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Sample records for inter annual patterns

  1. Patterns and controls of inter-annual variability in the terrestrial carbon budget

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Marcolla

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The terrestrial carbon fluxes show the largest variability among the components of the global carbon cycle and drive most of the temporal variations in the growth rate of atmospheric CO2. Understanding the environmental controls and trends of the terrestrial carbon budget is therefore essential to predict the future trajectories of the CO2 airborne fraction and atmospheric concentrations. In the present work, patterns and controls of the inter-annual variability (IAV of carbon net ecosystem exchange (NEE have been analysed using three different data streams: ecosystem-level observations from the FLUXNET database (La Thuile and 2015 releases, the MPI-MTE (model tree ensemble bottom–up product resulting from the global upscaling of site-level fluxes, and the Jena CarboScope Inversion, a top–down estimate of surface fluxes obtained from observed CO2 concentrations and an atmospheric transport model. Consistencies and discrepancies in the temporal and spatial patterns and in the climatic and physiological controls of IAV were investigated between the three data sources. Results show that the global average of IAV at FLUXNET sites, quantified as the standard deviation of annual NEE, peaks in arid ecosystems and amounts to  ∼  120 gC m−2 y−1, almost 6 times more than the values calculated from the two global products (15 and 20 gC m−2 y−1 for MPI-MTE and the Jena Inversion, respectively. Most of the temporal variability observed in the last three decades of the MPI-MTE and Jena Inversion products is due to yearly anomalies, whereas the temporal trends explain only about 15 and 20 % of the variability, respectively. Both at the site level and on a global scale, the IAV of NEE is driven by the gross primary productivity and in particular by the cumulative carbon flux during the months when land acts as a sink. Altogether these results offer a broad view on the magnitude, spatial patterns and environmental drivers of IAV

  2. Patterns and controls of inter-annual variability in the terrestrial carbon budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcolla, Barbara; Rödenbeck, Christian; Cescatti, Alessandro

    2017-08-01

    The terrestrial carbon fluxes show the largest variability among the components of the global carbon cycle and drive most of the temporal variations in the growth rate of atmospheric CO2. Understanding the environmental controls and trends of the terrestrial carbon budget is therefore essential to predict the future trajectories of the CO2 airborne fraction and atmospheric concentrations. In the present work, patterns and controls of the inter-annual variability (IAV) of carbon net ecosystem exchange (NEE) have been analysed using three different data streams: ecosystem-level observations from the FLUXNET database (La Thuile and 2015 releases), the MPI-MTE (model tree ensemble) bottom-up product resulting from the global upscaling of site-level fluxes, and the Jena CarboScope Inversion, a top-down estimate of surface fluxes obtained from observed CO2 concentrations and an atmospheric transport model. Consistencies and discrepancies in the temporal and spatial patterns and in the climatic and physiological controls of IAV were investigated between the three data sources. Results show that the global average of IAV at FLUXNET sites, quantified as the standard deviation of annual NEE, peaks in arid ecosystems and amounts to ˜ 120 gC m-2 y-1, almost 6 times more than the values calculated from the two global products (15 and 20 gC m-2 y-1 for MPI-MTE and the Jena Inversion, respectively). Most of the temporal variability observed in the last three decades of the MPI-MTE and Jena Inversion products is due to yearly anomalies, whereas the temporal trends explain only about 15 and 20 % of the variability, respectively. Both at the site level and on a global scale, the IAV of NEE is driven by the gross primary productivity and in particular by the cumulative carbon flux during the months when land acts as a sink. Altogether these results offer a broad view on the magnitude, spatial patterns and environmental drivers of IAV from a variety of data sources that can be

  3. North Atlantic atmospheric and ocean inter-annual variability over the past fifty years - Dominant patterns and decadal shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, Tristan; Demirov, Entcho; Zhu, Jieshun; Yashayaev, Igor

    2015-03-01

    The atmosphere and ocean of the North Atlantic have undergone significant changes in the past century. To understand these changes, their mechanisms, and their regional implications requires a quantitative understanding of processes in the coupled ocean and atmosphere system. Central to this understanding is the role played by the dominant patterns of ocean and atmospheric variability which define coherent variations in physical characteristics over large areas. Cluster analysis is used in this article to identify the patterns of the North Atlantic atmospheric variability in the subseasonal and interannual spectral intervals. Four dominant subseasonal weather regimes are defined using Bayesian Gaussian mixture models. All correlation patterns of the Sea Level Pressure (SLP) anomalies with the membership probability time series for the weather regimes show similarities with the dipole structure typical for the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). The SLP patterns of two of the regimes represent the opposite phases NAO+ and NAO-. The two other weather regimes, the Atlantic Ridge (AR) and Scandinavian-Greenland dipole (SG), have dipole spatial structures with the northern and southern centers of action shifted with respect to the NAO pattern. These two patterns define blocking structures over Scandinavia and near the southern tip of Greenland, respectively. The storm tracks typical for the four regimes resemble the well known paths for positive/negative phases of NAO for the NAO+/NAO- weather regimes, and paths influenced by blocking off the south Greenland tip for AR and over Scandinavia for SG. The correlation patterns of momentum and heat fluxes to the ocean for the four regimes have tripole structures with positive (warm) downward heat flux anomalies over the Subpolar North Atlantic (SPNA) for the NAO- and the AR and negative heat flux anomalies over the SPNA for the NAO+. The downward heat flux anomalies associated with the SG are negative over the Labrador Sea and

  4. Global inter-annual gravity changes from GRACE: Early results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Hinderer, J.

    2005-01-01

    with an accuracy of 0.4 muGal corresponding to 9 mm water thickness on spatial scales longer than 1300 km. Four of the most widely used global hydrological models have been investigated for their spatial comparison with GRACE observations of inter-annual gravity field variations due to changes in continental water...... storage. The Global Land Data Assimilation System model has a spatial correlation coefficient with GRACE observations of 0.65 over the northern hemisphere. This demonstrates that the observed gravity field changes on these scales are largely related to changes in continental water storage.......Fifteen monthly gravity field solutions from the GRACE twin satellites launched more than two years ago have been studied to estimate gravity field changes between 2002 and 2003. The results demonstrate that GRACE is capable of capturing the changes in ground water on inter-annual scales...

  5. Black sea annual and inter-annual water mass variations from space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yildiz, H.; Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Simav, M.

    2011-01-01

    influenced by the leakage of hydrological signals from the surrounding land. After applying the corresponding correction, we found a good agreement with water mass variations derived from steric-corrected satellite altimetry observations. Both GRACE and altimetry show significant annual water mass variations......This study evaluates the performance of two widely used GRACE solutions (CNES/GRGS RL02 and CSR RL04) in deriving annual and inter-annual water mass variations in the Black Sea for the period 2003–2007. It is demonstrated that the GRACE derived water mass variations in the Black Sea are heavily...

  6. Inter-annual variability of North Sea plaice spawning habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loots, C.; Vaz, S.; Koubbi, P.; Planque, B.; Coppin, F.; Verin, Y.

    2010-11-01

    Potential spawning habitat is defined as the area where environmental conditions are suitable for spawning to occur. Spawning adult data from the first quarter (January-March) of the International Bottom Trawl Survey have been used to study the inter-annual variability of the potential spawning habitat of North Sea plaice from 1980 to 2007. Generalised additive models (GAM) were used to create a model that related five environmental variables (depth, bottom temperature and salinity, seabed stress and sediment type) to presence-absence and abundance of spawning adults. Then, the habitat model was applied each year from 1970 to 2007 to predict inter-annual variability of the potential spawning habitat. Predicted responses obtained by GAM for each year were mapped using kriging. A hierarchical classification associated with a correspondence analysis was performed to cluster spawning suitable areas and to determine how they evolved across years. The potential spawning habitat was consistent with historical spawning ground locations described in the literature from eggs surveys. It was also found that the potential spawning habitat varied across years. Suitable areas were located in the southern part of the North Sea and along the eastern coast of England and Scotland in the eighties; they expanded further north from the nineties. Annual survey distributions did not show such northward expansion and remained located in the southern North Sea. This suggests that this species' actual spatial distribution remains stable against changing environmental conditions, and that the potential spawning habitat is not fully occupied. Changes in environmental conditions appear to remain within plaice environmental ranges, meaning that other factors may control the spatial distribution of plaice spawning habitat.

  7. Large-Scale Processes Associated with Inter-Decadal and Inter-Annual Early Spring Rainfall Variability in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jau-Ming Chen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Early spring (March - April rainfall in Taiwan exhibits evident and distinct inter-annual and inter-decadal variability. The inter-annual varibility has a positive correlation with the El Niño/Southern Oscillation while the inter-decadal variability features a phase change beginning in the late 1970s, coherent with the major phase change in the Pacific decadal oscillation. Rainfall variability in both timescales is regulated by large-scale processes showing consistent dynamic features. Rainfall increases are associated with positive sea surface temperature (SST anomalies in the tropical eastern Pacific and negative SST anomalies in the tropical central Pacific. An anomalous lower-level divergent center appears in the tropical central Pacific. Via a Rossby-wave-like response, an anomalous lower-level anticyclone appears to the southeast of Taiwan over the Philippine Sea-tropical western Pacific region, which is accompanied by an anomalous cyclone to the north-northeast of Taiwan. Both circulation anomalies induce anomalous southwesterly flows to enhance moisture flux from the South China Sea onto Taiwan, resulting in significant moisture convergence nearby Taiwan. With enhanced moisture supplied by anomalous southwesterly flows, significant rainfall increases occur in both inter-annual and inter-decadal timescales in early spring rainfall on Taiwan.

  8. How does the terrestrial carbon exchange respond to inter-annual climatic variations? A quantification based on atmospheric CO2 data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rödenbeck, Christian; Zaehle, Sönke; Keeling, Ralph; Heimann, Martin

    2018-04-01

    The response of the terrestrial net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of CO2 to climate variations and trends may crucially determine the future climate trajectory. Here we directly quantify this response on inter-annual timescales by building a linear regression of inter-annual NEE anomalies against observed air temperature anomalies into an atmospheric inverse calculation based on long-term atmospheric CO2 observations. This allows us to estimate the sensitivity of NEE to inter-annual variations in temperature (seen as a climate proxy) resolved in space and with season. As this sensitivity comprises both direct temperature effects and the effects of other climate variables co-varying with temperature, we interpret it as inter-annual climate sensitivity. We find distinct seasonal patterns of this sensitivity in the northern extratropics that are consistent with the expected seasonal responses of photosynthesis, respiration, and fire. Within uncertainties, these sensitivity patterns are consistent with independent inferences from eddy covariance data. On large spatial scales, northern extratropical and tropical inter-annual NEE variations inferred from the NEE-T regression are very similar to the estimates of an atmospheric inversion with explicit inter-annual degrees of freedom. The results of this study offer a way to benchmark ecosystem process models in more detail than existing effective global climate sensitivities. The results can also be used to gap-fill or extrapolate observational records or to separate inter-annual variations from longer-term trends.

  9. Partitioning inter annual variability in net ecosystem exchange between climatic variability and functional change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hui, D.; Luo, Y.; Katul, G.

    2003-01-01

    Inter annual variability in net ecosystem exchange of carbon is investigated using a homogeneity-of-slopes model to identify the function change contributing to inter annual variability, net ecosystem carbon exchange, and night-time ecosystem respiration. Results of employing this statistical approach to a data set collected at the Duke Forest AmeriFlux site from August 1997 to December 2001 are discussed. The results demonstrate that it is feasible to partition the variation in ecosystem carbon fluxes into direct effects of seasonal and inter annual climatic variability and functional change. 51 refs., 4 tabs., 5 figs

  10. Inter-annual trends of heavy metals in marine resources from the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    In an attempt to monitor and assess the pollution status of marine resources in the Nigerian territorial waters, this study was carried out to reveal the levels and inter-annual trend of heavy metals in marine resources from the Lagos lagoon marine ecosystem. Studies were carried out annually in the month of. July between ...

  11. Inter-annual trends of heavy metals in marine resources from the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Inter-annual trends of heavy metals in marine resources from the Nigerian territorial waters. ... African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology ... Abstract. In an attempt to monitor and assess the pollution status of marine resources in the Nigerian territorial waters, this study was carried out to reveal the levels and ...

  12. Inter- and intra-annual patterns of Ulva prolifera green tides in the Yellow Sea during 2007-2009, their origin and relationship to the expansion of coastal seaweed aquaculture in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keesing, John K; Liu, Dongyan; Fearns, Peter; Garcia, Rodrigo

    2011-06-01

    The large green-tide events that occurred in the Yellow Sea in 2008 (3489km(2)) and 2009 (4994km(2)) are shown to be novel events preceded only once by a much smaller event in 2007 (82km(2)). The blooms originated in the coastal area of Jiangsu province and spread north-east towards the Shandong Peninsula. The blooms grew at different rates and mesoscale variability in surface winds explained the differences in the spatial and temporal patterns of blooms in 2008 and 2009. The 2009 bloom was tracked to its origin immediately offshore of extensive intertidal flats between Yancheng and Nantong where recent rapid expansion of Porphyra aquaculture has occurred. We review published hypotheses which have been advanced to explain the occurrence of blooms and in light of our findings, we conclude that the accumulation and disposal of waste Ulva prolifera from Porphyra aquaculture rafts is the most likely cause of the blooms. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Inter-decadal change of the lagged inter-annual relationship between local sea surface temperature and tropical cyclone activity over the western North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Haikun; Wu, Liguang; Raga, G. B.

    2018-02-01

    This study documents the inter-decadal change of the lagged inter-annual relationship between the TC frequency (TCF) and the local sea surface temperature (SST) in the western North Pacific (WNP) during 1979-2014. An abrupt shift of the lagged relationship between them is observed to occur in 1998. Before the shift (1979-1997), a moderately positive correlation (0.35) between previous-year local SST and TCF is found, while a significantly negative correlation (- 0.71) is found since the shift (1998-2014). The inter-decadal change of the lagged relationship between TCF and local SST over the WNP is also accompanied by an inter-decadal change in the lagged inter-annual relationship between large-scale factors affecting TCs and local SST over the WNP. During 1998-2014, the previous-year local SST shows a significant negative correlation with the mid-level moisture and a significant positive correlation with the vertical wind shear over the main development region of WNP TC genesis. Almost opposite relationships are seen during 1979-1997, with a smaller magnitude of the correlation coefficients. These changes are consistent with the changes of the lagged inter-annual relationship between upper- and lower-level winds and local SST over the WNP. Analyses further suggests that the inter-decadal shift of the lagged inter-annual relationship between WNP TCF and local SST may be closely linked to the inter-decadal change of inter-annual SST transition over the tropical central-eastern Pacific associated with the climate regime shift in the late 1990s. Details on the underlying physical process need further investigation using observations and simulations.

  14. ENSO Related Inter-Annual Lightning Variability from the Full TRMM LIS Lightning Climatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Austin; Cecil, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    The El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) contributes to inter-annual variability of lightning production more than any other atmospheric oscillation. This study further investigated how ENSO phase affects lightning production in the tropics and subtropics using the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS). Lightning data were averaged into mean annual warm, cold, and neutral 'years' for analysis of the different phases and compared to model reanalysis data. An examination of the regional sensitivities and preliminary analysis of three locations was conducted using model reanalysis data to determine the leading convective mechanisms in these areas and how they might respond to the ENSO phases

  15. Inter-annual Variability in Global Suspended Particulate Inorganic Carbon Inventory Using Space-based Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, J.; Balch, W. M.; Henson, S.; Poulton, A. J.; Drapeau, D.; Bowler, B.; Lubelczyk, L.

    2016-02-01

    Coccolithophores, the single celled phytoplankton that produce an outer covering of calcium carbonate coccoliths, are considered to be the greatest contributors to the global oceanic particulate inorganic carbon (PIC) pool. The reflective coccoliths scatter light back out from the ocean surface, enabling PIC concentration to be quantitatively estimated from ocean color satellites. Here we use datasets of AQUA MODIS PIC concentration from 2003-2014 (using the recently-revised PIC algorithm), as well as statistics on coccolithophore vertical distribution derived from cruises throughout the world ocean, to estimate the average global (surface and integrated) PIC standing stock and its associated inter-annual variability. In addition, we divide the global ocean into Longhurst biogeochemical provinces, update the PIC biomass statistics and identify those regions that have the greatest inter-annual variability and thus may exert the greatest influence on global PIC standing stock and the alkalinity pump.

  16. Quantification of Impact of Orbital Drift on Inter-Annual Trends in AVHRR NDVI Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoteshwar R. Nagol

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI time-series data derived from Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR have been extensively used for studying inter-annual dynamics of global and regional vegetation. However, there can be significant uncertainties in the data due to incomplete atmospheric correction and orbital drift of the satellites through their active life. Access to location specific quantification of uncertainty is crucial for appropriate evaluation of the trends and anomalies. This paper provides per pixel quantification of orbital drift related spurious trends in Long Term Data Record (LTDR AVHRR NDVI data product. The magnitude and direction of the spurious trends was estimated by direct comparison with data from MODerate resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS Aqua instrument, which has stable inter-annual sun-sensor geometry. The maps show presence of both positive as well as negative spurious trends in the data. After application of the BRDF correction, an overall decrease in positive trends and an increase in number of pixels with negative spurious trends were observed. The mean global spurious inter-annual NDVI trend before and after BRDF correction was 0.0016 and −0.0017 respectively. The research presented in this paper gives valuable insight into the magnitude of orbital drift related trends in the AVHRR NDVI data as well as the degree to which it is being rectified by the MODIS BRDF correction algorithm used by the LTDR processing stream.

  17. Inter-annual variation of carbon uptake by a plantation oak woodland in south-eastern England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Wilkinson

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The carbon balance of an 80-yr-old deciduous oak plantation in the temperate oceanic climate of the south-east of Great Britain was measured by eddy covariance over 12 yr (1999–2010. The mean annual net ecosystem productivity (NEP was 486 g C m−2 yr−1 (95% CI of ±73 g C m−2 yr−1, and this was partitioned into a gross primary productivity (GPP of 2034 ± 145 g C m−2 yr−1, over a 165 (±6 day growing season, and an annual loss of carbon through respiration and decomposition (ecosystem respiration, Reco of 1548 ± 122 g C m−2 yr−1. Although the maximum variation of NEP between years was large (333 g C m−2 yr−1, the ratio of Reco/GPP remained relatively constant (0.76 ± 0.02 CI. Some anomalies in the annual patterns of the carbon balance could be linked to particular weather events, such as low summer solar radiation and low soil moisture content (values below 30% by volume. The European-wide heat wave and drought of 2003 did not reduce the NEP of this woodland because of good water supply from the surface-water gley soil. The inter-annual variation in estimated intercepted radiation only accounted for ~ 47% of the variation in GPP, although a significant relationship (p < 0.001 was found between peak leaf area index and annual GPP, which modified the efficiency with which incident radiation was used in net CO2 uptake. Whilst the spring start and late autumn end of the net CO2 uptake period varied substantially (range of 24 and 27 days respectively, annual GPP was not related to growing season length. Severe outbreaks of defoliating moth caterpillars, mostly Tortrix viridana L. and Operophtera brumata L., caused considerable damage to the forest canopy in 2009 and 2010, resulting in reduced GPP in these two years. Inter-annual variation in

  18. Relative importance of precipitation frequency and intensity in inter-annual variation of precipitation in Singapore during 1980-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Babovic, Vladan

    2017-04-01

    Observed studies on inter-annual variation of precipitation provide insight into the response of precipitation to anthropogenic climate change and natural climate variability. Inter-annual variation of precipitation results from the concurrent variations of precipitation frequency and intensity, understanding of the relative importance of frequency and intensity in the variability of precipitation can help fathom its changing properties. Investigation of the long-term changes of precipitation schemes has been extensively carried out in many regions across the world, however, detailed studies of the relative importance of precipitation frequency and intensity in inter-annual variation of precipitation are still limited, especially in the tropics. Therefore, this study presents a comprehensive framework to investigate the inter-annual variation of precipitation and the dominance of precipitation frequency and intensity in a tropical urban city-state, Singapore, based on long-term (1980-2013) daily precipitation series from 22 rain gauges. First, an iterative Mann-Kendall trend test method is applied to detect long-term trends in precipitation total, frequency and intensity at both annual and seasonal time scales. Then, the relative importance of precipitation frequency and intensity in inducing the inter-annual variation of wet-day precipitation total is analyzed using a dominance analysis method based on linear regression. The results show statistically significant upward trends in wet-day precipitation total, frequency and intensity at annual time scale, however, these trends are not evident during the monsoon seasons. The inter-annual variation of wet-day precipitation is mainly dominated by precipitation intensity for most of the stations at annual time scale and during the Northeast monsoon season. However, during the Southwest monsoon season, the inter-annual variation of wet-day precipitation is mainly dominated by precipitation frequency. These results have

  19. Detecting inter-annual variability in the phenological characteristics of southern Africa’s vegetation using satellite imagery

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wessels, Konrad J

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available provides consistent measurements of vegetation greenness which captures phenological cycles and vegetation function. Understanding the inter-annual variability in phenology is imperative, as phenological changes will be one of the first signs of the impact...

  20. The predicted CLARREO sampling error of the inter-annual SW variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doelling, D. R.; Keyes, D. F.; Nguyen, C.; Macdonnell, D.; Young, D. F.

    2009-12-01

    The NRC Decadal Survey has called for SI traceability of long-term hyper-spectral flux measurements in order to monitor climate variability. This mission is called the Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) and is currently defining its mission requirements. The requirements are focused on the ability to measure decadal change of key climate variables at very high accuracy. The accuracy goals are set using anticipated climate change magnitudes, but the accuracy achieved for any given climate variable must take into account the temporal and spatial sampling errors based on satellite orbits and calibration accuracy. The time period to detect a significant trend in the CLARREO record depends on the magnitude of the sampling calibration errors relative to the current inter-annual variability. The largest uncertainty in climate feedbacks remains the effect of changing clouds on planetary energy balance. Some regions on earth have strong diurnal cycles, such as maritime stratus and afternoon land convection; other regions have strong seasonal cycles, such as the monsoon. However, when monitoring inter-annual variability these cycles are only important if the strength of these cycles vary on decadal time scales. This study will attempt to determine the best satellite constellations to reduce sampling error and to compare the error with the current inter-annual variability signal to ensure the viability of the mission. The study will incorporate Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) (Monthly TOA/Surface Averages) SRBAVG product TOA LW and SW climate quality fluxes. The fluxes are derived by combining Terra (10:30 local equator crossing time) CERES fluxes with 3-hourly 5-geostationary satellite estimated broadband fluxes, which are normalized using the CERES fluxes, to complete the diurnal cycle. These fluxes were saved hourly during processing and considered the truth dataset. 90°, 83° and 74° inclination precessionary orbits as

  1. The Effects of Inter-annual Climate Variability on the Departures of Leatherback Marine Turtles from the California Current Ecosystem

    OpenAIRE

    Van Zerr, Vanessa E

    2013-01-01

    The Pacific Ocean is a highly variable environment, and changes in oceanographic conditions impact the distributions of many organisms. Inter-annual climate variability, especially the El Niño/Southern Oscillation, is known to have wide-ranging impacts on organisms in the California Current. Understanding the factors that drive changes in the spatial ecology of organisms, such as inter-annual climate variability, is essential in many cases for effective conservation. Leatherback marine turtle...

  2. Climatic driving forces in inter-annual variation of global FPAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Dailiang; Liu, Liangyun; Yang, Xiaohua; Zhou, Bin

    2012-09-01

    Fraction of Absorbed Photosynthetically Active Radiation (FPAR) characterizes vegetation canopy functioning and its energy absorption capacity. In this paper, we focus on climatic driving forces in inter-annual variation of global FPAR from 1982 to 2006 by Global Historical Climatology Network (GHCN-Monthly) data. Using FPAR-Simple Ratio Vegetation Index (SR) relationship, Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS) Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) was used to estimate FPAR at the global scale. The correlation between inter-annual variation of FPAR and temperature, precipitation derived from GHCN-Monthly was examined, during the periods of March-May (MAM), June-August (JJA), September-November (SON), and December-February (DJF) over from 1982 to 2006. The analysis of climatic influence on global FPAR revealed the significant correlation with temperature and precipitation in some meteorological stations area, and a more significant correlation with precipitation was found than which with temperature. Some stations in the regions between 30° N and 60° N and around 30° S in South America, where the annual FPAR variation showed a significant positive correlation with temperature (P forest of Africa and Amazon during the dry season of JJA and SON.

  3. Trend Change Detection in NDVI Time Series: Effects of Inter-Annual Variability and Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forkel, Matthias; Carvalhais, Nuno; Verbesselt, Jan; Mahecha, Miguel D.; Neigh, Christopher S.R.; Reichstein, Markus

    2013-01-01

    Changing trends in ecosystem productivity can be quantified using satellite observations of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). However, the estimation of trends from NDVI time series differs substantially depending on analyzed satellite dataset, the corresponding spatiotemporal resolution, and the applied statistical method. Here we compare the performance of a wide range of trend estimation methods and demonstrate that performance decreases with increasing inter-annual variability in the NDVI time series. Trend slope estimates based on annual aggregated time series or based on a seasonal-trend model show better performances than methods that remove the seasonal cycle of the time series. A breakpoint detection analysis reveals that an overestimation of breakpoints in NDVI trends can result in wrong or even opposite trend estimates. Based on our results, we give practical recommendations for the application of trend methods on long-term NDVI time series. Particularly, we apply and compare different methods on NDVI time series in Alaska, where both greening and browning trends have been previously observed. Here, the multi-method uncertainty of NDVI trends is quantified through the application of the different trend estimation methods. Our results indicate that greening NDVI trends in Alaska are more spatially and temporally prevalent than browning trends. We also show that detected breakpoints in NDVI trends tend to coincide with large fires. Overall, our analyses demonstrate that seasonal trend methods need to be improved against inter-annual variability to quantify changing trends in ecosystem productivity with higher accuracy.

  4. Inter-annual and spatial variability in hillslope runoff and mercury flux during spring snowmelt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Kristine M; Mitchell, Carl P J

    2012-08-01

    Spring snowmelt is an important period of mercury (Hg) export from watersheds. Limited research has investigated the potential effects of climate variability on hydrologic and Hg fluxes during spring snowmelt. The purpose of this research was to assess the potential impacts of inter-annual climate variability on Hg mobility in forested uplands, as well as spatial variability in hillslope hydrology and Hg fluxes. We compared hydrological flows, Hg and solute mobility from three adjacent hillslopes in the S7 watershed of the Marcell Experimental Forest, Minnesota during two very different spring snowmelt periods: one following a winter (2009-2010) with severely diminished snow accumulation (snow water equivalent (SWE) = 48 mm) with an early melt, and a second (2010-2011) with significantly greater winter snow accumulation (SWE = 98 mm) with average to late melt timing. Observed inter-annual differences in total Hg (THg) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) yields were predominantly flow-driven, as the proportion by which solute yields increased was the same as the increase in runoff. Accounting for inter-annual differences in flow, there was no significant difference in THg and DOC export between the two snowmelt periods. The spring 2010 snowmelt highlighted the important contribution of melting soil frost in the timing of a considerable portion of THg exported from the hillslope, accounting for nearly 30% of the THg mobilized. Differences in slope morphology and soil depths to the confining till layer were important in controlling the large observed spatial variability in hydrological flowpaths, transmissivity feedback responses, and Hg flux trends across the adjacent hillslopes.

  5. The impact of inter-annual variability of annual cycle on long-term persistence of surface air temperature in long historical records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Qimin; Nian, Da; Fu, Zuntao

    2018-02-01

    Previous studies in the literature show that the annual cycle of surface air temperature (SAT) is changing in both amplitude and phase, and the SAT departures from the annual cycle are long-term correlated. However, the classical definition of temperature anomalies is based on the assumption that the annual cycle is constant, which contradicts the fact of changing annual cycle. How to quantify the impact of the changing annual cycle on the long-term correlation of temperature anomaly variability still remains open. In this paper, a recently developed data adaptive analysis tool, the nonlinear mode decomposition (NMD), is used to extract and remove time-varying annual cycle to reach the new defined temperature anomalies in which time-dependent amplitude of annual cycle has been considered. By means of detrended fluctuation analysis, the impact induced by inter-annual variability from the time-dependent amplitude of annual cycle has been quantified on the estimation of long-term correlation of long historical temperature anomalies in Europe. The results show that the classical climatology annual cycle is supposed to lack inter-annual fluctuation which will lead to a maximum artificial deviation centering around 600 days. This maximum artificial deviation is crucial to defining the scaling range and estimating the long-term persistence exponent accurately. Selecting different scaling range could lead to an overestimation or underestimation of the long-term persistence exponent. By using NMD method to extract the inter-annual fluctuations of annual cycle, this artificial crossover can be weakened to extend a wider scaling range with fewer uncertainties.

  6. Inter-annual to multi-decadal variability in prairie water resources over the past millennium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauchyn, D.

    2008-01-01

    In the Prairie Provinces, declining levels have been recently recorded for various rivers and lakes, and further reductions are projected. These trends reflect human impact in terms of increasing water consumption and possibly anthropogenic climate change. From the coupling of hydrological models and climate change scenarios, researchers have projected lower future summer flows as global warming brings shorter warmer winters and longer and generally drier summers to western Canada. However, the detection and interpretation of trends from gauge records and model outputs are constrained by the relatively short perspective of decades and the uncertainties associated with projecting climate change and its impacts on hydrological regimes. A longer perspective on inter-annual to multi-decadal variability in water resources is available from moisture-sensitive tree-ring chronologies. We have established a dense network of low elevation chronologies spanning the headwaters of the Saskatchewan, Missouri, Churchill and Mackenzie River basins. Standardized tree-ring width for a large sample of trees and sites is a strong regional signal of annual and seasonal hydroclimate, and an especially good proxy of low water levels. Proxy streamflow records, up to 800 years in length, show quasi-periodic variability at inter-annual to multi-decadal scales that correspond to the tempo of sea-surface temperature anomalies. The industrial sponsors of our research, Manitoba Hydro and EPCOR, anticipate the use of our tree-ring reconstructions for informing forecasts of future water supplies and planning adaptation to climate change. Engineers from these companies, and more than 50 other water managers and planners from the Prairie Provinces, attended a workshop in March 2008 to explore potential applications of paleo-hydrological records to water resource management. (author)

  7. Inter-annual changes of Biomass Burning and Desert Dust and their impact over East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    DONG, X.; Fu, J. S.; Huang, K.

    2014-12-01

    Impact of mineral dust and biomass burning aerosols on air quality has been well documented in the last few decades, but the knowledge about their interactions with anthropogenic emission and their impacts on regional climate is very limited (IPCC, 2007). While East Asia is greatly affected by dust storms in spring from Taklamakan and Gobi deserts (Huang et al., 2010; Li et al., 2012), it also suffers from significant biomass burning emission from Southeast Asia during the same season. Observations from both surface monitoring and satellite data indicated that mineral dust and biomass burning aerosols may approach to coastal area of East Asia simultaneously, thus have a very unique impact on the local atmospheric environment and regional climate. In this study, we first investigated the inter-annual variations of biomass burning and dust aerosols emission for 5 consecutive years from 2006-2010 to estimate the upper and lower limits and correlation with meteorology conditions, and then evaluate their impacts with a chemical transport system. Our preliminary results indicated that biomass burning has a strong correlation with precipitation over Southeast Asia, which could drive the emission varying from 542 Tg in 2008 to 945 Tg in 2010, according to FLAMBE emission inventory (Reid et al., 2009). Mineral dust also demonstrated a strong dependence on wind filed. These inter-annual/annual variations will also lead to different findings and impacts on air quality in East Asia. Reference: Huang, K., et al. (2010), Mixing of Asian dust with pollution aerosol and the transformation of aerosol components during the dust storm over China in spring 2007, Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, 115. IPCC (2007), Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, New York. Li, J., et al. (2012), Mixing of Asian mineral dust with anthropogenic pollutants over East Asia: a model case study of a super-duststorm in

  8. Projecting pest population dynamics under global warming: the combined effect of inter- and intra-annual variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zidon, Royi; Tsueda, Hirotsugu; Morin, Efrat; Morin, Shai

    2016-06-01

    The typical short generation length of insects makes their population dynamics highly sensitive not only to mean annual temperatures but also to their intra-annual variations. To consider the combined effect of both thermal factors under global warming, we propose a modeling framework that links general circulation models (GCMs) with a stochastic weather generator and population dynamics models to predict species population responses to inter- and intra-annual temperature changes. This framework was utilized to explore future changes in populations of Bemisia tabaci, an invasive insect pest-species that affects multiple agricultural systems in the Mediterranean region. We considered three locations representing different pest status and climatic conditions: Montpellier (France), Seville (Spain), and Beit-Jamal (Israel). We produced ensembles of local daily temperature realizations representing current and future (mid-21st century) climatic conditions under two emission scenarios for the three locations. Our simulations predicted a significant increase in the average number of annual generations and in population size, and a significant lengthening of the growing season in all three locations. A negative effect was found only in Seville for the summer season, where future temperatures lead to a reduction in population size. High variability in population size was observed between years with similar annual mean temperatures, suggesting a strong effect of intra-annual temperature variation. Critical periods were from late spring to late summer in Montpellier and from late winter to early summer in Seville and Beit-Jamal. Although our analysis suggested that earlier seasonal activity does not necessarily lead to increased populations load unless an additional generation is produced, it is highly likely that the insect will become a significant pest of open-fields at Mediterranean latitudes above 40° during the next 50 years. Our simulations also implied that current

  9. Inter-firm R&D partnering in pharmaceutical biotechnology since 1975 : trends, patterns, and networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roijakkers, A.H.W.M.; Hagedoorn, J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyses a large, longitudinal database on inter-firm R&D partnerships formed in the high-tech pharmaceutical biotechnology industry since 1975. Our research indicates an overall growth in the number of annually, newly established R&D partnerships where research partners consistently

  10. Annual and inter-annual variations of 6.5-day-planetary-waves in MLT observed by TIMED/SABER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yingying; Li, Huijun; Li, Chongyin; Zhang, Shaodong

    2017-04-01

    Annual and inter-annual variations of 6.5DWs in 20-110 km, 52°S-52°N, 2002-2016 are studied by using v2.0 TIMED/SABER kinetic temperature data. Firstly, global annual variations of 6.5DW's spectral power and amplitudes are obtained. Strong wave amplitudes emerge in 30°S/N-50°S/N, and peaks in altitude separate in stratosphere (40-50 km), mesosphere (80-90 km) and the lower thermosphere (100-110 km), respectively. Their annual variations are similar in both hemispheres, but different in altitude. In 40-50 km, the annual maximums emerge mostly in winters: Dec.-Jan. in the NH and Jul.-Aug. in the SH. In MLT, annual peaks arise twice in each half of year. In 80-90 km, they're mainly in equinoctial seasons and winters: May, Aug.-Sep. and Jan. in the NH and Feb., Nov. and May in the SH. In 100-110 km, they emerge mainly in equinoctial seasons: Apr.-May and Aug.-Sep. in the NH and Feb.-Mar. and Oct.-Nov. in the SH. Then, inter-annual variations of 6.5DW amplitudes during the 14-year period are studied. Frequency spectra of monthly-mean amplitudes show that, main dynamics in long-term variations of 6.5DWs are AO and SAO in both hemispheres. Besides, QBO are visible in both hemispheres and 4-month period signals are noticed in the NH in MLT. Amplitudes of SAO, AO and QBO are obtained by bandpass filter. Their amplitudes are comparable in stratosphere and mesosphere, and QBO signals are weaker than the others in the LT. Vertical variations both of SAO and AO amplitudes are very stable. AO structures have little inter-annual changes, while inter-annual variations of SAO are significant and are related with 6.5DW. It means that annual and inter-annual variations of 6.5DW are mainly controlled by AO and SAO, respectively. Although QBO signals are weaker and their variations are less regular than AO and SAO, their phases seems to relate with inter-annual variations of 6.5DW as well.

  11. Inter-species and intra-annual variations of moss nitrogen utilization: Implications for nitrogen deposition assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yu-Ping; Liu, Xue-Yan; Sun, Xin-Chao; Song, Wei; Zheng, Xu-Dong; Li, Rui; Liu, Cong-Qiang

    2017-11-01

    Moss nitrogen (N) concentrations and natural 15 N abundance (δ 15 N values) have been widely employed to evaluate annual levels and major sources of atmospheric N deposition. However, different moss species and one-off sampling were often used among extant studies, it remains unclear whether moss N parameters differ with species and different samplings, which prevented more accurate assessment of N deposition via moss survey. Here concentrations, isotopic ratios of bulk carbon (C) and bulk N in natural epilithic mosses (Bryum argenteum, Eurohypnum leptothallum, Haplocladium microphyllum and Hypnum plumaeforme) were measured monthly from August 2006 to August 2007 at Guiyang, SW China. The H. plumaeforme had significantly (P < 0.05) lower bulk N concentrations and higher δ 13 C values than other species. Moss N concentrations were significantly (P < 0.05) lower in warmer months than in cooler months, while moss δ 13 C values exhibited an opposite pattern. The variance component analyses showed that different species contributed more variations of moss N concentrations and δ 13 C values than different samplings. Differently, δ 15 N values did not differ significantly between moss species, and its variance mainly reflected variations of assimilated N sources, with ammonium as the dominant contributor. These results unambiguously reveal the influence of inter-species and intra-annual variations of moss N utilization on N deposition assessment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Multi-tissue analyses reveal limited inter-annual and seasonal variation in mercury exposure in an Antarctic penguin community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasso, Rebecka L; Polito, Michael J; Emslie, Steven D

    2014-10-01

    Inter-annual variation in tissue mercury concentrations in birds can result from annual changes in the bioavailability of mercury or shifts in dietary composition and/or trophic level. We investigated potential annual variability in mercury dynamics in the Antarctic marine food web using Pygoscelis penguins as biomonitors. Eggshell membrane, chick down, and adult feathers were collected from three species of sympatrically breeding Pygoscelis penguins during the austral summers of 2006/2007-2010/2011. To evaluate the hypothesis that mercury concentrations in penguins exhibit significant inter-annual variation and to determine the potential source of such variation (dietary or environmental), we compared tissue mercury concentrations with trophic levels as indicated by δ(15)N values from all species and tissues. Overall, no inter-annual variation in mercury was observed in adult feathers suggesting that mercury exposure, on an annual scale, was consistent for Pygoscelis penguins. However, when examining tissues that reflected more discrete time periods (chick down and eggshell membrane) relative to adult feathers, we found some evidence of inter-annual variation in mercury exposure during penguins' pre-breeding and chick rearing periods. Evidence of inter-annual variation in penguin trophic level was also limited suggesting that foraging ecology and environmental factors related to the bioavailability of mercury may provide more explanatory power for mercury exposure compared to trophic level alone. Even so, the variable strength of relationships observed between trophic level and tissue mercury concentrations across and within Pygoscelis penguin species suggest that caution is required when selecting appropriate species and tissue combinations for environmental biomonitoring studies in Antarctica.

  13. Millennium-scale crossdating and inter-annual climate sensitivities of standing California redwoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Allyson L; Sillett, Stephen C; Kramer, Russell D

    2014-01-01

    Extremely decay-resistant wood and fire-resistant bark allow California's redwoods to accumulate millennia of annual growth rings that can be useful in biological research. Whereas tree rings of Sequoiadendron giganteum (SEGI) helped formalize the study of dendrochronology and the principle of crossdating, those of Sequoia sempervirens (SESE) have proven much more difficult to decipher, greatly limiting dendroclimatic and other investigations of this species. We overcame these problems by climbing standing trees and coring trunks at multiple heights in 14 old-growth forest locations across California. Overall, we sampled 1,466 series with 483,712 annual rings from 120 trees and were able to crossdate 83% of SESE compared to 99% of SEGI rings. Standard and residual tree-ring chronologies spanning up to 1,685 years for SESE and 1,538 years for SEGI were created for each location to evaluate crossdating and to examine correlations between annual growth and climate. We used monthly values of temperature, precipitation, and drought severity as well as summer cloudiness to quantify potential drivers of inter-annual growth variation over century-long time series at each location. SESE chronologies exhibited a latitudinal gradient of climate sensitivities, contrasting cooler northern rainforests and warmer, drier southern forests. Radial growth increased with decreasing summer cloudiness in northern rainforests and a central SESE location. The strongest dendroclimatic relationship occurred in our southernmost SESE location, where radial growth correlated negatively with dry summer conditions and exhibited responses to historic fires. SEGI chronologies showed negative correlations with June temperature and positive correlations with previous October precipitation. More work is needed to understand quantitative relationships between SEGI radial growth and moisture availability, particularly snowmelt. Tree-ring chronologies developed here for both redwood species have

  14. Millennium-scale crossdating and inter-annual climate sensitivities of standing California redwoods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allyson L Carroll

    Full Text Available Extremely decay-resistant wood and fire-resistant bark allow California's redwoods to accumulate millennia of annual growth rings that can be useful in biological research. Whereas tree rings of Sequoiadendron giganteum (SEGI helped formalize the study of dendrochronology and the principle of crossdating, those of Sequoia sempervirens (SESE have proven much more difficult to decipher, greatly limiting dendroclimatic and other investigations of this species. We overcame these problems by climbing standing trees and coring trunks at multiple heights in 14 old-growth forest locations across California. Overall, we sampled 1,466 series with 483,712 annual rings from 120 trees and were able to crossdate 83% of SESE compared to 99% of SEGI rings. Standard and residual tree-ring chronologies spanning up to 1,685 years for SESE and 1,538 years for SEGI were created for each location to evaluate crossdating and to examine correlations between annual growth and climate. We used monthly values of temperature, precipitation, and drought severity as well as summer cloudiness to quantify potential drivers of inter-annual growth variation over century-long time series at each location. SESE chronologies exhibited a latitudinal gradient of climate sensitivities, contrasting cooler northern rainforests and warmer, drier southern forests. Radial growth increased with decreasing summer cloudiness in northern rainforests and a central SESE location. The strongest dendroclimatic relationship occurred in our southernmost SESE location, where radial growth correlated negatively with dry summer conditions and exhibited responses to historic fires. SEGI chronologies showed negative correlations with June temperature and positive correlations with previous October precipitation. More work is needed to understand quantitative relationships between SEGI radial growth and moisture availability, particularly snowmelt. Tree-ring chronologies developed here for both redwood

  15. The role of ecosystem memory in predicting inter-annual variations of the tropical carbon balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, A. A.; Liu, J.; Bowman, K. W.; Konings, A. G.; Saatchi, S.; Worden, J. R.; Worden, H. M.; Jiang, Z.; Parazoo, N.; Williams, M. D.; Schimel, D.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding the trajectory of the tropical carbon balance remains challenging, in part due to large uncertainties in the integrated response of carbon cycle processes to climate variability. Satellite observations atmospheric CO2 from GOSAT and OCO-2, together with ancillary satellite measurements, provide crucial constraints on continental-scale terrestrial carbon fluxes. However, an integrated understanding of both climate forcings and legacy effects (or "ecosystem memory") on the terrestrial carbon balance is ultimately needed to reduce uncertainty on its future trajectory. Here we use the CARbon DAta-MOdel fraMework (CARDAMOM) diagnostic model-data fusion approach - constrained by an array of C cycle satellite surface observations, including MODIS leaf area, biomass, GOSAT solar-induced fluorescence, as well as "top-down" atmospheric inversion estimates of CO2 and CO surface fluxes from the NASA Carbon Monitoring System Flux (CMS-Flux) - to constrain and predict spatially-explicit tropical carbon state variables during 2010-2015. We find that the combined assimilation of land surface and atmospheric datasets places key constraints on the temperature sensitivity and first order carbon-water feedbacks throughout the tropics and combustion factors within biomass burning regions. By varying the duration of the assimilation period, we find that the prediction skill on inter-annual net biospheric exchange is primarily limited by record length rather than model structure and process representation. We show that across all tropical biomes, quantitative knowledge of memory effects - which account for 30-50% of interannual variations across the tropics - is critical for understanding and ultimately predicting the inter-annual tropical carbon balance.

  16. Seasonal and inter-annual temperature variability in the bottom waters over the Black Sea shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, G. I.; Wobus, F.; Aleynik, D. L.

    2011-02-01

    Long-term changes in the state of the Bottom Shelf Water (BSW) on the Western shelf of the Black Sea are assessed using analysis of intra- and inter-annual variations of temperature as well as their relations to physical parameters of both shelf and deep-sea waters. First, large data sets of in-situ observations over the 20th century are compiled into high-resolution monthly climatology at different depth levels. Then, the temperature anomalies from the climatic mean are calculated and aggregated into spatial compartments and seasonal bins to reveal temporal evolution of the BSW. For the purpose of this study the BSW is defined as such shelf water body between the seabed and the upper mixed layer (bounded by the σθ = 14.2 isopycnal) which has limited ability to mix vertically with oxygen-rich surface waters during the warm season (May-November) due to the formation of a seasonal pycnocline. The effects of atmospheric processes at the surface on the BSW are hence suppressed as well as the action of the "biological pump". The vertical extent of the near- bottom waters is determined based on energy considerations and the structure of the seasonal pycnocline, whilst the horizontal extent is controlled by the shelf break, where strong along-slope currents hinder exchanges with the deep sea. The BSW is shown to occupy nearly half of the area of the shelf during the summer stratification period. The potential of the BSW to ventilate horizontally during the warm season with the deep-sea waters is assessed using isopycnic analysis of temperature variations. A long-term time series of temperature anomalies in the BSW is constructed from observations during the May-November period for the 2nd half of the 20th century. The results reveal a warm phase in the 1960s/70s, followed by cooling of the BSW during 1980-2001. The transition between the warm and cold periods coincides with a regime shift in the Black Sea ecosystem. While it was confirmed that the memory of winter

  17. Inter-Annual Variability Of Rainfall In Some States Of Southern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egor

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The study inter-annual variability of rainfall in some states in Southern Nigeria focuses on analyzing the trends and fluctuations in annual rainfall over six states in Southern Nigeria covering a period of 1972 2012. In order to ascertain the variabilitys and to model the annual rainfall for future prediction to enhance policy implementation the quantitative and descriptive analysis techniques was employed. The rainfall series were analyzed for fluctuations using Standardized Anomaly Index SAI whereas the trends were examined using Statistical Package for Social Science Software SPSS 17.0. At 95 percent confidence level observations in the stations may be signals that the wetter period dominates the drier periods in this study. Each of the series contains two distinct periods when the rainfall anomalies negative and positive of a particular type were most significant. The period where the annual rainfall is above one standard deviation from the mean annual rainfall is considered Wet and the period below one standard deviation from the mean annual rainfall is considered Dry for each station. The results of the linear trend lines revealed an increase in rainfall supply over the period of study especially of recent. The annual rate of increase in rainfall over the period of investigation 1972 - 2012 were 15.21mmyear for Calabar 2.18mmyear for Port Harcourt 22.23mmyear for Owerri 3.25mmyear for Benin City 5.08mmyear for Enugu and 16.29mmyear for Uyo respectively. The variability in amount of annual rainfall revealed that in 2012 Calabar received the highest amount of rainfall of about 4062.70mm and the least value of 2099.4mm in 1973. In Porthacourt the highest amount of rainfall occurred in 1993 with a value of 3911.70mm and the least value in 1983 with a value of 1816.4mm. Owerri recorded the highest amount of rainfall of about 3064.0mm in 2011 and the least value occurred in 1986 with a value of 1228.4mm. In 1976 Benin received the

  18. Longitudinal differences and inter-annual variations of zonal wind in the tropical stratosphere and troposphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, C. A.; Raghava Reddi, C.

    1986-12-01

    A quantitative assessment has been made of the longitude-dependent differences and the interannual variations of the zonal wind components in the equatorial stratosphere and troposphere, from the analysis of rocket and balloon data for 1979 and 1980 for three stations near ±8.5° latitude (Ascension Island at 14.4°W, Thumba at 76.9°E and Kwajalein at 67.7°E) and two stations near 21.5° latitude (Barking Sands at 159.6°W and Balasore at 86.9°E). The longitude-dependent differences are found to be about 10-20 m s -1 (amounting to 50-200% in some cases) for the semi-annual oscillation (SAO) and the annual oscillation (AO) amplitudes, depending upon the altitude and latitude. Inter-annual variations of about 10 m s -1 also exist in both oscillations. The phase of the SAO exhibits an almost 180° shift at Kwajalein compared to that at the other two stations near 8.5°, while the phase of the AO is independent of longitude, in the stratosphere. The amplitude and phase of the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) are found to be almost independent of longitude in the 18-38 km range, but above 40 km height the QBO amplitude and phase have different values in different longitude sectors for the three stations near ±8.5° latitude. The mean zonal wind shows no change from 1979 to 1980, but in the troposphere at 8.5° latitude strong easterlies prevail in the Indian zone, in contrast to the westerlies at the Atlantic and Pacific stations.

  19. Measurement of inter- and intra-annual variability of landscape fire activity at a continental scale: The Australian case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant J. Williamson; Lynda D. Prior; Matt Jolly; Mark A. Cochrane; Brett P. Murphy; David M. J. S. Bowman

    2016-01-01

    Climate dynamics at diurnal, seasonal and inter-annual scales shape global fire activity, although difficulties of assembling reliable fire and meteorological data with sufficient spatio-temporal resolution have frustrated quantification of this variability. Using Australia as a case study, we combine data from 4760 meteorological stations with 12 years of satellite-...

  20. Seasonal and inter-annual sea surface height variations of the northern Indian Ocean from the TOPEX/POSEIDON altimeter

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PrasannaKumar, S.; Snaith, H.; Challenor, P.; Guymer, H.T.

    along the east and west coast of India, and offshore movement of the high (low) SSH patch during winter (summer) away from the tip of India indicates the role of remote forcings along the boundary and into the interior oceans. Inter-annual variability...

  1. Inter-Annual Variability in Blue Whale Distribution off Southern Sri Lanka between 2011 and 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asha de Vos

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus movements are often driven by the availability of their prey in space and time. While globally blue whale populations undertake long-range migrations between feeding and breeding grounds, those in the northern Indian Ocean remain in low latitude waters throughout the year with the implication that the productivity of these waters is sufficient to support their energy needs. A part of this population remains around Sri Lanka where they are usually recorded close to the southern coast during the Northeast Monsoon. To investigate inter-annual variability in sighting locations, we conducted systematic Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD and visual surveys between January–March 2011 and January–March 2012. In 2011, there was a notable decrease in inshore sightings compared to 2009 and 2012 (p < 0.001. CTD data revealed that in 2011 there was increased freshwater in the upper water column accompanied by deeper upwelling than in 2012. We hypothesise that anomalous rainfall, along with higher turbidity resulting from river discharge, affected the productivity of the inshore waters and caused a shift in blue whale prey and, consequently, the distribution of the whales themselves. An understanding of how predators and their prey respond to environmental variability is important for predicting how these species will respond to long-term changes. This is especially important given the rapid temperature increases predicted for the semi-enclosed northern Indian Ocean.

  2. Kelvin wave coupling from TIMED and GOCE: Inter/intra-annual variability and solar activity effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasperini, Federico; Forbes, Jeffrey M.; Doornbos, Eelco N.; Bruinsma, Sean L.

    2018-06-01

    The primary mechanism through which energy and momentum are transferred from the lower atmosphere to the thermosphere is through the generation and propagation of atmospheric waves. It is becoming increasingly evident that a few waves from the tropical wave spectrum preferentially propagate into the thermosphere and contribute to modify satellite drag. Two of the more prominent and well-established tropical waves are Kelvin waves: the eastward-propagating 3-day ultra-fast Kelvin wave (UFKW) and the eastward-propagating diurnal tide with zonal wave number 3 (DE3). In this work, Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) temperatures at 110 km and Gravity field and steady-state Ocean Circulation Explorer (GOCE) neutral densities and cross-track winds near 260 km are used to demonstrate vertical coupling in this height regime due to the UFKW and DE3. Significant inter- and intra-annual variability is found in DE3 and the UFKW, with evidence of latitudinal broadening and filtering of the latitude structures with height due to the effect of dissipation and mean winds. Additionally, anti-correlation between the vertical penetration of these waves to the middle thermosphere and solar activity level is established and explained through the effect of molecular dissipation.

  3. Seasonal and inter-annual variation of mesozooplankton in the coastal upwelling zone off central-southern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escribano, Ruben; Hidalgo, Pamela; González, Humberto; Giesecke, Ricardo; Riquelme-Bugueño, Ramiro; Manríquez, Karen

    2007-11-01

    Zooplankton sampling at Station 18 off Concepción (36°30‧S and 73°07‧W), on an average frequency of 30 days (August 2002 to December 2005), allowed the assessment of seasonal and inter-annual variation in zooplankton biomass, its C and N content, and the community structure in relation to upwelling variability. Copepods contributed 79% of the total zooplankton community and were mostly represented by Paracalanus parvus, Oithona similis, Oithona nana, Calanus chilensis, and Rhincalanus nasutus. Other copepod species, euphausiids (mainly Euphausia mucronata), gelatinous zooplankton, and crustacean larvae comprised the rest of the community. Changes in the depth of the upper boundary of the oxygen minimum zone indicated the strongly seasonal upwelling pattern. The bulk of zooplankton biomass and total copepod abundance were both strongly and positively associated with a shallow (oxygen minimum zone; these values increased in spring/summer, when upwelling prevailed. Gelatinous zooplankton showed positive abundance anomalies in the spring and winter, whereas euphausiids had no seasonal pattern and a positive anomaly in the fall. The C content and the C/N ratio of zooplankton biomass significantly increased during the spring when chlorophyll- a was high (>5 mg m -3). No major changes in zooplankton biomass and species were found from one year to the next. We concluded that upwelling is the key process modulating variability in zooplankton biomass and its community structure in this zone. The spring/summer increase in zooplankton may be largely the result of the aggregation of dominant copepods within the upwelling region; these may reproduce throughout the year, increasing their C content and C/N ratios given high diatom concentrations.

  4. A procedure to derive intra-and inter-annual changes on vegetation from NDVI time series. A case study in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilabert, M. A; Martinez, B.; Melia, J.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this work is to study the spatial patterns of vegetation activity over spain and its temporal variability throughout the period 1989-2002. A multi-resolution analysis (MRA) bases on the wavelet transform has been implemented on NDVI time series from the MEDOKADS database. The MRA decomposes the original signal as a sum of series associated with temporal scales. Specifically, the intra-annual series is processed to define several key features in relation with the vegetation penology. In contras, the inter-annual components of the signal is used to detect trends by means of a Mann-Kendall test and map the magnitude of the land-cover change. Finally, a comprehensive identification of the areas presenting a negative value of the magnitude of change is carried out to select those linked to land degradation processes. Results show a major presence of these areas the Southeast of Spain. (Author) 5 refs.

  5. A procedure to derive intra-and inter-annual changes on vegetation from NDVI time series. A case study in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilabert, M. A; Martinez, B.; Melia, J.

    2009-07-01

    The objective of this work is to study the spatial patterns of vegetation activity over spain and its temporal variability throughout the period 1989-2002. A multi-resolution analysis (MRA) bases on the wavelet transform has been implemented on NDVI time series from the MEDOKADS database. The MRA decomposes the original signal as a sum of series associated with temporal scales. Specifically, the intra-annual series is processed to define several key features in relation with the vegetation penology. In contras, the inter-annual components of the signal is used to detect trends by means of a Mann-Kendall test and map the magnitude of the land-cover change. Finally, a comprehensive identification of the areas presenting a negative value of the magnitude of change is carried out to select those linked to land degradation processes. Results show a major presence of these areas the Southeast of Spain. (Author) 5 refs.

