016-01-01

    The oviposition behavior of the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), a major insect pest of durable stored foods, was studied in small experimental arenas under laboratory conditions using videography, and a time budget analysis of its behaviors was documented. Resting gravid females typically became active shortly after the start of the scotophase. The characteristic behaviors exhibited by mated females prior to oviposition included antennal movement, grooming of antennae and mouth parts using the forelegs, walking or flying, and abdomen bending and dragging. Pre-oviposition behaviors such as antennal grooming and walking or flying were observed to alternate several times before females commenced the abdominal dragging behavior that preceded egg laying. Eggs were laid singly or sometimes in groups, either freely or stuck to food material. Gravid females showed little or no movement during the photophase; however, they actively flew and oviposited during the scotophase. Females allocated only a small portion of their time to oviposition while the rest of the time was spent away from food. Females oviposited on food material by making repeated visits, predominantly during the first four hours of the scotophase. Visits and time spent on food declined as the scotophase advanced. PMID:26805893

  17. Budget impact analysis of the percutaneous septal occluder for treatment of ostium secundum atrial septal defects in the Brazilian Unified National Health System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia Marie Simões e Senna

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to perform a budget impact analysis on the adoption of percutaneous occlusion of ostium secundum atrial septal defects in the Brazilian Unified National Health System. Costs were collected using micro-costing technique from medical records for each treatment technique (conventional surgery versus percutaneous septal occluder at a public federal hospital specialized in high-complexity cardiology. The analysis showed that expenditures associated with percutaneous occlusion were lower than with conventional surgery, and sensitivity analysis confirmed the cost reduction in several scenarios, showing a significant budget impact with a 30% adoption rate for the percutaneous occluder (savings of approximately 1.5 million dollars per year. The study indicates that the adoption of the percutaneous septal occluder would mean cost savings of approximately 3.5 million dollars for the Brazilian public health system.

  18. Budget impact analysis of introducing the new single-tablet regimen rilpivirine/emtricitabine/tenofovir for the treatment of HIV in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Gouveia

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the study: Rilpivirine/emtricitabine/tenofovir (RPV/FTC/TDF is a new single-tablet regimen (STR approved for the initial treatment of HIV-1 infection. The aim of this study was to estimate the impact on the State Budget of this new STR introduction in the Portuguese Health System (PHS using secondary data from official statistics and observational studies. Methods: The analysis considers a time frame of three years, does not include mortality, assumes a constant flow of new patients, and deals only with antiretroviral therapy (ART costs. Values are not discounted. The stock and flow data of total HIV-1 patients comes from official statistics from the National Committee for HIV/AIDS. The model starts with recent historical data on the percentage of different ART drugs used for the treatment of naïve patients. Estimates from an observational study also provide 1 the probability that a patient in a given regimen switches to another therapy and 2 the probability distribution for the new therapy choices given that the patient has switched. The penetration of the new STR is also linked with the prevalence of adverse effects of other ART, in particular teratogenic effects, central nervous systems effects and possible interactions with methadone. The distribution of patients according to ART drug, together with price information, allow us to estimate average costs of treatment per year and per patient for each class of ART. Estimates of patients’ numbers for the second and third years assume the same inflow as in the first year, a given annual percentage of non-switchers from RPV/FTC/TDF and additional flows from patients switching to non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors from other third-agent classes. Summary of results: The model predicts a flow of 245 new naïve patients on RPV/FTC/TDF per year, with 209 and 194 of these patients staying with RPV/FTC/TDF in the second and third years, respectively. Given that the average cost

  19. The analysis of the introduction of cash registers to the business environment and the state budget

    OpenAIRE

    Zubíčková, Aneta

    2009-01-01

    The issue of cash registers has recently been updated in the Czech Republic. Their introduction assumes the elimination of the shadow economy through an increase in reported sales for business entites, who are forced to use it. Regression analysis has not demonstrated a direct effect of the cash registers on the level of reported revenues. Cash registers represent an additional burden on businesses and make conditions for doing a business more difficult. In the year of introduction of cash re...

  20. Metal contamination budget at the river basin scale: a critical analysis based on the Seine River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Lestel

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Material flow analysis and environmental contamination analysis are merged into a flux-flow analysis (F2A as illustrated for the metal circulation in the Seine River catchment. F2A combines about 30 metal flows in the anthroposphere (14 million people and/or metal fluxes in the environment (atmosphere, soils, and aquatic system originating from two dozens of sources. The nature and quality of data is very heterogeneous going from downscaled national economic statistics to upscaled daily environmental surveys.

    A triple integration is performed: space integration over the catchment (65000 km2, time integration for the 1950–2000 trend analysed at 5 year resolution, and a conceptual integration resulting in two F2A indicators.

    Despite the various data sources an average metal circulation is established for the 1994–2003 period and illustrated for zinc: (i metal circulation in the anthroposphere is now two orders of magnitude higher than river outputs, (ii long term metal storage, and their potential leaks, in soils, wastedumps and structures is also orders of magnitude higher than present river fluxes. Trend analysis is made through two F2A indicators, the per capita excess load at the river outlet and the leakage ratio (excess fluxes/metal demand. From 1950 to 2000, they both show a ten fold improvement of metal recycling while the metal demand has increased by 2.5 to 5 for Cd, Cu, Cr, Pb and Zn, and the population by 50%.

  1. Generalized Structured Component Analysis with Latent Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Heungsun; Ho, Moon-Ho Ringo; Lee, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    Generalized structured component analysis (GSCA) is a component-based approach to structural equation modeling. In practice, researchers may often be interested in examining the interaction effects of latent variables. However, GSCA has been geared only for the specification and testing of the main effects of variables. Thus, an extension of GSCA…

  2. A Defense Budget Primer

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-12-09

    budget practices. See Appendix D for the actual timetable of congressional action on the FY1999 budget.65 See James V. Saturno , The Appropriations...details, see James V. Saturno , The Appropriations Process and the Congressional69 Budget Act, CRS Report 97-947. Table 6. Milestone Votes on the Defense...James V. Saturno , The74 Appropriations Process and the Congressional Budget Act, CRS Report 97-947. The Budget Enforcement Act of 1990 and subsequent

  3. [Care for elderly patients in Africa: Analysis of the financial implications of the SESAME plan on the budget of the regional hospital center in Thies, Senegal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faye, A; Diousse, P; Seck, I; Diongue, M; Ndiaye, P; Diagne-Camara, M; Tal-Dia, A; Dia, La

    2010-04-01

    The SESAME plan has been implemented at the Thies Regional Hospital Center (TRHC) for one year. The purpose of this study was to analyze the financial implications of the plan on the hospital budget for the sustainability of care for persons aged 60 and over. This descriptive study included analysis of budget data from October 2006 to September 2007 plus information obtained by interviewing the accountant and head of SESAME plan. The number of patients managed, sources of CHRT funding, grants from various SESAME plan partners, and expenditures for each partner were determined. The weight of the SESAME plan in the CHRT operating budget was determined by calculating the ratio of the overall cost of care for elderly persons in relation to the hospital's revenues and SESAME grants. During the study period, the CHRT received a total of 17375 elderly persons including 89% with no pension or social security. The institute pension scheme (IPRES) covered 21% of the plan as compared to 79% for the state. Utilization plan grants in relation to funding source was 41% for IPRES and 124% for the State. The total cost of services provided to beneficiaries of the SESAME plan exceeded the aggregate amount by 26 083 847 CFA francs. The weight of the SESAME plan in the operating cost of the CHRT was 17%. Prefinancing a plan to cover elderly care in hospitals should be sufficient to prevent deficits from impacting negatively on the operating budget of the hospital.

  4. Global Carbon Budget 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Quéré, C.; Moriarty, R.; Andrew, R. M.; Canadell, J. G.; Sitch, S.; Korsbakken, J. I.; Friedlingstein, P.; Peters, G. P.; Andres, R. J.; Boden, T. A.; Houghton, R. A.; House, J. I.; Keeling, R. F.; Tans, P.; Arneth, A.; Bakker, D. C. E.; Barbero, L.; Bopp, L.; Chang, J.; Chevallier, F.; Chini, L. P.; Ciais, P.; Fader, M.; Feely, R. A.; Gkritzalis, T.; Harris, I.; Hauck, J.; Ilyina, T.; Jain, A. K.; Kato, E.; Kitidis, V.; Klein Goldewijk, K.; Koven, C.; Landschützer, P.; Lauvset, S. K.; Lefèvre, N.; Lenton, A.; Lima, I. D.; Metzl, N.; Millero, F.; Munro, D. R.; Murata, A.; Nabel, J. E. M. S.; Nakaoka, S.; Nojiri, Y.; O'Brien, K.; Olsen, A.; Ono, T.; Pérez, F. F.; Pfeil, B.; Pierrot, D.; Poulter, B.; Rehder, G.; Rödenbeck, C.; Saito, S.; Schuster, U.; Schwinger, J.; Séférian, R.; Steinhoff, T.; Stocker, B. D.; Sutton, A. J.; Takahashi, T.; Tilbrook, B.; van der Laan-Luijkx, I. T.; van der Werf, G. R.; van Heuven, S.; Vandemark, D.; Viovy, N.; Wiltshire, A.; Zaehle, S.; Zeng, N.

    2015-12-01

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe data sets and a methodology to quantify all major components of the global carbon budget, including their uncertainties, based on the combination of a range of data, algorithms, statistics, and model estimates and their interpretation by a broad scientific community. We discuss changes compared to previous estimates as well as consistency within and among components, alongside methodology and data limitations. CO2 emissions from fossil fuels and industry (EFF) are based on energy statistics and cement production data, while emissions from land-use change (ELUC), mainly deforestation, are based on combined evidence from land-cover-change data, fire activity associated with deforestation, and models. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration is measured directly and its rate of growth (GATM) is computed from the annual changes in concentration. The mean ocean CO2 sink (SOCEAN) is based on observations from the 1990s, while the annual anomalies and trends are estimated with ocean models. The variability in SOCEAN is evaluated with data products based on surveys of ocean CO2 measurements. The global residual terrestrial CO2 sink (SLAND) is estimated by the difference of the other terms of the global carbon budget and compared to results of independent dynamic global vegetation models forced by observed climate, CO2, and land-cover change (some including nitrogen-carbon interactions). We compare the mean land and ocean fluxes and their variability to estimates from three atmospheric inverse methods for three broad latitude bands. All uncertainties are reported as ±1σ, reflecting the current capacity to characterise the annual estimates of each component of the global

  5. FY 1996 Congressional budget request: Budget highlights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-02-01

    The FY 1996 budget presentation is organized by the Department`s major business lines. An accompanying chart displays the request for new budget authority. The report compares the budget request for FY 1996 with the appropriated FY 1995 funding levels displayed on a comparable basis. The FY 1996 budget represents the first year of a five year plan in which the Department will reduce its spending by $15.8 billion in budget authority and by $14.1 billion in outlays. FY 1996 is a transition year as the Department embarks on its multiyear effort to do more with less. The Budget Highlights are presented by business line; however, the fifth business line, Economic Productivity, which is described in the Policy Overview section, cuts across multiple organizational missions, funding levels and activities and is therefore included in the discussion of the other four business lines.

  6. SpecViz: Interactive Spectral Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earl, Nicholas Michael; STScI

    2016-06-01

    The astronomical community is about to enter a new generation of scientific enterprise. With next-generation instrumentation and advanced capabilities, the need has arisen to equip astronomers with the necessary tools to deal with large, multi-faceted data. The Space Telescope Science Institute has initiated a data analysis forum for the creation, development, and maintenance of software tools for the interpretation of these new data sets. SpecViz is a spectral 1-D interactive visualization and analysis application built with Python in an open source development environment. A user-friendly GUI allows for a fast, interactive approach to spectral analysis. SpecViz supports handling of unique and instrument-specific data, incorporation of advanced spectral unit handling and conversions in a flexible, high-performance interactive plotting environment. Active spectral feature analysis is possible through interactive measurement and statistical tools. It can be used to build wide-band SEDs, with the capability of combining or overplotting data products from various instruments. SpecViz sports advanced toolsets for filtering and detrending spectral lines; identifying, isolating, and manipulating spectral features; as well as utilizing spectral templates for renormalizing data in an interactive way. SpecViz also includes a flexible model fitting toolset that allows for multi-component models, as well as custom models, to be used with various fitting and decomposition routines. SpecViz also features robust extension via custom data loaders and connection to the central communication system underneath the interface for more advanced control. Incorporation with Jupyter notebooks via connection with the active iPython kernel allows for SpecViz to be used in addition to a user’s normal workflow without demanding the user drastically alter their method of data analysis. In addition, SpecViz allows the interactive analysis of multi-object spectroscopy in the same straight

  7. Implementing Performance-Based Budgeting in Republic of Moldova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ciubotaru

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article includes a research on budgeting based performance, and proposes a system of performance indicators that assess the linkage between the policies and annual budget law, the compliance of global budgeting performance to European principles in the area of public financial management, and the impact of public financing on economic growth. The analysis of performance indicators shows the linkages between the policies, and budgeting, as well as budgeting performance in compliance with European principles in this area.

  8. Budget impact analysis of the use of paricalcitol for the treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism in chronic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Lorenzoni

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Evaluation of the budget impact of the use of paricalcitol (compared to alternative treatment for secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD when used at two different timing of therapy.METHODS: Two Markov models related to a different timing of treatment have been developed: the intermediate stage of chronic kidney disease (CKD3 and the dialysis stage. The analysis was conducted with the perspective of the Italian National Health System and over a 5-year time horizon. The clinical and economic data used in the model were derived from the literature and other assumptions were made based on the opinion of clinical experts. Univariate sensitivity analysis was conducted to test the robustness of the results.RESULTS: The base case shows that starting paricalcitol treatment from the dialysis stage (considering 13,311 possible candidates is associated with a reduction in direct costs from € 1,782,921,351 to € 1,622,357,209 over 5 years. Furthermore, considering a collective of 1,000 subjects eligible and starting treatment with paricalcitol since the intermediate stages of the CKD, is associated with an overall cost saving of € 1,197,500.DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: Paricalcitol is expected to be cost-saving in patients with SHPT in Italy considering both the therapeutic indications of the drug. Moreover, despite the higher cost of using paricalcitol in pre-dialysis stage, an early treatment of SHPT determine an overall decrease in direct medical costs.http://dx.doi.org/10.7175/fe.v15i3.938

  9. Budget impact analysis of biosimilar infliximab (CT-P13) for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis in six Central and Eastern European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodszky, Valentin; Baji, Petra; Balogh, Orsolya; Péntek, Márta

    2014-05-01

    The first biosimilar monoclonal antibody (infliximab, CT-P13) was registered by the European Medicines Agency in 2013 for the treatment of several inflammatory conditions including rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Biosimilar infliximab is first being marketed in the Central and Eastern European countries. This paper presents the estimated budget impact of the introduction of biosimilar infliximab in RA over a 3-year time period in six selected countries, namely Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania and Slovakia. A prevalence-based model was constructed for budget impact analysis. Two scenarios were compared to the reference scenario (RSc) where no biosimilar infliximab is available: biosimilar scenario 1 (BSc1), where interchanging the originator infliximab with biosimilar infliximab is disallowed, and only patients who start new biological therapy are allowed to use biosimilar infliximab; as well as biosimilar scenario 2 (BSc2), where interchanging the originator infliximab with biosimilar infliximab is allowed, and 80% of patients treated with originator infliximab are interchanged to biosimilar infliximab. Compared to the RSc, the net savings are estimated to be €15.3 or €20.8 M in BSc1 and BSc2, respectively, over the 3 years. If budget savings were spent on reimbursement of additional biosimilar infliximab treatment, approximately 1,200 or 1,800 more patients could be treated in the six countries within 3 years in the two biosimilar scenarios, respectively. The actual saving is most sensitive to the assumption of the acquisition cost of the biosimilar drug and to the initial number of patients treated with biological therapy. The study focused on one indication (RA) and demonstrated that the introduction of biosimilar infliximab can lead to substantial budget savings in health care budgets. Further savings are expected for other indications where biosimilar medicines are implemented.

  10. Atmospheric nitrogen deposition to China: A model analysis on nitrogen budget and critical load exceedance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yuanhong; Zhang, Lin; Chen, Youfan; Liu, Xuejun; Xu, Wen; Pan, Yuepeng; Duan, Lei

    2017-03-01

    We present a national-scale model analysis on the sources and processes of inorganic nitrogen deposition over China using the GEOS-Chem model at 1/2° × 1/3° horizontal resolution. Model results for 2008-2012 are evaluated with an ensemble of surface measurements of wet deposition flux and gaseous ammonia (NH3) concentration, and satellite measurements of tropospheric NO2 columns. Annual total inorganic nitrogen deposition fluxes are simulated to be generally less than 10 kg N ha-1 a-1 in western China (less than 2 kg N ha-1 a-1 over Tibet), 15-50 kg N ha-1 a-1 in eastern China, and 16.4 kg N ha-1 a-1 averaged over China. Annual total deposition to China is 16.4 Tg N, with 10.2 Tg N (62%) from reduced nitrogen (NHx) and 6.2 Tg N from oxidized nitrogen (NOy). Domestic anthropogenic sources contribute 86% of the total deposition; foreign anthropogenic sources 7% and natural sources 7%. Annually 23% of domestically emitted NH3 and 36% for NOx are exported outside the terrestrial land of China. We find that atmospheric nitrogen deposition is about half of the nitrogen input from fertilizer application (29.6 Tg N a-1), and is much higher than that from natural biological fixation (7.3 Tg N a-1) over China. A comparison of nitrogen deposition with critical load estimates for eutrophication indicates that about 15% of the land over China experiences critical load exceedances, demonstrating the necessity of nitrogen emission controls to avoid potential negative ecological effects.

  11. Towards a Comparative Analysis of Democratic Innovations. Lessons from a small-N fsQCA of Participatory Budgeting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan, Matt

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available While there has been a proliferation of academic interest in ‘democratic innovations’, most empirical analysis tends to rely on single case studies. Very little attention has been given to the comparative analysis of innovations, in particular the conditions under which they emerge and are sustained. Recent studies of participatory budgeting (PB have begun to utilise cross-case analysis in an attempt to explain divergent outcomes. This paper argues that the comparative analysis of democratic innovations could be enhanced significantly through the application of the relatively novel technique of fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA. A small- N study of PBs is offered to identify the potential (and pitfalls of using fsQCA to evaluate the conditions under which such an innovation is institutionalised effectively.

    Aunque el interés académico por las “innovaciones democráticas” ha proliferado, la mayoría de los análisis empíricos se apoyan en un solo caso de estudio. Se ha prestado poca atención al análisis comparativo de las innovaciones, en concreto de las condiciones en que emergen y se mantienen. Algunos estudios recientes sobre presupuestos participativos (PP han comenzado a emplear análisis de casos cruzados en un intento por explicar los resultados divergentes. En este artículo se sostiene que el análisis comparado de las innovaciones podría mejorar significativamente mediante la aplicación de una técnica relativamente nueva, el análisis cualitativo comparado de conjuntos difusos (fsQCA. Aquí se ofrece un estudio de N pequeña sobre PP para identificar el potencial (y las dificultades que entraña el empleo de fsQCA para evaluar las condiciones en las que tal innovación se institucionaliza de forma efectiva.

  12. Interaction analysis and psychology: a dialogical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossen, Michèle

    2010-03-01

    Interaction analysis is not a prerogative of any discipline in social sciences. It has its own history within each disciplinary field and is related to specific research objects. From the standpoint of psychology, this article first draws upon a distinction between factorial and dialogical conceptions of interaction. It then briefly presents the basis of a dialogical approach in psychology and focuses upon four basic assumptions. Each of them is examined on a theoretical and on a methodological level with a leading question: to what extent is it possible to develop analytical tools that are fully coherent with dialogical assumptions? The conclusion stresses the difficulty of developing methodological tools that are fully consistent with dialogical assumptions and argues that there is an unavoidable tension between accounting for the complexity of an interaction and using methodological tools which necessarily "monologise" this complexity.

  13. Detailed budget analysis of HONO in central London reveals a missing daytime source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. D. Lee

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of HONO were carried out at an urban background site near central London as part of the Clean air for London (ClearfLo project in summer 2012. Data was collected from 22 July–18 August 2014, with peak values of up to 1.8 ppbV at night and non-zero values of between 0.2 and 0.6 ppbV seen during the day. A wide range of other gas phase, aerosol, radiation and meteorological measurements were made concurrently at the same site, allowing a detailed analysis of the chemistry to be carried out. The peak HONO/NOx ratio of 0.04 is seen at ~ 02:00 UTC, with the presence of a second, daytime peak in HONO/NOx of similar magnitude to the night-time peak suggesting a significant secondary daytime HONO source. A photostationary state calculation of HONO involving formation from the reaction of OH and NO and loss from photolysis, reaction with OH and dry deposition shows a significant underestimation during the day, with calculated values being close to zero, compared to the measurement average of 0.4 ppbV at midday. The addition of further HONO sources, including postulated formation from the reaction of HO2 with NO2 and photolysis of HNO3, increases the daytime modelled HONO to 0.1 ppbV, still leaving a significant extra daytime source. The missing HONO is plotted against a series of parameters including NO2 and OH reactivity, with little correlation seen. Much better correlation is observed with the product of these species with j(NO2, in particular NO2 and the product of NO2 with OH reactivity. This suggests the missing HONO source is in some way related to NO2 and also requires sunlight. The effect of the missing HONO to OH radical production is also investigated and it is shown that the model needs to be constrained to measured HONO in order to accurately reproduce the OH radical measurements.

  14. Coupling effect analysis between landslides, river channel changes and sediment budgets - extreme climate events in Laishe River, southern Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Kuo-Jen; Huang, Mei-Jen; Tseng, Chih-Ming

    2016-04-01

    Taiwan, due to the high seismicity and high annual rainfall, numerous landslides triggered every year and severe impacts affect the island. Concerning to the catastrophic landslides, the key information of landslide, including range of landslide, volume estimation and the subsequent evolution are important when analyzing the triggering mechanism, hazard assessment and mitigation. Thus, the morphological analysis gives a general overview for the landslides and been considered as one of the most fundamental information. Typhoon Morakot brought extreme and long-time rainfall for Taiwan in August 2009, and caused severe disasters. In this study we integrate several technologies, especially by Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) and multi-spectral camera, to decipher the consequence and the potential hazard, and the social impact. In recent years, the remote sensing technology improves rapidly, providing a wide range of image, essential and precise information. This study integrates several methods, including, 1) Remote-sensing images gathered by Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) and by aerial photos taken in different periods; 2) field in-situ geologic investigation; 3) Differential GPS, RTK GPS geomatic measurements. The methods allow to constructing the DTMs before and after landslide, as well as the subsequent periods by using aerial photos and UAV derived images. The data sets permits to analysis the morphological changes. In the past, the study of sediment budgets usually relies on field investigation, but due to inconvenient transportation, topographical barriers, or located in remote areas, etc. the survey is hardly to be completed sometimes. In recent years, the rapid development of remote sensing technology improves image resolution and quality significantly. Remote sensing technology can provide a wide range of image data, and provide essential and precious information. The purpose of this study is to investigate the phenomenon of river migration and to evaluate the

  15. Reforming the EU Budget

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Citi, Manuele

    The marginal involvement of the EU in redistributive policies and its limited fiscal resources have led to a lack of attention to the EU budget and its determinants. In this paper I analyse an original dataset containing yearly data on the main macrocategories of expenditure and how they have...... changed over the last three decades (1984-2013). Using time series analysis, I find that the ability to form winning coalitions in the Council, the ideological position of the co-legislators, and some ‘structuring events’ - like the adoption of the Multiannual Financial Framework and the accession...

  16. Thermodynamic Analysis of Interacting Nucleic Acid Strands

    OpenAIRE

    Dirks, Robert M.; Bois, Justin S.; Schaeffer, Joseph M.; Winfree, Erik; Pierce, Niles A.

    2007-01-01

    Motivated by the analysis of natural and engineered DNA and RNA systems, we present the first algorithm for calculating the partition function of an unpseudoknotted complex of multiple interacting nucleic acid strands. This dynamic program is based on a rigorous extension of secondary structure models to the multistranded case, addressing representation and distinguishability issues that do not arise for single-stranded structures. We then derive the form of the partition function for a fixed...

  17. Proteomic analysis of SETD6 interacting proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Ofir; Chen, Ayelet; Feldman, Michal; Levy, Dan

    2016-03-01

    SETD6 (SET-domain-containing protein 6) is a mono-methyltransferase that has been shown to methylate RelA and H2AZ. Using a proteomic approach we recently identified several new SETD6 substrates. To identify novel SETD6 interacting proteins, SETD6 was immunoprecipitated (IP) from Human erythromyeloblastoid leukemia K562 cells. SETD6 binding proteins were subjected to mass-spectrometry analysis resulting in 115 new SETD6 binding candidates. STRING database was used to map the SETD6 interactome network. Network enrichment analysis of biological processes with Gene Ontology (GO) database, identified three major groups; metabolic processes, muscle contraction and protein folding.

  18. Low cost real time interactive analysis system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stetina, F.

    1988-01-01

    Efforts continue to develop a low cost real time interactive analysis system for the reception of satellite data. A multi-purpose ingest hardware software frame formatter was demonstrated for GOES and TIROS data and work is proceeding on extending the capability to receive GMS data. A similar system was proposed as an archival and analysis system for use with INSAT data and studies are underway to modify the system to receive the planned SeaWiFS (ocean color) data. This system was proposed as the core of a number of international programs in support of U.S. AID activities. Systems delivered or nearing final testing are listed.

  19. 高校预算管理存在的问题分析及其对策研究%An Analysis of the Budget Management Problem in Colleges and Universities and the Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭华林

    2015-01-01

    Budget is the basic rule of college financial activities and the quality of the budget management will di-rectly influence the level of college financial management. With the reform of national financial budget management gradually improved to refined budget management,the existing college budget mode and method could not meet re-quirements of financial management under new situations. This paper makes a deep analysis of the system of budget management in colleges and universities, the concept of budget management,budget making,budget implementa-tion,budget evaluation and so on. In addition,practical solutions are proposed to solve these problems,which is of practical significance in strengthening budget management in colleges and universities.%预算是高校财务活动的基本行为规则,预算管理的好坏直接关系高校财务管理的水平,随着国家财政预算管理改革逐步向精细化预算管理的推进,高校现有预算管理模式和方法越来越不适应新形势下财政管理的要求。本文主要对高校预算管理体制、预算管理观念、预算编制、预算执行、预算考评等方面存在的问题进行深入的分析,并针对这些问题提出了切实可行的解决办法,对加强高校预算管理有一定的现实意义。

  20. Simulated water budgets and ground-water/surface-water interactions in Bushkill and parts of Monocacy Creek watersheds, Northampton County, Pennsylvania--a preliminary study with identification of data needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risser, Dennis W.

    2006-01-01

    This report, prepared in cooperation with the Department of Environmental Protection, Office of Mineral Resources Management, provides a preliminary analysis of water budgets and generalized ground-water/surface-water interactions for Bushkill and parts of Monocacy Creek watersheds in Northampton County, Pa., by use of a ground-water flow model. Bushkill Creek watershed was selected for study because it has areas of rapid growth, ground-water withdrawals from a quarry, and proposed stream-channel modifications, all of which have the potential for altering ground-water budgets and the interaction between ground water and streams. Preliminary 2-dimensional, steady-state simulations of ground-water flow by the use of MODFLOW are presented to show the status of work through September 2005 and help guide ongoing data collection in Bushkill Creek watershed. Simulations were conducted for (1) predevelopment conditions, (2) a water table lowered for quarry operations, and (3) anthropogenic changes in hydraulic conductivity of the streambed and aquifer. Preliminary results indicated under predevelopment conditions, the divide between the Bushkill and Monocacy Creek ground-water basins may not have been coincident with the topographic divide and as much as 14 percent of the ground-water discharge to Bushkill Creek may have originated from recharge in the Monocacy Creek watershed. For simulated predevelopment conditions, Schoeneck Creek and parts of Monocacy Creek were dry, but Bushkill Creek was gaining throughout all reaches. Simulated lowering of the deepest quarry sump to an altitude of 147 feet for quarry operations caused ground-water recharge and streamflow leakage to be diverted to the quarry throughout about 14 square miles and caused reaches of Bushkill and Little Bushkill Creeks to change from gaining to losing streams. Lowering the deepest quarry sump to an altitude of 100 feet caused simulated ground-water discharge to the quarry to increase about 4 cubic feet

  1. Source identification and budget analysis on elevated levels of formaldehyde within ship plumes: a photochemical/dynamic model analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, C. H.; Kim, H. S.; von Glasow, R.; Brimblecombe, P.; Kim, J.; Park, R. J.; Woo, J. H.

    2010-06-01

    Elevated levels of formaldehyde (HCHO) along the ship corridors have been observed by satellite sensors, such as ESA/ERS-2 GOME (Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment), and were also predicted by global 3-D chemistry-transport models. In this study, three likely sources of the elevated HCHO levels were investigated to identify the detailed sources and examine the contributions of the sources (budget) of the elevated levels of HCHO in the ship corridors using a newly-developed ship-plume photochemical/dynamic model: (1) primary HCHO emission from ships; (2) secondary HCHO production via the atmospheric oxidation of Non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) emitted from ships; and (3) atmospheric oxidation of CH4 within the ship plumes. From multiple ship-plume model simulations, CH4 oxidation by elevated levels of in-plume OH radicals was found to be the main factor responsible for the elevated levels of HCHO in the ship corridors. More than ~91% of the HCHO for the base ship plume case (ITCT 2K2 ship-plume case) is produced by this atmospheric chemical process, except in the areas close to the ship stacks where the main source of the elevated HCHO levels would be primary HCHO from the ships (due to the deactivation of CH4 oxidation from the depletion of in-plume OH radicals). Because of active CH4 oxidation (chemical destruction of CH4) by OH radicals, the instantaneous chemical lifetime of CH4 (τ CH4) decreased to ~0.45 yr inside the ship plume, which is in contrast to τ CH4 of ~1.1 yr in the background (up to ~41% decrease). A variety of likely ship-plume situations at three locations at different latitudes within the global ship corridors was also studied to determine the extent of the enhancements in the HCHOlevels in the marine boundary layer (MBL) influenced by ship emissions. It was found that the ship-plume HCHO levels could be 20.5-434.9 pptv higher than the background HCHO levels depending on the latitudinal locations of the ship plumes (i

  2. Analysis on Blue Ocean Strategy of Budget Hotels in China%本土经济型酒店的蓝海战略分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    都思; 王小军

    2012-01-01

      基于蓝海战略基本理论,利用战略布局图、买方效用分析和战略转变框架对经济型酒店的蓝海战略进行分析,旨在深入探讨和优化经济型酒店价值曲线的竞争元素,为本土经济型酒店不断扩大竞争优势和持续性发展的壮阔蓝海助力。%  Based on the analysis of Blue Ocean strategy, utilize strategy layout, buyer utility analysis and strategy transformation frame to analyze Budget Hotels’Blue Ocean strategy, to further approach and optimize competitive factors in value curve of Budget Hotels, so as to do help to expand competitive advantage and sustainable development of local Budget Hotels’Blue Ocean.

  3. Interactive analysis of geodata based intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Boris; Eck, Ralf; Unmüessig, Gabriel; Peinsipp-Byma, Elisabeth

    2016-05-01

    When a spatiotemporal events happens, multi-source intelligence data is gathered to understand the problem, and strategies for solving the problem are investigated. The difficulties arising from handling spatial and temporal intelligence data represent the main problem. The map might be the bridge to visualize the data and to get the most understand model for all stakeholders. For the analysis of geodata based intelligence data, a software was developed as a working environment that combines geodata with optimized ergonomics. The interaction with the common operational picture (COP) is so essentially facilitated. The composition of the COP is based on geodata services, which are normalized by international standards of the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC). The basic geodata are combined with intelligence data from images (IMINT) and humans (HUMINT), stored in a NATO Coalition Shared Data Server (CSD). These intelligence data can be combined with further information sources, i.e., live sensors. As a result a COP is generated and an interaction suitable for the specific workspace is added. This allows the users to work interactively with the COP, i.e., searching with an on board CSD client for suitable intelligence data and integrate them into the COP. Furthermore, users can enrich the scenario with findings out of the data of interactive live sensors and add data from other sources. This allows intelligence services to contribute effectively to the process by what military and disaster management are organized.

  4. Verification of uncertainty budgets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, Kaj; Madsen, B.S.

    2005-01-01

    The quality of analytical results is expressed by their uncertainty, as it is estimated on the basis of an uncertainty budget; little effort is, however, often spent on ascertaining the quality of the uncertainty budget. The uncertainty budget is based on circumstantial or historical data, and th...

  5. Federal budget timetable

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is the federal budget timetable under the Balanced Budget and Emergency Deficit Control Act of 1985 (Gramm-Rudman-Hollings). These deadlines apply to fiscal years (FY) 1987-1991. The deficit reduction measures in Gramm-Rudman-Hollings would lead to a balanced budget in 1991.

  6. The USDA's Healthy Eating on a Budget Program: Making Better Eating Decisions on a Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Alexandra M.; Hongu, Nobuko

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Agriculture has launched a new interactive online program titled Healthy Eating on a Budget. It is an addition to the popular ChooseMyPlate.gov programs, such as the SuperTracker program. The Healthy Eating on a Budget program helps consumers plan, purchase, and prepare healthful meals. This article discusses materials and…

  7. The USDA's Healthy Eating on a Budget Program: Making Better Eating Decisions on a Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Alexandra M.; Hongu, Nobuko

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Agriculture has launched a new interactive online program titled Healthy Eating on a Budget. It is an addition to the popular ChooseMyPlate.gov programs, such as the SuperTracker program. The Healthy Eating on a Budget program helps consumers plan, purchase, and prepare healthful meals. This article discusses materials and…

  8. Digraph matrix analysis applications to systems interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alesso, H.P.; Altenbach, T.; Lappa, D.; Kimura, C.; Sacks, I.J.; Ashmore, B.C.; Fromme, D.; Smith, C.F.; Williams, W.

    1984-01-01

    Complex events such as Three Mile Island-2, Brown's Ferry-3 and Crystal River-3 have demonstrated that previously unidentified system interdependencies can be important to safety. A major aspect of these events was dependent faults (common cause/mode failures). The term systems interactions has been introduced by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to identify the concepts of spatial and functional coupling of systems which can lead to system interdependencies. Spatial coupling refers to dependencies resulting from a shared environmental condition; functional coupling refers to both dependencies resulting from components shared between safety and/or support systems, and to dependencies involving human actions. The NRC is currently developing guidelines to search for and evaluate adverse systems interactions at light water reactors. One approach utilizes graph theoretical methods and is called digraph matrix analysis (DMA). This methodology has been specifically tuned to the systems interaction problem. The objective of this paper is to present results from two DMA applications and to contrast them with the results from more traditional fault tree approaches.

  9. Closing the gap between budget formulation and execution

    OpenAIRE

    Lowery, Erainust

    2000-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This thesis is a case study analysis of the Resource Management Office of the Bureau of Naval Personnel (PERS-02). Specifically, an analysis of projected versus actual budget figures was conducted. The purpose of the research was to explain anomalies in the budget formulation figures as compared to actual budget execution figures and define ways to improve the protocol between budget activities. Based on model comparisons, document rev...

  10. Mark 3 interactive data analysis system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, J. W.; Ma, C.; Schupler, B. P.

    1980-01-01

    The interactive data analysis system, a major subset of the total Mark 3 very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) software system is described. The system consists of two major and a number of small programs. These programs provide for the scientific analysis of the observed values of delay and delay rate generated by the VLBI data reduction programs and product the geophysical and astrometric parameters which are among the ultimate products of VLBI. The two major programs are CALC and SOLVE. CALC generates the theoretical values of VLBI delay rate as well as partial derivatives based on apriori values of the geophysical and astronometric parameters. SOLVE is a least squares parameters estimation program which yields the geophysical and astrometric parameters using the observed values by the data processing system and theoretical values and partial derivatives provided by CALC. SOLVE is a highly interactive program in which the user selects the exact form of the recovered parameters and the data to be accepted into the solution.

  11. Rapid diagnostic test for G6PD deficiency in Plasmodium vivax-infected men: a budget impact analysis based in Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peixoto, Henry Maia; Brito, Marcelo Augusto Mota; Romero, Gustavo Adolfo Sierra; Monteiro, Wuelton Marcelo; de Lacerda, Marcus Vinícius Guimarães; de Oliveira, Maria Regina Fernandes

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the incremental budget impact (IBI) of a rapid diagnostic test to detect G6PDd in male patients infected with Plasmodium vivax in the Brazilian Amazon, as compared with the routine protocol recommended in Brazil which does not include G6PDd testing. The budget impact analysis was performed from the perspective of the Brazilian health system, in the Brazilian Amazon for the years 2013, 2014 and 2015. The analysis used a decision model to compare two scenarios: the first consisting of the routine recommended in Brazil which does not include prior diagnosis of dG6PD, and the second based on the use of RDT CareStart™ G6PD (CS-G6PD) in all male subjects diagnosed with vivax malaria. The expected implementation of the diagnostic test was 30% in the first year, 70% the second year and 100% in the third year. The analysis identified negative IBIs which were progressively smaller in the 3 years evaluated. The sensitivity analysis showed that the uncertainties associated with the analytical model did not significantly affect the results. A strategy based on the use of CS-G6PD would result in better use of public resources in the Brazilian Amazon. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Sediment Budget Analysis and Hazard Assessment in the Peynin, a Small Alpine Catchment (Upper Guil River, Southern Alps, France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlier, Benoit; Arnaud-Fassetta, Gilles; Fort, Monique; Bouccara, Fanny; Sourdot, Grégoire; Tassel, Adrien; Lissak, Candide; Betard, François; Cossart, Etienne; Madelin, Malika; Viel, Vincent; Charnay, Bérengère; Bletterie, Xavier

    2014-05-01

    The upper Guil catchment (Southern Alps) is prone to hydro-geomorphic hazards. Major hazards are related to catastrophic floods, with an amplification of their impacts due to strong hillslope-channel connectivity as observed in 1957 and 2000. In both cases, the rainfall intensity, aggravated by the pre-existing saturated soils, explained the instantaneous response of the fluvial system, such as destabilisation of slopes, high sediment discharge, and subsequent damages to exposed structures and settlements present in the floodplain and at confluence sites. The Peynin junction with the Guil River is one of these sites, where significant land-use change during the last decades in relation to the development of handicraft and tourism economy has increased debris flow threat to population. Here, we adopt a sediment budget analysis aimed at better understanding the functioning of this small subcatchment. This latter offers a combination of factors that favour torrential and gravitational activity. It receives abundant and intense rainfall during "Lombarde" events (moist air mass from Mediterranean Sea). Its elongated shape and small surface area (15 km²) together with asymmetric slopes (counter dip slope on the left bank) accelerate runoff on a short response time. In addition highly tectonised shaly schists supply a large volume of debris (mostly platy clasts and fine, micaceous sediment). The objectives of this study, carried out in the frame of SAMCO (ANR) project, are threefold: Identify the different sediment storages; Characterise the processes that put sediment into motion; Quantify volumes of sediment storages. We produced a geomorphic map using topographic surveys and aerial photos in order to locate the different sediment storage types and associated processes. This analysis was made with respect to geomorphic coupling and sediment flux activity. In terms of surface area, the dominant landforms in the valley were found to be mass wasting, talus slopes and

  13. Water-budget methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Richard W.; Scanlon, Bridget R.

    2010-01-01

    A water budget is an accounting of water movement into and out of, and storage change within, some control volume. Universal and adaptable are adjectives that reflect key features of water-budget methods for estimating recharge. The universal concept of mass conservation of water implies that water-budget methods are applicable over any space and time scales (Healy et al., 2007). The water budget of a soil column in a laboratory can be studied at scales of millimeters and seconds. A water-budget equation is also an integral component of atmospheric general circulation models used to predict global climates over periods of decades or more. Water-budget equations can be easily customized by adding or removing terms to accurately portray the peculiarities of any hydrologic system. The equations are generally not bound by assumptions on mechanisms by which water moves into, through, and out of the control volume of interest. So water-budget methods can be used to estimate both diffuse and focused recharge, and recharge estimates are unaffected by phenomena such as preferential flow paths within the unsaturated zone. Water-budget methods represent the largest class of techniques for estimating recharge. Most hydrologic models are derived from a water-budget equation and can therefore be classified as water-budget models. It is not feasible to address all water-budget methods in a single chapter. This chapter is limited to discussion of the “residual” water-budget approach, whereby all variables in a water-budget equation, except for recharge, are independently measured or estimated and recharge is set equal to the residual. This chapter is closely linked with Chapter 3, on modeling methods, because the equations presented here form the basis of many models and because models are often used to estimate individual components in water-budget studies. Water budgets for streams and other surface-water bodies are addressed in Chapter 4. The use of soil-water budgets and

  14. THE SUBJECTS OF MEDIADISCOURSE OF BUDGET PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olesya Vyacheslavovna Sulina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The author highlights the media discourse of the budget process in its subject-temporal dimension. Place and role of the subjects of media discourse of the budget process are determined on the basis of the analysis of budgetary legislation, practical implementation of the budgeting process in the executive and legislative bodies and its reflection in the media. Public discourse of budgeting process includes not only participants, who are legally empowered, but also other actors involved in the formation of the informational agenda regarding the budget. For example, the subjects of media discourse of the budget process are executive and legislative bodies, regulatory authorities, recipients of budgetary funds, political parties, professional and expert communities, civil society activists. Sociocommunicative description of the budgeting process and its subjects is presented based on analytical and inductive methods. At the same time political journalism is not only a space for the formation of media discourse and reflection of the budgetary process, but also one of the indicators of the state of the political system as a whole. The conclusions present methodological aids for the media discourse analysis of specific cases of the budgeting process and may be used for scientific and practical research.

