WorldWideScience

Sample records for interactions neutrino astronomy

  1. Towards neutrino astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagage, P.O.; Spiro, M.

    1985-01-01

    Neutrino sources are numerous and varied; the sun, a supernova explosion, the cosmic radiation interaction with interstellar medium are neutrino or antineutrino sources. The aim of this article is to overview the international projects of neutrino detection while giving the preference to the experimental side of the detection [fr

  2. Neutrino astronomy with supernova neutrinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brdar, Vedran; Lindner, Manfred; Xu, Xun-Jie

    2018-04-01

    Modern neutrino facilities will be able to detect a large number of neutrinos from the next Galactic supernova. We investigate the viability of the triangulation method to locate a core-collapse supernova by employing the neutrino arrival time differences at various detectors. We perform detailed numerical fits in order to determine the uncertainties of these time differences for the cases when the core collapses into a neutron star or a black hole. We provide a global picture by combining all the relevant current and future neutrino detectors. Our findings indicate that in the scenario of a neutron star formation, supernova can be located with precision of 1.5 and 3.5 degrees in declination and right ascension, respectively. For the black hole scenario, sub-degree precision can be reached.

  3. Underground neutrino astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schramm, D.N.

    1983-02-01

    A review is made of possible astronomical neutrino sources detectable with underground facilities. Comments are made about solar neutrinos and gravitational-collapse neutrinos, and particular emphasis is placed on ultra-high-energy astronomical neutrino sources. An appendix mentions the exotic possibility of monopolonium

  4. Neutrino masses and ordering via multimessenger astronomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langæble, Kasper; Meroni, Aurora; Sannino, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    We define the theoretical framework and deduce the conditions under which multi-messenger astronomy can provide useful information about neutrino masses and their ordering. The framework uses time differences between the arrival of neutrinos and the other light messenger, i.e. the graviton, emitted...

  5. DUMAND Summer Workshop, University of California, La Jolla, Calif., July 24-September 2, 1978, Proceedings. Volume 2 - UHE interactions, neutrino astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, A.

    1979-01-01

    The volume covers categories on inelastic neutrino scattering and the W-boson, and other ultra-high-energy processes, on pulsars, quasars and galactic nuclei, as well as other point sources and constants from gamma ray astronomy. Individual subjects include weak intermediate vector bosons and DUMAND, the Monte Carlo simulation of inelastic neutrino scattering in DUMAND, and Higgs boson production by very high-energy neutrinos. The observability of the neutrino flux from the inner region of the galactic disk, the diffuse fluxes of high-energy neutrinos, as well as the significance of gamma ray observations for neutrino astronomy are also among the topics covered.

  6. IceCube: An Instrument for Neutrino Astronomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    IceCube Collaboration; Halzen, F.; Klein, S.

    2010-06-04

    Neutrino astronomy beyond the Sun was first imagined in the late 1950s; by the 1970s, it was realized that kilometer-scale neutrino detectors were required. The first such instrument, IceCube, is near completion and taking data. The IceCube project transforms a cubic kilometer of deep and ultra-transparent Antarctic ice into a particle detector. A total of 5,160 optical sensors are embedded into a gigaton of Antarctic ice to detect the Cherenkov light emitted by secondary particles produced when neutrinos interact with nuclei in the ice. Each optical sensor is a complete data acquisition system, including a phototube, digitization electronics, control and trigger systems and LEDs for calibration. The light patterns reveal the type (flavor) of neutrino interaction and the energy and direction of the neutrino, making neutrino astronomy possible. The scientific missions of IceCube include such varied tasks as the search for sources of cosmic rays, the observation of Galactic supernova explosions, the search for dark matter, and the study of the neutrinos themselves. These reach energies well beyond those produced with accelerator beams.

  7. Neutrino Interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamyshkov, Yuri; Handler, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The neutrino group of the University of Tennessee, Knoxville was involved from 05/01/2013 to 04/30/2015 in the neutrino physics research funded by DOE-HEP grant DE-SC0009861. Contributions were made to the Double Chooz nuclear reactor experiment in France where second detector was commissioned during this period and final series of measurements has been started. Although Double Chooz was smaller experimental effort than competitive Daya Bay and RENO experiments, its several advantages make it valuable for understanding of systematic errors in measurements of neutrino oscillations. Double Chooz was the first experiment among competing three that produced initial result for neutrino angle θ_1_3 measurement, giving other experiments the chance to improve measured value statistically. Graduate student Ben Rybolt defended his PhD thesis on the results of Double Chooz experiment in 2015. UT group has fulfilled all the construction and analysis commitments to Double Chooz experiment, and has withdrawn from the collaboration by the end of the mentioned period to start another experiment. Larger effort of UT neutrino group during this period was devoted to the participation in another DOE-HEP project - NOvA experiment. The 14,000-ton 'FAR' neutrino detector was commissioned in northern Minnesota in 2014 together with 300-ton 'NEAR' detector located at Fermilab. Following that, the physics measurement program has started when Fermilab accelerator complex produced the high-intensity neutrino beam propagating through Earth to detector in MInnessota. UT group contributed to NOvA detector construction and developments in several aspects. Our Research Associate Athanasios Hatzikoutelis was managing (Level 3 manager) the construction of the Detector Control System. This work was successfully accomplished in time with the commissioning of the detectors. Group was involved in the development of the on-line software and study of the signatures of the cosmic ray backgrounds

  8. Neutrino Interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamyshkov, Yuri [Univ. of Tennesse, Knoxville, TN (United States); Handler, Thomas [Univ. of Tennesse, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2016-10-24

    The neutrino group of the University of Tennessee, Knoxville was involved from 05/01/2013 to 04/30/2015 in the neutrino physics research funded by DOE-HEP grant DE-SC0009861. Contributions were made to the Double Chooz nuclear reactor experiment in France where second detector was commissioned during this period and final series of measurements has been started. Although Double Chooz was smaller experimental effort than competitive Daya Bay and RENO experiments, its several advantages make it valuable for understanding of systematic errors in measurements of neutrino oscillations. Double Chooz was the first experiment among competing three that produced initial result for neutrino angle θ13 measurement, giving other experiments the chance to improve measured value statistically. Graduate student Ben Rybolt defended his PhD thesis on the results of Double Chooz experiment in 2015. UT group has fulfilled all the construction and analysis commitments to Double Chooz experiment, and has withdrawn from the collaboration by the end of the mentioned period to start another experiment. Larger effort of UT neutrino group during this period was devoted to the participation in another DOE-HEP project - NOvA experiment. The 14,000-ton "FAR" neutrino detector was commissioned in northern Minnesota in 2014 together with 300-ton "NEAR" detector located at Fermilab. Following that, the physics measurement program has started when Fermilab accelerator complex produced the high-intensity neutrino beam propagating through Earth to detector in MInnessota. UT group contributed to NOvA detector construction and developments in several aspects. Our Research Associate Athanasios Hatzikoutelis was managing (Level 3 manager) the construction of the Detector Control System. This work was successfully accomplished in time with the commissioning of the detectors. Group was involved in the development of the on-line software and study of the signatures of the cosmic ray backgrounds

  9. High energy neutrino astronomy and its telescopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halzen, F.

    1995-01-01

    Doing astronomy with photons of energies in excess of a GeV has turned out to be extremely challenging. Efforts are underway to develop instruments that may push astronomy to wavelengths smaller than 10 -14 cm by mapping the sky using high energy neutrinos instead. Neutrino astronomy, born with the identification of thermonuclear fusion in the sun and the particle processes controlling the fate of a nearby supernova, will reach outside the galaxy and make measurements relevant to cosmology. The field is immersed in technology in the domains of particle physics to which many of its research goals are intellectually connected. To mind come the search for neutrino mass, cold dark matter (supersymmetric particles?) and the monopoles of the Standard Model. While a variety of collaborations are pioneering complementary methods by building telescopes with effective area in excess of 0.01 km 2 , we show here that the natural scale of a high energy neutrino telescope is 1 km 2 . With several thousand optical modules and a price tag unlikely to exceed 100 million dollars, the scope of a kilometer-scale instrument is similar to that of experiments presently being commissioned such as the SNO neutrino observatory in Canada and the Superkamiokande experiment in Japan

  10. Invited review article: IceCube: an instrument for neutrino astronomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halzen, Francis; Klein, Spencer R

    2010-08-01

    Neutrino astronomy beyond the Sun was first imagined in the late 1950s; by the 1970s, it was realized that kilometer-scale neutrino detectors were required. The first such instrument, IceCube, is near completion and taking data. The IceCube project transforms 1 km(3) of deep and ultratransparent Antarctic ice into a particle detector. A total of 5160 optical sensors is embedded into a gigaton of Antarctic ice to detect the Cherenkov light emitted by secondary particles produced when neutrinos interact with nuclei in the ice. Each optical sensor is a complete data acquisition system including a phototube, digitization electronics, control and trigger systems, and light-emitting diodes for calibration. The light patterns reveal the type (flavor) of neutrino interaction and the energy and direction of the neutrino, making neutrino astronomy possible. The scientific missions of IceCube include such varied tasks as the search for sources of cosmic rays, the observation of galactic supernova explosions, the search for dark matter, and the study of the neutrinos themselves. These reach energies well beyond those produced with accelerator beams. The outline of this review is as follows: neutrino astronomy and kilometer-scale detectors, high-energy neutrino telescopes: methodologies of neutrino detection, IceCube hardware, high-energy neutrino telescopes: beyond astronomy, and future projects.

  11. Some topics on nuclear astrophysics and neutrino astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakazato, Ken'ichiro

    2010-01-01

    Massive stars make a gravitational collapse at the end of their lives emitting a large amount of neutrinos. In this process, the density and temperature of matter become high. Therefore neutrino detection of stellar collapse can teach us properties of hot and/or dense nuclear matter. In this article, some subjects on the nuclear astrophysics and/or neutrino astronomy, on which we are now working, are reported. (author)

  12. IceCube and the Development of Neutrino Astronomy

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: IceCube's discovery of a diffuse flux of astrophysical neutrinos started a new era of neutrino astronomy.I will review the multiple diffuse analyses in IceCube that observe the astrophysical flux, and what each can tell us. Then I will focus on spatial analyses that aim to identify the sources of such astrophysical neutrinos. This will be followed by an attempt to reconcile all results to draw a coherent picture that is the state of neutrino astronomy. Current plans for a streamlined real-time alert system to promote multi-messenger observations, and future plans of new detectors at the South Pole will be discussed to map out a path for discovering the first high-energy neutrino source in the sky.

  13. RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN ULTRA-HIGH ENERGY NEUTRINO ASTRONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter K. F. Grieder

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We outline the current situation in ultrahigh energy (UHE cosmic ray physics, pointing out the remaining problems, in particular the puzzle concerning the origin of the primary radiation and the role of neutrino astronomy for locating the sources. Various methods for the detection of UHE neutrinos are briefly described and their merits compared. We give an account of the achievements of the existing optical Cherenkov neutrino telescopes, outline the possibility of using air fluorescence and particle properties of air showers to identify neutrino induced events, and discuss various pioneering experiments employing radio and acoustic detection of extremely energetic neutrinos. The next generation of space, ground and sea based neutrino telescopes now under construction or in the planning phase are listed.

  14. Neutrino astronomy current status, future prospects

    CERN Document Server

    Karle, Albrecht

    2017-01-01

    This review volume is motivated by the recent discovery of high-energy astrophysical neutrinos by IceCube. The aim of the book is to bring together chapters on the status of current and future neutrino observatories with chapters on the implications and possible interpretations of the present observations and their upper limits. Each chapter is a mini-review of one aspect of the subject by leading experts. Taken together, the chapters constitute an up-to-date review of high-energy astrophysical neutrinos and their potential sources.

  15. Nonstandard neutrino interactions in supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleford, Charles J.; Väänänen, Daavid J.; Kneller, James P.; McLaughlin, Gail C.; Shapiro, Brandon T.

    2016-11-01

    Nonstandard interactions (NSI) of neutrinos with matter can significantly alter neutrino flavor evolution in supernovae with the potential to impact explosion dynamics, nucleosynthesis, and the neutrinos signal. In this paper, we explore, both numerically and analytically, the landscape of neutrino flavor transformation effects in supernovae due to NSI and find a new, heretofore unseen transformation processes can occur. These new transformations can take place with NSI strengths well below current experimental limits. Within a broad swath of NSI parameter space, we observe symmetric and standard matter-neutrino resonances for supernovae neutrinos, a transformation effect previously only seen in compact object merger scenarios; in another region of the parameter space we find the NSI can induce neutrino collective effects in scenarios where none would appear with only the standard case of neutrino oscillation physics; and in a third region the NSI can lead to the disappearance of the high density Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein resonance. Using a variety of analytical tools, we are able to describe quantitatively the numerical results allowing us to partition the NSI parameter according to the transformation processes observed. Our results indicate nonstandard interactions of supernova neutrinos provide a sensitive probe of beyond the Standard Model physics complementary to present and future terrestrial experiments.

  16. IceCube-Gen2: A Vision for the Future of Neutrino Astronomy in Antarctica

    OpenAIRE

    Collaboration, IceCube-Gen2; :; Aartsen, M. G.; Ackermann, M.; Adams, J.; Aguilar, J. A.; Ahlers, M.; Ahrens, M.; Altmann, D.; Anderson, T.; Anton, G.; Arguelles, C.; Arlen, T. C.; Auffenberg, J.; Axani, S.

    2014-01-01

    The recent observation by the IceCube neutrino observatory of an astrophysical flux of neutrinos represents the "first light" in the nascent field of neutrino astronomy. The observed diffuse neutrino flux seems to suggest a much larger level of hadronic activity in the non-thermal universe than previously thought and suggests a rich discovery potential for a larger neutrino observatory. This document presents a vision for an substantial expansion of the current IceCube detector, IceCube-Gen2,...

  17. IceCube-Gen2: A Vision for the Future of Neutrino Astronomy in Antarctica

    OpenAIRE

    Aartsen, M. G.; Ackermann, M.; Arlen, T. C.; Gretskov, P.; Groh, J. C.; Gross, A.; Ha, C.; Haack, C.; Ismail, A. Haj; Hallen, P.; Hallgren, A.; Halzen, F.; Hanson, K.; Auffenberg, J.; Haugen, J.

    2014-01-01

    The recent observation by the IceCube neutrino observatory of an astrophysical flux of neutrinos represents the 'first light' in the nascent field of neutrino astronomy. The observed diffuse neutrino flux seems to suggest a much larger level of hadronic activity in the non-thermal universe than previously thought and suggests a rich discovery potential for a larger neutrino observatory. This document presents a vision for an substantial expansion of the current IceCube detector, IceCube-Gen2,...

  18. Interactions of neutrinos with matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannucci, F.

    2017-07-01

    Neutrinos are elementary particles electrically neutral which belong to the family of leptons. As a consequence and in first approximation they only undergo weak processes. This gives them very special properties. They are ideal tools to study precisely the weak interactions, but there is a price to pay: neutrinos are characterized by extremely low probabilities of interactions, they easily penetrate large amount of matter without being stopped. Consequently, it is hard to perform neutrino physics measurements. In practice the difficulty is twofold: in order to accumulate enough statistics, experiments must rely on huge fluxes traversing huge detectors, the number of interactions being obviously proportional to these two factors. As a corollary, backgrounds are difficult to handle because they appear much more commonly than good events. Nevertheless, neutrino interactions have been detected from a variety of sources, both man-made and natural, from very low to very large energies. The aim of this review is to survey our current knowledge about interaction cross sections of neutrinos with matter across all pertinent energy scales. We will see that neutrino interactions cover a large range of processes: nuclear capture, inverse beta-decay, quasi-elastic scattering, resonant pion production, deep inelastic scattering and ultra-high energy interactions. All the gathered information will be used to study weak properties of matter but it will also allow to explore the properties of the neutrinos themselves. In particular, the known three different flavors of neutrinos have different behaviors inside matter and this will be relevant to give some precious understanding about their intrinsic parameters in particular their masses and mixings. As a second order process, neutrinos can undergo electromagnetic interactions. This will also be discussed. Although the corresponding phenomena are not yet experimentally proven by actual measurements, the theory is able to calculate

  19. High energy neutrino astronomy; past, present and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Learned, J.G.

    1993-01-01

    The nascent field of high energy neutrino astronomy seems to be near to blossoming in the next few years, after decades of speculation and preliminary experimental work. The motivation for the endeavor, anticipated types of sources, consideration of energy regime for first attempts, scale size needed, and techniques are qualitatively reviewed. A summary of relevant current projects is presented with emphasis on the new initiatives with detectors of the 10,000m 2 class. It seems that by the end of the decade there may be a few such new generation instruments in operation, and that with luck the business of high energy neutrino astrophysics will be underway by the turn of the century. (orig.)

  20. Neutrino interactions with nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Martini, M; Ericson, M; Marteau, J

    2009-01-01

    We present a model for neutrino-nucleus scattering in the energy region relevant for present and forthcoming neutrino-oscillation experiments. The model is based on the RPA treatment of the nuclear responses in the quasi-elastic and Delta-resonance region. It includes also in a phenomenological way nucleon knock-out. It aims at the description, within a single framework, of several final state channels i.e. quasi-elastic, incoherent and coherent one-pion production and two- or several-nucleon knock-out.

  1. Neutrino astronomy and search for WIMPs with MACRO

    CERN Document Server

    Bernardini, P

    2000-01-01

    Upward-going muons, induced primarily by atmospheric neutrinos, are used to search for neutrinos of astrophysical origin. No evidence has been found looking at the event direction and flux limits are obtained on candidate sources. A space-time correlation between gamma ray bursts and upward-going muons has been also investigated. Furthermore the search for a neutrino signal from the Earth and the Sun induced by weakly interacting massive particles (WIMP) has been updated. The number of events from the Sun and from the Earth is compatible with the background from atmospheric neutrinos. Therefore flux limits for different search cones have been estimated. Here we concentrate on neutralinos as WIMP candidates and limits depending on the neutralino mass are given and compared with the prediction of supersymmetric models. (11 refs).

  2. Astronomy education through interactive materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelzke, Marcos Rincon; Antunes de Macêdo, Josué

    2015-08-01

    This study presents results of a survey conducted at the Federal Institution of Education, Science and Technology in the North of Minas Gerais (IFNMG), and aimed to investigate the potentialities of the use of interactive materials in the teaching of astronomy. An advanced training course with involved learning activities about basic concepts of astronomy was offered to thirty-two Licenciate students in Physics, Mathematics and Biological Sciences, using the mixed methodology, combined with the three pedagogical moments. Among other aspects, the viability of the use of resources was noticed, involving digital technologies and interactive materials on teaching of astronomy, which may contribute to the broadening of methodological options for future teachers and meet their training needs.

  3. High-Energy Neutrino Interactions

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    This experiment studies neutrino interactions in iron at the highest available energies using the narrow-band neutrino beam N3 and the wide-band neutrino beam N1. The basis of the detector is a massive target-calorimeter in which the energy deposited by a neutrino (or antineutrino) is measured by electronic techniques and the momentum of outgoing muons is determined by magnetic deflection. The detector is constructed in the form of a 20 m long iron-cored toroidal magnet, composed of modules of length 70~cm and 90~cm, and of 3.75~m diameter. Drift chambers placed in between each module measure the trajectory of muons from the neutrino interactions. The modules are of three types. The first ten modules are constructed of 2.5~cm iron plates with 20~scintillator planes inserted between the plates. The next five modules are constructed of 5~cm plates with 15~planes of scintillator and the last six modules are constructed of 15~cm plates with 5~planes of scintillators. The total mass of the detector is @=~1400 tons...

  4. Low energy neutrino astronomy and particle physics with LENA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marrodan Undagoitia, Teresa [Physik-Department E15, TU-Muenchen, Garching (Germany); Physik-Institut, Universitaet Zuerich (Switzerland); Feilitzsch, Franz von; Goeger-Neff, Marianne; Oberauer, Lothar; Potzel, Walter; Todor, Sebastian; Winter, Juergen; Wurm, Michael [Physik-Department E15, TU-Muenchen, Garching (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    LENA is proposed to be a large-volume liquid-scintillation detector for neutrino astronomy and for the search for proton decay. In the current design, it is planned as a vertical cylinder of 30m diameter and 100m height. The detection medium consists of 50 kt organic liquid scintillator, the emitted light of which is detected by about 15000 photomultipliers. In this talk the main physics topics of LENA are presented together with calculations and Monte Carlo simulations to demonstrate the capabilities of the detector. Key goals of this project are for example the measurement of solar, supernovae and geo-neutrinos, as well as to extend the search for proton decay beyond the current lifetime limits. LENA is part of an European design study, LAGUNA, which evaluates the feasibility of an underground location for a large detector. Three detector concepts have been proposed, a megaton water-Cherenkov, a 100 kt liquid-argon TPC and the LENA detector. The status of the engineering studies for different locations is reported.

  5. Coherent neutrino interactions in a dense medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiers, K.; Weiss, N.

    1997-01-01

    Motivated by the effect of matter on neutrino oscillations (the MSW effect) we study in more detail the propagation of neutrinos in a dense medium. The dispersion relation for massive neutrinos in a medium is known to have a minimum at nonzero momentum p∼G F ρ/√(2). We study in detail the origin and consequences of this dispersion relation for both Dirac and Majorana neutrinos both in a toy model with only neutral currents and a single neutrino flavor and in a realistic open-quotes standard modelclose quotes with two neutrino flavors. We find that for a range of neutrino momenta near the minimum of the dispersion relation, Dirac neutrinos are trapped by their coherent interactions with the medium. This effect does not lead to the trapping of Majorana neutrinos. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  6. Status of non-standard neutrino interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohlsson, Tommy

    2013-01-01

    The phenomenon of neutrino oscillations has been established as the leading mechanism behind neutrino flavor transitions, providing solid experimental evidence that neutrinos are massive and lepton flavors are mixed. Here we review sub-leading effects in neutrino flavor transitions known as non-standard neutrino interactions (NSIs), which is currently the most explored description for effects beyond the standard paradigm of neutrino oscillations. In particular, we report on the phenomenology of NSIs and their experimental and phenomenological bounds as well as an outlook for future sensitivity and discovery reach. (review article)

  7. Low energy neutrino astronomy with the large liquid-scintillation detector LENA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Undagoitia, T Marrodan; Feilitzsch, F von; Goeger-Neff, M; Hochmuth, K A; Oberauer, L; Potzel, W; Wurm, M

    2006-01-01

    The detection of low energy neutrinos in a large liquid scintillation detector may provide further important information on astrophysical processes as supernova physics, solar physics and elementary particle physics as well as geophysics. In this contribution, a new project for Low Energy Neutrino Astronomy (LENA) consisting of a 50 kt scintillation detector is presented

  8. Quickly Creating Interactive Astronomy Illustrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Timothy F.

    2015-01-01

    An innate advantage for astronomy teachers is having numerous breathtaking images of the cosmos available to capture students' curiosity, imagination, and wonder. Internet-based astronomy image libraries are numerous and easy to navigate. The Astronomy Picture of the Day, the Hubble Space Telescope image archive, and the NASA Planetary…

  9. Boltzmann hierarchy for interacting neutrinos I: formalism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oldengott, Isabel M.; Rampf, Cornelius; Wong, Yvonne Y.Y.

    2015-01-01

    Starting from the collisional Boltzmann equation, we derive for the first time and from first principles the Boltzmann hierarchy for neutrinos including interactions with a scalar particle. Such interactions appear, for example, in majoron-like models of neutrino mass generation. We study two limits of the scalar mass: (i) An extremely massive scalar whose only role is to mediate an effective 4-fermion neutrino-neutrino interaction, and (ii) a massless scalar that can be produced in abundance and thus demands its own Boltzmann hierarchy. In contrast to, e.g., the first-order Boltzmann hierarchy for Thomson-scattering photons, our interacting neutrino/scalar Boltzmann hierarchies contain additional momentum-dependent collision terms arising from a non-negligible energy transfer in the neutrino-neutrino and neutrino-scalar interactions. This necessitates that we track each momentum mode of the phase space distributions individually, even if the particles were massless. Comparing our hierarchy with the commonly used (c eff 2 ,c vis 2 )-parameterisation, we find no formal correspondence between the two approaches, which raises the question of whether the latter parameterisation even has an interpretation in terms of particle scattering. Lastly, although we have invoked majoron-like models as a motivation for our study, our treatment is in fact generally applicable to all scenarios in which the neutrino and/or other ultrarelativistic fermions interact with scalar particles

  10. Nuclear structure and neutrino-nucleus interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krmpotic, Francisco

    2011-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed an intense experimental and theoretical activity oriented towards a better comprehension of neutrino nucleus interaction. While the main motivation for this task is the demand coming from oscillation experiments in their search for a precise determination of neutrino properties, the relevance of neutrino interaction with matter is more wide-ranging. It is imperative for astrophysics, hadronic and nuclear physics, and physics beyond the standard model. The experimental information on neutrino induced reactions is rapidly growing, and the corresponding theoretical description is a challenging proposition, since the energy scales of interest span a vast region, going from few MeV for solar neutrinos, to tens of MeV for the interpretation of experiments with the muon and pion decay at rest and the detection of neutrinos coming from the core collapse of supernova, and to hundreds of MeV or few GeV for the detection of atmospheric neutrinos, and for the neutrino oscillation program of the MiniBooNE experiment. The presence of neutrinos, being chargeless particles, can only be inferred by detecting the secondary particles created in colliding and interacting with the matter. Nuclei are often used as neutrino detectors, and in particular 12 C which is a component of many scintillator detectors. Thus, the interpretation of neutrino data heavily relies on detailed and quantitative knowledge of the features of the neutrino-nucleus interaction. The nuclear structure methods used in the evaluation of the neutrino-nucleus cross section are reviewed. Detailed comparison between the experimental and theoretical results establishes benchmarks needed for verification and/or parameter adjustment of the nuclear models. Having a reliable tool for such calculation is of great importance in a variety of applications, such as the description of the r-process nucleosynthesis. (author)

  11. Charm and particle production in neutrino interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cazzoli, E.G.; Cnops, A.M.; Connolly, P.L.; Louttit, R.I.; Murtagh, M.J.; Palmer, R.B.; Samios, N.P.; Tso, T.T.; Williams, H.H.

    1976-01-01

    Ten strange particles were observed in a total of 1086 charged current neutrino interactions obtained in the analysis of 482,000 pictures taken in the Brookhaven Cryogenic 7' Bubble Chamber filled with hydrogen and deuterium. Details of these events are presented together with rates for associated strange particle and ΔS = +-ΔQ production in neutrino interactions

  12. Neutrino interactions - an experimental survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, S.

    1980-07-01

    Current studies on neutrino interactions are surveyed and important results are summarised. The charged current studies have been refined to understand the nucleonic structure. Together with e-d and ..mu..-p deep inelastic scattering data, these studies establish a scale breaking in these scatterings. This breaking has been attributed to the 1st order correction of QCD and the quantitative checks seem to agree with the theory rather well. Data from a diverging set of experiments have been used to study the coupling constant in neutral current interaction. The coupling constants agree reasonably well with the SU(2)xU(1) model due to Weinberg and Salam. Parity violating effect in e-d scattering has been experimentally demonstrated. There is some evidence of ..mu..-e universality in neutral current interaction. The hadronic distribution has been studied in the frame work of Quark Parton model. The fragmentation functions seem to agree fairly well with the theoritical expectation. However one finds the effect of first order QCD corrections to be important in the transverse momentum distributions. Experimental data are presented in tables.

  13. The astronomy education through interactive materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Macedo, Josué Antunes; Voelzke, Marcos Rincon

    2014-11-01

    This study presents results of a survey conducted at the Federal Institution of Education, Science and Technology in the North of Minas Gerais (IFNMG), and aimed to investigate the potentialities of the use of interactive materials in the teaching of astronomy. An advanced training course with involved learning activities about basic concepts of astronomy was offered to thirty-two Licenciate students in Physics, Mathematics and Biological Sciences, using three pedagogical moments. Among other aspects, the viability of the use of resources was noticed, involving digital technologies and interactive materials on teaching of astronomy, which may contribute to the broadening of methodological options for future teachers and meet their training needs

  14. Interactive Materials In The Teaching Of Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macêdo, J. A.; Voelzke, M. R.

    2014-10-01

    This study presents results of a survey conducted at the Federal Institution of Education, Science and Technology in the North of Minas Gerais (IFNMG), and aimed to investigate the potentialities of the use of interactive materials in the teaching of astronomy. An advanced training course with involved learning activities about basic concepts of astronomy was offered to thirty-two Licenciate students in Physics, Mathematics and Biological Science. The following steps were to be taken: i) analysis of the pedagogical projects (PPC) of the licenciates at the IFNMG, research locus of its Campus Januária; ii) analysis of students' preconceptions about astronomy and digital technologies, identified by the application of an initial questionnaire; iii) preparation of the course taking into account the students' previous knowledge; iv) application of the education proposal developed under part-time presence modality, using various interactive tools; v) application and analysis of the final questionnaire. The test was conducted with the qualitative and quantitative methodology, combined with a content analysis. The results indicated that in the IFNMG only the licenciate-course in physics includes astronomy content diluted in various subjects of the curriculum; the rates of students prior knowledge in relation to astronomy was low; an evidence of meaningful learning of the concepts related to astronomy, and of viability of resource use involving digital technologies in the Teaching of astronomy, which may contribute to the broadening of methodological options of future teachers and meet their training needs.

  15. Low Energy Neutrino Astronomy in the future large-volume liquid-scintillator detector LENA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wurm, Michael; Feilitzsch, F V; Goeger-Neff, M; Lewke, T; Undagoitia, T Marrodan; Oberauer, L; Potzel, W; Todor, S; Winter, J

    2008-01-01

    The recent successes in neutrino physics prove that liquid-scintillator detectors allow to combine high energy resolution, efficient means of background reduction, and a large detection volume. In the planned LENA (Low Energy Neutrino Astronomy) experiment, a target mass of 50 kt will enable the investigation of a variety of terrestrial and astrophysical neutrino sources. The high-statistics spectroscopy of geoneutrinos, solar neutrinos and supernova neutrinos will provide new insights in the heat production processes of Earth and Sun, and the workings of a gravitational collapse. The same measurements will as well investigate neutrino properties as oscillation parameters and mass hierarchy. A first spectroscopic measurement of the low flux of diffuse supernova neutrino background is within the sensitivity of the LENA detector. Finally, a life-time limit of several 1034 years can be set to the proton decay into proton and anti-neutrino, testing the predictions of SUSY theory. The present contribution includes a review of the scientific studies that were performed in the last years as well as a report on currently on-going R and D activities.

  16. Low Energy Neutrino Astronomy in the future large-volume liquid-scintillator detector LENA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wurm, Michael; Feilitzsch, F V; Goeger-Neff, M; Lewke, T; Undagoitia, T Marrodan; Oberauer, L; Potzel, W; Todor, S; Winter, J [E15 Chair for Astroparticle Physics, Technische Universitat Miinchen, Physik Department, James-Franck-Str., D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2008-11-01

    The recent successes in neutrino physics prove that liquid-scintillator detectors allow to combine high energy resolution, efficient means of background reduction, and a large detection volume. In the planned LENA (Low Energy Neutrino Astronomy) experiment, a target mass of 50 kt will enable the investigation of a variety of terrestrial and astrophysical neutrino sources. The high-statistics spectroscopy of geoneutrinos, solar neutrinos and supernova neutrinos will provide new insights in the heat production processes of Earth and Sun, and the workings of a gravitational collapse. The same measurements will as well investigate neutrino properties as oscillation parameters and mass hierarchy. A first spectroscopic measurement of the low flux of diffuse supernova neutrino background is within the sensitivity of the LENA detector. Finally, a life-time limit of several 1034 years can be set to the proton decay into proton and anti-neutrino, testing the predictions of SUSY theory. The present contribution includes a review of the scientific studies that were performed in the last years as well as a report on currently on-going R and D activities.

  17. Neutrino anomaly and -nucleus interactions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    experiments [3]. These experimental results on electron and muon type neutrinos are not ... and experimentally. This is one of the major activities .... experiments. While this approach is expected to give reliable results at higher energies,.

  18. Interaction of electron neutrino with LSD detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryazhskaya, O. G.; Semenov, S. V.

    2016-06-01

    The interaction of electron neutrino flux, originating in the rotational collapse mechanism on the first stage of Supernova burst, with the LSD detector components, such as 56Fe (a large amount of this metal is included in as shielding material) and liquid scintillator barNnH2n+2, is being investigated. Both charged and neutral channels of neutrino reaction with 12barN and 56Fe are considered. Experimental data, giving the possibility to extract information for nuclear matrix elements calculation are used. The number of signals, produced in LSD by the neutrino pulse of Supernova 1987A is determined. The obtained results are in good agreement with experimental data.

  19. Neutrino Interactions in MicroBooNE

    OpenAIRE

    Del Tutto, Marco

    2017-01-01

    MicroBooNE is a liquid-argon-based neutrino experiment, which began collecting data in Fermilab's Booster neutrino beam in October 2015. Physics goals of the experiment include probing the source of the anomalous excess of electron-like events in MiniBooNE. In addition to this, MicroBooNE is carrying out an extensive cross section physics program that will help to probe current theories on neutrino-nucleon interactions and nuclear effects. These proceedings summarise the status of MicroBooNE'...

  20. Exploring hadron physics in black hole formations: A new promising target of neutrino astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakazato, Ken'ichiro; Sumiyoshi, Kohsuke; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Yamada, Shoichi

    2010-01-01

    The detection of neutrinos from massive stellar collapses can teach us a great deal not only about source objects but also about microphysics working deep inside them. In this study we discuss quantitatively the possibility to extract information on the properties of dense and hot hadronic matter from neutrino signals coming out of black-hole-forming collapses of nonrotational massive stars. Based on our detailed numerical simulations we evaluate the event numbers for SuperKamiokande, with neutrino oscillations fully taken into account. We demonstrate that the event numbers from a Galactic event are large enough not only to detect but also to distinguish one hadronic equation of state from another by our statistical method, assuming the same progenitor model and nonrotation. This means that the massive stellar collapse can be a unique probe into hadron physics and will be a promising target of the nascent neutrino astronomy.

  1. Neutrino astronomy at Mont Blanc: from LSD to LSD-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saavedra, O.; Aglietta, M.; Badino, G.

    1988-01-01

    In this paper we present the upgrading of the LSD experiment, presently running in the Mont Blanc Laboratory. The data recorded during the period when supernova 1987A exploded are analysed in detail. The research program of LSD-2, the same experiment as LSD but with an higher sensitivity to search for neutrino burst from collapsing stars, is also discussed

  2. Report of the High Energy Physics Advisory Panel (HEPAP) subpanel on high energy gamma ray and neutrino astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaisser, T.K.; Gordon, H.A.; Melissinos, A.; Rosen, S.P.; Ruderman, M.A.; Turner, M.S.; Zeller, M.

    1988-11-01

    This report contains information on topics of neutrino and gammay-ray astronomy. Some of the topics discussed are: SN1987A, statistics and variability, background rejection and muons, relation between photon and neutrinos, sensitivity of gamma-ray experiments, comparison of air Cherenkov experiments, air shower experiment, and underground experiments

  3. Prospects for Galactic TeV Neutrino Astronomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kistler, Matthew D [Department of Physics, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States)

    2007-03-15

    In just the last few years, the catalog of known Galactic TeV gamma-ray sources has grown dramatically, due to the abilities of current air Cerenkov telescopes to measure both the spectrum and morphology of the TeV emission. While these properties can be very well measured, they are not necessarily sufficient to determine whether the gamma rays are produced by leptonic or hadronic processes. However, if the gamma-ray emission is hadronic, there must be an accompanying flux of neutrinos, which can be determined from the observed gamma-ray spectrum. The upcoming km3 neutrino telescopes will allow for a direct test of the gamma-ray production mechanism and the possibility of examining the highest possible energies, with important consequences for our understanding of Galactic cosmic-ray production.

  4. Prospects for Galactic TeV Neutrino Astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kistler, Matthew D

    2007-01-01

    In just the last few years, the catalog of known Galactic TeV gamma-ray sources has grown dramatically, due to the abilities of current air Cerenkov telescopes to measure both the spectrum and morphology of the TeV emission. While these properties can be very well measured, they are not necessarily sufficient to determine whether the gamma rays are produced by leptonic or hadronic processes. However, if the gamma-ray emission is hadronic, there must be an accompanying flux of neutrinos, which can be determined from the observed gamma-ray spectrum. The upcoming km3 neutrino telescopes will allow for a direct test of the gamma-ray production mechanism and the possibility of examining the highest possible energies, with important consequences for our understanding of Galactic cosmic-ray production

  5. Final State Interactions Effects in Neutrino-Nucleus Interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golan, Tomasz [Univ. of Wroctaw (Poland); Juszczak, Cezary [Univ. of Wroctaw (Poland); Sobczyk, Jan T. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Final State Interactions effects are discussed in the context of Monte Carlo simulations of neutrino-nucleus interactions. A role of Formation Time is explained and several models describing this effect are compared. Various observables which are sensitive to FSI effects are reviewed including pion-nucleus interaction and hadron yields in backward hemisphere. NuWro Monte Carlo neutrino event generator is described and its ability to understand neutral current $\\pi^0$ production data in $\\sim 1$ GeV neutrino flux experiments is demonstrated.

  6. Probing neutrino mass hierarchy by comparing the charged-current and neutral-current interaction rates of supernova neutrinos

    OpenAIRE

    Lai, Kwang-Chang; Lee, Fei-Fan; Lee, Feng-Shiuh; Lin, Guey-Lin; Liu, Tsung-Che; Yang, Yi

    2016-01-01

    The neutrino mass hierarchy is one of the neutrino fundamental properties yet to be determined. We introduce a method to determine neutrino mass hierarchy by comparing the interaction rate of neutral current (NC) interactions, $\

  7. Right handed neutrinos in scalar leptonic interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleury, N.; Barroso, M.; Magalhaes, M.E.; Martins Simoes, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    In this note we propose that right handed neutrinos can behave as singlets. Their interaction properties could be revealed through scalar couplings. Signatures and branching ratios for this hypothesis are discussed. In particular we discuss angular asymmetries in ν μ e #-> # ν e μ due to scalar exchange and z 0 decay in two scalars

  8. Neutrino nonstandard interactions in the supernova

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, C. R.; Pulido, Joao

    2011-01-01

    Neutrino nonstandard interactions (NSI) were investigated earlier in the solar case and were shown to reduce the tensions between the data and the large mixing angle solution predictions. We extend the previous framework to the supernova and evaluate the appearance probabilities for neutrinos and antineutrinos as a function of their energy after leaving the collapsing star with and without NSI. For normal hierarchy the probability for electron neutrinos and antineutrinos at low energy (E < or approx. 0.8-0.9 MeV) is substantially increased with respect to the non-NSI case and joins its value for inverse hierarchy which is constant with energy. Also for inverse hierarchy the NSI and non-NSI probabilities are the same for each neutrino and antineutrino species. Although detection in such a low energy range remains at present an experimental challenge, it will become a visible trace of NSI with normal hierarchy if they exist. On the other hand, the neutrino decay probability into an antineutrino and a majoron, an effect previously shown to be induced by dense matter, is, as in the case of the sun, too small to be observed as a direct consequence of NSI.

  9. Neutrino helicity flips via electroweak interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaemers, K.J.F.; Gandhi, R.; Lattimer, J.M.; Department of Earth and Space Sciences, State University of New York, Stony Brook, New York 11794)

    1989-01-01

    Electroweak mechanisms via which neutrinos may flip helicity are examined in detail. Exact and approximate expressions for a variety of flip processes relevant in astrophysics and cosmology, mediated by W, Z, and γ exchange, including their interference, are derived for both Dirac and Majorana neutrinos (with emphasis on the former). It is shown that in general flip and nonflip cross sections differ by more than just a multiplicative factor of m/sub ν/ 2 /4E/sub ν/ 2 contrary to what might be expected and that this additional dependence on helicities can be significant. It is also shown that within the context of the standard model with massive neutrinos, for νe yields νe scattering, σ/sub Z//sup flip//σ/sub γ//sup flip/ ∼ 10 4 , independent of particle masses and energies to a good approximation. As an application, using some general considerations and the fact that the observed bar nu/sub e/ burst from SN 1987A lasted several seconds, these weak-interaction flip cross sections are used to rule out μ and tau neutrino masses above 30 keV. Finally, some other consequences for astrophysics in general and supernovae in particular are briefly discussed

  10. Large gauge invariant nonstandard neutrino interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavela, M. B.; Hernandez, D.; Ota, T.; Winter, W.

    2009-01-01

    Theories beyond the standard model must necessarily respect its gauge symmetry. This implies strict constraints on the possible models of nonstandard neutrino interactions, which we analyze. The focus is set on the effective low-energy dimension six and eight operators involving four leptons, decomposing them according to all possible tree-level mediators, as a guide for model building. The new couplings are required to have sizable strength, while processes involving four charged leptons are required to be suppressed. For nonstandard interactions in matter, only diagonal tau-neutrino interactions can escape these requirements and can be allowed to result from dimension six operators. Large nonstandard neutrino interactions from dimension eight operators alone are phenomenologically allowed in all flavor channels and are shown to require at least two new mediator particles. The new couplings must obey general cancellation conditions both at the dimension six and dimension eight levels, which result from expressing the operators obtained from the mediator analysis in terms of a complete basis of operators. We illustrate with one example how to apply this information to model building.

  11. Neutrino neutral current interactions in nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horowitz, C.J.; Wehrberger, K.

    1991-01-01

    Detailed knowledge of neutrino transport properties in matter is crucial for an understanding of the evolution of supernovae and of neutron star cooling. We investigate screening of neutrino scattering from a dense degenerate gas of electrons, protons and neutrons. We take into account correlations induced by the Coulomb interactions of the electrons and protons, and the strong interactions of the protons and neutrons. Nuclear matter is described by the σω model of quantum hadrodynamics. Results are presented for typical astrophysical scenarios. The differential cross section is strongly reduced at large energy transfer, where electrons dominate, and slightly reduced for small energy transfer, where nucleons dominate. At large densities, the nucleon effective mass is considerably lower than the free mass, and the region dominated by nucleons extends to larger energy transfer than for free nucleons. (orig.)

  12. Colloquium: Multimessenger astronomy with gravitational waves and high-energy neutrinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Shin'ichiro; Baret, Bruny; Bartos, Imre; Bouhou, Boutayeb; Chassande-Mottin, Eric; Corsi, Alessandra; Di Palma, Irene; Dietz, Alexander; Donzaud, Corinne; Eichler, David; Finley, Chad; Guetta, Dafne; Halzen, Francis; Jones, Gareth; Kandhasamy, Shivaraj; Kotake, Kei; Kouchner, Antoine; Mandic, Vuk; Márka, Szabolcs; Márka, Zsuzsa; Moscoso, Luciano; Papa, Maria Alessandra; Piran, Tsvi; Pradier, Thierry; Romero, Gustavo E.; Sutton, Patrick; Thrane, Eric; Van Elewyck, Véronique; Waxman, Eli

    2013-10-01

    Many of the astrophysical sources and violent phenomena observed in our Universe are potential emitters of gravitational waves and high-energy cosmic radiation, including photons, hadrons, and presumably also neutrinos. Both gravitational waves (GW) and high-energy neutrinos (HEN) are cosmic messengers that may escape much denser media than photons. They travel unaffected over cosmological distances, carrying information from the inner regions of the astrophysical engines from which they are emitted (and from which photons and charged cosmic rays cannot reach us). For the same reasons, such messengers could also reveal new, hidden sources that have not been observed by conventional photon-based astronomy. Coincident observation of GWs and HENs may thus play a critical role in multimessenger astronomy. This is particularly true at the present time owing to the advent of a new generation of dedicated detectors: the neutrino telescopes IceCube at the South Pole and ANTARES in the Mediterranean Sea, as well as the GW interferometers Virgo in Italy and LIGO in the United States. Starting from 2007, several periods of concomitant data taking involving these detectors have been conducted. More joint data sets are expected with the next generation of advanced detectors that are to be operational by 2015, with other detectors, such as KAGRA in Japan, joining in the future. Combining information from these independent detectors can provide original ways of constraining the physical processes driving the sources and also help confirm the astrophysical origin of a GW or HEN signal in case of coincident observation. Given the complexity of the instruments, a successful joint analysis of this combined GW and HEN observational data set will be possible only if the expertise and knowledge of the data is shared between the two communities. This Colloquium aims at providing an overview of both theoretical and experimental state of the art and perspectives for GW and HEN

  13. Neutrinos today

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pontecorvo, B.; Bilen'kij, S.

    1987-01-01

    After the famous 1983 discovery of intermediate W, Z 0 bosons it may be stated with certainty that W, Z 0 are entirely responsible for the production of neutrinos and for their interactions. Neutrino physics notions are presented from this point of view in the first four introductory, quite elementary, paragraphs of the paper. The following seven paragraphs are more sophisticated. They are devoted to the neutrino mass and neutrino mixing question, which is the most actual problem in today neutrino physics. Vacuum neutrino oscillations, matter neutrino oscillations and netrinoless double-decay are considered. Solar neutrino physics is discussed in some detail from the point of view of vacuum and matter neutrino oscillations. The role played by neutrinos in the Universe is briefly considered. In the last paragraph there discussed the probable observation by different groups of neutrinos connected with the Supernova 1987 A: the first observation of gravitational star collapse (at least the general rehearsal of such observation) opens up a new era in astronomy of today exerimental physics and astrophysics is presented at the end of the paper in the form of a Table

  14. Multinucleon Ejection Model for Two Body Current Neutrino Interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobczyk, Jan T.; /Fermilab

    2012-06-01

    A model is proposed to describe nucleons ejected from a nucleus as a result of two-body-current neutrino interactions. The model can be easily implemented in Monte Carlo neutrino event generators. Various possibilities to measure the two-body-current contribution are discussed. The model can help identify genuine charge current quasielastic events and allow for a better determination of the systematic error on neutrino energy reconstruction in neutrino oscillation experiments.

  15. How self-interactions can reconcile sterile neutrinos with cosmology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannestad, Steen; Hansen, Rasmus Sloth; Tram, Thomas

    2014-01-24

    Short baseline neutrino oscillation experiments have shown hints of the existence of additional sterile neutrinos in the eV mass range. However, such neutrinos seem incompatible with cosmology because they have too large of an impact on cosmic structure formation. Here we show that new interactions in the sterile neutrino sector can prevent their production in the early Universe and reconcile short baseline oscillation experiments with cosmology.

  16. A brief status of non-standard neutrino interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohlsson, Tommy

    2013-01-01

    In this plenary talk, we review the status of non-standard neutrino interactions (NSIs). First, we give a brief introduction to neutrino flavor transitions with NSIs based on the standard paradigm of neutrino oscillations. Then, we discuss alternative scenarios for neutrino flavor transitions such as neutrino decoherence, neutrino decay, and NSIs. Second, we investigate NSIs with three neutrino flavors. In general, we introduce production and detection NSIs, including the so-called zero-distance effect, and matter NSIs. In addition, we study mappings and approximate formulas for NSIs. Third, we present a brief account of theoretical models for NSIs. Fourth and most important, we investigate in detail the phenomenology of NSIs based on different types of data from neutrino experiments. Fifth, we give some phenomenological bounds on both matter and production/detection NSIs as well as we present sensitivity and discovery reach of NSIs at future experiments. Finally, we present a summary and state our conclusions

  17. Neutrino physics-the link between the microcosmos and the macrocosmos, a study in two parts: (1) Theoretical-a look at the tau neutrino mass and other quantum electrodynamical effects in third family lepton interactions and (2) Experimental-underwater astronomy in Hawai'i, the short prototype string of the Deep Underwater Muon and Neutrino Detector project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babson, J.F.

    1989-01-01

    The nineteen eighties has been a time in which Cosmology and Particle Physics have come together. This dissertation reflects that trend. It does so in two ways. First, in Chapters 1 through 3, there is a theoretical investigation into some aspects of generational universality. The consequences of a third lepton, namely the tauon, and an associated tau neutrino, are explored in terms of phenomenology (mass and V-A consistency) that may shed insight into questions of neutrino mass and increased symmetry at higher energies. Second, in Chapters 4 through 11, there is an experimental investigation in the form of constructing and operating the first stage of the DUMAND (Deep Underwater Muon and Neutrino Detection) project which was a ship suspended muon and neutrino telescope called the SPS (Short Prototype String). This detector is of the water Cherenkov type and is the first time such an instrument has been successfully built and tested for use in the ocean. Chapters 6 through 10 are devoted to the detailed documentation of the parts of the SPS and its technology integration that I designed, prototyped, and debugged. In particular, a complete description is given to the command and control communications system of the string, the digital control electronics and associated software for the Optical, Calibration, and Power modules as well as the fast digitizing electronics or String Bottom Controller (SBC). This includes the development of a microcontroller language UHPS (Underwater Hawai'i Programming System). Finally, Chapter 11 is an analysis of SPS data in terms of ascertaining a purely statistically based downward traveling muon rate at a depth of 4.0 Km yielding (2.06 ± 0.68) x 10 -2 Hz

  18. IceVeto. An extension of IceTop to veto air showers for neutrino astronomy with IceCube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auffenberg, Jan; Kemp, Julian; Raedel, Leif; Rongen, Martin; Schaufel, Merlin; Stahlberg, Martin; Hansmann, Bengt; Wiebusch, Christopher [RWTH Aachen University, Physikalische Institut III b (Germany); Collaboration: IceCube-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    IceCube is the world's largest high-energy neutrino observatory, built at the geographic South Pole. For neutrino astronomy, a large background-free sample of well-reconstructed astrophysical neutrinos is essential. The main background for this signal are muons and neutrinos which are produced in cosmic-ray air showers in the Earth's atmosphere. The coincident detection of these air showers by the surface detector IceTop has been proven to be a powerful veto for atmospheric neutrinos and muons in the field of view of the southern hemisphere. This motivates a significant extension of IceTop. First estimates indicate that such a veto detector will more than double the discovery potential of current point source analyses. Here, we present the motivation and capabilities of different technologies based on simulations and measurements.

  19. EFFECTS OF NEUTRINO ELECTROMAGNETIC FORM FACTORS ON NEUTRINO INTERACTION WITH FINITE TEMPERATURE ELECTRON MATTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anto Sulaksono

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The differential cross-section of neutrino interaction with dense and warm electron gasses has been calculated by takinginto account the neutrino electromagnetic form factors. The significant effect of electromagnetic properties of neutrinocan be found if the neutrino dipole moment, μ ν , is ≥ 5.10-9 μB and neutrino charge radius, Rv, is ≥ 5.10-6 MeV-1. Theimportance of the retarded correction, detailed balance and Pauli blocking factors is shown and analyzed. Many-bodyeffects on the target matter which are included via random phase approximation (RPA correlation as well as photoneffective mass are also investigated.

  20. Non-Unitarity, sterile neutrinos, and Non-Standard neutrino Interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Blennow, Mattias; Fernandez-Martinez, Enrique; Hernandez-Garcia, Josu; Lopez-Pavon, Jacobo

    2017-04-27

    The simplest Standard Model extension to explain neutrino masses involves the addition of right-handed neutrinos. At some level, this extension will impact neutrino oscillation searches. In this work we explore the differences and similarities between the case in which these neutrinos are kinematically accessible (sterile neutrinos) or not (mixing matrix non-unitarity). We clarify apparent inconsistencies in the present literature when using different parametrizations to describe these effects and recast both limits in the popular neutrino non-standard interaction (NSI) formal- ism. We find that, in the limit in which sterile oscillations are averaged out at the near detector, their effects at the far detector coincide with non-unitarity at leading order, even in presence of a matter potential. We also summarize the present bounds existing in both limits and compare them with the expected sensitivities of near-future facilities taking the DUNE proposal as a bench- mark. We conclude that non-unitarity effects ...

  1. A study of the neutrino-gravitation interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, I.D.

    1976-01-01

    A study of the neutrino-gravitation interaction is made in the framework of Einstein-Dirac coupled equations. Two classes of solutions are obtained, corresponding to two specific physical situations. One cosmological model with expansion is obtained, having neutrinos as the only curvature source; their properties and the parameters which can to characterize the solution as a cosmological model are studied. The second class of solutions corresponds to a naive complete model of a spherically symmetric star emitting neutrinos: the inner region is suposed to be built up of a spherically symmetric distribution of a perfect fluid, bounded in space and which emitts neutrinos; the star matter is considered transparent for neutrinos; the outer region contains only neutrinos and gravitational field. The problem of neutrino compatibility with spherically symmetric gravitational fields is examined. The local conservation laws and the function conditions of the inner and outer solutions in the fluid surface are studied and permit to characterize two kinds of solutions. In one case, the solution describes the neutrino emission phase, with consequent configuration contraction, immediately before the fluid to be completely contained in the interior of the schwarzchild radius, when the neutrino emission and the star contraction stop. The other possibility can correspond to a quasi-stationary configuration, with neutrino emission, where the relativistic equation of radiative equilibrium permits to define the equivalent of 'Radiation pressure' for neutrinos, which acts in the same sense of the gravitational pressure. (L.C.) [pt

  2. The physics of collective neutrino-plasma interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukla, P.K.; Silva, L.O.; Dawson, J.M.; Bethe, H.; Bingham, R.; Stenflo, L.; Mendonca, J.T.; Dalhed, S.

    1999-01-01

    A review of recent work on collective neutrino-plasma interactions is presented. The basic physical concepts of this new field as well as some possible astrophysical problems where the physics of collective neutrino-plasma interactions can have a radical impact, are discussed. (author)

  3. A Measurement of Neutrino Charged Current Interactions and a Search for Muon Neutrino Disappearance with the Fermilab Booster Neutrino Beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakajima, Yasuhiro [Kyoto Univ. (Japan)

    2011-01-01

    In this thesis, we report on a measurement of muon neutrino inclusive charged current interactions on carbon in the few GeV region, using the Fermilab Booster Neutrino Beam. The all neutrino mode data collected in the SciBooNE experiment is used for this analysis. We collected high-statistics CC interaction sample at SciBooNE, and extracted energy dependent inclusive charged current interaction rates and cross sections for a wide energy range from 0.25 GeV to ~3 GeV. We measure the interaction rates with 6-15% precision, and the cross sections with 10-30% precision. We also made an energy integrated measurements, with the precisions of 3% for the rate, and 8% for the cross section measurements. This is the first measurement of the CC inclusive cross section on carbon around 1 GeV. This inclusive interaction measurement is nearly free from effects of hadron re-interactions in the nucleus. Hence, it is complementary to other exclusive cross section measurements, and essential to understand the neutrino interaction cross sections in the few GeV region, which is relevant to ongoing and future neutrino oscillation experiments. This analysis also provides the normalization for SciBooNE's previous cross section ratio measurements for charged current coherent pion production and neutral current neutral pion production. Then, a precise comparison between our previous measurements and the model predictions becomes possible. The result of the interaction rate measurement is used to constrain the product of the neutrino flux and the cross section at the other experiment on the Fermilab Booster Neutrino Beam: Mini-BooNE. We conducted a search for short-baseline muon neutrino disappearance using data both from SciBooNE and MiniBooNE, to test a possible neutrino oscillation with sterile neutrinos which is suggested by the LSND experiment. With this constraint by SciBooNE, we significantly reduced the flux and the cross section uncertainties at MiniBooNE, and achieved the

  4. Neutrino interactions in hot and dense matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, S.; Prakash, M.; Lattimer, J.M.

    1998-01-01

    We study the charged and neutral current weak interaction rates relevant for the determination of neutrino opacities in dense matter found in supernovae and neutron stars. We establish an efficient formalism for calculating differential cross sections and mean free paths for interacting, asymmetric nuclear matter at arbitrary degeneracy. The formalism is valid for both charged and neutral current reactions. Strong interaction corrections are incorporated through the in-medium single particle energies at the relevant density and temperature. The effects of strong interactions on the weak interaction rates are investigated using both potential and effective field-theoretical models of matter. We investigate the relative importance of charged and neutral currents for different astrophysical situations, and also examine the influence of strangeness-bearing hyperons. Our findings show that the mean free paths are significantly altered by the effects of strong interactions and the multi-component nature of dense matter. The opacities are then discussed in the context of the evolution of the core of a protoneutron star. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  5. Recent Developments in Neutrino/Antineutrino-Nucleus Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge G. Morfín

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent experimental results and developments in the theoretical treatment of neutrino-nucleus interactions in the energy range of 1–10 GeV are discussed. Difficulties in extracting neutrino-nucleon cross sections from neutrino-nucleus scattering data are explained and significance of understanding nuclear effects for neutrino oscillation experiments is stressed. Detailed discussions of the status of two-body current contribution in the kinematic region dominated by quasielastic scattering and specific features of partonic nuclear effects in weak DIS scattering are presented.

  6. Neutrinos, Weak Interactions, and r-process Nucleosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balantekin, A B

    2006-01-01

    Two of the key issues in understanding the neutron-to-proton ratio in a corecollapse supernova are discussed. One of these is the behavior of the neutrino-nucleon cross sections as supernova energies. The other issue is the many-body properties of the neutrino gas near the core when both one- and two-body interaction terms are included

  7. Curtailing the dark side in non-standard neutrino interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coloma, Pilar [Theoretical Physics Department, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory,P.O. Box 500, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Denton, Peter B. [Theoretical Physics Department, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory,P.O. Box 500, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Niels Bohr International Academy, University of Copenhagen, The Niels Bohr Institute,Blegdamsvej 17, DK-2100, Copenhagen (Denmark); Gonzalez-Garcia, M.C. [Departament de Fisíca Quàntica i Astrofísica and Institut de Ciencies del Cosmos,Universitat de Barcelona, Diagonal 647, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats (ICREA),Pg. Lluis Companys 23, 08010 Barcelona (Spain); C.N. Yang Institute for Theoretical Physics, Stony Brook University,Stony Brook, NY 11794-3840 (United States); Maltoni, Michele [Instituto de Física Teórica UAM/CSIC, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid,Calle de Nicolás Cabrera 13-15, Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Schwetz, Thomas [Institut für Kernphysik, Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (KIT), D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2017-04-20

    In presence of non-standard neutrino interactions the neutrino flavor evolution equation is affected by a degeneracy which leads to the so-called LMA-Dark solution. It requires a solar mixing angle in the second octant and implies an ambiguity in the neutrino mass ordering. Non-oscillation experiments are required to break this degeneracy. We perform a combined analysis of data from oscillation experiments with the neutrino scattering experiments CHARM and NuTeV. We find that the degeneracy can be lifted if the non-standard neutrino interactions take place with down quarks, but it remains for up quarks. However, CHARM and NuTeV constraints apply only if the new interactions take place through mediators not much lighter than the electroweak scale. For light mediators we consider the possibility to resolve the degeneracy by using data from future coherent neutrino-nucleus scattering experiments. We find that, for an experiment using a stopped-pion neutrino source, the LMA-Dark degeneracy will either be resolved, or the presence of new interactions in the neutrino sector will be established with high significance.

  8. Non-unitarity, sterile neutrinos, and non-standard neutrino interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blennow, Mattias [Department of Theoretical Physics, School of Engineering Sciences, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Albanova University Center, 106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Coloma, Pilar [Theoretical Physics Department, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, P.O. Box 500, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Fernandez-Martinez, Enrique; Hernandez-Garcia, Josu [Departamento de Física Teórica, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Instituto de Física Teórica UAM/CSIC, Calle Nicolás Cabrera 13-15, Cantoblanco E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Lopez-Pavon, Jacobo [INFN, Sezione di Genova, via Dodecaneso 33, 16146 Genova (Italy); CERN, Theoretical Physics Department, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2017-04-27

    The simplest Standard Model extension to explain neutrino masses involves the addition of right-handed neutrinos. At some level, this extension will impact neutrino oscillation searches. In this work we explore the differences and similarities between the case in which these neutrinos are kinematically accessible (sterile neutrinos) or not (mixing matrix non-unitarity). We clarify apparent inconsistencies in the present literature when using different parametrizations to describe these effects and recast both limits in the popular neutrino non-standard interaction (NSI) formalism. We find that, in the limit in which sterile oscillations are averaged out at the near detector, their effects at the far detector coincide with non-unitarity at leading order, even in presence of a matter potential. We also summarize the present bounds existing in both limits and compare them with the expected sensitivities of near-future facilities taking the DUNE proposal as a benchmark. We conclude that non-unitarity effects are too constrained to impact present or near future neutrino oscillation facilities but that sterile neutrinos can play an important role at long baseline experiments. The role of the near detector is also discussed in detail.

  9. Writing an Electronic Astronomy Book with Interactive Curricular Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Kristen L.; Belloni, Mario; Christian, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    With the rise of tablets, the past few years have seen an increase in the demand for quality electronic textbooks. Unfortunately, most of the current offerings do not exploit the accessibility and interactivity that electronic books can deliver. In this poster, we discuss how we are merging our curriculum development projects (Physlets, Easy Java/JavaScript Simulations, and Open Source Physics) with the EPUB electronic book format to develop an interactive textbook for use in a one-semester introductory astronomy course. The book, Astronomy: An Interactive Introduction, combines the narrative, equations, and images of a traditional astronomy text with new JavaScript simulations.

  10. Solar neutrinos as a probe of dark matter-neutrino interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capozzi, Francesco; Vecchi, Luca [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Padova, via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Shoemaker, Ian M., E-mail: capozzi.12@osu.edu, E-mail: ian.shoemaker@usd.edu, E-mail: vecchi@infn.pd.it [Department of Physics, University of South Dakota, Vermillion, SD 57069 (United States)

    2017-07-01

    Sterile neutrinos at the eV scale have long been studied in the context of anomalies in short baseline neutrino experiments. Their cosmology can be made compatible with our understanding of the early Universe provided the sterile neutrino sector enjoys a nontrivial dynamics with exotic interactions, possibly providing a link to the Dark Matter (DM) puzzle. Interactions between DM and neutrinos have also been proposed to address the long-standing 'missing satellites' problem in the field of large scale structure formation. Motivated by these considerations, in this paper we discuss realistic scenarios with light steriles coupled to DM . We point out that within this framework active neutrinos acquire an effective coupling to DM that manifests itself as a new matter potential in the propagation within a medium of asymmetric DM . Assuming that at least a small fraction of asymmetric DM has been captured by the Sun, we show that a sizable region of the parameter space of these scenarios can be probed by solar neutrino experiments, especially in the regime of small couplings and light mediators where all other probes become inefficient. In the latter regime these scenarios behave as familiar 3+1 models in all channels except for solar data, where a Solar Dark MSW effect takes place. Solar Dark MSW is characterized by modifications of the most energetic {sup 8}B and CNO neutrinos, whereas the other fluxes remain largely unaffected.

  11. Study of Neutrino Interactions in MINOS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Richa [Panjab Univ., Chandigarh (India)

    2014-01-01

    MINOS stands for Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search. It is a long baseline experiment located in the USA and is composed of two detectors. The Near Detector is at Fermilab, 1 km from the source of neutrinos. The Far Detector is in Minnesota at a distance of 735 km from the source. Both detectors are steel scintillator tracking calorimeters. MINOS searches for neutrino oscillations by comparing the neutrino energy spectrum at the Far Detector with that obtained from a prediction based on the spectrum at the Near Detector. The primary aim of MINOS is to measure the atmospheric oscillation parameters Δm2 32 and θ23. CPT symmetry requires that these parameters should be same for neutrinos and antineutrinos. Di erences between neutrino and antineutrino oscillations would be an indication of new physics beyond the neutrino-Standard Model ( SM). Additionally, violation of Lorentz or CPT symmetry could also give rise to oscillations di erent from that expected from the SM predictions, such as neutrino to antineutrino transitions.

  12. Meson exchange current (MEC) models in neutrino interaction generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katori, Teppei

    2015-01-01

    Understanding of the so-called 2 particle-2 hole (2p-2h) effect is an urgent program in neutrino interaction physics for current and future oscillation experiments. Such processes are believed to be responsible for the event excesses observed by recent neutrino experiments. The 2p-2h effect is dominated by the meson exchange current (MEC), and is accompanied by a 2-nucleon emission from the primary vertex, instead of a single nucleon emission from the charged-current quasi-elastic (CCQE) interaction. Current and future high resolution experiments can potentially nail down this effect. For this reason, there are world wide efforts to model and implement this process in neutrino interaction simulations. In these proceedings, I would like to describe how this channel is modeled in neutrino interaction generators

  13. A detector for high-energy neutrino interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holder, M.; Knobloch, J.; Lacourt, A.; Laverriere, G.; May, J.; Paar, H.; Palazzi, P.; Ranjard, F.; Schilly, P.; Schlatter, D.; Steinberger, J.; Suter, H.; Wahl, H.; Williams, E.G.H.; Eisele, F.; Geweniger, G.; Kleinknecht, K.; Pollmann, O.; Spahn, G.; Willutzki, H.J.; Navarria, F.L.

    1978-01-01

    The authors describe the design, construction and performance of a large mass detector used at CERN to study high-energy neutrino interactions in iron. This detector combines magnetic spectrometry and hadron calorimetry techniques. (Auth.)