  6. The influence of inter-annually varying albedo on regional climate and drought

    KAUST Repository

    Meng, Xianhong

    2013-05-05

    strengthening of the second mechanism. That is, the second mechanism is stronger in a drought year compared to a normal year and this difference is larger than for the first mechanism. When both mechanisms are active, the second mechanism tends to dominate across the model domain, particularly during the 2002 drought period. The introduction of observed inter-annual variations in albedo produces an enhancement of the first mechanism and a weakening of the second mechanism during the onset of the drought. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  7. Tropopause referenced ozone climatology and inter-annual variability (1994–2003 from the MOZAIC programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thouret

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The MOZAIC programme collects ozone and water vapour data using automatic equipment installed on board five long-range Airbus A340 aircraft flying regularly all over the world since August 1994. Those measurements made between September 1994 and August 1996 allowed the first accurate ozone climatology at 9–12 km altitude to be generated. The seasonal variability of the tropopause height has always provided a problem when constructing climatologies in this region. To remove any signal from the seasonal and synoptic scale variability in tropopause height we have chosen in this further study of these and subsequent data to reference our climatology to the altitude of the tropopause. We define the tropopause as a mixing zone 30 hPa thick across the 2 pvu potential vorticity surface. A new ozone climatology is now available for levels characteristic of the upper troposphere (UT and the lower stratosphere (LS regardless of the seasonal variations of the tropopause over the period 1994–2003. Moreover, this new presentation has allowed an estimation of the monthly mean climatological ozone concentration at the tropopause showing a sine seasonal variation with a maximum in May (120 ppbv and a minimum in November (65 ppbv. Besides, we present a first assessment of the inter-annual variability of ozone in this particular critical region. The overall increase in the UTLS is about 1%/yr for the 9 years sampled. However, enhanced concentrations about 10–15 % higher than the other years were recorded in 1998 and 1999 in both the UT and the LS. This so-called '1998–1999 anomaly' may be attributed to a combination of different processes involving large scale modes of atmospheric variability, circulation features and local or global pollution, but the most dominant one seems to involve the variability of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO as we find a strong positive correlation (above 0.60 between ozone recorded in the upper troposphere and the NAO

  8. Seasonal and inter-annual variability of the phytoplankton communities in an upwelling area of the Alborán Sea (SW Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús M. Mercado

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Temporal variability (seasonal and inter-annual in the assembly of phytoplankton communities from the northern Alborán Sea was investigated. For this purpose, the taxonomic composition of the micro- and nano-phytoplankton communities at three fixed stations was determined every three months from 1994 to 2002. A total of 357 different taxa were identified. Most of them (about 54% were diatom species belonging to 57 genera. Dinoflagellates and coccolitophorids accounted for 118 and 30 taxa respectively. Two time periods could be differentiated with respect to the cell abundance. Thus, the mean abundance from 1994 to 1999 was 338 cell ml-1 and it dropped to about 60 cell ml-1 during the period 2000-2002. Diatoms and un-identified small flagellates dominated the communities during this first period, although a significant increase in the abundance of coccolitophorids occurred after 1997. Pseudo-nitzschia, Leptocylindrus and Chaetoceros were the dominant genera. In contrast, the coccolitophorids Emiliania huxleyi and Gephyrocapsa spp. quantitatively dominated the communities from 2000 to 2002. These shifts in the community assembly were assessed by performing a sample-oriented stepwise discriminant analysis (SDA. The analysis separated the samples into three year-groups, with great inter-annual variability. In contrast, the SDA did not find any seasonal sucessional pattern. In spite of this result, chlorophyll a and cell abundance tended to be higher in the spring period, which has been described for the whole Alborán basin. The nutrient concentrations in the 75 m upper seawater layer had inter-annual fluctuations. Thus, NO3-+NO2-, PO4-3 and Si(OH4 concentrations decreased significantly in 1997-1998. Additionally, lower Si(OH4 concentrations and Si:P molar ratios were obtained in 2000. These results suggest that the inter-annual shifts in the phytoplankton taxonomic composition were due to alterations in the nutrient regime. In this paper we

  9. Inter-Rater Agreement of Auscultation, Palpable Fremitus, and Ventilator Waveform Sawtooth Patterns Between Clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Marc P; Martí, Joan-Daniel; Ntoumenopoulos, George

    2016-10-01

    Clinicians often use numerous bedside assessments for secretion retention in participants who are receiving invasive mechanical ventilation. This study aimed to evaluate inter-rater agreement between clinicians when using standard clinical assessments of secretion retention and whether differences in clinician experience influenced inter-rater agreement. Seventy-one mechanically ventilated participants were assessed by a research clinician and by one of 13 ICU clinicians. Each clinician conducted a standardized assessment of lung auscultation, palpation for chest-wall (rhonchal) fremitus, and ventilator inspiratory/expiratory flow-time waveforms for the sawtooth pattern. On the presence of breath sounds, agreement ranged from absolute to moderate in the upper zones and the lower zones, respectively. Kappa values for abnormal and adventitious lung sounds achieved moderate agreement in the upper zones, less than chance agreement to substantial agreement in the middle zones, and moderate agreement to almost perfect agreement in the lower zones. Moderate to almost perfect agreement was established for palpable fremitus in the upper zones, moderate to substantial agreement in the middle zones, and less than chance to moderate agreement in the lower zones. Inter-rater agreement on the presence of expiratory sawtooth pattern identification showed moderate agreement. The level of percentage agreement between the research and ICU clinicians for each respiratory assessment studied did not relate directly to level of clinical experience. Inter-rater agreement for all assessments showed variability between lung regions but maintained reasonable percentage agreement in mechanically ventilated participants. The level of percentage agreement achieved between clinicians did not directly relate to clinical experience for all respiratory assessments. Therefore, these respiratory assessments should not necessarily be viewed in isolation but interpreted within the context of a full

  10. Detecting causality from online psychiatric texts using inter-sentential language patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Jheng-Long

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Online psychiatric texts are natural language texts expressing depressive problems, published by Internet users via community-based web services such as web forums, message boards and blogs. Understanding the cause-effect relations embedded in these psychiatric texts can provide insight into the authors’ problems, thus increasing the effectiveness of online psychiatric services. Methods Previous studies have proposed the use of word pairs extracted from a set of sentence pairs to identify cause-effect relations between sentences. A word pair is made up of two words, with one coming from the cause text span and the other from the effect text span. Analysis of the relationship between these words can be used to capture individual word associations between cause and effect sentences. For instance, (broke up, life and (boyfriend, meaningless are two word pairs extracted from the sentence pair: “I broke up with my boyfriend. Life is now meaningless to me”. The major limitation of word pairs is that individual words in sentences usually cannot reflect the exact meaning of the cause and effect events, and thus may produce semantically incomplete word pairs, as the previous examples show. Therefore, this study proposes the use of inter-sentential language patterns such as ≪broke up, boyfriend>, Results Performance was evaluated on a corpus of texts collected from PsychPark (http://www.psychpark.org, a virtual psychiatric clinic maintained by a group of volunteer professionals from the Taiwan Association of Mental Health Informatics. Experimental results show that the use of inter-sentential language patterns outperformed the use of word pairs proposed in previous studies. Conclusions This study demonstrates the acquisition of inter-sentential language patterns for causality detection from online psychiatric texts. Such semantically more complete and precise features can improve causality detection performance.

  11. Seasonal and inter-annual variability of surface circulation in the Bay of Bengal from TOPEX/Poseidon altimetry

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Somayajulu, Y.K.; Murty, V.S.N.; Sarma, Y.V.B.

    - west monsoon period, (Fig. 5c) reflected the Fig.3. Variation of (a) Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) and (b) SST anomaly(Del. SST) in the Western Equatorial Pacific (WEP, NINO4, 51N–51S; 1601E–1501W) during the 5-year period (January1993–December 1997.... Inter-annual variation of SSH anomalyat selected locations: (a) off Sumatra (EEIO), (b) southern bay(SB), (c) eastern bay (EB), (d) northern bay(NB), (e) western bay(WB), and (f) central bay(CB). SST anomaly(Del. SST) is shown bydashed line in (a). Y...

  12. Inter-annual variability of exchange processes at the outer Black Sea shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Georgy; Wobus, Fred; Yuan, Dongliang; Wang, Zheng

    2014-05-01

    zsoy, 1997. The Black Sea Cold Intermediate Layer, in: Özsoy, E. and A. Mikaelyan (editors), Sensitivity to Change: Black Sea, Baltic Sea and North Sea, NATO ASI Series (Partnership Sub-series, Environment, 27), Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, 536 pp. Shapiro, G.I., F. Wobus, D.L. Aleynik, 2011. Seasonal and inter-annual temperature variability in the bottom waters over the western Black Sea shelf, Ocean Science 7, 585-596. Shapiro, G., Luneva, M., Pickering, J., and Storkey, D., 2013. The effect of various vertical discretization schemes and horizontal diffusion parameterization on the performance of a 3-D ocean model: the Black Sea case study, Ocean Science, 9, 377-390. Staneva, J. V. and E. V. Stanev, 1997. Cold water mass formation in the Black Sea. Analysis on numerical model simulations. In: E. Ozsoy and A. Mikaelyan (eds.), Sensitivity to change: Black Sea, Baltic Sea and North Sea. NATO ASI Series, Vol. 27, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 375-393.

  13. RESPONSE OF RIPARIAN VEGETATION IN AUSTRALIA"S LARGEST RIVER BASIN TO INTER AND INTRA-ANNUAL CLIMATE VARIABILITY AND FLOODING AS QUANTIFIED WITH LANDSAT AND MODIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Broich

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Australia is a continent subject to high rainfall variability, which has major influences on runoff and vegetation dynamics. However, the resulting spatial-temporal pattern of flooding and its influence on riparian vegetation has not been quantified in a spatially explicit way. Here we focused on the floodplains of the entire Murray-Darling Basin (MDB, an area that covers over 1M km2, as a case study. The MDB is the country’s primary agricultural area with scarce water resources subject to competing demands and impacted by climate change and more recently by the Millennium Drought (1999–2009. Riparian vegetation in the MDB floodplain suffered extensive decline providing a dramatic degradation of riparian vegetation. We quantified the spatial-temporal impact of rainfall, temperature and flooding patters on vegetation dynamics at the subcontinental to local scales and across inter to intra-annual time scales based on three decades of Landsat (25k images, Bureau of Meteorology data and one decade of MODIS data. Vegetation response varied in space and time and with vegetation types, densities and location relative to areas frequently flooded. Vegetation degradation trends were observed over riparian forests and woodlands in areas where flooding regimes have changed to less frequent and smaller inundation extents. Conversely, herbaceous vegetation phenology followed primarily a ‘boom’ and ‘bust’ cycle, related to inter-annual rainfall variability. Spatial patters of vegetation degradation changed along the N-S rainfall gradient but flooding regimes and vegetation degradation patterns also varied at finer scale, highlighting the importance of a spatially explicit, internally consistent analysis and setting the stage for investigating further cross-scale relationships. Results are of interest for land and water management decisions. The approach developed here can be applied to other areas globally such as the Nile river basin and

  14. Diversity patterns, environmental drivers and changes in vegetation composition in dry inter-Andean valleys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quintana, Catalina; Girardello, Marco; Barfod, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Aims We studied diversity, patterns of endemism and turnover of vegetation composition in dry inter-Andean valleys (DIAVs) where little is known about the influence of the abiotic drivers controlling plant species composition and occurrences, and the life forms that contribute most to α- and β...... species with low abundance (e.g. 30 individuals ha−1), including four endemic species. Most of the endemic species were locally rare, and most of them were restricted to southern valleys...... results further highlight the influence of disturbance, water availability and low temperature on plant species composition and occurrence. We also found significant, contrasting patterns in responses to environmental drivers, when analyzing our data separately by life form. Our results show...

  15. Variations of Histone Modification Patterns: Contributions of Inter-plant Variability and Technical Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylva Brabencová

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Inter-individual variability of conspecific plants is governed by differences in their genetically determined growth and development traits, environmental conditions, and adaptive responses under epigenetic control involving histone post-translational modifications. The apparent variability in histone modifications among plants might be increased by technical variation introduced in sample processing during epigenetic analyses. Thus, to detect true variations in epigenetic histone patterns associated with given factors, the basal variability among samples that is not associated with them must be estimated. To improve knowledge of relative contribution of biological and technical variation, mass spectrometry was used to examine histone modification patterns (acetylation and methylation among Arabidopsis thaliana plants of ecotypes Columbia 0 (Col-0 and Wassilewskija (Ws homogenized by two techniques (grinding in a cryomill or with a mortar and pestle. We found little difference in histone modification profiles between the ecotypes. However, in comparison of the biological and technical components of variability, we found consistently higher inter-individual variability in histone mark levels among Ws plants than among Col-0 plants (grown from seeds collected either from single plants or sets of plants. Thus, more replicates of Ws would be needed for rigorous analysis of epigenetic marks. Regarding technical variability, the cryomill introduced detectably more heterogeneity in the data than the mortar and pestle treatment, but mass spectrometric analyses had minor apparent effects. Our study shows that it is essential to consider inter-sample variance and estimate suitable numbers of biological replicates for statistical analysis for each studied organism when investigating changes in epigenetic histone profiles.

  16. Variations of Histone Modification Patterns: Contributions of Inter-plant Variability and Technical Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brabencová, Sylva; Ihnatová, Ivana; Potěšil, David; Fojtová, Miloslava; Fajkus, Jiří; Zdráhal, Zbyněk; Lochmanová, Gabriela

    2017-01-01

    Inter-individual variability of conspecific plants is governed by differences in their genetically determined growth and development traits, environmental conditions, and adaptive responses under epigenetic control involving histone post-translational modifications. The apparent variability in histone modifications among plants might be increased by technical variation introduced in sample processing during epigenetic analyses. Thus, to detect true variations in epigenetic histone patterns associated with given factors, the basal variability among samples that is not associated with them must be estimated. To improve knowledge of relative contribution of biological and technical variation, mass spectrometry was used to examine histone modification patterns (acetylation and methylation) among Arabidopsis thaliana plants of ecotypes Columbia 0 (Col-0) and Wassilewskija (Ws) homogenized by two techniques (grinding in a cryomill or with a mortar and pestle). We found little difference in histone modification profiles between the ecotypes. However, in comparison of the biological and technical components of variability, we found consistently higher inter-individual variability in histone mark levels among Ws plants than among Col-0 plants (grown from seeds collected either from single plants or sets of plants). Thus, more replicates of Ws would be needed for rigorous analysis of epigenetic marks. Regarding technical variability, the cryomill introduced detectably more heterogeneity in the data than the mortar and pestle treatment, but mass spectrometric analyses had minor apparent effects. Our study shows that it is essential to consider inter-sample variance and estimate suitable numbers of biological replicates for statistical analysis for each studied organism when investigating changes in epigenetic histone profiles.

  17. Identification and reproducibility of dietary patterns in a Danish cohort: the Inter99 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Cathrine; Glümer, Charlotte; Toft, Ulla; Tetens, Inge; Carstensen, Bendix; Jørgensen, Torben; Borch-Johnsen, Knut

    2008-05-01

    We aimed to identify dietary patterns in a Danish adult population and assess the reproducibility of the dietary patterns identified. Baseline data of 3,372 women and 3,191 men (30-60 years old) from the population-based survey Inter99 was used. Food intake, assessed by a FFQ, was aggregated into thirty-four separate food groups. Dietary patterns were identified by principal component analysis. Confirmatory factor analysis and Bland Altman plots were used to assess the reproducibility of the dietary patterns identified. The Bland Altman plots were used as an alternative and new method. Two factors were retained for both women and men, which accounted for 15.1-17.4 % of the total variation. The 'Traditional' pattern was characterised by high loadings ( > or = 0.40) on paté or high-fat meat for sandwiches, mayonnaise salads, red meat, potatoes, butter and lard, low-fat fish, low-fat meat for sandwiches, and sauces. The 'Modern' pattern was characterised by high loadings on vegetables, fruit, mixed vegetable dishes, vegetable oil and vinegar dressing, poultry, and pasta, rice and wheat kernels. Small differences were observed between patterns identified for women and men. The root mean square error approximation from the confirmatory factor analysis was 0.08. The variation observed from the Bland Altman plots of factors from explorative v. confirmative analyses and explorative analyses from two sub-samples was between 18.8 and 47.7 %. Pearson's correlation was >0.89 (P < 0.0001). The reproducibility was better for women than for men. We conclude that the 'Traditional' and 'Modern' dietary patterns identified were reproducible.

  18. Inter-annual changes in detritus-based food chains can enhance plant growth response to elevated atmospheric CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Jes; Eisenhauer, Nico; Drake, Bert G

    2015-12-01

    Elevated atmospheric CO2 generally enhances plant growth, but the magnitude of the effects depend, in part, on nutrient availability and plant photosynthetic pathway. Due to their pivotal role in nutrient cycling, changes in abundance of detritivores could influence the effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 on essential ecosystem processes, such as decomposition and primary production. We conducted a field survey and a microcosm experiment to test the influence of changes in detritus-based food chains on litter mass loss and plant growth response to elevated atmospheric CO2 using two wetland plants: a C3 sedge (Scirpus olneyi) and a C4 grass (Spartina patens). Our field study revealed that organism's sensitivity to climate increased with trophic level resulting in strong inter-annual variation in detritus-based food chain length. Our microcosm experiment demonstrated that increased detritivore abundance could not only enhance decomposition rates, but also enhance plant growth of S. olneyi in elevated atmospheric CO2 conditions. In contrast, we found no evidence that changes in the detritus-based food chains influenced the growth of S. patens. Considered together, these results emphasize the importance of approaches that unite traditionally subdivided food web compartments and plant physiological processes to understand inter-annual variation in plant production response to elevated atmospheric CO2. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Inter-annual variabilities in biogeophysical feedback of terrestrial ecosystem to atmosphere using a land surface model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, C.; Hong, S.; Jeong, H. M.; Jeon, J.

    2017-12-01

    Biogeophysical processes of terrestrial ecosystem such as water vapor and energy flux are the key features to understand ecological feedback to atmospheric processes and thus role of terrestrial ecosystem in climate system. For example, it has been recently known that the ecological feedback through water vapor and energy flux results in regulating regional weathers and climates which is one of the fundamental functions of terrestrial ecosystem. In regional scale, water vapor flux has been known to give negative feedback to atmospheric warming, while energy flux from the surface has been known to positive feedback. In this study, we explored the inter-annual variabilities in these two biogeophysical features to see how the climate regulating functions of terrestrial ecosystem have been changed with climate change. We selected a land surface model involving vegetation dynamics that is forced by atmospheric data from NASA including precipitation, temperature, wind, surface pressure, humidity, and incoming radiations. From the land surface model, we simulated 60-year water vapor and energy fluxes from 1961 to 2010, and calculates feedbacks of terrestrial ecosystem as in radiation amount into atmosphere. Then, we analyzed the inter-annual variabilities in the feedbacks. The results showed that some mid-latitude areas showing very high variabilities in precipitation showed higher positive feedback and/or lower negative feedback. These results suggest deterioration of the biogeophyisical factor of climate regulating function over those regions.

  20. Seasonal and inter-annual temperature variability in the bottom waters over the western Black Sea shelf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. I. Shapiro

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Long-term changes in the state of the Bottom Shelf Water (BSW on the Western shelf of the Black Sea are assessed using analysis of intra-seasonal and inter-annual temperature variations. For the purpose of this study the BSW is defined as such shelf water mass between the seabed and the upper mixed layer (bounded by the σθ = 14.2 isopycnal which has limited ability to mix vertically with oxygen-rich surface waters during the warm season due to formation of a seasonal pycnocline. A long-term time series of temperature anomalies in the BSW is constructed from in-situ observations taken over the 2nd half of the 20th century. The BSW is shown to occupy nearly half of the shelf area during the summer stratification period (May–November.The results reveal a warm phase in the 1960s/70s, followed by a cold phase between 1985 and 1995 and a further warming after 1995. The transition between the warm and cold periods coincides with a regime shift in the Black Sea ecosystem. While it was confirmed that the memory of winter convection is well preserved over the following months in the deep sea, the signal of winter cooling in the BSW significantly reduces during the warm season. The potential of the BSW to ventilate horizontally during the warm season with the deep-sea waters is assessed using isopycnic analysis of temperature variations. It is shown that temperature in the BSW is stronger correlated with the temperature of Cold Intermediate Waters (CIW in the deep sea than with the severity of the previous winters, thus indicating that the isopycnal exchanges with the deep sea are more important for inter-annual/inter-decadal variability of the BSW on the western Black Sea shelf than effects of winter convection on the shelf itself.

  1. Inter-track interference mitigation with two-dimensional variable equalizer for bit patterned media recording

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Wang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The increased track density in bit patterned media recording (BPMR causes increased inter-track interference (ITI, which degrades the bit error rate (BER performance. In order to mitigate the effect of the ITI, signals from multiple tracks can be equalized by a 2D equalizer with 1D target. Usually, the 2D fixed equalizer coefficients are obtained by using a pseudo-random bit sequence (PRBS for training. In this study, a 2D variable equalizer is proposed, where various sets of 2D equalizer coefficients are predetermined and stored for different ITI patterns besides the usual PRBS training. For data detection, as the ITI patterns are unknown in the first global iteration, the main and adjacent tracks are equalized with the conventional 2D fixed equalizer, detected with Bahl-Cocke-Jelinek-Raviv (BCJR detector and decoded with low-density parity-check (LDPC decoder. Then using the estimated bit information from main and adjacent tracks, the ITI pattern for each island of the main track can be estimated and the corresponding 2D variable equalizers are used to better equalize the bits on the main track. This process is executed iteratively by feeding back the main track information. Simulation results indicate that for both single-track and two-track detection, the proposed 2D variable equalizer can achieve better BER and frame error rate (FER compared to that with the 2D fixed equalizer.

  2. Inter-observer agreement according to three methods of evaluating mammographic density and parenchymal pattern in a case control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkel, Rikke Rass; von Euler-Chelpin, My Catarina; Nielsen, Mads

    2015-01-01

    , Tabár's PIV and PV and the upper two quartiles (within density range) of PMD. The relative risk of breast cancer was estimated using logistic regression to calculate odds ratios (ORs) adjusted for age, which were compared between the two readers. RESULTS: Substantial inter-observer agreement was seen......, respectively. Inter-reader variability showed different impact on the relative risk of breast cancer estimated by the two readers on a multiple-category scale, however, not on a high/low-risk scale. Tabár's pattern IV demonstrated the highest ORs of all density patterns investigated. CONCLUSIONS: Our study......BACKGROUND: Mammographic breast density and parenchymal patterns are well-established risk factors for breast cancer. We aimed to report inter-observer agreement on three different subjective ways of assessing mammographic density and parenchymal pattern, and secondarily to examine what potential...

  3. Inter-annual Variations in Snow/Firn Density over the Greenland Ice Sheet by Combining GRACE gravimetry and Envisat Altimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, X.; Shum, C. K.; Guo, J.; Howat, I.; Jezek, K. C.; Luo, Z.; Zhou, Z.

    2017-12-01

    Satellite altimetry has been used to monitor elevation and volume change of polar ice sheets since the 1990s. In order to derive mass change from the measured volume change, different density assumptions are commonly used in the research community, which may cause discrepancies on accurately estimating ice sheets mass balance. In this study, we investigate the inter-annual anomalies of mass change from GRACE gravimetry and elevation change from Envisat altimetry during years 2003-2009, with the objective of determining inter-annual variations of snow/firn density over the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS). High positive correlations (0.6 or higher) between these two inter-annual anomalies at are found over 93% of the GrIS, which suggests that both techniques detect the same geophysical process at the inter-annual timescale. Interpreting the two anomalies in terms of near surface density variations, over 80% of the GrIS, the inter-annual variation in average density is between the densities of snow and pure ice. In particular, at the Summit of Central Greenland, we validate the satellite data estimated density with the in situ data available from 75 snow pits and 9 ice cores. This study provides constraints on the currently applied density assumptions for the GrIS.

  4. Inter-annual variation in the response of leaf-out onset to soil moisture increase in a teak plantation in northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshifuji, Natsuko; Igarashi, Yasunori; Tanaka, Nobuaki; Tanaka, Katsunori; Sato, Takanori; Tantasirin, Chatchai; Suzuki, Masakazu

    2014-11-01

    To understand the impact of inter-annual climate change on vegetation-atmosphere mass and energy exchanges, it has become necessary to explore changes in leaf-out onset in response to climatic fluctuations. We examined the response of leaf-out and transpiration onset dates to soil moisture in a teak plantation in northern Thailand based on a 12-year leaf area index and sap flow measurements. The date of leaf-out and transpiration onset varied between years by up to 40 days, and depended on the initial date when the relative extractable water in a soil layer of 0-0.6 m (Θ) was greater than 0.2 being consistent with our previous results. Our new finding is that the delay in leaf-out and transpiration onset relative to the initial date when Θ > 0.2 increases linearly as the initial date on which Θ > 0.2 becomes earlier. The delay spans about 20 days in years when Θ > 0.2 occurs in March (the late dry season)-much earlier than usual because of heavy pre-monsoon rainfalls-while there is little delay in years when Θ > 0.2 occurs in May. This delay indicates the influence of additional factors on leaf-out onset, which controls the delay in the response of leaf-out to soil moisture increase. The results increased our knowledge about the pattern and extent of the changes in leaf phenology that occur in response to the inter-annual climate variation in tropical regions, where, in particular, such research is needed.

  5. Characterising infant inter-breath interval patterns during active and quiet sleep using recurrence plot analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrill, Philip I; Wilson, Stephen J; Suresh, Sadasivam; Cooper, David M

    2009-01-01

    Breathing patterns are characteristically different between active and quiet sleep states in infants. It has been previously identified that breathing dynamics are governed by a non-linear controller which implies the need for a nonlinear analytical tool. Further, it has been shown that quantified nonlinear variables are different between adult sleep states. This study aims to determine whether a nonlinear analytical tool known as recurrence plot analysis can characterize breath intervals of active and quiet sleep states in infants. Overnight polysomnograms were obtained from 32 healthy infants. The 6 longest periods each of active and quiet sleep were identified and a software routine extracted inter-breath interval data for recurrence plot analysis. Determinism (DET), laminarity (LAM) and radius (RAD) values were calculated for an embedding dimension of 4, 6, 8 and 16, and fixed recurrence of 0.5, 1, 2, 3.5 and 5%. Recurrence plots exhibited characteristically different patterns for active and quiet sleep. Active sleep periods typically had higher values of RAD, DET and LAM than for quiet sleep, and this trend was invariant to a specific choice of embedding dimension or fixed recurrence. These differences may provide a basis for automated sleep state classification, and the quantitative investigation of pathological breathing patterns.

  6. Capturing Inter-Annual Variability of PV Energy Production in South Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, Anthony [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Maclaurin, Galen [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Roberts, Billy [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Rosenlieb, Evan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-08-25

    Long-term variability of solar resource is an important factor in planning a utility-scale photovoltaic (PV) generation plant, and annual generation for a given location can vary significantly from year to year. Based on multiple years of solar irradiance data, an exceedance probability is the amount of energy that could potentially be produced by a power plant in any given year. An exceedance probability accounts for long-term variability and climate cycles (e.g., monsoons or changes in aerosols), which ultimately impact PV energy generation. Study results indicate that a significant bias could be associated with relying solely on typical meteorological year (TMY) resource data to capture long-term variability. While the TMY tends to under-predict annual generation overall compared to the P50, there appear to be pockets of over-prediction as well.

  7. Inter-annual variations in wave characteristics off Ratnagiri, Northeast Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Johnson, G.; SanilKumar, V.; Singh, J.

    location off the central west coast of India during 2008 to 2010 is negligible. The studies based on satellite derived data and ERA-Interim data have indicated that the significant wave height is marginally increasing in the south Indian Ocean and Arabian... for the monsoon period is the same (~ 2 m) in different years. Similarly the variation in annual average Hs during 2010 to 2013 is negligible (< 0.1 m). The average Hs during the monsoon is around 3 times that in the non-monsoon period and ~ 2 times...

  8. Inter-annual cascade effect on marine food web: A benthic pathway lagging nutrient supply to pelagic fish stock.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lohengrin Dias de Almeida Fernandes

    Full Text Available Currently, spatial and temporal changes in nutrients availability, marine planktonic, and fish communities are best described on a shorter than inter-annual (seasonal scale, primarily because the simultaneous year-to-year variations in physical, chemical, and biological parameters are very complex. The limited availability of time series datasets furnishing simultaneous evaluations of temperature, nutrients, plankton, and fish have limited our ability to describe and to predict variability related to short-term process, as species-specific phenology and environmental seasonality. In the present study, we combine a computational time series analysis on a 15-year (1995-2009 weekly-sampled time series (high-resolution long-term time series, 780 weeks with an Autoregressive Distributed Lag Model to track non-seasonal changes in 10 potentially related parameters: sea surface temperature, nutrient concentrations (NO2, NO3, NH4 and PO4, phytoplankton biomass (as in situ chlorophyll a biomass, meroplankton (barnacle and mussel larvae, and fish abundance (Mugil liza and Caranx latus. Our data demonstrate for the first time that highly intense and frequent upwelling years initiate a huge energy flux that is not fully transmitted through classical size-structured food web by bottom-up stimulus but through additional ontogenetic steps. A delayed inter-annual sequential effect from phytoplankton up to top predators as carnivorous fishes is expected if most of energy is trapped into benthic filter feeding organisms and their larval forms. These sequential events can explain major changes in ecosystem food web that were not predicted in previous short-term models.

  9. Estimating inter-annual variability in winter wheat sowing dates from satellite time series in Camargue, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfron, Giacinto; Delmotte, Sylvestre; Busetto, Lorenzo; Hossard, Laure; Ranghetti, Luigi; Brivio, Pietro Alessandro; Boschetti, Mirco

    2017-05-01

    Crop simulation models are commonly used to forecast the performance of cropping systems under different hypotheses of change. Their use on a regional scale is generally constrained, however, by a lack of information on the spatial and temporal variability of environment-related input variables (e.g., soil) and agricultural practices (e.g., sowing dates) that influence crop yields. Satellite remote sensing data can shed light on such variability by providing timely information on crop dynamics and conditions over large areas. This paper proposes a method for analyzing time series of MODIS satellite data in order to estimate the inter-annual variability of winter wheat sowing dates. A rule-based method was developed to automatically identify a reliable sample of winter wheat field time series, and to infer the corresponding sowing dates. The method was designed for a case study in the Camargue region (France), where winter wheat is characterized by vernalization, as in other temperate regions. The detection criteria were chosen on the grounds of agronomic expertise and by analyzing high-confidence time-series vegetation index profiles for winter wheat. This automatic method identified the target crop on more than 56% (four-year average) of the cultivated areas, with low commission errors (11%). It also captured the seasonal variability in sowing dates with errors of ±8 and ±16 days in 46% and 66% of cases, respectively. Extending the analysis to the years 2002-2012 showed that sowing in the Camargue was usually done on or around November 1st (±4 days). Comparing inter-annual sowing date variability with the main local agro-climatic drivers showed that the type of preceding crop and the weather conditions during the summer season before the wheat sowing had a prominent role in influencing winter wheat sowing dates.

  10. Intra-seasonal and Inter-annual variability of Bowen Ratio over rain-shadow region of North peninsular India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morwal, S. B.; Narkhedkar, S. G.; Padmakumari, B.; Maheskumar, R. S.; Deshpande, C. G.; Kulkarni, J. R.

    2017-05-01

    Intra-seasonal and inter-annual variability of Bowen Ratio (BR) have been studied over the rain-shadow region of north peninsular India during summer monsoon season. Daily grid point data of latent heat flux (LHF), sensible heat flux (SHF) from NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis for the period 1970-2014 have been used to compute daily area-mean BR. Daily grid point rainfall data at a resolution of 0.25° × 0.25° from APHRODITE's Water Resources for the available period 1970-2007 have been used to study the association between rainfall and BR. The study revealed that BR rapidly decreases from 4.1 to 0.29 in the month of June and then remains nearly constant at the same value (≤0.1) in the rest of the season. High values of BR in the first half of June are indicative of intense thermals and convective clouds with higher bases. Low values of BR from July to September period are indicative of weak thermals and convective clouds with lower bases. Intra-seasonal and inter-annual variability of BR is found to be inversely related to precipitation over the region. BR analysis indicates that the land surface characteristics of the study region during July-September are similar to that over oceanic regions as far as intensity of thermals and associated cloud microphysical properties are concerned. Similar variation of BR is found in El Nino and La Nina years. During June, an increasing trend is observed in SHF and BR and decreasing trend in LHF from 1976 to 2014. Increasing trend in the SHF is statistically significant.

  11. Inter-Annual Variability of Fledgling Sex Ratio in King Penguins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordier, Célia; Saraux, Claire; Viblanc, Vincent A; Gachot-Neveu, Hélène; Beaugey, Magali; Le Maho, Yvon; Le Bohec, Céline

    2014-01-01

    As the number of breeding pairs depends on the adult sex ratio in a monogamous species with biparental care, investigating sex-ratio variability in natural populations is essential to understand population dynamics. Using 10 years of data (2000-2009) in a seasonally monogamous seabird, the king penguin (Aptenodytes patagonicus), we investigated the annual sex ratio at fledging, and the potential environmental causes for its variation. Over more than 4000 birds, the annual sex ratio at fledging was highly variable (ranging from 44.4% to 58.3% of males), and on average slightly biased towards males (51.6%). Yearly variation in sex-ratio bias was neither related to density within the colony, nor to global or local oceanographic conditions known to affect both the productivity and accessibility of penguin foraging areas. However, rising sea surface temperature coincided with an increase in fledging sex-ratio variability. Fledging sex ratio was also correlated with difference in body condition between male and female fledglings. When more males were produced in a given year, their body condition was higher (and reciprocally), suggesting that parents might adopt a sex-biased allocation strategy depending on yearly environmental conditions and/or that the effect of environmental parameters on chick condition and survival may be sex-dependent. The initial bias in sex ratio observed at the juvenile stage tended to return to 1∶1 equilibrium upon first breeding attempts, as would be expected from Fisher's classic theory of offspring sex-ratio variation.

  12. Seasonal and inter-annual turbidity variability in the Rio de la Plata from 15 years of MODIS: El Niño dilution effect

    OpenAIRE

    Dogliotti, A.I.; Ruddick, K.; Guerrero, R.

    2016-01-01

    Spatio-temporal variability of turbidity in the Río de la Plata (RdP) estuary (Argentina) at seasonal and inter-annual timescales is analyzed from 15 years (2000–2014) of MODIS data and explained in terms of river discharges and the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Satellite estimates were first validated using in situ turbidity measurements and then the time series of monthly averages were analyzed to assess the seasonal and inter-annual variability of turbidity. A strong seasonal variab...

  13. Effects of Climatic Factors and Ecosystem Responses on the Inter-Annual Variability of Evapotranspiration in a Coniferous Plantation in Subtropical China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Mingjie; Wen, Xuefa; Wang, Huimin; Zhang, Wenjiang; Dai, Xiaoqin; Song, Jie; Wang, Yidong; Fu, Xiaoli; Liu, Yunfen; Sun, Xiaomin; Yu, Guirui

    2014-01-01

    Because evapotranspiration (ET) is the second largest component of the water cycle and a critical process in terrestrial ecosystems, understanding the inter-annual variability of ET is important in the context of global climate change. Eight years of continuous eddy covariance measurements (2003–2010) in a subtropical coniferous plantation were used to investigate the impacts of climatic factors and ecosystem responses on the inter-annual variability of ET. The mean and standard deviation of annual ET for 2003–2010 were 786.9 and 103.4 mm (with a coefficient of variation of 13.1%), respectively. The inter-annual variability of ET was largely created in three periods: March, May–June, and October, which are the transition periods between seasons. A set of look-up table approaches were used to separate the sources of inter-annual variability of ET. The annual ETs were calculated by assuming that (a) both the climate and ecosystem responses among years are variable (Vcli-eco), (b) the climate is variable but the ecosystem responses are constant (Vcli), and (c) the climate is constant but ecosystem responses are variable (Veco). The ETs that were calculated under the above assumptions suggested that the inter-annual variability of ET was dominated by ecosystem responses and that there was a negative interaction between the effects of climate and ecosystem responses. These results suggested that for long-term predictions of water and energy balance in global climate change projections, the ecosystem responses must be taken into account to better constrain the uncertainties associated with estimation. PMID:24465610

  14. Seasonal and inter-annual variability of the net ecosystem CO2 exchange of a temperate mountain grassland: effects of climate and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlfahrt, Georg; Hammerle, Albin; Haslwanter, Alois; Bahn, Michael; Tappeiner, Ulrike; Cernusca, Alexander

    2008-04-27

    The role and relative importance of climate and cutting for the seasonal and inter-annual variability of the net ecosystem CO 2 (NEE) of a temperate mountain grassland was investigated. Eddy covariance CO 2 flux data and associated measurements of the green area index and the major environmental driving forces acquired during 2001-2006 at the study site Neustift (Austria) were analyzed. Driven by three cutting events per year which kept the investigated grassland in a stage of vigorous growth, the seasonal variability of NEE was primarily modulated by gross primary productivity (GPP). The role of environmental parameters in modulating the seasonal variability of NEE was obscured by the strong response of GPP to changes in the amount of green area, as well as the cutting-mediated decoupling of phenological development and the seasonal course of climate drivers. None of the climate and management metrics examined was able to explain the inter-annual variability of annual NEE. This is thought to result from (1) a high covariance between GPP and ecosystem respiration (R eco ) at the annual time scale which results in a comparatively small inter-annual variation of NEE, (2) compensating effects between carbon exchange during and outside the management period, and (3) changes in the biotic response to rather than the climate variables per se. GPP was more important in modulating inter-annual variations in NEE in spring and before the first and second cut, while R eco explained a larger fraction of the inter-annual variability of NEE during the remaining, in particular the post-cut, periods.

  15. Inter-Annual Variability of Fledgling Sex Ratio in King Penguins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Célia Bordier

    Full Text Available As the number of breeding pairs depends on the adult sex ratio in a monogamous species with biparental care, investigating sex-ratio variability in natural populations is essential to understand population dynamics. Using 10 years of data (2000-2009 in a seasonally monogamous seabird, the king penguin (Aptenodytes patagonicus, we investigated the annual sex ratio at fledging, and the potential environmental causes for its variation. Over more than 4000 birds, the annual sex ratio at fledging was highly variable (ranging from 44.4% to 58.3% of males, and on average slightly biased towards males (51.6%. Yearly variation in sex-ratio bias was neither related to density within the colony, nor to global or local oceanographic conditions known to affect both the productivity and accessibility of penguin foraging areas. However, rising sea surface temperature coincided with an increase in fledging sex-ratio variability. Fledging sex ratio was also correlated with difference in body condition between male and female fledglings. When more males were produced in a given year, their body condition was higher (and reciprocally, suggesting that parents might adopt a sex-biased allocation strategy depending on yearly environmental conditions and/or that the effect of environmental parameters on chick condition and survival may be sex-dependent. The initial bias in sex ratio observed at the juvenile stage tended to return to 1∶1 equilibrium upon first breeding attempts, as would be expected from Fisher's classic theory of offspring sex-ratio variation.

  16. INTER-RATER RELIABILITY FOR MOVEMENT PATTERN ANALYSIS (MPA: MEASURING PATTERNING OF BEHAVIORS VERSUS DISCRETE BEHAVIOR COUNTS AS INDICATORS OF DECISION-MAKING STYLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda L Connors

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The unique yield of collecting observational data on human movement has received increasing attention in a number of domains, including the study of decision-making style. As such, interest has grown in the nuances of core methodological issues, including the best ways of assessing inter-rater reliability. In this paper we focus on one key topic – the distinction between establishing reliability for the patterning of behaviors as opposed to the computation of raw counts – and suggest that reliability for each be compared empirically rather than determined a priori. We illustrate by assessing inter-rater reliability for key outcome measures derived from Movement Pattern Analysis (MPA, an observational methodology that records body movements as indicators of decision-making style with demonstrated predictive validity. While reliability ranged from moderate to good for raw counts of behaviors reflecting each of two Overall Factors generated within MPA (Assertion and Perspective, inter-rater reliability for patterning (proportional indicators of each factor was significantly higher and excellent (ICC = .89. Furthermore, patterning, as compared to raw counts, provided better prediction of observable decision-making process assessed in the laboratory. These analyses support the utility of using an empirical approach to inform the consideration of measuring discrete behavioral counts versus patterning of behaviors when determining inter-rater reliability of observable behavior. They also speak to the substantial reliability that may be achieved via application of theoretically grounded observational systems such as MPA that reveal thinking and action motivations via visible movement patterns.

  17. Trends and inter-annual variability of methane emissions derived from 1979-1993 global CTM simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Dentener

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The trend and interannual variability of methane sources are derived from multi-annual simulations of tropospheric photochemistry using a 3-D global chemistry-transport model. Our semi-inverse analysis uses the fifteen years (1979--1993 re-analysis of ECMWF meteorological data and annually varying emissions including photo-chemistry, in conjunction with observed CH4 concentration distributions and trends derived from the NOAA-CMDL surface stations. Dividing the world in four zonal regions (45--90 N, 0--45 N, 0--45 S, 45--90 S we find good agreement in each region between (top-down calculated emission trends from model simulations and (bottom-up estimated anthropogenic emission trends based on the EDGAR global anthropogenic emission database, which amounts for the period 1979--1993 2.7 Tg CH4 yr-1. Also the top-down determined total global methane emission compares well with the total of the bottom-up estimates. We use the difference between the bottom-up and top-down determined emission trends to calculate residual emissions. These residual emissions represent the inter-annual variability of the methane emissions. Simulations have been performed in which the year-to-year meteorology, the emissions of ozone precursor gases, and the stratospheric ozone column distribution are either varied, or kept constant. In studies of methane trends it is most important to include the trends and variability of the oxidant fields. The analyses reveals that the variability of the emissions is of the order of 8Tg CH4 yr-1, and likely related to wetland emissions and/or biomass burning.

  18. Impact of Inter-Row Spacing on Yield and Yield Components of several Annual Medics Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz BAGHERI

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A field study was conducted in Faculty of Agriculture, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran to evaluate the effects of three within-row spacing treatments (20, 30 and 40 cm on forage and seed production of five species of annual medics (Medicago scutellata cv. Sava; M. littoralis cv. Herald; M. polymorpha cv. Santiago; M. minima cv. Orion and M. truncatula cv. Mogul. The experiment was carried out in Faculty of Agriculture, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran. The results of the experiment indicated that M. polymorpha had the highest forage yield out of the highest plant population. Latter with average 443.09 Kg ha-1 and M. scutellata with average 409.99 Kg ha-1 produced the highest seed yield. Also, the last species with 1306.78 Kg ha-1 had the highest pod yields. The highest seed yield and pod yield were produced at 20 cm within-row spacing because there were not adequate plants for maximum seed and pod yields in 30 and 40 cm within-row spacing. The tested plant densities did not affect on seeds number per pod, 1000 seeds weight and seeds to burr pod weight ratio. The M. truncatula and M. minima have the highest seeds number per pod. In addition, M. scutellata had the highest 1000 seeds weight with an average of 12.57 g. The highest seeds to burr pod ratio was observed in M. polymorpha. The most pod numbers were obtained in 20 and 30 cm within-row spacing and M. polymorpha while, the least pod numbers was observed in M. scutellata. Plant densities did not affect on pod numbers of the mentioned species. The highest dry forage yield was produced in 20 cm within-row spacing. Among the tested tested species, M. truncatula had the highest forage yield with average 870.07 Kg ha-1. This experiment indicated that there is possibility for seed and forage production of tested annual medics in the mentioned zone with the considering suitable plant densities.

  19. Inter-annual variability of the atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations as simulated with global terrestrial biosphere models and an atmospheric transport model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita, Daisuke; Saeki, Tazu; Nakazawa, Takakiyo [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Center for Atmospheric and Oceanic Studies; Ishizawa, Misa; Maksyutov, Shamil [Inst. for Global Change Research, Yokohama (Japan). Frontier Research System for Global Change; Thornton, Peter E. [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States). Climate and Global Dynamics Div.

    2003-04-01

    Seasonal and inter-annual variations of atmospheric CO{sub 2} for the period from 1961 to 1997 have been simulated using a global tracer transport model driven by a new version of the Biome BioGeochemical Cycle model (Biome-BGC). Biome-BGC was forced by daily temperature and precipitation from the NCEP reanalysis dataset, and the calculated monthly-averaged CO{sub 2} fluxes were used as input to the global transport model. Results from an inter-comparison with the Carnegie-Ames-Stanford Approach model (CASA) and the Simulation model of Carbon CYCLE in Land Ecosystems (Sim-CYCLE) model are also reported. The phase of the seasonal cycle in the Northern Hemisphere was reproduced generally well by Biome-BGC, although the amplitude was smaller compared to the observations and to the other biosphere models. The CO{sub 2} time series simulated by Biome-BGC were compared to the global CO{sub 2} concentration anomalies from the observations at Mauna Loa and the South Pole. The modeled concentration anomalies matched the phase of the inter-annual variations in the atmospheric CO{sub 2} observations; however, the modeled amplitude was lower than the observed value in several cases. The result suggests that a significant part of the inter-annual variability in the global carbon cycle can be accounted for by the terrestrial biosphere models. Simulations performed with another climate-based model, Sim-CYCLE, produced a larger amplitude of inter-annual variability in atmospheric CO{sub 2}, making the amplitude closer to the observed range, but with a more visible phase mismatch in a number of time periods. This may indicate the need to increase the Biome-BGC model sensitivity to seasonal and inter-annual changes in temperature and precipitation.

  20. Inter-annual variability of the atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations as simulated with global terrestrial biosphere models and an atmospheric transport model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Daisuke; Saeki, Tazu; Nakazawa, Takakiyo; Ishizawa, Misa; Maksyutov, Shamil; Thornton, Peter E.

    2003-01-01

    Seasonal and inter-annual variations of atmospheric CO 2 for the period from 1961 to 1997 have been simulated using a global tracer transport model driven by a new version of the Biome BioGeochemical Cycle model (Biome-BGC). Biome-BGC was forced by daily temperature and precipitation from the NCEP reanalysis dataset, and the calculated monthly-averaged CO 2 fluxes were used as input to the global transport model. Results from an inter-comparison with the Carnegie-Ames-Stanford Approach model (CASA) and the Simulation model of Carbon CYCLE in Land Ecosystems (Sim-CYCLE) model are also reported. The phase of the seasonal cycle in the Northern Hemisphere was reproduced generally well by Biome-BGC, although the amplitude was smaller compared to the observations and to the other biosphere models. The CO 2 time series simulated by Biome-BGC were compared to the global CO 2 concentration anomalies from the observations at Mauna Loa and the South Pole. The modeled concentration anomalies matched the phase of the inter-annual variations in the atmospheric CO 2 observations; however, the modeled amplitude was lower than the observed value in several cases. The result suggests that a significant part of the inter-annual variability in the global carbon cycle can be accounted for by the terrestrial biosphere models. Simulations performed with another climate-based model, Sim-CYCLE, produced a larger amplitude of inter-annual variability in atmospheric CO 2 , making the amplitude closer to the observed range, but with a more visible phase mismatch in a number of time periods. This may indicate the need to increase the Biome-BGC model sensitivity to seasonal and inter-annual changes in temperature and precipitation

  1. Studying Basin Water Balance Variations at Inter- and Intra-annual Time Scales Based On the Budyko Hypothesis and GRACE Gravimetry Satellite Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, H.

    2017-12-01

    Increasing intensity in global warming and anthropogenic activities has triggered significant changes over regional climates and landscapes, which, in turn, drive the basin water cycle and hydrological balance into a complex and unstable state. Budyko hypothesis is a powerful tool to characterize basin water balance and hydrological variations at long-term average scale. However, due to the absence of basin water storage change, applications of Budyko theory to the inter-annual and intra-annual time scales has been prohibited. The launch of GRACE gavimetry satellites provides a great opportunity to quantify terrestrial water storage change, which can be further introduced into the Budyko hypothesis to reveal the inter- and intra-annual response of basin water components under impacts of climate variability and/or human activities. This research targeted Hai River Basin (in China) and Murray-Darling Basin (in Australia), which have been identified with a continuous groundwater depletion trend as well as impacts by extreme climates in the past decade. This can help us to explore how annual or seasonal precipitation were redistributed to evapotranspiration and runoff via changing basin water storage. Moreover, the impacts of vegetation on annual basin water balance will be re-examined. Our results are expected to provide deep insights about the water cycle and hydrological behaviors for the targeted basins, as well as a proof for a consideration of basin water storage change into the Budyko model at inter- or intra-annual time steps.

  2. Effect of inter-annual variability in pasture growth and irrigation response on farm productivity and profitability based on biophysical and farm systems modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogeler, Iris; Mackay, Alec; Vibart, Ronaldo; Rendel, John; Beautrais, Josef; Dennis, Samuel

    2016-09-15

    Farm system and nutrient budget models are increasingly being used in analysis to inform on farm decision making and evaluate land use policy options at regional scales. These analyses are generally based on the use of average annual pasture yields. In New Zealand (NZ), like in many countries, there is considerable inter-annual variation in pasture growth rates, due to climate. In this study a modelling approach was used to (i) include inter-annual variability as an integral part of the analysis and (ii) test the approach in an economic analysis of irrigation in a case study within the Hawkes Bay Region of New Zealand. The Agricultural Production Systems Simulator (APSIM) was used to generate pasture dry matter yields (DMY) for 20 different years and under both dryland and irrigation. The generated DMY were linked to outputs from farm-scale modelling for both Sheep and Beef Systems (Farmaxx Pro) and Dairy Systems (Farmax® Dairy Pro) to calculate farm production over 20 different years. Variation in DMY and associated livestock production due to inter-annual variation in climate was large, with a coefficient of variations up to 20%. Irrigation decreased this inter-annual variation. On average irrigation, with unlimited available water, increased income by $831 to 1195/ha, but when irrigation was limited to 250mm/ha/year income only increased by $525 to 883/ha. Using pasture responses in individual years to capturing the inter-annual variation, rather than the pasture response averaged over 20years resulted in lower financial benefits. In the case study income from irrigation based on an average year were 10 to >20% higher compared with those obtained from individual years. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Inter-firm R&D networks in the global software industry : An overview of major trends and patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cloodt, M.M.A.H.; Hagedoorn, J.; Roijakkers, N.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of some major historical trends in inter-firm R&D partnering in the international software industry during the period 1970–1999. Our research demonstrates an overall growth pattern of newly made R&D partnerships and reveals the important role played by leading firms.

  4. Seasonal and inter-annual variations of dissolved oxygen in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea (DYFAMED site)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppola, Laurent; Legendre, Louis; Lefevre, Dominique; Prieur, Louis; Taillandier, Vincent; Diamond Riquier, Emilie

    2018-03-01

    Dissolved oxygen (O2) is a relevant tracer to interpret variations of both water mass properties in the open ocean and biological production in the surface layer of both coastal and open waters. Deep-water formation is very active in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea, where it influences intermediate and deep waters properties, nutrients replenishment and biological production. This study analyses, for the first time, the 20-year time series of monthly O2 concentrations at the DYFAMED long-term sampling site in the Ligurian Sea. Until the winters of 2005 and 2006, a thick and strong oxygen minimum layer was present between 200 and 1300 m because dense water formation was then local, episodic and of low intensity. In 2005-2006, intense and rapid deep convection injected 24 mol O2 m-2 between 350 and 2000 m from December 2005 to March 2006. Since this event, the deep layer has been mostly ventilated during winter time by newly formed deep water spreading from the Gulf of Lion 250 km to the west and by some local deep mixing in early 2010, 2012 and 2013. In the context of climate change, it is predicted that the intensity of deep convection will become weaker in the Mediterranean, which could potentially lead to hypoxia in intermediate and deep layers with substantial impact on marine ecosystems. With the exception of winters 2005 and 2006, the O2 changes in surface waters followed a seasonal trend that reflected the balance between air-sea O2 exchanges, changes in the depth of the mixed layer and phytoplankton net photosynthesis. We used the 20-year O2 time series to estimate monthly and annual net community production. The latter was 7.1 mol C m-2 yr-1, consistent with C-14 primary production determinations and sediment-trap carbon export fluxes at DYFAMED.

  5. Carbonate system and nutrients in the Pearl River estuary, China: Seasonal and inter-annual variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, X.

    2017-12-01

    Located in southern China and surrounded by several metropolis, the Pearl River estuary is a large subtropical estuary under significant human perturbation. We examined the impact of sewage treatment rate on the water environmental factors. Carbonate system parameters (Dissolved inorganic carbon or DIC, Total alkalinity or TA, and pH), and nutrients were surveyed in the Pearl River estuary from 2000 to 2015. Spatially, concentrations of nutrients were high at low salinity and decreased with salinity in both wet and dry seasons although seasonal variation occurred. However, distribution patterns of DIC and TA differed in wet and dry seasons. In wet season, both DIC and TA were low at low salinity (600-1500 umol kg-1) and increased with salinity, but in dry season they were high at low salinity (3000-3500 umol kg-1) and decreased with salinity. Compared with the years before 2010, both values and distribution patterns of DIC, TA and pH were similar among the years in wet season, but they were conspicuously different in the upper estuary in dry season. Both DIC and TA were more than 1000 umol kg-1 lower than those in the years before 2010. For nutrients at low salinity, the ammonia concentration was much lower in the years after 2010 (200 vs. 400 umol kg-1 in wet season and 400 vs. 800 umol kg-1 in dry season), but nitrate concentration was slightly higher (180 vs 120 mmol kg-1 in wet season and 200 vs 180 mmol kg-1 in dry season). As a reference, carbonate system parameters and nutrients were stable among the 16 years in the adjacent northern South China Sea. The variations in biogeochemical processes induced by nutrients concentration and structure as a result of sewage discharge will be discussed in detail. The decrease in DIC, TA and nutrients in the upper Pearl River estuary after 2010 was due mainly to the improvement of sewage treatment rate and capacity.

  6. Seasonal and inter-annual variations of leaf-level photosynthesis and soil respiration in the representative ecosystems of the Okavango Delta, Botswana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mantlana, K.B.

    2008-01-01

    Seasonal and inter-annual leaf-level photosynthesis and soil respiration measurements were conducted in representative ecosystems of the Okavango Delta, Botswana, that differ in their long-term soil water content: the permanent swamp, the seasonal floodplain, the rain-fed grassland and the mopane

  7. Seasonal and inter-annual photosynthetic response of representative C4 species to soil water content and leaf nitrogen concentration across a tropical seasonal floodplain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mantlana, K.B.; Arneth, A.; Veenendaal, E.M.; Wohland, P.; Wolski, P.; Kolle, O.; Lloyd, J.

    2008-01-01

    We examined the seasonal and inter-annual variation of leaf-level photosynthetic characteristics of three C4 perennial species, Cyperus articulatus, Panicum repens and Imperata cylindrica, and their response to environmental variables, to determine comparative physiological responses of plants

  8. Inter-annual variability and trend detection of urban CO2, CH4 and CO emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauvaux, T.; Deng, A.; Gurney, K. R.; Nathan, B.; Ye, X.; Oda, T.; Karion, A.; Hardesty, M.; Harvey, R. M.; Richardson, S.; Whetstone, J. R.; Hutyra, L.; Davis, K. J.; Brewer, A.; Gaudet, B. J.; Turnbull, J. C.; Sweeney, C.; Shepson, P. B.; Miles, N.; Bonin, T.; Wu, K.; Balashov, N. V.