  15. Automatic quantitative morphological analysis of interacting galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Shamir, Lior; Wallin, John

    2013-01-01

    The large number of galaxies imaged by digital sky surveys reinforces the need for computational methods for analyzing galaxy morphology. While the morphology of most galaxies can be associated with a stage on the Hubble sequence, morphology of galaxy mergers is far more complex due to the combination of two or more galaxies with different morphologies and the interaction between them. Here we propose a computational method based on unsupervised machine learning that can quantitatively analyze morphologies of galaxy mergers and associate galaxies by their morphology. The method works by first generating multiple synthetic galaxy models for each galaxy merger, and then extracting a large set of numerical image content descriptors for each galaxy model. These numbers are weighted using Fisher discriminant scores, and then the similarities between the galaxy mergers are deduced using a variation of Weighted Nearest Neighbor analysis such that the Fisher scores are used as weights. The similarities between the ga...

  16. The European Union Budget

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrvoje Šimović

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the current budgetary system of the EU, its features and the differences in it from the budgets of nation states, particularly from the standpoint of budgetary revenue and expenditure. Below there is an analysis of the system of the redistribution of EU budgetary resources via the Structural Funds, leading to different net positions of the member states in the use of budgetary resources. The object of the system is to achieve the maximum economic and social cohesion within the EU. The article points out that processes of EU enlargement and the creation of a new “financial perspective” will lead to many problems in the fulfilment of these objectives.

  17. Budget Summary of Changes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation — The Summary of Changes dataset extracted from PBGC's congressional budget justification. It contains all administrative and program increases and decreases including...

  18. Budget and budgetary process in Romania

    OpenAIRE

    Gherghina DRILA

    2010-01-01

    The unitary system of budgets was an important moment in the evolution of public finances, creating the framework for more effective management and control over allocated funds, public finances becoming those interactive tools used to match the requirements of economic and social environment, also being a catalyst for development. Romanian economy hasn’t matured yet, we are to achieve satisfactory participation in Gross Domestic Product (GDP) which, concerning the budget, should be translated...

  19. 7 CFR 3402.14 - Budget and budget narrative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Budget and budget narrative. 3402.14 Section 3402.14 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COOPERATIVE STATE RESEARCH, EDUCATION... budget narrative. Applicants must prepare the Budget, Form CSREES-2004, and a budget...

  20. Understanding Budget Reality in The Perspective of Symbolic Interactionism (P.105-118

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilis Ardini

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to interpret the meaning of budget on one of the StateOwned Enterprises (SOEs to minimize conflict between principaland agent. Analysis is done using symbolic interactionism method in interpretive paradigm. Data collection is conducted using in depthinterviews with informants who are very familiar with budgeting in PT Perkebunan Nusantara (PTPN. The results of this study reveal that budgeting process involves the interaction and action between the principal and the agent based on their own experiences in preparing the budget. Decision making is sorely needed, especially in a condition where an individual is able to free himself from the crisis called epiphany. Epiphany is a moment of experience that makes an impression on one’s life so as to form a character is called epiphany. It could be said that epiphany is the most critical moment ever experienced by someone that cannot be forgotten(Denzim, 1989 Social fact describes that a capitalistic company ownership thinks of itself with the purpose of fulfilling personal desires and prosperity, so in implementing budget preparation consisting of the symbol of numbers, it is always covered by passion of greed. Conflict of interest is very noticeable when the preparation and adoption of the budget is filled with a variety of interests. Regulatory system is becoming part of legitimate stage of budgeting that has become the elements of capitalist company ownership that eventually reap capitalist values   in the accounting information, in which the decisions and the economic actions are also based on the capitalist values. The implication of this research is expected to provide practical recommendations to the good cooperation between the agent and principal in preparing the budget. Keywords: budget, capitalist, symbolic interactionism,principal,agent

  1. Hydrophilic interaction chromatographic analysis of anthocyanins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willemse, Chandré M; Stander, Maria A; de Villiers, André

    2013-12-06

    Hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) provides an alternative separation mode for the analysis of phenolic compounds, in which aqueous-organic mobile phases with polar stationary phases are used. This paper reports the evaluation of HILIC for the analysis of the natural pigments anthocyanins, which are of importance because of their chromophoric properties and a range of health benefits associated with their consumption. Several HILIC stationary phases (silica, diol, amine, cyanopropyl and amide) and mobile phase combinations were evaluated, with the latter proving particularly important due to the distinctive chromatographic behaviour of anthocyanins. Diode array detection was used for selective detection of anthocyanins, while high resolution quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (Q-TOF-MS) was used for compound identification. The potential of HILIC separation is demonstrated for a range of anthocyanins varying in glycosylation and acylation patterns found in blueberries, grape skins, black beans, red cabbage and red radish. HILIC is shown to be a complementary separation method to reversed phase liquid chromatography (RP-LC) due to the alternative retention mechanism.

  2. Dynamical influence of gravity waves generated by the Vestfjella Mountains in Antarctica: radar observations, fine-scale modelling and kinetic energy budget analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Arnault

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Gravity waves generated by the Vestfjella Mountains (in western Droning Maud Land, Antarctica, southwest of the Finnish/Swedish Aboa/Wasa station have been observed with the Moveable atmospheric radar for Antarctica (MARA during the SWEDish Antarctic Research Programme (SWEDARP in December 2007/January 2008. These radar observations are compared with a 2-month Weather Research Forecast (WRF model experiment operated at 2 km horizontal resolution. A control simulation without orography is also operated in order to separate unambiguously the contribution of the mountain waves on the simulated atmospheric flow. This contribution is then quantified with a kinetic energy budget analysis computed in the two simulations. The results of this study confirm that mountain waves reaching lower-stratospheric heights break through convective overturning and generate inertia gravity waves with a smaller vertical wavelength, in association with a brief depletion of kinetic energy through frictional dissipation and negative vertical advection. The kinetic energy budget also shows that gravity waves have a strong influence on the other terms of the budget, i.e. horizontal advection and horizontal work of pressure forces, so evaluating the influence of gravity waves on the mean-flow with the vertical advection term alone is not sufficient, at least in this case. We finally obtain that gravity waves generated by the Vestfjella Mountains reaching lower stratospheric heights generally deplete (create kinetic energy in the lower troposphere (upper troposphere–lower stratosphere, in contradiction with the usual decelerating effect attributed to gravity waves on the zonal circulation in the upper troposphere–lower stratosphere.

  3. Zero-based budgeting: Pathway to sustainable budget implementation in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udeh Francis Nnoli

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the application of Zero-Based Budgeting (ZBB system to budget implementation by the Federal Government of Nigeria by ascertaining among others, the relationship between ZBB approach and budget performance indices in Nigeria. To achieve the above, primary data were obtained through questionnaires that were specifically designed for this study. The data obtained were analysed with the SPSS version 21. The statistical tools employed were Analysis of Variance (ANOVA and Pearson Correlation Coefficiant (PCC. The Cronbach’s Alpha reliability test was used to test the internal consistency/reliability of the instrument used for the study. On the basis of the analysis, we found that there is significant difference in the effectiveness of ZBB in terms of budget implementation compared to the Traditional Budgeting System (TBS. It was also found that the application of ZBB tend to be performance-driven and is able to detect the redundant programmes/projects and staff, thereby recommending either realignment, discharge, transfer or redeployment of projects or resources. The study therefore, recommends among others that ZBB should be encouraged as a good means of budget implementation and also close monitoring of budget execution should be enshrined in work ethics at every stage of budget preparation and implementation in the country. This is believed would go a long way to strengthen measures aimed at mitigating poor budget implementation in the country.

  4. Budgeting Based on Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Kelt L.

    2011-01-01

    Every program in a school or school district has, or once had, a purpose. The purpose was most likely promoted, argued and debated among school constituencies--parents, teachers, administrators and school board members--before it was eventually approved. This process occurs year after year, budget after budget. In itself, this is not necessarily a…

  5. Managing the Student Budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faller, Martha Lewkus

    1984-01-01

    Looks at the factors complicating the management of student worker budgets in libraries (e.g., the number of separate but interrelated budgets involved). Proposes a budgetary system incorporating double-entry bookkeeping, continuous proving, and combination receipts and disbursements. Considers the advantages of the system and details procedures.…

  6. Learning From Low Budgets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Chinese filmmakers turn small-budget productions into box-office successes Organizers of China’s upcoming film festivals are finally giving recognition to the little guys—low budget films—to encourage a generation of young,talented directors.

  7. Outcome based state budget allocation for diabetes prevention programs using multi-criteria optimization with robust weights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrotra, Sanjay; Kim, Kibaek

    2011-12-01

    We consider the problem of outcomes based budget allocations to chronic disease prevention programs across the United States (US) to achieve greater geographical healthcare equity. We use Diabetes Prevention and Control Programs (DPCP) by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) as an example. We present a multi-criteria robust weighted sum model for such multi-criteria decision making in a group decision setting. The principal component analysis and an inverse linear programming techniques are presented and used to study the actual 2009 budget allocation by CDC. Our results show that the CDC budget allocation process for the DPCPs is not likely model based. In our empirical study, the relative weights for different prevalence and comorbidity factors and the corresponding budgets obtained under different weight regions are discussed. Parametric analysis suggests that money should be allocated to states to promote diabetes education and to increase patient-healthcare provider interactions to reduce disparity across the US.

  8. Link Identity Analysis and Power Budget for Deep Space Optical Communications%深空光通信链路特性分析及功率预算

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    詹伟达; 李洪祚; 王志坚; 唐雁峰; 刘仁成

    2011-01-01

    深空光通信链路距离非常远,要求功率预算非常严格.影响通信链路特性的因素很多,功率预算往往需要很复杂的折中考虑.重点分析了链路距离、光学天线直径、光束发散角、大气信道损耗、光学系统损耗、探测器灵敏度等因素对链路方程、探测器信噪比和通信误码率的影响.提出了结合链路方程、信噪比和误码率对发射功率进行预算的新方法.开展了7 km地面间光通信室外演示验证实验,对大气信道损耗、光学系统损耗等进行了测试;开展了光束发散角、探测器灵敏度的室内测试实验.实验结果和理论分析基本吻合,表明该预算方法具有应用于深空光通信的可行性.%The deep space optical communication links are very far away, so a very harsh power budget is required. Since there are many factors affecting the feature of communication link, a very complex trade - offs consideration is often given to the power budget. The paper emphatically analyzes the link distance, optical antenna diameter, beam divergence, atmospheric channel loss, optical system loss, detector sensitivity and other factors affecting the link e-quation, signal to noise ratio (SNR) of detector and bit error rate (BER) of communications. Simultaneously the paper proposes a new method of budgeting transmission power combining the link equation, SNR and BER. An outside demonstration experiment for the ground -ground optical communication of 7km, is carried out, the losses of the atmospheric channel and optical system are tested. Then again many experiments in indoor labs, test the beam divergence and detector sensitivity are performed. The experimental results and theory analysis show that the budget method is feasible in application to the deep space optical communications.

  9. Exclusively visual analysis of classroom group interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Laura; Scherr, Rachel E.; Zickler, Todd; Mazur, Eric

    2016-12-01

    Large-scale audiovisual data that measure group learning are time consuming to collect and analyze. As an initial step towards scaling qualitative classroom observation, we qualitatively coded classroom video using an established coding scheme with and without its audio cues. We find that interrater reliability is as high when using visual data only—without audio—as when using both visual and audio data to code. Also, interrater reliability is high when comparing use of visual and audio data to visual-only data. We see a small bias to code interactions as group discussion when visual and audio data are used compared with video-only data. This work establishes that meaningful educational observation can be made through visual information alone. Further, it suggests that after initial work to create a coding scheme and validate it in each environment, computer-automated visual coding could drastically increase the breadth of qualitative studies and allow for meaningful educational analysis on a far greater scale.

  10. ANALYSIS OF THE INFLUENCE OF THROMBOEMBOLIC COMPLICATIONS PREVENTION WITH ORAL ANTICOAGULANTS ON BUDGET IN PATIENTS WITH NON-VALVULAR ATRIAL FIBRILLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Rudakova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Atrial fibrillation (AF is a risk factor for thromboembolic complications, requiring administration of vitamin K antagonists (warfarin or the new oral anticoagulants (apixaban, dabigatran and rivaroxaban.Aim. To assess the influence of apixaban use on the budget as an alternative to warfarin, dabigatran or rivaroxaban use in patients with non-valvular AF in the Russian Federation (RF.Material and methods. The analysis was performed with the perspective of the health care budget with 5 year horizon period and by the pharmacoeconomic model developed by Pharmerit International (Rotterdam, Netherlands and adapted for the RF. The cardiovascular complications rate in the model was in line with the results of comparative clinical trials: ARISTOTLE, AVERROES, RE-LY, ROCKET-AF. The analysis suggested that 100% of patients with atrial fibrillation were transferred on apixaban instead of warfarin, dabigatran or rivaroxaban. The analysis was based on the assumption that patients were fully committed to the therapy over the horizon of the study, ie, refusal of treatment was not considered. The possibility of episodes of ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes, the severity of which corresponded to previously published data for the Russian population, was considered in the study. The present study was performed based on two scenarios. In the first of them the cost of anticoagulation therapy was determined on the basis of the average weighted prices of public procurement for the period from 04.01.2014 to 01.04.2015. The alternative scenario purported to demonstrate potential savings of the budget of the health care system on the inclusion of apixaban in the list of essential drugs. This scenario took into account that the cost of dabigatran and rivaroxaban corresponded to registered maximum selling price including 10% VAT and 10% of the wholesale allowance and the cost of apixaban - presumed maximum selling price which the producer intends to register in case the

  11. ANALYSIS OF THE INFLUENCE OF THROMBOEMBOLIC COMPLICATIONS PREVENTION WITH ORAL ANTICOAGULANTS ON BUDGET IN PATIENTS WITH NON-VALVULAR ATRIAL FIBRILLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Rudakova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Atrial fibrillation (AF is a risk factor for thromboembolic complications, requiring administration of vitamin K antagonists (warfarin or the new oral anticoagulants (apixaban, dabigatran and rivaroxaban.Aim. To assess the influence of apixaban use on the budget as an alternative to warfarin, dabigatran or rivaroxaban use in patients with non-valvular AF in the Russian Federation (RF.Material and methods. The analysis was performed with the perspective of the health care budget with 5 year horizon period and by the pharmacoeconomic model developed by Pharmerit International (Rotterdam, Netherlands and adapted for the RF. The cardiovascular complications rate in the model was in line with the results of comparative clinical trials: ARISTOTLE, AVERROES, RE-LY, ROCKET-AF. The analysis suggested that 100% of patients with atrial fibrillation were transferred on apixaban instead of warfarin, dabigatran or rivaroxaban. The analysis was based on the assumption that patients were fully committed to the therapy over the horizon of the study, ie, refusal of treatment was not considered. The possibility of episodes of ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes, the severity of which corresponded to previously published data for the Russian population, was considered in the study. The present study was performed based on two scenarios. In the first of them the cost of anticoagulation therapy was determined on the basis of the average weighted prices of public procurement for the period from 04.01.2014 to 01.04.2015. The alternative scenario purported to demonstrate potential savings of the budget of the health care system on the inclusion of apixaban in the list of essential drugs. This scenario took into account that the cost of dabigatran and rivaroxaban corresponded to registered maximum selling price including 10% VAT and 10% of the wholesale allowance and the cost of apixaban - presumed maximum selling price which the producer intends to register in case the

  12. Phenomenological analysis of the interacting boson model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatch, R. L.; Levit, S.

    1982-01-01

    The classical Hamiltonian of the interacting boson model is defined and expressed in terms of the conventional quadrupole variables. This is used in the analyses of the dynamics in the various limits of the model. The purpose is to determine the range and the features of the collective phenomena which the interacting boson model is capable of describing. In the commonly used version of the interacting boson model with one type of the s and d bosons and quartic interactions, this capability has certain limitations and the model should be used with care. A more sophisticated version of the interacting boson model with neutron and proton bosons is not discussed. NUCLEAR STRUCTURE Interacting bosons, classical IBM Hamiltonian in quadrupole variables, phenomenological content of the IBM and its limitations.

  13. Spatial frequency domain error budget

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauschildt, H; Krulewich, D

    1998-08-27

    The aim of this paper is to describe a methodology for designing and characterizing machines used to manufacture or inspect parts with spatial-frequency-based specifications. At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, one of our responsibilities is to design or select the appropriate machine tools to produce advanced optical and weapons systems. Recently, many of the component tolerances for these systems have been specified in terms of the spatial frequency content of residual errors on the surface. We typically use an error budget as a sensitivity analysis tool to ensure that the parts manufactured by a machine will meet the specified component tolerances. Error budgets provide the formalism whereby we account for all sources of uncertainty in a process, and sum them to arrive at a net prediction of how "precisely" a manufactured component can meet a target specification. Using the error budget, we are able to minimize risk during initial stages by ensuring that the machine will produce components that meet specifications before the machine is actually built or purchased. However, the current error budgeting procedure provides no formal mechanism for designing machines that can produce parts with spatial-frequency-based specifications. The output from the current error budgeting procedure is a single number estimating the net worst case or RMS error on the work piece. This procedure has limited ability to differentiate between low spatial frequency form errors versus high frequency surface finish errors. Therefore the current error budgeting procedure can lead us to reject a machine that is adequate or accept a machine that is inadequate. This paper will describe a new error budgeting methodology to aid in the design and characterization of machines used to manufacture or inspect parts with spatial-frequency-based specifications. The output from this new procedure is the continuous spatial frequency content of errors that result on a machined part. If the machine

  14. Interaction Pattern Analysis in cMOOCs Based on the Connectivist Interaction and Engagement Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhijun; Anderson, Terry; Chen, Li; Barbera, Elena

    2017-01-01

    Connectivist learning is interaction-centered learning. A framework describing interaction and cognitive engagement in connectivist learning was constructed using logical reasoning techniques. The framework and analysis was designed to help researchers and learning designers understand and adapt the characteristics and principles of interaction in…

  15. The relationship between budget allocated and budget utilized of faculties in an academic institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Wan Noor Hayatie Wan Abdul; Aziz, Rossidah Wan Abdul; Shuib, Adibah; Razi, Nor Faezah Mohamad

    2014-06-01

    Budget planning enables an organization to set priorities towards achieving certain goals and to identify the highest priorities to be accomplished with the available funds, thus allowing allocation of resources according to the set priorities and constraints. On the other hand, budget execution and monitoring enables allocated funds or resources to be utilized as planned. Our study concerns with investigating the relationship between budget allocation and budget utilization of faculties in a public university in Malaysia. The focus is on the university's operations management financial allocation and utilization based on five categories which are emolument expenditure, academic or services and supplies expenditure, maintenance expenditure, student expenditure and others expenditure. The analysis on financial allocation and utilization is performed based on yearly quarters. Data collected include three years faculties' budget allocation and budget utilization performance involving a sample of ten selected faculties of a public university in Malaysia. Results show that there are positive correlation and significant relationship between quarterly budget allocation and quarterly budget utilization. This study found that emolument give the highest contribution to the total allocation and total utilization for all quarters. This paper presents some findings based on statistical analysis conducted which include descriptive statistics and correlation analysis.

  16. Dynamic Stall Analysis Utilizing Interactive Computer Graphics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-03-01

    Blade-Vortex Interaction (BV[) studies. solkes the two-dimen i,)nal, unsteady, compressible Euler and Napier -Stokes equations in strong conservation...requirements, interactive computer graphics workstations have been evolved to complement the super -computer. Workstation capabilities, in terms of

  17. Who needs budgets?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope, Jeremy; Fraser, Robin

    2003-02-01

    Budgeting, as most corporations practice it, should be abolished. That may sound radical, but doing so would further companies' long-running efforts to transform themselves into developed networks that can nimbly adjust to market conditions. Most other building blocks are in place, but companies continue to restrict themselves by relying on inflexible budget processes and the command-and-control culture that budgeting entails. A number of companies have rejected the foregone conclusions embedded in budgets, and they've given up the self-interested wrangling over what the data indicate. In the absence of budgets, alternative goals and measures--some financial, such as cost-to-income ratios, and some nonfinancial, such as time to market-move to the foreground. Companies that have rejected budgets require employees to measure themselves against the performance of competitors and against internal peer groups. Because employees don't know whether they've succeeded until they can look back on the results of a given period, they must use every ounce of energy to ensure that they beat the competition. A key feature of many companies that have rejected budgets is the use of rolling forecasts, which are created every few months and typically cover five to eight quarters. Because the forecasts are regularly revised, they allow companies to continuously adapt to market conditions. The forecasting practices of two such companies, both based in Sweden, are examined in detail: the bank Svenska Handelsbanken and the wholesaler Ahlsell. Though the first companies to reject budgets were located in Northern Europe, organizations that have gone beyond budgeting can be found in a range of countries and industries. Their practices allow them to unleash the power of today's management tools and realize the potential of a fully decentralized organization.

  18. Economic analysis and budget impact of clostridial collagenase ointment compared with medicinal honey for treatment of pressure ulcers in the US

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mearns ES

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Elizabeth S Mearns,1 Michael Liang,1 Brendan L Limone,1 Adrienne M Gilligan,1 Jeffrey D Miller,1 Kathleen D Schaum,2 Curtis R Waycaster2 1Truven Health Analytics, an IBM Company, Cambridge, MA, USA; 2Smith & Nephew, Inc., Fort Worth, TX, USA Objectives: Pressure ulcer (PU treatment poses significant clinical and economic challenges to health-care systems. The aim of this study was to assess the cost-effectiveness and budget impact of enzymatic debridement with clostridial collagenase ointment (CCO compared with autolytic debridement with medicinal honey (MH for PU treatment from a US payer/Medicare perspective in the hospital outpatient department setting.Methods: A cost-effectiveness analysis using a Markov model was developed using a 1-week cycle length across a 1-year time horizon. The three health states were inflammation/senescence, granulation/proliferation (ie, patients achieving 100% granulation, and epithelialization. Data sources included the US Wound Registry, Medicare fee schedules, and other published clinical and cost studies about PU treatment.Results: In the base case analysis over a 1-year time horizon, CCO was the economically dominant strategy (ie, simultaneously conferring greater benefit at less cost. Patients treated with CCO experienced 22.7 quality-adjusted life weeks (QALWs at a cost of $6,161 over 1 year, whereas MH patients experienced 21.9 QALWs at a cost of $7,149. Patients treated with CCO achieved 11.5 granulation weeks and 6.0 epithelization weeks compared with 10.6 and 4.4 weeks for MH, respectively. The number of clinic visits was 40.1 for CCO vs 43.4 for MH, and the number of debridements was 12.3 for CCO compared with 17.6 for MH. Probabilistic sensitivity analyses determined CCO dominant in 72% of 10,000 iterations and cost-effective in 91%, assuming a benchmark willingness-to-pay threshold of $50,000/quality-adjusted life year ($962/QALW. The budget impact analysis showed that for every 1% of patients

  19. Budget impact analysis of antiretroviral less drug regimen simplification in HIV-positive patients on the Italian National Health Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Restelli U

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Umberto Restelli,1,2 Massimo Andreoni,3 Andrea Antinori,4 Marzia Bonfanti,2 Giovanni Di Perri,5 Massimo Galli,6 Adriano Lazzarin,7 Giuliano Rizzardini,8,9 Davide Croce1,2 1Department of Community Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa; 2Centro di Ricerca in Economia e Management in Sanità e nel Sociale (CREMS, Università Carlo Cattaneo – LIUC, Castellanza (VA, Italy; 3Clinical Infectious Diseases, Tor Vergata University (PTV, Rome, Italy; 4Clinical Department, National Institute for Infectious Diseases "L. Spallanzani," Rome, Italy; 5Department of Medical Sciences, Infectious Diseases, Amedeo di Savoia Hospital, Turin, Italy; 6Third Division of Infectious Diseases, "Luigi Sacco" Hospital, Milan, Italy; 7Department of Infectious Diseases, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy; 8First and Second Divisions of Infectious Diseases, "Luigi Sacco" Hospital, Milan, Italy; 9School of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa Background: Deintensification and less drug regimen (LDR antiretroviral therapy (ART strategies have proved to be effective in terms of maintaining viral suppression in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-positive patients, increasing tolerability, and reducing toxicity of antiretroviral drugs administered to patients. However, the economic impact of these strategies have not been widely investigated. The aim of the study is to evaluate the economic impact that ART LDR could have on the Italian National Health Service (INHS budget. Methods: A budget impact model was structured to assess the potential savings for the INHS by the use of ART LDR for HIV-positive patients with a 3 year perspective. Data concerning ART cost, patient distribution within different ARTs, and probabilities for patients to change ART on a yearly basis were collected within four Italian infectious diseases departments, providing

  20. A typology of affordances: untangling sociomaterial interactions through video analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Osch, W.; Mendelson, O.

    2011-01-01

    In this study we untangle the sociomaterial interactions between developers, users, and artifacts by analyzing what types of affordances occur in the interactions between actors and artifacts in the context of group generativity. Hereto, we conducted an in-depth ethnographic and interaction analysis

  1. FY 1997 congressional budget request: Budget highlights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    This is an overview of the 1997 budget request for the US DOE. The topics of the overview include a policy overview, the budget by business line, business lines by organization, crosswalk from business line to appropriation, summary by appropriation, energy supply research and development, uranium supply and enrichment activities, uranium enrichment decontamination and decommissioning fund, general science and research, weapons activities, defense environmental restoration and waste management, defense nuclear waste disposal, departmental administration, Office of the Inspector General, power marketing administrations, Federal Energy Regulatory commission, nuclear waste disposal fund, fossil energy research and development, naval petroleum and oil shale reserves, energy conservation, economic regulation, strategic petroleum reserve, energy information administration, clean coal technology and a Department of Energy Field Facilities map.

  2. Analysis of Protein-Membrane Interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kemmer, Gerdi Christine

    Cellular membranes are complex structures, consisting of hundreds of different lipids and proteins. These membranes act as barriers between distinct environments, constituting hot spots for many essential functions of the cell, including signaling, energy conversion, and transport. These functions...... are implemented by soluble proteins reversibly binding to, as well as by integral membrane proteins embedded in, cellular membranes. The activity and interaction of these proteins is furthermore modulated by the lipids of the membrane. Here, liposomes were used as model membrane systems to investigate...... interactions between proteins and lipids. First, interactions of soluble proteins with membranes and specific lipids were studied, using two proteins: Annexin V and Tma1. The protein was first subjected to a lipid/protein overlay assay to identify candidate interaction partners in a fast and efficient way...

  3. Flow-thermal analysis of power plant with budget dry pocket filter type TTFP 6/220 in foundry AD Kikinda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salemović Duško R.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the power budget is given in the application of contemporary and modern methods in the treatment of air from the production facility in which the electric arc furnace. For this calculation, for existing construction and known dimensions dusters calculate flow rates and temperatures at various points of the complete piping systems for waste gases. The analysis contributes maximum energy utilization, significant financial savings and increase in energy and environmental efficiency. Engineering supervision and active computer control of a computer in pieces of PLC are supported. The possible errors are diagnosed and their causes are explained and the procedures to be followed when it comes to them. Also, the paper gives the guidelines for the maintenance and servicing of equipment for proper operation of the filter plant. The tables presented in the plant control activities to be conducted at periodic intervals.

  4. Budget Automation System

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — BAS is the central Agency system used to integrate strategic planning, annual planning, budgeting and financial management. BAS contains resource (dollars and FTE),...

  5. Analysis of Human-Spacesuit Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Neha

    2015-01-01

    Astronauts sustain injuries of various natures such as finger delamination, joint pain, and redness due to their interaction with the space suit. The role of the Anthropometry and Biomechanics Facility is to understand the biomechanics, environmental variables, and ergonomics of the suit. This knowledge is then used to make suggestions for improvement in future iterations of the space suit assembly to prevent injuries while allowing astronauts maneuverability, comfort, and tactility. The projects I was involved in were the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) space suit stiffness study and the glove feasibility study. The EMU project looked at the forces exerted on the shoulder, arm, and wrist when subjects performed kinematic tasks with and without a pressurized suit. The glove study consisted of testing three conditions - the Series 4000 glove, the Phase VI glove, and the no glove condition. With more than forty channels of sensor data total, it was critical to develop programs that could analyze data with basic descriptive statistics and generate relevant graphs to help understand what happens within the space suit and glove. In my project I created a Graphical User Interface (GUI) in MATLAB that would help me visualize what each sensor was doing within a task. The GUI is capable of displaying overlain plots and can be synchronized with video. This was helpful during the stiffness testing to visualize how the forces on the arm acted while the subject performed tasks such as shoulder adduction/abduction and bicep curls. The main project of focus, however, was the glove comparison study. I wrote MATLAB programs which generated movies of the strain vectors during specific tasks. I also generated graphs that summarized the differences between each glove for the strain, shear and FSR sensors. Preliminary results indicate that the Phase VI glove places less strain and shear on the hand. Future work includes continued data analysis of surveys and sensor data. In the end

  6. Global Carbon Budget 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Quéré, Corinne; Andrew, Robbie M.; Canadell, Josep G.; Sitch, Stephen; Korsbakken, Jan Ivar; Peters, Glen P.; Manning, Andrew C.; Boden, Thomas A.; Tans, Pieter P.; Houghton, Richard A.; Keeling, Ralph F.; Alin, Simone; Andrews, Oliver D.; Anthoni, Peter; Barbero, Leticia; Bopp, Laurent; Chevallier, Frédéric; Chini, Louise P.; Ciais, Philippe; Currie, Kim; Delire, Christine; Doney, Scott C.; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Gkritzalis, Thanos; Harris, Ian; Hauck, Judith; Haverd, Vanessa; Hoppema, Mario; Klein Goldewijk, Kees; Jain, Atul K.; Kato, Etsushi; Körtzinger, Arne; Landschützer, Peter; Lefèvre, Nathalie; Lenton, Andrew; Lienert, Sebastian; Lombardozzi, Danica; Melton, Joe R.; Metzl, Nicolas; Millero, Frank; Monteiro, Pedro M. S.; Munro, David R.; Nabel, Julia E. M. S.; Nakaoka, Shin-ichiro; O'Brien, Kevin; Olsen, Are; Omar, Abdirahman M.; Ono, Tsuneo; Pierrot, Denis; Poulter, Benjamin; Rödenbeck, Christian; Salisbury, Joe; Schuster, Ute; Schwinger, Jörg; Séférian, Roland; Skjelvan, Ingunn; Stocker, Benjamin D.; Sutton, Adrienne J.; Takahashi, Taro; Tian, Hanqin; Tilbrook, Bronte; van der Laan-Luijkx, Ingrid T.; van der Werf, Guido R.; Viovy, Nicolas; Walker, Anthony P.; Wiltshire, Andrew J.; Zaehle, Sönke

    2016-11-01

    .3 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1, ELUC 1.0 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1, GATM 4.5 ± 0.1 GtC yr-1, SOCEAN 2.6 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1, and SLAND 3.1 ± 0.9 GtC yr-1. For year 2015 alone, the growth in EFF was approximately zero and emissions remained at 9.9 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1, showing a slowdown in growth of these emissions compared to the average growth of 1.8 % yr-1 that took place during 2006-2015. Also, for 2015, ELUC was 1.3 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1, GATM was 6.3 ± 0.2 GtC yr-1, SOCEAN was 3.0 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1, and SLAND was 1.9 ± 0.9 GtC yr-1. GATM was higher in 2015 compared to the past decade (2006-2015), reflecting a smaller SLAND for that year. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration reached 399.4 ± 0.1 ppm averaged over 2015. For 2016, preliminary data indicate the continuation of low growth in EFF with +0.2 % (range of -1.0 to +1.8 %) based on national emissions projections for China and USA, and projections of gross domestic product corrected for recent changes in the carbon intensity of the economy for the rest of the world. In spite of the low growth of EFF in 2016, the growth rate in atmospheric CO2 concentration is expected to be relatively high because of the persistence of the smaller residual terrestrial sink (SLAND) in response to El Niño conditions of 2015-2016. From this projection of EFF and assumed constant ELUC for 2016, cumulative emissions of CO2 will reach 565 ± 55 GtC (2075 ± 205 GtCO2) for 1870-2016, about 75 % from EFF and 25 % from ELUC. This living data update documents changes in the methods and data sets used in this new carbon budget compared with previous publications of this data set (Le Quéré et al., 2015b, a, 2014, 2013). All observations presented here can be downloaded from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (doi:10.3334/CDIAC/GCP_2016).

  7. A novel statistic for genome-wide interaction analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xuesen; Dong, Hua; Luo, Li; Zhu, Yun; Peng, Gang; Reveille, John D; Xiong, Momiao

    2010-09-23

    Although great progress in genome-wide association studies (GWAS) has been made, the significant SNP associations identified by GWAS account for only a few percent of the genetic variance, leading many to question where and how we can find the missing heritability. There is increasing interest in genome-wide interaction analysis as a possible source of finding heritability unexplained by current GWAS. However, the existing statistics for testing interaction have low power for genome-wide interaction analysis. To meet challenges raised by genome-wide interactional analysis, we have developed a novel statistic for testing interaction between two loci (either linked or unlinked). The null distribution and the type I error rates of the new statistic for testing interaction are validated using simulations. Extensive power studies show that the developed statistic has much higher power to detect interaction than classical logistic regression. The results identified 44 and 211 pairs of SNPs showing significant evidence of interactions with FDRanalysis is a valuable tool for finding remaining missing heritability unexplained by the current GWAS, and the developed novel statistic is able to search significant interaction between SNPs across the genome. Real data analysis showed that the results of genome-wide interaction analysis can be replicated in two independent studies.

  8. Information Retrieval Interaction: an Analysis of Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farahnaz Sadoughi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Information searching process is an interactive process; thus users has control on searching process, and they can manage the results of the search process. In this process, user's question became more mature, according to retrieved results. In addition, on the side of the information retrieval system, there are some processes that could not be realized, unless by user. Practically, this issue, is egregious in “Interaction” -i.e. process of user connection to other system elements- and in “Relevance judgment”. This paper had a glance to existence of “Interaction” in information retrieval, in first. Then the tradition model of information retrieval and its strenght and weak points were reviewed. Finally, the current models of interactive information retrieval includes: Belkin episodic model, Ingwersen cognitive model, Sarasevic stratified model, and Spinks interactive feedback model were elucidated.

  9. Analysis of Interaction Factors Between Two Piles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Ming; CHEN Long-zhu

    2008-01-01

    A rigorous analytical method is presented for calculating the interaction factor between two identical piles subjected to vertical loads. Following the technique proposed by Muki and Sternberg, the problem is decomposed into an extended soil mass and two fictitious piles characterized respectively by Young's modulus of the soil and that of the difference between the pile and soil. The unknown axial forces along fictitious piles are determined by solving a Fredholm integral equation of the second kind, which imposes the compatibility condition that the axial strains of the fictitious piles are equal to those corresponding to the centroidal axes of the extended soil. The real pile forces and displacements can subequally be calculated based on the determined fictitious pile forces, and finally, the desired pile interaction factors may be obtained. Results confirm the validity of the proposed approach and portray the influence of the governing parameters on the pile interaction.

  10. Combinatorial analysis of interacting RNA molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Thomas J X

    2010-01-01

    Recently several minimum free energy (MFE) folding algorithms for predicting the joint structure of two interacting RNA molecules have been proposed. Their folding targets are interaction structures, that can be represented as diagrams with two backbones drawn horizontally on top of each other such that (1) intramolecular and intermolecular bonds are noncrossing and (2) there is no "zig-zag" configuration. This paper studies joint structures with arc-length at least four in which both, interior and exterior stack-lengths are at least two (no isolated arcs). The key idea in this paper is to consider a new type of shape, based on which joint structures can be derived via symbolic enumeration. Our results imply simple asymptotic formulas for the number of joint structures with surprisingly small exponential growth rates. They are of interest in the context of designing prediction algorithms for RNA-RNA interactions.

