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Sample records for interacting so3 quantum

  1. Symmetries of quantum spaces. Subgroups and quotient spaces of quantum SU(2) and SO(3) groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podles, P.

    1995-01-01

    We prove that each action of a compact matrix quantum group on a compact quantum space can be decomposed into irreducible representations of the group. We give the formula for the corresponding multiplicities in the case of the quotient quantum spaces. We describe the subgroups and the quotient spaces of quantum SU(2) and SO(3) groups. (orig.)

  2. Quantum interaction. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruza, Peter [Queensland Univ. of Technology, Brisbane (Australia). Faculty of Science and Technology; Sofge, Donald [Navy Center for Applied Research in Artificial Intelligence, Washington, DC (United States). Naval Research Lab.; Lawless, William [Paine Coll., Augusta, GA (United States); Rijsbergen, Keith van [Glasgow Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Computing Science; Klusch, Matthias (eds.) [German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence, Saarbruecken (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Quantum Interaction, QI 2009, held in Saarbruecken, Germany, in March 2009. The 21 revised full papers presented together with the 3 position papers were carefully reviewed and selected from numerous submissions. The papers show the cross-disciplinary nature of quantum interaction covering topics such as computation, cognition, decision theory, information retrieval, information systems, social interaction, computational linguistics and finance. (orig.)

  3. Quantum interaction. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruza, Peter; Rijsbergen, Keith van

    2009-01-01

    This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Quantum Interaction, QI 2009, held in Saarbruecken, Germany, in March 2009. The 21 revised full papers presented together with the 3 position papers were carefully reviewed and selected from numerous submissions. The papers show the cross-disciplinary nature of quantum interaction covering topics such as computation, cognition, decision theory, information retrieval, information systems, social interaction, computational linguistics and finance. (orig.)

  4. Quantum interaction. Selected papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atmanspacher, Harald [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Zurich (Switzerland); Haven, Emmanuel [Leicester Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Management; Kitto, Kirsty [Queensland Univ. of Technology, Brisbane, QLD (Australia); Raine, Derek (ed.) [Leicester Univ. (United Kingdom). Centre for Interdisciplinary Science

    2014-07-01

    This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Quantum Interaction, QI 2013, held in Leicester, UK, in July 2013. The 31 papers presented in this book were carefully selected from numerous submissions. The papers cover various topics on quantum interaction and revolve around four themes: information processing/retrieval/semantic representation and logic; cognition and decision making; finance/economics and social structures and biological systems.

  5. Quantum interaction. Selected papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atmanspacher, Harald; Haven, Emmanuel; Raine, Derek

    2014-01-01

    This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Quantum Interaction, QI 2013, held in Leicester, UK, in July 2013. The 31 papers presented in this book were carefully selected from numerous submissions. The papers cover various topics on quantum interaction and revolve around four themes: information processing/retrieval/semantic representation and logic; cognition and decision making; finance/economics and social structures and biological systems.

  6. More SO(3) monopoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shankar, R.

    1976-01-01

    Spontaneously broken gauge theories describing gauge bosons coupled in the manner of the Yang-Mills prescription to a Lorentz scalar phi transforming as an arbitrary (2n + 1) -dimensional irreducible representation of the gauge group SO(3) are considered. It is shown that given the topologically stable, static solution of 't Hooft and Polyakov for the isovector (n = 1) field there exists a recipe for constructing solutions to all higher-dimensional fields phi. The case n = 2 is worked out in some detail. The same recipe is applicable to any other homotopy class where the isovector problem is solved, and the solutions so generated are seen to be the only possible stable ones. Since the above solutions exist only if the vacuum is U(1) symmetric, arguments supporting that contingency for a general rank-n Lagrangian are given. In two space dimensions, the tower of solutions corresponding to the only stable homotopy class are outlined and the case n = 2 is described in detail. In all cases the electric potential that may be added in the manner of Julia and Zee is specified

  7. SO(3) "Nuclear Physics" with ultracold Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico, E.; Dalmonte, M.; Zoller, P.; Banerjee, D.; Bögli, M.; Stebler, P.; Wiese, U.-J.

    2018-06-01

    An ab initio calculation of nuclear physics from Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD), the fundamental SU(3) gauge theory of the strong interaction, remains an outstanding challenge. Here, we discuss the emergence of key elements of nuclear physics using an SO(3) lattice gauge theory as a toy model for QCD. We show that this model is accessible to state-of-the-art quantum simulation experiments with ultracold atoms in an optical lattice. First, we demonstrate that our model shares characteristic many-body features with QCD, such as the spontaneous breakdown of chiral symmetry, its restoration at finite baryon density, as well as the existence of few-body bound states. Then we show that in the one-dimensional case, the dynamics in the gauge invariant sector can be encoded as a spin S = 3/2 Heisenberg model, i.e., as quantum magnetism, which has a natural realization with bosonic mixtures in optical lattices, and thus sheds light on the connection between non-Abelian gauge theories and quantum magnetism.

  8. Quantum symmetries in particle interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirkov, D.V.

    1983-01-01

    The concept of a quantum symmetry is introduced as a symmetry in the formulation of which quantum representations and specific quantum notions are used essentially. Three quantum symmetry principles are discussed: the principle of renormalizability (possibly super-renormalizability), the principle of local gauge symmetry, and the principle of supersymmetry. It is shown that these principles play a deterministic role in the development of quantum field theory. Historically their use has led to ever stronger restrictions on the interaction mechanism of quantum fields

  9. Interacting adiabatic quantum motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruch, Anton; Kusminskiy, Silvia Viola; Refael, Gil; von Oppen, Felix

    2018-05-01

    We present a field-theoretic treatment of an adiabatic quantum motor. We explicitly discuss a motor called the Thouless motor which is based on a Thouless pump operating in reverse. When a sliding periodic potential is considered to be the motor degree of freedom, a bias voltage applied to the electron channel sets the motor in motion. We investigate a Thouless motor whose electron channel is modeled as a Luttinger liquid. Interactions increase the gap opened by the periodic potential. For an infinite Luttinger liquid the coupling-induced friction is enhanced by electron-electron interactions. When the Luttinger liquid is ultimately coupled to Fermi liquid reservoirs, the dissipation reduces to its value for a noninteracting electron system for a constant motor velocity. Our results can also be applied to a motor based on a nanomagnet coupled to a quantum spin Hall edge.

  10. Quantum principles in field interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirkov, D.V.

    1986-01-01

    The concept of quantum principle is intruduced as a principle whosee formulation is based on specific quantum ideas and notions. We consider three such principles, viz. those of quantizability, local gauge symmetry, and supersymmetry, and their role in the development of the quantum field theory (QFT). Concerning the first of these, we analyze the formal aspects and physical contents of the renormalization procedure in QFT and its relation to ultraviolet divergences and the renorm group. The quantizability principle is formulated as an existence condition of a self-consistent quantum version with a given mechanism of the field interaction. It is shown that the consecutive (from a historial point of view) use of these quantum principles puts still larger limitations on possible forms of field interactions

  11. Quantum interaction. Revised selected papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Dawei; Zhang, Peng; Wang, Lei [Aberdeen Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Computing; Melucci, Massimo [Padua Univ., Padova (Italy). Dept. of Information Engineering; Frommholz, Ingo [Bedfordshire Univ. (United Kingdom); Arafat, Sachi (eds.) [Glasgow Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Computing Science

    2011-07-01

    This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed post-conference proceedings of the 5th International Symposium on Quantum Interaction, QI 2011, held in Aberdeen, UK, in June 2011. The 26 revised full papers and 6 revised poster papers, presented together with 1 tutorial and 1 invited talk were carefully reviewed and selected from numerous submissions during two rounds of reviewing and improvement. The papers show the cross-disciplinary nature of quantum interaction covering topics such as computation, cognition, mechanics, social interaction, semantic space and information representation and retrieval. (orig.)

  12. Quantum interaction. Revised selected papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Dawei; Zhang, Peng; Wang, Lei; Arafat, Sachi

    2011-01-01

    This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed post-conference proceedings of the 5th International Symposium on Quantum Interaction, QI 2011, held in Aberdeen, UK, in June 2011. The 26 revised full papers and 6 revised poster papers, presented together with 1 tutorial and 1 invited talk were carefully reviewed and selected from numerous submissions during two rounds of reviewing and improvement. The papers show the cross-disciplinary nature of quantum interaction covering topics such as computation, cognition, mechanics, social interaction, semantic space and information representation and retrieval. (orig.)

  13. Gravitating SO (3,1) gauge field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aragone, C.; Restuccia, A.

    1978-01-01

    In this article, we postulate SO (3,1) as a local symmetry of any relativistic theory. This is equivalent to assuming the existence of a gauge field associated with this noncompact group. This SO (3,1) gauge field is the spinorial affinity which usually appears when we deal with weighting spinors, which, as is well known, cannot be coupled to the metric tensor field. Furthermore, according to the integral approach to gauge fields proposed by Yang, it is also recognized that in order to obtain models of gravity we have to introduce ordinary affinities as the gauge field associated with GL (4) (the local symmetry determined by the parallel transport). Thus if we assume both GL (4) and SO (3,1) as local independent symmetries we are led to analyze the dynamical gauge system constituted by the Einstein field interacting with the SO (3,1) Weyl--Yang gauge field. We think this system is a possible model of strong gravity. Once we give the first-order action for this Einstein--Weyl--Yang system we study whether the SO (3,1) gauge field could have a tetrad associated with it. It is also shown that both fields propagate along a unique characteristic cone. Algebraic and differential constraints are solved when the system evolves along a null coordinate. The unconstrained expression for the action of the system is found working in the Bondi gauge. That allows us to exhibit an explicit expression of the dynamical generator of the system. Its signature turns out to be nondefinite, due to the nondefinite contribution of the Weyl--Yang field, which has the typical spinorial behavior. A conjecture is made that such an unpleasant feature could be overcome in the quantized version of this model

  14. Quantum Uncertainty and Fundamental Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tosto S.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes a simplified theoretical approach to infer some essential concepts on the fundamental interactions between charged particles and their relative strengths at comparable energies by exploiting the quantum uncertainty only. The worth of the present approach relies on the way of obtaining the results, rather than on the results themselves: concepts today acknowledged as fingerprints of the electroweak and strong interactions appear indeed rooted in the same theoretical frame including also the basic principles of special and general relativity along with the gravity force.

  15. Quantum theory of acoustoelectric interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosekilde, Erik

    1974-01-01

    term, significant in the classical-collision-dominated regime only, the dielectric response function and the acoustic gain factor for a piezoelectrically active sound wave are obtained for the quantum and semiclassical-microscopic regimes. The manner in which the theory can be extended to the collision......-dominated regime is discussed. For a collision-free electron gas, the requirements of energy and momentum conservation in individual electron-phonon interactions lead to a cutoff in the acoustoelectric coupling when the acoustic wave number exceeds the characteristic electron wave number. The broadening...

  16. Quantum dynamics modeled by interacting trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Rodríguez, L.; Uranga-Piña, L.; Martínez-Mesa, A.; Meier, C.

    2018-03-01

    We present quantum dynamical simulations based on the propagation of interacting trajectories where the effect of the quantum potential is mimicked by effective pseudo-particle interactions. The method is applied to several quantum systems, both for bound and scattering problems. For the bound systems, the quantum ground state density and zero point energy are shown to be perfectly obtained by the interacting trajectories. In the case of time-dependent quantum scattering, the Eckart barrier and uphill ramp are considered, with transmission coefficients in very good agreement with standard quantum calculations. Finally, we show that via wave function synthesis along the trajectories, correlation functions and energy spectra can be obtained based on the dynamics of interacting trajectories.

  17. Repeated interactions in open quantum systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruneau, Laurent, E-mail: laurent.bruneau@u-cergy.fr [Laboratoire AGM, Université de Cergy-Pontoise, Site Saint-Martin, BP 222, 95302 Cergy-Pontoise (France); Joye, Alain, E-mail: Alain.Joye@ujf-grenoble.fr [Institut Fourier, UMR 5582, CNRS-Université Grenoble I, BP 74, 38402 Saint-Martin d’Hères (France); Merkli, Marco, E-mail: merkli@mun.ca [Department of Mathematics and Statistics Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John' s, NL Canada A1C 5S7 (Canada)

    2014-07-15

    Analyzing the dynamics of open quantum systems has a long history in mathematics and physics. Depending on the system at hand, basic physical phenomena that one would like to explain are, for example, convergence to equilibrium, the dynamics of quantum coherences (decoherence) and quantum correlations (entanglement), or the emergence of heat and particle fluxes in non-equilibrium situations. From the mathematical physics perspective, one of the main challenges is to derive the irreversible dynamics of the open system, starting from a unitary dynamics of the system and its environment. The repeated interactions systems considered in these notes are models of non-equilibrium quantum statistical mechanics. They are relevant in quantum optics, and more generally, serve as a relatively well treatable approximation of a more difficult quantum dynamics. In particular, the repeated interaction models allow to determine the large time (stationary) asymptotics of quantum systems out of equilibrium.

  18. Interaction between classical and quantum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherry, T.N.; Sudarshan, E.C.G.

    1977-10-01

    An unconventional approach to the measurement problem in quantum mechanics is considered--the apparatus is treated as a classical system, belonging to the macro-world. In order to have a measurement the apparatus must interact with the quantum system. As a first step, the classical apparatus is embedded into a large quantum mechanical structure, making use of a superselection principle. The apparatus and system are coupled such that the apparatus remains classical (principle of integrity), and unambiguous information of the values of a quantum observable are transferred to the variables of the apparatus. Further measurement of the classical apparatus can be done, causing no problems of principle. Thus interactions causing pointers to move (which are not treated) can be added. The restrictions placed by the principle of integrity on the form of the interaction between classical and quantum systems are examined and illustration is given by means of a simple example in which one sees the principle of integrity at work

  19. Phase transition in SO(3) gauge theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datta, Saumen; Gavai, Rajiv V.

    1998-01-01

    The phase transition in SO(3) lattice gauge theory is investigated by Monte Carlo techniques with a view (i) to understand the relationship between the bulk transition and the deconfinement transition, and (ii) to resolve the current ambiguity about the nature of the high temperature phase. By introduction of a magnetic field, it was shown that the +ve and -ve values of a > correspond to the same phase. Studies on different sized lattices lead to the conclusion that in SO(3), there is only one transition, which is deconfining in nature. (author)

  20. Interaction-aided continuous time quantum search

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Joonwoo; Kwon, Younghun; Baek, Inchan; Yoon, Dalsun

    2005-01-01

    The continuous quantum search algorithm (based on the Farhi-Gutmann Hamiltonian evolution) is known to be analogous to the Grover (or discrete time quantum) algorithm. Any errors introduced in Grover algorithm are fatal to its success. In the same way the Farhi-Gutmann Hamiltonian algorithm has a severe difficulty when the Hamiltonian is perturbed. In this letter we will show that the interaction term in quantum search Hamiltonian (actually which is in the generalized quantum search Hamiltonian) can save the perturbed Farhi-Gutmann Hamiltonian that should otherwise fail. We note that this fact is quite remarkable since it implies that introduction of interaction can be a way to correct some errors on the continuous time quantum search

  1. Theory of interacting quantum fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebenko, Alexei L.

    2012-01-01

    This monograph is devoted to the systematic presentation of foundations of the quantum field theory. Unlike numerous monographs devoted to this topic, a wide range of problems covered in this book are accompanied by their sufficiently clear interpretations and applications. An important significant feature of this monograph is the desire of the author to present mathematical problems of the quantum field theory with regard to new methods of the constructive and Euclidean field theory that appeared in the last thirty years of the 20 th century and are based on the rigorous mathematical apparatus of functional analysis, the theory of operators, and the theory of generalized functions. The monograph is useful for students, post-graduate students, and young scientists who desire to understand not only the formality of construction of the quantum field theory but also its essence and connection with the classical mechanics, relativistic classical field theory, quantum mechanics, group theory, and the theory of path integral formalism.

  2. Quantum Szilard Engine with Attractively Interacting Bosons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengtsson, J.; Tengstrand, M. Nilsson; Wacker, A.; Samuelsson, P.; Ueda, M.; Linke, H.; Reimann, S. M.

    2018-03-01

    We show that a quantum Szilard engine containing many bosons with attractive interactions enhances the conversion between information and work. Using an ab initio approach to the full quantum-mechanical many-body problem, we find that the average work output increases significantly for a larger number of bosons. The highest overshoot occurs at a finite temperature, demonstrating how thermal and quantum effects conspire to enhance the conversion between information and work. The predicted effects occur over a broad range of interaction strengths and temperatures.

  3. Cold quantum gases with resonant interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marcelis, B.

    2008-01-01

    We study ultracold gases of alkali-metal atoms in the quantum degenerate regime. The interatomic interactions in these type of systems can be tuned using resonances induced by magnetic or electric fields. The tunability of the interactions, together with the possibility of confining the atoms with

  4. Quantum centipedes: collective dynamics of interacting quantum walkers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krapivsky, P L; Luck, J M; Mallick, K

    2016-01-01

    We consider the quantum centipede made of N fermionic quantum walkers on the one-dimensional lattice interacting by means of the simplest of all hard-bound constraints: the distance between two consecutive fermions is either one or two lattice spacings. This composite quantum walker spreads ballistically, just as the simple quantum walk. However, because of the interactions between the internal degrees of freedom, the distribution of its center-of-mass velocity displays numerous ballistic fronts in the long-time limit, corresponding to singularities in the empirical velocity distribution. The spectrum of the centipede and the corresponding group velocities are analyzed by direct means for the first few values of N . Some analytical results are obtained for arbitrary N by exploiting an exact mapping of the problem onto a free-fermion system. We thus derive the maximal velocity describing the ballistic spreading of the two extremal fronts of the centipede wavefunction, including its non-trivial value in the large- N limit. (paper)

  5. A strongly interacting polaritonic quantum dot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Ningyuan; Schine, Nathan; Georgakopoulos, Alexandros; Ryou, Albert; Clark, Logan W.; Sommer, Ariel; Simon, Jonathan

    2018-06-01

    Polaritons are promising constituents of both synthetic quantum matter1 and quantum information processors2, whose properties emerge from their components: from light, polaritons draw fast dynamics and ease of transport; from matter, they inherit the ability to collide with one another. Cavity polaritons are particularly promising as they may be confined and subjected to synthetic magnetic fields controlled by cavity geometry3, and furthermore they benefit from increased robustness due to the cavity enhancement in light-matter coupling. Nonetheless, until now, cavity polaritons have operated only in a weakly interacting mean-field regime4,5. Here we demonstrate strong interactions between individual cavity polaritons enabled by employing highly excited Rydberg atoms as the matter component of the polaritons. We assemble a quantum dot composed of approximately 150 strongly interacting Rydberg-dressed 87Rb atoms in a cavity, and observe blockaded transport of photons through it. We further observe coherent photon tunnelling oscillations, demonstrating that the dot is zero-dimensional. This work establishes the cavity Rydberg polariton as a candidate qubit in a photonic information processor and, by employing multiple resonator modes as the spatial degrees of freedom of a photonic particle, the primary ingredient to form photonic quantum matter6.

  6. Interferometric modulation of quantum cascade interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusumano, Stefano; Mari, Andrea; Giovannetti, Vittorio

    2018-05-01

    We consider many-body quantum systems dissipatively coupled by a cascade network, i.e., a setup in which interactions are mediated by unidirectional environmental modes propagating through a linear optical interferometer. In particular we are interested in the possibility of inducing different effective interactions by properly engineering an external dissipative network of beam splitters and phase shifters. In this work we first derive the general structure of the master equation for a symmetric class of translation-invariant cascade networks. Then we show how, by tuning the parameters of the interferometer, one can exploit interference effects to tailor a large variety of many-body interactions.

  7. Interactive simulations for quantum key distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohnle, Antje; Rizzoli, Aluna

    2017-01-01

    Secure communication protocols are becoming increasingly important, e.g. for internet-based communication. Quantum key distribution (QKD) allows two parties, commonly called Alice and Bob, to generate a secret sequence of 0s and 1s called a key that is only known to themselves. Classically, Alice and Bob could never be certain that their communication was not compromised by a malicious eavesdropper. Quantum mechanics however makes secure communication possible. The fundamental principle of quantum mechanics that taking a measurement perturbs the system (unless the measurement is compatible with the quantum state) also applies to an eavesdropper. Using appropriate protocols to create the key, Alice and Bob can detect the presence of an eavesdropper by errors in their measurements. As part of the QuVis Quantum Mechanics Visualisation Project, we have developed a suite of four interactive simulations that demonstrate the basic principles of three different QKD protocols. The simulations use either polarised photons or spin 1/2 particles as physical realisations. The simulations and accompanying activities are freely available for use online or download, and run on a wide range of devices including tablets and PCs. Evaluation with students over three years was used to refine the simulations and activities. Preliminary studies show that the refined simulations and activities help students learn the basic principles of QKD at both the introductory and advanced undergraduate levels. (paper)

  8. Interactive simulations for quantum key distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohnle, Antje; Rizzoli, Aluna

    2017-05-01

    Secure communication protocols are becoming increasingly important, e.g. for internet-based communication. Quantum key distribution (QKD) allows two parties, commonly called Alice and Bob, to generate a secret sequence of 0s and 1s called a key that is only known to themselves. Classically, Alice and Bob could never be certain that their communication was not compromised by a malicious eavesdropper. Quantum mechanics however makes secure communication possible. The fundamental principle of quantum mechanics that taking a measurement perturbs the system (unless the measurement is compatible with the quantum state) also applies to an eavesdropper. Using appropriate protocols to create the key, Alice and Bob can detect the presence of an eavesdropper by errors in their measurements. As part of the QuVis Quantum Mechanics Visualisation Project, we have developed a suite of four interactive simulations that demonstrate the basic principles of three different QKD protocols. The simulations use either polarised photons or spin 1/2 particles as physical realisations. The simulations and accompanying activities are freely available for use online or download, and run on a wide range of devices including tablets and PCs. Evaluation with students over three years was used to refine the simulations and activities. Preliminary studies show that the refined simulations and activities help students learn the basic principles of QKD at both the introductory and advanced undergraduate levels.

  9. Interactive Quantum Mechanics Quantum Experiments on the Computer

    CERN Document Server

    Brandt, S; Dahmen, H.D

    2011-01-01

    Extra Materials available on extras.springer.com INTERACTIVE QUANTUM MECHANICS allows students to perform their own quantum-physics experiments on their computer, in vivid 3D color graphics. Topics covered include: •        harmonic waves and wave packets, •        free particles as well as bound states and scattering in various potentials in one and three dimensions (both stationary and time dependent), •        two-particle systems, coupled harmonic oscillators, •        distinguishable and indistinguishable particles, •        coherent and squeezed states in time-dependent motion, •        quantized angular momentum, •        spin and magnetic resonance, •        hybridization. For the present edition the physics scope has been widened appreciably. Moreover, INTERQUANTA can now produce user-defined movies of quantum-mechanical situations. Movies can be viewed directly and also be saved to be shown later in any browser. Sections on spec...

  10. Canonical partition functions: ideal quantum gases, interacting classical gases, and interacting quantum gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chi-Chun; Dai, Wu-Sheng

    2018-02-01

    In statistical mechanics, for a system with a fixed number of particles, e.g. a finite-size system, strictly speaking, the thermodynamic quantity needs to be calculated in the canonical ensemble. Nevertheless, the calculation of the canonical partition function is difficult. In this paper, based on the mathematical theory of the symmetric function, we suggest a method for the calculation of the canonical partition function of ideal quantum gases, including ideal Bose, Fermi, and Gentile gases. Moreover, we express the canonical partition functions of interacting classical and quantum gases given by the classical and quantum cluster expansion methods in terms of the Bell polynomial in mathematics. The virial coefficients of ideal Bose, Fermi, and Gentile gases are calculated from the exact canonical partition function. The virial coefficients of interacting classical and quantum gases are calculated from the canonical partition function by using the expansion of the Bell polynomial, rather than calculated from the grand canonical potential.

  11. Spin-orbit interaction in multiple quantum wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hao, Ya-Fei, E-mail: haoyafei@zjnu.cn [Physics Department, Zhejiang Normal University, Zhejiang 321004 (China)

    2015-01-07

    In this paper, we investigate how the structure of multiple quantum wells affects spin-orbit interactions. To increase the interface-related Rashba spin splitting and the strength of the interface-related Rashba spin-orbit interaction, we designed three kinds of multiple quantum wells. We demonstrate that the structure of the multiple quantum wells strongly affected the interface-related Rashba spin-orbit interaction, increasing the interface-related Rashba spin splitting to up to 26% larger in multiple quantum wells than in a stepped quantum well. We also show that the cubic Dresselhaus spin-orbit interaction similarly influenced the spin relaxation time of multiple quantum wells and that of a stepped quantum well. The increase in the interface-related Rashba spin splitting originates from the relationship between interface-related Rashba spin splitting and electron probability density. Our results suggest that multiple quantum wells can be good candidates for spintronic devices.

  12. Spin-orbit interaction in multiple quantum wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao, Ya-Fei

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate how the structure of multiple quantum wells affects spin-orbit interactions. To increase the interface-related Rashba spin splitting and the strength of the interface-related Rashba spin-orbit interaction, we designed three kinds of multiple quantum wells. We demonstrate that the structure of the multiple quantum wells strongly affected the interface-related Rashba spin-orbit interaction, increasing the interface-related Rashba spin splitting to up to 26% larger in multiple quantum wells than in a stepped quantum well. We also show that the cubic Dresselhaus spin-orbit interaction similarly influenced the spin relaxation time of multiple quantum wells and that of a stepped quantum well. The increase in the interface-related Rashba spin splitting originates from the relationship between interface-related Rashba spin splitting and electron probability density. Our results suggest that multiple quantum wells can be good candidates for spintronic devices

  13. Renormalization and Interaction in Quantum Field Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RATSIMBARISON, H.M.

    2008-01-01

    This thesis works on renormalization in quantum field theory (QFT), in order to show the relevance of some mathematical structures as C*-algebraic and probabilistic structures. Our work begins with a study of the path integral formalism and the Kreimer-Connes approach in perturbative renormalization, which allows to situate the statistical nature of QFT and to appreciate the ultra-violet divergence problem of its partition function. This study is followed by an emphasis of the presence of convolution products in non perturbative renormalisation, through the construction of the Wilson effective action and the Legendre effective action. Thanks to these constructions and the definition of effective theories according J. Polchinski, the non perturbative renormalization shows in particular the general approach of regularization procedure. We begin the following chapter with a C*-algebraic approach of the scale dependence of physical theories by showing the existence of a hierarchy of commutative spaces of states and its compatibility with the fiber bundle formulation of classical field theory. Our Hierarchy also allows us to modelize the notion of states and particles. Finally, we develop a probabilistic construction of interacting theories starting from simple model, a Bernoulli random processes. We end with some arguments on the applicability of our construction -such as the independence between the free and interacting terms and the possibility to introduce a symmetry group wich will select the type of interactions in quantum field theory. [fr

  14. Coherent transport through interacting quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiltscher, Bastian

    2012-01-01

    The present thesis is composed of four different works. All deal with coherent transport through interacting quantum dots, which are tunnel-coupled to external leads. There a two main motivations for the use of quantum dots. First, they are an ideal device to study the influence of strong Coulomb repulsion, and second, their discrete energy levels can easily be tuned by external gate electrodes to create different transport regimes. The expression of coherence includes a very wide range of physical correlations and, therefore, the four works are basically independent of each other. Before motivating and introducing the different works in more detail, we remark that in all works a diagrammatic real-time perturbation theory is used. The fermionic degrees of freedom of the leads are traced out and the elements of the resulting reduced density matrix can be treated explicitly by means of a generalized master equation. How this equation is solved, depends on the details of the problem under consideration. In the first of the four works adiabatic pumping through an Aharonov-Bohm interferometer with a quantum dot embedded in each of the two arms is studied. In adiabatic pumping transport is generated by varying two system parameters periodically in time. We consider the two dot levels to be these two pumping parameters. Since they are located in different arms of the interferometer, pumping is a quantum mechanical effect purely relying on coherent superpositions of the dot states. It is very challenging to identify a quantum pumping mechanism in experiments, because a capacitive coupling of the gate electrodes to the leads may yield an undesired AC bias voltage, which is rectified by a time dependent conductance. Therefore, distinguishing features of these two transport mechanisms are required. We find that the dependence on the magnetic field is the key feature. While the pumped charge is an odd function of the magnetic flux, the rectified current is even, at least in

  15. Coherent transport through interacting quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiltscher, Bastian

    2012-10-05

    The present thesis is composed of four different works. All deal with coherent transport through interacting quantum dots, which are tunnel-coupled to external leads. There a two main motivations for the use of quantum dots. First, they are an ideal device to study the influence of strong Coulomb repulsion, and second, their discrete energy levels can easily be tuned by external gate electrodes to create different transport regimes. The expression of coherence includes a very wide range of physical correlations and, therefore, the four works are basically independent of each other. Before motivating and introducing the different works in more detail, we remark that in all works a diagrammatic real-time perturbation theory is used. The fermionic degrees of freedom of the leads are traced out and the elements of the resulting reduced density matrix can be treated explicitly by means of a generalized master equation. How this equation is solved, depends on the details of the problem under consideration. In the first of the four works adiabatic pumping through an Aharonov-Bohm interferometer with a quantum dot embedded in each of the two arms is studied. In adiabatic pumping transport is generated by varying two system parameters periodically in time. We consider the two dot levels to be these two pumping parameters. Since they are located in different arms of the interferometer, pumping is a quantum mechanical effect purely relying on coherent superpositions of the dot states. It is very challenging to identify a quantum pumping mechanism in experiments, because a capacitive coupling of the gate electrodes to the leads may yield an undesired AC bias voltage, which is rectified by a time dependent conductance. Therefore, distinguishing features of these two transport mechanisms are required. We find that the dependence on the magnetic field is the key feature. While the pumped charge is an odd function of the magnetic flux, the rectified current is even, at least in

  16. Perspective: Quantum Hamiltonians for optical interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, David L.; Jones, Garth A.; Salam, A.; Woolley, R. Guy

    2018-01-01

    The multipolar Hamiltonian of quantum electrodynamics is extensively employed in chemical and optical physics to treat rigorously the interaction of electromagnetic fields with matter. It is also widely used to evaluate intermolecular interactions. The multipolar version of the Hamiltonian is commonly obtained by carrying out a unitary transformation of the Coulomb gauge Hamiltonian that goes by the name of Power-Zienau-Woolley (PZW). Not only does the formulation provide excellent agreement with experiment, and versatility in its predictive ability, but also superior physical insight. Recently, the foundations and validity of the PZW Hamiltonian have been questioned, raising a concern over issues of gauge transformation and invariance, and whether observable quantities obtained from unitarily equivalent Hamiltonians are identical. Here, an in-depth analysis of theoretical foundations clarifies the issues and enables misconceptions to be identified. Claims of non-physicality are refuted: the PZW transformation and ensuing Hamiltonian are shown to rest on solid physical principles and secure theoretical ground.

  17. Interactions of heavy quarks in quantum chromodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dine, M.

    1978-01-01

    The interactions of heavy quarks in quantum chromodynamics (QCD) are analyzed in detail. The problem of extracting instantaneous interaction potentials from quantum field theory is first reviewed, in the context of simple models. How such a potential for a fermion-antifermion system may be extracted is indicated. After a review of the quantization of non-Abelian gauge theories in Coulomb gauge, the interaction of a heavy quark-antiquark (Q anti Q) pair is considered. A Ward identity relating the Coulomb-gluon-fermion vertex to the fermion self-energy is derived. This identity is used to prove the mass independence of the static potential. The potential is shown to be infrared finite through two loops, and its general structure in perturbation theory is indicated. At three loops, divergences associated with long-lived intermediate states appear. A method to resolve this problem for static sources is given, but the result cannot readily be identified as a potential appropriate to the description of a Q anti Q bound state. This problem is discussed in detail. Then the spin-dependent interactions in these systems are analyzed. It is shown that the spin-dependent potentials depend in a nontrivial way on the quark mass. The phenomenological implications of these results are considered. In conclusion, the implications of the results for nonperturbative attacks on the potential problem are discussed. The importance of source-field correlations is stressed. The limitations of schemes introduced recently to compute spin-dependent forces due to instantons are illustrated

  18. Quantum coherence and quantum phase transition in the XY model with staggered Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hui, Ning-Ju [Department of Applied Physics, Xi' an University of Technology, Xi' an 710054 (China); Xu, Yang-Yang; Wang, Jicheng; Zhang, Yixin [Jiangsu Provincial Research Center of Light Industrial Optoelectronic Engineering and Technology, School of Science, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122 (China); Hu, Zheng-Da, E-mail: huyuanda1112@jiangnan.edu.cn [Jiangsu Provincial Research Center of Light Industrial Optoelectronic Engineering and Technology, School of Science, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122 (China)

    2017-04-01

    We investigate the properties of geometric quantum coherence in the XY spin-1/2 chain with staggered Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya interaction via the quantum renormalization-group approach. It is shown that the geometric quantum coherence and its coherence susceptibility are effective to detect the quantum phase transition. In the thermodynamic limit, the geometric quantum coherence exhibits a sudden jump. The coherence susceptibilities versus the anisotropy parameter and the Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya interaction are infinite and vanishing, respectively, illustrating the distinct roles of the anisotropy parameter and the Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya interaction in quantum phase transition. Moreover, we also explore the finite-size scaling behaviors of the coherence susceptibilities. For a finite-size chain, the coherence susceptibility versus the phase-transition parameter is always maximal at the critical point, indicating the dramatic quantum fluctuation. Besides, we show that the correlation length can be revealed by the scaling exponent for the coherence susceptibility versus the Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya interaction.

  19. Quantum phase transition of light as a control of the entanglement between interacting quantum dots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barragan, Angela; Vera-Ciro, Carlos; Mondragon-Shem, Ian

    We study coupled quantum dots arranged in a photonic crystal, interacting with light which undergoes a quantum phase transition. At the mean-field level for the infinite lattice, we compute the concurrence of the quantum dots as a measure of their entanglement. We find that this quantity smoothly

  20. Designing Learning Environments to Teach Interactive Quantum Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puente, Sonia M. Gomez; Swagten, Henk J. M.

    2012-01-01

    This study aims at describing and analysing systematically an interactive learning environment designed to teach Quantum Physics, a second-year physics course. The instructional design of Quantum Physics is a combination of interactive lectures (using audience response systems), tutorials and self-study in unit blocks, carried out with small…

  1. Designing learning environments to teach interactive Quantum Physics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gómez Puente, S.M.; Swagten, H.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    This study aims at describing and analysing systematically an interactive learning environment designed to teach Quantum Physics, a second-year physics course. The instructional design of Quantum Physics is a combination of interactive lectures (using audience response systems), tutorials and

  2. Quantum uncertainty in critical systems with three spins interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrijo, Thiago M; Avelar, Ardiley T; Céleri, Lucas C

    2015-01-01

    In this article we consider two spin-1/2 chains described, respectively, by the thermodynamic limit of the XY model with the usual two site interaction, and an extension of this model (without taking the thermodynamics limit), called XYT, were a three site interaction term is presented. To investigate the critical behaviour of such systems we employ tools from quantum information theory. Specifically, we show that the local quantum uncertainty, a quantity introduced in order to quantify the minimum quantum share of the variance of a local measurement, can be used to indicate quantum phase transitions presented by these models at zero temperature. Due to the connection of this quantity with the quantum Fisher information, the results presented here may be relevant for quantum metrology and quantum thermodynamics. (paper)

  3. Spin interactions in InAs quantum dots and molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doty, M.F.; Ware, M.E.; Stinaff, E.A.; Scheibner, M.; Bracker, A.S.; Ponomarev, I.V.; Badescu, S.C.; Reinecke, T.L.; Gammon, D. [Naval Research Lab, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Korenev, V.L. [A.F. Ioffe Physical Technical Institute, St. Petersburg 194021 (Russian Federation)

    2006-12-15

    Spin interactions between particles in quantum dots or quantum dot molecules appear as fine structure in the photoluminescence spectra. Using the understanding of exchange interactions that has been developed from single dot spectra, we analyze the spin signatures of coupled quantum dots separated by a wide barrier such that inter-dot interactions are negligible. We find that electron-hole exchange splitting is directly evident. In dots charged with an excess hole, an effective hole-hole interaction can be turned on through tunnel coupling. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  4. Interactive Simulations to Support Quantum Mechanics Instruction for Chemistry Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohnle, Antje; Benfield, Cory; Hahner, Georg; Paetkau, Mark

    2017-01-01

    The QuVis Quantum Mechanics Visualization Project provides freely available research-based interactive simulations with accompanying activities for the teaching and learning of quantum mechanics across a wide range of topics and levels. This article gives an overview of some of the simulations and describes their use in an introductory physical…

  5. Quantum transport in strongly interacting one-dimensional nanostructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agundez, R.R.

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis we study quantum transport in several one-dimensional systems with strong electronic interactions. The first chapter contains an introduction to the concepts treated throughout this thesis, such as the Aharonov-Bohm effect, the Kondo effect, the Fano effect and quantum state transfer.

  6. Relativistic quantum information in detectors–field interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, B L; Lin, Shih-Yuin; Louko, Jorma

    2012-01-01

    We review Unruh–DeWitt detectors and other models of detector–field interaction in a relativistic quantum field theory setting as a tool for extracting detector–detector, field–field and detector–field correlation functions of interest in quantum information science, from entanglement dynamics to quantum teleportation. In particular, we highlight the contrast between the results obtained from linear perturbation theory which can be justified provided switching effects are properly accounted for, and the nonperturbative effects from available analytic expressions which incorporate the backreaction effects of the quantum field on the detector behavior. (paper)

  7. Interaction of solitons with a string of coupled quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Vijendra, E-mail: vsmedphysics@gmail.com; Swami, O. P., E-mail: omg1789@gmail.com; Nagar, A. K., E-mail: ajaya.nagar@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Govt. Dungar College, Bikaner, Rajasthan 334001 (India); Taneja, S., E-mail: sachintaneja9@gmail.com [Department of Radiotherapy, CHAF Bangalore, Karnataka 560007 (India)

    2016-05-06

    In this paper, we develop a theory for discrete solitons interaction with a string of coupled quantum dots in view of the local field effects. Discrete nonlinear Schrodinger (DNLS) equations are used to describe the dynamics of the string. Numerical calculations are carried out and results are analyzed with the help of matlab software. With the help of numerical solutions we demonstrate that in the quantum dots string, Rabi oscillations (RO) are self trapped into stable bright Rabi solitons. The Rabi oscillations in different types of nanostructures have potential applications to the elements of quantum logic and quantum memory.

  8. Photonic and Quantum Interactions of Atomic-Scale Junctions

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this proposal, the fundamental quantum and photonic interactions of bimetallic atomic-scale junctions (ASJs) will be explored, with three major space...

  9. Fab Four self-interaction in quantum regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbuzov, A. B.; Latosh, B. N.

    2017-10-01

    Quantum behavior of the John Lagrangian from the Fab Four class of covariant Galileons is studied. We consider one-loop corrections to the John interaction due to cubic scalar field interaction. Counter terms are calculated, one appears because of massless scalar field theory infrared issues, another one lies in the George class, and the rest of them can be reduced to the initial Lagrangian up to surface terms. The role of quantum corrections in the context of cosmological applications is discussed.

  10. Fab Four self-interaction in quantum regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arbuzov, A.B.; Latosh, B.N. [JINR, Bogoliubov Laboratory for Theoretical Physics, Dubna (Russian Federation); Dubna State University, Dubna, Moscow Region (Russian Federation)

    2017-10-15

    Quantum behavior of the John Lagrangian from the Fab Four class of covariant Galileons is studied. We consider one-loop corrections to the John interaction due to cubic scalar field interaction. Counter terms are calculated, one appears because of massless scalar field theory infrared issues, another one lies in the George class, and the rest of them can be reduced to the initial Lagrangian up to surface terms. The role of quantum corrections in the context of cosmological applications is discussed. (orig.)

  11. About normal distribution on SO(3) group in texture analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savyolova, T. I.; Filatov, S. V.

    2017-12-01

    This article studies and compares different normal distributions (NDs) on SO(3) group, which are used in texture analysis. Those NDs are: Fisher normal distribution (FND), Bunge normal distribution (BND), central normal distribution (CND) and wrapped normal distribution (WND). All of the previously mentioned NDs are central functions on SO(3) group. CND is a subcase for normal CLT-motivated distributions on SO(3) (CLT here is Parthasarathy’s central limit theorem). WND is motivated by CLT in R 3 and mapped to SO(3) group. A Monte Carlo method for modeling normally distributed values was studied for both CND and WND. All of the NDs mentioned above are used for modeling different components of crystallites orientation distribution function in texture analysis.

  12. Is string interaction the origin of quantum mechanics?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bars, Itzhak, E-mail: bars@usc.edu; Rychkov, Dmitry

    2014-12-12

    String theory was developed by demanding consistency with quantum mechanics. In this paper we wish to reverse the reasoning. We pretend that open string field theory is a fully consistent definition of the theory – it is at least a self-consistent sector. Then we find in its structure that the rules of quantum mechanics emerge from the non-commutative nature of the basic string joining/splitting interactions. Thus, rather than assuming the quantum commutation rules among the usual canonical variables we derive them from the physical process of string interactions. Morally we could apply such an argument to M-theory to cover quantum mechanics for all physics. If string or M-theory really underlies all physics, it seems that the door has been opened to an explanation of the origins of quantum mechanics from the physical processes point of view.

  13. Interaction of porphyrins with CdTe quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xing; Liu Zhongxin; Ma Lun; Hossu, Marius; Chen Wei

    2011-01-01

    Porphyrins may be used as photosensitizers for photodynamic therapy, photocatalysts for organic pollutant dissociation, agents for medical imaging and diagnostics, applications in luminescence and electronics. The detection of porphyrins is significantly important and here the interaction of protoporphyrin-IX (PPIX) with CdTe quantum dots was studied. It was observed that the luminescence of CdTe quantum dots was quenched dramatically in the presence of PPIX. When CdTe quantum dots were embedded into silica layers, almost no quenching by PPIX was observed. This indicates that PPIX may interact and alter CdTe quantum dots and thus quench their luminescence. The oxidation of the stabilizers such as thioglycolic acid (TGA) as well as the nanoparticles by the singlet oxygen generated from PPIX is most likely responsible for the luminescence quenching. The quenching of quantum dot luminescence by porphyrins may provide a new method for photosensitizer detection.

  14. Game Theoretic Interaction and Decision: A Quantum Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Faigle

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available An interaction system has a finite set of agents that interact pairwise, depending on the current state of the system. Symmetric decomposition of the matrix of interaction coefficients yields the representation of states by self-adjoint matrices and hence a spectral representation. As a result, cooperation systems, decision systems and quantum systems all become visible as manifestations of special interaction systems. The treatment of the theory is purely mathematical and does not require any special knowledge of physics. It is shown how standard notions in cooperative game theory arise naturally in this context. In particular, states of general interaction systems are seen to arise as linear superpositions of pure quantum states and Fourier transformation to become meaningful. Moreover, quantum games fall into this framework. Finally, a theory of Markov evolution of interaction states is presented that generalizes classical homogeneous Markov chains to the present context.

  15. Nanostructure van der Waals interaction between a quantum well and a quantum dot atom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horing, Norman J Morgenstern

    2006-01-01

    We examine the van der Waals interaction between mobile plasma electrons in a narrow quantum well nanostructure and a quantum dot atom. This formulation of the van der Waals interaction exhibits it to second order as the correlation energy (self-energy) of the dot-atom electrons mediated by the image potential arising from the dynamic, nonlocal and spatially inhomogeneous polarization of the quantum well plasma electrons. This image potential of the quantum-well plasma is, in turn, determined by the dynamic, nonlocal, inhomogeneous screening function of the quantum well, which involves the space-time matrix inversion of its spatially inhomogeneous, nonlocal and time-dependent dielectric function. The latter matrix inversion is carried out exactly, in closed form, and the van der Waals energy is evaluated in the electrostatic limit to dipole-dipole terms

  16. Quantum and classical behavior in interacting bosonic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hertzberg, Mark P. [Institute of Cosmology & Department of Physics and Astronomy, Tufts University,Medford, MA 02155 (United States)

    2016-11-21

    It is understood that in free bosonic theories, the classical field theory accurately describes the full quantum theory when the occupancy numbers of systems are very large. However, the situation is less understood in interacting theories, especially on time scales longer than the dynamical relaxation time. Recently there have been claims that the quantum theory deviates spectacularly from the classical theory on this time scale, even if the occupancy numbers are extremely large. Furthermore, it is claimed that the quantum theory quickly thermalizes while the classical theory does not. The evidence for these claims comes from noticing a spectacular difference in the time evolution of expectation values of quantum operators compared to the classical micro-state evolution. If true, this would have dramatic consequences for many important phenomena, including laboratory studies of interacting BECs, dark matter axions, preheating after inflation, etc. In this work we critically examine these claims. We show that in fact the classical theory can describe the quantum behavior in the high occupancy regime, even when interactions are large. The connection is that the expectation values of quantum operators in a single quantum micro-state are approximated by a corresponding classical ensemble average over many classical micro-states. Furthermore, by the ergodic theorem, a classical ensemble average of local fields with statistical translation invariance is the spatial average of a single micro-state. So the correlation functions of the quantum and classical field theories of a single micro-state approximately agree at high occupancy, even in interacting systems. Furthermore, both quantum and classical field theories can thermalize, when appropriate coarse graining is introduced, with the classical case requiring a cutoff on low occupancy UV modes. We discuss applications of our results.

  17. When quantum mechanics interacts with cognitive science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blutner, R.

    2010-01-01

    I reflect on several aspects of the general claim that a quantum-like approach to Cognitive Science is advantageous over classical approaches. The classical approaches refer to the symbolic approaches including models using a classical (Kolmogorov) probability calculus. The general claim seems to be

  18. Spin interactions in InAs quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doty, M. F.; Ware, M. E.; Stinaff, E. A.; Scheibner, M.; Bracker, A. S.; Gammon, D.; Ponomarev, I. V.; Reinecke, T. L.; Korenev, V. L.

    2006-03-01

    Fine structure splittings in optical spectra of self-assembled InAs quantum dots (QDs) generally arise from spin interactions between particles confined in the dots. We present experimental studies of the fine structure that arises from multiple charges confined in a single dot [1] or in molecular orbitals of coupled pairs of dots. To probe the underlying spin interactions we inject particles with a known spin orientation (by using polarized light to perform photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy experiments) or use a magnetic field to orient and/or mix the spin states. We develop a model of the spin interactions that aids in the development of quantum information processing applications based on controllable interactions between spins confined to QDs. [1] Polarized Fine Structure in the Photoluminescence Excitation Spectrum of a Negatively Charged Quantum Dot, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 177403 (2005)

  19. Quantum Deformations of Space-Time Symmetries and Interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Lukierski, Jerzy; Stichel, Peter C.

    1996-01-01

    We discuss quantum deformations of Lie algebra as described by the noncoassociative modification of its coalgebra structure. We consider for simplicity the quantum $D=1$ Galilei algebra with four generators: energy $H$, boost $B$, momentum $P$ and central generator $M$ (mass generator). We describe the nonprimitive coproducts for $H$ and $B$ and show that their noncocommutative and noncoassociative structure is determined by the two-body interaction terms. Further we consider the case of phys...

  20. Disorder and Interaction Effects in Quantum Wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, L W; Ritchie, D A; Farrer, I; Griffiths, J P; Jones, G A C; Thomas, K J; Pepper, M

    2012-01-01

    We present conductance measurements of quasi-one-dimensional quantum wires affected by random disorder in a GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure. In addition to quantised conductance plateaux, we observe structure superimposed on the conductance characteristics when the channel is wide and the density is low. Magnetic field and temperature are varied to characterize the conductance features which depend on the lateral position of the 1D channel formed in a split-gate device. Our results suggest that there is enhanced backscattering in the wide channel limit, which gives rise to quantum interference effects. When the wires are free of disorder and wide, the confinement is weak so that the mutual repulsion of the electrons forces a single row to split into two. The relationship of this topological change to the disorder in the system will be discussed.

  1. Designing learning environments to teach interactive Quantum Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez Puente, Sonia M.; Swagten, Henk J. M.

    2012-10-01

    This study aims at describing and analysing systematically an interactive learning environment designed to teach Quantum Physics, a second-year physics course. The instructional design of Quantum Physics is a combination of interactive lectures (using audience response systems), tutorials and self-study in unit blocks, carried out with small groups. Individual formative feedback was introduced as a rapid assessment tool to provide an overview on progress and identify gaps by means of questioning students at three levels: conceptual; prior knowledge; homework exercises. The setup of Quantum Physics has been developed as a result of several loops of adjustments and improvements from a traditional-like type of teaching to an interactive classroom. Results of this particular instructional arrangement indicate significant gains in students' achievements in comparison with the traditional structure of this course, after recent optimisation steps such as the implementation of an individual feedback system.

  2. Interaction Induced Quantum Valley Hall Effect in Graphene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. C. Marino

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We use pseudo-quantum electrodynamics in order to describe the full electromagnetic interaction of the p electrons in graphene in a consistent 2D formulation. We first consider the effect of this interaction in the vacuum polarization tensor or, equivalently, in the current correlator. This allows us to obtain the T→0 conductivity after a smooth zero-frequency limit is taken in Kubo’s formula. Thereby, we obtain the usual expression for the minimal conductivity plus corrections due to the interaction that bring it closer to the experimental value. We then predict the onset of an interaction-driven spontaneous quantum valley Hall effect below an activation temperature of the order of 2 K. The transverse (Hall valley conductivity is evaluated exactly and shown to coincide with the one in the usual quantum Hall effect. Finally, by considering the effects of pseudo-quantum electrodynamics, we show that the electron self-energy is such that a set of P- and T-symmetric gapped electron energy eigenstates are dynamically generated, in association with the quantum valley Hall effect.

  3. Interaction of a quantum well with squeezed light: Quantum-statistical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sete, Eyob A.; Eleuch, H.

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the quantum statistical properties of the light emitted by a quantum well interacting with squeezed light from a degenerate subthreshold optical parametric oscillator. We obtain analytical solutions for the pertinent quantum Langevin equations in the strong-coupling and low-excitation regimes. Using these solutions we calculate the intensity spectrum, autocorrelation function, and quadrature squeezing for the fluorescent light. We show that the fluorescent light exhibits bunching and quadrature squeezing. We also show that the squeezed light leads to narrowing of the width of the spectrum of the fluorescent light.

  4. Entanglement and Zeeman interaction in diluted magnetic semiconductor quantum dot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hichri, A.; Jaziri, S.

    2004-01-01

    We present theoretically the Zeeman coupling and exchange-induced swap action in spin-based quantum dot quantum computer models in the presence of magnetic field. We study the valence and conduction band states in a double quantum dots made in diluted magnetic semiconductor. The latter have been proven to be very useful in building an all-semiconductor platform for spintronics. Due to a strong p-d exchange interaction in diluted magnetic semiconductor (Cd 0.57 Mn 0.43 Te), the relative contribution of this component is strongly affected by an external magnetic field, a feature that is absent in nonmagnetic double quantum dots. We determine the energy spectrum as a function of magnetic field within the Hund-Mulliken molecular-orbit approach and by including the Coulomb interaction. Since we show that the ground state of the two carriers confined in a vertically coupled quantum dots provide a possible realization for a gate of a quantum computer, the crossing between the lowest states, caused by the giant spin splitting, can be observed as a pronounced jump in the magnetization of small magnetic field amplitude. Finally, we determine the swap time as a function of magnetic field and the inter dot distance. We estimate quantitatively swap errors caused by the field, establishing that error correction would, in principle, be possible in the presence of nonuniform magnetic field in realistic structures

  5. Algebraic special functions and SO(3,2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celeghini, E.; Olmo, M.A. del

    2013-01-01

    A ladder structure of operators is presented for the associated Legendre polynomials and the sphericas harmonics. In both cases these operators belong to the irreducible representation of the Lie algebra so(3,2) with quadratic Casimir equals to −5/4. As both are also bases of square-integrable functions, the universal enveloping algebra of so(3,2) is thus shown to be homomorphic to the space of linear operators acting on the L 2 functions defined on (−1,1)×Z and on the sphere S 2 , respectively. The presence of a ladder structure is suggested to be the general condition to obtain a Lie algebra representation defining in this way the “algebraic special functions” that are proposed to be the connection between Lie algebras and square-integrable functions so that the space of linear operators on the L 2 functions is homomorphic to the universal enveloping algebra. The passage to the group, by means of the exponential map, shows that the associated Legendre polynomials and the spherical harmonics support the corresponding unitary irreducible representation of the group SO(3,2). -- Highlights: •The algebraic ladder structure is constructed for the associated Legendre polynomials (ALP). •ALP and spherical harmonics support a unitary irreducible SO(3,2)-representation. •A ladder structure is the condition to get a Lie group representation defining “algebraic special functions”. •The “algebraic special functions” connect Lie algebras and L 2 functions

  6. Quantum Interactive Dualism: An Alternative to Materialism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stapp, Henry P

    2005-06-01

    Materialism rest implicitly upon the general conception of nature promoted by Galileo and Newton during the seventeenth century. It features the causal closure of the physical: The course of physically described events for all time is fixed by laws that refer exclusively to the physically describeable features of nature, and initial conditions on these feature. No reference to subjective thoughts or feeling of human beings enter. That simple conception of nature was found during the first quarter of the twentieth century to be apparently incompatible with the empirical facts. The founders of quantum theory created a new fundamental physical theory, quantum theory, which introduced crucially into the causal structure certain conscious choices made by human agents about how they will act. These conscious human choices are ''free'' in the sense that they are not fixed by the known laws. But they can influence the course of physically described events. Thus the principle of the causal closure of the physical fails. Applications in psycho-neuro-dynamics are described.

  7. Quantum mechanical calculations on weakly interacting complexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijmen, T.G.A.

    1998-01-01

    Symmetry-adapted perturbation theory (SAPT) has been applied to compute the intermolecular potential energy surfaces and the interaction-induced electrical properties of weakly interacting complexes. Asymptotic (large R) expressions have been derived for the contributions to the collision-induced

  8. Carrier-phonon interaction in semiconductor quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seebeck, Jan

    2009-03-10

    In recent years semiconductor quantum dots have been studied extensively due to their wide range of possible applications, predominantly for light sources. For successful applications, efficient carrier scattering processes as well as a detailed understanding of the optical properties are of central importance. The aims of this thesis are theoretical investigations of carrier scattering processes in InGaAs/GaAs quantum dots on a quantum-kinetic basis. A consistent treatment of quasi-particle renormalizations and carrier kinetics for non-equilibrium conditions is presented, using the framework of non-equilibrium Green's functions. The focus of our investigations is the interaction of carriers with LO phonons. Important for the understanding of the scattering mechanism are the corresponding quasi-particle properties. Starting from a detailed study of quantum-dot polarons, scattering and dephasing processes are discussed for different temperature regimes. The inclusion of polaron and memory effects turns out to be essential for the description of the carrier kinetics in quantum-dot systems. They give rise to efficient scattering channels and the obtained results are in agreement with recent experiments. Furthermore, a consistent treatment of the carrier-LO-phonon and the carrier-carrier interaction is presented for the optical response of semiconductor quantum dots, both giving rise to equally important contributions to the dephasing. Beside the conventional GaAs material system, currently GaN based light sources are of high topical interest due to their wide range of possible emission frequencies. In this material additionally intrinsic properties like piezoelectric fields and strong band-mixing effects have to be considered. For the description of the optical properties of InN/GaN quantum dots a procedure is presented, where the material properties obtained from an atomistic tight-binding approach are combined with a many-body theory for non

  9. Strongly modified plasmon-matter interaction with mesoscopic quantum emitters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mads Lykke; Stobbe, Søren; Søndberg Sørensen, Anders

    2011-01-01

    Semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) provide useful means to couple light and matter in applications such as light-harvesting1, 2 and all-solid-state quantum information processing3, 4. This coupling can be increased by placing QDs in nanostructured optical environments such as photonic crystals...... or metallic nanostructures that enable strong confinement of light and thereby enhance the light–matter interaction. It has thus far been assumed that QDs can be described in the same way as atomic photon emitters—as point sources with wavefunctions whose spatial extent can be disregarded. Here we demonstrate...

  10. Quantum pattern recognition with multi-neuron interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fard, E. Rezaei; Aghayar, K.; Amniat-Talab, M.

    2018-03-01

    We present a quantum neural network with multi-neuron interactions for pattern recognition tasks by a combination of extended classic Hopfield network and adiabatic quantum computation. This scheme can be used as an associative memory to retrieve partial patterns with any number of unknown bits. Also, we propose a preprocessing approach to classifying the pattern space S to suppress spurious patterns. The results of pattern clustering show that for pattern association, the number of weights (η ) should equal the numbers of unknown bits in the input pattern ( d). It is also remarkable that associative memory function depends on the location of unknown bits apart from the d and load parameter α.

  11. Quantum Glass of Interacting Bosons with Off-Diagonal Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piekarska, A. M.; Kopeć, T. K.

    2018-04-01

    We study disordered interacting bosons described by the Bose-Hubbard model with Gaussian-distributed random tunneling amplitudes. It is shown that the off-diagonal disorder induces a spin-glass-like ground state, characterized by randomly frozen quantum-mechanical U(1) phases of bosons. To access criticality, we employ the "n -replica trick," as in the spin-glass theory, and the Trotter-Suzuki method for decomposition of the statistical density operator, along with numerical calculations. The interplay between disorder, quantum, and thermal fluctuations leads to phase diagrams exhibiting a glassy state of bosons, which are studied as a function of model parameters. The considered system may be relevant for quantum simulators of optical-lattice bosons, where the randomness can be introduced in a controlled way. The latter is supported by a proposition of experimental realization of the system in question.

  12. Long-range interactions in antiferromagnetic quantum spin chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, B.; Cabra, D. C.; Gómez Albarracín, F. A.; Rossini, G. L.

    2017-08-01

    We study the role of long-range dipolar interactions on antiferromagnetic spin chains, from the classical S →∞ limit to the deep quantum case S =1 /2 , including a transverse magnetic field. To this end, we combine different techniques such as classical energy minima, classical Monte Carlo, linear spin waves, bosonization, and density matrix renormalization group (DMRG). We find a phase transition from the already reported dipolar ferromagnetic region to an antiferromagnetic region for high enough antiferromagnetic exchange. Thermal and quantum fluctuations destabilize the classical order before reaching magnetic saturation in both phases, and also close to zero field in the antiferromagnetic phase. In the extreme quantum limit S =1 /2 , extensive DMRG computations show that the main phases remain present with transition lines to saturation significatively shifted to lower fields, in agreement with the bosonization analysis. The overall picture maintains a close analogy with the phase diagram of the anisotropic XXZ spin chain in a transverse field.

  13. Lagrangian model of conformal invariant interacting quantum field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukierski, J.