  14. Neutrino Interactions in a Hybrid Emulsion - Bubble Chamber Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenbladt, Robert Ludwig [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    1981-05-01

    target consisting of 22 - 1 liter stacks of cryogenically sensitive nuclear emulsion has been exposed inside the 15 Foot Bubble Chamber to the Fermilab wide-band neutrino beam. A hybrid system of emulsion plus bubble chamber was used to find and analyze neutrino interactions with nuclei in the emulsion target. The average multiplicity of charged minimum ionization tracks of the 45 events was found to be 6.8 ± 0.5. The normalized multiplicity with respect to neutrino - proton interactions at the same average hadronic center of mass energy was found to be 1.3 ± 0.2. When compared to neutrino - proton interactions, the rapidity distribution shows a clear signal for intranuclear cascading in the target fragmentation region. Measured rapidity and multiplicity distributions are compared with predictions of the Growth of Longitudinal Distances Model of Nikolaev and the Coherent Tube Model.

  15. Probing neutrino mass hierarchy by comparing the charged-current and neutral-current interaction rates of supernova neutrinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Kwang-Chang; Lee, Fei-Fan; Lee, Feng-Shiuh; Lin, Guey-Lin; Liu, Tsung-Che; Yang, Yi

    2016-07-01

    The neutrino mass hierarchy is one of the neutrino fundamental properties yet to be determined. We introduce a method to determine neutrino mass hierarchy by comparing the interaction rate of neutral current (NC) interactions, ν(bar nu) + p → ν(bar nu) + p, and inverse beta decays (IBD), bar nue + p → n + e+, of supernova neutrinos in scintillation detectors. Neutrino flavor conversions inside the supernova are sensitive to neutrino mass hierarchy. Due to Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein effects, the full swapping of bar nue flux with the bar nux (x = μ, τ) one occurs in the inverted hierarchy, while such a swapping does not occur in the normal hierarchy. As a result, more high energy IBD events occur in the detector for the inverted hierarchy than the high energy IBD events in the normal hierarchy. By comparing IBD interaction rate with the mass hierarchy independent NC interaction rate, one can determine the neutrino mass hierarchy.

  16. Probing neutrino mass hierarchy by comparing the charged-current and neutral-current interaction rates of supernova neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, Kwang-Chang; Lee, Fei-Fan; Lee, Feng-Shiuh; Lin, Guey-Lin; Liu, Tsung-Che; Yang, Yi

    2016-01-01

    The neutrino mass hierarchy is one of the neutrino fundamental properties yet to be determined. We introduce a method to determine neutrino mass hierarchy by comparing the interaction rate of neutral current (NC) interactions, ν(ν-bar)+p→ν(ν-bar)+p, and inverse beta decays (IBD), ν-bar_e+p→n+e"+, of supernova neutrinos in scintillation detectors. Neutrino flavor conversions inside the supernova are sensitive to neutrino mass hierarchy. Due to Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein effects, the full swapping of ν-bar_e flux with the ν-bar_x (x=μ, τ) one occurs in the inverted hierarchy, while such a swapping does not occur in the normal hierarchy. As a result, more high energy IBD events occur in the detector for the inverted hierarchy than the high energy IBD events in the normal hierarchy. By comparing IBD interaction rate with the mass hierarchy independent NC interaction rate, one can determine the neutrino mass hierarchy.

  17. Study of electron and neutrino interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abashian, A.

    1997-01-01

    This is the final report for the DOE-sponsored experimental particle physics program at Virginia Tech to study the properties of the Standard Model of strong and electroweak interactions. This contract (DE-AS05-80ER10713) covers the period from August 1, 1980 to January 31, 1993. Task B of this contract, headed by Professor Alexander Abashian, is described in this final report. This program has been pursued on many fronts by the researchers-in a search for axions at SLAC, in electron-positron collisions in the AMY experiment at the TRISTAN collider in Japan, in measurements of muon decay properties in the MEGA and RHO experiments at the LAMPF accelerator, in a detailed analysis of scattering effects in the purported observation of a 17 keV neutrino at Oxford, in a search for a disoriented chiral condensate with the MiniMax experiment at Fermilab, and in an R ampersand D program on resistive plate counters that could find use in low-cost high-quality charged particle detection at low rates

  18. A study of inclusive charged current neutrino interactions in deuterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visser, C.P.

    1986-01-01

    In this thesis the results of an analysis of inclusive neutrino and antineutrino interaction on deuterium nuclei are presented. The use of deuterium as a target provides a mean to study proton and neutron scattering separately. The presently accepted theory of electro-weak interactions is reviewed. Applications of the quark-parton model in the context of deep-inelastic neutrino interactions on nucleons are summarized. The concept of scaling and its consequences are treated, together with some sources of violation of scaling. The properties of the CERN wide-band neutrino beam and an overview of the elements of this beam are given. The method to determine the energy distribution and the composition of the neutrino and antineutrino beam is described. The technique employed to separate neutrino interactions on protons and neutrons is discussed. Results of the measurement of the total nucleon charged-current cross-sections and differential cross-sections are presented. The relative contributions of quarks and antiquarks to the neutrino cross-sections are deduced from y-distributions and compared to those obtained from the total cross-section measurements. Finally, the analysis of the structure functions is given. (Auth.)

  19. The EOS and neutrino interactions in dense matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prakash, M; Reddy, S [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, SUNY at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY (United States)

    1998-06-01

    The deleptonization and cooling times of a newly born neutron star depend on the equation of state (EOS) and neutrino opacities in dense matter. Through model calculations we show that effects of Pauli blocking and many-body correlations due to strong interactions reduce both the neutral and charged current neutrino cross sections by large factors compared to the case in which these effects are ignored. (orig.)

  20. Sterile neutrinos with secret interactions — lasting friendship with cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, Xiaoyong [International Center for Theoretical Physics,Strada Costiera 11, Trieste, 34014 (Italy); Dasgupta, Basudeb [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research,Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai, 400005 (India); Kopp, Joachim [PRISMA Cluster of Excellence and Mainz Institute for Theoretical Physics,Johannes Gutenberg University, Staudingerweg 7, Mainz, 55128 (Germany)

    2015-10-06

    Sterile neutrinos with mass ≃1 eV and order 10% mixing with active neutrinos have been proposed as a solution to anomalies in neutrino oscillation data, but are tightly constrained by cosmological limits. It was recently shown that these constraints are avoided if sterile neutrinos couple to a new MeV-scale gauge boson A{sup ′}. However, even this scenario is restricted by structure formation constraints when A{sup ′}-mediated collisional processes lead to efficient active-to-sterile neutrino conversion after neutrinos have decoupled. In view of this, we reevaluate in this paper the viability of sterile neutrinos with such “secret” interactions. We carefully dissect their evolution in the early Universe, including the various production channels and the expected modifications to large scale structure formation. We argue that there are two regions in parameter space — one at very small A{sup ′} coupling, one at relatively large A{sup ′} coupling — where all constraints from big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN), cosmic microwave background (CMB), and large scale structure (LSS) data are satisfied. Interestingly, the large A{sup ′} coupling region is precisely the region that was previously shown to have potentially important consequences for the small scale structure of dark matter halos if the A{sup ′} boson couples also to the dark matter in the Universe.

  1. Neutrino interactions, proton production and a nuclear effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guy, J.; Allport, P.P.; Cooper-Sarkar, A.; Sansum, R.A.; Venus, W.; Berggren, M.; Morrison, D.R.O.; Parker, M.A.; Wachsmuth, H.; Clayton, E.F.; Mobayyen, M.M.; Hulth, P.O.; Katz, U.; Wittek, W.; Marage, P.; Sacton, J.; Matsinos, E.; Simopoulou, E.; Myatt, G.; Neveu, M.; Apeldoorn, G.W. van

    1989-01-01

    Neutrino interactions are classified by the presence or absence of protons with momentum below 600 MeV/c at the interaction vertex. Interactions producing protons have softer x distributions for hydrogen and deuterium targets as well as for neon. In contrast to a recent claim, the effect is therefore not directly related to any nuclear effect in neon. (orig.)

  2. Neutrino interactions, proton production and a nuclear effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guy, J.; Allport, P. P.; Berggren, M.; Clayton, E. F.; Cooper-Sarkar, A.; Hulth, P. O.; Jones, G. T.; Katz, U.; Marage, P.; Matsinos, E.; Mobayyen, M. M.; Morrison, D. R. O.; Myatt, G.; Neveu, M.; O'Neale, S.; Parker, M. A.; Sacton, J.; Sansum, R. A.; Simopoulou, E.; van Apeldoorn, G. W.; Varvell, K.; Venus, W.; Wachsmuth, H.; Wittek, W.

    1989-10-01

    Neutrino interactions are classified by the presence or absence of protons with momentum below 600 MeV/c at the interaction vertex. Interactions producing protons have softer x distributions for hydrogen and deuterium targets as well as for neon. In contrast to a recent claim, the effect is therefore not directly related to any nuclear effect in neon.

  3. Principles and applications of a neutral current detector for neutrino physics and astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drukier, A.; Stodolsky, L.

    1982-01-01

    We study neutrino detection through the elastic scattering of neutrinos on nuclei and identification of the recoil energy. The very large value of the cross section compared to previous methods indicates a detector would be relatively light and suggests the possibility of a true 'neutrino observatory'. We examine a realization in terms of the superconducting grain idea, which appears in principle feasible through extension and extrapolation of presently known techniques. Such a detector would permit determination of the neutrino spectrum and should be intensive to neutrino oscillations. Various applications and tests are discussed, including spallation sources, reactors, supernovas, solar and terrestrial neutrinos. A supernova would permit a simple determination of the number of neutrinos and their masses, while for solar neutrinos rates of thousands of S.N.U. are theoretically attainable. A preliminary estimate of the most difficult backgrounds is attempted. (orig.)

  4. Neutral strange particle production in neutrino interactions at Tevatron energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De, K.

    1988-05-01

    This thesis reports on a study of neutral strange particle production by high energy muon-neutrinos. The neutrinos were obtained from a 800 GeV proton beam-dump at Fermilab. Neutrino events were observed using a hybrid bubble chamber detector system. The data contained deep inelastic neutrino-nucleon interactions with an average momentum transfer 2 > = 23 (GeV/c) 2 . Rates for K 0 and Λ production in neutrino and anti-neutrino charged current events are presented. The distributions of these particles in Feynman x and rapidity are also studied. Significant differences were observed in the production mechanism for the K 0 meson and the Λ baryon. The production rates of K 0 's were observed to increase with energy, whereas the rates for Λ production remained essentially constant. In Feynman x, the K 0 's were produced in the central region and the Λ's were produced backwards. The data are compared with the LUND monte carlo for string fragmentation. In the monte carlo, K 0 's are mostly produced from s/bar s/ pair production during fragmentation. The Λ's are generally produced through recombination with the diquark from the target nucleon. The data agree with this model for strange particle production. 39 refs., 24 figs., 10 tabs

  5. Searching for resonances in the helicity conversion of neutrinos interacting with rotating magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellandi, Jose; Guzzo, Marcelo M.; Hollanda, Pedro C. de

    1997-01-01

    Assuming that neutrino magnetic moment is not null, we study the evolution of neutrinos submitted to rotating magnetic fields, and the way the evolution can convert 'left' helicity neutrinos (actives) into 'right' neutrinos (sterile). We use the fact that the 'right' neutrinos do not interact with the detectors to obtain information on the neutrino magnetic field magnitude. For solving the neutrino evolution equation, the expansion method was combined with steady phase approximation used for the expansion integrals solution. The possibility of 'left' conversion into 'right' neutrinos has been calculated as function of the evolution matrix parameters (neutrino magnetic moment, electron density of the medium, the magnetic field magnitude and phase, etc). We made an attempt to obtain fitting of the parameter conditions in order to occur resonances in the neutrino transition probability, and therefore to obtain information on the limits for neutrino magnetic moments from the controlled beam helicity

  6. A study of inclusive neutrino interactions in a marble target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panman, J.

    1981-01-01

    In this thesis the results of an analysis of neutrino and antineutrino interactions on nuclei are presented. The data were taken with the calorimeter of the Amsterdam-CERN-Hamburg-Moscow-Rome (CHARM) collaboration at the narrow-band beam of the CERN SPS. The detector combines a large target mass with a high power of pattern recognition. The presently accepted theory of weak interactions of Glashow, Salam, and Weinberg is introduced. Applications of the quark-parton model in the context of deep-inelastic neutrino interactions on nuclei are summarized. The properties of the narrow-band neutrino beam at CERN, which are relevant for the experiment are given. The neutrino energy spectrum and the flux monitors are described. Measurements of total cross-sections are presented. From the ratios of neutral-current and charged-current cross-sections of neutrinos and antineutrinos the coupling constants of the weak neutral-current are deduced. Some details of the methods used in the analysis of differential distributions are discussed. The differential charged-current cross-sections dsigma/dy and dsigma/dx are measured. Finally, the analysis of the structure functions is presented in terms of x and Q 2 . (Auth.)

  7. Neutrino production by UHECR proton interactions in the infrared background

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanev, Todor

    2004-08-12

    We discuss the contribution of proton photoproduction interactions in the isotropic infrared/optical background to the cosmic neutrino fluxes. This contribution has a strong dependence on the proton injection energy spectrum, and is essential at high redshifts. It is thus closely correlated with the cosmological evolution of the ultra-high energy proton sources and of the infrared background itself. These interactions may also contribute to the source fluxes of neutrinos if the proton sources are located in regions of high infrared emission and magnetic fields.

  8. Is neutrino produced in standard weak interactions a Dirac or Majorana particle?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beshtoev, Kh.M.

    2010-01-01

    This work considers the following problem: what type (Dirac or Majorana) of neutrinos is produced in standard weak interactions? It is concluded that only Dirac neutrinos but not Majorana neutrinos can be produced in these interactions. Then neutrino interacts with W ± and Z bosons but neutrinoless double beta decay is absent. It means that this neutrino will be produced in another type of interaction. Namely, Majorana neutrino will be produced in the interaction which differentiates spin projections but cannot differentiate neutrino (particle) from antineutrino (antiparticle). Then neutrino will interact with W ± bosons and neutrinoless double beta decay will arise. But interaction with Z boson will be absent. Such an interaction has not been discovered yet. Therefore, experiments with very high precision are important to detect the neutrinoless double decays if they are realized in the Nature

  9. Production of neutrinos and neutrino-like particles in proton-nucleus interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dishaw, J.P.

    1979-03-01

    An experimental search was performed to look for the direct production of neutrinos or neutrino-like particles, i.e., neutral particles which interact weakly with hadrons, in proton-nucleus interactions at 400 GeV incident proton energy. Possible sources of such particles include the semi-leptonic decay of new heavy particles such as charm, and the direct production of a light neutral Higgs particle such as the axion. The production of these particles has been inferred in this experiment by energy nonconservation in the collision of a proton with an iron nucleus. The total visible energy of the interaction was measured using a sampling ionization calorimeter. After correcting for beam intensity effects and cutting the data to eliminate systematic effects in the measurement, the final resolution of the calorimeter was 3.51% and increased with decreasing incident beam energy with a square root dependence on the beam energy. Energy nonconservation in the data is manifest as a non-Gaussian distribution on the low side of the calorimeter measured energy. Model calculations yield the fraction of events expected in this non-Gaussian behavior for the various sources of neutrinos or neutrino-like particles. A maximum likelihood fit to the data with the theoretical fraction of events expected yields the 95% confidence level production cross section upper limit values. The upper limits for general production of neutrino-like particles for various parameterizations of the production cross section are presented. The following specific upper limits have been established: charm particle production -3 times the π 0 production cross section. 144 references

  10. Cosmic microwave background constraints on secret interactions among sterile neutrinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forastieri, Francesco; Natoli, Paolo [Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienze della Terra, Università di Ferrara, Via Giuseppe Saragat 1, I-44122 Ferrara (Italy); Lattanzi, Massimiliano [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Ferrara, Via Giuseppe Saragat 1, I-44122 Ferrara (Italy); Mangano, Gianpiero [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Napoli, Complesso Univ. Monte S.Angelo, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); Mirizzi, Alessandro [Dipartimento Interateneo di Fisica ' Michelangelo Merlin,' Via Amendola 173, 70126 Bari (Italy); Saviano, Ninetta, E-mail: francesco.forastieri@unife.it, E-mail: lattanzi@fe.infn.it, E-mail: mangano@na.infn.it, E-mail: alessandro.mirizzi@ba.infn.it, E-mail: natoli@fe.infn.it, E-mail: nsaviano@uni-mainz.de [PRISMA Cluster of Excellence and Mainz Institute for Theoretical Physics, JohannesGutenberg-Universität Mainz, 55099 Mainz (Germany)

    2017-07-01

    Secret contact interactions among eV sterile neutrinos, mediated by a massive gauge boson X (with M {sub X} || M {sub W} ), and characterized by a gauge coupling g {sub X} , have been proposed as a mean to reconcile cosmological observations and short-baseline laboratory anomalies. We constrain this scenario using the latest Planck data on Cosmic Microwave Background anisotropies, and measurements of baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO). We consistently include the effect of secret interactions on cosmological perturbations, namely the increased density and pressure fluctuations in the neutrino fluid, and still find a severe tension between the secret interaction framework and cosmology. In fact, taking into account neutrino scattering via secret interactions, we derive our own mass bound on sterile neutrinos and find (at 95 % CL) m {sub s} < 0.82 eV or m {sub s} < 0.29 eV from Planck alone or in combination with BAO, respectively. These limits confirm the discrepancy with the laboratory anomalies. Moreover, we constrain, in the limit of contact interaction, the effective strength G {sub X} to be < 2.8 (2.0) × 10{sup 10} G {sub F} from Planck (Planck+BAO). This result, together with the mass bound, strongly disfavours the region with M {sub X} ∼ 0.1 MeV and relatively large coupling g {sub X} {sub ∼} 10{sup −1}, previously indicated as a possible solution to the small scale dark matter problem.

  11. Neutrinos

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2004-01-01

    The Standard Model predicts that the neutrinos are massless and do not mix. Generic extensions of the Standard Model predict that neutrinos are massive (but, very likely, much lighter than the charged fermions). Therefore, the search for neutrino masses and mixing tests the Standard Model and probes new phasics. Measurements of various features of the fluxes of atmospheric, solar and, more recently, reactor neutrinos have provided evidence for neutrino oscillations and therefore for neutrino masses and mixing. These results have significant theoretical implications: new physics exists, and its scale can be estimated. There are interesting lessons for grand unified theories and for models of extra dimensions. The measured neutrino flavor parameters pose a challenge to flavor models.

  12. Recent results from neutrino interactions in heavy neon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cnops, A.M.; Connolly, P.L.; Kahn, S.A.

    1978-01-01

    Recent results presented from a study of muon neutrinos interacting in heavy neon include dilepton production, strange particle rates, the D 0 →K 0 π + π - decay, the lack of observation of new particles, and the cross section for nu/sub e/ + e elastic scattering. 8 references

  13. Multiplicity distributions in high-energy neutrino interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, J.W.; Coffin, C.T.; Diamond, R.N.; French, H.; Louis, W.; Roe, B.P.; Seidl, A.A.; Vander Velde, J.C.; Berge, J.P.; Bogert, D.V.; DiBianca, F.A.; Cundy, D.C.; Dunaitsev, A.; Efremenko, V.; Ermolov, P.; Fowler, W.; Hanft, R.; Harigel, G.; Huson, F.R.; Kolganov, V.; Mukhin, A.; Nezrick, F.A.; Rjabov, Y.; Scott, W.G.; Smart, W.

    1976-01-01

    Results from the Fermilab 15-ft bubble chamber on the charged-particle multiplicity distributions produced in high-energy charged-current neutrino-proton interactions are presented. Comparisons are made to γp, ep, μp, and inclusive pp scattering. The mean hadronic multiplicity appears to depend only on the mass of the excited hadronic state, independent of the mode of excitation. A fit to the neutrino data gives = (1.09+-0.38) +(1.09+-0.03)lnW 2

  14. Non-standard interaction effects at reactor neutrino experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohlsson, Tommy; Zhang, He

    2009-01-01

    We study non-standard interactions (NSIs) at reactor neutrino experiments, and in particular, the mimicking effects on θ 13 . We present generic formulas for oscillation probabilities including NSIs from sources and detectors. Instructive mappings between the fundamental leptonic mixing parameters and the effective leptonic mixing parameters are established. In addition, NSI corrections to the mixing angles θ 13 and θ 12 are discussed in detailed. Finally, we show that, even for a vanishing θ 13 , an oscillation phenomenon may still be observed in future short baseline reactor neutrino experiments, such as Double Chooz and Daya Bay, due to the existences of NSIs

  15. Neutrino helicity flips via electroweak interactions and SN1987a

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaemers, K.J.F.; Gandhi, R.; Lattimer, J.M.

    1988-10-01

    Electroweak mechanisms via which neutrinos may flip helicity and become sterile are examined in detail. Exact and approximate expressions for a variety of flip processes relevant in astrophysics and cosmology, mediated by W,Z, and γ exchange, including their interference, are derived. It is shown that within the context of the Standard Model with massive neutrinos, for νe→νe scattering, σ Z flip /σ γ flip ∼ 6 X 10 3 , independent of particle masses and energies to a good approximation. It is also shown that using some general considerations and the fact that the observed anti ν e burst from SN1987a lasted several seconds, these weak interaction flip cross-sections can be used to derive an upper limit on μ and τ neutrino masses of ∼ 40 keV. Finally, some other consequences for astrophysics in general and supernovae in particular are briefly discussed. 29 refs.; 47 schemes

  16. Colloquium: Multimessenger astronomy with gravitational waves and high-energy neutrinos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ando, S.; Baret, B.; Bartos, I.; Bouhou, B.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Corsi, A.; Di Palma, I.; Dietz, A.; Donzaud, C.; Eichler, D.; Finley, C.; Guetta, D.; Halzen, F.; Jones, G.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kotake, K.; Kouchner, A.; Mandic, V.; Márka, S.; Márka, Z.; Moscoso, L.; Papa, M.A.; Piran, T.; Pradier, T.; Romero, G.E.; Sutton, P.; Thrane, E.; van Elewyck, V.; Waxman, E.

    2013-01-01

    Many of the astrophysical sources and violent phenomena observed in our Universe are potential emitters of gravitational waves and high-energy cosmic radiation, including photons, hadrons, and presumably also neutrinos. Both gravitational waves (GW) and high-energy neutrinos (HEN) are cosmic

  17. Optimization of the Orbiting Wide-Angle Light Collectors (OWL) Mission for Charged-Particle and Neutrino Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krizmanic, John F.; Mitchell, John W.; Streitmatter, Robert E.

    2013-01-01

    OWL [1] uses the Earth's atmosphere as a vast calorimeter to fully enable the emerging field of charged-particle astronomy with high-statistics measurements of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays (UHECR) and a search for sources of UHE neutrinos and photons. Confirmation of the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin (GZK) suppression above approx. 4 x 10(exp 19) eV suggests that most UHECR originate in astrophysical objects. Higher energy particles must come from sources within about 100 Mpc and are deflected by approx. 1 degree by predicted intergalactic/galactic magnetic fields. The Pierre Auger Array, Telescope Array and the future JEM-EUSO ISS mission will open charged-particle astronomy, but much greater exposure will be required to fully identify and measure the spectra of individual sources. OWL uses two large telescopes with 3 m optical apertures and 45 degree FOV in near-equatorial orbits. Simulations of a five-year OWL mission indicate approx. 10(exp 6) sq km/ sr/ yr of exposure with full aperture at approx. 6 x 10(exp 19) eV. Observations at different altitudes and spacecraft separations optimize sensitivity to UHECRs and neutrinos. OWL's stereo event reconstruction is nearly independent of track inclination and very tolerant of atmospheric conditions. An optional monocular mode gives increased reliability and can increase the instantaneous aperture. OWL can fully reconstruct horizontal and upward-moving showers and so has high sensitivity to UHE neutrinos. New capabilities in inflatable structures optics and silicon photomultipliers can greatly increase photon sensitivity, reducing the energy threshold for n detection or increasing viewed area using a higher orbit. Design trades between the original and optimized OWL missions and the enhanced science capabilities are described.

  18. Tau appearance in atmospheric neutrino interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, Lawrence J.; Murayama, Hitoshi

    1998-01-01

    If the correct interpretation of the Super-Kamiokande atmospheric neutrino data is ν μ → ν τ oscillation, the contained data sample should already have more than 10 τ appearance events. We study the challenging task of detecting the τ, focusing on the decay chain τ ± → ρ ± → π ± π 0 in events with quasi-elastic τ production. The background level, which is currently quite uncertain because of a lack of relevant neutral current data, can be measured by the near detector in the K2K experiment. Our estimates of the background suggest that it may be possible to detect τ appearance in Super-Kamiokande with 5-10 years of running

  19. Cosmic neutrino pevatrons: A brand new pathway to astronomy, astrophysics, and particle physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anchordoqui, Luis A.; Barger, Vernon; Cholis, Ilias; Goldberg, Haim; Hooper, Dan; Kusenko, Alexander; Learned, John G.; Marfatia, Danny; Pakvasa, Sandip; Paul, Thomas C.; Weiler, Thomas J.

    2014-05-01

    The announcement by the IceCube Collaboration of the observation of 28 cosmic neutrino candidates has been greeted with a great deal of justified excitement. The data reported so far depart by 4.3σ from the expected atmospheric neutrino background, which raises the obvious question: “Where in the Cosmos are these neutrinos coming from?” We review the many possibilities which have been explored in the literature to address this question, including origins at either Galactic or extragalactic celestial objects. For completeness, we also briefly discuss new physical processes which may either explain or be constrained by IceCube data.

  20. Dark matter and exotic neutrino interactions in direct detection searches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertuzzo, Enrico [Departamento de Física Matemática, Instituto de Física, Universidade de São Paulo,R. do Matão 1371, CEP. 05508-090, São Paulo (Brazil); Deppisch, Frank F. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London,London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Kulkarni, Suchita [Institut für Hochenergiephysik, Österreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften,Nikolsdorfer Gasse 18, 1050 Wien (Austria); Gonzalez, Yuber F. Perez; Funchal, Renata Zukanovich [Departamento de Física Matemática, Instituto de Física, Universidade de São Paulo,R. do Matão 1371, CEP. 05508-090, São Paulo (Brazil)

    2017-04-12

    We investigate the effect of new physics interacting with both Dark Matter (DM) and neutrinos at DM direct detection experiments. Working within a simplified model formalism, we consider vector and scalar mediators to determine the scattering of DM as well as the modified scattering of solar neutrinos off nuclei. Using existing data from LUX as well as the expected sensitivity of LUX-ZEPLIN and DARWIN, we set limits on the couplings of the mediators to quarks, neutrinos and DM. Given the current limits, we also assess the true DM discovery potential of direct detection experiments under the presence of exotic neutrino interactions. In the case of a vector mediator, we show that the DM discovery reach of future experiments is affected for DM masses m{sub χ}≲10 GeV or DM scattering cross sections σ{sub χ}≲10{sup −47} cm{sup 2}. On the other hand, a scalar mediator will not affect the discovery reach appreciably.

  1. Nuclear Effects in Neutrino Interactions at Low Momentum Transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miltenberger, Ethan Ryan [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2015-05-01

    This is a study to identify predicted effects of the carbon nucleus environment on neutrino - nucleus interactions with low momentum transfer. A large sample of neutrino interaction data collected by the MINERvA experiment is analyzed to show the distribution of charged hadron energy in a region with low momentum transfer. These distributions reveal a major discrepancy between the data and a popular interaction model with only the simplest Fermi gas nuclear effects. Detailed analysis of systematic uncertainties due to energy scale and resolution can account for only a little of the discrepancy. Two additional nuclear model effects, a suppression/screening effect (RPA), and the addition of a meson exchange current process (MEC), are shown to improve the description of the data.

  2. nuPRISM: An experimental method to remove neutrino interaction uncertainties from oscillation experiments

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2014-01-01

    Future experiments propose to make precision measurements of parameters in the neutrino mixing matrix, including the possibly maximal mixing angle theta23, and an unknown CP violating phase, dCP, by comparing the event rate of neutrinos and antineutrinos observed close to, and far from the source. Such "near to far" extrapolation methods must achieve percent level understanding of neutrino and antineutrino interactions; the interaction determines the relationship between experimental observables and the oscillation probability which depends on the neutrino energy. However, recent developments over the last 5 years demonstrate that our understanding of neutrino interactions is insufficient. In particular, the interaction of neutrinos on correlated pairs of nucleons has only recently been added to neutrino interaction simulations. The identification of these processes as interactions on a single nucleon results in a significant bias to the measured mixing parameters, even when near detector i...

  3. The neutrino interaction analysis chain in OPERA

    CERN Document Server

    Rescigno, Regina

    Th e aim of the OPERA experiment i s to provide a “smoking - gun” proof of neutrino oscillation s, through the detecti on of the appearance signal of ν τ ’s in an initially pure ν μ beam. The beam is produced at CERN, 732 Km fa r from the detector , which is located underground in t he Gran Sasso laboratory. The evidence of the appearance signal will be provided by the detection of the daughter particles produced in the decay of the τ lepton. A micro - metric spatial resolution is needed in order to measure a nd study the topology of the ν τ - induced events. With this goal, n uclear emulsions, the highest resolution tracking detector , were chosen to be the core of the OPERA apparatus. The analysis of the large amount of nuclear emulsions used in the OPERA experime n t has required the development of a new generation of fast automatic mi croscopes , featuring a scanning speed more than one order of magnitude hi g h er than in p...

  4. Probing neutrino mass hierarchy by comparing the charged-current and neutral-current interaction rates of supernova neutrinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, Kwang-Chang [Center for General Education, Chang Gung University,Kwei-Shan, Taoyuan, 333, Taiwan (China); Leung Center for Cosmology and Particle Astrophysics (LeCosPA), National Taiwan University, Taipei, 106, Taiwan (China); Lee, Fei-Fan [Institute of Physics, National Chiao Tung University,Hsinchu, 300, Taiwan (China); Lee, Feng-Shiuh [Department of Electrophysics, National Chiao Tung University,Hsinchu, 300, Taiwan (China); Lin, Guey-Lin [Leung Center for Cosmology and Particle Astrophysics (LeCosPA), National Taiwan University, Taipei, 106, Taiwan (China); Institute of Physics, National Chiao Tung University,Hsinchu, 300, Taiwan (China); Liu, Tsung-Che [Leung Center for Cosmology and Particle Astrophysics (LeCosPA), National Taiwan University, Taipei, 106, Taiwan (China); Yang, Yi [Department of Electrophysics, National Chiao Tung University,Hsinchu, 300, Taiwan (China)

    2016-07-22

    The neutrino mass hierarchy is one of the neutrino fundamental properties yet to be determined. We introduce a method to determine neutrino mass hierarchy by comparing the interaction rate of neutral current (NC) interactions, ν(ν-bar)+p→ν(ν-bar)+p, and inverse beta decays (IBD), ν-bar{sub e}+p→n+e{sup +}, of supernova neutrinos in scintillation detectors. Neutrino flavor conversions inside the supernova are sensitive to neutrino mass hierarchy. Due to Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein effects, the full swapping of ν-bar{sub e} flux with the ν-bar{sub x} (x=μ, τ) one occurs in the inverted hierarchy, while such a swapping does not occur in the normal hierarchy. As a result, more high energy IBD events occur in the detector for the inverted hierarchy than the high energy IBD events in the normal hierarchy. By comparing IBD interaction rate with the mass hierarchy independent NC interaction rate, one can determine the neutrino mass hierarchy.

  5. Possibility of measuring Adler angles in charged current single pion neutrino-nucleus interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, F.

    2016-05-01

    Uncertainties in modeling neutrino-nucleus interactions are a major contribution to systematic errors in long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiments. Accurate modeling of neutrino interactions requires additional experimental observables such as the Adler angles which carry information about the polarization of the Δ resonance and the interference with nonresonant single pion production. The Adler angles were measured with limited statistics in bubble chamber neutrino experiments as well as in electron-proton scattering experiments. We discuss the viability of measuring these angles in neutrino interactions with nuclei.

  6. Can OPERA help in constraining neutrino non-standard interactions?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esteban-Pretel, A.; Valle, J.W.F. [AHEP Group, Institut de Fisica Corpuscular, C.S.I.C./Universitat de Valencia, Edificio Institutos de Paterna, Apt 22085, E-46071 Valencia (Spain); Huber, P. [Theory Division, Department of Physics, CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Institute for Particle, Nuclear and Astronomical Sciences, Physics Department, Virgina Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24062 (United States)], E-mail: pahuber@vt.edu

    2008-10-09

    We study how much the unique ability of the OPERA experiment to directly detect {nu}{sub {tau}} can help in probing new, non-standard contact interactions of the third family of neutrinos. We perform a combined analysis of future, high-statistics MINOS and OPERA data. For the case of non-standard interactions in {nu}{sub {mu}} to {nu}{sub e} transitions we also include the impact of possible Double Chooz data. In all cases we find that the {nu}{sub {tau}} sample of OPERA is too small to be statistically significant, even if one doubles the nominal exposure of OPERA to 9x10{sup 19} pot. OPERA's real benefit for this measurement lies in its very high neutrino energy and hence very different L/E compared to MINOS.

  7. Leptogenesis and composite heavy neutrinos with gauge-mediated interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biondini, S. [University of Bern, AEC, Institute for Theoretical Physics, Bern (Switzerland); Panella, O. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Perugia, Perugia (Italy)

    2017-09-15

    Leptogenesis is an appealing framework to account for the baryon asymmetry in the universe. To this end physics beyond the standard model is demanded. In this paper we investigate the possibility to attain successful leptogenesis with composite Majorana neutrinos. We work in the framework of effective gauge-mediated and contact interactions without any reference to an underlying compositeness theory. This approach is the one adopted in all current experimental searches for composite fermions at colliders. In the case of gauge-mediated interactions, we calculate the CP asymmetry in heavy composite neutrino decays. Both the direct and the indirect CP asymmetry are derived and resonant leptogenesis is also discussed. We find that the Sakharov conditions can be met and, for some choice of the parameters, the correct order of magnitude of the baryon asymmetry is reproduced. (orig.)

  8. Net charge of quark jets in (anti)neutrino interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teper, M.

    1981-01-01

    We analyse recent measurements of the net charges of quark jets in neutrino and antineutrino interactions. The data indicates that (i) the two quarks in the nucleon fragmentation region prefer to behave as a diquark rather than as a pair of independent quarks, and (ii) the struck quark does not appear to suffer any soft charge exchange of the kind that occurs when a valence quark inside a nucleon is slowed to x approx. O. (orig.)

  9. The not-so-sterile 4th neutrino: constraints on new gauge interactions from neutrino oscillation experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, Joachim; Welter, Johannes

    2014-12-01

    Sterile neutrino models with new gauge interactions in the sterile sector are phenomenologically interesting since they can lead to novel effects in neutrino oscillation experiments, in cosmology and in dark matter detectors, possibly even explaining some of the observed anomalies in these experiments. Here, we use data from neutrino oscillation experiments, in particular from MiniBooNE, MINOS and solar neutrino experiments, to constrain such models. We focus in particular on the case where the sterile sector gauge boson A ' couples also to Standard Model particles (for instance to the baryon number current) and thus induces a large Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein potential. For eV-scale sterile neutrinos, we obtain strong constraints especially from MINOS, which restricts the strength of the new interaction to be less than ˜ 10 times that of the Standard Model weak interaction unless active-sterile neutrino mixing is very small (sin2 θ 24 ≲ 10-3). This rules out gauge forces large enough to affect short-baseline experiments like MiniBooNE and it imposes nontrivial constraints on signals from sterile neutrino scattering in dark matter experiments.

  10. Single pion production in neutrino-nucleon interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabirnezhad, M.

    2018-01-01

    This work represents an extension of the single pion production model proposed by Rein [Z. Phys. C 35, 43 (1987)., 10.1007/BF01561054]. The model consists of resonant pion production and nonresonant background contributions coming from three Born diagrams in the helicity basis. The new work includes lepton mass effects, and nonresonance interaction is described by five diagrams based on a nonlinear σ model. This work provides a full kinematic description of single pion production in the neutrino-nucleon interactions, including resonant and nonresonant interactions in the helicity basis, in order to study the interference effect.

  11. Measurements of Neutrino Charged Current Interactions at SciBooNE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakajima, Yasuhiro [Department of Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)], E-mail: nakajima@scphys.kyoto-u.ac.jp

    2009-08-15

    The SciBooNE experiment (FNAL-E954) is designed to measure neutrino-nucleous cross sections in the one GeV region. Additionally, SciBooNE serves as a near detector for MiniBooNE by measuring the neutrino flux. In this paper, we describe two analyses using neutrino charged current interactions at SciBooNE: a neutrino spectrum measurement and a search for charged current coherent pion production.

  12. Engaging the Public Through an Interactive Astronomy Outreach Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Kristen

    2018-01-01

    The growing technology sector of the U.S. economy in an increasingly complex world has made it more important than ever for students to gather information, think critically, and solve problems. These skills are often acquired through the study of STEM disciplines. In an effort to inspire students and the public in the Charlotte, NC area to take an interest in STEM related fields, the Physics Department at Davidson College has recently developed an interactive astronomy community engagement program. This program is comprised of off-campus events that bring STEM programming to K-12 children, on-campus public star parties, and a day-long astronomy fair called Davidson Space Day. This presentation will illustrate the implementation of each of these components of our outreach program, present an evaluation of their success, and describe future goals and lessons learned thus far. This outreach program was made possible through funding from the NC Space Grant Consortium.

  13. Probing exotic physics with cosmic neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooper, Dan; Fermilab

    2005-01-01

    Traditionally, collider experiments have been the primary tool used in searching for particle physics beyond the Standard Model. In this talk, I will discuss alternative approaches for exploring exotic physics scenarios using high energy and ultra-high energy cosmic neutrinos. Such neutrinos can be used to study interactions at energies higher, and over baselines longer, than those accessible to colliders. In this way, neutrino astronomy can provide a window into fundamental physics which is highly complementary to collider techniques. I will discuss the role of neutrino astronomy in fundamental physics, considering the use of such techniques in studying several specific scenarios including low scale gravity models, Standard Model electroweak instanton induced interactions, decaying neutrinos and quantum decoherence

  14. Quasi-elastic interactions and one-pion production by neutrinos and anti-neutrinos on a deuterium target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barlag, S.J.M.

    1984-01-01

    In this thesis, the weak charged current interactions of neutrinos and antineutrinos with nucleons are described, in which the neutrino scatters in a quasi-elastic way with the nucleon, leaving an excited nucleon state. The experiments have been performed in the bubble chamber BEBC, filled with deuterium and exposed to the CERN Wide Band (anti-)neutrino beams. This gave the opportunity to study both interactions on protons and on neutrons separately, whereas the measurement of the exclusive channels could be performed with a high precision. After a short introduction of the relevant theories (standard model; QCD; one-pion production models; FKR quark model), the experimental set-up at CERN is described as well as the bubble chamber picture facility in Amsterdam. Next, results of the neutrino and antineutrino experiments are given followed by a comparison with theory. (Auth.)

  15. Study of neutrino interactions in the near detector of T2K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferchichi, Chiraz

    2014-01-01

    The T2K experiment studies the properties of neutrinos, particularly neutrino oscillations. It takes place in Japan and uses a muonic neutrino beam produced by the J-PARC accelerator complex, a near detector, ND280 on the J-PARC site in order to characterise the beam, and a far detector, Super-Kamiokande 295 km away in order to measure the neutrino oscillations. The near detector is also used to study the neutrino interactions and the goal of this thesis is the measurement of muonic neutrino deep inelastic scattering cross sections.The thesis first introduces neutrino physics, then the T2K experiment and more particularly the time projection chambers of the near detector, and its data quality checking that I was in charge of. The analysis is based on the T2K data recorded until 2013. The selection of charged current muonic neutrino interactions is then presented, as well as a preliminary study of the selection of charged current muonic neutrino interactions with the production of a neutral pion. A criterion on track multiplicity allows enriching the former sample in interactions corresponding to a neutrino deep inelastic scattering. Finally a fit, first validated on simulated data, allows the extraction of the muonic neutrino deep inelastic scattering cross sections. (author) [fr

  16. Backward particle production in neutrino neon interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsinos, E.; Simopoulou, E.; Giannakopoulos, N.; Vayaki, A.; Guy, J.; Venus, W.; Allport, P.; Cooper-Sarkar, A.M.; Sansum, R.A.; Berggren, M.; Morrison, D.R.O.; Parker, M.A.; Wachsmuth, H.; Calicchio, M.; Erriquez, O.; Coghen, T.; Jones, G.T.; O'Neale, S.O.; Varvell, K.; Marage, P.; Sacton, J.; Mobayyen, M.M.; Schmitz, N.; Wittek, W.; Apeldoorn, G.W. van

    1989-01-01

    Backward proton and pion production is studied in ν and anti ν charged current interactions in neon. The results are compared with other experiments and theory. The complete backward proton data are compatible with protons produced by reinteractions in the nucleus. However in events with only one proton, muon variables appear correlated to those for the backward proton, as expected by the two-nucleon correlation model. (orig.)

  17. Neutrino-argon interactions in the T2K near detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, Lukas; Radermacher, Thomas; Roth, Stefan; Steinmann, Jochen [III. Physikalisches Institut B, RWTH Aachen (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The T2K near detector employs three large, argon-filled TPCs with a total fiducial volume of about 10 m{sup 3} at ambient pressure. These TPCs have been exposed to the intense T2K muon-neutrino beam since the start of the experiment. The beam has a mean neutrino energy of 600 MeV and so far, data corresponding to over 6 . 10{sup 20}(4 . 10{sup 20}) protons on target was recorded in neutrino (anti-neutrino) mode. We expect about 600 charged current neutrino-argon interactions in the data. That enables us to do the world's first neutrino-Argon cross section measurement in gaseous argon, thus making an important contribution to constraining nuclear interaction models for future neutrino oscillation measurements. This talk describes the physics goals and present the current status of the analysis.

  18. Phenomenological bounds in inclusive neutrino interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aubrecht, G.J. II; Takasugi, E.; Tanaka, K.

    1975-01-01

    Using expressions for the ν and anti ν charged and neutral current cross sections and the electroproduction structure function integral and positivity requirements of the sea contribution, bounds are obtained on sigma/sup anti nu N//sigma/sup anti nu N/, and sigma/sup anti nu N//sub nc//sigma/sup nu N//sub nc/ in the standard model. A bound on sigma/sup anti nu N//sigma/sup nu N/ obtained with a V + A term anti p'γ/sub mu/(1-γ 5 )n is used to rule out such a term in the current. A plot of sigma/sup nu N//sub nc/ + sigma/sup anti nu N//sub nc/ versus sigma/sup nu N//sub nc/ - sigma/sup anti nu N//sub nc/ is introduced to analyze the neutral current data. A new relation connecting moments of y and y distributions at a particular point y/sub n/ for ν and anti ν interactions is found. The results do not depend on the neutral current data

  19. Can the Sun shed light on neutrino gravitational interactions?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halprin, A.; Leung, C.N.

    1991-01-01

    We have examined the effects of a large gravitational field on the phenomenon of neutrino oscillations as contemplated in the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein mechanism. We find that the Sun's gravitational field would amplify any small breakdown in the universality of the gravitational coupling by many orders of magnitude. A breakdown of only 1 part in 10 14 would still make the gravitational effect comparable to the conventional weak interaction. The differing energy dependences of the two level-crossing mechanisms can therefore be used as a very sensitive tool to test the conventional universality hypothesis

  20. Precision Measurement of the Beryllium-7 Solar Neutrino Interaction Rate in Borexino

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldanha, Richard Nigel

    Solar neutrinos, since their first detection nearly forty years ago, have revealed valuable information regarding the source of energy production in the Sun, and have demonstrated that neutrino oscillations are well described by the Large Mixing Angle (LMA) oscillation parameters with matter interactions due to the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) effect. This thesis presents a precision measurement of the 7Be solar neutrino interaction rate within Borexino, an underground liquid scintillator detector that is designed to measure solar neutrino interactions through neutrino-electron elastic scattering. The thesis includes a detailed description of the analysis techniques developed and used for this measurement as well as an evaluation of the relevant systematic uncertainties that affect the precision of the result. The rate of neutrino-electron elastic scattering from 0.862 MeV 7Be neutrinos is determined to be 45.4 +/- 1.6 (stat) +/- 1.5 (sys) counts/day/100 ton. Due to extensive detector calibrations and improved analysis methods, the systematic uncertainty in the interaction rate has been reduced by more than a factor of two from the previous evaluation. In the no-oscillation hypothesis, the interaction rate corresponds to a 0.862 MeV 7Be electron neutrino flux of (2.75 +/- 0.13) x 10 9 cm-2 sec-1. Including the predicted neutrino flux from the Standard Solar Model yields an electron neutrino survival probability of Pee 0.51 +/- 0.07 and rules out the no-oscillation hypothesis at 5.1sigma The LMA-MSW neutrino oscillation model predicts a transition in the solar Pee value between low ( 10 MeV) energies which has not yet been experimentally confirmed. This result, in conjunction with the Standard Solar Model, represents the most precise measurement of the electron neutrino survival probability for solar neutrinos at sub-MeV energies.

  1. Search for Quarks in High-Energy Neutrino Interactions

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    This experiment is a search for quarks produced in high energy neutrino interactions. Neutrino interactions take place in a 23-ton lead target and are recognized by one or more particles crossing the counter hodoscopes S1 and S2, together with the absence of an incident particle signal in the initial veto counter V^0.\\\\ \\\\ The lead is viewed by an avalanche chamber to measure the specific ionization of the charged secondaries produced in the @n-interaction with high accuracy even in jet-like events, and by a series of two pairs of scintillation counter hodoscopes (ST1, ST2). The latter provide time-of-flight measurements and dE/dx measurements for a fast analysis in low and medium multiplicity provide a trigger for the chamber. \\\\ \\\\ In order to reduce the background in the set-up, very low momentum particles (mainly due to cascading processes in the target) are separated out by a @= 1 T.m magnet placed behind the target. \\\\ \\\\ A system of wire chambers W1, W2, which register both the position and the time at...

  2. Precision Measurement of the Be7 Solar Neutrino Interaction Rate in Borexino

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellini, G.; Benziger, J.; Bick, D.; Bonetti, S.; Bonfini, G.; Buizza Avanzini, M.; Caccianiga, B.; Cadonati, L.; Calaprice, F.; Carraro, C.; Cavalcante, P.; Chavarria, A.; D'Angelo, D.; Davini, S.; Derbin, A.; Etenko, A.; Fomenko, K.; Franco, D.; Galbiati, C.; Gazzana, S.; Ghiano, C.; Giammarchi, M.; Goeger-Neff, M.; Goretti, A.; Grandi, L.; Guardincerri, E.; Hardy, S.; Ianni, Aldo; Ianni, Andrea; Kobychev, V.; Korablev, D.; Korga, G.; Koshio, Y.; Kryn, D.; Laubenstein, M.; Lewke, T.; Litvinovich, E.; Loer, B.; Lombardi, F.; Lombardi, P.; Ludhova, L.; Machulin, I.; Manecki, S.; Maneschg, W.; Manuzio, G.; Meindl, Q.; Meroni, E.; Miramonti, L.; Misiaszek, M.; Montanari, D.; Mosteiro, P.; Muratova, V.; Oberauer, L.; Obolensky, M.; Ortica, F.; Pallavicini, M.; Papp, L.; Peña-Garay, C.; Perasso, L.; Perasso, S.; Pocar, A.; Raghavan, R. S.; Ranucci, G.; Razeto, A.; Re, A.; Romani, A.; Sabelnikov, A.; Saldanha, R.; Salvo, C.; Schönert, S.; Simgen, H.; Skorokhvatov, M.; Smirnov, O.; Sotnikov, A.; Sukhotin, S.; Suvorov, Y.; Tartaglia, R.; Testera, G.; Vignaud, D.; Vogelaar, R. B.; von Feilitzsch, F.; Winter, J.; Wojcik, M.; Wright, A.; Wurm, M.; Xu, J.; Zaimidoroga, O.; Zavatarelli, S.; Zuzel, G.

    2011-09-01

    The rate of neutrino-electron elastic scattering interactions from 862 keV Be7 solar neutrinos in Borexino is determined to be 46.0±1.5(stat)-1.6+1.5(syst)counts/(day·100ton). This corresponds to a νe-equivalent Be7 solar neutrino flux of (3.10±0.15)×109cm-2s-1 and, under the assumption of νe transition to other active neutrino flavours, yields an electron neutrino survival probability of 0.51±0.07 at 862 keV. The no flavor change hypothesis is ruled out at 5.0σ. A global solar neutrino analysis with free fluxes determines Φpp=6.06-0.06+0.02×1010cm-2s-1 and ΦCNOMikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein large mixing angle neutrino oscillation model is experimentally tested at low energy.

  3. Observational constraints on secret neutrino interactions from big bang nucleosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Guo-yuan; Ohlsson, Tommy; Zhou, Shun

    2018-04-01

    We investigate possible interactions between neutrinos and massive scalar bosons via gϕν ¯ν ϕ (or massive vector bosons via gVν ¯γμν Vμ) and explore the allowed parameter space of the coupling constant gϕ (or gV) and the scalar (or vector) boson mass mϕ (or mV) by requiring that these secret neutrino interactions (SNIs) should not spoil the success of big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN). Incorporating the SNIs into the evolution of the early Universe in the BBN era, we numerically solve the Boltzmann equations and compare the predictions for the abundances of light elements with observations. It turns out that the constraint on gϕ and mϕ in the scalar-boson case is rather weak, due to a small number of degrees of freedom (d.o.f.). However, in the vector-boson case, the most stringent bound on the coupling gV≲6 ×10-10 at 95% confidence level is obtained for mV≃1 MeV , while the bound becomes much weaker gV≲8 ×10-6 for smaller masses mV≲10-4 MeV . Moreover, we discuss in some detail how the SNIs affect the cosmological evolution and the abundances of the lightest elements.

  4. A Measurement of Coherent Neutral Pion Production in Neutrino Neutral Current Interactions in NOMAD experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Kullenberg, C T

    2009-01-01

    We present a study of exclusive neutral pion production in neutrino-nucleus Neutral Current interactions using data from the NOMAD experiment at the CERN SPS. The data correspond to $1.44 \\times 10^6$ muon-neutrino Charged Current interactions in the energy range $2.5 \\leq E_{\

  5. Study of atmospheric neutrino interactions with the Frejus detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longuemare, C.

    1988-06-01

    A detailed analysis of the 165 neutrino events collected in the Frejus detector during three years of running is presented. This sample, which corresponds to a 1.3 kt.year sensitivity, is compared to the predictions of a neutrino Monte Carlo simulation program based on a calculated atmospheric neutrino flux. The agreement is satisfactory at the present statistical level

  6. Recent results on neutrino, antineutrino charged current interactions at NAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aubert, B.; Benvenuti, A.; Cline, D.; Ford, W.T.; Imlay, R.; Ling, T.Y.; Mann, A.K.; Messing, F.; Piccioni, R.L.; Pilcher, J.; Reeder, D.D.; Rubbia, C.; Stefanski, R.; Sulak, L.

    The dependence of the neutrino cross section on energy has been measured to 160GeV. The ratio sigma(antineutrino)/sigma(neutrino) is measured up to 70GeV. Preliminary results are presented for the distributions of the scaling variables x, y observed in neutrino induced events

  7. Neutrino masses and neutrino oscillations

    CERN Document Server

    Di Lella, L

    2000-01-01

    These lectures review direct measurements of neutrino masses and the status of neutrino oscillation searches using both natural neutrino sources (the Sun and cosmic rays interacting in the Earth atmosphere) and artificial neutrinos (produced by nuclear reactors and accelerators). Finally, future experiments and plans are presented. (68 refs).

  8. Multilepton production in neutrino interactions and proton-antiproton collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valenzuela, G.N.

    1985-01-01

    In part I, we consider the class of events containing 2 or 3 leptons in (anti-neutrino deep inelastic scattering and in proton-antiproton collisions. Understanding the characteristics and rate of production of this type of event has often proven to be a theoretical challenge. We show that a cluster model involving associated-charm production not only accounts for certain dimuon events, but also affords better agreement with experiment regarding trimuons produced in neutrino interactions. We also investigate correlations between D-meson and dimuon production in p anti p collisions in the context of a cluster model which includes the possibility of finding b anti b pairs in jets. Part II consists of a study of radiation zeros in the reaction p anti p → l anti nuγX. It has been proposed that the radiation zero phenomenon could be observed in processes involving the radiative decay of the W-boson. These processes might allow the measurement of the W anomalous magnetic moment. We calculate the effect on this measurement of the decay width and the non-zero transverse momentum of the W. We find that although the radiation zero is filled in to some extent, it might still be possible to estimate the magnetic moment of the W in future experiments

  9. Single pi-zero production in neutrino interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapin, T.J.

    1976-01-01

    Production of single π 0 particles in neutrino reactions was studied in an experiment at the Brookhaven National Laboratory Alternating Gradient Synchrotron. The neutral current reactions, νn → νnπ 0 and νp → νpπ 0 , and the charged current reaction, νn → μ - pπ 0 , were investigated. The neutrino detector was made up of optical spark chambers and liquid and solid scintillation counters. The π 0 is detected by observing showers from its decay into two gamma rays. Muons are distinguished from other particles by their long range without interaction. Time of flight measurement is used to discriminate against neutron background. The neutral and charged current events are discussed, and the ratio of neutral current events to charged current events is found to be 0.149 +- 0.048 after corrections. Nuclear charge exchange corrections to this result because the detector contains complex nuclei are also discussed. Kinematic distributions for the final state particles and the pπ 0 mass distribution are given

  10. Time delays of supernova neutrinos from new long-range interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malaney, R.A.; Starkman, G.D.; Tremaine, S.

    1995-01-01

    A new long-range interaction between heavy neutrinos may solve some current problems in large-scale structure, if the new interaction mimics gravity. Assuming that the dark matter is dominated by ∼100 eV τ neutrinos, we investigate whether time delay measurements on supernova neutrinos can test this possibility. We find that such experiments can rule out or detect specific forms of the new interaction potential. In addition, we find the exact dispersive nature of the interacting medium to be critical in determining the time delay: even small corrections to the potential can dramatically alter the magnitude of the effect

  11. Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein effect with flavor-changing neutrino interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roulet, E.

    1991-01-01

    We consider the effect that flavor-nondiagonal neutrino interactions with matter have on the resonant ν oscillations. It is shown that, even in the absence of ν mixing in a vacuum, an efficient conversion of the electron neutrinos from the Sun to another ν flavor can result if the strength of this interaction is ∼10 -2 G F . We show how this can be implemented in the minimal supersymmetric standard model with R-parity breaking. Here, the L-violating couplings induce neutrino masses, mixings, and the flavor-nondiagonal neutrino interactions that can provide a Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein-like solution to the solar-neutrino problem even for negligible vacuum mixings

  12. Observation of shadowing of neutrino- and antineutrino-nucleus interactions and comparison with PCAC predictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allport, P.P.; Radojicic, D.; Guy, J.; Venus, W.; Cooper-Sarkar, A.M.; Aderholz, M.; Schmitz, N.; Wittek, W.; Berggren, M.; Jones, G.T.; O'Neale, S.; Varvell, K.; Marage, P.; Mobayyen, M.; Morrison, D.R.O.; Parker, M.A.; Wachsmuth, H.; Neveu, M.; Simopoulou, E.; Vayaki, A.; Apeldoorn, G. van

    1989-01-01

    Comparing the kinematical distributions of events obtained on neon and deuterium targets in similar experimental conditions reveals a reduction of the neutrino and antineutrino charged current cross section per nucleon in neon at low Q 2 . The effect, interpreted as due to geometric shadowing of the weak propagator in interactions of neutrinos and antineutrinos with nuclei, agrees well with predictions derived from PCAC. (orig.)

  13. Observation of shadowing of neutrino- and antineutrino-nucleus interactions and comparison with PCAC predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allport, P. P.; Erriquez, O.; Guy, J.; Venus, W.; Aderholz, M.; Berggren, M.; Bullock, F. W.; Calicchio, M.; Coghen, T.; Cooper-Sarkar, A. M.; Jones, G. T.; Marage, P.; Mobayyen, M.; Morrison, D. R. O.; Neveu, M.; Parker, M. A.; Radojicic, D.; Sansum, R. A.; Saitta, B.; Schmitz, N.; Simopoulou, E.; O'neale, S.; Van Apeldoorn, G.; Varvell, K.; Vayaki, A.; Wachsmuth, H.; Wittek, W.; BEBC WA59 Collaboration

    1989-12-01

    Comparing the kinematical distributions of events obtained on neon and deuterium targets in similar experimental conditions reveals a reduction of the neutrino and antineutrino charged current cross section per nucleon in neon at low Q2. The effect, interpreted as due to geometric shadowing of the weak propagator in interactions of neutrinos and antineutrinos with nuclei, agrees well with predictions derived from PCAC.

  14. Scientific Visualization of Radio Astronomy Data using Gesture Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulumba, P.; Gain, J.; Marais, P.; Woudt, P.

    2015-09-01

    MeerKAT in South Africa (Meer = More Karoo Array Telescope) will require software to help visualize, interpret and interact with multidimensional data. While visualization of multi-dimensional data is a well explored topic, little work has been published on the design of intuitive interfaces to such systems. More specifically, the use of non-traditional interfaces (such as motion tracking and multi-touch) has not been widely investigated within the context of visualizing astronomy data. We hypothesize that a natural user interface would allow for easier data exploration which would in turn lead to certain kinds of visualizations (volumetric, multidimensional). To this end, we have developed a multi-platform scientific visualization system for FITS spectral data cubes using VTK (Visualization Toolkit) and a natural user interface to explore the interaction between a gesture input device and multidimensional data space. Our system supports visual transformations (translation, rotation and scaling) as well as sub-volume extraction and arbitrary slicing of 3D volumetric data. These tasks were implemented across three prototypes aimed at exploring different interaction strategies: standard (mouse/keyboard) interaction, volumetric gesture tracking (Leap Motion controller) and multi-touch interaction (multi-touch monitor). A Heuristic Evaluation revealed that the volumetric gesture tracking prototype shows great promise for interfacing with the depth component (z-axis) of 3D volumetric space across multiple transformations. However, this is limited by users needing to remember the required gestures. In comparison, the touch-based gesture navigation is typically more familiar to users as these gestures were engineered from standard multi-touch actions. Future work will address a complete usability test to evaluate and compare the different interaction modalities against the different visualization tasks.

  15. Workshop: Neutrino telescopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    Despite being the most elusive of the known particles, neutrinos provide vital new physics insights. Most neutrino knowledge so far has come from studies using beams from reactors and accelerators, but in recent years important new contributions have resulted from investigation of natural neutrinos from cosmic rays, nearby stars (the sun), or distant sources, such as the 1987 supernova. The supernova observations marked the start of a new era in neutrino astronomy, but neutrino telescopes were anyway assured of an important ongoing role

  16. Workshop: Neutrino telescopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1990-05-15

    Despite being the most elusive of the known particles, neutrinos provide vital new physics insights. Most neutrino knowledge so far has come from studies using beams from reactors and accelerators, but in recent years important new contributions have resulted from investigation of natural neutrinos from cosmic rays, nearby stars (the sun), or distant sources, such as the 1987 supernova. The supernova observations marked the start of a new era in neutrino astronomy, but neutrino telescopes were anyway assured of an important ongoing role.

  17. Elementary particle interactions. [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bugg, W.M.; Condo, G.T.; Handler, T.; Hart, E.L.; Read, K.; Ward, B.F.L.

    1992-10-01

    Work continues on strange particle production in weak interactions using data from a high-energy neutrino exposure in a freon bubble chamber. Meson photoproduction has also consumed considerable effort. Detector research and development activities have been carried out.

  18. Coherent rho+ production in neutrino-neon interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballagh, H.C.; Bingham, H.H.; Lawry, T.J.

    1988-01-01

    Coherent rho + production on neon nuclei has been observed in charged-current events in a neutrino bubble-chamber experiment. The incident neutrino energy was 10--320 GeV, with a median event energy of 80 GeV. The rate per charged-current event was (0.28 +- 0.10)%. Comparison was made to vector-meson-dominance predictions; agreement with the overall rate, but disagreement at high neutrino energies and at high Q 2 , was found

  19. Production of neutrinos and neutrino-like particles in proton-nucleus interactions. [400 GeV, cross sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dishaw, J.P.

    1979-03-01

    An experimental search was performed to look for the direct production of neutrinos or neutrino-like particles, i.e., neutral particles which interact weakly with hadrons, in proton-nucleus interactions at 400 GeV incident proton energy. Possible sources of such particles include the semi-leptonic decay of new heavy particles such as charm, and the direct production of a light neutral Higgs particle such as the axion. The production of these particles has been inferred in this experiment by energy nonconservation in the collision of a proton with an iron nucleus. The total visible energy of the interaction was measured using a sampling ionization calorimeter. After correcting for beam intensity effects and cutting the data to eliminate systematic effects in the measurement, the final resolution of the calorimeter was 3.51% and increased with decreasing incident beam energy with a square root dependence on the beam energy. Energy nonconservation in the data is manifest as a non-Gaussian distribution on the low side of the calorimeter measured energy. Model calculations yield the fraction of events expected in this non-Gaussian behavior for the various sources of neutrinos or neutrino-like particles. A maximum likelihood fit to the data with the theoretical fraction of events expected yields the 95% confidence level production cross section upper limit values. The upper limits for general production of neutrino-like particles for various parameterizations of the production cross section are presented. The following specific upper limits have been established: charm particle production < 670 ..mu..barns, supersymmetric particle production carrying an additional quantum number R < 33 ..mu..barns (mass of 1 GeV), 8 ..mu..barns (mass of 3 GeV); axion production < 10/sup -3/ times the ..pi../sup 0/ production cross section. 144 references.

  20. Proceedings of the Magellan workshop 2016. Connecting neutrino physics and astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahmke, Stefan K.G.

    2016-09-01

    The first Magellan Workshop took place on March 17th/18th 2016 in Hamburg. Several topics have been addressed during the workshop with the most time devoted to discussing stellar physics and supernova physics. These two key topics are especially interesting to two distinct fields, each with their own approach, method and extensive knowledge gained: astrophysics and neutrino physics. It is thus no surprise that the workshop specifically intended to bring these groups together was met with a certain enthusiasm. 46 scientists working in institutions across seven countries attended a total of 30 plenary talks during their two days in Hamburg. The workshop then concluded with a trip to the Hamburg Observatory, for a tour of the historic and current telescopes. While supernovae of course were a primary topic, the presentations included many different, exciting projects. From relatively nearby objects in studies on geoneutrinos originating from inside the Earth via stellar physics in the refinement of solar models to high energy sources across multiple galaxies to the Cosmic Microwave Background. One particular subject in the field of supernova physics for the past 29 years of course has been the supernova SN1987A, mostly owed to its fairly recent explosion enabling modern science to observe the event from Earth and space alike both in electromagnetic waves and particle fluxes. These measurements have greatly expanded our knowledge as many theories on both the internal mechanisms as well as the evolution of supernovae could consequently be tested. Not only does the Large Magellanic Cloud which hosts this famous supernova serve as a pictoral symbol for our workshop, it is also now commonly named after Ferdinand Magellan, who was not the first to discover this prominent feature in the southern night sky, but the one whose journey brought news of its marvellous sight to European astronomers back in the late 16th century. Furthermore this journey shall serve as a symbol of

  1. Proceedings of the Magellan workshop 2016. Connecting neutrino physics and astronomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahmke, Stefan K.G. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Hamburger Sternwarte; Meyer, Mikko [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Experimentalphysik; Vanhoefer, Laura (ed.) [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany)

    2016-09-15

    The first Magellan Workshop took place on March 17th/18th 2016 in Hamburg. Several topics have been addressed during the workshop with the most time devoted to discussing stellar physics and supernova physics. These two key topics are especially interesting to two distinct fields, each with their own approach, method and extensive knowledge gained: astrophysics and neutrino physics. It is thus no surprise that the workshop specifically intended to bring these groups together was met with a certain enthusiasm. 46 scientists working in institutions across seven countries attended a total of 30 plenary talks during their two days in Hamburg. The workshop then concluded with a trip to the Hamburg Observatory, for a tour of the historic and current telescopes. While supernovae of course were a primary topic, the presentations included many different, exciting projects. From relatively nearby objects in studies on geoneutrinos originating from inside the Earth via stellar physics in the refinement of solar models to high energy sources across multiple galaxies to the Cosmic Microwave Background. One particular subject in the field of supernova physics for the past 29 years of course has been the supernova SN1987A, mostly owed to its fairly recent explosion enabling modern science to observe the event from Earth and space alike both in electromagnetic waves and particle fluxes. These measurements have greatly expanded our knowledge as many theories on both the internal mechanisms as well as the evolution of supernovae could consequently be tested. Not only does the Large Magellanic Cloud which hosts this famous supernova serve as a pictoral symbol for our workshop, it is also now commonly named after Ferdinand Magellan, who was not the first to discover this prominent feature in the southern night sky, but the one whose journey brought news of its marvellous sight to European astronomers back in the late 16th century. Furthermore this journey shall serve as a symbol of

  2. Development of the radio astronomical method of cosmic particle detection for extremely high-energy cosmic ray physics and neutrino astronomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheleznykh Igor

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The proposal to use ground based radio telescopes for detection of Askaryan radio pulses from particle cascades arising when extremely high-energy (EHE > 1020 eV cosmic rays (including neutrinos interact with the lunar regolith of multi gigaton mass was made at the end of 1980s in the framework of the Russian (Soviet DUMAND Program. During more than a quarter of century a number of lunar experiments were carried out mainly in the 1–3 GHz frequency range using the large radio telescopes of Australia, USA, Russia and other countries but these experiments only put upper limits to the EHE cosmic rays fluxes. For this reason, it would be of great interest to search for nanosecond radio pulses from the Moon in a wider interval of frequencies (including lower ones of 100–350 MHz with larger radio detectors – for example the giant radio telescope SKA (Square Kilometer Array which is constructed in Australia, New Zealand and South Africa. In this paper possibilities are discussed to use one of the most sensitive meter-wavelength (∼ 110 MHz Large Phased Array (LPA of 187 × 384 m2 and the wide field of view meter-wavelength array of the Pushchino Radio Astronomy Observatory as prototypes of low frequency radio detectors for lunar experiments. The new scheme for fast simulation of ultrahigh and extremely high-energy cascades in dense media is also suggested. This scheme will be used later for calculations of radio emission of cascades in the lunar regolith with energies up to 1020 eV and higher in the wide frequency band of 0.1− a few GHz.