  11. A novel statistic for genome-wide interaction analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuesen Wu

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Although great progress in genome-wide association studies (GWAS has been made, the significant SNP associations identified by GWAS account for only a few percent of the genetic variance, leading many to question where and how we can find the missing heritability. There is increasing interest in genome-wide interaction analysis as a possible source of finding heritability unexplained by current GWAS. However, the existing statistics for testing interaction have low power for genome-wide interaction analysis. To meet challenges raised by genome-wide interactional analysis, we have developed a novel statistic for testing interaction between two loci (either linked or unlinked. The null distribution and the type I error rates of the new statistic for testing interaction are validated using simulations. Extensive power studies show that the developed statistic has much higher power to detect interaction than classical logistic regression. The results identified 44 and 211 pairs of SNPs showing significant evidence of interactions with FDR<0.001 and 0.001interacting pairs of SNPs in genes LST1/NCR3, CXCR5/BCL9L, and GLS2, some of which were located in the target sites of miR-324-3p, miR-433, and miR-382, as well as 15 pairs of interacting SNPs that had nonsynonymous substitutions. Our results demonstrated that genome-wide interaction analysis is a valuable tool for finding remaining missing heritability unexplained by the current GWAS, and the developed novel statistic is able to search significant interaction between SNPs across the genome. Real data analysis showed that the results of genome-wide interaction analysis can be replicated in two independent studies.

  12. BUDGET AND PUBLIC DEBT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morar Ioan Dan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The issue of public budgeting is an important issue for public policy of the state, for the simple reason that no money from the state budget can not promote public policy. Budgetary policy is official government Doctrine vision mirror and also represents a starting point for other public policies, which in turn are financed by the public budget. Fiscal policy instruments at its disposal handles the public sector in its structure, and the private sector. Tools such as grant, budgetary allocation, tax, welfare under various forms, direct investments and not least the state aid is used by the state through their budgetary policies to directly and indirectly infuence sector, and the private. Fiscal policies can be grouped according to the structure of the public sector in these components, namely fiscal policy, budgeting and resource allocation policies for financing the budget deficit. An important issue is the financing of the budget deficit budgetary policies. There are two funding possibilities, namely, the higher taxes or more axles site and enter the second call to public loans. Both options involve extra effort from taxpayers in the current fiscal year when they pay higher taxes or a future period when public loans will be repaid. We know that by virtue of "fiscal pact" structural deficits of the member countries of the EU are limited by the European Commission, according to the macro structural stability and budget of each Member State. This problem tempers to some extent the governments of the Member States budgetary appetite, but does not solve the problem of chronic budget deficits. Another issue addressed in this paper is related to the public debt, the absolute amount of its relative level of public datoriri, about the size of GDP, public debt financing and its repayment sources. Sources of public debt issuance and monetary impact on the budget and monetary stability are variables that must underpin the justification of budgetary

  13. Planning for the utilization of the PCDS in studying the interaction of clouds (ISCCP-C data) and the Earth radiation budget (ERBE data)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobowitz, H.

    1986-01-01

    The Pilot Climate Data System (PCDS) affords an opportunity to analyze data from different but highly complementary data sets. Two of these highly complementary data sets supported by the PCDS are the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) and the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE). Both data set sponsors are aware of the utility of one data set to the other, and both projects utilize gridded data on a 2.5 deg by 2.5 deg grid. The ISCCP data have been collected since July 1983, and the NOAA-9 data for ERBE have been collected for more than a year. Therefore, there is a good chance to use these temporally overlapping data sets to investigate hypothesized relationships. Changes in cloudiness affect both cloud albedo feedback (shortwave) and the greenhouse effect (longwave). The relative importance of the effects of clouds on albedo versus outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) in determining the radiation balance has long been a matter of controversy. Now, however, changes in cloud amount as observed by the ISCCPO can be correlated to corresponding changes in the albedo and changes in the OLR from ERBE. Monthly means can be utilized in all instances.

  14. Quantitative timed analysis of interactive Markov chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guck, Dennis; Han, Tingting; Katoen, Joost-Pieter; Neuhausser, M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents new algorithms and accompanying tool support for analyzing interactive Markov chains (IMCs), a stochastic timed 1 1/2-player game in which delays are exponentially distributed. IMCs are compositional and act as semantic model for engineering formalisms such as AADL and dynamic fa

  15. Interactive Graphics Analysis for Aircraft Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, J. C.

    1983-01-01

    Program uses higher-order far field drag minimization. Computer program WDES WDEM preliminary aerodynamic design tool for one or two interacting, subsonic lifting surfaces. Subcritical wing design code employs higher-order far-field drag minimization technique. Linearized aerodynamic theory used. Program written in FORTRAN IV.

  16. Mutual Group Hypnosis: A Social Interaction Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Shirley

    Mutual Group Hypnosis is discussed in terms of its similarity to group dynamics in general and in terms of its similarity to a social interaction program (Role Modeling) designed to foster the expression of warmth and acceptance among group members. Hypnosis also fosters a regression to prelogical thought processes in the service of the ego. Group…

  17. Mutual Group Hypnosis: A Social Interaction Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Shirley

    Mutual Group Hypnosis is discussed in terms of its similarity to group dynamics in general and in terms of its similarity to a social interaction program (Role Modeling) designed to foster the expression of warmth and acceptance among group members. Hypnosis also fosters a regression to prelogical thought processes in the service of the ego. Group…

  18. The Optimization of Budget Outcome to Create Trust in Public Expenditure Allocation on Local Budget

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendri Koeswara

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Planning and budgeting process is the most crucial process in the administration of local government. Results of previous studies in Solok, the increase in the total budget is not accompanied by spending management capabilities. Expenditure of public service has always fluctuated, but ideally should always increasing. This study aimed to analyze the outcome of the budget in the allocation of public spending in an effort to realize the presence of trust on the budget in Solok West Sumatra Province. This study uses qualitative research methods with the type of research that is selected using descriptive type. While the techniques of data collection are done through an interview, observation and documentation study. This study further highlights the emic perspective, is the voice of the informant, not the personal opinion of the researchers (etic. Then, the data analysis is done categorically and chronologically, viewed repeatedly, and will continue to be encoded. To test the verification of data, triangulation is done by comparing the results of interviews with documents obtained in the field and testing of concepts used by researchers with the information given by the informant. The results showed that the pathology was found that budget allocations reflect inefficiencies as a failure of the link between policy, planning, and budgeting as a fragmented system. But on the other hand, it must be admitted there has been “trust” among policymaking actors in allocating public expenditure budget in playing the role in the budget policy.

  19. `Our Changing Climate' - A new interactive game about weather, climate, the Earth's energy budget and the impacts caused by climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colon-Robles, M.; Lorentz, K.; Ruhlman, K.; Gilman, I.; Chambers, L. H.

    2010-12-01

    ‘Our Changing Climate’ is a brand new game developed at NASA’s Langley Research Center by the Informal Education group and the Science Directorate to educate the public on Earth’s climate system how the Sun, ocean, atmosphere, clouds, ice, land, and life interact with each other, and how these interactions are changing due to anthropogenic effects. The game was designed for students in middle school (5th and 8th grade) between the ages of 10-14 as part of the NASA's Summer of Innovation campaign for excellence in science, technology, engineering and mathematics, or STEM, education. The game, ‘Our Changing Climate’, is composed of a series of interactive boards, featuring the following topics: (1) the difference between weather and climate - “Weather vs Climate”, (2) the interactions of clouds and greenhouse gases on short and long wave radiation - “Greenhouse Gases and Clouds”, and (3) the definition of albedo and the importance of bright surfaces over the Arctic - “Arctic Temperature”. Each interactive board presents a climate system and steps the student or spectator through the climate interaction using “clues” and hands-on items that they need to put correctly on the board to understand the concept. Once the student or spectator finishes this part, they then have a better grasp of the concept and are able to understand how these interactions are changing due to the increase in average global temperature. This knowledge is then tested or “driven home” with interactive questions that show how these interactions in our climate are changing today. The concept is then reinforced with an example of a recent event presented in the media. The game has been piloted in outreach and informal settings, as well as for professional development of educators. The game, interactions and engagement of each of the audiences mentioned will be presented.

  20. Spatial representation in the social interaction potential metric: an analysis of scale and parameter sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao; Farber, Steven

    2016-10-01

    The social interaction potential (SIP) metric measures urban structural constraints on social interaction opportunities of a metropolitan region based on the time geographic concept of joint accessibility. Previous implementations of the metric used an interaction surface based on census tracts and the locations of their centroids. This has been shown to be a shortcoming, as the metric strongly depends on the scale of the zoning system in the region, making it difficult to compare the SIP metric between metropolitan regions. This research explores the role of spatial representation in the SIP metric and identifies a suitable grid-based representation that allows for comparison between regions while retaining cost-effectiveness with respect to computational burden. We also report on findings from an extensive sensitivity analysis investigating the SIP metric's input parameters such as a travel flow congestion factor and the length of the allowable time budget for social activities. The results provide new insights on the role of the modifiable areal unit problem in the computation of time geographic measures of accessibility.

  1. Realtime Interaction Analysis of Social Interplay in a Multimodal Musical-Sonic Interaction Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne-Marie

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an approach to the analysis of social interplay among users in a multimodal interaction and musical performance situation. The approach consists of a combined method of realtime sensor data analysis for the description and interpretation of player gestures and video micro......-analysis methods used to describe the interaction situation and the context in which the social interplay takes place. This combined method is used in an iterative process, where the design of interactive games with musical-sonic feedback is improved according to newly discovered understandings and interpretations...

  2. Transcriptome analysis of monocyte-HIV interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tran Huyen

    2010-06-01

    /macrophage dysfunction is involved may only now be emerging or remain yet to be discovered, in particular in view of the limited number of studies focussing on the monocyte response to ART 32. In order to generate novel hypotheses rather than test pre-existing ones in the context of monocyte-HIV interactions, we performed a transcriptome analysis on monocyte samples from patients in different stages of HIV infection and/or combination ART treatment, using a parallel approach of genome-wide microarray analysis and focused gene expression profiling to identify broad areas of monocyte dysfunction and to pinpoint genes which are potentially involved in one or several of these dysfunctions. In particular the factors which are exploited by the monocyte/macrophage to communicate with and/or modulate other immune cells were of interest, as they represent a particularly relevant population 3334 which is a primary target for intervention.

  3. Analysis of Protein-Membrane Interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kemmer, Gerdi Christine

    Cellular membranes are complex structures, consisting of hundreds of different lipids and proteins. These membranes act as barriers between distinct environments, constituting hot spots for many essential functions of the cell, including signaling, energy conversion, and transport. These functions....... Discovered interactions were then probed on the level of the membrane using liposome-based assays. In the second part, a transmembrane protein was investigated. Assays to probe activity of the plasma membrane ATPase (Arabidopsis thaliana H+ -ATPase isoform 2 (AHA2)) in single liposomes using both giant...... are implemented by soluble proteins reversibly binding to, as well as by integral membrane proteins embedded in, cellular membranes. The activity and interaction of these proteins is furthermore modulated by the lipids of the membrane. Here, liposomes were used as model membrane systems to investigate...

  4. Facilitating Discourse Analysis with Interactive Visualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jian; Chevalier, F; Collins, C; Balakrishnan, R

    2012-12-01

    A discourse parser is a natural language processing system which can represent the organization of a document based on a rhetorical structure tree-one of the key data structures enabling applications such as text summarization, question answering and dialogue generation. Computational linguistics researchers currently rely on manually exploring and comparing the discourse structures to get intuitions for improving parsing algorithms. In this paper, we present DAViewer, an interactive visualization system for assisting computational linguistics researchers to explore, compare, evaluate and annotate the results of discourse parsers. An iterative user-centered design process with domain experts was conducted in the development of DAViewer. We report the results of an informal formative study of the system to better understand how the proposed visualization and interaction techniques are used in the real research environment.

  5. Global atmospheric budget of acetaldehyde: 3-D model analysis and constraints from in-situ and satellite observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. B. Millet

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available We construct a global atmospheric budget for acetaldehyde using a 3-D model of atmospheric chemistry (GEOS-Chem, and use an ensemble of observations to evaluate present understanding of its sources and sinks. Hydrocarbon oxidation provides the largest acetaldehyde source in the model (128 Tg a−1, a factor of 4 greater than the previous estimate, with alkanes, alkenes, and ethanol the main precursors. There is also a minor source from isoprene oxidation. We use an updated chemical mechanism for GEOS-Chem, and photochemical acetaldehyde yields are consistent with the Master Chemical Mechanism. We present a new approach to quantifying the acetaldehyde air-sea flux based on the global distribution of light absorption due to colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM derived from satellite ocean color observations. The resulting net ocean emission is 57 Tg a−1, the second largest global source of acetaldehyde. A key uncertainty is the acetaldehyde turnover time in the ocean mixed layer, with quantitative model evaluation over the ocean complicated by known measurement artifacts in clean air. Simulated concentrations in surface air over the ocean generally agree well with aircraft measurements, though the model tends to overestimate the vertical gradient. PAN:NOx ratios are well-simulated in the marine boundary layer, providing some support for the modeled ocean source. We introduce the Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGANv2.1 for acetaldehyde and ethanol and use it to quantify their net flux from living terrestrial plants. Including emissions from decaying plants the total direct acetaldehyde source from the land biosphere is 23 Tg a−1. Other terrestrial acetaldehyde sources include biomass burning (3 Tg a−1 and anthropogenic emissions (2 Tg a−1. Simulated concentrations in the continental boundary layer are generally unbiased and capture the spatial

  6. Interactive visualization and analysis of transitional flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Gregory P; Calo, Victor M; Gaither, Kelly P

    2008-01-01

    A stand-alone visualization application has been developed by a multi-disciplinary, collaborative team with the sole purpose of creating an interactive exploration environment allowing turbulent flow researchers to experiment and validate hypotheses using visualization. This system has specific optimizations made in data management, caching computations, and visualization allowing for the interactive exploration of datasets on the order of 1TB in size. Using this application, the user (co-author Calo) is able to interactively visualize and analyze all regions of a transitional flow volume, including the laminar, transitional and fully turbulent regions. The underlying goal of the visualizations produced from these transitional flow simulations is to localize turbulent spots in the laminar region of the boundary layer, determine under which conditions they form, and follow their evolution. The initiation of turbulent spots, which ultimately lead to full turbulence, was located via a proposed feature detection condition and verified by experimental results. The conditions under which these turbulent spots form and coalesce are validated and presented.

  7. Interaction Analysis through Proteomic Phage Display

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustav N. Sundell

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Phage display is a powerful technique for profiling specificities of peptide binding domains. The method is suited for the identification of high-affinity ligands with inhibitor potential when using highly diverse combinatorial peptide phage libraries. Such experiments further provide consensus motifs for genome-wide scanning of ligands of potential biological relevance. A complementary but considerably less explored approach is to display expression products of genomic DNA, cDNA, open reading frames (ORFs, or oligonucleotide libraries designed to encode defined regions of a target proteome on phage particles. One of the main applications of such proteomic libraries has been the elucidation of antibody epitopes. This review is focused on the use of proteomic phage display to uncover protein-protein interactions of potential relevance for cellular function. The method is particularly suited for the discovery of interactions between peptide binding domains and their targets. We discuss the largely unexplored potential of this method in the discovery of domain-motif interactions of potential biological relevance.

  8. PIC. Profile of Interaction in the Classroom. A Quick Feedback of Interaction Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Ellen

    The Profile of Interaction in the Classroom (PIC) is a short-cut method of interaction analysis that can provide the quick feedback essential to effective supervision of instruction. And because the PIC contains a record of all the behaviors that occurred in the classroom, as well as the sequence, the data may be used to build a traditional…

  9. Using Social Media Sentiment Analysis for Interaction Design Choices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McGuire, Mark; Kampf, Constance Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Social media analytics is an emerging skill for organizations. Currently, developers are exploring ways to create tools for simplifying social media analysis. These tools tend to focus on gathering data, and using systems to make it meaningful. However, we contend that making social media data...... meaningful is by nature a human-computer interaction problem. We examine this problem around the emerging field of sentiment analysis, exploring criteria for designing sentiment analysis systems based in Human Computer interaction, HCI. We contend that effective sentiment analysis affects audience analysis...

  10. Using Social Media Sentiment Analysis for Interaction Design Choices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McGuire, Mark; Kampf, Constance Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Social media analytics is an emerging skill for organizations. Currently, developers are exploring ways to create tools for simplifying social media analysis. These tools tend to focus on gathering data, and using systems to make it meaningful. However, we contend that making social media data...... meaningful is by nature a human-computer interaction problem. We examine this problem around the emerging field of sentiment analysis, exploring criteria for designing sentiment analysis systems based in Human Computer interaction, HCI. We contend that effective sentiment analysis affects audience analysis......, and can serve as a basis for communication design choices that support strategic relationship goals for organizations....

  11. Plasma diagnostics surface analysis and interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Auciello, Orlando

    2013-01-01

    Plasmas and their interaction with materials have become subjects of major interest because of their importance in modern forefront technologies such as microelectronics, fusion energy, and space. Plasmas are used in microelectronics to process semiconductors (etching of patterns for microcircuits, plasma-induced deposition of thin films, etc.); plasmas produce deleterious erosion effects on surfaces of materials used for fusion devices and spaceships exposed to the low earth environment.Diagnostics of plasmas and materials exposed to them are fundamental to the understanding of the physical a

  12. Budgeting and Beyond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohde, Carsten

    Budgets and budget control has been known since the early 19th century1. However the use of budget control was until the beginning of the 1920ies in US primarily related to governmental units and states and to a minor extent to business units in practice. At that time James McKinsey describes...... budgetary control as involving the following: 1. The statement of the plans of all the departments of the business for a certain period of time in the form of estimates 2. The coordination of these estimates into a well-balanced program for the business as a whole. 3. The preparation of reports showing...... a comparison between the actual and the estimated performance, and the revision of the original plans when these reports show that such a revision is necessary. As can be seen from the statement budgetary control includes at the same time a planning and coordination mechanism for actions and performance ex...

  13. Historical analysis and modeling of the forest carbon dynamics using the Carbon Budget Model: an example for the Trento Province (NE, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilli R

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Historical analysis and modeling of the forest carbon dynamics using the Carbon Budget Model: an example for the Trento Province (NE, Italy. The Carbon Budget Model (CBM-CFS3 developed by the Canadian Forest Service was applied to data collected by the last Italian National Forest Inventory (INFC for the Trento Province (NE, Italy. CBM was modified and adapted to the different management types (i.e., even-aged high forests, uneven-aged high forests and coppices and silvicultural systems (including clear cuts, single tree selection systems and thinning applied in this province. The aim of this study was to provide an example of down-scaling of this model from a national to a regional scale, providing (i an historical analysis, from 1995 to 2011, and (ii a projection, from 2012 to 2020, of the forest biomass and the carbon stock evolution. The analysis was based on the harvest rate reported by the Italian National Institute of Statistics (from 1995 to 2011, corrected according to the last INFC data and distinguished between timber and fuel woods and between conifers and broadleaves. Since 2012, we applied a constant harvest rate, equal to about 1300 Mm3 yr-1, estimated from the average harvest rate for the period 2006-2011. Model results were consistent with similar data reported in the literature. The average biomass C stock was 90 Mg C ha-1 and the biomass C stock change was 0.97 Mg C ha-1 yr-1 and 0.87 Mg C ha-1 yr-1, for the period 1995 -2011 and 2012-2020, respectively. The C stock cumulated by the timber products since 1995 was 96 Gg C yr-1, i.e., about 28% of the average annual C stock change of the forests, equal to 345 Gg C yr-1. CBM also provided estimates on the evolution of the age class distribution of the even-aged forests and on the C stock of the DOM forest pools (litter, dead wood and soil. This study demonstrates the utility of CBM to provide estimates at a regional or local scale, using not only the data provided by the forest

  14. 公共预算是可能的吗?——温岭市参与式预算案例研究%Is Public Budget Possible——An Analysis of the Participative Budget of Wenling City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏振华; 张瑶琼

    2011-01-01

    Transparent finance is the basic request of democratic society,and public budget is one of the assuring approaches.In reality,however,it's unpractical to ask the public to participate in the whole course of budget making,executing and supervising.And now,%民主社会的基本要求之一是财政的公开透明,而公共预算正是保证财政公开透明的重要方式之一。但在我国现实情况下,要求所有公众完全参与到预算制定、执行、监督过程中是不现实的,而且当前亦缺乏一种可供所有政府部门借鉴的预算运行模式。因此,通过分析温岭市参与式预算实践机制这一运行模式,可以从中找出其普遍性意义和可推广性特征,为我国公共预算改革的开展深入提供一定借鉴。

  15. Linguistic feature analysis for protein interaction extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelis Chris

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rapid growth of the amount of publicly available reports on biomedical experimental results has recently caused a boost of text mining approaches for protein interaction extraction. Most approaches rely implicitly or explicitly on linguistic, i.e., lexical and syntactic, data extracted from text. However, only few attempts have been made to evaluate the contribution of the different feature types. In this work, we contribute to this evaluation by studying the relative importance of deep syntactic features, i.e., grammatical relations, shallow syntactic features (part-of-speech information and lexical features. For this purpose, we use a recently proposed approach that uses support vector machines with structured kernels. Results Our results reveal that the contribution of the different feature types varies for the different data sets on which the experiments were conducted. The smaller the training corpus compared to the test data, the more important the role of grammatical relations becomes. Moreover, deep syntactic information based classifiers prove to be more robust on heterogeneous texts where no or only limited common vocabulary is shared. Conclusion Our findings suggest that grammatical relations play an important role in the interaction extraction task. Moreover, the net advantage of adding lexical and shallow syntactic features is small related to the number of added features. This implies that efficient classifiers can be built by using only a small fraction of the features that are typically being used in recent approaches.

  16. Single-wave-number representation of nonlinear energy spectrum in elastic-wave turbulence of the Föppl-von Kármán equation: energy decomposition analysis and energy budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Naoto; Takaoka, Masanori

    2014-12-01

    A single-wave-number representation of a nonlinear energy spectrum, i.e., a stretching-energy spectrum, is found in elastic-wave turbulence governed by the Föppl-von Kármán (FvK) equation. The representation enables energy decomposition analysis in the wave-number space and analytical expressions of detailed energy budgets in the nonlinear interactions. We numerically solved the FvK equation and observed the following facts. Kinetic energy and bending energy are comparable with each other at large wave numbers as the weak turbulence theory suggests. On the other hand, stretching energy is larger than the bending energy at small wave numbers, i.e., the nonlinearity is relatively strong. The strong correlation between a mode a(k) and its companion mode a(-k) is observed at the small wave numbers. The energy is input into the wave field through stretching-energy transfer at the small wave numbers, and dissipated through the quartic part of kinetic-energy transfer at the large wave numbers. Total-energy flux consistent with energy conservation is calculated directly by using the analytical expression of the total-energy transfer, and the forward energy cascade is observed clearly.

  17. Theoretical Analysis of Dynamic Processes for Interacting Molecular Motors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teimouri, Hamid; Kolomeisky, Anatoly B; Mehrabiani, Kareem

    2015-02-13

    Biological transport is supported by collective dynamics of enzymatic molecules that are called motor proteins or molecular motors. Experiments suggest that motor proteins interact locally via short-range potentials. We investigate the fundamental role of these interactions by analyzing a new class of totally asymmetric exclusion processes where interactions are accounted for in a thermodynamically consistent fashion. It allows us to connect explicitly microscopic features of motor proteins with their collective dynamic properties. Theoretical analysis that combines various mean-field calculations and computer simulations suggests that dynamic properties of molecular motors strongly depend on interactions, and correlations are stronger for interacting motor proteins. Surprisingly, it is found that there is an optimal strength of interactions (weak repulsion) that leads to a maximal particle flux. It is also argued that molecular motors transport is more sensitive to attractive interactions. Applications of these results for kinesin motor proteins are discussed.

  18. Determining the Budget of Marketing Communication in Big Advertisers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano Palhares Galão

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the criteria and procedures adopted by companies for determining the budget communication. Specifically, we intend to identify how companies organize the system of deciding the budget and deal with the budget cuts throughout the process of implementation of promotional activities. The data collection involved in-depth interviews conducted with communications professionals from ten companies belonging to the ranking of the 300 largest advertisers in Brazil. As data analysis technique, we have chosen content analysis. The main results showed little or no participation by the communication manager's final decision on the budget area, the lack of criteria to justify budget cuts during the promotional period and the adoption by firms of judgment methods and percentage of sales to determine the budget amount of communication

  19. Budget Deficit and Macroeconomics Fundamentals: The case of Azerbaijan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kahnim Farajova

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the emergence of rising budget deficit is the main reason forcing economists to investigate the reasons for changes in fiscal balances. The purpose of the paper is to investigate the relationship between budget deficit and macroeconomic fundamentals using data from Azerbaijan. The empirical analysis applies ARDL Cointegration methodology in conjunction with Granger causality tests to provide evidence for both the long and short run dynamics between the variables involved in the analysis. Using the Error Correction specification, there was found evidence of long-run causality running from current account, real interest rate, GDP, inflation and exchange rate to budget deficit. There was also found evidence of short-run Granger causal effects running from current account and real interest rate towards budget deficit and a rather weak causal effect from inflation to budget deficit. However, there is no short – run causality running from interest rate to budget deficit.

  20. Interpersonal Communication Skills: The Marriage of Interaction Analysis and Microcounseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Curtis H.

    1976-01-01

    Describes microcounseling and interaction analysis, provides a reationale for the "marriage" of these two successful innovations, and demonstrates how the combination can provide an objective and systematic technology for the development of effective interpersonal communication skills.

  1. Public Budget Database - Budget Authority and offsetting receipts 1976-Current

    Data.gov (United States)

    Executive Office of the President — This file contains historical budget authority and offsetting receipts for 1976 through the current budget year, as well as four years of projections. It can be used...

  2. A Theory of the Perturbed Consumer with General Budgets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McFadden, Daniel L; Fosgerau, Mogens

    We consider demand systems for utility-maximizing consumers facing general budget constraints whose utilities are perturbed by additive linear shifts in marginal utilities. Budgets are required to be compact but are not required to be convex. We define demand generating functions (DGF) whose......-valued and smooth in their arguments. We also give sufficient conditions for integrability of perturbed demand. Our analysis provides a foundation for applications of consumer theory to problems with nonlinear budget constraints....

  3. NOAA seeks healthy budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Susan

    The small, crowded room of the House side of the U.S. Capitol building belied the large budget of $1,611,991,000 requested for Fiscal Year 1992 by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. John A. Knauss, Undersecretary for Oceans and Atmosphere, U.S. Department of Commerce, delivered his testimony on February 28 before the House Appropriations Subcommittee on Commerce, Justice, and State, the Judiciary and Related Agencies. He told the subcommittee that the budget “attempts to balance the two goals of maintaining NOAA's position as an important science agency and addressing the serious budget problems that the government continues to face.”Climate and global change, modernization of the National Weather Service, and the Coastal Ocean Science program are NOAA's three ongoing, high-priority initiatives that the budget addresses. Also, three additional initiatives—a NOAA-wide program to improve environmental data management, President Bush's multiagency Coastal America initiative, and a seafood safety program administered jointly by NOAA and the Food and Drug Administration—are addressed.

  4. Budgeting in Hard Times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrino, Frank M.

    2003-01-01

    Interviews with school board members and administrators produced a list of suggestions for balancing a budget in hard times. Among these are changing calendars and schedules to reduce heating and cooling costs; sharing personnel; rescheduling some extracurricular activities; and forming cooperative agreements with other districts. (MLF)

  5. Implementing Responsibility Centre Budgeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonasek, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Recently, institutes of higher education (universities) have shown a renewed interest in organisational structures and operating methodologies that generate productivity and innovation; responsibility centre budgeting (RCB) is one such process. This paper describes the underlying principles constituting RCB, its origin and structural elements, and…

  6. Budgeting Academic Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Watson

    2011-01-01

    There are many articles about space management, including those that discuss space calculations, metrics, and categories. Fewer articles discuss the space budgeting processes used by administrators to allocate space. The author attempts to fill this void by discussing her administrative experiences with Middle Tennessee State University's (MTSU)…

  7. Implementing Responsibility Centre Budgeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonasek, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Recently, institutes of higher education (universities) have shown a renewed interest in organisational structures and operating methodologies that generate productivity and innovation; responsibility centre budgeting (RCB) is one such process. This paper describes the underlying principles constituting RCB, its origin and structural elements, and…

  8. Pakistan boosts science budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Margaret

    2009-08-01

    Government spending on science and technology development in Pakistan will jump by about a quarter in 2009-2010 compared with the previous fiscal year, with big increases planned for nuclear physics and higher education. In late June the country's National Assembly approved a budget of 48.2bn Pakistani rupees (Rs), or about £361m, for new science projects.

  9. A non-linear analytic stress model for the analysis on the stress interaction between TSVs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Han Liao

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Thermo-elastic strain is induced by through silicon vias (TSV due to the difference of thermal expansion coefficients between the copper (∼18 ppm/◦C and silicon (∼2.8 ppm/◦C when the structure is exposed to a thermal budget in the three dimensional integrated circuit (3DIC process. These thermal expansion stresses are high enough to induce the delamination on the interfaces between the copper, silicon, and isolated dielectric. A compact analytic model for the strain field induced by different layouts of thermal copper filled TSVs with the linear superposition principle is found to result in large errors due to the strong stress interaction between TSVs. In this work, a nonlinear stress analytic model with different TSV layouts is demonstrated by the finite element method and Mohr’s circle analysis. The stress characteristics are also measured by the atomic force microscope-raman technique at a nanometer level resolution. This nonlinear stress model for the strong interactions between TSVs results in an electron mobility change ~2-6% smaller than that resulting from a model that only considers the linear stress superposition principle.

  10. Quantitative analysis of intermolecular interactions in orthorhombic rubrene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatesha R. Hathwar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Rubrene is one of the most studied organic semiconductors to date due to its high charge carrier mobility which makes it a potentially applicable compound in modern electronic devices. Previous electronic device characterizations and first principles theoretical calculations assigned the semiconducting properties of rubrene to the presence of a large overlap of the extended π-conjugated core between molecules. We present here the electron density distribution in rubrene at 20 K and at 100 K obtained using a combination of high-resolution X-ray and neutron diffraction data. The topology of the electron density and energies of intermolecular interactions are studied quantitatively. Specifically, the presence of Cπ...Cπ interactions between neighbouring tetracene backbones of the rubrene molecules is experimentally confirmed from a topological analysis of the electron density, Non-Covalent Interaction (NCI analysis and the calculated interaction energy of molecular dimers. A significant contribution to the lattice energy of the crystal is provided by H—H interactions. The electron density features of H—H bonding, and the interaction energy of molecular dimers connected by H—H interaction clearly demonstrate an importance of these weak interactions in the stabilization of the crystal structure. The quantitative nature of the intermolecular interactions is virtually unchanged between 20 K and 100 K suggesting that any changes in carrier transport at these low temperatures would have a different origin. The obtained experimental results are further supported by theoretical calculations.

  11. 电气安装工程预算相关问题分析%Analysis on related problems of electrical installation engineering budget

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭林丽

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduced the preparation work of electrical installation engineering budget compilation,from the engineering measure-ment,set quota,budget personnel three angles,analyzed the existing problems in electrical installation engineering budget,and put forward some feasible solutions,in order to improve the engineering budget level of electrical installation.%介绍了电气安装工程预算编制的准备工作,从工程计量、套定额、预算人员三个角度出发,分析了电气安装工程预算中存在的问题,并提出了切实可行的解决措施,以提高电气安装工程预算水平。

  12. Generating spatially optimized habitat in a trade-off between social optimality and budget efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drechsler, Martin

    2017-02-01

    Auctions have been proposed as alternatives to payments for environmental services when spatial interactions and costs are better known to landowners than to the conservation agency (asymmetric information). Recently, an auction scheme was proposed that delivers optimal conservation in the sense that social welfare is maximized. I examined the social welfare and the budget efficiency delivered by this scheme, where social welfare represents the difference between the monetized ecological benefit and the conservation cost incurred to the landowners and budget efficiency is defined as maximizing the ecological benefit for a given conservation budget. For the analysis, I considered a stylized landscape with land patches that can be used for agriculture or conservation. The ecological benefit was measured by an objective function that increases with increasing number and spatial aggregation of conserved land patches. I compared the social welfare and the budget efficiency of the auction scheme with an agglomeration payment, a policy scheme that considers spatial interactions and that was proposed recently. The auction delivered a higher level of social welfare than the agglomeration payment. However, the agglomeration payment was more efficient budgetarily than the auction, so the comparative performances of the 2 schemes depended on the chosen policy criterion-social welfare or budget efficiency. Both policy criteria are relevant for conservation. Which one should be chosen depends on the problem at hand, for example, whether social preferences should be taken into account in the decision of how much money to invest in conservation or whether the available conservation budget is strictly limited. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  13. Inferring domain-domain interactions from protein-protein interactions with formal concept analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Khor

    Full Text Available Identifying reliable domain-domain interactions will increase our ability to predict novel protein-protein interactions, to unravel interactions in protein complexes, and thus gain more information about the function and behavior of genes. One of the challenges of identifying reliable domain-domain interactions is domain promiscuity. Promiscuous domains are domains that can occur in many domain architectures and are therefore found in many proteins. This becomes a problem for a method where the score of a domain-pair is the ratio between observed and expected frequencies because the protein-protein interaction network is sparse. As such, many protein-pairs will be non-interacting and domain-pairs with promiscuous domains will be penalized. This domain promiscuity challenge to the problem of inferring reliable domain-domain interactions from protein-protein interactions has been recognized, and a number of work-arounds have been proposed. This paper reports on an application of Formal Concept Analysis to this problem. It is found that the relationship between formal concepts provides a natural way for rare domains to elevate the rank of promiscuous domain-pairs and enrich highly ranked domain-pairs with reliable domain-domain interactions. This piggybacking of promiscuous domain-pairs onto less promiscuous domain-pairs is possible only with concept lattices whose attribute-labels are not reduced and is enhanced by the presence of proteins that comprise both promiscuous and rare domains.

  14. Toward Interactive Scenario Analysis and Exploration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gayle, Thomas R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Interactive Systems, Simulations, and Analysis; Summers, Kenneth Lee [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Interactive Systems, Simulations, and Analysis; Jungels, John [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Interactive Systems, Simulations, and Analysis; Oppel III, Fred J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Interactive Systems, Simulations, and Analysis

    2015-01-01

    As Modeling and Simulation (M&S) tools have matured, their applicability and importance have increased across many national security challenges. In particular, they provide a way to test how something may behave without the need to do real world testing. However, current and future changes across several factors including capabilities, policy, and funding are driving a need for rapid response or evaluation in ways that many M&S tools cannot address. Issues around large data, computational requirements, delivery mechanisms, and analyst involvement already exist and pose significant challenges. Furthermore, rising expectations, rising input complexity, and increasing depth of analysis will only increase the difficulty of these challenges. In this study we examine whether innovations in M&S software coupled with advances in ''cloud'' computing and ''big-data'' methodologies can overcome many of these challenges. In particular, we propose a simple, horizontally-scalable distributed computing environment that could provide the foundation (i.e. ''cloud'') for next-generation M&S-based applications based on the notion of ''parallel multi-simulation''. In our context, the goal of parallel multi- simulation is to consider as many simultaneous paths of execution as possible. Therefore, with sufficient resources, the complexity is dominated by the cost of single scenario runs as opposed to the number of runs required. We show the feasibility of this architecture through a stable prototype implementation coupled with the Umbra Simulation Framework [6]. Finally, we highlight the utility through multiple novel analysis tools and by showing the performance improvement compared to existing tools.

  15. [Inequities in access to food stamps and meal vouchers in Brazil: an analysis of the Brazilian Household Budgets Survey, 2008-2009].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canella, Daniela Silva; Martins, Ana Paula Bortoletto; Bandoni, Daniel Henrique

    2016-03-01

    Food stamps and meal vouchers can determine workers' dietary choices. The study aimed to assess the coverage of these benefits in Brazil and their distribution according to the beneficiaries' socio-demographic and regional characteristics, using data from the Brazilian Household Budgets Survey, 2008-2009. Eligibility criteria were having an occupation and a private or government job, including domestic or temporary work in rural areas. Only 3.2% of eligible individuals reported receiving such benefits. Highest coverage rates were verified with the Southeast region, urban areas, male gender, employment in the private sector, and monthly earnings > five times the minimum wage. The mean monthly amount of such benefits was R$ 177.20 (US$ 100 at the 2009 exchange rate). After adjusting for other variables, the highest amounts were associated with male gender, higher salaries, the Northeast and Central regions, and employment in the public sector. This first analysis of the national coverage of food stamps and meal vouchers showed that a large share of Brazilian workers lack access or have unequal access to such benefits.

  16. Adding Graphical Interactive FITS Image Interaction to Data Analysis in IPython Notebooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeschke, E.

    2014-05-01

    IPython notebooks are becoming a popular and viable approach for documenting data analysis procedures and helping produce open, reproducible science. Recent developments in the IPython project allow notebooks to be published and viewed on the web, providing a nearly seamless transition from data analysis to publication. In this talk we will review and demonstrate the ipython notebook as a data analysis tool, and show how graphical FITS image interaction can be integrated in the workflow to simplify some cumbersome tasks.

  17. 预算执行与财务分析汇总报告之思路探讨%Exploration on the Idea of Budget Execution and Financial Analysis Report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何晓宁

    2014-01-01

    The budget execution report and financial analysis report are submitted by the financial sector, and there is a certain difference between the focus of two reports. This paper discusses the ideas and key analytical content of budget execution report and financial analysis report to improve the timeliness and applicability of analysis.%预算执行情况报告与财务分析报告由财务部门分析上报,存在一定的重复性,同时两份报告的侧重点也有所不同。本文探讨了预算执行与财务分析汇总报告的思路及主要分析内容,以提高分析报告的时效性、适用性。

  18. Comparative Analysis of Navy and Marine Corps Planning, Programming, Budgeting and Execution Systems from a Manpower Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-03-01

    quadrant should contain the validated manpower requirement of the Marine Corps. This output includes the T/O and MCBul 5400 series as media to transmit...Marines and their monitors within the assignment subsystem, email and phone are two very important media utilized for passing information. (8) Marine On...Need Identification to Validated Requirement in a 5 part form" Conducts DOTMLPF analysis and categorization of UNS EDAd - ,~e E FD Ci A -,smeni 5rnhp,ad

  19. The neutrino interaction analysis chain in OPERA

    CERN Document Server

    Rescigno, Regina

    Th e aim of the OPERA experiment i s to provide a “smoking - gun” proof of neutrino oscillation s, through the detecti on of the appearance signal of ν τ ’s in an initially pure ν μ beam. The beam is produced at CERN, 732 Km fa r from the detector , which is located underground in t he Gran Sasso laboratory. The evidence of the appearance signal will be provided by the detection of the daughter particles produced in the decay of the τ lepton. A micro - metric spatial resolution is needed in order to measure a nd study the topology of the ν τ - induced events. With this goal, n uclear emulsions, the highest resolution tracking detector , were chosen to be the core of the OPERA apparatus. The analysis of the large amount of nuclear emulsions used in the OPERA experime n t has required the development of a new generation of fast automatic mi croscopes , featuring a scanning speed more than one order of magnitude hi g h er than in p...