    2017-12-01

    The Indianapolis Flux (INFLUX) Experiment has conducted an unprecedented volume of atmospheric greenhouse gas measurements across the Indianapolis metropolitan area from aircraft, remote-sensing, and tower-based observational platforms. Assimilated in a high-resolution urban inversion system, atmospheric data provide an independent constraint to existing emission products, directly supporting the integration of economic data into urban emission systems. We present here the first multi-year assessment of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions from anthropogenic activities in comparison to multiple bottom-up emission products. Biogenic CO2 fluxes are quantified using an optimized biogeochemical model at high resolution, further refined within the atmospheric inversion system. We also present the first sector-based inversion by jointly assimilating CO2 and CO mixing ratios to quantify the dominant sectors of emissions over the entire period (2012-2015). The detected trend in CO2 emissions over 2012-2015 from both bottom-up emission products and tower-based inversions agree within a few percent, with a decline in city emissions over the 3-year time period. Major changes occur at the primary power plant, suggesting a decrease in energy production within the city limits. The joint assimilation of CO2 and CO mixing ratios confirms the absence of trends in other sectors. However, top-down and bottom-up approaches tend to disagree annually, with a decline in urban emissions suggested by atmospheric data in 2014 that is several months earlier than is observed in the bottom-up products. Concerning CH4 emissions, the inversion shows a decrease since mid-2014 which may be due to lower landfill emissions or lower energy consumption (from coal and natural gas). This first demonstration of a high-accuracy long-term greenhouse gas measurement network merged with a high-resolution bottom-up information system highlights the potential for informing

  9. Seasonal, annual and inter-annual features of turbulence parameters over the tropical station Pune (18°32' N, 73°51' E observed with UHF wind profiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Singh

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study is specifically focused on the seasonal, annual and inter-annual variations of the refractive index structure parameter (Cn2 using three years of radar observations. Energy dissipation rates (ε during different seasons for a particular year are also computed over a tropical station, Pune. Doppler spectral width measurements made by the Wind Profiler, under various atmospheric conditions, are utilized to estimate the turbulence parameters. The refractive index structure parameter varies from 10−17.5 to 10−13 m−2/3 under clear air to precipitation conditions in the height region of 1.05 to 10.35 km. During the monsoon months, observed Cn2 values are up to 1–2 orders of magnitude higher than those during pre-monsoon and post-monsoon seasons. Spectral width correction for various non-turbulent spectral broadenings such as beam broadening and shear broadening are made in the observed spectral width for reliable estimation of ε under non-precipitating conditions. It is found that in the lower tropospheric height region, values of ε are in the range of 10−6 to 10−3 m2 s−3. In summer and monsoon seasons the observed values of ε are larger than those in post-monsoon and winter seasons in the lower troposphere. A comparison of Cn2 observed with the wind profiler and that estimated using Radio Sonde/Radio Wind (RS/RW data of nearby Met station Chikalthana has been made for the month of July 2003.

  10. Inter-Annual Variability of Soil Moisture Stress Function in the Wheat Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akuraju, V. R.; Ryu, D.; George, B.; Ryu, Y.; Dassanayake, K. B.

    2014-12-01

    Root-zone soil moisture content is a key variable that controls the exchange of water and energy fluxes between land and atmosphere. In the soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfer (SVAT) schemes, the influence of root-zone soil moisture on evapotranspiration (ET) is parameterized by the soil moisture stress function (SSF). Dependence of actual ET: potential ET (fPET) or evaporative fraction to the root-zone soil moisture via SSF can also be used inversely to estimate root-zone soil moisture when fPET is estimated by remotely sensed land surface states. In this work we present fPET versus available soil water (ASW) in the root zone observed in the experimental farm sites in Victoria, Australia in 2012-2013. In the wheat field site, fPET vs ASW exhibited distinct features for different soil depth, net radiation, and crop growth stages. Interestingly, SSF in the wheat field presented contrasting shapes for two cropping years of 2012 and 2013. We argue that different temporal patterns of rainfall (and resulting soil moisture) during the growing seasons in 2012 and 2013 are responsible for the distinctive SSFs. SSF of the wheat field was simulated by the Agricultural Production Systems sIMulator (APSIM). The APSIM was able to reproduce the observed fPET vs. ASW. We discuss implications of our findings for existing modeling and (inverse) remote sensing approaches relying on SSF and alternative growth-stage-dependent SSFs.

  11. Variations of iron flux and organic carbon remineralization in a subterranean estuary caused by inter-annual variations in recharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Moutusi; Martin, Jonathan B.; Cable, Jaye E.; Smith, Christopher G.

    2013-02-01

    We determine the inter-annual variations in diagenetic reaction rates of sedimentary iron (Fe) in an east Florida subterranean estuary and evaluate the connection between metal fluxes and recharge to the coastal aquifer. Over the three years study period (from 2004 to 2007), the amount of Fe-oxides reduced at the study site decreased from 192 to 153 g/yr and associated organic carbon (OC) remineralization decreased from 48 to 38 g/yr. These reductions occurred although the Fe-oxide reduction rates remained constant around 1 mg/cm2/yr. These results suggest that changes in flow rates of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) related to changes in precipitation may be important to fluxes of the diagenetic reaction products. Rainfall at a weather station approximately 5 km from the field area decreased from 12.6 to 8.4 cm/month from 2004 to 2007. Monthly potential evapotranspiration (PET) calculated from Thornthwaite's method indicated potential evapotranspiration cycled from about 3 cm/month in the winter to about 15 cm/month in the summer so that net annual recharge to the aquifer decreased from 40 cm in 2004 to -10 cm in 2007. Simultaneously with the decrease in recharge of groundwater, freshwater SGD decreased by around 20% and caused the originally 25 m wide freshwater seepage face to decrease in width by about 5 m. The smaller seepage face reduced the area under which Fe-oxides were undergoing reductive dissolution. Consequently, the observed decrease in Fe flux is controlled by hydrology of the subterranean estuary. These results point out the need to better understand linkages between temporal variations in diagenetic reactions and changes in flow within subterranean estuaries in order to accurately constrain their contribution to oceanic fluxes of solutes from subterranean estuaries.

  12. Uncovering patterns of inter-urban trip and spatial interaction from social media check-in data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Liu

    Full Text Available The article revisits spatial interaction and distance decay from the perspective of human mobility patterns and spatially-embedded networks based on an empirical data set. We extract nationwide inter-urban movements in China from a check-in data set that covers half a million individuals within 370 cities to analyze the underlying patterns of trips and spatial interactions. By fitting the gravity model, we find that the observed spatial interactions are governed by a power law distance decay effect. The obtained gravity model also closely reproduces the exponential trip displacement distribution. The movement of an individual, however, may not obey the same distance decay effect, leading to an ecological fallacy. We also construct a spatial network where the edge weights denote the interaction strengths. The communities detected from the network are spatially cohesive and roughly consistent with province boundaries. We attribute this pattern to different distance decay parameters between intra-province and inter-province trips.

  13. Uncovering patterns of inter-urban trip and spatial interaction from social media check-in data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Sui, Zhengwei; Kang, Chaogui; Gao, Yong

    2014-01-01

    The article revisits spatial interaction and distance decay from the perspective of human mobility patterns and spatially-embedded networks based on an empirical data set. We extract nationwide inter-urban movements in China from a check-in data set that covers half a million individuals within 370 cities to analyze the underlying patterns of trips and spatial interactions. By fitting the gravity model, we find that the observed spatial interactions are governed by a power law distance decay effect. The obtained gravity model also closely reproduces the exponential trip displacement distribution. The movement of an individual, however, may not obey the same distance decay effect, leading to an ecological fallacy. We also construct a spatial network where the edge weights denote the interaction strengths. The communities detected from the network are spatially cohesive and roughly consistent with province boundaries. We attribute this pattern to different distance decay parameters between intra-province and inter-province trips.

  14. Uncovering Patterns of Inter-Urban Trip and Spatial Interaction from Social Media Check-In Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Sui, Zhengwei; Kang, Chaogui; Gao, Yong

    2014-01-01

    The article revisits spatial interaction and distance decay from the perspective of human mobility patterns and spatially-embedded networks based on an empirical data set. We extract nationwide inter-urban movements in China from a check-in data set that covers half a million individuals within 370 cities to analyze the underlying patterns of trips and spatial interactions. By fitting the gravity model, we find that the observed spatial interactions are governed by a power law distance decay effect. The obtained gravity model also closely reproduces the exponential trip displacement distribution. The movement of an individual, however, may not obey the same distance decay effect, leading to an ecological fallacy. We also construct a spatial network where the edge weights denote the interaction strengths. The communities detected from the network are spatially cohesive and roughly consistent with province boundaries. We attribute this pattern to different distance decay parameters between intra-province and inter-province trips. PMID:24465849

  15. Factors affecting the inter-annual to centennial timescale variability of Indian summer monsoon rainfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Abdul; Brönnimann, Stefan

    2018-06-01

    The Modes of Ocean Variability (MOV) namely Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO), Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), and El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) can have significant impacts on Indian Summer Monsoon Rainfall (ISMR) on different timescales. The timescales at which these MOV interacts with ISMR and the factors which may perturb their relationship with ISMR need to be investigated. We employ De-trended Cross-Correlation Analysis (DCCA), and De-trended Partial-Cross-Correlation Analysis (DPCCA) to study the timescales of interaction of ISMR with AMO, PDO, and ENSO using observational dataset (AD 1854-1999), and atmosphere-ocean-chemistry climate model simulations with SOCOL-MPIOM (AD 1600-1999). Further, this study uses De-trended Semi-Partial Cross-Correlation Analysis (DSPCCA) to address the relation between solar variability and the ISMR. We find statistically significant evidence of intrinsic correlations of ISMR with AMO, PDO, and ENSO on different timescales, consistent between model simulations and observations. However, the model fails to capture modulation in intrinsic relationship between ISRM and MOV due to external signals. Our analysis indicates that AMO is a potential source of non-stationary relationship between ISMR and ENSO. Furthermore, the pattern of correlation between ISMR and Total Solar Irradiance (TSI) is inconsistent between observations and model simulations. The observational dataset indicates statistically insignificant negative intrinsic correlation between ISMR and TSI on decadal-to-centennial timescales. This statistically insignificant negative intrinsic correlation is transformed to statistically significant positive extrinsic by AMO on 61-86-year timescale. We propose a new mechanism for Sun-monsoon connection which operates through AMO by changes in summer (June-September; JJAS) meridional gradient of tropospheric temperatures (ΔTTJJAS). There is a negative (positive) intrinsic correlation between ΔTTJJAS (AMO) and

  16. Twenty-year inter-annual trends and seasonal variations in precipitation and stream water chemistry at the Bear Brook Watershed in Maine, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navrátil, Tomas; Norton, Stephen A; Fernandez, Ivan J; Nelson, Sarah J

    2010-12-01

    Mean annual concentration of SO4(-2) in wet-only deposition has decreased between 1988 and 2006 at the paired watershed study at Bear Brook Watershed in Maine, USA (BBWM) due to substantially decreased emissions of SO(2). Emissions of NO(x) have not changed substantially, but deposition has declined slightly at BBWM. Base cations, NH4+, and Cl(-) concentrations were largely unchanged, with small irregular changes of Bear Brook (EB), the reference stream, has been slowly responding to reduced but still elevated acid deposition. Calcium and Mg have declined fairly steadily and faster than SO4(-2), with consequent acidification (lower pH and higher inorganic Al). Eighteen years of experimental treatment with (NH(4))(2)SO(4) enhanced acidification of West Bear Brook's (WB) watershed. Despite the manipulation, NH4+ concentration remained below detection limits at WB, while leaching of NO3- increased. The seasonal pattern for NO3- concentrations in WB, however, remained similar to EB. Mean monthly concentrations of SO4(-2) have increased in WB since 1989, initially only during periods of high flow, but gradually also during base flow. Increases in mean monthly concentrations of Ca(2+), Mg(2+), and K(+) due to the manipulation occurred from 1989 until about 1995, during the depletion of base cations in shallow flow paths in WB. Progressive depletion of Ca and Mg at greater soil depth occurred, causing stream concentrations to decline to pre-manipulation values. Mean monthly Si concentrations did not change in EB or WB, suggesting that the manipulation had no effect on mineral weathering rates. DOC concentrations in both streams did not exhibit inter- or intra-annual trends.

  17. A neural network-based estimate of the seasonal to inter-annual variability of the Atlantic Ocean carbon sink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landschützer, P.; Gruber, N.; Bakker, D.C.E.

    2013-01-01

    The Atlantic Ocean is one of the most important sinks for atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2), but this sink is known to vary substantially in time. Here we use surface ocean CO2 observations to estimate this sink and the temporal variability from 1998 to 2007 in the Atlantic Ocean. We benefit from ......, leading to a substantial trend toward a stronger CO2 sink for the entire South Atlantic (–0.14 Pg C yr–1 decade–1). The Atlantic carbon sink varies relatively little on inter-annual time-scales (±0.04 Pg C yr–1; 1σ)......The Atlantic Ocean is one of the most important sinks for atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2), but this sink is known to vary substantially in time. Here we use surface ocean CO2 observations to estimate this sink and the temporal variability from 1998 to 2007 in the Atlantic Ocean. We benefit from (i...... poleward of 40° N, but many other parts of the North Atlantic increased more slowly, resulting in a barely changing Atlantic carbon sink north of the equator (–0.007 Pg C yr–1 decade–1). Surface ocean pCO2 was also increasing less than that of the atmosphere over most of the Atlantic south of the equator...

  18. Impacts of climate change and inter-annual variability on cereal crops in China from 1980 to 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tianyi; Huang, Yao

    2012-06-01

    Negative climate impacts on crop yield increase pressures on food security in China. In this study, climatic impacts on cereal yields (rice, wheat and maize) were investigated by analyzing climate-yield relationships from 1980 to 2008. Results indicated that warming was significant, but trends in precipitation and solar radiation were not statistically significant in most of China. In general, maize is particularly sensitive to warming. However, increase in temperature was correlated with both lower and higher yield of rice and wheat, which is inconsistent with the current view that warming results in decline in yields. Of the three cereal crops, further analysis suggested that reduction in yields with higher temperature is accompanied by lower precipitation, which mainly occurred in northern parts of China, suggesting droughts reduced yield due to lack of water resources. Similarly, a positive correlation between temperature and yield can be alternatively explained by the effect of solar radiation, mainly in the southern part of China where water resources are abundant. Overall, our study suggests that it is inter-annual variations in precipitation and solar radiation that have driven change in cereal yields in China over the last three decades. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Climate drives inter-annual variability in probability of high severity fire occurrence in the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyser, Alisa; Westerling, Anthony LeRoy

    2017-05-01

    A long history of fire suppression in the western United States has significantly changed forest structure and ecological function, leading to increasingly uncharacteristic fires in terms of size and severity. Prior analyses of fire severity in California forests showed that time since last fire and fire weather conditions predicted fire severity very well, while a larger regional analysis showed that topography and climate were important predictors of high severity fire. There has not yet been a large-scale study that incorporates topography, vegetation and fire-year climate to determine regional scale high severity fire occurrence. We developed models to predict the probability of high severity fire occurrence for the western US. We predict high severity fire occurrence with some accuracy, and identify the relative importance of predictor classes in determining the probability of high severity fire. The inclusion of both vegetation and fire-year climate predictors was critical for model skill in identifying fires with high fractional fire severity. The inclusion of fire-year climate variables allows this model to forecast inter-annual variability in areas at future risk of high severity fire, beyond what slower-changing fuel conditions alone can accomplish. This allows for more targeted land management, including resource allocation for fuels reduction treatments to decrease the risk of high severity fire.

  20. Analysis on inter-annual variability of CO2 exchange in Arctic tundra: a model-data approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Blanco, E.; Lund, M.; Christensen, T. R.; Smallman, T. L.; Slevin, D.; Westergaard-Nielsen, A.; Tamstorf, M. P.; Williams, M.

    2017-12-01

    Arctic ecosystems are exposed to rapid changes triggered by the climate variability, thus there is a growing concern about how the carbon (C) exchange balance will respond to climate change. There is a lack of knowledge about the mechanisms that drive the interactions between photosynthesis and ecological respiration with changes in C stocks in the Arctic tundra across full annual cycles. The reduction of uncertainties can be addressed through process-based modelling efforts. Here, we report the independent predictions of net ecosystem exchange (NEE), gross primary production (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (Reco) calculated from the soil-plant-atmosphere (SPA) model across eight years. The model products are validated with observational data obtained from the Greenland Ecosystem Monitoring (GEM) program in West Greenland tundra (64° N). Overall, the model results explain 71%, 73% and 51% of the variance in NEE, GPP and Reco respectively using data on meteorology and local vegetation and soil structure. The estimated leaf area index (LAI) is able to explain 80% of the plant greenness variation, which was used as a plant phenology proxy. The full annual cumulated NEE during the 2008-2015 period was -0.13 g C m-2 on average (range -30.6 to 34.1 g C m-2), while GPP was -214.6 g C m-2 (-126.2 to -332.8 g C m-2) and Reco was 214.4 g C m-2 (213.9 to 302.2 g C m-2). We found that the model supports the main finding from our previous analysis on flux responses to meteorological variations and biological disturbance. Here, large inter-annual variations in GPP and Reco are also compensatory, and so NEE remains stable across climatically diverse snow-free seasons. Further, we note evidence that leaf maintenance and root growth respiration are highly correlated with GPP (R2 = 0.92 and 0.83, p < 0.001), concluding that these relations likely drive the insensitivity of NEE. Interestingly, the model quantifies the contribution of the larvae outbreak occurred in 2011 in about 27

  1. Robustness of cluster synchronous patterns in small-world networks with inter-cluster co-competition balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Jianbao; Ma, Zhongjun; Chen, Guanrong

    2014-01-01

    All edges in the classical Watts and Strogatz's small-world network model are unweighted and cooperative (positive). By introducing competitive (negative) inter-cluster edges and assigning edge weights to mimic more realistic networks, this paper develops a modified model which possesses co-competitive weighted couplings and cluster structures while maintaining the common small-world network properties of small average shortest path lengths and large clustering coefficients. Based on theoretical analysis, it is proved that the new model with inter-cluster co-competition balance has an important dynamical property of robust cluster synchronous pattern formation. More precisely, clusters will neither merge nor split regardless of adding or deleting nodes and edges, under the condition of inter-cluster co-competition balance. Numerical simulations demonstrate the robustness of the model against the increase of the coupling strength and several topological variations

  2. Robustness of cluster synchronous patterns in small-world networks with inter-cluster co-competition balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianbao; Ma, Zhongjun; Chen, Guanrong

    2014-06-01

    All edges in the classical Watts and Strogatz's small-world network model are unweighted and cooperative (positive). By introducing competitive (negative) inter-cluster edges and assigning edge weights to mimic more realistic networks, this paper develops a modified model which possesses co-competitive weighted couplings and cluster structures while maintaining the common small-world network properties of small average shortest path lengths and large clustering coefficients. Based on theoretical analysis, it is proved that the new model with inter-cluster co-competition balance has an important dynamical property of robust cluster synchronous pattern formation. More precisely, clusters will neither merge nor split regardless of adding or deleting nodes and edges, under the condition of inter-cluster co-competition balance. Numerical simulations demonstrate the robustness of the model against the increase of the coupling strength and several topological variations.

  3. Robustness of cluster synchronous patterns in small-world networks with inter-cluster co-competition balance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jianbao [School of Science, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Ma, Zhongjun, E-mail: mzj1234402@163.com [School of Mathematics and Computing Science, Guilin University of Electronic Technology, Guilin 541004 (China); Chen, Guanrong [Department of Electronic Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)

    2014-06-15

    All edges in the classical Watts and Strogatz's small-world network model are unweighted and cooperative (positive). By introducing competitive (negative) inter-cluster edges and assigning edge weights to mimic more realistic networks, this paper develops a modified model which possesses co-competitive weighted couplings and cluster structures while maintaining the common small-world network properties of small average shortest path lengths and large clustering coefficients. Based on theoretical analysis, it is proved that the new model with inter-cluster co-competition balance has an important dynamical property of robust cluster synchronous pattern formation. More precisely, clusters will neither merge nor split regardless of adding or deleting nodes and edges, under the condition of inter-cluster co-competition balance. Numerical simulations demonstrate the robustness of the model against the increase of the coupling strength and several topological variations.

  4. Inter-cohort growth patterns of pharaoh cuttlefish Sepia pharaonis (Sepioidea: Sepiidae in Eastern Arabian Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geetha Sasikumar

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Sepia pharaonis is an important commercial species endemic to the tropical Indo-Pacific region. Despite its commercial significance, only few information on natural populations is available. This study was aimed to describe the aspects of size-composition, length-weight relationship, catch rates, seasonal recruitment and inter-cohort growth patterns of S. pharaonis population (Clade C, distributed along the Eastern Arabian Sea (South-West coast of India. For this, the Dorsal Mantle Length (DML and weight of cuttlefishes was obtained from commercial trawl catches, from April 2002 to October 2006. Data was analyzed by normal length-weight methods such as von Bertalanffy. A total of 12 454 cuttlefishes, ranging in length from four to 41cm were analyzed. Size-composition patterns discriminated two pulses in recruitment to the fishery, discernible by a decrease in the monthly mean size of the population. The DMLs of the two seasonal cohorts were subjected to modalprogression analysis using the Bhattacharya’s method for the estimation of growth. The estimated parameters L∞ and K in von Bertalanffy Growth Function (VBGF were used to model growth curves in length for the cohorts. The first cohort, (post-monsoon cohort which supports the major fishery, was composed of mediumsized, fast growing individuals, whereas the second cohort (pre-monsoon cohort, comprised of slow growing and large-sized individuals. There were differential growth characteristics between the sexes and the life span was estimated at less than 2.3years for males and 2.1years for females. Negative allometric growth in weight (W with length (L was observed for males (W=0.33069.L2.5389 and females (W=0.32542.L2.6057. The females were heavier compared to males at any given mantle length, and the males were found to attain larger ultimate lengths. The major fishing season for cuttlefish was from May to November, when higher monthly catch rates of 1.67-13.02kg/h were observed in

  5. Inter-cohort growth patterns of pharaoh cuttlefish Sepia pharaonis (Sepioidea: Sepiidae) in Eastern Arabian Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasikumarl, Geetha; Mohamed, K S; Bhat, U S

    2013-03-01

    Sepia pharaonis is an important commercial species endemic to the tropical Indo-Pacific region. Despite its commercial significance, only few information on natural populations is available. This study was aimed to describe the aspects of size-composition, length-weight relationship, catch rates, seasonal recruitment and inter-cohort growth patterns of S. pharaonis population (Clade C), distributed along the Eastern Arabian Sea (South-West coast of India). For this, the Dorsal Mantle Length (DML) and weight of cuttlefishes was obtained from commercial trawl catches, from April 2002 to October 2006. Data was analyzed by normal length-weight methods such as von Bertalanffy. A total of 12454 cuttlefishes, ranging in length from four to 41cm were analyzed. Size-composition patterns discriminated two pulses in recruitment to the fishery, discernible by a decrease in the monthly mean size of the population. The DMLs of the two seasonal cohorts were subjected to modal-progression analysis using the Bhattacharya's method for the estimation of growth. The estimated parameters Linfinity and K in von Bertalanffy Growth Function (VBGF) were used to model growth curves in length for the cohorts. The first cohort, (post-monsoon cohort) which supports the major fishery, was composed of medium-sized, fast growing individuals, whereas the second cohort (pre-monsoon cohort), comprised of slow growing and large-sized individuals. There were differential growth characteristics between the sexes and the life span was estimated at less than 2.3 years for males and 2.1 years for females. Negative allometric growth in weight (W) with length (L) was observed for males (W=0.33069.L2.5389) and females (W=0.32542.L26057). The females were heavier compared to males at any given mantle length, and the males were found to attain larger ultimate lengths. The major fishing season for cuttlefish was from May to November, when higher monthly catch rates of 1.67-13.02kg/h were observed in comparison

  6. Inter- and intra-examiner reliability of footprint pattern analysis obtained from diabetics using the Harris mat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisneros, Lígia de Loiola; Fonseca, Tiago H S; Abreu, Vivianni C

    2010-01-01

    High plantar pressure is a proven risk factor for ulceration among individuals with diabetes mellitus. The Harris and Beath footprinting mat is one of the tools used in screening for foot ulceration risk among these subjects. There are no reports in the literature on the reliability of footprint analysis using print pattern criteria. The aim of this study was to evaluate the inter- and intra-examiner reliability of the analysis of footprint patterns obtained using the Harris and Beath footprinting mat. Footprints were taken from 41 subjects using the footprinting mat. The images were subjected to analysis by three independent examiners. To investigate the intra-examiner reliability, the analysis was repeated by one of the examiners one week later. The weighted kappa coefficient was excellent (K(w) > 0.80) for the inter- and intra-examiner analyses for most of the points studied on both feet. The criteria for analyzing footprint patterns obtained using the Harris and Beath footprinting mat presented good reliability and high to excellent inter- and intra-examiner agreement. This method is reliable for analyses involving one or more examiners. Article registered in the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR) under the number ACTRN12609000693224.

  7. Detecting Inter-Annual Variations in the Phenology of Evergreen Conifers Using Long-Term MODIS Vegetation Index Time Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Ulsig

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Long-term observations of vegetation phenology can be used to monitor the response of terrestrial ecosystems to climate change. Satellite remote sensing provides the most efficient means to observe phenological events through time series analysis of vegetation indices such as the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI. This study investigates the potential of a Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI, which has been linked to vegetation light use efficiency, to improve the accuracy of MODIS-based estimates of phenology in an evergreen conifer forest. Timings of the start and end of the growing season (SGS and EGS were derived from a 13-year-long time series of PRI and NDVI based on a MAIAC (multi-angle implementation of atmospheric correction processed MODIS dataset and standard MODIS NDVI product data. The derived dates were validated with phenology estimates from ground-based flux tower measurements of ecosystem productivity. Significant correlations were found between the MAIAC time series and ground-estimated SGS (R2 = 0.36–0.8, which is remarkable since previous studies have found it difficult to observe inter-annual phenological variations in evergreen vegetation from satellite data. The considerably noisier NDVI product could not accurately predict SGS, and EGS could not be derived successfully from any of the time series. While the strongest relationship overall was found between SGS derived from the ground data and PRI, MAIAC NDVI exhibited high correlations with SGS more consistently (R2 > 0.6 in all cases. The results suggest that PRI can serve as an effective indicator of spring seasonal transitions, however, additional work is necessary to confirm the relationships observed and to further explore the usefulness of MODIS PRI for detecting phenology.

  8. Inter-annual variations in water yield to lakes in northeastern Alberta: implications for estimating critical loads of acidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roderick HAZEWINKEL

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Stable isotopes of water were applied to estimate water yield to fifty lakes in northeastern Alberta as part of an acid sensitivity study underway since 2002 in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region (AOSR. Herein, we apply site-specific water yields for each lake to calculate critical loads of acidity using water chemistry data and a steady-state water chemistry model. The main goal of this research was to improve site-specific critical load estimates and to understand the sensitivity to hydrologic variability across a Boreal Plains region under significant oil sands development pressure. Overall, catchment water yields were found to vary significantly over the seven year monitoring period, with distinct variations among lakes and between different regions, overprinted by inter-annual climate-driven shifts. Analysis of critical load estimates based on site-specific water yields suggests that caution must be applied to establish hydrologic conditions and define extremes at specific sites in order to protect more sensitive ecosystems. In general, lakes with low (high water yield tended to be more (less acid sensitive but were typically less (more affected by interannual hydrological variations. While it has been customary to use long-term water yields to define a static critical load for lakes, we find that spatial and temporal variability in water yield may limit effectiveness of this type of assessment in areas of the Boreal Plain characterized by heterogeneous runoff and without a long-term lake-gauging network. Implications for predicting acidification risk are discussed for the AOSR.

  9. Accounting for inter-annual and seasonal variability in regionalization of hydrologic response in the Great Lakes basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kult, J. M.; Fry, L. M.; Gronewold, A. D.

    2012-12-01

    Methods for predicting streamflow in areas with limited or nonexistent measures of hydrologic response typically invoke the concept of regionalization, whereby knowledge pertaining to gauged catchments is transferred to ungauged catchments. In this study, we identify watershed physical characteristics acting as primary drivers of hydrologic response throughout the US portion of the Great Lakes basin. Relationships between watershed physical characteristics and hydrologic response are generated from 166 catchments spanning a variety of climate, soil, land cover, and land form regimes through regression tree analysis, leading to a grouping of watersheds exhibiting similar hydrologic response characteristics. These groupings are then used to predict response in ungauged watersheds in an uncertainty framework. Results from this method are assessed alongside one historical regionalization approach which, while simple, has served as a cornerstone of Great Lakes regional hydrologic research for several decades. Our approach expands upon previous research by considering multiple temporal characterizations of hydrologic response. Due to the substantial inter-annual and seasonal variability in hydrologic response observed over the Great Lakes basin, results from the regression tree analysis differ considerably depending on the level of temporal aggregation used to define the response. Specifically, higher levels of temporal aggregation for the response metric (for example, indices derived from long-term means of climate and streamflow observations) lead to improved watershed groupings with lower within-group variance. However, this perceived improvement in model skill occurs at the cost of understated uncertainty when applying the regression to time series simulations or as a basis for model calibration. In such cases, our results indicate that predictions based on long-term characterizations of hydrologic response can produce misleading conclusions when applied at shorter

  10. Impact of Precipitation Patterns on Biomass and Species Richness of Annuals in a Dry Steppe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Hong; Liang, Cunzhu; Li, Zhiyong; Liu, Zhongling; Miao, Bailing; He, Chunguang; Sheng, Lianxi

    2015-01-01

    Annuals are an important component part of plant communities in arid and semiarid grassland ecosystems. Although it is well known that precipitation has a significant impact on productivity and species richness of community or perennials, nevertheless, due to lack of measurements, especially long-term experiment data, there is little information on how quantity and patterns of precipitation affect similar attributes of annuals. This study addresses this knowledge gap by analyzing how quantity and temporal patterns of precipitation affect aboveground biomass, interannual variation aboveground biomass, relative aboveground biomass, and species richness of annuals using a 29-year dataset from a dry steppe site at the Inner Mongolia Grassland Ecosystem Research Station. Results showed that aboveground biomass and relative aboveground biomass of annuals increased with increasing precipitation. The coefficient of variation in aboveground biomass of annuals decreased significantly with increasing annual and growing-season precipitation. Species richness of annuals increased significantly with increasing annual precipitation and growing-season precipitation. Overall, this study highlights the importance of precipitation for aboveground biomass and species richness of annuals. PMID:25906187

  11. Seasonal and inter-annual variability of sea surface temperature at the east coast fishing area off Peninsular Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurul Ridani, S.; Mustapha, M. A.; Lihan, T.; Ku Kassim, K. Y.; Raja Bidin, R. H.

    2015-09-01

    Empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis was used to study a time-series of the aqua MODIS data imageries in the exclusive economic zone of east coast off Peninsular Malaysia. Temporal and spatial characteristics were examined to determine the dominant pattern of sea surface temperature (SST) variability from January 2003 to December 2011.The data were analysed from daily Level 1A (1km spatial resolution) to monthly composites Level 3 data using SeaDAS and ERDAS imagine software. Four modes was obtained from the analysis with the highest variance (7.9%) represented by mode 1 which explained the seasonal cycle. Mode 2 (5.11 % of total variance) showed positive and negative peak signal during March and April and in October and November with variability near the Kelantan and Pahang waters that indicated the inter monsoon. Mode 3 (3.8 % of variance) shows variability near the Terengganu, Kelantan and Johor waters to the open sea during July and August and in May and June representing the Southwest monsoon. Mode 4 (3.36 %) showed positive signal during November and December with strong signal near Pahang and Kelantan waters while weak signal was detected near Terengganu and Kelantan's open sea representing the Northeast monsoon. The SST variability was influenced by the monsoonal system which originated by the wind forcing condition that influences circulation in the study area.

  12. Inter Annual Variability of the Acoustic Propagation in the Yellow Sea Identified from a Synoptic Monthly Gridded Database as Compared with GDEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    resolution in SMG-WOD, and thus less data levels for such shallow water . A comprehensive collection of salinity images by years can be found in the...DISTRIBUTION CODE 13. ABSTRACT (maximum 200 words ) This research investigates the inter-annual acoustic variability in the Yellow Sea identified from...is a semi-enclosed basin located between China and Korea with a mean depth of 40m; acoustics are driven by shallow water dynamics and interaction with

  13. The Teleconnection of the Tropical Atlantic to Indo-Pacific Sea Surface Temperatures on Inter-Annual to Centennial Time Scales: A Review of Recent Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred Kucharski

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the teleconnections from the tropical Atlantic to the Indo-Pacific region from inter-annual to centennial time scales will be reviewed. Identified teleconnections and hypotheses on mechanisms at work are reviewed and further explored in a century-long pacemaker coupled ocean-atmosphere simulation ensemble. There is a substantial impact of the tropical Atlantic on the Pacific region at inter-annual time scales. An Atlantic Niño (Niña event leads to rising (sinking motion in the Atlantic region, which is compensated by sinking (rising motion in the central-western Pacific. The sinking (rising motion in the central-western Pacific induces easterly (westerly surface wind anomalies just to the west, which alter the thermocline. These perturbations propagate eastward as upwelling (downwelling Kelvin-waves, where they increase the probability for a La Niña (El Niño event. Moreover, tropical North Atlantic sea surface temperature anomalies are also able to lead La Niña/El Niño development. At multidecadal time scales, a positive (negative Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation leads to a cooling (warming of the eastern Pacific and a warming (cooling of the western Pacific and Indian Ocean regions. The physical mechanism for this impact is similar to that at inter-annual time scales. At centennial time scales, the Atlantic warming induces a substantial reduction of the eastern Pacific warming even under CO2 increase and to a strong subsurface cooling.

  14. Current practice patterns and knowledge among gynecologic surgeons of InterStim® programming after implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, Deslyn T G; Gaskins, Jeremy T; Frazier, LaTisha; Francis, Sean L; Kinman, Casey L; Meriwether, Kate V

    2017-10-03

    The objective of this study was to describe surgeons' current practices in InterStim® programming after initial implantation and their knowledge of programming parameters. We hypothesized that surgeons performing their own reprogramming would have increased knowledge. We administered a written survey to attendees at the Society of Gynecologic Surgeons Scientific Meeting and analyzed those on which surgeons indicated they offer InterStim® care. The survey queried surgeon characteristics, experience with InterStim® implantation and programming, and clinical opinions regarding reprogramming and tested six knowledge-based questions about programming parameters. Correct response to all six questions was the primary outcome. One hundred and thirty-five of 407 (33%) attendees returned the survey, of which 99 met inclusion criteria. Most respondents (88 of 99; 89%) were between 36 and 60 years, 27 (73%) were women, 76 (77%) practiced in a university setting, and 76 (77%) were trained in Female Pelvic Medicine and Reconstructive Surgery (FPMRS). Surgeons who had InterStim® programming training were more likely to perform their own programming [15/46 (32%) vs 6/47 (13%), p = 0.03]. Most answered all knowledge-based questions correctly (62/90, 69%); no surgeon characteristics were significantly associated with this outcome. Most surgeons cited patient comfort (71/80, 89%) and symptom relief (64/80, 80%) as important factors when reprogramming, but no prevalent themes emerged on how and why surgeons change certain programming parameters. Surgeons who had formal InterStim® programming training are more likely to perform programming themselves. No surgeon characteristic was associated with improved programming knowledge. We found that surgeons prioritize patient comfort and symptoms when deciding to reprogram.

  15. Inter-annual precipitation variabiity inferred from late Holocene speleothem records from Fiji: implications for SPCZ localisation and ENSO behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattey, D.; Stephens, M.; Hoffmann, D.; Brett, M.

    2015-12-01

    The modern tropical Fiji climate is characterised by seasonal rainfall controlled by the position of the South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ). Interannual rainfall is strongly modulated on decadal timescales by ENSO with higher rainfall associated with La Nina events. Voli Voli cave near Sigatoga (Viti Levu) is a stream passage that has been monitored since 2009. A U-Th dated laminated speleothem spans a 1500 year interval across the transition from the Medieval Warm Period into the Little Ice Age marked by a fabric change from finely laminated calcite with thin clay layers, to white well-laminated calcite. The older record is characterised by rising δ13C values followed by a rapid decrease in δ13C around 1200 AD. Evidence from cave monitoring shows that cave air CO2 levels are strongly seasonal as a result of greater ventilation by winter trade winds and high resolution δ13C record shows regularly spaced peaks correlated with paired laminae and cycles in P and S which provide annual markers driven by rainfall and seasonal ventilation. δ18O values remain relatively unchanged throughout the record but micromilling at sub-annual resolution reveals systematic cycles in δ18O that span groups of paired laminae with an inferred periodicity of 3-7 years i.e. a similar frequency to modern ENSO. The presence of these sub-decadal cycles in δ18O may be a result of a combination of factors. The amplitude of 2-3‰ would be equivalent to an amount-effect related change in annual precipitation of around 50% but an additional smoothing process, perhaps a result of aquifer storage, is required to attenuate interannual variance in precipitation. The Voli Voli record provides evidence of an underlying climatic change to more frequent La Niña conditions from 1200 AD and may be associated with increased conflict, shifts in settlements and changes in subsistence strategies on the island. Coeval speleothem isotope records from tropical Pacific Islands provide a provide a

  16. Intra and inter-annual structure of zooplankton communities in floodplain lakes: a long-term ecological research study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadson R. Simões

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Water flow management has significantly changed the natural dynamic of floods, which are responsible for the structure and dynamic of aquatic communities in river-floodplain systems. With the aim to elaborate a conceptual framework that describes the main ecological factors associated with zooplankton community structure in the Upper Paraná River, we investigated the mechanisms that regulate the communities structure and their response to inter-annual and hydro-sedimentological variations in the floodplain and the biological factors associated with species abundance in those communities. For this we conducted samplings every six months (potamophase in March and limnophase in September to characterize intra and inter-annual variations in community structure between 2000 and 2008. The intra-annual differences on the species richness, abundance, Shannon diversity index, and evenness, were conducted using Bayesian procedures to show probabilistic predictions of the data fit to main variation sources. Non-metric multi-dimensional scaling (NMDS, multi-response permutation procedure (MRPP, and indicator species analysis (IndVal were run to assess and characterize the seasonality of the community structure. During high water (potamophase, hydrologic connectivity favoured exchange and dispersal of species in some lakes, increasing local diversity; during low water (limnophase, higher local productivity favoured opportunistic taxa, increasing species dominance and decreasing local diversity. Food resources and density of small-size fish were biological factors associated with the seasonal dynamic of the zooplankton community; these factors were dependent on hydrosedimentological phase (potamophase or limnophase. Water levels and limnological modifications related to water flow management have promoted replacement and impoverishment of aquatic biota in affected lakes and have indicated the ecological importance of a natural dynamic flood, which displays

  17. Seasonal and inter-annual variations in methyl mercury concentrations in zooplankton from boreal lakes impacted by deforestation or natural forest fires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Edenise; Carignan, Richard; Lean, David R S

    2007-08-01

    We compared the effects of natural and anthropogenic watershed disturbances on methyl mercury (MeHg) concentration in bulk zooplankton from boreal Shield lakes. MeHg in zooplankton was monitored for three years in nine lakes impacted by deforestation, in nine lakes impacted by wildfire, and in twenty lakes with undisturbed catchments. Lakes were sampled during spring, mid- and late summer. MeHg in zooplankton showed a seasonal trend: concentrations were the lowest in spring, then peaked in mid-summer and decreased in late summer. Over the three study years, MeHg concentrations observed in mid-summer in zooplankton from forest harvested lakes were significantly higher than in reference and fire-impacted lakes, whereas differences between these two groups of lakes were not significant. The pattern of distribution of MeHg in zooplankton during the different seasons paralleled that of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), which is known as a vector of Hg from watershed soils to lake water. Besides DOC, MeHg in zooplankton also showed a positive significant correlation with epilimnetic temperature and sulfate concentrations. An inter-annual decreasing trend in MeHg was observed in zooplankton from reference and fire-impacted lakes. In forest harvested lakes, however, MeHg concentrations remained higher and nearly constant over three years following the impact. Overall these results indicate that the MeHg pulse observed in zooplankton following deforestation by harvesting is relatively long-lived, and may have repercussions to the accumulation of MeHg along the food chain. Therefore, potential effects of deforestation on the Hg contamination of fish should be taken into account in forest management practices.

  18. Description, evaluation and clinical decision making according to various fetal heart rate patterns. Inter-observer and regional variability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lidegaard, O; Bøttcher, L M; Weber, Tom

    1992-01-01

    departments, especially between departments far apart. It is concluded that we still need a scientific clarification of which specific heart rate changes are the best predictors of fetal stress. Artificial intelligence programs for interpreting fetal cardiotocograms and ECG signals constitute one promising......At 10 Danish obstetrical departments, 116 residents (42 senior and 74 junior) participated in a study to assess inter-observer and regional variability in the description and evaluation of and clinical decision regarding 11 fetal heart rate patterns. The 11 traces included normal as well...... as pathological patterns, and normal as well as clinically asphyxiated babies. Five antepartum and six intrapartum patterns were included. A total of 1,276 descriptions and evaluations were obtained. The degree of agreement in description of fetal heart rate changes was high regarding the baseline...

  19. Inter-cohort growth patterns of pharaoh cuttlefish Sepia pharaonis (Sepioidea: Sepiidae in Eastern Arabian Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geetha Sasikumar

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Sepia pharaonis is an important commercial species endemic to the tropical Indo-Pacific region. Despite its commercial significance, only few information on natural populations is available. This study was aimed to describe the aspects of size-composition, length-weight relationship, catch rates, seasonal recruitment and inter-cohort growth patterns of S. pharaonis population (Clade C, distributed along the Eastern Arabian Sea (South-West coast of India. For this, the Dorsal Mantle Length (DML and weight of cuttlefishes was obtained from commercial trawl catches, from April 2002 to October 2006. Data was analyzed by normal length-weight methods such as von Bertalanffy. A total of 12 454 cuttlefishes, ranging in length from four to 41cm were analyzed. Size-composition patterns discriminated two pulses in recruitment to the fishery, discernible by a decrease in the monthly mean size of the population. The DMLs of the two seasonal cohorts were subjected to modalprogression analysis using the Bhattacharya’s method for the estimation of growth. The estimated parameters L∞ and K in von Bertalanffy Growth Function (VBGF were used to model growth curves in length for the cohorts. The first cohort, (post-monsoon cohort which supports the major fishery, was composed of mediumsized, fast growing individuals, whereas the second cohort (pre-monsoon cohort, comprised of slow growing and large-sized individuals. There were differential growth characteristics between the sexes and the life span was estimated at less than 2.3years for males and 2.1years for females. Negative allometric growth in weight (W with length (L was observed for males (W=0.33069.L2.5389 and females (W=0.32542.L2.6057. The females were heavier compared to males at any given mantle length, and the males were found to attain larger ultimate lengths. The major fishing season for cuttlefish was from May to November, when higher monthly catch rates of 1.67-13.02kg/h were observed in

  20. Intra- and inter-annual trends in phosphorus loads and comparison with nitrogen loads to Rehoboth Bay, Delaware (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volk, J.A.; Scudlark, J.R.; Savidge, K.B.; Andres, A.S.; Stenger, R.J.; Ullman, W.J.

    2012-01-01

    Monthly phosphorus loads from uplands, atmospheric deposition, and wastewater to Rehoboth Bay (Delaware) were determined from October 1998 to April 2002 to evaluate the relative importance of these three sources of P to the Bay. Loads from a representative subwatershed were determined and used in an areal extrapolation to estimate the upland load from the entire watershed. Soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) and dissolved organic P (DOP) are the predominant forms of P in baseflow and P loads from the watershed are highest during the summer months. Particulate phosphorus (PP) becomes more significant in stormflow and during periods with more frequent or larger storms. Atmospheric deposition of P is only a minor source of P to Rehoboth Bay. During the period of 1998-2002, wastewater was the dominant external source of P to Rehoboth Bay, often exceeding all other P sources combined. Since 2002, however, due to technical improvements to the sole wastewater plant discharging directly to the Bay, the wastewater contribution of P has been significantly reduced and upland waters are now the principal source of P on an annualized basis. Based on comparison of N and P loads, primary productivity and biomass carrying capacity in Rehoboth Bay should be limited by P availability. However, due to the contrasting spatial and temporal patterns of N and P loading and perhaps internal cycling within the ecosystem, spatial and temporal variations in N and P-limitation within Rehoboth Bay are likely. ?? 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Daily, weekly and annual patterns in children's accidental sport injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinberg, Alain; Reinberg, Olivier; Mechkouri, Mohamed; Touitou, Yvan; Smolensky, Michael H

    2018-05-01

    Details of serious injuries to children ≤16 yrs. of age that necessitated urgent surgical intervention by the Department of Pediatric Surgery of the University Hospital of Lausanne, Switzerland were recorded into a database registry. Some 15 110 entries listed the precise time of injury, and 3114 (20.6%) of these resulted from participating in sport-associated activities. Time-of-day, day-of-week and month-of-year differences in the total number of children's accidental sport injuries (CASI) were validated. Time-of-day patterns were substantiated for "All Sports", for both boys and girls 5-16 yrs. of age, with more boys than girls experiencing incidents at almost every clock hour. Moreover, they were substantiated for this age group for each of the six different considered individual and team CASI categories - Physical Exercises at School; Bicycle Riding; Roller Skating and Skateboarding; Snow Skiing, Sledding, and Tobogganing; Soccer; and Basketball - for which sample sizes were sufficiently large (n > 230) to perform statistical assessment by ANOVA, t-test and/or cosinor analyses. CASI happened primarily between 06:00 and 17:00 h and rarely evening or overnight. Features - specific clock-time and number of peaks and troughs - of the CASI daily curve pattern of the individual six sport categories differed somewhat; nonetheless, excess or greatest number of CASI typically happened between 12:00 and 14:00 h, even when summertime and other scheduled school and family vacation periods were taken into account. Time-of-day and day-of-week patterns in the boy/girl sex ratio were also validated, with midday and Friday/Saturday peaks, respectively. We hypothesize the prominent 24 h patterns of CASI of 5-16 yr. olds, in particular, are representative of a combination of several determinants. These include exogenous periodic and cyclic environmental and sociocultural phenomena, genetic sex-related traits, plus endogenous circadian cognitive and physiologic rhythms

  2. Inter-dependent tissue growth and Turing patterning in a model for long bone development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Simon; Iber, Dagmar

    2013-01-01

    The development of long bones requires a sophisticated spatial organization of cellular signalling, proliferation, and differentiation programs. How such spatial organization emerges on the growing long bone domain is still unresolved. Based on the reported biochemical interactions we developed a regulatory model for the core signalling factors IHH, PTCH1, and PTHrP and included two cell types, proliferating/resting chondrocytes and (pre-)hypertrophic chondrocytes. We show that the reported IHH–PTCH1 interaction gives rise to a Schnakenberg-type Turing kinetics, and that inclusion of PTHrP is important to achieve robust patterning when coupling patterning and tissue dynamics. The model reproduces relevant spatiotemporal gene expression patterns, as well as a number of relevant mutant phenotypes. In summary, we propose that a ligand–receptor based Turing mechanism may control the emergence of patterns during long bone development, with PTHrP as an important mediator to confer patterning robustness when the sensitive Turing system is coupled to the dynamics of a growing and differentiating tissue. We have previously shown that ligand–receptor based Turing mechanisms can also result from BMP–receptor, SHH–receptor, and GDNF–receptor interactions, and that these reproduce the wildtype and mutant patterns during digit formation in limbs and branching morphogenesis in lung and kidneys. Receptor–ligand interactions may thus constitute a general mechanism to generate Turing patterns in nature. (paper)

  3. Inter-dependent tissue growth and Turing patterning in a model for long bone development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Simon; Iber, Dagmar

    2013-10-01

    The development of long bones requires a sophisticated spatial organization of cellular signalling, proliferation, and differentiation programs. How such spatial organization emerges on the growing long bone domain is still unresolved. Based on the reported biochemical interactions we developed a regulatory model for the core signalling factors IHH, PTCH1, and PTHrP and included two cell types, proliferating/resting chondrocytes and (pre-)hypertrophic chondrocytes. We show that the reported IHH-PTCH1 interaction gives rise to a Schnakenberg-type Turing kinetics, and that inclusion of PTHrP is important to achieve robust patterning when coupling patterning and tissue dynamics. The model reproduces relevant spatiotemporal gene expression patterns, as well as a number of relevant mutant phenotypes. In summary, we propose that a ligand-receptor based Turing mechanism may control the emergence of patterns during long bone development, with PTHrP as an important mediator to confer patterning robustness when the sensitive Turing system is coupled to the dynamics of a growing and differentiating tissue. We have previously shown that ligand-receptor based Turing mechanisms can also result from BMP-receptor, SHH-receptor, and GDNF-receptor interactions, and that these reproduce the wildtype and mutant patterns during digit formation in limbs and branching morphogenesis in lung and kidneys. Receptor-ligand interactions may thus constitute a general mechanism to generate Turing patterns in nature.

  4. Characteristics of Spatial Structural Patterns and Temporal Variability of Annual Precipitation in Ningxia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to study the characteristics of the spatial structural patterns and temporal variability of annual precipitation in Ningxia.[Method] Using rotated empirical orthogonal function,the precipitation concentration index,wavelet analysis and Mann-Kendall rank statistic method,the characteristics of precipitation on the spatial-temporal variability and trend were analyzed by the monthly precipitation series in Ningxia during 1951-2008.[Result] In Ningxia,the spatial structural patterns of a...

  5. Influence of inter-annual environmental variability on chrysophyte cyst assemblages: insight from a 2-years sediment trap study in lakes from northern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Hernández-Almeida

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative paleonvironmental studies using transfer functions are developed from training sets. However, changes in some variables (e.g., climatic can be difficult to identify from short-term monitoring (e.g., less than one year. Here, we present the study of the chrysophyte cyst assemblages from sediment traps deployed during two consecutive years (November 2011-November 2013 in 14 lakes from Northern Poland. The studied lakes are distributed along a W-E climatological gradient, with very different physical, chemical and morphological characteristics, and land-uses. Field surveys were carried out to recover the sediment trap material during autumn, along with the measurement of several environmental variables (nutrients, major water ions, conductivity, pH, dissolved oxygen and chlorophyll-a. During the study, one year experienced mild seasonal changes in air temperature (November 2011-November 2012; TS1, typical of oceanic climate, while the other year was characterized by colder winter and spring (November 2012-November 2013; TS2, and higher summer temperatures, more characteristic of continental climate. Other environmental variables (e.g., nutrients did not show great changes between both years. Multivariate statistical analyses (RDA and DCA were performed on individual TS1 and TS2 datasets. Water chemistry and nutrients (pH, TN and TP explained the largest portion of the variance of the chrysophyte data for the individual years. However, analyses of the combined TS1 and TS2 datasets show that strong changes between summer and autumn (warm period, ice-free period with thermal stratification and winter and spring (cold period, ice-cover period play the most important role in the inter-annual variability in the chrysophyte assemblages. We show how inter-annual sampling maximizes ecological gradients of interest, particularly in regions with large environmental diversity, and low climatic variability. This methodology could help to identify

  6. Preserving prairies: Understanding temporal and spatial patterns of invasive annual bromes in the Northern Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashton, Isabel; Symstad, Amy J.; Davis, Christopher; Swanson, Daniel J.

    2016-01-01

    Two Eurasian invasive annual brome grasses, cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) and Japanese brome (Bromus japonicus), are well known for their impact in steppe ecosystems of the western United States where these grasses have altered fire regimes, reduced native plant diversity and abundance, and degraded wildlife habitat. Annual bromes are also abundant in the grasslands of the Northern Great Plains (NGP), but their impact and ecology are not as well studied. It is unclear whether the lessons learned from the steppe will translate to the mixed-grass prairie where native plant species are adapted to frequent fires and grazing. Developing a successful annual brome management strategy for National Park Service units and other NGP grasslands requires better understanding of (1) the impact of annual bromes on grassland condition; (2) the dynamics of these species through space and time; and (3) the relative importance of environmental factors within and outside managers' control for these spatiotemporal dynamics. Here, we use vegetation monitoring data collected from 1998 to 2015 in 295 sites to relate spatiotemporal variability of annual brome grasses to grassland composition, weather, physical environmental characteristics, and ecological processes (grazing and fire). Concern about the impact of these species in NGP grasslands is warranted, as we found a decline in native species richness with increasing annual brome cover. Annual brome cover generally increased over the time of monitoring but also displayed a 3- to 5-yr cycle of reduction and resurgence. Relative cover of annual bromes in the monitored areas was best predicted by park unit, weather, extant plant community, slope grade, soil composition, and fire history. We found no evidence that grazing reduced annual brome cover, but this may be due to the relatively low grazing pressure in our study. By understanding the consequences and patterns of annual brome invasion, we will be better able to preserve and restore

  7. Inter annual variability of the global carbon cycle (1992-2005) inferred by inversion of atmospheric CO2 and δ13CO2 measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rayner, P.J.; Pickett-Heaps, C.; Law, R.M.; Allison, C.E.; Francey, R.J.; Trudinger, C.M.

    2008-01-01

    We present estimates of the surface sources and sinks of CO 2 for 1992 - 2005 deduced from atmospheric inversions. We use atmospheric CO 2 records from 67 sites and 10 δ 13 CO 2 records. We use two atmospheric models to increase the robustness of the results. The results suggest that inter annual variability is dominated by the tropical land. Statistically significant variability in the tropical Pacific supports recent ocean modeling studies in that region. The northern land also shows significant variability. In particular, there is a large positive anomaly in 2003 in north Asia, which we associate with anomalous biomass burning. Results using δ 13 CO 2 and CO 2 are statistically consistent with those using only CO 2 , suggesting that it is valid to use both types of data together. An objective analysis of residuals suggests that our treatment of uncertainties in CO 2 is conservative, while those for δ 13 CO 2 are optimistic, highlighting problems in our simple isotope model. Finally, δ 13 CO 2 measurements offer a good constraint to nearby land regions, suggesting an ongoing value in these measurements for studies of inter annual variability. (authors)

  8. Seasonal and inter-annual variability in velocity and frontal position of Siachen Glacier (Eastern Karakorum) using multi-satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usman, M.; Furuya, M.; Sakakibara, D.; Abe, T.

    2017-12-01

    The anomalous behavior of Karakorum glaciers is a hot topic of discussion in the scientific community. Siachen Glacier is one of the longest glaciers ( 75km) in Karakorum Range. This glacier is supposed to be a surge type but so far no studies have confirmed this claim. Detailed velocity mapping of this glacier can possibly provide some clues about intra/inter-annual changes in velocity and observed terminus. Using L-band SAR data of ALOS-1/2, we applied the feature tracking technique (search patch of 128x128 pixels (range x azimuth) , sampling interval of 12x36 pixels) to derive velocity changes; we used GAMMA software. The velocity was calculated by following the parallel flow assumption. To calculate the local topographic gradient unit vector, we used ASTER-GDEM. We also used optical images acquired by Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM), the Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) to derive surface velocity. The algorithm we used is Cross-Correlation in Frequency domain on Orientation images (CCF-O). The velocity was finally calculated by setting a flow line and averaging over the area of 200x200m2. The results indicate seasonal speed up signals that modulate inter-annually from 1999 to 2011, with slight or no change in the observed frontal position. However, in ALOS-2 data, the `observed terminus' seems to have been advancing.

  9. Designing low-carbon power systems for Great Britain in 2050 that are robust to the spatiotemporal and inter-annual variability of weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeyringer, Marianne; Price, James; Fais, Birgit; Li, Pei-Hao; Sharp, Ed

    2018-05-01

    The design of cost-effective power systems with high shares of variable renewable energy (VRE) technologies requires a modelling approach that simultaneously represents the whole energy system combined with the spatiotemporal and inter-annual variability of VRE. Here, we soft-link a long-term energy system model, which explores new energy system configurations from years to decades, with a high spatial and temporal resolution power system model that captures VRE variability from hours to years. Applying this methodology to Great Britain for 2050, we find that VRE-focused power system design is highly sensitive to the inter-annual variability of weather and that planning based on a single year can lead to operational inadequacy and failure to meet long-term decarbonization objectives. However, some insights do emerge that are relatively stable to weather-year. Reinforcement of the transmission system consistently leads to a decrease in system costs while electricity storage and flexible generation, needed to integrate VRE into the system, are generally deployed close to demand centres.