    1976-01-01

    A Lagrangian model of conformal invariant interacting quantum field theory is presented. The interacting Lagrangian and free Lagrangian are derived replacing the canonical field phi by the field operator PHIsub(d)sup(c) and introducing the conformal-invariant interaction Lagrangian. It is suggested that in the conformal-invariant QFT with the dimensionality αsub(B) obtained from the bootstrep equation, the normalization constant c of the propagator and the coupling parametery do not necessarily need to satisfy the relation xsub(B) = phi 2 c 3

  14. Quantum chaos and thermalization in isolated systems of interacting particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borgonovi, F., E-mail: fausto.borgonovi@unicatt.it [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica and Interdisciplinary Laboratories for Advanced Materials Physics, Universitá Cattolica, via Musei 41, 25121 Brescia, and INFN, Sezione di Pavia (Italy); Izrailev, F.M., E-mail: felix.izrailev@gmail.com [Instituto de Física, Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, Apt. Postal J-48, Puebla, Pue., 72570 (Mexico); NSCL and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824-1321 (United States); Santos, L.F., E-mail: lsantos2@yu.edu [Department of Physics, Yeshiva University, 245 Lexington Ave, New York, NY 10016 (United States); Zelevinsky, V.G., E-mail: Zelevins@nscl.msu.edu [NSCL and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824-1321 (United States)

    2016-04-15

    This review is devoted to the problem of thermalization in a small isolated conglomerate of interacting constituents. A variety of physically important systems of intensive current interest belong to this category: complex atoms, molecules (including biological molecules), nuclei, small devices of condensed matter and quantum optics on nano- and micro-scale, cold atoms in optical lattices, ion traps. Physical implementations of quantum computers, where there are many interacting qubits, also fall into this group. Statistical regularities come into play through inter-particle interactions, which have two fundamental components: mean field, that along with external conditions, forms the regular component of the dynamics, and residual interactions responsible for the complex structure of the actual stationary states. At sufficiently high level density, the stationary states become exceedingly complicated superpositions of simple quasiparticle excitations. At this stage, regularities typical of quantum chaos emerge and bring in signatures of thermalization. We describe all the stages and the results of the processes leading to thermalization, using analytical and massive numerical examples for realistic atomic, nuclear, and spin systems, as well as for models with random parameters. The structure of stationary states, strength functions of simple configurations, and concepts of entropy and temperature in application to isolated mesoscopic systems are discussed in detail. We conclude with a schematic discussion of the time evolution of such systems to equilibrium.

  15. Controlling electron quantum dot qubits by spin-orbit interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stano, P.

    2007-01-01

    Single electron confined in a quantum dot is studied. A special emphasis is laid on the spin properties and the influence of spin-orbit interactions on the system. The study is motivated by a perspective exploitation of the spin of the confined electron as a qubit, a basic building block of in a foreseen quantum computer. The electron is described using the single band effective mass approximation, with parameters typical for a lateral electrostatically defined quantum dot in a GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure. The stemming data for the analysis are obtained by numerical methods of exact diagonalization, however, all important conclusions are explained analytically. The work focuses on three main areas -- electron spectrum, phonon induced relaxation and electrically and magnetically induced Rabi oscillations. It is shown, how spin-orbit interactions influence the energy spectrum, cause finite spin relaxation and allow for all-electrical manipulation of the spin qubit. Among the main results is the discovery of easy passages, where the spin relaxation is unusually slow and the qubit is protected against parasitic electrical fields connected with manipulation by resonant electromagnetic fields. The results provide direct guide for manufacturing quantum dots with much improved properties, suitable for realizing single electron spin qubits. (orig.)

  16. Gravitational interaction to one loop in effective quantum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhundov, A.

    1996-10-01

    The authors carry out the first step of a program conceived, in order to build a realistic model, having the particle spectrum of the standard model and renormalized masses, interaction terms and coupling, etc. which include the class of quantum gravity corrections, obtained by handling gravity as an effective theory. This provides an adequate picture at low energies, i.e. much less than the scale of strong gravity (the Planck mass). Hence the results are valid, irrespectively of any proposal for the full quantum gravity as a fundamental theory. The authors consider only non-analytic contributions to the one-loop scattering matrix elements, which provide the dominant quantum effect at long distance. These contributions are finite and independent from the finite value of the renormalization counter terms of the effective Lagrangian. The authors calculate the interaction of two heavy scalar particles, i.e. close to rest, due to the effective quantum gravity to the one loop order and compare with similar results in the literature

  17. Gravitational interaction to one loop in effective quantum gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhundov, A. [Universitaet-gesamthochschule Siegen (Germany)]|[Azerbaijan Academy of Sciences, Baku (Azerbaijan). Institute of Physics; Bellucci, S. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Rome (Italy); Shiekh, A. [International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy)

    1996-10-01

    The authors carry out the first step of a program conceived, in order to build a realistic model, having the particle spectrum of the standard model and renormalized masses, interaction terms and coupling, etc. which include the class of quantum gravity corrections, obtained by handling gravity as an effective theory. This provides an adequate picture at low energies, i.e. much less than the scale of strong gravity (the Planck mass). Hence the results are valid, irrespectively of any proposal for the full quantum gravity as a fundamental theory. The authors consider only non-analytic contributions to the one-loop scattering matrix elements, which provide the dominant quantum effect at long distance. These contributions are finite and independent from the finite value of the renormalization counter terms of the effective Lagrangian. The authors calculate the interaction of two heavy scalar particles, i.e. close to rest, due to the effective quantum gravity to the one loop order and compare with similar results in the literature.

  18. Controlling electron quantum dot qubits by spin-orbit interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stano, P.

    2007-01-15

    Single electron confined in a quantum dot is studied. A special emphasis is laid on the spin properties and the influence of spin-orbit interactions on the system. The study is motivated by a perspective exploitation of the spin of the confined electron as a qubit, a basic building block of in a foreseen quantum computer. The electron is described using the single band effective mass approximation, with parameters typical for a lateral electrostatically defined quantum dot in a GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure. The stemming data for the analysis are obtained by numerical methods of exact diagonalization, however, all important conclusions are explained analytically. The work focuses on three main areas -- electron spectrum, phonon induced relaxation and electrically and magnetically induced Rabi oscillations. It is shown, how spin-orbit interactions influence the energy spectrum, cause finite spin relaxation and allow for all-electrical manipulation of the spin qubit. Among the main results is the discovery of easy passages, where the spin relaxation is unusually slow and the qubit is protected against parasitic electrical fields connected with manipulation by resonant electromagnetic fields. The results provide direct guide for manufacturing quantum dots with much improved properties, suitable for realizing single electron spin qubits. (orig.)

  19. Electron-electron interaction in Multiple Quantum Wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zybert, M.; Marchewka, M.; Tomaka, G.; Sheregii, E. M.

    2012-07-01

    The complex investigation of the magneto-transport effects in structures containing multiple quantum well (MQWs) based on the GaAs/AlGaAs-heterostructures has been performed. The MQWs investigated have different electron densities in QWs. The parameters of 2DEG in MQWs were determined from the data of the Integer Quantum Hall Effect (IQHE) and Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations (SdH) observed at low temperatures (0.6-4.2 K). The method of calculation of the electron states energies in MQWs has been developed which is based on the splitting of these states due to the exchange interaction (SAS-splitting, see D. Płoch et al., Phys. Rev. B 79 (2009) 195434) including the screening of this interaction. The IQHE and SdH observed in these multilayer structures with the third degree of freedom for electrons are interpreted from this.

  20. Dephasing and hyperfine interaction in carbon nanotubes double quantum dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reynoso, Andres Alejandro; Flensberg, Karsten

    2012-01-01

    We study theoretically the return probability experiment, which is used to measure the dephasing time T-2*, in a double quantum dot (DQD) in semiconducting carbon nanotubes with spin-orbit coupling and disorder-induced valley mixing. Dephasing is due to hyperfine interaction with the spins of the C...... with these for DQDs in clean nanotubes, whereas the disorder effect is always relevant when the magnetic field is perpendicular to the nanotube axis....

  1. Photon-Electron Interactions in Dirac Quantum Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Xiaodong [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States). Dept. of Material Science and Engineering

    2017-11-10

    The objective of this proposal was to explore the fundamental light-matter interactions in a new class of Dirac quantum materials, atomically thin transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs). Monolayer TMDs are newly discovered two-dimensional semiconductors with direct bandgap. Due to their hexagonal lattice structure, the band edge localizes at corner of Brillouin zone, i.e. “Dirac valleys”. This gives the corresponding electron states a “valley index” (or pseudospin) in addition to the real spin. Remarkably, the valley pseudospins have circularly polarized optical selection rules, providing the first solid state system for dynamic control of the valley degree of freedom. During this award, we have developed a suite of advanced nano-optical spectroscopy tools in the investigation and manipulation of charge, spin, and valley degrees of freedom in monolayer semiconductors. Emerging physical phenomena, such as quantum coherence between valley pseudospins, have been demonstrated for the first time in solids. In addition to monolayers, we have developed a framework in engineering, formulating, and understanding valley pseudospin physics in 2D heterostructures formed by different monolayer semiconductors. We demonstrated long-lived valley-polarized interlayer excitons with valley-dependent many-body interaction effects. These works push the research frontier in understanding the light-matter interactions in atomically-thin quantum materials for protentional transformative energy technologies.

  2. Quantum states with topological properties via dipolar interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter, David

    2015-06-25

    This thesis proposes conceptually new ways to realize materials with topological properties by using dipole-dipole interactions. First, we study a system of ultracold dipolar fermions, where the relaxation mechanism of dipolar spins can be used to reach the quantum Hall regime. Second, in a system of polar molecules in an optical lattice, dipole-dipole interactions induce spin-orbit coupling terms for the rotational excitations. In combination with time-reversal symmetry breaking this leads to topological bands with Chern numbers greater than one.

  3. CP1 model with Hopf interaction: the quantum theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakraborty, B.; Ghosh, Subir; Malik, R.P.

    2001-01-01

    The CP 1 model with Hopf interaction is quantised following the Batalin-Tyutin (BT) prescription. In this scheme, extra BT fields are introduced which allow for the existence of only commuting first-class constraints. Explicit expression for the quantum correction to the expectation value of the energy density and angular momentum in the physical sector of this model is derived. The result shows, in the particular operator ordering prescription we have chosen to work with, that the quantum effect has the usual divergent contribution of O(ℎ 2 ) in the energy expectation value. But, interestingly the Hopf term, though topological in nature, can have a finite O(ℎ) contribution to energy density in the homotopically nontrivial topological sector. The angular momentum operator, however, is found to have no quantum correction at O(ℎ), indicating the absence of any fractional spin even at this quantum level. Finally, the extended Lagrangian incorporating the BT auxiliary fields is computed in the conventional framework of BRST formalism exploiting Faddeev-Popov technique of path integral method

  4. Quantum theory of nonrelativistic particles interacting with gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anastopoulos, C.

    1996-01-01

    We investigate the effects of the gravitational field on the quantum dynamics of nonrelativistic particles. We consider N nonrelativistic particles, interacting with the linearized gravitational field. Using the Feynman-Vernon influence functional technique, we trace out the graviton field to obtain a master equation for the system of particles to first order in G. The effective interaction between the particles as well as the self-interaction is in general non-Markovian. We show that the gravitational self-interaction cannot be held responsible for decoherence of microscopic particles due to the fast vanishing of the diffusion function. For macroscopic particles though, it leads to diagonalization to the energy eigenstate basis, a desirable feature in gravity-induced collapse models. We finally comment on possible applications. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  5. Thermoelectric properties of an interacting quantum dot based heat engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdman, Paolo Andrea; Mazza, Francesco; Bosisio, Riccardo; Benenti, Giuliano; Fazio, Rosario; Taddei, Fabio

    2017-06-01

    We study the thermoelectric properties and heat-to-work conversion performance of an interacting, multilevel quantum dot (QD) weakly coupled to electronic reservoirs. We focus on the sequential tunneling regime. The dynamics of the charge in the QD is studied by means of master equations for the probabilities of occupation. From here we compute the charge and heat currents in the linear response regime. Assuming a generic multiterminal setup, and for low temperatures (quantum limit), we obtain analytical expressions for the transport coefficients which account for the interplay between interactions (charging energy) and level quantization. In the case of systems with two and three terminals we derive formulas for the power factor Q and the figure of merit Z T for a QD-based heat engine, identifying optimal working conditions which maximize output power and efficiency of heat-to-work conversion. Beyond the linear response we concentrate on the two-terminal setup. We first study the thermoelectric nonlinear coefficients assessing the consequences of large temperature and voltage biases, focusing on the breakdown of the Onsager reciprocal relation between thermopower and Peltier coefficient. We then investigate the conditions which optimize the performance of a heat engine, finding that in the quantum limit output power and efficiency at maximum power can almost be simultaneously maximized by choosing appropriate values of electrochemical potential and bias voltage. At last we study how energy level degeneracy can increase the output power.

  6. Two-dimensional Yukawa interactions from nonlocal Proca quantum electrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Van Sérgio; Macrı, Tommaso; Magalhães, Gabriel C.; Marino, E. C.; Nascimento, Leandro O.

    2018-05-01

    We derive two versions of an effective model to describe dynamical effects of the Yukawa interaction among Dirac electrons in the plane. Such short-range interaction is obtained by introducing a mass term for the intermediate particle, which may be either scalar or an abelian gauge field, both of them in (3 +1 ) dimensions. Thereafter, we consider that the fermionic matter field propagates only in (2 +1 ) dimensions, whereas the bosonic field is free to propagate out of the plane. Within these assumptions, we apply a mechanism for dimensional reduction, which yields an effective model in (2 +1 ) dimensions. In particular, for the gauge-field case, we use the Stueckelberg mechanism in order to preserve gauge invariance. We refer to this version as nonlocal-Proca quantum electrodynamics (NPQED). For both scalar and gauge cases, the effective models reproduce the usual Yukawa interaction in the static limit. By means of perturbation theory at one loop, we calculate the mass renormalization of the Dirac field. Our model is a generalization of Pseudo quantum electrodynamics (PQED), which is a gauge-field model that provides a Coulomb interaction for two-dimensional electrons. Possibilities of application to Fermi-Bose mixtures in mixed dimensions, using cold atoms, are briefly discussed.

  7. A Quantum Dot with Spin-Orbit Interaction--Analytical Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, B.; Roy, B.

    2009-01-01

    The practical applicability of a semiconductor quantum dot with spin-orbit interaction gives an impetus to study analytical solutions to one- and two-electron quantum dots with or without a magnetic field.

  8. Gravitational self-interactions of a degenerate quantum scalar field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarty, Sankha S.; Enomoto, Seishi; Han, Yaqi; Sikivie, Pierre; Todarello, Elisa M.

    2018-02-01

    We develop a formalism to help calculate in quantum field theory the departures from the description of a system by classical field equations. We apply the formalism to a homogeneous condensate with attractive contact interactions and to a homogeneous self-gravitating condensate in critical expansion. In their classical descriptions, such condensates persist forever. We show that in their quantum description, parametric resonance causes quanta to jump in pairs out of the condensate into all modes with wave vector less than some critical value. We calculate, in each case, the time scale over which the homogeneous condensate is depleted and after which a classical description is invalid. We argue that the duration of classicality of inhomogeneous condensates is shorter than that of homogeneous condensates.

  9. Pair interactions of heavy vortices in quantum fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pshenichnyuk, Ivan A.

    2018-02-01

    The dynamics of quantum vortex pairs carrying heavy doping matter trapped inside their cores is studied. The nonlinear classical matter field formalism is used to build a universal mathematical model of a heavy vortex applicable to different types of quantum mixtures. It is shown how the usual vortex dynamics typical for undoped pairs qualitatively changes when heavy dopants are used: heavy vortices with opposite topological charges (chiralities) attract each other, while vortices with the same charge are repelled. The force responsible for such behavior appears as a result of superposition of vortices velocity fields in the presence of doping substance and can be considered as a special realization of the Magnus effect. The force is evaluated quantitatively and its inverse proportionality to the distance is demonstrated. The mechanism described in this paper gives an example of how a light nonlinear classical field may realize repulsive and attractive interactions between embedded heavy impurities.

  10. Current-Current Interactions, Dynamical Symmetry - and Quantum Chromodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuenschwander, Dwight Edward, Jr.

    Quantum Chromodynamics with massive gluons (gluon mass (TBOND) xm(,p)) in a contact-interaction limit called CQCD (strong coupling g (--->) (INFIN); x (--->) (INFIN)), despite its non-renormalizability and lack of hope of confinement, is nevertheless interesting for at least two reasons. (1) Some authors have suggested a relation between 4-Fermi and Yang-Mills theories. If g/x('2) slavery, perturbative evaluation of QCD in the infrared is a dubious practice. However, if g('2)/x('2) << 1 in CQCD, then the simplest 4-Fermi interaction is dominant, and CQCD admits perturbative treatment, but only in the infrared. With the dominant interaction, a dynamical Nambu-Goldstone realization of chiral symmetry -breaking (XSB) is found. Although in QCD the relation between confinement and XSB is controversial, XSB occurs in CQCD provided confinement is sacrificed.

  11. Single-atom gating and magnetic interactions in quantum corrals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ngo, Anh T.; Kim, Eugene H.; Ulloa, Sergio E.

    2017-04-01

    Single-atom gating, achieved by manipulation of adatoms on a surface, has been shown in experiments to allow precise control over superposition of electronic states in quantum corrals. Using a Green's function approach, we demonstrate theoretically that such atom gating can also be used to control the coupling between magnetic degrees of freedom in these systems. Atomic gating enables control not only on the direct interaction between magnetic adatoms, but also over superpositions of many-body states which can then control long distance interactions. We illustrate this effect by considering the competition between direct exchange between magnetic impurities and the Kondo screening mediated by the host electrons, and how this is affected by gating. These results suggest that both magnetic and nonmagnetic single-atom gating may be used to investigate magnetic impurity systems with tailored interactions, and may allow the control of entanglement of different spin states.

  12. Wave chaos in quantum systems with point interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albeverio, S.; Seba, P.

    1991-01-01

    The authors study perturbations H of the quantized version H 0 of integrable Hamiltonian systems by point interactions. They relate the eigenvalues of H to the zeros of a certain meromorphic function ξ. Assuming the eigenvalues of H 0 are Poisson distributed, they get detailed information on the joint distribution of the zeros of ξ and give bounds on the probability density for the spacings of eigenvalues of H. Their results confirm the wave chaos phenomenon, as different from the quantum chaos phenomenon predicted by random matrix theory

  13. Creation of quantum steering by interaction with a common bath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhe; Xu, Xiao-Qiang; Liu, Bo

    2018-05-01

    By applying the hierarchy equation method, we computationally study the creation of quantum steering in a two-qubit system interacting with a common bosonic bath. The calculation does not adopt conventional approximate approaches, such as the Born, Markov, rotating-wave, and other perturbative approximations. Three kinds of quantum steering, i.e., Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen steering (EPRS), temporal steering (TS), and spatiotemporal steering (STS), are considered. Since the initial state of the two qubits is chosen as a product state, there does not exist EPRS at the beginning. During the evolution, we find that STS as well as EPRS are generated at the same time. An inversion relationship between STS and TS is revealed. By varying the system-bath coupling strength from weak to ultrastrong regimes, we find the nonmonotonic dependence of STS, TS, and EPRS on the coupling strength. It is interesting to study the dynamics of the three kinds of quantum steering by using an exactly numerical method, which is not considered in previous researches.

  14. Interaction of Water-Soluble CdTe Quantum Dots with Bovine Serum Albumin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Semiconductor nanoparticles (quantum dots) are promising fluorescent markers, but it is very little known about interaction of quantum dots with biological molecules. In this study, interaction of CdTe quantum dots coated with thioglycolic acid (TGA) with bovine serum albumin was investigated. Steady state spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering methods were used. It was explored how bovine serum albumin affects stability and spectral properties of quantum dots in aqueous media. CdTe–TGA quantum dots in aqueous solution appeared to be not stable and precipitated. Interaction with bovine serum albumin significantly enhanced stability and photoluminescence quantum yield of quantum dots and prevented quantum dots from aggregating. PMID:27502633

  15. Quantum Monte Carlo calculations with chiral effective field theory interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tews, Ingo

    2015-10-12

    The neutron-matter equation of state connects several physical systems over a wide density range, from cold atomic gases in the unitary limit at low densities, to neutron-rich nuclei at intermediate densities, up to neutron stars which reach supranuclear densities in their core. An accurate description of the neutron-matter equation of state is therefore crucial to describe these systems. To calculate the neutron-matter equation of state reliably, precise many-body methods in combination with a systematic theory for nuclear forces are needed. Chiral effective field theory (EFT) is such a theory. It provides a systematic framework for the description of low-energy hadronic interactions and enables calculations with controlled theoretical uncertainties. Chiral EFT makes use of a momentum-space expansion of nuclear forces based on the symmetries of Quantum Chromodynamics, which is the fundamental theory of strong interactions. In chiral EFT, the description of nuclear forces can be systematically improved by going to higher orders in the chiral expansion. On the other hand, continuum Quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) methods are among the most precise many-body methods available to study strongly interacting systems at finite densities. They treat the Schroedinger equation as a diffusion equation in imaginary time and project out the ground-state wave function of the system starting from a trial wave function by propagating the system in imaginary time. To perform this propagation, continuum QMC methods require as input local interactions. However, chiral EFT, which is naturally formulated in momentum space, contains several sources of nonlocality. In this Thesis, we show how to construct local chiral two-nucleon (NN) and three-nucleon (3N) interactions and discuss results of first QMC calculations for pure neutron systems. We have performed systematic auxiliary-field diffusion Monte Carlo (AFDMC) calculations for neutron matter using local chiral NN interactions. By

  16. Quantum Interactive Learning Tutorial on the Double-Slit Experiment to Improve Student Understanding of Quantum Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayer, Ryan; Maries, Alexandru; Singh, Chandralekha

    2017-01-01

    Learning quantum mechanics is challenging, even for upper-level undergraduate and graduate students. Research-validated interactive tutorials that build on students' prior knowledge can be useful tools to enhance student learning. We have been investigating student difficulties with quantum mechanics pertaining to the double-slit experiment in…

  17. Effective interactions and elementary excitations in quantum liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pines, D.

    1986-01-01

    The effective interactions which provide a wavevector and frequency dependent restoring force for collective modes in quantum liquids are derived for the helium liquids by means of physical arguments and sum rule and continuity considerations. A simple model is used to take into account mode-mode coupling between collective and multiparticle excitations, and the results for the zero-temperature liquid 4 He phonon-maxon-roton spectrum are shown to compare favorably with experiment and with microscopic calculation. The role played by spin-dependent backflow in liquid 3 He is analyzed, and a physical interpretation of its variation with density and spin-polarization is presented. A progress report is given on recent work on effective interactions and elementary excitations in nuclear matter, with particular attention to features encountered in the latter system which have no counterparts in the helium liquids

  18. On the relativistic quantum mechanics of two interacting spinless particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizov, V.A.; Sazdjian, H.; Todorov, I.T.

    1984-05-01

    The L 2 -scalar product ∫ PHI*(x)PSI(x) d 3 x is not appropriate for the space of states describing the center-of-mass relative motion of two relativistic particles whose interaction is given by an energy dependent quasipotential. The problem already appears in the relativistic quantum mechanics of a Klein-Gordon charged particle in an external field. We extend the methods developed for that case to study a two-particle system with an energy independent scalar interaction as well as the relativistic Coulomb problem. We write down a Poincare invariant inner product for which the eigenfunctions corresponding to different energy eigenvalues are orthogonal. We also construct a perturbative expansion for bound-state energy eigenvalues corresponding to an arbitrary energy dependent (quasipotential) correction to an unperturbed Hamiltonian with a known spectrum. The description of observables and transition probabilities for eigenvalue problems with a polynomial dependence on the spectral parameter is also discussed

  19. Quantum Butterfly Effect in Weakly Interacting Diffusive Metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aavishkar A. Patel

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We study scrambling, an avatar of chaos, in a weakly interacting metal in the presence of random potential disorder. It is well known that charge and heat spread via diffusion in such an interacting disordered metal. In contrast, we show within perturbation theory that chaos spreads in a ballistic fashion. The squared anticommutator of the electron-field operators inherits a light-cone-like growth, arising from an interplay of a growth (Lyapunov exponent that scales as the inelastic electron scattering rate and a diffusive piece due to the presence of disorder. In two spatial dimensions, the Lyapunov exponent is universally related at weak coupling to the sheet resistivity. We are able to define an effective temperature-dependent butterfly velocity, a speed limit for the propagation of quantum information that is much slower than microscopic velocities such as the Fermi velocity and that is qualitatively similar to that of a quantum critical system with a dynamical critical exponent z>1.

  20. Interaction effects and quantum phase transitions in topological insulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varney, Christopher N.; Sun Kai; Galitski, Victor; Rigol, Marcos

    2010-01-01

    We study strong correlation effects in topological insulators via the Lanczos algorithm, which we utilize to calculate the exact many-particle ground-state wave function and its topological properties. We analyze the simple, noninteracting Haldane model on a honeycomb lattice with known topological properties and demonstrate that these properties are already evident in small clusters. Next, we consider interacting fermions by introducing repulsive nearest-neighbor interactions. A first-order quantum phase transition was discovered at finite interaction strength between the topological band insulator and a topologically trivial Mott insulating phase by use of the fidelity metric and the charge-density-wave structure factor. We construct the phase diagram at T=0 as a function of the interaction strength and the complex phase for the next-nearest-neighbor hoppings. Finally, we consider the Haldane model with interacting hard-core bosons, where no evidence for a topological phase is observed. An important general conclusion of our work is that despite the intrinsic nonlocality of topological phases their key topological properties manifest themselves already in small systems and therefore can be studied numerically via exact diagonalization and observed experimentally, e.g., with trapped ions and cold atoms in optical lattices.

  1. Quantum correlation approach to criticality in the XX spin chain with multiple interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, W.W., E-mail: weien.cheng@gmail.com [Institute of Signal Processing and Transmission, Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunication, Nanjing 210003 (China); Department of Physics, Hubei Normal University, Huangshi 435002 (China); Key Lab of Broadband Wireless Communication and Sensor Network Technology, Ministry of Education (China); Shan, C.J. [Department of Physics, Hubei Normal University, Huangshi 435002 (China); Sheng, Y.B.; Gong, L.Y.; Zhao, S.M. [Institute of Signal Processing and Transmission, Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunication, Nanjing 210003 (China); Key Lab of Broadband Wireless Communication and Sensor Network Technology, Ministry of Education (China)

    2012-09-01

    We investigate the quantum critical behavior in the XX spin chain with a XZY-YZX type multiple interaction by means of quantum correlation (Concurrence C, quantum discord D{sub Q} and geometric discord D{sub G}). Around the critical point, the values of these quantum correlations and corresponding derivatives are investigated numerically and analytically. The results show that the non-analyticity property of the concurrence cannot signal well the quantum phase transition, but both the quantum discord and geometric discord can characterize the critical behavior in such model exactly.

  2. Quantum gravity. On the entity of gravitation generating interacting fields and the elementary fields of quantum electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bencivinni, Daniele

    2011-01-01

    The chapters about the propagation of the electromagnetic field, its properties in view of the propagation in space, the accompanying momentum, its kinetic energy and its mass-equivalent distribution of the total energy coupled to the relativistic mass represent today known and scientifically for a long time acknowledged as well as proved description of each phenomena. They are successively in a mathematically simple way formally listed and explained. The fundamental results of quantum mechanics, the quantum-mechanical momentum, Planck's action quantum etc. are also presented in a simplified way. Also the essential forms of special relativity theory concerning the propagation of energy and momentum are presented. In a last setpit is checked, whether a possible common entity between the listed scientific experiences can be established. Possible explanation approaches on the described connections and the subsequent results are presented. If the gravitational waves are interpreted as quantized electromagnetic quantum waves, as matter waves, which can be assigned to a mass in the sense of Louis de Broglie and are for instance detectable as electron waves, by means of the relativistic quantum-mechanical spatial radiation gravitation could be described. So the ''quantum-mechanical wave'' could be responsible for the generation of mass via the interaction of elementary quantum fields. The propagation of one of these as mass appearing interaction of bound quantum fields can carry a conventional momentum because of its kinetic energy. The interaction in the Bose-Einstein condensate shows that the cooled rest mass exhibits the picture of a standing wave, the wave front of which propagates into the space. Because of the massive superposition of interference pattern warns the gravitational respectively matter wave can no more be isolated. A spatial radiation is however possible. Matter can generate a radiation in front of the inertial mass (quantum waves). If it succeeds to

  3. Quantum control and coherence of interacting spins in diamond

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Lange, G.

    2012-01-01

    The field of quantum science and technology has generated many ideas for new revolutionary devices that exploit the quantum mechanical properties of small-scale systems. Isolated solid state spins play a large role in quantum technologies. They can be used as basic building blocks for a quantum

  4. Effective interactions in a quantum Bose-Bose mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utesov, O. I.; Baglay, M. I.; Andreev, S. V.

    2018-05-01

    We generalize the Beliaev diagrammatic theory of an interacting spinless Bose-Einstein condensate to the case of a binary mixture. We derive a set of coupled Dyson equations and find analytically the Green's functions of the system. The elementary excitation spectrum consists of two branches, one of which takes the characteristic parabolic form ω ∝p2 in the limit of a spin-independent interaction. We observe renormalization of the magnon mass and the spin-wave velocity due to the Andreev-Bashkin entrainment effect. For a three-dimensional weakly interacting gas the spectrum can be obtained by applying the Bogoliubov transformation to a second-quantized Hamiltonian in which the microscopic two-body potentials in each channel are replaced by the corresponding off-shell scattering amplitudes. The superfluid drag density can be calculated by considering a mixture of phonons and magnons interacting via the effective potentials. We show that this problem is identical to the second-order perturbative treatment of a Bose polaron. In two dimensions the drag contributes to the magnon dispersion already in the first approximation. Our consideration provides a basis for systematic study of emergent phases in quantum degenerate Bose-Bose mixtures.

  5. Interplay between Kondo and Majorana Interactions in Quantum Dots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Cheng

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We study the properties of a quantum dot coupled to a topological superconductor and a normal lead and discuss the interplay between Kondo-and Majorana-induced couplings in quantum dots. The latter appears due to the presence of Majorana zero-energy modes localized, for example, at the ends of the one-dimensional superconductor. We investigate the phase diagram of the system as a function of Kondo and Majorana interactions using a renormalization-group analysis, a slave-boson mean-field theory, and numerical simulations using the density-matrix renormalization-group method. We show that, in addition to the well-known Kondo fixed point, the system may flow to a new fixed point controlled by the Majorana-induced coupling, which is characterized by nontrivial correlations between a localized spin on the dot and the fermion parity of the topological superconductor and the normal lead. We compute several measurable quantities, such as differential tunneling conductance and impurity-spin susceptibility, which highlight some peculiar features characteristic to the Majorana fixed point.

  6. Interacting systems far from equilibrium quantum kinetic theory

    CERN Document Server

    Morawetz, Klaus

    2018-01-01

    This book presents an up-to-date formalism of non-equilibrium Green's functions covering different applications ranging from solid state physics, plasma physics, cold atoms in optical lattices up to relativistic transport and heavy ion collisions. Within the Green's function formalism, the basic sets of equations for these diverse systems are similar, and approximations developed in one field can be adapted to another field. The central object is the self-energy which includes all non-trivial aspects of the system dynamics. The focus is therefore on microscopic processes starting from elementary principles for classical gases and the complementary picture of a single quantum particle in a random potential. This provides an intuitive picture of the interaction of a particle with the medium formed by other particles, on which the Green's function is built on.

  7. Nonresonant interaction of ultrashort electromagnetic pulses with multilevel quantum systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belenov, E.; Isakov, V.; Nazarkin, A.

    1994-01-01

    Some features of the excitation of multilevel quantum systems under the action of electromagnetic pulses which are shorter than the inverse frequency of interlevel transitions are considered. It is shown that the interaction is characterized by a specific type of selectivity which is not connected with the resonant absorption of radiation. The simplest three-level model displays the inverse population of upper levels. The effect of an ultrashort laser pulse on a multilevel molecule was regarded as an instant reception of the oscillation velocity by the oscillator and this approach showed an effective excitation and dissociation of the molecule. The estimations testify to the fact that these effects can be observed using modern femtosecond lasers.

  8. open-quotes Interaction-freeclose quotes measurements of quantum objects?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, A.G.; Kwiat, P.G.; James, D.F.

    1999-01-01

    It is now well established that the presence of an opaque classical object can be unambiguously determined by an open-quotes interaction-freeclose quotes measurement (IFM), where the object and the probe never directly interact. For quantum objects, we examine open-quotes interaction-freeclose quotes measurement (the object wavefunction is unchanged) and open-quotes interaction-freeclose quotes preparation (the object wavefunction is changed without physical interaction) and find that in general, neither is possible. We propose using high efficiency IFM close-quote s as a quantum information bus to connect disjoint quantum systems. copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics

  9. Coulomb drag: a probe of electron interactions in coupled quantum wells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jauho, Antti-Pekka

    1996-01-01

    As semiconductor devices shrink in size and in dimensionality, interactions between charge carriers become more and more important. There is a simple physical reason behind this behavior: fewer carriers lead to less effective screening, and hence stronger effective interactions. A point in case...... are one-dimensional systems (quantum wires): there electron-electron interactions may lead to a behavior, which is qualitatively different from the standard Fermi liquid picture (Luttinger liquids). Electron-electron interactions also play a central role in the fractional quantum Hall effect, which...... be the study of quantum wires: there the interactions may lead to even more dramatic effects...

  10. Qudit-Basis Universal Quantum Computation Using χ^{(2)} Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Murphy Yuezhen; Chuang, Isaac L; Shapiro, Jeffrey H

    2018-04-20

    We prove that universal quantum computation can be realized-using only linear optics and χ^{(2)} (three-wave mixing) interactions-in any (n+1)-dimensional qudit basis of the n-pump-photon subspace. First, we exhibit a strictly universal gate set for the qubit basis in the one-pump-photon subspace. Next, we demonstrate qutrit-basis universality by proving that χ^{(2)} Hamiltonians and photon-number operators generate the full u(3) Lie algebra in the two-pump-photon subspace, and showing how the qutrit controlled-Z gate can be implemented with only linear optics and χ^{(2)} interactions. We then use proof by induction to obtain our general qudit result. Our induction proof relies on coherent photon injection or subtraction, a technique enabled by χ^{(2)} interaction between the encoding modes and ancillary modes. Finally, we show that coherent photon injection is more than a conceptual tool, in that it offers a route to preparing high-photon-number Fock states from single-photon Fock states.

  11. The novel superacid systems HSO3F-Nb(SO3F)5 and HSO3F-Ta(SO3F)5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cicha, W.V.; Aubke, F.

    1989-01-01

    The in situ oxidation of niobium and tantalum in HSO 3 F by bis(fluorosulfuryl) peroxide, S 2 O 6 F 2 , results in the formation of solvated Lewis acids M(SO 3 F) 5 , M = Nb or Ta. Both solutes behave as moderately strong, monoprotonic acids, based on electrical conductivity measurements over the concentration range 0-0.05 m and on conductometric titrations against KSO 3 F. These measurements suggest a general order of acidity, Au(SO 3 F) 3 > Ta(SO 3 F) 5 ≥ SbF 5 > Nb(SO 3 F) 5 > NbF 5 , all giving rise to monoprotonic acids. Supporting evidence comes from 1 H, 19 F, and 93 Nb NMR spectroscopy and the successful isolation and characterization of complexes of the type Cs n [M(SO 3 F) 5+n ], with M = Nb or Ta and n = 1 or 2, from these solutions

  12. Pulse interactions in a quantum dot waveguide in the regime of electromagnetically Induced transparency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per; Nielsen, Henri; Mørk, Jesper

    2006-01-01

    The interaction of optical pulses in a quantum dot waveguide in the slow-light regime is investigated. Dipole oscillations lead to strong interactions between the two pulses, implying a minimum pulse separation for optical buffer applications.......The interaction of optical pulses in a quantum dot waveguide in the slow-light regime is investigated. Dipole oscillations lead to strong interactions between the two pulses, implying a minimum pulse separation for optical buffer applications....

  13. Time-dependent quantum transport through an interacting quantum dot beyond sequential tunneling: second-order quantum rate equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, B; Ding, G H; Lei, X L

    2015-01-01

    A general theoretical formulation for the effect of a strong on-site Coulomb interaction on the time-dependent electron transport through a quantum dot under the influence of arbitrary time-varying bias voltages and/or external fields is presented, based on slave bosons and the Keldysh nonequilibrium Green's function (GF) techniques. To avoid the difficulties of computing double-time GFs, we generalize the propagation scheme recently developed by Croy and Saalmann to combine the auxiliary-mode expansion with the celebrated Lacroix's decoupling approximation in dealing with the second-order correlated GFs and then establish a closed set of coupled equations of motion, called second-order quantum rate equations (SOQREs), for an exact description of transient dynamics of electron correlated tunneling. We verify that the stationary solution of our SOQREs is able to correctly describe the Kondo effect on a qualitative level. Moreover, a comparison with other methods, such as the second-order von Neumann approach and Hubbard-I approximation, is performed. As illustrations, we investigate the transient current behaviors in response to a step voltage pulse and a harmonic driving voltage, and linear admittance as well, in the cotunneling regime. (paper)

  14. Electric and Magnetic Interaction between Quantum Dots and Light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tighineanu, Petru

    argue that there is ample room for improving the oscillator strength with prospects for approaching the ultra-strong-coupling regime of cavity quantum electrodynamics with optical photons. These outstanding gures of merit render interface-uctuation quantum dots excellent candidates for use in cavity...... quantum electrodynamics and quantum-information science. We investigate exciton localization in droplet-epitaxy quantum dots by conducting spectral and time-resolved measurements. We nd small excitons despite the large physical size of dropletepitaxy quantum dots, which is attributed to material inter......The present thesis reports research on the optical properties of quantum dots by developing new theories and conducting optical measurements. We demonstrate experimentally singlephoton superradiance in interface-uctuation quantum dots by recording the temporal decay dynamics in conjunction...

  15. Quantum optics with ultracold quantum gases: towards the full quantum regime of the light-matter interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mekhov, Igor B; Ritsch, Helmut

    2012-01-01

    Although the study of ultracold quantum gases trapped by light is a prominent direction of modern research, the quantum properties of light were widely neglected in this field. Quantum optics with quantum gases closes this gap and addresses phenomena where the quantum statistical natures of both light and ultracold matter play equally important roles. First, light can serve as a quantum nondemolition probe of the quantum dynamics of various ultracold particles from ultracold atomic and molecular gases to nanoparticles and nanomechanical systems. Second, due to the dynamic light-matter entanglement, projective measurement-based preparation of the many-body states is possible, where the class of emerging atomic states can be designed via optical geometry. Light scattering constitutes such a quantum measurement with controllable measurement back-action. As in cavity-based spin squeezing, the atom number squeezed and Schrödinger cat states can be prepared. Third, trapping atoms inside an optical cavity, one creates optical potentials and forces, which are not prescribed but quantized and dynamical variables themselves. Ultimately, cavity quantum electrodynamics with quantum gases requires a self-consistent solution for light and particles, which enriches the picture of quantum many-body states of atoms trapped in quantum potentials. This will allow quantum simulations of phenomena related to the physics of phonons, polarons, polaritons and other quantum quasiparticles. (topical review)

  16. Quantum chaos in the Heisenberg spin chain: The effect of Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahedi, J; Ashouri, A; Mahdavifar, S

    2016-10-01

    Using one-dimensional spin-1/2 systems as prototypes of quantum many-body systems, we study the emergence of quantum chaos. The main purpose of this work is to answer the following question: how the spin-orbit interaction, as a pure quantum interaction, may lead to the onset of quantum chaos? We consider the three integrable spin-1/2 systems: the Ising, the XX, and the XXZ limits and analyze whether quantum chaos develops or not after the addition of the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction. We find that depending on the strength of the anisotropy parameter, the answer is positive for the XXZ and Ising models, whereas no such evidence is observed for the XX model. We also discuss the relationship between quantum chaos and thermalization.

  17. Qudit-Basis Universal Quantum Computation Using χ(2 ) Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Murphy Yuezhen; Chuang, Isaac L.; Shapiro, Jeffrey H.

    2018-04-01

    We prove that universal quantum computation can be realized—using only linear optics and χ(2 ) (three-wave mixing) interactions—in any (n +1 )-dimensional qudit basis of the n -pump-photon subspace. First, we exhibit a strictly universal gate set for the qubit basis in the one-pump-photon subspace. Next, we demonstrate qutrit-basis universality by proving that χ(2 ) Hamiltonians and photon-number operators generate the full u (3 ) Lie algebra in the two-pump-photon subspace, and showing how the qutrit controlled-Z gate can be implemented with only linear optics and χ(2 ) interactions. We then use proof by induction to obtain our general qudit result. Our induction proof relies on coherent photon injection or subtraction, a technique enabled by χ(2 ) interaction between the encoding modes and ancillary modes. Finally, we show that coherent photon injection is more than a conceptual tool, in that it offers a route to preparing high-photon-number Fock states from single-photon Fock states.

  18. Photoinduced interaction of CdSe quantum dot with coumarins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Kemary, Maged, E-mail: elkemary@sci.kfs.edu.eg [Nanotechnology Center, Faculty of Science, Kafrelsheikh University, 33516 Kafrelsheikh (Egypt); Gaber, Mohamed; El-Sayed, Y.S. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, University of Tanta, Tanta (Egypt); Gheat, Youssef [Nanotechnology Center, Faculty of Science, Kafrelsheikh University, 33516 Kafrelsheikh (Egypt); Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, University of Tanta, Tanta (Egypt)

    2015-03-15

    Cadmium selenide (CdSe) quantum dots (QDs) were synthesized with a cubic shape having a diameter of ∼5.24 nm. The prepared CdSe QDs were characterized by using UV–visible, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) measurements. The UV–visible absorption spectra indicate that the optical band gap of CdSe QDs is ∼622 nm and the peak shift can mainly be due to the quantum size effects. The fluorescence decay kinetics for the synthesized QDs was followed by time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy, and the spectra were analyzed in regard to a bi-exponential model to identify two lifetime values, that is, shorter-lifetime 1.37 ns (55%) and longer-lifetime 6.58 ns (45%). The interaction of coumarin 152 (C152) and coumarin 153 (C153) with QDs surface brings about further considerable changes in the absorption and fluorescence patterns. The calculated binding constant from fluorescence quenching method matches well with that determined from the absorption spectral changes. The static quenching mechanism was confirmed by large magnitude of K{sub SV} and unaltered fluorescence lifetime. - Highlights: • CdSe QDs were synthesized with a cubic shape having a diameter of ∼5.24 nm. • The UV–visible absorption spectra indicate that the optical band gap of CdSe QDs is ∼622 nm. • Picosecond fluorescence measurements of the QDs suggest bi-exponential function. • The calculated binding constant from fluorescence quenching method matches well with that determined from the absorption spectral changes. • The static quenching mechanism was confirmed by large magnitude of K{sub SV} and unaltered fluorescence lifetime.

  19. Spin-orbit interaction induced anisotropic property in interacting quantum wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Kai

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate theoretically the ground state and transport property of electrons in interacting quantum wires (QWs oriented along different crystallographic directions in (001 and (110 planes in the presence of the Rashba spin-orbit interaction (RSOI and Dresselhaus SOI (DSOI. The electron ground state can cross over different phases, e.g., spin density wave, charge density wave, singlet superconductivity, and metamagnetism, by changing the strengths of the SOIs and the crystallographic orientation of the QW. The interplay between the SOIs and Coulomb interaction leads to the anisotropic dc transport property of QW which provides us a possible way to detect the strengths of the RSOI and DSOI. PACS numbers: 73.63.Nm, 71.10.Pm, 73.23.-b, 71.70.Ej

  20. Holographic RG flow in a new SO(3) × SO(3) sector of ω-deformed SO(8) gauged N = 8 $$ \\mathcal{N}=8 $$ supergravity

    OpenAIRE

    Pang, YiGeorge P. & Cynthia Woods Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Texas A&M; University, College Station, TX, 77843, U.S.A.; Pope, C.(George P. & Cynthia Woods Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Texas A&M; University, College Station, TX, 77843, U.S.A.); Rong, Junchen(George P. & Cynthia Woods Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Texas A&M; University, College Station, TX, 77843, U.S.A.)

    2015-01-01

    We consider a certain ${\\cal N}=1$ supersymmetric, $SO(3)\\times SO(3)$ invariant, subsector of the $\\omega$-deformed family of $SO(8)$-gauged ${\\cal N}=8$ four-dimensional supergravities. The theory contains two scalar fields and two pseudoscalar fields. We look for stationary points of the scalar potential, corresponding to AdS vacua in the theory. One of these, which breaks all supersymmetries but is nonetheless stable, is new. It exists only when $\\omega\

  1. The functional renormalization group for interacting quantum systems with spin-orbit interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grap, Stephan Michael

    2013-01-01

    We studied the influence of spin-orbit interaction (SOI) in interacting low dimensional quantum systems at zero temperature within the framework of the functional renormalization group (fRG). Among the several types of spin-orbit interaction the so-called Rashba spin-orbit interaction is especially intriguing for future spintronic applications as it may be tuned via external electric fields. We investigated its effect on the low energy physics of an interacting quantum wire in an applied Zeeman field which is modeled as a generalization of the extended Hubbard model. To this end we performed a renormalization group study of the two particle interaction, including the SOI and the Zeeman field exactly on the single particle level. Considering the resulting two band model, we formulated the RG equations for the two particle vertex keeping the full band structure as well as the non trivial momentum dependence of the low energy two particle scattering processes. In order to solve these equations numerically we defined criteria that allowed us to classify whether a given set of initial conditions flows towards the strongly coupled regime. We found regions in the models parameter space where a weak coupling method as the fRG is applicable and it is possible to calculate additional quantities of interest. Furthermore we analyzed the effect of the Rashba SOI on the properties of an interacting multi level quantum dot coupled to two semi in nite leads. Of special interest was the interplay with a Zeeman field and its orientation with respect to the SOI term. We found a renormalization of the spin-orbit energy which is an experimental quantity used to asses SOI effects in transport measurements, as well as renormalized effective g factors used to describe the Zeeman field dependence. In particular in asymmetrically coupled systems the large parameter space allows for rich physics which we studied by means of the linear conductance obtained via the generalized Landauer

  2. Extension of PT-symmetric quantum mechanics to quantum field theory with cubic interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, Carl M.; Brody, Dorje C.; Jones, Hugh F.

    2004-01-01

    It has recently been shown that a non-Hermitian Hamiltonian H possessing an unbroken PT symmetry (i) has a real spectrum that is bounded below, and (ii) defines a unitary theory of quantum mechanics with positive norm. The proof of unitarity requires a linear operator C, which was originally defined as a sum over the eigenfunctions of H. However, using this definition to calculate C is cumbersome in quantum mechanics and impossible in quantum field theory. An alternative method is devised here for calculating C directly in terms of the operator dynamical variables of the quantum theory. This method is general and applies to a variety of quantum mechanical systems having several degrees of freedom. More importantly, this method is used to calculate the C operator in quantum field theory. The C operator is a time-independent observable in PT-symmetric quantum field theory

  3. Electron interaction and spin effects in quantum wires, quantum dots and quantum point contacts: a first-principles mean-field approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zozoulenko, I V; Ihnatsenka, S

    2008-01-01

    We have developed a mean-field first-principles approach for studying electronic and transport properties of low dimensional lateral structures in the integer quantum Hall regime. The electron interactions and spin effects are included within the spin density functional theory in the local density approximation where the conductance, the density, the effective potentials and the band structure are calculated on the basis of the Green's function technique. In this paper we present a systematic review of the major results obtained on the energetics, spin polarization, effective g factor, magnetosubband and edge state structure of split-gate and cleaved-edge overgrown quantum wires as well as on the conductance of quantum point contacts (QPCs) and open quantum dots. In particular, we discuss how the spin-resolved subband structure, the current densities, the confining potentials, as well as the spin polarization of the electron and current densities in quantum wires and antidots evolve when an applied magnetic field varies. We also discuss the role of the electron interaction and spin effects in the conductance of open systems focusing our attention on the 0.7 conductance anomaly in the QPCs. Special emphasis is given to the effect of the electron interaction on the conductance oscillations and their statistics in open quantum dots as well as to interpretation of the related experiments on the ultralow temperature saturation of the coherence time in open dots

  4. Entanglement Entropy in Quantum Spin Chains with Finite Range Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Its, A. R.; Mezzadri, F.; Mo, M. Y.

    2008-11-01

    We study the entropy of entanglement of the ground state in a wide family of one-dimensional quantum spin chains whose interaction is of finite range and translation invariant. Such systems can be thought of as generalizations of the XY model. The chain is divided in two parts: one containing the first consecutive L spins; the second the remaining ones. In this setting the entropy of entanglement is the von Neumann entropy of either part. At the core of our computation is the explicit evaluation of the leading order term as L → ∞ of the determinant of a block-Toeplitz matrix with symbol Φ(z) = left(begin{array}{cc} iλ & g(z) \\ g^{-1}(z) & i λ right), where g( z) is the square root of a rational function and g(1/ z) = g -1( z). The asymptotics of such determinant is computed in terms of multi-dimensional theta-functions associated to a hyperelliptic curve {mathcal{L}} of genus g ≥ 1, which enter into the solution of a Riemann-Hilbert problem. Phase transitions for these systems are characterized by the branch points of {mathcal{L}} approaching the unit circle. In these circumstances the entropy diverges logarithmically. We also recover, as particular cases, the formulae for the entropy discovered by Jin and Korepin [14] for the XX model and Its, Jin and Korepin [12, 13] for the XY model.

  5. Emergence and frustration of magnetism with variable-range interactions in a quantum simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, R; Senko, C; Campbell, W C; Korenblit, S; Smith, J; Lee, A; Edwards, E E; Wang, C-C J; Freericks, J K; Monroe, C

    2013-05-03

    Frustration, or the competition between interacting components of a network, is often responsible for the emergent complexity of many-body systems. For instance, frustrated magnetism is a hallmark of poorly understood systems such as quantum spin liquids, spin glasses, and spin ices, whose ground states can be massively degenerate and carry high degrees of quantum entanglement. Here, we engineer frustrated antiferromagnetic interactions between spins stored in a crystal of up to 16 trapped (171)Yb(+) atoms. We control the amount of frustration by continuously tuning the range of interaction and directly measure spin correlation functions and their coherent dynamics. This prototypical quantum simulation points the way toward a new probe of frustrated quantum magnetism and perhaps the design of new quantum materials.

  6. Representations of the q-deformed algebras Uq (so2,1) and Uq (so3,1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavrilik, O.M.; Klimyk, A.U.

    1993-01-01

    Representations of algebra U q (so 2 ,1) are studied. This algebra is a q-deformation of the universal enveloping algebra U(so 2 ,1) of the Lie algebra of the group SO 0 (2,1) and differs from the quantum algebra U q (SU 1 ,1). Classifications of irreducible representations and of infinitesimally irreducible representations of U q (SU 1 ,1). The sets of irreducible representations and of infinitesimally unitary irreducible representations of the algebra U q (so 3 ,1) are given. We also consider representations of U q (so n ,1) which are of class 1 with respect to subalgebra U q (so n ). (author). 22 refs

  7. Tunable coupling and ultrastrong interaction in circuit quantum electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baust, Alexander Theodor

    2015-01-01

    For future quantum information and quantum simulation architectures with superconducting circuits, a profound understanding of the coupling mechanisms between the individual building blocks is essential. In our work, we investigate galvanically coupled qubit-resonator systems, demonstrate the phenomenon of ultrastrong coupling and realize qubit mediated tunable and switchable coupling between two frequency-degenerate coplanar microwave resonators.

  8. Quantum fields and Poisson processes: Interaction of a cut-off boson field with a quantum particle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertrand, J.; Rideau, G.; Gaveau, B.

    1985-01-01

    The solution of the Schroedinger equation for a boson field interacting with a quantum particle is written as an expectation on a Poisson process counting the variations of the boson-occupation numbers for each momentum. An energy cut-off is needed for the expectation to be meaningful. (orig.)

  9. Gaps in the spectrum of a periodic quantum graph with periodically distributed delta '-type interactions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Barseghyan, Diana; Khrabustovskyi, A.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 25 (2015), s. 255201 ISSN 1751-8113 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : periodic quantum graphs * delta'-type interactions * spectral gaps Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 1.933, year: 2015

  10. Quantum-memory-assisted entropic uncertainty in spin models with Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhiming

    2018-02-01

    In this article, we investigate the dynamics and correlations of quantum-memory-assisted entropic uncertainty, the tightness of the uncertainty, entanglement, quantum correlation and mixedness for various spin chain models with Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya (DM) interaction, including the XXZ model with DM interaction, the XY model with DM interaction and the Ising model with DM interaction. We find that the uncertainty grows to a stable value with growing temperature but reduces as the coupling coefficient, anisotropy parameter and DM values increase. It is found that the entropic uncertainty is closely correlated with the mixedness of the system. The increasing quantum correlation can result in a decrease in the uncertainty, and the robustness of quantum correlation is better than entanglement since entanglement means sudden birth and death. The tightness of the uncertainty drops to zero, apart from slight volatility as various parameters increase. Furthermore, we propose an effective approach to steering the uncertainty by weak measurement reversal.

  11. Two interacting spins in external fields and application to quantum computation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldiotti, M.C.; Gitman, D.M.; Bagrov, V.G.

    2009-01-01

    We study the four-level system given by two quantum dots immersed in a time-dependent magnetic field, which are coupled to each other by an effective Heisenberg-type interaction. We describe the construction of the corresponding evolution operator in a special case of different time-dependent parallel external magnetic fields. We find a relation between the external field and the effective interaction function. The obtained results are used to analyze the theoretical implementation of a universal quantum gate

  12. Spin relaxation in quantum dots: Role of the phonon modulated spin-orbit interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcalde, A. M.; Romano, C. L.; Sanz, L.; Marques, G. E.

    2010-01-01

    We calculate the spin relaxation rates in a parabolic InSb quantum dots due to the spin interaction with acoustical phonons. We considered the deformation potential mechanism as the dominant electron-phonon coupling in the Pavlov-Firsov spin-phonon Hamiltonian. We analyze the behavior of the spin relaxation rates as a function of an external magnetic field and mean quantum dot radius. Effects of the spin admixture due to Dresselhaus contribution to spin-orbit interaction are also discussed.

  13. Spin manipulation and spin-lattice interaction in magnetic colloidal quantum dots

    OpenAIRE

    Moro, F.; Turyanska, L.; Granwehr, J.; Patane, A.

    2014-01-01

    We report on the spin-lattice interaction and coherent manipulation of electron spins in Mn-doped colloidal PbS quantum dots (QDs) by electron spin resonance. We show that the phase memory time,TM, is limited by Mn-Mn dipolar interactions, hyperfine interactions of the protons (H1) on the QD capping ligands with Mn ions in their proximity (

  14. Evolution of quantum and classical strategies on networks by group interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Qiang; Chen Minyou; Iqbal, Azhar; Abbott, Derek

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, quantum strategies are introduced within evolutionary games in order to investigate the evolution of quantum and classical strategies on networks in the public goods game. Comparing the results of evolution on a scale-free network and a square lattice, we find that a quantum strategy outperforms the classical strategies, regardless of the network. Moreover, a quantum strategy dominates the population earlier in group interactions than it does in pairwise interactions. In particular, if the hub node in a scale-free network is occupied by a cooperator initially, the strategy of cooperation will prevail in the population. However, in other situations, a quantum strategy can defeat the classical ones and finally becomes the dominant strategy in the population. (paper)

  15. Dimension-dependent stimulated radiative interaction of a single electron quantum wavepacket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gover, Avraham; Pan, Yiming

    2018-06-01

    In the foundation of quantum mechanics, the spatial dimensions of electron wavepacket are understood only in terms of an expectation value - the probability distribution of the particle location. One can still inquire how the quantum electron wavepacket size affects a physical process. Here we address the fundamental physics problem of particle-wave duality and the measurability of a free electron quantum wavepacket. Our analysis of stimulated radiative interaction of an electron wavepacket, accompanied by numerical computations, reveals two limits. In the quantum regime of long wavepacket size relative to radiation wavelength, one obtains only quantum-recoil multiphoton sidebands in the electron energy spectrum. In the opposite regime, the wavepacket interaction approaches the limit of classical point-particle acceleration. The wavepacket features can be revealed in experiments carried out in the intermediate regime of wavepacket size commensurate with the radiation wavelength.

  16. Quantum phases, supersolids and quantum phase transitions of interacting bosons in frustrated lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye, Jinwu; Chen, Yan

    2013-01-01

    By using the dual vortex method (DVM), we develop systematically a simple and effective scheme to use the vortex degree of freedoms on dual lattices to characterize the symmetry breaking patterns of the boson insulating states in the direct lattices. Then we apply our scheme to study quantum phases and phase transitions in an extended boson Hubbard model slightly away from 1/3 (2/3) filling on frustrated lattices such as triangular and Kagome lattice. In a triangular lattice at 1/3, we find a X-CDW, a stripe CDW phase which was found previously by a density operator formalism (DOF). Most importantly, we also find a new CDW-VB phase which has both local CDW and local VB orders, in sharp contrast to a bubble CDW phase found previously by the DOF. In the Kagome lattice at 1/3, we find a VBS phase and a 6-fold CDW phase. Most importantly, we also identify a CDW-VB phase which has both local CDW and local VB orders which was found in previous QMC simulations. We also study several other phases which are not found by the DVM. By analyzing carefully the saddle point structures of the dual gauge fields in the translational symmetry breaking sides and pushing the effective actions slightly away from the commensurate filling f=1/3(2/3), we classified all the possible types of supersolids and analyze their stability conditions. In a triangular lattice, there are X-CDW supersolid, stripe CDW supersolid, but absence of any valence bond supersolid (VB-SS). There are also a new kind of supersolid: CDW-VB supersolid. In a Kagome lattice, there are 6-fold CDW supersolid, stripe CDW supersolid, but absence of any valence bond supersolid (VB-SS). There are also a new kind of supersolid: CDW-VB supersolid. We show that independent of the types of the SS, the quantum phase transitions from solids to supersolids driven by a chemical potential are in the same universality class as that from a Mott insulator to a superfluid, therefore have exact exponents z=2, ν=1/2, η=0 (with

  17. Virtual learning environment for interactive engagement with advanced quantum mechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mads Kock Pedersen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A virtual learning environment can engage university students in the learning process in ways that the traditional lectures and lab formats cannot. We present our virtual learning environment StudentResearcher, which incorporates simulations, multiple-choice quizzes, video lectures, and gamification into a learning path for quantum mechanics at the advanced university level. StudentResearcher is built upon the experiences gathered from workshops with the citizen science game Quantum Moves at the high-school and university level, where the games were used extensively to illustrate the basic concepts of quantum mechanics. The first test of this new virtual learning environment was a 2014 course in advanced quantum mechanics at Aarhus University with 47 enrolled students. We found increased learning for the students who were more active on the platform independent of their previous performances.

  18. Virtual Learning Environment for Interactive Engagement with Advanced Quantum Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Mads Kock; Skyum, Birk; Heck, Robert; Müller, Romain; Bason, Mark; Lieberoth, Andreas; Sherson, Jacob F.

    2016-06-01

    A virtual learning environment can engage university students in the learning process in ways that the traditional lectures and lab formats cannot. We present our virtual learning environment StudentResearcher, which incorporates simulations, multiple-choice quizzes, video lectures, and gamification into a learning path for quantum mechanics at the advanced university level. StudentResearcher is built upon the experiences gathered from workshops with the citizen science game Quantum Moves at the high-school and university level, where the games were used extensively to illustrate the basic concepts of quantum mechanics. The first test of this new virtual learning environment was a 2014 course in advanced quantum mechanics at Aarhus University with 47 enrolled students. We found increased learning for the students who were more active on the platform independent of their previous performances.