  3. Spin and electroweak effects in the neutrino-electron interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerimov, B.K.; Safin, M.Yu.; Haidar, N.; Tikhomirov, A.M.

    1987-01-01

    The experimental data on elastic ν-bar e e - scattering with reactor antineutrinos are also analysed. νe - and ν-bare - scattering are highly sensitive to values of the EM moments of neutrinos. The results obtained give following bounds on the values of neutrino EM moments: f 2ν (0), g 2ν (0) -11

  4. Nonlinear neutrino-photon interactions inside strong laser pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meuren, Sebastian; Keitel, Christoph H.; Di Piazza, Antonino [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    As different neutrino mass eigenstates exist, only the lightest neutrino is absolutely stable. However, due to the small phase space and the GIM suppression mechanism the radiative neutrino lifetime is much larger than the age of the universe. Interestingly, the photon-emission probability by a neutrino is drastically increased in the presence of an external background field. Therefore, it is natural to ask the question whether this so-called ''electromagnetic catalysis'' could be studied in an laboratory experiment using existing and upcoming laser facilities. To shed light on this question, we derive the vector-axialvector coupling tensor in the presence of an arbitrary plane-wave background field, which is needed for the calculation of the radiative neutrino decay. Furthermore, we study the Adler-Bell-Jackiw anomaly associated with this object in detail.

  5. A Measurement of the Charged-Current Interaction Cross Section of the Tau Neutrino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maher, Emily O' Connor [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2007-02-01

    The Fermilab experiment E872 (DONUT) was designed to make the first observation of the tau neutrino charged-current interaction. Using a hybrid emulsion-spectrometer detector, the tau lepton was identified by its single-prong or trident decay. Six interactions were observed, of which five were in the deep inelastic scattering region. These five interaction were used to measure the charged-current cross section of the tau neutrino. To minimize uncertainties, the tau neutrino cross section was measured relative to the electron neutrino cross section. The result σντNconstνeNconst = 0.77 ± 0.39 is consistent with 1.0, which is predicted by lepton universality. The tau neutrino cross section was also measured for 115 GeV neutrinos, which was the average energy of the interacted tau neutrinos. The result σντNexp = 45 ± 21 x 10-38 cm2 is consistent with the standard model prediction calculated in this thesis, σντNSM = 48 ± 5 x 10-38 cm2.

  6. Shifts of neutrino oscillation parameters in reactor antineutrino experiments with non-standard interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Feng Li

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We discuss reactor antineutrino oscillations with non-standard interactions (NSIs at the neutrino production and detection processes. The neutrino oscillation probability is calculated with a parametrization of the NSI parameters by splitting them into the averages and differences of the production and detection processes respectively. The average parts induce constant shifts of the neutrino mixing angles from their true values, and the difference parts can generate the energy (and baseline dependent corrections to the initial mass-squared differences. We stress that only the shifts of mass-squared differences are measurable in reactor antineutrino experiments. Taking Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory (JUNO as an example, we analyze how NSIs influence the standard neutrino measurements and to what extent we can constrain the NSI parameters.

  7. Nuclear weak interactions, supernova nucleosynthesis and neutrino oscillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajino, Toshitaka

    2013-07-01

    We study the nuclear weak response in light-to-heavy mass nuclei and calculate neutrino-nucleus cross sections. We apply these cross sections to the explosive nucleosynthesis in core-collapse supernovae and find that several isotopes of rare elements 7Li, 11B, 138La, 180Ta and several others are predominantly produced by the neutrino-process nucleosynthesis. We discuss how to determine the suitable neutrino spectra of three different flavors and their anti-particles in order to explain the observed solar system abundances of these isotopes, combined with Galactic chemical evolution of the light nuclei and the heavy r-process elements. Light-mass nuclei like 7Li and 11B, which are produced in outer He-layer, are strongly affected by the neutrino flavor oscillation due to the MSW (Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein) effect, while heavy-mass nuclei like 138La, 180Ta and r-process elements, which are produced in the inner O-Ne-Mg layer or the atmosphere of proto-neutron star, are likely to be free from the MSW effect. Using such a different nature of the neutrino-process nucleosynthesis, we study the neutrino oscillation effects on their abundances, and propose a new novel method to determine the unknown neutrino oscillation parameters, θ13 and mass hierarchy, simultaneously. There is recent evidence that some SiC X grains from the Murchison meteorite may contain supernova-produced neutrino-process 11B and 7Li encapsulated in the grains. Combining the recent experimental constraints on θ13, we show that although the uncertainties are still large, our method hints at a marginal preference for an inverted neutrino mass hierarchy for the first time.

  8. Study of electron and neutrino interactions. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abashian, A.

    1997-01-01

    This is the final report for the DOE-sponsored experimental particle physics program at Virginia Tech to study the properties of the Standard Model of strong and electroweak interactions. This contract (DE-AS05-80ER10713) covers the period from August 1, 1980 to January 31, 1993. Task B of this contract, headed by Professor Alexander Abashian, is described in this final report. This program has been pursued on many fronts by the researchers in a search for axions at SLAC, in electron-positron collisions in the AMY experiment at the TRISTAN collider in Japan, in measurements of muon decay properties in the MEGA and RHO experiments at the LAMPF accelerator, in a detailed analysis of scattering effects in the purported observation of a 17 keV neutrino at Oxford, in a search for a disoriented chiral condensate with the MiniMax experiment at Fermilab, and in an R ampersand D program on resistive plate counters that could find use in low-cost high-quality charged particle detection at low rates

  9. Study of high-energy neutrino neutral-current interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aderholz, M.; Aggarwal, M.M.; Akbari, H.; Allport, P.P.; Badyal, S.K.; Ballagh, H.C.; Barth, M.; Baton, J.P.; Bingham, H.H.; Brucker, E.B.; Burnstein, R.A.; Campbell, J.R.; Cence, R.J.; Chatterjee, T.K.; Clayton, E.F.; Corrigan, G.; Coutures, C.; DeProspo, D.; Devanand; De Wolf, E.A.; Faulkner, P.J.W.; Foeth, H.; Fretter, W.B.; Gupta, V.K.; Hanlon, J.; Harigel, G.; Harris, F.A.; Jabiol, M.A.; Jacques, P.; Jain, V.; Jones, G.T.; Jones, M.D.; Kafka, T.; Kalelkar, M.; Kasper, P.; Kohli, J.M.; Koller, E.L.; Krawiec, R.J.; Lauko, M.; Lys, J.E.; Marage, P.; Milburn, R.H.; Miller, D.B.; Mittra, I.S.; Mobayyen, M.M.; Moreels, J.; Morrison, D.R.O.; Myatt, G.; Nailor, P.; Naon, R.; Napier, A.; Neveu, M.; Passmore, D.; Peters, M.W.; Peterson, V.Z.; Plano, R.; Rao, N.K.; Rubin, H.A.; Sacton, J.; Sambyal, S.S.; Schmitz, N.; Schneps, J.; Singh, J.B.; Smart, W.; Stamer, P.; Varvell, K.E.; Verluyten, L.; Wachsmuth, H.; Wainstein, S.; Willocq, S.; Yost, G.P.

    1992-01-01

    From an exposure of the Fermilab 15-foot bubble chamber to the Tevatron quadrupole triplet neutrino beam, we have determined the ratio of neutral-current (NC) to charged-current (CC) interactions to be 0.288±0.032 for events with visible hadron momentum above 10 GeV/c. The mean ν(bar ν) event energy is 150 (110) GeV, which is higher than that for any previous beam. This result agrees with those from previous experiments at lower energies. The NC/CC ratio is derived for a combined sample of ν and bar ν events. A value of 0.274±0.038 is obtained for the dominant ν component assuming bar ν NC/CC=0.39±0.08. For events with visible hadron momentum above 25 GeV/c, where the neutral hadron contamination remaining in the NC sample is assumed to be negligible, the combined NC/CC is 0.323±0.025 and the K 0 production rates are 0.375±0.064 per CC and 0.322±0.073 per NC event. The corresponding Λ rates are 0.161±0.030 per CC and 0.113±0.030 per NC event. The K 0 and Λ distributions of the fractional hadron energy variable z in NC events are consistent with those in CC events

  10. Study of high-energy neutrino neutral-current interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aderholz, M.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Akbari, H.; Allport, P. P.; Badyal, S. K.; Ballagh, H. C.; Barth, M.; Baton, J. P.; Bingham, H. H.; Brucker, E. B.; Burnstein, R. A.; Campbell, J. R.; Cence, R. J.; Chatterjee, T. K.; Clayton, E. F.; Corrigan, G.; Coutures, C.; Deprospo, D.; Devanand; de Wolf, E. A.; Faulkner, P. J.; Foeth, H.; Fretter, W. B.; Gupta, V. K.; Hanlon, J.; Harigel, G.; Harris, F. A.; Jabiol, M. A.; Jacques, P.; Jain, V.; Jones, G. T.; Jones, M. D.; Kafka, T.; Kalelkar, M.; Kasper, P.; Kohli, J. M.; Koller, E. L.; Krawiec, R. J.; Lauko, M.; Lys, J. E.; Marage, P.; Milburn, R. H.; Miller, D. B.; Mittra, I. S.; Mobayyen, M. M.; Moreels, J.; Morrison, D. R.; Myatt, G.; Nailor, P.; Naon, R.; Napier, A.; Neveu, M.; Passmore, D.; Peters, M. W.; Peterson, V. Z.; Plano, R.; Rao, N. K.; Rubin, H. A.; Sacton, J.; Sambyal, S. S.; Schmitz, N.; Schneps, J.; Singh, J. B.; Smart, W.; Stamer, P.; Varvell, K. E.; Verluyten, L.; Wachsmuth, H.; Wainstein, S.; Willocq, S.; Yost, G. P.

    1992-04-01

    From an exposure of the Fermilab 15-foot bubble chamber to the Tevatron quadrupole triplet neutrino beam, we have determined the ratio of neutral-current (NC) to charged-current (CC) interactions to be 0.288+/-0.032 for events with visible hadron momentum above 10 GeV/c. The mean ν(ν¯) event energy is 150 (110) GeV, which is higher than that for any previous beam. This result agrees with those from previous experiments at lower energies. The NC/CC ratio is derived for a combined sample of ν and ν¯ events. A value of 0.274+/-0.038 is obtained for the dominant ν component assuming ν¯ NC/CC=0.39+/-0.08. For events with visible hadron momentum above 25 GeV/c, where the neutral hadron contamination remaining in the NC sample is assumed to be negligible, the combined NC/CC is 0.323+/-0.025 and the K0 production rates are 0.375+/-0.064 per CC and 0.322+/-0.073 per NC event. The corresponding Λ rates are 0.161+/-0.030 per CC and 0.113+/-0.030 per NC event. The K0 and Λ distributions of the fractional hadron energy variable z in NC events are consistent with those in CC events.

  11. Measurement of Reconstructed Charged Particle Multiplicities of Neutrino Interactions in MicroBooNE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafique, Aleena [Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, KS (United States)

    2017-09-25

    Here, we compare the observed charged particle multiplicity distributions in the MicroBooNE liquid argon time projection chamber from neutrino interactions in a restricted final state phase space to predictions of this distribution from several GENIE models. The measurement uses a data sample consisting of neutrino interactions with a final state muon candidate fully contained within the MicroBooNE detector. These data were collected in 2015-2016 with the Fermilab Booster Neutrino Beam (BNB), which has an average neutrino energy of 800 MeV, using an exposure corresponding to 5e19 protons-on-target. The analysis employs fully automatic event selection and charged particle track reconstruction and uses a data-driven technique to determine the contribution to each multiplicity bin from neutrino interactions and cosmic-induced backgrounds. The restricted phase space employed makes the measurement most sensitive to the higher-energy charged particles expected from primary neutrino-argon collisions and less sensitive to lower energy protons expected to be produced in final state interactions of collision products with the target argon nucleus.

  12. New effects of non-standard self-interactions of neutrinos in a supernova

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Anirban; Dighe, Amol; Sen, Manibrata, E-mail: anirbandas@theory.tifr.res.in, E-mail: amol@theory.tifr.res.in, E-mail: manibrata@theory.tifr.res.in [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai, 400005 (India)

    2017-05-01

    Neutrino self-interactions are known to lead to non-linear collective flavor oscillations in a core-collapse supernova. We point out new possible effects of non-standard self-interactions (NSSI) of neutrinos on flavor conversions in a two-flavor framework. We show that, for a single-energy neutrino-antineutrino ensemble, a flavor instability is generated even in normal hierarchy for large enough NSSI. Using a toy model for the neutrino spectra, we show that flavor-preserving NSSI lead to pinching of spectral swaps, while flavor-violating NSSI cause swaps to develop away from a spectral crossing or even in the absence of a spectral crossing. Consequently, NSSI could give rise to collective oscillations and spectral splits even during neutronization burst, for both hierarchies.

  13. Prompt neutrino production in 400 GeV proton copper interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grässler, H.; Dröge, W.; Idschok, U.; Kreutzmann, H.; Nellen, B.; Wünsch, B.; Cooper-Sarkar, A. M.; Cundy, D. C.; Foeth, H.; Grant, A.; Harigel, G. G.; Klein, H.; Morrison, D. R. O.; Nikolić, M.; Pape, L.; Parker, M. A.; Schmid, P.; Wachsmuth, H.; Dris, M.; Simopoulou, E.; Vayaki, A.; Barnham, K. W. J.; Miller, D. B.; Mobayyen, M. M.; Talebzadeh, M.; Aderholz, M.; Deck, L.; Schmitz, N.; Wittek, W.; Bostock, P.; Krstić, J.; Myatt, G.; Radojicić, D.; Guy, J.; Venus, W.; Bolognese, T.; Faccini-Turluer, M. L.; Vignaud, D.; Hulth, P. O.; Hultqvist, K.; Walck, Ch.; BEBC WA66 Collaboration

    1986-08-01

    The prompt electron neutrino and muon neutrino fluxes from proton copper interactions at 400 GeV/ c proton momentum have been measured. The asymmetry between the prompt electron (anti) neutrino and the prompt muon (anti) neutrino event rates above 20 GeV is A eμ = {(N e - N μ}/{(N c + N μ) } = 0.07 ± 0.08 corresponding to an Ne/ Nμ ratio of 1.14 -0.16-0.19. The cross section weighted charge asymmetry for electrons and muons combined is A ν overlineν = 0.15 ± 0.08 . The number of overlineD decays into overlineνeandoverlineνμis (4.1 ± 0.9) × 10 -4 per incident proton. No evidence for ντ interactions was found.

  14. Prompt neutrino production in 400 GeV proton copper interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graessler, H.; Dris, M.; Simopoulou, E.; Vayaki, A.; Barnham, K.W.J.; Miller, D.B.; Mobayyen, M.M.; Talebzadeh, M.; Aderholz, M.; Deck, L.; Schmitz, N.; Wittek, W.; Guy, J.; Venus, W.; Bolognese, T.; Faccini-Turluer, M.L.; Vignaud, D.; Hulth, P.O.; Hultqvist, K.; Walck, C.; Bostock, P.; Krstic, J.; Myatt, G.; Radojicic, D.

    1986-01-01

    The prompt electron neutrino and muon neutrino fluxes from proton copper interactions at 400 GeV/c proton momentum have been measured. The asymmetry between the prompt electron (anti)neutrino and the prompt muon (anti)neutrino event rates above 20 GeV is Asub(cμ)=(Nsub(e)-Nsub(μ))/Nsub(e)+Nsub(μ))=0.07+-0.08. The cross section weighted charge asymmetry for electrons and muons combined is Asub(ν)sub(anti ν)=0.15+-0.08. The number of anti D decays into anti νsub(e) and anti νsub(μ) is (4.1+-0.9) . 10 -4 per incident proton. No evidence for νsub(tau) interactions was found. (orig.)

  15. Non-standard neutrino interactions in the mu–tau sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Mocioiu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We discuss neutrino mass hierarchy implications arising from the effects of non-standard neutrino interactions on muon rates in high statistics atmospheric neutrino oscillation experiments like IceCube DeepCore. We concentrate on the mu–tau sector, which is presently the least constrained. It is shown that the magnitude of the effects depends strongly on the sign of the ϵμτ parameter describing this non-standard interaction. A simple analytic model is used to understand the parameter space where differences between the two signs are maximized. We discuss how this effect is partially degenerate with changing the neutrino mass hierarchy, as well as how this degeneracy could be lifted.

  16. Experimental determination of differential cross-sections of muonic neutrinos and muonic antineutrinos interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutz, Anne-Marie.

    1975-05-01

    The experimental determination of muonic neutrinos and muonic antineutrinos differential cross-sections by the analysis of pictures taken in the CERN Gargamelle heavy liquid bubble chamber is presented. The methods used to solve experimental difficulties (muon identification, hadronic energy determination) and the errors on the experimental distributions are explained in detail. Then, the structure functions in charge changing interactions of neutrinos and antineutrinos are analyzed and interpreted in terms of parton distribution inside the nucleon [fr

  17. Improving LMA predictions with non-standard interactions: neutrino decay in solar matter?

    CERN Document Server

    Das, C R

    2010-01-01

    It has been known for some time that the well established LMA solution to the observed solar neutrino deficit fails to predict a flat energy spectrum for SuperKamiokande as opposed to what the data indicates. It also leads to a Chlorine rate which appears to be too high as compared to the data. We investigate the possible solution to these inconsistencies with non standard neutrino interactions, assuming that they come as extra contributions to the $\

  18. Observation of neutrino-like interactions without muon or electron in the Gargamelle neutrino experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Hasert, F J; Krenz, W; Conta, C; Von Krogh, J; Lanske, D; Morfín, J G; Schultze, K; Weerts, H; Bertrand-Coremans, G H; Sacton, J; Van Doninck, W K; Vilain, P; Camerini, U; Cundy, Donald C; Baldi, R; Danilchenko, I A; Fry, W F; Haidt, Dieter; Natali, S; Musset, P; Osculati, B; Palmer, R; Pattison, John Bryan M; Perkins, Donald Hill; Pullia, Antonio; Rousset, A; Venus, W A; Wachsmuth, H W; Brisson, V; Degrange, B; Haguenauer, Maurice; Kluberg, L; Nguyen-Khac, U; Petiau, P; Belotti, E; Bonetti, S; Cavalli, D; Fiorini, Ettore; Rollier, M; Aubert, Bernard; Blum, D; Chounet, L M; Heusse, P; Lagarrigue, A; Lutz, A M; Orkin-Lecourtois, A; Vialle, J P; Bullock, F W; Esten, M J; Jones, T W; McKenzie, J; Michette, A G; Myatt, Gerald; Scott, W G

    1974-01-01

    Events induced by neutral particles and producing only hadrons, but no muon or electron, have been observed in the heavy liquid bubble chamber Gargamelle exposed to neutrino ( nu ) and antineutrino ( nu ) beams at CERN. A study of the various sources which could give rise to such events reveals that less than 20% could be attributed to neutrons or K/sub L/ degrees . The events behave as expected if they arise from neutral current processes induced by neutrinos and antineutrinos. The ratio of the number of these events to the number of corresponding events with charged lepton is 0.22+or-0.04 for nu and 0.43+or-0.12 for nu . (8 refs).

  19. Experimental neutrino physics

    CERN Document Server

    Link, Jonathan M

    2018-01-01

    Neutrinos have a smaller mass than any other known particle and are the subject of intense recent studies, as well as this book. The author provides a coherent introduction to the necessary theoretical background and experimental methods used by modern neutrino physicists. It’s designed as a one-stop reference addressing what is currently known about the neutrino hypothesis, discovery of the neutrino, theory of weak interactions, solar neutrino puzzle, and neutrino oscillation. It then gives a detailed account of practical approaches for study of precision oscillations, neutrino mass and other neutrino properties, sterile neutrinos, and neutrino messengers from space and Earth’s interior.

  20. Precision measurement of the (7)Be solar neutrino interaction rate in Borexino.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellini, G; Benziger, J; Bick, D; Bonetti, S; Bonfini, G; Buizza Avanzini, M; Caccianiga, B; Cadonati, L; Calaprice, F; Carraro, C; Cavalcante, P; Chavarria, A; D'Angelo, D; Davini, S; Derbin, A; Etenko, A; Fomenko, K; Franco, D; Galbiati, C; Gazzana, S; Ghiano, C; Giammarchi, M; Goeger-Neff, M; Goretti, A; Grandi, L; Guardincerri, E; Hardy, S; Ianni, Aldo; Ianni, Andrea; Kobychev, V; Korablev, D; Korga, G; Koshio, Y; Kryn, D; Laubenstein, M; Lewke, T; Litvinovich, E; Loer, B; Lombardi, F; Lombardi, P; Ludhova, L; Machulin, I; Manecki, S; Maneschg, W; Manuzio, G; Meindl, Q; Meroni, E; Miramonti, L; Misiaszek, M; Montanari, D; Mosteiro, P; Muratova, V; Oberauer, L; Obolensky, M; Ortica, F; Pallavicini, M; Papp, L; Peña-Garay, C; Perasso, L; Perasso, S; Pocar, A; Raghavan, R S; Ranucci, G; Razeto, A; Re, A; Romani, A; Sabelnikov, A; Saldanha, R; Salvo, C; Schönert, S; Simgen, H; Skorokhvatov, M; Smirnov, O; Sotnikov, A; Sukhotin, S; Suvorov, Y; Tartaglia, R; Testera, G; Vignaud, D; Vogelaar, R B; von Feilitzsch, F; Winter, J; Wojcik, M; Wright, A; Wurm, M; Xu, J; Zaimidoroga, O; Zavatarelli, S; Zuzel, G

    2011-09-30

    The rate of neutrino-electron elastic scattering interactions from 862 keV (7)Be solar neutrinos in Borexino is determined to be 46.0±1.5(stat)(-1.6)(+1.5)(syst) counts/(day·100  ton). This corresponds to a ν(e)-equivalent (7)Be solar neutrino flux of (3.10±0.15)×10(9)  cm(-2) s(-1) and, under the assumption of ν(e) transition to other active neutrino flavours, yields an electron neutrino survival probability of 0.51±0.07 at 862 keV. The no flavor change hypothesis is ruled out at 5.0 σ. A global solar neutrino analysis with free fluxes determines Φ(pp)=6.06(-0.06)(+0.02)×10(10)  cm(-2) s(-1) and Φ(CNO)Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein large mixing angle neutrino oscillation model is experimentally tested at low energy.

  1. Atmospheric and astrophysical Neutrinos above 1 TeV Interacting in IceCube

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aartsen, M.G.; Ackermann, M.; Adam, J.

    2015-01-01

    The IceCube Neutrino Observatory was designed primarily to search for high-energy (TeV-PeV) neutrinos produced in distant astrophysical objects. A search for ≳100  TeV neutrinos interacting inside the instrumented volume has recently provided evidence for an isotropic flux of such neutrinos...... the energy threshold for neutrinos from the southern sky below 10 TeV for the first time, far below the threshold of the previous high-energy analysis. Astrophysical neutrinos remain the dominant component in the southern sky down to a deposited energy of 10 TeV. From these data we derive new constraints...... on the diffuse astrophysical neutrino spectrum, Φ_ν=2.06_{-0.3}^{+0.4}×10-18(E_ν/10^5  GeV)^{-2.46±0.12} GeV^-1 cm^−2 sr^−1 s^-1 for 25  TeV

  2. Non-standard interactions with high-energy atmospheric neutrinos at IceCube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salvado, Jordi; Mena, Olga; Palomares-Ruiz, Sergio; Rius, Nuria [Instituto de Física Corpuscular (IFIC), CSIC-Universitat de València,Apartado de Correos 22085, E-46071 Valencia (Spain)

    2017-01-31

    Non-standard interactions in the propagation of neutrinos in matter can lead to significant deviations from expectations within the standard neutrino oscillation framework and atmospheric neutrino detectors have been considered to set constraints. However, most previous works have focused on relatively low-energy atmospheric neutrino data. Here, we consider the one-year high-energy through-going muon data in IceCube, which has been already used to search for light sterile neutrinos, to constrain new interactions in the μτ-sector. In our analysis we include several systematic uncertainties on both, the atmospheric neutrino flux and on the detector properties, which are accounted for via nuisance parameters. After considering different primary cosmic-ray spectra and hadronic interaction models, we improve over previous analysis by using the latest data and showing that systematics currently affect very little the bound on the off-diagonal ε{sub μτ}, with the 90% credible interval given by −6.0×10{sup −3}<ε{sub μτ}<5.4×10{sup −3}, comparable to previous results. In addition, we also estimate the expected sensitivity after 10 years of collected data in IceCube and study the precision at which non-standard parameters could be determined for the case of ε{sub μτ} near its current bound.

  3. Neutrino oscillations in dense neutrino gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuel, S.

    1993-01-01

    We consider oscillations of neutrinos under conditions in which the neutrino density is sufficiently large that neutrino-neutrino interactions cannot be neglected. A formalism is developed to treat this highly nonlinear system. Numerical analysis reveals a rich array of phenomena. In certain gases, a self-induced Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein effect occurs in which electron neutrinos are resonantly converted into muon neutrinos. In another relatively low-density gas, an unexpected parametric resonant conversion takes place. Finally, neutrino-neutrino interactions maintain coherence in one system for which a priori one expected decoherence

  4. The possibility to observe the non-standard interaction by the Hyperkamiokande atmospheric neutrino experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukasawa, Shinya; Yasuda, Osamu, E-mail: yasuda@phys.se.tmu.ac.jp

    2017-01-15

    It was suggested that a tension between the mass-squared differences obtained from the solar neutrino and KamLAND experiments can be solved by introducing the non-standard flavor-dependent interaction in neutrino propagation. In this paper we discuss the possibility to test such a hypothesis by atmospheric neutrino observations at the future Hyper-Kamiokande experiment. Assuming that the mass hierarchy is known, we find that the best-fit value from the solar neutrino and KamLAND data can be tested at more than 8σ, while the one from the global analysis can be examined at 5.0σ (1.4σ) for the normal (inverted) mass hierarchy.

  5. Properties and interactions of neutrino (1977-1980) beam dump experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukerman, I.S.

    1981-01-01

    Data on search of instantaneous muon and electron neutrinos in experiments of beam dump type are presented in the review. Neutrino is formed in decays of particles rusulted from pN interactions. First experiments of the dump beam type have been realized at the CERN/SPS accelerator in 1975 and Serpukhov accelerator by the ITEF-IFVE group in 1977 with proton energies of 26 and 70 GeV, respectively. The results of beam dump experiments of the second generation in 1979 in CERN are considered in detail. These experiments have been intended for measuring the effect of instantaneous neutrino. The conclusion is drawn on the presence of instantaneous muon neutrinos in the above experiments [ru

  6. Gif 2011 school: neutrinos. Slides of the presentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, A.; Pascoli, S.; Piquemal, F.; Lasserre, T.; Kouchner, A.; Patzak, T.; Lavignac, S.; Volpe, C.; Katsanevas, S.; Rubbia, A.

    2012-01-01

    This document gathers the slides of the lectures given at the GIF 2011 school. These lectures were pedagogical reviews of both theoretical and experimental physics around neutrino issues. There were 9 lectures: 1) the origin of the neutrino mass, 2) theory of neutrino oscillations, 3) measuring the neutrino mass, 4) measuring the neutrino oscillation parameters, 5) astronomy with neutrinos, 6) the story of the neutrino, 7) neutrinos beyond the standard model, 8) neutrinos in cosmology, and 9) future experiments. (A.C.)

  7. Unveiling secret interactions among sterile neutrinos with big-bang nucleosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saviano, Ninetta; Pisanti, Ofelia; Mangano, Gianpiero; Mirizzi, Alessandro

    2014-12-01

    Short-baseline neutrino anomalies suggest the existence of low-mass [m ˜O (1 ) eV ] sterile neutrinos νs. These would be efficiently produced in the early universe by oscillations with active neutrino species, leading to a thermal population of the sterile states seemingly incompatible with cosmological observations. In order to relieve this tension it has been recently speculated that new "secret" interactions among sterile neutrinos, mediated by a massive gauge boson X (with MX≪MW), can inhibit or suppress the sterile neutrino thermalization, due to the production of a large matter potential term. We note however, that they also generate strong collisional terms in the sterile neutrino sector that induce an efficient sterile neutrino production after a resonance in matter is encountered, increasing their contribution to the number of relativistic particle species Neff. Moreover, for values of the parameters of the νs-νs interaction for which the resonance takes place at temperature T ≲few MeV , significant distortions are produced in the electron (anti)neutrino spectra, altering the abundance of light element in big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN). Using the present determination of 4He and deuterium primordial abundances we determine the BBN constraints on the model parameters. We find that 2H/H density ratio exclude much of the parameter space if one assumes a baryon density at the best fit value of Planck experiment, ΩBh2=0.02207 , while bounds become weaker for a higher ΩBh2=0.02261 , the 95% C.L. upper bound of Planck. Due to the large error on its experimental determination, the helium mass fraction Yp gives no significant bounds.

  8. Effects of strong and electromagnetic correlations on neutrino interactions in dense matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, S.; Prakash, M.; Lattimer, J.M.; Reddy, S.; Pons, J.A.

    1999-01-01

    An extensive study of the effects of correlations on both charged and neutral current weak interaction rates in dense matter is performed. Both strong and electromagnetic correlations are considered. The propagation of particle-hole interactions in the medium plays an important role in determining the neutrino mean free paths. The effects due to Pauli blocking and density, spin, and isospin correlations in the medium significantly reduce the neutrino cross sections. As a result of the lack of experimental information at high density, these correlations are necessarily model dependent. For example, spin correlations in nonrelativistic models are found to lead to larger suppressions of neutrino cross sections compared to those of relativistic models. This is due to the tendency of the nonrelativistic models to develop spin instabilities. Notwithstanding the above caveats, and the differences between nonrelativistic and relativistic approaches such as the spin- and isospin-dependent interactions and the nucleon effective masses, suppressions of order 2 - 3, relative to the case in which correlations are ignored, are obtained. Neutrino interactions in dense matter are especially important for supernova and early neutron star evolution calculations. The effects of correlations for protoneutron star evolution are calculated. Large effects on the internal thermodynamic properties of protoneutron stars, such as the temperature, are found. These translate into significant early enhancements in the emitted neutrino energies and fluxes, especially after a few seconds. At late times, beyond about 10 s, the emitted neutrino fluxes decrease more rapidly compared to simulations without the effects of correlations, due to the more rapid onset of neutrino transparency in the protoneutron star. copyright 1999 The American Physical Society

  9. A study of the interactions of high energy electron-neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieuwenhuis, C.H.M.

    1986-01-01

    This thesis describes an analysis of electron-neutrino and anti-neutrino interactions with nuclei. The data were collected with the calorimeter of the Amsterdam-CERN-Hamburg-Moscow-Rome (CHARM) group in a beam dump exposure to 400 GeV/c protons from the CERN SPS in 1982. The predictions of the Standard Model for the quantities measured in this experiment are given. The results of the analysis of events without a primary muon in the final state are given in the form of an experimental y-distribution. The measured quantities are compared with the predictions of the theory and the measurements of other experiments. Presented are the cross-section ratio of neutral current and charged current electron-neutrino induced events, the prompt CC ν(anti ν) e interaction rate, the prompt (ν e +anti ν e )/(ν μ +anti ν μ ) flux ratio, the energy dependence of the prompt electron-neutrino flux and a measurement of the DantiD cross-section times semileptonic branching ratio based on prompt electron-neutrino interactions. (Auth.)

  10. IceVeto: Extended PeV neutrino astronomy in the Southern Hemisphere with IceCube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auffenberg, Jan [Physikalisches Institut IIIB RWTH Aachen D-52056, Aachen (Germany); Collaboration: IceCube Collaboration

    2014-11-18

    IceCube, the world's largest high-energy neutrino observatory, built at the South Pole, recently reported evidence of an astrophysical neutrino flux extending to PeV energies in the Southern Hemisphere. This observation raises the question of how the sensitivity in this energy range could be further increased. In the down-going sector, in IceCube's case the Southern Hemisphere, backgrounds from atmospheric muons and neutrinos pose a challenge to the identification of an astrophysical neutrino flux. The IceCube analysis, that led to the evidence for astrophysical neutrinos, is based on an in-ice veto strategy for background rejection. One possibility available to IceCube is the concept of an extended surface detector, IceVeto, which could allow the rejection of a large fraction of atmospheric backgrounds, primarily for muons from cosmic ray (CR) air showers as well as from neutrinos in the same air showers. Building on the experience of IceTop/IceCube, possibly the most cost-effective and sensitive way to build IceVeto is as an extension of the IceTop detector, with simple photomultiplier based detector modules for CR air shower detection. Initial simulations and estimates indicate that such a veto detector will significantly increase the sensitivity to an astrophysical flux of ν{sub μ} induced muon tracks in the Southern Hemisphere compared to current analyses. Here we present the motivation and capabilities based on initial simulations. Conceptual ideas for a simplified surface array will be discussed briefly.

  11. Some tests of the basic properties of the neutral weak interaction. II. With massive neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dass, G.V.; Babu, P.R.

    1983-01-01

    Assuming a general nonderivative point interaction, and Born approximation, the angular distributions for neutrino scatterings by electrons are written, using only simple considerations, allowing all leptons to have nonzero mass. Our distributions have been previously obtained for some special cases, from general considerations by Bell et al., or in the results of explicit calculations. Applications to (i) determination of the Lorentz structure of the neutral weak interaction, and (ii) tests of lepton locality are considered. For illustration, two explicit calculations are given; one of these could hold for heavy lepton production, and the other for scattering of very low energy cosmic neutrinos

  12. Recent experimental results on Coherent Pion production in neutrino interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camilleri, L. [Columbia University, Nevis Labs Irvington on Hudson, New York 10533 (United States)

    2012-08-15

    Recent experimental results on charged current ({pi}{sup +}) coherent production by KEK and SciBooNE and neutral current ({pi}{sup 0}) production by MiniBooNE, SciBooNE and NOMAD will be discussed. The NOMAD results are at an average neutrino energy of 25 GeV whereas the energies of the other experiments are in an average energy range of 1-2 GeV. A comparison with some theoretical models will be presented.

  13. Muon/electron separation for atmospheric neutrino interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allison, W.W.M.; Barr, G.D.; Brooks, C.B.; Cobb, J.H.; Kirby-Gallagher, L.M.; Giles, R.H.; Giller, G.L.; Perkins, D.H.; Shield, P.D.; Thomson, M.A.; West, N.; Alner, G.J.; Cockerill, D.J.A.; Edwards, V.W.; Garcia-Garcia, C.; Litchfield, P.J.; Pearce, G.F.; Woods, C.A.; Ambats, I.; Ayres, D.S.; Balka, L.; Barrett, W.L.; Dawson, J.W.; Fields, T.; Goodman, M.C.; Hill, N.; Jankowski, D.J.; Lopez, F.; May, E.N.; Price, L.E.; Schlereth, J.; Thron, J.L.; Uretsky, J.L.; Courant, H.; Dahlin, B.; Demuth, D.; Gray, R.; Heppelmann, S.; Johns, K.; Joyce, T.; Kasahara, S.; Longley, N.; Lowe, M.; Marshak, M.L.; Miller, W.H.; Minor, C.; Peterson, E.A.; Roback, D.; Rosen, D.; Ruddick, K.; Schmid, D.; Shupe, M.; Villaume, G.; Weems, L.; Werkema, S.J.

    1991-08-01

    A study has been made of the ability of the Soudan 2 nucleon decay detector to distinguish between showering and non-showering particles, utilizing several different pattern recognition techniques. This work has direct application in the determination of the ν μ /ν e ratio for atmospheric neutrino induced events. The results of the application of these techniques to Monte Carlo data and to calibration data from the ISIS test beam are presented

  14. Study of charged hadron multiplicities in charged-current neutrino-lead interactions in the OPERA detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agafonova, N.; Malgin, A.; Matveev, V.; Ryazhskaya, O.; Shakirianova, I. [INR - Institute for Nuclear Research, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Aleksandrov, A.; Buontempo, S.; Consiglio, L.; Tioukov, V.; Voevodina, E. [INFN Sezione di Napoli, Naples (Italy); Anokhina, A.; Dzhatdoev, T.; Podgrudkov, D.; Roganova, T. [Lomonosov Moscow State University, SINP MSU - Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Aoki, S.; Hara, T.; Mizutani, F.; Ozaki, K.; Shibayama, E.; Takahashi, S. [Kobe University, Kobe (Japan); Ariga, A.; Ereditato, A.; Kreslo, I.; Vuilleumier, J.L. [University of Bern, Laboratory for High Energy Physics (LHEP), Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics, Bern (Switzerland); Ariga, T. [University of Bern, Laboratory for High Energy Physics (LHEP), Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics, Bern (Switzerland); Kyushu University, Faculty of Arts and Science, Fukuoka (Japan); Bertolin, A.; Dusini, S.; Kose, U.; Longhin, A.; Pupilli, F.; Stanco, L. [INFN Sezione di Padova, Padua (Italy); Bodnarchuk, I.; Chukanov, A.; Dmitrievski, S.; Gornushkin, Y.; Sotnikov, A.; Vasina, S. [JINR - Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Bozza, C.; Grella, G.; Stellacci, S.M. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Salerno (Italy); ' ' Gruppo Collegato' ' INFN, Fisciano, Salerno (Italy); Brugnera, R.; Garfagnini, A.; Laudisio, F.; Medinaceli, E.; Roda, M.; Sirignano, C. [INFN Sezione di Padova, Padua (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universita di Padova, Padua (Italy); Buonaura, A.; De Lellis, G.; Di Crescenzo, A.; Galati, G.; Hosseini, B.; Lauria, A.; Montesi, M.C.; Strolin, P. [INFN Sezione di Napoli, Naples (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita Federico II di Napoli, Naples (Italy); Chernyavskiy, M.; Gorbunov, S.; Okateva, N.; Shchedrina, T.; Starkov, N. [LPI - Lebedev Physical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); D' Ambrosio, N.; Di Marco, N.; Schembri, A. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Assergi, L' Aquila (Italy); De Serio, M.; Muciaccia, M.T.; Paparella, L.; Pastore, A.; Simone, S. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Bari, Bari (Italy); INFN Sezione di Bari, Bari (Italy); Amo Sanchez, P. del; Duchesneau, D.; Pessard, H. [LAPP, Universite Savoie Mont Blanc, CNRS/IN2P3, Annecy-le-Vieux (France); Di Ferdinando, D.; Mandrioli, G.; Patrizii, L.; Sirri, G.; Tenti, M. [INFN Sezione di Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Dracos, M.; Jollet, C.; Meregaglia, A. [IPHC, Universite de Strasbourg, CNRS/IN2P3, Strasbourg (France); Ebert, J.; Hagner, C.; Hollnagel, A.; Wonsak, B. [Hamburg University, Hamburg (Germany); Fini, R.A. [INFN Sezione di Bari, Bari (Italy); Fornari, F.; Mauri, N.; Pasqualini, L.; Pozzato, M. [INFN Sezione di Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universita di Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Fukuda, T.; Hayakawa, T.; Ishiguro, K.; Kitagawa, N.; Komatsu, M.; Miyanishi, M.; Morishima, K.; Naganawa, N.; Naka, T.; Nakamura, M.; Nakano, T.; Niwa, K.; Rokujo, H.; Sato, O.; Shiraishi, T. [Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan); Gentile, V. [Gran Sasso Science Institute, L' Aquila (Italy); Goldberg, J. [Technion, Department of Physics, Haifa (Israel); Guler, A.M.; Kamiscioglu, M. [METU - Middle East Technical University, Ankara (Turkey); Gustavino, C.; Loverre, P.; Monacelli, P.; Rosa, G. [INFN Sezione di Roma, Rome (Italy); Jakovcic, K.; Ljubicic, A.; Malenica, M. [Rudjer Boskovic Institute, Zagreb (Croatia); Kamiscioglu, C. [METU - Middle East Technical University, Ankara (Turkey); Ankara University, Ankara (Turkey); Kim, S.H.; Park, B.D.; Yoon, C.S. [Gyeongsang National University, Jinju (Korea, Republic of); Klicek, B.; Stipcevic, M. [Center of Excellence for Advanced Materials and Sensing Devices, Ruder Boskovic Institute, Zagreb (Croatia); Kodama, K. [Aichi University of Education, Kariya, Aichi (Japan); Matsuo, T.; Ogawa, S.; Shibuya, H. [Toho University, Funabashi (Japan); Mikado, S. [Nihon University, Narashino, Chiba (Japan); Paoloni, A.; Spinetti, M.; Votano, L. [INFN - Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Rome (Italy); Polukhina, N. [LPI - Lebedev Physical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Moscow Engineering Physical Institute Moscow, Moscow (Russian Federation); Terranova, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Milano-Bicocca, Milan (Italy); Vilain, P.; Wilquet, G. [IIHE, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels (Belgium)

    2018-01-15

    The OPERA experiment was designed to search for ν{sub μ} → ν{sub τ} oscillations in appearance mode through the direct observation of tau neutrinos in the CNGS neutrino beam. In this paper, we report a study of the multiplicity of charged particles produced in charged-current neutrino interactions in lead. We present charged hadron average multiplicities, their dispersion and investigate the KNO scaling in different kinematical regions. The results are presented in detail in the form of tables that can be used in the validation of Monte Carlo generators of neutrino-lead interactions. (orig.)

  15. Search for atmospheric muon-neutrinos and extraterrestric neutrino point sources in the 1997 AMANDA-B10 data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biron von Curland, A.

    2002-07-01

    The young field of high energy neutrino astronomy can be motivated by the search for the origin of the charged cosmic rays. Large astrophysical objects like AGNs or supernova remnants are candidates to accelerate hadrons which then can interact to eventually produce high energy neutrinos. Neutrino-induced muons can be detected via their emission of Cherenkov light in large neutrino telescopes like AMANDA. More than 10 9 atmospheric muon events and approximately 5000 atmospheric neutrino events were registered by AMANDA-B10 in 1997. Out of these, 223 atmospheric neutrino candidate events have been extracted. This data set contains approximately 15 background events. It allows to confirm the expected sensitivity of the detector towards neutrino events. A second set containing 369 (approximately 270 atmospheric neutrino events and 100 atmospheric muon events) was used to search for extraterrestrial neutrino point sources. Neither a binned search, nor a cluster search, nor a search for preselected sources gave indications for the existence of a strong neutrino point source. Based on this result, flux limits were derived. Assuming E ν -2 spectra, typical flux limits for selected sources of the order of Φ μ limit ∝ 10 -14 cm -2 s -1 for muons and Φ ν limit ∝ 10 -7 cm -2 s -1 for neutrinos have been obtained. (orig.)

  16. Calculation of atmospheric neutrino flux using the interaction model calibrated with atmospheric muon data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, M.; Kajita, T.; Kasahara, K.; Midorikawa, S.; Sanuki, T.

    2007-01-01

    Using the 'modified DPMJET-III' model explained in the previous paper [T. Sanuki et al., preceding Article, Phys. Rev. D 75, 043005 (2007).], we calculate the atmospheric neutrino flux. The calculation scheme is almost the same as HKKM04 [M. Honda, T. Kajita, K. Kasahara, and S. Midorikawa, Phys. Rev. D 70, 043008 (2004).], but the usage of the 'virtual detector' is improved to reduce the error due to it. Then we study the uncertainty of the calculated atmospheric neutrino flux summarizing the uncertainties of individual components of the simulation. The uncertainty of K-production in the interaction model is estimated using other interaction models: FLUKA'97 and FRITIOF 7.02, and modifying them so that they also reproduce the atmospheric muon flux data correctly. The uncertainties of the flux ratio and zenith angle dependence of the atmospheric neutrino flux are also studied

  17. Improvement of low energy atmospheric neutrino flux calculation using the JAM nuclear interaction model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, M.; Kajita, T.; Kasahara, K.; Midorikawa, S.

    2011-01-01

    We present the calculation of the atmospheric neutrino fluxes with an interaction model named JAM, which is used in PHITS (Particle and Heavy-Ion Transport code System) [K. Niita et al., Radiation Measurements 41, 1080 (2006).]. The JAM interaction model agrees with the HARP experiment [H. Collaboration, Astropart. Phys. 30, 124 (2008).] a little better than DPMJET-III[S. Roesler, R. Engel, and J. Ranft, arXiv:hep-ph/0012252.]. After some modifications, it reproduces the muon flux below 1 GeV/c at balloon altitudes better than the modified DPMJET-III, which we used for the calculation of atmospheric neutrino flux in previous works [T. Sanuki, M. Honda, T. Kajita, K. Kasahara, and S. Midorikawa, Phys. Rev. D 75, 043005 (2007).][M. Honda, T. Kajita, K. Kasahara, S. Midorikawa, and T. Sanuki, Phys. Rev. D 75, 043006 (2007).]. Some improvements in the calculation of atmospheric neutrino flux are also reported.

  18. Research on the potential use of interactive materials on astronomy education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelzke, Marcos Rincon; Macedo, Josue

    2016-07-01

    This study presents results of a survey conducted at the Federal Institution of Education, Science and Technology in the North of Minas Gerais (IFNMG), and aimed to investigate the potentialities of the use of interactive materials in the teaching of astronomy. An advanced training course with involved learning activities about basic concepts of astronomy was offered to thirty-two Licenciate students in Physics, Mathematics and Biological Sciences, using the mixed methodology, combined with the three pedagogical moments. Among other aspects, the viability of the use of resources was noticed, involving digital technologies and interactive materials on teaching of astronomy, which may contribute to the broadening of methodological options for future teachers and meet their training needs.

  19. ANTARES: An Undersea Neutrino telescope

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The ANTARES (Astronomy with a Neutrino Telescope and ${Abyss}$ environmental RESearch) deep-sea neutrino telescope is designed to search for neutrinos of astrophysical origin. Neutrinos are unique probes of the high energy universe; being neutral they are not deflected by magnetic fields and interacting weakly they can readily escape from the densest regions of the universe. Potential sources of neutrino are galactic (e.g supernova remnants, micro-quasars) and extra-galactic (e.g active galactic nuclei, gamma-ray bursters). Annihilation of dark matter particles in the Sun or Galactic Centre is another well motivated potential source of extra terrestrial neutrinos. The ANTARES detector is located 40 km off the coast of Toulon (France) at a depth of 2475m in the Mediterranean Sea. Being located in the Northern hemisphere it studies the Southern sky and in particular has the Galactic Centre in its field of view. Since 2006, the detector has operated continuously in a partial configuration. The detector was compl...

  20. Gravitational Waves and Neutrinos

    OpenAIRE

    Sturani, Riccardo

    2018-01-01

    We give an overview about the recent detection of gravitational waves by the Advanced LIGO first and second observing runs and by Advanced Virgo, with emphasis on the prospects for multi-messenger astronomy involving neutrinos detections.

  1. Search for nonstandard neutrino interactions with IceCube DeepCore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aartsen, M. G.; Ackermann, M.; Adams, J.; Aguilar, J. A.; Ahlers, M.; Ahrens, M.; Al Samarai, I.; Altmann, D.; Andeen, K.; Anderson, T.; Ansseau, I.; Anton, G.; Argüelles, C.; Auffenberg, J.; Axani, S.; Bagherpour, H.; Bai, X.; Barron, J. P.; Barwick, S. W.; Baum, V.; Bay, R.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker Tjus, J.; Becker, K.-H.; BenZvi, S.; Berley, D.; Bernardini, E.; Besson, D. Z.; Binder, G.; Bindig, D.; Blaufuss, E.; Blot, S.; Bohm, C.; Börner, M.; Bos, F.; Bose, D.; Böser, S.; Botner, O.; Bourbeau, E.; Bourbeau, J.; Bradascio, F.; Braun, J.; Brayeur, L.; Brenzke, M.; Bretz, H.-P.; Bron, S.; Brostean-Kaiser, J.; Burgman, A.; Carver, T.; Casey, J.; Casier, M.; Cheung, E.; Chirkin, D.; Christov, A.; Clark, K.; Classen, L.; Coenders, S.; Collin, G. H.; Conrad, J. M.; Cowen, D. F.; Cross, R.; Day, M.; de André, J. P. A. M.; De Clercq, C.; DeLaunay, J. J.; Dembinski, H.; De Ridder, S.; Desiati, P.; de Vries, K. D.; de Wasseige, G.; de With, M.; DeYoung, T.; Díaz-Vélez, J. C.; di Lorenzo, V.; Dujmovic, H.; Dumm, J. P.; Dunkman, M.; Dvorak, E.; Eberhardt, B.; Ehrhardt, T.; Eichmann, B.; Eller, P.; Evenson, P. A.; Fahey, S.; Fazely, A. R.; Felde, J.; Filimonov, K.; Finley, C.; Flis, S.; Franckowiak, A.; Friedman, E.; Fuchs, T.; Gaisser, T. K.; Gallagher, J.; Gerhardt, L.; Ghorbani, K.; Giang, W.; Glauch, T.; Glüsenkamp, T.; Goldschmidt, A.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Grant, D.; Griffith, Z.; Haack, C.; Hallgren, A.; Halzen, F.; Hanson, K.; Hebecker, D.; Heereman, D.; Helbing, K.; Hellauer, R.; Hickford, S.; Hignight, J.; Hill, G. C.; Hoffman, K. D.; Hoffmann, R.; Hokanson-Fasig, B.; Hoshina, K.; Huang, F.; Huber, M.; Hultqvist, K.; Hünnefeld, M.; In, S.; Ishihara, A.; Jacobi, E.; Japaridze, G. S.; Jeong, M.; Jero, K.; Jones, B. J. P.; Kalaczynski, P.; Kang, W.; Kappes, A.; Karg, T.; Karle, A.; Katz, U.; Kauer, M.; Keivani, A.; Kelley, J. L.; Kheirandish, A.; Kim, J.; Kim, M.; Kintscher, T.; Kirby, C.; Kiryluk, J.; Kittler, T.; Klein, S. R.; Kohnen, G.; Koirala, R.; Kolanoski, H.; Köpke, L.; Kopper, C.; Kopper, S.; Koschinsky, J. P.; Koskinen, D. J.; Kowalski, M.; Krings, K.; Kroll, M.; Krückl, G.; Kunnen, J.; Kunwar, S.; Kurahashi, N.; Kuwabara, T.; Kyriacou, A.; Labare, M.; Lanfranchi, J. L.; Larson, M. J.; Lauber, F.; Lennarz, D.; Lesiak-Bzdak, M.; Leuermann, M.; Liu, Q. R.; Lu, L.; Lünemann, J.; Luszczak, W.; Madsen, J.; Maggi, G.; Mahn, K. B. M.; Mancina, S.; Maruyama, R.; Mase, K.; Maunu, R.; McNally, F.; Meagher, K.; Medici, M.; Meier, M.; Menne, T.; Merino, G.; Meures, T.; Miarecki, S.; Micallef, J.; Momenté, G.; Montaruli, T.; Moore, R. W.; Moulai, M.; Nahnhauer, R.; Nakarmi, P.; Naumann, U.; Neer, G.; Niederhausen, H.; Nowicki, S. C.; Nygren, D. R.; Obertacke Pollmann, A.; Olivas, A.; O'Murchadha, A.; Palczewski, T.; Pandya, H.; Pankova, D. V.; Peiffer, P.; Pepper, J. A.; Pérez de los Heros, C.; Pieloth, D.; Pinat, E.; Plum, M.; Price, P. B.; Przybylski, G. T.; Raab, C.; Rädel, L.; Rameez, M.; Rawlins, K.; Rea, I. C.; Reimann, R.; Relethford, B.; Relich, M.; Resconi, E.; Rhode, W.; Richman, M.; Robertson, S.; Rongen, M.; Rott, C.; Ruhe, T.; Ryckbosch, D.; Rysewyk, D.; Sälzer, T.; Sanchez Herrera, S. E.; Sandrock, A.; Sandroos, J.; Santander, M.; Sarkar, S.; Sarkar, S.; Satalecka, K.; Schlunder, P.; Schmidt, T.; Schneider, A.; Schoenen, S.; Schöneberg, S.; Schumacher, L.; Seckel, D.; Seunarine, S.; Soedingrekso, J.; Soldin, D.; Song, M.; Spiczak, G. M.; Spiering, C.; Stachurska, J.; Stamatikos, M.; Stanev, T.; Stasik, A.; Stettner, J.; Steuer, A.; Stezelberger, T.; Stokstad, R. G.; Stößl, A.; Strotjohann, N. L.; Stuttard, T.; Sullivan, G. W.; Sutherland, M.; Taboada, I.; Tatar, J.; Tenholt, F.; Ter-Antonyan, S.; Terliuk, A.; Tešić, G.; Tilav, S.; Toale, P. A.; Tobin, M. N.; Toscano, S.; Tosi, D.; Tselengidou, M.; Tung, C. F.; Turcati, A.; Turley, C. F.; Ty, B.; Unger, E.; Usner, M.; Vandenbroucke, J.; Van Driessche, W.; van Eijndhoven, N.; Vanheule, S.; van Santen, J.; Vehring, M.; Vogel, E.; Vraeghe, M.; Walck, C.; Wallace, A.; Wallraff, M.; Wandler, F. D.; Wandkowsky, N.; Waza, A.; Weaver, C.; Weiss, M. J.; Wendt, C.; Werthebach, J.; Westerhoff, S.; Whelan, B. J.; Wiebe, K.; Wiebusch, C. H.; Wille, L.; Williams, D. R.; Wills, L.; Wolf, M.; Wood, J.; Wood, T. R.; Woolsey, E.; Woschnagg, K.; Xu, D. L.; Xu, X. W.; Xu, Y.; Yanez, J. P.; Yodh, G.; Yoshida, S.; Yuan, T.; Zoll, M.; IceCube Collaboration

    2018-04-01

    As atmospheric neutrinos propagate through the Earth, vacuumlike oscillations are modified by Standard Model neutral- and charged-current interactions with electrons. Theories beyond the Standard Model introduce heavy, TeV-scale bosons that can produce nonstandard neutrino interactions. These additional interactions may modify the Standard Model matter effect producing a measurable deviation from the prediction for atmospheric neutrino oscillations. The result described in this paper constrains nonstandard interaction parameters, building upon a previous analysis of atmospheric muon-neutrino disappearance with three years of IceCube DeepCore data. The best fit for the muon to tau flavor changing term is ɛμ τ=-0.0005 , with a 90% C.L. allowed range of -0.0067 <ɛμ τ<0.0081 . This result is more restrictive than recent limits from other experiments for ɛμ τ. Furthermore, our result is complementary to a recent constraint on ɛμ τ using another publicly available IceCube high-energy event selection. Together, they constitute the world's best limits on nonstandard interactions in the μ -τ sector.

  2. Neutral currents and electromagnetic renormalization of the vector part of neutrino weak interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Folomeshkin, V.N.

    1976-01-01

    The nature and properties of neutral currents in neutrino processes at high energies are theoretically investigated. Electronagmetic renormalization of diagonal ((νsub(e)e(νsub(e)e) and (νsub(μ)μ)(νsub(μ)μ)) and nondiagonal ((νsub(e)μ)(νsub(e)μ)) interactions is discussed in terms of the universal fourfermion interaction model. It is shown that electromagnetic renormalization of neutrino vector interaction caused an effective appearance of vector neutral currents with photon isotopic structure. The value for the interaction constant is unambigously defined by the ratio of the total cross-section for electron-positron annihilation into muonic pairs. Interaction (renormalization) constants for neutral currents are pointed out to be always smaller than interaction constants for charge currents

  3. Prediction for neutrino-electron cross-sections in Weinberg's model for weak interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooft, G. 't

    1971-01-01

    Weinberg's theory of purely leptonic weak interactions can be tested in neutrino-electron scattering experiments. Cross-sections must be measured as a function of the energy of the recoil electron. If Weinberg's theory is correct, then the masses of the intermediate vector bosons can be derived from

  4. Cross-sections for neutrino-nucleus interactions on $^{12}C$ and $^{16}O$

    CERN Document Server

    Jachowicz, N; Heyde, Kris L G

    1998-01-01

    We calculate cross sections for neutral current quasi-elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering within a continuum RPA model, based on a Green's function approach. As residual interaction a Skyrme force is used. The unperturbed single particle wave functions are generated using either a Woods-Saxon potential or a Hartree-Fock calculation. These calculations have interesting applications. Neutrinos play an important role in supernova nucleosynthesis. To obtain more information about these processes, cross sections are folded with a Fermi-Dirac distribution with temperatures of approximately 10 9 K.

  5. Prospect for Charge Current Neutrino Interactions Measurements at the CERN-PS

    CERN Document Server

    Bernardini, P; Bozza, C; Brugnera, R; Cecchetti, A; Cecchini, S; Collazuol, G; Corso, F Dal; De Mitri, I; De Serio, M; Di Ferdinando, D; Dore, U; Dusini, S; Fabbricatore, P; Fanin, C; Fini, R A; Garfagnini, A; Grella, G; Kose, U; Laveder, M; Loverre, P; Longhin, A; Marsella, G; Mancarella, G; Mandrioli, G; Mauri, N; Medinaceli, E; Mezzetto, M; Muciaccia, M T; Orecchini, D; Paoloni, A; Pastore, A; Patrizii, L; Pozzato, M; Rescigno, R; Rosa, G; Simone, S; Sioli, M; Sirri, G; Spurio, M; Stanco, L; Stellacci, S; Surdo, A; Tenti, M; Togo, V

    2011-01-01

    Tensions in several phenomenological models grew with experimental results on neutrino/antineutrino oscillations at Short-Baseline (SBL) and with the recent, carefully recomputed, antineutrino fluxes from nuclear reactors. At a refurbished SBL CERN-PS facility an experiment aimed to address the open issues has been proposed [1], based on the technology of imaging in ultra-pure cryogenic Liquid Argon (LAr). Motivated by this scenario a detailed study of the physics case was performed. We tackled specific physics models and we optimized the neutrino beam through a full simulation. Experimental aspects not fully covered by the LAr detection, i.e. the measurements of the lepton charge on event-by-event basis and their energy over a wide range, were also investigated. Indeed the muon leptons from Charged Current (CC) (anti-)neutrino interactions play an important role in disentangling different phenomenological scenarios provided their charge state is determined. Also, the study of muon appearance/disappearance ca...

  6. Interaction of electron neutrinos with 56Fe in the LSD for Eνe≤50 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaponov, Yu.V.; Semenov, S.V.; Ryazhskaya, O.G.

    2004-01-01

    The neutrino pulses, detected by LSD (liquid scintillator detector) on February 23, 1987, are analyzed on the base of two-stage model of supernova explosion. The number of events due to the electron neutrino interaction with 56 Fe in the LSD is calculated. The obtained results is in a agreement with experimental data [ru

  7. Lepton Flavorful Fifth Force and Depth-Dependent Neutrino Matter Interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wise, Mark B. [Caltech; Zhang, Yue [Northwestern U.

    2018-03-01

    We consider a fifth force to be an interaction that couples to matter with a strength that grows with the number of atoms. In addition to competing with the strength of gravity a fifth force can give rise to violations of the equivalence principle. Current long range constraints on the strength and range of fifth forces are very impressive. Amongst possible fifth forces are those that couple to lepton flavorful charges $L_e-L_{\\mu}$ or $L_e-L_{\\tau}$. They have the property that their range and strength are also constrained by neutrino interactions with matter. In this brief note we review the existing constraints on the allowed parameter space in gauged $U(1)_{L_e-L_{\\mu}, L_{\\tau}}$. We find two regions where neutrino oscillation experiments are at the frontier of probing such a new force. In particular, there is an allowed range of parameter space where neutrino matter interactions relevant for long baseline oscillation experiments depend on the depth of the neutrino beam below the surface of the earth.

  8. The role of interaction in neutrino statistics. In memory of Bronislaw Kuchowicz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deppert, W.

    1980-04-01

    The paper sets out to examine the role of interaction in neutrino statistics with the aid of the MATSUBARA method for calculation of thermodynamic potentials. For this purpose, a first step involves the use of the V-A interaction Hamilton operator. Estimations show that the relative effects of this interaction cannot exceed the very small value of 10 - 6 . In a second step it is shown that even by using the Hamilton operator of the Weinberg-Salam theory this result does not change. This means that the neutrino statistics calculated by Kuchowicz do not need to be revised as a result of interaction effects. Discussions are made on the possibility of symmetry restoring at a critical temperature kTsub(c) approx.= 100 GeV. This idea is extended to the grand unification scheme and some speculative conclusions are drawn. (author)

  9. Recent results from neutrino interactions in heavy neon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalelkar, M.; Baltay, C.; Caroumbalis, D.

    1978-01-01

    Recent results are reported from an analysis of 100,000 pictures of the Fermilab 15 ft bubble chamber filled with heavy neon and exposed to the double horn focused, wideband ν/sub μ/ beam. There were 164 dilepton (μ - e + ) events with 33 vees, in good agreement with the GIM model of charm production. Also observed were the production of the charmed D 0 meson, followed by the decay D 0 → K 0 π + π - , at a rate of (0.7 +- 0.2)% of all charged current events. From a subsample of film, four events of the purely leptonic neutrino--electron elastic scattering process were found. 3 references

  10. Study of charmed particle production in interactions with neutrinos detected in the experiment NOMAD at CERN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mechain, X.A.

    1999-01-01

    NOMAD (Neutrino Oscillation Magnetic Detector), devoted to the observation of tau neutrino interactions in case of neutrino flavour oscillations, was optimised in order to get an excellent identification of electrons coming from tau decays. Amongst the real events, identified as muon neutrino interactions, we select events including one muon and one positron candidate. We then reduce the number of events for which a hadron simulates the positron, and a method based on a likelihood rate allows us to select events for which the positron, lost in the hadronic jet, comes from the decay of a quark charm, and eliminates those for which the positron comes from photon conversions or Dalitz decays. From the extracted signal, we are able to estimate the mass of the charm quark and the strange sea content of the nucleon, by comparison with a Monte Carlo simulation based on the latest CCFR results. We also carried out a technical study on a possible identification of electrons using the specific behaviour of their tracks left in the drift chambers. We showed that we can get some discrimination power using variables given by the Kalman filter used for track fitting. (author)

  11. Neutrino mass, the right-handed interaction and the double beta decay, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doi, Masaru; Kotani, Tsuneyuki; Nishiura, Hiroyuki; Okuda, Kazuko; Takasugi, Eiichi.

    1981-01-01

    In order to shed light on the important question whether neutrinos are Dirac or Majorana particles, the double β decay is investigated within a general form of weak interaction Hamiltonian. The systematic study is made on the 0 + → J + nuclear transitions for the two-neutrino and neutrinoless modes both in the two-nucleon- and N*-mechanism. It is shown that for the neutrinoless mode, only the 0 + → 0 + transition in the two-nucleon mechanism is allowed if there is no right-handed interaction. When the right-handed interaction gives a sizable contribution, the role of the 0 + → 2 + transition becomes as important as the 0 + → 0 + transition. The comparison of our results with the previous ones is also presented. (author)

  12. Search for neutrino oscillations in the MINOS experiment by using quasi-elastic interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piteira, Rodolphe [Univ. Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris (France)

    2005-09-29

    The enthusiasm of the scientific community for studying oscillations of neutrinos is equaled only by the mass of their detectors. The MINOS experiment determines and compares the near spectrum of muonic neutrinos from the NUMI beam to the far one, in order to measure two oscillation parameters: Δm$2\\atop{23}$ and sin2 (2θ23). The spectra are obtained by analyzing the charged current interactions which difficulty lies in identifying the interactions products (e.g. muons). An alternative method identifying the traces of muons, bent by the magnetic field of the detectors, and determining their energies is presented in this manuscript. The sensitivity of the detectors is optimal for the quasi-elastic interactions, for which a selection method is proposed, to study their oscillation. Even though it reduces the statistics, such a study introduces fewer systematic errors, constituting the ideal method on the long range.