  10. Proportional lumbar spine inter-vertebral motion patterns: a comparison of patients with chronic, non-specific low back pain and healthy controls

    OpenAIRE

    Mellor, Fiona E.; Thomas, Peter; Thompson, Paul W.; Breen, Alan C.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Identifying biomechanical subgroups in chronic, non-specific low back pain (CNSLBP) populations from inter-vertebral displacements has proven elusive. Quantitative fluoroscopy (QF) has excellent repeatability and provides continuous standardised inter-vertebral kinematic data from fluoroscopic sequences allowing assessment of mid-range motion. The aim of this study was to determine whether proportional continuous IV rotational patterns were different in patients and controls. A ...

  11. Impact of intra- versus inter-annual snow depth variation on water relations and photosynthesis for two Great Basin Desert shrubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loik, Michael E; Griffith, Alden B; Alpert, Holly; Concilio, Amy L; Wade, Catherine E; Martinson, Sharon J

    2015-06-01

    Snowfall provides the majority of soil water in certain ecosystems of North America. We tested the hypothesis that snow depth variation affects soil water content, which in turn drives water potential (Ψ) and photosynthesis, over 10 years for two widespread shrubs of the western USA. Stem Ψ (Ψ stem) and photosynthetic gas exchange [stomatal conductance to water vapor (g s), and CO2 assimilation (A)] were measured in mid-June each year from 2004 to 2013 for Artemisia tridentata var. vaseyana (Asteraceae) and Purshia tridentata (Rosaceae). Snow fences were used to create increased or decreased snow depth plots. Snow depth on +snow plots was about twice that of ambient plots in most years, and 20 % lower on -snow plots, consistent with several down-scaled climate model projections. Maximal soil water content at 40- and 100-cm depths was correlated with February snow depth. For both species, multivariate ANOVA (MANOVA) showed that Ψ stem, g s, and A were significantly affected by intra-annual variation in snow depth. Within years, MANOVA showed that only A was significantly affected by spatial snow depth treatments for A. tridentata, and Ψ stem was significantly affected by snow depth for P. tridentata. Results show that stem water relations and photosynthetic gas exchange for these two cold desert shrub species in mid-June were more affected by inter-annual variation in snow depth by comparison to within-year spatial variation in snow depth. The results highlight the potential importance of changes in inter-annual variation in snowfall for future shrub photosynthesis in the western Great Basin Desert.

  12. Climate effects on inter- and intra-annual larch stemwood anomalies in the Mongolian forest-steppe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khishigjargal, Mookhor; Dulamsuren, Choimaa; Leuschner, Hanns Hubert; Leuschner, Christoph; Hauck, Markus

    2014-02-01

    Climate response of tree-ring width and intra-annual wood anomalies were studied in stands of Siberian larch (Larix sibirica) on Mt. Bogd Uul in the forest-steppe ecotone of Mongolia. Climate on Mt. Bogd Uul is characterized by an increase of the annual mean temperature by 1.5 K between 1965 and 2007, the lack of a long-term trend for annual precipitation and, with it, an increase in aridity. Tree-ring width increases with increasing June precipitation of the current year (June) and increasing late summer precipitation of the previous year. In >100-year old trees, also a negative correlation of tree-ring width with the July temperature of the year prior to tree-ring formation was found. Decreasing tree-ring width with increasing snowfall in December can be explained with the protection of the frost-sensitive eggs of gypsy moth by snow cover, which is a major herbivore of larch in Mongolia and causes reduction in the annual stem increment. The most significant change in wood anatomy was the decline of wide latewood, which is attributable to the increase of summer days with a mean temperature > 15 °C and drought periods in summer without precipitation. Increasing summer drought is also thought to have caused the repeated occurrence of missing rings since the 1960s, which were not observed in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

  13. Inter-decadal patterns of population and dietary change in sea otters at Amchitka Island, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, J.; Siniff, D.B.; Estes, J.A.

    2000-01-01

    After having been hunted to near-extinction in the Pacific maritime fur trade, the sea otter population at Amchitka Island, Alaska increased from very low numbers in the early 1900s to near equilibrium density by the 1940s. The population persisted at or near equilibrium through the 1980s, but declined sharply in the 1990s in apparent response to increased killer whale predation. Sea otter diet and foraging behavior were studied at Amchitka from August 1992 to March 1994 and the data compared with similar information obtained during several earlier periods. In contrast with dietary patterns in the 1960s and 1970s, when the sea otter population was at or near equilibrium density and kelp-forest fishes were the dietary mainstay, these fishes were rarely eaten in the 1990s. Benthic invertebrates, particularly sea urchins, dominated the otter's diet from early summer to midwinter, then decreased in importance during late winter and spring when numerous Pacific smooth lumpsuckers (a large and easily captured oceanic fish) were eaten. The occurrence of spawning lumpsuckers in coastal waters apparently is episodic on a scale of years to decades. The otters' recent dietary shift away from kelp-forest fishes is probably a response to the increased availability of lumpsuckers and sea urchins (both high-preference prey). Additionally, increased urchin densities have reduced kelp beds, thus further reducing the availability of kelp-forest fishes. Our findings suggest that dietary patterns reflect changes in population status and show how an ecosystem normally under top-down control and limited by coastal zone processes can be significantly perturbed by exogenous events.

  14. From inter-specific behavioural interactions to species distribution patterns along gradients of habitat heterogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laiolo, Paola

    2013-01-01

    The strength of the behavioural processes associated with competitor coexistence may vary when different physical environments, and their biotic communities, come into contact, although empirical evidence of how interference varies across gradients of environmental complexity is still scarce in vertebrates. Here, I analyse how behavioural interactions and habitat selection regulate the local distribution of steppeland larks (Alaudidae) in a gradient from simple to heterogeneous agricultural landscapes in Spain, using crested lark Galerida cristata and Thekla lark G. theklae as study models. Galerida larks significantly partitioned by habitat but frequently co-occurred in heterogeneous environments. Irrespective of habitat divergence, however, the local densities of the two larks were negatively correlated, and the mechanisms beyond this pattern were investigated by means of playback experiments. When simulating the intrusion of the congener by broadcasting the species territorial calls, both larks responded with an aggressive response as intense with respect to warning and approach behaviour as when responding to the intrusion of a conspecific. However, birds promptly responded to playbacks only when congener territories were nearby, a phenomenon that points to learning as the mechanisms through which individuals finely tune their aggressive responses to the local competition levels. Heterospecifics occurred in closer proximity in diverse agro-ecosystems, possibly because of more abundant or diverse resources, and here engage in antagonistic interactions. The drop of species diversity associated with agricultural homogenisation is therefore likely to also bring about the disappearance of the behavioural repertoires associated with species interactions.

  15. Inter vs. intraglycosidic acetal linkages control sulfation pattern in semi-synthetic chondroitin sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laezza, Antonio; De Castro, Cristina; Parrilli, Michelangelo; Bedini, Emiliano

    2014-11-04

    Microbial-sourced unsulfated chondroitin could be converted into chondroitin sulfate (CS) polysaccharide by a multi-step strategy relying upon benzylidenation and acetylation reactions as key-steps for its regioselective protection. By conducting the two reactions one- or two-pots, CSs with different sulfation patterns could be obtained at the end of the semi-synthesis. In particular, a CS polysaccharide possessing sulfate groups randomly distributed between positions 4 and 6 of N-acetyl-galactosamine (GalNAc) units could be obtained through the two-pots route, whereas the one-pot pathway allowed an additional sulfation at position 3 of some glucuronic acid (GlcA) units. This difference was ascribed to the stabilization of a labile interglycosidic benzylidene acetal involving positions O-3 and O-6 of some GlcA and GalNAc, respectively, when the benzylidene-acetylation reactions were conducted in a one-pot fashion. Isolation and characterization of a polysaccharide intermediate showing interglycosidic acetal moieties was accomplished. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Inter-annual and seasonal variations in transport to a measuring site in western Siberia, and their impact on the observed atmospheric CO{sub 2} mixing ratio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eneroth, Kristina

    2002-05-01

    Inter-annual and seasonal variations in atmospheric transport to a CO{sub 2} measuring site in western Siberia were studied using three-dimensional trajectories. We identified large differences in transport between summer and winter, but also some differences between the years. Cluster analysis was applied to the trajectory data to determine to what degree different atmospheric flow patterns influence the variability of the atmospheric CO{sub 2} mixing ratio. The observed CO{sub 2} mixing ratio was also compared to observed CO{sub 2} surface fluxes to study the impact of local sources and sinks. It was found that during July the correlation between atmospheric transport from distant source regions and CO{sub 2} mixing ratios was poor. Furthermore the correlation was also weak between the CO{sub 2} mixing ratio and the local eddy flux measurements. We conclude that the short-term variability in atmospheric CO{sub 2} during summer probably is dominated by larger scale (tens up to one hundred kilometers) CO{sub 2} surface fluxes and local meteorology. The weaker biogenic CO{sub 2} fluxes during winter, resulted in CO{sub 2} mixing ratios more clearly influenced by long-range transport Of CO{sub 2}. However, the highest atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations were not observed in connection with westerly winds representing transport of polluted air from Europe, but during periods with stagnant flow conditions. It was conjected that these high CO{sub 2} mixing ratios were due to respired CO{sub 2} trapped and accumulated in the lower parts of the planetary boundary layer. The mean duration for the identified flow patterns was in the order of two days, with a maximum duration of a week. This means that to have a chance to detect variations in CO{sub 2} mixing ratio due to air mass changes the sampling frequency (e.g. flask samples and flight measurements) must be at least every other day. Our results show that the atmospheric transport varies with season, year and altitude

  17. Inter-annual and seasonal variations in transport to a measuring site in western Siberia, and their impact on the observed atmospheric CO2 mixing ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eneroth, Kristina

    2002-01-01

    Inter-annual and seasonal variations in atmospheric transport to a CO 2 measuring site in western Siberia were studied using three-dimensional trajectories. We identified large differences in transport between summer and winter, but also some differences between the years. Cluster analysis was applied to the trajectory data to determine to what degree different atmospheric flow patterns influence the variability of the atmospheric CO 2 mixing ratio. The observed CO 2 mixing ratio was also compared to observed CO 2 surface fluxes to study the impact of local sources and sinks. It was found that during July the correlation between atmospheric transport from distant source regions and CO 2 mixing ratios was poor. Furthermore the correlation was also weak between the CO 2 mixing ratio and the local eddy flux measurements. We conclude that the short-term variability in atmospheric CO 2 during summer probably is dominated by larger scale (tens up to one hundred kilometers) CO 2 surface fluxes and local meteorology. The weaker biogenic CO 2 fluxes during winter, resulted in CO 2 mixing ratios more clearly influenced by long-range transport Of CO 2 . However, the highest atmospheric CO 2 concentrations were not observed in connection with westerly winds representing transport of polluted air from Europe, but during periods with stagnant flow conditions. It was conjected that these high CO 2 mixing ratios were due to respired CO 2 trapped and accumulated in the lower parts of the planetary boundary layer. The mean duration for the identified flow patterns was in the order of two days, with a maximum duration of a week. This means that to have a chance to detect variations in CO 2 mixing ratio due to air mass changes the sampling frequency (e.g. flask samples and flight measurements) must be at least every other day. Our results show that the atmospheric transport varies with season, year and altitude. This, together with the heterogeneity of the source and sink regions are

  18. Soil wetting patterns of vegetation and inter-patches following single and repeated wildfires

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Óscar; Malvar, Maruxa; van den Elsen, Erik; Hosseini, mohammadreza; Coelho, Celeste; Ritsema, Coen; Bautista, Susana; Keizer, Jan Jacob; Cerdà, Artemi

    2015-04-01

    Although wildfires spread in Mediterranean areas are considered a natural processes, the expected increase in fire frequency has raised concerns about the systems' future resilience (Pausas, 2004). Besides more frequent, future wildfires can become more severe and produce more pronounced changes in topsoil properties, vegetation and litter (Cerdá and Mataix-Solera, 2009). To deal with challenges, the EU funded CASCADE and RECARE projects, which are currently assessing soil threats and tipping-points for land degradation in a climatic gradient across Europe. The present research was developed in Portugal and aims to find relationships between fire frequency and soil wetting patterns following single versus repeated wildfires. In September 2012, a wildfire burnt 3000 ha. of Pine stands and shrub vegetation in the vicinity of Viseu district, North-Central Portugal. Analyses according to the available burnt-area maps (1975-2012), discriminated areas that has been burned 1x (called SD) and 4x (called D) times. In order to evaluate the post-fire soil surface moisture patterns, 6 slopes (3 in SD and 3 in D) were selected and a balanced experimental design with 72 soil moisture sensors (EC5 and GS3, from Decagon devices) was implemented under shrubs (n=18) and on bare (n=18) soil environments, at 2.5 cm and 7.5 cm soil depth each. The spatio-temporal occurrence of soil water repellence (SWR) (Keizer et al., 2008; Prats et al., 2013; Santos et al., 2014) was monthly assessed through the MED test at 2.5 cm and 7.5 cm soil depth into 5 sampling points located at regular distances along a transect running from the top to bottom of a selected slope in SD and D. Automatic and totalize rainfall gauges were also installed across the study area. Preliminary results showed that soil wetting patterns and SWR occurrence differs between SD, D sites and, between soil environment (under shrubs and on bare soil areas). SWR were more pronounced on the SD than in D, affecting soil wetting

  19. Inter-annual variability in the thermal structure of an oceanic time series station off Ecuador (1990-2003) associated with El Niño events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcés-Vargas, José; Schneider, Wolfgang; Abarca del Río, Rodrigo; Martínez, Rodney; Zambrano, Eduardo

    2005-10-01

    Previously unpublished data (1990-2003) from a marine station located 20 km off the coast of Ecuador (Station La Libertad, 02°12'S, 080°55'W) are employed to investigate oceanic inter-annual variability in the far eastern equatorial Pacific, and its relation to the central-eastern equatorial Pacific. La Libertad is the only time series station between the Galapagos Islands and the South American coast, the region most affected by El Niño events (El Niño 2 region, 0-5°S, 90°W-80°W). Although configured and serviced differently, station La Libertad can be looked at as an eastern extension of the TAO/TRITON monitoring system, whose easternmost mooring is located at 95°W, 1550 km offshore. This study of El Niño's impact on the thermocline and its relationship to sea surface temperature revealed anomalies in the thermocline at station La Libertad some 2-4 months before their appearance at the sea surface. Inter-annual variability, namely quasi-biennial and quasi-quadrennial oscillations, accounts for roughly 80% of the total variance in temperature anomalies observed in the water column at station La Libertad. The coincidence in both phase and amplitude of these inter-annual oscillations explains the strength of El Niño events in the water column off La Libertad. We further show that anomalies in heat content appear 8-9 weeks earlier at 140°W in the equatorial Pacific (6550 km away from the coast) than at the coast itself. The arrival of El Niño, which has important regional social consequences as well as those for local fisheries, could therefore be predicted in the sub-surface waters off Ecuador by using these anomalies as a complementary index. In addition, the speed of the eastward propagation of these El Niño-associated anomalies' suggests the possible participation of higher-order baroclinic mode Kelvin waves and associated interaction processes in the eastern Pacific, which should be further investigated.

  20. The Inter-Annual Variability Analysis of Carbon Exchange in Low Artic Fen Uncovers The Climate Sensitivity And The Uncertainties Around Net Ecosystem Exchange Partitioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, E. L.; Lund, M.; Williams, M. D.; Christensen, T. R.; Tamstorf, M. P.

    2015-12-01

    An improvement in our process-based understanding of CO2 exchanges in the Arctic, and their climate sensitivity, is critical for examining the role of tundra ecosystems in changing climates. Arctic organic carbon storage has seen increased attention in recent years due to large potential for carbon releases following thaw. Our knowledge about the exact scale and sensitivity for a phase-change of these C stocks are, however, limited. Minor variations in Gross Primary Production (GPP) and Ecosystem Respiration (Reco) driven by changes in the climate can lead to either C sink or C source states, which likely will impact the overall C cycle of the ecosystem. Eddy covariance data is usually used to partition Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) into GPP and Reco achieved by flux separation algorithms. However, different partitioning approaches lead to different estimates. as well as undefined uncertainties. The main objectives of this study are to use model-data fusion approaches to (1) determine the inter-annual variability in C source/sink strength for an Arctic fen, and attribute such variations to GPP vs Reco, (2) investigate the climate sensitivity of these processes and (3) explore the uncertainties in NEE partitioning. The intention is to elaborate on the information gathered in an existing catchment area under an extensive cross-disciplinary ecological monitoring program in low Arctic West Greenland, established under the auspices of the Greenland Ecosystem Monitoring (GEM) program. The use of such a thorough long-term (7 years) dataset applied to the exploration in inter-annual variability of carbon exchange, related driving factors and NEE partition uncertainties provides a novel input into our understanding about land-atmosphere CO2 exchange.

  1. Seasonal and inter-annual dynamics of growth, non-structural carbohydrates and C stable isotopes in a Mediterranean beech forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scartazza, Andrea; Moscatello, Stefano; Matteucci, Giorgio; Battistelli, Alberto; Brugnoli, Enrico

    2013-07-01

    Seasonal and inter-annual dynamics of growth, non-structural carbohydrates (NSC) and carbon isotope composition (δ(13)C) of NSC were studied in a beech forest of Central Italy over a 2-year period characterized by different environmental conditions. The net C assimilated by forest trees was mainly used to sustain growth early in the season and to accumulate storage carbohydrates in trunk and root wood in the later part of the season, before leaf shedding. Growth and NSC concentration dynamics were only slightly affected by the reduced soil water content (SWC) during the drier year. Conversely, the carbon isotope analysis on NSC revealed seasonal and inter-annual variations of photosynthetic and post-carboxylation fractionation processes, with a significant increase in δ(13)C of wood and leaf soluble sugars in the drier summer year than in the wetter one. The highly significant correlation between δ(13)C of leaf soluble sugars and SWC suggests a decrease of the canopy C isotope discrimination and, hence, an increased water-use efficiency with decreasing soil water availability. This may be a relevant trait for maintaining an acceptable plant water status and a relatively high C sink capacity during dry seasonal periods. Our results suggest a short- to medium-term homeostatic response of the Collelongo beech stand to variations in water availability and solar radiation, indicating that this Mediterranean forest was able to adjust carbon-water balance in order to prevent C depletion and to sustain plant growth and reserve accumulation during relatively dry seasons.

  2. Inter-annual variability of NDVI in response to long-term warming and fertilization in wet sedge and tussock tundra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boelman, Natalie T; Stieglitz, Marc; Griffin, Kevin L; Shaver, Gaius R

    2005-05-01

    This study explores the relationship between the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and aboveground plant biomass for tussock tundra vegetation and compares it to a previously established NDVI-biomass relationship for wet sedge tundra vegetation. In addition, we explore inter-annual variation in NDVI in both these contrasting vegetation communities. All measurements were taken across long-term experimental treatments in wet sedge and tussock tundra communities at the Toolik Lake Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) site, in northern Alaska. Over 15 years (for wet sedge tundra) and 14 years (for tussock tundra), N and P were applied in factorial experiments (N, P and N+P), air temperature was increased using greenhouses with and without N+P fertilizer, and light intensity was reduced by 50% using shade cloth. during the peak growing seasons of 2001, 2002, and 2003, NDVI measurements were made in both the wet sedge and tussock tundra experimental treatment plots, creating a 3-year time series of inter-annual variation in NDVI. We found that: (1) across all tussock experimental tundra treatments, NDVI is correlated with aboveground plant biomass (r2 = 0.59); (2) NDVI-biomass relationships for tussock and wet sedge tundra communities are community specific, and; (3) NDVI values for tussock tundra communities are typically, but not always, greater than for wet sedge tundra communities across all experimental treatments. We suggest that differences between the response of wet sedge and tussock tundra communities in the same experimental treatments result from the contrasting degree of heterogeneity in species and functional types that characterize each of these Arctic tundra vegetation communities.

  3. The effect of inter-annual variability of consumption, production, trade and climate on crop-related green and blue water footprints and inter-regional virtual water trade: A study for China (1978-2008).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuo, La; Mekonnen, Mesfin M; Hoekstra, Arjen Y

    2016-05-01

    Previous studies into the relation between human consumption and indirect water resources use have unveiled the remote connections in virtual water (VW) trade networks, which show how communities externalize their water footprint (WF) to places far beyond their own region, but little has been done to understand variability in time. This study quantifies the effect of inter-annual variability of consumption, production, trade and climate on WF and VW trade, using China over the period 1978-2008 as a case study. Evapotranspiration, crop yields and green and blue WFs of crops are estimated at a 5 × 5 arc-minute resolution for 22 crops, for each year in the study period, thus accounting for climate variability. The results show that crop yield improvements during the study period helped to reduce the national average WF of crop consumption per capita by 23%, with a decreasing contribution to the total from cereals and increasing contribution from oil crops. The total consumptive WFs of national crop consumption and crop production, however, grew by 6% and 7%, respectively. By 2008, 28% of total water consumption in crop fields in China served the production of crops for export to other regions and, on average, 35% of the crop-related WF of a Chinese consumer was outside its own province. Historically, the net VW within China was from the water-rich South to the water-scarce North, but intensifying North-to-South crop trade reversed the net VW flow since 2000, which amounted 6% of North's WF of crop production in 2008. South China thus gradually became dependent on food supply from the water-scarce North. Besides, during the whole study period, China's domestic inter-regional VW flows went dominantly from areas with a relatively large to areas with a relatively small blue WF per unit of crop, which in 2008 resulted in a trade-related blue water loss of 7% of the national total blue WF of crop production. The case of China shows that domestic trade, as governed by

  4. Drivers of inter-annual variability in Net Ecosystem Exchange in a semi-arid savanna ecosystem, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Archibald, SA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available and filling gaps in eddy-covariance data in semi-arid systems were developed. Net ecosystem exchange (NEE) in these systems occurs as pulses associated with rainfall events, a pattern not well-represented in current standard gap-filling procedures developed...

  5. Inter-annual rainfall variability in the eastern Antilles and coupling with the regional and intra-seasonal circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jury, Mark R.

    2016-11-01

    Climate variability in the eastern Antilles island chain is analyzed via principal component analysis of high-resolution monthly rainfall in the period 1981-2013. The second mode reflecting higher rainfall in July-October season between Martinique and Grenada is the focus of this study. Higher rainfall corresponds with a weakened trade wind and boundary current along the southern edge of the Caribbean. This quells the coastal upwelling off Venezuela and builds the freshwater plume east of Trinidad. There is corresponding upper easterly wind flow that intensifies passing tropical waves. During a storm event over the Antilles on 4-5 October 2010, there was inflow from east of Guyana where low salinity and high sea temperatures enable surplus latent heat fluxes. A N-S convective rain band forms ˜500 km east of the cyclonic vortex. Many features at the weather timescale reflect the seasonal correlation and composite difference maps and El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) modulation of oceanic inter-basin transfers.

  6. Drivers of inter-annual variation and long-term change in High-Arctic spider species abundances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bowden, Joseph J.; Hansen, Oskar L. P.; Olsen, Kent

    2018-01-01

    Understanding how species abundances vary in space and time is a central theme in ecology, yet there are few long-term field studies of terrestrial invertebrate abundances and the determinants of their dynamics. This is particularly relevant in the context of rapid climate change occurring...... in the Arctic. Arthropods can serve as strong indicators of ecosystem change due to their sensitivity to increasing temperatures and other environmental variables. We used spider samples collected by pitfall trapping from three different habitats (fen, mesic and arid heath) in High-Arctic Greenland to assess...... interpretation of long-term trends. We used model selection to determine which climatic variables and/or previous years’ abundance best explained annual variation in species abundances over this period. We identified and used 28 566 adult spiders that comprised eight species. Most notably, the abundances of some...

  7. Trends and patterns in inter-firm R&D networks in the global computer industry: a historical analysis of major developments during the period 1970-1999.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cloodt, M.M.A.H.; Hagedoorn, J.; Roijakkers, A.H.W.M.

    2006-01-01

    We present a historical analysis of major trends in inter-firm R&D partnering in the international computer industry during the period 1970-1999. We first discuss different modes of R&D cooperation in the context of the overall growth patterns in R&D partnerships. We also examine major changes in

  8. Parental Choice of Schooling, Learning Processes and Inter-Ethnic Friendship Patterns: The Case of Malay Students in Chinese Primary Schools in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sua, Tan Yao; Ngah, Kamarudin; Darit, Sezali Md.

    2013-01-01

    This study surveys 200 Malay students enrolled in three Chinese primary schools in relation to three issues, i.e., parental choice of schooling, learning processes and inter-ethnic friendship patterns. The three issues are explored through a combination of quantitative and qualitative research methodologies. Parental expectations for their…

  9. Hydroelectric production from Brazil's São Francisco River could cease due to climate change and inter-annual variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Pieter; Tanajura, Clemente Augusto Souza; Sánchez, Antonio Santos; Dargaville, Roger; Kiperstok, Asher; Torres, Ednildo Andrade

    2018-09-01

    By the end of this century higher temperatures and significantly reduced rainfall are projected for the Brazilian North and Northeast (NE) regions due to Global Warming. This study examines the impact of these long-term rainfall changes on the Brazilian Northeast's hydroelectric production. Various studies that use different IPCC models are examined in order to determine the average rainfall reduction by the year 2100 in comparison to baseline data from the end of the 20th century. It was found that average annual rainfall in the NE region could decrease by approximately 25-50% depending on the emissions scenario. Analysis of historical rainfall data in the São Francisco basin during the last 57years already shows a decline of more than 25% from the 1961-90 long-term average. Moreover, average annual rainfall in the basin has been below its long-term average every year bar one since 1992. If this declining trend continues, rainfall reduction in the basin could be even more severe than the most pessimistic model projections. That is, the marked drop in average rainfall projected for 2100, based on the IPCC high emissions scenario, could actually eventuate before 2050. Due to the elasticity factor between rainfall and streamflow and because of increased amounts of irrigation in the São Francisco basin, the reduction in the NE's average hydroelectric production in the coming decades could be double the predicted decline in rainfall. Conversely, it is estimated that wind power potential in the Brazilian NE will increase substantially by 2100. Therefore both wind and solar power will need to be significantly exploited in order for the NE region to sustainably replace lost hydroelectric production. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Sea level anomaly on the Patagonian continental shelf: Trends, annual patterns and geostrophic flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraceno, M.; Piola, A. R.; Strub, P. T.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We study the annual patterns and linear trend of satellite sea level anomaly (SLA) over the southwest South Atlantic continental shelf (SWACS) between 54ºS and 36ºS. Results show that south of 42°S the thermal steric effect explains nearly 100% of the annual amplitude of the SLA, while north of 42°S it explains less than 60%. This difference is due to the halosteric contribution. The annual wind variability plays a minor role over the whole continental shelf. The temporal linear trend in SLA ranges between 1 and 5 mm/yr (95% confidence level). The largest linear trends are found north of 39°S, at 42°S and at 50°S. We propose that in the northern region the large positive linear trends are associated with local changes in the density field caused by advective effects in response to a southward displacement of the South Atlantic High. The causes of the relative large SLA trends in two southern coastal regions are discussed as a function meridional wind stress and river discharge. Finally, we combined the annual cycle of SLA with the mean dynamic topography to estimate the absolute geostrophic velocities. This approach provides the first comprehensive description of the seasonal component of SWACS circulation based on satellite observations. The general circulation of the SWACS is northeastward with stronger/weaker geostrophic currents in austral summer/winter. At all latitudes, geostrophic velocities are larger (up to 20 cm/s) close to the shelf‐break and decrease toward the coast. This spatio‐temporal pattern is more intense north of 45°S. PMID:27840784

  11. CMIP5 land surface models systematically underestimate inter-annual variability of net ecosystem exchange in semi-arid southwestern North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacBean, N.; Scott, R. L.; Biederman, J. A.; Vuichard, N.; Hudson, A.; Barnes, M.; Fox, A. M.; Smith, W. K.; Peylin, P. P.; Maignan, F.; Moore, D. J.

    2017-12-01

    Recent studies based on analysis of atmospheric CO2 inversions, satellite data and terrestrial biosphere model simulations have suggested that semi-arid ecosystems play a dominant role in the interannual variability and long-term trend in the global carbon sink. These studies have largely cited the response of vegetation activity to changing moisture availability as the primary mechanism of variability. However, some land surface models (LSMs) used in these studies have performed poorly in comparison to satellite-based observations of vegetation dynamics in semi-arid regions. Further analysis is therefore needed to ensure semi-arid carbon cycle processes are well represented in global scale LSMs before we can fully establish their contribution to the global carbon cycle. In this study, we evaluated annual net ecosystem exchange (NEE) simulated by CMIP5 land surface models using observations from 20 Ameriflux sites across semi-arid southwestern North America. We found that CMIP5 models systematically underestimate the magnitude and sign of NEE inter-annual variability; therefore, the true role of semi-arid regions in the global carbon cycle may be even more important than previously thought. To diagnose the factors responsible for this bias, we used the ORCHIDEE LSM to test different climate forcing data, prescribed vegetation fractions and model structures. Climate and prescribed vegetation do contribute to uncertainty in annual NEE simulations, but the bias is primarily caused by incorrect timing and magnitude of peak gross carbon fluxes. Modifications to the hydrology scheme improved simulations of soil moisture in comparison to data. This in turn improved the seasonal cycle of carbon uptake due to a more realistic limitation on photosynthesis during water stress. However, the peak fluxes are still too low, and phenology is poorly represented for desert shrubs and grasses. We provide suggestions on model developments needed to tackle these issues in the future.

  12. Diversity in plant hydraulic traits explains seasonal and inter-annual variations of vegetation dynamics in seasonally dry tropical forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiangtao; Medvigy, David; Powers, Jennifer S; Becknell, Justin M; Guan, Kaiyu

    2016-10-01

    We assessed whether diversity in plant hydraulic traits can explain the observed diversity in plant responses to water stress in seasonally dry tropical forests (SDTFs). The Ecosystem Demography model 2 (ED2) was updated with a trait-driven mechanistic plant hydraulic module, as well as novel drought-phenology and plant water stress schemes. Four plant functional types were parameterized on the basis of meta-analysis of plant hydraulic traits. Simulations from both the original and the updated ED2 were evaluated against 5 yr of field data from a Costa Rican SDTF site and remote-sensing data over Central America. The updated model generated realistic plant hydraulic dynamics, such as leaf water potential and stem sap flow. Compared with the original ED2, predictions from our novel trait-driven model matched better with observed growth, phenology and their variations among functional groups. Most notably, the original ED2 produced unrealistically small leaf area index (LAI) and underestimated cumulative leaf litter. Both of these biases were corrected by the updated model. The updated model was also better able to simulate spatial patterns of LAI dynamics in Central America. Plant hydraulic traits are intercorrelated in SDTFs. Mechanistic incorporation of plant hydraulic traits is necessary for the simulation of spatiotemporal patterns of vegetation dynamics in SDTFs in vegetation models. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  13. Inter-annual climate variability and zooplankton: applying teleconnection indices to two deep subalpine lakes in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Manca

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Investigating relation between meteo-climatic indices and between-year variation in Daphnia population density and phenology is crucial for e.g. predicting impact of climate change on lake ecosystem structure and functioning. We tested whether and how two teleconnection indices calculated for the winter period, namely the East Atlantic pattern (EADJF and the Eastern Mediterranean Pattern (EMPDJF were correlated with Daphnia population growth in two Italian subalpine lakes, Garda and Maggiore. We investigated between-lake temporal coherence in: i water temperature within the water layer in which Daphnia is distributed; ii timing of Daphnia initial and spring maximum population density peak and iii the level of Daphnia spring maximum population density peak over an eleven-year period (1998-2008 of unchanged predation pressure by fish and invertebrates, and of common oligotrophy. Between-lake temporal coherence was high for an earlier start, an earlier, and lower, Daphnia population spring density peak after milder winters. Peak density level was coherently, positively correlated with soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP concentration. We hypothesized that Daphnia peak densities were related to atmospheric modes of variability in winter and to the degree of late winter mixing promoting replenishment of algal nutrients into upper water layers and phytoplankton growth, enhancing food availability and Daphnia fecundity, promoting Daphnia peak. 

  14. Inter- and intra-annual variability of fluvial sediment transport in the proglacial river Riffler Bach (Weißseeferner, Ötztal Alps, Tyrol)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baewert, Henning; Weber, Martin; Morche, David

    2015-04-01

    The hydrology of a proglacial river is strongly affected by glacier melting. Due to glacier retreat the effects of snow melt and rain storms will become more important in future decades. Additionally, the development of periglacial landscapes will play a more important role in the hydrology of proglacial rivers. The importance of paraglacial sediment sources in sediment budgets of glacier forefields is increasing, while the role of glacial erosion is declining. In two consecutive ablation seasons the fluvial sediment transport of the river Riffler Bach in the Kaunertal (Tyrol/Austria) was quantified. The catchment area of this station is 20 km² with an altitudinal range from 1929 m to 3518 m above msl. The "Weißseeferner" glacier (2.34 km² in 2012) is the greatest of the remaining glaciers. An automatic water sampler (AWS 2002) and a probe for water level were installed were installed at the outlet of the catchment. In order to calculate annual stage-discharge-relations, discharge (Q) was repeatedly measured with current meters. Concurrent to the discharge measurements bed load was collected using a portable Helley-Smith sampler. Bed load (BL) samples were weighted and sieved in the laboratory to gain annual bed load rating curves and grain size distributions. In 2012, 154 water samples were sampled during 7 periods and subsequently filtered to quantify suspended sediment concentrations (SSC). A Q-SSC-relation was calculated for every period due to the high variability in suspended sediment transport. In addition, the grain size distribution of the filtered material was determined by laser diffraction analysis. In 2013, the same procedure was performed for 232 water samples which were collected during 9 periods. Meteorological data were logged at the climate station "Weißsee", which is located in the centre of the study area. First results show a high variability of discharge and solid sediment transport both at the inter-annual as well as at the intra-annual

  15. Predicting Rift Valley Fever Inter-epidemic Activities and Outbreak Patterns: Insights from a Stochastic Host-Vector Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sansao A Pedro

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Rift Valley fever (RVF outbreaks are recurrent, occurring at irregular intervals of up to 15 years at least in East Africa. Between outbreaks disease inter-epidemic activities exist and occur at low levels and are maintained by female Aedes mcintoshi mosquitoes which transmit the virus to their eggs leading to disease persistence during unfavourable seasons. Here we formulate and analyse a full stochastic host-vector model with two routes of transmission: vertical and horizontal. By applying branching process theory we establish novel relationships between the basic reproduction number, R0, vertical transmission and the invasion and extinction probabilities. Optimum climatic conditions and presence of mosquitoes have not fully explained the irregular oscillatory behaviour of RVF outbreaks. Using our model without seasonality and applying van Kampen system-size expansion techniques, we provide an analytical expression for the spectrum of stochastic fluctuations, revealing how outbreaks multi-year periodicity varies with the vertical transmission. Our theory predicts complex fluctuations with a dominant period of 1 to 10 years which essentially depends on the efficiency of vertical transmission. Our predictions are then compared to temporal patterns of disease outbreaks in Tanzania, Kenya and South Africa. Our analyses show that interaction between nonlinearity, stochasticity and vertical transmission provides a simple but plausible explanation for the irregular oscillatory nature of RVF outbreaks. Therefore, we argue that while rainfall might be the major determinant for the onset and switch-off of an outbreak, the occurrence of a particular outbreak is also a result of a build up phenomena that is correlated to vertical transmission efficiency.

  16. Combined role of heat and water stresses on wheat, maize and rice inter-annual variability and trend from 1980 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zampieri, M.; Ceglar, A., , Dr; Dentener, F., , Dr; van den Berg, M., , Dr; Toreti, A., , Dr

    2017-12-01

    Heat waves and drought are often considered the most damaging climatic stressors for wheat and maize. In this study, based on data derived from observations, we characterize and attribute the effects of these climate extremes on wheat and maize yield anomalies (at global and national scales) with respect to the mean trend from 1980 to 2010. Using a combination of up-to-date heat wave and drought indexes (i.e. the Heat Magnitude Day, HMD, and the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index, SPEI), we have developed a composite indicator (i.e. the Combined Stress Index, CSI) that is able to capture the spatio-temporal characteristics of the underlying physical processes in the different agro-climatic regions of the world. At the global level, our diagnostic explains the 42% and the 50% of the inter-annual wheat and maize production variabilities, respectively. The relative importance of heat stress and drought in determining the yield anomalies depends on the region. Compared to maize, and in contrast to common perception, water excess affects wheat production more than drought in several countries. The index definition can be modified in order to quantify the role of combined heat and water stress events occurrence in determining the recorded yield trends as well. Climate change is increasingly limiting maize yields in several countries, especially in Europe and China. A comparable opposite signal, albeit less statistically significant, is found for the USA, which is the main world producer. As for rice, we provide a statistical evidence pointing out to the importance of considering the interactions with the horizontal surface waters fluxes carried out by the rivers. In fact, compared to wheat and maize, the CSI statistical skills in explaining rice production variability are quite reduced. This issue is particularly relevant in paddy fields and flooded lowlands where rice is mainly grown. Therefore, we have modified the procedure including a proxy for the

  17. Numerical simulation of inter-annual variations in the properties of the upper mixed layer in the Black Sea over the last 34 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Georgy I.; Wobus, Fred; Zatsepin, Andrei G.; Akivis, Tatiana M.; Zanacchi, Marcus; Stanichny, Sergey

    2014-05-01

    The Black Sea is a nearly land-locked basin where a combination of salt and heat budgets results in a unique thermohaline water mass structure. An important feature of the Black Sea is that oxygen is dissolved and rich sea life made possible only in the upper water levels. This is due to a strong pycnocline which cannot be mixed even by strong winds or winter convection (Shapiro, 2008). The upper mixed layer (UML) with a nearly uniform temperature profile and a very sharp seasonal thermocline at its lower boundary develops during the summer season (Sur & Ilyin, 1997). The deepening of the UML has an important effect on the supply of nutrients into the euphotic upper layer from the underlying nutrient-rich water mass. The temperature of the UML at any given location is dependent on the surface heat flux, horizontal advection of heat, the depth and the rate of deepening of the UML. In this study we use a 3D ocean circulation model, NEMO-SHELF (O'Dea et al, 2012) to simulate the parameters of the UML in the Black Sea over the last 34 years. The model has horizontal resolution of 1/12×1/16 degrees and 33 layers in the vertical. The vertical discretization uses a hybrid enveloped s-z grid developed in Shapiro et al. (2012). The model is spun up from climatology (Suvorov et al., 2004); it is forced by the Drakkar Forcing Set v5.2 (Brodeau et al., 2010, Meinvielle et al., 2013) and river discharges from 8 major rivers are included. For each year the model is run from 1st January and the data for the period April to October are used for analysis. The sea surface temperature produced by the model is compared with satellite data ( Modis-Aqua, 2013) to show a good agreement. The model simulations are validated against in-situ observations (BSERP-3, 2004; Piotukh et al., 2011). The analysis is performed for the deep basin where the depth of the sea is greater than 1000m. It clearly shows the inter-annual variations of both the SST and the depth of UML. The depth of UML is

  18. Inter-annual dynamics of the Barents Sea red king crab (Paralithodes camtschaticus) stock indices in relation to environmental factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvoretsky, Alexander G.; Dvoretsky, Vladimir G.

    2016-12-01

    Knowledge of relationships between environmental variables and biological processes can greatly improve fisheries assessment and management in commercially important species. We analyzed the effects of environmental factors (climatic indices and water temperature) on the stock characteristics (total population number, number of pre-recruits and number of legal males) of the red king crab (Paralithodes camtschaticus), an introduced species in the Barents Sea. Stock trends in red king crab appear to be related to decadal climate shifts. Abundances were negatively related to the North Atlantic Oscillation index (NAO) in August and positively related to water temperature in late winter-early summer. Total and commercial stock abundance were negatively correlated with the lag-1 Arctic Oscillation index (AO) in August and the lag-2 winter NAO index. The total number of P. camtschaticus was most strongly associated with water temperature in spring and summer and NAO/AO indices in April and May. Lagged NAO indices in February and August (9 or 10 yr) had a positive relationship to the commercial stock of P. camtschaticus. These findings suggest that temperature conditions of current and previous year affect natural mortality of larvae and juvenile red king crabs. Warmer temperature conditions lead to increased biomass of red king crab food items. Negative correlations between climatic indices and the red king crab stocks may be associated with predator pressure on juvenile red king crabs or higher mortality because of predator or parasite pressure and diseases. The associations between stock indices and environmental variables could help better predict recruitment patterns of P. camtschaticus.

  19. Scavengers on the move: behavioural changes in foraging search patterns during the annual cycle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascual López-López

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Optimal foraging theory predicts that animals will tend to maximize foraging success by optimizing search strategies. However, how organisms detect sparsely distributed food resources remains an open question. When targets are sparse and unpredictably distributed, a Lévy strategy should maximize foraging success. By contrast, when resources are abundant and regularly distributed, simple brownian random movement should be sufficient. Although very different groups of organisms exhibit Lévy motion, the shift from a Lévy to a brownian search strategy has been suggested to depend on internal and external factors such as sex, prey density, or environmental context. However, animal response at the individual level has received little attention. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used GPS satellite-telemetry data of Egyptian vultures Neophron percnopterus to examine movement patterns at the individual level during consecutive years, with particular interest in the variations in foraging search patterns during the different periods of the annual cycle (i.e. breeding vs. non-breeding. Our results show that vultures followed a brownian search strategy in their wintering sojourn in Africa, whereas they exhibited a more complex foraging search pattern at breeding grounds in Europe, including Lévy motion. Interestingly, our results showed that individuals shifted between search strategies within the same period of the annual cycle in successive years. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Results could be primarily explained by the different environmental conditions in which foraging activities occur. However, the high degree of behavioural flexibility exhibited during the breeding period in contrast to the non-breeding period is challenging, suggesting that not only environmental conditions explain individuals' behaviour but also individuals' cognitive abilities (e.g., memory effects could play an important role. Our results support the growing

  20. The Influences of Drought and Land-Cover Conversion on Inter-Annual Variation of NPP in the Three-North Shelterbelt Program Zone of China Based on MODIS Data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dailiang Peng

    Full Text Available Terrestrial ecosystems greatly contribute to carbon (C emission reduction targets through photosynthetic C uptake.Net primary production (NPP represents the amount of atmospheric C fixed by plants and accumulated as biomass. The Three-North Shelterbelt Program (TNSP zone accounts for more than 40% of China's landmass. This zone has been the scene of several large-scale ecological restoration efforts since the late 1990s, and has witnessed significant changes in climate and human activities.Assessing the relative roles of different causal factors on NPP variability in TNSP zone is very important for establishing reasonable local policies to realize the emission reduction targets for central government. In this study, we examined the relative roles of drought and land cover conversion(LCC on inter-annual changes of TNSP zone for 2001-2010. We applied integrated correlation and decomposition analyses to a Standardized Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI and MODIS land cover dataset. Our results show that the 10-year average NPP within this region was about 420 Tg C. We found that about 60% of total annual NPP over the study area was significantly correlated with SPEI (p<0.05. The LCC-NPP relationship, which is especially evident for forests in the south-central area, indicates that ecological programs have a positive impact on C sequestration in the TNSP zone. Decomposition analysis generally indicated that the contributions of LCC, drought, and other Natural or Anthropogenic activities (ONA to changes in NPP generally had a consistent distribution pattern for consecutive years. Drought and ONA contributed about 74% and 23% to the total changes in NPP, respectively, and the remaining 3% was attributed to LCC. Our results highlight the importance of rainfall supply on NPP variability in the TNSP zone.

  1. Assessment of a new seasonal to inter-annual operational Great Lakes water supply, water levels, and connecting channel flow forecasting system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronewold, A.; Fry, L. M.; Hunter, T.; Pei, L.; Smith, J.; Lucier, H.; Mueller, R.

    2017-12-01

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) has recently operationalized a suite of ensemble forecasts of Net Basin Supply (NBS), water levels, and connecting channel flows that was developed through a collaboration among USACE, NOAA's Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, Ontario Power Generation (OPG), New York Power Authority (NYPA), and the Niagara River Control Center (NRCC). These forecasts are meant to provide reliable projections of potential extremes in daily discharge in the Niagara and St. Lawrence Rivers over a long time horizon (5 years). The suite of forecasts includes eight configurations that vary by (a) NBS model configuration, (b) meteorological forcings, and (c) incorporation of seasonal climate projections through the use of weighting. Forecasts are updated on a weekly basis, and represent the first operational forecasts of Great Lakes water levels and flows that span daily to inter-annual horizons and employ realistic regulation logic and lake-to-lake routing. We will present results from a hindcast assessment conducted during the transition from research to operation, as well as early indications of success rates determined through operational verification of forecasts. Assessment will include an exploration of the relative skill of various forecast configurations at different time horizons and the potential for application to hydropower decision making and Great Lakes water management.

  2. Inter-annual variability of urolithiasis epidemic from semi-arid part of Deccan Volcanic Province, India: climatic and hydrogeochemical perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kale, Sanjay S; Ghole, Vikram Shantaram; Pawar, N J; Jagtap, Deepak V

    2014-01-01

    Semi-arid Karha basin from Deccan Volcanic Province, India was investigated for inter-annual variability of urolithiasis epidemic. The number of reported urolith patient, weather station data and groundwater quality results was used to assess impact of geoenvironment on urolithiasis. Data of 7081 urolith patient were processed for epidemiological study. Gender class, age group, year-wise cases and urolith type were studied in epidemiology. Rainfall, temperature, pan evaporation and sunshine hours were used to correlate urolithiasis. Further, average values of groundwater parameters were correlated with the number of urolith episodes. A total of 52 urolith samples were collected from hospitals and analysed using FTIR technique to identify dominant urolith type in study area. Result shows that male population is more prone, age group of 20-40 is more susceptible and calcium oxalate uroliths are dominant in study area. Year-wise distribution revealed that there is steady increase in urolithiasis with inflation in drought years. In climatic parameters, hot days are significantly correlated with urolithiasis. In groundwater quality, EC, Na and F are convincingly correlated with urolith patients, which concludes the strong relation between geo-environment and urolithiasis.

  3. Inter- and intra-annual chemical variability during the ice-free season in lakes with different flushing rates and acid deposition histories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnott, Shelley E; Dillon, Peter J; Somers, Keith; Keller, Bill

    2003-01-01

    Quantifying chemical variability in different lake types is important for the assessment of both chemical and biological responses to environmental change. For monitoring programs that emphasize a large number of lakes at the expense of frequent samples, high variability may influence how representative single samples are of the average conditions of individual lakes. Intensive temporal data from long-term research sites provide a unique opportunity to assess chemical variability in lakes with different characteristics. We compared the intra- and inter-annual variability of four acidification related variables (Gran alkalinity, pH, sulphate concentration, and total base cation concentration) in four lakes with different flushing rates and acid deposition histories. Variability was highest in lakes with high flushing rates and was not influenced by historic acid deposition in our study lakes. This has implications for the amount of effort required in monitoring programs. Lakes with high flushing rates will require more frequent sampling intervals than lakes with low flushing rates. Consideration of specific lake types should be included in the design of monitoring programs.

  4. Regional and inter annual patterns of heavy metals, organochlorines and stable isotopes in narwhals (Monodon monoceros) from West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietz, R.; Riget, F.; Hobson, K.A.

    2004-01-01

    Samples of 150 narwhals obtained in different years from two West Greenland areas, Avanersuaq and Uummannaq, were compared for concentrations of and regional differences in heavy metals and organochlorines and stable-carbon and nitrogen isotopes. Cadmium, Hg, and Se concentrations increased....../age composition of the data. PCB and DDT concentrations in West Greenland narwhals were half those found in East Greenland and Svalbard. Stable-carbon isotope ratios in muscle of 150 narwhals showed a decreasing trend in the first year when they gradually reduced their dependency on mother's milk, after which...... between stable isotope ratios and metal and OC concentrations....

  5. Universal Inverse Power-Law Distribution for Fractal Fluctuations in Dynamical Systems: Applications for Predictability of Inter-Annual Variability of Indian and USA Region Rainfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvam, A. M.

    2017-01-01

    Dynamical systems in nature exhibit self-similar fractal space-time fluctuations on all scales indicating long-range correlations and, therefore, the statistical normal distribution with implicit assumption of independence, fixed mean and standard deviation cannot be used for description and quantification of fractal data sets. The author has developed a general systems theory based on classical statistical physics for fractal fluctuations which predicts the following. (1) The fractal fluctuations signify an underlying eddy continuum, the larger eddies being the integrated mean of enclosed smaller-scale fluctuations. (2) The probability distribution of eddy amplitudes and the variance (square of eddy amplitude) spectrum of fractal fluctuations follow the universal Boltzmann inverse power law expressed as a function of the golden mean. (3) Fractal fluctuations are signatures of quantum-like chaos since the additive amplitudes of eddies when squared represent probability densities analogous to the sub-atomic dynamics of quantum systems such as the photon or electron. (4) The model predicted distribution is very close to statistical normal distribution for moderate events within two standard deviations from the mean but exhibits a fat long tail that are associated with hazardous extreme events. Continuous periodogram power spectral analyses of available GHCN annual total rainfall time series for the period 1900-2008 for Indian and USA stations show that the power spectra and the corresponding probability distributions follow model predicted universal inverse power law form signifying an eddy continuum structure underlying the observed inter-annual variability of rainfall. On a global scale, man-made greenhouse gas related atmospheric warming would result in intensification of natural climate variability, seen immediately in high frequency fluctuations such as QBO and ENSO and even shorter timescales. Model concepts and results of analyses are discussed with reference

  6. Inter-annual trend of the primary contribution of ship emissions to PM2.5 concentrations in Venice (Italy): Efficiency of emissions mitigation strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contini, Daniele; Gambaro, Andrea; Donateo, Antonio; Cescon, Paolo; Cesari, Daniela; Merico, Eva; Belosi, Franco; Citron, Marta

    2015-02-01

    Ships and harbour emissions are currently increasing, due to the increase of tourism and trade, with potential impact on global air pollution and climate. At local scale, in-port ship emissions influence air quality in coastal areas impacting on health of coastal communities. International legislations to reduce ship emissions, both at Worldwide and European levels, are mainly based on the use of low-sulphur content fuel. In this work an analysis of the inter-annual trends of primary contribution, ε, of tourist shipping to the atmospheric PM2.5 concentrations in the urban area of Venice has been performed. Measurements have been taken in the summer periods of 2007, 2009 and 2012. Results show a decrease of ε from 7% (±1%) in 2007 to 5% (±1%) in 2009 and to 3.5% (±1%) in 2012. The meteorological and micrometeorological conditions of the campaigns were similar. Tourist ship traffic during measurement campaigns increased, in terms of gross tonnage, of about 25.4% from 2007 to 2009 and of 17.6% from 2009 to 2012. The decrease of ε was associated to the effect of a voluntary agreement (Venice Blue Flag) for the use of low-sulphur content fuel enforced in the area between 2007 and 2009 and to the implementation of the 2005/33/CE Directive in 2010. Results show that the use of low-sulphur fuel could effectively reduce the impact of shipping to atmospheric primary particles at local scale. Further, voluntary agreement could also be effective in reducing the impact of shipping on local air quality in coastal areas.

  7. Contrasting effects of temperature and winter mixing on the seasonal and inter-annual variability of the carbonate system in the Northeast Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Dumousseaud

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Future climate change as a result of increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations is expected to strongly affect the oceans, with shallower winter mixing and consequent reduction in primary production and oceanic carbon drawdown in low and mid-latitudinal oceanic regions. Here we test this hypothesis by examining the effects of cold and warm winters on the carbonate system in the surface waters of the Northeast Atlantic Ocean for the period between 2005 and 2007. Monthly observations were made between the English Channel and the Bay of Biscay using a ship of opportunity program. During the colder winter of 2005/2006, the maximum depth of the mixed layer reached up to 650 m in the Bay of Biscay, whilst during the warmer (by 2.6 ± 0.5 °C winter of 2006/2007 the mixed layer depth reached only 300 m. The inter-annual differences in late winter concentrations of nitrate (2.8 ± 1.1 μmol l−1 and dissolved inorganic carbon (22 ± 6 μmol kg−1, with higher concentrations at the end of the colder winter (2005/2006, led to differences in the dissolved oxygen anomaly and the chlorophyll α-fluorescence data for the subsequent growing season. In contrast to model predictions, the calculated air-sea CO2 fluxes (ranging from +3.7 to −4.8 mmol m−2 d−1 showed an increased oceanic CO2 uptake in the Bay of Biscay following the warmer winter of 2006/2007 associated with wind speed and sea surface temperature differences.

  8. Seasonal and inter-annual variation of Beryllium-7 deposition in birch-tree leaves and grass in the northeast upland area of the Czech Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poeschl, Michael, E-mail: poschl@mendelu.c [Department of Molecular Biology and Radiobiology, Faculty of Agronomy, Mendel University of Agriculture in Brno, Zemedelska 1, 61300 Brno (Czech Republic); Brunclik, Tomas, E-mail: brunclik@georadis.co [Georadis s.r.o., Hudcova 56b, 621 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Hanak, Jaromir, E-mail: jaromir.hanak@geology.c [Czech Geological Survey, Department of Environmental Geology and Geophysics, Leitnerova 22, 658 69 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2010-09-15

    The activity concentrations of Beryllium-7 ({sup 7}Be), a naturally occurring radioisotope produced in the atmosphere, were measured in leaves of birch-trees, above-ground parts of grass, soil and rainwater in the mountain massive Kralicky Sneznik (the northeast of the Czech Republic, altitude about 750 m) in the years of 2005, 2006 and 2007. Dried and ground samples of the plants and soils, and water samples from wet deposition were used to determine the {sup 7}Be content using a semiconductor gamma spectrometer. The {sup 7}Be values ranged from 147.0 to 279.6 Bq kg{sup -1}, from 48.7 to 740.8 Bq kg{sup -1}, from 2.1 to 8.7 Bq kg{sup -1}, and from 0.6 to 1.9 Bq kg{sup -1} in birch-tree leaves, grass samples, soils, and rainwater, respectively. Insignificant inter-annual variations but significant increase in the {sup 7}Be activity concentrations during the spring and summer months were observed in birch-tree leaves and grass samples. The seasonal variation of the {sup 7}Be concentrations in grass samples correlated (R{sup 2} = 0.4663 and 0.6489) with precipitation. No similar correlation was found for {sup 7}Be in birch-tree leaves. Beryllium-7 content in birch-tree leaves and in aerial parts of grass was mainly caused by direct transport of {sup 7}Be from wet deposition into aerial parts of the observed plants.