  19. Ultrafast spontaneous emission modulation of graphene quantum dots interacting with Ag nanoparticles in solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Jianwei [Department of Physics, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Research Center of Quantum Macro-Phenomenon and Application, Shanghai Advanced Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201210 (China); Lu, Jian, E-mail: luj@sari.ac.cn; Wang, Zhongyang, E-mail: wangzy@sari.ac.cn [Research Center of Quantum Macro-Phenomenon and Application, Shanghai Advanced Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201210 (China); Wang, Liang [School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Institute of Nanochemistry and Nanobiology, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Tian, Linfan [Research Center of Quantum Macro-Phenomenon and Application, Shanghai Advanced Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201210 (China); School of Physical Science and Technology, ShanghaiTech University, Shanghai 201210 (China); Deng, Xingxia [Research Center of Quantum Macro-Phenomenon and Application, Shanghai Advanced Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201210 (China); School of Physical Science and Technology, ShanghaiTech University, Shanghai 201210 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Tian, Lijun [Department of Physics, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Pan, Dengyu [School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China)

    2016-07-11

    We investigated the strong interaction between graphene quantum dots and silver nanoparticles in solution using time-resolved photoluminescence techniques. In solution, the silver nanoparticles are surrounded by graphene quantum dots and interacted with graphene quantum dots through exciton-plasmon coupling. An ultrafast spontaneous emission process (lifetime 27 ps) was observed in such a mixed solution. This ultrafast lifetime corresponds to the emission rate exceeding 35 GHz, with the purcell enhancement by a factor of ∼12. These experiment results pave the way for the realization of future high speed light sources applications.

  20. Storing quantum information in XXZ spin rings with periodically time-controlled interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giampaolo, S M; Illuminati, F; Mazzarella, G

    2005-01-01

    We introduce a general scheme to realize massive quantum memories in simple systems of interacting qubits. Such systems are described by spin rings with XXZ intersite couplings of suitably time-periodically controlled amplitudes. We show that initially localized excitations undergo perfect periodic revivals, allowing for the simultaneous storage of arbitrary sets of different local states. This novel approach to the problem of storing quantum information hints at a new way to control and suppress the effect of decoherence on a quantum computer realized in a system with nonvanishing interactions between the constituent qubits

  1. Storing quantum information in XXZ spin rings with periodically time-controlled interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giampaolo, S M; Illuminati, F; Mazzarella, G [Dipartimento di Fisica ' E. R. Caianiello' , Universita di Salerno, INFM UdR di Salerno, INFN Sezione di Napoli, Gruppo Collegato di Salerno, Via S. Allende, 84081 Baronissi, SA (Italy)

    2005-10-01

    We introduce a general scheme to realize massive quantum memories in simple systems of interacting qubits. Such systems are described by spin rings with XXZ intersite couplings of suitably time-periodically controlled amplitudes. We show that initially localized excitations undergo perfect periodic revivals, allowing for the simultaneous storage of arbitrary sets of different local states. This novel approach to the problem of storing quantum information hints at a new way to control and suppress the effect of decoherence on a quantum computer realized in a system with nonvanishing interactions between the constituent qubits.

  2. Conductance of a quantum ring with spin-orbit interaction in the presence of an impurity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovalev, V. M.; Chaplik, A. V.

    2006-01-01

    The conductance of a quantum ring has been calculated on the basis of the tunneling Hamiltonian in the quasiballistic regime of the motion of electrons with allowance for the spin-orbit interaction. The effect of the scattering of electrons by a single short-range interacting impurity in the quantum ring on the tunneling electron current is analyzed. Two types of impurities, spinless and paramagnetic, are considered. The conductance symmetry is discussed for various electron-spin orientations with respect to change in the sign of the magnetic flux through the quantum ring

  3. A Formulation of Quantum Field Theory Realizing a Sea of Interacting Dirac Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finster, Felix

    2011-08-01

    In this survey article, we explain a few ideas behind the fermionic projector approach and summarize recent results which clarify the connection to quantum field theory. The fermionic projector is introduced, which describes the physical system by a collection of Dirac states, including the states of the Dirac sea. Formulating the interaction by an action principle for the fermionic projector, we obtain a consistent description of interacting quantum fields which reproduces the results of perturbative quantum field theory. We find a new mechanism for the generation of boson masses and obtain small corrections to the field equations which violate causality.

  4. Three-dimensional quantum electrodynamics as an effective interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdalla, E.; Carvalho Filho, F.M. de

    1995-10-01

    We obtain a Quantum Electrodynamics in 2 + 1 dimensions by applying a Kaluza-Klein type method of dimensional reduction to Quantum Electrodynamics in 3 + 1 dimensions rendering the model more realistic to application in solid-state systems, invariant under translations in one direction. We show that the model obtained leads to an effective action exhibiting an interesting phase structure and that the generated Chern-Simons term survives only in the broken phase. (author). 20 refs

  5. A quantum annealing architecture with all-to-all connectivity from local interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechner, Wolfgang; Hauke, Philipp; Zoller, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Quantum annealers are physical devices that aim at solving NP-complete optimization problems by exploiting quantum mechanics. The basic principle of quantum annealing is to encode the optimization problem in Ising interactions between quantum bits (qubits). A fundamental challenge in building a fully programmable quantum annealer is the competing requirements of full controllable all-to-all connectivity and the quasi-locality of the interactions between physical qubits. We present a scalable architecture with full connectivity, which can be implemented with local interactions only. The input of the optimization problem is encoded in local fields acting on an extended set of physical qubits. The output is—in the spirit of topological quantum memories—redundantly encoded in the physical qubits, resulting in an intrinsic fault tolerance. Our model can be understood as a lattice gauge theory, where long-range interactions are mediated by gauge constraints. The architecture can be realized on various platforms with local controllability, including superconducting qubits, NV-centers, quantum dots, and atomic systems. PMID:26601316

  6. A quantum annealing architecture with all-to-all connectivity from local interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechner, Wolfgang; Hauke, Philipp; Zoller, Peter

    2015-10-01

    Quantum annealers are physical devices that aim at solving NP-complete optimization problems by exploiting quantum mechanics. The basic principle of quantum annealing is to encode the optimization problem in Ising interactions between quantum bits (qubits). A fundamental challenge in building a fully programmable quantum annealer is the competing requirements of full controllable all-to-all connectivity and the quasi-locality of the interactions between physical qubits. We present a scalable architecture with full connectivity, which can be implemented with local interactions only. The input of the optimization problem is encoded in local fields acting on an extended set of physical qubits. The output is-in the spirit of topological quantum memories-redundantly encoded in the physical qubits, resulting in an intrinsic fault tolerance. Our model can be understood as a lattice gauge theory, where long-range interactions are mediated by gauge constraints. The architecture can be realized on various platforms with local controllability, including superconducting qubits, NV-centers, quantum dots, and atomic systems.

  7. Spin-orbit interaction in quantum dots and quantum wires of correlated electrons - a way to spintronics?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birkholz, Jens Eiko

    2008-01-01

    We study the influence of the spin-orbit interaction on the electronic transport through quantum dots and quantum wires of correlated electrons. Starting with a one-dimensional infinite continuum model without Coulomb interaction, we analyze the interplay of the spin-orbit interaction, an external magnetic field, and an external potential leading to currents with significant spin-polarization in appropriate parameter regimes. Since lattice models are known to often be superior to continuum models in describing the experimental situation of low-dimensional mesoscopic systems, we construct a lattice model which exhibits the same low-energy physics in terms of energy dispersion and spin expectation values. Confining the lattice to finite length and connecting it to two semi-infinite noninteracting Fermi liquid leads, we calculate the zero temperature linear conductance using the Landauer-Bttiker formalism and show that spin-polarization effects also evolve for the lattice model by adding an adequate potential structure and can be controlled by tuning the overall chemical potential of the system (quantum wire and leads). Next, we allow for a finite Coulomb interaction and use the functional renormalization group (fRG) method to capture correlation effects induced by the Coulomb interaction. The interacting system is thereby transformed into a noninteracting system with renormalized system parameters. For short wires (∝100 lattice sites), we show that the energy regime in which spin polarization is found is strongly affected by the Coulomb interaction. For long wires (>1000 lattice sites), we find the power-law suppression of the total linear conductance on low energy scales typical for inhomogeneous Luttinger liquids while the degree of spin polarization stays constant. Considering quantum dots which consist of two lattice sites, we observe the well-known Kondo effect and analyze, how the Kondo temperature is affected by the spin-orbit interaction. Moreover, we show

  8. Interacting Electrons and Holes in Quasi-2D Quantum Dots in Strong Magnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawrylak, P.; Sheng, W.; Cheng, S.-J.

    2004-09-01

    Theory of optical properties of interacting electrons and holes in quasi-2D quantum dots in strong magnetic fields is discussed. In two dimensions and the lowest Landau level, hidden symmetries control the interaction of the interacting system with light. By confining electrons and holes into quantum dots hidden symmetries can be removed and the excitation spectrum of electrons and excitons can be observed. We discuss a theory electronic and of excitonic quantum Hall droplets at a filling factorν=2. For an excitonic quantum Hall droplet the characteristic emission spectra are predicted to be related to the total spin of electron and hole configurations. For the electronic droplet the excitation spectrum of the droplet can be mapped out by measuring the emission for increasing number of electrons.

  9. Interacting electrons and holes in quasi-2D quantum dots in strong magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawrylak, P.; Sheng, W.; Cheng, S.-J.

    2004-01-01

    Theory of optical properties of interacting electrons and holes in quasi-2D quantum dots in strong magnetic fields is discussed. In two dimensions and the lowest Landau level, hidden symmetries control the interaction of the interacting system with light. By confining electrons and holes into quantum dots hidden symmetries can be removed and the excitation spectrum of electrons and excitons can be observed. We discuss a theory electronic and excitonic quantum Hall droplets at a filling factor υ = 2. For an excitonic quantum Hall droplet the characteristic emission spectra are predicted to be related to the total spin of electron and hole configurations. For the electronic droplet the excitation spectrum of the droplet can be mapped out by measuring the emission for increasing number of electrons. (author)

  10. Detection of light-matter interaction in the weak-coupling regime by quantum light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bin, Qian; Lü, Xin-You; Zheng, Li-Li; Bin, Shang-Wu; Wu, Ying

    2018-04-01

    "Mollow spectroscopy" is a photon statistics spectroscopy, obtained by scanning the quantum light scattered from a source system. Here, we apply this technique to detect the weak light-matter interaction between the cavity and atom (or a mechanical oscillator) when the strong system dissipation is included. We find that the weak interaction can be measured with high accuracy when exciting the target cavity by quantum light scattered from the source halfway between the central peak and each side peak. This originally comes from the strong correlation of the injected quantum photons. In principle, our proposal can be applied into the normal cavity quantum electrodynamics system described by the Jaynes-Cummings model and an optomechanical system. Furthermore, it is state of the art for experiment even when the interaction strength is reduced to a very small value.

  11. 40 CFR 417.110 - Applicability; description of the SO3 solvent and vacuum sulfonation subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... solvent and vacuum sulfonation subcategory. 417.110 Section 417.110 Protection of Environment... POINT SOURCE CATEGORY SO3 Solvent and Vacuum Sulfonation Subcategory § 417.110 Applicability; description of the SO3 solvent and vacuum sulfonation subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are...

  12. Experimentally measuring a quantum state by the Heisenberg exchange interaction in a single apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Xinhua; Du Jiangfeng; Suter, D.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Quantum information processing requires the effective measurement of quantum states. An important method, called quantum state tomography, needs measuring a complete set of observables on the measured system to determine its unknown quantum state ρ. The measurement involves certain noncommuting observables as a result of Bohr's complementarity. Very recently, Allahverdyan et al. proposed a new method in which the unknown quantum state r is determined by measuring a set of commuting observables in the price of a controlled interaction with an auxiliary system. If both systems S and A are spins, their z components (σ z ) can be chosen to measure after some specific Heisenberg exchange interaction. We study in detail a general Heisenberg XYZ model for a two-qubit system and present two classes of special Heisenberg interactions which can serve as the controlled interaction in Allahverdyan's scheme when the state of the auxiliary system A is initially completely disordered. Using the nuclear magnetic resonance techniques, the measurement scheme in a single apparatus has been experimentally demonstrated by designing the quantum circuit to simulate the Heisenberg exchange interaction. (author)

  13. SO3 tinges stack gas from scrubbed coal-fired units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, C.; Ellison, W.

    1998-01-01

    The small amount of SO 3 in flue gas creates enough problems inside the plant. New US EPA regulations on so-called air toxics are making SO 3 discharge an emission problem as well - and a visible one at that. Units that have installed wet scrubbers to control SO 2 emissions may be most affected. The article explains that SO 3 levels in coal-fired power plants are mainly increased by catalytic oxidation of SO 2 by iron oxide on the fireside surfaces of the superheater tubes. Dependence on air-heater temperature is discussed. Wet FGD systems are responsible for the formation of 'blue eye' where SO 3 causes a blue hue in the plume. Ammonia injection has been effective in reducing SO 3 vapour, as has injecting water ahead of the electrostatic precipitator. Replacement of a wet ESP with a dry ESP is also a solution. 2 figs

  14. Stabilization of the Electron-Nuclear Spin Orientation in Quantum Dots by the Nuclear Quadrupole Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzhioev, R. I.; Korenev, V. L.

    2007-07-01

    The nuclear quadrupole interaction eliminates the restrictions imposed by hyperfine interaction on the spin coherence of an electron and nuclei in a quantum dot. The strain-induced nuclear quadrupole interaction suppresses the nuclear spin flip and makes possible the zero-field dynamic nuclear polarization in self-organized InP/InGaP quantum dots. The direction of the effective nuclear magnetic field is fixed in space, thus quenching the magnetic depolarization of the electron spin in the quantum dot. The quadrupole interaction suppresses the zero-field electron spin decoherence also for the case of nonpolarized nuclei. These results provide a new vision of the role of the nuclear quadrupole interaction in nanostructures: it elongates the spin memory of the electron-nuclear system.

  15. Quantum interactive learning tutorial on the double-slit experiment to improve student understanding of quantum mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayer, Ryan; Maries, Alexandru; Singh, Chandralekha

    2017-06-01

    Learning quantum mechanics is challenging, even for upper-level undergraduate and graduate students. Research-validated interactive tutorials that build on students' prior knowledge can be useful tools to enhance student learning. We have been investigating student difficulties with quantum mechanics pertaining to the double-slit experiment in various situations that appear to be counterintuitive and contradict classical notions of particles and waves. For example, if we send single electrons through the slits, they may behave as a "wave" in part of the experiment and as a "particle" in another part of the same experiment. Here we discuss the development and evaluation of a research-validated Quantum Interactive Learning Tutorial (QuILT) which makes use of an interactive simulation to improve student understanding of the double-slit experiment and strives to help students develop a good grasp of foundational issues in quantum mechanics. We discuss common student difficulties identified during the development and evaluation of the QuILT and analyze the data from the pretest and post test administered to the upper-level undergraduate and first-year physics graduate students before and after they worked on the QuILT to assess its effectiveness. These data suggest that on average, the QuILT was effective in helping students develop a more robust understanding of foundational concepts in quantum mechanics that defy classical intuition using the context of the double-slit experiment. Moreover, upper-level undergraduates outperformed physics graduate students on the post test. One possible reason for this difference in performance may be the level of student engagement with the QuILT due to the grade incentive. In the undergraduate course, the post test was graded for correctness while in the graduate course, it was only graded for completeness.

  16. Quantum interactive learning tutorial on the double-slit experiment to improve student understanding of quantum mechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Sayer

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Learning quantum mechanics is challenging, even for upper-level undergraduate and graduate students. Research-validated interactive tutorials that build on students’ prior knowledge can be useful tools to enhance student learning. We have been investigating student difficulties with quantum mechanics pertaining to the double-slit experiment in various situations that appear to be counterintuitive and contradict classical notions of particles and waves. For example, if we send single electrons through the slits, they may behave as a “wave” in part of the experiment and as a “particle” in another part of the same experiment. Here we discuss the development and evaluation of a research-validated Quantum Interactive Learning Tutorial (QuILT which makes use of an interactive simulation to improve student understanding of the double-slit experiment and strives to help students develop a good grasp of foundational issues in quantum mechanics. We discuss common student difficulties identified during the development and evaluation of the QuILT and analyze the data from the pretest and post test administered to the upper-level undergraduate and first-year physics graduate students before and after they worked on the QuILT to assess its effectiveness. These data suggest that on average, the QuILT was effective in helping students develop a more robust understanding of foundational concepts in quantum mechanics that defy classical intuition using the context of the double-slit experiment. Moreover, upper-level undergraduates outperformed physics graduate students on the post test. One possible reason for this difference in performance may be the level of student engagement with the QuILT due to the grade incentive. In the undergraduate course, the post test was graded for correctness while in the graduate course, it was only graded for completeness.

  17. Estimation of atomic interaction parameters by quantum measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiilerich, Alexander Holm; Mølmer, Klaus

    Quantum systems, ranging from atomic systems to field modes and mechanical devices are useful precision probes for a variety of physical properties and phenomena. Measurements by which we extract information about the evolution of single quantum systems yield random results and cause a back actio...... strategies, we address the Fisher information and the Cramér-Rao sensitivity bound. We investigate monitoring by photon counting, homodyne detection and frequent projective measurements respectively, and exemplify by Rabi frequency estimation in a driven two-level system....

  18. Transport through interacting quantum dots with Majorana fermions or phonons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huetzen, Roland

    2013-01-01

    technique and is numerically exact. Within a finite memory time the scheme fully takes into account all time-nonlocal correlations within the self energies of the leads and we extended it to also handle time-nonlocal interactions originating from the electron-phonon coupling. The latter was possible by exactly mapping the Anderson-Holstein model to an effective three-state-system and the introduction of a spin 1 auxiliary field within each short-time propagator of the real-time path-integral. An extrapolation scheme which is based on a least dependence approach then allows to eliminate the errors introduced by the finite memory time and the time discretization in a systematic way. We benchmarked our scheme against three other analytical methods, valid in three different corners of the parameter space where approximative expansions are possible. Finally we could demonstrate with our method the persistence of the Franck-Condon blockade in a deep quantum regime, inaccessible by the other methods.

  19. Transport through interacting quantum dots with Majorana fermions or phonons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huetzen, Roland

    2013-07-04

    technique and is numerically exact. Within a finite memory time the scheme fully takes into account all time-nonlocal correlations within the self energies of the leads and we extended it to also handle time-nonlocal interactions originating from the electron-phonon coupling. The latter was possible by exactly mapping the Anderson-Holstein model to an effective three-state-system and the introduction of a spin 1 auxiliary field within each short-time propagator of the real-time path-integral. An extrapolation scheme which is based on a least dependence approach then allows to eliminate the errors introduced by the finite memory time and the time discretization in a systematic way. We benchmarked our scheme against three other analytical methods, valid in three different corners of the parameter space where approximative expansions are possible. Finally we could demonstrate with our method the persistence of the Franck-Condon blockade in a deep quantum regime, inaccessible by the other methods.

  20. Analysis of transient electromagnetic interactions on nanodevices using a quantum corrected integral equation approach

    KAUST Repository

    Uysal, Ismail Enes

    2015-10-26

    Analysis of electromagnetic interactions on nanodevices can oftentimes be carried out accurately using “traditional” electromagnetic solvers. However, if a gap of sub-nanometer scale exists between any two surfaces of the device, quantum-mechanical effects including tunneling should be taken into account for an accurate characterization of the device\\'s response. Since the first-principle quantum simulators can not be used efficiently to fully characterize a typical-size nanodevice, a quantum corrected electromagnetic model has been proposed as an efficient and accurate alternative (R. Esteban et al., Nat. Commun., 3(825), 2012). The quantum correction is achieved through an effective layered medium introduced into the gap between the surfaces. The dielectric constant of each layer is obtained using a first-principle quantum characterization of the gap with a different dimension.

  1. The Effects of Lithium Triflate (LiCF3SO3) on the PMMA-based Solid Polymer Electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chew, K. W.; Chen, S. S.; Pang, W. L.; Tan, C. G.; Osman, Z.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of Lithium triflate salt (LiCF 3 SO 3 ), on the poly (methyl methacrylate)(PMMA)-based solid polymer electrolytes plasticized with propylene carbonate (PC) solvated in Tetrahydrofuran (THF) have been studied through a.c impedance spectroscopy and infrared spectroscopy. Lithium triflate was incorporated into the predetermined PMMA/PC system that has the highest value of ionic conductivity. In current investigations, four combination systems: Pure PMMA, (PMMA+PC) systems, (PMMA+LiCF 3 SO 3 ) and (PMMA+PC+LiCF 3 SO 3 ) systems were prepared using the solution cast method. Solutions were stirred for numerous hours to obtain a homogenous solution before it is poured into the petri dishes under ambient temperature to form the solid electrolyte thin film. The films were then removed from petri discs and transferred into the dessicator for further drying prior to the different tests. From the characterization done through the a.c impedance spectroscopy, the highest room temperature ionic conductivity in the pure PMMA sample, (PMMA+PC) system and (PMMA+LiCF 3 SO 3 ) system is 2.83x10 -12 Scm -1 , 4.39x10 -11 Scm -1 and 3.93x10 -6 Scm -1 respectively. The conductivity for (PMMA+PC+LiCF 3 SO 3 ) system was obtained with the 30 wt% of lithium triflate, which is 2.48x10 -5 Scm -1 . Infrared spectroscopy shows that complexation occurred between the polymer and the plasticizer, and the polymer and plasticizer and salt. The interactions have been studied in the C=O band, C-O-C band and the O-CH 3 band.

  2. A quantum spin system with random interactions I

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    . In order to study the dynamics of a quantum spin glass we model it as a .... Next we construct a family of strongly continuous one-parameter groups of c-auto- morphisms which determine the evolution of the spin system. To this end, we have ...

  3. Modelling exciton–phonon interactions in optically driven quantum dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nazir, Ahsan; McCutcheon, Dara

    2016-01-01

    We provide a self-contained review of master equation approaches to modelling phonon effects in optically driven self-assembled quantum dots. Coupling of the (quasi) two-level excitonic system to phonons leads to dissipation and dephasing, the rates of which depend on the excitation conditions...

  4. Specific heat of parabolic quantum dot with Dresselhaus spin-orbit interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanjeev Kumar, D., E-mail: sanjeevchs@gmail.com; Chatterjee, Ashok [School of Physics, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad, India - 500046 (India); Mukhopadhyay, Soma [DVR College of Engineering & Technology, Kashipur, Medak, India - 502285 (India)

    2016-04-13

    The heat capacity of a two electron quantum dot with parabolic confinement in magnetic field in the presence of electron-electron interaction, Dresselhaus spin-orbit interaction (DSOI) has been studied. The electron-electron interaction has been treated by a model potential which makes the Hamiltonian to be soluble exactly. The RSOI has been treated by a unitary transformation and the terms up to second order in DSOI constants have been considered. The heat capacity is obtained by canonical averaging. So far no study has been reported in literature on the effect of DSOI on the heat capacity of quantum dot.

  5. Electron-electron interaction in p-SiGe/Ge quantum wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roessner, Benjamin; Kaenel, Hans von; Chrastina, Daniel; Isella, Giovanni; Batlogg, Bertram

    2005-01-01

    The temperature dependent magnetoresistance of high mobility p-SiGe/Ge quantum wells is studied with hole densities ranging from 1.7 to 5.9 x 10 11 cm -2 . At magnetic fields below the onset of quantum oscillations that reflect the high mobility values (up to 75000 cm 2 /Vs), we observe the clear signatures of electron-electron interaction. We compare our experiment with the theory of electron-electron interaction including the Zeeman band splitting. The observed magnetoresistance is well explained as a superposition of band structure induced positive magnetoresistance and the negative magntoresistance due to the electron-electron interaction effect

  6. Current correlations for the transport of interacting electrons through parallel quantum dots in a photon cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudmundsson, Vidar; Abdullah, Nzar Rauf; Sitek, Anna; Goan, Hsi-Sheng; Tang, Chi-Shung; Manolescu, Andrei

    2018-06-01

    We calculate the current correlations for the steady-state electron transport through multi-level parallel quantum dots embedded in a short quantum wire, that is placed in a non-perfect photon cavity. We account for the electron-electron Coulomb interaction, and the para- and diamagnetic electron-photon interactions with a stepwise scheme of configuration interactions and truncation of the many-body Fock spaces. In the spectral density of the temporal current-current correlations we identify all the transitions, radiative and non-radiative, active in the system in order to maintain the steady state. We observe strong signs of two types of Rabi oscillations.

  7. The interactions between CdTe quantum dots and proteins: understanding nano-bio interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shreeram S. Joglekar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite remarkable developments in the nanoscience, relatively little is known about the physical (electrostatic interactions of nanoparticles with bio macromolecules. These interactions can influence the properties of both nanoparticles and the bio-macromolecules. Understanding this bio-interface is a prerequisite to utilize both nanoparticles and biomolecules for bioengineering. In this study, luminescent, water soluble CdTe quantum dots (QDs capped with mercaptopropionic acid (MPA were synthesized by organometallic method and then interaction between nanoparticles (QDs and three different types of proteins (BSA, Lysozyme and Hemoglobin were investigated by fluorescence spectroscopy at pH= 7.4. Based on fluorescence quenching results, Stern-Volmer quenching constant (Ksv, binding constant (Kq and binding sites (n for proteins were calculated. The results show that protein structure (e.g.,globular, metalloprotein, etc. has a significant role in Protein-Quantum dots interactions and each type of protein influence physicochemical properties of Quantum dots differently.

  8. Irregular Aharonov–Bohm effect for interacting electrons in a ZnO quantum ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakraborty, Tapash; Manaselyan, Aram; Barseghyan, Manuk

    2017-01-01

    The electronic states and optical transitions of a ZnO quantum ring containing few interacting electrons in an applied magnetic field are found to be very different from those in a conventional semiconductor system, such as a GaAs ring. The strong Zeeman interaction and the Coulomb interaction of the ZnO system, two important characteristics of the electron system in ZnO, exert a profound influence on the electron states and on the optical properties of the ring. In particular, our results indicate that the Aharonov–Bohm (AB) effect in a ZnO quantum ring strongly depends on the electron number. In fact, for two electrons in the ZnO ring, the AB oscillations become aperiodic, while for three electrons (interacting) the AB oscillations completely disappear. Therefore, unlike in conventional quantum ring topology, here the AB effect (and the resulting persistent current) can be controlled by varying the electron number. (paper)

  9. Strong coupling of two interacting excitons confined in a nanocavity-quantum dot system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardenas, Paulo C; RodrIguez, Boris A; Quesada, Nicolas; Vinck-Posada, Herbert

    2011-01-01

    We present a study of the strong coupling between radiation and matter, considering a system of two quantum dots, which are in mutual interaction and interact with a single mode of light confined in a semiconductor nanocavity. We take into account dissipative mechanisms such as the escape of the cavity photons, decay of the quantum dot excitons by spontaneous emission, and independent exciton pumping. It is shown that the mutual interaction between the dots can be measured off-resonance only if the strong coupling condition is reached. Using the quantum regression theorem, a reasonable definition of the dynamical coupling regimes is introduced in terms of the complex Rabi frequency. Finally, the emission spectrum for relevant conditions is presented and compared with the above definition, demonstrating that the interaction between the excitons does not affect the strong coupling.

  10. Exact dimension estimation of interacting qubit systems assisted by a single quantum probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sone, Akira; Cappellaro, Paola

    2017-12-01

    Estimating the dimension of an Hilbert space is an important component of quantum system identification. In quantum technologies, the dimension of a quantum system (or its corresponding accessible Hilbert space) is an important resource, as larger dimensions determine, e.g., the performance of quantum computation protocols or the sensitivity of quantum sensors. Despite being a critical task in quantum system identification, estimating the Hilbert space dimension is experimentally challenging. While there have been proposals for various dimension witnesses capable of putting a lower bound on the dimension from measuring collective observables that encode correlations, in many practical scenarios, especially for multiqubit systems, the experimental control might not be able to engineer the required initialization, dynamics, and observables. Here we propose a more practical strategy that relies not on directly measuring an unknown multiqubit target system, but on the indirect interaction with a local quantum probe under the experimenter's control. Assuming only that the interaction model is given and the evolution correlates all the qubits with the probe, we combine a graph-theoretical approach and realization theory to demonstrate that the system dimension can be exactly estimated from the model order of the system. We further analyze the robustness in the presence of background noise of the proposed estimation method based on realization theory, finding that despite stringent constrains on the allowed noise level, exact dimension estimation can still be achieved.

  11. Quantum solitons and their relation with fermion fields for the (sin phi)sub(2)-interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pogrebkov, A.K.; Sushko, V.N.

    1976-01-01

    Schema of canonical quantization of the/sin phi/sub(2)-self-interaction is developed systematically, which takes into account from the very beginning the existence of solitons in corresponding classical dynamical system. Correct definition of quantum soliton is given. The connection between the descriptions of quantum solitons on the basis of the proposed quantization schema and in terms of fermion fields is demonstrated

  12. Molecular Model of a Quantum Dot Beyond the Constant Interaction Approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temirov, Ruslan; Green, Matthew F. B.; Friedrich, Niklas; Leinen, Philipp; Esat, Taner; Chmielniak, Pawel; Sarwar, Sidra; Rawson, Jeff; Kögerler, Paul; Wagner, Christian; Rohlfing, Michael; Tautz, F. Stefan

    2018-05-01

    We present a physically intuitive model of molecular quantum dots beyond the constant interaction approximation. It accurately describes their charging behavior and allows the extraction of important molecular properties that are otherwise experimentally inaccessible. The model is applied to data recorded with a noncontact atomic force microscope on three different molecules that act as a quantum dot when attached to the microscope tip. The results are in excellent agreement with first-principles simulations.

  13. Coulomb Interaction between InAs/GaAs Quantum Dots and Adjacent Impurities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engstroem, O.; Kaniewska, M.; Kaczmarczyk, M.

    2011-01-01

    Defects positioned close to a plane of quantum dots (QDs) are shown to be influenced by coulomb interaction effect when the quantum dots are charged by electrons. Signals from deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) measurement give rise to a mirror effect in the spectrum depending on movement of the defect energy level in relation to the Fermi-level as a result of the electron traffic at the QDs.

  14. Integrable quadratic classical Hamiltonians on so(4) and so(3, 1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolov, Vladimir V; Wolf, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    We investigate a special class of quadratic Hamiltonians on so(4) and so(3, 1) and describe Hamiltonians that have additional polynomial integrals. One of the main results is a new integrable case with an integral of sixth degree

  15. A remarkable representation of the SO(3,2) Kac-Moody algebra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobrev, V.K.; Sezgin, E.

    1990-01-01

    We construct a minimal representation of the SO(3,2) Kac-Moody algebra algebra which is based on the spin-zero singleton (the Rac) representation of SO(3,2). The representation is minimal in the sense that the central charge k of the SO(3,2) Kac-Moody algebra is chosen to take the special value of 5/2 which allows the imposition of maximum number of reducibility conditions. For the Rac, this is the unique choice for the remarkable property of maximum reducibility which is consistent with unitarity. To ensure unitarity, we furthermore impose invariance condition under the maximal compact subalgebra SO(3) x SO(2). (author). 19 refs, 1 fig

  16. Hydrolysis of Rice Straw Pretreated by Na2SO3 Over Fe-resin/NaCl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YANG Hui

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available To increase the conversion of rice straw(RS and the yield of products, we employed three methods, which were ultrasonic wave, steam explosion and Na2SO3 pretreatment to pretreat RS(the treated RS noted as CS-RS, ZQ-RS and Na2SO3-RS, respectively and found that Na2SO3 treatment was the best pretreatment method based on XRD, SEM, elemental analysis and content of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. The conversion of Na2SO3-RS and the yield of total reducing sugar(TRS and levulinic acid(LA were 97.3%, 29.6% and 13.5%, respectively by 10% Fe-resin in 3.3% NaCl solution under 200 ℃.

  17. Electron-phonon interaction in quantum transport through quantum dots and molecular systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojeda, J. H.; Duque, C. A.; Laroze, D.

    2016-12-01

    The quantum transport and effects of decoherence properties are studied in quantum dots systems and finite homogeneous chains of aromatic molecules connected to two semi-infinite leads. We study these systems based on the tight-binding approach through Green's function technique within a real space renormalization and polaron transformation schemes. In particular, we calculate the transmission probability following the Landauer-Büttiker formalism, the I - V characteristics and the noise power of current fluctuations taken into account the decoherence. Our results may explain the inelastic effects through nanoscopic systems.

  18. When hydroquinone meets methoxy radical: Hydrogen abstraction reaction from the viewpoint of interacting quantum atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petković, Milena; Nakarada, Đura; Etinski, Mihajlo

    2018-05-25

    Interacting Quantum Atoms methodology is used for a detailed analysis of hydrogen abstraction reaction from hydroquinone by methoxy radical. Two pathways are analyzed, which differ in the orientation of the reactants at the corresponding transition states. Although the discrepancy between the two barriers amounts to only 2 kJ/mol, which implies that the two pathways are of comparable probability, the extent of intra-atomic and inter-atomic energy changes differs considerably. We thus demonstrated that Interacting Quantum Atoms procedure can be applied to unravel distinct energy transfer routes in seemingly similar mechanisms. Identification of energy components with the greatest contribution to the variation of the overall energy (intra-atomic and inter-atomic terms that involve hydroquinone's oxygen and the carbon atom covalently bound to it, the transferring hydrogen and methoxy radical's oxygen), is performed using the Relative energy gradient method. Additionally, the Interacting Quantum Fragments approach shed light on the nature of dominant interactions among selected fragments: both Coulomb and exchange-correlation contributions are of comparable importance when considering interactions of the transferring hydrogen atom with all other atoms, whereas the exchange-correlation term dominates interaction between methoxy radical's methyl group and hydroquinone's aromatic ring. This study represents one of the first applications of Interacting Quantum Fragments approach on first order saddle points. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. New Conotoxin SO-3 Targeting N-type Voltage-Sensitive Calcium Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Wen

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Selective blockers of the N-type voltage-sensitive calcium (CaV channels are useful in the management of severe chronic pain. Here, the structure and function characteristics of a novel N-type CaV channel blocker, SO-3, are reviewed. SO-3 is a 25-amino acid conopeptide originally derived from the venom of Conus striatus, and contains the same 4-loop, 6-cysteine framework (C-C-CC-C-C as O-superfamily conotoxins. The synthetic SO-3 has high analgesic activity similar to ω-conotoxin MVIIA (MVIIA, a selective N-type CaV channel blocker approved in the USA and Europe for the alleviation of persistent pain states. In electrophysiological studies, SO-3 shows more selectivity towards the N-type CaV channels than MVIIA. The dissimilarity between SO-3 and MVIIA in the primary and tertiary structures is further discussed in an attempt to illustrate the difference in selectivity of SO-3 and MVIIA towards N-type CaV channels.

  20. Spin of a Multielectron Quantum Dot and Its Interaction with a Neighboring Electron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip K. Malinowski

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the spin of a multielectron GaAs quantum dot in a sequence of nine charge occupancies, by exchange coupling the multielectron dot to a neighboring two-electron double quantum dot. For all nine occupancies, we make use of a leakage spectroscopy technique to reconstruct the spectrum of spin states in the vicinity of the interdot charge transition between a single- and a multielectron quantum dot. In the same regime we also perform time-resolved measurements of coherent exchange oscillations between the single- and multielectron quantum dot. With these measurements, we identify distinct characteristics of the multielectron spin state, depending on whether the dot’s occupancy is even or odd. For three out of four even occupancies, we do not observe any exchange interaction with the single quantum dot, indicating a spin-0 ground state. For the one remaining even occupancy, we observe an exchange interaction that we associate with a spin-1 multielectron quantum dot ground state. For all five of the odd occupancies, we observe an exchange interaction associated with a spin-1/2 ground state. For three of these odd occupancies, we clearly demonstrate that the exchange interaction changes sign in the vicinity of the charge transition. For one of these, the exchange interaction is negative (i.e., triplet preferring beyond the interdot charge transition, consistent with the observed spin-1 for the next (even occupancy. Our experimental results are interpreted through the use of a Hubbard model involving two orbitals of the multielectron quantum dot. Allowing for the spin correlation energy (i.e., including a term favoring Hund’s rules and different tunnel coupling to different orbitals, we qualitatively reproduce the measured exchange profiles for all occupancies.

  1. Coupled Qubits for Next Generation Quantum Annealing: Novel Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samach, Gabriel; Weber, Steven; Hover, David; Rosenberg, Danna; Yoder, Jonilyn; Kim, David; Oliver, William D.; Kerman, Andrew J.

    While the first generation of quantum annealers based on Josephson junction technology have been successfully engineered to represent arrays of spins in the quantum transverse-field Ising model, no circuit architecture to date has succeeded in emulating the more complicated non-stoquastic Hamiltonians of interest for next generation quantum annealing. Here, we present our recent results for tunable ZZ- and XX-coupling between high coherence superconducting flux qubits. We discuss the larger architectures these coupled two-qubit building blocks will enable, as well as comment on the limitations of such architectures. This research was funded by the Office of the Director of National Intelligence (ODNI), Intelligence Advanced Research Projects Activity (IARPA) and by the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Research & Engineering under Air Force Contract No. FA8721-05-C-0002. The views and conclusions contained herein are those of the authors and should not be interpreted as necessarily representing the official policies or endorsements, either expressed or implied, of ODNI, IARPA, or the US Government.

  2. Remote interactions on two distributed quantum systems: nonlocal unambiguous quantum-state discrimination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Libing; Jin Ruibo; Lu Hong

    2008-01-01

    Remote quantum-state discrimination is a critical step for the implementation of quantum communication network and distributed quantum computation. We present a protocol for remotely implementing the unambiguous discrimination between nonorthogonal states using quantum entanglements, local operations, and classical communications. This protocol consists of a remote generalized measurement described by a positive operator valued measurement (POVM). We explicitly construct the required remote POVM. The remote POVM can be realized by performing a nonlocal controlled-rotation operation on two spatially separated qubits, one is an ancillary qubit and the other is the qubit which is encoded by two nonorthogonal states to be distinguished, and a conventional local Von Neumann orthogonal measurement on the ancilla. The particular pair of states that can be remotely and unambiguously distinguished is specified by the state of the ancilla. The probability of successful discrimination is not optimal for all admissible pairs. However, for some subset it can be very close to an optimal value in an ordinary local POVM

  3. Immobilization of Ag(i) into a metal-organic framework with -SO3H sites for highly selective olefin-paraffin separation at room temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ganggang; Huang, Minhui; Su, Ye; Xing, Huabin; Su, Baogen; Zhang, Zhiguo; Yang, Qiwei; Yang, Yiwen; Ren, Qilong; Bao, Zongbi; Chen, Banglin

    2015-02-18

    Introduction of Ag(i) ions into a sulfonic acid functionalized MOF ((Cr)-MIL-101-SO3H) significantly enhances its interactions with olefin double bonds, leading to its much higher selectivities for the separation of C2H4-C2H6 and C3H6-C3H8 at room temperature over the original (Cr)-MIL-101-SO3H and other adsorbents at room temperature.

  4. Influence of many-particle interactions on slow light phenomena in quantum dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houmark-Nielsen, Jakob; Jauho, Antti-Pekka; Nielsen, Torben Roland

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the impact of many-particle interactions on group-velocity slowdown achieved via Electromagnetically Induced Transparency (EIT) in quantum dots. Using a ladder scheme we find in the steady-state an increase in maximum slow-down as compared to the non-interacting case, which can...... be attributed to Coulomb interaction effects. The necessary pump power at which maximum slow down is obtained EIT remains, however....

  5. Colloidal Interactions of Quantum Dots in Apolar Liquids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rijssel, J.

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis, the main topic is the interactions of nanoparticles in apolar liquids. These includes both the colloidal interactions between nanoparticles and the interaction of the nanoparticles with an external potential from a liquid/air interface or a magnetic field. The understanding of these

  6. Orbital hyperfine interaction and qubit dephasing in carbon nanotube quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palyi, Andras; Csiszar, Gabor

    2015-03-01

    Hyperfine interaction (HF) is of key importance for the functionality of solid-state quantum information processing, as it affects qubit coherence and enables nuclear-spin quantum memories. In this work, we complete the theory of the basic hyperfine interaction mechanisms (Fermi contact, dipolar, orbital) in carbon nanotube quantum dots by providing a theoretical description of the orbital HF. We find that orbital HF induces an interaction between the nuclear spins of the nanotube lattice and the valley degree of freedom of the electrons confined in the quantum dot. We show that the resulting nuclear-spin-electron-valley interaction (i) is approximately of Ising type, (ii) is essentially local, in the sense that an effective atomic interaction strength can be defined, and (iii) has a strength that is comparable to the combined strength of Fermi contact and dipolar interactions. We argue that orbital HF provides a new decoherence mechanism for single-electron valley qubits and spin-valley qubits in a range of multi-valley materials. We explicitly evaluate the corresponding inhomogeneous dephasing time T2* for a nanotube-based valley qubit. We acknowledge funding from the EU Marie Curie CIG-293834, OTKA Grant PD 100373, and EU ERC Starting Grant CooPairEnt 258789. AP is supported by the Janos Bolyai Scholarship of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences.

  7. Electron-electron interactions in graphene field-induced quantum dots in a high magnetic field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orlof, A.; Shylau, Artsem; Zozoulenko, I. V.

    2015-01-01

    We study the effect of electron-electron interaction in graphene quantum dots defined by an external electrostatic potential and a high magnetic field. To account for the electron-electron interaction, we use the Thomas-Fermi approximation and find that electron screening causes the formation...... of compressible strips in the potential profile and the electron density. We numerically solve the Dirac equations describing the electron dynamics in quantum dots, and we demonstrate that compressible strips lead to the appearance of plateaus in the electron energies as a function of the magnetic field. Finally...

  8. Non-Hermitian interaction representation and its use in relativistic quantum mechanics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Znojil, Miloslav

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 385, č. 10 (2017), s. 162-179 ISSN 0003-4916 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA16-22945S Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : unitary quantum systems * non-Hermitian version of Dirac's interaction picture * complete set of time-evolution equations * application in relativistic quantum mechanics * Klein-Gordon example with space-time-dependent mass Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics OBOR OECD: Atomic, molecular and chemical physics ( physics of atoms and molecules including collision, interaction with radiation, magnetic resonances, Mössbauer effect) Impact factor: 2.465, year: 2016

  9. Optical response of a quantum dot-metal nanoparticle hybrid interacting with a weak probe field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosionis, Spyridon G; Terzis, Andreas F; Sadeghi, Seyed M; Paspalakis, Emmanuel

    2013-01-30

    We study optical effects in a hybrid system composed of a semiconductor quantum dot and a spherical metal nanoparticle that interacts with a weak probe electromagnetic field. We use modified nonlinear density matrix equations for the description of the optical properties of the system and obtain a closed-form expression for the linear susceptibilities of the quantum dot, the metal nanoparticle, and the total system. We then investigate the dependence of the susceptibility on the interparticle distance as well as on the material parameters of the hybrid system. We find that the susceptibility of the quantum dot exhibits optical transparency for specific frequencies. In addition, we show that there is a range of frequencies of the applied field for which the susceptibility of the semiconductor quantum dot leads to gain. This suggests that in such a hybrid system quantum coherence can reverse the course of energy transfer, allowing flow of energy from the metallic nanoparticle to the quantum dot. We also explore the susceptibility of the metal nanoparticle and show that it is strongly influenced by the presence of the quantum dot.

  10. Influence of qubit displacements on quantum logic operations in a silicon-based quantum computer with constant interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamenev, D. I.; Berman, G. P.; Tsifrinovich, V. I.

    2006-01-01

    The errors caused by qubit displacements from their prescribed locations in an ensemble of spin chains are estimated analytically and calculated numerically for a quantum computer based on phosphorus donors in silicon. We show that it is possible to polarize (initialize) the nuclear spins even with displaced qubits by using controlled-NOT gates between the electron and nuclear spins of the same phosphorus atom. However, a controlled-NOT gate between the displaced electron spins is implemented with large error because of the exponential dependence of exchange interaction constant on the distance between the qubits. If quantum computation is implemented on an ensemble of many spin chains, the errors can be small if the number of chains with displaced qubits is small

  11. Quantum magnetism in strongly interacting one-dimensional spinor Bose systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salami Dehkharghani, Amin; Volosniev, A. G.; Lindgren, E. J.

    2015-01-01

    -range inter-species interactions much larger than their intra-species interactions and show that they have novel energetic and magnetic properties. In the strongly interacting regime, these systems have energies that are fractions of the basic harmonic oscillator trap quantum and have spatially separated......Strongly interacting one-dimensional quantum systems often behave in a manner that is distinctly different from their higher-dimensional counterparts. When a particle attempts to move in a one-dimensional environment it will unavoidably have to interact and 'push' other particles in order...... ground states with manifestly ferromagnetic wave functions. Furthermore, we predict excited states that have perfect antiferromagnetic ordering. This holds for both balanced and imbalanced systems, and we show that it is a generic feature as one crosses from few- to many-body systems....

  12. The surface chemistry determines the spatio-temporal interaction dynamics of quantum dots in atherosclerotic lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhl, Bernd; Hirn, Stephanie; Mildner, Karina; Coletti, Raffaele; Massberg, Steffen; Reichel, Christoph A; Rehberg, Markus; Zeuschner, Dagmar; Krombach, Fritz

    2018-03-01

    To optimize the design of nanoparticles for diagnosis or therapy of vascular diseases, it is mandatory to characterize the determinants of nano-bio interactions in vascular lesions. Using ex vivo and in vivo microscopy, we analyzed the interactive behavior of quantum dots with different surface functionalizations in atherosclerotic lesions of ApoE-deficient mice. We demonstrate that quantum dots with different surface functionalizations exhibit specific interactive behaviors with distinct molecular and cellular components of the injured vessel wall. Moreover, we show a role for fibrinogen in the regulation of the spatio-temporal interaction dynamics in atherosclerotic lesions. Our findings emphasize the relevance of surface chemistry-driven nano-bio interactions on the differential in vivo behavior of nanoparticles in diseased tissue.

  13. Quantum computer based on activated dielectric nanoparticles selectively interacting with short optical pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadomskii, Oleg N; Kharitonov, Yu Ya

    2004-01-01

    The operation principle of a quantum computer is proposed based on a system of dielectric nanoparticles activated with two-level atoms - cubits, in which electric dipole transitions are excited by short intense optical pulses. It is proved that the logical operation (logical operator) CNOT (controlled NOT) is performed by means of time-dependent transfer of quantum information over 'long' (of the order of 10 4 nm) distances between spherical nanoparticles owing to the delayed interaction between them in the optical radiation field. It is shown that one-cubit and two-cubit logical operators required for quantum calculations can be realised by selectively exciting dielectric particles with short optical pulses. (quantum calculations)

  14. Probing quantum and thermal noise in an interacting many-body system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofferberth, S.; Lesanovsky, Igor; Schumm, Thorsten

    2008-01-01

    of the shot-to-shot variations of interference-fringe contrast for pairs of independently created one-dimensional Bose condensates. Analysing different system sizes, we observe the crossover from thermal to quantum noise, reflected in a characteristic change in the distribution functions from poissonian......The probabilistic character of the measurement process is one of the most puzzling and fascinating aspects of quantum mechanics. In many-body systems quantum-mechanical noise reveals non-local correlations of the underlying many-body states. Here, we provide a complete experimental analysis....... Furthermore, our experiments constitute the first analysis of the full distribution of quantum noise in an interacting many-body system....

  15. Quantum criticality of one-dimensional multicomponent Fermi gas with strongly attractive interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Peng; Jiang, Yuzhu; Guan, Xiwen; He, Jinyu

    2015-01-01

    Quantum criticality of strongly attractive Fermi gas with SU(3) symmetry in one dimension is studied via the thermodynamic Bethe ansatz (TBA) equations. The phase transitions driven by the chemical potential μ, effective magnetic field H 1 , H 2 (chemical potential biases) are analyzed at the quantum criticality. The phase diagram and critical fields are analytically determined by the TBA equations in the zero temperature limit. High accurate equations of state, scaling functions are also obtained analytically for the strong interacting gases. The dynamic exponent z=2 and correlation length exponent ν=1/2 read off the universal scaling form. It turns out that the quantum criticality of the three-component gases involves a sudden change of density of states of one cluster state, two or three cluster states. In general, this method can be adapted to deal with the quantum criticality of multicomponent Fermi gases with SU(N) symmetry. (paper)

  16. The effect of quantum correction on plasma electron heating in ultraviolet laser interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zare, S.; Sadighi-Bonabi, R., E-mail: Sadighi@sharif.ir; Anvari, A. [Department of Physics, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11365-9567, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Yazdani, E. [Department of Energy Engineering and Physics, Amirkabir University of Technology, P.O. Box 15875-4413, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hora, H. [Department of Theoretical Physics, University of New South Wales, Sydney 2052 (Australia)

    2015-04-14

    The interaction of the sub-picosecond UV laser in sub-relativistic intensities with deuterium is investigated. At high plasma temperatures, based on the quantum correction in the collision frequency, the electron heating and the ion block generation in plasma are studied. It is found that due to the quantum correction, the electron heating increases considerably and the electron temperature uniformly reaches up to the maximum value of 4.91 × 10{sup 7 }K. Considering the quantum correction, the electron temperature at the laser initial coupling stage is improved more than 66.55% of the amount achieved in the classical model. As a consequence, by the modified collision frequency, the ion block is accelerated quicker with higher maximum velocity in comparison with the one by the classical collision frequency. This study proves the necessity of considering a quantum mechanical correction in the collision frequency at high plasma temperatures.

  17. Efficient spin filter using multi-terminal quantum dot with spin-orbit interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yokoyama Tomohiro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We propose a multi-terminal spin filter using a quantum dot with spin-orbit interaction. First, we formulate the spin Hall effect (SHE in a quantum dot connected to three leads. We show that the SHE is significantly enhanced by the resonant tunneling if the level spacing in the quantum dot is smaller than the level broadening. We stress that the SHE is tunable by changing the tunnel coupling to the third lead. Next, we perform a numerical simulation for a multi-terminal spin filter using a quantum dot fabricated on semiconductor heterostructures. The spin filter shows an efficiency of more than 50% when the conditions for the enhanced SHE are satisfied. PACS numbers: 72.25.Dc,71.70.Ej,73.63.Kv,85.75.-d

  18. Quantum state detection and state preparation based on cavity-enhanced nonlinear interaction of atoms with single photon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Mahdi

    Our ability to engineer quantum states of light and matter has significantly advanced over the past two decades, resulting in the production of both Gaussian and non-Gaussian optical states. The resulting tailored quantum states enable quantum technologies such as quantum optical communication, quantum sensing as well as quantum photonic computation. The strong nonlinear light-atom interaction is the key to deterministic quantum state preparation and quantum photonic processing. One route to enhancing the usually weak nonlinear light-atom interactions is to approach the regime of cavity quantum electrodynamics (cQED) interaction by means of high finesse optical resonators. I present results from the MIT experiment of large conditional cross-phase modulation between a signal photon, stored inside an atomic quantum memory, and a control photon that traverses a high-finesse optical cavity containing the atomic memory. I also present a scheme to probabilistically change the amplitude and phase of a signal photon qubit to, in principle, arbitrary values by postselection on a control photon that has interacted with that state. Notably, small changes of the control photon polarization measurement basis by few degrees can substantially change the amplitude and phase of the signal state. Finally, I present our ongoing effort at Purdue to realize similar peculiar quantum phenomena at the single photon level on chip scale photonic systems.

  19. Quantum walks of two interacting particles on percolation graphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siloi, Ilaria; Benedetti, Claudia; Piccinini, Enrico; Paris, Matteo G. A.; Bordone, Paolo

    2017-10-01

    We address the dynamics of two indistinguishable interacting particles moving on a dynamical percolation graph, i.e., a graph where the edges are independent random telegraph processes whose values jump between 0 and 1, thus mimicking percolation. The interplay between the particle interaction strength, initial state and the percolation rate determine different dynamical regimes for the walkers. We show that, whenever the walkers are initially localised within the interaction range, fast noise enhances the particle spread compared to the noiseless case.

  20. Israel Electric Corp. Experience With SO3 Flue Gas Conditioning System Electrostatic Precipitator Performance Improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muginsfein, A.; Naveh, Y.; Sfez, D.

    1998-01-01

    Ash from low sulfur coals is characterized by high electrical resistivity. Generally, values above l*10 l0 ω*cm may decrease the collect ability of the fly ash in the Electrostatic precipitator-Esp. Controlling the ash resistivity by SO 3 injection may resolve the problem of the increased electrical resistivity of the collected fly ash. This paper summarizes the results of a full scale test that was performed in 350 MW coal fired unit to test the influence of SO 3 injection on the Esp collecting efficiency

  1. An integrable counterpart of the D-AKNS soliton hierarchy from so(3,R)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Wen-Xiu

    2014-01-01

    An integrable counterpart of the D-AKNS soliton hierarchy is generated from a matrix spectral problem associated with so(3,R). Hamiltonian structures of the resulting counterpart soliton hierarchy are furnished by using the trace identity, which yields its Liouville integrability. -- Highlights: •Use the Lie algebra so(3,R) to generate a counterpart of the D-AKNS soliton hierarchy. •Generate Hamiltonian structures depending potentials by the trace identity. •Obtain hierarchies of independent commuting symmetries and conserved densities.

  2. Interbasis expansion and SO(3) symmetry in the two-dimensional hydrogen atom.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres del Castillo, G.F.; Lopez Villanueva, A. [Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Puebla (Mexico)

    2001-04-01

    Making use of the SO(3) symmetry of the two-dimensional hydrogen atom, each of the bases for the bound states formed by the separable solutions of the Schroedinger equation in polar and parabolic coordinates are expressed in terms of the other. [Spanish] Usando la simetria SO(3) del atomo de hidrogeno en dos dimensiones, cada una de las bases para los estados ligados formadas por las soluciones separables de la ecuacion de Schroedinger en coordenadas polares y parabolicas se expresan en terminos de la otra.

  3. Theoretical and experimental investigation for SO3 production in SO2-rich astrophysical environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonfim, Víctor de Souza; Pilling, Sergio; Castilho, Roberto B; Baptista, Leonardo

    2015-01-01

    This work presents the results for the irradiation of pure SO 2 sample that was condensed in a preevacuated chamber, from Laboratório de Astroquímica e Astrobiologia (LASA/UNIVAP), at low temperature (12 K) and irradiated by ionizing photons which simulate Solar photons in the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) and soft X-rays range. The infrared spectra of irradiated sample have presented the formation of SO 3 . Experimental formation cross section was determined. Theoretical investigations were performed at Second-order Moller- Plesset perturbation theory (MP2) level and indicate the most likely SO 3 formation channels vary with the reaction supporting medium. (paper)

  4. Strong interactions and quantum chromodynamics at the leading logarithm approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mantrach, A.

    1982-11-01

    This thesis is a contribution to the study of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) at the leading logarithm approximation (LLA). We have used the interpretation of the LLA in terms of the generalized parton model to propose tests of elementary processes of QCD in large transverse momentum photoproduction reactions. We have used the LLA to sum gluon radiation effects induced in high energy hadronic reactions. We have obtained this way a rise of the nucleon-nucleon total cross section of 15 mb from 60 GeV to 540 GeV. We have exploited the existence of a preconfinement transition in the LLA to study scaling violations in the framework of the dual parton model [fr

  5. Visualizing the quantum interaction picture in phase space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehmani, Bahar; Aiello, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    We present a graphical example of the interaction picture-time evolution. Our aim is to help students understand in a didactic manner the simplicity that this picture provides. Visualizing the interaction picture unveils its advantages, which are hidden behind the involved mathematics. Specifically, we show that the time evolution of a driven harmonic oscillator in the interaction picture corresponds to a local transformation of a phase space-reference frame into the one that is co-rotating with the Wigner function. (paper)

  6. Mass Charge Interactions for Visualizing the Quantum Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, Wolfgang

    Our goal is to integrate the objective and subjective aspects of our personal experience into a single complete theory of reality. To further this endeavor we replace elementary particles with elementary events as the building blocks of an event oriented description of that reality. The simplest event in such a conception is an adaptation of A. Wheeler's primitive explanatory--measurement cycle between internal observations experienced by an observer and their assumed physical causes. We will show how internal forces between charge and mass are required to complete the cyclic sequence of activity. This new formulation of internal material is easier to visualize and map to cognitive experiences than current formulations of sub-atomic physics. In our formulation, called Cognitive Action Theory, such internal forces balance the external forces of gravity-inertia and electricity-magnetism. They thereby accommodate outside influences by adjusting the internal structure of material from which all things are composed. Such accommodation is interpreted as the physical implementation of a model of the external physical world in the brain of a cognitive being or alternatively the response mechanism to external influences in the material of inanimate objects. We adopt the deBroglie-Bohm causal interpretation of QT to show that the nature of space in our model is mathematically equivalent to a field of clocks. Within this field small oscillations form deBroglie waves. This interpretation allows us to visualize the underlying structure of empty space with a charge-mass separation field in equilibrium, and objects appearing in space with quantum wave disturbances to that equilibrium occurring inside material. Space is thereby associated with the internal structure of material and quantum mechanics is shown to be, paraphrasing Heisenberg, the physics of the material that knows the world.

  7. First-Order Quantum Phase Transition for Dicke Model Induced by Atom-Atom Interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Xiu-Qin; Liu Ni; Liang Jiu-Qing

    2017-01-01

    In this article, we use the spin coherent state transformation and the ground state variational method to theoretically calculate the ground function. In order to consider the influence of the atom-atom interaction on the extended Dicke model’s ground state properties, the mean photon number, the scaled atomic population and the average ground energy are displayed. Using the self-consistent field theory to solve the atom-atom interaction, we discover the system undergoes a first-order quantum phase transition from the normal phase to the superradiant phase, but a famous Dicke-type second-order quantum phase transition without the atom-atom interaction. Meanwhile, the atom-atom interaction makes the phase transition point shift to the lower atom-photon collective coupling strength. (paper)

  8. Dynamic dipole-dipole interactions between excitons in quantum dots of different sizes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matsueda, Hideaki; Leosson, Kristjan; Xu, Zhangcheng

    2004-01-01

    A model of the resonance dynamic dipole-dipole interaction between excitons confined in quantum dots (QDs) of different sizes at close enough distance is given in terms of parity inheritance and exchange of virtual photons. Microphotoluminescence spectra of GaAs-AlGaAs coupled QDs are proposed to...

  9. Effective Interactions and Prospects for Resolution of the Fundamental Cosmological Problems in Quantum Gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris A. Arbuzov

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Wouldbe consequences of the existence of effective interactions in quantum gravitation theory are considered. In the framework of the approach, the example of a running gravitational coupling is presented, corresponding to an adequate description of effects, which nowadays are usually prescribed to dark matter and dark energy.

  10. New anomaly: nonvanishing interaction of longitudinal real photons in massless quantum electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorskij, A.S.; Ioffe, B.L.; Khodzhamiryan, A.Yu.

    1989-01-01

    It is shown that in massless electrodynamics (when the electron mass is strictly zero) the cross section of longitudinal photon interaction on mass shell is nonvanishing. The reasons of appearance of this effects and its possible consequences as well as analogous effects in other quantum field theories (especially non-Abelian gauge theories) are discussed. 7 refs.; 2 figs

  11. Interaction-induced effects in the nonlinear coherent response of quantum-well excitons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Hans Peter; Schätz, A.; Langbein, Wolfgang Werner

    1999-01-01

    Interaction-induced processes are studied using the third-order nonlinear polarization created in polarization-dependent four-wave-mixing experiments (FWM) on a ZnSe single quantum well. We discuss their influence by a comparison of the experimental FWM with calculations based on extended optical...