  13. Neutrino sunshine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Full text: On 10 June 1992, at the Neutrino 92 meeting in Grenada, Spain, Till Kirsten of Heidelberg's Max Planck Institute reported that neutrinos from sunshine had been seen. Most of the energy pumped out by the Sun comes from the fusion of protons into alpha particles, a process which also liberates neutrinos. While it takes about a million years for radiant energy formed in the deep interior of the Sun to fight its way to the surface, the highly penetrating neutrinos emerge almost immediately. It was in 1970 that Ray Davis and his team began taking data with a tank containing 615 tons of perchloroethylene (dry cleaning fluid) 1500 metres underground in the Homestake gold mine, South Dakota. The observed signal is consistently smaller than what is expected. This 'solar neutrino problem' was confirmed by the Kamioka mine experiment in Japan, looking at the Cherenkov light released by neutrino interactions in some 700 tons of water. However these experiments are only sensitive to a tiny high energy tail of the solar neutrino spectrum, and to understand what is going on needs measurements of the primary neutrinos from proton fusion. To get at these neutrinos, two large new detectors, using gallium and sensitive to these lower energy particles, have been built and commissioned in the past few years. The detectors are SAGE ('Soviet' American Gallium Experiment) in the Baksan Neutrino Observatory in the Caucasus, and Gallex, a team from France, Germany, Israel, Italy and the US in the Italian Gran Sasso underground Laboratory. At Grenada, Kirsten reported unmistakable signs of solar neutrinos of proton origin recorded in Gallex. SAGE and Gallex do not yet have enough data to unambiguously fix the level of primary solar neutrinos reaching the Earth, and the interpretation of the interim results tends to be subjective. However after 23 years of conditioning through watching the solar neutrinos' high energy tail, the prospect of a neutrino

  14. The Giant Radio Array for Neutrino Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martineau-Huynh Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available High-energy neutrino astronomy will probe the working of the most violent phenomena in the Universe. The Giant Radio Array for Neutrino Detection (GRAND project consists of an array of ∼ 105 radio antennas deployed over ∼ 200 000 km2 in a mountainous site. It aims at detecting high-energy neutrinos via the measurement of air showers induced by the decay in the atmosphere of τ leptons produced by the interaction of cosmic neutrinos under the Earth surface. Our objective with GRAND is to reach a neutrino sensitivity of 5 × 10−11E−2 GeV−1 cm−2 s−1 sr−1 above 3 × 1016 eV. This sensitivity ensures the detection of cosmogenic neutrinos in the most pessimistic source models, and up to 100 events per year are expected for the standard models. GRAND would also probe the neutrino signals produced at the potential sources of UHECRs.

  15. Probing velocity dependent self-interacting dark matter with neutrino telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Denis S.; Albuquerque, Ivone F. M.

    2018-02-01

    Self-interacting dark matter models constitute an attractive solution to problems in structure formation on small scales. A simple realization of these models considers the dark force mediated by a light particle which can couple to the Standard Model through mixings with the photon or the Z boson. Within this scenario we investigate the sensitivity of the IceCube-DeepCore and PINGU neutrino telescopes to the associated muon neutrino flux produced by dark matter annihilations in the Sun. Despite the model's simplicity, several effects naturally appear: momentum suppressed capture by nuclei, velocity dependent dark matter self-capture, Sommerfeld enhanced annihilation, as well as the enhancement on the neutrino flux due to mediator late decays. Taking all these effects into account, we find that most of the model relevant parameter space can be tested by the three years of data already collected by the IceCube-DeepCore. We show that indirect detection through neutrinos can compete with the strong existing limits from direct detection experiments, specially in the case of isospin violation.

  16. Exact and approximate formulas for neutrino mixing and oscillations with non-standard interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meloni, Davide; Ohlsson, Tommy; Zhang, He

    2009-01-01

    We present, both exactly and approximately, a complete set of mappings between the vacuum (or fundamental) leptonic mixing parameters and the effective ones in matter with non-standard neutrino interaction (NSI) effects included. Within the three-flavor neutrino framework and a constant matter density profile, a full set of sum rules is established, which enables us to reconstruct the moduli of the effective leptonic mixing matrix elements, in terms of the vacuum mixing parameters in order to reproduce the neutrino oscillation probabilities for future long-baseline experiments. Very compact, but quite accurate, approximate mappings are obtained based on series expansions in the neutrino mass hierarchy parameter η ≡ Δm 2 21 /Δm 2 31 , the vacuum leptonic mixing parameter s 13 ≡ sin θ 13 , and the NSI parameters ε αβ . A detailed numerical analysis about how the NSIs affect the smallest leptonic mixing angle θ 13 , the deviation of the leptonic mixing angle θ 23 from its maximal mixing value, and the transition probabilities useful for future experiments are performed using our analytical results.

  17. Describing the observed cosmic neutrinos by interactions of nuclei with matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winter, Walter

    2014-07-01

    IceCube have observed neutrinos which are presumably of extra-galactic origin. Since specific sources have not yet been identified, we discuss what could be learned from the conceptual point of view. We use a simple model for neutrino production from the interactions between nuclei and matter, and we focus on the description of the spectral shape and flavor composition observed by IceCube. Our main parameters are spectral index, maximal energy, magnetic field, and composition of the accelerated nuclei. We show that a cutoff at PeV energies can be achieved by soft enough spectra, a cutoff of the primary energy, or strong enough magnetic fields. These options, however, are difficult to reconcile with the hypothesis that these neutrinos originate from the same sources as the ultra-high energy cosmic rays. We demonstrate that heavier nuclei accelerated in the sources may be a possible way out if the maximal energy scales appropriately with the mass number of the nuclei. In this scenario, neutrino observations can actually be used to test the UHECR acceleration mechanism. We also emphasize the need for a volume upgrade of the IceCube detector for future precision physics, for which the flavor information becomes a statistical meaningful model discriminator as qualitatively new ingredient.

  18. Study of cosmic ray interaction model based on atmospheric muons for the neutrino flux calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanuki, T.; Honda, M.; Kajita, T.; Kasahara, K.; Midorikawa, S.

    2007-01-01

    We have studied the hadronic interaction for the calculation of the atmospheric neutrino flux by summarizing the accurately measured atmospheric muon flux data and comparing with simulations. We find the atmospheric muon and neutrino fluxes respond to errors in the π-production of the hadronic interaction similarly, and compare the atmospheric muon flux calculated using the HKKM04 [M. Honda, T. Kajita, K. Kasahara, and S. Midorikawa, Phys. Rev. D 70, 043008 (2004).] code with experimental measurements. The μ + +μ - data show good agreement in the 1∼30 GeV/c range, but a large disagreement above 30 GeV/c. The μ + /μ - ratio shows sizable differences at lower and higher momenta for opposite directions. As the disagreements are considered to be due to assumptions in the hadronic interaction model, we try to improve it phenomenologically based on the quark parton model. The improved interaction model reproduces the observed muon flux data well. The calculation of the atmospheric neutrino flux will be reported in the following paper [M. Honda et al., Phys. Rev. D 75, 043006 (2007).

  19. The Intermediate Neutrino Program

    CERN Document Server

    Adams, C.; Ankowski, A.M.; Asaadi, J.A.; Ashenfelter, J.; Axani, S.N.; Babu, K.; Backhouse, C.; Band, H.R.; Barbeau, P.S.; Barros, N.; Bernstein, A.; Betancourt, M.; Bishai, M.; Blucher, E.; Bouffard, J.; Bowden, N.; Brice, S.; Bryan, C.; Camilleri, L.; Cao, J.; Carlson, J.; Carr, R.E.; Chatterjee, A.; Chen, M.; Chen, S.; Chiu, M.; Church, E.D.; Collar, J.I.; Collin, G.; Conrad, J.M.; Convery, M.R.; Cooper, R.L.; Cowen, D.; Davoudiasl, H.; de Gouvea, A.; Dean, D.J.; Deichert, G.; Descamps, F.; DeYoung, T.; Diwan, M.V.; Djurcic, Z.; Dolinski, M.J.; Dolph, J.; Donnelly, B.; Dwyer, D.A.; Dytman, S.; Efremenko, Y.; Everett, L.L.; Fava, A.; Figueroa-Feliciano, E.; Fleming, B.; Friedland, A.; Fujikawa, B.K.; Gaisser, T.K.; Galeazzi, M.; Galehouse, D.C.; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Garvey, G.T.; Gautam, S.; Gilje, K.E.; Gonzalez-Garcia, M.; Goodman, M.C.; Gordon, H.; Gramellini, E.; Green, M.P.; Guglielmi, A.; Hackenburg, R.W.; Hackenburg, A.; Halzen, F.; Han, K.; Hans, S.; Harris, D.; Heeger, K.M.; Herman, M.; Hill, R.; Holin, A.; Huber, P.; Jaffe, D.E.; Johnson, R.A.; Joshi, J.; Karagiorgi, G.; Kaufman, L.J.; Kayser, B.; Kettell, S.H.; Kirby, B.J.; Klein, J.R.; Kolomensky, Yu. G.; Kriske, R.M.; Lane, C.E.; Langford, T.J.; Lankford, A.; Lau, K.; Learned, J.G.; Ling, J.; Link, J.M.; Lissauer, D.; Littenberg, L.; Littlejohn, B.R.; Lockwitz, S.; Lokajicek, M.; Louis, W.C.; Luk, K.; Lykken, J.; Marciano, W.J.; Maricic, J.; Markoff, D.M.; Martinez Caicedo, D.A.; Mauger, C.; Mavrokoridis, K.; McCluskey, E.; McKeen, D.; McKeown, R.; Mills, G.; Mocioiu, I.; Monreal, B.; Mooney, M.R.; Morfin, J.G.; Mumm, P.; Napolitano, J.; Neilson, R.; Nelson, J.K.; Nessi, M.; Norcini, D.; Nova, F.; Nygren, D.R.; Orebi Gann, G.D.; Palamara, O.; Parsa, Z.; Patterson, R.; Paul, P.; Pocar, A.; Qian, X.; Raaf, J.L.; Rameika, R.; Ranucci, G.; Ray, H.; Reyna, D.; Rich, G.C.; Rodrigues, P.; Romero, E.Romero; Rosero, R.; Rountree, S.D.; Rybolt, B.; Sanchez, M.C.; Santucci, G.; Schmitz, D.; Scholberg, K.; Seckel, D.; Shaevitz, M.; Shrock, R.; Smy, M.B.; Soderberg, M.; Sonzogni, A.; Sousa, A.B.; Spitz, J.; St. John, J.M.; Stewart, J.; Strait, J.B.; Sullivan, G.; Svoboda, R.; Szelc, A.M.; Tayloe, R.; Thomson, M.A.; Toups, M.; Vacheret, A.; Vagins, M.; Van de Water, R.G.; Vogelaar, R.B.; Weber, M.; Weng, W.; Wetstein, M.; White, C.; White, B.R.; Whitehead, L.; Whittington, D.W.; Wilking, M.J.; Wilson, R.J.; Wilson, P.; Winklehner, D.; Winn, D.R.; Worcester, E.; Yang, L.; Yeh, M.; Yokley, Z.W.; Yoo, J.; Yu, B.; Yu, J.; Zhang, C.

    2015-01-01

    The US neutrino community gathered at the Workshop on the Intermediate Neutrino Program (WINP) at Brookhaven National Laboratory February 4-6, 2015 to explore opportunities in neutrino physics over the next five to ten years. Scientists from particle, astroparticle and nuclear physics participated in the workshop. The workshop examined promising opportunities for neutrino physics in the intermediate term, including possible new small to mid-scale experiments, US contributions to large experiments, upgrades to existing experiments, R&D plans and theory. The workshop was organized into two sets of parallel working group sessions, divided by physics topics and technology. Physics working groups covered topics on Sterile Neutrinos, Neutrino Mixing, Neutrino Interactions, Neutrino Properties and Astrophysical Neutrinos. Technology sessions were organized into Theory, Short-Baseline Accelerator Neutrinos, Reactor Neutrinos, Detector R&D and Source, Cyclotron and Meson Decay at Rest sessions.This report summ...

  20. The Intermediate Neutrino Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, C.; et al.

    2015-03-23

    The US neutrino community gathered at the Workshop on the Intermediate Neutrino Program (WINP) at Brookhaven National Laboratory February 4-6, 2015 to explore opportunities in neutrino physics over the next five to ten years. Scientists from particle, astroparticle and nuclear physics participated in the workshop. The workshop examined promising opportunities for neutrino physics in the intermediate term, including possible new small to mid-scale experiments, US contributions to large experiments, upgrades to existing experiments, R&D plans and theory. The workshop was organized into two sets of parallel working group sessions, divided by physics topics and technology. Physics working groups covered topics on Sterile Neutrinos, Neutrino Mixing, Neutrino Interactions, Neutrino Properties and Astrophysical Neutrinos. Technology sessions were organized into Theory, Short-Baseline Accelerator Neutrinos, Reactor Neutrinos, Detector R&D and Source, Cyclotron and Meson Decay at Rest sessions.This report summarizes discussion and conclusions from the workshop.

  1. The Intermediate Neutrino Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, C. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Alonso, J. R. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Ankowski, A. M. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Asaadi, J. A. [Syracuse Univ., NY (United States); Ashenfelter, J. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Axani, S. N. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Babu, K [Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States); Backhouse, C. [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); Band, H. R. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Barbeau, P. S. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States); Barros, N. [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Bernstein, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Betancourt, M. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Bishai, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Blucher, E. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States); Bouffard, J. [State Univ. of New York (SUNY), Albany, NY (United States); Bowden, N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Brice, S. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Bryan, C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Camilleri, L. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States); Cao, J. [Inst. of High Energy Physics, Beijing (China); Carlson, J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Carr, R. E. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States); Chatterjee, A. [Univ. of Texas, Arlington, TX (United States); Chen, M. [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Chen, S. [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China); Chiu, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Church, E. D. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Collar, J. I. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States); Collin, G. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Conrad, J. M. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Convery, M. R. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Cooper, R. L. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States); Cowen, D. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Davoudiasl, H. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Gouvea, A. D. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); Dean, D. J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Deichert, G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Descamps, F. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); DeYoung, T. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Diwan, M. V. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Djurcic, Z. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Dolinski, M. J. [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Dolph, J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Donnelly, B. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Dwyer, D. A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Dytman, S. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Efremenko, Y. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Everett, L. L. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Fava, A. [University of Padua, Padova (Italy); Figueroa-Feliciano, E. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Fleming, B. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Friedland, A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Fujikawa, B. K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Gaisser, T. K. [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States); Galeazzi, M. [Univ. of Miami, FL (United States); Galehouse, DC [Univ. of Akron, OH (United States); Galindo-Uribarri, A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Garvey, G. T. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Gautam, S. [Tribhuvan Univ., Kirtipur (Nepal); Gilje, K. E. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Gonzalez-Garcia, M. [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States); Goodman, M. C. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Gordon, H. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Gramellini, E. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Green, M. P. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Guglielmi, A. [University of Padua, Padova (Italy); Hackenburg, R. W. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Hackenburg, A. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Halzen, F. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Han, K. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Hans, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Harris, D. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Heeger, K. M. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Herman, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Hill, R. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States); Holin, A. [Univ. College London, Bloomsbury (United Kingdom); Huber, P. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Jaffe, D. E. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Johnson, R. A. [Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States); Joshi, J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Karagiorgi, G. [Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom); Kaufman, L. J. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States); Kayser, B. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Kettell, S. H. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Kirby, B. J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Klein, J. R. [Univ. of Texas, Arlington, TX (United States); Kolomensky, Y. G. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Kriske, R. M. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Lane, C. E. [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Langford, T. J. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Lankford, A. [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Lau, K. [Univ. of Houston, TX (United States); Learned, J. G. [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Ling, J. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Link, J. M. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Lissauer, D. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Littenberg, L. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Littlejohn, B. R. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Lockwitz, S. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Lokajicek, M. [Inst. of Physics of the Academy of Sciences of Czech Republic, Prague (Czech Republic); Louis, W. C. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Luk, K. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Lykken, J. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Marciano, W. J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Maricic, J. [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Markoff, D. M. [North Carolina Central Univ., Durham, NC (United States); Caicedo, D. A. M. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Mauger, C. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Mavrokoridis, K. [Univ. of Liverpool (United Kingdom); McCluskey, E. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); McKeen, D. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); McKeown, R. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Mills, G. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Mocioiu, I. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Monreal, B. [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Mooney, M. R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Morfin, J. G. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Mumm, P. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology (NIST), Boulder, CO (United States); Napolitano, J. [Temple Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Neilson, R. [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Nelson, J. K. [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Nessi, M. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Norcini, D. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Nova, F. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Nygren, D. R. [Univ. of Texas, Arlington, TX (United States); Gann, GDO [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Palamara, O. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Parsa, Z. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Patterson, R. [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); Paul, P. [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States); Pocar, A. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States); Qian, X. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Raaf, J. L. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Rameika, R. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Ranucci, G. [National Inst. of Nuclear Physics, Milano (Italy); Ray, H. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Reyna, D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rich, G. C. [Triangle Universities Nuclear Lab., Durham, NC (United States); Rodrigues, P. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States); Romero, E. R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Rosero, R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Rountree, S. D. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Rybolt, B. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Sanchez, M. C. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States); Santucci, G. [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States); Schmitz, D. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States); Scholberg, K. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States); Seckel, D. [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States); Shaevitz, M. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States); Shrock, R. [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States); Smy, M. B. [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Soderberg, M. [Syracuse Univ., NY (United States); Sonzogni, A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Sousa, A. B. [Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States); Spitz, J. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); John, J. M. S. [Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States); Stewart, J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Strait, J. B. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Sullivan, G. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Svoboda, R. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States); Szelc, A. M. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Tayloe, R. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States); Thomson, M. A. [Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom); Toups, M. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Vacheret, A. [Univ. of Oxford (United Kingdom); Vagins, M. [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Water, R. G. V. D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Vogelaar, R. B. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Weber, M. [Bern (Switzerland); Weng, W. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Wetstein, M. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States); White, C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); White, B. R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Whitehead, L. [Univ. of Houston, TX (United States); Whittington, D. W. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States); Wilking, M. J. [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States); Wilson, R. J. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States); Wilson, P. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Winklehner, D. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Winn, D. R. [Fairfield Univ., CT (United States); Worcester, E. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Yang, L. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Yeh, M [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Yokley, Z. W. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Yoo, J. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Yu, B. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Yu, J. [Univ. of Texas, Arlington, TX (United States); Zhang, C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2017-04-03

    The US neutrino community gathered at the Workshop on the Intermediate Neutrino Program (WINP) at Brookhaven National Laboratory February 4-6, 2015 to explore opportunities in neutrino physics over the next five to ten years. Scientists from particle, astroparticle and nuclear physics participated in the workshop. The workshop examined promising opportunities for neutrino physics in the intermediate term, including possible new small to mid-scale experiments, US contributions to large experiments, upgrades to existing experiments, R&D plans and theory. The workshop was organized into two sets of parallel working group sessions, divided by physics topics and technology. Physics working groups covered topics on Sterile Neutrinos, Neutrino Mixing, Neutrino Interactions, Neutrino Properties and Astrophysical Neutrinos. Technology sessions were organized into Theory, Short-Baseline Accelerator Neutrinos, Reactor Neutrinos, Detector R&D and Source, Cyclotron and Meson Decay at Rest sessions.This report summarizes discussion and conclusions from the workshop.

  2. Neutrino-nucleus neutral current elastic interactions measurement in MiniBooNE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perevalov, Denis [Univ. of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States)

    2009-12-01

    The MiniBooNE experiment at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) was designed to search for vμ → ve neutrino oscillations at Δm2 ~ 1 eV2 using an intense neutrino flux with an average energy Ev ~ 700 MeV. From 2002 to 2009 MiniBooNE has accumulated more than 1.0 x 1021 protons on target (POT) in both neutrino and antineutrino modes. MiniBooNE provides a perfect platform for detailed measurements of exclusive and semiinclusive neutrino cross-sections, for which MiniBooNE has the largest samples of events up to date, such as neutral current elastic (NCE), neutral current π0, charged current quasi-elastic (CCQE), charged current π+, and other channels. These measured cross-sections, in turn, allow to improve the knowledge of nucleon structure. This thesis is devoted to the study of NCE interactions. Neutrino-nucleus neutral current elastic scattering (vN → vN) accounts for about 18% of all neutrino interactions in MiniBooNE. Using a high-statistics, high purity sample of NCE interactions in MiniBooNE, the flux-averaged NCE differential cross-section has been measured and is being reported here. Further study of the NCE cross-section allowed for probing the structure of nuclei. The main interest in the NCE cross-section is that it may be sensitive to the strange quark contribution to the nucleon spin, Δs, this however requires a separation of NCE proton (vp → vp) from NCE neutron (vn → vn) events, which in general is a challenging task. MiniBooNE uses a Cherenkov detector, which imposes restrictions on the measured nucleon kinematic variables, mainly due to the impossibility to reconstruct the nucleon direction below the Cherenkov threshold. However, at kinetic energies above this threshold MiniBooNE is able to identify NCE proton events that do not experience final state interactions (FSI). These events were used for the Δs measurement. In this thesis

  3. Neutrino-nucleus neutral current elastic interactions measurement in MiniBooNE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perevalov, Denis

    The MiniBooNE experiment at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) was designed to search for numu → nu e neutrino oscillations at Deltam 2 ˜ 1 eV2 using an intense neutrino flux with an average energy Enu ˜ 700 MeV. From 2002 to 2009 MiniBooNE has accumulated more than 1.0x1021 protons on target (POT) in both neutrino and antineutrino modes. MiniBooNE provides a perfect platform for detailed measurements of exclusive and semi-inclusive neutrino cross-sections, for which MiniBooNE has the largest samples of events up to date, such as neutral current elastic (NCE), neutral current pi 0, charged current quasi-elastic (CCQE), charged current pi +, and other channels. These measured cross-sections, in turn, allow to improve the knowledge of nucleon structure. This thesis is devoted to the study of NCE interactions. Neutrino-nucleus neutral current elastic scattering (nuN → nu N) accounts for about 18% of all neutrino interactions in MiniBooNE. Using a high-statistics, high purity sample of NCE interactions in MiniBooNE, the flux-averaged NCE differential cross-section has been measured and is being reported here. Further study of the NCE cross-section allowed for probing the structure of nuclei. The main interest in the NCE cross-section is that it may be sensitive to the strange quark contribution to the nucleon spin, Deltas, this however requires a separation of NCE proton (nup → nu p) from NCE neutron (nun → nun ) events, which in general is a challenging task. MiniBooNE uses a Cherenkov detector, which imposes restrictions on the measured nucleon kinematic variables, mainly due to the impossibility to reconstruct the nucleon direction below the Cherenkov threshold. However, at kinetic energies above this threshold MiniBooNE is able to identify NCE proton events that do not experience final state interactions (FSI). These events were used for the Deltas measurement. In this thesis MiniBooNE reports the NCE (n+p) cross-section, the measurement

  4. Investigation of the influence of nuclear matter on hard neutrino nucleus interaction using the HARDPING Monte Carlo Event Generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berdnikov, Ya.A.; Berdnikov, A.Ya.; Kim, V.T.; Ivanov, A.E.; Suetin, D.P.; Tiangov, K.D.

    2016-01-01

    Hadron production in neutrino-nucleus interactions is implemented in Monte Carlo event generator HARDPING (HARD Probe INteraction Generator). Such effects as formation length, energy loss and multiple rescattering for produced hadrons and their constituents are taken into account in HARDPING. Available data from WA/59 and SCAT collaborations on hadron production in neutrino-nucleus collisions is described by HARDPING with a reasonable agreement

  5. Production of neutral heavy leptons by neutrinos in the E7 gauge model of weak interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottino, A.; Kim, C.W.

    1977-11-01

    An attempt, is made, in the framework of the Guersey-Sikivie gauge model of weak interactions based on the E7 group, to explain the recently observed neutrino-production of a relatively long-lived neutral heavy lepton in SKAT bubble chamber experiment. It is shown that a lepton assignment with mixings among neutral leptons can explain the SKAT event. This lepton assignment is also shown to be consistent with other well-known experiments

  6. Neutrinos and Einstein

    CERN Document Server

    Suzuki, Yoichiro

    2005-01-01

    A tiny neutrino mass is a clue to the physics beyond the standard model of elementary particle physics. The primary cosmic rays, mostly protons, are created and accelerated to the relativistic energy in supernova remnants. They traverse the universe and reach the earth. The incoming primary cosmic rays interact with the earth's atmosphere to produce secondary particles, which subsequently decay into neutrinos, called atmospheric neutrinos. The atmospheric neutrinos have shown the evidence of the finite neutrino masses through the phenomena called neutrino oscillations. Neutrinos are detected by large detectors underground like, for example, Super-Kamiokande, SNO and KamLAND. Those detectors use large photomultiplier tubes, which make use of the photo-electric effect to convert photons created by the interaction of neutrinos to electrons to form electric pulses. Neutrinos are therefore created and detected by "Einstein" and have step forward beyond the current physics. Neutrinos may also carry a hit to the ori...

  7. Neutrino mass, the right-handed interaction and the double beta decay, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doi, Masaru; Kotani, Tsuneyuki; Nishiura, Hiroyuki; Okuda, Kazuko; Takasugi, Eiichi.

    1981-01-01

    Based on the formulae for the double β decay obtained in the previous paper, the general properties of 0 + → J + transitions are discussed and the analysis of the experimental data is presented. It is found that, for the two neutrino mode, the 0 + → 0 + transition in the two nucleon (2n)-mechanism dominates over the 0 + → 2 + transition as well as the contribution from the N*-mechanism. For the neutrinoless mode, only the 0 + → 0 + transition in the 2n-mechanism is allowed if there is no right-handed interaction. When the right-handed interaction gives a sizable contribution, the role of the 0 + → 2 + transition becomes as important as the 0 + → 0 + transition in this mode. It is concluded that the experimental data on the ratio of the 128 Te to 130 Te half-lives by Hennecke et al. suggest that neutrinos are Majorana particles, if we take the Vergados estimation of the nuclear matrix elements. Moreover, we find that the weighted average of neutrino masses is around 34 eV if there is no right-handed interaction. (author)

  8. Structure of the neutral current coupling in high energy neutrino--nucleon interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merritt, F.S.

    1977-01-01

    The primary objective of this experiment was to determine the Lorentz structure of the neutral current coupling--that is, to determine what combination of V-A and V+A (or possibly S, P, and T) components make up the neutral coupling. The experiment used the Fermilab narrow band neutrino beam to provide separated neutrino and antineutrino fluxes, each consisting of two energy bands at approximately equal to 55 and approximately equal to 150 GeV. Deep inelastic inclusive neutrino-nucleon interactions of the form ν(anti ν) + N = μ - (μ + ) + hadrons (CC event) ν(anti ν) + N = ν(anti ν) + hadrons (NC event) were observed in an instrumented steel target-calorimeter, which measured the total energy of the hadrons produced in each event. The neutral current coupling was determined by comparing the hadron energy distributions of neutrino and antineutrino neutral current events. An analysis of the charged-current data was carried out in order to determine the background of charged-current events with unobserved muons, and to provide a normalization for the neutral current data. Various parameterizations of the CC interaction were tested, and their effects on the neutral current analysis were studied in detail. The neutral current analysis indicates that, if only vector and axial-vector components exist, then the neutral current coupling lies between V and V-A. A pure scalar coupling is excluded. The data were compared to the Weinberg--Salam theory (extended to semileptonic interactions), and are in very good agreement with its predictions. Comparison of these data to the low energy Gargamelle data indicates consistency with a scaling hypothesis

  9. Neutrinos in Nuclear Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKeown, Bob [bmck@jlab.org

    2015-06-01

    Since the discovery of nuclear beta decay, nuclear physicists have studied the weak interaction and the nature of neutrinos. Many recent and current experiments have been focused on the elucidation of neutrino oscillations and neutrino mass. The quest for the absolute value of neutrino mass continues with higher precision studies of the tritium beta decay spectrum near the endpoint. Neutrino oscillations are studied through measurements of reactor neutrinos as a function of baseline and energy. And experiments searching for neutrinoless double beta decay seek to discover violation of lepton number and establish the Majorana nature of neutrino masses.

  10. Characterization of Final State Interaction Strength in Plastic Scintillator by Muon-Neutrino Charged Current Charged Pion Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eberly, Brandon M. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Precise knowledge of neutrino-nucleus interactions is increasingly important as neutrino oscillation measurements transition into the systematics-limited era. In addition to modifying the initial interaction, the nuclear medium can scatter and absorb the interaction by-products through final state interactions, changing the types and kinematic distributions of particles seen by the detector. Recent neutrino pion production data from MiniBooNE is inconsistent with the final state interaction strength predicted by models and theoretical calculations, and some models fit best to the MiniBooNE data only after removing final state interactions entirely. This thesis presents a measurement of dσ/dTπ and dσ/dθπ for muon-neutrino charged current charged pion production in the MINER A scintillator tracker. MINER A is a neutrino-nucleus scattering experiment installed in the few-GeV NuMI beam line at Fermilab. The analysis is limited to neutrino energies between 1.5-10 GeV. Dependence on invariant hadronic mass W is studied through two versions of the analysis that impose the limits W < 1.4 GeV and W < 1.8 GeV. The lower limit on W increases compatibility with the MiniBooNE pion data. The shapes of the differential cross sections, which depend strongly on the nature of final state interactions, are compared to Monte Carlo and theoretical predictions. It is shown that the measurements presented in this thesis favor models that contain final state interactions. Additionally, a variety of neutrino-nucleus interaction models are shown to successfully reproduce the thesis measurements, while simultaneously failing to describe the shape of the MiniBooNE data.

  11. Angular and polarization trails from effective interactions of Majorana neutrinos at the LHeC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Lucía; Zapata, Gabriel; Sampayo, Oscar A.

    2018-05-01

    We study the possibility of the LHeC facility to disentangle different new physics contributions to the production of heavy sterile Majorana neutrinos in the lepton number violating channel e-p→ lj+ + 3 jets (l_j≡e ,μ ). This is done investigating the angular and polarization trails of effective operators with distinct Dirac-Lorentz structure contributing to the Majorana neutrino production, which parameterize new physics from a higher energy scale. We study an asymmetry in the angular distribution of the final anti-lepton and the initial electron polarization effect on the number of signal events produced by the vectorial and scalar effective interactions, finding both analyses could well separate their contributions.

  12. Associated charm production in neutrino-nucleus interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kayis-Topaksu, A.; Oenenguet, G.; van Dantzig, R.; de Jong, M.; Oldeman, R.G.C.; Gueler, M.; Koese, U.; Tolun, P.; Catanesi, M.G.; Muciaccia, M.T.; Winter, K.; Van de Vyver, B.; Vilain, P.; Wilquet, G.; Saitta, B.; Di Capua, E.; Ogawa, S.; Shibuya, H.; Hristova, I.R.; Kawamura, T.; Kolev, D.; Meinhard, H.; Panman, J.; Tsenov, R.; Uiterwijk, J.W.E.; Rozanov, A.; Zucchelli, P.; Goldberg, J.; Chikawa, M.; Song, J.S.; Yoon, C.S.; Kodama, K.; Ushida, N.; Aoki, S.; Hara, T.; Delbar, T.; Favart, D.; Gregoire, G.; Kalinin, S.; Makhlioueva, I.; Artamonov, A.; Khovansky, V.; Shamanov, V.; Tsukerman, I.; Gorbunov, P.; Bruski, N.; Frekers, D.; Hoshino, K.; Kawada, J.; Komatsu, M.; Miyanishi, M.; Nakamura, M.; Nakano, T.; Narita, K.; Niu, K.; Niwa, K.; Nonaka, N.; Sato, O.; Toshito, T.; Buontempo, S.; Cocco, A.G.; D'Ambrosio, N.; De Lellis, G.; De Rosa, G.; Di Capua, F.; Fiorillo, G.; Marotta, A.; Migliozzi, P.; Scotto Lavina, L.; Strolin, P.; Tioukov, V.; Okusawa, T.; Dore, U.; Loverre, P.F.; Ludovici, L.; Rosa, G.; Santacesaria, R.; Satta, A.; Spada, F.R.; Barbuto, E.; Bozza, C.; Grella, G.; Romano, G.; Sirignano, C.; Sorrentino, S.; Sato, Y.; Tezuka, I.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper a search for associated charm production both in neutral and charged current ν-nucleus interactions is presented. The improvement of automatic scanning systems in the CHORUS experiment allows an efficient search to be performed in emulsion for short-lived particles. Hence a search for rare processes, like the associated charm production, becomes possible through the observation of the double charm-decay topology with a very low background. About 130000 ν interactions located in the emulsion target have been analysed. Three events with two charm decays have been observed in the neutral-current sample with an estimated background of 0.18±0.05. The relative rate of the associated charm cross-section in deep inelastic ν interactions, σ(c anti cν)/σ NC DIS =(3.62 +2.95 -2.42 (stat)±0.54(syst)) x 10 -3 has been measured. One event with two charm decays has been observed in charged-current ν μ interactions with an estimated background of 0.18±0.06 and the upper limit on associated charm production in charged-current interactions at 90% C.L. has been found to be σ(c anti cμ - )/σ CC -4 . (orig.)

  13. Cross sections for neutrino and antineutrino neutral current interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosetti, P.C.; Deden, H.; Deutschmann, M.; Fritze, P.; Graessler, H.; Hasert, F.J.; Morfin, J.; Schulte, R.; Schultze, K.; Seyfert, H.; Banerjee, S.; Barnham, K.W.J.; Beuselinck, R.; Butterworth, I.; Clayton, E.F.; Miller, D.B.; Powell, K.J.; Davis, C.L.; Grossman, P.; McGow, R.; Mulvey, J.H.; Myatt, G.; Perkins, D.H.; Pons, R.; Radojicic, O.; Renton, P.; Saitta, B.; Stenger, V.

    1978-01-01

    The cross sections for γ and anti γ neutral current interactions for which the hadron energy is > 15 GeV have been measured. These results, and the ratios of neutral current to charged current sections, are in agreement with the Weinberg-Salam model. Values of sin 2 thetasub(w) have been obtained both with and without the use of a parametrisation for the hadronic part of the interaction; the values are in good agreement with each other and the preferred result, that obtained by the method independent of hadronic models, is sin 2 thetasub(w) = 0.22 +- 0.05. (Auth.)

  14. The solar neutrinos epopee

    CERN Document Server

    Lasserre, T

    2003-01-01

    The 2002 year has been fruitful for the neutrino physics. First, the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) experiment has shown that the electron neutrinos nu sub e emitted by the sun are converted into muon neutrinos (nu submu) and tau neutrinos (nu subtau), thus closing the 30 years old problem of solar neutrinos deficit. This discovery validates the model of nuclear energy production inside the sun but it shakes the theory describing the weak interactions between the fundamental constituents of matter. This theory considers the neutrinos (and the photons) as massless particles, while the taste conversion phenomenon necessarily implies that neutrinos have a mass. In October 2000, the Universe exploration by the cosmic neutrinos is jointly recognized by R. Davis (USA) and M. Koshiba (Japan) who received the Nobel price of physics. Finally, in December 2000, the KamLAND experiment quantitatively demonstrated the neutrinos metamorphosis by detecting a deficit in the flux of electron antineutrinos coming from the ...

  15. Spin alignment of ρ0 mesons produced in antineutrino and neutrino neon charged-current interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wittek, W.; Aderholz, M.; Schmitz, N.; Guy, J.; Cooper-Sarkar, A.M.; Venus, W.; Brisson, V.; Petiau, P.; Vallee, C.; Calicchio, M.; Erriquez, O.; Fogli-Muciaccia, M.T.; Jones, G.T.; Middleton, R.P.; O'Neale, S.W.; Varvell, K.; Klein, H.; Morrison, D.R.O.; Parker, M.A.; Wachsmuth, H.; Vayaki, A.

    1987-01-01

    In a bubble chamber experiment with BEBC the spin alignment parameter η=1/2(2ρ 00 -ρ 11 -ρ -1-1 ) is measured for ρ 0 mesons produced in deep inelastic charged-current antineutrino and neutrino interactions on neon. In the current fragmentation region η is found to be η ν =0.48±0.27(stat.)±0.15(syst.) for anti νNe and η ν =0.12±0.20(stat.)±0.10(syst.) for νNe interactions. (orig.)

  16. Measurement of fragmentation properties of charmed particle production in charged-current neutrino interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Onengüt, G; De Jong, M; Konijn, J; Melzer, O; Oldeman, R G C; Pesen, E; Van der Poel, C A F J; Visschers, J L; Güler, M; Köse, U; Serin-Zeyrek, M; Kama, S; Sever, R; Tolun,, P; Zeyrek, M T; Catanesi, M G; De Serio, M; Ieva, M; Muciaccia, M T; Radicioni, E; Simone, S; Bülte, A; Winter, Klaus; Van de Vyver, B; Vilain, P; Wilquet, G; Saitta, B; Di Capua, E; Ogawa, S; Shibuya, H; Artamonov, A V; Brunner, J; Chizhov, M; Cussans, D G; Doucet, M; Fabre, Jean-Paul; Hristova, I R; Kawamura, T; Kolev, D; Litmaath, M; Meinhard, H; Panman, J; Papadopoulos, I M; Ricciardi, S; Rozanov, A; Saltzberg, D; Tsenov, R V; Uiterwijk, J W E; Zucchelli, P; Goldberg, J; Chikawa, M; Arik, E; Song, J S; Yoon, C S; Kodama, K; Ushida, N; Aoki, S; Hara, T; Delbar, T; Favart, D; Grégoire, G; Kalinin, S; Makhlyoueva, I V; Gorbunov, P; Khovanskii, V D; Shamanov, V V; Tsukerman, I; Bruski, N; Frekers, D; Rondeshagen, D; Wolff, T; Hoshino, K; Kawada, J; Komatsu, M; Miyanishi, M; Nakamura, M; Nakano, T; Narita, K; Niu, K; Niwa, K; Nonaka, N; Sato, O; Toshito, T; Buontempo, S; Cocco, A G; D'Ambrosio, N; De Lellis, G; De Rosa, G; Di Capua, F; Ereditato, A; Fiorillo, G; Marotta, A; Messina, M; Migliozzi, P; Pistillo, C; Santorelli, R; Scotto-Lavina, L; Strolin, P; Tioukov, V; Nakamura, K; Okusawa, T; Dore, U; FLoverre, P; Ludovici, L; Maslennikov, A L; Righini, P; Rosa, G; Santacesaria, R; Satta, A; Spada, F R; Barbuto, E; Bozza, C; Grella, G; Romano, G; Sirignano, C; Sorrentino, S; Sato, Y; Tezuka, I

    2004-01-01

    During the years 1994-97, the emulsion target of the CHORUS detector was exposed to the wideband neutrino beam of the CERN SPS. In total about 100 000 charged-current neutrino interactions were located in the nuclear emulsion target and fully reconstructed. From this sample of events which was based on the data acquired by new automatic scanning systems, 1048 D0 events were selected by a pattern recognition program. They were confirmed as neutral-particle decays through visual inspection. Fragmentation properties of deep-inelastic charm production were measured using these events. Distributions of the D0 momentum, Feynman x(x_F), z and tan thetaôut, the transverse angle out of the leptonic plane defined by the muon and the neutrino, are presented. The mean value of z was measured to be (z) = 0.63 +- 0.03(stat) +- 0.01(syst). From fits to the z distribution, values for the Peterson parameter epsilon_p = 0.108 +- 0.017(stat) +- 0.013(syst) and the Collins-Spiller parameter epsilon_CS = 0.21^+0.05_-0.04(stat) +...

  17. Search for active-sterile neutrino mixing using neutral-current interactions in NOvA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, P.; Aliaga, L.; Ambrose, D.; Anfimov, N.; Antoshkin, A.; Arrieta-Diaz, E.; Augsten, K.; Aurisano, A.; Backhouse, C.; Baird, M.; Bambah, B. A.; Bays, K.; Behera, B.; Bending, S.; Bernstein, R.; Bhatnagar, V.; Bhuyan, B.; Bian, J.; Blackburn, T.; Bolshakova, A.; Bromberg, C.; Brown, J.; Brunetti, G.; Buchanan, N.; Butkevich, A.; Bychkov, V.; Campbell, M.; Catano-Mur, E.; Childress, S.; Choudhary, B. C.; Chowdhury, B.; Coan, T. E.; Coelho, J. A. B.; Colo, M.; Cooper, J.; Corwin, L.; Cremonesi, L.; Cronin-Hennessy, D.; Davies, G. S.; Davies, J. P.; Derwent, P. F.; Dharmapalan, R.; Ding, P.; Djurcic, Z.; Dukes, E. C.; Duyang, H.; Edayath, S.; Ehrlich, R.; Feldman, G. J.; Frank, M. J.; Gabrielyan, M.; Gallagher, H. R.; Germani, S.; Ghosh, T.; Giri, A.; Gomes, R. A.; Goodman, M. C.; Grichine, V.; Groh, M.; Group, R.; Grover, D.; Guo, B.; Habig, A.; Hartnell, J.; Hatcher, R.; Hatzikoutelis, A.; Heller, K.; Himmel, A.; Holin, A.; Howard, B.; Hylen, J.; Jediny, F.; Judah, M.; Kafka, G. K.; Kalra, D.; Kasahara, S. M. S.; Kasetti, S.; Keloth, R.; Kolupaeva, L.; Kotelnikov, S.; Kourbanis, I.; Kreymer, A.; Kumar, A.; Kurbanov, S.; Lackey, T.; Lang, K.; Lee, W. M.; Lin, S.; Lokajicek, M.; Lozier, J.; Luchuk, S.; Maan, K.; Magill, S.; Mann, W. A.; Marshak, M. L.; Matera, K.; Matveev, V.; Méndez, D. P.; Messier, M. D.; Meyer, H.; Miao, T.; Miller, W. H.; Mishra, S. R.; Mohanta, R.; Moren, A.; Mualem, L.; Muether, M.; Mufson, S.; Murphy, R.; Musser, J.; Nelson, J. K.; Nichol, R.; Niner, E.; Norman, A.; Nosek, T.; Oksuzian, Y.; Olshevskiy, A.; Olson, T.; Paley, J.; Patterson, R. B.; Pawloski, G.; Pershey, D.; Petrova, O.; Petti, R.; Phan-Budd, S.; Plunkett, R. K.; Poling, R.; Potukuchi, B.; Principato, C.; Psihas, F.; Radovic, A.; Rameika, R. A.; Rebel, B.; Reed, B.; Rocco, D.; Rojas, P.; Ryabov, V.; Sachdev, K.; Sail, P.; Samoylov, O.; Sanchez, M. C.; Schroeter, R.; Sepulveda-Quiroz, J.; Shanahan, P.; Sheshukov, A.; Singh, J.; Singh, J.; Singh, P.; Singh, V.; Smolik, J.; Solomey, N.; Song, E.; Sousa, A.; Soustruznik, K.; Strait, M.; Suter, L.; Talaga, R. L.; Tas, P.; Thayyullathil, R. B.; Thomas, J.; Tian, X.; Tognini, S. C.; Tripathi, J.; Tsaris, A.; Urheim, J.; Vahle, P.; Vasel, J.; Vinton, L.; Vold, A.; Vrba, T.; Wang, B.; Wetstein, M.; Whittington, D.; Wojcicki, S. G.; Wolcott, J.; Yadav, N.; Yang, S.; Zalesak, J.; Zamorano, B.; Zwaska, R.; NOvA Collaboration

    2017-10-01

    We report results from the first search for sterile neutrinos mixing with active neutrinos through a reduction in the rate of neutral-current interactions over a baseline of 810 km between the NOvA detectors. Analyzing a 14-kton detector equivalent exposure of 6.05 ×1020 protons-on-target in the NuMI beam at Fermilab, we observe 95 neutral-current candidates at the Far Detector compared with 83.5 ±9.7 (stat ) ±9.4 (syst ) events predicted assuming mixing only occurs between active neutrino species. No evidence for νμ→νs transitions is found. Interpreting these results within a 3 +1 model, we place constraints on the mixing angles θ24<20.8 ° and θ34<31.2 ° at the 90% C.L. for 0.05 eV2≤Δ m412≤0.5 eV2 , the range of mass splittings that produce no significant oscillations over the Near Detector baseline.

  18. Effective theories for Dark Matter interactions and the neutrino portal paradigm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macías, Vannia González; Wudka, José [Department of Physics & Astronomy, University of California Riverside,University Av., Riverside, California 92521-0413 (United States)

    2015-07-29

    In this article we discuss a general effective-theory description of a multi-component dark sector with an unspecified non-trivial symmetry and its interactions with the Standard Model generated by the exchange of heavy mediators. We then categorize the relevant effective operators given the current experimental sensistivity where the underlying theory is weakly coupled and renormalizable, with neutral mediators: either scalars or fermions. An interesting scenario resulting from this categorization is the neutrino portal, where only fermion mediators are present, and where the dark sector consists of fermions and scalars such that the lightest dark particle is a fermion, this scenario is characterized by having naturally suppressed couplings of the DM to all SM particles except the neutrinos and has received little attention in the literature. We find that there is a wide region in parameter space allowed by the current experimental constraints (relic abundance, direct and indirect detection limits); the cleanest signature of this paradigm is the presence of monochromatic neutrino lines with energy equal to that of the DM mass, but experimental sensitivity would have to be improved significantly before this can be probed.

  19. Nonstandard neutrino self-interactions in a supernova and fast flavor conversions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dighe, Amol; Sen, Manibrata

    2018-02-01

    We study the effects of nonstandard self-interactions (NSSI) of neutrinos streaming out of a core-collapse supernova. We show that with NSSI, the standard linear stability analysis gives rise to linearly as well as exponentially growing solutions. For a two-box spectrum, we demonstrate analytically that flavor-preserving NSSI lead to a suppression of bipolar collective oscillations. In the intersecting four-beam model, we show that flavor-violating NSSI can lead to fast oscillations even when the angle between the neutrino and antineutrino beams is obtuse, which is forbidden in the standard model. This leads to the new possibility of fast oscillations in a two-beam system with opposing neutrino-antineutrino fluxes, even in the absence of any spatial inhomogeneities. Finally, we solve the full nonlinear equations of motion in the four-beam model numerically, and explore the interplay of fast and slow flavor conversions in the long-time behavior, in the presence of NSSI.

  20. Observation of a visible charmed particle decay in neutrino interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cnops, A.M.; Connolly, P.L.; Kahn, S.A.

    1979-01-01

    In a sample of 250 semileptonic charmed particle decays (ν/sub μ/ + Neon → μ - + e + + ... events), one clear event is found where the e + does not come directly from the ν interaction vertex but from a decay point 1.1 cm downstream of the vertex. This event is interpreted as a visible charmed particle decay: into an e + and a positive and a negative charged track. The observation of a visible charm decay in the sample is consistent with what is expected if the charm lifetime were of the order 5 x 10 -13 sec. 5 references

  1. Cosmic neutrinos as a probe of TeV-scale physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahlers, M.

    2007-02-15

    Ultra-high energy cosmic neutrinos are versatile probes of astrophysics, astronomy, and particle physics. They represent the messengers of hadronic processes in cosmic accelerators and survive the propagation through the interstellar medium practically unscathed. We investigate the neutrino fluxes associated with optically thin proton sources which provide a diagnostic of the transition between galactic and extragalactic cosmic rays. The center of mass energies in collisions of these cosmic neutrinos with atomic nuclei in the atmosphere or the Earth's interior easily exceed those so far reached in man-made accelerators. We discuss the prospects of observing supersymmetric neutrino interactions with Cherenkov telescopes and speculate about a neutrino component in extremely high energy cosmic rays from exotic interactions in the atmosphere. (orig.)

  2. Supernova neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    In the first part of his in-depth article on the 1987 supernova, David Schramm of the University of Chicago and the NASA/Fermilab Astrophysics Centre reviewed the background to supernovae, the composition of massive stars and the optical history of SN 1987A, and speculated on what the 1987 remnant might be. In such a Type II supernova, gravitational pressure crushes the atoms of the star's interior producing neutron matter, or even a black hole, and releasing an intense burst of neutrinos. 1987 was the first time that physicists were equipped (but not entirely ready!) to intercept these particles, and in the second part of his article, David Schramm covers the remarkable new insights from the science of supernova neutrino astronomy, born on 23 February 1987

  3. Again on neutrino oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilenky, S.M.; Pontecorvo, B.

    1976-01-01

    The general case is treated of a weak interaction theory in which a term violating lepton charges is present. In such a scheme the particles with definite masses are Majorana neutrinos (2N if in the weak interaction participate N four-component neutrinos). Neutrino oscillations are discussed and it is shown that the minimum average intensity at the earth of solar neutrinos is 1/2N of the intensity expected when oscillations are absent

  4. Neutral strange particle production in high energy charged current neutrino deuterium interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, D.

    1982-01-01

    In an exposure of the Fermilab 15-foot deuterium filled bubble chamber to a single horn focused wide band neutrino beam with energies between 10 and 250 GeV, 311 K/sub s/, 219 lambda and 7 Anti lambda are observed. These correspond to K 0 anti(K 0 ), lambda(Σ 0 ) and anti lambda production rates per charged current interaction of 0.170 +/- 0.010, 0.060 +/- 0.004, and 0.002 +/- 0.001, respectively, in 18.9 +/- 0.09% V 0 events of total charged current events. The inclusive lambda rate in nun interactions is significantly higher than that in nup interactions. The multiplicity of K 0 increases (or decreases) with increasing E/sub nu/, W, and Q 2 (or x/sub BETA), while that of lambda shows no significant variations. From a detailed study of lambda, lambda K 0 ], lambda K/sup */ +0 systems, the production rate of lambda from the charm quark decay is found to be (2.1 +/- 1.0)% of the total charged current, which leads to a small cross section for charmed baryon quasielastic production -40 cm 2 (90% CL) and a small semileptonic branching ratio of lambda/sub c/ + decay, B(lambda/sub c/ + → e + lambda x + , K 0 p, lambda π + π + π - , and antiK 0 pπ + π - decay modes of lambda/sub c/ + are studied and found consistent with our previous results. The gross probability that an (ss) pair is produced in lambda S = 0 neutrino reactions is estimated to be 0.19 +/- 0.06, which agrees well with that in hadronic experiments. The inclusive x/sub F/ and p/sub T 2 / distributions and their average values are very similar to those in hadronic experiments, which suggest that the majority of neutral strange particles are produced in neutrino reactions via the associated production mechanism

  5. Visible neutrino decay at DUNE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coloma, Pilar [Fermilab; Peres, Orlando G. [ICTP, Trieste

    2017-05-09

    If the heaviest neutrino mass eigenstate is unstable, its decay modes could include lighter neutrino eigenstates. In this case part of the decay products could be visible, as they would interact at neutrino detectors via mixing. At neutrino oscillation experiments, a characteristic signature of such \\emph{visible neutrino decay} would be an apparent excess of events at low energies. We focus on a simple phenomenological model in which the heaviest neutrino decays as $\

  6. One meson π0 final state study in neutral current neutrino and antineutrino interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comtet, Alain.

    1975-01-01

    Neutral pion production by weak neutral currents was observed in the CERN-GARGAMELLE neutrino experiment. The aim of the analysis was the measurement of the ratios R(ν) and R(antiν) of neutral-current to charged-current cross sections. The background due to neutron interactions was computed. A lower and an upper limit of the background was obtained. Bounds on the ratios R(ν) and R(antiν) are given using these limits: 0.11 [fr

  7. Expanded calculation of weak-interaction-mediated neutrino cooling rates due to 56Ni in stellar matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabi, Jameel-Un

    2010-01-01

    An accurate estimate of the neutrino cooling rates is required in order to study the various stages of stellar evolution of massive stars. Neutrino losses from proto-neutron stars play a crucial role in deciding whether these stars would be crushed into black holes or explode as supernovae. Both pure leptonic and weak-interaction processes contribute to the neutrino energy losses in stellar matter. At low temperatures and densities, the characteristics of the early phase of presupernova evolution, cooling through neutrinos produced via the weak interaction, are important. Proton-neutron quasi-particle random phase approximation (pn-QRPA) theory has recently been used with success for the calculation of stellar weak-interaction rates of fp-shell nuclide. The lepton-to-baryon ratio (Y e ) during early phases of stellar evolution of massive stars changes substantially, mainly due to electron captures on 56 Ni. The stellar matter is transparent to the neutrinos produced during the presupernova evolution of massive stars. These neutrinos escape the site and assist the stellar core in maintaining a lower entropy. Here, an expanded calculation of weak-interaction-mediated neutrino and antineutrino cooling rates due to 56 Ni in stellar matter using the pn-QRPA theory is presented. This detailed scale is appropriate for interpolation purposes and is of greater utility for simulation codes. The calculated rates are compared with earlier calculations. During the relevant temperature and density regions of stellar matter the reported rates show few differences compared with the shell model rates and might contribute in fine-tuning of the lepton-to-baryon ratio during the presupernova phases of stellar evolution of massive stars.

  8. ANTARES : The first undersea neutrino telescope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ageron, M.; Aguilar, J. A.; Al Samarai, I.; Albert, A.; Ameli, F.; Andre, M.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Anvar, S.; Ardid, M.; Arnaud, K.; Aslanides, E.; Jesus, A. C. Assis; Astraatmadja, T.; Aubert, J. -J.; Auer, R.; Barbarito, E.; Baret, B.; Basa, S.; Bazzotti, M.; Becherini, Y.; Beltramelli, J.; Bersani, A.; Bertin, V.; Beurthey, S.; Biagi, S.; Bigongiari, C.; Billault, M.; Blaes, R.; Bogazzi, C.; de Botton, N.; Bou-Cabo, M.; Boudahef, B.; Bouwhuis, M. C.; Brown, A. M.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Caillat, L.; Calzas, A.; Camarena, F.; Capone, A.; Caponetto, L.; Carloganu, C.; Carminati, G.; Carmona, E.; Carr, J.; Carton, P. H.; Cassano, B.; Castorina, E.; Cecchini, S.; Ceres, A.; Chaleil, Th; Charvis, Ph; Chauchot, P.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Compere, C.; Coniglione, R.; Coppolani, X.; Cosquer, A.; Costantini, H.; Cottini, N.; Coyle, P.; Cuneo, S.; Curtil, C.; D'Amato, C.; Damy, G.; van Dantzig, R.; De Bonis, G.; Decock, G.; Decowski, M. P.; Dekeyser, I.; Delagnes, E.; Desages-Ardellier, F.; Deschamps, A.; Destelle, J. -J.; Di Maria, F.; Dinkespiler, B.; Distefano, C.; Dominique, J. -L.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Dorosti, Q.; Drogou, J. -F.; Drouhin, D.; Druillole, F.; Durand, D.; Durand, R.; Eberl, T.; Emanuele, U.; Engelen, J. J.; Ernenwein, J. -P.; Escoffier, S.; Falchini, E.; Favard, S.; Fehr, F.; Feinstein, F.; Ferri, M.; Ferry, S.; Fiorello, C.; Flaminio, V.; Folger, F.; Fritsch, U.; Fuda, J. -L.; Galata, S.; Galeotti, S.; Gay, P.; Gensolen, F.; Giacomelli, G.; Gojak, C.; Gomez-Gonzalez, J. P.; Goret, Ph.; Graf, K.; Guillard, G.; Halladjian, G.; Hallewell, G.; van Haren, H.; Hartmann, B.; Heijboer, A. J.; Heine, E.; Hello, Y.; Henry, S.; Hernandez-Rey, J. J.; Herold, B.; Hoessl, J.; Hogenbirk, J.; Hsu, C. C.; Hubbard, J. R.; Jaquet, M.; Jaspers, M.; de Jong, M.; Jourde, D.; Kadler, M.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kalekin, O.; Kappes, A.; Karg, T.; Karkar, S.; Karolak, M.; Katz, U.; Keller, P.; Kestener, P.; Kok, E.; Kok, H.; Kooijman, P.; Kopper, C.; Kouchner, A.; Kretschmer, W.; Kruijer, A.; Kuch, S.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lachartre, D.; Lafoux, H.; Lagier, P.; Lahmann, R.; Lahonde-Hamdoun, C.; Lamare, P.; Lambard, G.; Languillat, J-C; Larosa, G.; Lavalle, J.; Le Guen, Y.; Le Provost, H.; LeVanSuu, A.; Lefevre, D.; Legou, T.; Lelaizant, G.; Leveque, C.; Lim, G.; Lo Presti, D.; Loehner, H.; Loucatos, S.; Louis, F.; Lucarelli, F.; Lyashuk, V.; Magnier, P.; Mangano, S.; Marcel, A.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Martinez-Mora, J. A.; Masullo, R.; Mazeas, F.; Mazure, A.; Meli, A.; Melissas, M.; Migneco, E.; Mongelli, M.; Montaruli, T.; Morganti, M.; Moscoso, L.; Motz, H.; Musumeci, M.; Naumann, C.; Naumann-Godo, M.; Neff, M.; Niess, V.; Nooren, G. J. L.; Oberski, J. E. J.; Olivetto, C.; Palanque-Delabrouille, N.; Patioselitis, D.; Papaleo, R.; Pavalas, G. E.; Payet, K.; Payre, P.; Peek, H.; Petrovic, J.; Piattelli, P.; Picot-Clemente, N.; Picq, C.; Piret, Y.; Poinsignon, J.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Presani, E.; Prono, G.; Racca, C.; Raia, G.; van Randwijk, J.; Real, D.; Reed, C.; Rethore, F.; Rewiersma, P.; Riccobene, G.; Richardt, C.; Richter, R.; Ricol, J. S.; Rigaud, V.; Roca, V.; Roensch, K.; Rolin, J. -F.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rottura, A.; Roux, J.; Rujoiu, M.; Ruppi, M.; Russo, G. V.; Salesa, F.; Salomon, K.; Sapienza, P.; Schmitt, F.; Schoeck, F.; Schuller, J. -P.; Schuessler, F.; Sciliberto, D.; Shanidze, R.; Shirokov, E.; Simeone, F.; Sottoriva, A.; Spies, A.; Spona, T.; Spurio, M.; Steijger, J. J. M.; Stolarczyk, Th; Streeb, K.; Sulak, L.; Taiuti, M.; Tamburini, C.; Tao, C.; Tasca, L.; Terreni, G.; Tezier, D.; Toscano, S.; Urbano, F.; Valdy, P.; Vallage, B.; Van Elewyck, V.; Vannoni, G.; Vecchi, M.; Venekamp, G.; Verlaat, B.; Vernin, P.; Virique, E.; de Vries, G.; Wijnker, G.; Wobbe, G.; de Wolf, E.; Yakovenko, Y.; Yepes, H.; Zaborov, D.; Zaccone, H.; Zornoza, J. D.; Zuniga, J.; van Wijk, R.

    2011-01-01

    The ANTARES Neutrino Telescope was completed in May 2008 and is the first operational Neutrino Telescope in the Mediterranean Sea. The main purpose of the detector is to perform neutrino astronomy and the apparatus also offers facilities for marine and Earth sciences. This paper describes the

  9. The neutrino mirror

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vannucci, F.

    2003-09-01

    The neutrino is not an elementary particle like others, it is the most stunning of all: the neutrino is undetectable by itself, we have only indirect evidences of its existence, but the neutrino is essential to explain the weak interaction, to understand why matter triumphed over anti-matter just after the Big-bang, or to solve the riddle of the hidden mass of the universe. This book is a popular work dedicated to the neutrino from its discovery in beta decays to the most recent theories such as neutrino oscillations, and via the worldwide experiments dedicated to the study of the neutrinos. (A.C.)

  10. Direct Measurement of Nuclear Dependence of Charged Current Quasielasticlike Neutrino Interactions Using MINERvA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancourt, M.; Ghosh, A.; Walton, T.; Altinok, O.; Bellantoni, L.; Bercellie, A.; Bodek, A.; Bravar, A.; Cai, T.; Martinez Caicedo, D. A.; Carneiro, M. F.; Dytman, S. A.; Díaz, G. A.; Felix, J.; Fields, L.; Fine, R.; Galindo, R.; Gallagher, H.; Ghosh, A.; Golan, T.; Gran, R.; Harris, D. A.; Higuera, A.; Hurtado, K.; Kiveni, M.; Kleykamp, J.; Le, T.; Maher, E.; Manly, S.; Mann, W. A.; Marshall, C. M.; McFarland, K. S.; McGivern, C. L.; McGowan, A. M.; Messerly, B.; Miller, J.; Mislivec, A.; Morfín, J. G.; Mousseau, J.; Naples, D.; Nelson, J. K.; Norrick, A.; Nuruzzaman, Patrick, C. E.; Perdue, G. N.; Ramírez, M. A.; Ren, L.; Rimal, D.; Rodrigues, P. A.; Ruterbories, D.; Schellman, H.; Sobczyk, J. T.; Solano Salinas, C. J.; Sánchez Falero, S.; Valencia, E.; Wolcott, J.; Wospakrik, M.; Yaeggy, B.; Minerva Collaboration

    2017-08-01

    Charged-current νμ interactions on carbon, iron, and lead with a final state hadronic system of one or more protons with zero mesons are used to investigate the influence of the nuclear environment on quasielasticlike interactions. The transferred four-momentum squared to the target nucleus, Q2, is reconstructed based on the kinematics of the leading proton, and differential cross sections versus Q2 and the cross-section ratios of iron, lead, and carbon to scintillator are measured for the first time in a single experiment. The measurements show a dependence on the atomic number. While the quasielasticlike scattering on carbon is compatible with predictions, the trends exhibited by scattering on iron and lead favor a prediction with intranuclear rescattering of hadrons accounted for by a conventional particle cascade treatment. These measurements help discriminate between different models of both initial state nucleons and final state interactions used in the neutrino oscillation experiments.

  11. Detection and reconstruction of short-lived particles produced by neutrino interactions in emulsion

    CERN Document Server

    Uiterwijk, J W E

    2007-01-01

    In this dissertation, several different topics related to the chorus experiment are pre- sented. The chorus experiment has been used to study neutrino oscillations using the neutrino beam at cern. The neutrino oscillation hypothesis provided an explanation for the lower than expected fluxes of solar and atmospheric neutrinos. There are three neutrino species in nature corresponding to different weak eigenstates, namely, the elec- tron neutrino (νe ), the muon neutrino (νμ ), and the tau neutrino (ντ ). The lower fluxes could be interpreted as spontaneous oscillations between electron and muon neutrinos and between muon and tau neutrinos. The chorus experiment was designed to detect oscillation of muon neutrinos into tau neutrinos with small mixing probability down to 2 · 10−4 and a mass difference square between νμ and ντ larger than 0.5 eV2 . In the last decade, several disappearance experiments have confirmed the neutrino oscillation hypothesis and showed that oscillations occur between mass eig...

  12. Studying neutrino properties in the future LENA experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wurm, Michael

    2013-01-01

    LENA (Low Energy Neutrino Astronomy) is a next-generation neutrino detector based on 50 kt of liquid scintillator. The low detection threshold, the good energy resolution and the potent background discrimination inherent to liquid scintillator make LENA a versatile observatory for astrophysical and terrestrial neutrinos. The present contribution highlights LENA's capabilities for studying neutrino properties based on both natural and artificial sources

  13. Using Nucleon Multiplicities to Analyze Anti-Neutrino Interactions with Nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elkins, Miranda J. [Univ. of Minnesota, Duluth, MN (United States)

    2017-05-01

    The most commonly used, simple interaction models have not accurately described the nuclear effects on either neutrino-nucleus or anti-neutrino-nucleus interactions. Comparison of data collected by the MINERvA experiment and these models shows a discrepancy in the reconstructed hadronic energy distribution at momentum transfers below 0.8 GeV. Two nuclear model effects that were previously not modeled are possible culprits of this discrepancy. The first is known as random-phase-approximation and the second is the addition of a meson exchange current process, also known as two-particle two-hole due to its result in two particles leaving the nucleus with two holes left in their place. For the first time a neutron counting software algorithm has been created and used to compare the multiplicity and spatial distributions of neutrons between the simulation and data. There is localized sensitivity to the RPA and 2p2h effects and both help the simulation better describe the data. Ad ditional systematic or model effects are present which cause the simulation to overproduce neutrons, and potential causes are discussed.

  14. Supporting Interactive Teaching Methods at the New Faculty Workshop with Astronomy Lecture-Tutorials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, T. F.; Brissenden, G.; Duestua, S.; Prather, E. E.

    2004-05-01

    Ongoing research by the Conceptual Astronomy and Physics Education Research (CAPER) Team at the University of Arizona Steward Observatory suggests that, although faculty realize that lecture-based instruction is ineffective for many students, they are not aware of what interactive teaching strategies are available, particularly for large enrollment courses. A major emphasis of the AAPT/AAS New Faculty Workshop was to introduce faculty to effective active-learning strategies based on an understanding of how people learn. Faculty were introduced to think-pair-share methods where students work together to explain difficult concepts to each other. Faculty were also introduced to authentic assessment strategies that go beyond using traditional multiple-choice tests. In particular, faculty were introduced to Lecture-Tutorials for Introductory Astronomy. The Lecture-Tutorials are instructional materials intended for use with collaborative student learning groups and are designed specifically to be easily integrated into existing courses centered on conventional lectures and do not require any outside equipment or a drastic course revision for implementation. The materials are based on research into student beliefs and reasoning difficulties and use effective instructional strategies that center on student learning. Each workshop presentation was complimented by a follow-up small group discussion session.

  15. Study of the neutral current properties in the semileptonic inclusive neutrino and antineutrino nucleon interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroeger, B.