  20. The nature and limits of interactive communication: A philosophical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halvor Nordby

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In many modern study programs, teachers and students communicate via internet and other interactive communicative channels. What is the essential nature of this communication? How does interactive communication differ from ordinary face-to-face communication in the most fundamental sense? The article uses conceptual analysis as a philosophical method to explore the intrinsic nature of the concept interactive communication. The aim of this method is to develop a concept definition that matches shared linguistic beliefs about informative examples from internet based communication and information exchange that is central in electronic teaching courses. The article examines several concept definitions and argues in favor of a philosophical information processing analysis of interactive communication. The significance of this analysis has two dimensions. First, it can give teachers and others who are involved in interactive communication a better understanding of the essential differences between interactive and face-toface communication. Second, the analysis can stimulate pedagogical and critical reflection on the nature and limits of internet based communication and electronic teaching tools.

  1. Analysis of Pumphouse RCC Frame Structure for Soil Structure Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr A.S. Thombare

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available When structure is built on ground some elements of structure are direct contact with soil. When loads are applied on structure internal forces are developed in both the structure as well as in soil. It results in deformation of both the components which are independent to each other. This are called soil structure interaction. The analysis is done by using (Bentley STAAD.Pro V8i Version 2007 software. The analysis carried out been pump house structure R.C.C. frame structure find out shear force Z direction fixed support and fixed but support for different soil. It concluded that soil structure interaction more affected on fixed base. So overcome the effects of the soil structure interaction on the soft soil, it is important to design the structure to standard loading condition and interaction forces. Thus here concluded that pump house building should be design resist the maximum shear force in fixed base

  2. Nutrient budget in ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titlyanova, A. A.

    2007-12-01

    Methods to calculate nutrient budgets in forest and grassland ecosystems are analyzed on the basis of a large number of published materials and original data. New estimates of the belowground production in forest ecosystems with due account for the growth of fine roots are suggested. Nutrient retranslocation from senescent plant tissues to growing plant tissues and nutrient leaching from the forest canopy are discussed. The budgets of major nutrients (N, P, K, and Ca) in tundra, forest, and steppe ecosystems are calculated. Nutrient cycles in two forest ecosystems—a coniferous stand dominated by Picea abies and a broad-leaved stand dominated by Quercus robur—are analyzed in detail. It is shown that the more intensive turnover of nutrients in the oak stand is also characterized by a more closed character of the nutrient cycles.

  3. See-Through Budgets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A more transparent budget is needed to keep track of fiscal expenditures Just what was the massive 3 trillion yuan in revenue collected by the Chinese Government last fiscal year used for? This is a big question swirling around the conversation tables of a nation eager for answers. Most Chinese people are now increasingly aware of the right to know how governments at all levels spend their money and are

  4. The Incredible Shrinking Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    T.H.E. Journal, 2013

    2013-01-01

    If district technology leaders had a nickel for every time they heard the phrase "the new normal," they'd have all the money they need to run their IT departments. In an effort to help readers think about their budgets in creative and practical ways, "T.H.E. Journal" and the Consortium for School Networking (CoSN) recently convened a panel of CTOs…

  5. Analysis and Verification of Service Interaction Protocols - A Brief Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Salaün, Gwen

    2010-01-01

    Modeling and analysis of interactions among services is a crucial issue in Service-Oriented Computing. Composing Web services is a complicated task which requires techniques and tools to verify that the new system will behave correctly. In this paper, we first overview some formal models proposed in the literature to describe services. Second, we give a brief survey of verification techniques that can be used to analyse services and their interaction. Last, we focus on the realizability and conformance of choreographies.

  6. Phase space analysis of some interacting Chaplygin gas models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khurshudyan, M. [Academy of Sciences of Armenia, Institute for Physical Research, Ashtarak (Armenia); Tomsk State University of Control Systems and Radioelectronics, Laboratory for Theoretical Cosmology, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Tomsk State Pedagogical University, Department of Theoretical Physics, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Myrzakulov, R. [Eurasian National University, Eurasian International Center for Theoretical Physics, Astana (Kazakhstan)

    2017-02-15

    In this paper we discuss a phase space analysis of various interacting Chaplygin gas models in general relativity. Linear and nonlinear sign changeable interactions are considered. For each case appropriate late time attractors of field equations are found. The Chaplygin gas is one of the dark fluids actively considered in modern cosmology due to the fact that it is a joint model of dark energy and dark matter. (orig.)

  7. Variability and budget of CO2 in Europe: analysis of the CAATER airborne campaigns – Part 1: Observed variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Ciais

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric airborne measurements of CO2 are very well-suited to estimate the time varying distribution of carbon sources and sinks at the regional scale. We present here an analysis of two cross-European airborne campaigns that have been carried out on 23–26 May 2001 (CAATER 1 and 2–3 October 2002 (CAATER 2 over Western Europe. The area covered during CAATER 1 (respectively CAATER 2 was comprised between longitude 4° W to 14° E and latitude 44° N to 52° N (respectively longitude 1° E to 17° E and latitude 46° N to 52° N. High precision in-situ CO2, CO and Radon 222 measurements have been recorded. Flasks samples have been collected during both campaigns to cross-validate the in-situ data. During CAATER 1 (respectively CAATER 2, the mean CO2 concentration was 370.1±4 ppm (respectively 371.7±5 ppm. A HYSPLIT backtrajectories analysis shows that during CAATER 1, dominant winds were blowing from the north-west. In the planetary boundary layer (PBL airmasses got contaminated over Benelux and Western Germany by pollution from these high urbanized areas, reaching about 380 ppm. Air masses passing over rural areas are depleted in CO2 because of the photosynthesis activity of the land cover vegetation, as low as 355 ppm. During CAATER 2, the backtrajectory analysis shows that airmasses were distributed among the 4 sectors. Airmasses got enriched in CO2 and CO when passing above polluted spots in Germany but also in Poland, as these countries are known to hold part of the most polluting plants based on coal consumption, the so-called "dirty thirty" from WWF. Simultaneous measurements of in-situ CO2 and CO combined to backtrajectories helped us to discriminate the role of fossil fuel emissions from over CO2 sources. The ΔCO/ΔCO2 ratios (R2=0.33 to 0.88, slopes=2.42 to 10.37, calculated for polluted airmasses originating from different countries/regions, matched quite well national inventories, showing that the airborne measurements can

  8. Variability and budget of CO2 in Europe: analysis of the CAATER airborne campaigns – Part 1: Observed variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. D. Paris

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric airborne measurements of CO2 are very well suited for estimating the time-varying distribution of carbon sources and sinks at the regional scale due to the large geographical area covered over a short time. We present here an analysis of two cross-European airborne campaigns carried out on 23–26 May 2001 (CAATER-1 and 2–3 October 2002 (CAATER-2 over Western Europe. The area covered during CAATER-1 and CAATER-2 was 4° W to 14° E long; 44° N to 52° N lat and 1° E to 17° E long; 46° N to 52° N lat respectively. High precision in situ CO2, CO and Radon 222 measurements were recorded. Flask samples were collected during both campaigns to cross-validate the in situ data. During CAATER-1 and CAATER-2, the mean CO2 concentration was 370.1 ± 4.0 (1-σ standard deviation ppm and 371.7 ± 5.0 (1-σ ppm respectively. A HYSPLIT back-trajectories analysis shows that during CAATER 1, northwesterly winds prevailed. In the planetary boundary layer (PBL air masses became contaminated over Benelux and Western Germany by emissions from these highly urbanized areas, reaching about 380 ppm. Air masses passing over rural areas were depleted in CO2 because of the photosynthesis activity of the vegetation, with observations as low as 355 ppm. During CAATER-2, the back-trajectory analysis showed that air masses were distributed among the 4 sectors. Air masses were enriched in CO2 and CO over anthropogenic emission spots in Germany but also in Poland, as these countries have part of the most CO2-emitting coal-based plants in Europe. Simultaneous measurements of in situ CO2 and CO combined with back-trajectories helped us to distinguish between fossil fuel emissions and other CO2 sources. The ΔCO/ΔCO2 ratios (R2 = 0.33 to 0.88, slopes = 2.42 to 10.37, calculated for anthropogenic-influenced air masses over different countries/regions matched national inventories quite well, showing that airborne measurements can help to identify the origin of

  9. SHADOW PROCESSES INSTATE BUDGET: CURRENT CONDITION AND DETERMINING FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Varnalii

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The most significant factors that move state budget into the shadow are determined. Current condition of shadow processes in state budget is highlighted. The paper also provides an analysis of relationship between political processes and shadow economy in public sector of Ukraine.

  10. Ozone and carbon monoxide budgets over the Eastern Mediterranean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Myriokefalitakis, S.; Daskalakis, N.; Fanourgakis, G.S.; Voulgarakis, A.; Krol, M.C.; Brugh, Aan de J.M.J.; Kanakidou, M.

    2016-01-01

    The importance of the long-range transport (LRT) on O3 and CO budgets over the Eastern Mediterranean has been investigated using the state-of-the-art 3-dimensional global chemistry-transport model TM4-ECPL. A 3-D budget analysis has been performed separating the Eastern from the

  11. Performance Budgeting in Practice: the Case of Danish Hospital Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Mads Leth; Pallesen, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Danish public hospitals to see how performance budgeting works in the regions where the fundamental problems of performance information are negligible and the regions statutorily obligated to increase public sector efficiency by performance budgeting. The analysis shows that the regions in general have...

  12. Budget impact analysis of a pneumococcal vaccination programme in the 65-year-old Spanish cohort using a dynamic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background This study aimed to assess the costs and clinical benefits of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) administered annually to the 65-year-old cohort in Spain versus the alternative of not vaccinating patients and treating them only when infected. Methods Cases of pneumococcal disease avoided were calculated through a dynamic model based on the work of Anderson and May (1999). Sixty-six percent of the 65-year-old cohort was assumed to have been vaccinated with one PCV13 dose (304,492 subjects). Base-case estimated vaccine effectiveness and serotype coverage were 58% and 60%, respectively. Disease-related costs were calculated based on published data. Results Over the 5-year period, a total of 125,906 cases of pneumococcal disease would be avoided. Net savings of €102 million would be obtained. The cost-saving distribution was not homogeneous, starting in the 2nd year and increasing through the 5th. To demonstrate model robustness, an additional scenario analysis was performed using extreme values of model parameters (vaccination programme coverage, vaccine effectiveness, discount rate and disease costs). Under those scenarios, net savings were always achieved. Conclusions Based on the assumptions of the model, the 65-year-cohort pneumococcal vaccination campaign appears to be a cost-saving intervention in the Spanish population under different scenarios. PMID:23578307

  13. An Analysis of the Application of Total Budget Management in Enterprise%浅谈全面预算管理在企业中的运用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘勇红

    2011-01-01

    Development of competition in order to meet the needs of the global economy,many companies have begun implementation of a total budget management,but because of insufficient awareness of the overall budget management,lack of strategic direction and effective assessment and other reasons,the role of full budget management difficult to fully appear.This paper analyses the application of total budget management in enterprise,according to a comprehensive understanding of the nature of budget management and practical operational status,problems and countermeasures.%为了适应全球经济竞争发展的需要,许多企业已开始实施全面预算管理,但由于对全面预算管理认识不充分、缺乏战略导向与有效考核等原因,全面预算管理的作用难以充分显现。本文从全面预算管理的本质认识、实务操作现状、存在问题及解决对策等方面,浅谈全面预算管理在企业中的运用。

  14. Analysis of Constructing the Mode of IBSC Overall Budget Management%构建IBSC全面预算管理模式探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗俊力

    2015-01-01

    Overall budget management is an important tool realizing enterprises' strategic goal and reasonable configuration. With the integration of overall budget management, strategic management, value management and IBSC, overall budget management is gaining especial importance ever. The paper analyses the defects of traditional budget management, taking company A for a case study, by introducing and constructing IBSC overall budget management mode to ensure scientific planning, enforcement, check and evaluation, to effectively promote the realization of the company’s strategic goal.%全面预算管理是实现企业战略目标和合理配置资源的一项重要工具,随着全面预算管理、战略管理、价值管理以及综合平衡计分卡(IBSC)等理论和方法的不断融合,全面预算管理在企业管理中显得尤为重要。本文分析了传统预算管理模式的缺陷,以A公司为案例,引入并构建IBSC全面预算管理模式,确保全面预算科学编制、执行与考评,有效促进公司战略目标落地。

  15. Budgeting-Based Organization of Internal Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogulenko, Tatiana; Ponomareva, Svetlana; Bodiaco, Anna; Mironenko, Valentina; Zelenov, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    The article suggests methodical approaches to the budgeting-based organization of internal control, determines the tasks and subtasks of control that consist in the construction of an efficient system for the making, implementation, control, and analysis of managerial decisions. The organization of responsibility centers by means of implementing…

  16. Why budget accountability fails? The elusive links between parliaments and audit agencies in the oversight of the budget

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARLOS SANTISO

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTParliaments and audit agencies have critical and complementary roles in the oversight of the budget and the enforcement of government accountability. Yet, the nexus between parliaments and audit agencies is one of the weakest links in the accountability chain, generating an accountability gap in the budget process. This articles analyses the interactions between parliaments and audit agencies in the oversight of government finances during the latter stages of the budget process. Using proxies to evaluate the quality of those linkages, such as the follow-up to audit findings and the discharge of government, it shows important dysfunctions in the interactions between parliaments and audit agencies due to a combination of technical capacity constraints and political economy disincentives. It suggests that the effective functioning of the system of checks and balances in public budgeting critically hinges on the agility of the linkages between accountability institutions. As such, the failure of budget accountability is due to systemic dysfunctions in the systems of accountability, rather than the failure of an individual accountability institution acting in isolation. In addition, the effectiveness of the horizontal accountability architecture depends on the political economy incentives shaping the budget process, which are generated by the interactions between the choice of institutional design and budget rules, with the degree of political competition and electoral rules.

  17. Global lateral transfer and evasion of C in freshwater systems - a revised high-resolution budget analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauerwald, Ronny; Laruelle, Goulven; Hartmann, Jens; Ciais, Philippe; Regnier, Pierre

    2016-04-01

    included in our analysis. With the exception of dry and mountainous areas, the riverine CO2 evasion from large river basins exceeds the export to the ocean. In tropical Africa and South America, the proportion exceeds even 75%. In SE-Asia, FCO2 rates are similar to those in tropical Africa and S-America, but the POC exports are important as well in this region. To further investigate the C dynamics through the terrestrial-aquatic interface, fluvial C transport is now integrated into the land-surface scheme ORCHIDEE of the IPSL-Earth System Model. Preliminary results of the DOC and CO2 dynamics in the largest world river (the Amazon) will also be presented.

  18. Polymorphism Interaction Analysis (PIA: a method for investigating complex gene-gene interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanock Stephen J

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The risk of common diseases is likely determined by the complex interplay between environmental and genetic factors, including single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. Traditional methods of data analysis are poorly suited for detecting complex interactions due to sparseness of data in high dimensions, which often occurs when data are available for a large number of SNPs for a relatively small number of samples. Validation of associations observed using multiple methods should be implemented to minimize likelihood of false-positive associations. Moreover, high-throughput genotyping methods allow investigators to genotype thousands of SNPs at one time. Investigating associations for each individual SNP or interactions between SNPs using traditional approaches is inefficient and prone to false positives. Results We developed the Polymorphism Interaction Analysis tool (PIA version 2.0 to include different approaches for ranking and scoring SNP combinations, to account for imbalances between case and control ratios, stratify on particular factors, and examine associations of user-defined pathways (based on SNP or gene with case status. PIA v. 2.0 detected 2-SNP interactions as the highest ranking model 77% of the time, using simulated data sets of genetic models of interaction (minor allele frequency = 0.2; heritability = 0.01; N = 1600 generated previously [Velez DR, White BC, Motsinger AA, Bush WS, Ritchie MD, Williams SM, Moore JH: A balanced accuracy function for epistasis modeling in imbalanced datasets using multifactor dimensionality reduction. Genet Epidemiol 2007, 31:306–315.]. Interacting SNPs were detected in both balanced (20 SNPs and imbalanced data (case:control 1:2 and 1:4, 10 SNPs in the context of non-interacting SNPs. Conclusion PIA v. 2.0 is a useful tool for exploring gene*gene or gene*environment interactions and identifying a small number of putative associations which may be investigated further using other

  19. EXPENSES FOR ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES FROM LOCAL BUDGETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRISTINEL ICHIM

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present article we propose to analyze and deepen significant categories of costs funded from the local budgets, namely the expenditure for economic activities. Our scientific approach begins with determining the place occupied by such expenses in local public expenditure by specifying their content and role. The center of gravity of the study is to treat and deepen the three subgroups of expenses that we consider representative: "The expenses for production, transportation, distribution and supply of heat in a centralized system", "Transport Costs" and Expenditure for agriculture and forestry ". The reaserch is based on the quantitative analysis of the expenses for economic actions, in local budgets, based on the existing data from the Statistical Yearbook of Romania, and highlights the structure of this type of expenses as well as the place they hold in the expediture of local budgets.The study includes an analysis of the dynamics of the share held by economic costs within total expenses from local budgets. From the reaserch carried out, it is shown that the evolution and structure of the expenditures for economic actions from local budgets is determined by the action of certain economical and social factors that vary from one administrative teritorial unit to another: the ray of economical develpoment of the administrative ter itorial unit, urbanization, the number and social structure of the population. The reaserch shows that in the field of expenses for economic actions, the largest share is held by expenditures for transportation (almost 80%, far away from the expenses for fuel and energy (13,66%. During the 1999-2013 the dynamic of expenses for economical actions in the total of expenditures of local budgets, is sinusoidal due to the intervention of certain legislative changes.

  20. Distributed and interactive visual analysis of omics data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farag, Yehia; Berven, Frode S; Jonassen, Inge; Petersen, Kjell; Barsnes, Harald

    2015-11-01

    The amount of publicly shared proteomics data has grown exponentially over the last decade as the solutions for sharing and storing the data have improved. However, the use of the data is often limited by the manner of which it is made available. There are two main approaches: download and inspect the proteomics data locally, or interact with the data via one or more web pages. The first is limited by having to download the data and thus requires local computational skills and resources, while the latter most often is limited in terms of interactivity and the analysis options available. A solution is to develop web-based systems supporting distributed and fully interactive visual analysis of proteomics data. The use of a distributed architecture makes it possible to perform the computational analysis at the server, while the results of the analysis can be displayed via a web browser without the need to download the whole dataset. Here the challenges related to developing such systems for omics data will be discussed. Especially how this allows for multiple connected interactive visual displays of omics dataset in a web-based setting, and the benefits this provide for computational analysis of proteomics data.This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Computational Proteomics.

  1. Interactive effects of nocturnal transpiration and climate change on the root hydraulic redistribution and carbon and water budgets of southern United States pine plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domec, Jean-Christophe; Ogée, Jérôme; Noormets, Asko; Jouangy, Julien; Gavazzi, Michael; Treasure, Emrys; Sun, Ge; McNulty, Steve G; King, John S

    2012-06-01

    conditions would stimulate GPP by only 12%, but future conditions plus N fertilization would increase GPP by 24%. As a consequence, in all sites, water use efficiency was predicted to improve dramatically with future conditions. Modeling the effect of reduced annual precipitation indicated that limited water availability would decrease all carbon fluxes, including NEE and respiration. Our simulations highlight the interactive effects of nutrients and elevated CO(2), and showed that the effect of N fertilization would be greater under future climate conditions.

  2. Using programme budgeting and marginal analysis (PBMA) to set priorities: reflections from a qualitative assessment in an English Primary Care Trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Elizabeth; Frew, Emma J

    2013-12-01

    In England from 2002 to 2013, Primary Care Trusts (PCTs) were responsible for commissioning healthcare for their local populations. The NHS has recently undergone rapid organisational change whereby clinicians have assumed responsibility for local commissioning decisions. This change in commissioning arrangements alongside the current financial pressures facing the NHS provides an impetus for considering the use of technical prioritisation methods to enable the identification of savings without having a detrimental effect on the health of the population. This paper reports on the design and implementation of a technical prioritisation method termed PBMA applied within NHS Plymouth, an English PCT responsible for commissioning services for a population of approximately 270,000. We evaluated the effectiveness of the process, the extent to which it was appropriate for local healthcare commissioning and whether it identified budget savings. Using qualitative research methodology, we found the process produced clear strategic and operational priorities for 2010/11, providing staff with focus and structure, and delivered a substantial planned reduction in hospital activity levels. Participants expressed satisfaction with the process. NHS Plymouth adhered to the PBMA process, although concerns were raised about the evidence for some priorities, decibel rationing, and a lack of robust challenge at priority-setting meetings. Further work is required to enhance participants' understanding of marginal analysis. Participants highlighted several external benefits, particularly in terms of cultural change, and felt the process should encompass the whole local health and social care community. This evaluation indicates that the prioritisation method was effective in producing priorities for NHS Plymouth, and that PBMA provides an appropriate method for allocating resources at a local level. In order for PBMA to identify savings, cultural and structural barriers to disinvestment

  3. Budget impact analysis of rivaroxaban vs warfarin anticoagulation strategy for direct current cardioversion in non-valvular atrial fibrillation patients: the MonaldiVert economic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Vincenzo; Rago, Anna; Papa, Andrea A; Bianchi, Valter; Tavoletta, Vincenzo; DE Vivo, Stefano; Cavallaro, Ciro; Nigro, Gerardo; D'Onofrio, Antonio

    2017-09-25

    Rivaroxaban is the first novel oral anticoagulant to receive regulatory approval for non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) patients who require cardioversion. The MonaldiVert real life experience showed positive benefit-risk profile of short term rivaroxaban administration for transesophageal echocardiogram guided cardioversion in patients who had not achieved adequate pre-procedural vitamin k antagonist (VKA) anticoagulation. Aim of our study was to perform a budget impact analysis of MonaldiVert anticoagulation strategy for direct current cardioversion in NVAF patients and to compare the following costs borne by the Regional Healthcare System (RHS) with those for a hypothetical cohort of identical patients underwent from the beginning to early rivaroxaban treatment before direct current cardioversion. The mean costs per each NVAF patient treated with VKA strategy and Rivaroxaban rescue strategy were 134.53€ and 189.83€, respectively. Considering a hypothetical scenario in which all population study would be treated from the beginning with rivaroxaban (Rivaroxaban early strategy), the mean cost per patient would have been 81.11€ (Table 3). The total cost borne by the RHS, including the cost of the cardioversion procedure, for the two therapeutic strategies carried out at Monaldi Hospital (VKA strategy and Rivaroxaban rescue strategy) was 88.458,53 €. The total cost would be borne by the RHS for Rivaroxaban early strategy, if applied to all population study, would have been 69.989,15 € with a saving of 18,469.38, respect to the actually applied strategy. Rivaroxaban rescue strategy for transoesophageal echocardiography guided direct current cardioversion in NVAF patients, who had not achieved adequate pre-procedural VKA anticoagulation, is an effective and safe strategy, which allows to not delay the procedure, reducing times and wastage of cardioversion slots, without substantial costs increase.

  4. A Novel Type of Tri-Colour Light-Emitting-Diode-Based Spectrometric Detector for Low-Budget Flow-Injection Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Gros

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we describe a low-cost spectrometric detector that can be easily assembled in a laboratory for less than €80 with a minimal number of optical components and which has proved sensitive and flexible enough for real-life applications. The starting point for the idea to construct this small, compact low-cost spectrometric detector was the decision to use a tri-colour light-emitting diode (LED of the red-green-blue (RGB type as a light source with the objective of achieving some flexibility in the selection of the wavelength (430 nm, 565 nm, 625 nm but avoiding the use of optical fibres. Due to the dislocation of the emitters of the different coloured light, the tri-colour LED-based detector required an optical geometry that differs from those that are described in literature. The proposed novel geometry, with a coil-type glass flow-through cell with up to four ascending turns, proved useful and fit for the purpose. The simplicity of the device means it requires a minimal number of optical components, i.e., only a tri-colour LED and a photoresistor. In order to make a flow-injection analysis (FIA with the spectrometric detector even more accessible for those with a limited budget, we additionally describe a low-cost simplified syringe-pump- based FIA set-up (€625, the assembling of which requires no more than basic technical facilities. We used such a set-up to test the performance of the proposed spectrometric detector for flow-injection analyses. The tests proved its suitability for real-life applications. The design procedures are also described.

  5. The Net Energy Budget at the Surface Interface of the "Cold Tongue" Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentamy, Abderrahim; Pinker, Rachel; Zhang, Banglin; Ma, Yingtao

    2016-04-01

    The southern tropical Pacific region also known as the "cold tongue" region is of great interest in terms of understanding the atmosphere-ocean coupling, and the observed strong seasonal cycle in sea surface temperature. The primary goal of our study is to investigate the spatial and temporal variability of air-sea interaction through the analysis of the net heat budget over the "cold tongue" region. Such analysis requires high quality heat budget estimates which are impacted by the complex and extensive low-level stratocumulus clouds in this region. The accuracy at which current satellite and numerical model methods can estimate this net heat budget is of interest. In this paper, the heat budget at the ocean-atmosphere interface in a region bound by 0o S - 30o S, 110o W - 70o W has been derived using satellite observations and compared to in situ measurements and to predictions from numerical models. The approach is based on multi-satellite sensors, buoy observations and numerical analyses. The fluxes are generated at daily and monthly time scales for a 10 year period (2002-2012) at a nominal 10 resolution (some parameters are available at higher resolution). Once the metrics on the accuracy of the satellite estimates are known, they can serve as "ground truth" for evaluating numerical models.

  6. Recent applications of hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography in pharmaceutical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Yang, Feng-Qing; Ge, Liya; Hu, Yuan-Jia; Xia, Zhi-Ning

    2017-01-01

    Hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography, an alternative liquid chromatography mode, is of particular interest in separating hydrophilic and polar ionic compounds. Compared with traditional liquid chromatography techniques, hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography offers specific advantages mainly including: (1) relatively green and water-soluble mobile phase composition, which enhances the solubility of hydrophilic and polar ionic compounds; (2) no need for ion-pairing reagents and high content of organic solvent, which benefits mass spectrometry detection; (3) high orthogonality to reverse-phase liquid chromatography, well adapted to two-dimensional liquid chromatography for complicated samples. Therefore, hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography has been rapidly developed in many areas over the past decades. This review summarizes the recent progress (from 2012 to July 2016) of hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography in pharmaceutical analysis, with the focus on detecting chemical drugs in various matrices, charactering active compounds of natural products and assessing biotherapeutics through typical structure unit. Moreover, the retention mechanism and behavior of analytes in hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography as well as some novel hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography columns used for pharmaceutical analysis are also described.

  7. Isobolographic analysis of the antinociceptive interactions between ketoprofen and paracetamol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Hai-Xia; Liu, Jin; Kong, Hui; Liu, Yan; Mei, Xing-Guo

    2007-02-28

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the antinociceptive interaction between paracetamol and ketoprofen. The antinociceptive effect of oral administration of the drugs alone or in combination was evaluated using the mouse abdominal constriction test. The data were interpreted by isobolographic analysis to establish the nature of the interaction. The effective dose that produced 50% antinociception (ED(50,mix)) was calculated from the log dose-response curve of fixed-ratio combinations of paracetamol with ketoprofen. This ED(50,mix) was compared to the theoretical additive ED(50,add) by isobolographic analysis. The experimental ED(50,mix) was found to be significantly smaller than the theoretically calculated ED(50,add), indicating a synergistic antinociceptive interaction between ketoprofen and paracetamol. Pharmacokinetic studies were carried out with mice treated with combined ketoprofen (12 mg/kg) and paracetamol (36 mg/kg). Plasma levels of ketoprofen were not changed by concurrent paracetamol treatment, and similarly no statistically significant difference was observed between paracetamol alone and the combination with ketoprofen. The pharmacokinetic analysis revealed that the combination of ketoprofen with paracetamol exerted a synergistic (supra-additive) interaction that was not associated with a pharmacokinetic interaction. The results of this study demonstrate significant synergism between ketoprofen and paracetamol.

  8. An Analysis of Interaction Patterns in the Focus Group Interview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavora Peter

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is based on the analysis of a focus group interview of a moderator and a group of undergraduate students on the topic of self-regulation of learning. The purpose of the investigation was to identify interaction patterns that appeared in the talk of participants and the moderator. In the stream of communication two rudimentary interaction patterns were recognized. The first pattern was named the Catalogue. It consists of a sequence of turns of participants who respond to a request of the moderator and who provide their answers, one by one, without reacting on the content of the previous partner(s talk. The other interaction pattern was called the Domino. In this pattern participants respond to each other. The Catalogue pattern prevailed in the interview. Alongside with identification of patterns of interaction the study demonstrated the functions of the common ground and its accomplishment in the talk of the moderator and participants.

  9. Morphological Analysis and Interaction of Chlorophyll and BSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipe D. S. Gorza

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Interactions between proteins and drugs, which can lead to formation of stable drug-protein complexes, have important implications on several processes related to human health. These interactions can affect, for instance, free concentration, biological activity, and metabolism of the drugs in the blood stream. Here, we report on the UV-Visible spectroscopic investigation on the interaction of bovine serum albumin (BSA with chlorophyll (Chl in aqueous solution under physiological conditions. Binding constants at different temperatures—obtained by using the Benesi-Hildebrand equation—were found to be of the same order of magnitude (~104 M−1 indicating low affinity of Chl with BSA. We have found a hyperchromism, which suggested an interaction between BSA and Chl occurring through conformational changes of BSA caused by exposition of tryptophan to solvent. Films from BSA and Chl obtained at different Chl concentrations showed fractal structures, which were characterized by fractal dimension calculated from microscopic image analysis.

  10. BUDGET AND BUDGET EXECUTION IN THE NORTHWEST REGION OF ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IOAN BATRANCEA

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The budget is a tool multiannual financial forecasting both at micro and macro level. In this sense, regional and local government budget is a financial instrument that connects resources to use local funds in order to ensure the prosperity of the community concerned. Construction and especially budget execution highlights the effectiveness of local and regional government. Using a system of indicators correlated reveals income, expenditure and budgetary outturn.

  11. Weighted protein interaction network analysis of frontotemporal dementia\\ud

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrari, Raffaele; Lovering, Ruth C.; Hardy, John; Lewis, Patrick A.; Manzoni, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    The genetic analysis of complex disorders has undoubtedly led to the identification of a wealth of associations between genes and specific traits. However, moving from genetics to biochemistry one gene at a time has, to date, rather proved inefficient and under-powered to comprehensively explain the molecular basis of phenotypes. Here we present a novel approach, weighted protein−protein\\ud interaction network analysis (W-PPI-NA), to highlight key functional players within relevant biological...

  12. Interactive rendering of acquired materials on dynamic geometry using frequency analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagher, Mahdi Mohammad; Soler, Cyril; Subr, Kartic; Belcour, Laurent; Holzschuch, Nicolas

    2013-05-01

    Shading acquired materials with high-frequency illumination is computationally expensive. Estimating the shading integral requires multiple samples of the incident illumination. The number of samples required may vary across the image, and the image itself may have high- and low-frequency variations, depending on a combination of several factors. Adaptively distributing computational budget across the pixels for shading is a challenging problem. In this paper, we depict complex materials such as acquired reflectances, interactively, without any precomputation based on geometry. In each frame, we first estimate the frequencies in the local light field arriving at each pixel, as well as the variance of the shading integrand. Our frequency analysis accounts for combinations of a variety of factors: the reflectance of the object projecting to the pixel, the nature of the illumination, the local geometry and the camera position relative to the geometry and lighting. We then exploit this frequency information (bandwidth and variance) to adaptively sample for reconstruction and integration. For example, fewer pixels per unit area are shaded for pixels projecting onto diffuse objects, and fewer samples are used for integrating illumination incident on specular objects.

  13. Economic Analysis and Budget Impact of Tenofovir and Entecavir in the First-Line Treatment of Hepatitis B Virus in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggeri, M; Basile, M; Coretti, S; Drago, C; Cicchetti, A

    2017-08-01

    Chronic hepatitis B is a common, progressive disease, particularly when viral replication is detected. Oral antivirals can suppress viral replication and prevent or delay the development of cirrhosis and liver-related complications. The treatments of chronic hepatitis B cannot totally cure the disease but can prevent its progression to hepatocellular carcinoma, decreasing the levels of both morbidity and mortality. To date, there are several therapies indicated by the international guidelines as first-line treatments for the management of hepatitis B; two of the most effective are those based on either tenofovir or entecavir. The aim of this study is to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of tenofovir and entecavir in the treatment of naïve patients with chronic hepatitis B. The two treatments are compared with the "no treatment" and to one another. The cost-effectiveness analysis was conducted using a Markov model; patients entered one of the following health states: chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis (compensated or decompensated), hepatocellular carcinoma, liver transplantation or death. The analysis was carried out from the perspective of the Italian National Health Service by considering a life-time horizon with cycles lasting 1 year and with costs and QALYs (quality-adjusted life years) discounted at a rate of 3.5%. The results of the model were analysed in terms of incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER). ICERs for tenofovir and entecavir emerging from the comparison versus "no treatment" were equal to €10,274.73 and €16,300.44 per QALY gained, respectively, on the life-time horizon. Tenofovir was dominant in the direct comparison with entecavir, indicating more QALYs and a lower consumption of resources. The Monte Carlo simulation demonstrated that in 97% (tenofovir) and in 85% (entecavir) of the scenarios performed, the cost per QALY fell below the threshold of €30,000/QALY. The budget impact analysis showed savings for tenofovir amounting to 33

  14. Computer-Based Interaction Analysis with DEGREE Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, B.; Verdejo, M. F.

    2016-01-01

    We review our research with "DEGREE" and analyse how our work has impacted the collaborative learning community since 2000. Our research is framed within the context of computer-based interaction analysis and the development of computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL) tools. We identify some aspects of our work which have been…

  15. Interaction Analysis in Foreign Language Teaching: A Rationale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Maria Antonieta Medina

    A system for observing and coding verbal interchanges between the teacher and his pupils, at all instructional levels, is described in this study. The system, widely known as the Flanders System of Interaction Analysis, is reviewed in terms of its effect on the classroom behavior of teachers and on student attitudes. The application of the…

  16. Interactive exploratory data analysis tool in Alzheimer’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Furcila

    2015-04-01

    Thus, MorExAn provide us the possibility to relate histopathological data with neuropsychological and clinical variables. The aid of this interactive visualization tool brings us the possibility to find unexpected conclusions beyond the insight provided by simple statistics analysis, as well as to improve neuroscientists’ productivity.

  17. Semiparametric bayesian analysis of gene-environment interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Lobach, I.

    2010-01-01

    A key component to prevention and control of complex diseases, such as cancer, diabetes, hypertension, is to analyze the genetic and environmental factors that lead to the development of these complex diseases. We propose a Bayesian approach for analysis of gene-environment interactions that efficiently models information available in the observed data and a priori biomedical knowledge.

  18. Pomeron-Odderon Interactions: A Functional RG Flow Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Vacca, Gian Paolo

    2016-01-01

    In the quest for an effective field theory which could help to understand some non perturbative feature of the QCD in the Regge limit, we consider a Reggeon Field Theory (RFT) for both Pomeron and Odderon interactions and perform an analysys of the critical theory using functional renormalization group techniques, unveiling a novel symmetry structure.

  19. Stochastic Process Analysis of Interactive Discourse in Early Counseling Interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedlander, Myrna L.; Phillips, Susan D.

    1984-01-01

    Examined patterns of interactive discourse to suggest how client and counselor establish a working alliance in their early interviews. Based on classification of 312 conversational turns from 14 dyads, a stochastic analysis was conducted. Results showed the sequences of talk were highly stable and predictable. (JAC)

  20. I PASS: an interactive policy analysis simulation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doug Olson; Con Schallau; Wilbur Maki

    1984-01-01

    This paper describes an interactive policy analysis simulation system(IPASS) that can be used to analyze the long-term economic and demographic effects of alternative forest resource management policies. The IPASS model is a dynamic analytical tool that forecasts growth and development of an economy. It allows the user to introduce changes in selected parameters based...

  1. Budget impact analysis of sofosbuvir-based regimens for the treatment of HIV/HCV-coinfected patients in northern Italy: a multicenter regional simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cenderello G

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Giovanni Cenderello,1 Stefania Artioli,2 Claudio Viscoli,3 Ambra Pasa,4 Mauro Giacomini,5 Barbara Giannini,5 Chiara Dentone,6 Laura Ambra Nicolini,3 Giovanni Cassola,1 Antonio Di Biagio31Infectious Diseases Unit EO, Ospedali Galliera, Genoa, 2Infectious Diseases Unit, ASL-5 Spezzina, La Spezia, 3Infectious Diseases Unit, AOU San Martino, IST, Genoa University, Genoa, 4IT Unit, Ospedali Galliera, Genoa, 5Department of Informatics, Bioengineering, Robotics and System Engineering (DIBRIS, University of Genoa, Genova, 6Infectious Diseases Unit, ASL-1 Imperiese, Sanremo, Imperia, ItalyObjectives: Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV is a leading cause of hospitalization and death in populations coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. Sofosbuvir (SOF is a pan-genotypic drug that should be combined with other agents as an oral treatment for HCV. We performed a 5-year horizon budget impact analysis of SOF-based regimens for the management of HIV/HCV-coinfected patients.Methods: A multicenter, prospective evaluation was conducted, involving four Italian Infectious Diseases Departments (Galliera, San Martino, Sanremo, and La Spezia. All 1,005 genotype-coinfected patients (30% cirrhotics under observation were considered (patients in all disease-stages were considered: chronic hepatitis C, cirrhosis, transplant, hepatocellular carcinoma. Disease stage costs per patient were collected; the expected disease progression in the absence of treatment and sustained virological response (SVR success rate for SOF-based regimens were calculated based on the literature and expert opinion. Drug prices were based on what the National Health Service paid for them. The comparison of "no treatment" disease progression costs versus the economic impact of SOF-based regimens was investigated.Results: Over the following 5 years, the disease progression scenario resulted in direct costs of approximately €54 million. Assuming an SVR success rate of 90%, average SOF

  2. Analysis of the uncertainty associated with national fossil fuel CO2 emissions datasets for use in the global Fossil Fuel Data Assimilation System (FFDAS) and carbon budgets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Y.; Gurney, K. R.; Rayner, P. J.; Asefi-Najafabady, S.