  12. Dynamic Dipole-Dipole Interactions between Excitons in Quantum Dots of Different Sizes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matsueda, Hideaki; Leosson, Kristjan; Xu, Zhangcheng

    2005-01-01

    Micro-photoluminescence spectra of GaAs/AlGaAs coupled quantum dots (QDs) are given, and proposed to be analyzed by our resonance dynamic dipole-dipole interaction (RDDDI) model, based on parity inheritance and exchange of virtual photons among QDs of different sizes....

  13. Conceptual design of SO3 decomposer for thermo-chemical iodine-sulfur process pilot plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akihiro Kanagawa; Seiji Kasahara; Atsuhiko Terada; Shinji Kubo; Ryutaro Hino; Yoshiyuki Kawahara; Masaharu Watabe; Hiroshi Fukui; Kazuo Ishino; Toshio Takahashi

    2005-01-01

    Thermo-chemical water-splitting cycle is a method to make an effective use of the high temperature nuclear heat for hydrogen production. Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) has been conducting R and D on HTGR and also on thermo-chemical hydrogen production by using a thermo-chemical iodine-sulfur cycle (IS process). Based on the test results and know-how obtained through a bench-scale tests of hydrogen production of about 30 NL/hr, JAERI has a plan to construct a pilot test plant heated by high temperature helium gas, which has a hydrogen production performance of 30 Nm 3 /hr and will be operated under the high pressure up to 2 MPa. One of the key components of the pilot test plant is a SO 3 decomposer under high temperature conditions up to 850 degree C and high pressure up to 2 MPa. In this paper, a concept of the SO 3 decomposer for the pilot test plant fabricated with SiC ceramics, a corrosion-resistant material is investigated. Preliminary analyses on temperature and flow-rate distributions in the SO 3 decomposer and on thermal stress were carried out. A SO 3 decomposer model was experimentally manufactured. (authors)

  14. On a non-traditional realisation of the group SO(3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fecko, M.

    1985-01-01

    A representation of group SO(3) in the space of wave functions of the so-called linear top is described. The generators of rotations have a non-standard form. Functions which provide the basis of the representation are found in explicit form. Their connection with Wigner functions D km l (φ, θ, ψ) is shown. (author)

  15. Ce2O3-SO3-H2O system at 150 and 200 deg C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belokoskov, V.I.; Trofimov, G.V.; Govorukhina, O.A.

    1978-01-01

    The solubility, solid phase composition and crystal characteristics in the Ce 2 O 3 -SO 3 -H 2 O system have been studied in a broad range of sulfuric acid concentrations (25 to 80% SO 3 ) at temperatures from 150 to 200 deg C. It has been established that in the system the equilibrium had been reached after 15 to 20 days. At 150 deg C, Ce 2 (SO 4 ) 3 x2H 2 O, Ce 2 (SO 4 ) 3 xH 2 O sulfates and Ce 2 (SO 4 ) 3 x3H 2 SO 4 acid salt crystallize in the system. At 200 deg C, the same sulfates crystallize in the system, except that the bisaturation points of the system are shifted, with respect to 150 deg C, into the region of higher SO 3 concentration and correspond to solutions with a SO 3 concentration of 57.8 and 65%. The solubility of cerium(3) at 150 deg C is about 0.5% Ce 2 O 3 . An increase in temperature up to 200 deg C leads to a slightly higher solubility of cerium sulfates

  16. Supersymmetric many-particle quantum systems with inverse-square interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Pijush K

    2012-01-01

    The development in the study of supersymmetric many-particle quantum systems with inverse-square interactions is reviewed. The main emphasis is on quantum systems with dynamical OSp(2|2) supersymmetry. Several results related to the exactly solved supersymmetric rational Calogero model, including shape invariance, equivalence to a system of free superoscillators and non-uniqueness in the construction of the Hamiltonian, are presented in some detail. This review also includes a formulation of pseudo-Hermitian supersymmetric quantum systems with a special emphasis on the rational Calogero model. There are quite a few number of many-particle quantum systems with inverse-square interactions which are not exactly solved for a complete set of states in spite of the construction of infinitely many exact eigenfunctions and eigenvalues. The Calogero–Marchioro model with dynamical SU(1, 1|2) supersymmetry and a quantum system related to the short-range Dyson model belong to this class and certain aspects of these models are reviewed. Several other related and important developments are briefly summarized. (topical review)

  17. Renormalization of quantum discord and Bell nonlocality in the XXZ model with Dzyaloshinskii–Moriya interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Xue-ke; Wu, Tao; Xu, Shuai; He, Juan; Ye, Liu

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we have investigated the dynamical behaviors of the two important quantum correlation witnesses, i.e. geometric quantum discord (GQD) and Bell–CHSH inequality in the XXZ model with DM interaction by employing the quantum renormalization group (QRG) method. The results have shown that the anisotropy suppresses the quantum correlations while the DM interaction can enhance them. Meanwhile, using the QRG method we have studied the quantum phase transition of GQD and obtained two saturated values, which are associated with two different phases: spin-fluid phase and the Néel phase. It is worth mentioning that the block–block correlation is not strong enough to violate the Bell–CHSH inequality in the whole iteration steps. Moreover, the nonanalytic phenomenon and scaling behavior of Bell inequality are discussed in detail. As a byproduct, the conjecture that the exact lower and upper bounds of Bell inequality versus GQD can always be established for this spin system although the given density matrix is a general X state

  18. Quantum Brownian motion in a bath of parametric oscillators: A model for system-field interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, B.L.; Matacz, A.

    1994-01-01

    The quantum Brownian motion paradigm provides a unified framework where one can see the interconnection of some basic quantum statistical processes such as decoherence, dissipation, particle creation, noise, and fluctuation. The present paper continues the investigation begun in earlier papers on the quantum Brownian motion in a general environment via the influence functional formalism. Here, the Brownian particle is coupled linearly to a bath of the most general time-dependent quadratic oscillators. This bath of parametric oscillators minics a scalar field, while the motion of the Brownian particle modeled by a single oscillator could be used to depict the behavior of a particle detector, a quantum field mode, or the scale factor of the Universe. An important result of this paper is the derivation of the influence functional encompassing the noise and dissipation kernels in terms of the Bogolubov coefficients, thus setting the stage for the influence functional formalism treatment of problems in quantum field theory in curved spacetime. This method enables one to trace the source of statistical processes such as decoherence and dissipation to vacuum fluctuations and particle creation, and in turn impart a statistical mechanical interpretation of quantum field processes. With this result we discuss the statistical mechanical origin of quantum noise and thermal radiance from black holes and from uniformly accelerated observers in Minkowski space as well as from the de Sitter universe discovered by Hawking, Unruh, and Gibbons and Hawking. We also derive the exact evolution operator and master equation for the reduced density matrix of the system interacting with a parametric oscillator bath in an initial squeezed thermal state. These results are useful for decoherence and back reaction studies for systems and processes of interest in semiclassical cosmology and gravity. Our model and results are also expected to be useful for related problems in quantum optics

  19. Bacterial Interactions with CdSe Quantum Dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, P.; Nadeau, J. L.; Kumar, A.; Clarke, S.; Priester, J. H.; Stucky, G. D.

    2007-12-01

    Cadmium selenide quantum dots (QDs) are semiconductor nanoparticles that are manufactured for biomedical imaging, photovoltaics, and other applications. While metallic nanoparticles can be made biotically by bacteria and fungi, and thus occur in nature, the fate of either natural or engineered QDs and relationships to nanoparticle size, conjugate and biotic conditions are mostly unknown. Working with several different bacterial strains and QDs of different sizes and conjugate chemistries, including QDs synthesized by a Fusarium fungal strain, we show that QDs can enter cells through specfic receptor-mediated processes, that QDs are broken down by bacteria during cell association, and that toxicity to cells is much like that imposed by Cd(II) ions. The mechanisms of entry and toxicity are not fully understood, but preliminary evidence suggests that electron transfer between cells and QDs occurs. Also, cell membranes are compromised, indicating oxidative stress is occurring. Results with planktonic and biofilm bacteria are similar, but differently, biofilms tend to accumulate Cd(II) associated with QD treatments.

  20. Entropy balance in pure interactions of open quantum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urigu, R.

    1989-01-01

    Processes are considered in which a statistical ensemble w of quantum systems is split into ensembles, or channels (w i ), conditional to the occurrence, with respective probabilities (p i w ), of associated macroscopic effects. These processes are described here by a family of operations T i : w → p i w w iT , which remarkably generalize the usual state reductions of the nondestructive measurements. In a previous work it was proved that the microscopic entropy of the given open system decreases or at most remains constant if all the T i are pure operations, i.e., they transform pure states into pure states; it is proved here that the increase in entropy of the external world, computed as S Tm (w) = - Σ i p i w lg p i w , is sufficient to compensate for such an entropy decrease whenever the T i are all pure operations of the first kind, whereas whenever some T i is pure of the second kind (or nonpure, too), the total entropy, computed as above, may decrease

  1. Direct Observation of Dynamical Quantum Phase Transitions in an Interacting Many-Body System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurcevic, P; Shen, H; Hauke, P; Maier, C; Brydges, T; Hempel, C; Lanyon, B P; Heyl, M; Blatt, R; Roos, C F

    2017-08-25

    The theory of phase transitions represents a central concept for the characterization of equilibrium matter. In this work we study experimentally an extension of this theory to the nonequilibrium dynamical regime termed dynamical quantum phase transitions (DQPTs). We investigate and measure DQPTs in a string of ions simulating interacting transverse-field Ising models. During the nonequilibrium dynamics induced by a quantum quench we show for strings of up to 10 ions the direct detection of DQPTs by revealing nonanalytic behavior in time. Moreover, we provide a link between DQPTs and the dynamics of other quantities such as the magnetization, and we establish a connection between DQPTs and entanglement production.

  2. Direct Observation of Dynamical Quantum Phase Transitions in an Interacting Many-Body System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurcevic, P.; Shen, H.; Hauke, P.; Maier, C.; Brydges, T.; Hempel, C.; Lanyon, B. P.; Heyl, M.; Blatt, R.; Roos, C. F.

    2017-08-01

    The theory of phase transitions represents a central concept for the characterization of equilibrium matter. In this work we study experimentally an extension of this theory to the nonequilibrium dynamical regime termed dynamical quantum phase transitions (DQPTs). We investigate and measure DQPTs in a string of ions simulating interacting transverse-field Ising models. During the nonequilibrium dynamics induced by a quantum quench we show for strings of up to 10 ions the direct detection of DQPTs by revealing nonanalytic behavior in time. Moreover, we provide a link between DQPTs and the dynamics of other quantities such as the magnetization, and we establish a connection between DQPTs and entanglement production.

  3. Interactions between N-acetyl-L-cysteine protected CdTe quantum dots and doxorubicin through spectroscopic method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Xiupei, E-mail: xiupeiyang@163.com [Chemical Synthesis and Pollution Control Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, Nanchong 637000 (China); College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, China West Normal University, Nanchong 637000 (China); Lin, Jia; Liao, Xiulin; Zong, Yingying; Gao, Huanhuan [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, China West Normal University, Nanchong 637000 (China)

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • CdTe quantum dots with the diameter of 3–5 nm were synthesized in aqueous solution. • The modified CdTe quantum dots showed well fluorescence properties. • The interaction between the CdTe quantum dots and doxorubicin (DR) was investigated. - Abstract: N-acetyl-L-cysteine protected cadmium telluride quantum dots with a diameter of 3–5 nm were synthesized in aqueous solution. The interaction between N-acetyl-L-cysteine/cadmium telluride quantum dots and doxorubicin was investigated by ultraviolet–visible absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy at physiological conditions (pH 7.2, 37 °C). The results indicate that electron transfer has occurred between N-acetyl-L-cysteine/cadmium telluride quantum dots and doxorubicin under light illumination. The quantum dots react readily with doxorubicin to form a N-acetyl-L-cysteine/cadmium telluride-quantum dots/doxorubicin complex via electrostatic attraction between the −NH{sub 3}{sup +} moiety of doxorubicin and the −COO{sup −} moiety of N-acetyl-L-cysteine/cadmium telluride quantum dots. The interaction of N-acetyl-L-cysteine/cadmium telluride-quantum dots/doxorubicin complex with bovine serum albumin was studied as well, showing that the complex might induce the conformation change of bovine serum due to changes in microenvironment of bovine serum.

  4. Interactions between N-acetyl-L-cysteine protected CdTe quantum dots and doxorubicin through spectroscopic method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Xiupei; Lin, Jia; Liao, Xiulin; Zong, Yingying; Gao, Huanhuan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • CdTe quantum dots with the diameter of 3–5 nm were synthesized in aqueous solution. • The modified CdTe quantum dots showed well fluorescence properties. • The interaction between the CdTe quantum dots and doxorubicin (DR) was investigated. - Abstract: N-acetyl-L-cysteine protected cadmium telluride quantum dots with a diameter of 3–5 nm were synthesized in aqueous solution. The interaction between N-acetyl-L-cysteine/cadmium telluride quantum dots and doxorubicin was investigated by ultraviolet–visible absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy at physiological conditions (pH 7.2, 37 °C). The results indicate that electron transfer has occurred between N-acetyl-L-cysteine/cadmium telluride quantum dots and doxorubicin under light illumination. The quantum dots react readily with doxorubicin to form a N-acetyl-L-cysteine/cadmium telluride-quantum dots/doxorubicin complex via electrostatic attraction between the −NH 3 + moiety of doxorubicin and the −COO − moiety of N-acetyl-L-cysteine/cadmium telluride quantum dots. The interaction of N-acetyl-L-cysteine/cadmium telluride-quantum dots/doxorubicin complex with bovine serum albumin was studied as well, showing that the complex might induce the conformation change of bovine serum due to changes in microenvironment of bovine serum

  5. Optimising stochastic trajectories in exact quantum jump approaches of interacting systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacroix, D.

    2004-11-01

    The standard methods used to substitute the quantum dynamics of two interacting systems by a quantum jump approach based on the Stochastic Schroedinger Equation (SSE) are described. It turns out that for a given situation, there exists an infinite number of SSE reformulation. This fact is used to propose general strategies to optimise the stochastic paths in order to reduce the statistical fluctuations. In this procedure, called the 'adaptative noise method', a specific SSE is obtained for which the noise depends explicitly on both the initial state and on the properties of the interaction Hamiltonian. It is also shown that this method can be further improved by the introduction of a mean-field dynamics. The different optimisation procedures are illustrated quantitatively in the case of interacting spins. A significant reduction of the statistical fluctuations is obtained. Consequently, a much smaller number of trajectories is needed to accurately reproduce the exact dynamics as compared to the standard SSE method. (author)

  6. Energetic Analysis of Conjugated Hydrocarbons Using the Interacting Quantum Atoms Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jara-Cortés, Jesús; Hernández-Trujillo, Jesús

    2018-07-05

    A number of aromatic, antiaromatic, and nonaromatic organic molecules was analyzed in terms of the contributions to the electronic energy defined in the quantum theory of atoms in molecules and the interacting quantum atoms method. Regularities were found in the exchange and electrostatic interatomic energies showing trends that are closely related to those of the delocalization indices defined in the theory. In particular, the CC interaction energies between bonded atoms allow to rationalize the energetic stabilization associated with the bond length alternation in conjugated polyenes. This approach also provides support to Clar's sextet rules devised for aromatic systems. In addition, the H⋯H bonding found in some of the aromatic molecules studied was of an attractive nature, according to the stabilizing exchange interaction between the bonded H atoms. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Spin manipulation and spin-lattice interaction in magnetic colloidal quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moro, Fabrizio; Turyanska, Lyudmila; Granwehr, Josef; Patanè, Amalia

    2014-11-01

    We report on the spin-lattice interaction and coherent manipulation of electron spins in Mn-doped colloidal PbS quantum dots (QDs) by electron spin resonance. We show that the phase memory time,TM , is limited by Mn-Mn dipolar interactions, hyperfine interactions of the protons (1H) on the QD capping ligands with Mn ions in their proximity (limit and at low temperature, we achieve a long phase memory time constant TM˜0.9 μ s , thus enabling the observation of Rabi oscillations. Our findings suggest routes to the rational design of magnetic colloidal QDs with phase memory times exceeding the current limits of relevance for the implementation of QDs as qubits in quantum information processing.

  8. Quantum field theory of photon—Dirac fermion interacting system in graphene monolayer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Bich Ha; Nguyen, Van Hieu

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present work is to elaborate quantum field theory of interacting systems comprising Dirac fermion fields in a graphene monolayer and the electromagnetic field. Since the Dirac fermions are confined in a two-dimensional plane, the interaction Hamiltonian of this system contains the projection of the electromagnetic field operator onto the plane of a graphene monolayer. Following the quantization procedure in traditional quantum electrodynamics we chose to work in the gauge determined by the weak Lorentz condition imposed on the state vectors of all physical states of the system. The explicit expression of the two-point Green function of the projection onto a graphene monolayer of a free electromagnetic field is derived. This two-point Green function and the expression of the interaction Hamiltonian together with the two-point Green functions of free Dirac fermion fields established in our previous work form the basics of the perturbation theory of the above-mentioned interacting field system. As an example, the perturbation theory is applied to the study of two-point Green functions of this interacting system of quantum fields. (paper)

  9. Atoms and light. Matter radiation interaction. DEA in quantum physics, year 2003. 2nd year Master: Fundamental concepts in Physics, Cursus: Quantum Physics. Year 2006-2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabre, Claude

    2003-01-01

    This document contains two nearly identical courses on the interaction between matter and electromagnetic radiation. The second one addresses a few more issues in sub-paragraphs, but follows the same organisation and plan. A first part addresses tools in quantum optics. It presents phenomenological approaches (the Lorentz and Einstein models), the semi-conventional approach (isolated atom, effect of the environment with the Bloch equations, interaction with a non-monochromatic field, oscillator force), the quantum description of the free electromagnetic field (corpuscular aspect of the thermal radiation field, decomposition of the conventional electromagnetic field into modes, quantification of free radiation, radiation kinetic moment and pulse, radiation stationary states, value of the electric field in a quantum state), the interaction between atom and quantum field (interaction Hamiltonian, interaction process, photo-detection). The second part addresses some phenomena of quantum optics such as spontaneous emission, quasi-resonant interactions in two-level systems, three-level systems, fluctuations and correlations in the matter-radiation interaction. Appendices contain elements on atom structure, and on the density matrix

  10. Periodic and quasiperiodic revivals in periodically driven interacting quantum systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luitz, David J.; Lazarides, Achilleas; Bar Lev, Yevgeny

    2018-01-01

    Recently it has been shown that interparticle interactions generically destroy dynamical localization in periodically driven systems, resulting in diffusive transport and heating. In this Rapid Communication we rigorously construct a family of interacting driven systems which are dynamically localized and effectively decoupled from the external driving potential. We show that these systems exhibit tunable periodic or quasiperiodic revivals of the many-body wave function and thus of all physical observables. By numerically examining spinless fermions on a one-dimensional lattice we show that the analytically obtained revivals of such systems remain stable for finite systems with open boundary conditions while having a finite lifetime in the presence of static spatial disorder. We find this lifetime to be inversely proportional to the disorder strength.

  11. Quantum

    CERN Document Server

    Al-Khalili, Jim

    2003-01-01

    In this lively look at quantum science, a physicist takes you on an entertaining and enlightening journey through the basics of subatomic physics. Along the way, he examines the paradox of quantum mechanics--beautifully mathematical in theory but confoundingly unpredictable in the real world. Marvel at the Dual Slit experiment as a tiny atom passes through two separate openings at the same time. Ponder the peculiar communication of quantum particles, which can remain in touch no matter how far apart. Join the genius jewel thief as he carries out a quantum measurement on a diamond without ever touching the object in question. Baffle yourself with the bizzareness of quantum tunneling, the equivalent of traveling partway up a hill, only to disappear then reappear traveling down the opposite side. With its clean, colorful layout and conversational tone, this text will hook you into the conundrum that is quantum mechanics.

  12. Coherence and fluctuations in the interaction between moving atoms and a quantum field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, B.L.; Raval, A.

    1998-01-01

    Mesoscopic physics deals with three fundamental issues: quantum coherence, fluctuations and correlations. Here we analyze these issues for atom optics, using a simplified model of an assembly of atoms (or detectors, which are particles with some internal degree of freedom) moving in arbitrary trajectories in a quantum field. Employing the influence functional formalism, we study the self-consistent effect of the field on the atoms, and their mutual interactions via coupling to the field. We derive the coupled Langevin equations for the atom assemblage and analyze the relation of dissipative dynamics of the atoms (detectors) with the correlation and fluctuations of the quantum field. This provides a useful theoretical framework for analysing the coherent properties of atom-field systems. (author)

  13. Self-interacting, boson, quantum field theory, and the thermodynamic limit in d dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, G.A. Jr.

    1975-01-01

    By use of a finite volume, lattice approximation, an approximation to the analytic continuation of a polynomial, self-interacting boson quantum field theory from Minkowski space to Euclidean space was set up. The infinite volume limit for various boundary conditions is shown to exist and to be asymptotic to the perturbation expansion in the coupling constant g at g = 0. For g: phi 4 : d theory mass renormalizability is proved and it is shown how, by use of Nelson's reconstruction theorem, the corresponding Minkowski space quantum field theory can be obtained. It is discussed, at least for d greater than or equal to 4, how statistical mechanical techniques, used to analyze the Ising model in the critical region just above the critical temperature, can be used to compute the properties of quantum field theory. (U.S.)

  14. Measuring Pancharatnam's relative phase for SO(3) evolutions using spin polarimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsson, Peter; Sjoeqvist, Erik

    2003-01-01

    In polarimetry, a superposition of internal quantal states is exposed to a single Hamiltonian and information about the evolution of the quantal states is inferred from projection measurements on the final superposition. In this framework, we here extend the polarimetric test of Pancharatnam's relative phase for spin-(1/2) proposed by Wagh and Rakhecha [Phys. Lett. A 197, 112 (1995)] to spin j≥1 undergoing noncyclic SO(3) evolution. We demonstrate that the output intensity for higher spin values is a polynomial function of the corresponding spin-(1/2) intensity. We further propose a general method to extract the noncyclic SO(3) phase and visibility by rigid translation of two π/2 spin flippers. Polarimetry on higher spin states may in practice be done with spin polarized atomic beams

  15. Lattice functions, wavelet aliasing, and SO(3) mappings of orthonormal filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Sarah

    1998-01-01

    A formulation of multiresolution in terms of a family of dyadic lattices {Sj;j∈Z} and filter matrices Mj⊂U(2)⊂GL(2,C) illuminates the role of aliasing in wavelets and provides exact relations between scaling and wavelet filters. By showing the {DN;N∈Z+} collection of compactly supported, orthonormal wavelet filters to be strictly SU(2)⊂U(2), its representation in the Euler angles of the rotation group SO(3) establishes several new results: a 1:1 mapping of the {DN} filters onto a set of orbits on the SO(3) manifold; an equivalence of D∞ to the Shannon filter; and a simple new proof for a criterion ruling out pathologically scaled nonorthonormal filters.

  16. Topological features of the Sokolov integrable case on the Lie algebra so(3,1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novikov, D V

    2014-01-01

    The integrable Sokolov case on so(3,1) ⋆ is investigated. This is a Hamiltonian system with two degrees of freedom, in which the Hamiltonian and the additional integral are homogeneous polynomials of degrees 2 and 4, respectively. It is an interesting feature of this system that connected components of common level surfaces of the Hamiltonian and the additional integral turn out to be noncompact. The critical points of the moment map and their indices are found, the bifurcation diagram is constructed, and the topology of noncompact level surfaces is determined, that is, the closures of solutions of the Sokolov system on so(3,1) are described. Bibliography: 24 titles

  17. Magnetic field effect on the Coulomb interaction of acceptors in semimagnetic quantum dot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalpana, P.; Merwyn, A.; Nithiananthi, P.; Jayakumar, K., E-mail: kjkumar-gri@rediffmail.com [Nanostructure Lab, Department of Physics, Gandhigram Rural University, Gandhigram-624302 (India); Reuben, Jasper D. [Department of Physics, School of Engineering, Saveetha University, Thandalam, Chennai- 600104 (India)

    2015-06-24

    The Coulomb interaction of holes in a Semimagnetic Cd{sub 1-x}Mn{sub x}Te / CdTe Spherical and Cubical Quantum Dot (SMQD) in a magnetic field is studied using variational approach in the effective mass approximation. Since these holes in QD show a pronounced collective behavior, while distinct single particle phenomena is suppressed, their interaction in confined potential becomes very significant. It has been observed that acceptor-acceptor interaction is more in cubical QD than in spherical QD which can be controlled by the magnetic field. The results are presented and discussed.

  18. Magnetic field effect on the Coulomb interaction of acceptors in semimagnetic quantum dot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalpana, P.; Merwyn, A.; Reuben, Jasper D.; Nithiananthi, P.; Jayakumar, K.

    2015-06-01

    The Coulomb interaction of holes in a Semimagnetic Cd1-xMnxTe / CdTe Spherical and Cubical Quantum Dot (SMQD) in a magnetic field is studied using variational approach in the effective mass approximation. Since these holes in QD show a pronounced collective behavior, while distinct single particle phenomena is suppressed, their interaction in confined potential becomes very significant. It has been observed that acceptor-acceptor interaction is more in cubical QD than in spherical QD which can be controlled by the magnetic field. The results are presented and discussed.

  19. The quantum mechanical description of the dot-dot interaction in ionic colloids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morais, P.C.; Qu, Fanyao

    2007-01-01

    In this study the dot-dot interaction in ionic colloids is systematically investigated by self-consistently solving the coupled Schroedinger and Poisson equations in the frame of finite difference method (FDM). In a first approximation the interacting two-dot system (dimer) is described using the picture of two coupled quantum wells. It was found that the dot-dot interaction changes the colloid characteristic by changing the hopping coefficient (t) and consequently the nanodot surface charge density (σ). The hopping coefficient and the surface charge density were investigated as a function of the dot size and dot-dot distance

  20. Methanesulfonates of high-valent metals. Syntheses and structural features of MoO_2(CH_3SO_3)_2, UO_2(CH_3SO_3)_2, ReO_3(CH_3SO_3), VO(CH_3SO_3)_2, and V_2O_3(CH_3SO_3)_4 and their thermal decomposition under N_2 and O_2 atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betke, Ulf; Neuschulz, Kai; Wickleder, Mathias S.

    2011-01-01

    Oxide methanesulfonates of Mo, U, Re, and V have been prepared by reaction of MoO_3, UO_2(CH_3COO)_2.2 H_2O, Re_2O_7(H_2O)_2, and V_2O_5 with CH_3SO_3H or mixtures thereof with its anhydride. These compounds are the first examples of solvent-free oxide methanesulfonates of these elements. MoO_2(CH_3SO_3)_2 (Pbca, a=1487.05(4), b=752.55(2), c=1549.61(5) pm, V=1.73414(9) nm"3, Z=8) contains [MoO_2] moieties connected by [CH_3SO_3] ions to form layers parallel to (100). UO_2(CH_3SO_3)_2 (P2_1/c, a=1320.4(1), b=1014.41(6), c=1533.7(1) pm, β=112.80(1) "c"i"r"c"l"e, V=1.8937(3) nm"3, Z=8) consists of linear UO_2"2"+ ions coordinated by five [CH_3SO_3] ions, forming a layer structure. VO(CH_3SO_3)_2 (P2_1/c, a=1136.5(1), b=869.87(7), c=915.5(1) pm, β=113.66(1) "c"i"r"c"l"e, V=0.8290(2) nm"3, Z=4) contains [VO] units connected by methanesulfonate anions to form corrugated layers parallel to (100). In ReO_3(CH_3SO_3) (P anti 1, a=574.0(1), b=1279.6(3), c=1641.9(3) pm, α=102.08(2), β=96.11(2), γ=99.04(2) "c"i"r"c"l"e, V=1.1523(4) nm"3, Z=8) a chain structure exhibiting infinite O-[ReO_2]-O-[ReO_2]-O chains is formed. Each [ReO_2]-O-[ReO_2] unit is coordinated by two bidentate [CH_3SO_3] ions. V_2O_3(CH_3SO_3)_4 (I2/a, a=1645.2(3), b=583.1(1), c=1670.2(3) pm, β=102.58(3), V=1.5637(5) pm"3, Z=4) adopts a chain structure, too, but contains discrete [VO]-O-[VO] moieties, each coordinated by two bidentate [CH_3SO_3] ligands. Additional methanesulfonate ions connect the [V_2O_3] groups along [001]. Thermal decomposition of the compounds was monitored under N_2 and O_2 atmosphere by thermogravimetric/differential thermal analysis and XRD measurements. Under N_2 the decomposition proceeds with reduction of the metal leading to the oxides MoO_2, U_3O_7, V_4O_7, and VO_2; for MoO_2(CH_3SO_3)_2, a small amount of MoS_2 is formed. If the thermal decomposition is carried out in a atmosphere of O_2 the oxides MoO_3 and V_2O_5 are formed. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag

  1. QuVis interactive simulations: tools to support quantum mechanics instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohnle, Antje

    2015-04-01

    Quantum mechanics holds a fascination for many students, but its mathematical complexity and counterintuitive results can present major barriers. The QuVis Quantum Mechanics Visualization Project (www.st-andrews.ac.uk/physics/quvis) aims to overcome these issues through the development and evaluation of interactive simulations with accompanying activities for the learning and teaching of quantum mechanics. Over 90 simulations are now available on the QuVis website. One collection of simulations is embedded in the Institute of Physics Quantum Physics website (quantumphysics.iop.org), which consists of freely available resources for an introductory course in quantum mechanics starting from two-level systems. Simulations support model-building by reducing complexity, focusing on fundamental ideas and making the invisible visible. They promote engaged exploration, sense-making and linking of multiple representations, and include high levels of interactivity and direct feedback. Simulations are research-based and evaluation with students informs all stages of the development process. Simulations are iteratively refined using student feedback in individual observation sessions and in-class trials. Evaluation has shown that the simulations can help students learn quantum mechanics concepts at both the introductory and advanced undergraduate level and that students perceive simulations to be beneficial to their learning. Recent activity includes the launch of a new collection of HTML5 simulations that run on both desktop and tablet-based devices and the introduction of a goal and reward structure in simulations through the inclusion of challenges. This presentation will give an overview of the QuVis resources, highlight recent work and outline future plans. QuVis is supported by the UK Institute of Physics, the UK Higher Education Academy and the University of St Andrews.

  2. Computational applications of the many-interacting-worlds interpretation of quantum mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturniolo, Simone

    2018-05-01

    While historically many quantum-mechanical simulations of molecular dynamics have relied on the Born-Oppenheimer approximation to separate electronic and nuclear behavior, recently a great deal of interest has arisen in quantum effects in nuclear dynamics as well. Due to the computational difficulty of solving the Schrödinger equation in full, these effects are often treated with approximate methods. In this paper, we present an algorithm to tackle these problems using an extension to the many-interacting-worlds approach to quantum mechanics. This technique uses a kernel function to rebuild the probability density, and therefore, in contrast with the approximation presented in the original paper, it can be naturally extended to n-dimensional systems. This opens up the possibility of performing quantum ground-state searches with steepest-descent methods, and it could potentially lead to real-time quantum molecular-dynamics simulations. The behavior of the algorithm is studied in different potentials and numbers of dimensions and compared both to the original approach and to exact Schrödinger equation solutions whenever possible.

  3. Testing the master constraint programme for loop quantum gravity: V. Interacting field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dittrich, B; Thiemann, T

    2006-01-01

    This is the fifth and final paper in our series of five in which we test the master constraint programme for solving the Hamiltonian constraint in loop quantum gravity. Here we consider interacting quantum field theories, specifically we consider the non-Abelian Gauss constraints of Einstein-Yang-Mills theory and 2 + 1 gravity. Interestingly, while Yang-Mills theory in 4D is not yet rigorously defined as an ordinary (Wightman) quantum field theory on Minkowski space, in background-independent quantum field theories such as loop quantum gravity (LQG) this might become possible by working in a new, background-independent representation. While for the Gauss constraint the master constraint can be solved explicitly, for the 2 + 1 theory we are only able to rigorously define the master constraint operator. We show that the, by other methods known, physical Hilbert is contained in the kernel of the master constraint, however, to systematically derive it by only using spectral methods is as complicated as for 3 + 1 gravity and we therefore leave the complete analysis for 3 + 1 gravity

  4. Study of interacting fields in a canonical formalism in Heisenberg picture of quantum field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RANAIVOSON, R.T.R.

    2011-01-01

    In this work, we have made a study on the canonical formalism of the quantum field theory. Our contribution has been the development of a study using the Heisenberg picture. We showed that this approach may be useful for the description of quantum dynamics of interacting fields in bounded states. Our approach is to start from the lagrangian density of a classical theory from which one deduce the classical evolution equations of the fields via Euler-Lagrange equation for fields and establish the expression of conserved quantities characterizing the dynamics using the Noether theorem. Passing to the canonical quantization, fields and quantities characterizing the dynamics become quantum operators and evolution equations become operatorial evolution equations in Heisenberg picture. Expressions of quantum observable are also deduced from the expressions of classical conserved quantities. After, we showed that using the properties of fields operators and quantum states vectors, one can deduce from the operatorial evolution equations, the evolution equations for the wave functions of fermions and the evolution equations of expectation values of boson fields. For the illustration, various studies were conducted: the case of electrodynamics, the case of a general gauge theory and the case of the Standard Model. [fr

  5. Effective interactions in strongly-coupled quantum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, J.M.C.

    1986-01-01

    In this thesis, they study the role of effective interactions in strongly-coupled Fermi systems where the short-range correlations introduce difficulties requiring special treatment. The correlated basis function method provides the means to incorporate the short-range correlations and generate the matrix elements of the Hamiltonian and identity operators in a nonorthogonal basis of states which are so important to their studies. In the first half of the thesis, the particle-hole channel is examined to elucidate the effects of collective excitations. Proceeding from a least-action principle, a generalization of the random-phase approximation is developed capable of describing such strongly-interacting Fermi systems as nuclei, nuclear matter, neutron-star matter, and liquid 3 He. A linear response of dynamically correlated system to a weak external perturbation is also derived based on the same framework. In the second half of the thesis, the particle-particle channel is examined to elucidate the effects of pairing in nuclear and neutron-star matter

  6. Simulation of Quantum Many-Body Dynamics for Generic Strongly-Interacting Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Gregory; Machado, Francisco; Yao, Norman

    2017-04-01

    Recent experimental advances have enabled the bottom-up assembly of complex, strongly interacting quantum many-body systems from individual atoms, ions, molecules and photons. These advances open the door to studying dynamics in isolated quantum systems as well as the possibility of realizing novel out-of-equilibrium phases of matter. Numerical studies provide insight into these systems; however, computational time and memory usage limit common numerical methods such as exact diagonalization to relatively small Hilbert spaces of dimension 215 . Here we present progress toward a new software package for dynamical time evolution of large generic quantum systems on massively parallel computing architectures. By projecting large sparse Hamiltonians into a much smaller Krylov subspace, we are able to compute the evolution of strongly interacting systems with Hilbert space dimension nearing 230. We discuss and benchmark different design implementations, such as matrix-free methods and GPU based calculations, using both pre-thermal time crystals and the Sachdev-Ye-Kitaev model as examples. We also include a simple symbolic language to describe generic Hamiltonians, allowing simulation of diverse quantum systems without any modification of the underlying C and Fortran code.

  7. Quasiparticle Approach to Molecules Interacting with Quantum Solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemeshko, Mikhail

    2017-03-03

    Understanding the behavior of molecules interacting with superfluid helium represents a formidable challenge and, in general, requires approaches relying on large-scale numerical simulations. Here, we demonstrate that experimental data collected over the last 20 years provide evidence that molecules immersed in superfluid helium form recently predicted angulon quasiparticles [Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 203001 (2015)PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.114.203001]. Most important, casting the many-body problem in terms of angulons amounts to a drastic simplification and yields effective molecular moments of inertia as straightforward analytic solutions of a simple microscopic Hamiltonian. The outcome of the angulon theory is in good agreement with experiment for a broad range of molecular impurities, from heavy to medium-mass to light species. These results pave the way to understanding molecular rotation in liquid and crystalline phases in terms of the angulon quasiparticle.

  8. Preparation and characterization of novel thermoset polyimide and polyimide-peo doped with LiCF3SO3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Ugur

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the synthesis and characterization of a new type of anhydrous ionic conducting lithium doped membranes consist of polyimide (PI, poly (ethylene oxide (PEO and lithium trifluoromethanesulfonate (LiCF3SO3 for solid polymer electrolyte (SPE. For this purpose, different molar ratios of lithium salt (Li-salt solution are added into poly (amic acid (PAA intermediate prepared from the reaction of 3,3',4,4'-benzophenon tetracarboxylic dianhydride (BTDA and 4,4'-oxydianiline (ODA. PEO is incorporated into PAA since it forms more stable complexes and possess high ionic conductivities. Then, Li-salt containing PAA solutions are imidized by thermal process. The effect of interaction between host polymer and Li-salt is characterized by FT-IR (Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy and SEM (scanning electron micrsocopy. The conductivities of Li-salt and PEO containing PI composite membranes are in the range of 10–7–10–5 S•cm–1. The conductivity increases with incorporation of PEO. Thermogravimetric analysis results reveal that the PI/PEO/LiCF3SO3 composite polymer electrolyte membranes are thermally stable up to 500°C.

  9. Spin-orbit interaction in a dual gated InAs/GaSb quantum well

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beukman, Arjan J. A.; de Vries, Folkert K.; van Veen, Jasper; Skolasinski, Rafal; Wimmer, Michael; Qu, Fanming; de Vries, David T.; Nguyen, Binh-Minh; Yi, Wei; Kiselev, Andrey A.; Sokolich, Marko; Manfra, Michael J.; Nichele, Fabrizio; Marcus, Charles M.; Kouwenhoven, Leo P.

    2017-12-01

    The spin-orbit interaction is investigated in a dual gated InAs/GaSb quantum well. Using an electric field, the quantum well can be tuned between a single-carrier regime with exclusively electrons as carriers and a two-carrier regime where electrons and holes coexist. The spin-orbit interaction in both regimes manifests itself as a beating in the Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations. In the single-carrier regime the linear Dresselhaus strength is characterized by β =28.5 meV Å and the Rashba coefficient α is tuned from 75 to 53 meV Å by changing the electric field. In the two-carrier regime a quenching of the spin splitting is observed and attributed to a crossing of spin bands.

  10. Electroluminescence Caused by the Transport of Interacting Electrons through Parallel Quantum Dots in a Photon Cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudmundsson, Vidar; Abdulla, Nzar Rauf; Sitek, Anna; Goan, Hsi-Sheng; Tang, Chi-Shung; Manolescu, Andrei

    2018-02-01

    We show that a Rabi-splitting of the states of strongly interacting electrons in parallel quantum dots embedded in a short quantum wire placed in a photon cavity can be produced by either the para- or the dia-magnetic electron-photon interactions when the geometry of the system is properly accounted for and the photon field is tuned close to a resonance with the electron system. We use these two resonances to explore the electroluminescence caused by the transport of electrons through the one- and two-electron ground states of the system and their corresponding conventional and vacuum electroluminescense as the central system is opened up by coupling it to external leads acting as electron reservoirs. Our analysis indicates that high-order electron-photon processes are necessary to adequately construct the cavity-photon dressed electron states needed to describe both types of electroluminescence.

  11. Quantum Monte Carlo calculations of van der Waals interactions between aromatic benzene rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azadi, Sam; Kühne, T. D.

    2018-05-01

    The magnitude of finite-size effects and Coulomb interactions in quantum Monte Carlo simulations of van der Waals interactions between weakly bonded benzene molecules are investigated. To that extent, two trial wave functions of the Slater-Jastrow and Backflow-Slater-Jastrow types are employed to calculate the energy-volume equation of state. We assess the impact of the backflow coordinate transformation on the nonlocal correlation energy. We found that the effect of finite-size errors in quantum Monte Carlo calculations on energy differences is particularly large and may even be more important than the employed trial wave function. In addition to the cohesive energy, the singlet excitonic energy gap and the energy gap renormalization of crystalline benzene at different densities are computed.

  12. Les Houches Summer School : Strongly Interacting Quantum Systems out of Equilibrium

    CERN Document Server

    Millis, Andrew J; Parcollet, Olivier; Saleur, Hubert; Cugliandolo, Leticia F

    2016-01-01

    Over the last decade new experimental tools and theoretical concepts are providing new insights into collective nonequilibrium behavior of quantum systems. The exquisite control provided by laser trapping and cooling techniques allows us to observe the behavior of condensed bose and degenerate Fermi gases under nonequilibrium drive or after quenches' in which a Hamiltonian parameter is suddenly or slowly changed. On the solid state front, high intensity short-time pulses and fast (femtosecond) probes allow solids to be put into highly excited states and probed before relaxation and dissipation occur. Experimental developments are matched by progress in theoretical techniques ranging from exact solutions of strongly interacting nonequilibrium models to new approaches to nonequilibrium numerics. The summer school Strongly interacting quantum systems out of equilibrium' held at the Les Houches School of Physics as its XCIX session was designed to summarize this progress, lay out the open questions and define dir...

  13. Quantum chemical modeling of antioxidant activity of glutathione interacting with hydroxyl- and superoxide anion radicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Solovyova

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Following the analysis of the results of quantum chemical simulation of interaction between a GSH molecule and oxygen radicals •ОН and •ООˉ, it was found that it takes place through the acid-base mechanism, where GSH acts as a base towards •ОН, and as an acid towards •ООˉ. The results of quantum chemical calculations (electron density redistribution, energy characteristics were correlated at the time of interaction of a GSH molecule with •ОН and •ООˉ with a change of macroscopic parameters of the process of free oxygen radical electroreduction in the presence of GSH (potential and maximum current of reduction waves, which is a direct experimental macroscale evidence of results of the conducted nanoscale theoretical simulation.

  14. Decision making based on optical excitation transfer via near-field interactions between quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naruse, Makoto; Nomura, Wataru; Ohtsu, Motoichi; Aono, Masashi; Sonnefraud, Yannick; Drezet, Aurélien; Huant, Serge; Kim, Song-Ju

    2014-01-01

    Optical near-field interactions between nanostructured matters, such as quantum dots, result in unidirectional optical excitation transfer when energy dissipation is induced. This results in versatile spatiotemporal dynamics of the optical excitation, which can be controlled by engineering the dissipation processes and exploited to realize intelligent capabilities such as solution searching and decision making. Here, we experimentally demonstrate the ability to solve a decision making problem on the basis of optical excitation transfer via near-field interactions by using colloidal quantum dots of different sizes, formed on a geometry-controlled substrate. We characterize the energy transfer behavior due to multiple control light patterns and experimentally demonstrate the ability to solve the multi-armed bandit problem. Our work makes a decisive step towards the practical design of nanophotonic systems capable of efficient decision making, one of the most important intellectual attributes of the human brain.

  15. Decision making based on optical excitation transfer via near-field interactions between quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naruse, Makoto, E-mail: naruse@nict.go.jp [Photonic Network Research Institute, National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, 4-2-1 Nukui-kita, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8795 (Japan); Nomura, Wataru; Ohtsu, Motoichi [Department of Electrical Engineering and Information Systems, Graduate School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 2-11-16 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Aono, Masashi [Earth-Life Science Institute, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguru-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan); PRESTO, Japan Science and Technology Agency, 4-1-8 Honcho, Kawaguchi-shi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); Sonnefraud, Yannick; Drezet, Aurélien; Huant, Serge [Université Grenoble Alpes, Inst. NEEL, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CNRS, Inst. NEEL, F-38042 Grenoble (France); Kim, Song-Ju [WPI Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan)

    2014-10-21

    Optical near-field interactions between nanostructured matters, such as quantum dots, result in unidirectional optical excitation transfer when energy dissipation is induced. This results in versatile spatiotemporal dynamics of the optical excitation, which can be controlled by engineering the dissipation processes and exploited to realize intelligent capabilities such as solution searching and decision making. Here, we experimentally demonstrate the ability to solve a decision making problem on the basis of optical excitation transfer via near-field interactions by using colloidal quantum dots of different sizes, formed on a geometry-controlled substrate. We characterize the energy transfer behavior due to multiple control light patterns and experimentally demonstrate the ability to solve the multi-armed bandit problem. Our work makes a decisive step towards the practical design of nanophotonic systems capable of efficient decision making, one of the most important intellectual attributes of the human brain.

  16. Analysis of interacting quantum field theory in curved spacetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birrell, N.D.; Taylor, J.G.

    1980-01-01

    A detailed analysis of interacting quantized fields propagating in a curved background spacetime is given. Reduction formulas for S-matrix elements in terms of vacuum Green's functions are derived, special attention being paid to the possibility that the ''in'' and ''out'' vacuum states may not be equivalent. Green's functions equations are obtained and a diagrammatic representation for them given, allowing a formal, diagrammatic renormalization to be effected. Coordinate space techniques for showing renormalizability are developed in Minkowski space, for lambdaphi 3 /sub() 4,6/ field theories. The extension of these techniques to curved spacetimes is considered. It is shown that the possibility of field theories becoming nonrenormalizable there cannot be ruled out, although, allowing certain modifications to the theory, phi 3 /sub( 4 ) is proven renormalizable in a large class of spacetimes. Finally particle production from the vacuum by the gravitational field is discussed with particular reference to Schwarzschild spacetime. We shed some light on the nonlocalizability of the production process and on the definition of the S matrix for such processes

  17. Computational strong-field quantum dynamics. Intense light-matter interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, Dieter (ed.) [Rostock Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik

    2017-09-01

    This graduate textbook introduces the computational techniques to study ultra-fast quantum dynamics of matter exposed to strong laser fields. Coverage includes methods to propagate wavefunctions according to the time dependent Schroedinger, Klein-Gordon or Dirac equation, the calculation of typical observables, time-dependent density functional theory, multi configurational time-dependent Hartree-Fock, time-dependent configuration interaction singles, the strong-field approximation, and the microscopic particle-in-cell approach.

  18. Quantum spin Hall states in graphene interacting with WS2 or WSe2

    KAUST Repository

    Kaloni, T. P.

    2014-12-08

    In the framework of first-principles calculations, we investigate the structural and electronic properties of graphene in contact with as well as sandwiched between WS2 and WSe2 monolayers. We report the modification of the band characteristics due to the interaction at the interface and demonstrate that the presence of the dichalcogenide results in quantum spin Hall states in the absence of a magnetic field.

  19. Computational strong-field quantum dynamics. Intense light-matter interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, Dieter

    2017-01-01

    This graduate textbook introduces the computational techniques to study ultra-fast quantum dynamics of matter exposed to strong laser fields. Coverage includes methods to propagate wavefunctions according to the time dependent Schroedinger, Klein-Gordon or Dirac equation, the calculation of typical observables, time-dependent density functional theory, multi configurational time-dependent Hartree-Fock, time-dependent configuration interaction singles, the strong-field approximation, and the microscopic particle-in-cell approach.

  20. Computational strong-field quantum dynamics intense light-matter interactions

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This graduate textbook introduces the computational techniques to study ultra-fast quantum dynamics of matter exposed to strong laser fields. Coverage includes methods to propagate wavefunctions according to the time-dependent Schrödinger, Klein-Gordon or Dirac equation, the calculation of typical observables, time-dependent density functional theory, multi-configurational time-dependent Hartree-Fock, time-dependent configuration interaction singles, the strong-field approximation, and the microscopic particle-in-cell approach.

  1. Quantum spin Hall states in graphene interacting with WS2 or WSe2

    KAUST Repository

    Kaloni, T. P.; Kou, L.; Frauenheim, T.; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2014-01-01

    In the framework of first-principles calculations, we investigate the structural and electronic properties of graphene in contact with as well as sandwiched between WS2 and WSe2 monolayers. We report the modification of the band characteristics due to the interaction at the interface and demonstrate that the presence of the dichalcogenide results in quantum spin Hall states in the absence of a magnetic field.

  2. Universal Quantum Criticality in the Metal-Insulator Transition of Two-Dimensional Interacting Dirac Electrons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuichi Otsuka

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The metal-insulator transition has been a subject of intense research since Mott first proposed that the metallic behavior of interacting electrons could turn to an insulating one as electron correlations increase. Here, we consider electrons with massless Dirac-like dispersion in two spatial dimensions, described by the Hubbard models on two geometrically different lattices, and perform numerically exact calculations on unprecedentedly large systems that, combined with a careful finite-size scaling analysis, allow us to explore the quantum critical behavior in the vicinity of the interaction-driven metal-insulator transition. Thereby, we find that the transition is continuous, and we determine the quantum criticality for the corresponding universality class, which is described in the continuous limit by the Gross-Neveu model, a model extensively studied in quantum field theory. Furthermore, we discuss a fluctuation-driven scenario for the metal-insulator transition in the interacting Dirac electrons: The metal-insulator transition is triggered only by the vanishing of the quasiparticle weight, not by the Dirac Fermi velocity, which instead remains finite near the transition. This important feature cannot be captured by a simple mean-field or Gutzwiller-type approximate picture but is rather consistent with the low-energy behavior of the Gross-Neveu model.

  3. Quantum interference measurement of spin interactions in a bio-organic/semiconductor device structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deo, Vincent; Zhang, Yao; Soghomonian, Victoria; Heremans, Jean J.

    2015-03-01

    Quantum interference is used to measure the spin interactions between an InAs surface electron system and the iron center in the biomolecule hemin in nanometer proximity in a bio-organic/semiconductor device structure. The interference quantifies the influence of hemin on the spin decoherence properties of the surface electrons. The decoherence times of the electrons serve to characterize the biomolecule, in an electronic complement to the use of spin decoherence times in magnetic resonance. Hemin, prototypical for the heme group in hemoglobin, is used to demonstrate the method, as a representative biomolecule where the spin state of a metal ion affects biological functions. The electronic determination of spin decoherence properties relies on the quantum correction of antilocalization, a result of quantum interference in the electron system. Spin-flip scattering is found to increase with temperature due to hemin, signifying a spin exchange between the iron center and the electrons, thus implying interactions between a biomolecule and a solid-state system in the hemin/InAs hybrid structure. The results also indicate the feasibility of artificial bioinspired materials using tunable carrier systems to mediate interactions between biological entities.

  4. Decoherence-Free Interaction between Giant Atoms in Waveguide Quantum Electrodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kockum, Anton Frisk; Johansson, Göran; Nori, Franco

    2018-04-06

    In quantum-optics experiments with both natural and artificial atoms, the atoms are usually small enough that they can be approximated as pointlike compared to the wavelength of the electromagnetic radiation with which they interact. However, superconducting qubits coupled to a meandering transmission line, or to surface acoustic waves, can realize "giant artificial atoms" that couple to a bosonic field at several points which are wavelengths apart. Here, we study setups with multiple giant atoms coupled at multiple points to a one-dimensional (1D) waveguide. We show that the giant atoms can be protected from decohering through the waveguide, but still have exchange interactions mediated by the waveguide. Unlike in decoherence-free subspaces, here the entire multiatom Hilbert space (2^{N} states for N atoms) is protected from decoherence. This is not possible with "small" atoms. We further show how this decoherence-free interaction can be designed in setups with multiple atoms to implement, e.g., a 1D chain of atoms with nearest-neighbor couplings or a collection of atoms with all-to-all connectivity. This may have important applications in quantum simulation and quantum computing.

  5. Decoherence-Free Interaction between Giant Atoms in Waveguide Quantum Electrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kockum, Anton Frisk; Johansson, Göran; Nori, Franco

    2018-04-01

    In quantum-optics experiments with both natural and artificial atoms, the atoms are usually small enough that they can be approximated as pointlike compared to the wavelength of the electromagnetic radiation with which they interact. However, superconducting qubits coupled to a meandering transmission line, or to surface acoustic waves, can realize "giant artificial atoms" that couple to a bosonic field at several points which are wavelengths apart. Here, we study setups with multiple giant atoms coupled at multiple points to a one-dimensional (1D) waveguide. We show that the giant atoms can be protected from decohering through the waveguide, but still have exchange interactions mediated by the waveguide. Unlike in decoherence-free subspaces, here the entire multiatom Hilbert space (2N states for N atoms) is protected from decoherence. This is not possible with "small" atoms. We further show how this decoherence-free interaction can be designed in setups with multiple atoms to implement, e.g., a 1D chain of atoms with nearest-neighbor couplings or a collection of atoms with all-to-all connectivity. This may have important applications in quantum simulation and quantum computing.

  6. Stability of the Gel Electrolyte PAN : EC : PC : LICF3SO3 towards Lithium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perera, Kumudu; Dissanayake, M.A.K.L.; Skaarup, Steen

    2006-01-01

    The stability of the gel electrolyte consisting of polyacrylonitrile (PAN), ethylene carbonate (EC), propylene carbonate (PC) and lithium trifluoromethanesulfonate (LiCF3SO3 – LiTF) towards metallic lithium was investigated using the time evolution of impedance plots. Symmetric cells of the form Li...... / PAN : EC : PC: LiTF / Li were assembled and impedance data were collected at room temperature for one week. A clear indication of growth of a resistive layer could be seen. The electrolyte resistance remained constant. The growth of the passivation layer became constant after first two days...

  7. Induced gravity with Higgs potential. Elementary interactions and quantum processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bezares Roder, Nils Manuel

    2010-07-01

    This work is intended to first serve as introduction in fundamental subjects of physics in order to be then able to review the mechanism of symmetry breakdown and its essential character in physics. It introduces the concept of scalar-tensor theories of gravity based on Bergmann-Wagoner models with a Higgs potential. The main physical context aimed is the problem of Dark Matter and Dark Energy. On the one hand, there is gravitation. Within this context, we have Dark Matter as an especially relevant concept. This work entails the following main contributions: - General features of Einstein's theory are introduced together with generalities of the different elementary interactions of physics from which the concepts of dark sectors and Higgs Mechanism are derived. - The concept of symmetry breaking and especially the Higgs Mechanism of mass generation are discussed in their relevance for the most different subjects of physics, especially in relation to the Standard Model of elementary particle physics with elementary Higgs fields. - Scalar-Tensor Theories are introduced in order to build in them the process of Higgs Mechanism. This is then fulfilled with a theory of induced gravity with a Higgs potential which seems renormalizable according to deWitt's power counting criterion, and with mass-generating Higgs fields which only couple gravitationally as well as with Higgs fields which act analogously to cosmon fields. - Further, the energy density of the gravitational field is derived for the specific model of induced gravity from an analogy to electrodynamics. It is shown that a nonvanishing value of pressure related to the scalar field is necessary in order to reproduce standard linear solar-relativistic dynamics. Within astrophysical considerations for flat rotation curves of galaxies, a possible dark-matter behavior is concluded within spherical symmetry. The scalar field and the dark-matter profile of total energy density are derived. An analogous

  8. Induced gravity with Higgs potential. Elementary interactions and quantum processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezares Roder, Nils Manuel

    2010-01-01

    This work is intended to first serve as introduction in fundamental subjects of physics in order to be then able to review the mechanism of symmetry breakdown and its essential character in physics. It introduces the concept of scalar-tensor theories of gravity based on Bergmann-Wagoner models with a Higgs potential. The main physical context aimed is the problem of Dark Matter and Dark Energy. On the one hand, there is gravitation. Within this context, we have Dark Matter as an especially relevant concept. This work entails the following main contributions: - General features of Einstein's theory are introduced together with generalities of the different elementary interactions of physics from which the concepts of dark sectors and Higgs Mechanism are derived. - The concept of symmetry breaking and especially the Higgs Mechanism of mass generation are discussed in their relevance for the most different subjects of physics, especially in relation to the Standard Model of elementary particle physics with elementary Higgs fields. - Scalar-Tensor Theories are introduced in order to build in them the process of Higgs Mechanism. This is then fulfilled with a theory of induced gravity with a Higgs potential which seems renormalizable according to deWitt's power counting criterion, and with mass-generating Higgs fields which only couple gravitationally as well as with Higgs fields which act analogously to cosmon fields. - Further, the energy density of the gravitational field is derived for the specific model of induced gravity from an analogy to electrodynamics. It is shown that a nonvanishing value of pressure related to the scalar field is necessary in order to reproduce standard linear solar-relativistic dynamics. Within astrophysical considerations for flat rotation curves of galaxies, a possible dark-matter behavior is concluded within spherical symmetry. The scalar field and the dark-matter profile of total energy density are derived. An analogous relation between

  9. Non-perturbative solution of a quantum mechanical oscillator interacting with a specific environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badralexe, E.; Gupta, R.K.; Scheid, W.

    1984-01-01

    A quantum mechanical model of an oscillator interacting linearly with an environment is treated by the method of perturbation series expansion. For a special class of environments and interactions, the series is summed up to all orders. An integral equation for the time dependence of the coordinate operator of the oscillator is obtained, which is solved analytically by the method of Laplace transformations. General conditions are stated for a dissipative behaviour of the special class of environments considered. An example, which is widely applicable, is discussed. (author)

  10. Half-metal phases in a quantum wire with modulated spin-orbit interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabra, D. C.; Rossini, G. L.; Ferraz, A.; Japaridze, G. I.; Johannesson, H.

    2017-11-01

    We propose a spin filter device based on the interplay of a modulated spin-orbit interaction and a uniform external magnetic field acting on a quantum wire. Half-metal phases, where electrons with only a selected spin polarization exhibit ballistic conductance, can be tuned by varying the magnetic field. These half-metal phases are proven to be robust against electron-electron repulsive interactions. Our results arise from a combination of explicit band diagonalization, bosonization techniques, and extensive density matrix renormalization group computations.

  11. Interaction of insulin with colloidal ZnS quantum dots functionalized by various surface capping agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinzadeh, Ghader; Maghari, Ali; Farniya, Seyed Morteza Famil; Keihan, Amir Homayoun; Moosavi-Movahedi, Ali A

    2017-08-01

    Interaction of quantum dots (QDs) and proteins strongly influenced by the surface characteristics of the QDs at the protein-QD interface. For a precise control of these surface-related interactions, it is necessary to improve our understanding in this field. In this regard, in the present work, the interaction between the insulin and differently functionalized ZnS quantum dots (QDs) were studied. The ZnS QDs were functionalized with various functional groups of hydroxyl (OH), carboxyl (COOH), amine (NH 2 ), and amino acid (COOH and NH 2 ). The effect of surface hydrophobicity was also studied by changing the alkyl-chain lengths of mercaptocarboxylic acid capping agents. The interaction between insulin and the ZnS QDs were investigated by fluorescence quenching, synchronous fluorescence, circular dichroism (CD), and thermal aggregation techniques. The results reveal that among the studied QDs, mercaptosuccinic acid functionalized QDs has the strongest interaction (∆G ° =-51.50kJ/mol at 310K) with insulin, mercaptoethanol functionalized QDs destabilize insulin by increasing the beta-sheet contents, and only cysteine functionalized QDs improves the insulin stability by increasing the alpha-helix contents of the protein, and. Our results also indicate that by increasing the alkyl-chain length of capping agents, due to an increase in hydrophobicity of the QDs surface, the beta-sheet contents of insulin increase which results in the enhancement of insulin instability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Quantum field inspired model of decision making: Asymptotic stabilization of belief state via interaction with surrounding mental environment

    OpenAIRE

    Bagarello, Fabio; Basieva, Irina; Khrennikov, Andrei

    2017-01-01

    This paper is devoted to justification of quantum-like models of the process of decision making based on the theory of open quantum systems, i.e. decision making is considered as decoherence. This process is modeled as interaction of a decision maker, Alice, with a mental (information) environment ${\\cal R}$ surrounding her. Such an interaction generates "dissipation of uncertainty" from Alice's belief-state $\\rho(t)$ into ${\\cal R}$ and asymptotic stabilization of $\\rho(t)$ to a steady belie...