    1981-01-01

    In the dechromatic neutron beam of the CERN-SPS results obtained with the CHARM detector from the deep inelastic inclusive neutrino-nucleon scattering were analyzed according to following reactions: #betta#sub(μ)(anti #betta#sub(μ))+N->μ - (μ + ) + hadrons and #betta#sub(μ)(anti #betta#sub(μ))+N->#betta#sub(μ)(anti #betta#sub(μ)) + hadrons. The aim of these studies was the determination of the coupling of neutral currents in the weak interaction. All data can be well described by the standard model for the unification of the electrogmagnetic and weak interaction in connection with the quarkparton model, if a Weinberg angle of sin 2 deltasub(w)=0.222+-0.016 is assumed. (orig./HSI) [de

  16. Search for tau-neutrino interactions in the BEBC beam dump experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talebzadeh, M.; Guy, J.; Venus, W.; Aderholz, M.; Barnham, K. W. J.; Bostock, P.; Clayton, E. F.; Cooper-Sarkar, A. M.; Faccini-Turluer, M. L.; Grässler, H.; Hultquist, K.; Hulth, P. O.; Kreutzmann, H.; Krstic, J.; Miller, D. B.; Mobayyen, M. M.; Myatt, G.; Nellen, B.; Parker, M. A.; Schmitz, N.; Sewell, S.; Simopoulou, E.; Vayaki, A.; Vignaud, D.; Wachsmuth, H.; Wittek, W.; Wünsch, B.; BEBC WA66 Collaboration

    A novel and efficient kinematic method is used to estimate the number of ντ charged current interactions with Eν > 20 GeV in the BEBC beam dump experiment. The result, -14±12 ντ events, is consistent with zero. The ratio of D s to D meson production in 400 GeV proton interactions in copper is estimated to be below 0.65 at 90% c.l. The oscillation probability P( νe→ ντ) averaged over the electron-(anti)neutrino spectrum is found to be below 18%. The hypothesis that νe and ντ are identical is excluded by about 6 standard deviations. A remarkable event is described: it contains a muon, a high pT photon and a high pT hadron.

  17. Search for tau-neutrino interactions in the BEBC beam dump experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talebzadeh, M.; Barnham, K.W.J.; Clayton, E.F.; Miller, D.B.; Mobayyen, M.M.; Guy, J.; Venus, W.; Cooper-Sarkar, A.M.; Sewell, S.; Bostock, P.; Krstic, J.; Myatt, G.; Simopoulou, E.; Vayaki, A.

    1987-01-01

    A novel and efficient kinematic method is used to estimate the number of ν τ charged current interactions with E ν > 20 GeV in the BEBC beam dump experiment. The result, -14±12 ν τ events, is consistent with zero. The ratio of D s to D meson production in 400 GeV proton interactions in copper is estimated to be below 0.65 at 90% c.l. The oscillation probability P(ν c → ν τ ) averaged over the electron-(anti)neutrino spectrum is found to be below 18%. The hypothesis that ν c and ν τ are identical is excluded by about 6 standard deviations. A remarkable event is described: it contains a muon, a high p T photon and a high p T hadron. (orig.)

  18. Total cross section measurements for νμ, ν-barμ interactions in 3 - 30 GeV energy range with IHEP - JINR neutrino detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anikeev, V.B.; Belikov, S.V.; Borisov, A.A.

    1995-01-01

    The results of total cross section measurements for the ν μ , ν-bar μ interactions with isoscalar target in the 3 - 30 GeV energy range have been presented. The data were obtained with the IHEP - JINR Neutrino Detector in the 'natural' neutrino beams of the U - 70 accelerator. The significant deviation from the linear dependence for σ tot versus neutrino energy is determined in the energy range less than 15 GeV. 46 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs

  19. Nonstandard neutrino interactions at DUNE, T2HK and T2HKK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, Jiajun; Marfatia, Danny; Whisnant, Kerry

    2017-01-01

    Here, we study the matter effect caused by nonstandard neutrino interactions (NSI) in the next generation long-baseline neutrino experiments, DUNE, T2HK and T2HKK. If multiple NSI parameters are nonzero, the potential of these experiments to detect CP violation, determine the mass hierarchy and constrain NSI is severely impaired by degeneracies between the NSI parameters and by the generalized mass hierarchy degeneracy. In particular, a cancellation between leading order terms in the appearance channels when ϵ_e_τ= cot θ _2_3ϵ_e_μ, strongly affects the sensitivities to these two NSI parameters at T2HK and T2HKK. We also study the dependence of the sensitivities on the true CP phase and the true mass hierarchy, and find that overall DUNE has the best sensitivity to the magnitude of the NSI parameters, while T2HKK has the best sensitivity to CP violation whether or not there are NSI. Furthermore, for T2HKK a smaller off-axis angle for the Korean detector is better overall. We find that due to the structure of the leading order terms in the appearance channel probabilities, the NSI sensitivities in a given experiment are similar for both mass hierarchies, modulo the phase change δ→δ + 180°.

  20. π0, rho0 ω0 production in high energy neutrino and antineutrino interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velasco, J.

    1980-09-01

    The work presented in this thesis is concerned with the hadronic shower in the neutrino and antineutrino interactions of the high energy charged-current type. The π 0 particles issued from this hadronic shower are analysed and the rho 0 and ω 0 production rate are determined in view to try to understand the quark fragmentation process, that is to say the QCD theory relative to the quark confinement problem. The experimental device is described in the chapter II. Chapter III is dealing with the analysis of the exposures obtained with this device, together with the incident neutrino energy determination methods and a general description of the final data characteristics. The π 0 production is studied from the decay γ observed in the bubble chamber. The existing different methods are analyzed and compared with the used one. The π 0 properties are studied in detail. In chapter 5, the rho 0 and ω 0 resonance production rate is calculated, using the previous chapter results. Finally, chapter 6 summarizes the thesis conclusions [fr

  1. Right-handed neutrino dark matter under the B−L gauge interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaneta, Kunio [Center for Theoretical Physics of the Universe, Institute for Basic Science,Daejeon 34051 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Zhaofeng [School of Physics, Korea Institute for Advanced Study,Seoul 02455 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hye-Sung [Center for Theoretical Physics of the Universe, Institute for Basic Science,Daejeon 34051 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-07

    We study the right-handed neutrino (RHN) dark matter candidate in the minimal U(1){sub B−L} gauge extension of the standard model. The U(1){sub B−L} gauge symmetry offers three RHNs which can address the origin of the neutrino mass, the relic dark matter, and the matter-antimatter asymmetry of the universe. The lightest among the three is taken as the dark matter candidate, which is under the B−L gauge interaction. We investigate various scenarios for this dark matter candidate with the correct relic density by means of the freeze-out or freeze-in mechanism. A viable RHN dark matter mass lies in a wide range including keV to TeV scale. We emphasize the sub-electroweak scale light B−L gauge boson case, and identify the parameter region motivated from the dark matter physics, which can be tested with the planned experiments including the CERN SHiP experiment.

  2. A Search for Light Weakly-Interacting Massive Particles with SuperCDMS and Applications to Neutrino Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Adam J. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Cosmological and astrophysical evidence indicates that 85% of the matter content of the universe is in the form of non-baryonic dark matter. A large number of experiments are currently undertaking searches for weakly-interacting massive particles (WIMPs), the leading class of particle candidates for dark matter. This thesis describes the results of such a search with the SuperCDMS experiment, which uses Ge detectors cooled to 50 mK to detect ionization and phonons produced by particle interactions. We perform a blind analysis of 577 kg d of exposure on 7 detectors targeting WIMPs with masses < 30GeV/$c^{2}$, where anomalous results have been reported by previous experiments. No significant excess is observed and we set an upper limit on the spin-independent WIMP-nucleon cross section of 1.2 x 10$^{-42}$ cm2 at 8 GeV/$c^{2}$ We also set constraints on dark matter interactions independent of the dark matter halo physics, as well as on annual modulation of a dark matter signal. Cryogenic detectors similar to SuperCDMS also have potential applications in neutrino physics. We study several configurations in which dark matter detectors could be used with an intense neutrino source to detect an unmeasured Standard Model process called coherent neutrino scattering. This process may be useful, for example, as a calibration for next-generation dark matter detectors, and for constraining eV-scale sterile neutrinos. In addition, small cryogenic X-ray detectors on sounding rockets with large fields-of-view have the unique ability to constrain sterile neutrino dark matter. We set limits on sterile neutrino dark matter using an observation by the XQC instrument, and discuss prospects for a future observation of the galactic center using the Micro-X instrument.

  3. Neutrino Physics at Drexel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane, Charles [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Dolinski, Michelle [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Neilson, Russell [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2017-07-11

    Our primary goal is to improve the understanding of the properties and interactions of neutrinos. We are pursuing this by means of the DUNE long-baseline and PROSPECT short-baseline neutrino experiments. For DUNE, a neutrino beam from Fermilab will be detected at the SURF facility in South Dakota, with the aim of determining the neutrino mass hierarchy (the mass ordering of neutrino flavors), and a measurement or limit on CP-violation via neutrinos. Our near-term experimental goal is to improve the characterization of the neutrino beam by measurements of muons produced as a byproduct of neutrino beam generation, to quantify the beam composition and flux. The short-range neutrino program has the aim of using the HFIR reactor at Oak Ridge as a neutrino source, with a detector placed nearby to find if there are short-distance oscillations to sterile neutrino flavors, and to resolve the 'reactor neutrino spectral anomaly' which has shown up as an unexplained 'bump' in the neutrino energy spectrum in recent experiments.

  4. Accelerator studies of neutrino oscillations

    CERN Document Server

    Ereditato, A

    2000-01-01

    The question of whether the neutrino has a non-vanishing mass plays acrucial role in particle physics. A massive neutrino would unambiguously reveal the existence of new physics beyond the Standard Model. In addition, it could have profound implications on astrophysics and cosmology, with effects on the evolution of the Universe. Experiments aiming at direct neutrino-mass measurements based on kinematics have not been able, so far, to measure the very small neutrino mass. Indirect measurements can be performed by exploiting reactions which may only occur for massive neutrinos. Neutrino oscillation is one of those processes. The mass difference between neutrino mass-eigenstates can be inferred from a phase measurement. This feature allows for high sensitivity experiments. Neutrinos from different sources can be used to search for oscillations: solar neutrinos, neutrinos produced in the interaction of cosmic rays with the atmosphere and artificially produced neutrinos from nuclear reactors and particle accelera...

  5. Neutrino--proton interactions at Fermilab energies: Experimental arrangement, analysis procedures, and qualitative features of the data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, J.W.; Coffin, C.T.; Diamond, R.N.; French, H.; Louis, W.; Roe, B.P.; Seidl, A.A.; Vander Velde, J.C.; Berge, J.P.; Bogert, D.; DiBianca, F.A.; Dunaitsev, A.; Efremenko, V.; Ermolov, P.; Fowler, W.; Hanft, R.; Harigel, G.; Huson, F.R.; Kolganov, V.; Mukhin, A.; Nezrick, F.A.; Rjabov, Y.; Scott, W.G.; Smart, W.; Truxton, R.

    1976-01-01

    The Fermilab 15-ft bubble chamber filled with hydrogen was exposed to a broad-momentum-band horn-focused neutrino beam produced by 300-GeV interacting protons. The selection procedure to choose a charged-current neutrino event sample is discussed. Fewer than three percent of the events are due to neutral hadron interactions. We present and experimentally test a method that can be used to identify the muon, estimate the incident neutrino energy, and eliminate most neutral-current interactions from the charged-current sample. Above 10 GeV the method produces an approximately 86% pure sample of charged-current events with an error in energy estimation of the order of 8% over a broad region of the data. In addition we establish experimentally several important properties of high-energy charged-current neutrino interactions. The hadrons are produced in a jet, the individual particles having sharply limited momenta perpendicular to the hadronic axis. The jet structure is maintained with constant properties to very high values of Q 2 and hadronic mass. The fraction of energy going into invisible particles is moderate, consistent with that expected. The average number of neutral pions rises linearly with the average number of charged particles

  6. Cross-sections for neutral-current neutrino-nucleus interactions applications for $^{12}$C and $^{16}$O

    CERN Document Server

    Jachowicz, N; Heyde, Kris L G; Ryckebusch, J

    1999-01-01

    We calculate cross sections for neutral current quasi-elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering within a continuum RPA model, based on a Green's function approach. As residual interaction a Skyrme force is used. The unperturbed single particle wave functions are generated using either a Woods-Saxon potential or a Hartree-Fock calculation. These calculations have interesting applications. Neutrinos play an important role in supernova nucleosynthesis. To obtain more information about these processes, cross sections are folded with a Fermi-Dirac distribution with temperatures of approximately 10$^9$ K.

  7. Mars Navigator: An Interactive Multimedia Program about Mars, Aerospace Engineering, Astronomy, and the JPL Mars Missions. [CD-ROM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramoll, Kurt

    This CD-ROM introduces basic astronomy and aerospace engineering by examining the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's (JPL) Mars Pathfinder and Mars Global Surveyor missions to Mars. It contains numerous animations and narrations in addition to detailed graphics and text. Six interactive laboratories are included to help understand topics such as the…

  8. Neutrino astronomy: Present and future

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. I briefly review the present and future status of the burgeoning field of neu- ... near future build upon previous results. ... novel radio and acoustic techniques utilized by, for example, experiments such as. GLUE ... Left: Schematic of νµ-induced muon track in detector. Right: .... an eye toward the galactic center).

  9. A study of the EMC effect using neutrino and antineutrino interactions in neon and deuterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guy, J.; Cooper-Sarkar, A.M.; Venus, W.; Apeldoorn, G. van; Jongejans, B.; Tenner, A.; Eijndhoven, N. van; Berggren, M.; Hulth, P.O.; Simopoulou, E.; Vayaki, A.; Bobisut, F.; Sconza, A.; Brisson, V.; Petiau, P.; Vallee, C.; Capiluppi, P.; Giacomelli, G.; Mandrioli, G.; Rossi, A.M.; Cirio, R.; Marzari-Chiesa, A.; Romero, A.; Clayton, E.F.; Miller, D.B.; Mobayyen, M.M.; Coghen, T.; Frodesen, A.G.; Gerbier, G.; Kasper, P.; Neveu, M.; Klein, H.; Morrison, D.R.O.; Parker, M.A.; Faccini-Turluer, M.L.; Vignaud, D.

    1987-01-01

    Nearly 40000 neutrino and antineutrino interactions in BEBC are compared to measure the differences between neon and deuterium in the quark and antiquark distributions and in the nucleon structure functions. The ratio of Ne to D cross sections indicates some decrease between x ≅ 0.2 and x ≅ 0.6. The y distributions show there is no significant increase in the neon sea, but prefer a small decrease. Taken altogether the x and y distributions and the measured total cross-sections indicate some change in the shape of the valence distributions. No significant dependence on A is observed for either the shape of the sea or the ratio of longitudinal to transverse cross-sections. (orig.)

  10. A study of the EMC effect using neutrino and antineutrino interactions in neon and deuterium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guy, J.; Saitta, B.; van Apeldoorn, G.; Allport, P.; Angelini, C.; Armenise, N.; Baldini, A.; Berggren, M.; Bertrand, D.; Bobisut, F.; Brisson, V.; Bullock, F.; Calicchio, M.; Capiluppi, P.; Cirio, R.; Clayton, E. F.; Coghen, T.; Cooper-Sarkar, A. M.; Erriquez, O.; Faccini-Turluer, M. L.; Fitch, P.; Frodesen, A. G.; Gerbier, G.; Giacomelli, G.; Hulth, P. O.; Jones, G. T.; Jongejans, B.; Kasper, P.; Klein, H.; Mandrioli, G.; Marage, P.; Marzari-Chiesa, A.; Middleton, R. P.; Miller, D. B.; Morrison, D. R. O.; Mobayyen, M. M.; O'Neale, S. W.; Neveu, M.; Parker, M. A.; Petiau, P.; Romero, A.; Rossi, A. M.; Sacton, J.; Sansum, A.; Sconza, A.; Simopoulou, E.; Schmitz, N.; Tenner, A.; Vallee, C.; van Eijndhoven, N.; Varvell, K.; Vayaki, A.; Venus, W.; Vignaud, D.; Wachsmuth, H.; Wittek, W.

    1987-09-01

    Nearly 40000 neutrino and antineutrino interactions in BEBC are compared to measure the differences between neon and deuterium in the quark and antiquark distributions and in the nucleon structure functions. The ratio of Ne to D cross sections indicates some decrease between x˜0.2 and x˜0.6. The y distributions show there is no significant increase in the neon sea, but prefer a small decrease. Taken altogether, the x and y distributions and the measured total cross-sections indicate some change in the shape of the valence distributions. No significant dependence on A is observed for either the shape of the sea or the ratio of longitudinal to transverse cross-sections.

  11. Solar neutrino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugimoto, D [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Coll. of General Education

    1975-01-01

    The measurement of solar neutrino was performed by using the reaction /sup 37/cl+..nu..sub(e)..-->../sup 37/Ar+e/sup -/ by Davis et al. The argon gas produced through the above mentioned reaction in a tank containing 610 ton of C/sub 2/Cl/sub 4/ was collected and measured. The rate of production of /sup 37/Ar was 0.13+-0.20/day, and the net production rate by the solar neutrino was 0.06+-0.20/day, being corrected for background. This value corresponds to 0.5+-1.0 SNU. Theoretical calculation with the model of spherically symmetric solar development gave an expected value of 5.6 SNU, which is in contradiction with the experimental value. Reason of this discrepancy was considered. The possibility of decay of neutrino to the other particles with weak interaction is very slight. Various models of the sun were investigated, but the results were still inconsistent with the experiment. The mixing of matters in the sun may cause the reduction of neutrino. If He gas comes to the center of the sun by mixing, the reaction, /sup 3/He+/sup 3/He, progresses excessively at the center, and it produces the expansion of the core of the sun. Then, the temperature drops and the neutrino is reduced. Various models which can explain the neutrino of less than ISNU have been presented. However, other theory says that the reduction of neutrino is not expected even if the mixing is considered. A problem concerning the mixing is whether the thermal instability which causes the mixing exists. (Kato, T.).

  12. Study of charmed particle production in interactions with neutrinos detected in the experiment NOMAD at CERN; Etude de la production de particules charmees via les interactions de neutrinos dans l'experience nomad au CERN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mechain, X.A

    1999-06-25

    NOMAD (Neutrino Oscillation Magnetic Detector), devoted to the observation of tau neutrino interactions in case of neutrino flavour oscillations, was optimised in order to get an excellent identification of electrons coming from tau decays. Amongst the real events, identified as muon neutrino interactions, we select events including one muon and one positron candidate. We then reduce the number of events for which a hadron simulates the positron, and a method based on a likelihood rate allows us to select events for which the positron, lost in the hadronic jet, comes from the decay of a quark charm, and eliminates those for which the positron comes from photon conversions or Dalitz decays. From the extracted signal, we are able to estimate the mass of the charm quark and the strange sea content of the nucleon, by comparison with a Monte Carlo simulation based on the latest CCFR results. We also carried out a technical study on a possible identification of electrons using the specific behaviour of their tracks left in the drift chambers. We showed that we can get some discrimination power using variables given by the Kalman filter used for track fitting. (author)

  13. Neutrino Physics

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Dydak, Friedrich

    2001-01-01

    Starting from a review of theoretical concepts and experimental results in the early years of neutrino physics after Pauli's 1930 letter, today's double role of the neutrino as a cornerstone of the Standard Model and as a promising probe of physics beyond the Standard Model will be discussed. Topics comprise: - Conventional neutrino beams - Neutrinos as probes of the nucleon structure - Neutrinos from the universe - Dirac or Majorana neutrinos - Neutrino oscillations - MNS matrix - CP violation in the lepton sector - Neutrino factory.

  14. Neutrino Physics

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva. Audiovisual Unit

    2002-01-01

    Starting from a review of theoretical concepts and experimental results in the early years of neutrino physics after Pauli's 1930 letter, today's double role of the neutrino as a cornerstone of the Standard Model and as a promising probe of physics beyond the Standard Model will be discussed. Topics comprise: - Conventional neutrino beams - Neutrinos as probes of the nucleon structure - Neutrinos from the universe - Dirac or Majorana neutrinos - Neutrino oscillations - MNS matrix - CP violation in the lepton sector - Neutrino factory.

  15. Astronomy and Politics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, John M.

    The relationship between astronomy and politics is a complex but important part of understanding the practice of astronomy throughout history. This chapter explores some of the ways that astronomy, astrology, and politics have interacted, placing particular focus on the way that astronomy and astrology have been used for political purposes by both people in power and people who wish to influence a ruler's policy. Also discussed are the effects that politics has had on the development of astronomy and, in particular, upon the recording and preservation of astronomical knowledge.

  16. Neutrinos (1/3)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2013-01-01

    The neutrino, the lightest and most weakly interacting particle of the Standard Model has revealed itself as the messenger of very exciting news in particle physics: there is Physics Beyond the Standard Model. All this thanks to the quantum-mechanical phenomenon of flavour oscillations which is intrinsically connected to the question of neutrino mass and which has been observed in neutrinos produced in natural sources, like the Sun and the Earth's atmosphere, as well as with human made neutrino beams at accelerator and reactors. The purpose of these lectures is to overview some aspects of the phenomenology of massive neutrinos. I will present the simplest extensions for adding neutrino masses to the SM, and then I will describe the phenomenology associated with neutrino oscillations in vacuum and in matter and its present signatures.

  17. A Nine-Year Hunt for Neutrinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2018-02-01

    How do we hunt for elusive neutrinos emitted by distant astrophysical sources? Submerge a huge observatory under ice or water and then wait patiently.Sneaky MessengersNeutrinos tiny, nearly massless particles that only weakly interact with other matter are thought to be produced as a constant background originating from throughout our universe. In contrast to known point sources of neutrinos (for instance, nearby supernovae), the diffuse flux of cosmic neutrinos could be emitted from unresolved astrophysical sources too faint to be individually detected, or from the interactions of high-energy cosmic rays propagating across the universe.Observations of this diffuse flux of cosmic neutrinos would be a huge step toward understanding cosmic-ray production, acceleration, and interaction properties. Unfortunately, these observations arent easy to make!Diagram showing the path of a neutrino from a distant astrophysical source (accelerator) through the Earth. It is eventually converted into an upward-traveling muon that registers in the ANTARES detector under the sea. [ANTARES]Looking for What Doesnt Want to Be FoundBecause neutrinos so rarely interact with matter, most pass right through us, eluding detection. The most common means of spotting the rare interacting neutrino is to look for Cherenkov radiation in a medium like ice or water, produced when a neutrino has interacted with matterto produce a charged particle (for instance, a muon) moving faster than the speed of light in the medium.Muons produced in our atmosphere can also register in such detectors, however, so we need a way of filtering out these non-cosmic background events. The solution is a clever trick: search for particles traveling upward, not downward. Atmospheric muons will come only from above, whereas muons produced by neutrinos should travel through the detectors in all directions, since cosmic neutrinos arrive from all directions including from below, after passing through the Earth

  18. Neutrino astrophysics: a new tool for exploring the universe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waxman, Eli

    2007-01-05

    In the past four decades a new type of astronomy has emerged, where instead of looking up into the sky, "telescopes" are buried miles underground or deep under water or ice and search not for photons (that is, light), but rather for particles called neutrinos. Neutrinos are nearly massless particles that interact very weakly with matter. The detection of neutrinos emitted by the Sun and by a nearby supernova provided direct tests of the theory of stellar evolution and led to modifications of the standard model describing the properties of elementary particles. At present, several very large neutrino detectors are being constructed, aiming at the detection of the most powerful sources of energy and particles in the universe. The hope is that the detection of neutrinos from these sources, which are extra-Galactic and are most likely powered by mass accretion onto black holes, will not only allow study of the sources, but, much like solar neutrinos, will also provide new information about fundamental properties of matter.

  19. Quark parton model with logarithmic scaling violation and high energy neutrino interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaev, P.S.; Kovalenko, S.G.

    1979-01-01

    In the framework of the proposed earlier quark parton model with logarithmic scaling violation the cross sections of deep inelastic ν(anti ν)N interactions are calculated, the contribution of the charmed particle production are evaluated. The kinematical mass corrections to scaling violations and threshold effects are taken into account. Joint analysis of the experimental data on deep inelastic ep, ed scattering and charged current neutrino interaction are performed by using the unique set of free parameters of the model. Evaluations of the c-quark and W-boson masses are obtained. Neutral current data as well are analysed. The analysis is performed with taken into account scaling violation effects. The obtained estimations of the charmed quark mass Msub(c)=3.0+-1.2 GeV. W-boson mass Mw=50+-10 GeV, and the Weinberg angle SINsup(2)THETAsub(w)=0.26+-0.04 are within errors in agreement with the generally accepted ones

  20. Case for neutrino oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramond, P.

    1982-01-01

    The building of a machine capable of producing an intense, well-calibrated beam of muon neutrinos is regarded by particle physicists with keen interest because of its ability of studying neutrino oscillations. The possibility of neutrino oscillations has long been recognized, but it was not made necessary on theoretical or experimental grounds; one knew that oscillations could be avoided if neutrinos were massless, and this was easily done by the conservation of lepton number. The idea of grand unification has led physicists to question the existence (at higher energies) of global conservation laws. The prime examples are baryon-number conservation, which prevents proton decay, and lepton-number conservation, which keeps neutrinos massless, and therefore free of oscillations. The detection of proton decay and neutrino oscillations would therefore be an indirect indication of the idea of Grand Unification, and therefore of paramount importance. Neutrino oscillations occur when neutrinos acquire mass in such a way that the neutrino mass eigenstates do not match the (neutrino) eigenstates produced by the weak interactions. We shall study the ways in which neutrinos can get mass, first at the level of the standard SU 2 x U 1 model, then at the level of its Grand Unification Generalizations

  1. Bookshelf (Neutrino Interactions with Electrons and Protons - Edited by Alfred K. Mann)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luigi Di Lella

    1994-01-01

    Subtitled 'an account of an Experimental Program in Particle Physics in the 1980s', this book is a collection of 13 reprinted papers presenting experimental results from experiment E-734 originally proposed in 1978 to measure the elastic scattering of neutrinos and antineutrinos from electrons and protons using the neutrino beam at the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) at Brookhaven National Laboratory. This experiment took data during the 1980s and the apparatus was dismantled in 1990. Its main results cover measurements of the weak mixing angle, and some measurements which were not in the original proposal, such as limits on the electromagnetic properties of the muon neutrino and on the mixing between electron- and muon-neutri-nos. The collaboration, with 35 physicists participating, included Osaka and KEK and was the earliest formal collaboration in high energy physics between American and Japanese institutions. This book gives only a very partial account of neutrino physics in the 1980s. Because of the relatively low neutrino energy of only few GeV, E- 734 physics did not include the study of deep inelastic scattering which has greatly contributed to the understanding of the nucleon structure in terms of quarks, antiquarks and gluons. Furthermore, because of the low event rate at the low neutrino energy, most of the E-734 results have been superseded by the more precise results obtained by higher energy neutrino experiments at CERN and Fermilab, however with the exceptions of the limits on neutrino mixing and of the measurement of the neutral current cross-section for neutrino and antineutrino elastic scattering. It is not clear to me why the American Institute of Physics has chosen to publish this book in a series 'Key Papers in Physics'.

  2. The Calibration Units of the KM3NeT neutrino telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baret, B.; Keller, P.; Clark, M. Lindsey

    2016-04-01

    KM3NeT is a network of deep-sea neutrino telescopes to be deployed in the Mediterranean Sea that will perform neutrino astronomy and oscillation studies. It consists of three-dimensional arrays of thousands of optical modules that detect the Cherenkov light induced by charged particles resulting from the interaction of a neutrino with the surrounding medium. The performance of the neutrino telescope relies on the precise timing and positioning calibration of the detector elements. Other environmental conditions which may affect light and sound transmission, such as water temperature and salinity, must also be continuously monitored. This contribution describes the technical design of the first Calibration Unit, to be deployed on the French site as part of KM3NeT Phase 1.

  3. Hans Bethe, the Sun and the Neutrinos

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    and the stars remained a major puzzle in science, which led to many ..... per sec at Davis's huge tank of the detecting fluid, only about one neutrino per three days interacted. That is the meaning of. 'weak interaction'. See S N Ganguli, Neutrinos and our .... To understand neutrino oscillation, one must think of neutrino as a ...

  4. Right-handed neutrinos and T-violating, P-conserving interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basem Kamal El-Menoufi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available We show that experimental probes of the P-conserving, T-violating triple correlation in polarized neutron or nuclear β-decay provide a unique probe of possible T-violation at the TeV scale in the presence of right-handed neutrinos. In contrast to other possible sources of semileptonic T-violation involving only left-handed neutrinos, those involving right-handed neutrinos are relatively unconstrained by present limits on the permanent electric dipole moments of the electron, neutral atoms, and the neutron. On the other hand, LHC results for pp→e+ missing transverse energy imply that an order of magnitude of improvement in D-coefficient sensitivity would be needed for discovery. Finally, we discuss the interplay with the scale of neutrino mass and naturalness considerations.

  5. Neutrino-Nucleus Interactions and the Short-Range Structure of Nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavanna, F. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Palamara, O. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Schiavilla, R. [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Soderberg, M. [Syracuse Univ., NY (United States); Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Wiringa, R. B. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-01-08

    Improvements in theoretical modeling of Short Range structures and phenomena, and comparisons with data, will require sustained collaboration between nuclear theorists and neutrino experimentalists. The extensive history of studying this area of nuclear physics in electron- and hadron-scattering experiments, coupled with the transformative capabilities of LArTPCs to identify neutrinos, will provide a ripe opportunity for new discoveries that will further our understanding of the nucleus.

  6. The role of self-interacting right-handed neutrinos in galactic structure

    CERN Document Server

    Argüelles, C.R.; Rueda, J.A.; Ruffini, R.

    2016-01-01

    We show that warm dark matter keV fermions (`inos') can be responsible for both core and halo galactic structure, in agreement with current astrophysical/cosmological constraints. We identify the inos with sterile right-handed neutrinos. The possible mass range of up to a few tens of keV, obtained independently from the galactic structure and dark matter astroparticle physics, points towards an important role of the right-handed neutrinos in the cosmic structure.

  7. ANTARES: The first undersea neutrino telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ageron, M.; Aguilar, J. A.; Al Samarai, I.; Albert, A.; Ameli, F.; André, M.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Anvar, S.; Ardid, M.; Arnaud, K.; Aslanides, E.; Assis Jesus, A. C.; Astraatmadja, T.; Aubert, J.-J.; Auer, R.; Barbarito, E.; Baret, B.; Basa, S.; Bazzotti, M.; Becherini, Y.; Beltramelli, J.; Bersani, A.; Bertin, V.; Beurthey, S.; Biagi, S.; Bigongiari, C.; Billault, M.; Blaes, R.; Bogazzi, C.; de Botton, N.; Bou-Cabo, M.; Boudahef, B.; Bouwhuis, M. C.; Brown, A. M.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Caillat, L.; Calzas, A.; Camarena, F.; Capone, A.; Caponetto, L.; Cârloganu, C.; Carminati, G.; Carmona, E.; Carr, J.; Carton, P. H.; Cassano, B.; Castorina, E.; Cecchini, S.; Ceres, A.; Chaleil, Th.; Charvis, Ph.; Chauchot, P.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Compère, C.; Coniglione, R.; Coppolani, X.; Cosquer, A.; Costantini, H.; Cottini, N.; Coyle, P.; Cuneo, S.; Curtil, C.; D'Amato, C.; Damy, G.; van Dantzig, R.; de Bonis, G.; Decock, G.; Decowski, M. P.; Dekeyser, I.; Delagnes, E.; Desages-Ardellier, F.; Deschamps, A.; Destelle, J.-J.; di Maria, F.; Dinkespiler, B.; Distefano, C.; Dominique, J.-L.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Dorosti, Q.; Drogou, J.-F.; Drouhin, D.; Druillole, F.; Durand, D.; Durand, R.; Eberl, T.; Emanuele, U.; Engelen, J. J.; Ernenwein, J.-P.; Escoffier, S.; Falchini, E.; Favard, S.; Fehr, F.; Feinstein, F.; Ferri, M.; Ferry, S.; Fiorello, C.; Flaminio, V.; Folger, F.; Fritsch, U.; Fuda, J.-L.; Galatá, S.; Galeotti, S.; Gay, P.; Gensolen, F.; Giacomelli, G.; Gojak, C.; Gómez-González, J. P.; Goret, Ph.; Graf, K.; Guillard, G.; Halladjian, G.; Hallewell, G.; van Haren, H.; Hartmann, B.; Heijboer, A. J.; Heine, E.; Hello, Y.; Henry, S.; Hernández-Rey, J. J.; Herold, B.; Hößl, J.; Hogenbirk, J.; Hsu, C. C.; Hubbard, J. R.; Jaquet, M.; Jaspers, M.; de Jong, M.; Jourde, D.; Kadler, M.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kalekin, O.; Kappes, A.; Karg, T.; Karkar, S.; Karolak, M.; Katz, U.; Keller, P.; Kestener, P.; Kok, E.; Kok, H.; Kooijman, P.; Kopper, C.; Kouchner, A.; Kretschmer, W.; Kruijer, A.; Kuch, S.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lachartre, D.; Lafoux, H.; Lagier, P.; Lahmann, R.; Lahonde-Hamdoun, C.; Lamare, P.; Lambard, G.; Languillat, J.-C.; Larosa, G.; Lavalle, J.; Le Guen, Y.; Le Provost, H.; Levansuu, A.; Lefèvre, D.; Legou, T.; Lelaizant, G.; Lévéque, C.; Lim, G.; Lo Presti, D.; Loehner, H.; Loucatos, S.; Louis, F.; Lucarelli, F.; Lyashuk, V.; Magnier, P.; Mangano, S.; Marcel, A.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Martinez-Mora, J. A.; Masullo, R.; Mazéas, F.; Mazure, A.; Meli, A.; Melissas, M.; Migneco, E.; Mongelli, M.; Montaruli, T.; Morganti, M.; Moscoso, L.; Motz, H.; Musumeci, M.; Naumann, C.; Naumann-Godo, M.; Neff, M.; Niess, V.; Nooren, G. J. L.; Oberski, J. E. J.; Olivetto, C.; Palanque-Delabrouille, N.; Palioselitis, D.; Papaleo, R.; Păvălaş, G. E.; Payet, K.; Payre, P.; Peek, H.; Petrovic, J.; Piattelli, P.; Picot-Clemente, N.; Picq, C.; Piret, Y.; Poinsignon, J.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Presani, E.; Prono, G.; Racca, C.; Raia, G.; van Randwijk, J.; Real, D.; Reed, C.; Réthoré, F.; Rewiersma, P.; Riccobene, G.; Richardt, C.; Richter, R.; Ricol, J. S.; Rigaud, V.; Roca, V.; Roensch, K.; Rolin, J.-F.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rottura, A.; Roux, J.; Rujoiu, M.; Ruppi, M.; Russo, G. V.; Salesa, F.; Salomon, K.; Sapienza, P.; Schmitt, F.; Schöck, F.; Schuller, J.-P.; Schüssler, F.; Sciliberto, D.; Shanidze, R.; Shirokov, E.; Simeone, F.; Sottoriva, A.; Spies, A.; Spona, T.; Spurio, M.; Steijger, J. J. M.; Stolarczyk, Th.; Streeb, K.; Sulak, L.; Taiuti, M.; Tamburini, C.; Tao, C.; Tasca, L.; Terreni, G.; Tezier, D.; Toscano, S.; Urbano, F.; Valdy, P.; Vallage, B.; van Elewyck, V.; Vannoni, G.; Vecchi, M.; Venekamp, G.; Verlaat, B.; Vernin, P.; Virique, E.; de Vries, G.; van Wijk, R.; Wijnker, G.; Wobbe, G.; de Wolf, E.; Yakovenko, Y.; Yepes, H.; Zaborov, D.; Zaccone, H.; Zornoza, J. D.; Zúñiga, J.

    2011-11-01

    The ANTARES Neutrino Telescope was completed in May 2008 and is the first operational Neutrino Telescope in the Mediterranean Sea. The main purpose of the detector is to perform neutrino astronomy and the apparatus also offers facilities for marine and Earth sciences. This paper describes the design, the construction and the installation of the telescope in the deep sea, offshore from Toulon in France. An illustration of the detector performance is given.

  8. ANTARES: The first undersea neutrino telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ageron, M.; Aguilar, J.A.; Al Samarai, I.; Albert, A.; Ameli, F.; Andre, M.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Anvar, S.; Ardid, M.; Arnaud, K.; Aslanides, E.; Assis Jesus, A.C.; Astraatmadja, T.; Aubert, J.-J.; Auer, R.; Barbarito, E.; Baret, B.

    2011-01-01

    The ANTARES Neutrino Telescope was completed in May 2008 and is the first operational Neutrino Telescope in the Mediterranean Sea. The main purpose of the detector is to perform neutrino astronomy and the apparatus also offers facilities for marine and Earth sciences. This paper describes the design, the construction and the installation of the telescope in the deep sea, offshore from Toulon in France. An illustration of the detector performance is given.

  9. MINOS Sterile Neutrino Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koskinen, David Jason [Univ. College London, Bloomsbury (United Kingdom)

    2009-02-01

    The Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search (MINOS) is a long-baseline accelerator neutrino experiment designed to measure properties of neutrino oscillation. Using a high intensity muon neutrino beam, produced by the Neutrinos at Main Injector (NuMI) complex at Fermilab, MINOS makes two measurements of neutrino interactions. The first measurement is made using the Near Detector situated at Fermilab and the second is made using the Far Detector located in the Soudan Underground laboratory in northern Minnesota. The primary goal of MINOS is to verify, and measure the properties of, neutrino oscillation between the two detectors using the v μ→ Vτ transition. A complementary measurement can be made to search for the existence of sterile neutrinos; an oft theorized, but experimentally unvalidated particle. The following thesis will show the results of a sterile neutrino search using MINOS RunI and RunII data totaling ~2.5 x 1020 protons on target. Due to the theoretical nature of sterile neutrinos, complete formalism that covers transition probabilities for the three known active states with the addition of a sterile state is also presented.

  10. A measurement of the proton structure functions from neutrino-hydrogen and antineutrino-hydrogen charged-current interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, G.T.; Jones, R.W.L.; Kennedy, B.W.; O'Neale, S.W.; Hamisi, F.; Miller, D.B.; Mobayyen, M.M.; Wainstein, S.; Corrigan, G.; Myatt, G.; Radojicic, D.; Shotton, P.N.; Towers, S.J.; Bullock, F.W.; Burke, S.

    1989-01-01

    Within the framework of the quark-parton model, the quark and anti-quark structure functions of the proton have been measured by fitting them to the distributions of the events in the Bjorken y variable. The data used form the largest sample of neutrino and antineutrino interactions on a pure hydrogen target available, and come from exposures of BEBC to the CERN wide band neutrino and antineutrino beams. It is found that the ratio d ν /u ν of valence quark distributions falls with increasing Bjorken x. In the context of the quark-parton model the results constrain the isospin composition of the accompanying diquark system. Models involving scattering from diquarks are in disagreement with the data. (orig.)

  11. Neutrino physics with JUNO

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Fengpeng; An, Guangpeng; An, Qi; Antonelli, Vito; Baussan, Eric; Beacom, John; Bezrukov, Leonid; Blyth, Simon; Brugnera, Riccardo; Buizza Avanzini, Margherita; Busto, Jose; Cabrera, Anatael; Cai, Hao; Cai, Xiao; Cammi, Antonio; Cao, Guofu; Cao, Jun; Chang, Yun; Chen, Shaomin; Chen, Shenjian; Chen, Yixue; Chiesa, Davide; Clemenza, Massimiliano; Clerbaux, Barbara; Conrad, Janet; D'Angelo, Davide; De Kerret, Hervé; Deng, Zhi; Deng, Ziyan; Ding, Yayun; Djurcic, Zelimir; Dornic, Damien; Dracos, Marcos; Drapier, Olivier; Dusini, Stefano; Dye, Stephen; Enqvist, Timo; Fan, Donghua; Fang, Jian; Favart, Laurent; Ford, Richard; Göger-Neff, Marianne; Gan, Haonan; Garfagnini, Alberto; Giammarchi, Marco; Gonchar, Maxim; Gong, Guanghua; Gong, Hui; Gonin, Michel; Grassi, Marco; Grewing, Christian; Guan, Mengyun; Guarino, Vic; Guo, Gang; Guo, Wanlei; Guo, Xin-Heng; Hagner, Caren; Han, Ran; He, Miao; Heng, Yuekun; Hsiung, Yee; Hu, Jun; Hu, Shouyang; Hu, Tao; Huang, Hanxiong; Huang, Xingtao; Huo, Lei; Ioannisian, Ara; Jeitler, Manfred; Ji, Xiangdong; Jiang, Xiaoshan; Jollet, Cécile; Kang, Li; Karagounis, Michael; Kazarian, Narine; Krumshteyn, Zinovy; Kruth, Andre; Kuusiniemi, Pasi; Lachenmaier, Tobias; Leitner, Rupert; Li, Chao; Li, Jiaxing; Li, Weidong; Li, Weiguo; Li, Xiaomei; Li, Xiaonan; Li, Yi; Li, Yufeng; Li, Zhi-Bing; Liang, Hao; Lin, Guey-Lin; Lin, Tao; Lin, Yen-Hsun; Ling, Jiajie; Lippi, Ivano; Liu, Dawei; Liu, Hongbang; Liu, Hu; Liu, Jianglai; Liu, Jianli; Liu, Jinchang; Liu, Qian; Liu, Shubin; Liu, Shulin; Lombardi, Paolo; Long, Yongbing; Lu, Haoqi; Lu, Jiashu; Lu, Jingbin; Lu, Junguang; Lubsandorzhiev, Bayarto; Ludhova, Livia; Luo, Shu; Lyashuk, Vladimir; Möllenberg, Randolph; Ma, Xubo; Mantovani, Fabio; Mao, Yajun; Mari, Stefano M.; McDonough, William F.; Meng, Guang; Meregaglia, Anselmo; Meroni, Emanuela; Mezzetto, Mauro; Miramonti, Lino; Mueller, Thomas; Naumov, Dmitry; Oberauer, Lothar; Ochoa-Ricoux, Juan Pedro; Olshevskiy, Alexander; Ortica, Fausto; Paoloni, Alessandro; Peng, Haiping; Peng, Jen-Chieh; Previtali, Ezio; Qi, Ming; Qian, Sen; Qian, Xin; Qian, Yongzhong; Qin, Zhonghua; Raffelt, Georg; Ranucci, Gioacchino; Ricci, Barbara; Robens, Markus; Romani, Aldo; Ruan, Xiangdong; Ruan, Xichao; Salamanna, Giuseppe; Shaevitz, Mike; Sinev, Valery; Sirignano, Chiara; Sisti, Monica; Smirnov, Oleg; Soiron, Michael; Stahl, Achim; Stanco, Luca; Steinmann, Jochen; Sun, Xilei; Sun, Yongjie; Taichenachev, Dmitriy; Tang, Jian; Tkachev, Igor; Trzaska, Wladyslaw; van Waasen, Stefan; Volpe, Cristina; Vorobel, Vit; Votano, Lucia; Wang, Chung-Hsiang; Wang, Guoli; Wang, Hao; Wang, Meng; Wang, Ruiguang; Wang, Siguang; Wang, Wei; Wang, Yi; Wang, Yi; Wang, Yifang; Wang, Zhe; Wang, Zheng; Wang, Zhigang; Wang, Zhimin; Wei, Wei; Wen, Liangjian; Wiebusch, Christopher; Wonsak, Björn; Wu, Qun; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Wurm, Michael; Xi, Yufei; Xia, Dongmei; Xie, Yuguang; Xing, Zhi-zhong; Xu, Jilei; Yan, Baojun; Yang, Changgen; Yang, Chaowen; Yang, Guang; Yang, Lei; Yang, Yifan; Yao, Yu; Yegin, Ugur; Yermia, Frédéric; You, Zhengyun; Yu, Boxiang; Yu, Chunxu; Yu, Zeyuan; Zavatarelli, Sandra; Zhan, Liang; Zhang, Chao; Zhang, Hong-Hao; Zhang, Jiawen; Zhang, Jingbo; Zhang, Qingmin; Zhang, Yu-Mei; Zhang, Zhenyu; Zhao, Zhenghua; Zheng, Yangheng; Zhong, Weili; Zhou, Guorong; Zhou, Jing; Zhou, Li; Zhou, Rong; Zhou, Shun; Zhou, Wenxiong; Zhou, Xiang; Zhou, Yeling; Zhou, Yufeng; Zou, Jiaheng

    2016-03-01

    . Detection of neutrinos from all past core-collapse supernova explosions in the visible universe with JUNO would further provide valuable information on the cosmic star-formation rate and the average core-collapse neutrino energy spectrum. Antineutrinos originating from the radioactive decay of uranium and thorium in the Earth can be detected in JUNO with a rate of ˜400 events per year, significantly improving the statistics of existing geoneutrino event samples. Atmospheric neutrino events collected in JUNO can provide independent inputs for determining the MH and the octant of the {θ }23 mixing angle. Detection of the 7Be and 8B solar neutrino events at JUNO would shed new light on the solar metallicity problem and examine the transition region between the vacuum and matter dominated neutrino oscillations. Regarding light sterile neutrino topics, sterile neutrinos with {10}-5 {{{eV}}}2\\lt {{Δ }}{m}412\\lt {10}-2 {{{eV}}}2 and a sufficiently large mixing angle {θ }14 could be identified through a precise measurement of the reactor antineutrino energy spectrum. Meanwhile, JUNO can also provide us excellent opportunities to test the eV-scale sterile neutrino hypothesis, using either the radioactive neutrino sources or a cyclotron-produced neutrino beam. The JUNO detector is also sensitive to several other beyondthe-standard-model physics. Examples include the search for proton decay via the p\\to {K}++\\bar{ν } decay channel, search for neutrinos resulting from dark-matter annihilation in the Sun, search for violation of Lorentz invariance via the sidereal modulation of the reactor neutrino event rate, and search for the effects of non-standard interactions. The proposed construction of the JUNO detector will provide a unique facility to address many outstanding crucial questions in particle and astrophysics in a timely and cost-effective fashion. It holds the great potential for further advancing our quest to understanding the fundamental properties of neutrinos, one

  12. Influence of hadronic interaction models and the cosmic ray spectrum on the high-energy atmospheric muon and neutrino flux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desiati Paolo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The recent observations of muon charge ratio up to about 10 TeV and of atmospheric neutrinos up to energies of about 400 TeV has triggered a renewed interest into the high-energy interaction models and cosmic ray primary composition. A reviewed calculation of lepton spectra produced in cosmic ray induced extensive air showers is carried out with a primary cosmic ray spectrum that fits the latest direct measurements below the knee. In order to achieve this, we used a full Monte Carlo method to derive the inclusive differential spectra (yields of muons, muon neutrinos and electron neutrinos at the surface for energies between 80 GeV and hundreds of PeV. Using these results the differential flux and the flavor ratios of leptons were calculated. The air shower simulator CORSIKA 6.990 was used for showering and propagation of the secondary particles through the atmosphere, employing the established high energy hadronic interaction models SIBYLL 2.1, QGSJet-01 and QGSJet-II-03. We show that the performance of the interaction models allows makes it possible to predict the spectra within experimental uncertainties, while SIBYLL generally yields a higher flux at the surface than the QGSJet models. The calculation of the flavor and charge ratios has lead to inconsistent results, mainly influenced by the different representations of the K/π ratio within the models. The influence of the knee of cosmic rays is reflected in the secondary spectra at energies between 100 and 200 TeV. Furthermore, we could quantify systematic uncertainties of atmospheric muon- and neutrino fluxes, associated to the models of the primary cosmic ray spectrum and the interaction models. For most recent parametrizations of the cosmic ray primary spectrum, atmospheric muons can be determined with an uncertainty smaller than +15/-13% of the average flux. Uncertainties of the muon and electron neutrino fluxes can be calculated within an average error of +32/-22% and +25

  13. Neutrino properties from cosmology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hannestad, S.

    2013-01-01

    In recent years precision cosmology has become an increasingly powerful probe of particle physics. Perhaps the prime example of this is the very stringent cosmological upper bound on the neutrino mass. However, other aspects of neutrino physics, such as their decoupling history and possible non......-standard interactions, can also be probed using observations of cosmic structure. Here, I review the current status of cosmological bounds on neutrino properties and discuss the potential of future observations, for example by the recently approved EUCLID mission, to precisely measure neutrino properties....

  14. Neutrinos in supernovae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooperstein, J.

    1986-10-01

    The role of neutrinos in Type II supernovae is discussed. An overall view of the neutrino luminosity as expected theoretically is presented. The different weak interactions involved are assessed from the standpoint of how they exchange energy, momentum, and lepton number. Particular attention is paid to entropy generation and the path to thermal and chemical equilibration, and to the phenomenon of trapping. Various methods used to calculate the neutrino flows are considered. These include trapping and leakage schemes, distribution-averaged transfer, and multi-energy group methods. The information obtained from the neutrinos caught from Supernova 1987a is briefly evaluated. 55 refs., 7 figs

  15. Neutrino observations from the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, Q.R.; Allen, R.C.; Andersen, T.C.; Anglin, J.D.; Barton,J.C.; Beier, E.W.; Bercovitch, M.; Bigu, J.; Biller, S.D.; Black, R.A.; Blevis, I.; Boardman, R.J.; Boger, J.; Bonvin, E.; Boulay, M.G.; Bowler,M.G.; Bowles, T.J.; Brice, S.J.; Browne, M.C.; Bullard, T.V.; Buhler, G.; Cameron, J.; Chan, Y.D.; Chen, H.H.; Chen, M.; Chen, X.; Cleveland, B.T.; Clifford, E.T.H.; Cowan, J.H.M.; Cowen, D.F.; Cox, G.A.; Dai, X.; Dalnoki-Veress, F.; Davidson, W.F.; Doe, P.J.; Doucas, G.; Dragowsky,M.R.; Duba, C.A.; Duncan, F.A.; Dunford, M.; Dunmore, J.A.; Earle, E.D.; Elliott, S.R.; Evans, H.C.; Ewan, G.T.; Farine, J.; Fergani, H.; Ferraris, A.P.; Ford, R.J.; Formaggio, J.A.; Fowler, M.M.; Frame, K.; Frank, E.D.; Frati, W.; Gagnon, N.; Germani, J.V.; Gil, S.; Graham, K.; Grant, D.R.; Hahn, R.L.; Hallin, A.L.; Hallman, E.D.; Hamer, A.S.; Hamian, A.A.; Handler, W.B.; Haq, R.U.; Hargrove, C.K.; Harvey, P.J.; Hazama, R.; Heeger, K.M.; Heintzelman, W.J.; Heise, J.; Helmer, R.L.; Hepburn, J.D.; Heron, H.; Hewett, J.; Hime, A.; Hykawy, J.G.; Isaac,M.C.P.; Jagam, P.; Jelley, N.A.; Jillings, C.; Jonkmans, G.; Kazkaz, K.; Keener, P.T.; Klein, J.R.; Knox, A.B.; Komar, R.J.; Kouzes, R.; Kutter,T.; Kyba, C.C.M.; Law, J.; Lawson, I.T.; Lay, M.; Lee, H.W.; Lesko, K.T.; Leslie, J.R.; Levine, I.; Locke, W.; Luoma, S.; Lyon, J.; Majerus, S.; Mak, H.B.; Maneira, J.; Manor, J.; Marino, A.D.; McCauley, N.; McDonald,D.S.; McDonald, A.B.; McFarlane, K.; McGregor, G.; Meijer, R.; Mifflin,C.; Miller, G.G.; Milton, G.; Moffat, B.A.; Moorhead, M.; Nally, C.W.; Neubauer, M.S.; Newcomer, F.M.; Ng, H.S.; Noble, A.J.; Norman, E.B.; Novikov, V.M.; O' Neill, M.; Okada, C.E.; Ollerhead, R.W.; Omori, M.; Orrell, J.L.; Oser, S.M.; Poon, A.W.P.; Radcliffe, T.J.; Roberge, A.; Robertson, B.C.; Robertson, R.G.H.; Rosendahl, S.S.E.; Rowley, J.K.; Rusu, V.L.; Saettler, E.; Schaffer, K.K.; Schwendener,M.H.; Schulke, A.; Seifert, H.; Shatkay, M.; Simpson, J.J.; Sims, C.J.; et al.

    2001-09-24

    The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) is a water imaging Cherenkov detector. Its usage of 1000 metric tons of D{sub 2}O as target allows the SNO detector to make a solar-model independent test of the neutrino oscillation hypothesis by simultaneously measuring the solar {nu}{sub e} flux and the total flux of all active neutrino species. Solar neutrinos from the decay of {sup 8}B have been detected at SNO by the charged-current (CC) interaction on the deuteron and by the elastic scattering (ES) of electrons. While the CC reaction is sensitive exclusively to {nu}{sub e}, the ES reaction also has a small sensitivity to {nu}{sub {mu}} and {nu}{sub {tau}}. In this paper, recent solar neutrino results from the SNO experiment are presented. It is demonstrated that the solar flux from {sup 8}B decay as measured from the ES reaction rate under the no-oscillation assumption is consistent with the high precision ES measurement by the Super-Kamiokande experiment. The {nu}{sub e} flux deduced from the CC reaction rate in SNO differs from the Super-Kamiokande ES results by 3.3{sigma}. This is evidence for an active neutrino component, in additional to {nu}{sub e}, in the solar neutrino flux. These results also allow the first experimental determination of the total active {sup 8}B neutrino flux from the Sun, and is found to be in good agreement with solar model predictions.

  16. Neutrino Observations from the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Q. R. Ahmad, R. C. Allen, T. C. Andersen, J. D. Anglin, G. B?hler, J. C. Barton, E. W. Beier, M. Bercovitch, J. Bigu, S. Biller, R. A. Black, I. Blevis, R. J. Boardman, J. Boger, E. Bonvin, M. G. Boulay, M. G. Bowler, T. J. Bowles, S. J. Brice, M. C. Browne, T. V. Bullard, T. H. Burritt, K. Cameron, J. Cameron, Y. D. Chan, M. Chen, H. H. Chen, X. Chen, M. C. Chon, B. T. Cleveland, E. T. H. Clifford, J. H. M. Cowan, D. F. Cowen, G. A. Cox, Y. Dai, X. Dai, F. Dalnoki-Veress, W. F. Davidson, P. J. Doe, G. Doucas, M. R. Dragowsky, C. A. Duba, F. A. Duncan, J. Dunmore, E. D. Earle, S. R. Elliott, H. C. Evans, G. T. Ewan, J. Farine, H. Fergani, A. P. Ferraris, R. J. Ford, M. M. Fowler, K. Frame, E. D. Frank, W. Frati, J. V. Germani, S. Gil, A. Goldschmidt, D. R. Grant, R. L. Hahn, A. L. Hallin, E. D. Hallman, A. Hamer, A. A. Hamian, R. U. Haq, C. K. Hargrove, P. J. Harvey, R. Hazama, R. Heaton, K. M. Heeger, W. J. Heintzelman, J. Heise, R. L. Helmer, J. D. Hepburn, H. Heron, J. Hewett, A. Hime, M. Howe, J. G. Hykawy, M. C. P. Isaac, P. Jagam, N. A. Jelley, C. Jillings, G. Jonkmans, J. Karn, P. T. Keener, K. Kirch, J. R. Klein, A. B. Knox, R. J. Komar, R. Kouzes, T. Kutter, C. C. M. Kyba, J. Law, I. T. Lawson, M. Lay, H. W. Lee, K. T. Lesko, J. R. Leslie, I. Levine, W. Locke, M. M. Lowry, S. Luoma, J. Lyon, S. Majerus, H. B. Mak, A. D. Marino, N. McCauley, A. B. McDonald, D. S. McDonald, K. McFarlane, G. McGregor, W. McLatchie, R. Meijer Drees, H. Mes, C. Mifflin, G. G. Miller, G. Milton, B. A. Moffat, M. Moorhead, C. W. Nally, M. S. Neubauer, F. M. Newcomer, H. S. Ng, A. J. Noble, E. B. Norman, V. M. Novikov, M. O'Neill, C. E. Okada, R. W. Ollerhead, M. Omori, J. L. Orrell, S. M. Oser, A. W. P. Poon, T. J. Radcliffe, A. Roberge, B. C. Robertson, R. G. H. Robertson, J. K. Rowley, V. L. Rusu, E. Saettler, K. K. Schaffer, A. Schuelke, M. H. Schwendener, H. Seifert, M. Shatkay, J. J. Simpson, D. Sinclair, P. Skensved, A. R. Smith, M. W. E. Smith, N. Starinsky, T. D. Steiger, R. G. Stokstad, R. S. Storey, B. Sur, R. Tafirout, N. Tagg, N. W. Tanner, R. K. Taplin, M. Thorman, P. Thornewell, P. T. Trent, Y. I. Tserkovnyak, R. Van Berg, R. G. Van de Water, C. J. Virtue, C. E. Waltham, J.-X. Wang, D. L. Wark, N. West, J. B. Wilhelmy, J. F. Wilkerson, J. Wilson, P. Wittich, J. M. Wouters, and M. Yeh

    2001-09-24

    The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) is a water imaging Cherenkov detector. Its usage of 1000 metric tons of D{sub 2}O as target allows the SNO detector to make a solar-model independent test of the neutrino oscillation hypothesis by simultaneously measuring the solar {nu}{sub e} flux and the total flux of all active neutrino species. Solar neutrinos from the decay of {sup 8}B have been detected at SNO by the charged-current (CC) interaction on the deuteron and by the elastic scattering (ES) of electrons. While the CC reaction is sensitive exclusively to {nu}{sub e}, the ES reaction also has a small sensitivity to {nu}{sub {mu}} and {nu}{sub {tau}}. In this paper, recent solar neutrino results from the SNO experiment are presented. It is demonstrated that the solar flux from {sup 8}B decay as measured from the ES reaction rate under the no-oscillation assumption is consistent with the high precision ES measurement by the Super-Kamiokande experiment. The {nu}{sub e} flux deduced from the CC reaction rate in SNO differs from the Super-Kamiokande ES results by 3.3{sigma}. This is evidence for an active neutrino component, in additional to {nu}{sub e}, in the solar neutrino flux. These results also allow the first experimental determination of the total active {sup 8}B neutrino flux from the Sun, and is found to be in good agreement with solar model predictions.

  17. Neutrinos from the Milky Way

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Erwin Lourens

    2015-01-01

    A guaranteed source of neutrinos is the production in cosmic ray interactions with the interstellar matter in our Galaxy. The signal has never been detected however and only an upper limit on this flux of neutrinos has been published by the AMANDA-II detector. The ANTARES neutrino telescope, located

  18. Systems of neutrinos with mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groot, S.R. de

    1984-01-01

    From the formalism of relativistic kinetic theory and the weak interaction Lagrangian the volume viscosity of a massive neutrino system is derived. Its value is calculated as a function of the neutrino mass and the temperature. Its role in the way of expanding or contraction of neutrino clouds in the universe is discussed. (Author) [pt

  19. Neutrino physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gil-Botella, I.

    2011-01-01

    The fundamental properties of neutrinos are reviewed in these lectures. The first part is focused on the basic characteristics of neutrinos in the Standard Model and how neutrinos are detected. Neutrino masses and oscillations are introduced and a summary of the most important experimental results on neutrino oscillations to date is provided. Then, present and future experimental proposals are discussed, including new precision reactor and accelerator experiments. Finally, different approaches for measuring the neutrino mass and the nature (Majorana or Dirac), of neutrinos are reviewed. The detection of neutrinos from supernovae explosions and the information that this measurement can provide are also summarized at the end. (author)

  20. Personal practical theories, self-identity, and astronomy teachers' interactive decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Marvin Elliot

    2005-12-01

    Research has suggested that beliefs play a major role in selecting and defining teaching tasks and organizing the knowledge needed to perform those tasks. Teachers, consciously or unconsciously, depend on beliefs because they work in ill-structured domains where traditional problem solving techniques and academic knowledge do not work as well. The goal of this project was to establish, if possible, a causal link between teacher beliefs and interactive decision making through empirical, qualitative research. The hypothesis was, that when faced with those sorts of situations, the participants would fall back on belief systems that did not necessarily have a rational basis. The research focused on astronomy teachers in community colleges. Since most science reform efforts are directed toward primary and secondary schools, community college science teaching remains a neglected area of study. Yet community colleges are predicted to play an increasingly important role in higher education in the near future. For many students, community college science classes may represent their last encounter with formal, academic, science programs. The three participants were interviewed and observed in the classroom over an extended period. Initial interviews were conducted with each participant to capture stated beliefs. After the extensive classroom observations, stimulated recall interviews were held with each participant viewing short, edited segments of the classroom videotapes. No direct causal link between beliefs (in the conventional sense of the word) and participant decision making is apparent from this empirical research. However, the construct of personal practical theories, which includes beliefs as one component, shows promise as a significant determining factor in interactive decision making. Themes have been developed that represent each participant's personal practical theories. The strongest theme, applicable to all participants, is based on the notion of

  1. Study of atmospheric neutrino interactions and search for nucleon decay in Soudan 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leeson, William R. [Tufts Univ., Medford, MA (United States)

    1995-12-14

    Contained event samples, including 30 single-track muon-like events, 35 single-shower electron-like events, and 34 multiprong events, have been obtained from a 1.0 kiloton-year exposure of the Soudan 2 detector. A sample of 15 multiprong events which are partially contained has also been isolated. Properties of these events are used to examine the verity of the atmospheric neutrino flavor ratio anomaly as reported by the Kamiokande and IMB-3 water Cherenkov experiments. The compatibility of the Soudan data with each of two `new physics` explanations for the anomaly, namely proton decay and neutrino oscillations, is investigated. We examine background processes which have not been explicitly treated by the water Cherenkov detectors. Chapters discuss underground non-accelerator particle physics, the atmospheric neutrino anomaly and its interpretation, the Soudan 2 detector and event selection, reconstruction of neutrino events, rock event contamination in Soudan `quasi-elastic` samples, contained multiprong events in Soudan 2, neutrino flavor composition of the multiprong sample, partially contained events in Soudan 2, nucleon decay in Soudan 2, and a summary and discussion.

  2. Study of atmospheric neutrino interactions and search for nucleon decay in Soudan 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leeson, W.R.

    1995-01-01

    Contained event samples, including 30 single-track muon-like events, 35 single-shower electron-like events, and 34 multiprong events, have been obtained from a 1.0 kiloton-year exposure of the Soudan 2 detector. A sample of 15 multiprong events which are partially contained has also been isolated. Properties of these events are used to examine the verity of the atmospheric neutrino flavor ratio anomaly as reported by the Kamiokande and IMB-3 water Cherenkov experiments. The compatibility of the Soudan data with each of two 'new physics' explanations for the anomaly, namely proton decay and neutrino oscillations, is investigated. We examine background processes which have not been explicitly treated by the water Cherenkov detectors. Chapters discuss underground non-accelerator particle physics, the atmospheric neutrino anomaly and its interpretation, the Soudan 2 detector and event selection, reconstruction of neutrino events, rock event contamination in Soudan 'quasi-elastic' samples, contained multiprong events in Soudan 2, neutrino flavor composition of the multiprong sample, partially contained events in Soudan 2, nucleon decay in Soudan 2, and a summary and discussion. 12 refs., 124 figs., 28 tabs., 7 appendices

  3. Neutrino interaction event reconstruction and analysis in the Opera emulsion targets and charmed background rejection in the τ → 3h channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besnier, M.

    2008-07-01

    OPERA (Gran-Sasso, Italy) is a long-baseline neutrino experiment dedicated to the tau neutrino detection in a pure muon neutrino beam, produced at CERN (730 km away). The main goal is to observe the ν μ → ν τ oscillation. The experiment uses a hybrid technology with electronic detectors and target blocks made of lead plates interleaved with nuclear emulsion sheets, in order to sign efficiently the ν τ interactions. The fundamental features of OPERA are its particle reconstruction performances achieved in spatial and angular resolutions. The first studies done in this thesis concern the development of several analysis tools like the particle momentum determination using the multiple coulomb scattering in target, and a method of neutrino interaction reconstruction for multi-vertex events. Then it has been possible to develop a multivariable analysis in order to separate τ and charmed events in the τ decay channel into three charged hadrons. These tools have been tested with neutrino interactions observed first with the OPERA test-beam called PEANUT, then with the OPERA events accumulated during the first CNGS (CERN Neutrino to Gran Sasso) run in 2007. The combined analysis of these events has shown that both the analysis method and the OPERA detector behaviour are well understood. (author)

  4. Toward observational neutrino astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshiba, M.

    1988-01-01

    It is true that: (1) The first observation of the neutrino burst from the supernova SN1987a by Kamiokande-II which was immediately confirmed by IBM; and (2) the first real-time, directional, and spectral observation of solar 8 B neutrinos also by Kamiokande-II could perhaps be considered as signalling the birth of observational astrophysics. The field, however, is still in its infancy and is crying out for tender loving care. Namely, while the construction of astronomy requires the time and the direction of the signal and that of astrophysics requires, in addition to the spectral information, the observations of (1) could not give the directional information and the results of both (1) and (2) are still suffering from the meager statistics. How do we remedy this situation to let this new born science of observational neutrino astrophysics grow healthy. This is what the author addresses in this talk. 15 refs., 8 figs

  5. A Unified approach for nucleon knock-out, coherent and incoherent pion production in neutrino interactions with nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Martini, M.; Chanfray, G.; Marteau, J.