  9. Stable annual pattern of water use by Acacia tortilis in Sahelian Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Frederic C; Rocheteau, Alain; Diagne, Amadou L; Goudiaby, Venceslas; Granier, André; Lhomme, Jean-Paul

    2008-01-01

    Water use by mature trees of Acacia tortilis (Forsk.) Hayne ssp. raddiana (Savi) Brenan var. raddiana growing in the northern Sahel was continuously recorded over 4 years. Water use was estimated from xylem sap flow measured by transient heat dissipation. Concurrently, cambial growth, canopy phenology, leaf water potential, climatic conditions and soil water availability (SWA) were monitored. In addition to the variation attributable to interannual variation in rainfall, SWA was increased by irrigation during one wet season. The wet season lasted from July to September, and annual rainfall ranged between 146 and 367 mm. The annual amount and pattern of tree water use were stable from year-to-year despite interannual and seasonal variations in SWA in the upper soil layers. Acacia tortilis transpired readily throughout the year, except for one month during the dry season when defoliation was at a maximum. Maximum water use of about 23 l (dm sapwood area)(-2) day(-1) was recorded at the end of the wet season. While trees retained foliage in the dry season, the decline in water use was modest at around 30%. Variation in predawn leaf water potential indicated that the trees were subject to soil water constraint. The rapid depletion of water in the uppermost soil layers after the wet season implies that there was extensive use of water from deep soil layers. The deep soil profile revealed (1) the existence of living roots at 25 m and (2) that the availability of soil water was low (-1.6 MPa) down to the water table at a depth of 31 m. However, transpiration was recorded at a predawn leaf water potential of -2.0 MPa, indicating that the trees used water from both intermediary soil layers and the water table. During the full canopy stage, mean values of whole-tree hydraulic conductance were similar in the wet and dry seasons. We propose that the stability of water use at the seasonal and annual scales resulted from a combination of features, including an extensive rooting

  10. Inter-annual variability of surface ozone at coastal (Dumont d'Urville, 2004–2014 and inland (Concordia, 2007–2014 sites in East Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Legrand

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Surface ozone has been measured since 2004 at the coastal East Antarctic site of Dumont d'Urville (DDU, and since 2007 at the Concordia station located on the high East Antarctic plateau. This paper discusses long-term changes, seasonal and diurnal cycles, as well as inter-annual summer variability observed at these two East Antarctic sites. At Concordia, near-surface ozone data were complemented by balloon soundings and compared to similar measurements done at the South Pole. The DDU record is compared to those obtained at the coastal site of Syowa, also located in East Antarctica, as well as the coastal sites of Neumayer and Halley, both located on the coast of the Weddell Sea in West Antarctica. Surface ozone mixing ratios exhibit very similar seasonal cycles at Concordia and the South Pole. However, in summer the diurnal cycle of ozone is different at the two sites with a drop of ozone in the afternoon at Concordia but not at the South Pole. The vertical distribution of ozone above the snow surface also differs. When present, the ozone-rich layer located near the ground is better mixed and deeper at Concordia (up to 400 m than at the South Pole during sunlight hours. These differences are related to different solar radiation and wind regimes encountered at these two inland sites. DDU appears to be the coastal site where the impact of the late winter/spring bromine chemistry is the weakest, but where the impact of elevated ozone levels caused by NOx snow emissions from the high Antarctic plateau is the highest. The highest impact of the bromine chemistry is seen at Halley and Neumayer, and to a lesser extent at Syowa. These three sites are only weakly impacted by the NOx chemistry and the net ozone production occurring on the high Antarctic plateau. The differences in late winter/spring are attributed to the abundance of sea ice offshore from the sites, whereas those in summer are related to the topography of East Antarctica that promotes

  11. Differential responses of seabirds to inter-annual environmental change in the continental shelf and oceanic habitats of southeastern Bering Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, T.; Kokubun, N.; Kikuchi, D. M.; Sato, N.; Takahashi, A.; Will, A.; Kitaysky, A. S.; Watanuki, Y.

    2015-11-01

    Seasonal sea-ice cover has been decreasing in the southeastern Bering Sea shelf, which might affect ecosystem dynamics and availability of food resources to marine top predators breeding in the region. In this study, we investigated the foraging responses of two seabird species, surface-foraging red-legged kittiwakes Rissa brevirostris (hereafter, RLKI) and pursuit-diving foraging thick-billed murres Uria lomvia (TBMU) to the inter-annual change in environmental conditions. Between the study years, winter ice retreated earlier and summer water temperatures were warmer in 2014 compared to those in 2013. At-sea distributions of RLKI and TBMU breeding on St. George Island, the largest seabird colony in the region, were recorded using GPS loggers, and blood samples were taken to examine their physiological condition and isotopic foraging niche in a given year. RLKI foraging occurred mostly over the oceanic basin in both years. TBMU, however, foraged mostly over the shelf, but showed a relatively higher use of the shelf break and oceanic basin in the colder year, 2013. The foraging distances from the colony peaked at 250-300 km in 2013 and, bimodally, at 150-250 and 300-350 km in 2014 for RLKI, and tended to be farther in 2013 compared to those in 2014 for TBMU. Plasma levels of corticosterone did not differ between years in RLKI, but differed in TBMU, showing higher levels of physiological stress incurred by murres during the colder year, 2013. δ13N (a proxy of trophic level of prey) did not differ between the years in either RLKI or TBMU, while δ13C (a proxy of prey origin) were lower in 2014 than in 2013 in both species, suggesting possible differences in influx of oceanic prey items into foraging areas. These results suggest that the response of ecosystem dynamics to climate variability in the southeast Bering Sea may differ between the ocean basin and continental shelf regions, which, in turn, may generate differential responses in seabirds relying on those

  12. Adherence to predefined dietary patterns and incident type 2 diabetes in European populations: EPIC-InterAct Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kröger, J.; Schulze, M.B.; Romaguera, D.; Feskens, E.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis - Few studies have investigated the relationship between predefined dietary patterns and type 2 diabetes incidence; little is known about the generalisability of these associations. We aimed to assess the association between predefined dietary patterns and type 2 diabetes risk in

  13. Proportional lumbar spine inter-vertebral motion patterns: a comparison of patients with chronic, non-specific low back pain and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellor, Fiona E; Thomas, Peter W; Thompson, Paul; Breen, Alan C

    2014-10-01

    Identifying biomechanical subgroups in chronic, non-specific low back pain (CNSLBP) populations from inter-vertebral displacements has proven elusive. Quantitative fluoroscopy (QF) has excellent repeatability and provides continuous standardised inter-vertebral kinematic data from fluoroscopic sequences allowing assessment of mid-range motion. The aim of this study was to determine whether proportional continuous IV rotational patterns were different in patients and controls. A secondary aim was to update the repeatability of QF measurement of range of motion (RoM) for inter-vertebral (IV) rotation. Fluoroscopic sequences were recorded of passive, recumbent coronal and sagittal motion, which was controlled for range and velocity. Segments L2-5 in 40 primary care CNSLBP patients and 40 matched controls were compared. Patients also completed the von Korff Chronic Pain Grade and Roland and Morris Disability Questionnaire. Sequences were processed using automated image tracking algorithms to extract continuous inter-vertebral rotation data. These were converted to continuous proportional ranges of rotation (PR). The continuous proportional range variances were calculated for each direction and combined to produce a single variable representing their fluctuation (CPRV). Inter- and intra-rater repeatability were also calculated for the maximum IV-RoM measurements obtained during controlled trunk motion to provide an updated indication of the reliability and agreement of QF for measuring spine kinematics. CPRV was significantly higher in patients (0.011 vs. 0.008, Mann-Whitney two-sided p = 0.008), implying a mechanical subgroup. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis found its sensitivity and specificity to be 0.78 % (60-90) and 0.55 % (37-73), respectively (area under the curve 0.672). CPRV was not correlated with pain severity or disability. The repeatability of maximum inter-vertebral range was excellent, but range was only significantly greater in patients

  14. Inter-annual Variability of Evapotranspiration in a Semi-arid Oak-savanna Ecosystem: Measured and Modeled Buffering to Precipitation Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raz-Yaseef, N.; Sonnentag, O.; Kobayashi, H.; Baldocchi, D. D.

    2010-12-01

    Precipitation (P) is the primary control on vegetation dynamics and productivity, implying that climate induced disturbances in frequency and timing of P are intimately coupled with fluxes of carbon, water and energy. Future climate change is expected to increase extreme rainfall events as well as droughts, suggesting linked vegetation changes to an unknown extent. Semi-arid climates experience large inter-annual variability (IAV) in P, creating natural conditions adequate to study how year-to-year changes in P affect atmosphere-biosphere fluxes. We used a 10-year flux database collected at a semi-arid savanna site in order to: (1) define IAV in P by means of frequency and timing; (2) investigate how changes in P affect the ecohydrology of the forest and its partitioning into the main vapor fluxes, and (3) evaluate model capability to predict IAV of carbon and water fluxes above and below the canopy. This is based on the perception that the capability of process-oriented models to construct the deviation, and not the average, is important in order to correctly predict ecosystem sensitivity to climate change. Our research site was a low density and low LAI (0.8) semi-arid (P=523±180 mm yr-1) savanna site, combined of oaks and grass, and located at Tonzi ranch, California. Measurements of carbon and water fluxes above and below the tree canopy using eddy covariance and supplementary measurements have been made since 2001. Measured fluxes were compared to modeled based on two bio-meteorological process-oriented ecosystem models: BEPS and 3D-CAONAK. Our results show that IAV in P was large, and standard deviation (STD) was 38% of the average. Accordingly, the wet soil period (measured volumetric water content > 8%) varied between 156 days in dry years to 301 days in wet years. IAV of the vapor fluxes were lower than that of P (STD was 17% for the trees and 23% for the floor components), suggesting on ecosystem buffering to changes in P. The timing of grass green up

  15. Geospatial and temporal patterns of annual cholera outbreaks in Matlab, Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumder, M. S.; de Klerk, K.; Meyers, D.

    2012-12-01

    Cholera is a waterborne diarrheal disease endemic to Bangladesh, resulting in 1 million diagnoses annually. Such disease burden results in incalculable lost wages and treatment expenses, taken from the pockets of an already impoverished society. Two seasonally correlated outbreaks of cholera occur in Bangladesh every year. In the spring and early summer, the Bay of Bengal - which serves as a natural reservoir for the cholera bacteria - flows inland, causing the first outbreak amongst coastal communities. Waste containing the cholera bacteria enters the sewage system and remains untreated due to poor water and sanitation infrastructure. Therefore, during the following monsoon season, flooding of cholera-contaminated sewage into drinking water sources results in a second outbreak. Though considered common knowledge among local populations, this geographic and temporal progression has not been empirically verified in the current literature. The aim of our ongoing study is to systematically analyze the seasonal trajectory of endemic cholera in Bangladesh. This paper discusses the results obtained from a comprehensive survey of available cholera data from the International Centre of Diarrheal Disease Research, Bangladesh (ICDDR,B) in Matlab, Bangladesh. Matlab thana is a near-coastal community that consists of 142 villages. Monsoon season takes place from June through October. Due to its proximity to the Meghna River, which opens into the Bay of Bengal, the area experiences significant flooding during these months. Using 10 years of geographically referenced cholera data, cases were plotted in time and space. Preliminary patterns suggest that villages closer to the Meghna River experience the majority of the area's cholera outbreaks and that case count is highest in late spring and late fall. April/May and November/December represent 25% and 23% of total annual case counts respectively. Moreover, villages further from the coastline demonstrate 57% higher relative

  16. Landscape-level movement patterns by lions in western Serengeti: comparing the influence of inter-specific competitors, habitat attributes and prey availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittle, Andrew M; Bukombe, John K; Sinclair, Anthony R E; Mduma, Simon A R; Fryxell, John M

    2016-01-01

    Where apex predators move on the landscape influences ecosystem structure and function and is therefore key to effective landscape-level management and species-specific conservation. However the factors underlying predator distribution patterns within functional ecosystems are poorly understood. Predator movement should be sensitive to the spatial patterns of inter-specific competitors, spatial variation in prey density, and landscape attributes that increase individual prey vulnerability. We investigated the relative role of these fundamental factors on seasonal resource utilization by a globally endangered apex carnivore, the African lion (Panthera leo) in Tanzania's Serengeti National Park. Lion space use was represented by novel landscape-level, modified utilization distributions (termed "localized density distributions") created from telemetry relocations of individual lions from multiple neighbouring prides. Spatial patterns of inter-specific competitors were similarly determined from telemetry re-locations of spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta), this system's primary competitor for lions; prey distribution was derived from 18 months of detailed census data; and remote sensing data was used to represent relevant habitat attributes. Lion space use was consistently influenced by landscape attributes that increase individual prey vulnerability to predation. Wet season activity, when available prey were scarce, was concentrated near embankments, which provide ambush opportunities, and dry season activity, when available prey were abundant, near remaining water sources where prey occurrence is predictable. Lion space use patterns were positively associated with areas of high prey biomass, but only in the prey abundant dry season. Finally, at the broad scale of this analysis, lion and hyena space use was positively correlated in the comparatively prey-rich dry season and unrelated in the wet season, suggesting lion movement was unconstrained by the spatial patterns

  17. Molecular phylogenetics of Micromeria (Lamiaceae) in the Canary Islands, diversification and inter-island colonization patterns inferred from nuclear genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puppo, Pamela; Curto, Manuel; Gusmão-Guedes, Joana; Cochofel, Jaqueline; Pérez de Paz, Pedro Luis; Bräuchler, Christian; Meimberg, Harald

    2015-08-01

    Here we reconstruct the evolutionary history of Micromeria in the Canary Islands using eight nuclear markers. Our results show two centers of diversification for Micromeria, one in the eastern islands Gran Canaria and Lanzarote, the other in the western islands, Tenerife, La Palma and El Hierro. Suggested directions of inter-island colonization are the following: Gran Canaria to Lanzarote and La Gomera; Tenerife to La Palma (from the paleoisland of Teno), to El Hierro (from the younger, central part), and to La Gomera and Madeira (from the paleoislands). Colonization of La Gomera probably occurred several times from Gran Canaria and Tenerife. The taxonomic implications of these results are discussed. Incongruence among the different markers was evaluated and, using next generation sequencing, we investigated if this incongruence is due to gene duplication. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Inter-annual variability of air mass and acidified pollutants transboundary exchange in the north-eastern part of the EANET region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gromov, Sergey A.; Trifonova-Yakovleva, Alisa; Gromov, Sergey S.

    2016-04-01

    ]. This dataset provides comprehensive monthly statistics on the wind meteorological regime at the stations of interest in a given range of altitudes. Based on long-term source observational data, the dataset is assumed being representative up to date, which allowed us to estimate monthly pollutant fluxes for the years 2006-2008 over segments of the Russian border and its whole [4]. In the current phase of our study, we calculate the inter-annual variations in the transboundary pollutant fluxes for 2000-2012 using longer-term EANET data and transient changes in air mass fluxes derived from the meteorological wind fields from ERA INTERIM re-analysis [5]. We gauge similar average air transport terms and dynamics from the statistical and reanalysis data, which bolsters our earlier findings. The reanalysis data, being naturally more variable, convolutes the variations in net air fluxes and pollutant concentrations into several episodes we emphasise, in addition to the integral pollutant transfer terms we estimate. At last, we discuss on the possibility of climate change effect on the flux strength and dynamics together with regional air quality tendencies in North-East Asia countries. References: Izrael, Yu.A., et al.: Monitoring of the Transboundary Air Pollution Transport. Gidrometeoizdat, Leningrad, 303 p., 187 (in Russian). Akimoto H., et al.: Periodic Report of the State of Acid Deposition in East Asia. Part I: Regional Assessment. EANET-UNEP/RRC.AP-ADORC, 258 p., 2006. Brukhan, F.F.: Aeroclimatic Characteristics of the Mean Winds over USSR (ed. Ignatjushina E.N.). Gidrometeoizdat, Moscow, 54 p., 1984 (in Russian). Gromov S.A., et al.: First-order evaluation of transboundary pollution fluxes in areas of EANET stations in Eastern Siberia and the Russian Far East. EANET Science Bulletin, vol. 3, pp. 195-203, 2013. Dee, D. P., et al.: The ERA-Interim reanalysis: configuration and performance of the data assimilation system, Quart. J. Royal Met. Soc., 137, 553-597, doi: 10

  19. Reconciling patterns of inter-ocean molecular variance from four classes of molecular markers in blue marlin (Makaira nigricans).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buonaccorsi, V P; McDowell, J R; Graves, J E

    2001-05-01

    Different classes of molecular markers occasionally yield discordant views of population structure within a species. Here, we examine the distribution of molecular variance from 14 polymorphic loci comprising four classes of molecular markers within approximately 400 blue marlin individuals (Makaira nigricans). Samples were collected from the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans over 5 years. Data from five hypervariable tetranucleotide microsatellite loci and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of whole molecule mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) were reported and compared with previous analyses of allozyme and single-copy nuclear DNA (scnDNA) loci. Temporal variance in allele frequencies was nonsignificant in nearly all cases. Mitochondrial and microsatellite loci revealed striking phylogeographic partitioning among Atlantic and Pacific Ocean samples. A large cluster of alleles was present almost exclusively in Atlantic individuals at one microsatellite locus and for mtDNA, suggesting that, if gene flow occurs, it is likely to be unidirectional from Pacific to Atlantic oceans. Mitochondrial DNA inter-ocean divergence (FST) was almost four times greater than microsatellite or combined nuclear divergences including allozyme and scnDNA markers. Estimates of Neu varied by five orders of magnitude among marker classes. Using mathematical and computer simulation approaches, we show that substantially different distributions of FST are expected from marker classes that differ in mode of inheritance and rate of mutation, without influence of natural selection or sex-biased dispersal. Furthermore, divergent FST values can be reconciled by quantifying the balance between genetic drift, mutation and migration. These results illustrate the usefulness of a mitochondrial analysis of population history, and relative precision of nuclear estimates of gene flow based on a mean of several loci.

  20. Modeling the impacts of phenological and inter-annual changes in landscape metrics on local biodiversity of agricultural lands of Eastern Ontario using multi-spatial and multi-temporal remote sensing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavi-Shoushtari, N.; King, D.

    2017-12-01

    Agricultural landscapes are highly variable ecosystems and are home to many local farmland species. Seasonal, phenological and inter-annual agricultural landscape dynamics have potential to affect the richness and abundance of farmland species. Remote sensing provides data and techniques which enable monitoring landscape changes in multiple temporal and spatial scales. MODIS high temporal resolution remote sensing images enable detection of seasonal and phenological trends, while Landsat higher spatial resolution images, with its long term archive enables inter-annual trend analysis over several decades. The objective of this study to use multi-spatial and multi-temporal remote sensing data to model the response of farmland species to landscape metrics. The study area is the predominantly agricultural region of eastern Ontario. 92 sample landscapes were selected within this region using a protocol designed to maximize variance in composition and configuration heterogeneity while controlling for amount of forest and spatial autocorrelation. Two sample landscape extents (1×1km and 3×3km) were selected to analyze the impacts of spatial scale on biodiversity response. Gamma diversity index data for four taxa groups (birds, butterflies, plants, and beetles) were collected during the summers of 2011 and 2012 within the cropped area of each landscape. To extract the seasonal and phenological metrics a 2000-2012 MODIS NDVI time-series was used, while a 1985-2012 Landsat time-series was used to model the inter-annual trends of change in the sample landscapes. The results of statistical modeling showed significant relationships between farmland biodiversity for several taxa and the phenological and inter-annual variables. The following general results were obtained: 1) Among the taxa groups, plant and beetles diversity was most significantly correlated with the phenological variables; 2) Those phenological variables which are associated with the variability in the start of

  1. Patterns and predictability in the intra-annual organic carbon variability across the boreal and hemiboreal landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hytteborn, Julia K.; Temnerud, Johan; Alexander, Richard B.; Boyer, Elizabeth W.; Futter, Martyn N.; Fröberg, Mats; Dahné, Joel; Bishop, Kevin H.

    2015-01-01

    Factors affecting total organic carbon (TOC) concentrations in 215 watercourses across Sweden were investigated using parameter parsimonious regression approaches to explain spatial and temporal variabilities of the TOC water quality responses. We systematically quantified the effects of discharge, seasonality, and long-term trend as factors controlling intra-annual (among year) and inter-annual (within year) variabilities of TOC by evaluating the spatial variability in model coefficients and catchment characteristics (e.g. land cover, retention time, soil type).Catchment area (0.18–47,000 km2) and land cover types (forests, agriculture and alpine terrain) are typical for the boreal and hemiboreal zones across Fennoscandia. Watercourses had at least 6 years of monthly water quality observations between 1990 and 2010. Statistically significant models (p characteristics explained 21% of the spatial variation in the linear trend coefficient, less than 20% of the variation in the discharge coefficient and 73% of the spatial variation in mean TOC. Specific discharge, water residence time, the variance of daily precipitation, and lake area, explained 45% of the spatial variation in the amplitude of the TOC seasonality.Because the main drivers of temporal variability in TOC are seasonality and discharge, first-order estimates of the influences of climatic variability and change on TOC concentration should be predictable if the studied catchments continue to respond similarly.

  2. Variations of annual and seasonal runoff in Guangdong Province, south China: spatiotemporal patterns and possible causes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiang; Xiao, Mingzhong; Singh, Vijay P.; Xu, Chong-Yu; Li, Jianfeng

    2015-06-01

    In this study, we thoroughly analyzed spatial and temporal distributions of runoff and their relation with precipitation changes based on monthly runoff dataset at 25 hydrological stations and monthly precipitation at 127 stations in Guangdong Province, south China. Trends of the runoff and precipitation are detected using Mann-Kendall trend test technique. Correlations between runoff and precipitation are tested using Spearman's and Pearson's correlation coefficients. The results indicate that: (1) annual maximum monthly runoff is mainly in decreasing tendency and significant increasing annual minimum monthly runoff is observed in the northern and eastern Guangdong Province. In addition, annual mean runoff is observed to be increasing at the stations located in the West and North Rivers and the coastal region; (2) analysis of seasonal runoff variations indicates increasing runoff in spring, autumn and winter. Wherein, significant increase of runoff is found at 8 stations and only 3 stations are dominated by decreasing runoff in winter; (3) runoff changes of the Guangdong Province are mainly the results of precipitation changes. The Guangdong Province is wetter in winter, spring and autumn. Summer is coming to be drier as reflected by decreasing runoff in the season; (4) both precipitation change and water reservoirs also play important roles in the increasing of annual minimum monthly streamflow. Seasonal shifts of runoff variations may pose new challenges for the water resources management under the influences of climate changes and intensifying human activities.

  3. Spatiotemporal patterns, annual baseline and movement-related incidence of Streptococcus agalactiae infection in Danish dairy herds: 2000-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mweu, Marshal M; Nielsen, Søren S; Halasa, Tariq; Toft, Nils

    2014-02-01

    Several decades after the inception of the five-point plan for the control of contagious mastitis pathogens, Streptococcus agalactiae (S. agalactiae) persists as a fundamental threat to the dairy industry in many countries. A better understanding of the relative importance of within- and between-herd sources of new herd infections coupled with the spatiotemporal distribution of the infection, may aid in effective targeting of control efforts. Thus, the objectives of this study were: (1) to describe the spatiotemporal patterns of infection with S. agalactiae in the population of Danish dairy herds from 2000 to 2009 and (2) to estimate the annual herd-level baseline and movement-related incidence risks of S. agalactiae infection over the 10-year period. The analysis involved registry data on bacteriological culture of all bulk tank milk samples collected as part of the mandatory Danish S. agalactiae surveillance scheme as well as live cattle movements into dairy herds during the specified 10-year period. The results indicated that the predicted risk of a herd becoming infected with S. agalactiae varied spatiotemporally; the risk being more homogeneous and higher in the period after 2005. Additionally, the annual baseline risks yielded significant yet distinctive patterns before and after 2005 - the risk of infection being higher in the latter phase. On the contrary, the annual movement-related risks revealed a non-significant pattern over the 10-year period. There was neither evidence for spatial clustering of cases relative to the population of herds at risk nor spatial dependency between herds. Nevertheless, the results signal a need to beef up within-herd biosecurity in order to reduce the risk of new herd infections. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Mean annual precipitation explains spatiotemporal patterns of Cenozoic mammal beta diversity and latitudinal diversity gradients in North America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Fraser

    Full Text Available Spatial diversity patterns are thought to be driven by climate-mediated processes. However, temporal patterns of community composition remain poorly studied. We provide two complementary analyses of North American mammal diversity, using (i a paleontological dataset (2077 localities with 2493 taxon occurrences spanning 21 discrete subdivisions of the Cenozoic based on North American Land Mammal Ages (36 Ma--present, and (ii climate space model predictions for 744 extant mammals under eight scenarios of future climate change. Spatial variation in fossil mammal community structure (β diversity is highest at intermediate values of continental mean annual precipitation (MAP estimated from paleosols (∼ 450 mm/year and declines under both wetter and drier conditions, reflecting diversity patterns of modern mammals. Latitudinal gradients in community change (latitudinal turnover gradients, aka LTGs increase in strength through the Cenozoic, but also show a cyclical pattern that is significantly explained by MAP. In general, LTGs are weakest when continental MAP is highest, similar to modern tropical ecosystems in which latitudinal diversity gradients are weak or undetectable. Projections under modeled climate change show no substantial change in β diversity or LTG strength for North American mammals. Our results suggest that similar climate-mediated mechanisms might drive spatial and temporal patterns of community composition in both fossil and extant mammals. We also provide empirical evidence that the ecological processes on which climate space models are based are insufficient for accurately forecasting long-term mammalian response to anthropogenic climate change and inclusion of historical parameters may be essential.

  5. Spatial Pattern and Scale Influence Invader Demographic Response to Simulated Precipitation Change in an Annual Grassland Community.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghan J Skaer Thomason

    Full Text Available It is important to predict which invasive species will benefit from future changes in climate, and thereby identify those invaders that need particular attention and prioritization of management efforts. Because establishment, persistence, and spread determine invasion success, this prediction requires detailed demographic information. Explicit study of the impact of pattern on demographic response is particularly important for species that are naturally patchy, such as the invasive grass, Aegilops triuncialis. In the northern California Coast Range, where climate change may increase or decrease mean annual rainfall, we conducted a field experiment to understand the interaction of climate change and local-scale patterning on the demography of A. triuncialis. We manipulated precipitation (reduced, ambient, or augmented, seed density, and seeding pattern. Demographic and environmental data were collected for three years following initial seeding. Pattern and scale figure prominently in the demographic response of A. triuncialis to precipitation manipulation. Pattern interacts with precipitation and seeding density in its influence on per-plant seed output. Although per-plot seed production was highest when seeds were not aggregated, per-plant seed output was higher in aggregated patches. Results suggest aggregation of invasive A. triuncialis reduces the detrimental impact of interspecific competition in its invaded community, and that interspecific competition per se has a stronger impact than intraspecific competition.

  6. Intra-annual patterns in adult band-tailed pigeon survival estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casazza, Michael L.; Coates, Peter S.; Overton, Cory T.; Howe, Kristy H.

    2015-01-01

    Context: The band-tailed pigeon (Patagioenas fasciata) is a migratory species occurring in western North America with low recruitment potential and populations that have declined an average of 2.4% per year since the 1960s. Investigations into band-tailed pigeon demographic rates date back to the early 1900s, and existing annual survival rate estimates were derived in the 1970s using band return data.

  7. The dynamics of avian influenza in western Arctic snow geese: implications for annual and migratory infection patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Michael D.; Hall, Jeffrey S.; Brown, Justin D.; Goldberg, Diana R.; Ip, Hon S.; Baranyuk, Vasily V.

    2015-01-01

    Wild water birds are the natural reservoir for low-pathogenic avian influenza viruses (AIV). However, our ability to investigate the epizootiology of AIV in these migratory populations is challenging, and despite intensive worldwide surveillance, remains poorly understood. We conducted a cross-sectional, retrospective analysis in Pacific Flyway lesser snow geese Chen caerulescens to investigate AIV serology and infection patterns. We collected nearly 3,000 sera samples from snow geese at 2 breeding colonies in Russia and Canada during 1993-1996 and swab samples from > 4,000 birds at wintering and migration areas in the United States during 2006-2011. We found seroprevalence and annual seroconversion varied considerably among years. Seroconversion and infection rates also differed between snow goose breeding colonies and wintering areas, suggesting that AIV exposure in this gregarious waterfowl species is likely occurring during several phases (migration, wintering and potentially breeding areas) of the annual cycle. We estimated AIV antibody persistence was longer (14 months) in female geese compared to males (6 months). This relatively long period of AIV antibody persistence suggests that subtype-specific serology may be an effective tool for detection of exposure to subtypes associated with highly-pathogenic AIV. Our study provides further evidence of high seroprevalence in Arctic goose populations, and estimates of annual AIV seroconversion and antibody persistence for North American waterfowl. We suggest future AIV studies include serology to help elucidate the epizootiological dynamics of AIV in wild bird populations.

  8. Hydrology of the North Klondike River: carbon export, water balance and inter-annual climate influences within a sub-alpine permafrost catchment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapp, Anthony; Clark, Ian; Macumber, Andrew; Patterson, Tim

    2017-10-01

    Arctic and sub-arctic watersheds are undergoing significant changes due to recent climate warming and degrading permafrost, engendering enhanced monitoring of arctic rivers. Smaller catchments provide understanding of discharge, solute flux and groundwater recharge at the process level that contributes to an understanding of how larger arctic watersheds are responding to climate change. The North Klondike River, located in west central Yukon, is a sub-alpine permafrost catchment, which maintains an active hydrological monitoring station with a record of >40 years. In addition to being able to monitor intra-annual variability, this data set allows for more complex analysis of streamflow records. Streamflow data, geochemistry and stable isotope data for 2014 show a groundwater-dominated system, predominantly recharged during periods of snowmelt. Radiocarbon is shown to be a valuable tracer of soil zone recharge processes and carbon sources. Winter groundwater baseflow contributes 20 % of total annual discharge, and accounts for up to 50 % of total river discharge during the spring and summer months. Although total stream discharge remains unchanged, mean annual groundwater baseflow has increased over the 40-year monitoring period. Wavelet analysis reveals a catchment that responds to El Niño and longer solar cycles, as well as climatic shifts such as the Pacific Decadal Oscillation. Dedicated to Professor Peter Fritz on the occasion of his 80th birthday.

  9. Patterns of plant traits in annual vegetation of man-made habitats in central Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lososová, Z.; Chytrý, M.; Kühn, I.; Hájek, O.; Horáková, V.; Pyšek, Petr; Tichý, L.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 2 (2006), s. 69-81 ISSN 1433-8319 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06073; GA ČR(CZ) GA206/05/0020 Grant - others:ALARM(XE) GOCE-CT-2003-506675 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Source of funding: R - rámcový projekt EK Keywords : species traits * annual vegetation * man-made habitats Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.905, year: 2006

  10. Testing simulations of intra- and inter-annual variation in the plant production response to elevated CO(2) against measurements from an 11-year FACE experiment on grazed pasture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Frank Yonghong; Newton, Paul C D; Lieffering, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Ecosystem models play a crucial role in understanding and evaluating the combined impacts of rising atmospheric CO2 concentration and changing climate on terrestrial ecosystems. However, we are not aware of any studies where the capacity of models to simulate intra- and inter-annual variation in responses to elevated CO2 has been tested against long-term experimental data. Here we tested how well the ecosystem model APSIM/AgPasture was able to simulate the results from a free air carbon dioxide enrichment (FACE) experiment on grazed pasture. At this FACE site, during 11 years of CO2 enrichment, a wide range in annual plant production response to CO2 (-6 to +28%) was observed. As well as running the full model, which includes three plant CO2 response functions (plant photosynthesis, nitrogen (N) demand and stomatal conductance), we also tested the influence of these three functions on model predictions. Model/data comparisons showed that: (i) overall the model over-predicted the mean annual plant production response to CO2 (18.5% cf 13.1%) largely because years with small or negative responses to CO2 were not well simulated; (ii) in general seasonal and inter-annual variation in plant production responses to elevated CO2 were well represented by the model; (iii) the observed CO2 enhancement in overall mean legume content was well simulated but year-to-year variation in legume content was poorly captured by the model; (iv) the best fit of the model to the data required all three CO2 response functions to be invoked; (v) using actual legume content and reduced N fixation rate under elevated CO2 in the model provided the best fit to the experimental data. We conclude that in temperate grasslands the N dynamics (particularly the legume content and N fixation activity) play a critical role in pasture production responses to elevated CO2 , and are processes for model improvement. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Community assembly in Nothobranchius annual fishes: nested patterns, environmental niche and biogeographic history

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Reichard, Martin; Janáč, Michal; Polačik, Matej; Blažek, Radim; Vrtílek, Milan

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 7 (2017), s. 2294-2306 ISSN 2045-7758 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-00291S Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Africa * altitudinal gradient * checkerboard pattern * dispersal * ephemeral pools * temporary water body Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Ecology Impact factor: 2.440, year: 2016

  12. Growth patterns and annual growth cycle of Acacia karroo Hayne in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... karroo; alice; botany; compensatory growth; condition; development; eastern cape; emergence; environmental conditions; field study; growth cycle; growth initiation; growth patterns; growth strategy; leaf growth; plant growth; savanna; shoot growth; soil depth; soil moisture; south africa; university of fort hare; water stress ...

  13. Inter-annual variability in apparent relative production, survival, and growth of juvenile Lost River and shortnose suckers in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon, 2001–15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdick, Summer M.; Martin, Barbara A.

    2017-06-15

    Executive SummaryPopulations of the once abundant Lost River (Deltistes luxatus) and shortnose suckers (Chasmistes brevirostris) of the Upper Klamath Basin, decreased so substantially throughout the 20th century that they were listed under the Endangered Species Act in 1988. Major landscape alterations, deterioration of water quality, and competition with and predation by exotic species are listed as primary causes of the decreases in populations. Upper Klamath Lake populations are decreasing because fish lost due to adult mortality, which is relatively low for adult Lost River suckers and variable for adult shortnose suckers, are not replaced by new young adult suckers recruiting into known adult spawning aggregations. Catch-at-age and size data indicate that most adult suckers presently in Upper Klamath Lake spawning populations were hatched around 1991. While, a lack of egg production and emigration of young fish (especially larvae) may contribute, catch-at-length and age data indicate high mortality during the first summer or winter of life may be the primary limitation to the recruitment of young adults. The causes of juvenile sucker mortality are unknown.We compiled and analyzed catch, length, age, and species data on juvenile suckers from Upper Klamath Lake from eight prior studies conducted from 2001 to 2015 to examine annual variation in apparent production, survival, and growth of young suckers. We used a combination of qualitative assessments, general linear models, and linear regression to make inferences about annual differences in juvenile sucker dynamics. The intent of this exercise is to provide information that can be compared to annual variability in environmental conditions with the hopes of understanding what drives juvenile sucker population dynamics.Age-0 Lost River suckers generally grew faster than age-0 shortnose suckers, but the difference in growth rates between the two species varied among years. This unsynchronized annual variation in

  14. Origins of streamflow in a crystalline basement catchment in a sub-humid Sudanian zone: The Donga basin (Benin, West Africa): Inter-annual variability of water budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Séguis, L.; Kamagaté, B.; Favreau, G.; Descloitres, M.; Seidel, J.-L.; Galle, S.; Peugeot, C.; Gosset, M.; Le Barbé, L.; Malinur, F.; Van Exter, S.; Arjounin, M.; Boubkraoui, S.; Wubda, M.

    2011-05-01

    SummaryDuring the last quarter of the 20th century, West Africa underwent a particularly intense and generalized drought. During this period, the biggest drops in streamflow were observed in the Sudanian zone rather than in the Sahelian zone, but the reasons are still poorly understood. In 2000, a meso-scale hydrological observatory was set up in the sub-humid Sudanian zone of the Upper Ouémé Valley (Benin). Three embedded catchments of 12-586 km 2 located on a crystalline bedrock were intensively instrumented to document the different terms of the water budget and to identify the main streamflow generating processes and base-flow mechanisms at different scales. Geophysical, hydrological and geochemical data were collected throughout the catchments from 2002 to 2006. Crossing these data helped define their hydrological functioning. The region has seasonal streamflow, and the permanent groundwater in the weathered mantle does not drain to rivers, instead, seasonal perched groundwaters are the major contributor to annual streamflow. The perched groundwaters are mainly located in seasonally waterlogged sandy layers in the headwater bottom-lands called bas-fonds in French-speaking West Africa of 1st order streams. During the period 2003-2006, regolith groundwater recharge ranged between 10% and 15% of the annual rainfall depth. Depletion of permanent groundwater during the dry season is probably explained by local evapotranspiration which was seen not to be limited to gallery forests. During the 4-year study period, a reduction of 20% in annual rainfall led to a 50% reduction in streamflow. This reduction was observed in the two components of the flow: direct runoff and drainage of perched groundwater. Thanks to the comprehensive dataset obtained, the results obtained for the Donga experimental catchment are now being extrapolated to the whole upper Ouémé valley, which can be considered as representative of sub-humid Sudanian rivers flowing on a crystalline

  15. Climatic controls on hurricane patterns: a 1200-y near-annual record from Lighthouse Reef, Belize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denommee, K. C.; Bentley, S. J.; Droxler, A. W.

    2014-01-01

    Tropical cyclones (TCs) are powerful agents of destruction, and understanding climatic controls on TC patterns is of great importance. Over timescales of seasons to several decades, relationships among TC track, frequency, intensity and basin-scale climate changes are well documented by instrumental records. Over centuries to millennia, climate-shift influence on TC regimes remains poorly constrained. To better understand these relationships, records from multiple locations of TC strikes spanning millennia with high temporal resolution are required, but such records are rare. Here we report on a highly detailed sedimentary proxy record of paleo-TC strikes from the Blue Hole of Lighthouse Reef, Belize. Our findings provide an important addition to other high-resolution records, which collectively demonstrate that shifts between active and inactive TC regimes have occurred contemporaneously with shifts hemispheric-scale oceanic and atmospheric circulation patterns such as MDR SSTs and NAO mode, rather than with changes in local climate phenomena as has previously been suggested.

  16. Continuous 25-yr aerosol records at coastal Antarctica - I: inter-annual variability of ionic compounds and links to climate indices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weller, Rolf; Koenig-Langlo, Gert (Alfred Wegener Inst. for Polar and Marine Research, Bremerhaven (Germany)), e-mail: Rolf.Weller@awi.de; Wagenbach, Dietmar; Elsaesser, Christoph (Institut fur Umweltphysik, Univ. of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany)); Legrand, Michel (Laboratoire de Glaciologie et Geophysique de l' Environnement du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, St Martin d' Heres (France)); Tian-Kunze, Xiangshan (Institut fur Meereskunde, Univ. of Hamburg, Hamburg (Germany))

    2011-11-15

    The aerosol climatology at the coastal Antarctic Neumayer Station (NM) was investigated based on continuous, 25-yr long observations of biogenic sulphur components (methanesulfonate and non-sea salt sulphate), sea salt and nitrate. Although significant long-term trends could only be detected for nitrate (-3.6 +- 2.5% per year between 1983 and 1993 and +4.0 +- 3.2% per year from 1993-2007), non-harmonic periodicities between 2 and 5 yr were typical for all species. Dedicated time series analyses revealed that relations to sea ice extent and various circulation indices are weak at best or not significant. In particular, no consistent link between sea ice extent and sea salt loadings was evident suggesting only a rather local relevance of the NM sea salt record. Nevertheless, a higher Southern Annular Mode index tended to entail a lower biogenic sulphur signal. In examining the spatial uniformity of the NM findings we contrasted them to respective 17 yr records from the coastal Dumont d'Urville Station. We found similar long-term trends for nitrate, indicating an Antarctic-wide but not identifiable atmospheric signal, although any significant impact of solar activity or pollution could be ruled out. No inter-site variability on the multiannual scale was evident for the other ionic compounds

  17. In Search of the E. coli Compounds that Change the Antibiotic Production Pattern of Streptomyces coelicolor During Inter-species Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavituna, Ferda; Luti, Khalid Jaber Kadhum; Gu, Lixing

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the interaction between E.coli and Streptomyces coelicolor A3 (2) for the increased production of undecylprodigiosin and identify the E. coli actives mediating this inter-species interaction. The antibiotics of interest were the red-pigmented undecylprodigiosin and blue-pigmented actinorhodin. Pure cultures of S. coelicolor in a defined medium produced higher concentrations of actinorhodin compared to those of undecylprodigiosin. The latter however, is more important due to its immunosuppressive and antitumor properties. As a strategy to increase undecylprodigiosin production, we added separately, live cells and heat-killed cells of E. coli C600, and the cell-free supernatant of E. coli culture to S. coelicolor cultures in shake flasks. The interaction with live cells of E. coli altered the antibiotic production pattern and undecylprodigiosin production was enhanced by 3.5-fold compared to the pure cultures of S. coelicolor and actinorhodin decreased by 15-fold. The heat-killed cells of E. coli however, had no effect on antibiotic production. In all cases, growth and glucose consumption of S. coelicolor remained almost the same as those observed in the pure culture indicating that the changes in antibiotic production were not due to nutritional stress. Results with cell-free supernatant of E. coli culture indicated that the interaction between S. coelicolor and E. coli was mediated via diffusible molecule(s). Using a set of extraction procedures and agar-well diffusion bioassays, we isolated and preliminarily identified a class of compounds. For the preliminary verification, we added the compound which was the common chemical structural moiety in this class of compounds to the pure S. coelicolor cultures. We observed similar effects on antibiotic production as with the live E. coli cells and their supernatant indicating that this class of compounds secreted by E. coli indeed could act as actives during interspecies

  18. Responses of the sustainable yield of groundwater to annual rainfall and pumping patterns in the Baotou Plain, North China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Z.; LONG, Y., Sr.; Wei, Y.; Guo, Z.

    2017-12-01

    Serious water deficits and deteriorating environmental quality are threatening the sustainable socio-economic development and the protection of the ecology and the environment in North China, especially in Baotou City. There is a common misconception that groundwater extraction can be sustainable if the pumping rate does not exceed the total natural recharge in a groundwater basin. The truth is that the natural recharge is mainly affected by the rainfall and that groundwater withdrawal determines the sustainable yield of the aquifer flow system. The concept of the sustainable yield is defined as the allowance pumping patterns and rates that avoid adverse impacts on the groundwater system. The sustainable yield introduced in this paper is a useful baseline for groundwater management under all rainfall conditions and given pumping scenarios. A dynamic alternative to the groundwater sustainable yield for a given pumping pattern and rate should consider the responses of the recharge, discharge, and evapotranspiration to the groundwater level fluctuation and to different natural rainfall conditions. In this study, methods for determining the sustainable yield through time series data of groundwater recharge, discharge, extraction, and precipitation in an aquifer are introduced. A numerical simulation tool was used to assess and quantify the dynamic changes in groundwater recharge and discharge under excessive pumping patterns and rates and to estimate the sustainable yield of groundwater flow based on natural rainfall conditions and specific groundwater development scenarios during the period of 2007 to 2014. The results of this study indicate that the multi-year sustainable yield only accounts for about one-half of the average annual recharge. The future sustainable yield for the current pumping scenarios affected by rainfall conditions are evaluated quantitatively to obtain long-term groundwater development strategies. The simulation results show that sufficient

  19. Overestimation of soil CO2 fluxes from closed chamber measurements at low atmospheric turbulence biases the diurnal pattern and the annual soil respiration budget

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brændholt, Andreas; Larsen, Klaus Steenberg; Ibrom, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Precise quantification of the diurnal and seasonal variation of soil respiration (Rs) is crucial to correctly estimate annual soil carbon fluxes as well as to correctly interpret the response of Rs to biotic and abiotic factors on different time scale. In this study we found a systematic...... day time, i.e. following the course of soil temperatures. This effect on the diurnal pattern was due to low turbulence primarily occurring during night time. We calculated different annual Rs budgets by filtering out fluxes for different levels of u⋆. The highest annual Rs budget was found when...

  20. Mercury in the Blue Marlin (Makaira nigricans) from the Southern Gulf of California: Tissue Distribution and Inter-Annual Variation (2005-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega-Sánchez, B; Ortega-García, S; Ruelas-Inzunza, J; Frías-Espericueta, M; Escobar-Sánchez, O; Guzmán-Rendón, J

    2017-02-01

    With the aim of knowing annual variations of Hg concentrations in muscle and liver of blue marlin (Makaira nigricans) from the southern Gulf of California, fish were collected between 2005 and 2012 in three areas. In general, Hg levels were more elevated in liver than in muscle. Variations of Hg concentrations in muscle and liver among the studied years were not significant. Hg levels in muscle and liver increased significantly with length and weight of fish. In comparison to other studies, Hg levels in muscle and liver were lower. With respect to maximum permissible limits (1.0 µg g -1 wet weight) of Hg in Mexico, the average concentration (1.91 µg g -1 wet weight) in the edible portion (muscle) of blue marlin was over the legal limit; this issue is worth research efforts in relation to the rate of ingestion of this species and the co-occurrence of selenium in the edible portion.

  1. Assessing Seasonal and Inter-Annual Variations of Lake Surface Areas in Mongolia during 2000-2011 Using Minimum Composite MODIS NDVI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sinkyu; Hong, Suk Young

    2016-01-01

    A minimum composite method was applied to produce a 15-day interval normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) dataset from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) daily 250 m reflectance in the red and near-infrared bands. This dataset was applied to determine lake surface areas in Mongolia. A total of 73 lakes greater than 6.25 km2in area were selected, and 28 of these lakes were used to evaluate detection errors. The minimum composite NDVI showed a better detection performance on lake water pixels than did the official MODIS 16-day 250 m NDVI based on a maximum composite method. The overall lake area detection performance based on the 15-day minimum composite NDVI showed -2.5% error relative to the Landsat-derived lake area for the 28 evaluated lakes. The errors increased with increases in the perimeter-to-area ratio but decreased with lake size over 10 km(2). The lake area decreased by -9.3% at an annual rate of -53.7 km(2) yr(-1) during 2000 to 2011 for the 73 lakes. However, considerable spatial variations, such as slight-to-moderate lake area reductions in semi-arid regions and rapid lake area reductions in arid regions, were also detected. This study demonstrated applicability of MODIS 250 m reflectance data for biweekly monitoring of lake area change and diagnosed considerable lake area reduction and its spatial variability in arid and semi-arid regions of Mongolia. Future studies are required for explaining reasons of lake area changes and their spatial variability.

  2. Seasonal and Inter-annual Phenological Varibility is Greatest in Low-Arctic and Wet Sites Across the North Slope of Alaska as Observed from Multiple Remote Sensing Platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, S. A., Jr.; Andresen, C. G.; May, J. L.; Oberbauer, S. F.; Hollister, R. D.; Tweedie, C. E.

    2017-12-01

    The Arctic is experiencing among the most dramatic impacts from climate variability on the planet. Arctic plant phenology has been identified as an ideal indicator of climate change impacts and provides great insight into seasonal and inter-annual vegetative trends and their responses to such changes. Traditionally, phenology has been quantified using satellite-based systems and plot-level observations but each approach presents limitations especially in high latitude regions. Mid-scale systems (e.g. automated sensor platforms and trams) have shown to provide alternative, and in most cases, cheaper solutions with comparable results to those acquired traditionally. This study contributes to the US Arctic Observing Network (AON) and assesses the effectiveness of using digital images acquired from pheno-cams, a kite aerial photography (KAP) system, and plot-level images (PLI) in their capacity to assess phenological variability (e.g. snow melt, greening and end-of-season) for dominant vegetation communities present at two sites in both Utqiagvik and Atqasuk, Alaska, namely the Mobile Instrumented Sensor Platform (MISP) and the Circum-arctic Active Layer Monitoring (CALM) grids. RGB indices (e.g. GEI and %G) acquired from these methods were compared to the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) calculated from multispectral ground-based reflectance measurements, which has been identified and used as a proxy of primary productivity across multiple ecosystems including the Arctic. The 5 years of growing season data collected generally resulted with stronger Pearson's correlations between indices located in plots containing higher soil moisture versus those that were drier. Future studies will extend platform inter-comparison to the satellite level by scaling trends to MODIS land surface products. Trends documented thus far, however, suggest that the long-term changes in satellite NDVI for these study areas, could be a direct response from wet tundra landscapes.

  3. Inter-annual variability of aerosol optical depth over the tropical Atlantic Ocean based on MODIS-Aqua observations over the period 2002-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkikas, Antonis; Hatzianastassiou, Nikolaos

    2013-04-01

    The tropical Atlantic Ocean is affected by dust and biomass burning aerosol loads transported from the western parts of the Saharan desert and the sub-Sahel regions, respectively. The spatial and temporal patterns of this transport are determined by the aerosol emission rates, their deposition (wet and dry), by the latitudinal shift of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) and the prevailing wind fields. More specifically, in summer, Saharan dust aerosols are transported towards the Atlantic Ocean, even reaching the Gulf of Mexico, while in winter the Atlantic Ocean transport takes place in more southern latitudes, near the equator, sometimes reaching the northern parts of South America. In the later case, dust is mixed with biomass burning aerosols originating from agricultural activities in the sub-Sahel, associated with prevailing north-easterly airflow (Harmattan winds). Satellite observations are the appropriate tool for describing this African aerosol export, which is important to atmospheric, oceanic and climate processes, offering the advantage of complete spatial coverage. In the present study, we use satellite measurements of aerosol optical depth at 550nm (AOD550nm), on a daily and monthly basis, derived from MODIS-Aqua platform, at 1ox1o spatial resolution (Level 3), for the period 2002-2012. The primary objective is to determine the pixel-level and regional mean anomalies of AOD550nm over the entire study period. The regime of the anomalies of African export is interpreted in relation to the aerosol source areas, precipitation, wind patterns and temporal variability of the North Atlantic Oscillation Index (NAOI). In order to ensure availability of AOD over the Sahara desert, MODIS-Aqua Deep Blue products are also used. As for precipitation, Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) data at 2.5ox2.5o are used. The wind fields are taken from the National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP). Apart from the regime of African aerosol export

  4. Seasonal and inter-annual variation in the chlorophyll content of three co-existing Sphagnum species exceeds the effect of solar UV reduction in a subarctic peatland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyyryläinen, Anna; Rautio, Pasi; Turunen, Minna; Huttunen, Satu

    2015-01-01

    We measured chlorophyll (chl) concentration and chl a/b ratio in Sphagnum balticum, S. jensenii, and S. lindbergii, sampled after 7 and 8 years of ultraviolet-B (UVB) and temperature manipulation in an open field experiment in Finnish Lapland (68°N). We used plastic filters with different transmittance of UVB radiation to manipulate the environmental conditions. The plants were exposed to (1) attenuated UVB and increased temperature, (2) ambient UVB and increased temperature and (3) ambient conditions. Chlorophyll was extracted from the capitula of the mosses and the content and a/b ratio were measured spectrophotometrically. Seasonal variation of chlorophyll concentration in the mosses was species specific. Temperature increase to 0.5-1 °C and/or attenuation of solar UVB radiation to ca. one fifth of the ambient (on average 12 vs. 59 uW/cm(2)) had little effect on the chlorophyll concentration or its seasonal variation. In the dominant S. lindbergii, UVB attenuation under increased temperature led to a transient decrease in chlorophyll concentration. Altogether, species-specific patterns of seasonal chlorophyll variation in the studied Sphagna were more pronounced than temperature and UVB treatment effects.

  5. Monitoring of Dinophysis species and diarrhetic shellfish toxins in Flødevigen Bay, Norway: inter-annual variability over a 25-year time-series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naustvoll, L-J; Gustad, E; Dahl, E

    2012-01-01

    The accumulation of phycotoxins in bivalve mussels associated with mussels feeding on toxic phytoplankton is a well-known phenomenon in Norway. Regular monitoring for 25 years has revealed that accumulation of Diarrhetic Shellfish poisoning (DSP) toxins in mussels is the main phycotoxin problem along the Norwegian coast. The aim of this study was to evaluate possible trends over time of Dinophysis spp. and DSP as well as possible correlation between abundance of Dinophysis spp. and toxin accumulation in mussels, as based on intensive and regular monitoring at the southern coast of Norway at Flødevigen Bay. The main source organism causing a risk of DSP in Norway is Dinophysis acuta. However, it cannot be excluded that other Dinophysis spp., e.g. D. acuminata and D. norvegica, may contribute to the total accumulation of toxins. The variability in the occurrence of these species is high at both short- and long-term; between days and between years. There are, however, some important overall patterns in the occurrence of the species during the last decades. Dinophysis acuminata and D. norvegica have mainly been abundant from March to December, whereas D. acuta has typically occurred in late summer and autumn (August-December). For all three species we have observed a narrowing of the peak season since 2002 at the same time as they have become less abundant. Coincident with these changes, the problem of the accumulation of DSP toxins in mussels along the southern coast of Norway has declined significantly, but it is still mainly restricted to the autumn. Why the cell concentration of Dinophysis spp. has declined after 2002 is not obvious, but this has occurred in a period with relatively high summer temperatures. The relatively simultaneous changes in physical, chemical and biological factors of the pelagic ecosystem along the southern coast of Norway indicate that complicated ecological interactions may be involved.

  6. Seasonal and inter-annual eutrophication dynamics in a hypereutrophic shallow coastal lagoon from ten years of satellite observations and in-situ data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitarch, Jaime; Ruiz-Verdú, Antonio; Soria, Juan M.; Santoleri, Rosalia

    2016-04-01

    The Albufera de Valencia (39.33 N, 0.37 W) is a hypereutrophic shallow coastal lagoon, having a near round shape of ~ 5 km diameter and ~ 1 m average depth. At the west side, the lake is separated from the sea by a narrow land strip, but three artificial channels allow connection to the sea, regulated by gates. The rest of the lake is surrounded by rice fields that were made by gaining surface from the lake around a century ago. Nowadays, the ecological state of the lake is very degraded. Freshwater inflow is insufficient and residence time is too high. Despite some improvements in waste water treatment, high loads of sediment-stored nutrients are often resuspended due to habitual strong winds and made available for primary production. The previously abundant bottom vegetation disappeared decades ago and secchi depth does not reach more than few tens of centimeters. The lake suffers from cyanobacterial blooms and massive fish deaths. Despite its vital importance as a coastal wetland in the western Mediterranean region, its water quality is not routinely monitored, so its seasonality and eventual blooming events have not been sistematically studied. In this study, we aim at filling this gap using satellite data. Medium-resolution satellite-borne sensors constitute an appropriate tool for this sake due to the lake's medium size and little cloud cover time over the region. In particular, the European MERIS sensor (2002-2012) is specially well suited due to its unique spectral bands configuration for cyanobacterial detection. Apart from the utility of the results themselves, study of this sensor provides a strong baseline for operational utilization of its successor, the new-coming European Sentinel 3-OLCI sensor. We have processed the full archived MERIS archived data. By adequate choice of band ratios and posterior calibration to in-situ samples, the time series of chlorophyll concentration is derived. Derived seasonality reveals a pattern that is determined by the

  7. Investigating the Relationship between the Inter-Annual Variability of Satellite-Derived Vegetation Phenology and a Proxy of Biomass Production in the Sahel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Meroni

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the Sahel region, moderate to coarse spatial resolution remote sensing time series are used in early warning monitoring systems with the aim of detecting unfavorable crop and pasture conditions and informing stakeholders about impending food security risks. Despite growing evidence that vegetation productivity is directly related to phenology, most approaches to estimate such risks do not explicitly take into account the actual timing of vegetation growth and development. The date of the start of the season (SOS or of the peak canopy density can be assessed by remote sensing techniques in a timely manner during the growing season. However, there is limited knowledge about the relationship between vegetation biomass production and these variables at the regional scale. This study describes the first attempt to increase our understanding of such a relationship through the analysis of phenological variables retrieved from SPOT-VEGETATION time series of the Fraction of Absorbed Photosynthetically Active Radiation (FAPAR. Two key phenological variables (growing season length (GSL; timing of SOS and the maximum value of FAPAR attained during the growing season (Peak are analyzed as potentially related to a proxy of biomass production (CFAPAR, the cumulative value of FAPAR during the growing season. GSL, SOS and Peak all show different spatial patterns of correlation with CFAPAR. In particular, GSL shows a high and positive correlation with CFAPAR over the whole Sahel (mean r = 0.78. The negative correlation between delays in SOS and CFAPAR is stronger (mean r = −0.71 in the southern agricultural band of the Sahel, while the positive correlation between Peak FAPAR and CFAPAR is higher in the northern and more arid grassland region (mean r = 0.75. The consistency of the results and the actual link between remote sensing-derived phenological parameters and biomass production were evaluated using field measurements of aboveground herbaceous biomass

  8. Atmospheric deposition as an important nitrogen load to a typical agro-ecosystem in the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain. 2. Seasonal and inter-annual variations and their implications (2008-2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ping; Zhang, Jiabao; Ma, Donghao; Wen, Zhaofei; Wu, Shengjun; Garland, Gina; Pereira, Engil Isadora Pujol; Zhu, Anning; Xin, Xiuli; Zhang, Congzhi

    2016-03-01

    Atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition, an important N source to agro-ecosystems, has increased intensively in China during recent decades. However, knowledge on temporal variations of total N deposition and their influencing factors is limited due to lack of systematic monitoring data. In this study, total N deposition, including dry and wet components, was monitored using the water surrogate surface method for a typical agro-ecosystem with a winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and summer maize (Zea mays L.) rotation system in the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain from May 2008 to April 2012. The results indicated that annual total N deposition ranged from 23.8 kg N ha-1 (2009-2010) to 40.3 kg N ha-1 (2008-2009) and averaged 31.8 kg N ha-1. Great inter-annual variations were observed during the sampling period, due to differences in annual rainfall and gaseous N losses from farmlands. Monthly total N deposition varied greatly, from less than 0.6 kg N ha-1 (January, 2010) to over 8.0 kg N ha-1 (August, 2008), with a mean value of 2.6 kg N ha-1. In contrast to wet deposition, dry portions generally contributed more to the total, except in the precipitation-intensive months, accounting for 65% in average. NH4+ -N was the dominant species in N deposition and its contribution to total deposition varied from 6% (December, 2009) to 79% (July, 2008), averaging 53%. The role of organic N (O-N) in both dry and wet deposition was equal to or even greater than that of NO3- -N. Influencing factors such as precipitation and its seasonal distribution, reactive N sources, vegetation status, field management practices, and weather conditions were responsible for the temporal variations of atmospheric N deposition and its components. These results are helpful for reducing the knowledge gaps in the temporal variations of atmospheric N deposition and their influencing factors in different ecosystems, to improve the understandings on N budget in the typical agro-ecosystem, and to provide references

  9. Seasonal and Inter-Annual Patterns of Phytoplankton Community Structure in Monterey Bay, CA Derived from AVIRIS Data During the 2013-2015 HyspIRI Airborne Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, S. L.; Thompson, D. R.; Kudela, R. M.; Negrey, K.; Guild, L. S.; Gao, B. C.; Green, R. O.; Torres-Perez, J. L.