  13. Spin relaxation rates in quantum dots: Role of the phonon modulated spin orbit interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcalde, A. M.; Romano, C. L.; Marques, G. E.

    2008-11-01

    We calculate the spin relaxation rates in InAs and GaAs parabolic quantum dots due to the interaction of spin carriers with acoustical phonons. We consider a spin relaxation mechanism completely intrinsic to the system, since it is based on the modulation of the spin-orbit interaction by the acoustic phonon potential, which is independent of any structural properties of the confinement potential. The electron-phonon deformation potential and the piezoelectric interaction are described by the Pavlov-Firsov spin-phonon Hamiltonian. Our results demonstrate that, for narrow-gap semiconductors, the deformation potential interaction becomes dominant. This behavior is not observed for wide or intermediate gap semiconductors, where the piezoelectric coupling, in general, governs the relaxation processes. We also demonstrate that the spin relaxation rates are particularly sensitive to values of the Landé g-factor, which depend strongly on the spatial shape of the confinement.

  14. Quantum statistics and squeezing for a microwave-driven interacting magnon system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghshenasfard, Zahra; Cottam, Michael G

    2017-02-01

    Theoretical studies are reported for the statistical properties of a microwave-driven interacting magnon system. Both the magnetic dipole-dipole and the exchange interactions are included and the theory is developed for the case of parallel pumping allowing for the inclusion of the nonlinear processes due to the four-magnon interactions. The method of second quantization is used to transform the total Hamiltonian from spin operators to boson creation and annihilation operators. By using the coherent magnon state representation we have studied the magnon occupation number and the statistical behavior of the system. In particular, it is shown that the nonlinearities introduced by the parallel pumping field and the four-magnon interactions lead to non-classical quantum statistical properties of the system, such as magnon squeezing. Also control of the collapse-and-revival phenomena for the time evolution of the average magnon number is demonstrated by varying the parallel pumping amplitude and the four-magnon coupling.

  15. Quantum theory for magnons and phonons interactions under time-varying magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerreiro, S.C.

    1971-01-01

    The magnon-fonon interaction in a ferromagnetic material submited to a time-varying magnetic field is studied by quantum methods. This problem has already been solved by semi-classical methods, and one of its results is that under certain conditions a state of lattice vibrations may be completely converted into spin oscillations. The main proporties of magnetoelastic waves in static magnetic fields and extend the quantum treatment for the time varying magnetic field case is revised. Field operators whose equations of motion are analogous to the classical ones are introduced. Their equations, which appear as a linear system of first order coupled equations, are converted into equations for complex functions by an expansion of the field operators in a time t as linear combinations of the same operators in a time t 0 prior to the variation of the magnetic field. The quantity g vector obtained from the classical solution is quantized and shown to be the linear momentum density of the magnetoelastic system, the quantum field spin density operator is deduced for the two interacting fields, and finally the results are used to study the magnetization and lattice displacement vector fields in the case of a system described by a coherent state of one of its normal modes

  16. Entanglement loss in molecular quantum-dot qubits due to interaction with the environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Enrique P.; Tóth, Géza; Lent, Craig S.

    2018-05-01

    We study quantum entanglement loss due to environmental interaction in a condensed matter system with a complex geometry relevant to recent proposals for computing with single electrons at the nanoscale. We consider a system consisting of two qubits, each realized by an electron in a double quantum dot, which are initially in an entangled Bell state. The qubits are widely separated and each interacts with its own environment. The environment for each is modeled by surrounding double quantum dots placed at random positions with random orientations. We calculate the unitary evolution of the joint system and environment. The global state remains pure throughout. We examine the time dependence of the expectation value of the bipartite Clauser–Horne–Shimony–Holt (CHSH) and Brukner–Paunković–Rudolph–Vedral (BPRV) Bell operators and explore the emergence of correlations consistent with local realism. Though the details of this transition depend on the specific environmental geometry, we show how the results can be mapped on to a universal behavior with appropriate scaling. We determine the relevant disentanglement times based on realistic physical parameters for molecular double-dots.

  17. Physics-based scoring of protein-ligand interactions: explicit polarizability, quantum mechanics and free energies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryce, Richard A

    2011-04-01

    The ability to accurately predict the interaction of a ligand with its receptor is a key limitation in computer-aided drug design approaches such as virtual screening and de novo design. In this article, we examine current strategies for a physics-based approach to scoring of protein-ligand affinity, as well as outlining recent developments in force fields and quantum chemical techniques. We also consider advances in the development and application of simulation-based free energy methods to study protein-ligand interactions. Fuelled by recent advances in computational algorithms and hardware, there is the opportunity for increased integration of physics-based scoring approaches at earlier stages in computationally guided drug discovery. Specifically, we envisage increased use of implicit solvent models and simulation-based scoring methods as tools for computing the affinities of large virtual ligand libraries. Approaches based on end point simulations and reference potentials allow the application of more advanced potential energy functions to prediction of protein-ligand binding affinities. Comprehensive evaluation of polarizable force fields and quantum mechanical (QM)/molecular mechanical and QM methods in scoring of protein-ligand interactions is required, particularly in their ability to address challenging targets such as metalloproteins and other proteins that make highly polar interactions. Finally, we anticipate increasingly quantitative free energy perturbation and thermodynamic integration methods that are practical for optimization of hits obtained from screened ligand libraries.

  18. 1/4-BPS M-theory bubbles with SO(3) x SO(4) symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyojoong; Kim, Kyung Kiu; Kim, Nakwoo

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we generalize the work of Lin, Lunin and Maldacena on the classification of 1/2-BPS M-theory solutions to a specific class of 1/4-BPS configurations. We are interested in the solutions of 11 dimensional supergravity with SO(3) x SO(4) symmetry, and it is shown that such solutions are constructed over a one-parameter familiy of 4 dimensional almost Calabi-Yau spaces. Through analytic continuations we can obtain M-theory solutions having AdS 2 x S 3 or AdS 3 x S 2 factors. It is shown that our result is equivalent to the AdS solutions which have been recently reported as the near-horizon geometry of M2 or M5-branes wrapped on 2 or 4-cycles in Calabi-Yau threefolds. We also discuss the hierarchy of M-theory bubbles with different number of supersymmetries

  19. Quantum Field Theory of Interacting Dark Matter/Dark Energy: Dark Monodromies

    CERN Document Server

    D'Amico, Guido; Kaloper, Nemanja

    2016-11-28

    We discuss how to formulate a quantum field theory of dark energy interacting with dark matter. We show that the proposals based on the assumption that dark matter is made up of heavy particles with masses which are very sensitive to the value of dark energy are strongly constrained. Quintessence-generated long range forces and radiative stability of the quintessence potential require that such dark matter and dark energy are completely decoupled. However, if dark energy and a fraction of dark matter are very light axions, they can have significant mixings which are radiatively stable and perfectly consistent with quantum field theory. Such models can naturally occur in multi-axion realizations of monodromies. The mixings yield interesting signatures which are observable and are within current cosmological limits but could be constrained further by future observations.

  20. Anisotropy and Suppression of Spin-Orbit Interaction in a GaAs Double Quantum Dot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, A.; Maisi, V. F.; Krähenmann, T.; Reichl, C.; Wegscheider, W.; Ensslin, K.; Ihn, T.

    2017-10-01

    The spin-flip tunneling rates are measured in GaAs-based double quantum dots by time-resolved charge detection. Such processes occur in the Pauli spin blockade regime with two electrons occupying the double quantum dot. Ways are presented for tuning the spin-flip tunneling rate, which on the one hand gives access to measuring the Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit coefficients. On the other hand, they make it possible to turn on and off the effect of spin-orbit interaction with a high on/off ratio. The tuning is accomplished by choosing the alignment of the tunneling direction with respect to the crystallographic axes, as well as by choosing the orientation of the external magnetic field with respect to the spin-orbit magnetic field. Spin lifetimes of 10 s are achieved at a tunneling rate close to 1 kHz.

  1. Quantum transfer energy in the framework of time-dependent dipole-dipole interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Shishtawy, Reda M.; Haddon, Robert C.; Al-Heniti, Saleh H.; Raffah, Bahaaudin M.; Berrada, K.; Abdel-Khalek, S.; Al-Hadeethi, Yas F.

    2018-03-01

    In this work, we examine the process of the quantum transfer of energy considering time-dependent dipole-dipole interaction in a dimer system characterized by two-level atom systems. By taking into account the effect of the acceleration and speed of the atoms in the dimer coupling, we demonstrate that the improvement of the probability for a single-excitation transfer energy extremely benefits from the incorporation of atomic motion effectiveness and the energy detuning. We explore the relevance between the population and entanglement during the time-evolution and show that this kind of nonlocal correlation may be generated during the process of the transfer of energy. Our work may provide optimal conditions to implement realistic experimental scenario in the transfer of the quantum energy.

  2. Quantum corrected Langevin dynamics for adsorbates on metal surfaces interacting with hot electrons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Thomas; Schiøtz, Jakob

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the importance of including quantized initial conditions in Langevin dynamics for adsorbates interacting with a thermal reservoir of electrons. For quadratic potentials the time evolution is exactly described by a classical Langevin equation and it is shown how to rigorously obtain...... quantum mechanical probabilities from the classical phase space distributions resulting from the dynamics. At short time scales, classical and quasiclassical initial conditions lead to wrong results and only correctly quantized initial conditions give a close agreement with an inherently quantum...... mechanical master equation approach. With CO on Cu(100) as an example, we demonstrate the effect for a system with ab initio frictional tensor and potential energy surfaces and show that quantizing the initial conditions can have a large impact on both the desorption probability and the distribution...

  3. Unbiased reduced density matrices and electronic properties from full configuration interaction quantum Monte Carlo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Overy, Catherine; Blunt, N. S.; Shepherd, James J.; Booth, George H.; Cleland, Deidre; Alavi, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Properties that are necessarily formulated within pure (symmetric) expectation values are difficult to calculate for projector quantum Monte Carlo approaches, but are critical in order to compute many of the important observable properties of electronic systems. Here, we investigate an approach for the sampling of unbiased reduced density matrices within the full configuration interaction quantum Monte Carlo dynamic, which requires only small computational overheads. This is achieved via an independent replica population of walkers in the dynamic, sampled alongside the original population. The resulting reduced density matrices are free from systematic error (beyond those present via constraints on the dynamic itself) and can be used to compute a variety of expectation values and properties, with rapid convergence to an exact limit. A quasi-variational energy estimate derived from these density matrices is proposed as an accurate alternative to the projected estimator for multiconfigurational wavefunctions, while its variational property could potentially lend itself to accurate extrapolation approaches in larger systems

  4. Parity Symmetry and Parity Breaking in the Quantum Rabi Model with Addition of Ising Interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Qiong; He Zhi; Yao Chun-Mei

    2015-01-01

    We explore the possibility to generate new parity symmetry in the quantum Rabi model after a bias is introduced. In contrast to a mathematical treatment in a previous publication [J. Phys. A 46 (2013) 265302], we consider a physically realistic method by involving an additional spin into the quantum Rabi model to couple with the original spin by an Ising interaction, and then the parity symmetry is broken as well as the scaling behavior of the ground state by introducing a bias. The rule can be found that the parity symmetry is broken by introducing a bias and then restored by adding new degrees of freedom. Experimental feasibility of realizing the models under discussion is investigated. (paper)

  5. Anisotropy and Suppression of Spin-Orbit Interaction in a GaAs Double Quantum Dot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, A; Maisi, V F; Krähenmann, T; Reichl, C; Wegscheider, W; Ensslin, K; Ihn, T

    2017-10-27

    The spin-flip tunneling rates are measured in GaAs-based double quantum dots by time-resolved charge detection. Such processes occur in the Pauli spin blockade regime with two electrons occupying the double quantum dot. Ways are presented for tuning the spin-flip tunneling rate, which on the one hand gives access to measuring the Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit coefficients. On the other hand, they make it possible to turn on and off the effect of spin-orbit interaction with a high on/off ratio. The tuning is accomplished by choosing the alignment of the tunneling direction with respect to the crystallographic axes, as well as by choosing the orientation of the external magnetic field with respect to the spin-orbit magnetic field. Spin lifetimes of 10 s are achieved at a tunneling rate close to 1 kHz.

  6. Influence of the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya exchange interaction on quantum phase interference of spins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernsdorfer, Wolfgang; Stamatatos, T. C.; Christou, G.

    2009-03-01

    Magnetization measurements of a Mn12mda wheel single-molecule magnet (SMM) with a spin ground state of S = 7 show resonant tunneling and quantum phase interference, which are established by studying the tunnel rates as a function of a transverse field applied along the hard magnetization axis. We show how the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya (DM) exchange interaction can affect the tunneling transitions and quantum phase interference of a SMM. Of particular novelty and importance is the phase-shift observed in the tunnel probabilities of some transitions as a function of the DM vector orientation. Such observations are of importance to potential applications of SMMs that hope to take advantage of the tunneling processes that such molecules can undergo. Ref.: W. Wernsdorfer, T.C. Stamatatos, G. Christou, Phys. Rev. Lett., 101, (28 Nov. 2008).

  7. Quantum mechanical analysis of nonlinear optical response of interacting graphene nanoflakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanying Deng

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a distant-neighbor quantum-mechanical (DNQM approach to study the linear and nonlinear optical properties of graphene nanoflakes (GNFs. In contrast to the widely used tight-binding description of the electronic states that considers only the nearest-neighbor coupling between the atoms, our approach is more accurate and general, as it captures the electron-core interactions between all atoms in the structure. Therefore, as we demonstrate, the DNQM approach enables the investigation of the optical coupling between two closely separated but chemically unbound GNFs. We also find that the optical response of GNFs depends crucially on their shape, size, and symmetry properties. Specifically, increasing the size of nanoflakes is found to shift their accommodated quantum plasmon oscillations to lower frequency. Importantly, we show that by embedding a cavity into GNFs, one can change their symmetry properties, tune their optical properties, or enable otherwise forbidden second-harmonic generation processes.

  8. Exact gate sequences for universal quantum computation using the XY interaction alone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kempe, J.; Whaley, K.B.

    2002-01-01

    In a previous publication [J. Kempe et al., Quantum Computation and Information (Rinton Press, Princeton, NJ, 2001), Vol. 1, special issue, p. 33] we showed that it is possible to implement universal quantum computation with the anisotropic XY-Heisenberg exchange acting as a single interaction. To achieve this we used encodings of the states of the computation into a larger Hilbert space. This proof is nonconstructive, however, and did not explicitly give the trade-offs in time that are required to implement encoded single-qubit operations and encoded two-qubit gates. Here we explicitly give the gate sequences needed to simulate these operations on encoded qubits and qutrits (three-level systems) and analyze the trade-offs involved. We also propose a possible layout for the qubits in a triangular arrangement

  9. Measurement of a heavy-hole hyperfine interaction in InGaAs quantum dots using resonance fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallahi, P; Yilmaz, S T; Imamoğlu, A

    2010-12-17

    We measure the strength and the sign of hyperfine interaction of a heavy hole with nuclear spins in single self-assembled quantum dots. Our experiments utilize the locking of a quantum dot resonance to an incident laser frequency to generate nuclear spin polarization. By monitoring the resulting Overhauser shift of optical transitions that are split either by electron or exciton Zeeman energy with respect to the locked transition using resonance fluorescence, we find that the ratio of the heavy-hole and electron hyperfine interactions is -0.09 ± 0.02 in three quantum dots. Since hyperfine interactions constitute the principal decoherence source for spin qubits, we expect our results to be important for efforts aimed at using heavy-hole spins in quantum information processing.

  10. Ab Initio Modeling Of Friction Reducing Agents Shows Quantum Mechanical Interactions Can Have Macroscopic Manifestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández Velázquez, J D; Barroso-Flores, J; Gama Goicochea, A

    2016-11-23

    Two of the most commonly encountered friction-reducing agents used in plastic sheet production are the amides known as erucamide and behenamide, which despite being almost identical chemically, lead to markedly different values of the friction coefficient. To understand the origin of this contrasting behavior, in this work we model brushes made of these two types of linear-chain molecules using quantum mechanical numerical simulations under the density functional theory at the B97D/6-31G(d,p) level of theory. Four chains of erucamide and behenamide were linked to a 2 × 10 zigzag graphene sheet and optimized both in vacuum and in continuous solvent using the SMD implicit solvation model. We find that erucamide chains tend to remain closer together through π-π stacking interactions arising from the double bonds located at C13-C14, a feature behenamide lacks, and thus a more spread configuration is obtained with the latter. It is argued that this arrangement of the erucamide chains is responsible for the lower friction coefficient of erucamide brushes, compared with behenamide brushes, which is a macroscopic consequence of cooperative quantum mechanical interactions. While only quantum level interactions are modeled here, we show that behenamide chains are more spread out in the brush than erucamide chains as a consequence of those interactions. The spread-out configuration allows more solvent particles to penetrate the brush, leading in turn to more friction, in agreement with macroscopic measurements and mesoscale simulations of the friction coefficient reported in the literature.

  11. Investigating SO3 Formation from the Combustion of Heavy Fuel Oil in a Four-Stroke Medium Speed Test Engine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cordtz, Rasmus Lage; Schramm, Jesper; Rabe, Rom

    2013-01-01

    conversion and indirect detection via light absorption in a photometer. Present results show that SO3 formation is favored by elevated pressure histories, premixed combustion, and reduced speeds. The fraction of fuel sulfur converted to SO3 is measured to be on the order of 0.5%−2.4%, corresponding to 4......The validation of detailed models, in terms of SO3 formation in large marine engines operating on sulfur-containing heavy fuel oils (HFOs), relies on experimental work. The requisite is addressed in the present work, where SO3 is measured in the exhaust gas of an 80 kW medium-speed single......−14 ppmv. SO3 and NOx are not comparable, according to thermodynamic considerations, yet both species involve the radical pool and are studied in parallel. Resulting emissions of SO3 and NOx in the exhaust gas follow a comparable trend throughout the experiments....

  12. Exploring Interacting Quantum Many-Body Systems by Experimentally Creating Continuous Matrix Product States in Superconducting Circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Eichler

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Improving the understanding of strongly correlated quantum many-body systems such as gases of interacting atoms or electrons is one of the most important challenges in modern condensed matter physics, materials research, and chemistry. Enormous progress has been made in the past decades in developing both classical and quantum approaches to calculate, simulate, and experimentally probe the properties of such systems. In this work, we use a combination of classical and quantum methods to experimentally explore the properties of an interacting quantum gas by creating experimental realizations of continuous matrix product states—a class of states that has proven extremely powerful as a variational ansatz for numerical simulations. By systematically preparing and probing these states using a circuit quantum electrodynamics system, we experimentally determine a good approximation to the ground-state wave function of the Lieb-Liniger Hamiltonian, which describes an interacting Bose gas in one dimension. Since the simulated Hamiltonian is encoded in the measurement observable rather than the controlled quantum system, this approach has the potential to apply to a variety of models including those involving multicomponent interacting fields. Our findings also hint at the possibility of experimentally exploring general properties of matrix product states and entanglement theory. The scheme presented here is applicable to a broad range of systems exploiting strong and tunable light-matter interactions.

  13. Antenna–load interactions at optical frequencies: impedance matching to quantum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olmon, R L; Raschke, M B

    2012-01-01

    The goal of antenna design at optical frequencies is to deliver optical electromagnetic energy to loads in the form of, e.g., atoms, molecules or nanostructures, or to enhance the radiative emission from such structures, or both. A true optical antenna would, on a qualitatively new level, control the light–matter interaction on the nanoscale for controlled optical signal transduction, radiative decay engineering, quantum coherent control, and super-resolution microscopy, and provide unprecedented sensitivity in spectroscopy. Resonant metallic structures have successfully been designed to approach these goals. They are called optical antennas in analogy to radiofrequency (RF) antennas due to their capability to collect and control electromagnetic fields at optical frequencies. However, in contrast to the RF, where exact design rules for antennas, waveguides, and antenna–load matching in terms of their impedances are well established, substantial physical differences limit the simple extension of the RF concepts into the optical regime. Key distinctions include, for one, intrinsic material resonances including quantum state excitations (metals, metal oxides, semiconductor homo- and heterostructures) and extrinsic resonances (surface plasmon/phonon polaritons) at optical frequencies. Second, in the absence of discrete inductors, capacitors, and resistors, new design strategies must be developed to impedance match the antenna to the load, ultimately in the form of a vibrational, electronic, or spin excitation on the quantum level. Third, there is as yet a lack of standard performance metrics for characterizing, comparing and quantifying optical antenna performance. Therefore, optical antenna development is currently challenged at all the levels of design, fabrication, and characterization. Here we generalize the ideal antenna–load interaction at optical frequencies, characterized by three main steps: (i) far-field reception of a propagating mode exciting an

  14. Antenna-load interactions at optical frequencies: impedance matching to quantum systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmon, R L; Raschke, M B

    2012-11-09

    The goal of antenna design at optical frequencies is to deliver optical electromagnetic energy to loads in the form of, e.g., atoms, molecules or nanostructures, or to enhance the radiative emission from such structures, or both. A true optical antenna would, on a qualitatively new level, control the light-matter interaction on the nanoscale for controlled optical signal transduction, radiative decay engineering, quantum coherent control, and super-resolution microscopy, and provide unprecedented sensitivity in spectroscopy. Resonant metallic structures have successfully been designed to approach these goals. They are called optical antennas in analogy to radiofrequency (RF) antennas due to their capability to collect and control electromagnetic fields at optical frequencies. However, in contrast to the RF, where exact design rules for antennas, waveguides, and antenna-load matching in terms of their impedances are well established, substantial physical differences limit the simple extension of the RF concepts into the optical regime. Key distinctions include, for one, intrinsic material resonances including quantum state excitations (metals, metal oxides, semiconductor homo- and heterostructures) and extrinsic resonances (surface plasmon/phonon polaritons) at optical frequencies. Second, in the absence of discrete inductors, capacitors, and resistors, new design strategies must be developed to impedance match the antenna to the load, ultimately in the form of a vibrational, electronic, or spin excitation on the quantum level. Third, there is as yet a lack of standard performance metrics for characterizing, comparing and quantifying optical antenna performance. Therefore, optical antenna development is currently challenged at all the levels of design, fabrication, and characterization. Here we generalize the ideal antenna-load interaction at optical frequencies, characterized by three main steps: (i) far-field reception of a propagating mode exciting an antenna

  15. Quantum information aspects on bulk and nano interacting Fermi system: A spin-space density matrix approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afzali, R., E-mail: afzali@kntu.ac.ir [Department of Physics, K. N. Toosi University of Technology, Tehran, 15418 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ebrahimian, N., E-mail: n.ebrahimian@shahed.ac.ir [Department of Physics, Faculty of Basic Sciences, Shahed University, Tehran, 18155-159 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Eghbalifar, B., E-mail: b.eghbali2011@yahoo.com [Department of Agricultural Management, Marvdasht Branch, Azad University, Marvdasht (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-10-07

    Highlights: • In contrast to a s-wave superconductor, the quantum correlation of the d-wave superconductor is sensitive to the change of the gap magnitude. • Quantum discord of the d-wave superconductor oscillates. • Quantum discord becomes zero at a characteristic length of the d-wave superconductor. • Quantum correlation strongly depends on the length of grain. Length of the superconductor lower, the quantum correlation length higher. • Quantum tripartite entanglement for a nano-scale d-wave superconductor is better than for a bulk d-wave superconductor. - Abstract: By approximating the energy gap, entering nano-size effect via gap fluctuation and calculating the Green's functions and the space-spin density matrix, the dependence of quantum correlation (entanglement, discord and tripartite entanglement) on the relative distance of two electron spins forming Cooper pairs, the energy gap and the length of bulk and nano interacting Fermi system (a nodal d-wave superconductor) is determined. In contrast to a s-wave superconductor, quantum correlation of the system is sensitive to the change of the gap magnitude and strongly depends on the length of the grain. Also, quantum discord oscillates. Furthermore, the entanglement length and the correlation length are investigated. Discord becomes zero at a characteristic length of the d-wave superconductor.

  16. Cavity-photon contribution to the effective interaction of electrons in parallel quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gudmundsson, Vidar [Science Institute, University of Iceland, Reykjavik (Iceland); Sitek, Anna [Science Institute, University of Iceland, Reykjavik (Iceland); Department of Theoretical Physics, Faculty of Fundamental Problems of Technology, Wroclaw University of Technology (Poland); Abdullah, Nzar Rauf [Science Institute, University of Iceland, Reykjavik (Iceland); Physics Department, Faculty of Science and Science Education, School of Science, University of Sulaimani, Kurdistan Region (Iraq); Tang, Chi-Shung [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National United University, Miaoli (China); Manolescu, Andrei [School of Science and Engineering, Reykjavik University (Iceland)

    2016-05-15

    A single cavity photon mode is expected to modify the Coulomb interaction of an electron system in the cavity. Here we investigate this phenomena in a parallel double quantum dot system. We explore properties of the closed system and the system after it has been opened up for electron transport. We show how results for both cases support the idea that the effective electron-electron interaction becomes more repulsive in the presence of a cavity photon field. This can be understood in terms of the cavity photons dressing the polarization terms in the effective mutual electron interaction leading to nontrivial delocalization or polarization of the charge in the double parallel dot potential. In addition, we find that the effective repulsion of the electrons can be reduced by quadrupolar collective oscillations excited by an external classical dipole electric field. (copyright 2015 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  17. Cavity-photon contribution to the effective interaction of electrons in parallel quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudmundsson, Vidar; Sitek, Anna; Abdullah, Nzar Rauf; Tang, Chi-Shung; Manolescu, Andrei

    2016-05-01

    A single cavity photon mode is expected to modify the Coulomb interaction of an electron system in the cavity. Here we investigate this phenomena in a parallel double quantum dot system. We explore properties of the closed system and the system after it has been opened up for electron transport. We show how results for both cases support the idea that the effective electron-electron interaction becomes more repulsive in the presence of a cavity photon field. This can be understood in terms of the cavity photons dressing the polarization terms in the effective mutual electron interaction leading to nontrivial delocalization or polarization of the charge in the double parallel dot potential. In addition, we find that the effective repulsion of the electrons can be reduced by quadrupolar collective oscillations excited by an external classical dipole electric field.

  18. Floquet prethermalization and regimes of heating in a periodically driven, interacting quantum system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidinger, Simon; Knap, Michael

    We study the regimes of heating in the periodically driven O (N) -model, which represents a generic model for interacting quantum many-body systems. By computing the absorbed energy with a non-equilibrium Keldysh Green's function approach, we establish three dynamical regimes: at short times a single-particle dominated regime, at intermediate times a stable Floquet prethermal regime in which the system ceases to absorb, and at parametrically late times a thermalizing regime. Our simulations suggest that in the thermalizing regime the absorbed energy grows algebraically in time with an the exponent that approaches the universal value of 1 / 2 , and is thus significantly slower than linear Joule heating. Our results demonstrate the parametric stability of prethermal states in a generic many-body system driven at frequencies that are comparable to its microscopic scales. This paves the way for realizing exotic quantum phases, such as time crystals or interacting topological phases, in the prethermal regime of interacting Floquet systems. We acknowledge support from the Technical University of Munich - Institute for Advanced Study, funded by the German Excellence Initiative and the European Union FP7 under Grant agreement 291763, and from the DFG Grant No. KN 1254/1-1.

  19. Numerical studies of the fractional quantum Hall effect in systems with tunable interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papić, Z; Bhatt, R N; Abanin, D A; Barias, Y

    2012-01-01

    The discovery of the fractional quantum Hall effect in GaAs-based semiconductor devices has lead to new advances in condensed matter physics, in particular the possibility for exotic, topological phases of matter that possess fractional, and even non-Abelian, statistics of quasiparticles. One of the main limitations of the experimental systems based on GaAs has been the lack of tunability of the effective interactions between two-dimensional electrons, which made it difficult to stabilize some of the more fragile states, or induce phase transitions in a controlled manner. Here we review the recent studies that have explored the effects of tunability of the interactions offered by alternative two-dimensional systems, characterized by non-trivial Berry phases and including graphene, bilayer graphene and topological insulators. The tunability in these systems is achieved via external fields that change the mass gap, or by screening via dielectric plate in the vicinity of the device. Our study points to a number of different ways to manipulate the effective interactions, and engineer phase transitions between quantum Hall liquids and compressible states in a controlled manner.

  20. Quantum fields interacting with colliding plane waves: the stress-energy tensor and backreaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorca, M.; Verdaguer, E.

    1997-01-01

    Following a previous work on the quantization of a massless scalar field in a space-time representing the head on collision of two plane waves which focus into a Killing-Cauchy horizon, we compute the renormalized expectation value of the stress-energy tensor of the quantum field near that horizon in the physical state which corresponds to the Minkowski vacuum before the collision of the waves. It is found that for minimally coupled and conformally coupled scalar fields the respective stress-energy tensors are unbounded in the horizon. The specific form of the divergences suggests that when the semiclassical Einstein equations describing the backreaction of the quantum fields on the space-time geometry are taken into account, the horizon will acquire a curvature singularity. Thus the Killing-Cauchy horizon which is known to be unstable under ''generic'' classical perturbations is also unstable by vacuum polarization. The calculation is done following the point-splitting regularization technique. The dynamical colliding wave space-time has four quite distinct space-time regions, namely, one flat region, two single plane wave regions, and one interaction region. Exact mode solutions of the quantum field equation cannot be found exactly, but the blueshift suffered by the initial modes in the plane wave and interaction regions makes the use of the WKB expansion a suitable method of solution. To ensure the correct regularization of the stress-energy tensor, the initial flat modes propagated into the interaction region must be given to a rather high adiabatic order of approximation. (orig.)

  1. Compensation effects in molecular interactions and the quantum chemical le Chatelier principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezey, Paul G

    2015-05-28

    Components of molecular interactions and various changes in the components of total energy changes during molecular processes typically exhibit some degrees of compensation. This may be as prominent as the over 90% compensation of the electronic energy and nuclear repulsion energy components of the total energy in some conformational changes. Some of these compensations are enhanced by solvent effects. For various arrangements of ions in a solvent, however, not only compensation but also a formal, mutual enhancement between the electronic energy and nuclear repulsion energy components of the total energy may also occur, when the tools of nuclear charge variation are applied to establish quantum chemically rigorous energy inequalities.

  2. Exotic Quantum Phases and Phase Transitions of Strongly Interacting Electrons in Low-Dimensional Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishmash, Ryan V.

    Experiments on strongly correlated quasi-two-dimensional electronic materials---for example, the high-temperature cuprate superconductors and the putative quantum spin liquids kappa-(BEDT-TTF)2Cu2(CN)3 and EtMe3Sb[Pd(dmit)2]2---routinely reveal highly mysterious quantum behavior which cannot be explained in terms of weakly interacting degrees of freedom. Theoretical progress thus requires the introduction of completely new concepts and machinery beyond the traditional framework of the band theory of solids and its interacting counterpart, Landau's Fermi liquid theory. In full two dimensions, controlled and reliable analytical approaches to such problems are severely lacking, as are numerical simulations of even the simplest of model Hamiltonians due to the infamous fermionic sign problem. Here, we attempt to circumvent some of these difficulties by studying analogous problems in quasi-one dimension. In this lower dimensional setting, theoretical and numerical tractability are on much stronger footing due to the methods of bosonization and the density matrix renormalization group, respectively. Using these techniques, we attack two problems: (1) the Mott transition between a Fermi liquid metal and a quantum spin liquid as potentially directly relevant to the organic compounds kappa-(BEDT-TTF)2Cu 2(CN)3 and EtMe3Sb[Pd(dmit)2] 2 and (2) non-Fermi liquid metals as strongly motivated by the strange metal phase observed in the cuprates. In both cases, we are able to realize highly exotic quantum phases as ground states of reasonable microscopic models. This lends strong credence to respective underlying slave-particle descriptions of the low-energy physics, which are inherently strongly interacting and also unconventional in comparison to weakly interacting alternatives. Finally, working in two dimensions directly, we propose a new slave-particle theory which explains in a universal way many of the intriguing experimental results of the triangular lattice organic spin

  3. Renormalization of effective mass in self-assembled quantum dots due to electron-electron interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babinski, A; Korkusinski, M; Hawrylak, P; Wasilewski, Z R; Potemski, M

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic-field dispersion of the multiexcitons related to the p shell of a single quantum dot (QD) is analysed in this work. The reduced cyclotron effective mass of carriers is determined from the energy splitting between the p + - and p − - related multiexcitonic emission lines. The reduced mass in the occupied QD was found to be larger than the mass related to the QD's single particle structure. The apparent increase of the reduced mass with increasing excitonic occupation of the dot is related to the mass renoralization due to electron-electron interactions within a multiexcitonic droplet

  4. Understanding and improving the efficiency of full configuration interaction quantum Monte Carlo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigor, W A; Spencer, J S; Bearpark, M J; Thom, A J W

    2016-03-07

    Within full configuration interaction quantum Monte Carlo, we investigate how the statistical error behaves as a function of the parameters which control the stochastic sampling. We define the inefficiency as a measure of the statistical error per particle sampling the space and per time step and show there is a sizeable parameter regime where this is minimised. We find that this inefficiency increases sublinearly with Hilbert space size and can be reduced by localising the canonical Hartree-Fock molecular orbitals, suggesting that the choice of basis impacts the method beyond that of the sign problem.

  5. Understanding and improving the efficiency of full configuration interaction quantum Monte Carlo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigor, W. A.; Bearpark, M. J. [Department of Chemistry, Imperial College London, Exhibition Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Spencer, J. S. [Department of Physics, Imperial College London, Exhibition Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Department of Materials, Imperial College London, Exhibition Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Thom, A. J. W. [Department of Chemistry, Imperial College London, Exhibition Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); University Chemical Laboratory, Lensfield Road, Cambridge CB2 1EW (United Kingdom)

    2016-03-07

    Within full configuration interaction quantum Monte Carlo, we investigate how the statistical error behaves as a function of the parameters which control the stochastic sampling. We define the inefficiency as a measure of the statistical error per particle sampling the space and per time step and show there is a sizeable parameter regime where this is minimised. We find that this inefficiency increases sublinearly with Hilbert space size and can be reduced by localising the canonical Hartree–Fock molecular orbitals, suggesting that the choice of basis impacts the method beyond that of the sign problem.

  6. Rotation gate for a three-level superconducting quantum interference device qubit with resonant interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, C.-P.; Han Siyuan

    2006-01-01

    We show a way to realize an arbitrary rotation gate in a three-level superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) qubit using resonant interaction. In this approach, the two logical states of the qubit are represented by the two lowest levels of the SQUID and a higher-energy intermediate level is utilized for the gate manipulation. By considering spontaneous decay from the intermediate level during the gate operation, we present a formula for calculating average fidelity over all possible initial states. Finally, based on realistic system parameters, we show that an arbitrary rotation gate can be achieved with a high fidelity in a SQUID

  7. Measurement of gamma quantum interaction point in plastic scintillator with WLS strips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smyrski, J., E-mail: smyrski@if.uj.edu.pl [Faculty of Physics, Astronomy and Applied Computer Science, Jagiellonian University, S. Łojasiewicza 11, 30-348 Cracow (Poland); Alfs, D.; Bednarski, T.; Białas, P.; Czerwiński, E.; Dulski, K.; Gajos, A.; Głowacz, B.; Gupta-Sharma, N. [Faculty of Physics, Astronomy and Applied Computer Science, Jagiellonian University, S. Łojasiewicza 11, 30-348 Cracow (Poland); Gorgol, M.; Jasińska, B. [Department of Nuclear Methods, Institute of Physics, Maria Curie-Sklodowska University, 20-031 Lublin (Poland); Kajetanowicz, M.; Kamińska, D.; Korcyl, G. [Faculty of Physics, Astronomy and Applied Computer Science, Jagiellonian University, S. Łojasiewicza 11, 30-348 Cracow (Poland); Kowalski, P. [Świerk Computing Centre, National Centre for Nuclear Research, 05-400 Otwock-Świerk (Poland); Krzemień, W. [High Energy Department, National Centre for Nuclear Research, 05-400 Otwock-Świerk (Poland); Krawczyk, N.; Kubicz, E.; Mohammed, M.; Niedźwiecki, Sz. [Faculty of Physics, Astronomy and Applied Computer Science, Jagiellonian University, S. Łojasiewicza 11, 30-348 Cracow (Poland); and others

    2017-04-11

    The feasibility of measuring the aśxial coordinate of a gamma quantum interaction point in a plastic scintillator bar via the detection of scintillation photons escaping from the scintillator with an array of wavelength-shifting (WLS) strips is demonstrated. Using a test set-up comprising a BC-420 scintillator bar and an array of sixteen BC-482A WLS strips we achieved a spatial resolution of 5 mm (σ) for annihilation photons from a {sup 22}Na isotope. The studied method can be used to improve the spatial resolution of a plastic-scintillator-based PET scanner which is being developed by the J-PET collaboration.

  8. Exploration of quantum phases transition in the XXZ model with Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction using trance distance discord

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ren-jie; Xu, Shuai; Shi, Jia-dong; Ma, Wen-chao; Ye, Liu

    2015-11-01

    In the paper, we researched the quantum phase transition (QPT) in the anisotropic spin XXZ model by exploiting the quantum renormalization group (QRG) method. The innovation point is that we adopt a new approach called trace distance discord to indicate the quantum correlation of the system. QPT after several iterations of renormalization in current system has been observed. Consequently, it opened the possibility of investigation of QPR in the geometric discord territory. While the anisotropy suppresses the correlation due to favoring of the alignment of spins, the DM interaction restores the spoiled correlation via creation of the quantum fluctuations. We also apply quantum renormalization group method to probe the thermodynamic limit of the model and emerging of nonanalytic behavior of the correlation.

  9. Recent Progress in Treating Protein–Ligand Interactions with Quantum-Mechanical Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nusret Duygu Yilmazer

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We review the first successes and failures of a “new wave” of quantum chemistry-based approaches to the treatment of protein/ligand interactions. These approaches share the use of “enhanced”, dispersion (D, and/or hydrogen-bond (H corrected density functional theory (DFT or semi-empirical quantum mechanical (SQM methods, in combination with ensemble weighting techniques of some form to capture entropic effects. Benchmark and model system calculations in comparison to high-level theoretical as well as experimental references have shown that both DFT-D (dispersion-corrected density functional theory and SQM-DH (dispersion and hydrogen bond-corrected semi-empirical quantum mechanical perform much more accurately than older DFT and SQM approaches and also standard docking methods. In addition, DFT-D might soon become and SQM-DH already is fast enough to compute a large number of binding modes of comparably large protein/ligand complexes, thus allowing for a more accurate assessment of entropic effects.

  10. Recent Progress in Treating Protein-Ligand Interactions with Quantum-Mechanical Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmazer, Nusret Duygu; Korth, Martin

    2016-05-16

    We review the first successes and failures of a "new wave" of quantum chemistry-based approaches to the treatment of protein/ligand interactions. These approaches share the use of "enhanced", dispersion (D), and/or hydrogen-bond (H) corrected density functional theory (DFT) or semi-empirical quantum mechanical (SQM) methods, in combination with ensemble weighting techniques of some form to capture entropic effects. Benchmark and model system calculations in comparison to high-level theoretical as well as experimental references have shown that both DFT-D (dispersion-corrected density functional theory) and SQM-DH (dispersion and hydrogen bond-corrected semi-empirical quantum mechanical) perform much more accurately than older DFT and SQM approaches and also standard docking methods. In addition, DFT-D might soon become and SQM-DH already is fast enough to compute a large number of binding modes of comparably large protein/ligand complexes, thus allowing for a more accurate assessment of entropic effects.

  11. Quantum matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buechler, Hans Peter; Calcarco, Tommaso; Dressel, Martin

    2008-01-01

    The following topics are dealt with: Artificial atoms and molecules, tailored from solids, fractional flux quanta, molecular magnets, controlled interaction in quantum gases, the theory of quantum correlations in mott matter, cold gases, and mesoscopic systems, Bose-Einstein condensates on the chip, on the route to the quantum computer, a quantum computer in diamond. (HSI)

  12. Magnetization of a parabolic quantum dot in the presence of Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, D. Sanjeev, E-mail: sanjeevchs@gmail.com; Chatterjee, Ashok [School of Physics, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad 500046 (India); Mukhopadhyay, Soma [Department of Physics, DVR College of Engineering and Technology, Kashipur, Sangareddy Mandal, Hyderabad 502 285 (India)

    2015-05-15

    The magnetization of a parabolic quantum dot has been studied as a function of temperature and external magnetic field in the presence of Rashba, Dresselhaus Spin Orbit Interactions (SOI) and the electron-electron interactions. By the introduction of a simple and physically reasonable model potential, the problem has been solved exactly up to second order in both the SOI terms. Both the SOI found to be showing considerable effects on the magnetization of the quantum dot. The effect of electron-electron interaction on the magnetization also has been studied.

  13. Magnetization of a parabolic quantum dot in the presence of Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, D. Sanjeev; Chatterjee, Ashok; Mukhopadhyay, Soma

    2015-01-01

    The magnetization of a parabolic quantum dot has been studied as a function of temperature and external magnetic field in the presence of Rashba, Dresselhaus Spin Orbit Interactions (SOI) and the electron-electron interactions. By the introduction of a simple and physically reasonable model potential, the problem has been solved exactly up to second order in both the SOI terms. Both the SOI found to be showing considerable effects on the magnetization of the quantum dot. The effect of electron-electron interaction on the magnetization also has been studied

  14. Clarification of the mechanism of sulfur trioxide electrolysis. Evaluation of SO3 and O atom adsorbed on Pt surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Chikashi; Nakagiri, Toshio

    2008-01-01

    We developed a hybrid thermo-chemical process, which included a SO 3 electrolysis process utilizing the heat supplied by a fast breeder reactor (FBR), as a new hydrogen production process. To clarify the mechanism of SO 3 electrolysis, we evaluated the electronic states of SO 3 and O atom adsorbed on the Pt (111) surface using first-principles calculations with a slab model. Moreover, we evaluated the chemical bonding states of SO 3 and adsorbed O using molecular orbital calculation on the basis of the calculations using a slab model. We found that there were two stable adsorbed SO 3 configurations on the Pt surface. From the molecular orbital calculation, it was found that the S-O bond became weak by SO 3 absorption, and it was conjectured that SO 3 dissociation proceeded through the intermediate state of adsorbed SO 2 and adsorbed O on the Pt surface. Moreover, we derived the O coverage considering the adsorbed SO 2 and evaluated the influence of SO 3 adsorption energy on the O coverage. (author)

  15. Quantum beats from the coherent interaction of hole states with surface state in near-surface quantum well

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Salahuddin; Jayabalan, J., E-mail: jjaya@rrcat.gov.in; Chari, Rama; Pal, Suparna [Laser Physics Applications Section, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452013 (India); Porwal, Sanjay; Sharma, Tarun Kumar; Oak, S. M. [Semiconductor Physics and Devices Lab., Solid State Laser Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452013 (India)

    2014-08-18

    We report tunneling assisted beating of carriers in a near-surface single GaAsP/AlGaAs quantum well using transient reflectivity measurement. The observed damped oscillating signal has a period of 120 ± 6 fs which corresponds to the energy difference between lh1 and hh2 hole states in the quantum well. Comparing the transient reflectivity signal at different photon energies and with a buried quantum well sample, we show that the beating is caused by the coherent coupling between surface state and the hole states (lh1 and hh2) in the near-surface quantum well. The dependence of decay of coherence of these tunneling carriers on the excitation fluence is also reported. This observation on the coherent tunneling of carrier is important for future quantum device applications.

  16. Quantum beats from the coherent interaction of hole states with surface state in near-surface quantum well

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Salahuddin; Jayabalan, J.; Chari, Rama; Pal, Suparna; Porwal, Sanjay; Sharma, Tarun Kumar; Oak, S. M.

    2014-01-01

    We report tunneling assisted beating of carriers in a near-surface single GaAsP/AlGaAs quantum well using transient reflectivity measurement. The observed damped oscillating signal has a period of 120 ± 6 fs which corresponds to the energy difference between lh1 and hh2 hole states in the quantum well. Comparing the transient reflectivity signal at different photon energies and with a buried quantum well sample, we show that the beating is caused by the coherent coupling between surface state and the hole states (lh1 and hh2) in the near-surface quantum well. The dependence of decay of coherence of these tunneling carriers on the excitation fluence is also reported. This observation on the coherent tunneling of carrier is important for future quantum device applications.

  17. On the Effect of Dipole-Dipole Interactions on the Quantum Statistics of Surface Plasmons in Multiparticle Spaser Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shesterikov, A. V.; Gubin, M. Yu.; Karpov, S. N.; Prokhorov, A. V.

    2018-04-01

    The problem of controlling the quantum dynamics of localized plasmons has been considered in the model of a four-particle spaser composed of metallic nanoparticles and semiconductor quantum dots. Conditions for the observation of stable steady-state regimes of the formation of surface plasmons in this model have been determined in the mean-field approximation. It has been shown that the presence of strong dipole-dipole interactions between metallic nanoparticles of the spaser system leads to a considerable change in the quantum statistics of plasmons generated on the nanoparticles.

  18. CRITIC2: A program for real-space analysis of quantum chemical interactions in solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero-de-la-Roza, A.; Johnson, Erin R.; Luaña, Víctor

    2014-03-01

    We present CRITIC2, a program for the analysis of quantum-mechanical atomic and molecular interactions in periodic solids. This code, a greatly improved version of the previous CRITIC program (Otero-de-la Roza et al., 2009), can: (i) find critical points of the electron density and related scalar fields such as the electron localization function (ELF), Laplacian, … (ii) integrate atomic properties in the framework of Bader’s Atoms-in-Molecules theory (QTAIM), (iii) visualize non-covalent interactions in crystals using the non-covalent interactions (NCI) index, (iv) generate relevant graphical representations including lines, planes, gradient paths, contour plots, atomic basins, … and (v) perform transformations between file formats describing scalar fields and crystal structures. CRITIC2 can interface with the output produced by a variety of electronic structure programs including WIEN2k, elk, PI, abinit, Quantum ESPRESSO, VASP, Gaussian, and, in general, any other code capable of writing the scalar field under study to a three-dimensional grid. CRITIC2 is parallelized, completely documented (including illustrative test cases) and publicly available under the GNU General Public License. Catalogue identifier: AECB_v2_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AECB_v2_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen’s University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: yes No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 11686949 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 337020731 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Fortran 77 and 90. Computer: Workstations. Operating system: Unix, GNU/Linux. Has the code been vectorized or parallelized?: Shared-memory parallelization can be used for most tasks. Classification: 7.3. Catalogue identifier of previous version: AECB_v1_0 Journal reference of previous version: Comput. Phys. Comm. 180 (2009) 157 Nature of problem: Analysis of quantum

  19. Core/Shell Conjugated Polymer/Quantum Dot Composite Nanofibers through Orthogonal Non-Covalent Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brad W. Watson

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Nanostructuring organic polymers and organic/inorganic hybrid materials and controlling blend morphologies at the molecular level are the prerequisites for modern electronic devices including biological sensors, light emitting diodes, memory devices and solar cells. To achieve all-around high performance, multiple organic and inorganic entities, each designed for specific functions, are commonly incorporated into a single device. Accurate arrangement of these components is a crucial goal in order to achieve the overall synergistic effects. We describe here a facile methodology of nanostructuring conjugated polymers and inorganic quantum dots into well-ordered core/shell composite nanofibers through cooperation of several orthogonal non-covalent interactions including conjugated polymer crystallization, block copolymer self-assembly and coordination interactions. Our methods provide precise control on the spatial arrangements among the various building blocks that are otherwise incompatible with one another, and should find applications in modern organic electronic devices such as solar cells.

  20. Operator-normalized quantum arrival times in the presence of interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegerfeldt, G.C.; Seidel, D.; Muga, J.G.; Navarro, B.

    2004-01-01

    We model ideal arrival-time measurements for free quantum particles and for particles subject to an external interaction by means of a narrow and weak absorbing potential. This approach is related to the operational approach of measuring the first photon emitted from a two-level atom illuminated by a laser. By operator normalizing the resulting time-of-arrival distribution, a distribution is obtained which for freely moving particles not only recovers the axiomatically derived distribution of Kijowski for states with purely positive momenta but is also applicable to general momentum components. For particles interacting with a square barrier the mean arrival time and corresponding 'tunneling time' obtained at the transmission side of the barrier become independent of the barrier width (Hartman effect) for arbitrarily wide barriers, i.e., without the transition to the ultraopaque, classical-like regime dominated by wave packet components above the barrier

  1. Theory of substrate, Zeeman, and electron-phonon interaction effects on the quantum capacitance in graphene

    KAUST Repository

    Tahir, M.; Sabeeh, K.; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo; Shaukat, A.

    2013-01-01

    Since the discovery of graphene, a lot of interest has been attracted by the zeroth Landau level, which has no analog in the conventional two dimensional electron gas. Recently, lifting of the spin and valley degeneracies has been confirmed experimentally by capacitance measurements, while in transport experiments, this is difficult due to the scattering in the device. In this context, we model interaction effects on the quantum capacitance of graphene in the presence of a perpendicular magnetic field, finding good agreement with experiments. We demonstrate that the valley degeneracy is lifted by the substrate and by Kekule distortion, whereas the spin degeneracy is lifted by Zeeman interaction. The two cases can be distinguished by capacitance measurements.

  2. Exact spinor-scalar bound states in a quantum field theory with scalar interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shpytko, Volodymyr; Darewych, Jurij

    2001-01-01

    We study two-particle systems in a model quantum field theory in which scalar particles and spinor particles interact via a mediating scalar field. The Lagrangian of the model is reformulated by using covariant Green's functions to solve for the mediating field in terms of the particle fields. This results in a Hamiltonian in which the mediating-field propagator appears directly in the interaction term. It is shown that exact two-particle eigenstates of the Hamiltonian can be determined. The resulting relativistic fermion-boson equation is shown to have Dirac and Klein-Gordon one-particle limits. Analytical solutions for the bound state energy spectrum are obtained for the case of massless mediating fields

  3. Theory of substrate, Zeeman, and electron-phonon interaction effects on the quantum capacitance in graphene

    KAUST Repository

    Tahir, M.

    2013-12-10

    Since the discovery of graphene, a lot of interest has been attracted by the zeroth Landau level, which has no analog in the conventional two dimensional electron gas. Recently, lifting of the spin and valley degeneracies has been confirmed experimentally by capacitance measurements, while in transport experiments, this is difficult due to the scattering in the device. In this context, we model interaction effects on the quantum capacitance of graphene in the presence of a perpendicular magnetic field, finding good agreement with experiments. We demonstrate that the valley degeneracy is lifted by the substrate and by Kekule distortion, whereas the spin degeneracy is lifted by Zeeman interaction. The two cases can be distinguished by capacitance measurements.

  4. Quantum-well exciton dipolar interaction: Polarization-dependence and Z-LT splitting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Ba An.

    1996-12-01

    We calculate the exciton dipolar interaction in a semiconductor quantum well. The explicit polarization-dependence, i.e, the dependence on both the exciton dipole moment μ-vector and its inplane wavevector k-vector is derived. The obtained results for the three modes (L, T and Z modes) of the long-range part of the dipolar interaction satisfy the polarization sum rule for any parameters. In the long wavelength limit there is a Z-LT splitting which decreases as the well width increases reflecting a crossover from strict 2D to quasi-2D. A rough crossover from quasi-2D to 3D is also described. (author). 18 refs, 4 figs

  5. Theory of substrate, Zeeman, and electron-phonon interaction effects on the quantum capacitance in graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahir, M.; Sabeeh, K.; Shaukat, A.; Schwingenschlögl, U.

    2013-01-01

    Since the discovery of graphene, a lot of interest has been attracted by the zeroth Landau level, which has no analog in the conventional two dimensional electron gas. Recently, lifting of the spin and valley degeneracies has been confirmed experimentally by capacitance measurements, while in transport experiments, this is difficult due to the scattering in the device. In this context, we model interaction effects on the quantum capacitance of graphene in the presence of a perpendicular magnetic field, finding good agreement with experiments. We demonstrate that the valley degeneracy is lifted by the substrate and by Kekule distortion, whereas the spin degeneracy is lifted by Zeeman interaction. The two cases can be distinguished by capacitance measurements

  6. Quantum and Information Thermodynamics: A Unifying Framework Based on Repeated Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasberg, Philipp; Schaller, Gernot; Brandes, Tobias; Esposito, Massimiliano

    2017-04-01

    We expand the standard thermodynamic framework of a system coupled to a thermal reservoir by considering a stream of independently prepared units repeatedly put into contact with the system. These units can be in any nonequilibrium state and interact with the system with an arbitrary strength and duration. We show that this stream constitutes an effective resource of nonequilibrium free energy, and we identify the conditions under which it behaves as a heat, work, or information reservoir. We also show that this setup provides a natural framework to analyze information erasure ("Landauer's principle") and feedback-controlled systems ("Maxwell's demon"). In the limit of a short system-unit interaction time, we further demonstrate that this setup can be used to provide a thermodynamically sound interpretation to many effective master equations. We discuss how nonautonomously driven systems, micromasers, lasing without inversion and the electronic Maxwell demon can be thermodynamically analyzed within our framework. While the present framework accounts for quantum features (e.g., squeezing, entanglement, coherence), we also show that quantum resources do not offer any advantage compared to classical ones in terms of the maximum extractable work.

  7. The conservation laws of nonrelativistic classical and quantum mechanics for a system of interacting particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Havas, P.

    1978-01-01

    The various classical or quantum mechanical equations describing a system of N particles with central two-body interactions are invariant under the 10 transformations of the Galilei group, and for interaction potential inversely proportional to the squares of the particle separations also under two further transformations. From the invariance of the corresponding classical and quantum mechanical variation principles under this 12-parameter conformal extension of the Galilei group, the 'Jacobi-Schroedinger group', the 12 well-known conservation laws of Newtonian dynamics as well as 12 local conservation laws implied by the Schroedinger equation are obtained via Noether's theorem. Under appropriate conditions on the wave functions, these local laws yield 12 global conservation laws which are analogous to the Newtonian ones. The Hamiltonian-Jacobi equation implies a classical equation differing from the Schroedinger equation only by a potential-like term involving the Van Vleck determinant, from which 12 local balance equations and the corresponding global equations are obtained, which under certain conditions reduce the true conservation laws. (Auth.)

  8. Simplified boson realization of the SOq(3) subalgebra of Uq(3) and matrix elements of SO(3) quadrupole operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonatsos, D.; Lo Liduce, N.; Raychev, P.; Roussev, R.; Terziev, P.

    1996-01-01

    Quantum algebras (also called quantum groups) are nonlinear generalization of the usual Lie algebras, to which the reduce in the limiting case when the deformed parameters are set equal to unity. From mathematical point of view they have the structure of Holf algebras. The interest for applications of quantum algebras in physics was triggered in 1989 by the introduction of the q-deformed harmonic oscillator. In this connection the quantum algebra su q (2) has been used for description of superdeformed bands of even-even nuclei and rotational nuclear and molecular spectra. The construction of chains of subalgebras of a given q-algebra is a non trivial problem, since the existence of a chain of subalgebras of the corresponding Lie algebra does not guarantee the existence of the q-analogue of this chain. In particular, the so q (3) subalgebra of u q (3) has attracted much attention, since its classical analogue is a basic ingredient of several nuclear models, as the Elliot model and the su(3) limit of the Interacting Boson Model (IBM), the Fermion Dynamical Symmetry Model (FDSM), the Interacting Vector Boson Model (IVBM), the nuclear vibron model for clustering, as well as of the su(3) limit of the vibron model for molecules. In the present report we compute the reduced matrix elements of a special second-rank tensor operator (quadrupole operator) in the so q (3) subgroup of u q (3) basis (for the most symmetric u q (3)-representations) and investigate some of their properties. Also we construct a simplified boson realization of the so q (3) subalgebra of u q (3) and the corresponding so q (3) basis states. It should be noted that the obtained results are valid only for real values of the deformation parameter q. On the other hand the comparison of the experimental data with the predictions of a number of physical models, based on the q deformed su q (2) algebra, shows that one can achieve a good agreement between theory and experiment only if q is a pure phase (q

  9. Intermolecular interactions in the condensed phase: Evaluation of semi-empirical quantum mechanical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Anders S; Kromann, Jimmy C; Jensen, Jan H; Cui, Qiang

    2017-10-28

    To facilitate further development of approximate quantum mechanical methods for condensed phase applications, we present a new benchmark dataset of intermolecular interaction energies in the solution phase for a set of 15 dimers, each containing one charged monomer. The reference interaction energy in solution is computed via a thermodynamic cycle that integrates dimer binding energy in the gas phase at the coupled cluster level and solute-solvent interaction with density functional theory; the estimated uncertainty of such calculated interaction energy is ±1.5 kcal/mol. The dataset is used to benchmark the performance of a set of semi-empirical quantum mechanical (SQM) methods that include DFTB3-D3, DFTB3/CPE-D3, OM2-D3, PM6-D3, PM6-D3H+, and PM7 as well as the HF-3c method. We find that while all tested SQM methods tend to underestimate binding energies in the gas phase with a root-mean-squared error (RMSE) of 2-5 kcal/mol, they overestimate binding energies in the solution phase with an RMSE of 3-4 kcal/mol, with the exception of DFTB3/CPE-D3 and OM2-D3, for which the systematic deviation is less pronounced. In addition, we find that HF-3c systematically overestimates binding energies in both gas and solution phases. As most approximate QM methods are parametrized and evaluated using data measured or calculated in the gas phase, the dataset represents an important first step toward calibrating QM based methods for application in the condensed phase where polarization and exchange repulsion need to be treated in a balanced fashion.

  10. Intermolecular interactions in the condensed phase: Evaluation of semi-empirical quantum mechanical methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Anders S.; Kromann, Jimmy C.; Jensen, Jan H.; Cui, Qiang

    2017-10-01

    To facilitate further development of approximate quantum mechanical methods for condensed phase applications, we present a new benchmark dataset of intermolecular interaction energies in the solution phase for a set of 15 dimers, each containing one charged monomer. The reference interaction energy in solution is computed via a thermodynamic cycle that integrates dimer binding energy in the gas phase at the coupled cluster level and solute-solvent interaction with density functional theory; the estimated uncertainty of such calculated interaction energy is ±1.5 kcal/mol. The dataset is used to benchmark the performance of a set of semi-empirical quantum mechanical (SQM) methods that include DFTB3-D3, DFTB3/CPE-D3, OM2-D3, PM6-D3, PM6-D3H+, and PM7 as well as the HF-3c method. We find that while all tested SQM methods tend to underestimate binding energies in the gas phase with a root-mean-squared error (RMSE) of 2-5 kcal/mol, they overestimate binding energies in the solution phase with an RMSE of 3-4 kcal/mol, with the exception of DFTB3/CPE-D3 and OM2-D3, for which the systematic deviation is less pronounced. In addition, we find that HF-3c systematically overestimates binding energies in both gas and solution phases. As most approximate QM methods are parametrized and evaluated using data measured or calculated in the gas phase, the dataset represents an important first step toward calibrating QM based methods for application in the condensed phase where polarization and exchange repulsion need to be treated in a balanced fashion.