    2012-12-01

    High resolution quantification of global fossil fuel CO2 emissions has become essential in research aimed at understanding the global carbon cycle and supporting the verification of international agreements on greenhouse gas emission reductions. The Fossil Fuel Data Assimilation System (FFDAS) was used to estimate global fossil fuel carbon emissions at 0.25 degree from 1992 to 2010. FFDAS quantifies CO2 emissions based on areal population density, per capita economic activity, energy intensity and carbon intensity. A critical constraint to this system is the estimation of national-scale fossil fuel CO2 emissions disaggregated into economic sectors. Furthermore, prior uncertainty estimation is an important aspect of the FFDAS. Objective techniques to quantify uncertainty for the national emissions are essential. There are several institutional datasets that quantify national carbon emissions, including British Petroleum (BP), the International Energy Agency (IEA), the Energy Information Administration (EIA), and the Carbon Dioxide Information and Analysis Center (CDIAC). These four datasets have been "harmonized" by Jordan Macknick for inter-comparison purposes (Macknick, Carbon Management, 2011). The harmonization attempted to generate consistency among the different institutional datasets via a variety of techniques such as reclassifying into consistent emitting categories, recalculating based on consistent emission factors, and converting into consistent units. These harmonized data form the basis of our uncertainty estimation. We summarized the maximum, minimum and mean national carbon emissions for all the datasets from 1992 to 2010. We calculated key statistics highlighting the remaining differences among the harmonized datasets. We combine the span (max - min) of datasets for each country and year with the standard deviation of the national spans over time. We utilize the economic sectoral definitions from IEA to disaggregate the national total emission into

  3. Marketing with limited budget

    OpenAIRE

    Smirnova, Daria

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this research-based thesis was to get an idea how managers of two small resembling hotels of a specific region deal with marketing process with a limited budget. In addition, the aim of the thesis was to examine if hotel managers who were interviewed perceive marketing only in the way of ‘promotion’ rather than marketing research, marketing mix and marketing environment theories. It was also found out if hotel managers of those hotels consider marketing as a key to successful h...

  4. Global Energy and Water Budgets in MERRA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosilovich, Michael G.; Robertson, Franklin R.; Chen, Junye

    2010-01-01

    Reanalyses, retrospectively analyzing observations over climatological time scales, represent a merger between satellite observations and models to provide globally continuous data and have improved over several generations. Balancing the Earth s global water and energy budgets has been a focus of research for more than two decades. Models tend to their own climate while remotely sensed observations have had varying degrees of uncertainty. This study evaluates the latest NASA reanalysis, called the Modern Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA), from a global water and energy cycles perspective. MERRA was configured to provide complete budgets in its output diagnostics, including the Incremental Analysis Update (IAU), the term that represents the observations influence on the analyzed states, alongside the physical flux terms. Precipitation in reanalyses is typically sensitive to the observational analysis. For MERRA, the global mean precipitation bias and spatial variability are more comparable to merged satellite observations (GPCP and CMAP) than previous generations of reanalyses. Ocean evaporation also has a much lower value which is comparable to observed data sets. The global energy budget shows that MERRA cloud effects may be generally weak, leading to excess shortwave radiation reaching the ocean surface. Evaluating the MERRA time series of budget terms, a significant change occurs, which does not appear to be represented in observations. In 1999, the global analysis increments of water vapor changes sign from negative to positive, and primarily lead to more oceanic precipitation. This change is coincident with the beginning of AMSU radiance assimilation. Previous and current reanalyses all exhibit some sensitivity to perturbations in the observation record, and this remains a significant research topic for reanalysis development. The effect of the changing observing system is evaluated for MERRA water and energy budget terms.

  5. Ulipristal acetate for pre-operative treatment of moderate-to-severe uterine fibroids in women of reproductive age in The Netherlands: cost minimization analysis and budget impact analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakiyah, N; van Asselt, A D I; Postma, M J

    2017-03-01

    Ulipristal acetate has been found to be non-inferior to other pre-operative treatments of uterine fibroids, particularly leuprolide. The objective of this study was to assess the pharmacoeconomic profile of ulipristal acetate compared to leuprolide for the pre-operative treatment of moderate-to-severe uterine fibroids in women of reproductive age in The Netherlands. The analysis was performed and applied within the framework of the ulipristal acetate submission for reimbursement in 2012. A decision model was developed to compare the total costs of ulipristal acetate compared to leuprolide, the standard care in The Netherlands. The target population of this study corresponded to the type of patients included in the PEARL II clinical trial; i.e. women of reproductive age requiring pre-operative treatment for uterine fibroids. Sensitivity analysis was implemented to assess uncertainties. Data regarding costs, effects, and other input parameters were obtained from relevant published literatures, the Dutch Healthcare Insurance Board, and expert opinion obtained by means of a panel of experts from several medical centers in The Netherlands. In The Netherlands, the total costs of ulipristal acetate and leuprolide were estimated at €4,216,027 and €4,218,095, respectively. The annual savings of ulipristal acetate were, therefore, estimated at €2,068. The major driver of this cost difference was the cost of administration for leuprolide. Sensitivity analyses showed that ulipristal acetate mostly remained cost-saving over a range of assumptions. The budget impact analysis indicated that the introduction of ulipristal acetate was estimated to result in cost savings in the first 3 years following the introduction. The results of this study were used in the decision on reimbursement of ulipristal acetate according to the Dutch Reference Pricing system in 2012. Ulipristal acetate was cost saving compared to leuprolide and has the potential to provide substantial savings on

  6. On the accuracy of the simple ocean data assimilation analysis for estimating heat Budgets of the Near-Surface Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shenoi, S.S.C.; Shankar, D.; Shetye, S.R.

    The accuracy of data from the Simple Ocean Data Assimilation (SODA) model for estimating the heat budget of the upper ocean is tested in the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal. SODA is able to reproduce the changes in heat content when...

  7. VAR—ANALYSIS OF GLOBAL FINANCIAL ECONOMIC CRISIS IMPACT ON PUBLIC BUDGET AND UNEMPLOYMENT: EVIDENCE FROM THE ECONOMY OF THE KYRGYZ REPUBLIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nargiza Bakytovna Alymkulova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Global financial crisis hit the economy of the Kyrgyz Republic by the third wave of its transmission in the early of 2009. The article examines the impact of the Global financial economic crisis on the public budget and unemployment of the Kyrgyz Republic. We analyzed the transmission of the crisis on the public budget firstly and its effect on unemployment level by using the vector autoregression approach (VAR and quarterly data for 2005–2013 within the framework of IS-LM model for small open economies with floating exchange rate. There is an inverse relationship between the public budget and remittances inflow, liquidity level, volume of deposits, and exchange rate. As a result of the study, the fall in remittances inflows, liquidity level of the banking system, depreciation of the national currency lead to an increase in public revenue. Therefore, the increase in public spending during the crisis period, with the aim of unemployment reduction, may be considered as a crucial policy. The study result allows to policy-makers to exactly know what channels of transmission mechanism transfer the Global crisis on the public budget and its effect on unemployment level of the republic in order to undertake anticrisis macroeconomic policy. The final result of the study indicates that the increase of unemployment level by 1 % requires the increase of public spending by 0.63 %.

  8. Collection assessment and acquisitions budgets

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Sul H

    2013-01-01

    This invaluable new book contains timely information about the assessment of academic library collections and the relationship of collection assessment to acquisition budgets. The rising cost of information significantly influences academic libraries'abilities to acquire the necessary materials for students and faculty, and public libraries'abilities to acquire material for their clientele. Collection Assessment and Acquisitions Budgets examines different aspects of the relationship between the assessment of academic library collections and the management of library acquisition budgets. Librar

  9. Moving shape analysis and control applications to fluid structure interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Moubachir, Marwan

    2006-01-01

    Problems involving the evolution of two- and three-dimensional domains arise in many areas of science and engineering. Emphasizing an Eulerian approach, Moving Shape Analysis and Control: Applications to Fluid Structure Interactions presents valuable tools for the mathematical analysis of evolving domains. The book illustrates the efficiency of the tools presented through different examples connected to the analysis of noncylindrical partial differential equations (PDEs), such as Navier-Stokes equations for incompressible fluids in moving domains. The authors first provide all of the details of existence and uniqueness of the flow in both strong and weak cases. After establishing several important principles and methods, they devote several chapters to demonstrating Eulerian evolution and derivation tools for the control of systems involving fluids and solids. The book concludes with the boundary control of fluid-structure interaction systems, followed by helpful appendices that review some of the advanced m...

  10. Sand on the move: Post Hurricane Sandy analysis of the coastal sediment budget and bedform migration at Jones Inlet, Long Island, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bales, M. K.; Goff, J. A.; Austin, J. A.; Flood, R. D.; Christensen, B. A.; Browne, C. M.; Saustrup, S.

    2013-12-01

    Hurricane Sandy struck the Northeast coast of the United States on October 29, 2012. Although sustained winds were downgraded to ~70 kts upon landfall, the vast area of the storm along with the direction of impact resulted in major storm-surge flooding and damage, as well as significant changes to the morphology of the coast-line, altering the characteristics of major barrier islands, inlets, and estuaries. A January 2013 post-storm survey aboard the R/V Pritchard, conducted by the University of Texas Institute for Geophysics, Stony Brook University, and Adelphi University, sought to investigate the impact of this post-tropical cyclone on the southwestern coast of Long Island, NY which sustained storm surges of up to 4 m above normal sea level. The objective of this project is to gain insight on the sedimentological volume changes and bathymetrical alterations made on the seafloor within Jones Inlet and the immediate estuaries behind Jones Beach and Long Beach Island. By studying these changes we hope to gain a better understanding of how large cyclonic storms alter sediment volumes and seafloor topography within major inlets and estuarine systems. These modifications can be observed in post-storm multibeam swath bathymetry and backscatter when compared to similar pre-storm data collected in 2010 by Stony Brook University. Post-storm CHIRP seismic reflection data were also collected, in order to define stratigraphic geometries, as well as grab samples to determine grain size distributions and ground truth for the backscatter data. The acoustic reflections imaged in the CHIRP data allow basal reflectors and dominate horizons to be traced throughout the inlet and estuaries. Our analysis focuses on (1) defining and quantifying areas of deposition and erosion from before-and-after bathymetry data; (2) comparing bedform patterns and grain size distributions from before-and-after backscatter and grab sample analysis; and (3) defining stratal geometries of the shallow

  11. Circular Dichroism for the Analysis of Protein-DNA Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarlett, Garry; Siligardi, Giuliano; Kneale, Geoffrey G

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this chapter is to provide information on the practical aspects of circular dichroism (CD) and synchrotron radiation circular dichroism (SRCD) in protein-nucleic acids interaction solution studies. The chapter will describe the guidelines appropriate to designing experiments and conducting correct data interpretation, the use of both benchtop and synchrotron CD approaches is discussed and the advantages of SRCD outlined. Further information and a good general review of the field a can be found in Gray (Circular Dichroism of protein-nucleic acid interactions. In: Fasman GD (ed) Circular dichroism and the conformational analysis of biomolecules. Plenum Press, New York. pp 469-500, 1996).

  12. Biospecific protein immobilization for rapid analysis of weak protein interactions using self-interaction nanoparticle spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengali, Aditya N; Tessier, Peter M

    2009-10-01

    "Reversible" protein interactions govern diverse biological behavior ranging from intracellular transport and toxic protein aggregation to protein crystallization and inactivation of protein therapeutics. Much less is known about weak protein interactions than their stronger counterparts since they are difficult to characterize, especially in a parallel format (in contrast to a sequential format) necessary for high-throughput screening. We have recently introduced a highly efficient approach of characterizing protein self-association, namely self-interaction nanoparticle spectroscopy (SINS; Tessier et al., 2008; J Am Chem Soc 130:3106-3112). This approach exploits the separation-dependent optical properties of gold nanoparticles to detect weak self-interactions between proteins immobilized on nanoparticles. A limitation of our previous work is that differences in the sequence and structure of proteins can lead to significant differences in their affinity to adsorb to nanoparticle surfaces, which complicates analysis of the corresponding protein self-association behavior. In this work we demonstrate a highly specific approach for coating nanoparticles with proteins using biotin-avidin interactions to generate protein-nanoparticle conjugates that report protein self-interactions through changes in their optical properties. Using lysozyme as a model protein that is refractory to characterization by conventional SINS, we demonstrate that surface Plasmon wavelengths for gold-avidin-lysozyme conjugates over a range of solution conditions (i.e., pH and ionic strength) are well correlated with lysozyme osmotic second virial coefficient measurements. Since SINS requires orders of magnitude less protein and time than conventional methods (e.g., static light scattering), we envision this approach will find application in large screens of protein self-association aimed at either preventing (e.g., protein aggregation) or promoting (e.g., protein crystallization) these

  13. The Analysis and the Measures of the Construction Enterprise Project Cost Budget%建筑企业工程造价预算存在问题分析及其措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马立军

    2015-01-01

    Construction enterprises in the project cost and budget is very important work, is also project management as the focus of the work is, it is not only related to the construction of the economic cost of, is a project to a successful conclusion last key link. Accurate, reasonable and scientific budgeting and auditing is the key to improve the engineering efficiency. Therefore, the construction cost and budget issues, reasonable planning and analysis and discussion.%建筑企业工程中的造价和预算是非常重要的工作,也被工程管理作为工作的重点进行,其既关系着施工方的经济成本问题,也是一项工程顺利结束的最后关键性环节。准确、合理和科学的预算和审核是提高工程效率的关键。因此,对建筑工程的造价和预算问题、合理规划进行了分析和探讨。

  14. Social network extraction and analysis based on multimodal dyadic interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalera, Sergio; Baró, Xavier; Vitrià, Jordi; Radeva, Petia; Raducanu, Bogdan

    2012-01-01

    Social interactions are a very important component in people's lives. Social network analysis has become a common technique used to model and quantify the properties of social interactions. In this paper, we propose an integrated framework to explore the characteristics of a social network extracted from multimodal dyadic interactions. For our study, we used a set of videos belonging to New York Times' Blogging Heads opinion blog. The Social Network is represented as an oriented graph, whose directed links are determined by the Influence Model. The links' weights are a measure of the "influence" a person has over the other. The states of the Influence Model encode automatically extracted audio/visual features from our videos using state-of-the art algorithms. Our results are reported in terms of accuracy of audio/visual data fusion for speaker segmentation and centrality measures used to characterize the extracted social network.

  15. Social Network Extraction and Analysis Based on Multimodal Dyadic Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Raducanu

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Social interactions are a very important component in people’s lives. Social network analysis has become a common technique used to model and quantify the properties of social interactions. In this paper, we propose an integrated framework to explore the characteristics of a social network extracted from multimodal dyadic interactions. For our study, we used a set of videos belonging to New York Times’ Blogging Heads opinion blog. The Social Network is represented as an oriented graph, whose directed links are determined by the Influence Model. The links’ weights are a measure of the “influence” a person has over the other. The states of the Influence Model encode automatically extracted audio/visual features from our videos using state-of-the art algorithms. Our results are reported in terms of accuracy of audio/visual data fusion for speaker segmentation and centrality measures used to characterize the extracted social network.

  16. Operational budgeting using fuzzy goal programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Mohammadi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Having an efficient budget normally has different advantages such as measuring the performance of various organizations, setting appropriate targets and promoting managers based on their achievements. However, any budgeting planning requires prediction of different cost components. There are various methods for budgeting planning such as incremental budgeting, program budgeting, zero based budgeting and performance budgeting. In this paper, we present a fuzzy goal programming to estimate operational budget. The proposed model uses fuzzy triangular as well as interval number to estimate budgeting expenses. The proposed study of this paper is implemented for a real-world case study in province of Qom, Iran and the results are analyzed.

  17. Financial impact of spinal cord stimulation on the healthcare budget: a comparative analysis of costs in Canada and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Krishna; Bishop, Sharon

    2009-06-01

    Many institutions with spinal cord stimulation (SCS) programs fail to realize that besides the initial implantation cost, budgetary allocation must be made to address annual maintenance costs as well as complications as they arise. Complications remain the major contributing factor to the overall expense of SCS. The authors present a formula that, when applied, provides a realistic representation of the actual costs necessary to implant and maintain SCS systems in Canada and the US. The authors performed a retrospective analysis of 197 cases involving SCS (161 implanted and 36 failed trial stimulations) between 1995 and 2006. The cost of patient workup, initial implantation, annual maintenance, and resources necessary to resolve complications were assessed for each case and a unit cost applied. The total cost allocated for each case was determined by summing across healthcare resource headings. Using the same parameters, the unit cost was calculated in both Canadian (CAD) and US dollars (USD) at 2007 prices. The cost of implanting a SCS system in Canada is $21,595 (CAD), in US Medicare $32,882 (USD), and in US Blue Cross Blue Shield (BCBS) $57,896 (USD). The annual maintenance cost of an uncomplicated case in Canada is $3539 (CAD), in US Medicare $5071 (USD), and in BCBS $7277 (USD). The mean cost of a complication was $5191 in Canada (range $136-18,837 [CAD]). In comparison, in the US the figures were $9649 (range $381-28,495) for Medicare and $21,390 (range $573-54,547) for BCBS (both USD). Using these calculations a formula was derived as follows: the annual maintenance cost (a) was added to the average annual cost per complication per patient implanted (b); the sum was then divided by the implantation cost (c); and the result was multiplied by 100 to obtain a percentage (a + b / c x 100). To make this budgetary cap universally applicable, the results from the application of the formula were averaged, resulting in an 18% premium. For budgeting purposes the

  18. U.S. Global Change Research Program Budget Crosscut

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Science and Technology Policy, Executive Office of the President — U.S. Global Change Research Program budget authority for Agency activities in which the primary focus is on:Observations, research, and analysis of climate change...

  19. Motivation in Beyond Budgeting: A Motivational Paradox?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandalgaard, Niels; Bukh, Per Nikolaj

    In this paper we discuss the role of motivation in relation to budgeting and we analyse how the Beyond Budgeting model functions compared with traditional budgeting. In the paper we focus on budget related motivation (and motivation in general) and conclude that the Beyond Budgeting model...... is a motivational paradox....

  20. Analysis on liquid metal corrosion-oxidation interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Jinsuo [International and Nuclear System Engineering, MS K-575, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)], E-mail: jszhang@lanl.gov; Li Ning [International and Nuclear System Engineering, MS K-575, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2007-11-15

    The interaction between growing surface oxides and flowing liquid metals is of importance in many high temperature applications such as coolant systems using liquid lead or lead bismuth eutectic (LBE) in advanced nuclear energy systems. The impact of flow can manifest through particle erosion, mass transfer corrosion, stress scrape, etc. In the present study, we consider the continuous flow-induced corrosion by dissolution of steel components or dissociation of surface oxides. In oxygen controlled liquid lead or LBE systems, steels exposed to the liquid metals are subject to both oxidation and flow-induced corrosion. It is necessary and important to understand the corrosion-oxidation interactions for selecting structural materials and optimizing operating conditions. A comprehensive theoretical analysis of the key corrosion-oxidation interactions is presented here. Possible corrosion-oxidation mechanisms are considered and the corrosion-oxidation interactions are classified into different regimes. In each regime, a theoretical model is given. Based on the analysis, corrosion-oxidation maps are developed for selecting and optimizing the operation conditions for liquid lead-alloy systems.

  1. Stability and modal analysis of shock/boundary layer interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Joseph W.; Larsson, Johan; Bernardini, Matteo; Pirozzoli, Sergio

    2016-06-01

    The dynamics of oblique shock wave/turbulent boundary layer interactions is analyzed by mining a large-eddy simulation (LES) database for various strengths of the incoming shock. The flow dynamics is first analyzed by means of dynamic mode decomposition (DMD), which highlights the simultaneous occurrence of two types of flow modes, namely a low-frequency type associated with breathing motion of the separation bubble, accompanied by flapping motion of the reflected shock, and a high-frequency type associated with the propagation of instability waves past the interaction zone. Global linear stability analysis performed on the mean LES flow fields yields a single unstable zero-frequency mode, plus a variety of marginally stable low-frequency modes whose stability margin decreases with the strength of the interaction. The least stable linear modes are grouped into two classes, one of which bears striking resemblance to the breathing mode recovered from DMD and another class associated with revolving motion within the separation bubble. The results of the modal and linear stability analysis support the notion that low-frequency dynamics is intrinsic to the interaction zone, but some continuous forcing from the upstream boundary layer may be required to keep the system near a limit cycle. This can be modeled as a weakly damped oscillator with forcing, as in the early empirical model by Plotkin (AIAA J 13:1036-1040, 1975).

  2. Interaction Analysis of a Two-Component System Using Nanodiscs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Hörnschemeyer

    Full Text Available Two-component systems are the major means by which bacteria couple adaptation to environmental changes. All utilize a phosphorylation cascade from a histidine kinase to a response regulator, and some also employ an accessory protein. The system-wide signaling fidelity of two-component systems is based on preferential binding between the signaling proteins. However, information on the interaction kinetics between membrane embedded histidine kinase and its partner proteins is lacking. Here, we report the first analysis of the interactions between the full-length membrane-bound histidine kinase CpxA, which was reconstituted in nanodiscs, and its cognate response regulator CpxR and accessory protein CpxP. Using surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy in combination with interaction map analysis, the affinity of membrane-embedded CpxA for CpxR was quantified, and found to increase by tenfold in the presence of ATP, suggesting that a considerable portion of phosphorylated CpxR might be stably associated with CpxA in vivo. Using microscale thermophoresis, the affinity between CpxA in nanodiscs and CpxP was determined to be substantially lower than that between CpxA and CpxR. Taken together, the quantitative interaction data extend our understanding of the signal transduction mechanism used by two-component systems.

  3. Stability and modal analysis of shock/boundary layer interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Joseph W.; Larsson, Johan; Bernardini, Matteo; Pirozzoli, Sergio

    2017-02-01

    The dynamics of oblique shock wave/turbulent boundary layer interactions is analyzed by mining a large-eddy simulation (LES) database for various strengths of the incoming shock. The flow dynamics is first analyzed by means of dynamic mode decomposition (DMD), which highlights the simultaneous occurrence of two types of flow modes, namely a low-frequency type associated with breathing motion of the separation bubble, accompanied by flapping motion of the reflected shock, and a high-frequency type associated with the propagation of instability waves past the interaction zone. Global linear stability analysis performed on the mean LES flow fields yields a single unstable zero-frequency mode, plus a variety of marginally stable low-frequency modes whose stability margin decreases with the strength of the interaction. The least stable linear modes are grouped into two classes, one of which bears striking resemblance to the breathing mode recovered from DMD and another class associated with revolving motion within the separation bubble. The results of the modal and linear stability analysis support the notion that low-frequency dynamics is intrinsic to the interaction zone, but some continuous forcing from the upstream boundary layer may be required to keep the system near a limit cycle. This can be modeled as a weakly damped oscillator with forcing, as in the early empirical model by Plotkin (AIAA J 13:1036-1040, 1975).

  4. Visual exploration and analysis of human-robot interaction rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Boyles, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    We present a novel interaction paradigm for the visual exploration, manipulation and analysis of human-robot interaction (HRI) rules; our development is implemented using a visual programming interface and exploits key techniques drawn from both information visualization and visual data mining to facilitate the interaction design and knowledge discovery process. HRI is often concerned with manipulations of multi-modal signals, events, and commands that form various kinds of interaction rules. Depicting, manipulating and sharing such design-level information is a compelling challenge. Furthermore, the closed loop between HRI programming and knowledge discovery from empirical data is a relatively long cycle. This, in turn, makes design-level verification nearly impossible to perform in an earlier phase. In our work, we exploit a drag-and-drop user interface and visual languages to support depicting responsive behaviors from social participants when they interact with their partners. For our principal test case of gaze-contingent HRI interfaces, this permits us to program and debug the robots' responsive behaviors through a graphical data-flow chart editor. We exploit additional program manipulation interfaces to provide still further improvement to our programming experience: by simulating the interaction dynamics between a human and a robot behavior model, we allow the researchers to generate, trace and study the perception-action dynamics with a social interaction simulation to verify and refine their designs. Finally, we extend our visual manipulation environment with a visual data-mining tool that allows the user to investigate interesting phenomena such as joint attention and sequential behavioral patterns from multiple multi-modal data streams. We have created instances of HRI interfaces to evaluate and refine our development paradigm. As far as we are aware, this paper reports the first program manipulation paradigm that integrates visual programming

  5. Interacting Ghost Dark Energy Model: Dynamical System Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Golchin, Hanif; Ebrahimi, Esmaeil

    2016-01-01

    We study the impacts of interaction between dark matter and dark energy in the context of ghost dark energy model. Using the dynamical system analysis, we obtain the fixed points of the system for different types of interactions while the universe is filled with radiation, matter (including dark matter and luminous matter) and dark energy components. We consider the stability of the fixed points in details for different cases. In all cases there is an unstable matter dominated epoch and a stable late time dark energy dominated phase. However, we find that adding the linear interaction, the evolution of ghost dark energy model does not contain the radiation dominated epoch in the early times which is a necessary point in any cosmic model. This failure resolved when we add the non-linear interaction to the model. We also find an upper bound for the value of the coupling constant of the interaction between dark matter and dark energy as b < 0.57 . This bound is necessary to have a decelerating and unstable ma...

  6. Nexus analysis and interaction in healthcare educational practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Malene

    practice. Thus a thorough insight into the field is necessary in order to change it. Using nexus analysis (Scollon & Scollon, 2004, 2007) as an ethnographic framework a study of the development of a professional identity among student nurses in Denmark was conducted. Scollon and Scollon’s notions...... on 'navigate' and 'engage' in the field provided a frame to combine both discourse (Edley, 2014) document (Prior, 2003) and interaction analysis (Jordan & Henderson, 1995; Sacks, 1992) in order to grasp the crucial social actors (nurses, students, patients, relatives) and their daily routinized practice....... The paper shows how a combination of (video) observations, written interviews and workshops can be a way to obtain knowledge about the practice that consists of members generalizations, neutral observations, individual experiences and interaction with members (Scollon & Scollon 2004, p. 158)...

  7. Analysis of linear and nonlinear genotype × environment interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong-Cai eYang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The usual analysis of genotype × environment interaction (GxE is based on the linear regression of genotypic performance on environmental changes (e.g., classic stability analysis. This linear model may often lead to lumping together of the nonlinear responses to the whole range of environmental changes from suboptimal and superoptimal conditions, thereby lowering the power of detecting GxE variation. On the other hand, the GxE is present when the magnitude of the genetic effect differs across the range of environmental conditions regardless of whether the response to environmental changes is linear or nonlinear. The objectives of this study are: (i explore the use of four commonly used nonlinear functions (logistic, parabola, normal and Cauchy functions for modeling nonlinear genotypic responses to environmental changes and (ii to investigate the difference in the magnitude of estimated genetic effects under different environmental conditions. The use of nonlinear functions was illustrated through the analysis of one data set taken from barley cultivar trials in Alberta, Canada (Data A and the examination of change in effect sizes is through the analysis another data set taken from the North America Barley Genome Mapping Project (Data B. The analysis of Data A showed that the Cauchy function captured an average of >40% of total GxE variation whereas the logistic function captured less GxE variation than the linear function. The analysis of Data B showed that genotypic responses were largely linear and that strong QTL × environment interaction existed as the positions, sizes and directions of QTL detected differed in poor vs. good environments. We conclude that (i the nonlinear functions should be considered when analyzing multi-environmental trials with a wide range of environmental variation and (ii QTL × environment interaction can arise from the difference in effect sizes across environments.

  8. Graph spectral analysis of protein interaction network evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Thorne, Thomas; Stumpf, Michael P. H.

    2012-01-01

    We present an analysis of protein interaction network data via the comparison of models of network evolution to the observed data. We take a Bayesian approach and perform posterior density estimation using an approximate Bayesian computation with sequential Monte Carlo method. Our approach allows us to perform model selection over a selection of potential network growth models. The methodology we apply uses a distance defined in terms of graph spectra which captures the network data more natu...

  9. Power Budget Analysis of Colorless Hybrid WDM/TDM-PON Scheme Using Downstream DPSK and Re-modulated Upstream OOK Data Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Yousaf; Afridi, Muhammad Idrees; Khan, Ahmed Mudassir; Rehman, Waheed Ur; Khan, Jahanzeb

    2014-09-01

    Hybrid wavelength-division multiplexed/time-division multiplexed passive optical access networks (WDM/TDM-PONs) combine the advance features of both WDM and TDM PONs to provide a cost-effective access network solution. We demonstrate and analyze the transmission performances and power budget issues of a colorless hybrid WDM/TDM-PON scheme. A 10-Gb/s downstream differential phase shift keying (DPSK) and remodulated upstream on/off keying (OOK) data signals are transmitted over 25 km standard single mode fiber. Simulation results show error free transmission having adequate power margins in both downstream and upstream transmission, which prove the applicability of the proposed scheme to future passive optical access networks. The power budget confines both the PON splitting ratio and the distance between the Optical Line Terminal (OLT) and Optical Network Unit (ONU).

  10. Budget Report 2009: Adjustment Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oder, Norman

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on a 2009 budget survey conducted by "Library Journal" in which a random sample of U.S. public libraries were surveyed via mail or fax in October 2008. Those that answered the survey projected a modest increase in budgets for 2009, just 2%, with less than a 1% increase in funds for materials, a predictable area for cuts. That…

  11. Deformed Gaussian Orthogonal Ensemble Analysis of the Interacting Boson Model

    CERN Document Server

    Pato, M P; Lima, C L; Hussein, M S; Alhassid, Y

    1994-01-01

    A Deformed Gaussian Orthogonal Ensemble (DGOE) which interpolates between the Gaussian Orthogonal Ensemble and a Poissonian Ensemble is constructed. This new ensemble is then applied to the analysis of the chaotic properties of the low lying collective states of nuclei described by the Interacting Boson Model (IBM). This model undergoes a transition order-chaos-order from the $SU(3)$ limit to the $O(6)$ limit. Our analysis shows that the quantum fluctuations of the IBM Hamiltonian, both of the spectrum and the eigenvectors, follow the expected behaviour predicted by the DGOE when one goes from one limit to the other.

  12. Structural mode significance using INCA. [Interactive Controls Analysis computer program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Frank H.; Downing, John P.; Thorpe, Christopher J.

    1990-01-01

    Structural finite element models are often too large to be used in the design and analysis of control systems. Model reduction techniques must be applied to reduce the structural model to manageable size. In the past, engineers either performed the model order reduction by hand or used distinct computer programs to retrieve the data, to perform the significance analysis and to reduce the order of the model. To expedite this process, the latest version of INCA has been expanded to include an interactive graphical structural mode significance and model order reduction capability.

  13. Structural mode significance using INCA. [Interactive Controls Analysis computer program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Frank H.; Downing, John P.; Thorpe, Christopher J.

    1990-01-01

    Structural finite element models are often too large to be used in the design and analysis of control systems. Model reduction techniques must be applied to reduce the structural model to manageable size. In the past, engineers either performed the model order reduction by hand or used distinct computer programs to retrieve the data, to perform the significance analysis and to reduce the order of the model. To expedite this process, the latest version of INCA has been expanded to include an interactive graphical structural mode significance and model order reduction capability.

  14. Data Analysis through a Generalized Interactive Computer Animation Method (DATICAM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis, J.N.; Schweider, D.H.

    1983-01-01

    DATICAM is an interactive computer animation method designed to aid in the analysis of nuclear research data. DATICAM was developed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) by EG and G Idaho, Inc. INEL analysts use DATICAM to produce computer codes that are better able to predict the behavior of nuclear power reactors. In addition to increased code accuracy, DATICAM has saved manpower and computer costs. DATICAM has been generalized to assist in the data analysis of virtually any data-producing dynamic process.

  15. Data analysis through interactive computer animation method (DATICAM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis, J.N.; Schwieder, D.H.

    1983-01-01

    DATICAM is an interactive computer animation method designed to aid in the analysis of nuclear research data. DATICAM was developed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) by EG and G Idaho, Inc. INEL analysts use DATICAM to produce computer codes that are better able to predict the behavior of nuclear power reactors. In addition to increased code accuracy, DATICAM has saved manpower and computer costs. DATICAM has been generalized to assist in the data analysis of virtually any data-producing dynamic process.

  16. Interactive Safety Analysis Framework of Autonomous Intelligent Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui You Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available More than 100,000 people were killed and around 2.6 million injured in road accidents in the People’s Republic of China (PRC, that is four to eight times that of developed countries, equivalent to 6.2 mortality per 10 thousand vehicles—the highest rate in the world. There are more than 1,700 fatalities and 840,000 injuries yearly due to vehicle crashes off public highways. In this paper, we proposed a interactive safety situation and threat analysis framework based on driver behaviour and vehicle dynamics risk analysis based on ISO26262…

  17. Budget impact analysis of biosimilar infliximab (CT-P13) for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis in six Central and Eastern European countries

    OpenAIRE

    Brodszky, Valentin; Baji, Petra; Balogh, Orsolya; Péntek, Márta

    2014-01-01

    The first biosimilar monoclonal antibody (infliximab, CT-P13) was registered by the European Medicines Agency in 2013 for the treatment of several inflammatory conditions including rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Biosimilar infliximab is first being marketed in the Central and Eastern European countries. This paper presents the estimated budget impact of the introduction of biosimilar infliximab in RA over a 3-year time period in six selected countries, namely Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary...

  18. Budget impact analysis of the use of daclatasvir in Italy for the treatment of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV genotype 3 patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umberto Restelli

    2016-03-01

    CONCLUSIONS: The use of DCV is likely to have a short term impact on the INHS budget increasing resources use compared to the sole use of INF-α+RBV+SOF. However, a trend of reduction of the costs increase is observed due to the management of health states and adverse events which may lead to the possibility to reduce costs in the long term.

  19. Analysis of the interaction of participants freight forwarding system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlo Popovych

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Main goal of this work is the analysis of the interaction of participants of freight forwarding activities. Research methods included analysis of scientific literature, theory of systems and systems analysis, methods of induction and deduction. As sources of information used and applied work of fundamental importance known foreign and local scientists and regulatory and legislative documents of Ukraine for the state transport policy. In the article the basic interactions of participants of freight forwarding activities. Classified components freight forwarding services. Assign the concept freight forwarding system and its aim. Established element and forms of cooperation in the freight forwarding system. The main task of forwarding companies are organizing, coordinating and ensuring the delivery from shipper to consignee. Freight forwarding company responsible for the timely delivery of the goods on the condition of preservation of the quantity and quality specified time conditions. Currently used methods are uneffective decision-making, leading to losses. These circumstances require improvement methodology management of freight forwarding companies. This is possible only using modern mathematical methods and information technologies that will improve the operation of freight forwarding companies. The article presents a theoretical exposition of the basic processes of interaction between participants in freight forwarding system. The article may be of interest to specialists of freight forwarding companies.

  20. Centralization versus Delegation in an Experimental Capital Budgeting Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus C. Arnold

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In an experiment, we model two stylized facts about capital budgeting practice, budgetary slack creation and delegation of decision-making authority. In our setting, under centralization, headquarters announces a budget, the division manager gives a cost report, and headquarters decides on the project. Under delegation, headquarters allocates a budget to the manager, and the manager is authorized to make the investment decision. We argue that the ability of headquarters to commit to a budget moderates the effect of delegation, and we find evidence in favor of our argument as there is an interaction effect of delegation and commitment to budgets. The effects of delegation are particularly strong when budgets are non-binding as delegation serves as a substitute for commitment in this case. This leads to smaller expenditures and to a higher headquarters’ payoff under delegation than under centralization. In contrast, when headquarters can commit to the budget, the descriptive data are consistent with our conjectures about the effects of honesty preferences, but the effects are too small to be significant.

  1. Probability and sensitivity analysis of machine foundation and soil interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Králik J., jr.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the possibility of the sensitivity and probabilistic analysis of the reliability of the machine foundation depending on variability of the soil stiffness, structure geometry and compressor operation. The requirements to design of the foundation under rotating machines increased due to development of calculation method and computer tools. During the structural design process, an engineer has to consider problems of the soil-foundation and foundation-machine interaction from the safety, reliability and durability of structure point of view. The advantages and disadvantages of the deterministic and probabilistic analysis of the machine foundation resistance are discussed. The sensitivity of the machine foundation to the uncertainties of the soil properties due to longtime rotating movement of machine is not negligible for design engineers. On the example of compressor foundation and turbine fy. SIEMENS AG the affectivity of the probabilistic design methodology was presented. The Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS simulation method for the analysis of the compressor foundation reliability was used on program ANSYS. The 200 simulations for five load cases were calculated in the real time on PC. The probabilistic analysis gives us more complex information about the soil-foundation-machine interaction as the deterministic analysis.

  2. FLEXIBLE BUDGET OF SPORT COMPETITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Vukasović

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Manager of sport competition has right to decide and also to take responsibility for costs, income and financial results. From economic point of wiev flexible budget and planning cost calculations is top management base for analyzing success level of sport competition. Flexible budget is made before sport competition with few output level, where one is always from static plan-master plan. At the end of competition when we have results, we make report of plan executing and we also analyzing plan variances. Results of comparation between achieved and planning level of static budget can be acceptable if achieved level is approximate to budget level or if we analyzing results from gross or net income. Flexible budget become very important in case of world eco- nomic crises

  3. RESPONSIBILITY CENTERS AND ENTITY BUDGETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BÎRCĂ ALIONA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The investigation on relationships between responsibility centers and budgets supposes examining the influence of management control over the entity management structures. Thus, responsibility centers help to streamline the management structure and ensure the implementation of the budget system into practice. Budgeting refers to the transformation of financial plans into monetary units. The pragmatic approach of the relationship between responsibility centers and budgets is analyzed on the basis of Romanian entities in the regulated market of the Bucharest Stock Exchange. The fact that entities which show the management structure and at the same time show the income and expense budget makes us claim that both have an important role to play in implementing the entity strategies.

  4. Analysis on the Problems in Water Conservancy Project Bidding Budget%水利工程招标预算编制应注意的问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李静

    2015-01-01

    In public bidding processes of water conservancy , one of the most significant parts is the preparation of bidding budget . To ensure the bidding budget could estimate the project cost and its market price accurately , cost engineers should 1) be familiar with the budget preparation methods; 2 ) have a good understanding of the technical terms in the contract and a comprehensive investigation in the construction site;3) seriously select and use the relevant quota .%招标预算编制是工程招投标过程的重要环节,要求承担招标预算编制工作的造价专业人员,除必须熟练掌握招标预算基本编制方法外,还必须认真阅读合同技术条款,认真查勘现场,正确选择并使用相关定额,使招标预算真实体现工程成本,准确反映工程真实的市场价格。

  5. The Application of Citation Analysis to Budget Allocation in Health Science Collection: A Case Study of the Taipei Medical University Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzu-heng Chiu

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the citation pattern of health science related subjects, using the theses and dissertations in 90 and 91 academic years of TMU as the research samples. Findings of this study can not only provide information for decision making of budget allocation in TMU, but also serve as the reference for other medical universities and colleges in Taiwan. Findings of this study has found that the theses and dissertations of colleges in TMU present identical citation patterns, following the order of “journal-monograph-others internet resources” as well as preferring foreign languages as the language used in agitations. Furthermore, in the terms of the availability of library materials, the availability of Chinese and foreign language journals in TMU library is about 60% whereas there is 18% difference between Chinese (46.77% and foreign language (29.14% monograph collection. Finally, in the terms of the budget allocations for journals and monograph collection, the results from this study reveal the percentages of the use of theses and dissertations of colleges in TMU are 88.5:11.5. The actual execution of purchase budget in TMU library is about this percentage. [Article content in Chinese

  6. 医院财务预算管理存在的问题及对策%Analysis of Financial Budgeting Management in Hospital

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖俏

    2015-01-01

    医院财务预算是医院预算管理的主要组成部分。加强医院财务预算是医院可持续发展的必然要求。该文分析了医院财务预算管理的现状及存在的问题,并根据现状提出相应对策,从而促使财务部门能进一步做好医院财务预算工作,促进医院事业发展。%Financial budgeting plays a key role in budgeting management of hospital. With the furthering of the reform of healthcare and pharmaceutical system, hospitals must continue to upgrade their operation mode and management methods according to the needs of development. By analyzing the status of hospitals as well as the existing problems, this paper ad-vocates several methods to improve financial budgeting of hospital, so that the development of hospital can be maintained in a healthy and sustainable manner.