    2015-12-01

    There is a need in the ocean color community to discriminate among phytoplankton groups within the bulk chlorophyll pool to understand ocean biodiversity, to track energy flow through ecosystems, and to identify and monitor for harmful algal blooms. Imaging spectrometer measurements enable use of sophisticated spectroscopic algorithms for applications such as differentiating among coral species, evaluating iron stress of phytoplankton, and discriminating phytoplankton taxa. These advanced algorithms rely on the fine scale, subtle spectral shape of the atmospherically corrected remote sensing reflectance (Rrs) spectrum of the ocean surface. As a consequence, these algorithms are sensitive to inaccuracies in the retrieved Rrs spectrum that may be related to the presence of nearby clouds, inadequate sensor calibration, low sensor signal-to-noise ratio, glint correction, and atmospheric correction. For the HyspIRI Airborne Campaign, flight planning considered optimal weather conditions to avoid flights with significant cloud/fog cover. Although best suited for terrestrial targets, the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) has enough signal for some coastal chlorophyll algorithms and meets sufficient calibration requirements for most channels. However, the coastal marine environment has special atmospheric correction needs due to error that may be introduced by aerosols and terrestrially sourced atmospheric dust and riverine sediment plumes. For this HyspIRI campaign, careful attention has been given to the correction of AVIRIS imagery of the Monterey Bay to optimize ocean Rrs retrievals for use in estimating chlorophyll (OC3 algorithm) and phytoplankton functional type (PHYDOTax algorithm) data products. This new correction method has been applied to several image collection dates during two oceanographic seasons - upwelling and the warm, stratified oceanic period for 2013 and 2014. These two periods are dominated by either diatom blooms (occasionally toxic) or red tides. Results presented include chlorophyll and phytoplankton community structure and in-water validation data for these dates during these two seasons.

  10. Inter-Seasonal and Annual Co-Variation of Smallholder Production Portfolios, Volumes and Incomes with Rainfall and Flood Levels in the Amazon Estuary: Implications for Building Livelihood Resilience to Increasing Variability of Hydro-Climatic Regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, N. D.; Fernandes, K.; Pinedo-Vasquez, M.; Brondizio, E. S.; Almeida, O.; Rivero, S.; Rabelo, F. R.; Dou, Y.; Deadman, P.

    2014-12-01

    In this paper we investigate inter-seasonal and annual co-variations of rainfall and flood levels with Caboclo production portfolios, and proportions of it they sell and consume, in the Amazon Estuary from August 2012 to August 2014. Caboclos of the estuary maintain a diverse and flexible land-use portfolio, with a shift in dominant use from agriculture to agroforestry and forestry since WWII (Vogt et al., 2014). The current landscape is configured for acai, shrimp and fish production. In the last decade the frequency of wet seasons with anomalous flood levels and duration has increased primarily from changes in rainfall and discharge from upstream basins. Local rainfall, though with less influence on extreme estuarine flood levels, is reported to be more sporadic and intense in wet season and variable in both wet and dry seasons, for yet unknown reasons. The current production portfolio and its flexibility are felt to build resilience to these increases in hydro-climatic variability and extreme events. What is less understood, for time and costliness of daily measures at household levels, is how variations in flood and rainfall levels affect shifts in the current production portfolio of estuarine Caboclos, and the proportions of it they sell and consume. This is needed to identify what local hydro-climatic thresholds are extreme for current livelihoods, that is, that most adversely affect food security and income levels. It is also needed identify the large-scale forcings driving those extreme conditions to build forecasts for when they will occur. Here we present results of production, rainfall and flood data collected daily in households from both the North and South Channel of the Amazon estuary over last two years to identify how they co-vary, and robustness of current production portfolio under different hydro-climatic conditions.

  11. Seasonal and inter-annual variability of aerosol optical properties during 2005-2010 over Red Mountain Pass and Impact on the Snow Cover of the San Juan Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R. P.; Gautam, R.; Painter, T. H.

    2011-12-01

    Growing body of evidence suggests the significant role of aerosol solar absorption in accelerated seasonal snowmelt in the cryosphere and elevated mountain regions via snow contamination and radiative warming processes. Characterization of aerosol optical properties over seasonal snow cover and snowpacks is therefore important towards the better understanding of aerosol radiative effects and associated impact on snow albedo. In this study, we present seasonal variations in column-integrated aerosol optical properties retrieved from AERONET sunphotometer measurements (2005-2010) at Red Mountain Pass (37.90° N, 107.72° W, 3368 msl) in the San Juan Mountains, in the vicinity of the North American Great Basin and Colorado Plateau deserts. The aerosol optical depth (AOD) measured at 500nm is generally low (pollutant transport. In addition, the possibility of the observed increased coarse-mode influence associated with mineral dust influx cannot be ruled out, due to westerly-airmass driven transport from arid/desert regions as suggested by backward trajectory simulations. A meteorological coupling is also found in the summer season between AOD and column water vapor retrieved from AERONET with co-occurring enhanced water vapor and AOD. Based on column measurements, it is difficult to ascertain the aerosol composition, however, the summer-time enhanced aerosol loading as presented here is consistent with the increased dust deposition in the San Juan mountain snow cover as reported in recent studies. In summary, this study is expected to better understand the seasonal and inter-annual aerosol column variations and is an attempt to provide an insight into the effects of aerosol solar absorption on accelerated seasonal snowmelt in the San Juan mountains.

  12. Medizinbibliotheken: inter:disziplinär – inter:national –inter:aktiv

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bauer, Bruno

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The focus of the current issue 3/2017 of GMS Medizin – Bibliothek – Information is the annual conference 2017 of the German Medical Libraries Association in Vienna. The motto of the conference was “Medical Libraries: inter:disciplinary – inter:national – inter:active”. The authors in this issue are Bruno Bauer (Austrian Transition to Open Access 2017–2020, Beata Górczynska (Development and structure of Polish veterinary school system and its libraries, Katharina Heldt, Henriette Senst & Jessica Riedel (Salon on the institute’s history: outstanding artifacts. 28.01.2016 to 15.12.2016, Jutta Matrisciano, Martina Semmler-Schmetz & Saskia Rohmer (Advice – From info snack to special menu: Solutions of the MedMA-Bib, Stefan Nortmann (The ‘Ersti-Café’ of the Medical Branch Library Münster, Sandra Rümmele (Toolbox: The new teaching library project of the Central Medical Library of the University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Eva Seidlmayer & Christoph Poley (One Health – Transdisciplinarity at ZB MED and Heike Andermann (“Medical Libraries: inter:disciplinary – inter:national – inter:active”. Annual Meeting of the German Medical Library Association (AGMB, September 25 to 27, 2017 in Vienna. Furthermore this focus issue features articles from Stefan Grün & Christoph Poley (Statistical evaluation of semantic entities from metadata and full text on German Medical Science corpora and Iris Reimann (German MLA News; Competition of the German MLA Pioneer projects in medical libraries 2017: Introduction of the winners; Competition of the German MLA (AGMB Pioneer projects in medical libraries 2018 – Announcement.

  13. Assessment the Economic Damage of Inter-Basin Water Transfer on Cropping Pattern and Farmers’ Income Situation in the Origin Basin (Case Study: Water Transfer of Alamoutrood to Qazvin Plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Parhizkari

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sustainable management of water resources is one of the most important disturbances of current century and many scientists and investigators have already started to pay attention to it from last decade and early 21st century. Iran is in the semi-arid region and thus disproportionate distribution of water resources, so atmospheric precipitation and soil in the country, along with factors such as climate change, drought, environmental protection, ecological special situation, maintain the current pattern of population distribution provides various challenges. Industry and agriculture sectors create a regional balance tailored to the development needs on the one hand and focusing on distribution balanced and optimal management of water resources on the other hand. Transfer of water between river basins (watersheds, catchments, which is basically a hydrological category, different from the notion of transferring water over political boundaries, usually called transboundary water transfer. Interbasin water transfer usually implies large hydraulic engineering structures, conduits, canals, dams, pumping stations, and consequently shares the mistrust which meets large scale infrastructural solutions in water management, often criticized and opposed with the argument that one should first try to reduce water wastage, before embarking into costly investments. Inter-basin water transfer in fact is physical transfer of water from one basin to another basin. This transfer (Inter-basin water transfer despite the elimination of shortcomings in the transmission destination areas, can the source of many changes in the cropping pattern, and farmers gross profit. Natural environment, migration, reduction of dependency to agriculture, small industries in the origin basins all requires assessments before the implementation of the water transfer projects. In Iran also water transfer from regions with high rainfall to arid regions has been performed by

  14. Sensitivity of growth and biomass allocation patterns to increasing nitrogen: a comparison between ephemerals and annuals in the Gurbantunggut Desert, north-western China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaobing; Zhang, Yuanming; Niklas, Karl J

    2014-02-01

    Biomass accumulation and allocation patterns are critical to quantifying ecosystem dynamics. However, these patterns differ among species, and they can change in response to nutrient availability even among genetically related individuals. In order to understand this complexity further, this study examined three ephemeral species (with very short vegetative growth periods) and three annual species (with significantly longer vegetative growth periods) in the Gurbantunggut Desert, north-western China, to determine their responses to different nitrogen (N) supplements under natural conditions. Nitrogen was added to the soil at rates of 0, 0.5, 1.0, 3.0, 6.0 and 24.0 g N m(-2) year(-1). Plants were sampled at various intervals to measure relative growth rate and shoot and root dry mass. Compared with annuals, ephemerals grew more rapidly, increased shoot and root biomass with increasing N application rates and significantly decreased root/shoot ratios. Nevertheless, changes in the biomass allocation of some species (i.e. Erodium oxyrrhynchum) in response to the N treatment were largely a consequence of changes in overall plant size, which was inconsistent with an optimal partitioning model. An isometric log shoot vs. log root scaling relationship for the final biomass harvest was observed for each species and all annuals, while pooled data of three ephemerals showed an allometric scaling relationship. These results indicate that ephemerals and annuals differ observably in their biomass allocation patterns in response to soil N supplements, although an isometric log shoot vs. log root scaling relationship was maintained across all species. These findings highlight that different life history strategies behave differently in response to N application even when interspecific scaling relationships remain nearly isometric.

  15. Deriving stable multi-parametric MRI radiomic signatures in the presence of inter-scanner variations: survival prediction of glioblastoma via imaging pattern analysis and machine learning techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathore, Saima; Bakas, Spyridon; Akbari, Hamed; Shukla, Gaurav; Rozycki, Martin; Davatzikos, Christos

    2018-02-01

    There is mounting evidence that assessment of multi-parametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) profiles can noninvasively predict survival in many cancers, including glioblastoma. The clinical adoption of mpMRI as a prognostic biomarker, however, depends on its applicability in a multicenter setting, which is hampered by inter-scanner variations. This concept has not been addressed in existing studies. We developed a comprehensive set of within-patient normalized tumor features such as intensity profile, shape, volume, and tumor location, extracted from multicenter mpMRI of two large (npatients=353) cohorts, comprising the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania (HUP, npatients=252, nscanners=3) and The Cancer Imaging Archive (TCIA, npatients=101, nscanners=8). Inter-scanner harmonization was conducted by normalizing the tumor intensity profile, with that of the contralateral healthy tissue. The extracted features were integrated by support vector machines to derive survival predictors. The predictors' generalizability was evaluated within each cohort, by two cross-validation configurations: i) pooled/scanner-agnostic, and ii) across scanners (training in multiple scanners and testing in one). The median survival in each configuration was used as a cut-off to divide patients in long- and short-survivors. Accuracy (ACC) for predicting long- versus short-survivors, for these configurations was ACCpooled=79.06% and ACCpooled=84.7%, ACCacross=73.55% and ACCacross=74.76%, in HUP and TCIA datasets, respectively. The hazard ratio at 95% confidence interval was 3.87 (2.87-5.20, P<0.001) and 6.65 (3.57-12.36, P<0.001) for HUP and TCIA datasets, respectively. Our findings suggest that adequate data normalization coupled with machine learning classification allows robust prediction of survival estimates on mpMRI acquired by multiple scanners.

  16. Patterns of morphological variation among populations of the widespread annual killifish Nothobranchius orthonotus are independent of genetic divergence and biogeography

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vrtílek, Milan; Reichard, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 4 (2016), s. 289-298 ISSN 0947-5745 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : geometric morphometry * body shape * species delimitation * annual killifish * Nothobranchius Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.444, year: 2016

  17. Status of annual plant species in the Baneberry fallout pattern first and sixth years after initial irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhoads, W.A.

    1977-01-01

    At Project Baneberry on December 18, 1970, there was an accidental venting of radioactive debris into the environment which resulted in the irradiation of vegetation about 1.5 km to the north with doses estimated to reach a maximum of 6.2 K rads, beta plus gamma. At the highest doses, 35 percent of the dominant shrub in the area, Coleogyne (black brush), were killed and 65% severely damaged; and at lesser doses there was correspondingly less damage. Other species of shrubs were also affected. Grayia spinosa showed a low frequency of stem fasciation at the higher doses as well as other manifestations of radiation damage. In June 1971, the annual plant species which were probably small seedlings at fallout time were more frequently absent from the higher radiation areas than in the lower. At the same time, there was a greater frequency of higher dry weights produced by annuals at the higher radiation exposures. The frequency of occurrence of annuals varied from means of 8.5/m 2 at the higher doses to 24.3/m 2 at the lower doses. In June 1976, five years after irradiation, there were 300 to 400 plants/m 2 . By extrapolating the plants/m 2 against dose back to zero plants/m 2 , some indication of radiation doses which might destroy all annuals was derived

  18. Application of point-process statistical tools to stable isotopes in xylem water for the study of inter- and intra-specific interactions in water uptake patterns in a mixed stand of Pinus halepensis Mill. and Quercus ilex L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comas, Carles; del Castillo, Jorge; Voltas, Jordi; Ferrio, Juan Pedro

    2013-04-01

    The stable isotope composition of xylem water reflects has been used to assess inter-specific differences in uptake patterns, revealing synergistic and competition processes in the use of water resources (see e.g. Dawson et al. 1993). However, there is a lack of detailed studies on spatial and temporal variability of inter- and intra-specific competition within forest stands. In this context, the aim of this work was to compare the isotope composition of xylem water (δ18O , δ2H) in two common Mediterranean tree species, Quercus ilex L. and Pinus halepensis Mill, in order to understand their water uptake patterns throughout the growing season. In addition, we analyze the spatial variability of xylem water, to get insight into inter-specific strategies employed to cope with drought and the interaction between the individuals. Our first hypothesis was that both species used different strategies to cope with drought by uptaking water at different depths; and our second hypothesis was that individual trees would behave in different manner according to the distance to their neighbours as well as to whether the neighbour is from one species or the other. The study was performed in a mixed stand where both species are nearly co-dominant, adding up to a total of 33 oaks and 77 pines (plot area= 893 m2). We sampled sun-exposed branches of each tree six times over the growing season, and extracted the xylem water with a cryogenic trap. The isotopic composition of the water was determined using a Picarro Water Analizer L2130-i. Tree mapping for spatial analysis was done using a high resolution GPS technology (Trimble GeoExplorer 6000). For the spatial analysis, we used the pair-correlation function to study intra-specific tree configuration and the bivariate pair correlation function to analyse the inter-specific spatial configurations (Stoyan et al 1995). Moreover, the isotopic composition of xylem water was assumed to be a mark associated to each tree and analysed as a

  19. Nutrient intake and nutrient patterns and risk of lung cancer among heavy smokers: results from the COSMOS screening study with annual low-dose CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gnagnarella, Patrizia; Maisonneuve, Patrick; Bellomi, Massimo; Rampinelli, Cristiano; Bertolotti, Raffaella; Spaggiari, Lorenzo; Palli, Domenico; Veronesi, Giulia

    2013-01-01

    The role of nutrients in lung cancer aetiology remains controversial and has never been evaluated in the context of screening. Our aim was to investigate the role of single nutrients and nutrient patterns in the aetiology of lung cancer in heavy smokers. Asymptomatic heavy smokers (≥20 pack-years) were invited to undergo annual low-dose computed tomography. We assessed diet using a self-administered food frequency questionnaire and collected information on multivitamin supplement use. We performed principal component analysis identifying four nutrient patterns and used Cox proportional Hazards regression to assess the association between nutrients and nutrients patterns and lung cancer risk. During a mean follow-up of 5.7 years, 178 of 4,336 participants were diagnosed with lung cancer by screening. We found a significant risk reduction of lung cancer with increasing vegetable fat consumption (HR for highest vs. lowest quartile = 0.50, 95 % CI = 0.31–0.80; P-trend = 0.02). Participants classified in the high “vitamins and fiber” pattern score had a significant risk reduction of lung cancer (HR = 0.57; 95 % CI = 0.36–0.90, P-trend = 0.01). Among heavy smokers enrolled in a screening trial, high vegetable fat intake and adherence to the “vitamin and fiber” nutrient pattern were associated with reduced lung cancer incidence.

  20. Foundations for a syntatic pattern recognition system for genomic DNA sequences. [Annual] report, 1 December 1991--31 March 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Searles, D.B.

    1993-03-01

    The goal of the proposed work is the creation of a software system that will perform sophisticated pattern recognition and related functions at a level of abstraction and with expressive power beyond current general-purpose pattern-matching systems for biological sequences; and with a more uniform language, environment, and graphical user interface, and with greater flexibility, extensibility, embeddability, and ability to incorporate other algorithms, than current special-purpose analytic software.

  1. The Late Pleistocene-Holocene community development in Central and SE-Europe in direct fossil record: scope of the approach, common patterns and inter-regional differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horacek, Ivan; Lozek, Vojen

    2010-05-01

    The information provided by modern instrumental approaches (molecular phylogeography, ancient DNA analyses, large scale radiocarbon datings etc.) refined the knowledge on Late Quaternary faunal development and range history of particular taxa in essential way. Nevertheless, the direct fossil record remains still an essential substrate in study of that topics, and to reveal all the information, that it may provide, and integrate it with the outputs of the other approaches presents one of the essential aim of the present meeting. Unfortunately, the immediate use of fossil record for the paleoecologic and paleobiogeographic inferences is often limited by its fragmentarity (both in temporal and spatial respects), taphonomic influences and/or locally specific post-sedimentary effects which all may bias it in a considerable degree. Hence, each particular record is to be carefully reexamined in respect to all factor which may bias it - unfortunately, often it is not too easy to respond that task, particularly when the record is retrived from secondary sources. It should also be remembered that the records representing narrow time slices without a robust lithostratigraphic context do not provide any information on the historical and contextual setting of the respective faunal situation. Such information that is essential for reconstructions of paleobiogeography of community development and similar locally-sensitive phenomena can only be retrived from the continuous sedimentary series which establish the sequence of particular faunal events by direct superposition. A sufficiently dense network of such series provides than a possibility of direct inter-regional comparisons and a high resolution information on the paleobiogeography of the Late Pleistocene-Holocene rearrangements of mammalian communities, local variation in history of particular species and its community context. We illustrate productivity of such approach on with aid of the fossil record obtained from

  2. Quantification of Linkages between Large-Scale Climate Patterns and Annual Precipitation for the Colorado River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalra, A.; Ahmad, S.

    2010-12-01

    Precipitation is regarded as one of the key variables driving various hydrologic processes and the future precipitation information can be useful to better understand the long-term climate dynamics. In this paper, a simple, robust, and parsimonious precipitation forecast model, Support Vector Machine (SVM) is proposed which uses large-scale climate information and predict annual precipitation 1-year in advance. SVM’s are a novel class of neural networks (NNs) which are based on the statistical learning theory. The SVM’s has three main advantages over the traditional NNs: 1) better generalization ability, 2) the architecture and weights of SVM’s are guaranteed to be unique and globally optimum, and 3) SVM’s are trained more rapidly than the corresponding NN. With these advantages, an application of SVM incorporating large-scale climate information is developed and applied to seventeen climate divisions encompassing the Colorado River Basin in the western United States. Annual oceanic-atmospheric indices, comprising of Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO), and El Nino-Southern Oscillations (ENSO) for a period of 1900-2007 are used to generate annual precipitation estimates with 1-year lead time. The results from the present study indicate that long-term precipitation predictions for the Upper Colorado River Basin can be successfully obtained using a combination of NAO and ENSO indices whereas coupling PDO and AMO results in improved precipitation predictions for the Lower Colorado River Basin. Precipitation predictions from the SVM model are found to be better when compared with the predictions obtained from feed-forward back propagation Artificial Neural Network and Multivariate Linear Regression models. The overall results of this study revealed that the annual precipitation of the Colorado River Basin was significantly influenced by oceanic-atmospheric oscillations and the proposed SVM

  3. Annual report June 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This annual report reviews the activities of the National Accelerator Centre until June 1988. The 200 MeV cyclotron facility, the Pretoria cyclotron facility and the Van De Graaff facility are discussed in detail. Aspects of the 200 MeV cyclotron facility examined are, inter alia: the injector cyclotrons, the separated-sector cyclotron, the control system, the beam transport system and radioisotope production. Separate abstracts were prepared for the various subdivisions contained in this annual report

  4. Broad-scale sampling of primary freshwater fish populations reveals the role of intrinsic traits, inter-basin connectivity, drainage area and latitude on shaping contemporary patterns of genetic diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Sousa-Santos

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Worldwide predictions suggest that up to 75% of the freshwater fish species occurring in rivers with reduced discharge could be extinct by 2070 due to the combined effect of climate change and water abstraction. The Mediterranean region is considered to be a hotspot of freshwater fish diversity but also one of the regions where the effects of climate change will be more severe. Iberian cyprinids are currently highly endangered, with over 68% of the species raising some level of conservation concern. Methods. During the FISHATLAS project, the Portuguese hydrographical network was extensively covered (all the 34 river basins and 47 sub-basins in order to contribute with valuable data on the genetic diversity distribution patterns of native cyprinid species. A total of 188 populations belonging to 16 cyprinid species of Squalius, Luciobarbus, Achondrostoma, Iberochondrostoma, Anaecypris and Pseudochondrostoma were characterized, for a total of 3,678 cytochrome b gene sequences. Results. When the genetic diversity of these populations was mapped, it highlighted differences among populations from the same species and between species with identical distribution areas. Factors shaping the contemporary patterns of genetic diversity were explored and the results revealed the role of latitude, inter-basin connectivity, migratory behaviour, species maximum size, species range and other species intrinsic traits in determining the genetic diversity of sampled populations. Contrastingly, drainage area and hydrological regime (permanent vs. temporary seem to have no significant effect on genetic diversity. Species intrinsic traits, maximum size attained, inter-basin connectivity and latitude explained over 30% of the haplotype diversity variance and, generally, the levels of diversity were significantly higher for smaller sized species, from connected and southerly river basins. Discussion. Targeting multiple co-distributed species of primary

  5. Regional climate pattern during two millennia estimated from annual tree rings of Yaku cedar trees: a hint for solar variability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraki, Yasushi; Mitsutani, Takumi; Shibata, Shoichi; Kuramata, Syuichi; Masuda, Kimiaki; Nagaya, Kentaro

    2015-02-01

    We analyzed trees that have survived on Yaku island (Yakushima) for 2,000 years. Quite surprisingly, the Fourier and wavelet analyses of the annual growth rate identified 2 cycles of periodicities of 11 and (24 ± 4) years during the Oort, Wolf, Spörer, Maunder, and Dalton minima. The 11-year periodicity originated from solar activity, while the (24 ± 4)-year periodicity may be related to the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). In particular, we have discovered an 11-year periodicity in the meteorological daylight-hour data from Yakushima in the month of June during 1938 to 2013 and a 24-year periodicity in July. The growth rate of the tree rings may be affected by the variation of the daylight hour.

  6. Importance of photoperiods in determining temporal pattern of annual testicular events in rose-ringed parakeet (Psittacula krameri).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maitra, S K; Dey, M

    1992-01-01

    Male rose-ringed parakeets (Psittacula krameri) were transferred to a long photoperiod (LP; LD 16:8) or a short photoperiod (SP; LD 8:16) for 45 or 90 days on four dates corresponding to the beginnings of different reproductive phases in an annual testicular cycle, and testicular responsiveness was evaluated by comparison with the testicular volume, weight, seminiferous tubular diameter, and germ cell profiles of birds in a natural photoperiod (NP). Exposure of birds to LP during the progressive phase (November) led to precocious maturation of testes after 45 days, but induced regression at 90 days. After showing retarded gametogenic functions at 45 days, parallel (November) SP birds exhibited an accelerated rate of germ cell formation at day 90. During the prebreeding phase (January), there were no remarkable differences in any features of testes among NP. LP, and SP birds at 45 days, but gonadal involution in LP parakeets and active spermatogenesis in SP birds occurred after 90 days. The testes did not show any response to LP or SP for 45 and 90 days when the birds were transferred to altered photoperiods during the breeding (March) and preparatory (June) phases, indicating that the parakeets were photorefractory for at least 6 months (March through September). The results also suggest that initiation and termination of seasonal gametogenic activity in parakeets are possibly functions of endogenous rhythmicity or extraphotoperiodic environmental factors. Duration of light may have certain influences on the attainment of annual peak in spermatogenesis, but in all probability the species has a low photoperiod threshold for induction of testicular growth.

  7. Changes in seasonal climate patterns from 34-4 ka in a Soreq Cave (Israel) speleothem: Sub-annual resolution by ion microprobe and CLFM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orland, I. J.; Bar-Matthews, M.; Kita, N.; Ayalon, A.; Valley, J. W.

    2009-12-01

    Speleothems provide an important proxy-record of paleoclimate. Isotopic data from calcite-dominated cave formations have been used to identify changes in annual rainfall, monsoon strength, telecommunication of Northern Hemisphere climate aberrations, changes in vegetation cover, and other region-specific paleoclimate time-series over annual to millennial timescales. As more research is devoted to understanding abrupt climate change events, there is a need to develop high-temporal-resolution records from continental regions. However, in most isotopic studies, seasonality information is lost due to technical limitations. This study focuses on a speleothem from the semi-arid Eastern Mediterranean region (Soreq Cave, Israel) where prior research shows that conventional drill-sampling methods permit a temporal resolution of ~10-50 years in speleothem paleoclimate records. The WiscSIMS lab has developed analytical protocols for ion microprobe analysis that yield a precision of ~0.3‰ (2 s.d.) in δ18O from 10 μm-diameter spots, which permit multiple analyses/year in many speleothems. Orland et al. (2009, Quat. Res.) establish the methodology for the current study by identifying seasonal variability using a combination of confocal laser fluorescent microscopy (CLFM) and ion microprobe analysis in a younger (~2-1 ka) Soreq speleothem that has a consistent bright-grading-to-dark fluorescence pattern within each annual band. Further, Orland et al. define a quantitative measure of seasonality, Δ18O, that measures the difference in δ18O between bright and dark fluorescent portions of individual annual growth bands [Δ18O = δ18Odark - δ18Obright]. Smaller values of Δ18O are interpreted to be caused by dry years. The current study employs the aforementioned methods to examine seasonality trends in a sample that covers a much longer time period. We report δ18O from >1000 spots across a radial traverse of Soreq Cave sample 2N matched to imaging of annual growth bands by

  8. Appendix A.3. Minutes from meeting of the 1995th Joint Annual Report's Proposals and on the Slovak-Hungarian monitoring of underwater weir impacts according to the Inter-governmental Agreement held on October 10, 1996 in Gyoer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This part contains: (1) Points of the agenda: 1. Evaluation of the water discharged by the Slovak Party according to the Agreement from 1995; 2. Information about the monitoring data exchange: - surface and groundwater regimes in 1996, - surface and ground water quality, - soil moisture, - bio-monitoring including Proposals in the 1995 th Joint Annual Report; 3 Schedule of the 1995 th Joint Annual Report's proposals fulfillment; 4 Tasks concerning the 1996 th National and Annual Reports preparation. In the annexes tabular forms and digital formats for data exchange are presented: Surface water discharge; Surface water level; Surface water quality, Ground Water level; Ground Water quality; Soil moisture. (2) Annex 1: Minutes from meeting of experts for surface and ground water regime and quality held on September 11, 1996 in Bratislava. (3) Annex 2: Minutes from meeting of experts for soil moisture monitoring and biology held on October 2, 1996 in Mosonmagyarovar

  9. Patterns of floodplain sediment deposition along the regulated lower Roanoke River, North Carolina: annual, decadal, centennial scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hupp, Cliff R.; Schenk, Edward R.; Kroes, Daniel; Willard, Debra A.; Townsend, Phil A.; Peet, Robert K.

    2015-01-01

    The lower Roanoke River on the Coastal Plain of North Carolina is not embayed and maintains a floodplain that is among the largest on the mid-Atlantic Coast. This floodplain has been impacted by substantial aggradation in response to upstream colonial and post-colonial agriculture between the mid-eighteenth and mid-nineteenth centuries. Additionally, since the mid-twentieth century stream flow has been regulated by a series of high dams. We used artificial markers (clay pads), tree-ring (dendrogeomorphic) techniques, and pollen analyses to document sedimentation rates/amounts over short-, intermediate-, and long-term temporal scales, respectively. These analyses occurred along 58 transects at 378 stations throughout the lower river floodplain from near the Fall Line to the Albemarle Sound. Present sediment deposition rates ranged from 0.5 to 3.4 mm/y and 0.3 to 5.9 mm/y from clay pad and dendrogeomorphic analyses, respectively. Deposition rates systematically increased from upstream (high banks and floodplain) to downstream (low banks) reaches, except the lowest reaches. Conversely, legacy sediment deposition (A.D. 1725 to 1850) ranged from 5 to about 40 mm/y, downstream to upstream, respectively, and is apparently responsible for high banks upstream and large/wide levees along some of the middle stream reaches. Dam operations have selectively reduced levee deposition while facilitating continued backswamp deposition. A GIS-based model predicts 453,000 Mg of sediment is trapped annually on the floodplain and that little watershed-derived sediment reaches the Albemarle Sound. Nearly all sediment in transport and deposited is derived from the channel bed and banks. Legacy deposits (sources) and regulated discharges affect most aspects of present fluvial sedimentation dynamics. The lower river reflects complex relaxation conditions following both major human alterations, yet continues to provide the ecosystem service of sediment trapping.

  10. Rhythmic patterns in ancient shells: Can we reconstruct sub-annual cyclicity in trace element and stable isotope profiles from rudist bivalves?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Winter, N.; Sinnesael, M.; Vansteenberge, S.; Goderis, S.; Snoeck, C.; Van Malderen, S. J. M.; Vanhaecke, F. F.; Claeys, P.

    2017-12-01

    Well-preserved shells of Torreites rudists from the Late Campanian Saiwan Formation in Oman exhibit fine internal layering. These fine (±20 µm) laminae are rhythmically bundled (±400 µm) and subdivide the shells' larger scale annual lamination (±15 mm), suggesting the presence of several interfering cycles in shell growth rate. The aim of the present study is to determine the duration and chemical signature of these rhythmic variations in shell composition. To achieve this, a range of micro-analytical techniques is applied on cross sections through the shells. Firstly, microscopy-based layer counting and colorimetric analysis are carried out on thin sections of shell calcite. Secondly, X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) and Fourier Transform InfraRed (FTIR) mapping of cross sections of the shells reveal chemical and structural differences between laminae in 2D. Thirdly, high-resolution XRF (25 µm) and Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS; 10 µm) trace element profiles are used to quantify variations in chemical composition between shell laminae. Fourthly, annual chronology is established based on micro-sampled stable carbon and oxygen stable isotope measurements (250 µm) along the growth axis of the shells. Finally, spectral analysis routines are applied to extract rhythmic patterns matched to the shell laminae from the structural, chemical and colorimetric data. Combining these methods allows for a full evaluation of the structural and chemical characteristics as well as the timing of sub-annual lamination in rudist shells. The results of this study shed light on the external factors that influenced growth rates in rudist bivalves. A better understanding of the timing of deposition of these laminae allows them to be used to improve age models of geochemical records in rudist shells. Characterization of small scale variations in shell composition will characterize the uncertainties contained within lower resolution proxy records from

  11. 'Global change' impact of inter-annual variation in water discharge as a driving factor to dredging and spoil disposal in the river Rhine system and of turbidity in the Wadden Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jonge, V.N.; de Jong, D.J.

    2002-01-01

    Between 1970 to 2000, the annual mean suspended matter (SPM) concentrations in the Vlie and Marsdiep tidal inlets of the Wadden Sea varied over five times. The present paper examines the possible relationship between SPM in the Wadden Sea and changing river Rhine discharges and dredging operations.

  12. Inter-annual chemical stratification in Brazilian natural lakes: meromixis and hypolimnetic memory Estratificação química em lagos naturais brasileiros: meromixia e memória hipolimnética

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Gomes Barbosa

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: chemical stratification and the patterns of light limitation and nutrients of two natural lakes, one shallow and the other one deep, were comparatively evaluated, both lakes located in the southeast Brazil. METHODS: pH, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen, total dissolved solids and nutrients were monthly collected during 5 consecutive years at the vertical profile of the two lakes. RESULTS: multivariate analysis indicated that the long thermal stratification period favored the occurrence of chemical stratification in the two lakes. However, in the deeper lake the stratified thermal profile with high hypolimnetic nutrient concentration, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids and redox potential indicated that the mixing was not complete even during the annual circulation period, suggesting a slight meromixis and a high chemical stability at the hypolimnion. In the shallower lake, high light attenuation and high availability of nitrogen forms (mainly N-NH4 and phosphorus was observed along the water column, even during stratification. In the deeper lake, N and P co-limitation and low light attenuation coefficients were detected. CONCLUSION: thermal and chemical stratification patterns indicated that the Carioca lake is a shallow, turbid, nutrient rich, whereas the Dom Helvecio lake is a deep, clear, oligotrophic system with a tendency towards meromixis and the isolation of solutes in the hypolimnion. Consequently, meromixis was compared to a "hypolimnetic memory", which was defined, in the case of the deeper lake, as the maintenance of the chemical stratification along the years, during the lake thermal circulation period.OBJETIVO: a estratificação química e os padrões de limitação por luz e nutrientes foram avaliados comparativamente em dois lagos naturais, sendo um raso e o outro profundo no sudeste do Brasil. MÉTODOS: as amostragens de pH, condutividade elétrica, oxigênio dissolvido, sólidos totais dissolvidos e

  13. A Year in the Life: Annual Patterns of CO2 and CH4 from a Northern Finland Peatland, Including Anaerobic Methane Oxidation and Summer Ebullition Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, K.; Lipson, D.; Biasi, C.; Dorodnikov, M.; Männistö, M.; Lai, C. T.

    2014-12-01

    The major ecological controls on methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes in northern wetland systems are well known, yet estimates of source/sink magnitudes are often incongruous with measured rates. This mismatch persists because holistic flux datasets are rare, preventing 'whole picture' determinations of flux controls. To combat this, we measured net CO2 and CH4 fluxes from September 2012-2013 within a peatland in northern Lapland, Finland. In addition, we performed in situ manipulations and in vitro soil incubations to quantify anaerobic methane oxidation and methanogenic rates as they related to alternative electron acceptor availability. Average annual fluxes varied substantially between different depressions within the wetland, a pattern that persisted through all seasons. Season was a strong predictor of both CO2 and CH4 flux rates, yet CH4 rates were not related to melt-season 10cm or 30cm soil temperatures, and only poorly predicted with air temperatures. We found evidence for both autumnal and spring thaw CH4 bursts, collectively accounting for 26% of annual CH4 flux, although the autumnal burst was more than 5 fold larger than the spring burst. CH4 ebullition measured throughout the growing season augmented the CH4 source load by a factor of 1.5, and was linked with fine-scale spatial heterogeneity within the wetland. Surprisingly, CH4 flux rates were insensitive to Fe(III) and humic acid soil amendments, both of which amplified CO2 fluxes. Using in vitro incubations, we determined anaerobic methane oxidation and methanogenesis rates. Measured anaerobic oxidation rates showed potential consumption of between 6-39% of the methane produced, contributing approximately 1% of total carbon dioxide flux. Treatments of nitrate, sulfate and ferric iron showed that nitrate suppressed methanogenesis, but were not associated with anaerobic oxidation rates.

  14. Identification and utilization of inter-species conserved (ISC probesets on Affymetrix human GeneChip® platforms for the optimization of the assessment of expression patterns in non human primate (NHP samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnold Alma

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While researchers have utilized versions of the Affymetrix human GeneChip® for the assessment of expression patterns in non human primate (NHP samples, there has been no comprehensive sequence analysis study undertaken to demonstrate that the probe sequences designed to detect human transcripts are reliably hybridizing with their orthologs in NHP. By aligning probe sequences with expressed sequence tags (ESTs in NHP, inter-species conserved (ISC probesets, which have two or more probes complementary to ESTs in NHP, were identified on human GeneChip® platforms. The utility of human GeneChips® for the assessment of NHP expression patterns can be effectively evaluated by analyzing the hybridization behaviour of ISC probesets. Appropriate normalization methods were identified that further improve the reliability of human GeneChips® for interspecies (human vs NHP comparisons. Results ISC probesets in each of the seven Affymetrix GeneChip® platforms (U133Plus2.0, U133A, U133B, U95Av2, U95B, Focus and HuGeneFL were identified for both monkey and chimpanzee. Expression data was generated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs of 12 human and 8 monkey (Indian origin Rhesus macaque samples using the Focus GeneChip®. Analysis of both qualitative detection calls and quantitative signal intensities showed that intra-species reproducibility (human vs. human or monkey vs. monkey was much higher than interspecies reproducibility (human vs. monkey. ISC probesets exhibited higher interspecies reproducibility than the overall expressed probesets. Importantly, appropriate normalization methods could be leveraged to greatly improve interspecies correlations. The correlation coefficients between human (average of 12 samples and monkey (average of 8 Rhesus macaque samples are 0.725, 0.821 and 0.893 for MAS5.0 (Microarray Suite version 5.0, dChip and RMA (Robust Multi-chip Average normalization method, respectively. Conclusion It is

  15. Annual mean sea level and its sensitivity to wind climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerkema, Theo; Duran Matute, Matias

    2017-04-01

    Changes in relative mean sea level affect coastal areas in various ways, such as the risk of flooding, the evolution of barrier island systems, or the development of salt marshes. Long-term trends in these changes are partly masked by variability on shorter time scales. Some of this variability, for instance due to wind waves and tides (with the exception of long-period tides), is easily averaged out. In contrast, inter-annual variability is found to be irregular and large, of the order of several decimeters, as is evident from tide gauge records. This is why the climatic trend, typically of a few millimeters per year, can only be reliably identified by examining a record that is long enough to outweigh the inter-annual and decadal variabilities. In this presentation we examine the relation between the annual wind conditions from meteorological records and annual mean sea level along the Dutch coast. To do this, we need reliable and consistent long-term wind records. Some wind records from weather stations in the Netherlands date back to the 19th century, but they are unsuitable for trend analysis because of changes in location, height, surroundings, instrument type or protocol. For this reason, we will use only more recent, homogeneous wind records, from the past two decades. The question then is whether such a relatively short record is sufficient to find a convincing relation with annual mean sea level. It is the purpose of this work to demonstrate that the answer is positive and to suggest methods to find and exploit such a relation. We find that at the Dutch coast, southwesterly winds are dominant in the wind climate, but the west-east direction stands out as having the highest correlation with annual mean sea level. For different stations in the Dutch Wadden Sea and along the coast, we find a qualitatively similar pattern, although the precise values of the correlations vary. The inter-annual variability of mean sea level can already be largely explained by

  16. Evaluation of Inter Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Inge Nygaard

    2002-01-01

    This article (revised conference lecture from the 10th World Congress of Music Therapy, Oxford July 2002)) emphasizes the evaluation of the training of Inter Therapy for music therapy students at the MA training at Aalborg University. The students take turns in being client and therapist within...

  17. INTER-EXAMINER VARIABILITY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To establish whether inter-examiner variability is still a significant factor for the undergraduate orthopaedic clinical ... D. The scores for each student were tabulated and the range, mean, and pass rate determined for each of the examiners. ... has not the heart to reject the man”, consistently gave higher scores (1).

  18. A switch in the Atlantic Oscillation correlates with inter-annual changes in foraging location and food habits of Macaronesian shearwaters (Puffinus baroli) nesting on two islands of the sub-tropical Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Jaime A.; Isabel Fagundes, Ana; Xavier, José C.; Fidalgo, Vera; Ceia, Filipe R.; Medeiros, Renata; Paiva, Vitor H.

    2015-10-01

    Changes in oceanographic conditions, shaped by changes in large-scale atmospheric phenomena such as the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), alters the structure and functioning of marine ecosystems. Such signals are readily captured by marine top predators, given that their use of foraging habitats and diets change when the NAO changes. In this study we assessed sexual, seasonal and annual (2010/11-2012/13) differences in diet, trophic and isotopic niche (using δ15N and δ13C values of whole blood, 1st primary, 8th secondary and breast feathers), foraging locations and oceanographic variation within foraging areas for Macaronesian shearwaters' (Puffinus baroli) during two years of contrasting NAO values, and between two sub-tropical islands 330 km apart in the North Atlantic Ocean, Cima Islet and Selvagem Grande. These two locations provide contrasting oceanographic foraging regimes for the birds, because the second colony is much closer to the African coast (375 vs 650 km), and, therefore, to the upwelling area of the Canary Current. There was a marked environmental perturbation in 2010/2011, related with a negative NAO Index and lower marine productivity (lower concentration of Chlorophyll a). This event corresponded to the Macaronesian shearwaters feeding farther north and west, which was readily seen in change of both δ15N and δ13C values, and in a higher intake of cephalopods. Diet and stable isotopes did not differ between sexes. Regurgitation analysis indicate a dominance of cephalopods in both islands, but prey fish were important for Selvagem Grande in 2012 and cephalopods for Cima Islet in 2011. Both δ15N and δ13C values were significantly higher for Cima Islet than for Selvagem Grande, irrespective of year, season and tissue sampled. SIBER analysis showed smaller isotopic niches for the breeding period. Our study suggests that during years of poor environmental conditions Macaronesian shearwaters shift their foraging location to more pelagic waters

  19. Seasonal and inter-annual dynamics of suspended sediment at the mouth of the Amazon river: The role of continental and oceanic forcing, and implications for coastal geomorphology and mud bank formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gensac, Erwan; Martinez, Jean-Michel; Vantrepotte, Vincent; Anthony, Edward J.

    2016-04-01

    Fine-grained sediments supplied to the Ocean by the Amazon River and their transport under the influence of continental and oceanic forcing drives the geomorphic change along the 1500 km-long coast northward to the Orinoco River delta. The aim of this study is to give an encompassing view of the sediment dynamics in the shallow coastal waters from the Amazon River mouth to the Capes region (northern part of the Amapa region of Brazil and eastern part of French Guiana), where large mud banks are formed. Mud banks are the overarching features in the dynamics of the Amazon-Orinoco coast. They start migrating northward in the Capes region. Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) concentrations were calculated from satellite products (MODIS Aqua and Terra) acquired over the period 2000-2013. The Census-X11 decomposition method used to discriminate short-term, seasonal and long-term time components of the SPM variability has rendered possible a robust analysis of the impact of continental and oceanic forcing. Continental forcing agents considered are the Amazon River water discharge, SPM concentration and sediment discharge. Oceanic forcing comprises modelled data of wind speed and direction, wave height and direction, and currents. A 150 km-long area of accretion is detected at Cabo Norte that may be linked with a reported increase in the river's sediment discharge concurrent with the satellite data study period. We also assess the rate of mud bank migration north of Cabo Norte, and highlight its variability. Although we confirm a 2 km y-1 migration rate, in agreement with other authors, we show that this velocity may be up to 5 km y-1 along the Cabo Orange region, and we highlight the effect of water discharge by major rivers debouching on this coastal mud belt in modulating such rates. Finally, we propose a refined sediment transport pattern map of the region based on our results and of previous studies in the area such as the AMASSEDS programme, and discuss the

  20. Inter-Corporeity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Algis Mickūnas

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The essay explicates the phenomenological problematic of intersubjectivity on the level of bodily interaction with the world and with others. On this level, the concept of visibility is transformed in terms of the primacy of bodily “I can” and the kinaesthetic awareness that pervades all perceptual fields. In addition, the investigations into kinaesthetic awareness lead to the understanding that one’s own bodily action is extended as well as varied by the kinaesthetic activities of others and thus form an inter-corporeal field wherein visibility is located. Such an extended awareness is the bodily counterpart of transcendental domain. 

  1. Inter-operability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plaziat, J.F.; Moulin, P.; Van Beurden, R.; Ballet, E.

    2005-01-01

    Building an internal gas market implies establishing harmonized rules for cross border trading between operators. To that effect, the European association EASEE-gas is carrying out standards and procedures, commonly called 'inter-operability'. Set up in 2002, the Association brings together all segments of the gas industry: producers, transporters, distributors, traders and shippers, suppliers, consumers and service providers. This workshop presents the latest status on issues such as barriers to gas trade in Europe, rules and procedures under preparation by EASEE-gas, and the implementation schedule of these rules by operators. This article gathers 5 presentations about this topic given at the gas conference

  2. Inter-comparison of hydro-climatic regimes across northern catchments: Synchronicity, resistance and resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, S.K.; Tetzlaff, D.; Seibert, J.; Soulsby, C.; Buttle, J.; Laudon, H.; McDonnell, J.; McGuire, K.; Caissie, D.; Shanley, J.; Kennedy, M.; Devito, K.; Pomeroy, J.W.

    2010-01-01

    The higher mid-latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere are particularly sensitive to climate change as small differences in temperature determine frozen ground status, precipitation phase, and the magnitude and timing of snow accumulation and melt. An international inter-catchment comparison program, North-Watch, seeks to improve our understanding of the sensitivity of northern catchments to climate change by examining their hydrological and biogeochemical responses. The catchments are located in Sweden (Krycklan), Scotland (Mharcaidh, Girnock and Strontian), the United States (Sleepers River, Hubbard Brook and HJ Andrews) and Canada (Catamaran, Dorset and Wolf Creek). This briefing presents the initial stage of the North-Watch program, which focuses on how these catchments collect, store and release water and identify 'types' of hydro-climatic catchment response. At most sites, a 10-year data of daily precipitation, discharge and temperature were compiled and evaporation and storage were calculated. Inter-annual and seasonal patterns of hydrological processes were assessed via normalized fluxes and standard flow metrics. At the annual-scale, relations between temperature, precipitation and discharge were compared, highlighting the role of seasonality, wetness and snow/frozen ground. The seasonal pattern and synchronicity of fluxes at the monthly scale provided insight into system memory and the role of storage. We identified types of catchments that rapidly translate precipitation into runoff and others that more readily store water for delayed release. Synchronicity and variance of rainfall-runoff patterns were characterized by the coefficient of variation (cv) of monthly fluxes and correlation coefficients. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed clustering among like catchments in terms of functioning, largely controlled by two components that (i) reflect temperature and precipitation gradients and the correlation of monthly precipitation and discharge and (ii

  3. 1992 Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Annual report of the Institut de Physique Nucleaire at Orsay (France). The main themes are presented. Concerning experimental research: nuclear structure, ground states and low energy excited states, high excitation energy nuclear states, nuclear matter and nucleus-nucleus collision, intermediate energy nuclear physics, radiochemistry, inter-disciplinary research, scientific information and communication; concerning theoretical physics: particles and fields (formal aspects and hadronic physics), chaotic systems and semi-classical methods, few body problems, nucleus-nucleus scattering, nucleus spectroscopy and clusters, statistical physics and condensed matter; concerning general activities and technological research: accelerators, detectors, applications in cryogenics, data processing, Isolde and Orion equipment

  4. Solar induced inter-annual variability of ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fytterer, Tilo; Nieder, Holger; Perot, Kristell; Sinnhuber, Miriam; Stiller, Gabriele; Urban, Joachim

    2014-05-01

    Measurements by the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding instrument on board the ENVIromental SATellite from 2005 - 2011 are used to investigate the impact of solar and geomagnetic activity on O3 in the stratosphere and mesosphere inside the Antarctic polar vortex. It is known from observations that energetic particles, mainly originating from the sun, precipitate in the Earth atmosphere and produce odd nitrogen NOx (N + NO + NO2) in the upper mesosphere and lower thermosphere, which is transported downwards into the stratosphere during polar winter. Results from global chemistry-transport models suggest that this leads to a depletion of O3 down to ~30 km at high latitudes during winter. Therefore it appears promising to search for a link between high energetic particles and O3 in actual data sets. Thus in this study, correlation analysis between a 26 days average centred around 1 Apr, 1 May and 1 Jun of several solar/geomagnetic indices (Ap index, F10.7 cm solar radio flux, Lyman-alpha, 2 MeV electrons flux) and 26 day running means from 1 Apr - 1 Nov of O3 in the altitude range from 20 - 70 km were performed. The results reveal negative correlation coefficients propagating downwards throughout the polar winter, at least for the Ap index and the 2 MeV electrons flux. Comparisons with TIMED/SABER and Odin/SMR O3 data are in moderate agreement, also showing a descending negative signal in either indices, but only for the correlation with 1 Apr.

  5. Inter-annual rainfall variability and droughts occurrence during ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the trends of rainfall and the intensity of drought during sowing season and mid-season of rice farming calendar in the rainforest belt of Nigeria using data spanning 52 years (1961-2012) for five synoptic weather stations. The trends were investigated using simple linear regression and second order ...

  6. Seasonal and Inter-Annual Patterns of Chlorophyll and Phytoplankton Community Structure in Monterey Bay, CA Derived from AVIRIS Data During the 2013-2015 HyspIRI Airborne Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, S. L.; Thompson, D. R.; Kudela, R. M.; Negrey, K.; Guild, L. S.; Gao, B. C.; Green, R. O.; Torres-Perez, J. L.

    2016-02-01

    There is a need in the ocean color community to discriminate among phytoplankton groups within the bulk chlorophyll pool to understand ocean biodiversity, track energy flow through ecosystems, and identify and monitor for harmful algal blooms. Imaging spectrometer measurements enable the use of sophisticated spectroscopic algorithms for applications such as differentiating among coral species and discriminating phytoplankton taxa. These advanced algorithms rely on the fine scale, subtle spectral shape of the atmospherically corrected remote sensing reflectance (Rrs) spectrum of the ocean surface. Consequently, these algorithms are sensitive to inaccuracies in the retrieved Rrs spectrum that may be related to the presence of nearby clouds, inadequate sensor calibration, low sensor signal-to-noise ratio, glint correction, and atmospheric correction. For the HyspIRI Airborne Campaign, flight planning considered optimal weather conditions to avoid flights with significant cloud/fog cover. Although best suited for terrestrial targets, the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) has enough signal for some coastal chlorophyll algorithms and meets sufficient calibration requirements for most channels. The coastal marine environment has special atmospheric correction needs due to error introduced by aerosols and terrestrially sourced atmospheric dust and riverine sediment plumes. For this HyspIRI campaign, careful attention has been given to the correction of AVIRIS imagery of the Monterey Bay to optimize ocean Rrs retrievals to estimate chlorophyll (OC3) and phytoplankton functional type (PHYDOTax) data products. This new correction method has been applied to several image collection dates during two oceanographic seasons in 2013 and 2014. These two periods are dominated by either diatom blooms or red tides. Results to be presented include chlorophyll and phytoplankton community structure and in-water validation data for these dates during the two seasons.

  7. Annual reproductive cycle in two free living populations of three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus L.: patterns of ovarian and testicular development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Sokołowska

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The annual reproductive cycle in two wild populations of three-spinedstickleback was studied. Sticklebacks from the Dead Vistula River(Martwa Wisła (brackish water and the Oliva Stream (Potok Oliwski(freshwater were exposed to annual environmental changes in their naturalhabitats. Ovaries and livers (females, and testes and kidneys (males werecollected during 1-2 years. The gonadosomatic IG, hepatosomaticIH, nephrosomatic IN indices, kidney epithelium height(KEH and size of oocytes were calculated.The number of mature oocytes andpercentage of ovulating females were determined during the spawning season.Histological changes in the ovaries and testes were described throughouta year. Annual reproductive cycles were similar in both populations ofsticklebacks. This is the first histological and morphological study carriedout throughout a year, simultaneously in two wild populations of three-spinedsticklebacks inhabiting different environments. An improved scale of gonadaldevelopment in conjunction with the determined indices and fecundity givea comprehensive description of the reproductive cycle. These new observations,in combination with previously reported features, provide a universal scalethat can be successfully used to distinguish all phases of gametogenesis insticklebacks in different habitats.

  8. Confiabilidade intra e interexaminador da análise por padrões de impressão de plantigrafias de pessoas diabéticas obtidas com o Harris Mat Inter- and intra-examiner reliability of footprint pattern analysis obtained from diabetics using the Harris Mat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lígia L. Cisneros

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A hiperpressão plantar é um fator de risco comprovado para a ulceração em portadores de diabetes mellitus. O "Harris and Beath Footprinting Mat" é um dos instrumentos usados nas avaliações para rastreamento do risco de ulceração nos pés desses pacientes. Não há relatos na literatura sobre estudos da confiabilidade da análise das impressões plantares usando o critério de padrões de impressão. OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a confiabilidade inter e intraexaminador da análise dos padrões de impressão plantar obtida com o "Harris and Beath Footprinting Mat". MÉTODOS: As impressões plantares de 41 sujeitos foram obtidas usando o plantígrafo. As imagens foram submetidas à análise de três examinadores independentes. Para verificar a confiabilidade intraexaminador, um dos examinadores repetiu a análise após uma semana. RESULTADOS: O coeficiente de Kappa ponderado foi excelente (Kp>0,80 para as análises inter e intraexaminador para a maioria dos pontos estudados em ambos os pés. CONCLUSÃO: O critério de análise por padrões de impressão plantar obtidas com o "Harris and Beath Footprinting Mat" apresentou boa confiabilidade e de alta a excelente concordância para as condições inter e intraexaminador. Esse método é confiável para análises que envolvam um ou mais examinadores.INTRODUCTION: High plantar pressure is a proven risk factor for ulceration among individuals with diabetes mellitus. The Harris and Beath footprinting mat is one of the tools used in screening for foot ulceration risk among these subjects. There are no reports in the literature on the reliability of footprint analysis using print pattern criteria. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the inter- and intra-examiner reliability of the analysis of footprint patterns obtained using the Harris and Beath footprinting mat. METHODS: Footprints were taken from 41 subjects using the footprinting mat. The images were

  9. The LADM based on INTERLIS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Germann, M.; Kaufmann, J.; Lemmen, C.H.J.; Van Oosterom, P.J.M.; De Zeeuw, K.