  11. Quantum information. Teleportation - cryptography - quantum computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenneker, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    The following topics are dealt with: Reality in the test facility, quantum teleportation, the reality of quanta, interaction-free quantum measurement, rules for quantum computers, quantum computers with ions, spintronics with diamond, the limits of the quantum computers, a view in the future of quantum optics. (HSI)

  12. Interaction of different thiol-capped CdTe quantum dots with bovine serum albumin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Qisui; Zhang Xiaolei; Zhou Xiaolan; Fang Tingting; Liu Pengfei; Liu Peng; Min Xinmin; Li, Xi

    2012-01-01

    Due to their unique optical properties, quantum dots (QDs) are rapidly revolutionizing many areas of medicine and biology. Despite the remarkable speed of development of nanoscience, relatively little is known about the interaction of nanoscale objects with organism. In this work, interaction of CdTe QDs coated with mercaptopropanoic acid (MPA), L-cysteine (L-cys), and glutathione (GSH) with bovine serum albumin (BSA) was investigated. Fluorescence (FL), UV–vis absorption, and circular dichroism (CD) spectra methods were used. The Stern-Volmer quenching constant (K sv ) at different temperatures, corresponding thermodynamic parameters (ΔH, ΔG and ΔS), and information of the structural features of BSA were gained. We found that QDs can effectively quench the FL of BSA in a ligand-dependent manner, electrostatic interactions play a major role in the binding reaction, and the nature of quenching is static, resulting in forming QDs-BSA complexes. The CD spectra showed that the secondary and tertiary structure of BSA was changed. This study contributes to a better understanding of the ligand effects on QDs-proteins interactions, which is a critical issue for the applications in vivo. - Highlights: ► The interaction between three thiol-capped QDs and BSA by UV–vis, FL, and CD spectra. ► The bio-effect of CdTe QDs on BSA was a ligand-dependent manner. ► The thermodynamic parameters and the structural features of BSA were gained.

  13. Current-current interactions, dynamical symmetry-breaking, and quantum chromodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuenschwander, D.E. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Quantum Chromodynamics with massive gluons (gluon mass triple bond xm/sub p/) in a contact-interaction limit called CQCD (strong coupling g→infinity; x→infinity), despite its non-renormalizability and lack of hope of confinement, is nevertheless interesting for at least two reasons. Some authors have suggested a relation between 4-Fermi and Yang-Mills theories. If g/x 2 much less than 1, then CQCD is not merely a 4-Fermi interaction, but includes 4,6,8 etc-Fermi non-Abelian contact interactions. With possibility of infrared slavery, perturbative evaluation of QCD in the infrared is a dubious practice. However, if g 2 /x 2 much less than 1 in CQCD, then the simplest 4-Fermi interaction is dominant, and CQCD admits perturbative treatment, but only in the infrared. With the dominant interaction, a dynamical Nambu-Goldstone realization of chiral symmetry-breaking (XSB) is found. Although in QCD the relation between confinement and XSB is controversial, XSB occurs in CQCD provided confinement is sacrificed

  14. Current-current interactions, dynamical symmetry-breaking, and quantum chromodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuenschwander, D.E. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Quantum Chromodynamics with massive gluons (gluon mass triple bond xm/sub p/) in a contact-interaction limit called CQCD (strong coupling g..-->..infinity; x..-->..infinity), despite its non-renormalizability and lack of hope of confinement, is nevertheless interesting for at least two reasons. Some authors have suggested a relation between 4-Fermi and Yang-Mills theories. If g/x/sup 2/ much less than 1, then CQCD is not merely a 4-Fermi interaction, but includes 4,6,8 etc-Fermi non-Abelian contact interactions. With possibility of infrared slavery, perturbative evaluation of QCD in the infrared is a dubious practice. However, if g/sup 2//x/sup 2/ much less than 1 in CQCD, then the simplest 4-Fermi interaction is dominant, and CQCD admits perturbative treatment, but only in the infrared. With the dominant interaction, a dynamical Nambu-Goldstone realization of chiral symmetry-breaking (XSB) is found. Although in QCD the relation between confinement and XSB is controversial, XSB occurs in CQCD provided confinement is sacrificed.

  15. Weakly interacting topological insulators: Quantum criticality and the renormalization group approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei

    2018-03-01

    For D -dimensional weakly interacting topological insulators in certain symmetry classes, the topological invariant can be calculated from a D - or (D +1 ) -dimensional integration over a certain curvature function that is expressed in terms of single-particle Green's functions. Based on the divergence of curvature function at the topological phase transition, we demonstrate how a renormalization group approach circumvents these integrations and reduces the necessary calculation to that for the Green's function alone, rendering a numerically efficient tool to identify topological phase transitions in a large parameter space. The method further unveils a number of statistical aspects related to the quantum criticality in weakly interacting topological insulators, including correlation function, critical exponents, and scaling laws, that can be used to characterize the topological phase transitions driven by either interacting or noninteracting parameters. We use 1D class BDI and 2D class A Dirac models with electron-electron and electron-phonon interactions to demonstrate these principles and find that interactions may change the critical exponents of the topological insulators.

  16. Single step deposition of an interacting layer of a perovskite matrix with embedded quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Thi Tuyen; Suarez, Isaac; Sanchez, Rafael S.; Martinez-Pastor, Juan P.; Mora-Sero, Ivan

    2016-07-01

    Hybrid lead halide perovskite (PS) derivatives have emerged as very promising materials for the development of optoelectronic devices in the last few years. At the same time, inorganic nanocrystals with quantum confinement (QDs) possess unique properties that make them suitable materials for the development of photovoltaics, imaging and lighting applications, among others. In this work, we report on a new methodology for the deposition of high quality, large grain size and pinhole free PS films (CH3NH3PbI3) with embedded PbS and PbS/CdS core/shell Quantum Dots (QDs). The strong interaction between both semiconductors is revealed by the formation of an exciplex state, which is monitored by photoluminescence and electroluminescence experiments. The radiative exciplex relaxation is centered in the near infrared region (NIR), ~1200 nm, which corresponds to lower energies than the corresponding band gap of both perovskite (PS) and QDs. Our approach allows the fabrication of multi-wavelength light emitting diodes (LEDs) based on a PS matrix with embedded QDs, which show considerably low turn-on potentials. The presence of the exciplex state of PS and QDs opens up a broad range of possibilities with important implications in both LEDs and solar cells.Hybrid lead halide perovskite (PS) derivatives have emerged as very promising materials for the development of optoelectronic devices in the last few years. At the same time, inorganic nanocrystals with quantum confinement (QDs) possess unique properties that make them suitable materials for the development of photovoltaics, imaging and lighting applications, among others. In this work, we report on a new methodology for the deposition of high quality, large grain size and pinhole free PS films (CH3NH3PbI3) with embedded PbS and PbS/CdS core/shell Quantum Dots (QDs). The strong interaction between both semiconductors is revealed by the formation of an exciplex state, which is monitored by photoluminescence and

  17. Quantum radiation reaction in head-on laser-electron beam interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vranic, Marija; Grismayer, Thomas; Fonseca, Ricardo A; Silva, Luis O

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the evolution of the energy spread and the divergence of electron beams while they interact with different laser pulses at intensities where quantum effects and radiation reaction are of relevance. The interaction is modelled with a quantum electrodynamic (QED)-PIC code and the results are compared with those obtained using a standard PIC code with a classical radiation reaction module. In addition, an analytical model is presented that estimates the value of the final electron energy spread after the interaction with the laser has finished. While classical radiation reaction is a continuous process, in QED, radiation emission is stochastic. The two pictures reconcile in the limit when the emitted photons energy is small compared to the energy of the emitting electrons. The energy spread of the electron distribution function always tends to decrease with classical radiation reaction, whereas the stochastic QED emission can also enlarge it. These two tendencies compete in the QED-dominated regime. Our analysis, supported by the QED module, reveals an upper limit to the maximal attainable energy spread due to stochasticity that depends on laser intensity and the electron beam average energy. Beyond this limit, the energy spread decreases. These findings are verified for different laser pulse lengths ranging from short ∼30 fs pulses presently available to the long ∼150 fs pulses expected in the near-future laser facilities, and compared with a theoretical model. Our results also show that near future experiments will be able to probe this transition and to demonstrate the competition between enhanced QED induced energy spread and energy spectrum narrowing from classical radiation reaction. (paper)

  18. Interactions of ionic liquids and acetone: thermodynamic properties, quantum-chemical calculations, and NMR analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Elia; Ferro, Victor R; Palomar, Jose; Ortega, Juan; Rodriguez, Juan Jose

    2013-06-20

    The interactions between ionic liquids (ILs) and acetone have been studied to obtain a further understanding of the behavior of their mixtures, which generally give place to an exothermic process, mutual miscibility, and negative deviation of Raoult's law. COSMO-RS was used as a suitable computational method to systematically analyze the excess enthalpy of IL-acetone systems (>300), in terms of the intermolecular interactions contributing to the mixture behavior. Spectroscopic and COSMO-RS results indicated that acetone, as a polar compound with strong hydrogen bond acceptor character, in most cases, establishes favorable hydrogen bonding with ILs. This interaction is strengthened by the presence of an acidic cation and an anion with dispersed charge and non-HB acceptor character in the IL. COSMO-RS predictions indicated that gas-liquid and vapor-liquid equilibrium data for IL-acetone systems can be finely tuned by the IL selection, that is, acting on the intermolecular interactions between the molecular and ionic species in the liquid phase. NMR measurements for IL-acetone mixtures at different concentrations were also carried out. Quantum-chemical calculations by using molecular clusters of acetone and IL species were finally performed. These results provided additional evidence of the main role played by hydrogen bonding in the behavior of systems containing ILs and HB acceptor compounds, such as acetone.

  19. A study of topological quantum phase transition and Majorana localization length for the interacting helical liquid system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dey, Dayasindhu; Saha, Sudip Kumar; Deo, P. Singha; Kumar, Manoranjan; Sarkar, Sujit

    2017-01-01

    We study the topological quantum phase transition and also the nature of this transition using the density matrix renormalization group method. We observe the existence of topological quantum phase transition for repulsive interaction, however this phase is more stable for the attractive interaction. The length scale dependent study shows many new and important results and we show explicitly that the major contribution to the excitation comes from the edge of the system when the system is in the topological state. We also show the dependence of Majorana localization length for various values of chemical potential. (author)

  20. Contribution from the interaction Hamiltonian to the expectation value of particle number with the non-equilibrium quantum field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hotta, Ryuuichi; Morozumi, Takuya; Takata, Hiroyuki

    2012-01-01

    We develop the method analyzing particle number non-conserving phenomena with non-equilibrium quantum field-theory. In this study, we consider a CP violating model with interaction Hamiltonian that breaks particle number conservation. To derive the quantum Boltzmann equation for the particle number, we solve Schwinger-Dyson equation, which are obtained from two particle irreducible closed-time-path (2PI CTP) effective action. In this calculation, we show the contribution from interaction Hamiltonian to the time evolution of expectation value of particle number.

  1. Glucose- and Cellulose-Derived Ni/C-SO3H Catalysts for Liquid Phase Phenol Hydrodeoxygenation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasakov, Stanislav; Zhao, Chen; Barath, Eszter; Chase, Zizwe A.; Fulton, John L.; Camaioni, Donald M.; Vjunov, Aleksei; Shi, Hui; Lercher, Johannes A.

    2015-01-19

    Sulfonated carbons were explored as functionalized supports for Ni nanoparticles to hydrodeoxygenate (HDO) phenol. Both hexadecane and water were used as solvents. The dual-functional Ni catalysts supported on sulfonated carbon (Ni/C-SO3H) showed high rates for phenol hydrodeoxygenation in liquid hexadecane, but not in water. Glucose and cellulose were precursors to the carbon supports. Changes in the carbons resulting from sulfonation of the carbons resulted in variations of carbon sheet structures, morphologies and the surface concentrations of acid sites. While the C-SO3H supports were active for cyclohexanol dehydration in hexadecane and water, Ni/C-SO3H only catalyzed the reduction of phenol to cyclohexanol in water. The state of 3 – 5 nm grafted Ni particles was analyzed by in situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The results show that the metallic Ni was rapidly formed in situ without detectable leaching to the aqueous phase, suggesting that just the acid functions on Ni/C-SO3H are inhibited in presence of water. Using in situ IR spectroscopy, it was shown that even in hexadecane, phenol HDO is limited by the dehydration step. Thus, phenol HDO catalysis was further improved by physically admixing C-SO3H with the Ni/C-SO3H catalyst to balance the two catalytic functions. The minimum addition of 7 wt.% C-SO3H to the most active of the Ni/C-SO3H catalysts enabled nearly quantitative conversion of phenol and the highest selectivity (90%) towards cyclohexane in 6 h, at temperatures as low as 473 K, suggesting that the proximity to Ni limits the acid properties of the support.

  2. Glucose- and cellulose-derived Ni/C-SO3H catalysts for liquid phase phenol hydrodeoxygenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasakov, Stanislav; Zhao, Chen; Baráth, Eszter; Chase, Zizwe A; Fulton, John L; Camaioni, Donald M; Vjunov, Aleksei; Shi, Hui; Lercher, Johannes A

    2015-01-19

    Sulfonated carbons were explored as functionalized supports for Ni nanoparticles to hydrodeoxygenate (HDO) phenol. Both hexadecane and water were used as solvents. The dual-functional Ni catalysts supported on sulfonated carbon (Ni/C-SO3H) showed high rates for phenol hydrodeoxygenation in liquid hexadecane, but not in water. Glucose and cellulose were precursors to the carbon supports. Changes in the carbons resulting from sulfonation of the carbons resulted in variations of carbon sheet structures, morphologies and the surface concentrations of acid sites. While the C-SO3H supports were active for cyclohexanol dehydration in hexadecane and water, Ni/C-SO3H only catalysed the reduction of phenol to cyclohexanol in water. The state of 3-5 nm grafted Ni particles was analysed by in situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The results show that the metallic Ni was rapidly formed in situ without detectable leaching to the aqueous phase, suggesting that just the acid functions on Ni/C-SO3H are inhibited in the presence of water. Using in situ IR spectroscopy, it was shown that even in hexadecane, phenol HDO is limited by the dehydration step. Thus, phenol HDO catalysis was further improved by physically admixing C-SO3H with the Ni/C-SO3H catalyst to balance the two catalytic functions. The minimum addition of 7 wt % C-SO3H to the most active of the Ni/C-SO3H catalysts enabled nearly quantitative conversion of phenol and the highest selectivity (90%) towards cyclohexane in 6 h, at temperatures as low as 473 K, suggesting that the proximity to Ni limits the acid properties of the support. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. SO3 formation from the X-ray photolysis of SO2 astrophysical ice analogues: FTIR spectroscopy and thermodynamic investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Bonfim, Víctor; Barbosa de Castilho, Roberto; Baptista, Leonardo; Pilling, Sergio

    2017-10-11

    In this combined experimental-theoretical work we focus on the physical and chemical changes induced by soft X-rays on sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) ice at a very low temperature, in an attempt to clarify and quantify its survival and chemical changes in some astrophysical environments. SO 2 is an important constituent of some Jupiter moons and has also been observed in ices around protostars. The measurements were performed at the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Source (LNLS/CNPEM), in Campinas, Brazil. The SO 2 ice sample (12 K) was exposed to a broadband beam of mainly soft X-rays (6-2000 eV) and in situ analyses were performed by IR spectroscopy. The X-ray photodesorption yield (upper limit) was around 0.25 molecules per photon. The values determined for the effective destruction (SO 2 ) and formation (SO 3 ) cross sections were 2.5 × 10 -18 cm 2 and 2.1 × 10 -18 cm 2 , respectively. The chemical equilibrium (88% of SO 2 and 12% of SO 3 ) was reached after the fluence of 1.6 × 10 18 photons cm -2 . The SO 3 formation channels were studied at the second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2) level, which showed the three most favorable reaction routes (ΔH < -79 kcal mol -1 ) in simulated SO 2 ice: (i) SO + O 2 → SO 3 , (ii) SO 2 + O → SO 3 , and (iii) SO 2 + O + → SO 3 + + e - → SO 3 . The amorphous solid environment effect decreases the reactivity of intermediate species towards SO 3 formation, and ionic species are even more affected. The experimentally determined effective cross sections and theoretical reaction channels identified in this work allow us to better understand the chemical evolution of certain sulfur-rich astrophysical environments.

  4. Quantum state transfer in spin chains with q-deformed interaction terms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jafarov, E I; Van der Jeugt, J

    2010-01-01

    We study the time evolution of a single spin excitation state in certain linear spin chains, as a model for quantum communication. Some years ago it was discovered that when the spin chain data (the nearest-neighbour interaction strengths and the magnetic field strengths) are related to the Jacobi matrix entries of Krawtchouk polynomials or dual Hahn polynomials the so-called perfect state transfer takes place. The extension of these ideas to other types of discrete orthogonal polynomials did not lead to new models with perfect state transfer, but did allow more insight in the general computation of the correlation function. In this paper, we extend the study to discrete orthogonal polynomials of q-hypergeometric type. A remarkable result is a new analytic model where perfect state transfer is achieved: this is when the spin chain data are related to the Jacobi matrix of q-Krawtchouk polynomials. The other cases studied here (affine q-Krawtchouk polynomials, quantum q-Krawtchouk polynomials, dual q-Krawtchouk polynomials, q-Hahn polynomials, dual q-Hahn polynomials and q-Racah polynomials) do not give rise to models with perfect state transfer. However, the computation of the correlation function itself is quite interesting, leading to advanced q-series manipulations.

  5. Suppression of Magnetic Quantum Tunneling in a Chiral Single-Molecule Magnet by Ferromagnetic Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippert, Kai-Alexander; Mukherjee, Chandan; Broschinski, Jan-Philipp; Lippert, Yvonne; Walleck, Stephan; Stammler, Anja; Bögge, Hartmut; Schnack, Jürgen; Glaser, Thorsten

    2017-12-18

    Single-molecule magnets (SMMs) retain a magnetization without applied magnetic field for a decent time due to an energy barrier U for spin-reversal. Despite the success to increase U, the difficult to control magnetic quantum tunneling often leads to a decreased effective barrier U eff and a fast relaxation. Here, we demonstrate the influence of the exchange coupling on the tunneling probability in two heptanuclear SMMs hosting the same spin-system with the same high spin ground state S t = 21/2. A chirality-induced symmetry reduction leads to a switch of the Mn III -Mn III exchange from antiferromagnetic in the achiral SMM [Mn III 6 Cr III ] 3+ to ferromagnetic in the new chiral SMM RR [Mn III 6 Cr III ] 3+ . Multispin Hamiltonian analysis by full-matrix diagonalization demonstrates that the ferromagnetic interactions in RR [Mn III 6 Cr III ] 3+ enforce a well-defined S t = 21/2 ground state with substantially less mixing of M S substates in contrast to [Mn III 6 Cr III ] 3+ and no tunneling pathways below the top of the energy barrier. This is experimentally verified as U eff is smaller than the calculated energy barrier U in [Mn III 6 Cr III ] 3+ due to tunneling pathways, whereas U eff equals U in RR [Mn III 6 Cr III ] 3+ demonstrating the absence of quantum tunneling.

  6. Quantum return probability of a system of N non-interacting lattice fermions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krapivsky, P. L.; Luck, J. M.; Mallick, K.

    2018-02-01

    We consider N non-interacting fermions performing continuous-time quantum walks on a one-dimensional lattice. The system is launched from a most compact configuration where the fermions occupy neighboring sites. We calculate exactly the quantum return probability (sometimes referred to as the Loschmidt echo) of observing the very same compact state at a later time t. Remarkably, this probability depends on the parity of the fermion number—it decays as a power of time for even N, while for odd N it exhibits periodic oscillations modulated by a decaying power law. The exponent also slightly depends on the parity of N, and is roughly twice smaller than what it would be in the continuum limit. We also consider the same problem, and obtain similar results, in the presence of an impenetrable wall at the origin constraining the particles to remain on the positive half-line. We derive closed-form expressions for the amplitudes of the power-law decay of the return probability in all cases. The key point in the derivation is the use of Mehta integrals, which are limiting cases of the Selberg integral.

  7. Manipulating quantum coherence of charge states in interacting double-dot Aharonov–Bohm interferometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jinshuang; Wang, Shikuan; Zhou, Jiahuan; Zhang, Wei-Min; Yan, YiJing

    2018-04-01

    We investigate the dynamics of charge-state coherence in a degenerate double-dot Aharonov–Bohm interferometer with finite inter-dot Coulomb interactions. The quantum coherence of the charge states is found to be sensitive to the transport setup configurations, involving both the single-electron impurity channels and the Coulomb-assisted ones. We numerically demonstrate the emergence of a complete coherence between the two charge states, with the relative phase being continuously controllable through the magnetic flux. Interestingly, a fully coherent charge qubit arises at the double-dots electron pair tunneling resonance condition, where the chemical potential of one electrode is tuned at the center between a single-electron impurity channel and the related Coulomb-assisted channel. This pure quantum state of charge qubit could be experimentally realized at the current–voltage characteristic turnover position, where differential conductance sign changes. We further elaborate the underlying mechanism for both the real-time and the stationary charge-states coherence in the double-dot systems of study.

  8. Dynamical model of coherent circularly polarized optical pulse interactions with two-level quantum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slavcheva, G.; Hess, O.

    2005-01-01

    We propose and develop a method for theoretical description of circularly (elliptically) polarized optical pulse resonant coherent interactions with two-level atoms. The method is based on the time-evolution equations of a two-level quantum system in the presence of a time-dependent dipole perturbation for electric dipole transitions between states with total angular-momentum projection difference (ΔJ z =±1) excited by a circularly polarized electromagnetic field [Feynman et al., J. Appl. Phys. 28, 49 (1957)]. The adopted real-vector representation approach allows for coupling with the vectorial Maxwell's equations for the optical wave propagation and thus the resulting Maxwell pseudospin equations can be numerically solved in the time domain without any approximations. The model permits a more exact study of the ultrafast coherent pulse propagation effects taking into account the vector nature of the electromagnetic field and hence the polarization state of the optical excitation. We demonstrate self-induced transparency effects and formation of polarized solitons. The model represents a qualitative extension of the well-known optical Maxwell-Bloch equations valid for linearly polarized light and a tool for studying coherent quantum control mechanisms

  9. Semi-quantum treatment of interactions inside a plasma; Traitement semi-quantique des interactions dans un plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feix, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Laboratoire Central de l' Armement, 94 - Arcueil (France)

    1960-07-01

    An interesting length in quantum plasma theory is the mean de Broglie wavelength of particles {lambda}-bar = {Dirac_h} < mv > {alpha}{Dirac_h} (mKT){sup 1/2}. A plasma shows both individual and collective behaviour, and we see that the individual behaviour is correctly described by a simple cutoff of the Coulomb interaction for distance shorter than {lambda}-bar. For studying the collective aspect we introduce an artificial potential (e{sup 2}/r)(1 - exp(-{gamma}r)) with {gamma} {alpha} {lambda}-bar{sup -1} instead of the Coulomb potential, and apply Yvon's method for the calculation of correlations between particle positions. We connect this point of view with that of Bohm and Pines (build-up with Fourier components of the particle density) and again find important quantum effects at temperatures KT below the 'plasmon energy' {Dirac_h}{omega}{sub p}. Comparison between Debye length, interparticle distance, and {lambda}-bar, shows a classification of plasma zones in a density vs. temperature diagram. (author) [French] Une longueur importante dans la theorie quantique des plasmas est la longueur d'onde de de Broglie moyenne des particules {lambda}-bar = {Dirac_h} < mv > {alpha}{Dirac_h} (mKT){sup 1/2}. Les plasmas peuvent presenter a la fois et un aspect collectif et un aspect individuel, et on voit que le comportement des plasmas principalement individuels est donne exactement par une simple annulation de l'interaction coulombienne pour les distances inferieures {lambda}-bar. Pour l'etude de l'aspect collectif, on introduit un potentiel artificiel (e{sup 2}/r)(1 - exp(-{gamma}r)) avec {gamma} {alpha} {lambda}-bar{sup -1} au lieu du potentiel coulombien, et l'on applique le methode de Yvon pour le calcul des correlations entre les positions des particules. On fait un rapprochement de ce point de vue avec celui de Bohn et Pines (un accroissement de la densite particulaire avec les composantes de Fourier) et on trouve de nouveau des effets quantiques importants a des

  10. Canyon of current suppression in an interacting two-level quantum dot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlström, O; Pedersen, Jonas Nyvold; Samuelsson, P

    2011-01-01

    Motivated by the recent discovery of a canyon of conductance suppression in a two-level equal-spin quantum dot system [Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 186804 (2010)], the transport through this system is studied in detail. At low bias and low temperature a strong current suppression is found around...... the electron-hole symmetry point independent of the couplings, in agreement with previous results. By means of a Schrieffer–Wolff transformation we are able to give an intuitive explanation to this suppression in the low-energy regime. In the general situation, numerical simulations are carried out using...... for the current suppression. It is also shown how broadening, interference, and a finite interaction energy cause a shift of the current minimum away from degeneracy. Finally we see how an increased population of the upper level leads to current peaks on each side of the suppression line. At sufficiently high...

  11. An excited-state approach within full configuration interaction quantum Monte Carlo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blunt, N. S.; Smart, Simon D.; Booth, George H.; Alavi, Ali

    2015-01-01

    We present a new approach to calculate excited states with the full configuration interaction quantum Monte Carlo (FCIQMC) method. The approach uses a Gram-Schmidt procedure, instantaneously applied to the stochastically evolving distributions of walkers, to orthogonalize higher energy states against lower energy ones. It can thus be used to study several of the lowest-energy states of a system within the same symmetry. This additional step is particularly simple and computationally inexpensive, requiring only a small change to the underlying FCIQMC algorithm. No trial wave functions or partitioning of the space is needed. The approach should allow excited states to be studied for systems similar to those accessible to the ground-state method due to a comparable computational cost. As a first application, we consider the carbon dimer in basis sets up to quadruple-zeta quality and compare to existing results where available

  12. Electron Raman scattering in semiconductor quantum wire in external magnetic field: Froehlich interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betancourt-Riera, Ri.; Nieto Jalil, J.M.; Betancourt-Riera, Re.; Riera, R.

    2009-01-01

    The differential cross-section for an electron Raman scattering process in a semiconductor quantum wire in the presence of an external magnetic field perpendicular to the plane of confinement regarding phonon-assisted transitions, is calculated. We assume single parabolic conduction band and present a description of the phonon modes of cylindrical structures embedded in another material using the Froehlich phonon interaction. To illustrate the theory we use a GaAs/Al 0.35 Ga 0.75 As system. The emission spectra are discussed for different scattering configurations and the selection rules for the processes are also studied. The magnetic field distribution is considered constant with value B 0 inside of the wire, and zero outside.

  13. Interacting quantum wires: A possible explanation for the 0.7 anomalous conductance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malard, M.; Schmeltzer, D.; Kuklov, A.

    2009-01-01

    We investigate an effective one-dimensional conducting channel considering both the contact umklapp and the Coulomb electron-electron interaction. We show that, at low electronic density, the proximity to the Wigner crystal reproduces the anomaly in conductance at 0.7G 0 . The crucial ingredient of our theory is the fact that the gate voltage acts as a bias controlling the intensity of the umklapp term. At large gate voltages, the umklapp vanishes and we obtain a conducting quantum wire with a perfect conductance. At low gate voltages, the Wigner crystal is pinned by the umklapp term, giving rise to an insulating behavior with vanishing conductance. This crossover pattern has a transition point which can be identified with the anomalous conductance around 0.7G 0 . This picture is obtained within the framework of a renormalization group calculation. The conductance static regime is achieved by taking first the limit of finite length and then the limit of zero frequency.

  14. Interactions, Disorder and Dephasing in Superconducting Films and Quantum Hall Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auerbach, A.

    1999-01-01

    It is shown that a large class of two dimensional Superconductor to Insulator (SC-I), and (Quantum Hall to Insulator (QH-I) transitions can be understood by assuming that the thermodynamic transition in the clean system is first order. The finite correlation lengths at that transition yield a natural separation of the disorder into short and long wavelengths which are then straightforward to incorporate perturbatively and semi classically respectively. This approach reduces problems of disorder+interactions to puddle network models, whose studies have already yielded insight into experiments of QH-I and SC-I. For the CQH-I, the difference between Landauer-Buttiker and Boltzman theories highlights effects of dephasing

  15. Self-dual gauge field, its quantum fluctuations, and interacting fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flory, C.A.

    1983-01-01

    The quantum fluctuations about a self-dual background field in SU(2) are computed. The background field consists of parallel and equal uniform chromomagnetic and chromoelectric fields. Determination of the gluon fluctuations about this field yields zero modes, which are naturally regularized by the introduction of massless fermions. This regularization makes the integrals over all fluctuations convergent, and allows a simple computation of the vacuum energy which is shown to be lower than the energy of the configuration of zero field strength. The regularization of the zero modes also facilitates the introduction of heavy test charges which can interact with the classical background field and also exchange virtual quanta. The formalism for introducing these heavy test charges could be a good starting point for investigating the relevant physics of the self-dual background field beyond the classical level

  16. Density-Dependent Formulation of Dispersion-Repulsion Interactions in Hybrid Multiscale Quantum/Molecular Mechanics (QM/MM) Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Curutchet, Carles; Cupellini, Lorenzo; Kongsted, Jacob

    2018-01-01

    embedding approaches, respectively, nonelectrostatic dispersion and repulsion interactions are instead commonly described through classical potentials despite their quantum mechanical origin. Here we present an extension of the Tkatchenko-Scheffler semiempirical van der Waals (vdWTS) scheme aimed......Mixed multiscale quantum/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) models are widely used to explore the structure, reactivity, and electronic properties of complex chemical systems. Whereas such models typically include electrostatics and potentially polarization in so-called electrostatic and polarizable...... at describing dispersion and repulsion interactions between quantum and classical regions within a QM/MM polarizable embedding framework. Starting from the vdWTSexpression, we define a dispersion and a repulsion term, both of them density-dependent and consistently based on a Lennard-Jones-like potential. We...

  17. Deterministic alternatives to the full configuration interaction quantum Monte Carlo method for strongly correlated systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubman, Norm; Whaley, Birgitta

    The development of exponential scaling methods has seen great progress in tackling larger systems than previously thought possible. One such technique, full configuration interaction quantum Monte Carlo, allows exact diagonalization through stochastically sampling of determinants. The method derives its utility from the information in the matrix elements of the Hamiltonian, together with a stochastic projected wave function, which are used to explore the important parts of Hilbert space. However, a stochastic representation of the wave function is not required to search Hilbert space efficiently and new deterministic approaches have recently been shown to efficiently find the important parts of determinant space. We shall discuss the technique of Adaptive Sampling Configuration Interaction (ASCI) and the related heat-bath Configuration Interaction approach for ground state and excited state simulations. We will present several applications for strongly correlated Hamiltonians. This work was supported through the Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing (SciDAC) program funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Advanced Scientific Computing Research and Basic Energy Sciences.

  18. Interaction quantum quenches in the one-dimensional Fermi-Hubbard model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidrich-Meisner, Fabian; Bauer, Andreas; Dorfner, Florian; Riegger, Luis; Orso, Giuliano

    2016-05-01

    We discuss the nonequilibrium dynamics in two interaction quantum quenches in the one-dimensional Fermi-Hubbard model. First, we study the decay of the Néel state as a function of interaction strength. We observe a fast charge dynamics over which double occupancies are built up, while the long-time decay of the staggered moment is controlled by spin excitations, corroborated by the analysis of the entanglement dynamics. Second, we investigate the formation of Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov (FFLO) correlations in a spin-imbalanced system in quenches from the noninteracting case to attractive interactions. Even though the quench puts the system at a finite energy density, peaks at the characteristic FFLO quasimomenta are visible in the quasi-momentum distribution function, albeit with an exponential decay of s-wave pairing correlations. We also discuss the imprinting of FFLO correlations onto repulsively bound pairs and their rapid decay in ramps. Supported by the DFG (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft) via FOR 1807.

  19. Energy levels and electron g-factor of spherical quantum dots with Rashba spin-orbit interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaseghi, B.; Rezaei, G.; Malian, M.

    2011-01-01

    We have studied simultaneous effects of Rashba spin-orbit interaction and external electric and magnetic fields on the subbands energy levels and electron g-factor of spherical quantum dots. It is shown that energy eigenvalues strongly depend on the combined effects of external electric and magnetic fields and spin-orbit interaction strength. The more the spin-orbit interaction strength increase, the more the energy eigenvalues increase. Also, we found that the electron g-factor sensitively differers from the bulk value due to the confinement effects. Furthermore, external fields and spin-orbit interaction have a great influence on this important quantity. -- Highlights: → Energy of spherical quantum dots depends on the spin-orbit interaction strength in external electric and magnetic fields. → Spin-orbit interaction shifts the energy levels. → Electron g-factor differs from the bulk value in spherical quantum dots due to the confinement effects. → Electron g-factor strongly depends on the spin-orbit interaction strength in external electric and magnetic fields.

  20. Permutation-symmetric three-particle hyper-spherical harmonics based on the S3⊗SO(3rot⊂O(2⊗SO(3rot⊂U(3⋊S2⊂O(6 subgroup chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Salom

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We construct the three-body permutation symmetric hyperspherical harmonics to be used in the non-relativistic three-body Schrödinger equation in three spatial dimensions (3D. We label the state vectors according to the S3⊗SO(3rot⊂O(2⊗SO(3rot⊂U(3⋊S2⊂O(6 subgroup chain, where S3 is the three-body permutation group and S2 is its two element subgroup containing transposition of first two particles, O(2 is the “democracy transformation”, or “kinematic rotation” group for three particles; SO(3rot is the 3D rotation group, and U(3,O(6 are the usual Lie groups. We discuss the good quantum numbers implied by the above chain of algebras, as well as their relation to the S3 permutation properties of the harmonics, particularly in view of the SO(3rot⊂SU(3 degeneracy. We provide a definite, practically implementable algorithm for the calculation of harmonics with arbitrary finite integer values of the hyper angular momentum K, and show an explicit example of this construction in a specific case with degeneracy, as well as tables of K≤6 harmonics. All harmonics are expressed as homogeneous polynomials in the Jacobi vectors (λ,ρ with coefficients given as algebraic numbers unless the “operator method” is chosen for the lifting of the SO(3rot⊂SU(3 multiplicity and the dimension of the degenerate subspace is greater than four – in which case one must resort to numerical diagonalization; the latter condition is not met by any K≤15 harmonic, or by any L≤7 harmonic with arbitrary K. We also calculate a certain type of matrix elements (the Gaunt integrals of products of three harmonics in two ways: 1 by explicit evaluation of integrals and 2 by reduction to known SU(3 Clebsch–Gordan coefficients. In this way we complete the calculation of the ingredients sufficient for the solution to the quantum-mechanical three-body bound state problem.

  1. Noether charges for self-interacting quantum field theories in curved spacetimes with a Killing-vector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollands, S.

    2001-01-01

    We consider a self-interacting, perturbative Klein-Gordon quantum field in a curved spacetime admitting a Killing vector field. We show that the action of this spacetime symmetry on interacting field operators can be implemented by a Noether charge which arises, in a certain sense, as a surface integral over the time-component of some interacting Noether current-density associated with the Killing field. The proof of this involves the demonstration of a corresponding set of Ward identities. Our work is based on the perturbative construction by Brunetti and Fredenhagen (Commun. Math. Phys. 208 (2000) 623-661) of self-interacting quantum field theories in general globally hyperbolic spacetimes. (orig.)

  2. Influence of the Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit interactions on the electron states in circular quantum rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudryashov, V.V.; Baran, A.V.

    2015-01-01

    Within the framework of perturbation theory the energy levels and wave functions are found for an electron in two-dimensional semiconductor circular quantum rings in the presence of the Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit interactions with a realistic axially symmetric confining square well potential of finite depth. (authors)

  3. Impact of Interactive Engagement on Reducing the Gender Gap in Quantum Physics Learning Outcomes among Senior Secondary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adegoke, Benson Adesina

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the author examines the extent to which an interactive engagement approach can reduce the gender gap in senior secondary school (SSS) (age 16-18 years) students' learning outcomes in quantum physics. One hundred and twenty one (male = 65; female = 56) SSS 3 students participated in this study. They were randomly selected from two…

  4. Open quantum systems and the two-level atom interacting with a single mode of the electromagnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandulescu, A.; Stefanescu, E.

    1987-07-01

    On the basis of Lindblad theory of open quantum systems we obtain new optical equations for the system of two-level atom interacting with a single mode of the electromagnetic field. The conventional Block equations in a generalized form with field phases are obtained in the hypothesis that all the terms are slowly varying in the rotating frame.(authors)

  5. Exploring surface waves vortex interaction in deep water: a classical analog of the Quantum Mechanics Aharonov-Bohm effect

    CERN Document Server

    Vivanco, F

    2002-01-01

    We present a simple experiment to study the interaction of surface waves with a vertical vortex in the deep water regime. Similarly to what occurs in the Quantum Mechanics Aharonov-Bohm problem for electron interacting with a magnetic potential, the effect of the vortex circulation is to introduce dislocations in the wavefront. These defects are explained taken into account the effects of advection on the propagating wavefront, due to the fluid motion. (Author)

  6. Quantum chemical analysis explains hemagglutinin peptide-MHC Class II molecule HLA-DRβ1*0101 interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardenas, Constanza; Villaveces, Jose Luis; Bohorquez, Hugo; Llanos, Eugenio; Suarez, Carlos; Obregon, Mateo; Patarroyo, Manuel Elkin

    2004-01-01

    We present a new method to explore interactions between peptides and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules using the resultant vector of the three principal multipole terms of the electrostatic field expansion. Being that molecular interactions are driven by electrostatic interactions, we applied quantum chemistry methods to better understand variations in the electrostatic field of the MHC Class II HLA-DRβ1*0101-HA complex. Multipole terms were studied, finding strong alterations of the field in Pocket 1 of this MHC molecule, and weak variations in other pockets, with Pocket 1 >> Pocket 4 > Pocket 9 ∼ Pocket 7 > Pocket 6. Variations produced by 'ideal' amino acids and by other occupying amino acids were compared. Two types of interactions were found in all pockets: a strong unspecific one (global interaction) and a weak specific interaction (differential interaction). Interactions in Pocket 1, the dominant pocket for this allele, are driven mainly by the quadrupole term, confirming the idea that aromatic rings are important in these interactions. Multipolar analysis is in agreement with experimental results, suggesting quantum chemistry methods as an adequate methodology to understand these interactions

  7. In vivo canine studies of a Sinkhole valve and vascular graft coated with biocompatible PU-PEO-SO3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, D K; Lee, K B; Park, K D; Kim, C S; Jeong, S Y; Kim, Y H; Kim, H M; Min, B G

    1993-01-01

    PU-PEO-SO3 was applied as a coating material over a newly designed Sinkhole bileaflet PU heart valve and a porous PU vascular graft. Performance and biocompatibility were evaluated using an in vivo canine shunt system between the right ventricle and pulmonary artery. The survival periods in three implantations were 14, 24, and 39 days, during which no mechanical failure occurred in any Sinkhole valve or vascular graft. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies demonstrated much less platelet adhesion and thrombus formation on PU-PEO-SO3 grafts than on PU vascular grafts. Cracks in the valve leaflet were occasionally observed on PU surfaces, but not on PU-PEO-SO3. After a 39 day implantation, calcium deposition on vascular grafts was decreased as compared with valve leaflets, and calcification on PU-PEO-SO3 was much lower than on PU. These results suggest that Sinkhole valves and vascular grafts are promising, and PU-PEO-SO3 as a coating material is more blood compatible, biostable, and calcification resistant in vivo than in untreated PU.

  8. Hearing shapes of few electrons quantum drums: A configuration–interaction study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ţolea, F.; Ţolea, M., E-mail: tzolea@infim.ro

    2015-02-01

    The – highly remarkable – existence of non-congruent yet vibrationally isospectral shapes has been first proved theoretically and then also tested experimentally – by using electromagnetic waves in cavities, vibrating smectic films or electrons in nanostructures. In this context, we address the question whether isospectrality holds if two or more electrons interact electrostatically, using the accurate configuration–interaction method, in a discrete representation of the Bilby and Hawk shapes. Isospectral pairs offer an unique possibility to test how identical sets of single-particle energies may combine differently in the few-electrons eigenmodes, due to different wave functions spatial distributions. Our results point towards the break down of isospectrality in the presence of interactions. Thus one should be able to ”hear” the shapes of few electrons quantum drums. Interestingly however, for the analyzed two and three electrons cases, there exists an interaction strength (which can be tuned by changing the size of the shapes), for which the ground states energies of Bilby and Hawk coincide, but not the excited states as well. Wigner localization is studied and shown to occur at about the same size for both Bilby and Hawk shapes. Next, an exercise is proposed to use the two-electrons charge density of the Bilby and Hawk ground states in the phase extraction scheme as proposed by Moon et al. (2008). Results show that out-of-phase regions appear if the linear size of the shapes exceeds the Bohr radius as occupation of higher Slater determinants becomes significant.

  9. Hearing shapes of few electrons quantum drums: A configuration–interaction study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ţolea, F.; Ţolea, M.

    2015-01-01

    The – highly remarkable – existence of non-congruent yet vibrationally isospectral shapes has been first proved theoretically and then also tested experimentally – by using electromagnetic waves in cavities, vibrating smectic films or electrons in nanostructures. In this context, we address the question whether isospectrality holds if two or more electrons interact electrostatically, using the accurate configuration–interaction method, in a discrete representation of the Bilby and Hawk shapes. Isospectral pairs offer an unique possibility to test how identical sets of single-particle energies may combine differently in the few-electrons eigenmodes, due to different wave functions spatial distributions. Our results point towards the break down of isospectrality in the presence of interactions. Thus one should be able to ”hear” the shapes of few electrons quantum drums. Interestingly however, for the analyzed two and three electrons cases, there exists an interaction strength (which can be tuned by changing the size of the shapes), for which the ground states energies of Bilby and Hawk coincide, but not the excited states as well. Wigner localization is studied and shown to occur at about the same size for both Bilby and Hawk shapes. Next, an exercise is proposed to use the two-electrons charge density of the Bilby and Hawk ground states in the phase extraction scheme as proposed by Moon et al. (2008). Results show that out-of-phase regions appear if the linear size of the shapes exceeds the Bohr radius as occupation of higher Slater determinants becomes significant

  10. Multispeed Prethermalization in Quantum Spin Models with Power-Law Decaying Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frérot, Irénée; Naldesi, Piero; Roscilde, Tommaso

    2018-01-01

    The relaxation of uniform quantum systems with finite-range interactions after a quench is generically driven by the ballistic propagation of long-lived quasiparticle excitations triggered by a sufficiently small quench. Here we investigate the case of long-range (1 /rα) interactions for a d -dimensional lattice spin model with uniaxial symmetry, and show that, in the regime d <α

  11. Analytic nuclear forces and molecular properties from full configuration interaction quantum Monte Carlo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Robert E.; Overy, Catherine; Opalka, Daniel; Alavi, Ali; Knowles, Peter J.; Booth, George H.

    2015-01-01

    Unbiased stochastic sampling of the one- and two-body reduced density matrices is achieved in full configuration interaction quantum Monte Carlo with the introduction of a second, “replica” ensemble of walkers, whose population evolves in imaginary time independently from the first and which entails only modest additional computational overheads. The matrices obtained from this approach are shown to be representative of full configuration-interaction quality and hence provide a realistic opportunity to achieve high-quality results for a range of properties whose operators do not necessarily commute with the Hamiltonian. A density-matrix formulated quasi-variational energy estimator having been already proposed and investigated, the present work extends the scope of the theory to take in studies of analytic nuclear forces, molecular dipole moments, and polarisabilities, with extensive comparison to exact results where possible. These new results confirm the suitability of the sampling technique and, where sufficiently large basis sets are available, achieve close agreement with experimental values, expanding the scope of the method to new areas of investigation

  12. The Nature of the Interactions in Triethanolammonium-Based Ionic Liquids. A Quantum Chemical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorova, Irina V; Safonova, Lyubov P

    2018-05-10

    Structural features and interionic interactions play a crucial role in determining the overall stability of ionic liquids and their physicochemical properties. Therefore, we performed high-level quantum-chemical study of different cation-anion pairs representing the building units of protic ionic liquids based on triethanolammonium cation and anions of sulfuric, nitric, phosphoric, and phosphorus acids to provide essential insight into these phenomena at the molecular level. It was shown that every structure is stabilized through multiple H bonds between the protons in the N-H and O-H groups of the cation and different oxygen atoms of the anion acid. Using atoms in molecules topological parameters and natural bond orbital analysis, we determined the nature and strength of these interactions. Our calculations suggest that the N-H group of the cation has more proton donor-like character than the O-H group that makes the N-H···O hydrogen bonds stronger. A close relation between the binding energies of these ion pairs and experimental melting points was established: the smaller the absolute value of the binding energy between ions, the lower is the melting point.

  13. Current-induced damping of nanosized quantum moments in the presence of spin-orbit interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahfouzi, Farzad; Kioussis, Nicholas

    2017-05-01

    Motivated by the need to understand current-induced magnetization dynamics at the nanoscale, we have developed a formalism, within the framework of Keldysh Green function approach, to study the current-induced dynamics of a ferromagnetic (FM) nanoisland overlayer on a spin-orbit-coupling (SOC) Rashba plane. In contrast to the commonly employed classical micromagnetic LLG simulations the magnetic moments of the FM are treated quantum mechanically. We obtain the density matrix of the whole system consisting of conduction electrons entangled with the local magnetic moments and calculate the effective damping rate of the FM. We investigate two opposite limiting regimes of FM dynamics: (1) The precessional regime where the magnetic anisotropy energy (MAE) and precessional frequency are smaller than the exchange interactions and (2) the local spin-flip regime where the MAE and precessional frequency are comparable to the exchange interactions. In the former case, we show that due to the finite size of the FM domain, the "Gilbert damping" does not diverge in the ballistic electron transport regime, in sharp contrast to Kambersky's breathing Fermi surface theory for damping in metallic FMs. In the latter case, we show that above a critical bias the excited conduction electrons can switch the local spin moments resulting in demagnetization and reversal of the magnetization. Furthermore, our calculations show that the bias-induced antidamping efficiency in the local spin-flip regime is much higher than that in the rotational excitation regime.

  14. Quantum ring with the Rashba spin-orbit interaction in the regime of strong light-matter coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozin, V. K.; Iorsh, I. V.; Kibis, O. V.; Shelykh, I. A.

    2018-04-01

    We developed the theory of electronic properties of semiconductor quantum rings with the Rashba spin-orbit interaction irradiated by an off-resonant high-frequency electromagnetic field (dressing field). Within the Floquet theory of periodically driven quantum systems, it is demonstrated that the dressing field drastically modifies all electronic characteristics of the rings, including spin-orbit coupling, effective electron mass, and optical response. In particular, the present effect paves the way to controlling the spin polarization of electrons with light in prospective ring-shaped spintronic devices.

  15. States characterized by the irreducible single row representations of the U(3) is contained in SO(3) and U(4) is contained in Dsup(3/2)[SO(3)] chains of groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumitrescu, T.S.

    1977-01-01

    A new method is applied in order to obtain the irreducible single row representations of the groups under study. For the case U(3) contained in SO(3) also an explicit realization is constructed. The method has the advantage of being simpler than the previously used ones. (author)

  16. Stark interaction of identical particles with the vacuum electromagnetic field as quantum Poisson process suppressing collective spontaneous emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basharov, A. M.

    2011-01-01

    The effective Hamiltonian describing resonant interaction of an ensemble of identical quantum particles with a photon-free vacuum electromagnetic field has been obtained with allowance for terms of second order in the coupling constant (the Stark interaction) by means of the perturbation theory on the basis of the unitary transformation of the system quantum state. It has been shown that in the Markov approximation the effective Hamiltonian terms of first order in the coupling constant are represented by the quantum Wiener process, whereas terms of second order are expressed by the quantum Poisson process. During the course of the investigation, it was established that the Stark interaction played a significant role in the ensemble dynamics, thus influencing the collective spontaneous decay of the ensemble of an appreciably high number of identical particles. Fundamental effects have been discovered, i.e., the excitation conservation in a sufficiently dense ensemble of identical particles and superradiance suppression in the collective decaying process of an excited ensemble with a determined number of particles.

  17. Spectroscopic investigations on the interaction of thioacetamide with ZnO quantum dots and application for its fluorescence sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Dipika; Negi, Devendra P S

    2018-01-15

    The purpose of the present work was to develop a method for the sensing of thioacetamide by using spectroscopic techniques. Thioacetamide is a carcinogen and it is important to detect its presence in food-stuffs. Semiconductor quantum dots are frequently employed as sensing probes since their absorption and fluorescence properties are highly sensitive to the interaction with substrates present in the solution. In the present work, the interaction between thioacetamide and ZnO quantum dots has been investigated by using UV-visible, fluorescence and infrared spectroscopy. Besides, dynamic light scattering (DLS) has also been utilized for the interaction studies. UV-visible absorption studies indicated the bonding of the lone pair of sulphur atom of thioacetamide with the surface of the semiconductor. The fluorescence band of the ZnO quantum dots was found to be quenched in the presence of micromolar concentrations of thioacetamide. The quenching was found to follow the Stern-Volmer relationship. The Stern-Volmer constant was evaluated to be 1.20×10 5 M -1 . Infrared spectroscopic measurements indicated the participation of the NH 2 group and the sulphur atom of thioacetamide in bonding with the surface of the ZnO quantum dots. DLS measurements indicated that the surface charge of the semiconductor was shielded by the thioacetamide molecules. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Spectroscopic investigations on the interaction of thioacetamide with ZnO quantum dots and application for its fluorescence sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Dipika; Negi, Devendra P. S.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of the present work was to develop a method for the sensing of thioacetamide by using spectroscopic techniques. Thioacetamide is a carcinogen and it is important to detect its presence in food-stuffs. Semiconductor quantum dots are frequently employed as sensing probes since their absorption and fluorescence properties are highly sensitive to the interaction with substrates present in the solution. In the present work, the interaction between thioacetamide and ZnO quantum dots has been investigated by using UV-visible, fluorescence and infrared spectroscopy. Besides, dynamic light scattering (DLS) has also been utilized for the interaction studies. UV-visible absorption studies indicated the bonding of the lone pair of sulphur atom of thioacetamide with the surface of the semiconductor. The fluorescence band of the ZnO quantum dots was found to be quenched in the presence of micromolar concentrations of thioacetamide. The quenching was found to follow the Stern-Volmer relationship. The Stern-Volmer constant was evaluated to be 1.20 × 105 M- 1. Infrared spectroscopic measurements indicated the participation of the sbnd NH2 group and the sulphur atom of thioacetamide in bonding with the surface of the ZnO quantum dots. DLS measurements indicated that the surface charge of the semiconductor was shielded by the thioacetamide molecules.

  19. Filling- and interaction-driven Mott transition. Quantum cluster calculations within self-energy-functional theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balzer, Matthias

    2008-01-01

    The central goal of this thesis is the examination of strongly correlated electron systems on the basis of the two-dimensional Hubbard model. We analyze how the properties of the Mott insulator change upon doping and with interaction strength. The numerical evaluation is done using quantum cluster approximations, which allow for a thermodynamically consistent description of the ground state properties. The framework of self-energy-functional theory offers great flexibility for the construction of cluster approximations. A detailed analysis sheds light on the quality and the convergence properties of different cluster approximations within the self-energy-functional theory. We use the one-dimensional Hubbard model for these examinations and compare our results with the exact solution. In two dimensions the ground state of the particle-hole symmetric model at half-filling is an antiferromagnetic insulator, independent of the interaction strength. The inclusion of short-range spatial correlations by our cluster approach leads to a considerable improvement of the antiferromagnetic order parameter as compared to dynamical mean-field theory. In the paramagnetic phase we furthermore observe a metal-insulator transition as a function of the interaction strength, which qualitatively differs from the pure mean-field scenario. Starting from the antiferromagnetic Mott insulator a filling-controlled metal-insulator transition in a paramagnetic metallic phase can be observed. Depending on the cluster approximation used an antiferromagnetic metallic phase may occur at first. In addition to long-range antiferromagnetic order, we also considered superconductivity in our calculations. The superconducting order parameter as a function of doping is in good agreement with other numerical methods, as well as with experimental results. (orig.)

  20. Quantum Monte Carlo simulations of the Fermi-polaron problem and bosons with Gaussian interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroiss, Peter Michael

    2017-02-01

    This thesis deals with the application of current Quantum Monte Carlo algorithms to many-body systems of fermionic and bosonic species. The first part applies the diagrammatic Monte Carlo method to the Fermi polaron problem, a system of an impurity interacting resonantly with a homogeneous Fermi bath. It is numerically shown that the three particle-hole diagrams do not contribute significantly to the final answer in a quasi-two-dimensional setup, thus demonstrating a nearly perfect destructive interference of contributions in subspaces with higher-order particle-hole lines. Consequently, for strong-enough confinement in the third direction, the transition between the polaron and the molecule ground state is found to be in good agreement with the pure two-dimensional case and agrees very well with the one found by the wave-function approach in the two-particle-hole subspace. In three-dimensional Fermi-polaron systems with mass imbalance of impurity and bath atoms, polaron energy and quasiparticle residue can be accurately determined over a broad range of impurity masses. Furthermore, the spectral function of an imbalanced polaron demonstrates the stability of the quasiparticle and also allows us to locate the repulsive polaron as an excited state. The quantitative exactness of two-particle-hole wave functions is investigated, resulting in a relative lowering of polaronic energies in the mass-imbalance phase diagram. Tan's contact coefficient for the mass-balanced polaron system is found to be in good agreement with variational methods. Mass-imbalanced systems can be studied experimentally by ultracold atom mixtures such as {sup 6}Li-{sup 40}K. In the second part of the thesis, the ground state of a two-dimensional system of Bose particles of spin zero, interacting via a repulsive Gaussian-Core potential, is investigated by means of path integral Monte Carlo simulations. The quantum phase diagram is qualitatively identical to that of two-dimensional Yukawa

  1. Comparison of electromagnetically induced transparency schemes in semiconductor quantum dot structures: Impact of many-body interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houmark-Nielsen, Jakob; Nielsen, Torben Roland; Mørk, Jesper

    2009-01-01

    an important impact on the slow light properties. In the case of the Lambda and V schemes, the minimum required coupling power to achieve slow light is significantly reduced by many-body interactions. V type schemes are found to be generally preferable due to a favorable redistribution of carriers in energy......We investigate the impact of many-body interactions on group-velocity slowdown achieved via electromagnetically induced transparency in quantum dots using three different coupling-probe schemes (ladder, V, and Lambda, respectively). We find that for all schemes many-body interactions have...

  2. Importance of Vanadium-Catalyzed Oxidation of SO2to SO3in Two-Stroke Marine Diesel Engines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colom, Juan M.; Alzueta, María U.; Christensen, Jakob Munkholt

    2016-01-01

    Low-speed marine diesel engines are mostly operated on heavy fuel oils, which have a high content of sulfur andash, including trace amounts of vanadium, nickel, and aluminum. In particular, vanadium oxides could catalyze in-cylinderoxidation of SO2 to SO3, promoting the formation of sulfuric acid...

  3. SO3 Formation and the Effect of Fly Ash in a Bubbling Fluidised Bed under Oxy-Fuel Combustion Conditions.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sarbassov, Y.; Duan, L.; Jeremiáš, Michal; Manovic, V.; Anthony, E.J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 167, DEC 1 (2017), s. 314-321 ISSN 0378-3820 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : SO3 formation * oxy-fuel combustion * fluidised bed Subject RIV: JE - Non-nuclear Energetics, Energy Consumption ; Use OBOR OECD: Energy and fuels Impact factor: 3.752, year: 2016

  4. SO3 Formation and the Effect of Fly Ash in a Bubbling Fluidised Bed under Oxy-Fuel Combustion Conditions.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sarbassov, Y.; Duan, L.; Jeremiáš, Michal; Manovic, V.; Anthony, E.J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 167, DEC 1 (2017), s. 314-321 ISSN 0378-3820 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : SO3 formation * oxy- fuel combustion * fluidised bed Subject RIV: JE - Non-nuclear Energetics, Energy Consumption ; Use OBOR OECD: Energy and fuel s Impact factor: 3.752, year: 2016

  5. Quantum robots and quantum computers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benioff, P.

    1998-07-01

    Validation of a presumably universal theory, such as quantum mechanics, requires a quantum mechanical description of systems that carry out theoretical calculations and systems that carry out experiments. The description of quantum computers is under active development. No description of systems to carry out experiments has been given. A small step in this direction is taken here by giving a description of quantum robots as mobile systems with on board quantum computers that interact with different environments. Some properties of these systems are discussed. A specific model based on the literature descriptions of quantum Turing machines is presented.

  6. Quantum computers and quantum computations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valiev, Kamil' A

    2005-01-01

    This review outlines the principles of operation of quantum computers and their elements. The theory of ideal computers that do not interact with the environment and are immune to quantum decohering processes is presented. Decohering processes in quantum computers are investigated. The review considers methods for correcting quantum computing errors arising from the decoherence of the state of the quantum computer, as well as possible methods for the suppression of the decohering processes. A brief enumeration of proposed quantum computer realizations concludes the review. (reviews of topical problems)

  7. The Quantum-to-Classical Transition in Strongly Interacting Nanoscale Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benatov, Latchezar Latchezarov

    This thesis comprises two separate but related studies, dealing with two strongly interacting nanoscale systems on the border between the quantum and classical domains. In Part 1, we use a Born-Markov approximated master equation approach to study the symmetrized-in-frequency current noise spectrum and the oscillator steady state of a nanoelectromechanical system where a nanoscale resonator is coupled linearly via its momentum to a quantum point contact (QPC). Our current noise spectra exhibit clear signatures of the quantum correlations between the QPC current and the back-action force on the oscillator at a value of the relative tunneling phase where such correlations are expected to be maximized. We also show that the steady state of the oscillator obeys a classical Fokker-Planck equation, but can experience thermomechanical noise squeezing in the presence of a momentum-coupled detector bath and a position-coupled environmental bath. Besides, the full master equation clearly shows that half of the detector back-action is correlated with electron tunneling, indicating a departure from the model of the detector as an effective bath and suggesting that a future calculation valid at lower bias voltage, stronger tunneling and/or stronger coupling might reveal interesting quantum effects in the oscillator dynamics. In the second part of the thesis, we study the subsystem dynamics and thermalization of an oscillator-spin star model, where a nanomechanical resonator is coupled to a few two-level systems (TLS's). We use a fourth-order Runge-Kutta numerical algorithm to integrate the Schrodinger equation for the system and obtain our results. We find that the oscillator reaches a Boltzmann steady state when the TLS bath is initially in a thermal state at a temperature higher than the oscillator phonon energy. This occurs in both chaotic and integrable systems, and despite the small number of spins (only six) and the lack of couplings between them. At the same time, pure

  8. Quantum dynamics of quantum bits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Bich Ha

    2011-01-01

    The theory of coherent oscillations of the matrix elements of the density matrix of the two-state system as a quantum bit is presented. Different calculation methods are elaborated in the case of a free quantum bit. Then the most appropriate methods are applied to the study of the density matrices of the quantum bits interacting with a classical pumping radiation field as well as with the quantum electromagnetic field in a single-mode microcavity. The theory of decoherence of a quantum bit in Markovian approximation is presented. The decoherence of a quantum bit interacting with monoenergetic photons in a microcavity is also discussed. The content of the present work can be considered as an introduction to the study of the quantum dynamics of quantum bits. (review)

  9. Logical spin-filtering in a triangular network of quantum nanorings with a Rashba spin-orbit interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghan, E.; Sanavi Khoshnoud, D.; Naeimi, A. S.