  7. 第三代移动通信系统的链路预算分析%Analysis of link budget for 3 G mobile communication system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祁云山

    2011-01-01

    Link budget is essential in the network planning and design, can guide the radius settings, the numbers of base stations and the address distribution. This paper expounds the link badget of 3G mobile commanication system, compares with 2C mobile communication link budget. It analyzes the difficulties and key technology in the network planning and design of 3G mobile communication system, presents the methods,step and key parameters settings for 3C mobile communication system link budget.%链路预算是网络规划与设计中必不可少的一步,通过链路预算能够指导规划区内小区半径的设置、确定所需基站数目和站址的分布.详细分析第三代移动通信系统的链路预算问题,并与第二代移动通信链路预算进行比较,分析第三代移动通信系统网络规划与设计中的难点和关键,并给出第三代移动通信系统链路预算方法、步骤以及关键设置参数.

  8. Supporting secure programming in web applications through interactive static analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jun; Xie, Jing; Lipford, Heather Richter; Chu, Bill

    2014-07-01

    Many security incidents are caused by software developers' failure to adhere to secure programming practices. Static analysis tools have been used to detect software vulnerabilities. However, their wide usage by developers is limited by the special training required to write rules customized to application-specific logic. Our approach is interactive static analysis, to integrate static analysis into Integrated Development Environment (IDE) and provide in-situ secure programming support to help developers prevent vulnerabilities during code construction. No additional training is required nor are there any assumptions on ways programs are built. Our work is motivated in part by the observation that many vulnerabilities are introduced due to failure to practice secure programming by knowledgeable developers. We implemented a prototype interactive static analysis tool as a plug-in for Java in Eclipse. Our technical evaluation of our prototype detected multiple zero-day vulnerabilities in a large open source project. Our evaluations also suggest that false positives may be limited to a very small class of use cases.

  9. Supporting secure programming in web applications through interactive static analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Zhu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Many security incidents are caused by software developers’ failure to adhere to secure programming practices. Static analysis tools have been used to detect software vulnerabilities. However, their wide usage by developers is limited by the special training required to write rules customized to application-specific logic. Our approach is interactive static analysis, to integrate static analysis into Integrated Development Environment (IDE and provide in-situ secure programming support to help developers prevent vulnerabilities during code construction. No additional training is required nor are there any assumptions on ways programs are built. Our work is motivated in part by the observation that many vulnerabilities are introduced due to failure to practice secure programming by knowledgeable developers. We implemented a prototype interactive static analysis tool as a plug-in for Java in Eclipse. Our technical evaluation of our prototype detected multiple zero-day vulnerabilities in a large open source project. Our evaluations also suggest that false positives may be limited to a very small class of use cases.

  10. DOSCHEDA: a web application for interactive chemoproteomics data analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Contrino

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Mass Spectrometry (MS based chemoproteomics has recently become a main tool to identify and quantify cellular target protein interactions with ligands/drugs in drug discovery. The complexity associated with these new types of data requires scientists with a limited computational background to perform systematic data quality controls as well as to visualize the results derived from the analysis to enable rapid decision making. To date, there are no readily accessible platforms specifically designed for chemoproteomics data analysis. Results We developed a Shiny-based web application named DOSCHEDA (Down Stream Chemoproteomics Data Analysis to assess the quality of chemoproteomics experiments, to filter peptide intensities based on linear correlations between replicates, and to perform statistical analysis based on the experimental design. In order to increase its accessibility, DOSCHEDA is designed to be used with minimal user input and it does not require programming knowledge. Typical inputs can be protein fold changes or peptide intensities obtained from Proteome Discover, MaxQuant or other similar software. DOSCHEDA aggregates results from bioinformatics analyses performed on the input dataset into a dynamic interface, it encompasses interactive graphics and enables customized output reports. Conclusions DOSCHEDA is implemented entirely in R language. It can be launched by any system with R installed, including Windows, Mac OS and Linux distributions. DOSCHEDA is hosted on a shiny-server at https://doscheda.shinyapps.io/doscheda and is also available as a Bioconductor package (http://www.bioconductor.org/.

  11. Automatic Feature Interaction Analysis in PacoSuite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wim Vanderperren

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we build upon previous work that aims at recuperating aspect oriented ideas into component based software development. In that research, a composition adapter was proposed in order to capture crosscutting concerns in the PacoSuite component based methodology. A composition adapter is visually applied onto a given component composition and the changes it describes are automatically applied. Stacking multiple composition adapters onto the same component composition can however lead to unpredictable and undesired side-effects. In this paper, we propose a solution for this issue, widely known as the feature interaction problem. We present a classification of different interaction levels among composition adapters and the algorithms required to verify them. The proposed algorithms are however of exponential nature and depend on both the composition adapters and the component composition as a whole. In order to enhance the performance of our feature interaction analysis, we present a set of theorems that define the interaction levels solely in terms of the properties of the composition adapters themselves.

  12. Analysis of human emotion in human-robot interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blar, Noraidah; Jafar, Fairul Azni; Abdullah, Nurhidayu; Muhammad, Mohd Nazrin; Kassim, Anuar Muhamed

    2015-05-01

    There is vast application of robots in human's works such as in industry, hospital, etc. Therefore, it is believed that human and robot can have a good collaboration to achieve an optimum result of work. The objectives of this project is to analyze human-robot collaboration and to understand humans feeling (kansei factors) when dealing with robot that robot should adapt to understand the humans' feeling. Researches currently are exploring in the area of human-robot interaction with the intention to reduce problems that subsist in today's civilization. Study had found that to make a good interaction between human and robot, first it is need to understand the abilities of each. Kansei Engineering in robotic was used to undergo the project. The project experiments were held by distributing questionnaire to students and technician. After that, the questionnaire results were analyzed by using SPSS analysis. Results from the analysis shown that there are five feelings which significant to the human in the human-robot interaction; anxious, fatigue, relaxed, peaceful, and impressed.

  13. Improved statistics for genome-wide interaction analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueki, Masao; Cordell, Heather J

    2012-01-01

    Recently, Wu and colleagues [1] proposed two novel statistics for genome-wide interaction analysis using case/control or case-only data. In computer simulations, their proposed case/control statistic outperformed competing approaches, including the fast-epistasis option in PLINK and logistic regression analysis under the correct model; however, reasons for its superior performance were not fully explored. Here we investigate the theoretical properties and performance of Wu et al.'s proposed statistics and explain why, in some circumstances, they outperform competing approaches. Unfortunately, we find minor errors in the formulae for their statistics, resulting in tests that have higher than nominal type 1 error. We also find minor errors in PLINK's fast-epistasis and case-only statistics, although theory and simulations suggest that these errors have only negligible effect on type 1 error. We propose adjusted versions of all four statistics that, both theoretically and in computer simulations, maintain correct type 1 error rates under the null hypothesis. We also investigate statistics based on correlation coefficients that maintain similar control of type 1 error. Although designed to test specifically for interaction, we show that some of these previously-proposed statistics can, in fact, be sensitive to main effects at one or both loci, particularly in the presence of linkage disequilibrium. We propose two new "joint effects" statistics that, provided the disease is rare, are sensitive only to genuine interaction effects. In computer simulations we find, in most situations considered, that highest power is achieved by analysis under the correct genetic model. Such an analysis is unachievable in practice, as we do not know this model. However, generally high power over a wide range of scenarios is exhibited by our joint effects and adjusted Wu statistics. We recommend use of these alternative or adjusted statistics and urge caution when using Wu et al

  14. Using CLV concept for marketing budgets allocation

    OpenAIRE

    Oyner, Olga K.; Sukhorukove, Olga

    2013-01-01

    The paper evaluates the usefulness of customer lifetime value (CLV) as a metric for marketing budget allocation by developing a framework that enables managers to maintain customer relationships proactively through different elements of marketing mix, in order to maximize CLV. The analysis is based on data from a hardware components PC B2B company and suggests that there is a potential for increased sales and CLVs when managers design resource allocation rules that maximize CLV. Managers can ...

  15. Global Interactions Analysis of Epileptic ECoG Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Guillermo J.; Sola, Rafael G.; Pastor, Jesús

    2007-05-01

    Localization of the epileptogenic zone is an important issue in epileptology, even though there is not a unique definition of the epileptic focus. The objective of the present study is to test ultrametric analysis to uncover cortical interactions in human epileptic data. Correlation analysis has been carried out over intraoperative Electro-Corticography (ECoG) data in 2 patients suffering from temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Recordings were obtained using a grid of 20 electrodes (5×4) covering the lateral temporal lobe and a strip of either 4 or 8 electrodes at the mesial temporal lobe. Ultrametric analysis was performed in the averaged final correlation matrices. By using the matrix of linear correlation coefficients and the appropriate metric distance between pairs of electrodes time series, we were able to construct Minimum Spanning Trees (MST). The topological connectivity displayed by these trees gives useful and valuable information regarding physiological and pathological information in the temporal lobe of epileptic patients.

  16. The Translation of Accrual Accounting and Budgeting and the Reconfiguration of Public Sector Accountants' Identities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D. Becker, Sebastian; Jagalla, Tobias; Skærbæk, Peter

    2014-01-01

    -Network-Theory (ANT) and its concept of translation, this study seeks to explain how PSAs’ identities were transformed through the introduction of Accrual Output-Based Budgeting (AOBB) in two German states. Our analysis shows that the change of accounting regime was not a straightforward one, but rather involved......Under the umbrella of New Public Management (NPM) and managerialism, the last three decades have seen a widespread transformation of public sector accounting and budgeting from a cash to an accrual basis. Much of the ensuing research, however, has focused more on technical evaluations...... of these programmes and less on informing our knowledge of the interaction between such programmes and accountants. As public sector accountants (PSAs) are central entities in such programmes, the purpose of this paper is to focus on the reconfiguration of their identities. Using the theoretical lens of Actor...

  17. The Strategic stakes of budget policies after 2008-financial crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asma ZAOUI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the current budget policies during sub primes crisis answering two original issues: bring together the principal theoretical arguments and the analysis of events the most remarkable of crisis. Then, we tackle matters of budget policy from many points of view. Here, the challenge is to highlight the current stakes and future challenges of budget policies on one hand, to smooth economic cycle in the short term; and to back up growth and employment in the long term on the other.

  18. Role of Customs Duties in the Formation of Budget Revenues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela - Anca Postole

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Accession to the European Union, starting price and trade exchange liberalization, alongside a strong exchange rate reform, required a depth rethinking of the customs duty system and also influenced the role of this category of tax in establishing budgetary resources.This study reviews the impact of customs duties on changing levels of revenues collected at the state budget. The analysis used is the econometric modeling based on a single- factor regression model.But in Romania, customs duties do not have any major impact on budget revenues and the effects of their collection on the state budget revenues are felt within two months of collection.

  19. Dynamic Analysis of Wind Turbines Including Soil-Structure Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harte, M.; Basu, B.; Nielsen, Søren R.K.

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the along-wind forced vibration response of an onshore wind turbine. The study includes the dynamic interaction effects between the foundation and the underlying soil, as softer soils can influence the dynamic response of wind turbines. A Multi-Degree-of-Freedom (MDOF...... rotational speed (3P effects). The effect of dynamic soil-structure interaction on the rotation of the foundation has also been investigated.......) horizontal axes onshore wind turbine model is developed for dynamic analysis using an Euler–Lagrangian approach. The model is comprised of a rotor blade system, a nacelle and a flexible tower connected to a foundation system using a substructuring approach. The rotor blade system consists of three rotating...

  20. Analysis of crease-wrinkle interaction for thin sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, Kyeong Sik [Chungbuk National University, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of); Jenkins, Christopher H. [Montana State University, Bozeman (United States)

    2012-03-15

    In this paper, geometrically non-linear post-buckling analyses were performed to study the effect of sheet thickness, deployment angle, and load ratio on the crease-wrinkle interaction. A square sheet configuration with a single transverse crease was modeled using thin shell elements. The analysis proceeded by initially providing a realistic deployed state of a creased membrane sheet. Then an uneven corner loading was applied to introduce wrinkling. The effects of the induced anisotropy from the crease on the fine-scale detail of the wrinkle evolution, as a function of sheet thickness, loading, and crease deployment angle were systematically investigated. Significant differences were found in sheet compliance and crease-wrinkle interaction as these parameters were varied.

  1. Computing and Visualizing Log-linear Analysis Interactively

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro M. Valero-Mora

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to describe a simple program for computing log-linear analysis based on a direct manipulation interface that emphasizes the use of plots for guiding the analysis and evaluating the results obtained. The program described here works as a plugin for ViSta (Young 1997 and receives the name of LoginViSta (for Log-linear analysis in ViSTa. ViSta is a statistical package based on Lisp-Stat. Lisp-Stat is a statistical programming environment developed by Luke Tierney (1990 that features an object-oriented approach for statistical computing and one that allows for The purpose of this paper is to describe a simple program for computing log-linear analysis based on a direct manipulation interface that emphasizes the use of plots for guiding the analysis and evaluating the results obtained. The program described here works as a plugin for ViSta (Young 1997 and receives the name of LoginViSta (for Log-linear analysis in ViSTa. ViSta is a statistical package based on Lisp-Stat. Lisp-Stat is a statistical programming environment developed by Luke Tierney (1990 that features an object-oriented approach for statistical computing and one that allows for Computing and Visualizing Pedro Valero-Mora and Forrest W. Young interactive and dynamic graphs.

  2. Fixed point sensitivity analysis of interacting structured populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barabás, György; Meszéna, Géza; Ostling, Annette

    2014-03-01

    Sensitivity analysis of structured populations is a useful tool in population ecology. Historically, methodological development of sensitivity analysis has focused on the sensitivity of eigenvalues in linear matrix models, and on single populations. More recently there have been extensions to the sensitivity of nonlinear models, and to communities of interacting populations. Here we derive a fully general mathematical expression for the sensitivity of equilibrium abundances in communities of interacting structured populations. Our method yields the response of an arbitrary function of the stage class abundances to perturbations of any model parameters. As a demonstration, we apply this sensitivity analysis to a two-species model of ontogenetic niche shift where each species has two stage classes, juveniles and adults. In the context of this model, we demonstrate that our theory is quite robust to violating two of its technical assumptions: the assumption that the community is at a point equilibrium and the assumption of infinitesimally small parameter perturbations. Our results on the sensitivity of a community are also interpreted in a niche theoretical context: we determine how the niche of a structured population is composed of the niches of the individual states, and how the sensitivity of the community depends on niche segregation.

  3. Protein-protein interaction network analysis of cirrhosis liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safaei, Akram; Rezaei Tavirani, Mostafa; Arefi Oskouei, Afsaneh; Zamanian Azodi, Mona; Mohebbi, Seyed Reza; Nikzamir, Abdol Rahim

    2016-01-01

    Evaluation of biological characteristics of 13 identified proteins of patients with cirrhotic liver disease is the main aim of this research. In clinical usage, liver biopsy remains the gold standard for diagnosis of hepatic fibrosis. Evaluation and confirmation of liver fibrosis stages and severity of chronic diseases require a precise and noninvasive biomarkers. Since the early detection of cirrhosis is a clinical problem, achieving a sensitive, specific and predictive novel method based on biomarkers is an important task. Essential analysis, such as gene ontology (GO) enrichment and protein-protein interactions (PPI) was undergone EXPASy, STRING Database and DAVID Bioinformatics Resources query. Based on GO analysis, most of proteins are located in the endoplasmic reticulum lumen, intracellular organelle lumen, membrane-enclosed lumen, and extracellular region. The relevant molecular functions are actin binding, metal ion binding, cation binding and ion binding. Cell adhesion, biological adhesion, cellular amino acid derivative, metabolic process and homeostatic process are the related processes. Protein-protein interaction network analysis introduced five proteins (fibroblast growth factor receptor 4, tropomyosin 4, tropomyosin 2 (beta), lectin, Lectin galactoside-binding soluble 3 binding protein and apolipoprotein A-I) as hub and bottleneck proteins. Our result indicates that regulation of lipid metabolism and cell survival are important biological processes involved in cirrhosis disease. More investigation of above mentioned proteins will provide a better understanding of cirrhosis disease.

  4. The Role of Clear Sky Identification in the Study of Cloud Radiative Effects: Combine Analysis from ISCCP and the Scanner of Radiation Budget (ScaRaB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossow, W. B.; Stubenrauch, C. J.; Briand, V.; Hansen, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Since the effect of clouds on the earth's radiation balance is often estimated as the difference of net radiative fluxes at the top of the atmosphere between all situations and monthly averaged clear sky situations of the same regions, a reliable identification of clear sky is important for the study of cloud radiative effects. The Scanner for Radiation Balance (ScaRaB) radiometer on board the Russian Meteor-3/7 satellite provided earth radiation budget observations from March 1994 to February 1995 with two ERBE-Re broad-band longwave and shortwave channels. Two narrow-band channels, in the infrared atmospheric window and in the visible band, have been added to the ScaRaB instrument to improve the cloud scene identification. The International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) method for cloud detection and determination of cloud and surface properties uses the same narrow-band channels as ScaRaB, but is employed to a collection of measurements at a better spatial resolution of about 5 km. By applying the original ISCCP algorithms to the ScaRaB data, the clear sky frequency is about 5% lower than the one over quasi-simultaneous original ISCCP data, an indication that the ISCCP cloud detection is quite stable. However, one would expect an about 10 to 20% smaller clear sky occurrence over the larger ScaRaB pixels. Adapting the ISCCP algorithms to the reduced spatial resolution of 60 km and to the different time sampling of the ScaRaB data leads therefore to a reduction of a residual cloud contamination. A sensitivity study with time-space collocated ScaRaB and original ISCCP data at a spatial resolution of 1deg longitude x 1deg latitude shows that the effect of clear sky identification method plays a higher role on the clear sky frequency and therefore on the statistics than on the zonal mean values of the clear sky fluxes. Nevertheless, the zonal outgoing longwave fluxes corresponding to ERBE clear sky are in general about 2 to 10 W/sq m higher than those

  5. Budget Impact Analysis of Against Colorectal Cancer In Our Neighborhoods (ACCION): A Successful Community-Based Colorectal Cancer Screening Program for a Medically Underserved Minority Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bumyang; Lairson, David R; Chung, Tong Han; Kim, Junghyun; Shokar, Navkiran K

    2017-06-01

    Given the uncertain cost of delivering community-based cancer screening programs, we developed a Markov simulation model to project the budget impact of implementing a comprehensive colorectal cancer (CRC) prevention program compared with the status quo. The study modeled the impacts on the costs of clinical services, materials, and staff expenditures for recruitment, education, fecal immunochemical testing (FIT), colonoscopy, follow-up, navigation, and initial treatment. We used data from the Against Colorectal Cancer In Our Neighborhoods comprehensive CRC prevention program implemented in El Paso, Texas, since 2012. We projected the 3-year financial consequences of the presence and absence of the CRC prevention program for a hypothetical population cohort of 10,000 Hispanic medically underserved individuals. The intervention cohort experienced a 23.4% higher test completion rate for CRC prevention, 8 additional CRC diagnoses, and 84 adenomas. The incremental 3-year cost was $1.74 million compared with the status quo. The program cost per person was $261 compared with $86 for the status quo. The costs were sensitive to the proportion of high-risk participants and the frequency of colonoscopy screening and diagnostic procedures. The budget impact mainly derived from colonoscopy-related costs incurred for the high-risk group. The effectiveness of FIT to detect CRC was critically dependent on follow-up after positive FIT. Community cancer prevention programs need reliable estimates of the cost of CRC screening promotion and the added budget impact of screening with colonoscopy. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Capital Budgeting Evaluation Practices of Building Contractors in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.C Lam

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the results of an investigation into capital budgeting evaluation practicesin the construction industry of Hong Kong. The aim of this study was to identify thepopularity and extent of usage of various techniques for capital budget evaluation, investmentappraisal, risk analysis, and management science. The current study was comparedwith a similar survey conducted in 1994 to establish the changes in the capital budgetingevaluation practices of contracting firms over time. The results indicate that there was ageneral increase in the popularity and extent of usage in certain capital budget evaluationtechniques such as “best/worst estimate” and “formal financial evaluation”. In addition,the evaluation techniques examined were fitted into a discriminant function analysis (DFA,and a model has been developed which allows contracting firms to be classified accordingto their predominant characteristics in capital budget evaluation.

  7. ANALYSIS OF THE KQML MODEL IN MULTI-AGENT INTERACTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘海龙; 吴铁军

    2001-01-01

    Our analysis of the KQML(Knowledge Query and Manipulation Language) model yielded some conclusions on the knowledge level of communication in agent-oriented program. First, the agent state and transition model were given for analyzing the necessary conditions for interaction with the synchronal and asynchronous KQML model respectively. Second, we analyzed the deadlock and starvation problems in the KQML communication, and gave the solution. At last, the advantages and disadvantages of the synchronal and asynchronous KQML model were listed respectively, and the choosing principle was given.

  8. Interactive facades analysis and synthesis of semi-regular facades

    KAUST Repository

    AlHalawani, Sawsan

    2013-05-01

    Urban facades regularly contain interesting variations due to allowed deformations of repeated elements (e.g., windows in different open or close positions) posing challenges to state-of-the-art facade analysis algorithms. We propose a semi-automatic framework to recover both repetition patterns of the elements and their individual deformation parameters to produce a factored facade representation. Such a representation enables a range of applications including interactive facade images, improved multi-view stereo reconstruction, facade-level change detection, and novel image editing possibilities. © 2013 The Author(s) Computer Graphics Forum © 2013 The Eurographics Association and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Distributed Parallel Interactive Data Analysis Using the Proof System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ReneBrun; FonsRademakers

    2001-01-01

    The only way Terabytes of data can be processed and analyzed in a reasonable time is by using parallel processing architectures.The Paralle ROOT Facility,PROOF,is s system for the parallel interactive analysis of such datasets on clusters of heterogeneous computers.Early prototypes have confirmed the validity of the basic PROOF architecture However,some important work still has to be done before PROOF can be used as a production facility.The basic architecture and the planned developments are described in this paper.

  10. Execution of local budgets in 2014: tension is not decreasing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Ivanovna Povarova

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Vladimir Putin’s “May decrees” have received the status of a national goal. On the background of decreasing economic performance exacerbated by external shocks, the implementation of these decrees has become a heavy burden for regional budgets without an adequate financial support from the federal budget. As a result, almost every Russian region has suffered losses by the end of 2014. The fallacy of the ongoing course of budget policy has long been criticized by many leading scholars and experts; moreover, they proposed positive recommendations on the development of alternative policies. Unfortunately, the results of 2014 prove that the RF Government has not abandoned the policy of budget consolidation. On the contrary, gratuitous financial assistance to the regions is actively transformed into debt financing in the form of budget loans. However, the regional authorities can rely on this quasi-support, which is a temporary factor, only provided that the budget is deficit-free and at the expense of abandonment of spending on economic development and on the improvement of welfare of the population. The results of the analysis of the facts indicate that the budget-related problems of the regions, arising largely from the inefficient federal budget policy, have reached the critical level. One fourth of the subjects that had a predominant share of market debt turned out to be in a pre-default state. The breakdown of public finances has affected the most prosperous regions, which is contrary to the paradigm of sustainable regional development. The regions entered the crisis of 2014 with huge debt and budget deficit; the situation was not so grave during the financial and economic crisis of 2009. In terms of the upcoming 10% cut of federal budget expenditures [5], the subjects of the Russian Federation can hardly expect an increase in financial support. They will obviously have to adapt their budgets to the changing economic situation. But in

  11. LOCAL BUDGETS UNDER CURRENT DECENTRALIZATION: UKRAINE AND FOREIGN EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Cheberyako

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the major trends and issues of development of local budgets in Ukraine. A study of the essence of fiscal decentralization as one of the components of the management, aimed at reducing the dependence of local governments from the central government with regard to foreign experience. Particular attention is paid to local budgets under decentralization of own and delegated financial powers. The theoretical principles of fiscal decentralization and its proven impact on the socio-economic development. Studied the European countries model of local budgets. The features of formation of revenues of local budgets under decentralization. The role in shaping tax revenues of local budgets in foreign countries and Ukraine. The analysis of state policy of financial support for regional development in Ukraine. The structure of tax revenue in the context of changes in the budget and tax legislation in a decentralized tax powers. Systematized features of fiscal decentralization in Ukraine. Problems and grounded main ways of optimizing the formation of local budgets in a decentralized tax powers. Formed selection of areas targeted as ways to increase economic and financial independence of regions of Ukraine.

  12. Isobolographic analysis of interactions: an update on applications and utility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gessner, P K

    1995-12-28

    Isobolographic analysis provides a fundamental basis for assessing whether biological responses induced by mixtures of agents are greater, equal or smaller than would have been expected on the basis of the individual activities of the component agents and the concept of dose additivity. Limited in its direct application to binary mixtures, isobolographic analysis provides a conceptual framework and an unambiguous terminology, as well as an algebraic paradigm for the analysis of the interaction of ternary and higher order mixtures. A library of examples generously illustrated graphically is provided to facilitate the understanding of the methodology and serve as a guide for investigators who are unfamiliar with the approach. Also discussed are the theoretical derivation of the isobologram, the representation of various dosage combinations, the derivation of the principle of dose additivity, supra-additivity, infra-additivity, antagonism, the methods for probit analysis of mixture potency, effect addition and the consequences of peak effect coincidence in time or lack thereof, and the role of isobolographic analysis in the various aspects of dose-response surface methodology.

  13. GEWEX Surface Radiation Budget (SRB)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NASA/GEWEX Surface Radiation Budget (SRB) Release-3.0 data sets contains global 3-hourly, daily, monthly/3-hourly, and monthly averages of surface and top-of...

  14. Congress smiles on research budgets

    CERN Multimedia

    Reichhardt, T

    1998-01-01

    Congress has agreed to match or exceed most of the funding requests for the major science agencies requested by President Clinton in February. Many of them will receive their largest budget increases for years (11 paragraphs).

  15. The Status of Budget Forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel W. Williams

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the breadth of the current forecast literature as it relates to public budget making. It serves to provide summary information to decision-makers who otherwise do not have the resources to learn more than a small amount focused on much more narrowly defined areas of forecasting (such as the politics of forecast bias. Next, it serves those who perform forecasting related to budgeting by reviewing the current methods and practices commonly used in this domain. It also provides a ground level for future public budget forecasting research. Finally, this article identifies several areas in which the public forecasting literature needs additional development. Several of these areas, such as the effectiveness of nonregression-based forecasting techniques, are quite important to the majority of governments in the United States and other subnational jurisdictions, where budget offices are limited and resource investments in technology are scarce.

  16. Graph theory and stability analysis of protein complex interaction networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chien-Hung; Chen, Teng-Hung; Ng, Ka-Lok

    2016-04-01

    Protein complexes play an essential role in many biological processes. Complexes can interact with other complexes to form protein complex interaction network (PCIN) that involves in important cellular processes. There are relatively few studies on examining the interaction topology among protein complexes; and little is known about the stability of PCIN under perturbations. We employed graph theoretical approach to reveal hidden properties and features of four species PCINs. Two main issues are addressed, (i) the global and local network topological properties, and (ii) the stability of the networks under 12 types of perturbations. According to the topological parameter classification, we identified some critical protein complexes and validated that the topological analysis approach could provide meaningful biological interpretations of the protein complex systems. Through the Kolmogorov-Smimov test, we showed that local topological parameters are good indicators to characterise the structure of PCINs. We further demonstrated the effectiveness of the current approach by performing the scalability and data normalization tests. To measure the robustness of PCINs, we proposed to consider eight topological-based perturbations, which are specifically applicable in scenarios of targeted, sustained attacks. We found that the degree-based, betweenness-based and brokering-coefficient-based perturbations have the largest effect on network stability.

  17. Microarray analysis of human epithelial cell responses to bacterial interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mans, Jeffrey J; Lamont, Richard J; Handfield, Martin

    2006-09-01

    Host-pathogen interactions are inherently complex and dynamic. The recent use of human microarrays has been invaluable to monitor the effects of various bacterial and viral pathogens upon host cell gene expression programs. This methodology has allowed the host response transcriptome of several cell lines to be studied on a global scale. To this point, the great majority of reports have focused on the response of immune cells, including macrophages and dendritic cells. These studies revealed that the immune response to microbial pathogens is tailored to different microbial challenges. Conversely, the paradigm for epithelial cells has--until recently--held that the epithelium mostly served as a relatively passive physical barrier to infection. It is now generally accepted that the epithelial barrier contributes more actively to signaling events in the immune response. In light of this shift, this review will compare transcriptional profiling data from studies that involved host-pathogen interactions occurring with epithelial cells. Experiments that defined both a common core response, as well as pathogen-specific host responses will be discussed. This review will also summarize the contributions that transcriptional profiling analysis has made to our understanding of bacterial physio-pathogensis of infection. This will include a discussion of how host transcriptional responses can be used to infer the function of virulence determinants from bacterial pathogens interacting with epithelial mucosa. In particular, we will expand upon the lessons that have been learned from gastro-intestinal and oral pathogens, as well as from members of the commensal flora.

  18. SWAN: a Service for Interactive Analysis in the Cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Piparo, Danilo; Mato, Pere; Mascetti, Luca; Moscicki, Jakub; Lamanna, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    SWAN (Service for Web based ANalysis) is a platform to perform interactive data analysis in the cloud. SWAN allows users to write and run their data analyses with only a web browser, leveraging on the widely-adopted Jupyter notebook interface. The user code, executions and data live entirely in the cloud. SWAN makes it easier to produce and share results and scientific code, access scientific software, produce tutorials and demonstrations as well as preserve analyses. Furthermore, it is also a powerful tool for non-scientific data analytics. This paper describes how a pilot of the SWAN service was implemented and deployed at CERN. Its backend combines state-of-the-art software technologies with a set of existing IT services such as user authentication, virtual computing infrastructure, mass storage, file synchronisation and sharing, specialised clusters and batch systems. The added value of this combination of services is discussed, with special focus on the opportunities offered by the CERNBox service and it...

  19. Interactive Building Design Space Exploration Using Regionalized Sensitivity Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rasmus Lund; Maagaard, Steffen; Østergård, Torben

    2017-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulations combined with regionalized sensitivity analysis provide the means to explore a vast, multivariate design space in building design. Typically, sensitivity analysis shows how the variability of model output relates to the uncertainties in models inputs. This reveals which...... in combination with the interactive parallel coordinate plot (PCP). The latter is an effective tool to explore stochastic simulations and to find high-performing building designs. The proposed methods help decision makers to focus their attention to the most important design parameters when exploring...... a multivariate design space. As case study, we consider building performance simulations of a 15.000 m² educational centre with respect to energy demand, thermal comfort, and daylight....

  20. A novel comparative molecule/pseudo receptor interaction analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Peng; TONG Jianbo; TIAN Feifei; LI Zhiliang

    2006-01-01

    Comparative molecule/pseudo receptor interaction analysis (CoMPIA) is developed as a novel 3D-QSAR method by adding postulated pseudo receptor and GA-optimized probe into comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA). CoMPIA is used to find the pseudo receptor mode by optimizing probe distributions and to establish the optimal model of high qualities and good interpretations. Correlative coefficient R2, cross-validated correlative coefficient Q2 and root mean square error RMSEP of the resulting model are 0.940, 0.868 and 0.502, respectively by applying CoMPIA to quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) of 31 classical steroids.

  1. Interactive Correspondence Analysis in a Dynamic Object-Oriented Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Bond

    1997-11-01

    Full Text Available A highly interactive, user-friendly object-oriented software package written in LispStat is introduced that performs simple and multiple correspondence analysis, and profile analysis. These three techniques are integrated into a single environment driven by a user-friendly graphical interface that takes advantage of Lisp-Stat's advanced graphical capabilities. Techniques that assess the stability of the solution are also introduced. Some of the features of the package include colored graphics, incremental graph zooming capabilities, manual point separation to determine identities of overlapping points, and stability and fit measures. The features of the package are used to show some interesting trends in a large educational dataset.

  2. Processo Orçamentário: uma aplicação da análise substantiva com utilização da grounded theory [Budgeting: substantive analysis using grounded theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia Regina Sordi Relvas

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Diante da constatação de que os estudos sobre o orçamento exploram o fenômeno de forma reducionista, este artigo tem por objetivo propor uma teoria substantiva abrangente e fundamentada em dados empíricos para a análise do orçamento. Essa abordagem considera seus elementos constituintes e suas interdependências. Isso foi feito por meio da aplicação da abordagem indutiva fundamentada nos dados empíricos (grounded theory, sob o paradigma qualitativo. O foco de análise foi uma instituição financeira de grande porte e o trabalho de campo foi desenvolvido ao longo de dois anos, envolvendo vários níveis gerenciais. A contribuição do trabalho advém da disponibilização de framework para o tratamento do tema em um contexto amplo, o que permitiu entender aspectos que deixariam de ser considerados com uma abordagem de análise mais restrita e menos abrangente. Como produto da teoria substantiva, cinco proposições foram desenvolvidas com a perspectiva de serem aplicadas nas organizações. --- Budgeting: substantive analysis using grounded theory --- Abstract --- Considering the fact that studies into budgeting basically use a reductionist approach, this paper proposes a comprehensive substantive theory based on empirical data to be used in budget analysis. This approach takes into consideration its elements and interdependence by applying the inductive approach based on empirical data (grounded theory on a qualitative paradigm. The focus was an in-depth two-year study of a large Brazilian financial institution involving several management levels. The main contribution of the study is as a framework that treats all elements of the budget process in a comprehensive and coherent fashion, otherwise impossible using a reductionist approach. As products of the substantive theory, five propositions were developed to be applied in organizations.

  3. Capital budgeting practices in Indian companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roopali Batra

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The volatility of the global economy, changing business practices, and academic developments have created a need to re-examine Indian corporate capital budgeting practices. Our research is based on a sample of 77 Indian companies listed on the Bombay Stock Exchange. Results reveal that corporate practitioners largely follow the capital budgeting practices proposed by academic theory. Discounted cash flow techniques of net present value and internal rate of return and risk adjusted sensitivity analysis are most popular. Weighted average cost of capital as cost of capital is most favoured. Nevertheless, the theory-practice gap remains in adoption of specialised techniques of real options, modified internal rate of return (MIRR, and simulation. Non-financial criteria are also given due consideration in project selection.

  4. 建筑工程施工招投标预算分析%Analysis of the Bidding Budget of Building Engineering Construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周侠

    2014-01-01

    The main effect of engineering budget is to provide the main basis for the investment, appropriation of state construction project or carry out the final accounts, at the same time also can help the project builder to determine the bid and the project cost. This paper discusses how to prepare the construction engineering bidding budget according to the market situation to make the enterprise impregnable in the fierce competition.%工程概算的主要作用在于为国家建设工程时的投资、拨款或者甲乙双方开展决算时提供主要依据,同时还能够帮助工程建设方确定招投标报价与工程造价。本文探讨了如何根据市场情况编制建筑工程施工招投标预算,使企业在激烈的竞标中立于不败之地。

  5. Impacts of future climate change on the carbon budget of northern high-latitude terrestrial ecosystems: An analysis using ISI-MIP data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Akihiko; Nishina, Kazuya; Noda, Hibiki M.

    2016-09-01

    This paper assesses future changes in the carbon budgets of northern terrestrial ecosystems (above 60°N) using data from the Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project (ISI-MIP). By analyzing simulations from seven biome models driven by five climate scenarios under two representative concentration pathways (RCP2.6 and RCP8.5), the range of responses and their uncertainty in the 21st century was evaluated. The biome models consistently simulated a gradual increase in vegetation productivity driven by an elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration and a longer growing period. By the 2090s, most simulations showed average net carbon uptake into the northern terrestrial ecosystems of +27 Pg C for RCP2.6 and +48 Pg C for RCP8.5. These estimates showed a wide range of variability among simulations, especially for soil carbon stocks. Even under low greenhouse gas concentrations (RCP2.6), most simulations indicated that vegetation productivity and biomass would change by more than 10%, implying that it will be difficult to completely prevent climatic impacts in northern regions. Simulated spatial patterns and seasonality in the carbon budget can be used to identify sensitive areas and seasons, allowing for improved monitoring. Further research combining observations and modeling will be required to reduce estimation uncertainty and devise ecosystem management options.