    2015-01-01

    Both the conceptual schema language INTERLIS and the land administration domain model (LADM) share the same model driven architecture (MDA) principles. In this paper we explore how INTERLIS and LADM complement each other in actual implementation of land administration system based on the LADM using

  10. Intra-annual variability in nutrients in the Godavari estuary, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarma, V.V.S.S.; Prasad, V.R.; Kumar, B.S.K.; Rajeev, K.; Devi, B.M.M.; Reddy, N.P.C.; Sarma, V.V.; DileepKumar, M.

    , and spectrofluorometrically measured (Suzuki and Ishimaru, 1990). The analytical precision for Chl a analysis was ±4%. All these analyses were completed within 12 hours of sampling at the shore-based laboratory set up at Yanam, on the bank of the river. Net community... s -1 ). There was virtually no discharge between January and May due to drying of the river in the upstream (Fig. 2b). The inter-annual variability in the October – November discharge was due to changes in the precipitation pattern in the upstream...

  11. Spatiotemporal patterns, annual baseline and movement-related incidence of Streptococcus agalactiae infection in Danish dairy herds: 2000–2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mweu, Marshal M.; Nielsen, Søren S.; Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq

    2014-01-01

    -herd sources of new herd infections coupled with the spatiotemporal distribution of the infection, may aid in effective targeting of control efforts. Thus, the objectives of this study were: (1) to describe the spatiotemporal patterns of infection with S. agalactiae in the population of Danish dairy herds from...

  12. Conceptualizing inter-organizational triads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedel, Mette; Holma, Anne-Maria; Havila, Virpi

    2016-01-01

    of inter-organizational phenomena. However, not all studies involving a context of three actors are actually examining triads. This paper offers a robust definition of three-actor constellations qualifying as triads. Moreover, it elaborates on different types of inter-organizational triads, based on two...... aspects of collectivity; cohesion and the ability to act as a single entity. The definition of inter-organizational triads and the categorization of different types of triads will hopefully encourage further studies of triads; the smallest and simplest network which offers insights, which cannot...

  13. Inter-cellular transport of ran GTPase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Khuperkar

    Full Text Available Ran, a member of the Ras-GTPase superfamily, has a well-established role in regulating the transport of macromolecules across the nuclear envelope (NE. Ran has also been implicated in mitosis, cell cycle progression, and NE formation. Over-expression of Ran is associated with various cancers, although the molecular mechanism underlying this phenomenon is unclear. Serendipitously, we found that Ran possesses the ability to move from cell-to-cell when transiently expressed in mammalian cells. Moreover, we show that the inter-cellular transport of Ran is GTP-dependent. Importantly, Ran displays a similar distribution pattern in the recipient cells as that in the donor cell and co-localizes with the Ran binding protein Nup358 (also called RanBP2. Interestingly, leptomycin B, an inhibitor of CRM1-mediated export, or siRNA mediated depletion of CRM1, significantly impaired the inter-cellular transport of Ran, suggesting a function for CRM1 in this process. These novel findings indicate a possible role for Ran beyond nucleo-cytoplasmic transport, with potential implications in inter-cellular communication and cancers.

  14. Spatial and temporal patterns of plantation forests in the United States since the 1930s: an annual and gridded data set for regional Earth system modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guangsheng; Pan, Shufen; Hayes, Daniel J.; Tian, Hanqin

    2017-08-01

    Plantation forest area in the conterminous United States (CONUS) ranked second among the world's nations in the land area apportioned to forest plantation. As compared to the naturally regenerated forests, plantation forests demonstrate significant differences in biophysical characteristics, and biogeochemical and hydrological cycles as a result of more intensive management practices. Inventory data have been reported for multiple time periods on plot, state, and regional scales across the CONUS, but the requisite annual and spatially explicit plantation data set over a long-term period for analysis of the role of plantation management on regional or national scales is lacking. Through synthesis of multiple inventory data sources, this study developed methods to spatialize the time series plantation forest and tree species distribution data for the CONUS over the 1928-2012 time period. According to this new data set, plantation forest area increased from near zero in the 1930s to 268.27 thousand km2 in 2012, accounting for 8.65 % of the total forestland area in the CONUS. Regionally, the South contained the highest proportion of plantation forests, accounting for about 19.34 % of total forestland area in 2012. This time series and gridded data set developed here can be readily applied in regional Earth system modeling frameworks for assessing the impacts of plantation management practices on forest productivity, carbon and nitrogen stocks, and greenhouse gases (e.g., CO2, CH4, and N2O) and water fluxes on regional or national scales. The gridded plantation distribution and tree species maps, and the interpolated state-level annual tree planting area and plantation area during 1928-2012, are available from PANGAEA.873558" target="_blank">https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.873558.

  15. InterAction Database (IADB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The InterAction Database includes demographic and prescription information for more than 500,000 patients in the northern and middle Netherlands and has been integrated with other systems to enhance data collection and analysis.

  16. Proceedings of the Twenty-Third Annual Symposium of the Pattern Recognition Association of South Africa, 29-30 November 2012 Pretoria, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Waal, A

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available -30 November 2012 Pretoria, South Africa Hosted by: Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) http://www.prasa.org Edited by: Alta de Waal ISBN 978-0-620-54601-0 Publication date: 29 November 2012 Member of the International Association... of Pattern Recognition (IAPR) iii Organisation PRASA 2012 was organised by the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR). Organising Committee Alta de Waal Asheer Bachoo Jason de Villiers Natasha Govender iv Review process Full...

  17. Publication patterns of oral and poster presentations at the annual meetings of the Congress of Neurological Surgeons and the American Association of Neurological Surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Akash J; Cherian, Jacob; Fox, Benjamin D; Whitehead, William E; Curry, Daniel J; Luerssen, Thomas G; Jea, Andrew

    2011-12-01

    National and international meetings, such as the Congress of Neurological Surgeons (CNS) and the American Association of Neurological Surgeons (AANS) meetings, provide a central location for the gathering and dissemination of research. The purpose of this study was to determine the publication rates of both oral and poster presentations at CNS and AANS meetings in peer-reviewed journals. The authors reviewed all accepted abstracts, presented as either oral or poster presentations, at the CNS and AANS meetings from 2003 to 2005. This information was then used to search PubMed to determine the rate of publication of the abstracts presented at the meetings. Abstracts were considered published if the data presented at the meeting was identical to that in the publication. The overall publication rate was 32.48% (1243 of 3827 abstracts). On average, 41.28% of oral presentations and 29.03% of poster presentations were eventually published. Of those studies eventually published, 98.71% were published within 5 years of presentation at the meeting. Published abstracts were published most frequently in the Journal of Neurosurgery and Neurosurgery. Approximately one-third of all presentations at the annual CNS and AANS meetings will be published in peer-reviewed, MEDLINE-indexed journals. These meetings are excellent forums for neurosurgical practitioners to be exposed to current research. Oral presentations have a significantly higher rate of eventual publication compared with poster presentations, reflecting their higher quality. The Journal of Neurosurgery and Neurosurgery have been the main outlets of neurosurgical research from these meetings.

  18. Demographic and spatiotemporal patterns of avian influenza infection at the continental scale, and in relation to annual life cycle of a migratory host

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nallar, Rodolfo; Papp, Zsuzsanna; Epp, Tasha; Leighton, Frederick A.; Swafford, Seth R.; DeLiberto, Thomas J.; Dusek, Robert J.; Ip, Hon S.; Hall, Jeffrey S.; Berhane, Yohannes; Gibbs, Samantha E.J.; Soos, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Since the spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 in the eastern hemisphere, numerous surveillance programs and studies have been undertaken to detect the occurrence, distribution, or spread of avian influenza viruses (AIV) in wild bird populations worldwide. To identify demographic determinants and spatiotemporal patterns of AIV infection in long distance migratory waterfowl in North America, we fitted generalized linear models with binominal distribution to analyze results from 13,574 blue-winged teal (Anas discors, BWTE) sampled in 2007 to 2010 year round during AIV surveillance programs in Canada and the United States. Our analyses revealed that during late summer staging (July-August) and fall migration (September-October), hatch year (HY) birds were more likely to be infected than after hatch year (AHY) birds, however there was no difference between age categories for the remainder of the year (winter, spring migration, and breeding period), likely due to maturing immune systems and newly acquired immunity of HY birds. Probability of infection increased non-linearly with latitude, and was highest in late summer prior to fall migration when densities of birds and the proportion of susceptible HY birds in the population are highest. Birds in the Central and Mississippi flyways were more likely to be infected compared to those in the Atlantic flyway. Seasonal cycles and spatial variation of AIV infection were largely driven by the dynamics of AIV infection in HY birds, which had more prominent cycles and spatial variation in infection compared to AHY birds. Our results demonstrate demographic as well as seasonal, latitudinal and flyway trends across Canada and the US, while illustrating the importance of migratory host life cycle and age in driving cyclical patterns of prevalence.

  19. Large inter annual variation in air quality during the annual festival 'Diwali' in an Indian megacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkhi, Neha; Chate, Dilip; Ghude, Sachin D; Peshin, Sunil; Mahajan, Anoop; Srinivas, Reka; Surendran, Divya; Ali, Kaushar; Singh, Siddhartha; Trimbake, Hanumant; Beig, Gufran

    2016-05-01

    A network of air quality and weather monitoring stations was established under the System of Air Quality Forecasting and Research (SAFAR) project in Delhi. We report observations of ozone (O3), nitrogen oxides (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO) and particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10) before, during and after the Diwali in two consecutive years, i.e., November 2010 and October 2011. The Diwali days are characterised by large firework displays throughout India. The observations show that the background concentrations of particulate matter are between 5 and 10 times the permissible limits in Europe and the United States. During the Diwali-2010, the highest observed PM10 and PM2.5 mass concentration is as high as 2070µg/m3 and 1620μg/m(3), respectively (24hr mean), which was about 20 and 27 times to National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). For Diwali-2011, the increase in PM10 and PM2.5 mass concentrations was much less with their peaks of 600 and of 390μg/m(3) respectively, as compared to the background concentrations. Contrary to previous reports, firework display was not found to strongly influence the NOx, and O3 mixing ratios, with the increase within the observed variability in the background. CO mixing ratios showed an increase. We show that the large difference in 2010 and 2011 pollutant concentrations is controlled by weather parameters. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Estimating annual bole biomass production using uncertainty analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis J. Woolley; Mark E. Harmon; Kari B. O' Connell

    2007-01-01

    Two common sampling methodologies coupled with a simple statistical model were evaluated to determine the accuracy and precision of annual bole biomass production (BBP) and inter-annual variability estimates using this type of approach. We performed an uncertainty analysis using Monte Carlo methods in conjunction with radial growth core data from trees in three Douglas...

  1. Revisiting Inter-Genre Similarity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sturm, Bob L.; Gouyon, Fabien

    2013-01-01

    We revisit the idea of ``inter-genre similarity'' (IGS) for machine learning in general, and music genre recognition in particular. We show analytically that the probability of error for IGS is higher than naive Bayes classification with zero-one loss (NB). We show empirically that IGS does...... not perform well, even for data that satisfies all its assumptions....

  2. NERSC 2001 Annual Report; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hules, John

    2001-01-01

    The National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) is the primary computational resource for scientific research funded by the DOE Office of Science. The Annual Report for FY2001 includes a summary of recent computational science conducted on NERSC systems (with abstracts of significant and representative projects); information about NERSC's current systems and services; descriptions of Berkeley Lab's current research and development projects in applied mathematics, computer science, and computational science; and a brief summary of NERSC's Strategic Plan for 2002-2005

  3. Inter-Professional Palliative Care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kirsten Halskov; Henriksen, Jette; Meldgaard, Anette

    2013-01-01

    Chapter 11 by Kirsten Halskov Madsen, Anette Meldgaard and Jette Henriksen deals with the development of palliative care programmes aimed at the basic level of palliative care practice. The need to develop educational opportunities at particularly this level – described as ‘the basic inter......-professional level of palliative care’ – has been increasing for many years where palliative care has conventionally and primarily been associated with specialist training. As the authors show – based on a mapping out of existing educational initiatives in a region of Denmark, a reading of the curriculum...... and a description of the organization of palliative care – there is a need for such inter-professional palliative care that raises the level of competences at the basic level and the sharing of knowledge as well as securing the continuous qualifying of healthcare staff working with palliative care....

  4. Architectural Specialization for Inter-Iteration Loop Dependence Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Horowitz, F. Labonte, O. Shacham, K. Olukotun, L. Hammond, C. Batten 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 SPECint...Execution GPR RF 32 × 32b 2r2w GPP LLFU D$ Request/Response Crossbar L1 I$ 16 KB L2 Request and Response Crossbars L1 D$ 16 KB SLFU Minimal changes to...XLOOPS uArch • XLOOPS Evaluation PyMTL Pydgin Specialized Execution – xloop.uc GPR RF 32 × 32b 2r2w GPP LLFU D$ Request/Response Crossbar L1 I$ 16 KB L2

  5. Discovering patterns for inter-organizational business collaboration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Norta, A.H.; Grefen, P.W.P.J.

    2007-01-01

    In the area of business-to-business (B2B) collaboration for manufacturing, original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) are confronted with the problem of spending considerable time and effort on coordinating suppliers across multiple tiers of their supply chain. In tightly integrated supply chains, the

  6. Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    This is the thirty-ninth annual report of the Atomic Energy Control Board. The period covered by this report is the year ending March 31, 1986. The Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) was established in 1946, by the Atomic Energy Control Act (AEC Act), (Revised Statues of Canada (R.S.C.) 1970 cA19). It is a departmental corporation (Schedule B) within the meaning and purpose of the Financial Administration Act. The AECB controls the development, application and use of atomic energy in Canada, and participates on behalf of Canada in international measures of control. The AECB is also repsonsible for the administration of the Nuclear Liability Act, (R.S.C. 1970 c29 1st Supp) as amended, including the designation of nuclear installations and the prescription of basic insurance to be carried by the operators of such nuclear installations. The AECB reports to Parliament through a designated Minister, currently the Minister of Energy, Mines and Resources

  7. Inter-utility trade review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warnes, E.M.; Vaahedi, E.

    1991-01-01

    The National Energy Board was requested by the Minister of Energy, Mines and Resources to identify possible measures to improve cooperation among Canadian electrical utilities and to enhance access for buyers and sellers of electricity to available transmission capacity through intervening systems for wheeling purposes. To identify measures to improve cooperation, a questionnaire was sent to electric utilities and other interested parties on the present extent and future possibilities for inter-utility cooperation. The questionnaire and its results are presented. It was found that there already exists a significant amount of inter-utility cooperation in Canada. Such cooperation generally involves interchanges of economy energy, non-economic capacity and energy, coordinated operation, resource sharing, maintenance scheduling, emergency supports, etc. There is a very limited degree of integrated generation expansion planning. Typically, these agreements are carried out under interconnection agreements negotiated on a bi-lateral basis. The highest current degree of cooperation exists under the auspices of the Alberta interconnected power system pool. Wheeling is limited and generally restricted to cases where the sender and receiver are the same entity or where power is wheeled to a utility purchasing it from the wheeler's system. 2 figs., 3 tabs

  8. Quarterly, Bi-annual and Annual Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Quarterly, Bi-annual and Annual Reports are periodic reports issued for public release. For the deep set fishery these reports are issued quarterly and anually....

  9. Managing inter-organizational relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Kim Sundtoft

    2005-01-01

    -term-orientation in relationships and relationship value we develop a conceptualmodel highlighting the components of attraction in business to business relationships.First we demonstrate how the force of attraction can be understood as partners expectedrelationship value and how expected relationship value in turn is strengthened...... maximizing own influence and control over them.Information gathering and model building are tactics normally used in this effort.However, in this article we discuss a third tactic, the tactic of attraction in dyadicrelationships. Founded on the theory of social exchange and based on literature reviewson long...... orweakened by partner- comfortability and dependability. Then we show how partnersperceived attraction towards an industrial company can be managed using a combinationof structural- and behavioral adjustments.Key words: Inter-organizational relationships; Relationship Management; Relationship-value...

  10. Strange-face illusions during inter-subjective gazing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputo, Giovanni B

    2013-03-01

    In normal observers, gazing at one's own face in the mirror for a few minutes, at a low illumination level, triggers the perception of strange faces, a new visual illusion that has been named 'strange-face in the mirror'. Individuals see huge distortions of their own faces, but they often see monstrous beings, archetypal faces, faces of relatives and deceased, and animals. In the experiment described here, strange-face illusions were perceived when two individuals, in a dimly lit room, gazed at each other in the face. Inter-subjective gazing compared to mirror-gazing produced a higher number of different strange-faces. Inter-subjective strange-face illusions were always dissociative of the subject's self and supported moderate feeling of their reality, indicating a temporary lost of self-agency. Unconscious synchronization of event-related responses to illusions was found between members in some pairs. Synchrony of illusions may indicate that unconscious response-coordination is caused by the illusion-conjunction of crossed dissociative strange-faces, which are perceived as projections into each other's visual face of reciprocal embodied representations within the pair. Inter-subjective strange-face illusions may be explained by the subject's embodied representations (somaesthetic, kinaesthetic and motor facial pattern) and the other's visual face binding. Unconscious facial mimicry may promote inter-subjective illusion-conjunction, then unconscious joint-action and response-coordination. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. El interés procesal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Riofrío Martínez-Villalba

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo pretende esclarecer el concepto de interés procesal y de sistematizar los diferentes tipos de interés requeridos por las leyes de nuestro ordenamiento jurídico (interés legítimo, directo, serio, difuso, colectivo, mutuo, general, público, etc., a fin de facilitarle al operador de la ley la determinación de la existencia de éste.

  12. interRAI home care quality indicators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morris, J.N.; Fries, B.E.; Frijters, D.H.M.; Hirdes, J.P.; Steel, R.K.

    2013-01-01

    Background: This paper describe the development of interRAI's second-generation home care quality indicators (HC-QIs). They are derived from two of interRAI's widely used community assessments: the Community Health Assessment and the Home Care Assessment. In this work the form in which the quality

  13. Inter-American Biodiversity Information Network (IABIN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    site. IABIN Inter-American Biodiversity Information Network (IABIN) OAS » SEDI » DSD » IABIN IABIN GEF Logo inbio natserve usgs polpar wcm The Inter-American Biodiversity Information Network (IABIN , and use of biodiversity information relevant to policy and decision-making on natural resources

  14. County business patterns, 1996 : Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-11-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that : provides subnational economic data by industry. The series : is useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  15. County business patterns, 1997 : Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that provides : subnational economic data by industry. The series is : useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  16. County business patterns, 1997 : Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that provides : subnational economic data by industry. The series is : useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  17. County business patterns, 1997 : Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that provides : subnational economic data by industry. The series is : useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  18. County business patterns, 1997 : Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that provides : subnational economic data by industry. The series is : useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  19. County business patterns, 1996 : Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-11-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that : provides subnational economic data by industry. The series : is useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  20. County business patterns, 1996 : Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-11-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that : provides subnational economic data by industry. The series : is useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  1. County business patterns, 1996 : Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-11-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that : provides subnational economic data by industry. The series : is useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  2. County business patterns, 1996 : Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-11-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that : provides subnational economic data by industry. The series : is useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  3. County business patterns, 1996 : Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-11-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that : provides subnational economic data by industry. The series : is useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  4. County business patterns, 1997 : Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that provides : subnational economic data by industry. The series is : useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  5. County business patterns, 1997 : Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that provides : subnational economic data by industry. The series is : useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  6. County business patterns, 1997 : Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that provides : subnational economic data by industry. The series is : useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  7. County business patterns, 1996 : Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-11-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that : provides subnational economic data by industry. The series : is useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  8. County business patterns, 1996 : Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-11-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that : provides subnational economic data by industry. The series : is useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  9. County business patterns, 1996 : Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-11-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that : provides subnational economic data by industry. The series : is useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  10. County business patterns, 1997 : Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that provides : subnational economic data by industry. The series is : useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  11. County business patterns, 1997 : Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that provides : subnational economic data by industry. The series is : useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  12. County business patterns, 1997 : Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that provides : subnational economic data by industry. The series is : useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  13. County business patterns, 1997 : Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that provides : subnational economic data by industry. The series is : useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  14. County business patterns, 1997 : Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that provides : subnational economic data by industry. The series is : useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  15. County business patterns, 1997 : Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that provides : subnational economic data by industry. The series is : useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  16. County business patterns, 1996 : Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-11-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that : provides subnational economic data by industry. The series : is useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  17. County business patterns, 1997 : Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that provides : subnational economic data by industry. The series is : useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  18. County business patterns, 1997 : Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that provides : subnational economic data by industry. The series is : useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  19. County business patterns, 1996 : Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-11-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that : provides subnational economic data by industry. The series : is useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  20. County business patterns, 1997 : Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that provides : subnational economic data by industry. The series is : useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  1. County business patterns, 1997 : Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that provides : subnational economic data by industry. The series is : useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  2. County business patterns, 1996 : Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-11-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that : provides subnational economic data by industry. The series : is useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  3. County business patterns, 1996 : Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-11-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that : provides subnational economic data by industry. The series : is useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  4. County business patterns, 1996 : Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-11-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that : provides subnational economic data by industry. The series : is useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  5. County business patterns, 1997 : Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that provides : subnational economic data by industry. The series is : useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  6. County business patterns, 1996 : Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-11-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that : provides subnational economic data by industry. The series : is useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  7. County business patterns, 1996 : Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-11-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that : provides subnational economic data by industry. The series : is useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  8. County business patterns, 1997 : Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that provides : subnational economic data by industry. The series is : useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  9. County business patterns, 1996 : Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-11-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that : provides subnational economic data by industry. The series : is useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  10. County business patterns, 1996 : Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-11-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that : provides subnational economic data by industry. The series : is useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  11. County business patterns, 1997 : Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that provides : subnational economic data by industry. The series is : useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  12. County business patterns, 1996 : Iowa

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-11-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that : provides subnational economic data by industry. The series : is useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  13. County business patterns, 1996 : Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-11-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that : provides subnational economic data by industry. The series : is useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  14. County business patterns, 1996 : Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-11-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that : provides subnational economic data by industry. The series : is useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  15. County business patterns, 1996 : Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-11-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that : provides subnational economic data by industry. The series : is useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  16. County business patterns, 1997 : Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that provides : subnational economic data by industry. The series is : useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  17. County business patterns, 1997 : Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that provides : subnational economic data by industry. The series is : useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  18. County business patterns, 1997 : Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that provides : subnational economic data by industry. The series is : useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  19. County business patterns, 1996 : Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-11-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that : provides subnational economic data by industry. The series : is useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  20. County business patterns, 1997 : Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that provides : subnational economic data by industry. The series is : useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  1. County business patterns, 1997 : Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that provides : subnational economic data by industry. The series is : useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  2. County business patterns, 1996 : Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-11-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that : provides subnational economic data by industry. The series : is useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  3. County business patterns, 1997 : Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that provides : subnational economic data by industry. The series is : useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  4. County business patterns, 1997 : Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that provides : subnational economic data by industry. The series is : useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  5. County business patterns, 1997 : Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that provides : subnational economic data by industry. The series is : useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  6. County business patterns, 1997 : Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that provides : subnational economic data by industry. The series is : useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  7. County business patterns, 1997 : Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that provides : subnational economic data by industry. The series is : useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  8. County business patterns, 1996 : Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-11-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that : provides subnational economic data by industry. The series : is useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  9. County business patterns, 1996 : Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-11-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that : provides subnational economic data by industry. The series : is useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  10. County business patterns, 1997 : Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that provides : subnational economic data by industry. The series is : useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  11. County business patterns, 1996 : Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-11-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that : provides subnational economic data by industry. The series : is useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  12. County business patterns, 1997 : Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that provides : subnational economic data by industry. The series is : useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  13. County business patterns, 1996 : Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-11-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that : provides subnational economic data by industry. The series : is useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  14. County business patterns, 1996 : Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-11-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that : provides subnational economic data by industry. The series : is useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  15. County business patterns, 1996 : Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-11-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that : provides subnational economic data by industry. The series : is useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  16. County business patterns, 1996 : Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-11-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that : provides subnational economic data by industry. The series : is useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  17. County business patterns, 1997 : Iowa

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that provides : subnational economic data by industry. The series is : useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  18. County business patterns, 1997 : Connecticut

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that provides : subnational economic data by industry. The series is : useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  19. County business patterns, 1996 : Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-11-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that : provides subnational economic data by industry. The series : is useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  20. County business patterns, 1997 : Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that provides : subnational economic data by industry. The series is : useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  1. County business patterns, 1997 : Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that provides : subnational economic data by industry. The series is : useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  2. County business patterns, 1996 : Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-11-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that : provides subnational economic data by industry. The series : is useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  3. County business patterns, 1996 : Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-11-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that : provides subnational economic data by industry. The series : is useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  4. County business patterns, 1996 : California

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-11-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that : provides subnational economic data by industry. The series : is useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  5. County business patterns, 1996 : Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-11-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that : provides subnational economic data by industry. The series : is useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  6. County business patterns, 1997 : Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that provides : subnational economic data by industry. The series is : useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  7. County business patterns, 1997 : Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that provides : subnational economic data by industry. The series is : useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  8. Annual report and balance 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This annual report presents the CNEA's (National Atomic Energy Commission) activities during the year 2003. The first part is devoted to the general objectives and accomplishments of the Organization. The second part describes the programs and projects in different fields such as reactors and nuclear power plants, fuel cycle, radioactive waste management, radioisotopes and radiation, research and development in basic sciences and engineering, decommissioning of nuclear installations, etc. The evolution of the human resources and the training activities are outlined in the third part of the report. The CNEA's nuclear centers are described in part 4 and the technical assistance services and production activities in part 5. Nuclear safety and safeguards are covered in the 6th section. Parts 7 and 8 present the information on inter institutional affairs and on the CNEA related enterprises respectively. The last part is the financial accounting

  9. Theoretical Views in Inter-religious Dialog in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Masjed Jamei

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available It has almost passed one century from the emergence of the idea of the inter-religious dialog. The idea, being based on the assumption that no religion has the absolute truth, believes that there is the possibility of the dialog between all the existent religions in the social world. The dialog could make the coexistence and peace between the religions possible. The importance of this issue is increasingly growing and different ideas have been presented in the different religion departments worldwide. After the Iranian Islamic Revolution, a new image of Islam was offered to the world. An image whose true exposure made the use of the inter-religious dialog unavoidable. This also caused appearance of different views between the Muslim scholars. This article seeks to provide a presentation of three different approaches to the inter-religious dialog by exploring the works of three eminent scholars in the field; Mohaghegh Damad, Abolhassan Navab and Mohammad Masjed Jamei. These three approaches are:   · Inter-religious dialog as an interaction-oriented action    · Inter-religious dialog as a necessity-oriented action    · Inter-religious dialog as a backgroubd-oriented action    The necessity-oriented action is the approach taken by Mohaghegh Damad. He emphasizes on the acceptance of other religions. The active action referring to this acceptance is the foundation of this approach. This approach, accepting the developmental discourse in the meaning of inter-religious dialog, believes that this kind of dialog has been evolved from defensive and opposing to a new meaning. Hence, the inter-religious dialog in its new meaning possesses three conditions; the existence of common rights, emphasis on mutual respect and the effort for the two sides for religious exchange. This approach­ assumes that we must first establish a pattern from the current experiences of inter-religious dialogs in order to have an ideal cooperation and to fortify it. Then

  10. Theoretical Views in Inter-religious Dialog in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Jafarian

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available   It has almost passed one century from the emergence of the idea of the inter-religious dialog. The idea, being based on the assumption that no religion has the absolute truth, believes that there is the possibility of the dialog between all the existent religions in the social world. The dialog could make the coexistence and peace between the religions possible. The importance of this issue is increasingly growing and different ideas have been presented in the different religion departments worldwide. After the Iranian Islamic Revolution, a new image of Islam was offered to the world. An image whose true exposure made the use of the inter-religious dialog unavoidable. This also caused appearance of different views between the Muslim scholars. This article seeks to provide a presentation of three different approaches to the inter-religious dialog by exploring the works of three eminent scholars in the field; Mohaghegh Damad, Abolhassan Navab and Mohammad Masjed Jamei. These three approaches are:   · Inter-religious dialog as an interaction-oriented action    · Inter-religious dialog as a necessity-oriented action    · Inter-religious dialog as a backgroubd-oriented action    The necessity-oriented action is the approach taken by Mohaghegh Damad. He emphasizes on the acceptance of other religions. The active action referring to this acceptance is the foundation of this approach. This approach, accepting the developmental discourse in the meaning of inter-religious dialog, believes that this kind of dialog has been evolved from defensive and opposing to a new meaning. Hence, the inter-religious dialog in its new meaning possesses three conditions; the existence of common rights, emphasis on mutual respect and the effort for the two sides for religious exchange. This approach­ assumes that we must first establish a pattern from the current experiences of inter-religious dialogs in order to have an ideal cooperation and to fortify it

  11. The annual cycle of African climate and its variability | Jury | Water SA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    low) annual cycle correspond with La Nina (El Nino) and increased (decreased) inter-annual fluctuations of the African climate. A composite analysis shows that the South Atlantic Hadley cell and standing waves in the subtropical jet may connect ...

  12. Annual Energy Review 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiferlein, Katherine E. [USDOE Energy Information Administration (EIA), Washington, DC (United States)

    2000-07-01

    A generation ago the Ford Foundation convened a group of experts to explore and assess the Nation’s energy future, and published their conclusions in A Time To Choose: America’s Energy Future (Cambridge, MA: Ballinger, 1974). The Energy Policy Project developed scenarios of U.S. potential energy use in 1985 and 2000. Now, with 1985 well behind us and 2000 nearly on the record books, it may be of interest to take a look back to see what actually happened and consider what it means for our future. The study group sketched three primary scenarios with differing assumptions about the growth of energy use. The Historical Growth scenario assumed that U.S. energy consumption would continue to expand by 3.4 percent per year, the average rate from 1950 to 1970. This scenario assumed no intentional efforts to change the pattern of consumption, only efforts to encourage development of our energy supply. The Technical Fix scenario anticipated a “conscious national effort to use energy more efficiently through engineering know-how." The Zero Energy Growth scenario, while not clamping down on the economy or calling for austerity, incorporated the Technical Fix efficiencies plus additional efficiencies. This third path anticipated that economic growth would depend less on energy-intensive industries and more on those that require less energy, i.e., the service sector. In 2000, total energy consumption was projected to be 187 quadrillion British thermal units (Btu) in the Historical Growth case, 124 quadrillion Btu in the Technical Fix case, and 100 quadrillion Btu in the Zero Energy Growth case. The Annual Energy Review 1999 reports a preliminary total consumption for 1999 of 97 quadrillion Btu (see Table 1.1), and the Energy Information Administration’s Short-Term Energy Outlook (April 2000) forecasts total energy consumption of 98 quadrillion Btu in 2000. What energy consumption path did the United States actually travel to get from 1974, when the scenarios were drawn

  13. Toronto 2001 Inter-governmental Declaration on Clean Air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This formal declaration commits the municipalities in the Greater Toronto Area, the provincial government of Ontario, and the federal government in Ottawa to undertake certain specific actions to improve air quality in their respective areas of jurisdiction, recognizing the validity of claims made by experts in numerous studies, linking air pollution to premature deaths, illnesses and hospitalization in major Canadian cities. The declaration also recognizes the validity of scientific claims as to the relationship between solar radiation, ambient heat, ground level ozone and global climate change, and the role played in air pollution by fossil fuel combustion. The Declaration calls for cooperation of all governments operating in the Greater Toronto Area to take inter-governmental actions to improve air quality by following up on key issues identified at annual Summits and by supporting the planning of future Summits, by working together with the Toronto Organizing Committee for the Olympic Games to ensure that the 2008 Olympic Games will contribute to a legacy of clean air for the Toronto region, and by implementing a social marketing campaign to help householders reduce both home energy use and vehicle kilometres travelled by 20 per cent. Beyond these inter-governmental commitments, special commitments of individual municipalities, and the provincial and federal governments also form part of the Declaration

  14. Improving the Accuracy of Laplacian Estimation with Novel Variable Inter-Ring Distances Concentric Ring Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksandr Makeyev

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Noninvasive concentric ring electrodes are a promising alternative to conventional disc electrodes. Currently, the superiority of tripolar concentric ring electrodes over disc electrodes, in particular, in accuracy of Laplacian estimation, has been demonstrated in a range of applications. In our recent work, we have shown that accuracy of Laplacian estimation can be improved with multipolar concentric ring electrodes using a general approach to estimation of the Laplacian for an (n + 1-polar electrode with n rings using the (4n + 1-point method for n ≥ 2. This paper takes the next step toward further improving the Laplacian estimate by proposing novel variable inter-ring distances concentric ring electrodes. Derived using a modified (4n + 1-point method, linearly increasing and decreasing inter-ring distances tripolar (n = 2 and quadripolar (n = 3 electrode configurations are compared to their constant inter-ring distances counterparts. Finite element method modeling and analytic results are consistent and suggest that increasing inter-ring distances electrode configurations may decrease the truncation error resulting in more accurate Laplacian estimates compared to respective constant inter-ring distances configurations. For currently used tripolar electrode configuration, the truncation error may be decreased more than two-fold, while for the quadripolar configuration more than a six-fold decrease is expected.

  15. Improving the Accuracy of Laplacian Estimation with Novel Variable Inter-Ring Distances Concentric Ring Electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makeyev, Oleksandr; Besio, Walter G.

    2016-01-01

    Noninvasive concentric ring electrodes are a promising alternative to conventional disc electrodes. Currently, the superiority of tripolar concentric ring electrodes over disc electrodes, in particular, in accuracy of Laplacian estimation, has been demonstrated in a range of applications. In our recent work, we have shown that accuracy of Laplacian estimation can be improved with multipolar concentric ring electrodes using a general approach to estimation of the Laplacian for an (n + 1)-polar electrode with n rings using the (4n + 1)-point method for n ≥ 2. This paper takes the next step toward further improving the Laplacian estimate by proposing novel variable inter-ring distances concentric ring electrodes. Derived using a modified (4n + 1)-point method, linearly increasing and decreasing inter-ring distances tripolar (n = 2) and quadripolar (n = 3) electrode configurations are compared to their constant inter-ring distances counterparts. Finite element method modeling and analytic results are consistent and suggest that increasing inter-ring distances electrode configurations may decrease the truncation error resulting in more accurate Laplacian estimates compared to respective constant inter-ring distances configurations. For currently used tripolar electrode configuration, the truncation error may be decreased more than two-fold, while for the quadripolar configuration more than a six-fold decrease is expected. PMID:27294933

  16. School of Optometry at Inter American University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstetter, Henry W.

    1981-01-01

    The optometry program at the Inter American University in Puerto Rico is profiled, with highlights of admission criteria, temporary and permanent facilities, faculty, governance structure, curriculum, research opportunities, and relationship with the university as a whole. (MSE)

  17. Postponement : An inter-organizational perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Biao; Yang, Ying; Wijngaard, Jacob

    2007-01-01

    In view of the slow rate of postponement applications, this paper attempts to examine postponement strategies from an inter-organizational perspective. The paper first reviews the literature on different postponement strategies (including logistics postponement, production postponement, purchasing

  18. Views on inter-enterprise relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trienekens, J.H.; Beulens, A.J.M.

    2001-01-01

    The paper gives an overview of major scientific approaches to inter-enterprise relationships. A distinction is made between approaches that focus on business process integration (Supply Chain Management, Costing approaches), approaches that focus on organizational collaboration (Transaction Cost

  19. Inter-diffusion of carbon into niobium coatings deposited on graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barzilai, S.; Raveh, A.; Frage, N.

    2006-01-01

    The inter-diffusion of carbon (originating from a graphite substrate) into a niobium coating and the fabrication of its carbides by heat treatment in the temperature range of 1073-1773 K was studied. The thickness of the Nb 2 C and Nbc phases formed after heat treatment as well as the inter-diffusion coefficients for the formation of the carbide layers were also studied. It was found that the carbide layer growth displayed parabolic behavior patterns inherent in the growth rate constants (K) of Nb 2 C and NbC layers. By assuming that the inter-diffusion coefficients are independent of concentration, it was possible to determine the inter-diffusion coefficients of carbon D c into Nb 2 C and NbC layers as a function of temperature

  20. Elevation Pattern in Growth Coherency on the Southeastern Tibetan Plateau.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixin Lyu

    Full Text Available It is generally expected that inter-annual changes in radial growth among trees would be similar to the increase in altitude due to the limitation of increasingly harsher climatic factors. Here, we examine whether this pattern exists in alpine forests on the southeastern Tibetan Plateau. Increment cores were collected from mature trees at the lower, middle and upper limits of balfour spruce (Picea likiangensis var. balfouriana (Rehd. et Wils. Hillier ex Slsvin forests at the Buze and Yela Mountains in Basu County, Changdu Prefecture of Tibet, China. The treeline elevations are 4320 m and 4510 m a.s.l. for Buze and Yela, respectively. Tree-ring widths were measured, crossdated, and detrended to obtain a sequence of ring-width indices for each individual sample. Annual growth rate, climate sensitivity, growth-climate relationships, and growth synchrony among trees were calculated and compared across altitudes. In Buze Mountain, the annual growth rate of trees has no significant difference across altitudes. The mean sensitivity of trees is lower at the treelines than at lower elevations. Tree growth has stronger correlation with winter temperature at upper elevations than at lower elevations, has significant correlation with moisture, not temperature, in the growing season, and the growth response to moisture is lower at the treeline than at lower elevations. The correlation among individual tree-ring sequences is lower at the treeline than at sites at lower elevation. In Yela Mountain, the characterisitics of annual growth rate, mean sensitivity, tree growth-climate relationships, and inter-serial correlation are similar to those in Buze, but their differences along altitudinal gradients are less significant as those in Buze. Our data do not support the general expectation of growth convergence among individuals with increasing altitude. We conclude that individual heterogeneity and microhabitat diversity are important features for treeline trees

  1. Elevation Pattern in Growth Coherency on the Southeastern Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Lixin; Deng, Xu; Zhang, Qi-Bin

    It is generally expected that inter-annual changes in radial growth among trees would be similar to the increase in altitude due to the limitation of increasingly harsher climatic factors. Here, we examine whether this pattern exists in alpine forests on the southeastern Tibetan Plateau. Increment cores were collected from mature trees at the lower, middle and upper limits of balfour spruce (Picea likiangensis var. balfouriana (Rehd. et Wils.) Hillier ex Slsvin) forests at the Buze and Yela Mountains in Basu County, Changdu Prefecture of Tibet, China. The treeline elevations are 4320 m and 4510 m a.s.l. for Buze and Yela, respectively. Tree-ring widths were measured, crossdated, and detrended to obtain a sequence of ring-width indices for each individual sample. Annual growth rate, climate sensitivity, growth-climate relationships, and growth synchrony among trees were calculated and compared across altitudes. In Buze Mountain, the annual growth rate of trees has no significant difference across altitudes. The mean sensitivity of trees is lower at the treelines than at lower elevations. Tree growth has stronger correlation with winter temperature at upper elevations than at lower elevations, has significant correlation with moisture, not temperature, in the growing season, and the growth response to moisture is lower at the treeline than at lower elevations. The correlation among individual tree-ring sequences is lower at the treeline than at sites at lower elevation. In Yela Mountain, the characterisitics of annual growth rate, mean sensitivity, tree growth-climate relationships, and inter-serial correlation are similar to those in Buze, but their differences along altitudinal gradients are less significant as those in Buze. Our data do not support the general expectation of growth convergence among individuals with increasing altitude. We conclude that individual heterogeneity and microhabitat diversity are important features for treeline trees that may dampen

  2. Conflict Management in Inter-racial Relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Sakti D, Andika; Lailiyah, S.Sos, M.I.Kom, Nuriyatul

    2016-01-01

    Based on the principle of conformity, a person tends to prefer a partner who has in common with him. But as the times goes by along with the era which is increasingly open, we have encountered inter-racial relationships, including in Indonesia. When couples come from different cultural backgrounds, the values, rules, standpoints, habits, and methods that used in relationship must also be different. The characteristics differences are tend to be the cause of conflict on inter-racial relationsh...

  3. Disintermediation of Inter-Blockchain Transactions

    OpenAIRE

    English, S. Matthew; Orlandi, Fabrizio; Auer, Soeren

    2016-01-01

    Different versions of peer-to-peer electronic cash exist as data represented by separate blockchains. Payments between such systems cannot be sent directly from one party to another without going through a financial institution. Bitcoin provided part of the solution but its utility is limited to intra-blockchain transactions. The benefits are lost if a trusted third party is required to execute inter-blockchain transactions. We propose a solution to the inter-blockchain transaction problem us...

  4. Montane ecosystem productivity responds more to global circulation patterns than climatic trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, A. R.; Wohlfahrt, G.; Zeeman, M. J.; Katata, G.; Eugster, W.; Montagnani, L.; Gianelle, D.; Mauder, M.; Schmid, H.-P.

    2016-02-01

    Regional ecosystem productivity is highly sensitive to inter-annual climate variability, both within and outside the primary carbon uptake period. However, Earth system models lack sufficient spatial scales and ecosystem processes to resolve how these processes may change in a warming climate. Here, we show, how for the European Alps, mid-latitude Atlantic ocean winter circulation anomalies drive high-altitude summer forest and grassland productivity, through feedbacks among orographic wind circulation patterns, snowfall, winter and spring temperatures, and vegetation activity. Therefore, to understand future global climate change influence to regional ecosystem productivity, Earth systems models need to focus on improvements towards topographic downscaling of changes in regional atmospheric circulation patterns and to lagged responses in vegetation dynamics to non-growing season climate anomalies.

  5. Montane ecosystem productivity responds more to global circulation patterns than climatic trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desai, A R; Wohlfahrt, G; Zeeman, M J; Katata, G; Mauder, M; Schmid, H-P; Eugster, W; Montagnani, L; Gianelle, D

    2016-01-01

    Regional ecosystem productivity is highly sensitive to inter-annual climate variability, both within and outside the primary carbon uptake period. However, Earth system models lack sufficient spatial scales and ecosystem processes to resolve how these processes may change in a warming climate. Here, we show, how for the European Alps, mid-latitude Atlantic ocean winter circulation anomalies drive high-altitude summer forest and grassland productivity, through feedbacks among orographic wind circulation patterns, snowfall, winter and spring temperatures, and vegetation activity. Therefore, to understand future global climate change influence to regional ecosystem productivity, Earth systems models need to focus on improvements towards topographic downscaling of changes in regional atmospheric circulation patterns and to lagged responses in vegetation dynamics to non-growing season climate anomalies. (letter)

  6. Inter-laboratory comparisons. Determination of actinides in excreta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berard, P.; Cavadore, D.; Harduin, J.C.

    1995-01-01

    Inter-laboratory tests are a means of assessing the analytical coherence of medical laboratories. In radio toxicology, this kind of exercise makes it possible to keep up with laboratory know-how and with the evolution and relative performances of analytical techniques (precision and reproducibility). However, the goal of the laboratories taking part in these annual exercises is not only to check the accuracy of their results. The analytical discussions and the chance to compare experience enrich the groups general competence. French biologists have been organizing annual radio toxicology intercomparison exercises since 1978. The exercises are carried out within the framework of a working group (GT1) operating under the aegis of the French Atomic Energy Commission's (CEA) Medical Coordinator. Using reports and diagrams which present the results obtained by the participants in the form of syntheses, the authors describe how the exercises for determining actinides in excreta (urine and faeces) are organized, how the results are evaluated in terms of the analytical methods used, and the improvements made in analytical and metrological performance. Up until 1985, these exercises were limited to French laboratories. Since then, the exercises have acquired an international dimension, opening up to include interested foreign radio chemists, initially from European laboratories, and now from laboratories worldwide. At the present time, 35 laboratories representing 9 countries take part regularly in these intercomparison exercises. (author). 6 refs., 9 figs

  7. [Effect of climate change on the fisheries conununity pattern in the overwintering ground of open waters of northern East China Sea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zun-lei; Yuan, Xing-wei; Yang, Lin-lin; Yan, Li-ping; Tian, Yong-jun; Chen, Jia-hua

    2015-03-01

    Data sets of 26 fisheries target species from the fishery-depen-dent and fishery-independent surveys in the overwintering ground of open waters of northern East China Sea (OW-NECS), combined sea surface temperature (SST), were used to examine the links between diversity index, pattern of common variability and climate changes based on the principal component analysis (PCA) and generalized additive model (GAM). The results showed that the shift from a cold regime to a warm regime was detected in SST during the 1970s-2011 with step changes around 1982/ 1983. SST increased during the cold regime and the warm regime before 1998 (warming trend period, 1972-1998), and decreased during the warm regime after 1998 (cooling trend period, 1999-2011). Shannon diversity index was largely dependent on the filefish, which contributed up to 50% of the total production as a single species, with low diversity in the waters of the OW-NECS, during the late 1980s and early 1990s. Excluding the filefish, the diversity index linearly increased and decreased during 1972-1998 and 1999-2011, respectively. The variation pattern generally corresponds with the trend in water temperature, strongly suggesting the effect of the SST on the diversity. The first two components (PC1 and PC2) of PCA for target species, which accounted for 32.43% of the total variance, showed evident decadal variation patterns with a step change during 1992-1999 and inter-annual variability with short-period fluctuation, respectively. It seems that PC1 was associated with large scale climatic change, while PC2 was related to inter-annual oceanographic variability such as ENSO events. Linear fitting results showed winEOF1 had significant effect on PC1, and GAM analysis for PC1 showed that winter EOF1 (winEOF1) and summer EOF2 (sumEOF2) can explain 88.9% of the total variance. Nonlinear effect was also found between PC2 and win EOF1, indicating that the fish community structure, which had predominantly decadal/inter-annual

  8. Some Observations on Imaging Inter-aquifer Leakage Using Airborne EM Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munday, T; Fitzpatrick, A; Auken, Esben

    of surface watergroundwaterprocesses. This paper presents results from an examination of hydrogeophysics, specificallyairborne electromagnetics (AEM) data acquired by the SkyTEM time domain helicopter EM system, as ameans for improving our knowledge of spatial patterns associated with inter-aquifer mixing...

  9. SimilarityExplorer: A visual inter-comparison tool for multifaceted climate data

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Poco; A. Dasgupta; Y. Wei; W. Hargrove; C. Schwalm; R. Cook; E. Bertini; C. Silva

    2014-01-01

    Inter-comparison and similarity analysis to gauge consensus among multiple simulation models is a critical visualization problem for understanding climate change patterns. Climate models, specifically, Terrestrial Biosphere Models (TBM) represent time and space variable ecosystem processes, for example, simulations of photosynthesis and respiration, using algorithms...

  10. Inter-Religious Dialogue Models in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Sabri Wan Yusof

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the years, many organizations have involved in the implementation of inter-religious dialogue in Malaysia. However, there are stillthose who doubt the role and purpose of interreligious dialogue. This might be due to lack of information and understanding regardingthe methodology of dialogue and also about different types that it may take. The present study is aimed at exploring a few models ofinter-religious dialogue that have been practised by some organizations that actively involved in dialogue. The study focuses on a review of selected organizational or institutional dialoguemodels such as Center for Civilizational Dialogue (CCD, Students Representative Council of Malaysia Science University (HealthCampus and Inter-faith Spiritual Fellowship (INSaF. This study provides information concerning the various designs of inter-religiousdialogue model in Malaysia and proposes that different designs of inter-religious dialogue rely on its different types and goals. It is found that, the commonly practiced type of dialogue in Malaysia is educational type which focuses on exploring inter-religious commonalities as well as differences which consequently willincrease understanding and foster meaningful engagement between people of different ethnic and religious background in Malaysia. Thistype of dialogue is distinguished from conflict resolution types of dialogue which aims at identifying issues and generating action plansto conflicts or disputes.

  11. Inter-annual variation (1991-1993) of the substratum-leaf colonization dynamics for aquatic fauna in different habitats of the lake of the hydroelectric of Balbina, Amazon Central, Brazil; Variacao interanual (1991-1993) da dinamica de colonizacao de substrato-folha por fauna aquatica, em diferentes habitats do lago da Hidreletrica de Balbina, Amazonia Central, Amazonas- Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vela-Pena, Gladys

    1996-07-01

    Experiments on fauna colonization of submersed vegetal substrate in different depths of water column were done to evaluate the benthic community structure in three habitats of the Balbina hydroelectric dam in 1991, 1992 and 1993. In these experiments substrate exposition periods of up to 60 and 75 days were done. The fauna associated to the standard substrate (Mabea caudata) belonged to seven phyla: Arthropoda, Coelenterata, Nematoda, Bryozoa, Annelida, Mollusca an Chordata. The most abundant and frequent families, during the studied period, were Naididae (Tubificida), Chydoridae (Cladocera) and Cenestheridae (Conchostraca), suggesting the persistence of these groups. In general, the pattern of colonization indicates some tendency to increase gradually with time of exposition of the substrate in the environment. Probably, the discontinuity of the tendencies is associated with the insects mobility and emergence. The initial colonization always was higher and quicker in the margin habitat, which indicates that the source of organisms is this habitat. This is due to better conditions of the environment such as availability of food and protection, associated with the submerged vegetation and wood. The community mean density during this study was 7, 312 ind/m{sup 2}. The density, the species richness index, and the diversity were correlated with abiotic variables such as pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen, habitat and depth. Also, the density was correlated with total carbon and ammonium. Species richness was correlated with total carbon, ammonium and water color. The density, diversity and species richness were proportionally inverse to depth of the habitats and total absence of organisms ago 10 meter of depth, different from what is found in bottom of natural environments. This fact was attributed to the high concentration of nutrients, such as ammonium and dissolved iron, to the existence of toxic gases such a sulphide, and to the conditions of hypoxia in the deep

  12. 58th Annual Meeting

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1992-10-01

    Oct 1, 1992 ... 0lemicaJ Engineering. A K Kshirsagar, Inter-University ... approach in cell culture and/or animal models ... chemistry, Bovet observed organic compounds that proved .... Biochemistry and Applied Nutrition for the next. 15 years.

  13. Effect of Meteorological Patterns on the Intensity of Streambank Erosion in a Proglacial Gravel-Bed River (Spitsbergen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemar Kociuba

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Lower parts of proglacial rivers are commonly assumed to be characterised by a multiannual aggradation trend, and streambank erosion is considered to occur rarely and locally. In the years 2009–2013, detailed measurements of channel processes were performed in the Scott River (SW Spitsbergen. More than 60% of its surface area (10 km2 occupies non-glaciated valleys. Since the end of the Little Ice Age, the Scott Glacier has been subject to intensive retreat, resulting in the expansion of the terminoglacial and paraglacial zones. In this area, the Scott River develops an alluvial valley with a proglacial river, which has led to a comparatively low rate of fluvial transport, dominance of suspension over bedload, and the occurrence of various channel patterns. Measurements, performed in the lower course of the valley in two fixed cross-sections of the Scott River channel, document variable annual tendencies with a prevalence of scour over deposition processes in the channel bottom. The balance of scour and fill also differs in particular measurement cross-sections and during the summer season. The maximum erosion indices (1.7 m2 were related to single periods of floods with snow-glacier melt and rainfall origin. The contribution of streambank erosion was usually lower than that of deep erosion both in the annual cycle and during extreme events. The channel-widening index also suggests variable annual (from −1 m to +1 m and inter-annual tendencies. During a three-day flood from August 2013, in a measurement profile at the mouth of the river, the NNW bank was laterally shifted by as much as 3 m. Annual and inter-seasonal indices of total channel erosion, however, show that changes in the channel-bottom morphology are equalised relatively fast, and in terms of balance the changes usually do not exceed 0.5% of a cross section’s area.

  14. Action research in inter-organisational networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goduscheit, René Chester; Rasmussen, Erik Stavnsager; Jørgensen, Jacob Høj

    2007-01-01

    Traditionally, the literature on action research has been aimed at intra-organisational issues. These studies have distinguished between two researcher roles: The problem-solver and the observer. This article addresses the distinct challenges of action research in inter-organisational projects....... In addition to the problem-solver and observer roles, the researcher in an inter-organisational setting can serve as a legitimiser of the project and manage to involve partners that in an ordinary business-to-business setting would not have participated. Based on an action research project in a Danish inter......-organisational network, this article discusses potential pitfalls in the legitimiser role. Lack of clarity in defining the researcher role and project ownership in relation to the funding organisation and the rest of the network can jeopardise the project and potentially the credibility of the researchers. The article...

  15. Coupled climate model simulations of Mediterranean winter cyclones and large-scale flow patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Ziv

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to evaluate the ability of global, coupled climate models to reproduce the synoptic regime of the Mediterranean Basin. The output of simulations of the 9 models included in the IPCC CMIP3 effort is compared to the NCEP-NCAR reanalyzed data for the period 1961–1990. The study examined the spatial distribution of cyclone occurrence, the mean Mediterranean upper- and lower-level troughs, the inter-annual variation and trend in the occurrence of the Mediterranean cyclones, and the main large-scale circulation patterns, represented by rotated EOFs of 500 hPa and sea level pressure. The models reproduce successfully the two maxima in cyclone density in the Mediterranean and their locations, the location of the average upper- and lower-level troughs, the relative inter-annual variation in cyclone occurrences and the structure of the four leading large scale EOFs. The main discrepancy is the models' underestimation of the cyclone density in the Mediterranean, especially in its western part. The models' skill in reproducing the cyclone distribution is found correlated with their spatial resolution, especially in the vertical. The current improvement in model spatial resolution suggests that their ability to reproduce the Mediterranean cyclones would be improved as well.

  16. Annual report 1973

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1973-01-01

    The GKSS scientific annual report summarizes the problems and results of the research and development projects of 1973. In contrast to earlier annual reports, a comprehensive description of the research facilities is not included. The annual report was extended by the paragraph 'Financial Report 1973' in the chapter 'Development of Geesthacht Research Centre'. The financial report gives a survey of the financial transactions and the major operations of the year under review. (orig./AK) [de

  17. Annual spatiotemporal migration schedules in three larger insectivorous birds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Lars Bo; Jensen, Niels Odder; Willemoes, Mikkel

    2017-01-01

    Background: Knowledge of spatiotemporal migration patterns is important for our understanding of migration ecology and ultimately conservation of migratory species. We studied the annual migration schedules of European nightjar, a large nocturnal insectivore and compared it with two other larger ...

  18. NUKEM annual report 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The annual report of this important undertaking in the German nuclear industry informs about its structure, holdings and activities in 1981. The report of the management is followed by remarks on the annual statement of accounts (annual balance, profit-loss accounting) and the report of the Supervisory Board. In the annex the annual balance of NUKEM GmbH/HOBEG mbH as per December 31, 1981, and the profit-loss accounting of NUKEM GmbH/HOBEG mbH for the business year 1981 are presented. (UA) [de

  19. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2002 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  20. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2010 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  1. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2007 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  2. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2001 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  3. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2016 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  4. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2011 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  5. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2005 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  6. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2015 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  7. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2003 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  8. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2017

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2017 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  9. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2008 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  10. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2014 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  11. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2004 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  12. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2000 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  13. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2009 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  14. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  15. BIGGEST CZECH BANKS IN THE MIRROR OF ANNUAL REPORTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladislav PAVLAT

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the Paper is to characterise and analyse the biggest Czech banks Annual reports (ARs. Since 2004, the behaviour of Czech banks has been changing, as can be seen – inter alia - from the big banks´ financial statements and annual reports. During the period of 2007 – 2013 the implementation of IFRS continued and its impact on the institutional structure of banking is visible. From the point of view of banks, annual reports present not only the financial results, but they serve as an important instrument of competition and marketing as well. Comparative analysis of the three Czech leading banks gives a picture of their specific features as reflected in their annual statements.