    2009-01-01

    We present a theory of neutrino interactions with nuclei aimed at the description of the partial cross-sections, namely quasi-elastic and multi-nucleon emission, coherent and incoherent single pion production. For this purpose, we use the theory of nuclear responses treated in the random phase approximation, which allows a unified description of these channels. It is particularly suited for the coherent pion production where collective effects are important whereas they are moderate in the other channels. We also study the evolution of the neutrino cross-sections with the mass number from carbon to calcium. We compare our approach to the available neutrino experimental data on carbon. We put a particular emphasis on the multi-nucleon channel, which at present is not easily distinguishable from the quasi-elastic events. This component turns out to be quite relevant for the interpretation of experiments (K2K, MiniBooNE, SciBooNE). It can account in particular for the unexpected behavior of the quasi-elastic cro...

  6. Neutrino cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berstein, J.

    1984-01-01

    These lectures offer a self-contained review of the role of neutrinos in cosmology. The first part deals with the question 'What is a neutrino.' and describes in a historical context the theoretical ideas and experimental discoveries related to the different types of neutrinos and their properties. The basic differences between the Dirac neutrino and the Majorana neutrino are pointed out and the evidence for different neutrino 'flavours', neutrino mass, and neutrino oscillations is discussed. The second part summarizes current views on cosmology, particularly as they are affected by recent theoretical and experimental advances in high-energy particle physics. Finally, the close relationship between neutrino physics and cosmology is brought out in more detail, to show how cosmological constraints can limit the various theoretical possibilities for neutrinos and, more particularly, how increasing knowledge of neutrino properties can contribute to our understanding of the origin, history, and future of the Universe. The level is that of the beginning graduate student. (orig.)

  7. Neutrinos and dark energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schrempp, L.

    2008-02-01

    From the observed late-time acceleration of cosmic expansion arises the quest for the nature of Dark Energy. As has been widely discussed, the cosmic neutrino background naturally qualifies for a connection with the Dark Energy sector and as a result could play a key role for the origin of cosmic acceleration. In this thesis we explore various theoretical aspects and phenomenological consequences arising from non-standard neutrino interactions, which dynamically link the cosmic neutrino background and a slowly-evolving scalar field of the dark sector. In the considered scenario, known as Neutrino Dark Energy, the complex interplay between the neutrinos and the scalar field not only allows to explain cosmic acceleration, but intriguingly, as a distinct signature, also gives rise to dynamical, time-dependent neutrino masses. In a first analysis, we thoroughly investigate an astrophysical high energy neutrino process which is sensitive to neutrino masses. We work out, both semi-analytically and numerically, the generic clear-cut signatures arising from a possible time variation of neutrino masses which we compare to the corresponding results for constant neutrino masses. Finally, we demonstrate that even for the lowest possible neutrino mass scale, it is feasible for the radio telescope LOFAR to reveal a variation of neutrino masses and therefore to probe the nature of Dark Energy within the next decade. A second independent analysis deals with the recently challenged stability of Neutrino Dark Energy against the strong growth of hydrodynamic perturbations, driven by the new scalar force felt between neutrinos. Within the framework of linear cosmological perturbation theory, we derive the equation of motion of the neutrino perturbations in a model-independent way. This equation allows to deduce an analytical stability condition which translates into a comfortable upper bound on the scalar-neutrino coupling which is determined by the ratio of the densities in cold dark

  8. Neutrinos and dark energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schrempp, L.

    2008-02-15

    From the observed late-time acceleration of cosmic expansion arises the quest for the nature of Dark Energy. As has been widely discussed, the cosmic neutrino background naturally qualifies for a connection with the Dark Energy sector and as a result could play a key role for the origin of cosmic acceleration. In this thesis we explore various theoretical aspects and phenomenological consequences arising from non-standard neutrino interactions, which dynamically link the cosmic neutrino background and a slowly-evolving scalar field of the dark sector. In the considered scenario, known as Neutrino Dark Energy, the complex interplay between the neutrinos and the scalar field not only allows to explain cosmic acceleration, but intriguingly, as a distinct signature, also gives rise to dynamical, time-dependent neutrino masses. In a first analysis, we thoroughly investigate an astrophysical high energy neutrino process which is sensitive to neutrino masses. We work out, both semi-analytically and numerically, the generic clear-cut signatures arising from a possible time variation of neutrino masses which we compare to the corresponding results for constant neutrino masses. Finally, we demonstrate that even for the lowest possible neutrino mass scale, it is feasible for the radio telescope LOFAR to reveal a variation of neutrino masses and therefore to probe the nature of Dark Energy within the next decade. A second independent analysis deals with the recently challenged stability of Neutrino Dark Energy against the strong growth of hydrodynamic perturbations, driven by the new scalar force felt between neutrinos. Within the framework of linear cosmological perturbation theory, we derive the equation of motion of the neutrino perturbations in a model-independent way. This equation allows to deduce an analytical stability condition which translates into a comfortable upper bound on the scalar-neutrino coupling which is determined by the ratio of the densities in cold dark

  9. Probing neutrino dark energy with extremely high-energy cosmic neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ringwald, A.; Schrempp, L.

    2006-06-01

    Recently, a new non-Standard Model neutrino interaction mediated by a light scalar field was proposed, which renders the big-bang relic neutrinos of the cosmic neutrino background a natural dark energy candidate, the so-called Neutrino Dark Energy. As a further consequence of this interaction, the neutrino masses become functions of the neutrino energy densities and are thus promoted to dynamical, time/redshift dependent quantities. Such a possible neutrino mass variation introduces a redshift dependence into the resonance energies associated with the annihilation of extremely high-energy cosmic neutrinos on relic anti-neutrinos and vice versa into Z-bosons. In general, this annihilation process is expected to lead to sizeable absorption dips in the spectra to be observed on earth by neutrino observatories operating in the relevant energy region above 10 13 GeV. In our analysis, we contrast the characteristic absorption features produced by constant and varying neutrino masses, including all thermal background effects caused by the relic neutrino motion. We firstly consider neutrinos from astrophysical sources and secondly neutrinos originating from the decomposition of topological defects using the appropriate fragmentation functions. On the one hand, independent of the nature of neutrino masses, our results illustrate the discovery potential for the cosmic neutrino background by means of relic neutrino absorption spectroscopy. On the other hand, they allow to estimate the prospects for testing its possible interpretation as source of Neutrino Dark Energy within the next decade by the neutrino observatories ANITA and LOFAR. (Orig.)

  10. A letter of intent for a neutrino scattering experiment on the booster neutrino meanline: FINeSSE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleming, B.T.; Tayloe, R.; /Indiana U. /Yale U.

    2005-03-01

    identified as a priority of the neutrino community, as determined through the APS Multidisciplinary Study on the Future of Neutrino Physics. From the APS report, the Neutrino Matrix makes its recommendations in context of several assumptions regarding the neutrino program, including: ''Determination of the neutrino reaction and production cross sections required for a precise understanding of neutrino oscillation physics and the neutrino astronomy of astrophysical and cosmological sources. Our broad and exacting program of neutrino physics is built upon precise knowledge of how neutrinos interact with matter''. The experiment described here will provide unique information on cross sections of {approx}1 GeV neutrinos, in precisely the range explored by present and future long baseline oscillation programs. Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory is the natural place to perform this experiment. The physics goals proposed here grow the existing program and are necessary ingredients for the next generation oscillation physics measurements in this same energy range. This is a small, cost-effective, and timely experiment which fits well with the growing neutrino program at Fermilab.

  11. Neutrino interactions with e+μ- and multiple K0's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevenson, M.L.

    1976-07-01

    A scan for directly produced positrons in 5,000 neutrino interactions in the neon (21 percent) hydrogen filled bubble chamber at Fermilab has yielded 15 events, 9 of which have μ - 's identified in the external muon identifier. On correcting for detection efficiency one obtains sigma(e + μ - )/sigma(μ - ) approximately 1 x 10 -2 for E/sub e + / > .8 GeV and E/sub ν/ > 5 GeV. The kaon multiplicity is unexpectedly high. Eleven of the events have one or more Vees and three have two or more. Among the 11 events are two clear Λ's and two ambiguous K 0 /Λ. There are four events with identifiable charged kaons. A 16th e + event (9) is a definite ν/sub e/. From this information one concludes that the kaon multiplicity is 2 +- .6 K 0 's and 2 +- 1 K +- 's per interaction. From the observation - />/ + /> = 6.6, one concludes that the e + 's are probably not uniquely from heavy lepton decay. From a variety of analyses involving the e + and/or K 0 's one learns that the mass of the hadron (C) that produces the e + 's is greater than 1.6 GeV. By determining the fraction of normal charged current (CC) events that have K 0 /sub s/ → π + π - one is able to compare this fraction with the fraction of CC events that have e + μ - (K 0 /sub s/ → π + π - ) to establish a conservative lower limit to the semileptonic branching ratio, C → (e + and μ + ) ν/C → all > 0.33 (1 +- .42), provided that the same number of K 0 /sub s/ exists in thenonleptonic decays as in the semileptonic ones, and that the phase space for μ + and e + are nearly equal. There is no compelling evidence for an energy threshold and there is a hint of some neutral current events among the e + events

  12. New neutrino oscillation results from NOVA

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2018-01-01

    Neutrinos oscillate among flavors as they travel because a neutrino of a particular flavor is also a superposition of multiple neutrinos with slightly different masses.  The interferometric nature of oscillations allows these tiny mass differences to be measured, along with the parameters of the PMNS matrix which governs the mixing. However, since neutrinos only interact weakly, a powerful neutrino source and massive detectors are required to measure them. In this talk I will show recently updated results from NOvA, a long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment at Fermilab with two functionally identical scintillator detectors. I will present measurements of muon neutrino disappearance and electron neutrino appearance, and what constraints those measurements put on the remaining open questions in neutrino oscillations: Is the neutrino mass hierarchy "normal" or "inverted?" Do neutrino oscillations violate CP symmetry? Is the mixing in the atmospheric sector maximal? The recent update includes 50%...

  13. We Detected Phenomena, Like Africa's Dogon, that Speak of Stellar Gravitational Neutrino Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, David Matthew; McLeod, Roger David

    2009-05-01

    Stick figure equivalents of Kokopelli/Pele/Pamola/Thor/Orion/Osiris, Canis Major/Anubis/Wolf/Fox, Leo/Bird Tailed Jaguar/Beaver Tailed Mountain Lion, were detected by us. They figure heavily in the spiritual/scientific world view of many traditional societies, and their cultural respect for the information such figures convey. Scientific instruments from the past were our laboratories, and theirs. All string/stick figure equivalents may represent types of longitudinally aligned neutrino flux between certain stellar pairs. Neutrino beams from distant pulsars, quasars, or other neutrino sources, cannot penetrate these graviton-like strings. They do pass through sectors of Earth, projecting stick figures within instruments like the Watch House at America's Stonehenge, and perhaps the chamber beneath the Great Pyramid. Sirius B, as the heaviest object in ``our'' universe for the Dogon, means it shares a profound graviton-like neutrino highway to our sun, as Sirius B/A do within Canis Major. It is possibly projected by a source within the Canis Major dwarf galaxy at about 3,000 times as distant as Sirius B/A at 8.7 ly.

  14. Sterile Neutrino Search with MINOS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devan, Alena V.

    2015-01-01

    MINOS, Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search, is a long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment in the NuMI muon neutrino beam at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory in Batavia, IL. It consists of two detectors, a near detector positioned 1 km from the source of the beam and a far detector 734 km away in Minnesota. MINOS is primarily designed to observe muon neutrino disappearance resulting from three flavor oscillations. The Standard Model of Particle Physics predicts that neutrinos oscillate between three active flavors as they propagate through space. This means that a muon-type neutrino has a certain probability to later interact as a different type of neutrino. In the standard picture, the neutrino oscillation probabilities depend only on three neutrino flavors and two mass splittings, Δm 2 . An anomaly was observed by the LSND and MiniBooNE experiments that suggests the existence of a fourth, sterile neutrino flavor that does not interact through any of the known Standard Model interactions. Oscillations into a theoretical sterile flavor may be observed by a deficit in neutral current interactions in the MINOS detectors. A distortion in the charged current energy spectrum might also be visible if oscillations into the sterile flavor are driven by a large mass-squared difference, Δm s 2 ~ 1 eV 2 . The results of the 2013 sterile neutrino search are presented here.

  15. Sterile Neutrino Search with MINOS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devan, Alena V. [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States)

    2015-08-01

    MINOS, Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search, is a long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment in the NuMI muon neutrino beam at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory in Batavia, IL. It consists of two detectors, a near detector positioned 1 km from the source of the beam and a far detector 734 km away in Minnesota. MINOS is primarily designed to observe muon neutrino disappearance resulting from three flavor oscillations. The Standard Model of Particle Physics predicts that neutrinos oscillate between three active flavors as they propagate through space. This means that a muon-type neutrino has a certain probability to later interact as a different type of neutrino. In the standard picture, the neutrino oscillation probabilities depend only on three neutrino flavors and two mass splittings, Δm2. An anomaly was observed by the LSND and MiniBooNE experiments that suggests the existence of a fourth, sterile neutrino flavor that does not interact through any of the known Standard Model interactions. Oscillations into a theoretical sterile flavor may be observed by a deficit in neutral current interactions in the MINOS detectors. A distortion in the charged current energy spectrum might also be visible if oscillations into the sterile flavor are driven by a large mass-squared difference, ms2 ~ 1 eV2. The results of the 2013 sterile neutrino search are presented here.

  16. Influence of hadronic interaction models and the cosmic ray spectrum on the high energy atmospheric muon and neutrino flux

    OpenAIRE

    Fedynitch, Anatoli; Tjus, Julia Becker; Desiati, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    The recent observations of muon charge ratio up to about 10 TeV and of atmospheric neutrinos up to energies of about 400 TeV has triggered a renewed interest into the high-energy interaction models and cosmic ray primary composition. A reviewed calculation of lepton spectra produced in cosmic ray induced extensive air showers is carried out with a primary cosmic ray spectrum that fits the latest direct measurements below the knee. In order to achieve this, we used a full Monte Carlo method to...

  17. Neutrino mass?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kayser, B.

    1992-01-01

    After arguing that we should be looking for evidence of neutrino mass, we illustrate the possible consequences of neutrino mass and mixing. We then turn to the question of whether neutrinos are their own antiparticles, and to the process which may answer this question: neutrinoless double beta decay. Next, we review the proposed Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein solution to the solar neutrino problem, and discuss models which can generate neutrino electromagnetic moments large enough to play a role in the sun. Finally, we consider how the possible 17 keV neutrino, if real, would fit in with everything we know about neutrinos. (orig.)

  18. Hands-on-Universe, Europe Bringing frontline interactive astronomy to the classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferlet, R.

    Hands-on-Universe, Europe (EU-HOU) aims at re-awakening the interest for science in the young generations through astronomy and new technologies. It relies on real observations acquired through a worldwide internet-based network of automatic telescopes or with didactical tools (webcam, radiotelescope). Pupils manipulate images in the classroom environment, using specific software within pedagogical resources constructed in close collaboration between researchers and teachers. EU-HOU is freely available on the web, and trains european teachers.

  19. Supernova Neutrino-Process and Implication in Neutrino Oscillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajino, T.; Aoki, W.; Fujiya, W.; Mathews, G. J.; Yoshida, T.; Shaku, K.; Nakamura, K.; Hayakawa, T.

    2012-08-01

    We studied the supernova nucleosynthesis induced by neutrino interactions and found that several isotopes of rare elements like 7Li, 11B, 138La, 180Ta and many others are predominantly produced by the neutrino-process in core-collapse supernovae. These isotopes are strongly affected by the neutrino flavor oscillation due to the MSW (Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein) effect. We here propose a new novel method to determine the unknown neutrino oscillation parameters, θ13 and mass hierarchy simultaneously from the supernova neutrino-process, combined with the r-process for heavy-element synthsis and the Galactic chemical evolution on light nuclei.

  20. Self-interacting dark matter and Higgs bosons in the SU(3)C x SU(3)L x U(1)N model with right-handed neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoang Ngoc Long; Nguyen Quynh Lan

    2003-05-01

    We show that the SU(3) C x SU(3) L x U(1) N (3-3-1) model with right-handed neutrinos can provide candidates for self-interacting dark matter, namely they are the CP-even and odd Higgs bosons. These dark matters are stable without imposing of new symmetry and should be weak-interacting. (author)

  1. A Measurement of the muon neutrino charged current quasielastic interaction and a test of Lorentz violation with the MiniBooNE experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katori, Teppei [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States)

    2008-12-01

    The Mini-Booster neutrino experiment (MiniBooNE) at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) is designed to search for vμ → ve appearance neutrino oscillations. Muon neutrino charged-current quasi-elastic (CCQE) interactions (vμ + n → μ + p) make up roughly 40% of our data sample, and it is used to constrain the background and cross sections for the oscillation analysis. Using high-statistics MiniBooNE CCQE data, the muon-neutrino CCQE cross section is measured. The nuclear model is tuned precisely using the MiniBooNE data. The measured total cross section is σ = (1.058 ± 0.003 (stat) ± 0.111 (syst)) x 10-38 cm2 at the MiniBooNE muon neutrino beam energy (700-800 MeV). ve appearance candidate data is also used to search for Lorentz violation. Lorentz symmetry is one of the most fundamental symmetries in modern physics. Neutrino oscillations offer a new method to test it. We found that the MiniBooNE result is not well-described using Lorentz violation, however further investigation is required for a more conclusive result.

  2. Neutrino 2012: Outlook – theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smirnov, A.Yu. [International Center for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy)

    2013-02-15

    Ongoing developments in theory and phenomenology are related to the measured large value of 1–3 mixing and indications of significant deviation of the 2–3 mixing from maximal one. “Race” for the mass hierarchy has started and there is good chance that multi-megaton scale atmospheric neutrino detectors with low threshold (e.g. PINGU) will establish the type of hierarchy. Two IceCube candidates of the PeV cosmic neutrinos if confirmed, is the beginning of new era of high energy neutrino astronomy. Accumulation of data on solar neutrinos (energy spectrum, D-N asymmetry, value of Δm{sub 21}{sup 2}) may uncover some new physics. The Tri-bimaximal mixing is disfavored and the existing discrete symmetry paradigm may change. The confirmed QLC prediction, θ{sub 13}≈θ{sub C}/√(2), testifies for GUT, seesaw and some symmetry at very high scales. However, the same value of 1–3 mixing can be obtained in various ways which have different implications. The situation in lepton sector changes from special (with specific neutrino symmetries, etc.) to normal, closer to that in the quark sector. Sterile neutrinos are challenge for neutrino physics but also opportunity with many interesting phenomenological consequences. Further studies of possible connections between neutrinos and the dark sector of the Universe may lead to breakthrough both in particle physics and cosmology.

  3. A National Study Assessing the Teaching and Learning of Introductory Astronomy; Part I: The Effect of Interactive Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prather, E. E.; Rudolph, A. L.; Brissenden, G.; Schlingman, W. M.

    2011-09-01

    We present the results of a national study on the teaching and learning of astronomy taught in general education, non-science major, introductory astronomy courses (Astro 101). Nearly 4000 students enrolled in 69 sections of Astro 101 taught at 31 institutions completed (pre- and post- instruction) the Light and Spectroscopy Concept Inventory (LSCI) from Fall 2006 to Fall 2007. The classes varied in size from very small (N 4-year colleges and universities. To study how the instruction in different classrooms affected student learning, we developed and administered an Interactivity Assessment Instrument (IAI). This short survey, completed by instructors, allowed us to estimate the fraction of classroom time spent on learner- centered, active-engagement instruction such as Peer Instruction and collaborative tutorials. Pre-instruction LSCI scores were clustered around ˜25% (24 ± 2%), independent of class size and institution type; however, the gains measured varied from about (-)0.07-0.50. The distribution of gain scores indicates that differences were due to instruction in the classroom, not the type of class or institution. Interactivity Assessment Scores (IAS's) ranged from 0%-50%, showing that our IAI was able to distinguish between classes with higher and lower levels of interactivity. A comparison of class-averaged gain score to IAS showed that higher interactivity classes (IAS > 25%) were the only instructional environments capable of reaching the highest gains ( > 0.30). However, the range of gains seen for both groups of classes was quite wide, suggesting that the use of interactive learning strategies is not sufficient by itself to achieve high student gain.

  4. Neutrino physics and accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaftanov, V.

    1978-01-01

    The history is described of experiments aimed at the study of direct neutrino-matter interactions conducted in the past twenty years. Experiments are outlined carried out with the objective of proving the existence of the intermediate W meson which had been predicted by the weak interaction theory. The methods of obtaining neutrino beams using accelerators and the detectors used are briefly shown. Also described are experiments to be conducted in the near future in different laboratories. (Z.J.)

  5. An Experiment in BEBC to Compare Neutral and Charged Current Neutrino Interactions Induced by $\

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The CERN narrow-band neutrino beam provides a unique possibility to study whether there is a difference between neutrinos resulting from @p-decays and those from K-decays. Since any difference might most strongly appear in strange particle production, BEBC is particularly suited for this study thanks to the efficient strange particle detection it provides.\\\\ \\\\ The experiment consists of two exposures of about 100 K pictures each in BEBC filled with 75\\% Ne-H^2 mixture without TST. The parent energies are most conveniently chosen to be respectively 275 GeV and 75 GeV yielding E(@nK) = E(@n@p) @= 65 GeV as the common energy. This would make the higher energy run parasitic on NB operation of the approved WA1 counter experiment. The lower, approximately coincides with an energy proposed for the Gargamelle experiment WA23.

  6. Quasi-elastic production of charmed baryons in neutrino-nUcleon interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhizhin, E.D.; Nikitin, Yu.P.; Fanchenko, M.S.

    1983-01-01

    Quasielastic production of charmed baryons Λsub(c)sup(+), Σsub(c)sup(+), and Σsub(c)sup(++) in neutrino reactions on nucleons is studied. Differential and total cross sections are calculated for two sets of the parameters Msub(V), Msub(A) which determine the form factors of weak transitions of nucleons into charmed baryons. The chosen parameter values allow to obtain the cross sections which overlap the entire uncertainty range of theoretical predictions. The authors pay attention to an important kinematical effect that for monochromatic neutrino beams the values of the charmed baryon emission angles are limited (THETA < THETAsub(max)) and the differential cross section dσ/dΩ strongly increases in the vicinity of the angles THETA=THETAsub(max). Possibilities in experimental studying of the above processes and in extracting unique information on the structure of charmed baryons from experimental data are

  7. Alternative Muon Cooling Options based on Particle-Matter-Interaction for a Neutrino Factory

    CERN Document Server

    Stratakis, D; Alekou, A; Pasternak, J

    2013-01-01

    An ionization cooling channel is a tightly spaced lattice containing absorbers for reducing the momentum of the muon beam, rf cavities for restoring the momentum and strong solenoids for focusing the beam. Such a lattice is an essential feature of most designs for Neutrino Factories and Muon Colliders. Here, we explore three different approaches for designing ionization cooling channels based on periodic solenoidal focusing. Key parameters such as the engineering constraints arising from the length and separation between the solenoidal coils are systematically examined. In addition, we propose novel approaches for reducing the peak magnetic field inside the rf cavities, for example, by using bucked coils for focusing. Our lattice designs are numerically examined against two independent codes: The ICOOL and G4BL code. The performance of our proposed cooling channels is examined by implementing those to the front-end of a Neutrino Factory.

  8. New scotogenic model of neutrino mass with U(1){sub D} gauge interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Ernest [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Picek, Ivica; Radovčić, Branimir [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, P.O.B. 331, HR-10002 Zagreb (Croatia)

    2013-11-04

    We propose a new realization of the one-loop radiative model of neutrino mass generated by dark matter (scotogenic), where the particles in the loop have an additional U(1){sub D} gauge symmetry, which may be exact or broken to Z{sub 2}. This model is relevant to a number of astrophysical observations, including AMS-02 and the dark-matter distribution in dwarf galactic halos.

  9. Search for active-sterile neutrino mixing using neutral-current interactions in NOvA

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Adamson, P.; Aliaga, L.; Ambrose, D.; Lokajíček, Miloš; Zálešák, Jaroslav

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 96, č. 7 (2017), s. 1-9, č. článku 072006. ISSN 2470-0010 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2015068; GA MŠk(CZ) LG15047 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : NOvA * Fermilab * mass difference * near detector * far detector * mixing angle * neutrino * oscillation * experimental results Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics OBOR OECD: Particles and field physics Impact factor: 4.568, year: 2016

  10. Breakdown of partial conservation of axial current in diffractive neutrino interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopeliovich, B. Z.; Potashnikova, I. K.; Schmidt, Ivan; Siddikov, M.

    2011-01-01

    We test the hypothesis of partially conserved axial current in high-energy diffractive neutrino production of pions. Since the pion pole contribution to the Adler relation (AR) is forbidden by conservation of the lepton current, the heavier states, like the a 1 pole, ρ-π cut, etc., control the lifetime of the hadronic fluctuations of the neutrino. We evaluate the deviation from the AR in diffractive neutrino production of pions on proton and nuclear targets. At high energies, when all the relevant time scales considerably exceed the size of the target, the AR explicitly breaks down on an absorptive target, such as a heavy nucleus. In this regime, close to the black disk limit, the off-diagonal diffractive amplitudes vanish, while the diagonal one, π→π, which enters the AR, maximizes and saturates the unitarity bound. At lower energies, in the regime of short lifetime of heavy hadronic fluctuations the AR is restored, i.e., it is not altered by the nuclear effects.

  11. Neutrino physics

    CERN Document Server

    Hernandez, P.

    2016-01-01

    This is the writeup of the lectures on neutrino physics delivered at various schools: TASI and Trieste in 2013 and the CERN-Latin American School in 2015. The topics discussed in this lecture include: general properties of neutrinos in the SM, the theory of neutrino masses and mixings (Dirac and Majorana), neutrino oscillations both in vacuum and in matter, as well as an overview of the experimental evidence for neutrino masses and of the prospects in neutrino oscillation physics. We also briefly review the relevance of neutri- nos in leptogenesis and in beyond-the-Standard-Model physics.

  12. Neutrino astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roulet, E.

    2001-01-01

    A general overview of neutrino physics and astrophysics is given, starting with a historical account of the development of our understanding of neutrinos and how they helped to unravel the structure of the Standard Model. We discuss why it is so important to establish if neutrinos are massive and introduce the main scenarios to provide them a mass. The present bounds and the positive indications in favor of non-zero neutrino masses are discussed, including the recent results on atmospheric and solar neutrinos. The major role that neutrinos play in astrophysics and cosmology is illustrated. (author)

  13. Neutrino magnetic moments and the solar neutrino problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhmedov, E.Kh. [Washington Univ., Seattle, WA (United States). Inst. for Nuclear Theory]|[Valencia Univ. (Spain). Dept. de Fisica Teorica

    1994-08-01

    Present status of the neutrino magnetic moment solutions of the solar neutrino problem is reviewed. In particular, we discuss a possibility of reconciling different degrees of suppression and time variation of the signal (or lack of such a variation) observed in different solar neutrino experiments. It is shown that the resonant spin-flavor precession of neutrinos due to the interaction of their transitions magnetic moments with solar magnetic field can account for all the available solar neutrino data. For not too small neutrino mixing angles (sin 2{theta}{sub o} {approx_gt} 0.2 the combined effect of the resonant spin-flavor precession and neutrino oscillations can result in an observable flux of solar {bar {nu}}{sub e}`s.

  14. Neutrino magnetic moments and the solar neutrino problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhmedov, E.Kh.; Valencia Univ.

    1994-01-01

    Present status of the neutrino magnetic moment solutions of the solar neutrino problem is reviewed. In particular, we discuss a possibility of reconciling different degrees of suppression and time variation of the signal (or lack of such a variation) observed in different solar neutrino experiments. It is shown that the resonant spin-flavor precession of neutrinos due to the interaction of their transitions magnetic moments with solar magnetic field can account for all the available solar neutrino data. For not too small neutrino mixing angles (sin 2θ o approx-gt 0.2 the combined effect of the resonant spin-flavor precession and neutrino oscillations can result in an observable flux of solar bar ν e 's

  15. Signatures of the neutrino mass hierarchy in supernova neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, S.H.; Huang, Chu-Ching; Lai, Kwang-Chang

    2015-01-01

    The undetermined neutrino mass hierarchy may leave an observable imprint on the neutrino fluxes from a core-collapse supernova (SN). The interpretation of the observables, however, is subject to the uncertain SN models and the flavor conversion mechanism of neutrinos in a SN. We attempt to propose a qualitative interpretation of the expected neutrino events at terrestrial detectors, focusing on the accretion phase of the neutrino burst. The flavor conversions due to neutrino self-interaction, the MSW effect, and the Earth regeneration effect are incorporated in the calculation. It leads to several distinct scenarios that are identified by the neutrino mass hierarchies and the collective flavor transitions. Consequences resulting from the variation of incident angles and SN models are also discussed

  16. Final-state interactions and superscaling in the semi-relativistic approach to quasielastic electron and neutrino scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaro, J. E.; Barbaro, M. B.; Caballero, J. A.; Donnelly, T. W.; Udias, J. M.

    2007-01-01

    The semi-relativistic approach to electron and neutrino quasielastic scattering from nuclei is extended to include final-state interactions. Starting with the usual nonrelativistic continuum shell model, the problem is relativized by using the semi-relativistic expansion of the current in powers of the initial nucleon momentum and relativistic kinematics. Two different approaches are considered for the final-state interactions: the Smith-Wambach 2p-2h damping model and the Dirac-equation-based potential extracted from a relativistic mean-field plus the Darwin factor. Using the latter, the scaling properties of (e,e ' ) and (ν μ ,μ - ) cross sections for intermediate momentum transfers are investigated

  17. Multiplicity distributions of charged hadrons produced in (anti)neutrino-deuterium charged- and neutral-current interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jongejans, B.; Tenner, A.G.; Apeldoorn, G.W. van

    1989-01-01

    Results are presented on the multiplicity distributions of charged hadrons produced in νn, νp, antiνn and antiνp charged-current interactions for the hadronic energy range 2GeV ≤ W ≤ 14GeV (corresponding approximately to the neutrino energy range 5GeV ≤ E ≤ 150GeV). The experimental distributions are analysed in terms of binomial distributions. With increasing hadronic energy it is found a smooth transition from an ordinary binomial via Poissonian to the negative binomial function. KNO scaling holds approximately for the multiplicity distribution for the whole phase space. Data on the multiplicity distributions for neutral-current interactions are also presented

  18. A study of single-meson production in neutrino and antineutrino charged-current interactions on protons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, P.; Grässler, H.; Schulte, R.; Jones, G. T.; Kennedy, B. W.; O'Neale, S. W.; Gebel, W.; Hofmann, E.; Klein, H.; Mittendorfer, J.; Morrison, D. R. O.; Schmid, P.; Wachsmuth, H.; Barnham, K. W. J.; Clayton, E. F.; Hamisi, F.; Miller, D. B.; Mobayyen, M. M.; Aderholz, M.; Deck, L.; Schmitz, N.; Wittek, W.; Corrigan, G.; Myatt, G.; Radojicic, D.; Saitta, B.; Shotton, P. N.; Towers, S. J.; Aachen-Birmingham-Bonn-CERN-London IC-Munich (MPI)-Oxford Collaboration

    1986-01-01

    We present results on exclusive single-charged pion and kaon production in neutrino and antineutrino interactions on protons in the energy range from 5 to 120 GeV. The data were obtained from exposures of BEBC to wide band beams at the CERN SPS. For invariant masses of the (pπ) system below 2 GeV, the pions originate predominantly from decays of baryon resonances excited by the weak charged current. Similarly, we observe the production of Λ(1520) decaying into p and K -. For invariant masses above 2 GeV pion production becomes peripheral by interaction of the weak current with a virtual π0. We establish a contribution of longitudinally polarised intermediate vector bosons to this process.

  19. A study of single-meson production in neutrino and antineutrino charged-current interactions on protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, P.; Graessler, H.; Schulte, R.; Gebel, W.; Hofmann, E.; Barnham, K.W.J.; Clayton, E.F.; Hamisi, F.; Miller, D.B.; Mobayyen, M.M.; Aderholz, M.; Deck, L.; Schmitz, N.; Wittek, W.; Corrigan, G.; Myatt, G.; Radojicic, D.; Saitta, B.; Shotton, P.N.; Towers, S.J.

    1986-01-01

    We present results on exclusive single-charged pion and kaon production in neutrino and antineutrino interactions on protons in the energy range from 5 to 120 GeV. The data were obtained from exposures of BEBC to wide band beams at the CERN SPS. For invariant masses of the (pπ) system below 2 GeV, the pions originate predominantly from decays of baryon resonances excited by the weak charged current. Similarly, we observe the production of Λ(1520) decaying into p and K - . For invariant masses above 2 GeV pion production becomes peripheral by interaction of the weak current with a virtual π 0 . We establish a contribution of longitudinally polarised intermediate vector bosons to this process. (orig.)

  20. Neutron star formation and the weak interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burrows, A.

    1986-01-01

    The only known direct diagnostic of the central event is its neutrino emission. The imprint of the entire internal evolution is stamped on the spectrum, mix of flavors, luminosities, and features of the accompanying neutrino burst. Detection and scrutiny of this neutrino signal will test theories concerning stellar collapse, type II supernovae, and the formation of neutron stars in ways impossible by other means. Despite the fact that an incredible 3x10 53 ergs may be emitted in neutrinos after the initiation of collapse, the very weakness of the neutrino/matter interaction that allows them to penetrate the stellar envelope and escape makes their detection at the Earth very difficult. Though neutrino astronomy is not yet a mature discipline, the physical theories of collapse have progressed to a sufficient degree that specific and detailed predictions can be made about the neutrino emissions that with future detector technology might be tested. The time seems propitious to summarize and review what is known and suspected about the neutrino signature of collapse, the potential for its detection, and how it can be used to test our ideas about the death of massive stars and the birth of neutrino stars. (orig./BBOE)

  1. Progress toward a Km-scale neutrino detector in the deep ocean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stokstad, R.G.

    1997-11-01

    The best particles for observing distant objects are photons and neutrinos. Because of the neutrino`s weak interaction cross section, detectors suitable for astronomy must be very large and well shielded from cosmic rays. Eventually, a detector with the order of a square km of effective area will be needed for systematic observations of distant point sources such as active galactic nuclei. Prototype detectors are currently being developed at several sites in the ocean, at Lake Baikal, and in Antarctica. This talk summarizes the status of the projects that use the deep ocean for the detector medium and shielding: DUMAND, NESTOR and ANTARES. Technical developments will be needed for a future km-scale detector; progress on one of these, a digital electronic system, is also described.

  2. Development of an automatic scanning system for nuclear emulsion analysis in the OPERA experiment and study of neutrino interactions location

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arrabito, L.

    2007-10-01

    Following Super Kamiokande and K2K experiments, Opera (Oscillation Project with Emulsion tracking Apparatus), aims to confirm neutrino oscillation in the atmospheric sector. Taking advantage of a technique already employed in Chorus and in Donut, the Emulsion Cloud Chamber (ECC), Opera will be able to observe the ν μ → ν τ oscillation, through the ν τ appearance in a pure ν μ beam. The Opera experiment, with its ∼ 100000 m 2 of nuclear emulsions, needs a very fast automatic scanning system. Optical and mechanics components have been customized in order to achieve a speed of about 20 cm 2 /hour per emulsion layer (44 μm thick), while keeping a sub-micro-metric resolution. The first part of this thesis was dedicated to the optimization of 4 scanning systems at the French scanning station, based in Lyon. An experimental study on a dry objective scanning system has also been realized. The obtained results show that the performances of dry scanning are similar with respect to the traditional oil scanning, so that it can be successfully used for Opera. The second part of this work was devoted to the study of the neutrino interaction location and reconstruction strategy actually used in Opera. A dedicated test beam was performed at CERN in order to simulate Opera conditions. The obtained results definitely confirm that the proposed strategy is well adapted for tau search. (author)

  3. Results from neutrino experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, A.Yu.

    1993-11-01

    Recent (first or/and the best) results from the neutrino experiments are reviewed and their implications for the theory are discussed. The sense of the experiments is the searching for neutrino masses, mixing and interactions beyond the standard model. Present laboratory experiments give upper bounds on the masses and the mixing which are at the level of predictions of the ''electroweak see-saw''. Positive indications of nonzero lepton mixing follow from studies of the solar and atmospheric neutrinos. (author). 95 refs, 11 figs

  4. Neutrino Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Barenboim, G.

    2014-12-10

    The Standard Model has been incredibly successful in predicting the outcome of almost all the experiments done up so far. In it, neutrinos are mass-less. However, in recent years we have accumulated evidence pointing to tiny masses for the neutrinos (as compared to the charged leptons). These masses allow neutrinos to change their flavour and oscillate. In these lectures I review the properties of neutrinos in and beyond the Standard Model.

  5. Neutrino--proton interactions in the 15-foot bubble chamber and properties of hadron jets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vander Velde, J.C.

    1975-01-01

    An analysis is made on about 600 charged-current neutrino events from the Fermilab 15-foot hydrogen bubble chamber. Properties of the inclusive reaction νp → μ - + h +- + anything, where h +- represents a charged hadron, are studied. Longitudinal and transverse properties of hadron jets are described. An analysis is made to see whether the hadrons carry with them the charges of their parent elementary quarks. Distributions are presented for the number of tracks, average charge, and average P/sub T/ vs. rapidity in the lab, c.m., ''hole,'' and ''quark'' reference frames

  6. Neutrino oscillation study in the muon neutrino → electron neutrino channel at the Brookhaven accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astier, P.

    1987-09-01

    The E816 experiment described in this thesis is devoted to a neutrino oscillation search at the Brookhaven AGS. The method used here is to look with a fine grained calorimeter for the appearence of electron neutrino in a muon neutrino beam. After recalling the theoretical treatment of the neutrino mass problem, the experimental phenomenology of massive neutrinos and more specifically neutrino oscillations is reviewed. The experiment itself is then extensively described, both on the technical side (detector, beam, simulation) and on the analysis side. In particular the statistical separation of the electromagnetic showers from electrons - our signal - and from photons - our background - treated in detail. The present analysis is based on 2/3 of the final statistics and it leads to the - preliminary - observation of an electron excess in the neutrino interactions yielding 19 ± 15.6 (stat) ± 7 (syst) [fr

  7. Los Neutrinos Los Neutrinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián Félix

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available From all the proposals to understand the structure of matter, and the way the natural world is conformed, the one about neutrinos is the most enigmatic, abstract, and foreign to immediate experience; however, this is the one that has delved more deeply over the nearly eighty years since it was formulated by Wolfgang Pauli –in 1930- as a radical proposition to understand nucleon decay, and the decay of other particles, without the violation of the principle of conservation of energy and momentum at subatomic level. This proposition has evolved through the years, and from Pauli’s original idea only the basic elements remain.This article contains the tale of the hypothesis of neutrinos, its early history, its evolution up to present day, and the efforts done nowadays to study them. In summary, this is the physics of neutrinos. De todas las propuestas para entender la estructura de la materia, y la conformación del mundo natural, los neutrinos es la más enigmática, abstracta, y ajena a la experiencia inmediata; sin embargo, es la que más hondo ha ido calando a lo largo de los ya casi ochenta años de haber sido formulada por Wolfgang Pauli –en el año 1930- como una medida radical para entender el decaimiento de los nucleones, y otras partículas, sin que se violara el principio de la conservación de la energía y del momento a nivel subatómico. La propuesta ha evolucionado a lo largo de los años, y de la idea original de Pauli ya sólo lo básico permanece. En este artículo está el relato de la hipótesis de los neutrinos, su historia primera, su evolución hasta el presente, los esfuerzos que en la actualidad se realizan para estudiarlos. En breve, ésta es la física de los neutrinos.

  8. A measurement of the muon neutrino charged current quasielastic-like cross section on a hydrocarbon target and final state interaction effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walton, Tammy [Hampton Univ., Hampton, VA (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Presented is the analysis of the μ charged-current quasielastic-like interaction with a polystyrene (CH or hydrocarbon) target in the MINER A experiment, which was exposed to a neutrino beam that peaked at 3.5 GeV.

  9. Large Scale Monte Carlo Simulation of Neutrino Interactions Using the Open Science Grid and Commercial Clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norman, A.; Boyd, J.; Davies, G.; Flumerfelt, E.; Herner, K.; Mayer, N.; Mhashilhar, P.; Tamsett, M.; Timm, S.

    2015-01-01

    Modern long baseline neutrino experiments like the NOvA experiment at Fermilab, require large scale, compute intensive simulations of their neutrino beam fluxes and backgrounds induced by cosmic rays. The amount of simulation required to keep the systematic uncertainties in the simulation from dominating the final physics results is often 10x to 100x that of the actual detector exposure. For the first physics results from NOvA this has meant the simulation of more than 2 billion cosmic ray events in the far detector and more than 200 million NuMI beam spill simulations. Performing these high statistics levels of simulation have been made possible for NOvA through the use of the Open Science Grid and through large scale runs on commercial clouds like Amazon EC2. We details the challenges in performing large scale simulation in these environments and how the computing infrastructure for the NOvA experiment has been adapted to seamlessly support the running of different simulation and data processing tasks on these resources. (paper)

  10. Effective Majorana neutrino decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duarte, Lucia [Instituto de Fisica, Facultad de Ingenieria,Universidad de la Republica, Montevideo (Uruguay); Romero, Ismael; Peressutti, Javier; Sampayo, Oscar A. [Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, Departamento de Fisica, Instituto de Investigaciones Fisicas de Mar del Plata (IFIMAR) CONICET, UNMDP, Mar del Plata (Argentina)

    2016-08-15

    We study the decay of heavy sterile Majorana neutrinos according to the interactions obtained from an effective general theory. We describe the two- and three-body decays for a wide range of neutrino masses. The results obtained and presented in this work could be useful for the study of the production and detection of these particles in a variety of high energy physics experiments and astrophysical observations. We show in different figures the dominant branching ratios and the total decay width. (orig.)

  11. New phenomena in neutrino physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopp, Joachim

    2009-04-15

    In this thesis, we discuss two new concepts in neutrino physics: The neutrino Moessbauer effect and non-standard neutrino interactions. We show that neutrinos emitted and absorbed in recoil-free processes (Moessbauer neutrinos) can oscillate in spite of their near monochromaticity. We support this statement by quantum mechanical wave packet arguments and by a quantum field theoretical (QFT) calculation of the combined rate of Moessbauer neutrino emission, propagation and absorption. The QFT approach does not require any a priori assumptions on the neutrino wave function, and it allows us to include a realistic treatment of the different mechanisms leading to broadening of the emission and absorption lines. In the second part of this work, we study the phenomenology of non-standard neutrino interactions (NSI). We classifying the allowed NSI operators according to their impact on future oscillation experiments and present numerical results for the NSI sensitivities of reactor, superbeam and neutrino factory experiments. We point out that NSI could mimic standard oscillation effects, and might therefore lead to incorrect fit values for the oscillation parameters. For the case of the neutrino factory, we perform a detailed optimisation study to determine the optimum muon energy and detector configuration. (orig.)

  12. New phenomena in neutrino physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopp, Joachim

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis, we discuss two new concepts in neutrino physics: The neutrino Moessbauer effect and non-standard neutrino interactions. We show that neutrinos emitted and absorbed in recoil-free processes (Moessbauer neutrinos) can oscillate in spite of their near monochromaticity. We support this statement by quantum mechanical wave packet arguments and by a quantum field theoretical (QFT) calculation of the combined rate of Moessbauer neutrino emission, propagation and absorption. The QFT approach does not require any a priori assumptions on the neutrino wave function, and it allows us to include a realistic treatment of the different mechanisms leading to broadening of the emission and absorption lines. In the second part of this work, we study the phenomenology of non-standard neutrino interactions (NSI). We classifying the allowed NSI operators according to their impact on future oscillation experiments and present numerical results for the NSI sensitivities of reactor, superbeam and neutrino factory experiments. We point out that NSI could mimic standard oscillation effects, and might therefore lead to incorrect fit values for the oscillation parameters. For the case of the neutrino factory, we perform a detailed optimisation study to determine the optimum muon energy and detector configuration. (orig.)

  13. Solar neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, R.J.N.

    1987-09-01

    The problem with solar neutrinos is that there seem to be too few of them, at least near the top end of the spectrum, since the 37 Cl detector finds only about 35% of the standard predicted flux. Various kinds of explanation have been offered: (a) the standard solar model is wrong, (b) neutrinos decay, (c) neutrinos have magnetic moments, (d) neutrinos oscillate. The paper surveys developments in each of these areas, especially the possible enhancement of neutrino oscillations by matter effects and adiabatic level crossing. The prospects for further independent experiments are also discussed. (author)

  14. Sterile neutrino

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2007-01-01

    Paper deals with the information on the occurrence of the fields of the sterile neutrinos (the righthanded ones) mixed with the normal neutrinos (the lefthanded ones). Both the Max Plank Radioastronomy Institute and the Los Angeles University assumes that the occurrence of the keV mass sterile neutrinos may explain the dark matter nature, the fast rotation of the observed pulsars and the reionization processes. The issues associated with the possibility to record the sterile neutrinos were analyzed in the course of the Sterile Neutrinos in Astrophysics and Cosmology Workshop (Crans Montana, March 2006 [ru

  15. Teaching Astronomy with Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Carmen; Impey, Chris David; Wenger, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Students today are expected to have access to computers and the Internet. Students young and old, in school and out of school, are interested in learning about astronomy, and have computers to use for this. Teach Astronomy is a website with a comprehensive digital astronomy textbook freely available to students and educators. In addition to the textbook, there are astronomy Wikipedia articles, image archives from Astronomy Picture of the Day and AstroPix, and video lectures covering all topics of astronomy. Teach Astronomy has a unique search tool called the wikimap that can be used to search through all of the resources on the site. Astronomy: State of the Art (ASOTA) is a massive, open, online course (MOOC). Over 18,000 students have enrolled over the past year and half. This MOOC has been presented in various forms. First, only to students on the web, with content released weekly on host site Udemy. Then to university students who met formally in the classroom for educational activities, but were also expected to watch lectures online on their own time. Presently, it is available online for students to go at their own pace. In the future it will be available in an extended format on a new host site, Coursera. ASOTA instructors use social media to interact with students. Students ask questions via the course host site, Udemy. Live question and answer sessions are conducted using Google Hangouts on Air, and interesting and relevant astronomy news, or supplementary educational content is shared via the ASOTA Facebook page. Teaching on the Internet may seem impersonal and impractical, but by learning to use all of these tools, instructors have the ability to interact with students, and keep them engaged.

  16. Neutrinos at CERN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    CERN's long and distinguished neutrino tradition began in 1958 at the then new 500 MeV synchrocyclotron (SC) with the first observation of the decay of a charged pion into an electron and a neutrino. At that time, the first ideas on the special (vector/axial vector) structure of the weak interactions had been put forward by Feynman and Gell-Mann and by Marshak and Sudarshan, but the continual non-observation of that charged pion decay was holding up progress. This decay is only one part in ten thousand, and is masked by the dominant muon-neutrino channel. A special telescope was built to pick up the high energy electrons from the pion decay. In 1962 came another SC neutrino success, with the first measurement of the decay of a charged pion into a neutral one, with emission of an electron and a neutrino. Meanwhile the main thrust of CERN's neutrino effort was taking shape at the PS. By the close of 1960, CERN had decided to attack neutrino physics using several detectors - a 1m heavy liquid bubble chamber from Andre Lagarrigue's team in Paris, a CERN 1 m heavy liquid bubble chamber, and a hybrid chamber/counter from a group led by Helmut Faissner

  17. Low Energy Neutrino Cross Sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeller, G.P.

    2004-01-01

    Present atmospheric and accelerator based neutrino oscillation experiments operate at low neutrino energies (Ev ∼ 1 GeV) to access the relevant regions of oscillation parameter space. As such, they require precise knowledge of the cross sections for neutrino-nucleon interactions in the sub-to-few GeV range. At these energies, neutrinos predominantly interact via quasi-elastic (QE) or single pion production processes, which historically have not been as well studied as the deep inelastic scattering reactions that dominate at higher energies.Data on low energy neutrino cross sections come mainly from bubble chamber, spark chamber, and emulsion experiments that collected their data decades ago. Despite relatively poor statistics and large neutrino flux uncertainties, these measurements provide an important and necessary constraint on Monte Carlo models in present use. The following sections discuss the current status of QE, resonant single pion, coherent pion, and single kaon production cross section measurements at low energy

  18. Measurement of the ratios of neutral-current to charged current cross sections of neutrino and antineutrino interactions in Ne

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosetti, P. C.; Fritze, P.; Grässler, H.; Hasert, F. J.; Schulte, R.; Schultze, K.; Geich-Gimbel, C.; Nellen, B.; Pech, R.; Wünsch, B.; Grant, A.; Hulth, P. O.; Klein, H.; Morrison, D. R. O.; Pape, L.; Wachsmuth, H.; Vayaki, A.; Barnham, K. W. J.; Beuselinck, R.; Clayton, E. F.; Miller, D. B.; Mobayyen, M. M.; Petrides, A.; Albajar, C.; Myatt, G.; Saitta, B.; Wells, J.; Bolognese, T.; Vignaud, D.; Aachen-Bonn-CERN-Democritos-Imperial College, London-Oxford-Saclay Collaboration

    1983-05-01

    The ratios of neutral current to charged current cross sections of neutrino and antineutrino interactions in heavy Ne/H 2 mixture have been measured in BEBC. The beam was the CERN SPS 200 GeV/ c narrow band beam. The ratios were obtained using a cut in the transverse momentum of the hadronic system. In the standard Glashow-Salam-Weinberg model, our results correspond to the value of sin 2θw = 0.182 ± 0.020 ± 0.012. By combining this experiment with data from a hydrogen target the coupling constants uL2 and L2 are found to be 0.15 ± 0.04 and 0.19 ± 0.05, respectively.

  19. Measurement of the ratios of neutral-current to charged current cross sections of neutrino and antineutrino interactions in Ne

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosetti, P.C.; Fritze, P.; Graessler, H.; Hasert, F.J.; Schulte, R.; Schultze, K.; Vayaki, A.; Barnham, K.W.J.; Beuselinck, R.; Clayton, E.F.; Miller, D.B.; Mobayyen, M.M.; Petrides, A.; Albajar, C.; Myatt, G.; Saitta, B.; Wells, J.

    1983-01-01

    The ratios of neutral current to charged current cross sections of neutrino and antineutrino interactions in heavy Ne/H 2 mixture have been measured in BEBC. The beam was the CERN SPS 200 GeV/c narrow band beam. The ratios were obtained using a cut in the transverse momentum of the hadronic system. In the standard Glashow-Salam-Weinberg model, our results correspond to the value of sin 2 THETAsub(w)=0.182+-0.020+-0.012. By combining this experiment with data from a hydrogen target the coupling constants usub(L) 2 and dsub(L) 2 are found to be 0.15+-0.04 and 0.19+-0.05, respectively. (orig.)

  20. Measurement of the neutral to charged current cross section ratios for neutrino and antineutrino interactions on protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mobayyen, M.

    1986-01-01

    The ratios R νp and R a ntiν a ntip of the neutral current to charged current cross sections for neutrino and antineutrino interactions on protons have been measured in BEBC. For a total transverse momentum of the charged hadrons above 0.45 GeV/c and a charged multiplicity of at least 3, it was found that R νp = 0.384±0.024±0.015 and R a ntiν a nti p = 0.338±0.014±0.016, corresponding to a value of sin 2 θ W (M W ) a nti M a nti S of 0.225±0.030. 20 refs

  1. Supernova neutrino detection in LZ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaitan, D.

    2018-02-01

    In the first 10 seconds of a core-collapse supernova, almost all of its progenitor's gravitational potential, O(1053 ergs), is carried away in the form of neutrinos. These neutrinos, with O(10 MeV) kinetic energy, can interact via coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering (CEνNS) depositing O(1 keV) in detectors. In this work we describe the performances of low-background dark matter detectors, such as LUX-ZEPLIN (LZ), optimized for detecting low-energy depositions, in detecting these neutrino interactions. For instance, a 27 Msolar supernova at 10 kpc is expected to produce ~350 neutrino interactions in the 7-tonne liquid xenon active volume of LZ. Based on the LS220 EoS neutrino flux model for a SN, the Noble Element Simulation Technique (NEST), and predicted CEνNS cross-sections for xenon, to study energy deposition and detection of SN neutrinos in LZ. We simulate the response of the LZ data acquisition system (DAQ) and demonstrate its capability and limitations in handling this interaction rate. We present an overview of the LZ detector, focusing on the benefits of liquid xenon for supernova neutrino detection. We discuss energy deposition and detector response simulations and their results. We present an analysis technique to reconstruct the total number of neutrinos and the time of the supernova core bounce.

  2. Solar Neutrinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Antonelli

    2013-01-01

    relevant indications on the fundamental interactions among particles. After reviewing the striking results of the last two decades, which were determinant to solve the long standing solar neutrino puzzle and refine the Standard Solar Model, we focus our attention on the more recent results in this field and on the experiments presently running or planned for the near future. The main focus at the moment is to improve the knowledge of the mass and mixing pattern and especially to study in detail the lowest energy part of the spectrum, which represents most of the solar neutrino spectrum but is still a partially unexplored realm. We discuss this research project and the way in which present and future experiments could contribute to make the theoretical framework more complete and stable, understanding the origin of some “anomalies” that seem to emerge from the data and contributing to answer some present questions, like the exact mechanism of the vacuum to matter transition and the solution of the so-called solar metallicity problem.

  3. Reconstruction of GeV Neutrino Events in LENA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moellenberg, R.; Feilitzsch, F. von; Goeger-Neff, M.; Hellgartner, D.; Lewke, T.; Meindl, Q.; Oberauer, L.; Potzel, W.; Tippmann, M.; Winter, J.; Wurm, M.; Peltoniemi, J.

    2011-01-01

    LENA (Low Energy Neutrino Astronomy) is a proposed next generation liquid-scintillator detector with about 50 kt target mass. Besides the detection of solar neutrinos, geoneutrinos, supernova neutrinos and the search for the proton decay, LENA could also be used as the far detector of a next generation neutrino beam. The present contribution outlines the status of the Monte Carlo studies towards the reconstruction of GeV neutrinos in LENA. Both the tracking capabilities at a few hundred MeV, most interesting for a beta beam, and above 1 GeV for a superbeam experiment are presented.

  4. Neutrino factories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dydak, F.

    2002-01-01

    The discovery of neutrino oscillations marks a major milestone in the history of neutrino physics, and opens a window to what lies beyond the Standard Model. Many current and forthcoming experiments will answer open questions; however, a major step forward, up to and possibly including CP violation in the neutrino mixing matrix, will be offered by the neutrino beams from a neutrino factory. The neutrino factory is a new concept for producing neutrino beams of unprecedented quality in terms of intensity, flavour composition, and precision of the beam parameters. These beams enable the exploration of otherwise inaccessible domains in neutrino oscillation physics by exploiting baselines of planetary dimensions. Suitable detectors pose formidable challenges but seem within reach with only moderate extrapolations from existing technologies. Although the main physics attraction of the neutrino factory is in the area of neutrino oscillations, an interesting spectrum of further opportunities ranging from high-precision, high-rate neutrino scattering to physics with high-intensity stopped muons comes with it

  5. Neutrino Factory

    CERN Document Server

    Bogomilov, M; Tsenov, R; Dracos, M; Bonesini, M; Palladino, V; Tortora, L; Mori, Y; Planche, T; Lagrange, J  B; Kuno, Y; Benedetto, E; Efthymiopoulos, I; Garoby, R; Gilardoini, S; Martini, M; Wildner, E; Prior, G; Blondel, A; Karadzhow, Y; Ellis, M; Kyberd, P; Bayes, R; Laing, A; Soler, F  J  P; Alekou, A; Apollonio, M; Aslaninejad, M; Bontoiu, C; Jenner, L  J; Kurup, A; Long, K; Pasternak, J; Zarrebini, A; Poslimski, J; Blackmore, V; Cobb, J; Tunnell, C; Andreopoulos, C; Bennett, J  R  J; Brooks, S; Caretta, O; Davenne, T; Densham, C; Edgecock, T  R; Fitton, M; Kelliher, D; Loveridge, P; McFarland, A; Machida, S; Prior, C; Rees, G; Rogers, C; Rooney, M; Thomason, J; Wilcox, D; Booth, C; Skoro, G; Back, J  J; Harrison, P; Berg, J  S; Fernow, R; Gallardo, J  C; Gupta, R; Kirk, H; Simos, N; Stratakis, D; Souchlas, N; Witte, H; Bross, A; Geer, S; Johnstone, C; Mokhov, N; Neuffer, D; Popovic, M; Strait, J; Striganov, S; Morfín, J  G; Wands, R; Snopok, P; Bogacz, S  A; Morozov, V; Roblin, Y; Cline, D; Ding, X; Bromberg, C; Hart, T; Abrams, R  J; Ankenbrandt, C  M; Beard, K  B; Cummings, M  A  C; Flanagan, G; Johnson, R  P; Roberts, T  J; Yoshikawa, C  Y; Graves, V  B; McDonald, K  T; Coney, L; Hanson, G

    2014-01-01

    The properties of the neutrino provide a unique window on physics beyond that described by the standard model. The study of subleading effects in neutrino oscillations, and the race to discover CP-invariance violation in the lepton sector, has begun with the recent discovery that $\\theta_{13} > 0$. The measured value of $\\theta_{13}$ is large, emphasizing the need for a facility at which the systematic uncertainties can be reduced to the percent level. The neutrino factory, in which intense neutrino beams are produced from the decay of muons, has been shown to outperform all realistic alternatives and to be capable of making measurements of the requisite precision. Its unique discovery potential arises from the fact that only at the neutrino factory is it practical to produce high-energy electron (anti)neutrino beams of the required intensity. This paper presents the conceptual design of the neutrino factory accelerator facility developed by the European Commission Framework Programme 7 EURO$\

  6. Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy. K. Duorah. Articles written in Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy. Volume 36 Issue 3 September 2015 pp 375-383. A Comparative Study on SN II Progenitors for the Synthesis of Li and B with the help of Neutrinos · N. Lahkar S. Kalita H. L. Duorah K. Duorah.

  7. Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... Home; Journals; Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy. S. Kalita. Articles written in Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy. Volume 36 Issue 3 September 2015 pp 375-383. A Comparative Study on SN II Progenitors for the Synthesis of Li and B with the help of Neutrinos · N. Lahkar S. Kalita H. L. Duorah ...

  8. Astronomy at the frontiers of science

    CERN Document Server

    2011-01-01

    Astronomy is by nature an interdisciplinary activity: it involves mathematics, physics, chemistry and biology. Astronomers use (and often develop) the latest technology, the fastest computers and the most refined software.  In this book twenty-two leading scientists from nine countries talk about how astronomy interacts with these other sciences. They describe modern instruments used in astronomy and the relations between astronomy and technology, industry, politics and philosophy. They also discuss what it means to be an astronomer, the history of astronomy, and the place of astronomy in society today.   The book contains twenty chapters grouped in four parts: ASTRONOMY AND PHYSICS discusses the place of astronomy among various branches of (mostly high-energy) physics. ASTRONOMY IN SOCIETY describes not only the historical context of astronomy, but issues facing astronomers today, including funding, planning, worldwide collaboration and links with industry. THE TOOLS OF OBSERVATION AND THE PROFESSION OF AS...

  9. Experimental test of the PCAC-hypothesis in charged current neutrino and antineutrino interactions on protons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, G. T.; Jones, R. W. L.; Kennedy, B. W.; O'Neale, S. W.; Klein, H.; Morrison, D. R. O.; Schmid, P.; Wachsmuth, H.; Miller, D. B.; Mobayyen, M. M.; Wainstein, S.; Aderholz, M.; Hoffmann, E.; Katz, U. F.; Kern, J.; Schmitz, N.; Wittek, W.; Allport, P.; Myatt, G.; Radojicic, D.; Bullock, F. W.; Burke, S.

    1987-03-01

    Data obtained with the bubble chamber BEBC at CERN are used for the first significant test of Adler's prediction for the neutrino and antineutrino-proton scattering cross sections at vanishing four-momentum transfer squared Q 2. An Extended Vector Meson Dominance Model (EVDM) is applied to extrapolate Adler's prediction to experimentally accessible values of Q 2. The data show good agreement with Adler's prediction for Q 2→0 thus confirming the PCAC hypothesis in the kinematical region of high leptonic energy transfer ν>2 GeV. The good agreement of the data with the theoretical predictions also at higher Q 2, where the EVDM terms are dominant, also supports this model. However, an EVDM calculation without PCAC is clearly ruled out by the data.

  10. Experimental test of the PCAC-hypothesis in charged current neutrino and antineutrino interactions on protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, G.T.; Jones, R.W.L.; Kennedy, B.W.; O'Neale, S.W.; Klein, H.; Morrison, D.R.O.; Schmid, P.; Wachsmuth, H.; Allport, P.; Myatt, G.; Radojicic, D.; Bullock, F.W.; Burke, S.

    1987-01-01

    Data obtained with the bubble chamber BEBC at CERN are used for the first significant test of Adler's prediction for the neutrino and antineutrino-proton scattering cross sections at vanishing four-momentum transfer squared Q 2 . An Extended Vector Meson Dominance Model (EVDM) is applied to extrapolate Adler's prediction to experimentally accessible values of Q 2 . The data show good agreement with Adler's prediction for Q 2 → 0 thus confirming the PCAC hypothesis in the kinematical region of high leptonic energy transfer ν > 2 GeV. The good agreement of the data with the theoretical predictions also at higher Q 2 , where the EVDM terms are dominant, also supports this model. However, an EVDM calculation without PCAC is clearly ruled out by the data. (orig.)

  11. THERMODYNAMIC INTERACTION OF THE PRIMARY PROTON BEAM WITH A MERCURY JET TARGET AT A NEUTRINO FACTORY SOURCE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SIMOS, N.; LUDEWIG, H.; KIRK, H.; THIEBERGER, P.; MCDONALD, K.

    2001-01-01

    This paper addresses the thermodynamic interaction of an intense proton beam with the proposed mercury jet target at a neutrino factory or muon collider source, and the consequences of the generated pressure waves on the target integrity. Specifically, a 24 GeV proton beam with approximately 1.6e13 protons per pulse and a pulse length of 2 nanosec will interact with a 1 cm diameter mercury jet within a 20 Tesla magnetic field. In one option, a train of six such proton pulses is to be delivered on target within 2 microsec, in which case the state of the mercury jet following the interaction with each pulse is critical. Using the equation of state for mercury from the SESAME library, in combination with the energy deposition rates calculated the by the hadron interaction code MARS, the induced 3-D pressure field in the target is estimated. The consequent pressure wave propagation and attenuation in the mercury jet is calculated using an ANSYS code transient analysis, and the state of the mercury jet at the time of arrival of the subsequent pulse is assessed. The amplitude of the pressure wave reaching the nozzle that ejects the mercury jet into the magnetic field is estimated and the potential for mechanical damage is addressed

  12. Apparent CPT violation in neutrino oscillation experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelhardt, Netta; Nelson, Ann E.; Walsh, Jonathan R.

    2010-01-01

    We consider searching for light sterile fermions and new forces by using long baseline oscillations of neutrinos and antineutrinos. A new light sterile state and/or a new force can lead to apparent CPT violation in muon neutrino and antineutrino oscillations. As an example, we present an economical model of neutrino masses containing a sterile neutrino. The potential from the standard model weak neutral current gives rise to a difference between the disappearance probabilities of neutrinos and antineutrinos, when mixing with a light sterile neutrino is considered. The addition of a B-L interaction adds coherently to the neutrino current potential and increases the difference between neutrino and antineutrino disappearance. We find that this model can improve the fit to the results of MINOS for both neutrinos and antineutrinos, without any CPT violation, and that the regions of parameter space which improve the fit are within experimental constraints.

  13. Theoretical introduction to the 37Cl solar neutrino experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahcall, J.N.

    1978-01-01

    A theoretical introduction is given to the chlorine 37 solar neutrino experiment. From the definition of an SNU as 10 -36 captures per target atom per second the discussion proceeds to stellar evolution, the neutrino absorption cross sections, nuclear reactions, and lastly the implications for astronomy and for physics of the 37 Cl experiment

  14. Neutrino physics with DARWIN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benabderrahmane, M. L.

    2017-09-01

    DARWIN (DARk matter WImp search with liquid xenoN) will be a multi-ton dark matter detector with the primary goal of exploring the entire experimentally accessible parameter space for weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) over a wide mass-range. With its 40 tonne active liquid xenon target, low-energy threshold and ultra-low background level, DARWIN can also search for other rare interactions. Here we present its sensitivity to low-energy solar neutrinos and to neutrinoless double beta decay. In a low-energy window of 2-30 keV a rate of 105/year, from pp and 7Be neutrinos can be reached. Such a measurement, with 1% precision will allow testing neutrinos models. DARWIN could also reach a competitive half-life sensitivity of 8.5 · 1027 y to the neutrinoless double beta decay (0νββ) of 136Xe after an exposure of 140 t×y of natural xenon. Nuclear recoils from coherent scattering of solar neutrinos will limit the sensitivity to WIMP masses below 5 GeV/c2, and the event rate from 8B neutrinos would range from a few to a few tens of events per tonne and year, depending on the energy threshold of the detector. Deviations from the predicted but yet unmeasured neutrino flux would be an indication for physics beyond the Standard Model

  15. The Astronomy Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, D. P.; Asbury, M. L.; Proctor, A.

    2001-12-01

    The Astronomy Workshop (http://janus.astro.umd.edu) is an interactive online astronomy resource developed, and maintained at the University of Maryland, for use by students, educators and the general public. The Astronomy Workshop has been extensively tested and used successfully at many different levels, including High School and Junior High School science classes, University introductory astronomy courses, and University intermediate and advanced astronomy courses. Some topics currently covered in the Astronomy Workshop are: Animated Orbits of Planets and Moons: The orbits of the nine planets and 91 known planetary satellites are shown in animated, to-scale drawings. The orbiting bodies move at their correct relative speeds about their parent, which is rendered as an attractive, to-scale gif image. Solar System Collisions: This most popular of our applications shows what happens when an asteroid or comet with user-defined size and speed impacts a given planet. The program calculates many effects, including the country impacted (if Earth is the target), energy of the explosion, crater size, magnitude of the planetquake generated. It also displays a relevant image (e.g. terrestrial crater, lunar crater, etc.). Planetary and Satellite Data Calculators: These tools allow the user to easily calculate physical data for all of the planets or satellites simultaneously, making comparison very easy. Orbital Simulations: These tools allow the student to investigate different aspects of the three-body problem of celestial mechanics. Astronomy Workshop Bulletin Board: Get innovative teaching ideas and read about in-class experiences with the Astronomy Workshop. Share your ideas with other educators by posting on the Bulletin Board. Funding for the Astronomy Workshop is provided by the National Science Foundation.