    2018-01-01

    The spin-resolved electron transport through a triangular network of quantum nanorings is studied in the presence of Rashba spin-orbit interaction (RSOI) and a magnetic flux using quantum waveguide theory. This study illustrates that, by tuning Rashba constant, magnetic flux and incoming electron energy, the triangular network of quantum rings can act as a perfect logical spin-filtering with high efficiency. By changing in the energy of incoming electron, at a proper value of the Rashba constant and magnetic flux, a reverse in the direction of spin can take place in the triangular network of quantum nanorings. Furthermore, the triangular network of quantum nanorings can be designed as a device and shows several simultaneous spintronic properties such as spin-splitter and spin-inverter. This spin-splitting is dependent on the energy of the incoming electron. Additionally, different polarizations can be achieved in the two outgoing leads from an originally incoming spin state that simulates a Stern-Gerlach apparatus.

  10. Fluorescence properties of 3-amino phenylboronic acid and its interaction with glucose and ZnS:Cu quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kur-Kowalska, Karolina; Przybyt, Małgorzata; Ziółczyk, Paulina; Sowiński, Przemysław; Miller, Ewa

    2014-08-14

    Preliminary results of a study of the interaction between 3-amino phenylboronic acid and glucose or ZnS:Cu quantum dots are presented in this paper. ZnS:Cu quantum dots with mercaptopropionic acid as a capping agent were obtained and characterized. Quenching of 3-amino phenylboronic acid fluorescence was studied by steady-state and timeresolved measurements. For fluorescence quenching with glucose the results of steady-state measurements fulfill Stern-Volmer equation. The quenching constants are increasing with growing pH. The decay of fluorescence is monoexponential with lifetime about 8.4 ns, which does not depend on pH and glucose concentration indicating static quenching. The quenching constant can be interpreted as apparent equilibrium constant of estrification of boronic group with diol. Quantum dots are also quenching 3-amino phenylboronic acid fluorescence. Fluorescence lifetime, in this case, is slightly decreasing with increasing concentration of quantum dots. The quenching constants are increasing slightly with pH's growth. Quenching mechanism of 3-amino phenylboronic acid fluorescence by quantum dots needs further experiments to be fully explained. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Intrinsic retrieval efficiency for quantum memories: A three-dimensional theory of light interaction with an atomic ensemble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gujarati, Tanvi P.; Wu, Yukai; Duan, Luming

    2018-03-01

    Duan-Lukin-Cirac-Zoller quantum repeater protocol, which was proposed to realize long distance quantum communication, requires usage of quantum memories. Atomic ensembles interacting with optical beams based on off-resonant Raman scattering serve as convenient on-demand quantum memories. Here, a complete free space, three-dimensional theory of the associated read and write process for this quantum memory is worked out with the aim of understanding intrinsic retrieval efficiency. We develop a formalism to calculate the transverse mode structure for the signal and the idler photons and use the formalism to study the intrinsic retrieval efficiency under various configurations. The effects of atomic density fluctuations and atomic motion are incorporated by numerically simulating this system for a range of realistic experimental parameters. We obtain results that describe the variation in the intrinsic retrieval efficiency as a function of the memory storage time for skewed beam configuration at a finite temperature, which provides valuable information for optimization of the retrieval efficiency in experiments.

  12. Density-Dependent Formulation of Dispersion-Repulsion Interactions in Hybrid Multiscale Quantum/Molecular Mechanics (QM/MM) Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curutchet, Carles; Cupellini, Lorenzo; Kongsted, Jacob; Corni, Stefano; Frediani, Luca; Steindal, Arnfinn Hykkerud; Guido, Ciro A; Scalmani, Giovanni; Mennucci, Benedetta

    2018-03-13

    Mixed multiscale quantum/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) models are widely used to explore the structure, reactivity, and electronic properties of complex chemical systems. Whereas such models typically include electrostatics and potentially polarization in so-called electrostatic and polarizable embedding approaches, respectively, nonelectrostatic dispersion and repulsion interactions are instead commonly described through classical potentials despite their quantum mechanical origin. Here we present an extension of the Tkatchenko-Scheffler semiempirical van der Waals (vdW TS ) scheme aimed at describing dispersion and repulsion interactions between quantum and classical regions within a QM/MM polarizable embedding framework. Starting from the vdW TS expression, we define a dispersion and a repulsion term, both of them density-dependent and consistently based on a Lennard-Jones-like potential. We explore transferable atom type-based parametrization strategies for the MM parameters, based on either vdW TS calculations performed on isolated fragments or on a direct estimation of the parameters from atomic polarizabilities taken from a polarizable force field. We investigate the performance of the implementation by computing self-consistent interaction energies for the S22 benchmark set, designed to represent typical noncovalent interactions in biological systems, in both equilibrium and out-of-equilibrium geometries. Overall, our results suggest that the present implementation is a promising strategy to include dispersion and repulsion in multiscale QM/MM models incorporating their explicit dependence on the electronic density.

  13. Quantum ballistic transport by interacting two-electron states in quasi-one-dimensional channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Danhong [Air Force Research Laboratory, Space Vehicles Directorate, Kirtland Air Force Base, New Mexico 87117 (United States); Center for High Technology Materials, University of New Mexico, 1313 Goddard St SE, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87106 (United States); Gumbs, Godfrey [Center for High Technology Materials, University of New Mexico, 1313 Goddard St SE, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87106 (United States); Abranyos, Yonatan [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Hunter College of the City University of New York, 695 Park Avenue, New York, New York 10065 (United States); Pepper, Michael; Kumar, Sanjeev [Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University College London, London, WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom); London Centre for Nanotechnology, 17-19 Gordon Street, London, WC1H 0AH (United Kingdom)

    2015-11-15

    For quantum ballistic transport of electrons through a short conduction channel, the role of Coulomb interaction may significantly modify the energy levels of two-electron states at low temperatures as the channel becomes wide. In this regime, the Coulomb effect on the two-electron states is calculated and found to lead to four split energy levels, including two anticrossing-level and two crossing-level states. Moreover, due to the interplay of anticrossing and crossing effects, our calculations reveal that the ground two-electron state will switch from one anticrossing state (strong confinement) to a crossing state (intermediate confinement) as the channel width gradually increases and then back to the original anticrossing state (weak confinement) as the channel width becomes larger than a threshold value. This switching behavior leaves a footprint in the ballistic conductance as well as in the diffusion thermoelectric power of electrons. Such a switching is related to the triple spin degeneracy as well as to the Coulomb repulsion in the central region of the channel, which separates two electrons away and pushes them to different channel edges. The conductance reoccurrence region expands from the weak to the intermediate confinement regime with increasing electron density.

  14. The effect of exchange interaction on quasiparticle Landau levels in narrow-gap quantum well heterostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishtopenko, S S; Gavrilenko, V I; Goiran, M

    2012-04-04

    Using the 'screened' Hartree-Fock approximation based on the eight-band k·p Hamiltonian, we have extended our previous work (Krishtopenko et al 2011 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 23 385601) on exchange enhancement of the g-factor in narrow-gap quantum well heterostructures by calculating the exchange renormalization of quasiparticle energies, the density of states at the Fermi level and the quasiparticle g-factor for different Landau levels overlapping. We demonstrate that exchange interaction yields more pronounced Zeeman splitting of the density of states at the Fermi level and leads to the appearance of peak-shaped features in the dependence of the Landau level energies on the magnetic field at integer filling factors. We also find that the quasiparticle g-factor does not reach the maximum value at odd filling factors in the presence of large overlapping of spin-split Landau levels. We advance an argument that the behavior of the quasiparticle g-factor in weak magnetic fields is defined by a random potential of impurities in narrow-gap heterostructures. © 2012 IOP Publishing Ltd

  15. Unfavorable regions in the ramachandran plot: Is it really steric hindrance? The interacting quantum atoms perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Peter I; Popelier, Paul L A

    2017-11-05

    Accurate description of the intrinsic preferences of amino acids is important to consider when developing a biomolecular force field. In this study, we use a modern energy partitioning approach called Interacting Quantum Atoms to inspect the cause of the φ and ψ torsional preferences of three dipeptides (Gly, Val, and Ile). Repeating energy trends at each of the molecular, functional group, and atomic levels are observed across both (1) the three amino acids and (2) the φ/ψ scans in Ramachandran plots. At the molecular level, it is surprisingly electrostatic destabilization that causes the high-energy regions in the Ramachandran plot, not molecular steric hindrance (related to the intra-atomic energy). At the functional group and atomic levels, the importance of key peptide atoms (O i -1 , C i , N i , N i +1 ) and some sidechain hydrogen atoms (H γ ) are identified as responsible for the destabilization seen in the energetically disfavored Ramachandran regions. Consistently, the O i -1 atoms are particularly important for the explanation of dipeptide intrinsic behavior, where electrostatic and steric destabilization unusually complement one another. The findings suggest that, at least for these dipeptides, it is the peptide group atoms that dominate the intrinsic behavior, more so than the sidechain atoms. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Computational Chemistry Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Computational Chemistry Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. A deterministic alternative to the full configuration interaction quantum Monte Carlo method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tubman, Norm M.; Lee, Joonho; Takeshita, Tyler Y.; Head-Gordon, Martin; Whaley, K. Birgitta [University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2016-07-28

    Development of exponentially scaling methods has seen great progress in tackling larger systems than previously thought possible. One such technique, full configuration interaction quantum Monte Carlo, is a useful algorithm that allows exact diagonalization through stochastically sampling determinants. The method derives its utility from the information in the matrix elements of the Hamiltonian, along with a stochastic projected wave function, to find the important parts of Hilbert space. However, the stochastic representation of the wave function is not required to search Hilbert space efficiently, and here we describe a highly efficient deterministic method that can achieve chemical accuracy for a wide range of systems, including the difficult Cr{sub 2} molecule. We demonstrate for systems like Cr{sub 2} that such calculations can be performed in just a few cpu hours which makes it one of the most efficient and accurate methods that can attain chemical accuracy for strongly correlated systems. In addition our method also allows efficient calculation of excited state energies, which we illustrate with benchmark results for the excited states of C{sub 2}.

  17. Exponentially more precise quantum simulation of fermions in the configuration interaction representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babbush, Ryan; Berry, Dominic W.; Sanders, Yuval R.; Kivlichan, Ian D.; Scherer, Artur; Wei, Annie Y.; Love, Peter J.; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán

    2018-01-01

    We present a quantum algorithm for the simulation of molecular systems that is asymptotically more efficient than all previous algorithms in the literature in terms of the main problem parameters. As in Babbush et al (2016 New Journal of Physics 18, 033032), we employ a recently developed technique for simulating Hamiltonian evolution using a truncated Taylor series to obtain logarithmic scaling with the inverse of the desired precision. The algorithm of this paper involves simulation under an oracle for the sparse, first-quantized representation of the molecular Hamiltonian known as the configuration interaction (CI) matrix. We construct and query the CI matrix oracle to allow for on-the-fly computation of molecular integrals in a way that is exponentially more efficient than classical numerical methods. Whereas second-quantized representations of the wavefunction require \\widetilde{{ O }}(N) qubits, where N is the number of single-particle spin-orbitals, the CI matrix representation requires \\widetilde{{ O }}(η ) qubits, where η \\ll N is the number of electrons in the molecule of interest. We show that the gate count of our algorithm scales at most as \\widetilde{{ O }}({η }2{N}3t).

  18. Molecular mechanics and quantum mechanical modeling of hexane soot structure and interactions with pyrene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kubicki JD

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Molecular simulations (energy minimizations and molecular dynamics of an n-hexane soot model developed by Smith and co-workers (M. S. Akhter, A. R. Chughtai and D. M. Smith, Appl. Spectrosc., 1985, 39, 143; ref. 1 were performed. The MM+ (N. L. Allinger, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1977, 395, 157; ref. 2 and COMPASS (H. Sun, J. Phys. Chem., 1998, 102, 7338; ref. 3 force fields were tested for their ability to produce realistic soot nanoparticle structure. The interaction of pyrene with the model soot was simulated. Quantum mechanical calculations on smaller soot fragments were carried out. Starting from an initial 2D structure, energy minimizations are not able to produce the observed layering within soot with either force field. Results of molecular dynamics simulations indicate that the COMPASS force field does a reasonably accurate job of reproducing observations of soot structure. Increasing the system size from a 683 to a 2732 atom soot model does not have a significant effect on predicted structures. Neither does the addition of water molecules surrounding the soot model. Pyrene fits within the soot structure without disrupting the interlayer spacing. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH, such as pyrene, may strongly partition into soot and have slow desorption kinetics because the PAH-soot bonding is similar to soot–soot interactions. Diffusion of PAH into soot micropores may allow the PAH to be irreversibly adsorbed and sequestered so that they partition slowly back into an aqueous phase causing dis-equilibrium between soil organic matter and porewater.

  19. Electron correlation in the interacting quantum atoms partition via coupled-cluster lagrangian densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holguín-Gallego, Fernando José; Chávez-Calvillo, Rodrigo; García-Revilla, Marco; Francisco, Evelio; Pendás, Ángel Martín; Rocha-Rinza, Tomás

    2016-07-15

    The electronic energy partition established by the Interacting Quantum Atoms (IQA) approach is an important method of wavefunction analyses which has yielded valuable insights about different phenomena in physical chemistry. Most of the IQA applications have relied upon approximations, which do not include either dynamical correlation (DC) such as Hartree-Fock (HF) or external DC like CASSCF theory. Recently, DC was included in the IQA method by means of HF/Coupled-Cluster (CC) transition densities (Chávez-Calvillo et al., Comput. Theory Chem. 2015, 1053, 90). Despite the potential utility of this approach, it has a few drawbacks, for example, it is not consistent with the calculation of CC properties different from the total electronic energy. To improve this situation, we have implemented the IQA energy partition based on CC Lagrangian one- and two-electron orbital density matrices. The development presented in this article is tested and illustrated with the H2 , LiH, H2 O, H2 S, N2 , and CO molecules for which the IQA results obtained under the consideration of (i) the CC Lagrangian, (ii) HF/CC transition densities, and (iii) HF are critically analyzed and compared. Additionally, the effect of the DC in the different components of the electronic energy in the formation of the T-shaped (H2 )2 van der Waals cluster and the bimolecular nucleophilic substitution between F(-) and CH3 F is examined. We anticipate that the approach put forward in this article will provide new understandings on subjects in physical chemistry wherein DC plays a crucial role like molecular interactions along with chemical bonding and reactivity. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Polymerization of Methyl Methacrylate Initiated by PADC-Cu(Ⅱ)/ Na2 SO3/H2O System%PADC-Cu(Ⅱ)/Na2SO3/H2O体系引发MMA聚合

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔元臣; 刘新明; 赵晓伟; 张磊

    2006-01-01

    由含N,O,S多官能团的螯合树脂PADC和Cu2+作用制得一种新型的高分子金属配合物,用IR、XPS、AAS、TG/DTA对其结构进行了表征.以该配合物和Na2SO3水溶液组成的体系应用于引发MMA聚合,结果表明:PADC-Cu(Ⅱ)/Na2SO3体系可以有效地引发MMA聚合,反应表观活化能Ea=57.4 kJmol-1,并详细研究了影响产率和分子量的各因素,由该体系引发MMA聚合的分子量可达213万,在6h内产率就达58.6%.初步讨论了该聚合过程是一种自由基聚合过程,初始自由基由PADC-Cu2+/Na2SO3/MMA体系"配位氢转移"产生.

  1. Detection and Control of Spin-Orbit Interactions in a GaAs Hole Quantum Point Contact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, A.; Miserev, D. S.; Hudson, K. L.; Klochan, O.; Muraki, K.; Hirayama, Y.; Reuter, D.; Wieck, A. D.; Sushkov, O. P.; Hamilton, A. R.

    2017-04-01

    We investigate the relationship between the Zeeman interaction and the inversion-asymmetry-induced spin-orbit interactions (Rashba and Dresselhaus SOIs) in GaAs hole quantum point contacts. The presence of a strong SOI results in the crossing and anticrossing of adjacent spin-split hole subbands in a magnetic field. We demonstrate theoretically and experimentally that the anticrossing energy gap depends on the interplay between the SOI terms and the highly anisotropic hole g tensor and that this interplay can be tuned by selecting the crystal axis along which the current and magnetic field are aligned. Our results constitute the independent detection and control of the Dresselhaus and Rashba SOIs in hole systems, which could be of importance for spintronics and quantum information applications.

  2. Dynamical Quantum Phase Transitions in Spin Chains with Long-Range Interactions: Merging Different Concepts of Nonequilibrium Criticality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žunkovič, Bojan; Heyl, Markus; Knap, Michael; Silva, Alessandro

    2018-03-01

    We theoretically study the dynamics of a transverse-field Ising chain with power-law decaying interactions characterized by an exponent α , which can be experimentally realized in ion traps. We focus on two classes of emergent dynamical critical phenomena following a quantum quench from a ferromagnetic initial state: The first one manifests in the time-averaged order parameter, which vanishes at a critical transverse field. We argue that such a transition occurs only for long-range interactions α ≤2 . The second class corresponds to the emergence of time-periodic singularities in the return probability to the ground-state manifold which is obtained for all values of α and agrees with the order parameter transition for α ≤2 . We characterize how the two classes of nonequilibrium criticality correspond to each other and give a physical interpretation based on the symmetry of the time-evolved quantum states.

  3. Emission Noise in an Interacting Quantum Dot: Role of Inelastic Scattering and Asymmetric Coupling to the Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crépieux, A.; Sahoo, S.; Duong, T. Q.; Zamoum, R.; Lavagna, M.

    2018-03-01

    A theory is developed for the emission noise at frequency ν in a quantum dot in the presence of Coulomb interactions and asymmetric couplings to the reservoirs. We give an analytical expression for the noise in terms of the various transmission amplitudes. Including the inelastic scattering contribution, it can be seen as the analog of the Meir-Wingreen formula for the current. A physical interpretation is given on the basis of the transmission of one electron-hole pair to the concerned reservoir where it emits an energy after recombination. We then treat the interactions by solving the self-consistent equations of motion for the Green functions. The results for the noise derivative versus e V show a zero value until e V =h ν , followed by a Kondo peak in the Kondo regime, in good agreement with recent measurements in carbon nanotube quantum dots.

  4. Light-matter Interactions in Semiconductors and Metals: From Nitride Optoelectronics to Quantum Plasmonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narang, Prineha

    This thesis puts forth a theory-directed approach coupled with spectroscopy aimed at the discovery and understanding of light-matter interactions in semiconductors and metals. The first part of the thesis presents the discovery and development of Zn-IV nitride materials. The commercial prominence in the optoelectronics industry of tunable semiconductor alloy materials based on nitride semiconductor devices, specifically InGaN, motivates the search for earth-abundant alternatives for use in efficient, high-quality optoelectronic devices. II-IV-N2 compounds, which are closely related to the wurtzite-structured III-N semiconductors, have similar electronic and optical properties to InGaN namely direct band gaps, high quantum efficiencies and large optical absorption coefficients. The choice of different group II and group IV elements provides chemical diversity that can be exploited to tune the structural and electronic properties through the series of alloys. The first theoretical and experimental investigation of the ZnSnxGe1--xN2 series as a replacement for III-nitrides is discussed here. The second half of the thesis shows ab-initio calculations for surface plasmons and plasmonic hot carrier dynamics. Surface plasmons, electromagnetic modes confined to the surface of a conductor-dielectric interface, have sparked renewed interest because of their quantum nature and their broad range of applications. The decay of surface plasmons is usually a detriment in the field of plasmonics, but the possibility to capture the energy normally lost to heat would open new opportunities in photon sensors, energy conversion devices and switching. A theoretical understanding of plasmon-driven hot carrier generation and relaxation dynamics in the ultrafast regime is presented here. Additionally calculations for plasmon-mediated upconversion as well as an energy-dependent transport model for these non-equilibrium carriers are shown. Finally, this thesis gives an outlook on the

  5. Quantum Interactive Dualism: The Libet and Einstein-Podolsky-RosenCausal Anomalies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stapp, Henry P.

    2006-02-20

    The "free will" data of Benjamin Libet and the predictionsof quantum theory considered by Einstein, Podolsky,and Rosen, both posepuzzles within aconceptual framework that, simultaneously, is compatiblewith the theory of relativity and allows human subjects to freely choosehow they will act. The quantum theoretic resolutions of these puzzles aredescribed.

  6. Quantum Interactive Dualism: The Libet and Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen Causal Anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stapp, Henry P.

    2006-01-01

    The 'free will' data of Benjamin Libet and the predictions of quantum theory considered by Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen, both pose puzzles within a conceptual framework that, simultaneously, is compatible with the theory of relativity and allows human subjects to freely choose how they will act. The quantum theoretic resolutions of these puzzles are described

  7. Face-to-face interaction of multisolitons in spin-1/2 quantum plasma

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-12-13

    Dec 13, 2016 ... tems [14]. When de Broglie wavelength of charge car- riers becomes comparable to the system scales (such as interparticle distances), the quantum effects should be taken into account. In quantum plasma, Fermi–. Dirac distribution is used to describe the system rather than Maxwell–Boltzmann distribution.

  8. Tunable self-assembled spin chains of strongly interacting cold atoms for demonstration of reliable quantum state transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loft, N. J. S.; Marchukov, O. V.; Petrosyan, D.

    2016-01-01

    We have developed an efficient computational method to treat long, one-dimensional systems of strongly-interacting atoms forming self-assembled spin chains. Such systems can be used to realize many spin chain model Hamiltonians tunable by the external confining potential. As a concrete...... demonstration, we consider quantum state transfer in a Heisenberg spin chain and we show how to determine the confining potential in order to obtain nearly-perfect state transfer....

  9. Investigation on dielectric relaxation of PMMA-grafted natural rubber incorporated with LiCF3SO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yap, K.S.; Teo, L.P.; Sim, L.N.; Majid, S.R.; Arof, A.K.

    2012-01-01

    Natural rubber (NR) grafted with 30 wt% poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and designated as MG30 has been added with varying amounts of LiCF 3 SO 3 . X-ray diffraction (XRD) shows the samples to be amorphous. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy indicates complexation between the cation of the salt and the oxygen atom of the C=O and -COO- groups of MG30. From electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), MG30 with 30 wt% LiCF 3 SO 3 salt exhibits the highest ambient conductivity of 1.69×10 -6 S cm -1 and lowest activation energy of 0.24 eV. The dielectric behavior has been analyzed using dielectric permittivity (ε′), dissipation factor (tan δ) and dielectric modulus (M ⁎ ) of the samples. The dielectric constant of pure MG30 has been estimated to be ∼1.86.

  10. Electron-Electron and Electron-Phonon interactions effects on the tunnel electronic spectrum of PbS quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongyue; Lhuillier, Emmanuel; Yu, Qian; Mottaghizadeh, Alireza; Ulysse, Christian; Zimmers, Alexandre; Dubertret, Benoit; Aubin, Herve

    2015-03-01

    We present a tunnel spectroscopy study of the electronic spectrum of single PbS Quantum Dots (QDs) trapped between nanometer-spaced electrodes, measured at low temperature T=5 K. The carrier filling of the QD can be controlled either by the drain voltage in the shell filling regime or by a gate voltage. In the empty QD, the tunnel spectrum presents the expected signature of the 8x degenerated excited levels. In the drain controlled shell filling regime, the levels degeneracies are lifted by the global electrostatic Coulomb energy of the QD; in the gate controlled shell filling regime, the levels degeneracies are lifted by the intra-Coulomb interactions. In the charged quantum dot, electron-phonons interactions lead to the apparition of Franck-Condon side bands on the single excited levels and possibly Franck Condon blockade at low energy. The sharpening of excited levels at higher gate voltage suggests that the magnitude of electron-phonon interactions is decreased upon increasing the electron filling in the quantum dot. This work was supported by the French ANR Grants 10-BLAN-0409-01, 09-BLAN-0388-01, by the Region Ile-de-France in the framework of DIM Nano-K and by China Scholarship Council.

  11. Catalytic Cascade Dehydration-Etherification of Fructose into 5-Ethoxymethylfurfural with SO3H-Functionalized Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of SO3H-functionalized polymers were prepared and employed as heterogeneous catalysts for one-pot transformation of fructose into 5-ethoxymethylfurfural (EMF that is considered to be one of potential liquid biofuels. A high EMF yield of 72.8% could be obtained at 110°C for 10 h, and the polymeric acid catalysts could be recycled for five times without significant loss of catalytic performance.

  12. Asymmetric synthesis of allylic sulfonic acids: enantio- and regioselective iridium-catalyzed allylations of Na2SO3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Zhao, Xiao-ming; Zhang, Hong-bo; Zhang, Liang; Zhao, Ming-zhu

    2014-12-15

    An enantioselective allylation reaction of allylic carbonates with sodium sulfite (Na2 SO3 ) catalyzed by Ir complex was accomplished, providing allylic sulfonic acids in good to excellent yields with a high level of enantio- and regioselectivities. (R)-2-Phenyl-2-sulfoacetic acid, a key intermediate for the synthesis of Cefsulodin and Sulbenicillin, was synthesized as well. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Dielectric and conduction mechanism studies of PEMA/ENR-50 blend with LiCF3SO3 salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukri, N.; Mohamed, N. S.; Subban, R. H. Y.

    2017-09-01

    Solid polymer electrolytes (SPEs) composed of a blend of Poly(ethyl methacrylate) (PEMA) and Epoxidized Natural Rubber-50 (ENR-50) and Lithium triflate (LiCF3SO3) were prepared by solution casting technique. The conductivity was measured by using electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Measurement of conductivity was carried out as a function of frequency at various concentrations of salt. The SPE exhibit high conductivity of ˜10-5 S/cm at ambient temperature when 40 wt% of LiCF3SO3 was added. Increase in conductivity is attributed to increasing number of charge carriers due to dissociation of salt when the concentration of salt increased. Dielectric properties and ac conductivity of the samples were analyzed. The values of dielectric constant were found to increase with increasing conductivity of the samples. The electrical modulus shows the formation of dispersion peaks. Relaxation time of ionic charge carriers were extracted from the maximum peak of loss tangent at various concentrations of LiCF3SO3 salt. The temperature dependence of the power law exponent s is explained by the overlapping large polaron-tunnelling (OLPT) model.

  14. Spin texturing in quantum wires with Rashba and Dresselhaus spin–orbit interactions and in-plane magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gisi, B; Sakiroglu, S; Sokmen, İ

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we investigate the effects of interplay of spin–orbit interaction and in-plane magnetic fields on the electronic structure and spin texturing of parabolically confined quantum wire. Numerical results reveal that the competing effects between Rashba and Dresselhaus spin–orbit interactions and the external magnetic field lead to a complicated energy spectrum. We find that the spin texturing owing to the coupling between subbands can be modified by the strength of spin–orbit couplings as well as the magnitude and the orientation angle of the external magnetic field. (paper)

  15. The impact of electrostatic interactions on ultrafast charge transfer at Ag 29 nanoclusters–fullerene and CdTe quantum dots–fullerene interfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Ghada H.; Parida, Manas R.; Tosato, Alberto; AbdulHalim, Lina G.; Usman, Anwar; Alsulami, Qana; Banavoth, Murali; Alarousu, Erkki; Bakr, Osman; Mohammed, Omar F.

    2015-01-01

    investigate the electrostatic interactions between the positively charged fullerene derivative C60-(N,N dimethylpyrrolidinium iodide) (CF) employed as an efficient molecular acceptor and two different donor molecules: Ag29 nanoclusters (NCs) and CdTe quantum

  16. Dissipation, dephasing and quantum Darwinism in qubit systems with random unitary interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaneskovic, Nenad; Mendler, Marc

    2016-09-01

    We investigate the influence of dissipation and decoherence on quantum Darwinism by generalizing Zurek's original qubit model of decoherence and the establishment of pointer states [W.H. Zurek, Nat. Phys. 5, 181 (2009); see also arXiv: quant-ph/0707.2832v1, pp. 14-19.]. Our model allows for repeated multiple qubit-qubit couplings between system and environment which are described by randomly applied two-qubit quantum operations inducing entanglement, dissipation and dephasing. The resulting stationary qubit states of system and environment are investigated. They exhibit the intricate influence of entanglement generation, dissipation and dephasing on this characteristic quantum phenomenon.

  17. In vitro and in vivo documentation of quantum dots labeled Trypanosoma cruzi--Rhodnius prolixus interaction using confocal microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feder, Denise; Gomes, Suzete A O; de Thomaz, André A; Almeida, Diogo B; Faustino, Wagner M; Fontes, Adriana; Stahl, Cecília V; Santos-Mallet, Jacenir R; Cesar, Carlos L

    2009-12-01

    Semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) are highly fluorescent nanocrystals markers that allow long photobleaching and do not destroy the parasites. In this paper, we used fluorescent core shell quantum dots to perform studies of live parasite-vector interaction processes without any observable effect on the vitality of parasites. These nanocrystals were synthesized in aqueous medium and physiological pH, which is very important for monitoring live cells activities, and conjugated with molecules such as lectins to label specific carbohydrates involved on the parasite-vector interaction. These QDs were successfully used for the study of in vitro and in vivo interaction of Trypanosoma cruzi and the triatomine Rhodnius prolixus. These QDs allowed us to acquire real time confocal images sequences of live T. cruzi-R. prolixus interactions for an extended period, causing no damage to the cells. By zooming to the region of interest, we have been able to acquire confocal images at the three to four frames per second rate. Our results show that QDs are physiological fluorescent markers capable to label living parasites and insect vector cells. QDs can be functionalized with lectins to specifically mark surface carbohydrates on perimicrovillar membrane of R. prolixus to follow, visualize, and understand interaction between vectors and its parasites in real-time.

  18. Optimal control of quantum gates and suppression of decoherence in a system of interacting two-level particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grace, Matthew; Brif, Constantin; Rabitz, Herschel; Walmsley, Ian A; Kosut, Robert L; Lidar, Daniel A

    2007-01-01

    Methods of optimal control are applied to a model system of interacting two-level particles (e.g., spin-half atomic nuclei or electrons or two-level atoms) to produce high-fidelity quantum gates while simultaneously negating the detrimental effect of decoherence. One set of particles functions as the quantum information processor, whose evolution is controlled by a time-dependent external field. The other particles are not directly controlled and serve as an effective environment, coupling to which is the source of decoherence. The control objective is to generate target one- and two-qubit unitary gates in the presence of strong environmentally-induced decoherence and under physically motivated restrictions on the control field. The quantum-gate fidelity, expressed in terms of a novel state-independent distance measure, is maximized with respect to the control field using combined genetic and gradient algorithms. The resulting high-fidelity gates demonstrate the feasibility of precisely guiding the quantum evolution via optimal control, even when the system complexity is exacerbated by environmental coupling. It is found that the gate duration has an important effect on the control mechanism and resulting fidelity. An analysis of the sensitivity of the gate performance to random variations in the system parameters reveals a significant degree of robustness attained by the optimal control solutions

  19. Nucleo-mitochondrial interaction of yeast in response to cadmium sulfide quantum dot exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasquali, Francesco; Agrimonti, Caterina; Pagano, Luca; Zappettini, Andrea; Villani, Marco; Marmiroli, Marta; White, Jason C.; Marmiroli, Nelson

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • CdS QDs induce oxidative stress in yeast. • CdS QDs disrupt mitochondrial membrane potentials and morphology. • CdS QDs do not affect mtDNA content. • CdS QDs modify the expression of genes involved in mitochondrial organization and function. • Deletion of some of these genes induces either tolerant or sensitive phenotypes to CdS QDs. - Abstract: Cell sensitivity to quantum dots (QDs) has been attributed to a cascade triggered by oxidative stress leading to apoptosis. The role and function of mitochondria in animal cells are well understood but little information is available on the complex genetic networks that regulate nucleo-mitochondrial interaction. The effect of CdS QD exposure in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae was assessed under conditions of limited lethality (<10%), using cell physiological and morphological endpoints. Whole-genomic array analysis and the screening of a deletion mutant library were also carried out. The results showed that QDs: increased the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and decreased the level of reduced vs oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG); reduced oxygen consumption and the abundance of respiratory cytochromes; disrupted mitochondrial membrane potentials and affected mitochondrial morphology. Exposure affected the capacity of cells to grow on galactose, which requires nucleo-mitochondrial involvement. However, QDs exposure did not materially induce respiratory deficient (RD) mutants but only RD phenocopies. All of these cellular changes were correlated with several key nuclear genes, including TOM5 and FKS1, involved in the maintenance of mitochondrial organization and function. The consequences of these cellular effects are discussed in terms of dysregulation of cell function in response to these “pathological mitochondria”.

  20. Effectiveness of interactive tutorials in promoting "which-path" information reasoning in advanced quantum mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maries, Alexandru; Sayer, Ryan; Singh, Chandralekha

    2017-12-01

    Research suggests that introductory physics students often have difficulty using a concept in contexts different from the ones in which they learned it without explicit guidance to help them make the connection between the different contexts. We have been investigating advanced students' learning of quantum mechanics concepts and have developed interactive tutorials which strive to help students learn these concepts. Two such tutorials, focused on the Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) and the double-slit experiment (DSE), help students learn how to use the concept of "which-path" information to reason about the presence or absence of interference in these two experiments in different situations. After working on a pretest that asked students to predict interference in the MZI with single photons and polarizers of various orientations placed in one or both paths of the MZI, students worked on the MZI tutorial which, among other things, guided them to reason in terms of which-path information in order to predict interference in similar situations. We investigated the extent to which students were able to use reasoning related to which-path information learned in the MZI tutorial to answer analogous questions on the DSE (before working on the DSE tutorial). After students worked on the DSE pretest they worked on a DSE tutorial in which they learned to use the concept of which-path information to answer questions about interference in the DSE with single particles with mass sent through the two slits and a monochromatic lamp placed between the slits and the screen. We investigated if this additional exposure to the concept of which-path information promoted improved learning and performance on the DSE questions with single photons and polarizers placed after one or both slits. We find evidence that both tutorials promoted which-path information reasoning and helped students use this reasoning appropriately in contexts different from the ones in which they had learned

  1. Nucleo-mitochondrial interaction of yeast in response to cadmium sulfide quantum dot exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasquali, Francesco; Agrimonti, Caterina [Department of Life Sciences, University of Parma, Parma (Italy); Pagano, Luca [Department of Life Sciences, University of Parma, Parma (Italy); Stockbridge school of Agriculture, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States); The Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, New Haven, CT (United States); Zappettini, Andrea; Villani, Marco [IMEM-CNR - Istituto dei Materiali per l' Elettronica ed il Magnetismo, Parma (Italy); Marmiroli, Marta [Department of Life Sciences, University of Parma, Parma (Italy); White, Jason C. [The Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, New Haven, CT (United States); Marmiroli, Nelson, E-mail: nelson.marmiroli@unipr.it [Department of Life Sciences, University of Parma, Parma (Italy); CINSA - Consorzio Interuniversitario Nazionale per le Scienze Ambientali, University of Parma, Parma (Italy)

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • CdS QDs induce oxidative stress in yeast. • CdS QDs disrupt mitochondrial membrane potentials and morphology. • CdS QDs do not affect mtDNA content. • CdS QDs modify the expression of genes involved in mitochondrial organization and function. • Deletion of some of these genes induces either tolerant or sensitive phenotypes to CdS QDs. - Abstract: Cell sensitivity to quantum dots (QDs) has been attributed to a cascade triggered by oxidative stress leading to apoptosis. The role and function of mitochondria in animal cells are well understood but little information is available on the complex genetic networks that regulate nucleo-mitochondrial interaction. The effect of CdS QD exposure in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae was assessed under conditions of limited lethality (<10%), using cell physiological and morphological endpoints. Whole-genomic array analysis and the screening of a deletion mutant library were also carried out. The results showed that QDs: increased the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and decreased the level of reduced vs oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG); reduced oxygen consumption and the abundance of respiratory cytochromes; disrupted mitochondrial membrane potentials and affected mitochondrial morphology. Exposure affected the capacity of cells to grow on galactose, which requires nucleo-mitochondrial involvement. However, QDs exposure did not materially induce respiratory deficient (RD) mutants but only RD phenocopies. All of these cellular changes were correlated with several key nuclear genes, including TOM5 and FKS1, involved in the maintenance of mitochondrial organization and function. The consequences of these cellular effects are discussed in terms of dysregulation of cell function in response to these “pathological mitochondria”.

  2. Biological interactions of quantum dot nanoparticles in skin and in human epidermal keratinocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Leshuai W.; Yu, William W.; Colvin, Vicki L.; Monteiro-Riviere, Nancy A.

    2008-01-01

    Quantum dots nanoparticles have novel optical properties for biomedical applications and electronics, but little is known about their skin permeability and interaction with cells. QD621 are nail-shaped nanoparticles that contain a cadmium/selenide core with a cadmium sulfide shell coated with polyethylene glycol (PEG) and are soluble in water. QD were topically applied to porcine skin flow-through diffusion cells to assess penetration at 1 μM, 2 μM and 10 μM for 24 h. QD were also studied in human epidermal keratinocytes (HEK) to determine cellular uptake, cytotoxicity and inflammatory potential. Confocal microscopy depicted the penetration of QD621 through the uppermost stratum corneum (SC) layers of the epidermis and fluorescence was found primarily in the SC and near hair follicles. QD were found in the intercellular lipid bilayers of the SC by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) analysis for cadmium (Cd) and fluorescence for QD both did not detect Cd nor fluorescence signal in the perfusate at any time point or concentration. In HEK, viability decreased significantly (p < 0.05) from 1.25 nM to 10nM after 24 h and 48 h. There was a significant increase in IL-6 at 1.25 nM to 10 nM, while IL-8 increased from 2.5nM to 10nM after 24 h and 48 h. TEM of HEK treated with 10 nM of QD621 at 24 h depicted QD in cytoplasmic vacuoles and at the periphery of the cell membranes. These results indicate that porcine skin penetration of QD621 is minimal and limited primarily to the outer SC layers, yet if the skin were damaged allowing direct QD exposure to skin or keratinocytes, an inflammatory response could be initiated

  3. Quantum memory Quantum memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Gouët, Jean-Louis; Moiseev, Sergey

    2012-06-01

    Interaction of quantum radiation with multi-particle ensembles has sparked off intense research efforts during the past decade. Emblematic of this field is the quantum memory scheme, where a quantum state of light is mapped onto an ensemble of atoms and then recovered in its original shape. While opening new access to the basics of light-atom interaction, quantum memory also appears as a key element for information processing applications, such as linear optics quantum computation and long-distance quantum communication via quantum repeaters. Not surprisingly, it is far from trivial to practically recover a stored quantum state of light and, although impressive progress has already been accomplished, researchers are still struggling to reach this ambitious objective. This special issue provides an account of the state-of-the-art in a fast-moving research area that makes physicists, engineers and chemists work together at the forefront of their discipline, involving quantum fields and atoms in different media, magnetic resonance techniques and material science. Various strategies have been considered to store and retrieve quantum light. The explored designs belong to three main—while still overlapping—classes. In architectures derived from photon echo, information is mapped over the spectral components of inhomogeneously broadened absorption bands, such as those encountered in rare earth ion doped crystals and atomic gases in external gradient magnetic field. Protocols based on electromagnetic induced transparency also rely on resonant excitation and are ideally suited to the homogeneous absorption lines offered by laser cooled atomic clouds or ion Coulomb crystals. Finally off-resonance approaches are illustrated by Faraday and Raman processes. Coupling with an optical cavity may enhance the storage process, even for negligibly small atom number. Multiple scattering is also proposed as a way to enlarge the quantum interaction distance of light with matter. The

  4. Dehydration of glucose to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural by a core-shell Fe3O4@SiO2-SO3H magnetic nanoparticle catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper discusses the potential use of (Fe3O4@SiO2-SO3H) nanoparticle catalyst for the dehydration of glucose into 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF). A magnetically recoverable (Fe3O4@SiO2-SO3H) nanoparticle catalyst was successfully prepared by supporting sulfonic acid groups (SO3H) on the surface o...

  5. Composite nonlinear structure within the magnetosonic soliton interactions in a spin-1/2 degenerate quantum plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Jiu-Ning, E-mail: hanjiuning@126.com; Luo, Jun-Hua; Li, Jun-Xiu [Institute of Theoretical Physics and College of Physics and Electromechanical Engineering, Hexi University, Zhangye 734000 (China); Li, Sheng-Chang [School of Science, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Liu, Shi-Wei; Yang, Yang; Duan, Wen-Shan; Han, Juan-Fang [Joint Laboratory of Atomic and Molecular Physics of NWNU and IMPCAS and College of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou 730070 (China)

    2015-06-15

    We study the basic physical properties of composite nonlinear structure induced by the head-on collision of magnetosonic solitons. Solitary waves are assumed to propagate in a quantum electron-ion magnetoplasma with spin-1/2 degenerate electrons. The main interest of the present work is to investigate the time evolution of the merged composite structure during a specific time interval of the wave interaction process. We consider three cases of colliding-situation, namely, compressive-rarefactive solitons interaction, compressive-compressive solitons interaction, and rarefactive-rarefactive solitons interaction, respectively. Compared with the last two colliding cases, the changing process of the composite structure is more complex for the first situation. Moreover, it is found that they are obviously different for the last two colliding cases.

  6. Ballistic magnetotransport and spin-orbit interaction in indium antimonide and indium arsenide quantum wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, John Archibald

    While charge transport in a two-dimensional electron system (2DES) is fairly well understood, many open experimental and theoretical questions related to the spin of electrons remain. The standard 2DES embedded in Alx Ga1-xAs/GaAs heterostructures is most likely not the optimal candidate for such investigations, since spin effects as well as spin-orbit interactions are small perturbations compared to other effects. This has brought InSb- and InAs-based material systems into focus due to the possibility of large spin-orbit interactions. By utilizing elastic scattering off a lithographic barrier, we investigate the consequence of spin on different electron trajectories observed in InSb and InAs quantum wells. We focus on the physical properties of spin-dependent reflection in a 2DES and we present experimental results demonstrating a method to create spin-polarized beams of ballistic electrons in the presence of a lateral potential barrier. Spatial separation of electron spins using cyclotron motion in a weak magnetic is also achieved via transverse magnetic focusing. We also explore electrostatic gating effects in InSb/InAlSb heterostructures and demonstrate the effective use of polymethylglutarimide (PMGI) as a gate dielectric for InSb. The dependence on temperature and on front gate voltage of mobility and density are also examined, revealing a strong dependence of mobility on density. As regards front gate action, there is saturation in the density once it reaches a limiting value. Further, we investigate antidot lattices patterned on InSb/InAlSb and InAs/AlGaSb heterostructures. At higher magnetic fields, ballistic commensurability features are displayed while at smaller magnetic fields localization and quantized oscillatory phenomena appear, with marked differences between InSb and InAs. Interesting localization behavior is exhibited in InSb, with the strength of the localization peak decreasing exponentially with temperature between 0.4 K and 50 K. InAs on the

  7. Nonlinear optical properties of a three-electron quantum dot with account of the Rashba spin-orbit interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassanabadi, Hassan, E-mail: h.hasanabadi@shahroodut.ac.ir [Physics Department, Shahrood University of Technology, P.O. Box 3619995161-316, Shahrood (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rahimov, Hamed [Physics Department, Shahrood University of Technology, P.O. Box 3619995161-316, Shahrood (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Lu Liangliang [Department of Physics, College of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Wang Chao [Institute of Public Administration, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou 510006 (China)

    2012-05-15

    In this study, a detailed investigation of the nonlinear optical properties such as optical absorption and refractive index change associated with intersubband transitions in a three-electron quantum dot in two dimensions in the presence of the Rashba spin-orbit interaction has been carried out. We present the exact wave functions and energy levels of the system. Numerical results on typical GaAs/AlGaAs materials show that the decrease of the quantum dot radius blueshifts and amplifies the absorption coefficients as well as the refractive index changes, as expected. Additionally, an increase of the optical intensity and relaxation time considerably changes the absorption coefficients and the refractive index changes. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We consider a three-electron quantum dot in 2D in the presence of the Rashba spin-orbit interaction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We present the exact wave functions and energy levels of the system. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We apply this model for GaAs/AlGaAs materials. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The detailed nonlinear optical properties have been investigated.

  8. Phase diagram of the quantum Ising model with long-range interactions on an infinite-cylinder triangular lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadatmand, S. N.; Bartlett, S. D.; McCulloch, I. P.

    2018-04-01

    Obtaining quantitative ground-state behavior for geometrically-frustrated quantum magnets with long-range interactions is challenging for numerical methods. Here, we demonstrate that the ground states of these systems on two-dimensional lattices can be efficiently obtained using state-of-the-art translation-invariant variants of matrix product states and density-matrix renormalization-group algorithms. We use these methods to calculate the fully-quantitative ground-state phase diagram of the long-range interacting triangular Ising model with a transverse field on six-leg infinite-length cylinders and scrutinize the properties of the detected phases. We compare these results with those of the corresponding nearest neighbor model. Our results suggest that, for such long-range Hamiltonians, the long-range quantum fluctuations always lead to long-range correlations, where correlators exhibit power-law decays instead of the conventional exponential drops observed for short-range correlated gapped phases. Our results are relevant for comparisons with recent ion-trap quantum simulator experiments that demonstrate highly-controllable long-range spin couplings for several hundred ions.

  9. Computation of many-particle quantum trajectories with exchange interaction: application to the simulation of nanoelectronic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alarcón, A; Yaro, S; Cartoixà, X; Oriols, X

    2013-01-01

    Following Oriols (2007 Phys. Rev. Lett. 98 066803), an algorithm to deal with the exchange interaction in non-separable quantum systems is presented. The algorithm can be applied to fermions or bosons and, by construction, it exactly ensures that any observable is totally independent of the interchange of particles. It is based on the use of conditional Bohmian wave functions which are solutions of single-particle pseudo-Schrödinger equations. The exchange symmetry is directly defined by demanding symmetry properties of the quantum trajectories in the configuration space with a universal algorithm, rather than through a particular exchange–correlation functional introduced into the single-particle pseudo-Schrödinger equation. It requires the computation of N 2 conditional wave functions to deal with N identical particles. For separable Hamiltonians, the algorithm reduces to the standard Slater determinant for fermions (or permanent for bosons). A numerical test for a two-particle system, where exact solutions for non-separable Hamiltonians are computationally accessible, is presented. The numerical viability of the algorithm for quantum electron transport (in a far-from-equilibrium time-dependent open system) is demonstrated by computing the current and fluctuations in a nano-resistor, with exchange and Coulomb interactions among electrons. (paper)

  10. Using full configuration interaction quantum Monte Carlo in a seniority zero space to investigate the correlation energy equivalence of pair coupled cluster doubles and doubly occupied configuration interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shepherd, James J.; Henderson, Thomas M.; Scuseria, Gustavo E.

    2016-01-01

    Over the past few years, pair coupled cluster doubles (pCCD) has shown promise for the description of strong correlation. This promise is related to its apparent ability to match results from doubly occupied configuration interaction (DOCI), even though the latter method has exponential computational cost. Here, by modifying the full configuration interaction quantum Monte Carlo algorithm to sample only the seniority zero sector of Hilbert space, we show that the DOCI and pCCD energies are in agreement for a variety of 2D Hubbard models, including for systems well out of reach for conventional configuration interaction algorithms. Our calculations are aided by the sign problem being much reduced in the seniority zero space compared with the full space. We present evidence for this and then discuss the sign problem in terms of the wave function of the system which appears to have a simplified sign structure.

  11. Psi4NumPy: An Interactive Quantum Chemistry Programming Environment for Reference Implementations and Rapid Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Daniel G A; Burns, Lori A; Sirianni, Dominic A; Nascimento, Daniel R; Kumar, Ashutosh; James, Andrew M; Schriber, Jeffrey B; Zhang, Tianyuan; Zhang, Boyi; Abbott, Adam S; Berquist, Eric J; Lechner, Marvin H; Cunha, Leonardo A; Heide, Alexander G; Waldrop, Jonathan M; Takeshita, Tyler Y; Alenaizan, Asem; Neuhauser, Daniel; King, Rollin A; Simmonett, Andrew C; Turney, Justin M; Schaefer, Henry F; Evangelista, Francesco A; DePrince, A Eugene; Crawford, T Daniel; Patkowski, Konrad; Sherrill, C David

    2018-06-11

    Psi4NumPy demonstrates the use of efficient computational kernels from the open-source Psi4 program through the popular NumPy library for linear algebra in Python to facilitate the rapid development of clear, understandable Python computer code for new quantum chemical methods, while maintaining a relatively low execution time. Using these tools, reference implementations have been created for a number of methods, including self-consistent field (SCF), SCF response, many-body perturbation theory, coupled-cluster theory, configuration interaction, and symmetry-adapted perturbation theory. Furthermore, several reference codes have been integrated into Jupyter notebooks, allowing background, underlying theory, and formula information to be associated with the implementation. Psi4NumPy tools and associated reference implementations can lower the barrier for future development of quantum chemistry methods. These implementations also demonstrate the power of the hybrid C++/Python programming approach employed by the Psi4 program.

  12. Dynamics of interacting qubits coupled to a common bath: Non-Markovian quantum-state-diffusion approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Xinyu; Jing Jun; Corn, Brittany; Yu Ting

    2011-01-01

    Non-Markovian dynamics is studied for two interacting qubits strongly coupled to a dissipative bosonic environment. We derive a non-Markovian quantum-state-diffusion (QSD) equation for the coupled two-qubit system without any approximations, and in particular, without the Markov approximation. As an application and illustration of our derived time-local QSD equation, we investigate the temporal behavior of quantum coherence dynamics. In particular, we find a strongly non-Markovian regime where entanglement generation is significantly modulated by the environmental memory. Additionally, we study residual entanglement in the steady state by analyzing the steady-state solution of the QSD equation. Finally, we discuss an approximate QSD equation.

  13. Hydrodynamic and kinetic models for spin-1/2 electron-positron quantum plasmas: Annihilation interaction, helicity conservation, and wave dispersion in magnetized plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreev, Pavel A.

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the complete theory of spin-1/2 electron-positron quantum plasmas, when electrons and positrons move with velocities mach smaller than the speed of light. We derive a set of two fluid quantum hydrodynamic equations consisting of the continuity, Euler, spin (magnetic moment) evolution equations for each species. We explicitly include the Coulomb, spin-spin, Darwin and annihilation interactions. The annihilation interaction is the main topic of the paper. We consider the contribution of the annihilation interaction in the quantum hydrodynamic equations and in the spectrum of waves in magnetized electron-positron plasmas. We consider the propagation of waves parallel and perpendicular to an external magnetic field. We also consider the oblique propagation of longitudinal waves. We derive the set of quantum kinetic equations for electron-positron plasmas with the Darwin and annihilation interactions. We apply the kinetic theory to the linear wave behavior in absence of external fields. We calculate the contribution of the Darwin and annihilation interactions in the Landau damping of the Langmuir waves. We should mention that the annihilation interaction does not change number of particles in the system. It does not related to annihilation itself, but it exists as a result of interaction of an electron-positron pair via conversion of the pair into virtual photon. A pair of the non-linear Schrodinger equations for the electron-positron plasmas including the Darwin and annihilation interactions is derived. Existence of the conserving helicity in electron-positron quantum plasmas of spinning particles with the Darwin and annihilation interactions is demonstrated. We show that the annihilation interaction plays an important role in the quantum electron-positron plasmas giving the contribution of the same magnitude as the spin-spin interaction

  14. Effects of Coulomb repulsion on conductivity of heterojunction carbon nanotube quantum dots with spin-orbital coupling and interacting leads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogloblya, O.V., E-mail: olexandr.ogloblya@gmail.com [Taras Shevchenko National University, 64/13 Volodymyrska St., Kyiv 01601 (Ukraine); Kuznietsova, H.M. [Taras Shevchenko National University, 64/13 Volodymyrska St., Kyiv 01601 (Ukraine); Strzhemechny, Y.M. [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Texas Christian University, Fort Worth, TX 76129 (United States)

    2017-01-01

    We performed numerical studies for the conductance of a heterojunction carbon nanotube quantum dot (QD) with an extra spin orbital quantum number and a conventional QD in which the electron state is determined only by the spin quantum number. Our computational approach took into account the spin-orbit interaction and the Coulomb repulsion both between electrons on a QD as well as between the QD electron and the contacts. We utilized an approach based on the Keldysh non-equilibrium Green's function formalism as well as the equation of motion technique. We focused on the case of a finite Coulombic on-site repulsion and considered two possible cases of applied voltage: spin bias and conventional bias. For the system of interest we obtained bias spectroscopy diagrams, i.e. contour charts showing dependence of conductivity on two variables - voltage and the energy level position in a QD - which can be controlled by the plunger gate voltage. The finite Coulombic repulsion splits the density of states into two distinct maxima with the energy separation between them controlled by that parameter. It was also shown that an increase of either the value of the on-site Coulomb repulsion in a QD or the parameter of the Coulomb repulsion between the electrons in the QD and the contacts leads to an overall shift of the density of electronic states dependence toward higher energy values. Presence of the QD-lead interaction yields formation of a new pair of peaks in the differential conductance dependence. We also show that existence of four quantum states in a QD leads to abrupt changes in the density of states. These results could be beneficial for potential applications in nanotube-based amperometric sensors.

  15. Quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouwenhoven, L.; Marcus, C.

    1998-01-01

    Quantum dots are man-made ''droplets'' of charge that can contain anything from a single electron to a collection of several thousand. Their typical dimensions range from nanometres to a few microns, and their size, shape and interactions can be precisely controlled through the use of advanced nanofabrication technology. The physics of quantum dots shows many parallels with the behaviour of naturally occurring quantum systems in atomic and nuclear physics. Indeed, quantum dots exemplify an important trend in condensed-matter physics in which researchers study man-made objects rather than real atoms or nuclei. As in an atom, the energy levels in a quantum dot become quantized due to the confinement of electrons. With quantum dots, however, an experimentalist can scan through the entire periodic table by simply changing a voltage. In this article the authors describe how quantum dots make it possible to explore new physics in regimes that cannot otherwise be accessed in the laboratory. (UK)

  16. Quantum information. Teleportation - cryptography - quantum computer; Quanteninformation. Teleportation - Kryptografie - Quantencomputer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenneker, Carsten (comp.)

    2012-11-01

    The following topics are dealt with: Reality in the test facility, quantum teleportation, the reality of quanta, interaction-free quantum measurement, rules for quantum computers, quantum computers with ions, spintronics with diamond, the limits of the quantum computers, a view in the future of quantum optics. (HSI)

  17. The effect of large decoherence on mixing time in continuous-time quantum walks on long-range interacting cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salimi, S; Radgohar, R, E-mail: shsalimi@uok.ac.i, E-mail: r.radgohar@uok.ac.i [Faculty of Science, Department of Physics, University of Kurdistan, Pasdaran Ave, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-01-28

    In this paper, we consider decoherence in continuous-time quantum walks on long-range interacting cycles (LRICs), which are the extensions of the cycle graphs. For this purpose, we use Gurvitz's model and assume that every node is monitored by the corresponding point-contact induced by the decoherence process. Then, we focus on large rates of decoherence and calculate the probability distribution analytically and obtain the lower and upper bounds of the mixing time. Our results prove that the mixing time is proportional to the rate of decoherence and the inverse of the square of the distance parameter (m). This shows that the mixing time decreases with increasing range of interaction. Also, what we obtain for m = 0 is in agreement with Fedichkin, Solenov and Tamon's results [48] for cycle, and we see that the mixing time of CTQWs on cycle improves with adding interacting edges.

  18. Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit interactions effects on electronic features of a two dimensional elliptic quantum dot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtari, P.; Rezaei, G.; Zamani, A.

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, electronic structure of a two dimensional elliptic quantum dot under the influence of external electric and magnetic fields are studied in the presence of Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit interactions. This investigation is done computationally and to do this, at first, the effective Hamiltonian of the system by considering the spin-orbit coupling is demonstrated in the presence of applied electric and magnetic fields and afterwards the Schrödinger equation is solved using the finite difference approach. Utilizing finite element method, eigenvalues and eigenstates of the system are calculated and the effect of the external fields, the size of the dot as well as the strength of Rashba spin-orbit interaction are studied. Our results indicate that, Spin-orbit interactions, external fields and the dot size have a great influence on the electronic structure of the system.

  19. Quantum ratchets

    OpenAIRE

    Grifoni, Milena

    1997-01-01

    In this thesis, ratchet systems operating in the quantum regime are investigated. Ratchet systems, also known as Brownian motors, are periodic systems presenting an intrinsic asymmetry which can be exploited to extract work out of unbiased forces. As a model for ratchet systems, we consider the motion of a particle in a one-dimensional periodic and asymmetric potential, interacting with a thermal environment, and subject to an unbiased driving force. In quantum ratchets, intrinsic quantum flu...

  20. Electron-nuclear interaction in 13C nanotube double quantum dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Churchill, H O H; Bestwick, A J; Harlow, J W

    2009-01-01

    For coherent electron spins, hyperfine coupling to nuclei in the host material can either be a dominant source of unwanted spin decoherence or, if controlled effectively, a resource enabling storage and retrieval of quantum information. To investigate the effect of a controllable nuclear...... environment on the evolution of confined electron spins, we have fabricated and measured gate-defined double quantum dots with integrated charge sensors made from single-walled carbon nanotubes with a variable concentration of 13C (nuclear spin I=1/2) among the majority zero-nuclear-spin 12C atoms. We observe...... strong isotope effects in spin-blockaded transport, and from the magnetic field dependence estimate the hyperfine coupling in 13C nanotubes to be of the order of 100 ¿µeV, two orders of magnitude larger than anticipated. 13C-enhanced nanotubes are an interesting system for spin-based quantum information...

  1. Analysis of the interplay of quantum phases and nonlinearity applied to dimers with anharmonic interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raghavan, S.

    1997-06-01

    We extend our analysis of the effects of the interplay of quantum phases and nonlinearity to address saturation effects in small quantum systems. We find that initial phases dramatically control the dependence of self-trapping on initial asymmetry of quasiparticle population and can compete or act with nonlinearity as well as saturation effects. We find that there is a minimum finite saturation value in order to obtain self-trapping that crucially depends on the initial quasiparticle phases and present a detailed phase-diagram in terms of the control parameters of the system: nonlinearity and saturation. (author). 14 refs, 3 figs

  2. Quantum-size effects in the energy loss of charged particles interacting with a confined two-dimensional electron gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borisov, A. G.; Juaristi, J. I.; Muino, R. Diez; Sanchez-Portal, D.; Echenique, P. M.

    2006-01-01

    Time-dependent density-functional theory is used to calculate quantum-size effects in the energy loss of antiprotons interacting with a confined two-dimensional electron gas. The antiprotons follow a trajectory normal to jellium circular clusters of variable size, crossing every cluster at its geometrical center. Analysis of the characteristic time scales that define the process is made. For high-enough velocities, the interaction time between the projectile and the target electrons is shorter than the time needed for the density excitation to travel along the cluster. The finite-size object then behaves as an infinite system, and no quantum-size effects appear in the energy loss. For small velocities, the discretization of levels in the cluster plays a role and the energy loss does depend on the system size. A comparison to results obtained using linear theory of screening is made, and the relative contributions of electron-hole pair and plasmon excitations to the total energy loss are analyzed. This comparison also allows us to show the importance of a nonlinear treatment of the screening in the interaction process

  3. Br2(X) microsolvation in helium clusters: effect of the interaction on the quantum solvent density distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Paola, Cono; Gianturco, Franco A; López-Durán, David; de Lara-Castells, Maria Pilar; Delgado-Barrio, Gerardo; Villarreal, Pablo; Jellinek, Julius

    2005-07-11

    The Born-Oppenheimer potential energy surface for the Br2(X) molecule interacting with a varying number of 4He bosons is constructed following two different schemes which employ either a full ab initio evaluation of the Br2-He interaction forces or an estimate of the latter through an empirical model. Both descriptions are employed by carrying out diffusion Monte Carlo (DMC) calculations of the ground-state energies and quantum wavefunctions for Br2-(He)n clusters with n up to 24. The results clearly indicate, for both interactions, the occurrence of the full solvation of the molecular dopant within the quantum bosonic "solvent" but also show differences between the two models in terms of the expected density distributions of the surrounding particles within the shorter-range region that makes up the clusters with smaller n values. Our calculations also show that such differences become insignificant for the larger 4He clusters surrounding the Br2 molecule, where density profiles and bulk behaviour are chiefly driven by the solvent structure, once n values reach the region of 15-20 adatoms.