  16. Inter-Professional Collaboration in Action Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeman, Yvonne; van Koeven, Erna; Schaafsma, Frank

    2018-01-01

    This article describes an example of inter-professional action research conducted by teachers and university-based researchers/teacher educators in a vocational college in the Netherlands. The research was aimed at the professional learning of the teachers on their pedagogical approach to a new curriculum initiative. Despite a difficult context in…

  17. Inter-organisational response to disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paturas, James L; Smith, Stewart R; Albanese, Joseph; Waite, Geraldine

    2016-01-01

    Inter-organisational communication failures during times of real-world disasters impede the collaborative response of agencies responsible for ensuring the public's health and safety. In the best of circumstances, communications across jurisdictional boundaries are ineffective. In times of crisis, when communities are grappling with the impact of a disaster, communications become critically important and more complex. Important factors for improving inter-organisational communications are critical thinking and problem-solving skills; inter-organisational relationships; as well as strategic, tactical and operational communications. Improving communication, critical thinking, problem-solving and decision-making requires a review of leadership skills. This discussion begins with an analysis of the existing disaster management research and moves to an examination of the importance of inter-organisational working relationships. Before a successful resolution of a disaster by multiple levels of first responders, the group of organisations must have a foundation of trust, collegiality, flexibility, expertise, openness, relational networking and effective communications. Leaders must also be prepared to improve leadership skills through continual development in each of these foundational areas.

  18. Increasing security in inter-chip communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Nathan J; Hamlet, Jason; Bauer, Todd; Helinski, Ryan

    2014-10-28

    An apparatus for increasing security in inter-chip communication includes a sending control module, a communication bus, and a receiving control module. The communication bus is coupled between the sending control module and the receiving control module. The sending control module operates to send data on the communication bus, disable the communication bus when threats are detected, or both.

  19. Inter-Institutional Collaboration and Team Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatliff, Bee; Wendel, Frederick C.

    1998-01-01

    Inter-institutional collaboration and team teaching can enhance distance education. Of particular interest to those who are new to distance education or collaborative relationships, this article discusses several issues that should be considered in the planning process to avoid potential roadblocks and to maximize returns. (Author/AEF)

  20. Inter- and intrasubject similarity of muscle synergies during bench press with slow and fast velocity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samani, Afshin; Kristiansen, Mathias

    2018-01-01

    We investigated the effect of low and high bar velocity on inter- and intra-subject similarity of muscle synergies during bench press. Thirteen trained male subjects underwent two exercise conditions, i.e. a slow and a fast velocity bench press. Surface electromyography was recorded from thirteen...... to describe the dataset variability. For the second activation coefficient, the inter-subject similarity within the fast velocity condition was greater than the intra-subject similarity of the activation coefficient across the conditions. An opposite pattern was observed for the first muscle synergy vector...

  1. Time-Varying Networks of Inter-Ictal Discharging Reveal Epileptogenic Zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Luyan; Liang, Yi; Li, Fali; Sun, Hongbin; Peng, Wenjing; Du, Peishan; Si, Yajing; Song, Limeng; Yu, Liang; Xu, Peng

    2017-01-01

    The neuronal synchronous discharging may cause an epileptic seizure. Currently, most of the studies conducted to investigate the mechanism of epilepsy are based on EEGs or functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) recorded during the ictal discharging or the resting-state, and few studies have probed into the dynamic patterns during the inter-ictal discharging that are much easier to record in clinical applications. Here, we propose a time-varying network analysis based on adaptive directed transfer function to uncover the dynamic brain network patterns during the inter-ictal discharging. In addition, an algorithm based on the time-varying outflow of information derived from the network analysis is developed to detect the epileptogenic zone. The analysis performed revealed the time-varying network patterns during different stages of inter-ictal discharging; the epileptogenic zone was activated prior to the discharge onset then worked as the source to propagate the activity to other brain regions. Consistence between the epileptogenic zones detected by our proposed approach and the actual epileptogenic zones proved that time-varying network analysis could not only reveal the underlying neural mechanism of epilepsy, but also function as a useful tool in detecting the epileptogenic zone based on the EEGs in the inter-ictal discharging.

  2. CFD Study on Aerodynamic Power Output Changes with Inter-Turbine Spacing Variation for a 6 MW Offshore Wind Farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nak Joon Choi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the aerodynamic power output change of wind turbines with inter-turbine spacing variation for a 6 MW wind farm composed of three sets of 2 MW wind turbines using computational fluid dynamics (CFD. The wind farm layout design is becoming increasingly important as the use of wind energy is steadily increasing. Among the many wind farm layout design parameters, the inter-turbine spacing is a key factor in the initial investment cost, annual energy production and maintenance cost. The inter-turbine spacing should be determined to maximize the annual energy production and minimize the wake effect, turbulence effect and fatigue load during the service lifetime of wind turbines. Therefore, some compromise between the aerodynamic power output of wind turbines and the inter-turbine spacing is needed. An actuator disc model with the addition of a momentum source was not used, and instead, a full 3-dimensional model with a tower and nacelle was used for CFD analysis because of its great technical significance. The CFD analysis results, such as the aerodynamic power output, axial direction wind speed change, pressure drop across the rotor of wind turbine, and wind speed deficit due to the wake effect with inter-turbine spacing variation, were studied. The results of this study can be applied effectively to wind farm layout design and evaluation.

  3. CSIR Annual report 1965

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    1965-01-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Annual Report_ 1965.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 48 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Annual Report_ 1965.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  4. CSIR Annual report 1992

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Annual Report_ 1992.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 39 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Annual Report_ 1992.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  5. CSIR Annual report 1979

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    1979-01-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info CSIR Annual report_1979.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 86 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name CSIR Annual report_1979.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  6. CSIR Annual report 1976

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    1976-01-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Annual Report_1976.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 75 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Annual Report_1976.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  7. CSIR Annual report 1978

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    1978-01-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Annual Report_1978.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 78 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Annual Report_1978.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  8. CSIR Annual report 1991

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Annual Report_ 1991.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 40 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Annual Report_ 1991.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  9. Annual Partnership Report, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyoming Community College Commission, 2016

    2016-01-01

    The "Annual Partnership Report" catalogs partnerships that Wyoming community colleges established and maintained for each fiscal year. This partnership report fulfills statutory reporting requirement W.S. 21-18-202(e)(iv) which mandates the development of annual reports to the legislature on the outcomes of partnerships between colleges…

  10. Annual Report 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golnik, N.; Mika, J.R.; Wieteska, K. [eds.

    1998-12-31

    This Annual Report of the Institute of Atomic Energy describes the results of the research works carried out at the Institute at 1997. As in the preceding years the authors of the individual scientific reports published in this Annual Report are fully responsible for their content and layout. The Report contains the information on other activities of the Institute as well. (author)

  11. Annual Energy Review, 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-06-01

    The Annual Energy Review (AER) is the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) primary report of annual historical energy statistics. For many series, data begin with the year 1949. Included are statistics on total energy production, consumption, trade, and energy prices; overviews of petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, renewable energy, and international energy; financial and environment indicators; and data unit conversions.

  12. Natural gas annual 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Natural Gas Annual 1991 provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers Federal and State agencies, and education institutions. This report, the Natural Gas Annual 1991 Supplement: Company Profiles, presents a detailed profile of selected companies

  13. Annual Report 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swiboda, G.

    2002-01-01

    This Annual Report of the Institute of Atomic Energy describes the results of the research works carried out at the Institute at 2001. As in the preceding years the authors of the individual scientific reports published in this Annual Report are fully responsible for their content and layout. The Report contains the information on other activities of the Institute as well. (author)

  14. Annual report to Congress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This is the ninth Annual Report to Congress of the United States Department of Energy. It covers the activities of all elements of the Department except the independent Federal Regulatory Commission, which issues its own annual report. 88 refs., 43 tabs

  15. Annual Report 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golnik, N.; Mika, J.R.; Wieteska, K.

    1998-01-01

    This Annual Report of the Institute of Atomic Energy describes the results of the research works carried out at the Institute at 1997. As in the preceding years the authors of the individual scientific reports published in this Annual Report are fully responsible for their content and layout. The Report contains the information on other activities of the Institute as well. (author)

  16. Annual Report 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golnik, N; Mika, J R; Wieteska, K [eds.

    1999-12-31

    This Annual Report of the Institute of Atomic Energy describes the results of the research works carried out at the Institute at 1997. As in the preceding years the authors of the individual scientific reports published in this Annual Report are fully responsible for their content and layout. The Report contains the information on other activities of the Institute as well. (author)

  17. Systematic impact assessment on inter-basin water transfer projects of the Hanjiang River Basin in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yanlai; Guo, Shenglian; Hong, Xingjun; Chang, Fi-John

    2017-10-01

    China's inter-basin water transfer projects have gained increasing attention in recent years. This study proposes an intelligent water allocation methodology for establishing optimal inter-basin water allocation schemes and assessing the impacts of water transfer projects on water-demanding sectors in the Hanjiang River Basin of China. We first analyze water demands for water allocation purpose, and then search optimal water allocation strategies for maximizing the water supply to water-demanding sectors and mitigating the negative impacts by using the Standard Genetic Algorithm (SGA) and Adaptive Genetic Algorithm (AGA), respectively. Lastly, the performance indexes of the water supply system are evaluated under different scenarios of inter-basin water transfer projects. The results indicate that: the AGA with adaptive crossover and mutation operators could increase the average annual water transfer from the Hanjiang River by 0.79 billion m3 (8.8%), the average annual water transfer from the Changjiang River by 0.18 billion m3 (6.5%), and the average annual hydropower generation by 0.49 billion kW h (5.4%) as well as reduce the average annual unmet water demand by 0.40 billion m3 (9.7%), as compared with the those of the SGA. We demonstrate that the proposed intelligent water allocation schemes can significantly mitigate the negative impacts of inter-basin water transfer projects on the reliability, vulnerability and resilience of water supply to the demanding sectors in water-supplying basins. This study has a direct bearing on more intelligent and effectual water allocation management under various scenarios of inter-basin water transfer projects.

  18. Subsidiary Linkage Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Ulf; Perri, Alessandra; Nell, Phillip C.

    2012-01-01

    channels for spillovers to competitors. We find a curvilinear relationship between the extent of competitive pressure and the quality of a subsidiary's set of local linkages. Furthermore, the extent to which a subsidiary possesses capabilities moderates this relationship: Very capable subsidiaries...... in strongly competitive environments tend to shy away from high quality linkages. We discuss our findings in light of the literature on spillovers and inter-organizational linkages.......This paper investigates the pattern of subsidiaries' local vertical linkages under varying levels of competition and subsidiary capabilities. Contrary to most previous literature, we explicitly account for the double role of such linkages as conduits of learning prospects as well as potential...

  19. Annual Growth Bands in Hymenaea courbaril

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westbrook, J A; Guilderson, T P; Colinvaux, P A

    2004-02-09

    One significant source of annual temperature and precipitation data arises from the regular annual secondary growth rings of trees. Several tropical tree species are observed to form regular growth bands that may or may not form annually. Such growth was observed in one stem disk of the tropical legume Hymenaea courbaril near the area of David, Panama. In comparison to annual reference {Delta}{sup 14}C values from wood and air, the {Delta}{sup 14}C values from the secondary growth rings formed by H. courbaril were determined to be annual in nature in this one stem disk specimen. During this study, H. courbaril was also observed to translocate recently produced photosynthate into older growth rings as sapwood is converted to heartwood. This process alters the overall {Delta}{sup 14}C values of these transitional growth rings as cellulose with a higher {Delta}{sup 14}C content is translocated into growth rings with a relatively lower {Delta}{sup 14}C content. Once the annual nature of these growth rings is established, further stable isotope analyses on H. courbaril material in other studies may help to complete gaps in the understanding of short and of long term global climate patterns.

  20. On the relationship between large-scale climate modes and regional synoptic patterns that drive Victorian rainfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdon-Kidd, D. C.; Kiem, A. S.

    2009-04-01

    In this paper regional (synoptic) and large-scale climate drivers of rainfall are investigated for Victoria, Australia. A non-linear classification methodology known as self-organizing maps (SOM) is used to identify 20 key regional synoptic patterns, which are shown to capture a range of significant synoptic features known to influence the climate of the region. Rainfall distributions are assigned to each of the 20 patterns for nine rainfall stations located across Victoria, resulting in a clear distinction between wet and dry synoptic types at each station. The influence of large-scale climate modes on the frequency and timing of the regional synoptic patterns is also investigated. This analysis revealed that phase changes in the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) and/or the Southern Annular Mode (SAM) are associated with a shift in the relative frequency of wet and dry synoptic types on an annual to inter-annual timescale. In addition, the relative frequency of synoptic types is shown to vary on a multi-decadal timescale, associated with changes in the Inter-decadal Pacific Oscillation (IPO). Importantly, these results highlight the potential to utilise the link between the regional synoptic patterns derived in this study and large-scale climate modes to improve rainfall forecasting for Victoria, both in the short- (i.e. seasonal) and long-term (i.e. decadal/multi-decadal scale). In addition, the regional and large-scale climate drivers identified in this study provide a benchmark by which the performance of Global Climate Models (GCMs) may be assessed.

  1. Inter-operator and inter-device agreement and reliability of the SEM Scanner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clendenin, Marta; Jaradeh, Kindah; Shamirian, Anasheh; Rhodes, Shannon L

    2015-02-01

    The SEM Scanner is a medical device designed for use by healthcare providers as part of pressure ulcer prevention programs. The objective of this study was to evaluate the inter-rater and inter-device agreement and reliability of the SEM Scanner. Thirty-one (31) volunteers free of pressure ulcers or broken skin at the sternum, sacrum, and heels were assessed with the SEM Scanner. Each of three operators utilized each of three devices to collect readings from four anatomical sites (sternum, sacrum, left and right heels) on each subject for a total of 108 readings per subject collected over approximately 30 min. For each combination of operator-device-anatomical site, three SEM readings were collected. Inter-operator and inter-device agreement and reliability were estimated. Over the course of this study, more than 3000 SEM Scanner readings were collected. Agreement between operators was good with mean differences ranging from -0.01 to 0.11. Inter-operator and inter-device reliability exceeded 0.80 at all anatomical sites assessed. The results of this study demonstrate the high reliability and good agreement of the SEM Scanner across different operators and different devices. Given the limitations of current methods to prevent and detect pressure ulcers, the SEM Scanner shows promise as an objective, reliable tool for assessing the presence or absence of pressure-induced tissue damage such as pressure ulcers. Copyright © 2015 Bruin Biometrics, LLC. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. VICbus: A standard inter-crate bus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parkman, C.F.

    1990-01-01

    VICbus is a standard inter-crate cable bus being developed by a working group of the ISO/IEC. Derived from an initiative of the VMEbus Working Group of ESONE, VICbus aims to provide users of multi-crate VMEbus and other backplane bus systems with a standard inter-crate connection. Multi-drop operation is provided for up to 31 devices on a cable of maximum 100 metres in length. Two data transfer protocols are specified, compelled (asynchronous) transfers for transparent interconnection of backplane bus systems (VMEbus in the first instance), and high-speed, non-compelled (synchronous) transfers between VICbus interfaces. A limited interrupt mechanism is specified, as well as simple, but efficient arbitration technique. Conventional technology is employed: copper cables, existing transcievers, and differential signal transmission, together with proven low-level protocols. Data transfer rates in excess of 30 Mbyte/s will be possible on a cable length of 30 metres

  3. Polyhedral patterns

    KAUST Repository

    Jiang, Caigui; Tang, Chengcheng; Vaxman, Amir; Wonka, Peter; Pottmann, Helmut

    2015-01-01

    We study the design and optimization of polyhedral patterns, which are patterns of planar polygonal faces on freeform surfaces. Working with polyhedral patterns is desirable in architectural geometry and industrial design. However, the classical

  4. ENSO-induced inter-annual sea level variability in the Singapore strait

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Soumya, M.; Vethamony, P.; Tkalich, P.

    Sea level data from four tide gauge stations in the SS (Tanjong Pagar, Sultan Shoal, Sembawang and Raffles Lighthouse) for the period 1970-2012 were extracted to study the ENSO-induced interannual sea level variability Sea level during this period...

  5. Annual to Inter-Decadal Variability in Surface Air Temperature Along ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    instrumental sea surface temperature (SST) and. East African rainfall ... accelerated rise in minimum temperatures. The objectives of the ... Altitude above sea level (m) Urban/Exposed. Tanga. 05.05°S ...... Environmental Report, South Florida.

  6. On the anatomy of nearshore sandbars : A systematic exposition of inter-annual sandbar dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walstra, D.J.R.

    2016-01-01

    Nearshore sandbars have a lifetime of many years, during which they exhibit cyclic, offshore directed behaviour with strong alongshore coherence. A bar is generated near the shoreline and grows in height and width while migrating offshore, before finally decaying at the seaward limit of the surf

  7. Inter-Annual Variability in Blue Whale Distribution off Southern Sri Lanka between 2011 and 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Vos, Asha de; Pattiaratchi, Charitha; Harcourt, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus) movements are often driven by the availability of their prey in space and time. While globally blue whale populations undertake long-range migrations between feeding and breeding grounds, those in the northern Indian Ocean remain in low latitude waters throughout the year with the implication that the productivity of these waters is sufficient to support their energy needs. A part of this population remains around Sri Lanka where they are usually recorded cl...

  8. Inter- and intra-annual variations in the population of Tripos from the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chitari, R.R.; Anil, A.C.; Kulkarni, V.V.; Narale, D.D.; Patil, J.S.

    -K transect. In the C-P transect high numbers of T. furca can be attributed to mesoscale eddies, whereas in the P-K transect, it can be attributed to riverine discharge. The results point that, Tripos persists throughout the year in the Bay of Bengal and tend...

  9. Inter-annual sea level variability in the southern South China Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Soumya, M.; Vethamony, P.; Tkalich, P.

    (SCS) is one of the western marginal seas of the Pacific Ocean, surrounded by South China, Indo China Peninsula, Malaysian Peninsula, Philippines and Borneo Island. The SCS is a semi- enclosed basin connected to the western Pacific Ocean through Taiwan.... Sea level trend and variability in the Singapore Strait. Ocean Science, 9(2). Torrence, C. and Compo, G.P., 1998. A practical guide to wavelet analysis. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 79(1): 61-78. Vargas‐Hernandez, J.M., Wijffels...

  10. Inter-annual trends of heavy metals in marine resources from the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 5, No 2 (2011) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  11. Long term ice sheet mass change rates and inter-annual variability from GRACE gravimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harig, C.

    2017-12-01

    The GRACE time series of gravimetry now stretches 15 years since its launch in 2002. Here we use Slepian functions to estimate the long term ice mass trends of Greenland, Antarctica, and several glaciated regions. The spatial representation shows multi-year to decadal regional shifts in accelerations, in agreement with increases in radar derived ice velocity. Interannual variations in ice mass are of particular interest since they can directly link changes in ice sheets to the drivers of change in the polar ocean and atmosphere. The spatial information retained in Slepian functions provides a tool to determine how this link varies in different regions within an ice sheet. We present GRACE observations of the 2013-2014 slowdown in mass loss of the Greenland ice sheet, which was concentrated in specific parts of the ice sheet and in certain months of the year. We also discuss estimating the relative importance of climate factors that control ice mass balance, as a function of location of the glacier/ice cap as well as the spatial variation within an ice sheet by comparing gravimetry with observations of surface air temperature, ocean temperature, etc. as well as model data from climate reanalysis products.

  12. Inter Annual Variability of the California Current System and Associated Biochemical Characteristics from Prolonged Data Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    and salinity profile data, Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer ( MODIS ) that is an instrument deployed on Aqua satellite (A) for surface...data were used specifically to identify the coastal circulations. The data was obtained from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer ( MODIS ), an...surface images are captured in 36 spectral bands at various resolutions, for more specific information on spectral bands see MODIS technical manual on

  13. The influence of inter-annually varying albedo on regional climate and drought

    KAUST Repository

    Meng, Xianhong; Evans, Jason P.; McCabe, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Albedo plays an important role in land-atmosphere interactions and local climate. This study presents the impact on simulating regional climate, and the evolution of a drought, when using the default climatological albedo as is usually done

  14. Inter-annual and spatial variability of Hamon potential evapotranspiration model coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Gregory J.; Hay, Lauren E.; Bock, Andy; Markstrom, Steven L.; Atkinson, R. Dwight

    2015-01-01

    Monthly calibrated values of the Hamon PET coefficient (C) are determined for 109,951 hydrologic response units (HRUs) across the conterminous United States (U.S.). The calibrated coefficient values are determined by matching calculated mean monthly Hamon PET to mean monthly free-water surface evaporation. For most locations and months the calibrated coefficients are larger than the standard value reported by Hamon. The largest changes in the coefficients were for the late winter/early spring and fall months, whereas the smallest changes were for the summer months. Comparisons of PET computed using the standard value of C and computed using calibrated values of C indicate that for most of the conterminous U.S. PET is underestimated using the standard Hamon PET coefficient, except for the southeastern U.S.

  15. Inter-Industry Wage Differentials in Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Giovanni Ferro-Luzzi

    1994-01-01

    This paper analyzes the Swiss inter-industry wage structure in the light of the current debate on the efficiency wage hypothesis. Results clearly indicate the presence of an industry component in the determinants of earnings in Switzerland. No definite conclusion emerges though as to the source of wage variation. The stability of the wage structure and the role of tenure point to the existence of "wage rents". However, these results may be severely biased if unobserved ability is used by firm...

  16. Industrial Cloud: Toward Inter-enterprise Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wlodarczyk, Tomasz Wiktor; Rong, Chunming; Thorsen, Kari Anne Haaland

    Industrial cloud is introduced as a new inter-enterprise integration concept in cloud computing. The characteristics of an industrial cloud are given by its definition and architecture and compared with other general cloud concepts. The concept is then demonstrated by a practical use case, based on Integrated Operations (IO) in the Norwegian Continental Shelf (NCS), showing how industrial digital information integration platform gives competitive advantage to the companies involved. Further research and development challenges are also discussed.

  17. Atmospheric Correction Inter-Comparison Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgia Doxani

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The Atmospheric Correction Inter-comparison eXercise (ACIX is an international initiative with the aim to analyse the Surface Reflectance (SR products of various state-of-the-art atmospheric correction (AC processors. The Aerosol Optical Thickness (AOT and Water Vapour (WV are also examined in ACIX as additional outputs of AC processing. In this paper, the general ACIX framework is discussed; special mention is made of the motivation to initiate the experiment, the inter-comparison protocol, and the principal results. ACIX is free and open and every developer was welcome to participate. Eventually, 12 participants applied their approaches to various Landsat-8 and Sentinel-2 image datasets acquired over sites around the world. The current results diverge depending on the sensors, products, and sites, indicating their strengths and weaknesses. Indeed, this first implementation of processor inter-comparison was proven to be a good lesson for the developers to learn the advantages and limitations of their approaches. Various algorithm improvements are expected, if not already implemented, and the enhanced performances are yet to be assessed in future ACIX experiments.

  18. Inter-atomic interaction between electrons, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haga, Eijiro; Kato, Tomohiko; Aisaka, Tsuyoshi.

    1978-01-01

    Intra- and inter-atomic interactions in the exchange process are defined with respect to the Wannier function rather than the atomic function. In relation to the neutron scattering data for nickel, the behavior for the effective exchange parameter I(q) in the q-dependent susceptibility is, in RPA, investigated by taking into account the main types of the nearest neighbor interactions and by extending our previous treatment. The different types of interactions lead to different behavior for the q-dependence of I(q). The contribution to I(q) from inter-atomic interactions other than the exchange type decreases as the surface area of the Fermi surface becomes large. For the exchange type, the l-th neighbor interaction with l<=4 is taken into account, and, from the comparison with the empirical result for I(q), it is found that the inter-atomic contribution to I(0) is about thirty percent with a reasonable decrease against l. (author)

  19. Inter-utility trade in electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penman, A.

    1992-01-01

    Enhanced inter-utility cooperation could have a profound effect on the future of the electricity supply industry. Coordinated planning, development, and operations of electric power systems have the potential to reduce the cost of electricity to consumers and to lessen the impact of electricity supply on the environment. These effects could be achieved by being able to supply electricity from lower cost and more environmentally benign sources located over wider geographic areas, and having to install less new generating capacity. Access to transmission and wheeling services would be an important factor in allowing increased inter-utility cooperation to occur. Canada's National Energy Board conducted a review to identify measures that can be taken to enhance interprovincial trade in electricity, to encourage greater cooperation between electric utilities in the areas of systems planning and development, and to enable buyers and sellers of electricity to obtain access to available transmission capacity through intervening provinces for wheeling purposes. The work undertaken by the Board during that review is described. A total estimated economic benefit of $23-32.5 billion was identified, mainly from long-term firm sales and from seasonal diversity exchanges. Four options were developed that appear to be available to encourage and achieve enhanced inter-utility cooperation. These are continuation of voluntary cooperation, voluntary cooperation with federal monitoring, establishing voluntary regional planning entities, and establishing regional planning entities with mandated federal power

  20. County business patterns, 1997 : Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that provides : subnational economic data by industry. The series is : useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  1. County business patterns, 1997 : New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that provides : subnational economic data by industry. The series is : useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  2. 1984. Annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This report presents the research works developed at the Nuclear Physics Institute of Lyon during the year 1984 in the following fields: theoretical physics, high-energy and intermediate-energy physics, nuclear physics, inter-disciplinary physics, instrumentation. A list of the publications of the year 1984 is finally given [fr

  3. NIRE annual report 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    The National Institute for Resources and Environment (NIRE) has a R & D concept of 'ecotechnology' that aims to protect the environment from degradation whilst promoting sustainable development. This annual report presents summaries of 32 recent research efforts.

  4. ASIST 2002 annual meeting

    CERN Multimedia

    Peek, R

    2003-01-01

    Review of discussions and presentations at the American Society for Information Science and Technology 2002 annual meeting. Topics covered included new models of scholarly publishing and the development of the semantic web (1 page).

  5. SIS - Annual Catch Limit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Annual Catch Limit (ACL) dataset within the Species Information System (SIS) contains information and data related to management reference points and catch data.

  6. IKO Annual Report 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The IKO Annual Report of 1976 relates their progress in different projects and project fields. The fields covered include electron scattering, pion and muon physics, theory, radio- and nuclear chemistry, technical department, MEA, nuclear reactions and nuclear spectroscopy

  7. Annual Adjustment Factors

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The Department of Housing and Urban Development establishes the rent adjustment factors - called Annual Adjustment Factors (AAFs) - on the basis of Consumer Price...

  8. 2002 Annual report: synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This synthesis of the Annual Report 2002 presents information of the main activities on the scope of the radiation protection and nuclear safety of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN) of the Argentina during 2002

  9. Annual report 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This annual report contains a description of the named institute, the research programm, reports from the scientific establishments, a description of different cooperations, and a list of scientific publications. (HSI) [de

  10. Annual Report 1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    This annual report supersedes the work done in the nuclear physics institute at Lyon. The studied matters are the following: nuclear theory, nuclear reactions, nuclear spectroscopy and nuclear chemistry [fr

  11. 2010 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-01-01

    This annual report includes: an overview of Western; approaches for future hydropower and transmission service; major achievements in FY 2010; FY 2010 customer Integrated Resource Planning, or IRP, survey; and financial data.

  12. Annual report 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaeggeler, H.W.; Lorenzen, R.

    1991-04-01

    This annual report of the chemistry laboratory gives an overview of research performed during 1990 in the field of geochemistry, trace analysis, aerosol chemistry, heavy elements, cement chemistry and analytical chemistry. figs., tabs., refs

  13. Scientific annual report 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This annual report contains a collection of the abstracts of the publications concerning research and development in the named institute together with a bibliography about further publications, contributions to conferences and speeches. (HSI) [de

  14. Annual report - LNLS - 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This is the 1990 Annual Report of the LNLS, the upcoming Brazilian Synchrotron Light Source. It discusses its projects, organization as well as the proposed experimental stations. It presents also a list of publications. (A.C.A.S.)

  15. Annual report 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toncik, M.

    2006-04-01

    In this Annual report the operating of the Slovak Environmental Agency in 2005 is reported. The structure of the Agency, mission, personnel structure, financing, monitoring of the environment, international cooperation and coordination of research programmes are reviewed

  16. Annual report 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toncik, M.

    2003-04-01

    In this Annual report the operating of the Slovak Environmental Agency in 2002 is reported. Structure of the Agency, mission, personnel structure, financing, monitoring of the environment, international cooperation and coordination of research programmes are reviewed

  17. Annual report 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toncik, M.

    2005-04-01

    In this Annual report the operating of the Slovak Environmental Agency in 2004 is reported. The structure of the Agency, mission, personnel structure, financing, monitoring of the environment, international cooperation and coordination of research programmes are reviewed

  18. Annual report 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toncik, M.

    2004-04-01

    In this Annual report the operating of the Slovak Environmental Agency in 2003 is reported. The structure of the Agency, mission, personnel structure, financing, monitoring of the environment, international cooperation and coordination of research programmes are reviewed

  19. Annual report 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2007-04-01

    In this Annual report the operating of the Slovak Environmental Agency in 2006 is reported. The structure of the Agency, mission, personnel structure, financing, monitoring of the environment, international cooperation and coordination of research programmes are reviewed

  20. Annual Report 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The annual report gives the specific scientific results in the fields of nuclear and radiation physics, radiation chemistry, radiochemistry and data processing with a list of publications. (orig.) [de

  1. 2000 Annual report: synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This synthesis of the Annual Report 2000 present information of the main activities on the scope of the radiation protection and nuclear safety of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (NRA) of the Argentina during 2000

  2. 2001 Annual report: synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This synthesis of the Annual Report 2001 presents information of the main activities on the scope of the radiation protection and nuclear safety of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN) of the Argentina during 2001

  3. Inter-arm blood pressure differences in young, healthy patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Alon; Prokupetz, Alex; Gordon, Barak; Morag-Koren, Nira; Grossman, Ehud

    2013-08-01

    The prevalence and magnitude of inter-arm BP difference (IAD) in young healthy patients is not well characterized. Flight academy applicants and designated aviators undergo annual evaluation that includes blood pressure (BP) measurement on both arms. All BP measurements performed from January 1, 2012, to April 30, 2012, were recorded and IAD was calculated. Results were compared between patients in whom BP was initially measured in the right arm (group 1), those in whom BP was initially measured in the left arm (group 2), and those in whom the arm in which BP was initially measured was not recorded (group 3). A total of 877 healthy patients had BP measured during the study period. In the entire group, mean systolic BP was the same in both arms. Absolute IAD was 5.6±5.5 mm Hg for systolic and 4.7±4.5 mm Hg for diastolic BP. IAD >10 mm Hg was recorded in 111 (12.6%) and 77 (8.8%) patients for systolic and diastolic BP, respectively. IAD was the same in the 3 groups and was unrelated to age, body mass index, and heart rate, but was related to systolic BP. IAD is common in young healthy patients, is not dependent on which arm was measured first, and unrelated to age, body mass index, and heart rate. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Annual report 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Delivering products and services to nuclear power plants operators, AREVA operates in every sector of the civilian nuclear power and fuel cycle industry. This annual report 2003 provides, in seven chapters, information on persons responsible for the annual report and for auditing the financial statements, general information on the company and share capital (statute, capital, share trading, dividends), information on company operations, changes and future prospects, assets, financial position and financial performance, corporate governance, recent developments and future prospects. (A.L.B.)

  5. Natural gas annual 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-11-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1995 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1991 to 1995 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level

  6. Natural gas annual 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1993 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. Tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1989 to 1993 are given for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level

  7. Natural gas annual 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1991 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. Tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition form 1987 to 1991 are given for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level

  8. Atmospheric Correction Inter-comparison Exercise (ACIX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermote, E.; Doxani, G.; Gascon, F.; Roger, J. C.; Skakun, S.

    2017-12-01

    The free and open data access policy to Landsat-8 (L-8) and Sentinel-2 (S-2) satellite imagery has encouraged the development of atmospheric correction (AC) approaches for generating Bottom-of-Atmosphere (BOA) products. Several entities have started to generate (or plan to generate in the short term) BOA reflectance products at global scale for L-8 and S-2 missions. To this end, the European Space Agency (ESA) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) have initiated an exercise on the inter-comparison of the available AC processors. The results of the exercise are expected to point out the strengths and weaknesses, as well as communalities and discrepancies of various AC processors, in order to suggest and define ways for their further improvement. In particular, 11 atmospheric processors from five different countries participate in ACIX with the aim to inter-compare their performance when applied to L-8 and S-2 data. All the processors should be operational without requiring parametrization when applied on different areas. A protocol describing in details the inter-comparison metrics and the test dataset based on the AERONET sites has been agreed unanimously during the 1st ACIX workshop in June 2016. In particular, a basic and an advanced run of each of the processor were requested in the frame of ACIX, with the aim to draw robust and reliable conclusions on the processors' performance. The protocol also describes the comparison metrics of the aerosol optical thickness and water vapour products of the processors with the corresponding AERONET measurements. Moreover, concerning the surface reflectances, the inter-comparison among the processors is defined, as well as the comparison with the MODIS surface reflectance and with a reference surface reflectance product. Such a reference product will be obtained using the AERONET characterization of the aerosol (size distribution and refractive indices) and an accurate radiative transfer code. The inter

  9. Influence of inclination angles on intra- and inter-limb load-sharing during uphill walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Shih-Wun; Leu, Tsai-Hsueh; Li, Jia-Da; Wang, Ting-Ming; Ho, Wei-Ping; Lu, Tung-Wu

    2014-01-01

    Uphill walking is an inevitable part of daily living, placing more challenges on the locomotor system with greater risk of falls than level walking does. The current study aimed to investigate the effects of inclination angles on the inter-joint and inter-limb load-sharing during uphill walking in terms of total support moment and contributions of individual joint moments to the total support moment. Fifteen young adults walked up walkways with 0°, 5°, 10° and 15° of slope while kinematic and kinetic data were collected and analyzed. With increasing inclination angles, the first peak of the total support moment was increased with unaltered individual joint contributions, suggesting an unaltered inter-joint control pattern in the leading limb to meet the increased demands. The second peak of the total support moment remained unchanged with increasing inclination angles primarily through a compensatory redistribution of the hip and knee moments. During DLS, the leading limb shared the majority of the whole body support moments. The current results reveal basic intra- and inter-limb load-sharing patterns of uphill walking, which will be helpful for a better understanding of the control strategies adopted and for subsequent clinical applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Denoising Algorithm for CFA Image Sensors Considering Inter-Channel Correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min Seok; Park, Sang Wook; Kang, Moon Gi

    2017-05-28

    In this paper, a spatio-spectral-temporal filter considering an inter-channel correlation is proposed for the denoising of a color filter array (CFA) sequence acquired by CCD/CMOS image sensors. Owing to the alternating under-sampled grid of the CFA pattern, the inter-channel correlation must be considered in the direct denoising process. The proposed filter is applied in the spatial, spectral, and temporal domain, considering the spatio-tempo-spectral correlation. First, nonlocal means (NLM) spatial filtering with patch-based difference (PBD) refinement is performed by considering both the intra-channel correlation and inter-channel correlation to overcome the spatial resolution degradation occurring with the alternating under-sampled pattern. Second, a motion-compensated temporal filter that employs inter-channel correlated motion estimation and compensation is proposed to remove the noise in the temporal domain. Then, a motion adaptive detection value controls the ratio of the spatial filter and the temporal filter. The denoised CFA sequence can thus be obtained without motion artifacts. Experimental results for both simulated and real CFA sequences are presented with visual and numerical comparisons to several state-of-the-art denoising methods combined with a demosaicing method. Experimental results confirmed that the proposed frameworks outperformed the other techniques in terms of the objective criteria and subjective visual perception in CFA sequences.

  11. Exploring the impact of climate variability during the Last Glacial Maximum on the pattern of human occupation of Iberia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Ariane; Levavasseur, Guillaume; James, Patrick M A; Guiducci, Dario; Izquierdo, Manuel Arturo; Bourgeon, Lauriane; Kageyama, Masa; Ramstein, Gilles; Vrac, Mathieu

    2014-08-01

    The Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) was a global climate event, which had significant repercussions for the spatial distribution and demographic history of prehistoric populations. In Eurasia, the LGM coincides with a potential bottleneck for modern humans and may mark the divergence date for Asian and European populations (Keinan et al., 2007). In this research, the impact of climate variability on human populations in the Iberian Peninsula during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) is examined with the aid of downscaled high-resolution (16 × 16 km) numerical climate experiments. Human sensitivity to short time-scale (inter-annual) climate variability during this key time period, which follows the initial modern human colonisation of Eurasia and the extinction of the Neanderthals, is tested using the spatial distribution of archaeological sites. Results indicate that anatomically modern human populations responded to small-scale spatial patterning in climate variability, specifically inter-annual variability in precipitation levels as measured by the standard precipitation index. Climate variability at less than millennial scale, therefore, is shown to be an important component of ecological risk, one that played a role in regulating the spatial behaviour of prehistoric human populations and consequently affected their social networks. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Inter-Cultural Communication in Student Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjaltadóttir, Rannveig Edda

    This article describes a project undertaken at the University of Southern Denmark designed to support active group work and inter-cultural communication between international students. The project is based on using group work and cooperative learning principles to do student research, therefore...... challenging the students to solve problems as a group. The main aim of the research is to investigate the possible effects of using integrated student research and group work using cooperative learning methods to develop international communication skills of students in multi-cultural higher education courses....

  13. Inter laboratory comparison on Industrial Computed Tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angel, Jais Andreas Breusch; De Chiffre, Leonardo; Larsen, Erik

    The ‘CIA-CT comparison - Inter laboratory comparison on industrial Computed Tomography” is organized by DTU Department of Mechanical Engineering within the Danish project “Centre for Industrial Application of CT scanning - CIA-CT”. The project is co-financed by the Danish Ministry of Science......, Technology and Innovation. The comparison aims to collect information about measurement performance in state-of the-art industrial CT (Computed Tomography) scanning. Since CT scanning has entered the field of manufacturing and coordinate metrology, evaluation of uncertainty of measurement with assessment...

  14. Overview of the InterGroup protocols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berket, Karlo [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Agarwal, Deborah A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Melliar-Smith, P. Michael [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Moser, Louise E. [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States)

    2001-03-01

    Existing reliable ordered group communication protocols have been developed for local-area networks and do not, in general, scale well to large numbers of nodes and wide-area networks. The InterGroup suite of protocols is a scalable group communication system that introduces a novel approach to handling group membership, and supports a receiver-oriented selection of service. The protocols are intended for a wide-area network, with a large number of nodes, that has highly variable delays and a high message loss rate, such as the Internet. The levels of the message delivery service range from unreliable unordered to reliable group timestamp ordered.

  15. The Models of Inter-temporal Consume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Mihail

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The articol presents a category of consumption models which shows the manner how theexpenses of consume in an economy are related to the available income achieved by this economy and theinterest rate from the financial market. Since the income as well as the expenses of consume are realizedin time, such dynamic models of consume are also referred to as models of inter-temporal consume,emphasizing therefore the fact that the available income achieved at a certain moment may be used forconsume at a future moment, whereas the decision of consume taken at a current moment may consider theincome that is to be achieved in the future.

  16. Annual, semi-annual and ter-annual variations of gravity wave momentum flux in 13 years of SABER data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dan; Preusse, Peter; Ern, Manfred; Strube, Cornelia

    2017-04-01

    In this study, the variations at different time scales such as the annual cycle, the semiannual oscillation (SAO), the ter-annual cycle (about four monthly) and the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) in zonal mean GW amplitudes and GW momentum flux (GWMF) have been investigated using satellite observations from 2002-2014 and combining ECMWF high resolution data with the GORGRAT model. The global distribution (patterns) of spectral amplitudes of GW momentum flux in stratosphere and mesosphere (from 30 km to 90 km) show that the annual cycle is the most predominant variation, and then are SAO, ter-annual cycle and QBO. For annual components, two relatively isolated amplitude maxima appear in each hemisphere: a subtropical maximum is associated with convective sources in summer, a mid and high latitude maximum is associated with the polar vortex in winter. In the subtropics, GWs propagate upward obliquely to the higher latitudes. The winter maximum in the southern hemisphere has larger momentum flux than that one in the northern hemisphere. While on the SH the phase (i.e. time corresponding to the maximum GWMF) continuously descends with the maximum in July in the upper mesosphere and in September in the lower stratosphere, on the northern hemisphere, the phase has no visible altitude dependence with a maximum in December. For semiannual variations, in the MLT (70-80 km) region, there is an obvious enhancement of spectral amplitude at equatorial latitudes which relate to the dissipation of convectively forced GWs. The SAO in absolute momentum flux and the annual cycle in zonal momentum flux indicated that the variations at mid-latitudes (about from 30°-40°) are not a SAO signals but rather an annual cycle when the direction of GWMF is considered. The ter-annual cycle may be related to the duration of active convection in subtropical latitudes (from June to Sep. in north hemisphere) Indications for QBO are found latitude extension to mid-latitudes in stratosphere of

  17. Inter-Industry and Inter-Firm Wage and Hours Differentials in Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    José V. Ramirez

    2000-01-01

    In the present paper, we analyse the role of demand factors on wages and hours in Switzerland. To accomplish this task, we used the 1996 Swiss Wage Structure Survey, a large employee-employer survey. Results indicate that capital intensity appears to have a certain impact on the relation between wages and hours: the "inter-industry wage-hours differentials line" we inferred is clearly positive. Further, an analysis of the determinants of inter-firm wage differentials shows that the internal o...

  18. Monitoring inter-channel nonlinearity based on differential pilot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wanli; Yang, Aiying; Guo, Peng; Lu, Yueming; Qiao, Yaojun

    2018-06-01

    We modify and simplify the inter-channel nonlinearity (NL) estimation method by using differential pilot. Compared to previous works, the inter-channel NL estimation method we propose has much lower complexity and does not need modification of the transmitter. The performance of inter-channel NL monitoring with different launch power is tested. For both QPSK and 16QAM systems with 9 channels, the estimation error of inter-channel NL is lower than 1 dB when the total launch power is bigger than 12 dBm after 1000 km optical transmission. At last, we compare our inter-channel NL estimation method with other methods.

  19. Detection of bursts in neuronal spike trains by the mean inter-spike interval method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Chen; Yong Deng; Weihua Luo; Zhen Wang; Shaoqun Zeng

    2009-01-01

    Bursts are electrical spikes firing with a high frequency, which are the most important property in synaptic plasticity and information processing in the central nervous system. However, bursts are difficult to identify because bursting activities or patterns vary with phys-iological conditions or external stimuli. In this paper, a simple method automatically to detect bursts in spike trains is described. This method auto-adaptively sets a parameter (mean inter-spike interval) according to intrinsic properties of the detected burst spike trains, without any arbitrary choices or any operator judgrnent. When the mean value of several successive inter-spike intervals is not larger than the parameter, a burst is identified. By this method, bursts can be automatically extracted from different bursting patterns of cultured neurons on multi-electrode arrays, as accurately as by visual inspection. Furthermore, significant changes of burst variables caused by electrical stimulus have been found in spontaneous activity of neuronal network. These suggest that the mean inter-spike interval method is robust for detecting changes in burst patterns and characteristics induced by environmental alterations.

  20. Annual report 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    This annual report is the fifth issued in English from the Tandem Accelerator Laboratory in Uppsala since research was started in November 1970. It covers work performed during the calendar year 1976 and updates information given in earlier annual reports with regard to laboratory facilities such as computer configuration and layout of the experimental area. The descriptions of the research projects are also in general more detailed than usual and may sometime contain results obtained before 1976 in order to avoid too many references to earlier annual reports. It has, for instance, been thought of interest to make the sections on the study of beam foil excitation of atoms and on the measurements of nuclear deformations by the REPREC method quite extensive. (Auth.)

  1. Petroleum supply annual 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1992 through annual and monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. The first volume contains four sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, Refinery Capacity, and Oxygenate Capacity each with final annual data. This second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1992, and replaces data previously published in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM). The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. Explanatory Notes, located at the end of this publication, present information describing data collection, sources, estimation methodology, data quality control procedures, modifications to reporting requirements and interpretation of tables. Industry terminology and product definitions are listed alphabetically in the Glossary

  2. Polyhedral patterns

    KAUST Repository

    Jiang, Caigui

    2015-10-27

    We study the design and optimization of polyhedral patterns, which are patterns of planar polygonal faces on freeform surfaces. Working with polyhedral patterns is desirable in architectural geometry and industrial design. However, the classical tiling patterns on the plane must take on various shapes in order to faithfully and feasibly approximate curved surfaces. We define and analyze the deformations these tiles must undertake to account for curvature, and discover the symmetries that remain invariant under such deformations. We propose a novel method to regularize polyhedral patterns while maintaining these symmetries into a plethora of aesthetic and feasible patterns.

  3. StreamNet; 1999 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission

    2000-01-01

    This report was funded by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), US Department of Energy, as part of BPA's program to protect, mitigate, and enhance fish and wildlife affected by the development and operation of hydroelectric facilities on the Columbia River and its tributaries. The views of this report are the author's and do not necessarily represent the views of BPA. This annual report covers progress made by: Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission Idaho; Department of Fish and Game; Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks; Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife; Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission; Shoshone-Bannock Tribes; US Fish and Wildlife Service; Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife; and FY1999 StreamNet Quickplan.

  4. Factors Predicting Inter-Ethnic Friendships at the Workplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Intan H. M. Hashim

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study explored factors that may contribute to inter-ethnic friendships, both in terms of quantity and satisfaction with those friendships. Participants were 200 working adults who were studying part-time in a long-distance program in a university in Malaysia. In general, demographic factors (gender, ethnicity, education, and income had no significant relationships with number of inter-ethnic friends and satisfaction people had with inter-ethnic friendships. Ethnic identity and stress at work also did not have significant relationships with number of inter-ethnic friends. However, they were significantly related to satisfaction with inter-ethnic friendships. People with higher ethnic identification were more satisfied with inter-ethnic friendships whereas people with more stress at work reported lower satisfaction with inter-ethnic friendships.

  5. Natural gas annual 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-10-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1997 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1993 to 1997 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level. 27 figs., 109 tabs

  6. Natural gas annual 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-10-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1997 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1993 to 1997 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level. 27 figs., 109 tabs.

  7. International energy annual 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    The International Energy Annual presents an overview of key international energy trends for production, consumption, imports, and exports of primary energy commodities in over 220 countries, dependencies, and areas of special sovereignty. Also included are population and gross domestic product data, as well as prices for crude oil and petroleum products in selected countries. Renewable energy reported in the International Energy Annual includes hydroelectric power, geothermal, solar, and wind electric power, biofuels energy for the US, and biofuels electric power for Brazil. New in the 1996 edition are estimates of carbon dioxide emissions from the consumption of petroleum and coal, and the consumption and flaring of natural gas. 72 tabs.

  8. Economic, social, energy and environmental assessment of inter-municipality commuting: The case of Portugal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, João-Pedro; Barata, Eduardo; Ramos, Pedro Nogueira; Cruz, Luis

    2014-01-01

    Commuting is one of the main contributors to the high energy consumption patterns in modern economies. The need to reduce the energy spent in commuting has attracted the attention of academics and policy makers. The main goal of this research is to improve knowledge of the economic, social, energy and environmental opportunity costs of inter-municipality commuting and to support policy-oriented strategies that explicitly take them into account. For this, we use hypothetical assumptions based on the baseline scenario that Portuguese households do not travel between municipalities for commuting purposes coupled with the expected changes in private final consumption. Accordingly, the direct, indirect and induced opportunity costs of inter-municipality commuting are assessed using an input–output model. The significance of the estimated virtual net benefits of commuting is analyzed according to their macroeconomic (GVA, taxes, international imports and employment), energy (primary energy consumption) and environmental (CO 2 emissions) dimensions. The results obtained empirically indicate that inter-municipality commuting has significant opportunity costs in the GVA and GDP as well as in primary energy consumption and CO 2 emissions. The results also indicate that commuters in metropolitan regions and long-distance commuters are responsible for a major share of these opportunity costs. - Highlights: • This paper provides an insight into the magnitude of opportunity costs of commuting. • Input–output modeling is valuable to assess changes in final consumption patterns. • About 25% of household's fuel consumption is due to inter-municipality commuting. • Inter-municipality commuting has net negative effects on GDP, GVA and employment. • The main opportunity costs come from metropolitan and long distance commuting

  9. Sea level anomaly in the North Atlantic and seas around Europe: Long-term variability and response to North Atlantic teleconnection patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias, Isabel; Lorenzo, M Nieves; Lázaro, Clara; Fernandes, M Joana; Bastos, Luísa

    2017-12-31

    Sea level anomaly (SLA), provided globally by satellite altimetry, is considered a valuable proxy for detecting long-term changes of the global ocean, as well as short-term and annual variations. In this manuscript, monthly sea level anomaly grids for the period 1993-2013 are used to characterise the North Atlantic Ocean variability at inter-annual timescales and its response to the North Atlantic main patterns of atmospheric circulation variability (North Atlantic Oscillation, Eastern Atlantic, Eastern Atlantic/Western Russia, Scandinavian and Polar/Eurasia) and main driven factors as sea level pressure, sea surface temperature and wind fields. SLA variability and long-term trends are analysed for the North Atlantic Ocean and several sub-regions (North, Baltic and Mediterranean and Black seas, Bay of Biscay extended to the west coast of the Iberian Peninsula, and the northern North Atlantic Ocean), depicting the SLA fluctuations at basin and sub-basin scales, aiming at representing the regions of maximum sea level variability. A significant correlation between SLA and the different phases of the teleconnection patterns due to the generated winds, sea level pressure and sea surface temperature anomalies, with a strong variability on temporal and spatial scales, has been identified. Long-term analysis reveals the existence of non-stationary inter-annual SLA fluctuations in terms of the temporal scale. Spectral density analysis has shown the existence of long-period signals in the SLA inter-annual component, with periods of ~10, 5, 4 and 2years, depending on the analysed sub-region. Also, a non-uniform increase in sea level since 1993 is identified for all sub-regions, with trend values between 2.05mm/year, for the Bay of Biscay region, and 3.98mm/year for the Baltic Sea (no GIA correction considered). The obtained results demonstrated a strong link between the atmospheric patterns and SLA, as well as strong long-period fluctuations of this variable in spatial and

  10. Specialization Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Ulrik Pagh; Lawall, Julia Laetitia; Consel, Charles

    2000-01-01

    Design patterns offer many advantages for software development, but can introduce inefficiency into the final program. Program specialization can eliminate such overheads, but is most effective when targeted by the user to specific bottlenecks. Consequently, we propose that these concepts...... are complementary. Program specialization can optimize programs written using design patterns, and design patterns provide information about the program structure that can guide specialization. Concretely, we propose specialization patterns, which describe how to apply program specialization to optimize uses...... of design patterns. In this paper, we analyze the specialization opportunities provided by specific uses of design patterns. Based on the analysis of each design pattern, we define the associated specialization pattern. These specialization opportunities can be declared using the specialization classes...

  11. Safety assessment of inter-channel / inter-system digital communications: A defensive measures approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thuy, N. N. Q.

    2006-01-01

    Inappropriately designed inter-channel and inter-system digital communications could initiate common cause failure of multiple channels or multiple systems. Defensive measures were introduced in EPRI report TR-1002835 (Guideline for Performing Defense-in-Depth and Diversity Assessments for Digital Upgrades) to assess, on a deterministic basis, the susceptibility of digital systems architectures to common-cause failures. This paper suggests how this approach could be applied to assess inter-channel and inter-system digital communications from a safety standpoint. The first step of the approach is to systematically identify the so called 'influence factors' that one end of the data communication path can have on the other. Potential factors to be considered would typically include data values, data volumes and data rates. The second step of the approach is to characterize the ways possible failures of a given end of the communication path could affect these influence factors (e.g., incorrect data values, excessive data rates, time-outs, incorrect data volumes). The third step is to analyze the designed-in measures taken to guarantee independence of the other end. In addition to classical error detection and correction codes, typical defensive measures are one-way data communication, fixed-rate data communication, fixed-volume data communication, validation of data values. (authors)

  12. Infusing an Inter-Professional and Inter-University Perspective into Healthcare Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Lynette R.; Koontz, Jennifer Scott; Downs, David; Uhlig, Paul; Kumar, Neil G.; Shah, Sapna; Clark, Paige E.; Coiner, Christina; Crumrine, Daiquirie

    2010-01-01

    A national (USA) student-led, case-based CLinician/Administrator Relationship Improvement OrganizatioN (CLARION) competition focuses students in medical and related healthcare programs on the provision of healthcare that is safe, timely, equitable, patient-centred, effective and efficient. Students work in four-person, inter-professional teams to…

  13. Genetically modified organisms in food and feed : annual report 2010 of the Dutch National Reference Laboratory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens-Toma, I.M.J.; Molenaar, B.; Zaaijer, S.; Voorhuijzen, M.M.; Prins, T.W.; Kok, E.J.

    2011-01-01

    This is the annual report of the Dutch National Reference Laboratory (NRL) for Genetically Modified Food and Feed (RIKILT - Institue of Food Safety). The report gives an overview of the NRL activities carried out in 2010. In 2010 RIKILT participated in one ring trial for inter laboratory validation

  14. Research and Clinical Center for Child Development Annual Report, 1995-1996, No. 19.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakai, Kunio, Ed.; Chen, Shing-Jen, Ed.; Furutsuka, Takashi, Ed.; Shirotani, Yukari, Ed.

    This annual report discusses several topics related to the work of the Research and Clinical Center for Child Development at Hokkaido University in Japan. The articles are: (1) "Heart to Heart (Inter "Jo") Resonance: Taking Japanese Concept of Intersubjectivity Out of Everyday Life" (Shigeru Nakano); (2) "Intersubjectivity…

  15. Annual report 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-07-01

    Article VI.J of the Agency's Statute requires the Board of Governors to submit 'an annual report to the General Conference concerning the affairs of the Agency and any projects approved by the Agency'. This report covers the period 1 January to 31 December 2000

  16. IRI annual report 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    In this annual report of the Dutch Interfacultary Reactor Institute, summary reports are presented of current research and teaching activities during 1989 of the departments radiochemistry, radiation chemistry, radiation physics and reactor physics, operation and maintenance of, and experiments with the Delft Hoger Onderwijs reactor, nuclear instrumentation projects and supporting services. (H.W.). 299 refs.; 2 figs.; 7 tabs

  17. Annual report 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-12-01

    This annual report contains short descriptions of the work done at the named institute. These concern the study of hyperfine interactions, experiments with synchroton radiation, experiments at storage rings, and experiments at CERN. Furthermore, a list of publications, contributions to conferences and these is presented. (HSI) [de

  18. CSIR Annual report 1966

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    1966-01-01

    Full Text Available This report presents the twenty second annual report of the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research. The report covers the period from the 1st January, 1966, to the 31st December 1966. Balance sheets and statements of income and expenditure...

  19. Annual Report - ESCELSA - 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The annual report of ESCELSA - Brazilian electric power distribution company - introduces the following main topics: state of Espirito Santo; strategic focus; financial performance; relation with investors; energy sales; market overview; market expansion; customers; technological stream; measuring quality; electric system; investments; protecting the environment; and resource allocation

  20. Annual Conference Abstracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Engineering Education, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Includes abstracts of papers presented at the 80th Annual Conference of the American Society for Engineering Education. The broad areas include aerospace, affiliate and associate member council, agricultural engineering, biomedical engineering, continuing engineering studies, chemical engineering, civil engineering, computers, cooperative…