  16. When neutrinos attack - the impact of agressive neutrinos in astrophysics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneller, James

    2004-11-01

    Of all the constituents within the standard model of particle physics our understanding of the neutrino has benefited the most from the interaction of astrophysics and `terraphysics'. Much has been learned about the properties of the neutrino from each: experiments here on Earth temper our appreciation of the role that neutrinos play in the cosmos while astrophysics can provide the densities and temperatures in which the neutrinos do more than simply flee. But their reluctance to interact means that it is not until we venture into the most extreme environments of astrophysics that we observe neutrinos pushing back' as hard as they are being pushed'. We review two sites where this occurs: the early Universe and the accretion disk, engines' of gamma ray bursts. Neutrinos play an important role in the evolution of the early Universe with a particular focus upon the electron neutrino in determining the primordial elemental composition via its participation in the most important reaction at that time. Within gamma ray burst accretion disks we again see the electron neutrinos at work in the nuclear reactions and through their function as the coolant' for the disk. Removal of the disk energy, and its deposition into the remnants of the massive star surrounding the disk, may lead to the formation of highly relativistic jets that will later be observed as the burst. We show what has been learned so far about the neutrino and its properties from the study of such environments and discuss where future research is heading.

  17. The Neutrino: A Better Understanding Through Astrophysics: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kneller, James P. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

    2016-10-12

    The final report for the award "The Neutrino: A Better Understanding Through Astrophysics" is given. The goals of the work were the following: to construct new theoretical approaches to the problem of neutrino propagation in media including where neutrino-neutrino interactions are important; to pioneer the use of new approaches, including super-scattering operators, for the evolution of neutrino thermal and statistical ensembles; to implement these new approaches in computer codes to study neutrino evolution in supernovae and other hot, dense environments; to increase the realism of simulated signals of a Galactic supernovae neutrino burst in current and future neutrino detectors; to study the simulated signals to determine the ability to extract information on the missing neutrino mixing parameters and the dynamics of the supernova explosion; and to study sterile neutrinos and non-standard interactions of neutrinos in supernovae and their effect upon the signal. Accomplishments made in these areas are described.

  18. The Neutrino: A Better Understanding Through Astrophysics: Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kneller, James P.

    2016-01-01

    The final report for the award 'The Neutrino: A Better Understanding Through Astrophysics' is given. The goals of the work were the following: to construct new theoretical approaches to the problem of neutrino propagation in media including where neutrino-neutrino interactions are important; to pioneer the use of new approaches, including super-scattering operators, for the evolution of neutrino thermal and statistical ensembles; to implement these new approaches in computer codes to study neutrino evolution in supernovae and other hot, dense environments; to increase the realism of simulated signals of a Galactic supernovae neutrino burst in current and future neutrino detectors; to study the simulated signals to determine the ability to extract information on the missing neutrino mixing parameters and the dynamics of the supernova explosion; and to study sterile neutrinos and non-standard interactions of neutrinos in supernovae and their effect upon the signal. Accomplishments made in these areas are described.

  19. First all-flavor neutrino pointlike source search with the ANTARES neutrino telescope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albert, A.; André, M.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Ardid, M.; Aubert, J.-J.; Avgitas, T.; Baret, B.; Barrios-Martí, J.; Basa, S.; Belhorma, B.; Bertin, V.; Biagi, S.; Bormuth, R.; Bourret, S.; Bouwhuis, M.C.; Brânzas, H.; Bruijn, R.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Capone, A.; Caramete, L.; Carr, J.; Celli, S.; Cherkaoui El Moursli, R.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Coelho, J.A.B.; Coleiro, A.; Coniglione, R.; Costantini, H.; Coyle, P.; Creusot, A.; Díaz, A.F.; Deschamps, A.; De Bonis, G.; Distefano, C.; Di Palma, I.; Domi, A.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Drouhin, D.; Eberl, T.; El Bojaddaini, I.; El Khayati, N.; Elsässer, D.; Enzenhöfer, A.; Ettahiri, A.; Fassi, F.; Felis, I.; Fusco, L.A.; Galatà, S.; Gay, P.; Giordano, V.; Glotin, H.; Grégoire, T.; Gracia-Ruiz, R.; Graf, K.; Hallmann, S.; van Haren, H.; Heijboer, A.J.; Hello, Y.; Hernández-Rey, J.J.; Hößl, J.; Hofestädt, J.; Hugon, C.; Illuminati, G.; James, C.W.; de Jong, M.; Jongen, M.; Kadler, M.; Kalekin, O.; Katz, U.; Kießling, D.; Kouchner, A.; Kreter, M.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lachaud, C.; Lahmann, R.; Lefèvre, D.; Leonora, E.; Lotze, M.; Loucatos, S.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Marinelli, A.; Martinez-Mora, J.A.; Mele, R.; Melis, K.; Michael, T.; Migliozzi, P.; Moussa, A.; Navas, S.; Nezri, E.; Organokov, M.; Pavalas, G.E.; Pellegrino, C.; Perrina, C.; Piattelli, P.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Quinn, L.; Racca, C.; Riccobene, G.; Sánchez-Losa, A.; Saldaña, M.; Salvadori, I.; Samtleben, D.F.E.; Sanguineti, M.; Sapienza, P.; Schüssler, F.; Sieger, C.; Spurio, M.; Stolarczyk, T.; Taiuti, M.; Tayalati, Y.; Trovato, A.; Turpin, D.; Tönnis, C.; Vallage, B.; Van Elewyck, V.; Versari, F.; Vivolo, D.; Vizzoca, A.; Wilms, J.; Zornoza, J.D.; Zúñiga, J.

    2017-01-01

    A search for cosmic neutrino sources using the data collected with the ANTARES neutrino telescope between early 2007 and the end of 2015 is performed. For the first time, all neutrino interactions --charged and neutral current interactions of all flavours-- are considered in a search for point-like

  20. NEUTRINO MASS

    OpenAIRE

    Kayser, Boris

    1988-01-01

    This is a review article about the most recent developments on the field of neutrino mass. The first part of the review introduces the idea of neutrino masses and mixing angles, summarizes the most recent experimental data then discusses the experimental prospects and challenges in this area. The second part of the review discusses the implications of these results for particle physics and cosmology, including the origin of neutrino mass, the see-saw mechanism and sequential dominance, and la...

  1. Neutrino masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    Postulated in the early days of quantum mechanics by Wolfgang Pauli to make energy-momentum conservation in nuclear beta decay come out right, the neutrino has never strayed far from physicists' attention. The Moriond Workshop on Massive Neutrinos in Particle Physics and Astrophysics held recently in the French Alps showed that more than half a century after Pauli's prediction, the neutrino stubbornly refuses to yield up all its secrets

  2. Neutrino masses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1986-04-15

    Postulated in the early days of quantum mechanics by Wolfgang Pauli to make energy-momentum conservation in nuclear beta decay come out right, the neutrino has never strayed far from physicists' attention. The Moriond Workshop on Massive Neutrinos in Particle Physics and Astrophysics held recently in the French Alps showed that more than half a century after Pauli's prediction, the neutrino stubbornly refuses to yield up all its secrets.

  3. Neutrino mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, R.G.H.

    1992-01-01

    Despite intensive experimental work since the neutrino's existence was proposed by Pauli 60 years ago, and its first observation by Reines and Cowan almost 40 years ago, the neutrino's fundamental properties remain elusive. Among those properties are the masses of the three known flavors, properties under charge conjugation, parity and time-reversal, and static and dynamic electromagnetic moments. Mass is perhaps the most fundamental, as it constrains the other properties. The present status of the search for neutrino mass is briefly reviewed

  4. Atmospheric Neutrinos in the MINOS Far Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howcroft, Caius Leo Frederick [Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2004-12-01

    The phenomenon of flavour oscillations of neutrinos created in the atmosphere was first reported by the Super-Kamiokande collaboration in 1998 and since then has been confirmed by Soudan 2 and MACRO. The MINOS Far Detector is the first magnetized neutrino detector able to study atmospheric neutrino oscillations. Although it was designed to detect neutrinos from the NuMI beam, it provides a unique opportunity to measure the oscillation parameters for neutrinos and anti-neutrinos independently. The MINOS Far Detector was completed in August 2003 and since then has collected 2.52 kton-years of atmospheric data. Atmospheric neutrino interactions contained within the volume of the detector are separated from the dominant background from cosmic ray muons. Thirty seven events are selected with an estimated background contamination of less than 10%. Using the detector's magnetic field, 17 neutrino events and 6 anti-neutrino events are identified, 14 events have ambiguous charge. The neutrino oscillation parameters for vμ and $\\bar{v}$μ are studied using a maximum likelihood analysis. The measurement does not place constraining limits on the neutrino oscillation parameters due to the limited statistics of the data set analysed. However, this thesis represents the first observation of charge separated atmospheric neutrino interactions. It also details the techniques developed to perform atmospheric neutrino analyses in the MINOS Far Detector.

  5. GZK cutoff and associated neutrinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanev, Todor [Bartol Research Institute, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States)

    2004-11-15

    We discuss the cosmogenic neutrinos that are produced in interactions of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays with radiation fields. The obvious and most important target is the microwave background. It is possible that the infrared/optical background contributes to the flux of cosmogenic neutrinos, especially in the case of steep cosmic ray injection spectra and fast cosmological evolution of the cosmic ray sources.

  6. Long baseline neutrino experiments

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Atmospheric neutrino experiments (IMB, Kamiokande, Super-Kamiokande (SK)) show that νµ created in cosmic ray interactions with atmospheric nuclei are being converted into ντ but νe created in such interactions are unaffected. SK measure- ment of νµ and νe event rates as functions of zenith angle is the key ...

  7. DUMAND: the ocean as a neutrino detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, A.; Blood, H.; Learned, J.; Reines, F.

    1976-01-01

    It is looked for the possibility of using the ocean as a neutrino detector. Neutrino produced interactions result in charged particles which generate Cerenkov radiation in the water, which can be detected by light-gathering equipment and photomultipliers. The properties of the ocean as seen from this standpoint are critically examined, and the advantages and disadvantages pointed out. Possible uses for such a neutrino detector are the detection of neutrinos emitted in gravitational collapse of stars for example. (BJ) [de

  8. Influence of flavor oscillations on neutrino beam instabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendonça, J. T., E-mail: titomend@ist.utl.pt [Instituto de Física, Universidade de São Paulo, 05508-090 São Paulo SP (Brazil); Haas, F. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, 91501-970 Porto Alegre RS (Brazil); Bret, A. [ETSI Industriales, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, 13071 Ciudad Real, Spain and Instituto de Investigaciones Energeticas y Aplicaciones Industriales, Campus Universitario de Ciudad Real, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain)

    2014-09-15

    We consider the collective neutrino plasma interactions and study the electron plasma instabilities produced by a nearly mono-energetic neutrino beam in a plasma. We describe the mutual interaction between neutrino flavor oscillations and electron plasma waves. We show that the neutrino flavor oscillations are not only perturbed by electron plasmas waves but also contribute to the dispersion relation and the growth rates of neutrino beam instabilities.

  9. Eclipsed neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    Full text: The total solar eclipse visible in Southern Asia on 24 October provided an opportunity for an unusual physics experiment. At face value, the levels of solar neutrinos detected on the Earth's surface are difficult to understand and suggest that perhaps the composition of solar neutrinos oscillates between different neutrino types on their journey. In this way neutrinos originating in the Sun as electrontype could convert into heavy neutrinos, which could subsequently disintegrate into an electron-neutrino and a photon. In certain neutrino scenarios, such a photon would have an energy corresponding to that of visible light, and in principle should be detectable if there are enough of them. The problem is that they would normally be swamped by the copious photons of sunlight. The 24 October solar eclipse provided a chance to check this out. A team led by François Vannucci, spokesman of the Nomad neutrino experiment at CERN, en route to the 'Rencontres du Vietnam' physics meeting in Ho Chi Minh Ville, set up a CCD-equipped telescope. To insure against cloud cover, a second telescope followed the eclipse in the desert of Rajastan, India, where the eclipse was to last only half as long, but the chance of cloud was minimal. No background solar signal was seen, or, expressed in physics terms, if solar radiation has any heavy neutrino component, then less than a millionth of it disintegrates into an electron neutrino and a visible photon before it arrives at the Earth. The negative result also has implications for candidate massive, unstable neutrinos from other sources, notably a component of the missing 'dark matter' of the Universe. The next such eclipse should be visible in North Asia in 1997, when hopefully better measurements will be made

  10. Supernova neutrinos and explosive nucleosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajino, T.; Aoki, W.; Cheoun, M.-K.; Hayakawa, T.; Hidaka, J.; Hirai, Y.; Mathews, G. J.; Nakamura, K.; Shibagaki, S.; Suzuki, T.

    2014-05-01

    Core-collapse supernovae eject huge amount of flux of energetic neutrinos. We studied the explosive nucleosyn-thesis in supernovae and found that several isotopes 7Li, 11B, 92Nb, 138La and 180Ta as well as r-process nuclei are affected by the neutrino interactions. The abundance of these isotopes therefore depends strongly on the neutrino flavor oscillation due to the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) effect. We discuss first how to determine the neutrino temperatures in order to explain the observed solar system abundances of these isotopes, combined with Galactic chemical evolution of the light nuclei and the heavy r-process elements. We then study the effects of neutrino oscillation on their abundances, and propose a novel method to determine the still unknown neutrino oscillation parameters, mass hierarchy and θ13, simultaneously. There is recent evidence that SiC X grains from the Murchison meteorite may contain supernova-produced light elements 11B and 7Li encapsulated in the presolar grains. Combining the recent experimental constraints on θ13, we show that our method sug-gests at a marginal preference for an inverted neutrino mass hierarchy. Finally, we discuss supernova relic neutrinos that may indicate the softness of the equation of state (EoS) of nuclear matter as well as adiabatic conditions of the neutrino oscillation.

  11. Supernova neutrinos and explosive nucleosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kajino, T. [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588, Japan and Department of Astronomy, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, Hongo 7-3-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Aoki, W. [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Cheoun, M.-K. [Department of Physics, Soongsil University, Seoul 156-743 (Korea, Republic of); Hayakawa, T. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Shirakara-Shirane 2-4, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Hidaka, J.; Hirai, Y.; Shibagaki, S. [National Astronomical Observatory, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Mathews, G. J. [Center for Astrophysics, Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Nakamura, K. [Faculty of Science and Engineering, Waseda University, Ohkubo 3-4-1, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Suzuki, T. [Department of Physics, College of Humanities and Sciences, Nihon University, Sakurajosui 3-25-40, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 156-8550 (Japan)

    2014-05-09

    Core-collapse supernovae eject huge amount of flux of energetic neutrinos. We studied the explosive nucleosyn-thesis in supernovae and found that several isotopes {sup 7}Li, {sup 11}B, {sup 92}Nb, {sup 138}La and {sup 180}Ta as well as r-process nuclei are affected by the neutrino interactions. The abundance of these isotopes therefore depends strongly on the neutrino flavor oscillation due to the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) effect. We discuss first how to determine the neutrino temperatures in order to explain the observed solar system abundances of these isotopes, combined with Galactic chemical evolution of the light nuclei and the heavy r-process elements. We then study the effects of neutrino oscillation on their abundances, and propose a novel method to determine the still unknown neutrino oscillation parameters, mass hierarchy and θ{sub 13}, simultaneously. There is recent evidence that SiC X grains from the Murchison meteorite may contain supernova-produced light elements {sup 11}B and {sup 7}Li encapsulated in the presolar grains. Combining the recent experimental constraints on θ{sub 13}, we show that our method sug-gests at a marginal preference for an inverted neutrino mass hierarchy. Finally, we discuss supernova relic neutrinos that may indicate the softness of the equation of state (EoS) of nuclear matter as well as adiabatic conditions of the neutrino oscillation.

  12. Neutrino Oscillations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    work of Takaaki Kajita and Arthur B McDonald clearly demon- strated the ... time belief that neutrinos are massless particles. .... SK is a second generation, 50,000 t wa- ..... values of the parameters of the PMNS matrix based on a global .... [13] Y Ashie et al., Evidence for an oscillatory signature in atmospheric neutrino.

  13. KARMEN: neutrino spectroscopy at ISIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drexlin, G [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH Technik und Umwelt (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernphysik

    1996-11-01

    The Karlsruhe-Rutherford Neutrino Experiment KARMEN at the spallation neutron facility ISIS investigates fundamental properties of neutrinos as well as their interactions with matter. Low energy neutrinos with energies up to 50 MeV emitted by the pulsed {nu}-source ISIS are detected by a 56 tonne high resolution liquid scintillation calorimeter. Clear {nu}-signatures allow a reliable search for neutrino oscillations of the type {nu}{sub {mu}}{yields}{nu}{sub e} and {nu}{sub {mu}}{yields}{nu}{sub e} as well as a detailed investigation of neutrino-nucleus interactions in an energy range important for astrophysics. We present the results of the KARMEN experiment from data taking in the period from June 1990 - December 1995. (author) 9 figs., 10 refs.

  14. Greek astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Heath, Sir Thomas L

    2011-01-01

    Astronomy as a science began with the Ionian philosophers, with whom Greek philosophy and mathematics also began. While the Egyptians and Babylonians had accomplished much of astronomical worth, it remained for the unrivalled speculative genius of the Greeks, in particular, their mathematical genius, to lay the foundations of the true science of astronomy. In this classic study, a noted scholar discusses in lucid detail the specific advances made by the Greeks, many of whose ideas anticipated the discoveries of modern astronomy.Pythagoras, born at Samos about 572 B.C., was probably the first

  15. Bose-Einstein correlations in charged current muon-neutrino interactions in the NOMAD experiment at CERN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astier, P.; Autiero, D.; Baldisseri, A.; Baldo-Ceolin, M.; Banner, M.; Bassompierre, G.; Benslama, K.; Besson, N.; Bird, I.; Blumenfeld, B.; Bobisut, F.; Bouchez, J.; Boyd, S.; Bueno, A.; Bunyatov, S.; Camilleri, L.; Cardini, A.; Cattaneo, P.W.; Cavasinni, V.; Cervera-Villanueva, A.; Challis, R.C.; Chukanov, A.; Collazuol, G.; Conforto, G.; Conta, C.; Contalbrigo, M.; Cousins, R.; Daniels, D.; Degaudenzi, H.; Del Prete, T.; De Santo, A.; Dignan, T.; Di Lella, L.; Couto e Silva, E. do; Dumarchez, J.; Ellis, M.; Feldman, G.J.; Ferrari, R.; Ferrere, D.; Flaminio, V.; Fraternali, M.; Gaillard, J.-M.; Gangler, E.; Geiser, A.; Geppert, D.; Gibin, D.; Gninenko, S.; Godley, A.; Gomez-Cadenas, J.-J.; Gosset, J.; Goessling, C.; Gouanere, M.; Grant, A.; Graziani, G.; Guglielmi, A.; Hagner, C.; Hernando, J.; Hubbard, D.; Hurst, P.; Hyett, N.; Iacopini, E.; Joseph, C.; Juget, F.; Kent, N.; Kirsanov, M.; Klimov, O.; Kokkonen, J.; Kovzelev, A.; Krasnoperov, A.; Lacaprara, S.; Lachaud, C.; Lakic, B.; Lanza, A.; La Rotonda, L.; Laveder, M.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Levy, J.-M.; Linssen, L.; Ljubicic, A.; Long, J.; Lupi, A.; Lyubushkin, V.; Marchionni, A.; Martelli, F.; Mechain, X.; Mendiburu, J.-P.; Meyer, J.-P.; Mezzetto, M.; Mishra, S.R.; Moorhead, G.F.; Naumov, D.; Nedelec, P.; Nefedov, Yu.; Nguyen-Mau, C.; Orestano, D.; Pastore, F.; Peak, L.S.; Pennacchio, E.; Pessard, H.; Petti, R.; Placci, A.; Polesello, G.; Pollmann, D.; Polyarush, A.; Popov, B.; Poulsen, C.; Rebuffi, L.; Rico, J.; Riemann, P.; Roda, C.; Rubbia, A.; Salvatore, F.; Schahmaneche, K.; Schmidt, B.; Schmidt, T.; Sconza, A.; Sevior, M.; Sillou, D.; Soler, F.J.P.; Sozzi, G.; Steele, D.; Stiegler, U.; Stipcevic, M.; Stolarczyk, Th.; Tareb-Reyes, M.; Taylor, G.N.; Tereshchenko, V.; Toropin, A.; Touchard, A.-M.; Tovey, S.N.; Tran, M.-T.; Tsesmelis, E.; Ulrichs, J.; Vacavant, L.; Valdata-Nappi, M.; Valuev, V.; Vannucci, F.; Varvell, K.E.; Veltri, M.; Vercesi, V.; Vidal-Sitjes, G.; Vieira, J.-M.; Vinogradova, T.; Weber, F.V.; Weisse, T.; Wilson, F.F.; Winton, L.J.; Yabsley, B.D.; Zaccone, H.; Zei, R.; Zuber, K.; Zuccon, P.

    2004-01-01

    Bose-Einstein correlations in one and two dimensions have been studied, with high statistics, in charged current muon-neutrino interaction events collected with the NOMAD detector at CERN. In one dimension the Bose-Einstein effect has been analyzed with the Goldhaber and the Kopylov-Podgoretskii phenomenological parametrizations. The Goldhaber parametrization gives the radius of the pion emission region R G =1.01±0.05(stat) +0.09 -0.06 (sys) fm and for the chaoticity parameter the value λ=0.40±0.03(stat) +0.01 -0.06 (sys). Using the Kopylov-Podgoretskii parametrization yields R KP =2.07±0.04(stat) +0.01 -0.14 (sys) fm and λ KP =0.29±0.06(stat) +0.01 -0.04 (sys). Different parametrizations of the long-range correlations have been also studied. The two-dimensional shape of the source has been investigated in the longitudinal comoving frame. A significant difference between the transverse and the longitudinal dimensions is observed. The high statistics of the collected sample allowed the study of the Bose-Einstein correlations as a function of rapidity, charged particle multiplicity and hadronic energy. A weak dependence of both radius and chaoticity on multiplicity and hadronic energy is found

  16. Measurement of the neutral to charged current cross section ratios for neutrino and and antineutrino interactions on protons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, G. T.; Jones, R. W. L.; Kennedy, B. W.; O'Neale, S. W.; Hoffmann, E.; Haidt, D.; Klein, H.; Mittendorfer, J.; Morrison, D. R. O.; Schmid, P.; Wachsmuth, H.; Hamisi, F.; Miller, D. B.; Mobayyen, M. M.; Aderholz, M.; Deck, L.; Schmitz, N.; Wittek, W.; Corrigan, G.; Myatt, G.; Radojicic, D.; Retter, M. L.; Saitta, B.; Shotton, P. N.; Towers, S. J.; Bullock, F. W.; Burke, S.; Fitch, P. J.; Birmingham-Bonn-CERN-Imperial College-München(MPI)-Oxford-University College Collaboration

    1986-10-01

    The ratios Rvp and Rvp of the neutral current to charged current cross sections for neutrino and antineutrino interactions on protons have been measured in BEBC. The beam was the CERN SPS 400 GeV wideband beam. The bubble chamber, equipped with the standard External Muon Identifier, was surrounded with an additional plane of wire chambers (Internal Picket Fence), which was added to improve neutral current event identification. For a total transverse momentum of the charged hadrons above 0.45 GeV/ c and a charged multiplicity of at least 3, it was found that R vp = 0.384 ± 0.015 and R vp = 0.338 ± 0.014 ± 0.016, corresponding to a value of sin 2θ w(M woverlineMSof 0.225 ± 0.030 . Combining the results from hydrogen and an isoscalar target, the differences of the neutral current chiral coupling constants were found to be u2l- d2L = -0.080 ± 0.043 ± 0.012 and u2R- d2R = 0.021±0.055±0.028.

  17. Measurement of the neutral to charged current cross section ratios for neutrino and antineutrino interactions on protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, G.T.; Jones, R.W.L.; Kennedy, B.W.; O'Neale, S.W.; Hoffmann, E.; Hamisi, F.; Miller, D.B.; Mobayyen, M.M.; Corrigan, G.; Myatt, G.; Radojicic, D.; Retter, M.L.; Saitta, B.; Shotton, P.N.; Towers, S.J.; Bullock, F.W.; Burke, S.; Fitch, P.J.

    1986-01-01

    The ratios R vp and R vp of the neutral current to charged current cross sections for neutrino and antineutrino interactions on protons have been measured in BEBC. The beam was the CERN SPS 400 GeV wideband beam. The bubble chamber, equipped with the standard External Muon Identifier, was surrounded with an additional plane of wire chambers (Internal Picket Fence), which was added to improve neutral current event identification. For a total transverse momentum of the charged hadrons above 0.45 GeV/c and a charged multiplicity of at least 3, it was found that R vp =0.384±0.024±0.015 and R vp =0.338±0.014±0.016, corresponding to a value of sin 2 θ w (M w ) MS of 0.225±0.030. Combining the results from hydrogen and an isoscalar target, the differences of the neutral current chiral coupling constants were found to be u L 2 -d L 2 =-0.080±0.043±0.012 and u R 2 -d R 2 =0.021±0.055±0.028. (orig.)

  18. Gamma astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesarsky, C.; Cesarsky, J.P.

    1986-01-01

    This article overviews the gamma astronomy research. Sources already observed, and what causes to give to them; the galactic radiation and its interpretation; techniques already used and current projects [fr

  19. Accessible Astronomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glickstein, Neil

    1994-01-01

    Describes the development of a theme-based, multidisciplinary course. The article partitions into the following sections: (1) Constructing the Course; (2) Putting the Ideas to Work; (3) Connecting Science and Society; and (4) The Arts and Astronomy. (ZWH)

  20. Fundamental Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Karttunen, Hannu; Oja, Heikki; Poutanen, Markku; Donner, Karl Johan

    2007-01-01

    Fundamental Astronomy gives a well-balanced and comprehensive introduction to the topics of classical and modern astronomy. While emphasizing both the astronomical concepts and the underlying physical principles, the text provides a sound basis for more profound studies in the astronomical sciences. The fifth edition of this successful undergraduate textbook has been extensively modernized and extended in the parts dealing with the Milky Way, extragalactic astronomy and cosmology as well as with extrasolar planets and the solar system (as a consequence of recent results from satellite missions and the new definition by the International Astronomical Union of planets, dwarf planets and small solar-system bodies). Furthermore a new chapter on astrobiology has been added. Long considered a standard text for physical science majors, Fundamental Astronomy is also an excellent reference and entrée for dedicated amateur astronomers.

  1. Study of neutrino- and antineutrino interactions in a neon-hydrogen mixture using the CERN narrow band beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultze, K.

    1977-01-01

    The charged-current cross sections for neutrinos and antineutrinos on nucleons in the energy range 20-200 GeV are given. Taken in conjunction with the previous Gargamelle results, they show that sigma/E is almost constant with energy for antineutrinos, and falls with energy for neutrinos. Above 50 GeV, sigma/E is compatible with being constant for neutrinos and antineutrinos. Rates for the production of neutral current events, di-lepton events and strange particles are given. The rate of di-lepton production shows no evidence for the production of 'bottom' states. Finally there is no indication for a charged heavy lepton coupled to the muon neutrino. (orig./WL) [de

  2. Astronomy Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heck, A.; Madsen, C.

    2003-07-01

    Astronomers communicate all the time, with colleagues of course, but also with managers and administrators, with decision makers and takers, with social representatives, with the news media, and with the society at large. Education is naturally part of the process. Astronomy communication must take into account several specificities: the astronomy community is rather compact and well organized world-wide; astronomy has penetrated the general public remarkably well with an extensive network of associations and organizations of aficionados all over the world. Also, as a result of the huge amount of data accumulated and by necessity for their extensive international collaborations, astronomers have pioneered the development of distributed resources, electronic communications and networks coupled to advanced methodologies and technologies, often much before they become of common world-wide usage. This book is filling up a gap in the astronomy-related literature by providing a set of chapters not only of direct interest to astronomy communication, but also well beyond it. The experts contributing to this book have done their best to write in a way understandable to readers not necessarily hyperspecialized in astronomy nor in communication techniques while providing specific detailed information, as well as plenty of pointers and bibliographic elements. This book will be very useful for researchers, teachers, editors, publishers, librarians, computer scientists, sociologists of science, research planners and strategists, project managers, public-relations officers, plus those in charge of astronomy-related organizations, as well as for students aiming at a career in astronomy or related space science. Link: http://www.wkap.nl/prod/b/1-4020-1345-0

  3. Radio astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parijskij, Y.N.; Gossachinskij, I.V.; Zuckerman, B.; Khersonsky, V.K.; Pustilnik, S.; Robinson, B.J.

    1976-01-01

    A critical review of major developments and discoveries in the field of radioastronomy during the period 1973-1975 is presented. The report is presented under the following headings:(1) Continuum radiation from the Galaxy; (2) Neutral hydrogen, 21 cm (galactic and extragalactic) and recombination lines; (3) Radioastronomy investigations of interstellar molecules; (4) Extragalactic radio astronomy and (6) Development in radio astronomy instruments. (B.R.H.)

  4. Evidence for neutrino oscillations in the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marino, Alysia Diane

    2004-01-01

    The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) is a large-volume heavy water Cerenkov detector designed to resolve the solar neutrino problem. SNO observes charged-current interactions with electron neutrinos, neutral-current interactions with all active neutrinos, and elastic-scattering interactions primarily with electron neutrinos with some sensitivity to other flavors. This dissertation presents an analysis of the solar neutrino flux observed in SNO in the second phase of operation, while ∼2 tonnes of salt (NaCl) were dissolved in the heavy water. The dataset here represents 391 live days of data. Only the events above a visible energy threshold of 5.5 MeV and inside a fiducial volume within 550 cm of the center of the detector are studied. The neutrino flux observed via the charged-current interaction is [1.71 ± 0.065(stat.)± 0.068 0.065 (sys.)±0.02(theor.)] x 10 6 cm -2 s -1 , via the elastic-scattering interaction is [2.21±0.22(stat.)± 0.12 0.11 (sys.)±0.01(theor.)] x 10 6 cm -2 s -1 , and via the neutral-current interaction is [5.05±0.23(stat.)± 0.37 0.31 (sys.)±0.06(theor.)] x 10 6 cm -2 s -1 . The electron-only flux seen via the charged-current interaction is more than 7σ below the total active flux seen via the neutral-current interaction, providing strong evidence that neutrinos are undergoing flavor transformation as they travel from the core of the Sun to the Earth. The most likely origin of the flavor transformation is matter-induced flavor oscillation

  5. Evidence for neutrino oscillations in the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marino, Alysia Diane [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2004-01-01

    The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) is a large-volume heavy water Cerenkov detector designed to resolve the solar neutrino problem. SNO observes charged-current interactions with electron neutrinos, neutral-current interactions with all active neutrinos, and elastic-scattering interactions primarily with electron neutrinos with some sensitivity to other flavors. This dissertation presents an analysis of the solar neutrino flux observed in SNO in the second phase of operation, while ~2 tonnes of salt (NaCl) were dissolved in the heavy water. The dataset here represents 391 live days of data. Only the events above a visible energy threshold of 5.5 MeV and inside a fiducial volume within 550 cm of the center of the detector are studied. The neutrino flux observed via the charged-current interaction is [1.71 ± 0.065(stat.)±$0.065\\atop{0.068}$(sys.)±0.02(theor.)] x 106cm-2s-1, via the elastic-scattering interaction is [2.21±0.22(stat.)±$0.12\\atop{0.11}$(sys.)±0.01(theor.)] x 106cm-2s-1, and via the neutral-current interaction is [5.05±0.23(stat.)±$0.31\\atop{0.37}$(sys.)±0.06(theor.)] x 106cm-2s-1. The electron-only flux seen via the charged-current interaction is more than 7σ below the total active flux seen via the neutral-current interaction, providing strong evidence that neutrinos are undergoing flavor transformation as they travel from the core of the Sun to the Earth. The most likely origin of the flavor transformation is matter-induced flavor oscillation.

  6. Interactive Lab to Learn Radio Astronomy, Microwave & Antenna Engineering at the Technical University of Cartagena (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Daniel Quesada-Pereira

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available An initiative carried out at the Technical University of Cartagena (UPCT, Spain to encourage students and promote the interest for Scientific and Engineering Culture between society is presented in this contribution. For this purpose, a long-term project based on the set-up of an interactive laboratory surrounding a small Radio Telescope (SRT system has been carried out. The main novelty is that this project is entirely being developed by students of last courses of our Telecommunication Engineering Faculty, under the supervision of four lecturers. This lab offers the possibility to remotely control the SRT, and it provides a set of multimedia web-based applications to produce a novel, practical, multidisciplinary virtual laboratory to improve the learning and teaching processes in related sciences and technologies.

  7. Applicability of neutrino beams to Earth exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolgoshein, B.A.; Kalinovskij, A.N.

    1985-01-01

    The projects on applicability of neutrino beams from high energy accelerators for geological exploration and study of the Earth structure are discussed. The GENIUS (Geological Exploration by Neutrino Induced Underground Sound) project is among them. It covers detecting and studying space-time characteristics of acoustic signal arising in case of neutrino interaction with Earth depth rocks discussed. The GEMINI (Geological Exploration with Muons Induced by neutrino interactions) project represents one more possibility for using geotron neutrino beam for the purpose of geological exploration. The GEOSCAN project represents the possibility for applying high energy neutrino beams for the purpose of the Earth translusence to determine the changes in the density of internal part of the Earth. The necessity of detailed investigations of the problem of applicability of neutrino beams in the field of the Earth exploration is pointed out

  8. Comparing neutrino and antineutrino scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barish, B.C.

    1977-01-01

    The charged current interaction is considered. The present situation with respect to the indications of new physics at high energies, especially in the context of what can be learned by comparing neutrino with antineutrino production is reviewed

  9. India-based Neutrino Observatory

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-11-17

    Nov 17, 2012 ... to large water Cerenkov and other detectors worldwide. ... atmospheric neutrino interaction was observed at KGF in 1965 [1] (see figure 1). ..... event generator, which was developed for Kamiokande experiment and has been ...

  10. The Daya Bay and T2K results on sin2⁡2θ13 and non-standard neutrino interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Girardi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We show that the relatively large best fit value of sin2⁡2θ13=0.14(0.17 measured in the T2K experiment for fixed values of i the Dirac CP violation phase δ=0, and ii the atmospheric neutrino mixing parameters θ23=π/4, |Δm322|=2.4×10−3 eV2, can be reconciled with the Daya Bay result sin2⁡2θ13=0.090±0.009 if the effects of non-standard neutrino interactions (NSI in the relevant ν¯e→ν¯e and νμ→νe oscillation probabilities are taken into account.

  11. Solar neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schatzman, E.

    1983-01-01

    The solar energy is produced by a series of nuclear reactions taking place in the deep interior of the sun. Some of these reactions produce neutrinos which may be detected, the proper detection system being available. The results of the Davis experiment (with 37 Cl) are given, showing a deficiency in the solar neutrino flux. The relevant explanation is either a property of the neutrino or an important change in the physics of the solar models. The prospect of a new experiment (with 71 Ga) is important as it will decide which of the two explanations is correct [fr

  12. Selection of Amino Acid Chirality via Neutrino Interactions with 14N in Crossed Electric and Magnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Richard N.; Kajino, Toshitaka; Onaka, Takashi

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Previous work has suggested that the chirality of the amino acids could be established in the magnetic field of a nascent neutron star from a core-collapse supernova or massive collapsar. The magnetic field would orient the 14N nuclei, and the alignment of its nuclear spin with respect to those of the electron antineutrinos emitted from the collapsing star would determine the probability of destruction of the 14N nuclei by interactions with the antineutrinos. Subsequent work estimated the bulk polarization of the 14N nuclei in large rotating meteoroids in such an environment. The present work adds a crucial piece of this model by describing the details by which the selective 14N nuclear destruction would produce molecular chiral selectivity. The effects of the neutrino-induced interactions on the 14N nuclei bound in amino acids polarized in strong magnetic fields are studied. It is shown that electric fields in the reference frame of the nuclei modify the magnetic field at the nucleus, creating nuclear magnetizations that are asymmetric in chirality. The antineutrino cross sections depend on this magnetization, creating a selective destructive effect. The environmental conditions and sites in which such a selection mechanism could occur are discussed. Selective destruction of D-enantiomers results in enantiomeric excesses which may be sufficient to drive subsequent autocatalysis necessary to produce the few-percent enantiomeric excesses found in meteorites and subsequent homochirality. Molecular quantum chemical calculations were performed for alanine, and the chirality-dependent effects studied were included. A preference for left-handed molecules was found, and enantiomeric excesses as high as 0.02% were estimated for molecules in the electromagnetic conditions expected from a core-collapse supernova. Key Words: Amino acids—Supernovae—Antineutrinos—Enantiomeric excess—Chirality. Astrobiology 18, 190–206. PMID:29160728

  13. Atmospheric neutrino challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanev, Todor [Bartol Research Institute, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States)

    2005-08-15

    We briefly review the improvements in the predictions of atmospheric neutrino fluxes since the NOW2000 workshop. In spite of the great progress of the calculational technique the predictions are still not exact because of the uncertainties in the two major sets of input - cosmic ray flux and hadronic interactions on light nuclei.

  14. A model for Simpson's 17 keV neutrino

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajpoot, S.

    1992-01-01

    Recent studies of β-decay spectra seem to confirm Simpson's earlier findings that the electron neutrinos contain a small (1%) admixture of a 17 keV Dirac neutrino. In this paper an unconventional model with SU(2) L x SU(2) R x U(1) B-1 gauge interactions is presented in which all neutrinos are Dirac particles. Electron and muon neutrinos acquire seesaw Dirac masses of order 10 -3 eV for the MSW solution for the solar neutrino problem. The τ neutrino is identified as Simpson's 17 keV neutrino. Constraints coming from cosmology and particle physics are shown to be satisfied

  15. Thermalizing Sterile Neutrino Dark Matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Rasmus S L; Vogl, Stefan

    2017-12-22

    Sterile neutrinos produced through oscillations are a well motivated dark matter candidate, but recent constraints from observations have ruled out most of the parameter space. We analyze the impact of new interactions on the evolution of keV sterile neutrino dark matter in the early Universe. Based on general considerations we find a mechanism which thermalizes the sterile neutrinos after an initial production by oscillations. The thermalization of sterile neutrinos is accompanied by dark entropy production which increases the yield of dark matter and leads to a lower characteristic momentum. This resolves the growing tensions with structure formation and x-ray observations and even revives simple nonresonant production as a viable way to produce sterile neutrino dark matter. We investigate the parameters required for the realization of the thermalization mechanism in a representative model and find that a simple estimate based on energy and entropy conservation describes the mechanism well.

  16. Thermalizing Sterile Neutrino Dark Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Rasmus S. L.; Vogl, Stefan

    2017-12-01

    Sterile neutrinos produced through oscillations are a well motivated dark matter candidate, but recent constraints from observations have ruled out most of the parameter space. We analyze the impact of new interactions on the evolution of keV sterile neutrino dark matter in the early Universe. Based on general considerations we find a mechanism which thermalizes the sterile neutrinos after an initial production by oscillations. The thermalization of sterile neutrinos is accompanied by dark entropy production which increases the yield of dark matter and leads to a lower characteristic momentum. This resolves the growing tensions with structure formation and x-ray observations and even revives simple nonresonant production as a viable way to produce sterile neutrino dark matter. We investigate the parameters required for the realization of the thermalization mechanism in a representative model and find that a simple estimate based on energy and entropy conservation describes the mechanism well.

  17. Neutrino physics and accelerators. [Reviews

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaftanov, V

    1978-04-01

    The history is described of experiments aimed at the study of direct neutrino-matter interactions conducted in the past twenty years. Experiments are outlined carried out with the objective of proving the existence of the intermediate W meson which had been predicted by the weak interaction theory. The methods of obtaining neutrino beams using accelerators and the detectors used are briefly shown. Also described are experiments to be conducted in the near future in different laboratories.

  18. Spin alignment of ρ0 mesons produced in antineutrino and neutrino neon charged-current interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittek, W.; Guy, J.; Adeholz, M.; Allport, P.; Baton, J. P.; Berggren, M.; Bertrand, D.; Brisson, V.; Bullock, F. W.; Burkot, W.; Calicchio, M.; Clayton, E. F.; Coghen, T.; Cooper-Sarkar, A. M.; Erriquez, O.; Fitch, P. J.; Fogli-Muciaccia, M. T.; Hulth, P. O.; Jones, G. T.; Kasper, P.; Klein, H.; Marage, P.; Middleton, R. P.; Miller, D. B.; Mobayyen, M. M.; Morrison, D. R. O.; Neveu, M.; O'Neale, S. W.; Parker, M. A.; Petiau, P.; Sacton, J.; Sansum, R. A.; Schmitz, N.; Simopoulou, E.; Vallee, C.; Varvell, K.; Vayaki, A.; Venus, W.; Wachsmuth, H.; Wells, J.

    1987-03-01

    In a bubble chamber experiment with BEBC the spin alignment parameter η=1/2 (2ϱ00 - ϱ11 - ϱ-1-1) is measured for ϱ0 mesons produced in deep inelastic charged-current antineutrino and neutrono interactions on neon. In the current fragmentation region η is found to be ηv=0.48+/-0.27 (stat.)+/-0.15 (syst.) for vNe and ηv=0.12+/-0.20 (stat.)+/-0.10 (syst.) for vNe interactions Present address: University College London, London WC1E 6BT, UK.

  19. Gravitationally confined relativistic neutrinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vayenas, C. G.; Fokas, A. S.; Grigoriou, D.

    2017-09-01

    Combining special relativity, the equivalence principle, and Newton’s universal gravitational law with gravitational rather than rest masses, one finds that gravitational interactions between relativistic neutrinos with kinetic energies above 50 MeV are very strong and can lead to the formation of gravitationally confined composite structures with the mass and other properties of hadrons. One may model such structures by considering three neutrinos moving symmetrically on a circular orbit under the influence of their gravitational attraction, and by assuming quantization of their angular momentum, as in the Bohr model of the H atom. The model contains no adjustable parameters and its solution, using a neutrino rest mass of 0.05 eV/c2, leads to composite state radii close to 1 fm and composite state masses close to 1 GeV/c2. Similar models of relativistic rotating electron - neutrino pairs give a mass of 81 GeV/c2, close to that of W bosons. This novel mechanism of generating mass suggests that the Higgs mass generation mechanism can be modeled as a latent gravitational field which gets activated by relativistic neutrinos.

  20. Neutrino sunshine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraser, Gordon

    1992-09-15

    Most of the Sun's energy comes from the fusion of protons into deuterium. Sunshine is necessary for life, but the first evidence for the neutrinos which accompany and explain this basic process still makes science history.

  1. Supernova neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John Beacom

    2003-01-01

    We propose that neutrino-proton elastic scattering, ν + p → ν + p, can be used for the detection of supernova neutrinos. Though the proton recoil kinetic energy spectrum is soft, with T p ≅ 2E ν 2 /M p , and the scintillation light output from slow, heavily ionizing protons is quenched, the yield above a realistic threshold is nearly as large as that from (bar ν) e + p → e + + n. In addition, the measured proton spectrum is related to the incident neutrino spectrum, which solves a long-standing problem of how to separately measure the total energy release and temperature of ν μ , ν τ , (bar ν) μ , and (bar ν) τ . The ability to detect this signal would give detectors like KamLAND and Borexino a crucial and unique role in the quest to detect supernova neutrinos

  2. Neutrino cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Lesgourgues, Julien; Miele, Gennaro; Pastor, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    The role that neutrinos have played in the evolution of the Universe is the focus of one of the most fascinating research areas that has stemmed from the interplay between cosmology, astrophysics and particle physics. In this self-contained book, the authors bring together all aspects of the role of neutrinos in cosmology, spanning from leptogenesis to primordial nucleosynthesis, their role in CMB and structure formation, to the problem of their direct detection. The book starts by guiding the reader through aspects of fundamental neutrino physics, such as the standard cosmological model and the statistical mechanics in the expanding Universe, before discussing the history of neutrinos in chronological order from the very early stages until today. This timely book will interest graduate students and researchers in astrophysics, cosmology and particle physics, who work with either a theoretical or experimental focus.

  3. Neutrino sunshine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraser, Gordon

    1992-01-01

    Most of the Sun's energy comes from the fusion of protons into deuterium. Sunshine is necessary for life, but the first evidence for the neutrinos which accompany and explain this basic process still makes science history

  4. Neutrino overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haxton, W.C.

    1994-01-01

    I discuss some of the open issues in neutrino physics, emphasizing areas of intersection with astrophysics, that occupied the participants of the Snowmass Workshop on Nuclear and Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology in the Next Millenium

  5. Neutrino masses and oscillations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smirnov, A Yu

    1996-11-01

    New effects related to refraction of neutrinos in different media are reviewed and implication of the effects to neutrino mass and mixing are discussed. Patterns of neutrino masses and mixing implied by existing hints/bounds are described. Recent results on neutrino mass generation are presented. They include neutrino masses in SO(10) GUT`s and models with anomalous U(1), generation of neutrino mass via neutrino-neutralino mixing, models of sterile neutrino. (author). 95 refs, 9 figs.

  6. Study of particle production in hadron-nucleus interactions for neutrino experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Palczewski, Tomasz Jan

    The dissertation presents a study of hadron product ion in the NA61/SHINE large acceptance spectrometer at CERN SPS. The differential cross se ctions were obtained for the production of negatively charged pions, neutral Kaons, and Lam bdas from the proton-Carbon interactions at 31 GeV/c. Methods of particle yields extraction from proton Carbon interactions were developed. An analysis chain of global correction m ethod (h- method) was established for the thin carbon target and as well for T2K replica targ et and compared to the results obtained with full particle identification. The h- method permits to cover larger phase space region not otherwise accessible. In addition, a full chain of V 0 analysis was prepared to obtain neutral Kaon and Lambda results in polar angle and momentum variables (p, θ ). Results on the differential production cross sections and mean mul tiplicities in production processes for negatively charge...

  7. Supernova neutrino detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selvi, M.

    2005-01-01

    Neutrinos emitted during a supernova core collapse represent a unique feature to study both stellar and neutrino properties. After discussing the details of the neutrino emission in the star and the effect of neutrino oscillations on the expected neutrino fluxes at Earth, a review of the detection techniques is presented in this paper, with particular attention to the problem of electron neutrino detection

  8. Astronomy Explained

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, Gerald

    Every year large numbers of people take up the study of astronomy, mostly at amateur level. There are plenty of elementary books on the market, full of colourful photographs, but lacking in proper explanations of how and why things are as they are. Many people eventually wish to go beyond the 'coffee-table book' stage and study this fascinating subject in greater depth. This book is written for them. In addition, many people sit for public examinations in this subject each year and this book is also intended to be of use to them. All the topics from the GCSE syllabus are covered here, with sample questions at the end of each chapter. Astronomy Explained provides a comprehensive treatment of the subject in more depth than is usually found in elementary works, and will be of interest to both amateur astronomers and students of astronomy.

  9. Neutrino book

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiro, Michel

    1995-01-01

    André Rousset's book (in French - Gargamelle et les Courants Neutres - Ecole des Mines de Paris) tells the story of Gargamelle and the discovery at CERN in 1973 of neutral currents, the cornerstone of the electroweak theory. This vital discovery helped to give credence to the Standard Model of particle physics. Rousset is both an observer and one of the key figures in the story. His book is lively and well documented; in it he uses archive material to ensure the accuracy of his information on dates, choices and decisions. After an introduction to particle physics which puts into perspective the electroweak theory unifying weak and electromagnetic interactions, Rousset comes straight to the point. From the late 1950s onwards he was involved in the construction of the first heavy liquid bubble chambers by the BP1, BP2 and BP3 teams at the Ecole Polytechnique in Paris. For Gargamelle a bigger laboratory was needed, and it was at the CEA (French Atomic Energy Commission) in Saclay that the chamber was designed by teams from the Saturne accelerator and the Ecole Polytechnique. However, the decision to build Gargamelle was taken in 1965 through the impetus of André Lagarrigue, in defiance of the normal CERN procedures. Gargamelle was then in competition with the other big bubble chamber project, BEBC; was it really necessary to build two big chambers? The decision by Francis Perrin and the CEA to contribute ''generously'' to the project was probably what swung the decision. Construction took five years, during which many problems were encountered, right up to the fault in the main part of the chamber which caused delays and, a few years later, was to prove fatal to the detector. As Rousset correctly states, Gargamelle was probably the first big detector designed to be built on industrial lines, in direct cooperation with industry. The reward: the first neutrino interaction was photographed on 28 January 1971

  10. Monochromatic neutrinos from massive fourth generation neutrino annihilation in the Sun and Earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belotskij, K.M.; Khlopov, M.Yu.; Shibaev, K.I.

    2001-01-01

    Accumulation inside the Earth and Sun of heavy (with the mass of 50 GeV) primordial neutrinos and antineutrinos of the fourth generation and their successive annihilation is considered. The minimal estimations of annihilational fluxes of monochromatic e, μ, τ neutrinos (neutrinos and antineutrinos) with the energy of 50 GeV are 4.1·10 -6 cm -2 ·s -1 from the Earth core and 1.1·10 -7 cm -2 ·s -1 from the Sun core. That makes the analysis of underground neutrino observatory data the additional source of information on the existence of massive stable 4th generation neutrino. It is shown that due to the kinetic equilibrium between the influx of the neutrinos and their annihilation the existence of new U(1)-gauge interaction of the 4th generation neutrino does not virtually influence the estimations of annihilational e-, μ-, τ-neutrino fluxes

  11. sin2 θ W estimate and bounds on nonstandard interactions at source and detector in the solar neutrino low-energy regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Amir N.; McKay, Douglas W.

    2017-07-01

    We explore the implications of the Borexino experiment's real time measurements of the lowest energy part of the neutrino spectrum from the primary pp fusion process up to 0.420 MeV through the 7Be decay at 0.862 MeV to the pep reaction at 1.44 MeV. We exploit the fact that at such low energies, the large mixing angle solution to the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein matter effects in the sun are small for 7Be and pep and negligible for pp. Consequently, the neutrinos produced in the sun change their flavor almost entirely through vacuum oscillations during propagation from the sun's surface and through possible nonstandard interactions acting at the solar source and Borexino detector. We combine the different NSI effects at source and detector in a single framework and use the current Borexino data to bound NSI non-universal and flavor-changing parameters at energies below the reach of reactor neutrino experiments. We also study the implication of the current data for the weak-mixing angle at this "low-energy frontier" data from the Borexino experiment, where it is expected to be slightly larger than its value at the Z mass. We find sin2 θ W = 0.224 ± 0.016, the lowest energy-scale estimate to date. Looking to the future, we use projected sensitivities to solar neutrinos in next generation dedicated solar experiments and direct dark matter detection experiments and find a potential factor five improvement in determination of the weak-mixing angle and up to an order of magnitude improvement in probing the NSI parameters space.

  12. Progress toward a Km-scale neutrino detector in the deep ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stokstad, R.G.

    1997-11-01

    The best particles for observing distant objects are photons and neutrinos. Because of the neutrino's weak interaction cross section, detectors suitable for astronomy must be very large and well shielded from cosmic rays. Eventually, a detector with the order of a square km of effective area will be needed for systematic observations of distant point sources such as active galactic nuclei. Prototype detectors are currently being developed at several sites in the ocean, at Lake Baikal, and in Antarctica. This talk summarizes the status of the projects that use the deep ocean for the detector medium and shielding: DUMAND, NESTOR and ANTARES. Technical developments will be needed for a future km-scale detector; progress on one of these, a digital electronic system, is also described

  13. Astronomy essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Brass, Charles O

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Astronomy includes the historical perspective of astronomy, sky basics and the celestial coordinate systems, a model and the origin of the solar system, the sun, the planets, Kepler'

  14. The physics-astronomy frontier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoyle, F.; Narlikar, K.

    1980-01-01

    Spacetime diagrams and the structure of matter are considered, and aspects of electrical interaction are investigated. Attention is given to radiation, quantum mechanics, spectrum lines, black bodies, stellar spectra, the H-R diagram, radio astronomy, millimeter-wave astronomy, interstellar grains and infrared astronomy, and X-ray astronomy. The strong and weak interactions are examined, taking into account atoms, nuclei, the evolution of stars, and the measurement of astronomical distances. A description of gravitational interaction is also presented. The laws of motion and gravitation are considered along with black holes, the significance of cosmology, Hubble's law, the expanding universe, the symmetries of the universe, Olbers' paradox, the big-bang universe, Mach's principle, the meaning of the expansion of the system of galaxies, the redshift-magnitude relation of Hubble and Humason, the early universe, and the geometry of special relativity

  15. Production of events with two or three muons in the final state during the interaction on nucleons of neutrinos and anti-neutrinos of the CERN narrow band beam with a maximum energy of 200 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maillard, Jacques.

    1979-03-01

    A study was made of the production of dimuons and trimuons in the neutrino interactions using the data of the CDHS (CERN-Dortmund-Heidelberg-Saclay Cooperation) experiment taken in the CERN narrow band beam. The analysis of the quick results (since the statistics are weak) leads to significant conclusions on these events: 1) the c quark fragmentation function is approximately flat, 2) the production of heavy leptons, if this exists, only represents a very small part of the charged currents (10 -4 approximately). 3) the pair production of charmed quarks can explain some of the dimuons of same sign, the greater part of these events coming from the semi leptonic disintegration of pions and kaons (π→μν,K → μν) produced in the hadronic jet. 4) any other process (for instance the production of b quarks) is very weak ( -3 of the charged currents) [fr

  16. Neutral strange particle production in neutrino and antineutrino charged current interactions on protons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, G. T.; Jones, R. W. L.; Kennedy, B. W.; O'Neale, S. W.; Villalobos-Baillie, O.; Klein, H.; Morrison, D. R. O.; Schmid, P.; Wachsmuth, H.; Miller, D. B.; Mobayyen, M. M.; Wainstein, S.; Aderholz, M.; Hantke, D.; Katz, U. F.; Kern, J.; Schmitz, N.; Wittek, W.; Borner, H. P.; Myatt, G.; Radojicic, D.; Bullock, F. W.; Burke, S.

    1993-06-01

    The production of the neutral strange particles K 0, Λ andbar Λ in vp andbar vp charged current interactions is studied in an experiment with the Big European Bubble Chamber. Mean multiplicities are measured as a function of the event variables E v, W 2 and Q 2 and of the hadron variables x F, z and p {T/2}. K *± (892) and ∑ *± (1385) signals are observed, whereas there is no evidence for ∑ *- (1385) production in vp scattering. Forward, backward and total mean multiplicities are found to compare well with the predictions of an empirical model for deep-inelastic reactions in the case of the strange mesons K 0 and K *± (892) but less so for the strange baryons Λ,bar Λ and ∑ *± (1385). The strange baryon multiplicities are used to obtain the decuplet to octet baryon production ratio and to assess the probabilities of a uu or ud system to break up.

  17. Reaction rates for neutrino processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shalitin, D.

    1978-01-01

    Some integrals involved in neutrino processes are evaluated by transformation to a special system of reference - usually to the center of mass system (CM). Rather simple analytic expressions are obtained for reaction rates and, though less simple, for moments. An interesting result thus obtained is for an isotropic interaction (in CM) of a neutrino with a monoenergetic isotropic gas of extreme relativistic electrons: it is found that the probability of the scattered neutrino to have energy in a certain range is independent of this energy. (Auth.)

  18. Lithuanian Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudzius, J.; Murdin, P.

    2002-01-01

    Lithuanian folklore, archaic calendars and terminology show that Lithuanians were interested in astronomy from ancient times. A lot of celestial bodies have names of Lithuanian origin that are not related to widely accepted ancient Greek mythology. For example, the Milky Way is named `Pauksciu Takas' (literally the way of birds), the constellation of the Great Bear `Didieji Grizulo Ratai' (literal...

  19. γ astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfendale, A.W.

    1987-01-01

    Some problems of gamma astronomy are discussed in the popular form. The most interesting research directions are considered:e + e - pair annihilation, 100 MeV gamma quanta sources, Cherenkov radiation gamma quanta recording and cosmic ray anisotropy. Special attention is paid to unique gamma quanta source - Cygnus X-3. The source possesses the highest luminosity in the gamma range

  20. Radio astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    It is shown how some of the main areas of current CSIRO radioastronomy research are contributing to increasing our knowledge of the universe. The survey includes background astronomy, interstellar gas, the Sun, exploding stars and pulsars, galaxies and quasars. The Australia Telescope and other CSIRO research programs are described

  1. A precision measurement of charm dimuon production in neutrino interactions from the NOMAD experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samoylov, O.; Petti, R.; Alekhin, S.; Astier, P.; Autiero, D.; Baldisseri, A.; Baldo-Ceolin, M.; Banner, M.; Bassompierre, G.; Benslama, K.; Besson, N.; Bird, I.; Blumenfeld, B.; Bobisut, F.; Bouchez, J.; Boyd, S.; Bueno, A.; Bunyatov, S.; Camilleri, L.; Cardini, A.

    2013-01-01

    We present our new measurement of the cross-section for charm dimuon production in neutrino–iron interactions based upon the full statistics collected by the NOMAD experiment. After background subtraction we observe 15 344 charm dimuon events, providing the largest sample currently available. The analysis exploits the large inclusive charged current sample – about 9×10 6 events after all analysis cuts – and the high resolution NOMAD detector to constrain the total systematic uncertainty on the ratio of charm dimuon to inclusive Charged Current (CC) cross-sections to ∼2%. We also perform a fit to the NOMAD data to extract the charm production parameters and the strange quark sea content of the nucleon within the NLO QCD approximation. We obtain a value of m c (m c )=1.159±0.075 GeV/c 2 for the running mass of the charm quark in the MS ¯ scheme and a strange quark sea suppression factor of κ s =0.591±0.019 at Q 2 =20 GeV 2 /c 2

  2. Neutral strange particle production in neutrino and antineutrino charged-current interactions on neon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deprospo, D.; Kalelkar, M.; Aderholz, M.; Akbari, H.; Allport, P. P.; Ammosov, V. V.; Andryakov, A.; Asratyan, A.; Badyal, S. K.; Ballagh, H. C.; Baton, J.-P.; Barth, M.; Bingham, H. H.; Brucker, E. B.; Burnstein, R. A.; Cence, R. J.; Chatterjee, T. K.; Clayton, E. F.; Corrigan, G.; Coutures, C.; Devanand; de Wolf, E.; Ermolov, P.; Erofeeva, I.; Faulkner, P. J.; Foeth, H.; Fretter, W. B.; Gapienko, G.; Gupta, V. K.; Hanlon, J.; Harigel, G.; Harris, F. A.; Ivanilov, A.; Jabiol, M.; Jacques, P.; Jain, V.; Jones, G. T.; Jones, M. D.; Kafka, T.; Kaftanov, V.; Kasper, P.; Kobrin, V.; Kohli, J. M.; Koller, E. L.; Korablev, V.; Kubantsev, M.; Lauko, M.; Lukina, O.; Lys, J. E.; Lyutov, S.; Marage, P.; Milburn, R. H.; Mittra, I. S.; Mobayyen, M. M.; Moreels, J.; Morrison, D. R.; Moskalev, V.; Murzin, V.; Myatt, G.; Nailor, P.; Naon, R.; Napier, A.; Neveu, M.; Passmore, D.; Peters, M. W.; Peterson, V. Z.; Plano, R.; Rao, N. K.; Rubin, H. A.; Ryasakov, S.; Sacton, J.; Sambyal, S. S.; Schmitz, N.; Schneps, J.; Singh, J. B.; Singh, S.; Sivoklokov, S.; Smart, W.; Smirnova, L.; Stamer, P.; Varvell, K. E.; Verluyten, L.; Wachsmuth, H.; Wainstein, S.; Willocq, S.; Yost, G. P.

    1994-12-01

    A study has been made of neutral strange particle production in νμNe and ν¯μNe charged-current interactions at a higher energy than any previous study. The experiment was done at the Fermilab Tevatron using the 15-ft. bubble chamber, and the data sample consists of 814(154) observed neutral strange particles from 6263(1115) ν(ν¯) charged-current events. For the ν beam (average event energy =150 GeV), the average multiplicities per charged-current event have been measured to be 0.408+/-0.048 for K0, 0.127+/-0.014 for Λ, and 0.015+/-0.005 for Λ¯, which are significantly greater than for lower-energy experiments. The dependence of rates on kinematical variables has been measured, and shows that both K0 and Λ production increase strongly with Eν, W2, Q2, and yB. Compared to lower-energy experiments, single-particle distributions indicate that there is much more K0 production for xF>-0.2, and the enhanced Λ production spans most of the kinematic region. Λ¯ production is mostly in the region ||xF||-0.2 there is a significant excess of Λ production over the model's prediction. The Λ hyperons are found to be polarized in the production plane.

  3. Neutral strange particle production in neutrino and antineutrino charged current interactions on protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, G.T.; Jones, R.W.L.; Kennedy, B.W.; O'Neale, S.W.; Villalobos-Baillie, O.; Klein, H.; Morrison, D.R.O.; Schmid, P.; Wachsmuth, H.; Miller, D.B.; Mobayyen, M.M.; Wainstein, S.; Aderholz, M.; Hantke, D.; Katz, U.F.; Kern, J.; Schmitz, N.; Wittek, W.; Borner, H.P.; Myatt, G.; Radojicic, D.; Bullock, F.W.; Burke, S.

    1992-08-01

    The production of the neutral strange particles K 0 , Λ and anti Λ in νp and anti νp charged current interactions is studied in an experiment with the Big European Bubble Chamber. Mean multiplicities are measured as a function of the event variables. E ν , W 2 and Q 2 and of the hadron variables χ F , z and p T 2 . K* ± (892) and Σ* ± (1385) signals are observed, whereas there is no evidence for Σ* - (1385) production in νp scattering. Forward, backward and total mean multiplicities are found to compare well with the predictions of an empirical model for deep-inelastic reactions in the case of the strange mesons K 0 and K* ± (892) but less so for the strange baryons Λ, anti Λ and Σ* ± (1385). The strange baryon multiplicities are used to obtain the decuplet to octet baryon production ratio and to assess the probabilities of a uu or ud system to break up. (orig.)

  4. Neutral strange particle production in neutrino and antineutrino charged current interactions on protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, G.T.; Jones, R.W.L.; Kennedy, B.W.; O'Neale, S.W.; Villalobos-Baillie, O.; Klein, H.; Morrison, D.R.O.; Schmid, P.; Wachsmuth, H.; Miller, D.B.; Mobayyen, M.M.; Wainstein, S.; Borner, H.P.; Myatt, G.; Radojicic, D.; Bullock, F.W.; Burke, S.

    1993-01-01

    The production of the neutral strange particles K 0 , Λ and anti Λ in νp and anti νp charged current interactions is studied in an experiment with the Big European Bubble Chamber. Mean multiplicities are measured as a function of the event variables E ν , W 2 and Q 2 and of the hadron variables x F , z and p T 2 . K* ± (892) and Σ* ± (1385) signals are observed, whereas there is no evidence for Σ* - (1385) production in νp scattering. Forward, backward and total mean multiplicities are found to compare well with the predictions of an empirical model for deep-inelastic reactions in the case of the strange mesons K 0 and K* ± (892) but less so for the strange baryons Λ, anti Λ and Σ* ± (1385). The strange baryon multiplicites are used to obtain the decuplet to octet baryon production ratio and to assess the probabilities of a uu or ud system to break up. (orig.)