  4. The Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit interactions in a two-dimensional quantum pseudo-dot system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari, M.; Rezaei, G.; Khordad, R.

    2017-01-01

    We study the impact of the spin-orbit coupling due to both structure and crystal inversion asymmetry and external magnetic field on the level structure in a two-dimensional quantum pseudo-dot. It is demonstrated that, both the spin-orbit interactions and magnetic field strength have a great influence on energy eigenvalues of the system. Also, we found that an increase in magnetic field enhances the spin-orbit coupling strength. This phenomena leads to increase the energy eigenvalues and energy splitting due to the spin-orbit coupling.

  5. Landau level broadening without disorder, non-integer plateaus without interactions- an alternative model of the quantum Hall effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, T.

    2006-01-01

    I review some aspects of an alternative model of the quantum Hall effect, which is not based on the presence of disorder potentials. Instead, a quantization of the electronic drift current in the presence of crossed electric and magnetic fields is employed to construct a non-linear transport theory. Another important ingredient of the alternative theory is the coupling of the two-dimensional electron gas to the leads and the applied voltages. By working in a picture where the external voltages fix the chemical potential in the 2D subsystem, the experimentally observed linear relation between the voltage and the location of the quantum Hall plateaus finds an natural explanation. Also, the classical Hall effect emerges as a natural limit of the quantum Hall effect. For low temperatures (or high currents), a non-integer substructure splits higher Landau levels into sublevels. The appearance of substructure and non-integer plateaus in the resistivity is not linked to electron-electron interactions, but caused by the presence of a (linear) electric field. Some of the resulting fractions correspond exactly to half-integer plateaus. (Author)

  6. Ultrafast light matter interaction in CdSe/ZnS core-shell quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Rajesh Kumar; Sharma, Rituraj; Mondal, Anirban; Adarsh, K. V.

    2018-04-01

    Core-shell quantum dot are imperative for carrier (electron and holes) confinement in core/shell, which provides a stage to explore the linear and nonlinear optical phenomena at the nanoscalelimit. Here we present a comprehensive study of ultrafast excitation dynamics and nonlinear optical absorption of CdSe/ZnS core shell quantum dot with the help of ultrafast spectroscopy. Pump-probe and time-resolved measurements revealed the drop of trapping at CdSe surface due to the presence of the ZnS shell, which makes more efficient photoluminescence. We have carried out femtosecond transient absorption studies of the CdSe/ZnS core-shell quantum dot by irradiation with 400 nm laser light, monitoring the transients in the visible region. The optical nonlinearity of the core-shell quantum dot studied by using the Z-scan technique with 120 fs pulses at the wavelengths of 800 nm. The value of two photon absorption coefficients (β) of core-shell QDs extracted as80cm/GW, and it shows excellent benchmark for the optical limiting onset of 2.5GW/cm2 with the low limiting differential transmittance of 0.10, that is an order of magnitude better than graphene based materials.

  7. Effectiveness of Interactive Tutorials in Promoting "Which-Path" Information Reasoning in Advanced Quantum Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maries, Alexandru; Sayer, Ryan; Singh, Chandralekha

    2017-01-01

    Research suggests that introductory physics students often have difficulty using a concept in contexts different from the ones in which they learned it without explicit guidance to help them make the connection between the different contexts. We have been investigating advanced students' learning of quantum mechanics concepts and have developed…

  8. Giant nonlinear interaction between two optical beams via a quantum dot embedded in a photonic wire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, H.A.; Grange, T.; Reznychenko, B.

    2018-01-01

    a tailored photonic environment. Here, we demonstrate a two-mode giant nonlinearity with a single semiconductor quantum dot (QD) embedded in a photonic wire antenna. We exploit two detuned optical transitions associated with the exciton-biexciton QD level scheme. Owing to the broadband waveguide antenna...

  9. Interaction and Dephasing of Excitons in ZnSe Quantum Wires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Hans Peter; Langbein, Wolfgang; Hvam, Jørn Märcher

    1999-01-01

    We study the coherent formation of biexcitons in wet-etched ZnSe quantum wires of lateral sizes down to 23 nm by transient degenerate four-wave mixing. We observe an increase of the biexciton binding energy with decreasing wire width reaching 30% energy enhancement in the smallest wire structure...

  10. Realization of a Quantum Integer-Spin Chain with Controllable Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-17

    2jρþ−;−þjÞ ð8Þ is akin to the entanglement fidelity F of Greenberger- Horne- Zeilinger (GHZ) states in two-level systems [59]. Measuring the amplitude...White, Simplifying Quantum Logic Uing Higher-Dimensional Hilbert Spaces, Nat. Phys. 5, 134 (2009). [10] C. Brukner, M. Zukowski, and A. Zeilinger

  11. Structure of the conversion laws in quantum integrable spin chains with short range interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grabowski, M.P.; Mathieu, P.

    1995-01-01

    The authors present a detailed analysis of the structure of the conservation laws in quantum integrable chains of the XYZ-type and in the Hubbard model. The essential tool for the former class of models is the boost operator, which provides a recursive way of calculating the integrals of motion. With its help, they establish the general form of the XYZ conserved charges in terms of simple polynomials in spin variables and derive recursion relations for the relative coefficients of these polynomials. Although these relations are difficult to solve in general, a subset of the coefficients can be determined. Moreover, for two submodels of the XYZ chain, namely the XXX and XY cases, all the charges can be calculated in closed form. Using this approach, the authors rederive the known expressions for the XY charges in a novel way. For the XXX case. a simple description of conserved charges is found in terms of a Catalan tree. This construction is generalized for the su(M) invariant integrable chain. They also investigate the circumstances permitting the existence of a recursive (ladder) operator in general quantum integrable systems. They indicate that a quantum ladder operator can be traced back to the presence of a Hamiltonian mastersymmetry of degree one in the classical continuous version of the model. In this way, quantum chains endowed with a recursive structure can be identified from the properties of their classical relatives. The authors also show that in the quantum continuous limits of the XYZ model, the ladder property of the boost operator disappears. For the Hubbard model they demonstrate the nonexistence of a ladder operator. Nevertheless, the general structure of the conserved charges is indicated, and the expression for the terms linear in the model's free parameter for all charges is derived in closed form. 62 refs., 4 figs

  12. Quantum chemistry on a superconducting quantum processor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaicher, Michael P.; Wilhelm, Frank K. [Theoretical Physics, Saarland University, 66123 Saarbruecken (Germany); Love, Peter J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Tufts University, Medford, MA 02155 (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Quantum chemistry is the most promising civilian application for quantum processors to date. We study its adaptation to superconducting (sc) quantum systems, computing the ground state energy of LiH through a variational hybrid quantum classical algorithm. We demonstrate how interactions native to sc qubits further reduce the amount of quantum resources needed, pushing sc architectures as a near-term candidate for simulations of more complex atoms/molecules.

  13. Blind Quantum Signature with Blind Quantum Computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Shi, Ronghua; Guo, Ying

    2017-04-01

    Blind quantum computation allows a client without quantum abilities to interact with a quantum server to perform a unconditional secure computing protocol, while protecting client's privacy. Motivated by confidentiality of blind quantum computation, a blind quantum signature scheme is designed with laconic structure. Different from the traditional signature schemes, the signing and verifying operations are performed through measurement-based quantum computation. Inputs of blind quantum computation are securely controlled with multi-qubit entangled states. The unique signature of the transmitted message is generated by the signer without leaking information in imperfect channels. Whereas, the receiver can verify the validity of the signature using the quantum matching algorithm. The security is guaranteed by entanglement of quantum system for blind quantum computation. It provides a potential practical application for e-commerce in the cloud computing and first-generation quantum computation.

  14. Quantum mechanics study of repulsive π-π interaction and flexibility of phenyl moiety in the iron azodioxide complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuemin; Liu, Yucheng; Murru, Siva; Tzeng, Nianfeng; Srivastava, Radhey S.

    2015-10-01

    In this study, repulsive π-π interactions within iron azodioxide complex Fe[Ph(O)NN(O)Ph]3 were quantum mechanically characterized using DFT, MP2 and CCSD(T) methods. Flexibility of six phenyl moieties in this complex structure was also investigated by structural optimization approach using the DFT methods. Our MP2 and CCSD(T) calculations of the closest pair provided interaction energy of 6.62 and 8.29 kcal/mol respectively, which indicate a strongest repulsion among these intra-molecular π-π interactions. Interaction energy of the particular π-π pair calculated from 24 hybrid DFT methods ranges from 4.56 kcal/mol from BHandH method to 15.15 kcal/mol from O3LYP method. Cares should be exercised when interpreting interaction energy and geometry optimization from DFT simulation of systems containing π-π interaction. Comparison between the DFT results and the benchmark CCSD(T) results shows that the DFT calculations of π-π interaction are reasonable but still need to be interpreted with caution. Furthermore, MP2 interaction energy of -44.69 kcal/mol between two substituted π systems/phenyl rings Ph(O)N-moieties suggested that above energetically unfavorable π-π interaction can be compensated by the covalent bond N-N in a single ligand Ph(O)NN(O)Ph, which allows for a reasonable stability across the complex molecules. Optimizations of the entire complex molecule using B3LYP and M06HF methods produced a large variation of π-π distances and orientations, which implied that the complex molecule may perform catalysis at room temperature.

  15. Quantum games as quantum types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delbecque, Yannick

    In this thesis, we present a new model for higher-order quantum programming languages. The proposed model is an adaptation of the probabilistic game semantics developed by Danos and Harmer [DH02]: we expand it with quantum strategies which enable one to represent quantum states and quantum operations. Some of the basic properties of these strategies are established and then used to construct denotational semantics for three quantum programming languages. The first of these languages is a formalisation of the measurement calculus proposed by Danos et al. [DKP07]. The other two are new: they are higher-order quantum programming languages. Previous attempts to define a denotational semantics for higher-order quantum programming languages have failed. We identify some of the key reasons for this and base the design of our higher-order languages on these observations. The game semantics proposed in this thesis is the first denotational semantics for a lambda-calculus equipped with quantum types and with extra operations which allow one to program quantum algorithms. The results presented validate the two different approaches used in the design of these two new higher-order languages: a first one where quantum states are used through references and a second one where they are introduced as constants in the language. The quantum strategies presented in this thesis allow one to understand the constraints that must be imposed on quantum type systems with higher-order types. The most significant constraint is the fact that abstraction over part of the tensor product of many unknown quantum states must not be allowed. Quantum strategies are a new mathematical model which describes the interaction between classical and quantum data using system-environment dialogues. The interactions between the different parts of a quantum system are described using the rich structure generated by composition of strategies. This approach has enough generality to be put in relation with other

  16. Quantum systems with position-dependent mass and spin-orbit interaction via Rashba and Dresselhaus terms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Alexandre G. M., E-mail: agmschmidt@gmail.com; Portugal, L., E-mail: liciniolportugal@gmail.com; Jesus, Anderson L. de [Departamento de Física do polo universitário de Volta Redonda, Instituto de Ciências Exatas—Universidade Federal Fluminense, R. Des. Ellis Hermydio Figueira, 783, Volta Redonda, RJ CEP 27215-350 (Brazil)

    2015-01-15

    We consider a particle with spin 1/2 with position-dependent mass moving in a plane. Considering separately Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit interactions, we write down the Hamiltonian for this problem and solve it for Dirichlet boundary conditions. Our radial wavefunctions have two contributions: homogeneous ones which are written as Bessel functions of non-integer orders—that depend on angular momentum m—and particular solutions which are obtained after decoupling the non-homogeneous system. In this process, we find non-homogeneous Bessel equation, Laguerre, as well as biconfluent Heun equation. We also present the probability densities for m = 0, 1, 2 in an annular quantum well. Our results indicate that the background as well as the spin-orbit interaction naturally splits the spinor components.

  17. Model expressions for the spin-orbit interaction and phonon-mediated spin dynamics in quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, M. P.; Rorison, J. M.

    2018-01-01

    Model expressions for the spin-orbit interaction in a quantum dot are obtained. The resulting form does not neglect cubic terms and allows for a generalized structural inversion asymmetry. We also obtain analytical expressions for the coupling between states for the electron-phonon interaction and use these to derive spin-relaxation rates, which are found to be qualitatively similar to those derived elsewhere in the literature. We find that, due to the inclusion of cubic terms, the Dresselhaus contribution to the ground state spin relaxation disappears for spherical dots. A comparison with previous theory and existing experimental results shows good agreement thereby presenting a clear analytical formalism for future developments. Comparative calculations for potential materials are presented.

  18. Emission switching in carbon dots coated CdTe quantum dots driving by pH dependent hetero-interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Xiao; Wang, Hao; Yi, Qinghua; Wang, Yun; Cong, Shan; Zhao, Jie; Sun, Yinghui; Zou, Guifu, E-mail: zouguifu@suda.edu.cn, E-mail: jiexiong@uestc.edu.cn [College of Physics, Optoelectronics and Energy and Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China); Qian, Zhicheng [School of Electronic and Information Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Huang, Jianwen; Xiong, Jie, E-mail: zouguifu@suda.edu.cn, E-mail: jiexiong@uestc.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Luo, Hongmei [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, New Mexico 88003 (United States)

    2015-11-16

    Due to the different emission mechanism between fluorescent carbon dots and semiconductor quantum dots (QDs), it is of interest to explore the potential emission in hetero-structured carbon dots/semiconducting QDs. Herein, we design carbon dots coated CdTe QDs (CDQDs) and investigate their inherent emission. We demonstrate switchable emission for the hetero-interactions of the CDQDs. Optical analyses indicate electron transfer between the carbon dots and the CdTe QDs. A heterojunction electron process is proposed as the driving mechanism based on N atom protonation of the carbon dots. This work advances our understanding of the interaction mechanism of the heterostructured CDQDs and benefits the future development of optoelectronic nanodevices with new functionalities.

  19. Quantum systems with position-dependent mass and spin-orbit interaction via Rashba and Dresselhaus terms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, Alexandre G. M.; Portugal, L.; Jesus, Anderson L. de

    2015-01-01

    We consider a particle with spin 1/2 with position-dependent mass moving in a plane. Considering separately Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit interactions, we write down the Hamiltonian for this problem and solve it for Dirichlet boundary conditions. Our radial wavefunctions have two contributions: homogeneous ones which are written as Bessel functions of non-integer orders—that depend on angular momentum m—and particular solutions which are obtained after decoupling the non-homogeneous system. In this process, we find non-homogeneous Bessel equation, Laguerre, as well as biconfluent Heun equation. We also present the probability densities for m = 0, 1, 2 in an annular quantum well. Our results indicate that the background as well as the spin-orbit interaction naturally splits the spinor components

  20. Vibrational spectroscopic and quantum theoretical study of host-guest interactions in clathrates: I. Hofmann type clathrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VLADIMIR M. PETRUSEVSKI

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Hofmann type clatharates are host-guest compounds with the general formula M(NH32M'(CN4·2G, in which M(NH32M'(CN4 is the host lattice and G is benzene, the guest molecule. In previous studies, host-guest interactions have been investigated by analyzing the RT and LNT vibrational (infrared, far infrared and Raman spectra of these clathrates. All the observed changes in the vibrational spectra of these clathrates are referred to a host-guest interaction originating from weak hydrogen bonding between the ammonia hydrogen atoms from the host lattice and the p electron cloud of the guest (benzene molecules. In order to obtain an insight into the relative importance of the local crystalline field vs. the anharmonicity effects on the spectroscopic properties of the guest species upon enclathration, as well as to explain the observed band shifts and splittings, several quantum theoretical approaches are proposed.

  1. Manipulating surface diffusion and elastic interactions to obtain quantum dot multilayer arrangements over different length scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Placidi, E., E-mail: ernesto.placidi@ism.cnr.it; Arciprete, F. [Istituto di Struttura della Materia, CNR, Via del Fosso del Cavaliere 100, 00133 Rome (Italy); Università di Roma “Tor Vergata”, Dipartimento di Fisica, via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133 Rome (Italy); Latini, V.; Latini, S.; Patella, F. [Università di Roma “Tor Vergata”, Dipartimento di Fisica, via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133 Rome (Italy); Magri, R. [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Informatiche e Matematiche (FIM), Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia, and Centro S3 CNR-Istituto Nanoscienze, Via Campi 213/A, 4100 Modena (Italy); Scuderi, M.; Nicotra, G. [CNR-IMM, Strada VIII, 5, 95121 Catania (Italy)

    2014-09-15

    An innovative multilayer growth of InAs quantum dots on GaAs(100) is demonstrated to lead to self-aggregation of correlated quantum dot chains over mesoscopic distances. The fundamental idea is that at critical growth conditions is possible to drive the dot nucleation only at precise locations corresponding to the local minima of the Indium chemical potential. Differently from the known dot multilayers, where nucleation of new dots on top of the buried ones is driven by the surface strain originating from the dots below, here the spatial correlations and nucleation of additional dots are mostly dictated by a self-engineering of the surface occurring during the growth, close to the critical conditions for dot formation under the fixed oblique direction of the incoming As flux, that drives the In surface diffusion.

  2. Generation of large scale GHZ states with the interactions of photons and quantum-dot spins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Chun; Fang, Shu-Dong; Dong, Ping; Yang, Ming; Cao, Zhuo-Liang

    2018-03-01

    We present a deterministic scheme for generating large scale GHZ states in a cavity-quantum dot system. A singly charged quantum dot is embedded in a double-sided optical microcavity with partially reflective top and bottom mirrors. The GHZ-type Bell spin state can be created and two n-spin GHZ states can be perfectly fused to a 2n-spin GHZ state with the help of n ancilla single-photon pulses. The implementation of the current scheme only depends on the photon detection and its need not to operate multi-qubit gates and multi-qubit measurements. Discussions about the effect of the cavity loss, side leakage and exciton cavity coupling strength for the fidelity of generated states show that the fidelity can remain high enough by controlling system parameters. So the current scheme is simple and feasible in experiment.

  3. Localized surface plasmon and exciton interaction in silver-coated cadmium sulphide quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, P.; Rustagi, K. C.; Vasa, P.; Singh, B. P., E-mail: bhanuprs@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai- 400076 (India)

    2015-05-15

    Localized surface plasmon and exciton coupling has been investigated on colloidal solutions of silver-coated CdS nanoparticles (NPs), synthesized by gamma irradiation. Two broad photoluminescence (PL) bands (blue/red) corresponding to band to band and defect state transitions have been observed for the bare and coated samples. In case of bare CdS NPs, the intensity of the red PL peak is about ten times higher than the blue PL peak intensity. However, on coating the CdS NPs with silver, the peak intensity of the blue PL band gets enhanced and becomes equal to that of the red PL band. High-resolution transmission electron microscopic (HRTEM) images adequately demonstrate size distribution of these metal/semiconductor nanocomposites. UV-Vis absorption studies show quantum confinement effect in these semiconductor quantum dot (SQD) systems. Absorption spectrum of silver-coated SQDs shows signature of surface plasmon-exciton coupling which has been theoretically verified.

  4. Interaction of two solitary waves in quantum electron-positron-ion plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Yanxia; Lin Maimai; Shi Yuren; Duan Wenshan; Liu Zongming; Chen Jianmin

    2011-01-01

    The collision between two ion-acoustic solitary waves with arbitrary colliding angle θ in an unmagnetized, ultracold quantum three-component e-p-i plasma has been investigated. By using the extended Poincare-Lighthill-Kuo (PLK) perturbation method, we obtain the KdV equations and the analytical phase shifts after the collision of two solitary waves in this three-component plasma. The effects of the quantum parameter H, the ratio of Fermi positron temperature to Fermi electron temperature σ, the ratio of Fermi positron number density to Fermi electron number density μ, and the ratio of Fermi ion temperature to Fermi electron temperature ρ on the phase shifts are studied. It is found that these parameters can significantly influence the phase shifts of the solitons.

  5. Study on the molecular interaction of graphene quantum dots with human serum albumin: Combined spectroscopic and electrochemical approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Shan; Qiu, Hangna; Lu, Shuangyan; Zhu, Fawei [College of Chemistry and Material Science, Guangxi Teachers Education University, Nanning 530001 (China); Xiao, Qi, E-mail: qi.xiao@whu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry and Material Science, Guangxi Teachers Education University, Nanning 530001 (China); State Key Laboratory of Virology, College of Chemistry and Molecular Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China)

    2015-03-21

    Highlights: • The interactions between GQDs and HSA were systematically investigated. • GQDs could quench the intrinsic fluorescence of HSA via static mode. • The binding site of GQDs was mainly located in site I of HSA. • The potential toxicity of GQDs resulted in the structural damage of HSA. - Abstract: Graphene quantum dots (GQDs) have attracted great attention in biological and biomedical applications due to their super properties, but their potential toxicity investigations are rarely involved. Since few studies have addressed whether GQDs could bind and alter the structure and function of human serum albumin (HSA), the molecular interaction between GQDs and HSA was systematically characterized by the combination of multispectroscopic and electrochemical approaches. GQDs could quench the intrinsic fluorescence of HSA via static mode. The competitive binding fluorescence assay revealed that the binding site of GQDs was site I of HSA. Some thermodynamic parameters suggested that GQDs interacted with HSA mainly through van der Waals interactions and hydrogen bonding interactions, and protonation might also participate in the process. As further revealed by FT-IR spectroscopy and circular dichroism technique, GQDs could cause the global and local conformational change of HSA, which illustrated the potential toxicity of GQDs that resulted in the structural damage of HSA. Electrochemical techniques demonstrated the complex formation between GQDs and HSA. Our results offered insights into the binding mechanism of GQDs with HSA and provided important information for possible toxicity risk of GQDs to human health.

  6. Quantum-optical magnets with competing short- and long-range interactions: Rydberg-dressed spin lattice in an optical cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Gelhausen, Michael Buchhold, Achim Rosch, Philipp Strack

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The fields of quantum simulation with cold atoms [1] and quantum optics [2] are currently being merged. In a set of recent pathbreaking experiments with atoms in optical cavities [3,4] lattice quantum many-body systems with both, a short-range interaction and a strong interaction potential of infinite range -mediated by a quantized optical light field- were realized. A theoretical modelling of these systems faces considerable complexity at the interface of: (i spontaneous symmetry-breaking and emergent phases of interacting many-body systems with a large number of atoms $N\\rightarrow\\infty$, (ii quantum optics and the dynamics of fluctuating light fields, and (iii non-equilibrium physics of driven, open quantum systems. Here we propose what is possibly the simplest, quantum-optical magnet with competing short- and long-range interactions, in which all three elements can be analyzed comprehensively: a Rydberg-dressed spin lattice [5] coherently coupled to a single photon mode. Solving a set of coupled even-odd sublattice Master equations for atomic spin and photon mean-field amplitudes, we find three key results. (R1: Superradiance and a coherent photon field can coexist with spontaneously broken magnetic translation symmetry. The latter is induced by the short-range nearest-neighbor interaction from weakly admixed Rydberg levels. (R2: This broken even-odd sublattice symmetry leaves its imprint in the light via a novel peak in the cavity spectrum beyond the conventional polariton modes. (R3: The combined effect of atomic spontaneous emission, drive, and interactions can lead to phases with anomalous photon number oscillations. Extensions of our work include nano-photonic crystals coupled to interacting atoms and multi-mode photon dynamics in Rydberg systems.

  7. Photonic Quantum Information Processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walther, P.

    2012-01-01

    The advantage of the photon's mobility makes optical quantum system ideally suited for delegated quantum computation. I will present results for the realization for a measurement-based quantum network in a client-server environment, where quantum information is securely communicated and computed. Related to measurement-based quantum computing I will discuss a recent experiment showing that quantum discord can be used as resource for the remote state preparation, which might shine new light on the requirements for quantum-enhanced information processing. Finally, I will briefly review recent photonic quantum simulation experiments of four frustrated Heisenberg-interactions spins and present an outlook of feasible simulation experiments with more complex interactions or random walk structures. As outlook I will discuss the current status of new quantum technology for improving the scalability of photonic quantum systems by using superconducting single-photon detectors and tailored light-matter interactions. (author)

  8. The role of van der waals interaction on quantum-mechanical tunneling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takayanagi, Toshiyuki; Kurosaki, Yuzuru [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-10-01

    We present three-dimensional quantum cumulative reaction probabilities for the F + H{sub 2}, D{sub 2}, and HD reactions with a special emphasis on resonances associated with quasi-bound states localized in the reactant van der Waals region of the potential energy surface. The accurate ab initio potential surface of Stark and Werner and the less accurate 5SEC-W surface developed by Truhlar and co-workers have been employed. (author)

  9. Quantum-induced interactions in the moduli space of degenerate BPS domain walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso-Izquierdo, A.; Guilarte, J. Mateos

    2014-01-01

    In this paper quantum effects are investigated in a very special two-scalar field model having a moduli space of BPS topological defects. In a (1+1)-dimensional space-time the defects are classically degenerate in mass kinks, but in (3+1) dimensions the kinks become BPS domain walls, all of them sharing the same surface tension at the classical level. The heat kernel/zeta function regularization method will be used to control the divergences induced by the quantum kink and domain wall fluctuations. A generalization of the Gilkey-DeWitt-Avramidi heat kernel expansion will be developed in order to accommodate the infrared divergences due to zero modes in the spectra of the second-order kink and domain wall fluctuation operators, which are respectively N=2×N=2 matrix ordinary or partial differential operators. Use of these tools in the spectral zeta function associated with the Hessian operators paves the way to obtain general formulas for the one-loop kink mass and domain wall tension shifts in any (1+1)- or (3+1)-dimensional N-component scalar field theory model. Application of these formulae to the BPS kinks or domain walls of the N=2 model mentioned above reveals the breaking of the classical mass or surface tension degeneracy at the quantum level. Because the main parameter distinguishing each member in the BPS kink or domain wall moduli space is essentially the distance between the centers of two basic kinks or walls, the breaking of the degeneracy amounts to the surge in quantum-induced forces between the two constituent topological defects. The differences in surface tension induced by one-loop fluctuations of BPS walls give rise mainly to attractive forces between the constituent walls except if the two basic walls are very far apart. Repulsive forces between two close walls only arise if the coupling approaches the critical value from below

  10. Molecular interactions of nucleic acid bases. A review of quantum-chemical studies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šponer, Jiří; Hobza, Pavel

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 68, č. 12 (2003), s. 2231-2282 ISSN 0010-0765 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A032; GA AV ČR IAA4040904 Grant - others:Wellcome Trust(GB) GR067507MF Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5004920; CEZ:AV0Z4040901 Keywords : DNA base pairs * initio quantum -chemical calculations * electron correlation Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 1.041, year: 2003

  11. Quantum mechanical systems interacting with different polarizations of gravitational waves in noncommutative phase space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Anirban; Gangopadhyay, Sunandan; Saha, Swarup

    2018-02-01

    Owing to the extreme smallness of any noncommutative scale that may exist in nature, both in the spatial and momentum sector of the quantum phase space, a credible possibility of their detection lies in the gravitational wave (GW) detection scenario, where one effectively probes the relative length-scale variations ˜O [10-20-10-23] . With this motivation, we have theoretically constructed how a free particle and a harmonic oscillator will respond to linearly and circularly polarized gravitational waves if their quantum mechanical phase space has a noncommutative structure. We critically analyze the formal solutions which show resonance behavior in the responses of both free particle and HO systems to GW with both kind of polarizations. We discuss the possible implications of these solutions in detecting noncommutativity in a GW detection experiment. We use the currently available upper-bound estimates on various noncommutative parameters to anticipate the relative importance of various terms in the solutions. We also argue how the quantum harmonic oscillator system we considered here can be very relevant in the context of the resonant bar detectors of GW which are already operational.

  12. Determination of the Rate Coefficients of the SO2 plus O plus M yields SO3 plus M Reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, S. M.; Cooke, J. A.; De Witt, K. J.; Rabinowitz, M. J.

    2010-01-01

    Rate coefficients of the title reaction R(sub 31) (SO2 +O+M yields SO3 +M) and R(sub 56) (SO2 + HO2 yields SO3 +OH), important in the conversion of S(IV) to S(VI),were obtained at T =970-1150 K and rho (sub ave) = 16.2 micro mol/cubic cm behind reflected shock waves by a perturbation method. Shock-heated H2/ O2/Ar mixtures were perturbed by adding small amounts of SO2 (1%, 2%, and 3%) and the OH temporal profiles were then measured using laser absorption spectroscopy. Reaction rate coefficients were elucidated by matching the characteristic reaction times acquired from the individual experimental absorption profiles via simultaneous optimization of k(sub 31) and k(sub 56) values in the reaction modeling (for satisfactory matches to the observed characteristic times, it was necessary to take into account R(sub 56)). In the experimental conditions of this study, R(sub 31) is in the low-pressure limit. The rate coefficient expressions fitted using the combined data of this study and the previous experimental results are k(sub 31,0)/[Ar] = 2.9 10(exp 35) T(exp ?6.0) exp(?4780 K/T ) + 6.1 10(exp 24) T(exp ?3.0) exp(?1980 K/T ) cm(sup 6) mol(exp ?2)/ s at T = 300-2500 K; k(sub 56) = 1.36 10(exp 11) exp(?3420 K/T ) cm(exp 3)/mol/s at T = 970-1150 K. Computer simulations of typical aircraft engine environments, using the reaction mechanism with the above k(sub 31,0) and k(sub 56) expressions, gave the maximum S(IV) to S(VI) conversion yield of ca. 3.5% and 2.5% for the constant density and constant pressure flow condition, respectively. Moreover, maximum conversions occur at rather higher temperatures (?1200 K) than that where the maximum k(sub 31,0) value is located (approximately 800 K). This is because the conversion yield is dependent upon not only the k(sup 31,0) and k(sup 56) values (production flux) but also the availability of H, O, and HO2 in the system (consumption flux).

  13. Quantum dynamics of a BEC interacting with a single-mode quantized field in the presence of interatom collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghasemian, E. [Atomic and Molecular Group, Faculty of Physics, Yazd University, Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Tavassoly, M.K., E-mail: mktavassoly@yazd.ac.ir [Atomic and Molecular Group, Faculty of Physics, Yazd University, Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Photonics Research Group, Engineering Research Center, Yazd University, Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of); The Laboratory of Quantum Information Processing, Yazd University, Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-09-23

    In this paper, we consider a model in which N two-level atoms in a Bose–Einstein condensate (BEC) interact with a single-mode quantized laser field. Our goal is to investigate the quantum dynamics of atoms in the BEC in the presence of interatom interactions. To achieve the purpose, at first, using the collective angular momentum operators, we try to reduce the dynamical Hamiltonian of the system to a well-known Jaynes–Cummings like model (JCM). We also use the Dicke model to construct the state of atomic subsystem, by which the analytical solution of the system may be obtained. Then, we analyze the atomic population inversion, the degree of entanglement between the “atoms in BEC” and the “field” as well as the Mandel parameter. Numerical results show that, the atomic population inversion, atom-field entanglement and quantum statistics of photons are very sensitive to the evolved parameters in the model (and so can be well-adjusted), such as the number of atoms in BEC, the intensity of initial field, the interatom coupling constant and detuning. To investigate the entanglement properties, we pay attention to the entropy and linear entropy. It is shown that, oscillations in the two entropy criteria may be seen, with some maxima of entanglement at some moments of time. Finally, looking for the quantum statistics, we evaluate the Mandel parameter, by which we demonstrate the sub-Poissonian statistics and so the nonclassical characteristics of the field state of system. Collapse-revival phenomenon, which is a distinguishable nonclassical characteristic of the system, can be apparently observed in the atomic population inversion and the Mandel parameter. - Highlights: • N two-level atoms in a BEC interacting with a laser field in the presence of interatom interactions is considered. • The atomic population inversion, degree of entanglement between the “atoms in BEC” and the “field” and the Mandel parameter are investigated. • Collapse

  14. Optical quantum memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lvovsky, Alexander I.; Sanders, Barry C.; Tittel, Wolfgang

    2009-12-01

    Quantum memory is essential for the development of many devices in quantum information processing, including a synchronization tool that matches various processes within a quantum computer, an identity quantum gate that leaves any state unchanged, and a mechanism to convert heralded photons to on-demand photons. In addition to quantum computing, quantum memory will be instrumental for implementing long-distance quantum communication using quantum repeaters. The importance of this basic quantum gate is exemplified by the multitude of optical quantum memory mechanisms being studied, such as optical delay lines, cavities and electromagnetically induced transparency, as well as schemes that rely on photon echoes and the off-resonant Faraday interaction. Here, we report on state-of-the-art developments in the field of optical quantum memory, establish criteria for successful quantum memory and detail current performance levels.

  15. Effects of organic additives containing -NH2 and -SO3H on electrochemical properties of vanadium redox flow battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Zhangxing; Liu, Jianlei; Han, Huiguo; Chen, Yong; Zhou, Zhi; Zheng, Shijie; Lu, Wei; Liu, Suqin; He, Zhen

    2013-01-01

    Effects of methanesulfonic acid (MSA) and aminomethylsulfonic acid (AMSA) as additives for positive electrolyte on thermal stability and electrochemical performance are investigated. Both additives can improve the thermal stability of V(V) electrolyte, and AMSA has better effect, especially. The electrochemical results show that V(IV)/V(V) exhibits superior electrochemical activity and reversibility with additives, and the diffusion coefficient of V(IV) species, exchange current density and reaction rate constant become larger with additives in positive electrolyte. Among the two additives, AMSA has better effect for improvement of electrochemical activity and kinetics. The cell using positive electrolyte with additive of AMSA was assembled and the charge–discharge performance was evaluated. The assembled cell using AMSA as positive electrolyte additive shows good cycling performance, with higher energy efficiency (81.5%) and larger discharge capacity retention (40 cycles: 82.7%). The improved electrochemical performance may be ascribed to more active sites provided by -NH 2 group and the enhanced hydrophilicity of the electrode provided by -NH 2 and -SO 3 H groups

  16. Reducing multi-qubit interactions in adiabatic quantum computation without adding auxiliary qubits. Part 1: The "deduc-reduc" method and its application to quantum factorization of numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Tanburn, Richard; Okada, Emile; Dattani, Nike

    2015-01-01

    Adiabatic quantum computing has recently been used to factor 56153 [Dattani & Bryans, arXiv:1411.6758] at room temperature, which is orders of magnitude larger than any number attempted yet using Shor's algorithm (circuit-based quantum computation). However, this number is still vastly smaller than RSA-768 which is the largest number factored thus far on a classical computer. We address a major issue arising in the scaling of adiabatic quantum factorization to much larger numbers. Namely, the...

  17. The Effect of Deposit Temperature on the Catalytic SO2-to-SO3 Conversion in a Copper Flash Smelting Heat Recovery Boiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmusto, Juho; Vainio, Emil; Laurén, Tor; Lindgren, Mari

    2018-02-01

    The aim of the work was to study the catalytic role of copper flash smelter deposit in the SO2-to-SO3 conversion. In addition, the effect of process gas temperature at 548 K to 1173 K (275 °C to 900 °C) on the amount of SO3 formed was addressed both in the absence and presence of genuine copper flash smelter deposit. The SO3 conversion rate changed as a function of process gas temperature, peaking at 1023 K (750 °C). A dramatic increase in the SO2-to-SO3 conversion was observed when process dust was present, clearly indicating that process dust catalyzes the SO2-to-SO3 conversion. Based on these results, the catalytic ability of the deposit may lead to sulfuric acid dew point corrosion.

  18. Anticancer drug-DNA interactions measured using a photoinduced electron-transfer mechanism based on luminescent quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jipei; Guo, Weiwei; Yang, Xiurong; Wang, Erkang

    2009-01-01

    A sensing system based on the photoinduced electron transfer of quantum dots (QDs) was designed to measure the interaction of anticancer drug and DNA, taking mitoxantrone (MTX) as a model drug. MTX adsorbed on the surface of QDs can quench the photoluminescence (PL) of QDs through the photoinduced electron-transfer process; and then the addition of DNA will bring the restoration of QDs PL intensity, as DNA can bind with MTX and remove it from QDs. Sensitive detection of MTX with the detection limit of 10 nmol L(-1) and a linear detection range from 10 nmol L(-1) to 4.5 micromol L(-1) was achieved. The dependence of PL intensity on DNA amount was successfully utilized to investigate the interactions between MTX and DNA. Both the binding constants and the sizes of binding site of MTX-DNA interactions were calculated based on the equations deduced for the PL recovery process. The binding constant obtained in our experiment was generally consistent with previous reports. The sensitive and speedy detection of MTX as well as the avoidance of modification or immobilization process made this system suitable and promising in the drug-DNA interaction studies.

  19. A quantum-chemical validation about the formation of hydrogen bonds and secondary interactions in intermolecular heterocyclic systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boaz Galdino Oliveira

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available We have performed a detailed theoretical study in order to understand the charge density topology of the C2H4O···C2H2 and C2H4S···C2H2 heterocyclic hydrogen-bonded complexes. Through the calculations derived from Quantum Theory of Atoms in Molecules (QTAIM, it was observed the formation of hydrogen bonds and secondary interactions. Such analysis was performed through the determination of optimized geometries at B3LYP/6-31G(d,p level of theory, by which is that QTAIM topological operators were computed, such as the electronic density ρ(r, Laplacian Ñ2ρ(r, and ellipticity ε. The examination of the hydrogen bonds has been performed through the measurement of ρ(r, Ñ2ρ(r and ε between (O···H—C and (S···H—C, whereas the secondary interaction between axial hydrogen atoms Hα and carbon of acetylene. In this insight, it was verified the existence of secondary interaction only in C2H4S···C2H2 complex because its structure is propitious to form multiple interactions.

  20. The theory of a general quantum system interacting with a linear dissipative system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feynman, R.P.; Vernon, F.L.

    2000-01-01

    A formalism has been developed, using Feynman's space-time formulation of nonrelativistic quantum mechanics whereby the behavior of a system of interest, which is coupled to other external quantum systems, may be calculated in terms of its own variables only. It is shown that the effect of the external systems in such a formalism can always be included in a general class of functionals (influence functionals) of the coordinates of the system only. The properties of influence functionals for general systems are examined. Then, specific forms of influence functionals representing the effect of definite and random classical forces, linear dissipative systems at finite temperatures, and combinations of these are analyzed in detail. The linear system analysis is first done for perfectly linear systems composed of combinations of harmonic oscillators, loss being introduced by continuous distributions of oscillators. Then approximately linear systems and restrictions necessary for the linear behavior are considered. Influence functionals for all linear systems are shown to have the same form in terms of their classical response functions. In addition, a fluctuation-dissipation theorem is derived relating temperature and dissipation of the linear system to a fluctuating classical potential acting on the system of interest which reduces to the Nyquist-Johnson relation for noise in the case of electric circuits. Sample calculations of transition probabilities for the spontaneous emission of an atom in free space and in a cavity are made. Finally, a theorem is proved showing that within the requirements of linearity all sources of noise or quantum fluctuation introduced by maser-type amplification devices are accounted for by a classical calculation of the characteristics of the maser

  1. Quantum beats study of the 4He+ beam-carbon foil interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denis, A.; Desesquelles, J.

    1979-01-01

    Excitation cross-sections are deduced from the analysis of quantum beats in an electric field for an 4 He + (n=4) ion beam scattering through a thin carbon foil. The population distribution obtained at 1 MeV for 4S, 4P, 4D and 4F levels is in good agreement with a second-order Born approximation calculation of the electronic capture He ++ +C→He + (n=4) + C + . The alignment is found to be negative for P, D and F levels. The coherences Δl=+-1 have been measured, for amplitudes and phases [fr

  2. Electron and nuclear spin interactions in the optical spectra of single GaAs quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammon, D; Efros, A L; Kennedy, T A; Rosen, M; Katzer, D S; Park, D; Brown, S W; Korenev, V L; Merkulov, I A

    2001-05-28

    Fine and hyperfine splittings arising from electron, hole, and nuclear spin interactions in the magneto-optical spectra of individual localized excitons are studied. We explain the magnetic field dependence of the energy splitting through competition between Zeeman, exchange, and hyperfine interactions. An unexpectedly small hyperfine contribution to the splitting close to zero applied field is described well by the interplay between fluctuations of the hyperfine field experienced by the nuclear spin and nuclear dipole/dipole interactions.

  3. Magnetization processes in quantum spin chains with regularly alternating intersite interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derzhko, O.

    2001-01-01

    We consider the dependence of magnetization on field at zero temperature for spin-1/2 chains in which intersite interactions regularly vary from site to site with period p. In the limiting case, where the smallest value of the intersite interactions tends to zero, the chain splits into noninteracting identical fragments of p sites and the dependence of magnetization on field can be examined rigorously. We comment on the influence of an anisotropy in the inter spin interaction on the magnetization profiles. Finally, we show how the case of a nonzero smallest value of the intersite interactions can be considered

  4. Interaction and Cooperative Nucleation of InAsSbP Quantum Dots and Pits on InAs(100 Substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gambaryan Karen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract An example of InAsSbP quaternary quantum dots (QDs, pits and dots–pits cooperative structures’ growth on InAs(100 substrates by liquid phase epitaxy (LPE is reported. The interaction and surface morphology of the dots–pits combinations are investigated by the high-resolution scanning electron microscope. Bimodal growth mechanism for the both QDs and pits nucleation is observed. Cooperative structures consist of the QDs banded by pits, as well as the “large” pits banded by the quantum wires are detected. The composition of the islands and the pits edges is found to be quaternary, enriched by antimony and phosphorus, respectively. This repartition is caused by dissociation of the wetting layer, followed by migration (surface diffusion of the Sb and P atoms in opposite directions. The “small” QDs average density ranges from 0.8 to 2 × 109 cm−2, with heights and widths dimensions from 2 to 20 nm and 5 to 45 nm, respectively. The average density of the “small” pits is equal to (6–10 × 109 cm−2 with dimensions of 5–40 nm in width and depth. Lifshits–Slezov-like distribution for the amount and surface density of both “small” QDs and pits versus their average diameter is experimentally detected. A displacement of the absorption edge toward the long wavelength region and enlargement toward the short wavelength region is detected by the Fourier transform infrared spectrometry.

  5. Numerical stabilization of entanglement computation in auxiliary-field quantum Monte Carlo simulations of interacting many-fermion systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broecker, Peter; Trebst, Simon

    2016-12-01

    In the absence of a fermion sign problem, auxiliary-field (or determinantal) quantum Monte Carlo (DQMC) approaches have long been the numerical method of choice for unbiased, large-scale simulations of interacting many-fermion systems. More recently, the conceptual scope of this approach has been expanded by introducing ingenious schemes to compute entanglement entropies within its framework. On a practical level, these approaches, however, suffer from a variety of numerical instabilities that have largely impeded their applicability. Here we report on a number of algorithmic advances to overcome many of these numerical instabilities and significantly improve the calculation of entanglement measures in the zero-temperature projective DQMC approach, ultimately allowing us to reach similar system sizes as for the computation of conventional observables. We demonstrate the applicability of this improved DQMC approach by providing an entanglement perspective on the quantum phase transition from a magnetically ordered Mott insulator to a band insulator in the bilayer square lattice Hubbard model at half filling.

  6. Chemical potential for the interacting classical gas and the ideal quantum gas obeying a generalized exclusion principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevilla, F J; Olivares-Quiroz, L

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we address the concept of the chemical potential μ in classical and quantum gases towards the calculation of the equation of state μ = μ(n, T) where n is the particle density and T the absolute temperature using the methods of equilibrium statistical mechanics. Two cases seldom discussed in elementary textbooks are presented with detailed calculations. The first one refers to the explicit calculation of μ for the interacting classical gas exemplified by van der Waals gas. For this purpose, we used the method described by van Kampen (1961 Physica 27 783). The second one refers to the calculation of μ for ideal quantum gases that obey a generalized Pauli's exclusion principle that leads to statistics that go beyond the Bose-Einstein and Fermi-Dirac cases. The audience targeted in this work corresponds mainly to advanced undergraduates and graduate students in the physical-chemical sciences but it is not restricted to them. In regard of this, we have put a special emphasis on showing some additional details of calculations that usually do not appear explicitly in textbooks. (paper)

  7. Giant nonlinear interaction between two optical beams via a quantum dot embedded in a photonic wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, H. A.; Grange, T.; Reznychenko, B.; Yeo, I.; de Assis, P.-L.; Tumanov, D.; Fratini, F.; Malik, N. S.; Dupuy, E.; Gregersen, N.; Auffèves, A.; Gérard, J.-M.; Claudon, J.; Poizat, J.-Ph.

    2018-05-01

    Optical nonlinearities usually appear for large intensities, but discrete transitions allow for giant nonlinearities operating at the single-photon level. This has been demonstrated in the last decade for a single optical mode with cold atomic gases, or single two-level systems coupled to light via a tailored photonic environment. Here, we demonstrate a two-mode giant nonlinearity with a single semiconductor quantum dot (QD) embedded in a photonic wire antenna. We exploit two detuned optical transitions associated with the exciton-biexciton QD level scheme. Owing to the broadband waveguide antenna, the two transitions are efficiently interfaced with two free-space laser beams. The reflection of one laser beam is then controlled by the other beam, with a threshold power as low as 10 photons per exciton lifetime (1.6 nW ). Such a two-color nonlinearity opens appealing perspectives for the realization of ultralow-power logical gates and optical quantum gates, and could also be implemented in an integrated photonic circuit based on planar waveguides.

  8. Hyperfine-Interaction-Driven Suppression of Quantum Tunneling at Zero Field in a Holmium(III) Single-Ion Magnet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan-Cong; Liu, Jun-Liang; Wernsdorfer, Wolfgang; Liu, Dan; Chibotaru, Liviu F; Chen, Xiao-Ming; Tong, Ming-Liang

    2017-04-24

    An extremely rare non-Kramers holmium(III) single-ion magnet (SIM) is reported to be stabilized in the pentagonal-bipyramidal geometry by a phosphine oxide with a high energy barrier of 237(4) cm -1 . The suppression of the quantum tunneling of magnetization (QTM) at zero field and the hyperfine structures originating from field-induced QTMs can be observed even from the field-dependent alternating-current magnetic susceptibility in addition to single-crystal hysteresis loops. These dramatic dynamics were attributed to the combination of the favorable crystal-field environment and the hyperfine interactions arising from 165 Ho (I=7/2) with a natural abundance of 100 %. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Electric and magnetic field modulated energy dispersion, conductivity and optical response in double quantum wire with spin-orbit interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaaslan, Y.; Gisi, B.; Sakiroglu, S.; Kasapoglu, E.; Sari, H.; Sokmen, I.

    2018-02-01

    We study the influence of electric field on the electronic energy band structure, zero-temperature ballistic conductivity and optical properties of double quantum wire. System described by double-well anharmonic confinement potential is exposed to a perpendicular magnetic field and Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit interactions. Numerical results show up that the combined effects of internal and external agents cause the formation of crossing, anticrossing, camel-back/anomaly structures and the lateral, downward/upward shifts in the energy dispersion. The anomalies in the energy subbands give rise to the oscillation patterns in the ballistic conductance, and the energy shifts bring about the shift in the peak positions of optical absorption coefficients and refractive index changes.

  10. Colossal enhancement in thermoelectric effect in a laterally coupled double-quantum-dot chain by the Coulomb interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong, Lun; Yi, Lin

    2014-01-01

    Thermoelectric effects, including Seebeck coefficient (S), thermal conductance (κ), and figure of merit (ZT), in a laterally coupled double-quantum-dot (DQD) chain with two external nonmagnetic contacts are investigated theoretically by the nonequilibrium Green's function formalism. In this system, the DQD chain between two contacts forms a main channel for thermal electrons transporting, and each QD in the main chain couples laterally to a dangling one. The numerical calculations show that the Coulomb interactions not only lead to the splitting of the asymmetrical double-peak structure of the Seebeck coefficient, but also make the thermal spectrum show a strong violation of the Wiedemann–Franz law, leading to a colossal enhancement in ZT. These results indicate that the coupled DQD chain has potential applications in the thermoelectric devices with high thermal efficiency.

  11. Hyperfine-interaction-driven suppression of quantum tunneling at zero field in a holmium(III) single-ion magnet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yan-Cong; Liu, Jun-Liang; Chen, Xiao-Ming; Tong, Ming-Liang [Key Lab. of Bioinorganic and Synthetic Chemistry of Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry, Sun Yat-Sen Univ., Guangzhou (China); Wernsdorfer, Wolfgang [Institut Neel, CNRS and Universite Joseph Fournier, Grenoble (France); Institute of Nanotechnology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Germany); Physikalisches Institut, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Germany); Liu, Dan; Chibotaru, Liviu F. [Theory of Nanomaterials Group and INPAC-Institute of Nanoscale Physics and Chemistry, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven (Belgium)

    2017-04-24

    An extremely rare non-Kramers holmium(III) single-ion magnet (SIM) is reported to be stabilized in the pentagonal-bipyramidal geometry by a phosphine oxide with a high energy barrier of 237(4) cm{sup -1}. The suppression of the quantum tunneling of magnetization (QTM) at zero field and the hyperfine structures originating from field-induced QTMs can be observed even from the field-dependent alternating-current magnetic susceptibility in addition to single-crystal hysteresis loops. These dramatic dynamics were attributed to the combination of the favorable crystal-field environment and the hyperfine interactions arising from {sup 165}Ho (I=7/2) with a natural abundance of 100 %. (copyright 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  12. Electron - polar acoustical phonon interactions in nitride based diluted magnetic semiconductor quantum well via hot electron magnetotransport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandya, Ankur; Shinde, Satyam; Jha, Prafulla K.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper the hot electron transport properties like carrier energy and momentum scattering rates and electron energy loss rates are calculated via interactions of electrons with polar acoustical phonons for Mn doped BN quantum well in BN nanosheets via piezoelectric scattering and deformation potential mechanisms at low temperatures with high electric field. Electron energy loss rate increases with the electric field. It is observed that at low temperatures and for low electric field the phonon absorption is taking place whereas, for sufficient large electric field, phonon emission takes place. Under the piezoelectric (polar acoustical phonon) scattering mechanism, the carrier scattering rate decreases with the reduction of electric field at low temperatures wherein, the scattering rate variation with electric field is limited by a specific temperature beyond which there is no any impact of electric field on such scattering

  13. Critical behavior of a quantum chain with four-spin interactions in the presence of longitudinal and transverse magnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boechat, B; Florencio, J; Saguia, A; de Alcantara Bonfim, O F

    2014-03-01

    We study the ground-state properties of a spin-1/2 model on a chain containing four-spin Ising-like interactions in the presence of both transverse and longitudinal magnetic fields. We use entanglement entropy and finite-size scaling methods to obtain the phase diagrams of the model. Our numerical calculations reveal a rich variety of phases and the existence of multicritical points in the system. We identify phases with both ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic orderings. We also find periodically modulated orderings formed by a cluster of like spins followed by another cluster of opposite like spins. The quantum phases in the model are found to be separated by either first- or second-order transition lines.

  14. Determination of TNT explosive based on its selectively interaction with creatinine-capped CdSe/ZnS quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrillo-Carrión, Carolina; Simonet, Bartolomé M.; Valcárcel, Miguel

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Creatinine-modified CdSe/ZnS quantum dots fluorescent probe has been prepared. •This modified QDs has been used for sensing 2,4,6,-trinitrotoluene explosive (TNT). •The selectivity of fluorescence quenching of creatinine-QD for TNT has been evaluated. •The potential application of the proposed methodology for the determination of TNT in spiked soils has been demonstrated. -- Abstract: Here, a creatinine-modified CdSe/ZnS quantum dots fluorescent probe has been prepared and used for sensing 2,4,6,-trinitrotoluene explosive (TNT). The proposed method is based on the selective interaction between creatinine and nitroaromatic compounds according to the well-known Jaffé reaction. The procedure for the synthesis of creatinine-CdSe/ZnS reagent is very simple and reproducible and its fluorescent characteristics are reported. We found that the presence of TNT quenches the original fluorescence of creatinine-QD according to the Stern–Volmer model. Under the working conditions, the calibration plot of I o /I versus concentration of TNT was linear in the range 10–300 μg L −1 (R 2 = 0.996). The mechanism interaction is discussed. The selectivity of fluorescence quenching of creatinine-QD for TNT has been evaluated. Finally, the potential application of the proposed methodology for the determination of TNT in spiked soils is demonstrated. For the analysis of soil samples a solid-liquid extraction is carried out and a four-point standard addition protocol is used to correct the matrix effect. The method, which is simple and rapid, allows the detection of 0.057 μg g −1 of TNT in soil samples. This sensor could be a useful tool for environmental studies, a crucial topic for nanotechnology nowadays

  15. Probing different regimes of strong field light-matter interaction with semiconductor quantum dots and few cavity photons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargart, F.; Roy-Choudhury, K.; John, T.; Portalupi, S. L.; Schneider, C.; Höfling, S.; Kamp, M.; Hughes, S.; Michler, P.

    2016-12-01

    In this work we present an extensive experimental and theoretical investigation of different regimes of strong field light-matter interaction for cavity-driven quantum dot (QD) cavity systems. The electric field enhancement inside a high-Q micropillar cavity facilitates exceptionally strong interaction with few cavity photons, enabling the simultaneous investigation for a wide range of QD-laser detuning. In case of a resonant drive, the formation of dressed states and a Mollow triplet sideband splitting of up to 45 μeV is measured for a mean cavity photon number ≤slant 1. In the asymptotic limit of the linear AC Stark effect we systematically investigate the power and detuning dependence of more than 400 QDs. Some QD-cavity systems exhibit an unexpected anomalous Stark shift, which can be explained by an extended dressed 4-level QD model. We provide a detailed analysis of the QD-cavity systems properties enabling this novel effect. The experimental results are successfully reproduced using a polaron master equation approach for the QD-cavity system, which includes the driving laser field, exciton-cavity and exciton-phonon interactions.

  16. Quantum computer games: quantum minesweeper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Michal; Gordon, Goren

    2010-07-01

    The computer game of quantum minesweeper is introduced as a quantum extension of the well-known classical minesweeper. Its main objective is to teach the unique concepts of quantum mechanics in a fun way. Quantum minesweeper demonstrates the effects of superposition, entanglement and their non-local characteristics. While in the classical minesweeper the goal of the game is to discover all the mines laid out on a board without triggering them, in the quantum version there are several classical boards in superposition. The goal is to know the exact quantum state, i.e. the precise layout of all the mines in all the superposed classical boards. The player can perform three types of measurement: a classical measurement that probabilistically collapses the superposition; a quantum interaction-free measurement that can detect a mine without triggering it; and an entanglement measurement that provides non-local information. The application of the concepts taught by quantum minesweeper to one-way quantum computing are also presented.

  17. Quantum mechanics study of the hydroxyethylamines-BACE-1 active site interaction energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gueto-Tettay, Carlos; Drosos, Juan Carlos; Vivas-Reyes, Ricardo

    2011-06-01

    The identification of BACE-1, a key enzyme in the production of Amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides, generated by the proteolytic processing of amyloid precursor protein, was a major advance in the field of Alzheimer's disease as this pathology is characterized by the presence of extracellular senile plaques, mainly comprised of Aβ peptides. Hydroxyethylamines have demonstrated a remarkable potential, like candidate drugs, for this disease using BACE-1 as target. Density Functional Theory calculations were employed to estimate interaction energies for the complexes formed between the hydroxyethylamine derivated inhibitors and 24 residues in the BACE-1 active site. The collected data offered not only a general but a particular quantitative description that gives a deep insight of the interactions in the active site, showing at the same time how ligand structural variations affect them. Polar interactions are the major energetic contributors for complex stabilization and those ones with charged aspartate residues are highlighted, as they contribute over 90% of the total attractive interaction energy. Ligand-ARG296 residue interaction reports the most repulsive value and decreasing of the magnitude of this repulsion can be a key feature for the design of novel and more potent BACE-1 inhibitors. Also it was explained why sultam derivated BACE-1 inhibitors are better ones than lactam based. Hydrophobic interactions concentrated at S1 zone and other relevant repulsions and attractions were also evaluated. The comparison of two different theory levels (X3LYP and M062X) allowed to confirm the relevance of the detected interactions as each theory level has its own strength to depict the forces involved, as is the case of M062X which is better describing the hydrophobic interactions. Those facts were also evaluated and confirmed by comparing the quantitative trend, of selected ligand-residue interactions, with MP2 theory level as reference standard method for electrostatic plus

  18. Anisotropy of exciton spectrum and spin-orbit interactions in quantum wells in tilted magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olendski, Oleg; Shahbazyan, Tigran V

    2006-01-01

    We study theoretically excitonic energy spectrum and optical absorption in narrowgap semiconductor quantum wells in strong magnetic field. We show that, in the presence of an in-plane field component, the absorption coefficient exhibit a double-peak structure due to hybridization of bright and dark excitons. If both Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit terms are present, the spectrum is anisotropic in in-plane field orientation with respect to [100] axis. In particular, the magnitude of the splitting can be tuned in a wide interval by varying the azimuthal angle of the in-plane field. The absorption spectrrum anisotropy would allow simultaneous measurement Dresselhaus and Rashba spin-orbit coefficients

  19. Full Counting Statistics for Interacting Fermions with Determinantal Quantum Monte Carlo Simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humeniuk, Stephan; Büchler, Hans Peter

    2017-12-08

    We present a method for computing the full probability distribution function of quadratic observables such as particle number or magnetization for the Fermi-Hubbard model within the framework of determinantal quantum Monte Carlo calculations. Especially in cold atom experiments with single-site resolution, such a full counting statistics can be obtained from repeated projective measurements. We demonstrate that the full counting statistics can provide important information on the size of preformed pairs. Furthermore, we compute the full counting statistics of the staggered magnetization in the repulsive Hubbard model at half filling and find excellent agreement with recent experimental results. We show that current experiments are capable of probing the difference between the Hubbard model and the limiting Heisenberg model.

  20. Molecular interactions in ethyl acetate-chlorobenzene binary solution: Dielectric, spectroscopic studies and quantum chemical calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthick, N. K.; Kumbharkhane, A. C.; Joshi, Y. S.; Mahendraprabu, A.; Shanmugam, R.; Elangovan, A.; Arivazhagan, G.

    2017-05-01

    Dielectric studies using Time Domain Reflectometry method has been carried out on the binary solution of Ethyl acetate (EA) with Chlorobenzene (CBZ) over the entire composition range. Spectroscopic (FTIR and 13C NMR) signatures of neat EA, CBZ and their equimolar binary solution have also been recorded. The results of the spectroscopic studies favour the presence of (CBZ) Csbnd H ⋯ Odbnd C (EA), (EA) methylene Csbnd H ⋯ π electrons (CBZ) and (EA) methyl Csbnd H ⋯ Cl (CBZ) contacts which have been validated using quantum chemical calculations. Dimerization of CBZ has been identified. Presence of β-clusters has been identified in all the solutions. Although EA and CBZ molecules have nearly equal molar volumes, CBZ molecules experience larger hindrance for the rotation than EA molecules. Very small excess dielectric constant (εE) values may be correlated with weak heteromolecular forces and/or closed heteromolecular association.