  6. Analysis of Source-to-Sink-Fluxes and Sediment Budgets in Changing High-Latitude and High-Altitude Cold Environments: SEDIFLUX Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beylich, Achim A.; Warburton, Jeff

    2007-07-01

    This First Edition of the SEDIFLUX Manual is an outcome of the European Science Foundation (ESF) Network SEDIFLUX - Sedimentary Source-to-Sink-Fluxes in Cold Environments (2004 - 2006) (http://www.ngu.no/sediflux, http://www.esf.org/sediflux). The development of this publication has been based on four ESF SEDIFLUX Science Meetings, which were held in Saudarkrokur (Iceland), June 18. - 21., 2004, Clermont-Ferrand (France), January 20. - 22., 2005, Durham (UK), December 16. - 19., 2005 and Trondheim (Norway), October 29. - November 2., 2006. The aim of this Manual is to provide guidance on developing quantitative frameworks for characterising catchment (field-based) sediment budget studies, so that: (1) baseline measurements at SEDIFLUX/SEDIBUD key test catchments are standardised thus enabling intersite comparisons, and (2) long-term changes in catchment geosystems as related to climate change are well documented. The main focus is on non-glacial processes, although within the context of glacierised catchments glacial sediment transfer processes are assumed as inputs/outputs of the periglacial / paraglacial system. This First Edition of the SEDIFLUX Manual will be further developed within the I.A.G./A.I.G. Working Group SEDIBUD - Sediment Budgets in Cold Environments (http://www.geomorph.org/wg/wgsb.html).(auth)

  7. US physics suffers budget setbacks

    CERN Multimedia

    Gwynne, Peter

    2007-01-01

    "The US has slashed funding for the International Linear Collider (ILC) by 75% as the budget for 2008 has been finally agreed between the Republican Bush Administration and Democratic Cngress. The new budget legislation, which US president George W. Bush is expected to signe by 31 December, will see up to 200 scientists at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilag) lose their jobs." (2 pages)

  8. 经济型酒店感知服务质量分析与品牌差异比较%Analysis of the Perceived Service Quality of the Budget Hotel and Comparison of Different Brands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董健; 李彬彬

    2012-01-01

    The foundation of service quality improvement and brand is to focus on customers.Through an in-depth analysis of customers' perceptions,budget hotels can have a better understanding of the quality of service in the industry and the relative importance of different service elements,and then take effective measures to improve it.Furthermore,through the in-depth quantitative analysis of service quality,budget hotels can effectively avoid the homogenization arising from the positioning ambiguity,and establish and strengthen their brand positioning and features.%关注顾客是企业提升服务质量和塑造品牌的基础。经济型酒店通过对顾客感知进行深入分析,可更好地理解该行业的服务质量和不同服务质量因子的地位,并有针对性地进行改善。同时,通过对服务质量的深入定量分析,经济型酒店也可有效避免定位模糊而产生的同质化,确定并强化自身品牌的定位和特色。

  9. Ferrocene Orientation Determined Intramolecular Interactions Using Energy Decomposition Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Wang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Two very different quantum mechanically based energy decomposition analyses (EDA schemes are employed to study the dominant energy differences between the eclipsed and staggered ferrocene conformers. One is the extended transition state (ETS based on the Amsterdam Density Functional (ADF package and the other is natural EDA (NEDA based in the General Atomic and Molecular Electronic Structure System (GAMESS package. It reveals that in addition to the model (theory and basis set, the fragmentation channels more significantly affect the interaction energy terms (ΔE between the conformers. It is discovered that such an interaction energy can be absorbed into the pre-partitioned fragment channels so that to affect the interaction energies in a particular conformer of Fc. To avoid this, the present study employs a complete fragment channel—the fragments of ferrocene are individual neutral atoms. It therefore discovers that the major difference between the ferrocene conformers is due to the quantum mechanical Pauli repulsive energy and orbital attractive energy, leading to the eclipsed ferrocene the energy preferred structure. The NEDA scheme further indicates that the sum of attractive (negative polarization (POL and charge transfer (CL energies prefers the eclipsed ferrocene. The repulsive (positive deformation (DEF energy, which is dominated by the cyclopentadienyle (Cp rings, prefers the staggered ferrocene. Again, the cancellation results in a small energy residue in favour of the eclipsed ferrocene, in agreement with the ETS scheme. Further Natural Bond Orbital (NBO analysis indicates that all NBO energies, total Lewis (no Fe and lone pair (LP deletion all prefer the eclipsed Fc conformer. The most significant energy preferring the eclipsed ferrocene without cancellation is the interactions between the donor lone pairs (LP of the Fe atom and the acceptor antibond (BD* NBOs of all C–C and C–H bonds in the ligand, LP(Fe-BD*(C–C & C

  10. Passive behavior of the government. Budget problems are aggravating in the regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Ivanovna Povarova

    2015-07-01

    Oblast, carried out by ISEDT RAS. The leading domestic corporations of ferrous metallurgy are located in these areas. The work evaluates the state of regional budgets, debt policy and interaction with the federal budget as of year-end 2014. The main accent is made on the analysis of relations between metallurgical corporations and territorial budgets. Despite the fact that the metallurgy-oriented regions are characterized by significant structural features, the estimates vary greatly in the territorial context. However, we can make a general conclusion that in these regions one can observe the growing problems connected with the receipt of tax payments from the key revenue generating industry since 2009. It entails a number of other negative factors of the regional budget systems functioning. Due to highly inefficient economic policies pursued by the central government in respect of the largest taxpayers, the regional authorities have completely lost the ability to regulate their economic activities

  11. Bispectral pairwise interacting source analysis for identifying systems of cross-frequency interacting brain sources from electroencephalographic or magnetoencephalographic signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chella, Federico; Pizzella, Vittorio; Zappasodi, Filippo; Nolte, Guido; Marzetti, Laura

    2016-05-01

    Brain cognitive functions arise through the coordinated activity of several brain regions, which actually form complex dynamical systems operating at multiple frequencies. These systems often consist of interacting subsystems, whose characterization is of importance for a complete understanding of the brain interaction processes. To address this issue, we present a technique, namely the bispectral pairwise interacting source analysis (biPISA), for analyzing systems of cross-frequency interacting brain sources when multichannel electroencephalographic (EEG) or magnetoencephalographic (MEG) data are available. Specifically, the biPISA makes it possible to identify one or many subsystems of cross-frequency interacting sources by decomposing the antisymmetric components of the cross-bispectra between EEG or MEG signals, based on the assumption that interactions are pairwise. Thanks to the properties of the antisymmetric components of the cross-bispectra, biPISA is also robust to spurious interactions arising from mixing artifacts, i.e., volume conduction or field spread, which always affect EEG or MEG functional connectivity estimates. This method is an extension of the pairwise interacting source analysis (PISA), which was originally introduced for investigating interactions at the same frequency, to the study of cross-frequency interactions. The effectiveness of this approach is demonstrated in simulations for up to three interacting source pairs and for real MEG recordings of spontaneous brain activity. Simulations show that the performances of biPISA in estimating the phase difference between the interacting sources are affected by the increasing level of noise rather than by the number of the interacting subsystems. The analysis of real MEG data reveals an interaction between two pairs of sources of central mu and beta rhythms, localizing in the proximity of the left and right central sulci.

  12. Russia’s State Budget in 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Sergey Belev; Tatiana Tischenko; Ilya Sokolov

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with 2012 Russia's state budget. Authors speak about general characteristics of the budget system in Russia. They analyse revenues from major taxes and main parameters of the federal budget in 2012 and for 2012-2014, explain budget expenditures and give prospects of the budgetary and tax policy in Russia..

  13. Why Do School District Budget Referenda Fail?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrenberg, Ronald G.; Ehrenberg, Randy A.; Smith, Christopher L.; Zhang, Liang

    2004-01-01

    Our article analyzes historical data for New York State on the percentage of school board budget proposals that are defeated each year and panel data that we have collected on budget vote success for individual school districts in the state. We find that changes in state aid have little impact on budget vote success. Defeating a budget in one year…

  14. Features of Budget Execution in Public Institutions’ Budgets Entirely Funded by Public and Local Budgets; Case Study in an Educational Institution

    OpenAIRE

    Popa Ionela

    2012-01-01

    Budgeting, a set of steps taken by state competent bodies in order to materialize the financial policy applied by governmental authority, takes place in the following stages: setting out the budget statement, approving the budget, budget execution, budget execution completion, controlling and approving budget execution completion. Budget execution is described in specialized literature especially as a stage in the budgeting process in the components of the national public budget (public budge...

  15. Prediction of drug-drug interactions from chemogenomic and gene-gene interactions and analysis of drug-drug interactions

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The interactions between multiple drugs administered to an organism concurrently, whether in the form of synergy or antagonism, are of clinical relevance. Moreover, un-derstanding the mechanisms and nature of drug-drug interactions is of great practical and theoretical interest. Work has previously been done on gene-gene and gene-drug interactions, but the prediction and rationalization of drug-drug interactions from this data is not straightforward. We present a strategy for attacking this p...

  16. The prevalence of Beyond Budgeting in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandalgaard, Niels

      The annual budget has been criticised in recent years. The critics claim, among other things, that the annual budget is not suitable for today's business environment, that annual budgets stimulate dysfunctional behaviour and furthermore that the use of budgets is too costly. This paper examines...... with contingencies as perceived environmental uncertainty, size or decentralization. Instead increased competitive pressure is associated with supplementing the budget with rolling forecasts....

  17. Gender Equality From A Gender Budgeting Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Nyevero Maruzani; Nogget Matope; Efiritha Chauraya

    2012-01-01

    Gender budgeting, which is also known as gender responsive budgeting , tracks how budgets respond to gender equality and women’s rights requirement. This entails investing in and making available mechanisms, guidelines and indicators that enable gender equality advocates to track progress, benefit incidence and show how supposedly gender neutral budgets impact on men and women. The aim of this discussion is to highlight the importance of gender budgeting in addressing gender disparities while...

  18. 促销预算方法探析——分阶段子目标试探法%Analysis of Promotion Budget Method: staged Subgoal Heuristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤洪

    2012-01-01

    The paper summarizes a new method of the promotion budget-staged subgoai heuristics. According to the actual promotion budge of H Company, the method was put forward, and it solved the difficulty of promotion budge of H Company, and is the general method of similar company. The article defines and demonstrates its definition, procedures, the merits and defects.%本文归纳出了一种促销预算的新方法——分阶段子目标试探法,该方法针对H公司实际促销预算提出,解决了H软木产品的促销预算难题,可成为类似企业—般通用方法.本文对其定义、操作步骤、优点和缺陷做出了界定与论证.

  19. 针对燃气企业的预算管理探索分析%Budget Management Analysis for the Gas Company

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅烈峰

    2013-01-01

    With the rapid development of economic globalization, many foreign companies with strong competitiveness are gradually entering into the domestic gas market, and these gas enterprises not only have very advanced management experience, but also have the shaped modern budget management system. But there is a certain gap with domestic gas enterprises in concept and specification aspects. This article will research and analyze the problems in cost management of gas enterprises and the necessity of strengthening budget management, and proposes some effective strategies to cope with the situation based on this, for reference.%随着全球化经济的快速发展,国外很多具有强大竞争力的公司陆续进驻国内燃气市场,这些燃气企业不仅具有非常先进的管理经验,而且还具有成型的现代预算管理体系。然国内燃气企业无论是理念还是规范,都存在着一定的差距。本文将对燃气企业成本管理中存在的问题、加强预算管理的必要性进行分析研究,并在此基础上提出一些行之有效的应对策略,以供参考。

  20. Interannual variability in the surface energy budget over a large southern inland water: an analysis of two-year eddy covariance data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Q.; Liu, H.

    2012-12-01

    Understanding how the surface energy budget and evaporation over inland waters respond to climate variability is important in fresh water management. Here we report long-term measurements of the surface energy budget using the eddy covariance method over a large inland southern water body of the Ross Barnett Reservoir, Mississippi, U.S.A. for 2008 and 2009. The two-year averaged incoming solar radiation (K↓), net radiation (Rn), sensible heat flux (H), latent heat flux (LE), and energy balance residual (ɛ) were 178.5, 110.6, 15.7, 83.7, and 11.3 W m-2, respectively. The annual cycle of Rn was followed by LE, with maximums occurring in the summer and minimums in the winter. H was small in the summer and large in the winter. The Bowen ratio shows that a relatively large portion of Rn was used to fuel evaporation in the warm season (from April to September) and to power H in the cool season (from October to March). The annual mean H and LE were 9.5% and 10.0% larger in 2008 than 2009, respectively. Most of the interannual variations primarily occurred in the cool season, which was partly due to the H and LE pulses that associated with large wind events caused by synoptic weather activities (e.g., cold front passages). These pulses approximately contributed to 50% of the annual H and 28% of the annual LE. Their interannual variations contributed to 77.8% of the interannual variations in H and 39.8% of those in LE. Compared with higher-latitude large lakes, this southern mid-latitude water body experienced larger evaporative water loss but smaller sensible heat loss into the atmosphere.

  1. Interactive flutter analysis and parametric study for conceptual wing design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Vivek

    1995-01-01

    An interactive computer program was developed for wing flutter analysis in the conceptual design stage. The objective was to estimate the flutter instability boundary of a flexible cantilever wing, when well defined structural and aerodynamic data are not available, and then study the effect of change in Mach number, dynamic pressure, torsional frequency, sweep, mass ratio, aspect ratio, taper ratio, center of gravity, and pitch inertia, to guide the development of the concept. The software was developed on MathCad (trademark) platform for Macintosh, with integrated documentation, graphics, database and symbolic mathematics. The analysis method was based on nondimensional parametric plots of two primary flutter parameters, namely Regier number and Flutter number, with normalization factors based on torsional stiffness, sweep, mass ratio, aspect ratio, center of gravity location and pitch inertia radius of gyration. The plots were compiled in a Vaught Corporation report from a vast database of past experiments and wind tunnel tests. The computer program was utilized for flutter analysis of the outer wing of a Blended Wing Body concept, proposed by McDonnell Douglas Corporation. Using a set of assumed data, preliminary flutter boundary and flutter dynamic pressure variation with altitude, Mach number and torsional stiffness were determined.

  2. Understanding metallic bonding: Structure, process and interaction by Rasch analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Maurice M. W.; Oon, Pey-Tee

    2016-08-01

    This paper reports the results of a survey of 3006 Year 10-12 students on their understandings of metallic bonding. The instrument was developed based on Chi's ontological categories of scientific concepts and students' understanding of metallic bonding as reported in the literature. The instrument has two parts. Part one probed into students' understanding of metallic bonding as (a) a submicro structure of metals, (b) a process in which individual metal atoms lose their outermost shell electrons to form a 'sea of electrons' and octet metal cations or (c) an all-directional electrostatic force between delocalized electrons and metal cations, that is, an interaction. Part two assessed students' explanation of malleability of metals, for example (a) as a submicro structural rearrangement of metal atoms/cations or (b) based on all-directional electrostatic force. The instrument was validated by the Rasch Model. Psychometric assessment showed that the instrument possessed reasonably good properties of measurement. Results revealed that it was reliable and valid for measuring students' understanding of metallic bonding. Analysis revealed that the structure, process and interaction understandings were unidimensional and in an increasing order of difficulty. Implications for the teaching of metallic bonding, particular through the use of diagrams, critiques and model-based learning, are discussed.

  3. An interactive system for analysis of global cloud imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodberry, Karen; Tanaka, Ken; Hendon, Harry; Salby, Murry

    1991-01-01

    Synoptic images of the global cloud pattern composited from six contemporaneous satellites provide an unprecedented view of the global cloud field. Having horizontal resolution of about 0.5 deg and temporal resolution of 3 h, the global cloud imagery (GCI) resolves most of the variability of organized convection, including several harmonics of the diurnal cycle. Although the GCI has these attractive features, the dense and 3D nature of that data make it a formidable volume of information to treat in a practical and efficient manner. An interactive image-analysis system (IAS) has been developed to investigate the space-time variability of global cloud behavior. In the IAS, data, hardware, and software are integrated into a single system providing a variety of space-time covariance analyses in a menu-driven format. Owing to its customized architecture and certain homogeneous properties of the GCI, the IAS calculates such quantities effectively. Many covariance statistics are derived from 3D data with interactive speed, allowing the user to interrogate the archive iteratively in a single session. The 3D nature of those analyses and the speed with which they are performed distinguish the IAS from conventional image processing of 2D data.

  4. Isobolographic analysis of the analgesic interactions between ketamine and tramadol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yong; Chan, Sui Y; Ho, Paul C

    2002-05-01

    Owing to different mechanisms of analgesia, we hypothesized that the combination of ketamine and tramadol could produce synergistic or additive antinociceptive effects. Swiss albino mice were administered intraperitoneally with ketamine, tramadol, a combination of ketamine and tramadol, or saline, and the resulting antinociceptive effects were tested in the mouse tail-flick and formalin tests. The potencies of the two drugs alone or in combination were obtained by fitting data to the Sigmoid Emax equation. Isobolographic analysis was performed to evaluate the interaction. CNS depression was also monitored. Results showed that tramadol exhibited apparent dose-dependent effects in the tail-flick test, and in phase 1 and phase 2 of the formalin test. Ketamine dose-dependently inhibited the phase 2 responses, but failed to modify the phase 1 and tail-flick responses. Combination of tramadol and ketamine produced significant synergistic interactions only in phase 2 of the formalin test (P < 0.05). The synergistic combinations also displayed less CNS depression than when an equianalgesic dose of ketamine was administered alone. We conclude that in the acute thermal or chemical pain model, ketamine is not effective and the net effect of ketamine and tramadol in combination was simply additive after systemic administration. However, the coadministration produced synergistic antinociception in the chemical-induced persistent pain model.

  5. Major component analysis of dynamic networks of physiologic organ interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kang K. L.; Bartsch, Ronny P.; Ma, Qianli D. Y.; Ivanov, Plamen Ch

    2015-09-01

    The human organism is a complex network of interconnected organ systems, where the behavior of one system affects the dynamics of other systems. Identifying and quantifying dynamical networks of diverse physiologic systems under varied conditions is a challenge due to the complexity in the output dynamics of the individual systems and the transient and nonlinear characteristics of their coupling. We introduce a novel computational method based on the concept of time delay stability and major component analysis to investigate how organ systems interact as a network to coordinate their functions. We analyze a large database of continuously recorded multi-channel physiologic signals from healthy young subjects during night-time sleep. We identify a network of dynamic interactions between key physiologic systems in the human organism. Further, we find that each physiologic state is characterized by a distinct network structure with different relative contribution from individual organ systems to the global network dynamics. Specifically, we observe a gradual decrease in the strength of coupling of heart and respiration to the rest of the network with transition from wake to deep sleep, and in contrast, an increased relative contribution to network dynamics from chin and leg muscle tone and eye movement, demonstrating a robust association between network topology and physiologic function.

  6. Multi-scale analysis for random quantum systems with interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Chulaevsky, Victor

    2014-01-01

    The study of quantum disorder has generated considerable research activity in mathematics and physics over past 40 years. While single-particle models have been extensively studied at a rigorous mathematical level, little was known about systems of several interacting particles, let alone systems with positive spatial particle density. Creating a consistent theory of disorder in multi-particle quantum systems is an important and challenging problem that largely remains open. Multi-scale Analysis for Random Quantum Systems with Interaction  presents the progress that had been recently achieved in this area.   The main focus of the book is on a rigorous derivation of the multi-particle localization in a strong random external potential field. To make the presentation accessible to a wider audience, the authors restrict attention to a relatively simple tight-binding Anderson model on a cubic lattice Zd.   This book includes the following cutting-edge features: * an introduction to the state-of-the-art single-...

  7. Interactive Visual Analysis of High Throughput Text Streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steed, Chad A [ORNL; Potok, Thomas E [ORNL; Patton, Robert M [ORNL; Goodall, John R [ORNL; Maness, Christopher S [ORNL; Senter, James K [ORNL; Potok, Thomas E [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    The scale, velocity, and dynamic nature of large scale social media systems like Twitter demand a new set of visual analytics techniques that support near real-time situational awareness. Social media systems are credited with escalating social protest during recent large scale riots. Virtual communities form rapidly in these online systems, and they occasionally foster violence and unrest which is conveyed in the users language. Techniques for analyzing broad trends over these networks or reconstructing conversations within small groups have been demonstrated in recent years, but state-of- the-art tools are inadequate at supporting near real-time analysis of these high throughput streams of unstructured information. In this paper, we present an adaptive system to discover and interactively explore these virtual networks, as well as detect sentiment, highlight change, and discover spatio- temporal patterns.

  8. To Improve the Budget or Beyond the Budget%改进预算还是超越预算

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李燕

    2015-01-01

    Through the analysis of the problems of traditional budget, this paper introduces two kinds of popular modes to make up the drawbacks of traditional budget management, namely"improve the budget"and"beyond the budget". Aiming at the existing problems in the budget management in China, combined with the research of foreign scholars and analysis of the market environment Chinese enterprises are facing, this paper attempts to explore a budget reform direction that suitable for China's national conditions.%本文通过对传统预算存在的问题进行分析,引出了当前较为流行的两种弥补传统预算管理缺陷的模式,即“改进预算”和“超越预算”。针对我国预算管理中存在的问题,结合国外学者的研究及我国企业目前面临的市场环境分析,试图探索出适合我国国情的预算改革方向。

  9. Mean kinetic energy transport and event classification in a model wind turbine array versus an array of porous disks: Energy budget and octant analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Elizabeth H.; Cal, Raúl Bayoán

    2016-08-01

    An array of model rotating wind turbines is compared experimentally to an array of static porous disks in order to quantify the similarities and differences in the mean kinetic energy transport within the wakes produced in these two cases. Stereo particle image velocimetry measurements are done in a wind tunnel bracketing the center turbine in the fourth row of a 4 ×3 array of model turbines. Equivalent sets of rotors and porous disks are created by matching their respective induction factors. The primary difference in the mean velocity components is found in the spanwise mean velocity component, which is as much as 190% different between the rotor and disk case. Horizontal averages of mean kinetic energy transport terms in the region where rotation is most important show percent differences in the range 3%-41%, which decrease to 1%-6% at streamwise coordinates where rotation is less important. Octant analysis is performed on the most significant term related to vertical mean kinetic energy flux u'v' ¯U . The average percent difference between corresponding octants is as much as 68% different in the near wake and as much as 17% different in the far wake. Furthermore, octant analysis elucidates the three-dimensional nature of sweeps and ejections in the near wake of the rotor case. Together, these results imply that a stationary porous disk adequately represents the mean kinetic energy transport of a rotor in the far wake where rotation is less important, while significant discrepancies exist at streamwise locations where rotation is a key phenomenon. This comparison has implications in the use of an actuator disk to model the wind turbine rotor in computational simulations specifically for studies where Reynolds stresses, turbulence intensity, or interactions with the atmosphere are of interest.

  10. Recent insights into plant-virus interactions through proteomic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Carli, Mariasole; Benvenuto, Eugenio; Donini, Marcello

    2012-10-05

    Plant viruses represent a major threat for a wide range of host species causing severe losses in agricultural practices. The full comprehension of mechanisms underlying events of virus-host plant interaction is crucial to devise novel plant resistance strategies. Until now, functional genomics studies in plant-virus interaction have been limited mainly on transcriptomic analysis. Only recently are proteomic approaches starting to provide important contributions to this area of research. Classical two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) coupled to mass spectrometry (MS) is still the most widely used platform in plant proteome analysis, although in the last years the application of quantitative "second generation" proteomic techniques (such as differential in gel electrophoresis, DIGE, and gel-free protein separation methods) are emerging as more powerful analytical approaches. Apparently simple, plant-virus interactions reveal a really complex pathophysiological context, in which resistance, defense and susceptibility, and direct virus-induced reactions interplay to trigger expression responses of hundreds of genes. Given that, this review is specifically focused on comparative proteome-based studies on pathogenesis of several viral genera, including some of the most important and widespread plant viruses of the genus Tobamovirus, Sobemovirus, Cucumovirus and Potyvirus. In all, this overview reveals a widespread repression of proteins associated with the photosynthetic apparatus, while energy metabolism/protein synthesis and turnover are typically up-regulated, indicating a major redirection of cell metabolism. Other common features include the modulation of metabolisms concerning sugars, cell wall, and reactive oxigen species as well as pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins. The fine-tuning between plant development and antiviral defense mechanisms determines new patterns of regulation of common metabolic pathways. By offering a 360-degree view of protein modulation

  11. Proteomic analysis of HIV-T cell interaction: an update.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dave eSpeijer

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This mini-review summarizes techniques applied in, and results obtained with, proteomic studies of HIV-1 T cell interaction. Our group previously reported on the use of two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE coupled to MALDI-TOF peptide mass fingerprint analysis, to study T cell responses upon HIV-1 infection. Only one in three differentially expressed proteins could be identified using this experimental setup. Here we report on our latest efforts to test models generated by this data set and extend its analysis by using novel bioinformatic algorithms. The 2D-DIGE results are compared with other studies including a pilot study using one-dimensional peptide separation coupled to MSE, a novel mass spectrometric approach. It can be concluded that although the latter method detects fewer proteins, it is much faster and less labor intensive. Last but not least, recent developments and remaining challenges in the field of proteomic studies of HIV-1 infection and proteomics in general are discussed.

  12. Analysis of interactions among barriers in project risk management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dandage, Rahul V.; Mantha, Shankar S.; Rane, Santosh B.; Bhoola, Vanita

    2017-06-01

    In the context of the scope, time, cost, and quality constraints, failure is not uncommon in project management. While small projects have 70% chances of success, large projects virtually have no chance of meeting the quadruple constraints. While there is no dearth of research on project risk management, the manifestation of barriers to project risk management is a less dwelt topic. The success of project management is oftentimes based on the understanding of barriers to effective risk management, application of appropriate risk management methodology, proactive leadership to avoid barriers, workers' attitude, adequate resources, organizational culture, and involvement of top management. This paper represents various risk categories and barriers to risk management in domestic and international projects through literature survey and feedback from project professionals. After analysing the various modelling methods used in project risk management literature, interpretive structural modelling (ISM) and MICMAC analysis have been used to analyse interactions among the barriers and prioritize them. The analysis indicates that lack of top management support, lack of formal training, and lack of addressing cultural differences are the high priority barriers, among many others.

  13. THEORETICAL FOUNDATIONS REGARDING THE IMPORTANCE, NECESSITY AND USAGE OF MULTIANNUAL BUDGETS IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lăpăduşi Mihaela Loredana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The material is intended to be an easy to read one, structured in a way to be a theoreticalframework concerning the importance, necessity and usage of multi-annual budgets inRomania. The article puts particular emphasis on explaining the terminology specific to thedomain regarding multi-annual budgeting, on principles and less on methodology, whichonce learned and applied, can lead to the improvement of the financing mechanismsthrough multi-annual budgets. Without constituting a monograph of the legislation in force,the article refers also to the legal regulation that will be applied. In Romania budgets arevoted on annually, and this short time horizon has often been criticized that it wouldadversely affect the efficient management of expenditures. Decisions on resource allocationare taken without an overall vision, ignoring the implications of past decisions or set on atime horizon longer than one year. Most European countries have implemented in one formor another, multi-annual budgets, to counter the disadvantages of annual budgets. For themost part, universities that will apply multi-annual budgets will build a direct relationshiprelated to expectations regarding the evolution of the activity, not with the objectives set bythe university. In the case in which the expectations regarding the evolution of theuniversity are not expressed in clearly stated objectives, and are not employed indeveloping budgets, the answers received by performing an efficiency analysis of theuniversity, from the verification analysis of the projected and budgeted amounts, are verysimple and do not give added value to the budget process.

  14. Analysis of Metabolites in Stem Parasitic Plant Interactions: Interaction of Cuscuta–Momordica versus Cassytha–Ipomoea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Furuhashi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Cuscuta and Cassytha are two well-known stem parasitic plant genera with reduced leaves and roots, inducing haustoria in their stems. Their similar appearance in the field has been recognized, but few comparative studies on their respective plant interactions are available. To compare their interactions, we conducted a metabolite analysis of both the Cassytha–Ipomoea and the Cuscuta–Momordica interaction. We investigated the energy charge of the metabolites by UFLC (ultra-high performance liquid chromatography, and conducted GC-MS (gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis for polar metabolites (e.g., saccharides, polyols and steroids. The energy charge after parasitization changed considerably in Cassytha but not in Cusucta. Cuscuta changed its steroid pattern during the plant interaction, whereas Cassytha did not. In the polar metabolite analysis, the laminaribiose increase after parasitization was conspicuous in Cuscuta, but not in Cassytha. This metabolite profile difference points to different lifestyles and parasitic strategies.

  15. Analysis of Metabolites in Stem Parasitic Plant Interactions: Interaction of Cuscuta–Momordica versus Cassytha–Ipomoea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuhashi, Takeshi; Nakamura, Takemichi; Iwase, Koji

    2016-01-01

    Cuscuta and Cassytha are two well-known stem parasitic plant genera with reduced leaves and roots, inducing haustoria in their stems. Their similar appearance in the field has been recognized, but few comparative studies on their respective plant interactions are available. To compare their interactions, we conducted a metabolite analysis of both the Cassytha–Ipomoea and the Cuscuta–Momordica interaction. We investigated the energy charge of the metabolites by UFLC (ultra-high performance liquid chromatography), and conducted GC-MS (gas chromatography-mass spectrometry) analysis for polar metabolites (e.g., saccharides, polyols) and steroids. The energy charge after parasitization changed considerably in Cassytha but not in Cusucta. Cuscuta changed its steroid pattern during the plant interaction, whereas Cassytha did not. In the polar metabolite analysis, the laminaribiose increase after parasitization was conspicuous in Cuscuta, but not in Cassytha. This metabolite profile difference points to different lifestyles and parasitic strategies. PMID:27941603

  16. Draving Up a Budget Using The Activity Based Budgeting Methodology Through The Simulation Of Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dita Janíková

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with a connection between financial and quality management systems. These departments only rarely cooperate on projects, which could be a loss, because this connection has many improvement opportunities. The author shows through the simple example of catering deliveries a possible procedure of how to reach a more realistic evaluation of production costs for each product and how to connect budgeting and process analysis.

  17. Social Network Analysis to Examine Interaction Patterns in Knowledge Building Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip, Donald N.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes use of social network analysis to examine student interaction patterns in a Grade 5/6 Knowledge Building class. The analysis included face-to-face interactions and interactions in the Knowledge Forum[R] Knowledge Building environment. It is argued that sociogram data are useful to reveal group processes; in sociological terms,…

  18. Interactive retinal blood flow analysis of the macular region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jing; Somfai, Gábor Márk; Campagnoli, Thalmon R; Smiddy, William E; Debuc, Delia Cabrera

    2016-03-01

    The study of retinal hemodynamics plays an important role to understand the onset and progression of diabetic retinopathy. In this work, we developed an interactive retinal analysis tool to quantitatively measure the blood flow velocity (BFV) and blood flow rate (BFR) in the macular region using the Retinal Function Imager (RFI). By employing a high definition stroboscopic fundus camera, the RFI device is able to assess retinal blood flow characteristics in vivo. However, the measurements of BFV using a user-guided vessel segmentation tool may induce significant inter-observer differences and BFR is not provided in the built-in software. In this work, we have developed an interactive tool to assess the retinal BFV and BFR in the macular region. Optical coherence tomography data was registered with the RFI image to locate the fovea accurately. The boundaries of the vessels were delineated on a motion contrast enhanced image and BFV was computed by maximizing the cross-correlation of pixel intensities in a ratio video. Furthermore, we were able to calculate the BFR in absolute values (μl/s). Experiments were conducted on 122 vessels from 5 healthy and 5 mild non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR) subjects. The Pearson's correlation of the vessel diameter measurements between our method and manual labeling on 40 vessels was 0.984. The intraclass correlation (ICC) of BFV between our proposed method and built-in software was 0.924 and 0.830 for vessels from healthy and NPDR subjects, respectively. The coefficient of variation between repeated sessions was reduced significantly from 22.5% to 15.9% in our proposed method (p<0.001). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Thematic Apperception Test: an original proposal for interaction analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doriana Dipaola

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The TAT as projective technique gives the opportunity to explore the inner world and the intra-psychic functioning, as well as the objectual representations and the prevailing thinking processes. Our hypothesis is that the TAT could also be deployed as a valid tool in the analysis of inter-personal functioning, specifically within the couple. From this assumption originates our proposal for an original methodology of TAT deployment and reading, which integrates the classical individual TAT methodology with the Common Rorschach method suggested by Willi. The goal is to experiment a parallel utilisation of the test that could contribute to the understanding of personalities and of how these intertwine in couple interaction. “In the relationship with the partner, the personality takes new shapes, given personality and character traits are strengthened, while others lose importance”, (Theodore Lidz, in Willi, 1990. The couple TAT presupposes a sequence of pictures proposed following procedures identical to the Common Rorschach ones to the single individuals at first and then to the couple. From the initial individual task follows the one of building a commonly shared history starting from the stimulus. The suggested methodology shall be exemplified through the presentation of clinical cases belonging to the research sample. The comprehension of the inter-personal dynamic, in a common task, could allow to explore the ways in which conflict expresses itself, the roles and prospects for collaboration, the “generativity” of the couple and the management of affects and anxieties in the interaction and could be successfully deployed as a tool in the context of couple counselling.

  20. Control system design and analysis using the INteractive Controls Analysis (INCA) program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Frank H.; Downing, John P.

    1987-01-01

    The INteractive Controls Analysis (INCA) program was developed at the Goddard Space Flight Center to provide a user friendly efficient environment for the design and analysis of linear control systems. Since its inception, INCA has found extensive use in the design, development, and analysis of control systems for spacecraft, instruments, robotics, and pointing systems. Moreover, the results of the analytic tools imbedded in INCA have been flight proven with at least three currently orbiting spacecraft. This paper describes the INCA program and illustrates, using a flight proven example, how the package can perform complex design analyses with relative ease.

  1. Control system design and analysis using the INteractive Controls Analysis (INCA) program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Frank H.; Downing, John P.

    1987-01-01

    The INteractive Controls Analysis (INCA) program was developed at the Goddard Space Flight Center to provide a user friendly efficient environment for the design and analysis of linear control systems. Since its inception, INCA has found extensive use in the design, development, and analysis of control systems for spacecraft, instruments, robotics, and pointing systems. Moreover, the results of the analytic tools imbedded in INCA have been flight proven with at least three currently orbiting spacecraft. This paper describes the INCA program and illustrates, using a flight proven example, how the package can perform complex design analyses with relative ease.

  2. The greenhouse gas balance of the oil palm industry in Colombia: a preliminary analysis. II. Greenhouse gas emissions and the carbon budget

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian E Henson

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In the preceding paper we examined carbon sequestration in oil palm plantations and in mill products and by-products as part of a study of the greenhouse gas balance of palm oil production in Colombia, showing how this has changed over time. Here, we look at the opposing processes of greenhouse gas (GHG emission and calculate the resulting net carbon budget for the industry. The main emission sources, in decreasing order of magnitude, assessed using "default" or "most probable" options, were found to be land use change (40.9% of total, mill methane production (21.4%, direct use of fossil fuel (18.5%, indirect use of fossil fuel (11.9% and nitrous oxide production (7.3%. The total (gross emissions, expressed in carbon equivalents (Ceq., were less than the amount of sequestered carbon, resulting in a positive net Ceq. balance. All oil palm growing regions showed a net gain with the exception of the western zone, where emissions due to land-use change were judged to be substantial. Of the 11 alternative scenarios tested, only three resulted in Ceq. balances lower than the default and only two gave a negative balance

  3. Analysis of Budget and Offer Tips of Construction Tender%浅析工程施工投标的预算和报价技巧

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫丽君

    2011-01-01

    投标单位要在激烈的市场竞争中占有市场,一定要掌握企业实际的投标预算、精通投标报价的技巧和方法,提高招标项目的投标报价水平,投标人只有采用不同的投标策略,才能对投标报价正确分析,进而果断作出决策,使企业处于不败之地,从而保证低投标高效益,真正为企业的生存发展和壮大创造先决条件.%If the tender units want to occupy the market in fierce market competition, they must grasp the bid budget of actual business, be proficient in the skills and methods of tender offer, and raise the level of bid tender.Only using different bidding strategies, can the bidder correctly analyze the tender offer, and then make decisions decisively, so that make enterprises be in a position to guarantee high efficiency with low bids, which can create prerequisites for survival, development and growth of the enterprise.

  4. Maximum outreach. . . minimum budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laychak, Mary Beth

    2011-06-01

    Many astronomical institutions have budgetary constraints that prevent them from spending large amounts on public outreach. This is especially true for smaller organizations, such as the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT), where manpower and funding are at a premium. To maximize our impact, we employ unconventional and affordable outreach techniques that underscore our commitment to astronomy education and our local community. We participate in many unique community interactions, ranging from rodeo calf-dressing tournaments to art gallery exhibitions of CFHT images. Further, we have developed many creative methods to communicate complex astronomical concepts to both children and adults, including the use of a modified webcam to teach infrared astronomy and the production of online newsletter for parents, children, and educators. This presentation will discuss the outreach methods CFHT has found most effective in our local schools and our rural community.

  5. The Atlantic Coast of Maryland, Sediment Budget Update: Tier 2, Assateague Island and Ocean City Inlet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    armoring, and placement of offshore borrow material on the shoreline. Over the past few years, several sediment budgets have been created to identify...sources, sinks, and sediment pathways. The most recent of these budgets covered the 1995 to 2002 and 2004 to 2008 epochs ( Offshore and Coastal...asset/1000361. Offshore and Coastal Technologies, Inc. (OCTI). 2011. Geomorphic and sediment budget analysis of Fenwick and Assateague Islands

  6. Minimal Investment Risk of Portfolio Optimization Problem with Budget and Investment Concentration Constraints

    OpenAIRE

    Shinzato, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    In the present paper, the minimal investment risk for a portfolio optimization problem with imposed budget and investment concentration constraints is considered using replica analysis. Since the minimal investment risk is influenced by the investment concentration constraint (as well as the budget constraint), it is intuitive that the minimal investment risk for the problem with an investment concentration constraint be larger than that without the constraint (that is, with only the budget c...

  7. Jatropha Developments in Mozambique: Analysis of Structural Conditions Influencing Niche-Regime Interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slingerland, M.A.; Schut, M.

    2014-01-01

    This article investigates the transition dynamics related to Jatropha developments in Mozambique. The analysis focuses on how structural conditions (infrastructure, institutions, interaction and collaboration and capabilities and resources) enable or constrain interactions between niche-level Jatrop

  8. Relative Efficiency of Surface Energy Budgets Over Different Land Covers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jiachuan

    The partitioning of available solar energy into different fluxes at the Earth's surface is important in determining different physical processes, such as turbulent transport, subsurface hydrology, land-atmospheric interactions, etc. Direct measurements of these turbulent fluxes were carried out using eddy-covariance (EC) towers. However, the distribution of EC towers is sparse due to relatively high cost and practical difficulties in logistics and deployment. As a result, data is temporally and spatially limited and is inadequate to be used for researches at large scales, such as regional and global climate modeling. Besides field measurements, an alternative way is to estimate turbulent fluxes based on the intrinsic relations between surface energy budget components, largely through thermodynamic equilibrium. These relations, referred as relative efficiency, have been included in several models to estimate the magnitude of turbulent fluxes in surface energy budgets such as latent heat and sensible heat. In this study, three theoretical models based on the lumped heat transfer model, the linear stability analysis and the maximum entropy principle respectively, were investigated. Model predictions of relative efficiencies were compared with turbulent flux data over different land covers, viz. lake, grassland and suburban surfaces. Similar results were observed over lake and suburban surface but significant deviation is found over vegetation surface. The relative efficiency of outgoing longwave radiation is found to be orders of magnitude deviated from theoretic predictions. Meanwhile, results show that energy partitioning process is influenced by the surface water availability to a great extent. The study provides insight into what property is determining energy partitioning process over different land covers and gives suggestion for future models.

  9. Random matrix analysis for gene interaction networks in cancer cells

    CERN Document Server

    Kikkawa, Ayumi

    2016-01-01

    Motivation: The investigation of topological modifications of the gene interaction networks in cancer cells is essential for understanding the desease. We study gene interaction networks in various human cancer cells with the random matrix theory. This study is based on the Cancer Network Galaxy (TCNG) database which is the repository of huge gene interactions inferred by Bayesian network algorithms from 256 microarray experimental data downloaded from NCBI GEO. The original GEO data are provided by the high-throughput microarray expression experiments on various human cancer cells. We apply the random matrix theory to the computationally inferred gene interaction networks in TCNG in order to detect the universality in the topology of the gene interaction networks in cancer cells. Results: We found the universal behavior in almost one half of the 256 gene interaction networks in TCNG. The distribution of nearest neighbor level spacing of the gene interaction matrix becomes the Wigner distribution when the net...