  5. Faraday effect and solar neutrino problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nawaz, S.

    2001-01-01

    We have studied the Faraday effect and solar neutrino problem. Our main emphasis was on the Faraday rotation of neutrino de Broglie wave of electron-neutrino producing in the nuclear reactions in the sun and converting into any other flavor of neutrino while passing through matter and/or magnetic field of the sun. We have shown that specific Faraday angle can minimize the number of free parameters occurring in the neutrino oscillation. We have also shown that the resonant Faraday angle corresponding to the resonance of MSW effect can be obtained the knowledge of the oscillation parameter delta m/sup 2/ and the neutrino energy. Using neutrino-Faraday angle approach, we have shown that the matter enhanced neutrino oscillations is dominating over the resonant spin flavor precession (RSFP) even in the favorable region of the spin flavor procession. Using the latest solar neutrino data, we have shown that Faraday angle is almost 10/sup -3/ times smaller. This can be interpreted as the interaction of magnetic moment of neutrino with the solar magnetic field is negligibly small as compare to the effect of matter field on the neutrino oscillation. (author)

  6. Experimental study of inclusive single hadron production by neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, W.G.

    1979-01-01

    A study of inclusive single hadron production by neutrinos performed as part of an experiment studying neutrino proton interactions using BEBC filled with hydrogen is reported. Emphasis is given to questions related to factorization and scaling deviations in fragmentation functions

  7. Measurement of the antineutrino to neutrino charged-current interaction cross section ratio in MINERvA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, L.; Aliaga, L.; Altinok, O.; Bellantoni, L.; Bercellie, A.; Betancourt, M.; Bodek, A.; Bravar, A.; Budd, H.; Cai, T.; Carneiro, M. F.; da Motta, H.; Devan, J.; Dytman, S. A.; Díaz, G. A.; Eberly, B.; Endress, E.; Felix, J.; Fields, L.; Fine, R.; Gago, A. M.; Galindo, R.; Gallagher, H.; Ghosh, A.; Golan, T.; Gran, R.; Han, J. Y.; Harris, D. A.; Hurtado, K.; Kiveni, M.; Kleykamp, J.; Kordosky, M.; Le, T.; Maher, E.; Manly, S.; Mann, W. A.; Marshall, C. M.; Martinez Caicedo, D. A.; McFarland, K. S.; McGivern, C. L.; McGowan, A. M.; Messerly, B.; Miller, J.; Mislivec, A.; Morfín, J. G.; Mousseau, J.; Naples, D.; Nelson, J. K.; Norrick, A.; Nuruzzaman, Paolone, V.; Park, J.; Patrick, C. E.; Perdue, G. N.; Ramírez, M. A.; Ransome, R. D.; Ray, H.; Rimal, D.; Rodrigues, P. A.; Ruterbories, D.; Schellman, H.; Solano Salinas, C. J.; Sultana, M.; Sánchez Falero, S.; Valencia, E.; Walton, T.; Wolcott, J.; Wospakrik, M.; Yaeggy, B.; MinerνA Collaboration

    2017-04-01

    We present measurements of the neutrino and antineutrino total charged-current cross sections on carbon and their ratio using the MINERvA scintillator-tracker. The measurements span the energy range 2-22 GeV and were performed using forward and reversed horn focusing modes of the Fermilab low-energy NuMI beam to obtain large neutrino and antineutrino samples. The flux is obtained using a subsample of charged-current events at low hadronic energy transfer along with precise higher energy external neutrino cross section data overlapping with our energy range between 12-22 GeV. We also report on the antineutrino-neutrino cross section ratio, RCC , which does not rely on external normalization information. Our ratio measurement, obtained within the same experiment using the same technique, benefits from the cancellation of common sample systematic uncertainties and reaches a precision of ˜5 % at low energy. Our results for the antineutrino-nucleus scattering cross section and for RCC are the most precise to date in the energy range Eν<6 GeV .

  8. Production of Excited Neutrinos at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Belyaev, A; Mehdiyev, R

    2005-01-01

    We study the potential of the CERN LHC in the search for the single production of excited neutrino through gauge interactions. Subsequent decays of excited neutrino via gauge interactions are examined. The mass range accessible with the ATLAS detector is obtained.

  9. NEUTRINO mass textures and the nature of new physics implied by present neutrino data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohapatra, R.N.

    1997-01-01

    If all the indications for neutrino oscillations observed in the solar, atmospheric neutrino data as well as in the LSND experiment are borned out by the ongoing and future experiments, then they severely constrain the neutrino mass texture. In particular, the need for an extra ultra-light sterile neutrino species is hard to avoid. Such an extra neutrino has profound implication not only for physics beyond the standard model but even perhaps for physics beyond conventional grand unification. A scenario involving a parallel (or shadow) universe that interacts with the familiar universe only via the gravitational interactions where the ultra-lightness of the sterile neutrino follows from the same physics that explains the near masslessness of the familiar neutrinos is discussed in the presentation

  10. Are there really neutrinos? an evidential history

    CERN Document Server

    Franklin, Allan

    2004-01-01

    In this intriguing and accessible book, physicist Allan Franklin examines the experiments on neutrino oscillations. He argues that this history gives us good reason to believe in the existence of the neutrino, a particle that interacts so weakly with matter that its interaction length is measured in light years of lead. Only recently, the scientific process has provided evidence of the elusive neutrino. Written in a style accessible to any reader with a college education in physics, Are There Really Neutrinos? is of interest to students and researchers alike.

  11. Neutral currents, supernovae neutrinos, and nucleosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haxton, W.C.

    1988-01-01

    The inelastic interactions of neutrinos during stellar collapse and neutron star cooling are discussed. The primary mechanism for dissipative neutrino reactions is nuclear excitation by neutral current scattering, a process not included in standard descriptions of supernovae. Charge-current and neutral current ''preheating'' of iron lying outside the shock front appears to be significant in the few milliseconds near shock breakout. This could help produce a more energetic shock. During the cooling phase, the neutral current interactions of muon and taon neutrinos appear to be responsible for some interesting nucleosynthesis. I discuss two examples the production of fluorine and neutrino-induced r-process nucleosynthesis. 26 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  12. Neutrino mass and the solar neutrino problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfenstein, L.

    1987-01-01

    Theoretical ideas about neutrino mass based on grand-unified theories are reviewed. These give the see-saw formula in which neutrino mass is inversely proportional to a large mass scale M. For M between 10/sup 11/ and 10/sup 15/ Gev the study of solar neutrinos appears to be the best probe of neutrino masses and mixings

  13. Neutrino clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephenson Jr, G.J.; McKellar, B.H.J.

    1997-01-01

    We consider the possibility that neutrinos are coupled very weakly to an extremely light scalar boson. We first analyze the simple problem of one generation of neutrino and show that, for ranges of parameters that are allowed by existing data, such a system can have serious consequences for the evolution of stars and could impact precision laboratory measurements. We discuss the extension to more generations and show that the general conclusion remains viable. Finally, we note that, should such a scalar field be present, experiments give information about effective masses, not the masses that arise in unified field theories. (authors). 23 refs., 9 figs

  14. Neutrino clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephenson Jr, G.J. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Goldman, T. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); McKellar, B.H.J. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics

    1997-06-01

    We consider the possibility that neutrinos are coupled very weakly to an extremely light scalar boson. We first analyze the simple problem of one generation of neutrino and show that, for ranges of parameters that are allowed by existing data, such a system can have serious consequences for the evolution of stars and could impact precision laboratory measurements. We discuss the extension to more generations and show that the general conclusion remains viable. Finally, we note that, should such a scalar field be present, experiments give information about effective masses, not the masses that arise in unified field theories. (authors). 23 refs., 9 figs.

  15. Neutrino Telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coelin Baldo, Milla

    2009-01-01

    The present volume contains the proceedings of the 13. International Workshop on 'Neutrino Telescope', 17. of the series 'Un altro modo di guardare il cielo', held in Venice at the 'Istituto Veneto di Scienze, Lettere ed Arti' from March 10 to March 13, 2009. This series started in Venice 21 years ago, in 1988, motivated by the growing interest in the exciting field of the neutrino physics and astrophysics, with the aim to bring together experimentalists and theorists and encourage discussion on the most recent results and to chart the direction of future researchers.

  16. Supernovae and neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John F. Beacom

    2002-01-01

    A long-standing problem in supernova physics is how to measure the total energy and temperature of ν μ , ν τ , (bar ν) μ , and (bar ν) τ . While of the highest importance, this is very difficult because these flavors only have neutral-current detector interactions. We propose that neutrino-proton elastic scattering, ν + p → ν + p, can be used for the detection of supernova neutrinos in scintillator detectors. It should be emphasized immediately that the dominant signal is on free protons. Though the proton recoil kinetic energy spectrum is soft, with T p ≅ 2E ν 2 /M p , and the scintillation light output from slow, heavily ionizing protons is quenched, the yield above a realistic threshold is nearly as large as that from (bar ν) e + p → e + + n. In addition, the measured proton spectrum is related to the incident neutrino spectrum. The ability to detect this signal would give detectors like KamLAND and Borexino a crucial and unique role in the quest to detect supernova neutrinos

  17. Neutrino mixing and future accelerator neutrino experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilenky, S.M.

    1992-01-01

    No evidence for neutrino mixing has been obtained in experiments searching for oscillations with neutrinos from accelerators and reactors. The possible reason is that neutrino masses are too small to produce any sizable effects in the experiments with terrestrial neutrinos. We put forward here the point of view that the reason for that can be traced to the presence of a hierarchy of neutrino masses as well as strength of couplings between lepton families. (orig.)

  18. Nuclear effects in neutrino oscillation experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauhan, S.; Athar, M. Sajjad; Singh, S. K.

    2011-01-01

    We have studied the nuclear medium effects in the neutrino(antineutrino) induced interactions in nuclei which are relevant for present neutrino oscillation experiments in the few GeV energy region. The study is specially focused on calculating the cross sections and the event rates for atmospheric and accelerator neutrino experiments. The nuclear effects are found to be important for the quasielastic lepton production and the charged current incoherent and coherent pion production processes.

  19. Future Long-Baseline Neutrino Facilities and Detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milind Diwan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We review the ongoing effort in the US, Japan, and Europe of the scientific community to study the location and the detector performance of the next-generation long-baseline neutrino facility. For many decades, research on the properties of neutrinos and the use of neutrinos to study the fundamental building blocks of matter has unveiled new, unexpected laws of nature. Results of neutrino experiments have triggered a tremendous amount of development in theory: theories beyond the standard model or at least extensions of it and development of the standard solar model and modeling of supernova explosions as well as the development of theories to explain the matter-antimatter asymmetry in the universe. Neutrino physics is one of the most dynamic and exciting fields of research in fundamental particle physics and astrophysics. The next-generation neutrino detector will address two aspects: fundamental properties of the neutrino like mass hierarchy, mixing angles, and the CP phase, and low-energy neutrino astronomy with solar, atmospheric, and supernova neutrinos. Such a new detector naturally allows for major improvements in the search for nucleon decay. A next-generation neutrino observatory needs a huge, megaton scale detector which in turn has to be installed in a new, international underground laboratory, capable of hosting such a huge detector.

  20. Future Long-Baseline Neutrino Facilities and Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diwan, Milind [Brookhaven; Edgecock, Rob [Huddersfield U.; Hasegawa, Takuya [KEK, Tsukuba; Patzak, Thomas [APC, Paris; Shiozawa, Masato [Kamioka Observ.; Strait, Jim [Fermilab

    2013-01-01

    We review the ongoing effort in the US, Japan, and Europe of the scientific community to study the location and the detector performance of the next-generation long-baseline neutrino facility. For many decades, research on the properties of neutrinos and the use of neutrinos to study the fundamental building blocks of matter has unveiled new, unexpected laws of nature. Results of neutrino experiments have triggered a tremendous amount of development in theory: theories beyond the standard model or at least extensions of it and development of the standard solar model and modeling of supernova explosions as well as the development of theories to explain the matter-antimatter asymmetry in the universe. Neutrino physics is one of the most dynamic and exciting fields of research in fundamental particle physics and astrophysics. The next-generation neutrino detector will address two aspects: fundamental properties of the neutrino like mass hierarchy, mixing angles, and the CP phase, and low-energy neutrino astronomy with solar, atmospheric, and supernova neutrinos. Such a new detector naturally allows for major improvements in the search for nucleon decay. A next-generation neutrino observatory needs a huge, megaton scale detector which in turn has to be installed in a new, international underground laboratory, capable of hosting such a huge detector.

  1. Extragalactic astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sersic, J.L.

    1982-01-01

    This book condenses the author's yearly semester lectures on 'Extra galactic Astronomy' held almost without interruption over two decades at Cordoba University for students of Astronomy. After a first chapter on Morphology and Classification of galaxies, the second gives most of the basic information about normal galaxies as individuals. Active galaxies are described in chapter III whilst chapter IV deals with the mutual relationship between galaxies and their environment. The Scale of distance is considered in chapter V. Distance indicators are introduced and several conflicting viewpoints of different schools are presented. Chapter VI deals with Cosmology, just to give the necessary elements for chapter VII where the relation between gravitational instability and galaxy formation is discussed. Chapter VIII is an appendix containing additional notes. (Auth.)

  2. Chaco astronomies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín López, Alejandro

    2015-08-01

    This presentation discusses the result of 18 years of ethnographic and ethnohistorical studies on Chaco astronomies. The main features of the systems of astronomical knowledge of the Chaco Aboriginal groups will be discussed. In particular we will discuss the relevance of the Milky Way, the role of the visibility of the Pleiades, the ways in which the celestial space is represented, the constitution of astronomical orientations in geographic space, etc. We also address a key feature of their vision of the cosmos: the universe is seen by these groups as a socio-cosmos, where humans and non-humans are related. These are therefore actually socio-cosmologies. We will link this to the theories of Chaco Aboriginal groups about power and political relations.We will discuss how the study of Aboriginal astronomies must be performed along with the studies about astronomies of Creole people and European migrants, as well as anthropological studies about the science teaching in the formal education system and by the mass media. In this form we will discuss the relevance of a very complex system of interethnic relations for the conformation of these astronomical representations and practices.We will also discuss the general methodological implications of this case for the ethnoastronomy studies. In particular we will talk about the advantages of a study of regional scope and about the key importance of put in contact the ethnoastronomy with contemporary issues in social sciences.We also analyze the importance of ethnoastronomy studies in relation to studies of sociology of science, especially astronomy. We also study the potential impact on improving formal and informal science curricula and in shaping effective policies to protect the tangible and intangible astronomical heritage in a context of respect for the rights of Aboriginal groups.

  3. Inuit Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, John

    Inuit live mainly in the treeless Arctic regions of North America, Greenland, and parts of northeastern Siberia. Their cosmology, based on shamanistic belief, constructed a view of the sky and its contents distinctively suited to their spiritual and pragmatic needs. Their astronomy, particularly for those groups living far above the Arctic Circle, reflects the unique appearance of the celestial sphere at high northerly latitudes, demonstrated most noticeably in the annual disappearance of the sun during midwinter months.

  4. Infrared astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Setti, G.; Fazio, G.

    1978-01-01

    This volume contains lectures describing the important achievements in infrared astronomy. The topics included are galactic infrared sources and their role in star formation, the nature of the interstellar medium and galactic structure, the interpretation of infrared, optical and radio observations of extra-galactic sources and their role in the origin and structure of the universe, instrumental techniques and a review of future space observations. (C.F.)

  5. No Collective Neutrino Flavor Conversions during the Supernova Accretion Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Sovan; Fischer, Tobias; Mirizzi, Alessandro; Saviano, Ninetta; Tomàs, Ricard

    2011-10-01

    We perform a dedicated study of the supernova (SN) neutrino flavor evolution during the accretion phase, using results from recent neutrino radiation hydrodynamics simulations. In contrast to what was expected in the presence of only neutrino-neutrino interactions, we find that the multiangle effects associated with the dense ordinary matter suppress collective oscillations. The matter suppression implies that neutrino oscillations will start outside the neutrino decoupling region and therefore will have a negligible impact on the neutrino heating and the explosion dynamics. Furthermore, the possible detection of the next galactic SN neutrino signal from the accretion phase, based on the usual Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein effect in the SN mantle and Earth matter effects, can reveal the neutrino mass hierarchy in the case that the mixing angle θ13 is not very small.

  6. Neutrino horn

    CERN Multimedia

    1967-01-01

    View of the new neutrino horn installed in its blockhouse from the target end. Protons pass through the 2mm hole in the centre of the small fluorescent screen, hitting the target immediately behind it. The circular tubes carry pressurized cooling water.

  7. Neutrino Oscillations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The 2015 Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded to two physicists-Takaaki Kajita and Arthur B McDonald, whose teams discoveredthat neutrinos, which come in three flavours, changefrom one flavour to another. This discovery is a major milestonein particle physics as it gives a clear evidence of physicsbeyond the Standard ...

  8. Solar Neutrinos

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    7,81. The Chlorine experiment, located in the Homestake Gold Mine in Lead, South Dakota, was the first solar neutrino experiment to be set up. A tank of. 105 gallons of perchloroethylene in which the electron neu- trino reacts with chlorine to ...

  9. Archaeology and astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    MEETING REPORT The interaction between archaeology and astronomy has a long, tangled and not entirely creditable history, marred by misunderstandings on both sides. But statistics and cultural awareness are bringing a better picture of how and why lasting monuments such as Stonehenge were built. Sue Bowler reports on a joint meeting of the Royal Astronomical Society and the Prehistoric Society, held at Jodrell Bank on 17 July 2009.

  10. Fundamental astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Kröger, Pekka; Oja, Heikki; Poutanen, Markku; Donner, Karl

    2017-01-01

    Now in its sixth edition this successful undergraduate textbook gives a well-balanced and comprehensive introduction to the topics of classical and modern astronomy. While emphasizing both the astronomical concepts and the underlying physical principles, the text provides a sound basis for more profound studies in the astronomical sciences. The chapters on galactic and extragalactic astronomy as well as cosmology were extensively modernized in the previous edition. In this new edition they have been further revised to include more recent results. The long chapter on the solar system has been split into two parts: the first one deals with the general properties, and the other one describes individual objects. A new chapter on exoplanets has been added to the end of the book next to the chapter on astrobiology. In response to the fact that astronomy has evolved enormously over the last few years, only a few chapters of this book have been left unmodified. Long considered a standard text for physical science maj...

  11. Humanising Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, S.

    2008-06-01

    Universe Awareness (UNAWE) is an international programme that aims to expose underprivileged children (in the age group 4-10) to the inspirational aspects of astronomy. We are currently at the stage of developing materials that will be utilised in a diverse range of environments. This paper explores UNAWE's particular approach to developing tools which includes not only indigenous and folkloric astronomical knowledge, but also the culture of transmission of such knowledge. A specific understanding and explanation of the Universe, the Sun, Moon and stars is present in every culture and can be found contained in its history, legends and belief systems. By consciously embracing different ways of knowing the Universe and not uniquely the rational model, UNAWE places the humanising potential of astronomy at the centre of its purpose. Whilst inspiring curiosity, pride and a sense of ownership in one's own cultural identity, such an approach also exposes children to the diversity of other peoples and their cultures as well as the unifying aspects of our common scientific heritage. The means of creating and delivering the astronomy programme are as relevant to the desired educational outcomes as the content. The challenge in the design of materials is to communicate this stimulating message to the very young. Respect for alternative values systems, the need for dialogue and community participation, and where possible the production of materials using local resources is emphasised. This paper touches recent experiences liaising with communities in India, South Africa, Tunisia, Venezuela and Colombia.

  12. J-PARC Press Release: Electron neutrino oscillation detected at T2K

    CERN Multimedia

    T2K Press Office

    2011-01-01

    Tsukuba, Japan, June 15, 2011. The T2K experiment, whose primary purpose is to study neutrino interactions at a large distance from their source, has detected 6 electron neutrino candidate events based on the data collected before March 11, 2011. For the first time, it was possible to observe an indication that muon neutrinos are able to transform into electron neutrinos over a distance of 295 km through the quantum mechanical phenomena of neutrino flavor oscillations.   The Super-Kamiokande detector, in Japan. © 2011, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, KEK. The T2K experiment is searching for the neutrino oscillation phenomena, where particular types of neutrinos transform into other types of neutrinos. These observations help determine neutrino masses, as well elucidating the uncharted nature of neutrinos, such as the relationship among three neutrino generations (types). T2K aims at the world’s best sensitivity by detecting neutrinos with the Super-Kamiokande d...

  13. Recent results from the ANTARES neutrino telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Elewyck, Véronique

    2014-01-01

    The ANTARES neutrino telescope is currently the largest operating water Cherenkov detector and the largest neutrino detector in the Northern Hemisphere. Its main scientific target is the detection of high-energy (TeV and beyond) neutrinos from cosmic accelerators, as predicted by hadronic interaction models, and the measurement of the diffuse neutrino flux. Its location allows for surveying a large part of the Galactic Plane, including the Galactic Centre. In addition to the standalone searches for point-like and diffuse high-energy neutrino signals, ANTARES has developed a range of multi-messenger strategies to exploit the close connection between neutrinos and other cosmic messengers such as gamma-rays, charged cosmic rays and gravitational waves. This contribution provides an overview of the recently conducted analyses, including a search for neutrinos from the Fermi bubbles region, searches for optical counterparts with the TAToO program, and searches for neutrinos in correlation with gamma-ray bursts, blazars, and microquasars. Further topics of investigation, covering e.g. the search for neutrinos from dark matter annihilation, searches for exotic particles and the measurement of neutrino oscillations, are also reviewed

  14. Nuclear Neutrino Spectra in Late Stellar Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misch, G. Wendell; Sun, Yang; Fuller, George

    2018-05-01

    Neutrinos are the principle carriers of energy in massive stars, beginning from core carbon burning and continuing through core collapse and after the core bounce. In fact, it may be possible to detect neutrinos from nearby pre-supernova stars. Therefore, it is of great interest to understand the neutrino energy spectra from these stars. Leading up to core collapse, beginning around core silicon burning, nuclei become dominant producers of neutrinos, particularly at high neutrino energy, so a systematic study of nuclear neutrino spectra is desirable. We have done such a study, and we present our sd-shell model calculations of nuclear neutrino energy spectra for nuclei in the mass number range A = 21 - 35. Our study includes neutrinos produced by charged lepton capture, charged lepton emission, and neutral current nuclear deexcitation. Previous authors have tabulated the rates of charged current nuclear weak interactions in astrophysical conditions, but the present work expands on this not only by providing neutrino energy spectra, but also by including the heretofore untabulated neutral current de-excitation neutrino pairs.

  15. Neutrino conversion in a neutrino flux: towards an effective theory of collective oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Rasmus S. L.; Smirnov, Alexei Yu.

    2018-04-01

    Collective oscillations of supernova neutrinos above the neutrino sphere can be completely described by the propagation of individual neutrinos in external potentials and are in this sense a linear phenomenon. An effective theory of collective oscillations can be developed based on certain assumptions about time dependence of these potentials. General conditions for strong flavor transformations are formulated and these transformations can be interpreted as parametric resonance effects induced by periodic modulations of the potentials. We study a simplified and solvable example, where a probe neutrino is propagating in a flux of collinear neutrinos, such that ν ν‑ interactions in the flux are absent. Still, this example retains the main feature—the coherent flavor exchange. Properties of the parametric resonance are studied, and it is shown that integrations over energies and emission points of the flux neutrinos suppress modulations of the potentials and therefore strong transformations. The transformations are also suppressed by changes in densities of background neutrinos and electrons.

  16. Future neutrino experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Di Lella, L

    2001-01-01

    Future experiments to search for neutrino oscillations using neutrinos from the Sun, from reactors and accelerators are reviewed. Possible long-term developments based on neutrino factories are also described. (29 refs).

  17. Possible Tau Appearance Experiment with Atmospheric Neutrinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanev, Todor

    1999-12-27

    We suggest an experimental measurement that could detect the appearance of tau neutrinos due to {nu}{sub {mu}}{yields}{nu}{sub {tau}} oscillations of atmospheric neutrinos by measuring the energy spectra of neutrino induced showers. {tau} neutrinos deposit a large fraction of their energy in showers generated by {nu}{sub {tau}} charge current interactions and the subsequent {tau} -lepton decay. The appearance of {nu}{sub {tau}} will enhance the spectrum of neutrino induced showers in energy ranges corresponding to the neutrino oscillation parameters. A shower rate lower than the ''no oscillation'' prediction is an indication for {nu}{sub {mu}}{yields}{nu}{sub s} oscillations. (c) 1999 The American Physical Society.

  18. Study of the atmospheric neutrino oscillations in the Frejus experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perdereau, O.

    1989-05-01

    The behavior of atmospheric neutrinos is investigated. It is a zero mass, zero charge and weak interacting particle. The aim of the investigation is to search for non standard phenomena, such as neutrino oscillations. The neutrino theoretical properties are discussed and the physical parameters experimental limits are recalled. The analysis of the approximately 200 events from atmospheric neutrinos observed in Frejus detector is carried out. The results and simulation of neutrino interactions are presented. The data analysis induces to the exclusion of neutrino oscillation hypothesis from some models. Three cases of oscillations involving two neutrino flavors are analyzed. The effect of a third flavor is also taken into account. The present data and those from IMB and Kamiokande experiments are compared. Topics involving investigations on the superposition of a signal and the atmospheric neutrinos are included [fr

  19. A measurement of muon neutrino disappearance with the MINOS detectors and NuMI beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ospanov, Rustem [Texas U.

    2008-08-01

    MINOS is a long-baseline two-detector neutrino oscillation experiment that uses a high intensity muon neutrino beam to investigate the phenomena of neutrino oscillations. The neutrino beam is produced by the NuMI facility at Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois, and is observed at near and far detectors placed 734 km apart. The neutrino interactions in the near detector are used to measure the initial muon neutrino fl The vast majority of neutrinos travel through the near detector and Earth matter without interactions. A fraction of muon neutrinos oscillate into other fl vors resulting in the disappearance of muon neutrinos at the far detector. This thesis presents a measurement of the muon neutrino oscillation parameters in the framework of the two-neutrino oscillation hypothesis.

  20. Measurement of the neutral to charged current cross section ratios in neutrino and antineutrino nucleon interactions and determination of the Weinberg angle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramowicz, H.; Groot, J.G.H. de; Hansl-Kozanecka, T.; Knobloch, J.; May, J.; Navarria, F.L.; Palazzi, P.; Para, A.; Ranjard, F.; Rothberg, J.; Schlatter, D.; Steinberger, J.; Taureg, H.; Rueden, W. von; Wahl, H.; Wotschak, J.; Duda, J.; Eisele, F.; Klasen, H.P.; Kleinknecht, K.; Lierl, H.; Pollmann, D.; Pszola, B.; Renk, B.; Willutzki, H.J.; Dydak, F.; Flottmann, T.; Geweniger, C.; Hepp, V.; Krolikowski, J.; Tittel, K.; Bloch, P.; Bloch-Devaux, B.; Guyot, C.; Loucatos, S.; Maillard, J.; Merlo, J.P.; Peyaud, B.; Rander, J.; Savoy-Navarro, A.; Turlay, R.; He, J.T.; Ruan, T.Z.; Wu, W.M.

    1985-01-01

    The cross section ratios of neutral and charged current interactions induced by neutrinos and antineutrinos in iron have been measured in the 200 GeV narrow-band beam at the CERN SPS. We find Rsub(ν)=0.301+-0.007 and Rsub(anti ν)=0.363+-0.015 for a hadron energy cut of 10 GeV. The results are in agreement with the standard model of electroweak interactions. In the MS renormalization scheme at the scale of the W boson mass sin 2 Osub(w)(msub(w))=0.226+-0.012 is obtained, where the error represents the experimental uncertainty. The theoretical uncertainty is estimated to be Δ sind 2 Osub(w)=+-0.006. (orig.)

  1. Optical scattering lengths in large liquid-scintillator neutrino detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wurm, M.; Feilitzsch, F. von; Goeger-Neff, M.; Hofmann, M.; Lewke, T.; Meindl, Q.; Moellenberg, R.; Oberauer, L.; Potzel, W.; Tippmann, M.; Todor, S.; Winter, J. [Physik-Department E15, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, James-Franck-Str., D-85748 Garching (Germany); Lachenmaier, T.; Traunsteiner, C. [Excellence Cluster Universe, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Boltzmannstr. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Undagoitia, T. Marrodan [Physik-Department E15, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, James-Franck-Str., D-85748 Garching (Germany); Physik-Institut, Universitaet Zuerich, Winterthurstr. 189, CH-8057 Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2010-05-15

    For liquid-scintillator neutrino detectors of kiloton scale, the transparency of the organic solvent is of central importance. The present paper reports on laboratory measurements of the optical scattering lengths of the organic solvents phenylxylylethane, linear alkylbenzene (LAB), and dodecane, which are under discussion for next-generation experiments such as SNO+ (Sudbury Neutrino Observatory), HanoHano, or LENA (Low Energy Neutrino Astronomy). Results comprise the wavelength range of 415-440 nm. The contributions from Rayleigh and Mie scattering as well as from absorption/re-emission processes are discussed. Based on the present results, LAB seems to be the preferred solvent for a large-volume detector.

  2. Optical scattering lengths in large liquid-scintillator neutrino detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurm, M; von Feilitzsch, F; Göger-Neff, M; Hofmann, M; Lachenmaier, T; Lewke, T; Marrodán Undagoitia, T; Meindl, Q; Möllenberg, R; Oberauer, L; Potzel, W; Tippmann, M; Todor, S; Traunsteiner, C; Winter, J

    2010-05-01

    For liquid-scintillator neutrino detectors of kiloton scale, the transparency of the organic solvent is of central importance. The present paper reports on laboratory measurements of the optical scattering lengths of the organic solvents phenylxylylethane, linear alkylbenzene (LAB), and dodecane, which are under discussion for next-generation experiments such as SNO+ (Sudbury Neutrino Observatory), HanoHano, or LENA (Low Energy Neutrino Astronomy). Results comprise the wavelength range of 415-440 nm. The contributions from Rayleigh and Mie scattering as well as from absorption/re-emission processes are discussed. Based on the present results, LAB seems to be the preferred solvent for a large-volume detector.

  3. Very high energy gamma-ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weekes, T.C.

    1988-01-01

    Current interest in gamma-ray astronomy at energies above 100 GeV comes from the identification of Cygnus X-3 and other X-ray binaries as sources. In addition there are reports of emission from radio pulsars and a variety of other objects. The statistical significance of many of the observations is not high and many reported effects await confirmation, but there are a sufficient number of independent reports that very high energy gamma-ray astronomy must now be considered to have an observational basis. The observations are summarized with particular emphasis on those reported since 1980. The techniques used - the detection of small air showers using the secondary photons and particles at ground level - are unusual and are described. Future prospects for the field are discussed in relation to new ground-based experiments, satellite gamma-ray studies and proposed neutrino astronomy experiments. (orig.) With 296 refs

  4. SNO results and neutrino magnetic moment solution to the solar ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    that the solar neutrino deficit is due to the interaction of neutrino transition magnetic moment with the solar magnetic ... Another new feature in the analysis is that for the global analysis, we have replaced the spectrum by its centroid. ... rise to mean potentials Va for neutrinos which are proportional to the number density of.

  5. New neutrino physics and the altered shapes of solar neutrino spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Ilídio

    2017-01-01

    Neutrinos coming from the Sun's core have been measured with high precision, and fundamental neutrino oscillation parameters have been determined with good accuracy. In this work, we estimate the impact that a new neutrino physics model, the so-called generalized Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) oscillation mechanism, has on the shape of some of leading solar neutrino spectra, some of which will be partially tested by the next generation of solar neutrino experiments. In these calculations, we use a high-precision standard solar model in good agreement with helioseismology data. We found that the neutrino spectra of the different solar nuclear reactions of the pp chains and carbon-nitrogen-oxygen cycle have quite distinct sensitivities to the new neutrino physics. The He P and 8B neutrino spectra are the ones in which their shapes are more affected when neutrinos interact with quarks in addition to electrons. The shapes of the 15O and 17F neutrino spectra are also modified, although in these cases the impact is much smaller. Finally, the impact in the shapes of the P P and 13N neutrino spectra is practically negligible.

  6. A comprehensive study of neutrino spin-flavour conversion in supernovae and the neutrino mass hierarchy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Shin'ichiro; Sato, Katsuhiko

    2003-10-01

    Resonant spin-flavour (RSF) conversions of supernova neutrinos, which are induced by the interaction between the nonzero neutrino magnetic moment and supernova magnetic fields, are studied for both normal and inverted mass hierarchy. As the case for the pure matter-induced neutrino oscillation (Mikheyev–Smirnov–Wolfenstein (MSW) effect), we find that the RSF transitions are strongly dependent on the neutrino mass hierarchy as well as the value of θ13. Flavour conversions are solved numerically for various neutrino parameter sets, with the presupernova profile calculated by Woosley and Weaver. In particular, it is very interesting that the RSF-induced νe→bar nue transition occurs if the following conditions are all satisfied: the value of μνB (μν is the neutrino magnetic moment and B is the magnetic field strength) is sufficiently strong, the neutrino mass hierarchy is inverted, and the value of θ13 is large enough to induce adiabatic MSW resonance. In this case, the strong peak due to the original νe emitted from the neutronization burst would exist in the time profile of the neutrino events detected at the Super-Kamiokande detector. If this peak were observed in reality, it would provide fruitful information on the neutrino properties. On the other hand, the characteristics of the neutrino spectra are also different between the neutrino models, but we find that there remains degeneracy among several models. Dependence on presupernova models is also discussed.

  7. The solar neutrinos epopee; L'epopee des neutrinos solaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lasserre, Th. [CEA Saclay, Dept. d' Astrophysique, de Physique des Particules, de Physique Nucleaire et de l' Instrumentation Associee, Service de Physique des Particules, 91- Gif sur Yvette (France)

    2003-06-01

    The 2002 year has been fruitful for the neutrino physics. First, the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) experiment has shown that the electron neutrinos {nu}{sub e} emitted by the sun are converted into muon neutrinos ({nu}{sub {mu}}) and tau neutrinos ({nu}{sub {tau}}), thus closing the 30 years old problem of solar neutrinos deficit. This discovery validates the model of nuclear energy production inside the sun but it shakes the theory describing the weak interactions between the fundamental constituents of matter. This theory considers the neutrinos (and the photons) as massless particles, while the taste conversion phenomenon necessarily implies that neutrinos have a mass. In October 2000, the Universe exploration by the cosmic neutrinos is jointly recognized by R. Davis (USA) and M. Koshiba (Japan) who received the Nobel price of physics. Finally, in December 2000, the KamLAND experiment quantitatively demonstrated the neutrinos metamorphosis by detecting a deficit in the flux of electron antineutrinos coming from the surrounding Japanese nuclear reactors. This digest article describes step by step the epopee of solar neutrinos and shows how several generations of physicists have resolved one of the mystery of modern physics. (J.S.)

  8. Neutrinos: Theory and Phenomenology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parke, Stephen

    2013-10-22

    The theory and phenomenology of neutrinos will be addressed, especially that relating to the observation of neutrino flavor transformations. The current status and implications for future experiments will be discussed with special emphasis on the experiments that will determine the neutrino mass ordering, the dominant flavor content of the neutrino mass eigenstate with the smallest electron neutrino content and the size of CP violation in the neutrino sector. Beyond the neutrino Standard Model, the evidence for and a possible definitive experiment to confirm or refute the existence of light sterile neutrinos will be briefly discussed.

  9. Astronomy stories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenson, Rhoda

    2015-03-01

    For many years I have taught physics and astronomy courses to liberal arts students. I have found most of my students to be intelligent and diligent, but not anxious to study science. They typically take the class only because their degree requires a science course. Many arrive having already decided they will not be able to do the math or understand the scientific concepts, and have essentially built a wall between themselves and science. In the 1990s, in an effort to help break down that wall, as part of an NSF-supported course, "The Evolution of the Universe, Earth and Life," I began using creative writing assignments.

  10. Radio astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Alder, Berni

    1975-01-01

    Methods in Computational Physics, Volume 14: Radio Astronomy is devoted to the role of the digital computer both as a control device and as a calculator in addressing problems related to galactic radio noise. This volume contains four chapters and begins with a technical description of the hardware and the special data-handling problems of using radioheliography, with an emphasis on a selection of observational results obtained with the Culgoora radioheliograph and their significance to solar physics and to astrophysics in general. The subsequent chapter examines interstellar dispersion, i

  11. Neutrino reactions in hot and dense matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohs, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis, neutrino reactions in hot and dense matter are studied. In particular, this work is concerned with neutrino-matter interactions that are relevant for neutrino transport in core-collapse supernovae (CCSNe). The majority of the energy from a CCSN is released in the form of neutrinos. Accurate understanding and computation of these interactions is most relevant to achieve sufficiently reliable predictions for the evolution of CCSNe and other related question such as the production of heavy elements or neutrino oscillations. For this purpose this work follows the combined approach of searching for new important neutrino reactions and improving the computation of those reactions that are already implemented. First we estimate the relevance of charged-current weak interactions that include muon-neutrinos or muons, as well as the role of neutron decay for neutrino transport in CCSNe. All of these reactions were previously neglected in CCSN-simulations. We derive and compute the matrix element and subsequent semi-analytic expressions for transport properties like the inverse mean free path of the new reactions. It is found that these reactions are important for muon neutrinos and low energy electron antineutrinos at very high densities in the protoneutron star surface. Consequently their implementation might lead to several changes in the prediction of CCSNe signatures such as the nucleosynthesis yields. Second we improve the precision in the computation of well known neutrino-nucleon reactions like neutrino absorption on neutrons. We derive semi-analytic expressions for transport properties that use less restrictive approximations while keeping the computational demand constant. Therefore we consider the full relativistic kinematics of all participating particles i.e. allowing for relativistic nucleons and finite lepton masses. Also the weak magnetism terms of the matrix elements are explicitly included to all orders. From our results we suggest that the

  12. Neutrino reactions in hot and dense matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohs, Andreas

    2015-04-13

    In this thesis, neutrino reactions in hot and dense matter are studied. In particular, this work is concerned with neutrino-matter interactions that are relevant for neutrino transport in core-collapse supernovae (CCSNe). The majority of the energy from a CCSN is released in the form of neutrinos. Accurate understanding and computation of these interactions is most relevant to achieve sufficiently reliable predictions for the evolution of CCSNe and other related question such as the production of heavy elements or neutrino oscillations. For this purpose this work follows the combined approach of searching for new important neutrino reactions and improving the computation of those reactions that are already implemented. First we estimate the relevance of charged-current weak interactions that include muon-neutrinos or muons, as well as the role of neutron decay for neutrino transport in CCSNe. All of these reactions were previously neglected in CCSN-simulations. We derive and compute the matrix element and subsequent semi-analytic expressions for transport properties like the inverse mean free path of the new reactions. It is found that these reactions are important for muon neutrinos and low energy electron antineutrinos at very high densities in the protoneutron star surface. Consequently their implementation might lead to several changes in the prediction of CCSNe signatures such as the nucleosynthesis yields. Second we improve the precision in the computation of well known neutrino-nucleon reactions like neutrino absorption on neutrons. We derive semi-analytic expressions for transport properties that use less restrictive approximations while keeping the computational demand constant. Therefore we consider the full relativistic kinematics of all participating particles i.e. allowing for relativistic nucleons and finite lepton masses. Also the weak magnetism terms of the matrix elements are explicitly included to all orders. From our results we suggest that the

  13. Astronomy Education in Morocco - New Project for Implementing Astronomy in High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darhmaoui, H.; Loudiyi, K.

    2006-08-01

    Astronomy education in Morocco, like in many developing countries, is not well developed and lacks the very basics in terms of resources, facilities and research. In 2004, the International Astronomical Union (IAU) signed an agreement of collaboration with Al Akhawayn University in Ifrane to support the continued, long-term development of astronomy and astrophysics in Morocco. This is within the IAU program "Teaching for Astronomy Development" (TAD). The initial focus of the program concentrated exclusively on the University's Bachelor of Science degree program. Within this program, and during two years, we were successful in providing adequate astronomy training to our physics faculty and few of our engineering students. We also offered our students and community general astronomy background through courses, invited talks and extra curricular activities. The project is now evolving towards a wider scope and seeks promoting astronomy education at the high school level. It is based on modules from the Hands on Universe (HOU) interactive astronomy program. Moroccan students will engage in doing observational astronomy from their PCs. They will have access to a world wide network of telescopes and will interact with their peers abroad. Through implementing astronomy education at this lower age, we foresee an increasing interest among our youth not only in astronomy but also in physics, mathematics, and technology. The limited astronomy resources, the lack of teachers experience in the field and the language barrier are amongst the difficulties that we'll be facing in achieving the objectives of this new program.

  14. Quasi-Dirac neutrino oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anamiati, Gaetana; Fonseca, Renato M.; Hirsch, Martin

    2018-05-01

    Dirac neutrino masses require two distinct neutral Weyl spinors per generation, with a special arrangement of masses and interactions with charged leptons. Once this arrangement is perturbed, lepton number is no longer conserved and neutrinos become Majorana particles. If these lepton number violating perturbations are small compared to the Dirac mass terms, neutrinos are quasi-Dirac particles. Alternatively, this scenario can be characterized by the existence of pairs of neutrinos with almost degenerate masses, and a lepton mixing matrix which has 12 angles and 12 phases. In this work we discuss the phenomenology of quasi-Dirac neutrino oscillations and derive limits on the relevant parameter space from various experiments. In one parameter perturbations of the Dirac limit, very stringent bounds can be derived on the mass splittings between the almost degenerate pairs of neutrinos. However, we also demonstrate that with suitable changes to the lepton mixing matrix, limits on such mass splittings are much weaker, or even completely absent. Finally, we consider the possibility that the mass splittings are too small to be measured and discuss bounds on the new, nonstandard lepton mixing angles from current experiments for this case.

  15. Sum rules for neutrino oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobzarev, I.Yu.; Martemyanov, B.V.; Okun, L.B.; Schepkin, M.G.

    1981-01-01

    Sum rules for neutrino oscillations are obtained. The derivation of the general form of the s matrix for two stage process lsub(i)sup(-)→ν→lsub(k)sup(+-) (where lsub(i)sup(-)e, μ, tau, ... are initial leptons with flavor i and lsub(k)sup(+-) is final lepton) is presented. The consideration of two stage process lsub(i)sup(-)→ν→lsub(k)sup(+-) gives the possibility to take into account neutrino masses and to obtain the expressions for the oscillating cross sections. In the case of Dirac and left-handed Majorana neutrino is obtained the sum rule for the quantities 1/Vsub(K)σ(lsub(i)sup(-)→lsub(K)sup(+-)), (where Vsub(K) is a velocity of lsub(K)). In the left-handed Majorana neutrino case there is an additional antineutrino admixture leading to lsub(i)sup(-)→lsub(K)sup(+) process. Both components (neutrino and antineutrino) oscillate independently. The sums Σsub(K)1/Vsub(k)σ(lsub(i)sup(-) - lsub(K)sup(+-) then oscillate due to the presence of left-handed antineutrinos and right-handed neutrinos which do not take part in weak interactions. If right-handed currents are added sum rules analogous to considered above may be obtained. All conclusions are valid in the general case when CP is not conserved [ru

  16. Invariants of collective neutrino oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pehlivan, Y.; Balantekin, A. B.; Kajino, Toshitaka; Yoshida, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    We consider the flavor evolution of a dense neutrino gas by taking into account both vacuum oscillations and self-interactions of neutrinos. We examine the system from a many-body perspective as well as from the point of view of an effective one-body description formulated in terms of the neutrino polarization vectors. We show that, in the single angle approximation, both the many-body picture and the effective one-particle picture possess several constants of motion. We write down these constants of motion explicitly in terms of the neutrino isospin operators for the many-body case and in terms of the polarization vectors for the effective one-body case. The existence of these constants of motion is a direct consequence of the fact that the collective neutrino oscillation Hamiltonian belongs to the class of Gaudin Hamiltonians. This class of Hamiltonians also includes the (reduced) BCS pairing Hamiltonian describing superconductivity. We point out the similarity between the collective neutrino oscillation Hamiltonian and the BCS pairing Hamiltonian. The constants of motion manifest the exact solvability of the system. Borrowing the well established techniques of calculating the exact BCS spectrum, we present exact eigenstates and eigenvalues of both the many-body and the effective one-particle Hamiltonians describing the collective neutrino oscillations. For the effective one-body case, we show that spectral splits of neutrinos can be understood in terms of the adiabatic evolution of some quasiparticle degrees of freedom from a high-density region where they coincide with flavor eigenstates to the vacuum where they coincide with mass eigenstates. We write down the most general consistency equations which should be satisfied by the effective one-body eigenstates and show that they reduce to the spectral split consistency equations for the appropriate initial conditions.

  17. XUV astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beuermann, K.P.; Technische Univ. Berlin

    1980-01-01

    A review is presented of the young field of extreme-ultraviolet astronomy at wavelengths from 50 Angstroem to 912 Angstroem. In recent years, it was realized that observations in this wavelength band could be performed due to the lucky circumstance that the sun is located in an extended region of extremely low interstellar gas density. Hence, the horizon for observations at 100 Angstroem due to the photoelectric opacity of the interstellar medium is typically at a distance of about 200 pc. Since 1975 a series of rocket and satellite observations have yielded the first positive results. Sources which radiate primarily in the extreme ultraviolet have been detected and even the small list of currently observed objects has had immediate impact on the studies of both stellar evolution and the interstellar medium. Diffuse emission from the interstellar medium results from a hot 10 5 to 10 6 K component of the interstellar gas. Prime stellar candidates for extreme-ultraviolet observations are (1) hot low-luminosity stars at the blue end of the HR diagram as, e.g., white dwarfs at the beginning of the cooling sequence, (2) atmospheric emission from stars surrounded by a hot corona or with flaring activity, (3) mass-exchanging binary systems as, e.g., main-sequence close binaries or catalysmic variables. The article discusses the prospects of extreme-ultraviolet astronomy and reviews the existing observations of extreme-ultraviolet emission from the interstellar medium and from stellar sources of the different categories. (orig.)

  18. Elementary astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierro, J.

    2006-08-01

    In developing nations such as Mexico, basic science education has scarcely improved. There are multiple reasons for this problem; they include poor teacher training and curricula that are not challenging for students. I shall suggest ways in which astronomy can be used to improve basic education, it is so attractive that it can be employed to teach how to read and write, learn a second language, mathematics, physics, as well as geography. If third world nations do not teach science in an adequate way, they will be in serious problems when they will try to achieve a better standard of living for their population. I shall also address informal education, it is by this means that most adults learn and keep up to date with subjects that are not their specialty. If we provide good outreach programs in developing nations we can aid adult training; astronomy is ideal since it is particularly multidisciplinary. In particular radio and television programs are useful for popularization since they reach such wide audiences.

  19. Ratio of neutral-current to charged-current cross sections for inclusive neutrino interactions in hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, F.A.; Berge, J.P.; Bogert, D.V.; Cence, R.J.; Coffin, T.C.; Cundy, D.C.; Diamond, R.N.; DiBianca, F.A.; French, H.T.; Hanft, R.; Kochowski, C.; Louis, W.C.; Lynch, G.R.; Malko, J.; Marriner, J.P.; Nezrick, F.A.; Parker, S.I.; Peters, M.W.; Peterson, V.Z.; Roe, B.P.; Ross, R.T.; Scott, W.G.; Seidl, A.A.; Smart, W.; Stenger, V.J.; Stevenson, M.L.; Vander Velde, J.C.

    1977-01-01

    The ratio of neutral-current to charged-current cross sections is determined from a sample of events obtained in an exposure of the Fermilab 15-ft hydrogen bubble chamber to a high-energy, horn-focused neutrino beam. For evens with three or more prongs and with visible hadron momentum above 10 GeV/c, the ratio is 0.40 +- 0.14. A Monte Carlo calculation assuming the Weinberg-Salam model is used to correct for excluded events, yielding R/sub NC/CC/ = 0.48 +- 0.17

  20. Neutrino nuclear responses for double beta decays and astro neutrinos by charge exchange reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejiri, Hiroyasu

    2014-09-01

    Neutrino nuclear responses are crucial for neutrino studies in nuclei. Charge exchange reactions (CER) are shown to be used to study charged current neutrino nuclear responses associated with double beta decays(DBD)and astro neutrino interactions. CERs to be used are high energy-resolution (He3 ,t) reactions at RCNP, photonuclear reactions via IAR at NewSUBARU and muon capture reactions at MUSIC RCNP and MLF J-PARC. The Gamow Teller (GT) strengths studied by CERs reproduce the observed 2 neutrino DBD matrix elements. The GT and spin dipole (SD) matrix elements are found to be reduced much due to the nucleon spin isospin correlations and the non-nucleonic (delta isobar) nuclear medium effects. Impacts of the reductions on the DBD matrix elements and astro neutrino interactions are discussed.

  1. Neutrino problems proliferate (Neutrino 94 conference report)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, Fraser

    1994-01-01

    The enigma of the neutrino continues. More than sixty years after its hesitant prediction by Pauli and forty years after its discovery by Reines and Cowan, the neutrino still refuses to give up all its secrets. The longer we travel down the neutrino road and the more we find out about these particles, the more problems we uncover en route. The present state of the neutrino mystery was highlighted at the Neutrino 94 meeting in Eilat, Israel, from 29 May to 3 June. It was a distinguished meeting, with the first morning including one session chaired by neutrino co-discoverer Fred Reines, and an introductory talk by muon-neutrino co-discoverer Leon Lederman. One figurehead neutrino personality conspicuously absent this time was Bruno Pontecorvo, who died last year and had attended the previous conference in the series, in Grenada, Spain, in 1992

  2. Neutrino problems proliferate (Neutrino 94 conference report)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, Fraser

    1994-09-15

    The enigma of the neutrino continues. More than sixty years after its hesitant prediction by Pauli and forty years after its discovery by Reines and Cowan, the neutrino still refuses to give up all its secrets. The longer we travel down the neutrino road and the more we find out about these particles, the more problems we uncover en route. The present state of the neutrino mystery was highlighted at the Neutrino 94 meeting in Eilat, Israel, from 29 May to 3 June. It was a distinguished meeting, with the first morning including one session chaired by neutrino co-discoverer Fred Reines, and an introductory talk by muon-neutrino co-discoverer Leon Lederman. One figurehead neutrino personality conspicuously absent this time was Bruno Pontecorvo, who died last year and had attended the previous conference in the series, in Grenada, Spain, in 1992.

  3. Neutrino properties and neutral currents with their participation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukerman, I.S.

    1979-01-01

    Data on the neutrino properties and neutral current with their participation, published in 1977-78 are presented in the lecture. Experimental and cosmological limitations on mass, life time and neutrino oscillations are discussed. Heavy lepton properties and their relation to neutrino are considered. Neutral current data in neutrino-electron, neutrino-proton interactions and in anti νsub(μ)N interactions on nuclei are analyzed. Results of investigations of neutral currents in processes with π meson and strange particle production are given. The lecture material is based on the results presented at the last four international comferences on high energy physics

  4. Neutrino telescopes in the World

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ernenwein, J.-P.

    2007-01-01

    Neutrino astronomy has rapidly developed these last years, being the only way to get specific and reliable information about astrophysical objects still poorly understood.Currently two neutrino telescopes are operational in the World: BAIKAL, in the lake of the same name in Siberia, and AMANDA, in the ices of the South Pole. Two telescopes of the same type are under construction in the Mediterranean Sea: ANTARES and NESTOR. All these telescopes belong to a first generation, with an instrumented volume smaller or equal to 0.02 km3. Also in the Mediterranean Sea, the NEMO project is just in its starting phase, within the framework of a cubic kilometer size neutrino telescope study. Lastly, the ICECUBE detector, with a volume reaching about 1 km3, is under construction on the site of AMANDA experiment, while an extension of the BAIKAL detector toward km3 is under study. We will present here the characteristics of these experiments, as well as the results of their observations

  5. Sterile neutrino search in the STEREO experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buck, Christian; Lindner, Manfred; Roca, Christian [MPIK (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    In neutrino oscillations, a canonical understanding has been established during the last decades after the measurement of the mixing angles θ{sub 12}, θ{sub 23}, θ{sub 13} via solar, atmospheric and, most recently, reactor neutrinos. However, the re-evaluation of the reactor neutrino theoretical flux has forced a re-analysis of most reactor neutrino measurements at short distances. This has led to an unexpected experimental deficit of neutrinos with respect to the theory that needs to be accommodated, commonly known as the ''reactor neutrino anomaly''. This deficit can be interpreted as the existence of a light sterile neutrino state into which reactor neutrinos oscillate at very short distances. The STEREO experiment aims to find an evidence of such oscillations. The ILL research reactor in Grenoble (France) operates at a power of 58MW and provides a large flux of electron antineutrinos with an energy range of a few MeV. These neutrinos will be detected in a 2000 liter organic liquid scintillator detector doped with Gadolinium and consisting of 6 cells stacked along the direction of the core. Given the proximity of the detector, neutrinos will only travel a few meters until they interact with the scintillator. The detector will be placed about 10 m from the reactor core, allowing STEREO to be sensitive to oscillations into the above mentioned neutrino sterile state. The project presents a high potential for a discovery that would impact deeply the paradigms of neutrino oscillations and in consequence the current understanding of particle physics and cosmology.

  6. The Astronomy Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, D. P.

    2005-05-01

    The Astronomy Workshop (http://janus.astro.umd.edu) is a collection of interactive online educational tools developed for use by students, educators, and the general public. The more than 20 tools in the Astronomy Workshop are rated for ease-of-use, and have been extensively tested in large university survey courses, classes for undergraduate majors, and High Schools. Here we briefly describe a few of the more popular tools. The Life of the Sun (New!): The history of the Sun is animated as a movie, showing students how the size and color of our star has evolved and will evolve in time. Animated Orbits of Planets and Moons: The orbital motions of planets, moons, asteroids, and comets are animated at their correct relative speeds in accurate to-scale drawings. Solar System Collisions: This most popular of our applications shows what happens when an asteroid or comet with user-defined size and speed impacts a given planet. The program calculates many effects, including the country of impact (if Earth is the target), energy of explosion, crater size, and magnitude of the ``planetquake'' generated. It also displays a relevant image (e.g. terrestrial crater, lunar crater, etc.). Astronomical Distances: Travel away from the Earth at a chosen speed and see how long it takes to reach other planets, stars and galaxies. This tool helps students visualize astronomical distances in an intuitive way. Funding for the Astronomy Workshop is provided by a NASA EPO grant.

  7. Neutrino 2004: Collection of Presentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The scientific program covers the latest developments in neutrino physics, astrophysics and related topics through a set of invited talks and 2 poster sessions. The following issues are addressed: - solar neutrinos, - atmospheric neutrinos, - short and long baseline experiments, - neutrino oscillations, - double beta decay, - direct neutrino mass limits, - theory for neutrino masses, neutrino telescopes and ultra-high energy neutrinos, - dark matter searches, - neutrino in astrophysics and cosmology, and - future projects beams and experiments

  8. Neutrino 2004: Collection of Presentations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    The scientific program covers the latest developments in neutrino physics, astrophysics and related topics through a set of invited talks and 2 poster sessions. The following issues are addressed: - solar neutrinos, - atmospheric neutrinos, - short and long baseline experiments, - neutrino oscillations, - double beta decay, - direct neutrino mass limits, - theory for neutrino masses, neutrino telescopes and ultra-high energy neutrinos, - dark matter searches, - neutrino in astrophysics and cosmology, and - future projects beams and experiments.

  9. The Prospect of Neutrinos with Gravitational Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-10-01

    With the first detection of gravitational waves in 2015, scientists celebrated the opening of a new window to the universe. But multi-messenger astronomy astronomy based on detections of not just photons, but other signals as well was not a new idea at the time: we had already detected tiny, lightweight neutrinos emitted from astrophysical sources. Will we be able to combine observations of neutrinos and gravitational waves in the future to provide a deeper picture of astrophysical events?Signs of a MergerArtists impression of the first stage of a binary neutron star merger. [NASA, ESA, and A. Feild (STScI)]If the answer is yes, the key will probably be short gamma-ray bursts (SGRBs). Theory predicts that when a neutron star merges with another compact object (either another neutron star or a black hole), a number of signals may be observable. These include:gravitational waves as the binary spirals inward,a brief burst of gamma rays at merger (this is the SGRB),high-energy neutrino emission during the SGRB,optical and infrared emission after the merger in the form of a kilonova, andradio afterglows of the merger remnants.While weve observed the various electromagnetic components of this picture, the multi-messenger part is lacking: gravitational-wave detections havent been made in conjunction with electromagnetic counterparts thus far, and the only confirmed astrophysical sources of neutrinos are the Sun and Supernova 1987A.Pedicted neutrino fluxes during different stages of emission in an SGRB. [Kimura et al. 2017]Can we expect this to change in the future? A team of authors led by Shigeo Kimura (Pennsylvania State University) has now explored the likelihood that well be able to detect high-energy neutrinos in association with future gravitational-wave events.Detecting the SGRB NeutrinosKimura and collaborators first estimate the flux of high-energy neutrinos expected during various emission phases of an SGRB. They show that a period of late-time emission, known

  10. Pulsar astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyne, A.G.; Graham-Smith, F.

    1990-01-01

    This account of the properties of pulsars tells an exciting story of discovery in modern astronomy. Pulsars, discovered in 1967, now take their place in a very wide range of astrophysics. They are one of the endpoints of stellar evolution, in which the core of a star collapses to a rapidly spinning neutron star a few kilometres in size. This book is an introductory account for those entering the field. It introduces the circumstances of the discovery and gives an overview of pulsar astrophysics. There are chapters on search techniques, distances, pulse timing, the galactic population of pulsars, binary and millisecond pulsars, geometry and physics of the emission regions, and applications to the interstellar medium. An important feature of this book is the inclusion of an up-to-date catalogue of all known pulsars. (author)

  11. ABSOLUTE NEUTRINO MASSES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schechter, J.; Shahid, M. N.

    2012-01-01

    We discuss the possibility of using experiments timing the propagation of neutrino beams over large distances to help determine the absolute masses of the three neutrinos.......We discuss the possibility of using experiments timing the propagation of neutrino beams over large distances to help determine the absolute masses of the three neutrinos....

  12. Working Group Report: Neutrinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Gouvea, A.; Pitts, K.; Scholberg, K.; Zeller, G. P. [et al.

    2013-10-16

    This document represents the response of the Intensity Frontier Neutrino Working Group to the Snowmass charge. We summarize the current status of neutrino physics and identify many exciting future opportunities for studying the properties of neutrinos and for addressing important physics and astrophysics questions with neutrinos.

  13. TeachAstronomy.com - Digitizing Astronomy Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardegree-Ullman, Kevin; Impey, C. D.; Austin, C.; Patikkal, A.; Paul, M.; Ganesan, N.

    2013-06-01

    Teach Astronomy—a new, free online resource—can be used as a teaching tool in non-science major introductory college level astronomy courses, and as a reference guide for casual learners and hobbyists. Digital content available on Teach Astronomy includes: a comprehensive introductory astronomy textbook by Chris Impey, Wikipedia astronomy articles, images from Astronomy Picture of the Day archives and (new) AstroPix database, two to three minute topical video clips by Chris Impey, podcasts from 365 Days of Astronomy archives, and an RSS feed of astronomy news from Science Daily. Teach Astronomy features an original technology called the Wikimap to cluster, display, and navigate site search results. Development of Teach Astronomy was motivated by steep increases in textbook prices, the rapid adoption of digital resources by students and the public, and the modern capabilities of digital technology. This past spring semester Teach Astronomy was used as content supplement to lectures in a massive, open, online course (MOOC) taught by Chris Impey. Usage of Teach Astronomy has been steadily growing since its initial release in August of 2012. The site has users in all corners of the country and is being used as a primary teaching tool in at least four states.

  14. First neutrino events seen by the core of the OPERA experiment (CNGS) on 2 October 2007

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The reconstruction of the core of a neutrino interaction at OPERA. The neutrino arriving from the left of the image has interacted with the lead of a brick, producing various particles identifiable by their tracks visible in the emulsion.

  15. Prospects for relic neutrino detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, P.F.

    1991-03-01

    The standard big bang model predicts a universal background of relic neutrinos, comparable in number density to the background microwave photons. This neutrino background is undetectable at the present time firstly because the neutrino energy is very low (10 -4 -10 -5 eV) resulting in a very low energy transfer to any conceivable detector, and secondly the low energy gives a lower interaction cross section and hence a very low event rate per unit mass. These obstacles have so far precluded any realistic proposal for relic neutrino detection. The aim of this paper is to illustrate the difficulties in detecting these neutrinos by summarizing six detection ideas which have been previously considered, indicating in each case the problems which have prevented the idea being developed into an experimental proposal. The most promising direction for further study would appear to be that of coherent interactions. So far, no investigations of this idea have resulted in a practical detection scheme, but in this paper one new variation is suggested which could in principle give an observable effect, if the necessary stringent experimental conditions could be created. It is suggested that this may become possible with the aid of foreseeable 21st century developments in nanotechnology. (author)

  16. Introduction to massive neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kayser, B.

    1984-01-01

    We discuss the theoretical ideas which make it natural to expect that neutrinos do indeed have mass. Then we focus on the physical consequences of neutrino mass, including neutrino oscillation and other phenomena whose observation would be very interesting, and would serve to demonstrate that neutrinos are indeed massive. We comment on the legitimacy of comparing results from different types of experiments. Finally, we consider the question of whether neutrinos are their own antiparticles. We explain what this question means, discuss the nature of a neutrino which is its own antiparticles, and consider how one might determine experimentally whether neutrinos are their own antiparticles or not

  17. 50 years of neutrinos

    CERN Document Server

    Goldhaber, M

    1980-01-01

    On December 4 1930, Wolfgang Pauli addressed an "open letter" to Lise Meitner and others attending a physics meeting, suggesting the neutrino as a way out of the difficulties confronted in beta rays research, especially by the existence of a continuous beta spectrum. He proposed a new particle later called the neutrino. The prehistory leading up to Pauli's letter will be reviewed, as well as the later discovery of the electron-neutrino followed by the muon-neutrino. There are now believed to be three different types of neutrino and their anti-particles. Neutrinos have a spin 1/2; but only one spin component has been found in nature: neutrinos go forward as "left-handed" screws and anti-neutrinos as "right-handed" ones. A question still not convincingly resolved today is wether neutrinos have a mass different from zero and, if they do, what consequences this would have for the behaviour of neutrinos and for cosmology.

  18. Electromagnetic properties of neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ould-Saada, F.

    1996-01-01

    Electromagnetic properties of neutrinos and their implications are discussed, and the experimental situation summarised. Spin precession in solar magnetic fields presents a solution of the solar neutrino problem. A magnetic moment, μ ν , of the order of 10 -11 μ B would be needed. In the simplest extension of the standard model, with no-vanishing neutrino masses, dipole moment interactions are allowed through higher order processes. A neutrino mass of ≅10 eV would give μ ν ≅10 -18 μ B , much smaller than the present experimental upper limit of 2x10 -10 μ B . Although model-dependent, upper bounds on dipole moments from astrophysics and cosmology are 10 to 100 times more stringent. Any values of μ ν , larger than the SM predictions, would then signal the onset of new physics. Among the processes sensitive to the magnetic moment, νe - scattering presents two advantages: it is a pure weak, theoretically well understood process, and the recoil electron can be easily measured. A hypothetical electromagnetic contribution to the cross-section would dominate at low energies. A low background detector, MUNU, being built at the Bugey nuclear reactor is presented.It is based on a gas TPC, surrounded by a scintillator. The threshold on the electron recoil energy can be set very low, around 500 keV, giving the experiment a good sensitivity to the magnetic moment of the ν e , extending down to 2x10 -11 μ B . (author) 15 figs., 5 tabs., 96 refs

  19. Electromagnetic properties of neutrinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ould-Saada, F [Zurich Univ. (Switzerland). Inst. fuer Physik

    1996-11-01

    Electromagnetic properties of neutrinos and their implications are discussed, and the experimental situation summarised. Spin precession in solar magnetic fields presents a solution of the solar neutrino problem. A magnetic moment, {mu}{sub {nu}}, of the order of 10{sup -11} {mu}{sub B} would be needed. In the simplest extension of the standard model, with no-vanishing neutrino masses, dipole moment interactions are allowed through higher order processes. A neutrino mass of {approx_equal}10 eV would give {mu}{sub {nu}}{approx_equal}10{sup -18} {mu}{sub B}, much smaller than the present experimental upper limit of 2x10{sup -10} {mu}{sub B}. Although model-dependent, upper bounds on dipole moments from astrophysics and cosmology are 10 to 100 times more stringent. Any values of {mu}{sub {nu}}, larger than the SM predictions, would then signal the onset of new physics. Among the processes sensitive to the magnetic moment, {nu}e{sup -} scattering presents two advantages: it is a pure weak, theoretically well understood process, and the recoil electron can be easily measured. A hypothetical electromagnetic contribution to the cross-section would dominate at low energies. A low background detector, MUNU, being built at the Bugey nuclear reactor is presented.It is based on a gas TPC, surrounded by a scintillator. The threshold on the electron recoil energy can be set very low, around 500 keV, giving the experiment a good sensitivity to the magnetic moment of the {nu}{sub e}, extending down to 2x10{sup -11} {mu}{sub B}. (author) 15 figs., 5 tabs., 96 refs.

  20. Parity violation and the masslessness of the neutrino

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mannheim, P.D.

    1978-09-01

    It is proposed that the weak interaction be obtained by gauging the strong interaction chiral flavor group. The neutrinos are then four-component spinors. Pairs of right-handed neutrinos are allowed to condense into the vacuum. This produces maximal parity violation in both the quark and lepton sectors of the weak interaction, keeps the neutrinos massless, and also leads to the conventional Weinberg mixing pattern. The approach also in principle provides a way of calculating the Cabibbo angle. 11 references