  10. Genome-wide gene-gene interaction analysis for next-generation sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jinying; Zhu, Yun; Xiong, Momiao

    2016-03-01

    The critical barrier in interaction analysis for next-generation sequencing (NGS) data is that the traditional pairwise interaction analysis that is suitable for common variants is difficult to apply to rare variants because of their prohibitive computational time, large number of tests and low power. The great challenges for successful detection of interactions with NGS data are (1) the demands in the paradigm of changes in interaction analysis; (2) severe multiple testing; and (3) heavy computations. To meet these challenges, we shift the paradigm of interaction analysis between two SNPs to interaction analysis between two genomic regions. In other words, we take a gene as a unit of analysis and use functional data analysis techniques as dimensional reduction tools to develop a novel statistic to collectively test interaction between all possible pairs of SNPs within two genome regions. By intensive simulations, we demonstrate that the functional logistic regression for interaction analysis has the correct type 1 error rates and higher power to detect interaction than the currently used methods. The proposed method was applied to a coronary artery disease dataset from the Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium (WTCCC) study and the Framingham Heart Study (FHS) dataset, and the early-onset myocardial infarction (EOMI) exome sequence datasets with European origin from the NHLBI's Exome Sequencing Project. We discovered that 6 of 27 pairs of significantly interacted genes in the FHS were replicated in the independent WTCCC study and 24 pairs of significantly interacted genes after applying Bonferroni correction in the EOMI study.

  11. General Tool for Evaluating High-Contrast Coronagraphic Telescope Performance Error Budgets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchen, Luis F.

    2011-01-01

    The Coronagraph Performance Error Budget (CPEB) tool automates many of the key steps required to evaluate the scattered starlight contrast in the dark hole of a space-based coronagraph. The tool uses a Code V prescription of the optical train, and uses MATLAB programs to call ray-trace code that generates linear beam-walk and aberration sensitivity matrices for motions of the optical elements and line-of-sight pointing, with and without controlled fine-steering mirrors (FSMs). The sensitivity matrices are imported by macros into Excel 2007, where the error budget is evaluated. The user specifies the particular optics of interest, and chooses the quality of each optic from a predefined set of PSDs. The spreadsheet creates a nominal set of thermal and jitter motions, and combines that with the sensitivity matrices to generate an error budget for the system. CPEB also contains a combination of form and ActiveX controls with Visual Basic for Applications code to allow for user interaction in which the user can perform trade studies such as changing engineering requirements, and identifying and isolating stringent requirements. It contains summary tables and graphics that can be instantly used for reporting results in view graphs. The entire process to obtain a coronagraphic telescope performance error budget has been automated into three stages: conversion of optical prescription from Zemax or Code V to MACOS (in-house optical modeling and analysis tool), a linear models process, and an error budget tool process. The first process was improved by developing a MATLAB package based on the Class Constructor Method with a number of user-defined functions that allow the user to modify the MACOS optical prescription. The second process was modified by creating a MATLAB package that contains user-defined functions that automate the process. The user interfaces with the process by utilizing an initialization file where the user defines the parameters of the linear model

  12. The Era of Budget Hotels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    What began as an idea from an Internet posting is now set to sweep through China Asingle posting on the Internet gave birth to a large budget hotel brand.In 2001, the founder of ctrip.com, Ji Qi, noticed an online friend com-plaining that ctrip.com’s hotel reser-

  13. Medicare: FY2009 Budget Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-06

    Proposals include savings achieved through reductions in many of the Medicare payment updates. The Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement and...9 Short-Term Power Wheelchair Rentals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Current Law...five- year budget window. Proposals include savings achieved through reductions in many of the Medicare payment updates. The Medicare Prescription

  14. Feminism, Budgeting and Gender Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, S. N.; Ghadai, Sanjaya Kumar

    2017-01-01

    The Fourth Conference on Women at Beijing (1995) underlined the importance of gender mainstreaming; spurring India to provide for separate Gender Budgeting in 2005-06. The Constitution tries to make fine balance between right to equality and positive discrimination for promoting gender justice in India. Yet high levels of Gender Inequality Index…

  15. Budgeting for Food Service Operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, John P.; Van Egmond-Pannell, Dorothy

    1987-01-01

    Fairfax County Public Schools, Virginia, runs a food service operation responsible for serving 100,000 student lunches at 179 school locations each day. In addition, meals are provided by contractual agreement to day care centers and private schools. The budget process is explained and illustrated with a chart. (MLF)

  16. Kollektiivne vastutus ja gender budgeting

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Vestlusringi teemad: riigieelarve koostamisel ei arvestata soolist võrdõiguslikkust; gender budgeting kui üks soolise võrdõiguslikkuse jälgimise viise; vabaabielu võib osutuda naisele palju ebasoodsamaks kui mehele; kogukonna kollektiivne vastutus perevägivalla korral. Vt. samas: Aasta 2004 suurte mõtlejate auhinnad

  17. Technology support for participatory budgeting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jeremy; Rios, Jesus; Lippa, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Participatory budgeting is a reasonably well-established governance practice, particularly in South America. It is information and communication rich - making it well suited for modern technology support; in addition, the widespread participation of many citizens is difficult to achieve without...

  18. Kollektiivne vastutus ja gender budgeting

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Vestlusringi teemad: riigieelarve koostamisel ei arvestata soolist võrdõiguslikkust; gender budgeting kui üks soolise võrdõiguslikkuse jälgimise viise; vabaabielu võib osutuda naisele palju ebasoodsamaks kui mehele; kogukonna kollektiivne vastutus perevägivalla korral. Vt. samas: Aasta 2004 suurte mõtlejate auhinnad

  19. Estimating hydrologic budgets for six Persian Gulf watersheds, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Majid; Ghafouri, Mohammad; Tabatabaei, MahmoudReza; Goodarzi, Masoud; Mokarian, Zeinab

    2016-10-01

    Estimation of the major components of the hydrologic budget is important for determining the impacts on the water supply and quality of either planned or proposed land management projects, vegetative changes, groundwater withdrawals, and reservoir management practices and plans. As acquisition of field data is costly and time consuming, models have been created to test various land use practices and their concomitant effects on the hydrologic budget of watersheds. To simulate such management scenarios realistically, a model should be able to simulate the individual components of the hydrologic budget. The main objective of this study is to perform the SWAT2012 model for estimation of hydrological budget in six subbasin of Persian Gulf watershed; Golgol, Baghan, Marghab Shekastian, Tangebirim and Daragah, which are located in south and south west of Iran during 1991-2009. In order to evaluate the performance of the model, hydrological data, soil map, land use map and digital elevation model (DEM) are obtained and prepared for each catchment to run the model. SWAT-CUP with SUFI2 program was used for simulation, uncertainty and validation with 95 Percent Prediction Uncertainty. Coefficient of determination (R 2) and Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient (NS) were used for evaluation of the model simulation results. Comparison of measured and predicted values demonstrated that each component of the model gave reasonable output and that the interaction among components was realistic. The study has produced a technique with reliable capability for annual and monthly water budget components in Persian Gulf watershed.

  20. Analysis of Multi-Stakeholder Requirements Using Requirement Interaction Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohayanti Hassan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Software requirements engineering is an imperative phase in the software development life cycle in every project regardless of the project size. In a project, different people are involved in the requirements engineering process, including requirement engineers, stakeholders, end users, and system designers. Amongst them, stakeholders play an essential role. Differences in goals and priorities of multiple stakeholders would make requirements management complex and difficult, which is a huge challenge for requirement engineers. From time to time, new requirements emerge and existing requirements need changes to fulfil stakeholders’ goals. Thus, such situation leads to high requirements volatility and low stability which causes overlapping and conflicting of requirements. The correctness and validity of requirements are of paramount importance as they are the key factors toward a successful system. A deep understanding of requirement management technique that conforms to users’ needs is crucial. Such technique of the concept is applied to the Labour Management System. In this study, we have discussed the implementation of analysis of multi-stakeholder requirements using requirement interaction matrix in the f. The study used real requirements to yield a solid and dependable result. We have documented the requirements using a template and assessed their respective volatility level. An algorithm is constructed to   show   that   the   technique has managed to minimize   the time   used   when   checking requirements.

  1. Continuous maximum flow segmentation method for nanoparticle interaction analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marak, L; Tankyevych, O; Talbot, H

    2011-10-01

    In recent years, tomographic three-dimensional reconstruction approaches using electrons rather than X-rays have become popular. Such images produced with a transmission electron microscope make it possible to image nanometre-scale materials in three-dimensional. However, they are also noisy, limited in contrast and most often have a very poor resolution along the axis of the electron beam. The analysis of images stemming from such modalities, whether fully or semiautomated, is therefore more complicated. In particular, segmentation of objects is difficult. In this paper, we propose to use the continuous maximum flow segmentation method based on a globally optimal minimal surface model. The use of this fully automated segmentation and filtering procedure is illustrated on two different nanoparticle samples and provide comparisons with other classical segmentation methods. The main objectives are the measurement of the attraction rate of polystyrene beads to silica nanoparticle (for the first sample) and interaction of silica nanoparticles with large unilamellar liposomes (for the second sample). We also illustrate how precise measurements such as contact angles can be performed.

  2. High school students presenting science: An interactional sociolinguistic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleicher, Robert

    Presenting science is an authentic activity of practicing scientists. Thus, effective communication of science is an important skill to nurture in high school students who are learning science. This study examines strategies employed by high school students as they make science presentations; it assesses students' conceptual understandings of particular science topics through their presentations and investigates gender differences. Data are derived from science presentation given by eight high school students, three females and five males who attended a summer science program. Data sources included videotaped presentations, ethnographic fieldnotes, interviews with presenters and members of the audience, and presenter notes and overheads. Presentations were transcribed and submitted to discourse analysis from an interactional sociolinguistic perspective. This article focuses on the methodology employed and how it helps inform the above research questions. The author argues that use of this methodology leads to findings that inform important social-communicative issues in the learning of science. Practical advice for teaching students to present science, implications for use of presentations to assess conceptual learning, and indications of some possible gender differences are discussed.Received: 14 April 1993; Revised: 15 February 1994;

  3. Chromatographic analysis of olopatadine in hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksić, Jelena; Jovanović, Marko; Rakić, Tijana; Popović, Igor; Ivanović, Darko; Jančić-Stojanović, Biljana

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, chromatographic analysis of active substance olopatadine hydrochloride, which is used in eye drops as antihistaminic agent, and its impurity E isomer by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) and application of design of experiments (DoE) methodology are presented. In addition, benzalkonium chloride is very often used as a preservative in eye drops. Therefore, the evaluation of its chromatographic behavior in HILIC was carried out as well. In order to estimate chromatographic behavior and set optimal chromatographic conditions, DoE methodology was applied. After the selection of important chromatographic factors, Box-Behnken design was utilized, and on the basis of the obtained models factor effects were examined. Then, multi-objective robust optimization is performed aiming to obtain chromatographic conditions that comply with several quality criteria simultaneously: adequate and robust separation of critical peak pair and maximum retention of the first eluting peak. The optimal conditions are identified by using grid point search methodology. The experimental verification confirmed the adequacy of the defined optimal conditions. Finally, under optimal chromatographic conditions, the method was validated and applicability of the proposed method was confirmed.

  4. PINK1-Interacting Proteins: Proteomic Analysis of Overexpressed PINK1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar Rakovic

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent publications suggest that the Parkinson's disease- (PD- related PINK1/Parkin pathway promotes elimination of dysfunctional mitochondria by autophagy. We used tandem affinity purification (TAP, SDS-PAGE, and mass spectrometry as a first step towards identification of possible substrates for PINK1. The cellular abundance of selected identified interactors was investigated by Western blotting. Furthermore, one candidate gene was sequenced in 46 patients with atypical PD. In addition to two known binding partners (HSP90, CDC37, 12 proteins were identified using the TAP assay; four of which are mitochondrially localized (GRP75, HSP60, LRPPRC, and TUFM. Western blot analysis showed no differences in cellular abundance of these proteins comparing PINK1 mutant and control fibroblasts. When sequencing LRPPRC, four exonic synonymous changes and 20 polymorphisms in noncoding regions were detected. Our study provides a list of putative PINK1 binding partners, confirming previously described interactions, but also introducing novel mitochondrial proteins as potential components of the PINK1/Parkin mitophagy pathway.

  5. VisIt: Interactive Parallel Visualization and Graphical Analysis Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department Of Energy (DOE) Advanced Simulation; Computing Initiative (ASCI)

    2011-03-01

    VisIt is a free interactive parallel visualization and graphical analysis tool for viewing scientific data on Unix and PC platforms. Users can quickly generate visualizations from their data, animate them through time, manipulate them, and save the resulting images for presentations. VisIt contains a rich set of visualization features so that you can view your data in a variety of ways. It can be used to visualize scalar and vector fields defined on two- and three-dimensional (2D and 3D) structured and unstructured meshes. VisIt was designed to handle very large data set sizes in the terascale range and yet can also handle small data sets in the kilobyte range. See the table below for more details about the tool’s features. VisIt was developed by the Department of Energy (DOE) Advanced Simulation and Computing Initiative (ASCI) to visualize and analyze the results of terascale simulations. It was developed as a framework for adding custom capabilities and rapidly deploying new visualization technologies. Although the primary driving force behind the development of VisIt was for visualizing terascale data, it is also well suited for visualizing data from typical simulations on desktop systems.

  6. Market segmentation and the changing budget hotel industry in urban South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Market segmentation and the changing budget hotel industry in urban South Africa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Market segmentation is a critical driver of change in the hotel industry, resulting in the appearance of differentiated forms of hotel property developments, including budget hotels. International research on budget hotels is mainly limited to North America and Europe, with some more recent studies on emerging economies. This article examines the role of budget hotels within the wider restructuring of the South African hotel industry following the country’s re-entry into the global tourism economy after its democratic transition. Historically, the South African hotel industry became dominated by one- and two-star budget accommodation as a result of the country’s liquor legislation. With the reconfiguration of the hotel industry after 1990 to target the growing international tourism market, the role of budget hotels changed. This analysis examines the diminished role of budget hotels in South Africa’s hotel economy, the shifting nature of the budget hotel and location patterns of budget hotels from 1990 to the present. It shows that post-1990 budget hotels are mainly concentrated in large cities and secondary centres of South Africa, and that in small towns the former liquor-focused budget hotel has been replaced by other forms of accommodation.

  7. Capital Budgeting: Do Private Sector Methods of Budgeting for Capital Assets Have Applicability to the Department of Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-12-01

    Professor Michael Porter and recognize the strategic importance of conducting a Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats ( SWOT ) analysis as part...business use and not 28 expected to be converted to cash in the current or upcoming fiscal year, such as manufacturing equipment, real estate , etc... ANALYSIS .......................................................................5 A. DOD CAPITAL BUDGETING PRINCIPLES AND METHODS..............5 1

  8. President's Fiscal Year 2016 Budget Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Executive Office of the President — Each year, after the President's State of the Union address, the Office of Management and Budget releases the Administration's Budget, offering proposals on key...

  9. Quasi-Equilibrium States in the Tropics Simulated by a Cloud-Resolving Model. Part 1; Specific Features and Budget Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shie, C.-L.; Tao, W.-K.; Simpson, J.; Sui, C.-H.; Starr, David OC. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A series of long-term integrations using the two-dimensional Goddard Cumulus Ensemble (GCE) model were performed by altering imposed environmental components to produce various quasi-equilibrium thermodynamic states. Model results show that the genesis of a warm/wet quasi-equilibrium state is mainly due to either strong vertical wind shear (from nudging) or large surface fluxes (from strong surface winds), while a cold/dry quasi-equilibrium state is attributed to a remarkably weakened mixed-wind shear (from vertical mixing due to deep convection) along with weak surface winds. In general, latent heat flux and net large-scale temperature forcing, the two dominant physical processes, dominate in the beginning stage of the simulated convective systems, then considerably weaken in the final stage, which leads to quasi-equilibrium states. A higher thermodynamic regime is found to produce a larger rainfall amount, as convective clouds are the leading source of rainfall over stratiform clouds even though the former occupy much less area. Moreover, convective clouds are more likely to occur in the presence of strong surface winds (latent heat flux), while stratiform clouds (especially the well-organized type) are favored in conditions with strong wind shear (large-scale forcing). The convective systems, which consist of distinct cloud types due to the variation in horizontal winds, are also found to propagate differently. Accordingly, convective systems with mixed-wind shear generally propagate in the direction of shear, while the system with strong (multidirectional) wind shear propagates in a more complex way. Based on the results from the temperature (Q1) and moisture (Q2) budgets, cloud-scale eddies are found to act as a hydrodynamic 'vehicle' that cascades the heat and moisture vertically. Several other specific features such as atmospheric stability, CAPE, and mass fluxes are also investigated and found to be significantly different between diverse quasi

  10. Using Interactive Graphics to Teach Multivariate Data Analysis to Psychology Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero-Mora, Pedro M.; Ledesma, Ruben D.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of interactive graphics to teach multivariate data analysis to Psychology students. Three techniques are explored through separate activities: parallel coordinates/boxplots; principal components/exploratory factor analysis; and cluster analysis. With interactive graphics, students may perform important parts of the…

  11. Using Interactive Graphics to Teach Multivariate Data Analysis to Psychology Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero-Mora, Pedro M.; Ledesma, Ruben D.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of interactive graphics to teach multivariate data analysis to Psychology students. Three techniques are explored through separate activities: parallel coordinates/boxplots; principal components/exploratory factor analysis; and cluster analysis. With interactive graphics, students may perform important parts of the…

  12. Interactive display/graphics systems for remote sensor data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppler, W. G.; Loe, D. L.; Wilson, E. L.; Whitley, S. L.; Sachen, R. J.

    1970-01-01

    A color-television display system and interactive graphics equipment on-line to an IBM 360/44 computer are used to develop a variety of interactive displays which aid in analyzing remote sensor data. These interactive displays are used to: (1) analyze data from a multispectral scanner; (2) develop automatic pattern recognition systems based on multispectral scanner measurements; and (3) analyze data from non-imaging sensors such as the infrared radiometer and microwave scatterometer.

  13. Analysis of the dynamic interaction between SVOCs and airborne particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Cong; Shi, Shanshan; Weschler, Charles J.

    2013-01-01

    A proper quantitative understanding of the dynamic interaction between gas-phase semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) and airborne particles is important for human exposure assessment and risk evaluation. Questions regarding how to properly address gas/particle interactions have introduced...... uncertainty when predicting SVOC concentrations and assessing exposures to these compounds. In this study, we have developed a dimensionless description for the dynamic interaction between SVOCs and organic particles. A better criterion to judge whether the internal resistance (diffusion in and out...

  14. Microfluidic large scale integration of viral-host interaction analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Ari, Ya'ara; Glick, Yair; Kipper, Sarit; Schwartz, Nika; Avrahami, Dorit; Barbiro-Michaely, Efrat; Gerber, Doron

    2013-06-21

    Viral-host interactions represent potential drug targets for novel antiviral strategies (Flisiak et al., Hepatology, 2008, 47, 817-26). Hence, it is important to establish an adequate platform for identifying and analyzing such interactions. In this review, we discuss bottlenecks in conventional protein-protein interaction methodologies and present the contribution of innovative microfluidic-based technologies towards a solution to these problems with respect to viral-host proteomics.

  15. Budget estimates fiscal year 1995: Volume 10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    This report contains the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) fiscal year budget justification to Congress. The budget provides estimates for salaries and expenses and for the Office of the Inspector General for fiscal year 1995. The NRC 1995 budget request is $546,497,000. This is an increase of $11,497,000 above the proposed level for FY 1994. The NRC FY 1995 budget request is 3,218 FTEs. This is a decrease of 75 FTEs below the 1994 proposed level.

  16. Interactive graphics for data analysis principles and examples

    CERN Document Server

    Theus, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Introduction PRINCIPLESInteractivity Queries Selection and Linked Highlighting Linking AnalysesInteracting with Graphics Examining a Single Variable Categorical DataContinuous DataTransforming Data Weighted Plots Interactions between Two VariablesTwo Categorical VariablesOne Categorical Variable and One Continuous VariableTwo Continuous VariablesMultidimensional Plots Mosaic PlotsParallel Coordinate Plots Trellis Displays Plot Ensembles and Statistical ModelsResponse ModelsANOVALoglinear ModelsGeographical DataMore Interactivity Sorting and Ordering Zooming Multiple ViewsInteractive Graphics ?

  17. Orbiter subsystem hardware/software interaction analysis. Volume 8: AFT reaction control system, part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, D. D.

    1980-01-01

    The orbiter subsystems and interfacing program elements which interact with the orbiter computer flight software are analyzed. The failure modes identified in the subsystem/element failure mode and effects analysis are examined. Potential interaction with the software is examined through an evaluation of the software requirements. The analysis is restricted to flight software requirements and excludes utility/checkout software. The results of the hardware/software interaction analysis for the forward reaction control system are presented.

  18. Construction of College Financial Analysis System Based on the Budget Management Mode%基于预算管理模式下高校财务分析体系的构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈习杰

    2014-01-01

    As a value evaluation system ,financial analysis can provide useful data for the related financial interest person in state enterprises to make decision ,meanwhile it can also help the management personnel to find the existing shortcomings and omissions to provide the foundation for perfecting financial manage -ment and improving financial decision .Based on the meaning of financial analysis ,it analyzed the existing problem in the college financial analysis and proposed the concreting ideas of building financial analysis system under the budget management mode .%财务分析评价体系可以为企事业单位相关经济利益人作出决策提供有用数据,帮助管理人员发现日常财务管理中存在的不足和疏漏,为完善财务管理、改善财务决策提供依据。介绍了高校财务分析的意义,分析了高校财务分析存在的问题,提出了基于预算管理模式下财务分析体系的构建设想。

  19. 42 CFR 441.472 - Budget methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Budget methodology. 441.472 Section 441.472 Public... Self-Directed Personal Assistance Services Program § 441.472 Budget methodology. (a) The State shall set forth a budget methodology that ensures service authorization resides with the State and meets the...

  20. 40 CFR 35.9035 - Budget period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Budget period. 35.9035 Section 35.9035... ASSISTANCE Financial Assistance for the National Estuary Program § 35.9035 Budget period. An applicant may choose its budget period in consultation with and subject to the approval of the Regional Administrator. ...

  1. Standards of Excellence in Budget Presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, Denny G.; Harmer, W. Gary

    This guide describes the Meritorious Budget Awards Program recognizing excellence in school system budgeting awarded by the Association of School Business Officials. The award is designed to help school business administrators achieve a high standard of excellence in budget presentations. Chapters provide the expectations and relevant criteria…

  2. Analysis of EVA Budget System and Application: A Case Study on the Basis of Company A%试析EVA预算体系及应用——基于A企业的案例分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋长茂

    2012-01-01

    Compared with the traditional budgeting, EVA budget is to maximize shareholder value for the target preparation, helping enterprises to improve the value of innovation capability. EVA budget management system includes EVA budget organization system, EVA budgeting, EVA budget control system and EVA budget evaluation system. Company A, which was founded in 2000, hired Sternberg Manchester Management Consulting Firm in 2002 to help them establish EVA budget management system, change the original system and the mode, and effectively solved the problems in the process of expansion.%与传统预算相比,EVA预算是以实现股东价值最大化为目标编制的,有利于企业提高价值创新能力。EVA预算管理体系包括:EVA预算组织体系、EVA预算编制、EVA预算调控体系和EVA预算考评体系。成立于2000年的A企业。2002年聘请斯腾斯特管理咨询公司帮助其建立了EVA预算管理体系,改变了其原有的体系和模式,有效地解决了其在扩张过程中存在的问题。

  3. Explaining Interaction Effects within and across Levels of Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Ulf; Cuervo-Cazurra, Alvaro; Nielsen, Bo Bernhard

    2014-01-01

    Many manuscripts submitted to the Journal of International Business Studies propose an interaction effect in their models in an effort to explain the complexity and contingency of relationships across borders. In this article, we provide guidance on how best to explain the interaction effects...

  4. SEPAC data analysis in support of the environmental interaction program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chin S.

    1991-01-01

    Data analyses of the Space Experiments with Particle Accelerators (SEPAC) data and computer modeling were conducted to investigate spacecraft environmental effects associated with injection of electron beams, plasma clouds, and neutral gas clouds from the Shuttle orbiter. The data analysis indicates that Extremely Low Frequency oscillations from 150 to 200 Hz were seen in the Langmuir probe current when the beam was fired in a continuous mode. The strongest oscillations occurred when the ambient pressure was augmented by neutral gas releases from the SEPAC plasma accelerator magnetoplasma-dynamic (MPD) arcjet. To understand the dependence of spacecraft charging potential on beam density and other plasma parameters, a two-dimensional electrostatic particle code was used to simulate the injection of electron beams from an infinite conductor into a plasma. The simulations show that the conductor charging potential depends critically on the reflection coefficient of the conductor surface, which is defined as the percentage of incident particles reflected by the conductor. The ionization effects on spacecraft charging were examined by including interactions of electrons with neutral gas. The simulations show that the conductor charging potential decreases with increasing neutral background density due to the production of secondary electrons near the conductor surface. The simulations also indicate that the beam radius is generally proportional to the beam electron gyroradius when the conductor is charged to a large potential. It appears that the charge buildup at the beam stagnation point causes the beam radial expansion. A survey of the simulation results suggests that the ratio of the beam radius to the beam electron gyroradius increases with the square root of beam density and decreases inversely with beam injection velocity. These results are useful for explaining the spacecraft charging phenomena observed during SEPAC experiments from Spacelab 1.

  5. Effective field theory analysis of the self-interacting chameleon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanctuary, Hillary; Sturani, Riccardo

    2010-08-01

    We analyse the phenomenology of a self-interacting scalar field in the context of the chameleon scenario originally proposed by Khoury and Weltman. In the absence of self-interactions, this type of scalar field can mediate long range interactions and simultaneously evade constraints from violation of the weak equivalence principle. By applying to such a scalar field the effective field theory method proposed for Einstein gravity by Goldberger and Rothstein, we give a thorough perturbative evaluation of the importance of non-derivative self-interactions in determining the strength of the chameleon mediated force in the case of orbital motion. The self-interactions are potentially dangerous as they can change the long range behaviour of the field. Nevertheless, we show that they do not lead to any dramatic phenomenological consequence with respect to the linear case and solar system constraints are fulfilled.

  6. Sensitivity analysis of random two-body interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Calvin W

    2010-01-01

    The input to the configuration-interaction shell model includes many dozens or hundreds of independent two-body matrix elements. Previous studies have shown that when fitting to experimental low-lying spectra, the greatest sensitivity is to only a few linear combinations of matrix elements. Here we consider interactions drawn from the two-body random ensemble, or TBRE, and find that the low-lying spectra are also most sensitive to only a few linear combinations of two-body matrix elements, in a fashion nearly indistinguishable from an interaction empirically fit to data. We find in particular the spectra for both the random and empirical interactions are sensitive to similar matrix elements, which we analyze using monopole and contact interactions.

  7. 探析高校财务预算存在的问题及对策%The analysis of strategies to solve problems in financial budgeting of universities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王苗苗

    2014-01-01

    随着教育体制改革的不断深化,作为高校核心工作的预算管理模式发生很大变革。本文从加强高校财务预算管理的必要性、编制高校财务预算中存在的问题及具体的对策等三个方面进行探讨。%With the deepening research of educational system reform,the budgeting management mode as the core work of accounting department for universities has big change. This paper discusses three parts regarding financial budgeting for universities:the necessary of financial budgeting management for universities;the existing problems when editing the budget for universities and how to solve those problems when budgeting for universities.

  8. Control-structure-thermal interactions in analysis of lunar telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Roger C.

    1992-12-01

    The lunar telescope project was an excellent model for the CSTI study because a telescope is a very sensitive instrument, and thermal expansion or mechanical vibration of the mirror assemblies will rapidly degrade the resolution of the device. Consequently, the interactions are strongly coupled. The lunar surface experiences very large temperature variations that range from approximately -180 C to over 100 C. Although the optical assemblies of the telescopes will be well insulated, the temperature of the mirrors will inevitably fluctuate in a similar cycle, but of much smaller magnitude. In order to obtain images of high quality and clarity, allowable thermal deformations of any point on a mirror must be less than 1 micron. Initial estimates indicate that this corresponds to a temperature variation of much less than 1 deg through the thickness of the mirror. Therefore, a lunar telescope design will most probably include active thermal control, a means of controlling the shape of the mirrors, or a combination of both systems. Historically, the design of a complex vehicle was primarily a sequential process in which the basic structure was defined without concurrent detailed analyses or other subsystems. The basic configuration was then passed to the different teams responsible for each subsystem, and their task was to produce a workable solution without requiring major alterations to any principal components or subsystems. Consequently, the final design of the vehicle was not always the most efficient, owing to the fact that each subsystem design was partially constrained by the previous work. This procedure was necessary at the time because the analysis process was extremely time-consuming and had to be started over with each significant alteration of the vehicle. With recent advances in the power and capacity of small computers, and the parallel development of powerful software in structural, thermal, and control system analysis, it is now possible to produce very

  9. BASES OF PUBLIC POLICY FORMATION DIRECTED AT ENSURING BUDGET SECURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Onishchenko

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the article the priorities and public policies that can improve the safety level of the budget of Ukraine have been grounded. Attention on the problems of imbalance and deficiency trends accumulation of public debt has been focused. The detailed analysis of the budget deficit of the European community to further research the main problems of fiscal security has been carried out. The formation of the concept of budget policy should include long-term and medium-term priorities of the state priorities areas have been concluded. Budget policy on public debt must deal with interrelated issues of debt bondage and effective use of public credit, promote economic growth with respect safe level and structure of public debt have been emphasized by author. Debt policy as part of fiscal policy under certain conditions can be a powerful tool to intensify investment and innovation processes in society, promote economic and social development. The reorientation of fiscal policy to address current problems through debt and use it as the basis of investment and innovation development provides an effective public debt management is designed to reduce state budget expenditures on its servicing and repayment, optimizing the scope and structure of debt according to economic growth. The role of debt policy in modern terms increases is clearly subordinate to and consistent with long-term goals and priorities of fiscal policy. There is an urgent development and implementation of effective mechanisms for investing borrowed resources, increasing the efficiency of public investment, including the improvement of organizational, financial, legal and controls. Strategically budget security guarantees only competitive economy, which can be constructed only by recovery and accelerated development of promising sectors of the national economy in the presence of a balanced budget policy. Now there is a tendency to implement only measures to stabilize the political and socio

  10. Unforeseen costs of cutting mosquito surveillance budgets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo M Vazquez-Prokopec

    Full Text Available A budget proposal to stop the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC funding in surveillance and research for mosquito-borne diseases such as dengue and West Nile virus has the potential to leave the country ill-prepared to handle new emerging diseases and manage existing ones. In order to demonstrate the consequences of such a measure, if implemented, we evaluated the impact of delayed control responses to dengue epidemics (a likely scenario emerging from the proposed CDC budget cut in an economically developed urban environment. We used a mathematical model to generate hypothetical scenarios of delayed response to a dengue introduction (a consequence of halted mosquito surveillance in the City of Cairns, Queensland, Australia. We then coupled the results of such a model with mosquito surveillance and case management costs to estimate the cumulative costs of each response scenario. Our study shows that halting mosquito surveillance can increase the management costs of epidemics by up to an order of magnitude in comparison to a strategy with sustained surveillance and early case detection. Our analysis shows that the total costs of preparedness through surveillance are far lower than the ones needed to respond to the introduction of vector-borne pathogens, even without consideration of the cost in human lives and well-being. More specifically, our findings provide a science-based justification for the re-assessment of the current proposal to slash the budget of the CDC vector-borne diseases program, and emphasize the need for improved and sustainable systems for vector-borne disease surveillance.

  11. THE REAL OPTIONS OF CAPITAL BUDGET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Lopo Martins

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The traditional techniques of capital budget, as the deducted cash flow and the net value present, do not incorporate existing flexibilities in an investment project, they tend to distort the value of certain investments, mainly those that are considered in scenes of uncertainty and risk. Therefore, this study intends to demonstrate that the Real Options Theory (TOR is a useful methodology to evaluate and to indicate the best option for project of expansion investment. To reach the considered objective the procedure method was used a case study, having as unit of case the Resort Praia Hotel do Litoral Norte of Salvador. This study was developed of the following form: first it identified the traditional net value present and later it was incorporated the volatileness of each analyzed uncertainty. Second, as the real options are analogous to the financial options, it was necessary to identify elements that composed the terminologies of the financial options with intention to get the value of the real option. For this model of options pricing of Black & Scholes jointly with a computational simulator was used (SLS to get the expanded net value present. As a result of this study it was possible to evidence that using the traditional tool of capital budget Net Value Present (VPL is negative, therefore the project of expansion of the Hotel would be rejected. While for the application of methodology TOR the project presents positive Expanded Present Value which would represent an excellent chance of investment. Key-word: Capital budget, Real options, Analysis of investments.

  12. Five countries pioneering accrual budgeting and accounting in central government

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dees, M.; Neelissen, P.A.

    2004-01-01

    In its 2001 Budget Memorandum, the Dutch government announced that accrual budgeting and accounting would replace the current obligation-cash budgeting and accounting system in ministerial budgets and accounts in several years’ time.

  13. Comparative analysis of methods for detecting interacting loci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Xiguo

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interactions among genetic loci are believed to play an important role in disease risk. While many methods have been proposed for detecting such interactions, their relative performance remains largely unclear, mainly because different data sources, detection performance criteria, and experimental protocols were used in the papers introducing these methods and in subsequent studies. Moreover, there have been very few studies strictly focused on comparison of existing methods. Given the importance of detecting gene-gene and gene-environment interactions, a rigorous, comprehensive comparison of performance and limitations of available interaction detection methods is warranted. Results We report a comparison of eight representative methods, of which seven were specifically designed to detect interactions among single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, with the last a popular main-effect testing method used as a baseline for performance evaluation. The selected methods, multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR, full interaction model (FIM, information gain (IG, Bayesian epistasis association mapping (BEAM, SNP harvester (SH, maximum entropy conditional probability modeling (MECPM, logistic regression with an interaction term (LRIT, and logistic regression (LR were compared on a large number of simulated data sets, each, consistent with complex disease models, embedding multiple sets of interacting SNPs, under different interaction models. The assessment criteria included several relevant detection power measures, family-wise type I error rate, and computational complexity. There are several important results from this study. First, while some SNPs in interactions with strong effects are successfully detected, most of the methods miss many interacting SNPs at an acceptable rate of false positives. In this study, the best-performing method was MECPM. Second, the statistical significance assessment criteria, used by some of the

  14. Usability Evaluation of www.budget.com

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Anders; Jensen, Janne Jul; Skov, Mikael B.

    This report presents the results of a usability evaluation of the budget.com website. The evaluation was carried out by a team of 4 HCI experts, and it involved 10 potential users. The evaluation is based on measurement of (1) task completion time, (2) task completion, (3) user satisfaction and (4......) perceived workload. We have also analyzed the user interaction with the website for (5) usability problems. Through the evaluation, we have found the following weaknesses of the website:   Reservation takes considerably more time than promised. The website indicates that a reservation can be made in 60...... browse around in the menu and try other measures. The information on the website is difficult to access and use. There is a large amount of information with very little structure on it; it is accessed through a long list of links. The structure is not supporting the user, and the information...

  15. Analysis of User Requirements in Interactive 3D Video Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyue Yuan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent development of three dimensional (3D display technologies has resulted in a proliferation of 3D video production and broadcasting, attracting a lot of research into capture, compression and delivery of stereoscopic content. However, the predominant design practice of interactions with 3D video content has failed to address its differences and possibilities in comparison to the existing 2D video interactions. This paper presents a study of user requirements related to interaction with the stereoscopic 3D video. The study suggests that the change of view, zoom in/out, dynamic video browsing, and textual information are the most relevant interactions with stereoscopic 3D video. In addition, we identified a strong demand for object selection that resulted in a follow-up study of user preferences in 3D selection using virtual-hand and ray-casting metaphors. These results indicate that interaction modality affects users’ decision of object selection in terms of chosen location in 3D, while user attitudes do not have significant impact. Furthermore, the ray-casting-based interaction modality using Wiimote can outperform the volume-based interaction modality using mouse and keyboard for object positioning accuracy.

  16. Capital budgeting practices in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo de Andrés

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to shed further light on the capital budgeting techniques used by Spanish companies. Our paper posits that the gap between theory and practice might be related to the nature of sources of value and to the efficiency of mechanisms aligning managerial and shareholder incentives, rather than to resource restrictions or model misinterpretation. We analyze data from a survey conducted in 2011, the final sample comprising 140 non-financial Spanish firms. Our findings show a behaviour pattern similar to that reported in prior research for firms in other countries. Particularly noteworthy is that payback appears to be the most widely used tool, while real options are used relatively little. Our results confirm that size and industry are related to the frequency of use of certain capital budgeting techniques. Further, we find that the relevance of growth opportunities and flexibility is an important factor explaining the use of real options.

  17. New York State budget update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-04-01

    The New York State Assembly proposed a 1999-2000 spending plan that rejected Governor George Pataki's sweeping cuts in funding for AIDS and other health-related programs. The proposal would add $12.4 million to AIDS services, including $10 million for community-based HIV-related services. The State Senate has not yet issued its proposed budget. The Governor is expected to be the biggest obstacle to the funding; he used his veto power extensively last year.

  18. Regional eddy vorticity transport and the equilibrium vorticity budgets of a numerical model ocean circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, D. E.; Holland, W. R.

    1981-01-01

    A mean vorticity budget analysis is presented of Holland's (1978) numerical ocean general circulation experiment. The stable budgets are compared with classical circulation theory to emphasize the ways in which the mesoscale motions of the model alter (or leave unaltered) classical vorticity balances. The basinwide meridional transports of vorticity by the mean flow and by the mesoscale flow in the mean are evaluated to establish the role(s) of the mesoscale in the larger scale equilibrium vorticity transports. The vorticity equation for this model fluid system is presented and the budget analysis method is described. Vorticity budgets over the selected regions and on a larger scale are given, and a summary of budget results is provided along with remarks about the utility of this type of analysis.

  19. Regional eddy vorticity transport and the equilibrium vorticity budgets of a numerical model ocean circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, D. E.; Holland, W. R.

    1981-01-01

    A mean vorticity budget analysis is presented of Holland's (1978) numerical ocean general circulation experiment. The stable budgets are compared with classical circulation theory to emphasize the ways in which the mesoscale motions of the model alter (or leave unaltered) classical vorticity balances. The basinwide meridional transports of vorticity by the mean flow and by the mesoscale flow in the mean are evaluated to establish the role(s) of the mesoscale in the larger scale equilibrium vorticity transports. The vorticity equation for this model fluid system is presented and the budget analysis method is described. Vorticity budgets over the selected regions and on a larger scale are given, and a summary of budget results is provided along with remarks about the utility of this type of analysis.

  20. Impacts of budget deficit on output, inflation and balance of trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wakeel, Iftkhar; Ullah, Kafait

    2013-01-01

    This paper tries to analyze the impacts of budget deficit on macroeconomic aspects of Pakistan. In fact the ways through which budget deficit is financed, can affect money supply, output, exchange rate and then foreign trade. Annual data for the period 1970-2010 has been taken for analysis. ADF test