WorldWideScience

Sample records for intensive observation period

  1. Periodic variations of cosmic ray intensity with period of -37 minute observed on April 25th, 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Takasuke; Kato, Masahito; Takei, Ryoji; Tamai, Eiji

    1985-01-01

    Existence of cosmic ray variation with period ranging from a few hours to seconds during geomagnetically quiet and perturb period at different altitude with different detector, was reported previously. As short period variation is thought to be transient with small amplitude fluctuation, consequently high counting rate of cosmic ray and appropriate method for finding short periodicity, is required. Further, there is similar phenomenon in which short variation, followed by storm sudden commencement (SSC) and/or Forbush decrease (FD) occurs. In 1979, Kato et al. used 3 minutes data at Mt. Norikura and obtained -6 x 10 5 count/min, and tried to find out short periodicity of cosmic ray around SSC, but no clear conclusion was obtained. T. Sakai, et al., used plastic scintillation counter of Akeno observatory, following their preceding work. The counter has an area about 154 m 2 . High counting rate of -2 x 10 6 counts/min. was observed at Akeno which revealed the existence of -37 minute periodical oscillation with an amplitude of 0.1 % in p-p during the time period of 1300 - 1900 UT on April 25th 1984, one day before FD. Observed periodical oscillation of cosmic ray counting rate may be the result of the changes in magnetic field. But, it must be noted that there remains possibility of oscillation of cosmic ray intensity in the interplanetary space during the period, independent of geomagnetic field. (author)

  2. "Radiative Closure Studies for Clear Skies During the ARM 2003 Aerosol Intensive Observation Period"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. J. Michalsky, G. P. Anderson, J. Barnard, J. Delamere, C. Gueymard, S. Kato, P. Kiedron, A. McComiskey, and P. Ricchiazzi

    2006-04-01

    The Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program sponsored a large intensive observation period (IOP) to study aerosol during the month of May 2003 around the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Climate Research Facility (CRF) in north central Oklahoma. Redundant measurements of aerosol optical properties were made using different techniques at the surface as well as in vertical profile with sensors aboard two aircraft. One of the principal motivations for this experiment was to resolve the disagreement between models and measurements of diffuse horizontal broadband shortwave irradiance at the surface, especially for modest aerosol loading. This paper focuses on using the redundant aerosol and radiation measurements during this IOP to compare direct beam and diffuse horizontal broadband shortwave irradiance measurements and models at the surface for a wide range of aerosol cases that occurred during 30 clear-sky periods on 13 days of May 2003. Models and measurements are compared over a large range of solar-zenith angles. Six different models are used to assess the relative agreement among them and the measurements. Better agreement than previously achieved appears to be the result of better specification of input parameters and better measurements of irradiances than in prior studies. Biases between modeled and measured direct irradiances are less than 1%, and biases between modeled and measured diffuse irradiances are less than 2%.

  3. Aerosol chemical composition at Cabauw, the Netherlands as observed in two intensive periods in May 2008 and March 2009

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mensah, A.A.; Holzinger, R.; Otjes, R.; Trimborn, A.; Mentel, T.F.; Brink, H. ten; Henzing, B.; Kiendler-Scharr, A.

    2012-01-01

    Observations of aerosol chemical composition in Cabauw, the Netherlands, are presented for two intensive measurement periods in May 2008 and March 2009. Sub-micron aerosol chemical composition was measured by an Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) and is compared to observations from aerosol

  4. Aerosol chemical composition at Cabauw, The Netherlands as observed in two intensive periods in May 2008 and March 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mensah, A. A.; Holzinger, R.; Otjes, R.; Trimborn, A.; Mentel, Th. F.; ten Brink, H.; Henzing, B.; Kiendler-Scharr, A.

    2012-05-01

    Observations of aerosol chemical composition in Cabauw, the Netherlands, are presented for two intensive measurement periods in May 2008 and March 2009. Sub-micron aerosol chemical composition was measured by an Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) and is compared to observations from aerosol size distribution measurements as well as composition measurements with a Monitor for AeRosol and GAses (MARGA) based instrument and a Thermal-Desorption Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass-Spectrometer (TD-PTR-MS). An overview of the data is presented and the data quality is discussed. In May 2008 enhanced pollution was observed with organics contributing 40% to the PM1 mass. In contrast the observed average mass loading was lower in March 2009 and a dominance of ammonium nitrate (42%) was observed. The semi-volatile nature of ammonium nitrate is evident in the diurnal cycles with maximum concentrations observed in the morning hours in May 2008 and little diurnal variation observed in March 2009. Size dependent composition data from AMS measurements are presented and show a dominance of organics in the size range below 200 nm. A higher O:C ratio of the organics is observed for May 2008 than for March 2009. Together with the time series of individual tracer ions this shows the dominance of OOA over HOA in May 2008.

  5. Aerosol chemical composition at Cabauw, The Netherlands as observed in two intensive periods in May 2008 and March 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Mensah

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Observations of aerosol chemical composition in Cabauw, the Netherlands, are presented for two intensive measurement periods in May 2008 and March 2009. Sub-micron aerosol chemical composition was measured by an Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS and is compared to observations from aerosol size distribution measurements as well as composition measurements with a Monitor for AeRosol and GAses (MARGA based instrument and a Thermal-Desorption Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass-Spectrometer (TD-PTR-MS. An overview of the data is presented and the data quality is discussed. In May 2008 enhanced pollution was observed with organics contributing 40% to the PM1 mass. In contrast the observed average mass loading was lower in March 2009 and a dominance of ammonium nitrate (42% was observed. The semi-volatile nature of ammonium nitrate is evident in the diurnal cycles with maximum concentrations observed in the morning hours in May 2008 and little diurnal variation observed in March 2009. Size dependent composition data from AMS measurements are presented and show a dominance of organics in the size range below 200 nm. A higher O:C ratio of the organics is observed for May 2008 than for March 2009. Together with the time series of individual tracer ions this shows the dominance of OOA over HOA in May 2008.

  6. Local Scale Radiobrightness Modeling During the Intensive Observing Period-4 of the Cold Land Processes Experiment-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, E.; Tedesco, M.; de Roo, R.; England, A. W.; Gu, H.; Pham, H.; Boprie, D.; Graf, T.; Koike, T.; Armstrong, R.; Brodzik, M.; Hardy, J.; Cline, D.

    2004-12-01

    The NASA Cold Land Processes Field Experiment (CLPX-1) was designed to provide microwave remote sensing observations and ground truth for studies of snow and frozen ground remote sensing, particularly issues related to scaling. CLPX-1 was conducted in 2002 and 2003 in Colorado, USA. One of the goals of the experiment was to test the capabilities of microwave emission models at different scales. Initial forward model validation work has concentrated on the Local-Scale Observation Site (LSOS), a 0.8~ha study site consisting of open meadows separated by trees where the most detailed measurements were made of snow depth and temperature, density, and grain size profiles. Results obtained in the case of the 3rd Intensive Observing Period (IOP3) period (February, 2003, dry snow) suggest that a model based on Dense Medium Radiative Transfer (DMRT) theory is able to model the recorded brightness temperatures using snow parameters derived from field measurements. This paper focuses on the ability of forward DMRT modelling, combined with snowpack measurements, to reproduce the radiobrightness signatures observed by the University of Michigan's Truck-Mounted Radiometer System (TMRS) at 19 and 37~GHz during the 4th IOP (IOP4) in March, 2003. Unlike in IOP3, conditions during IOP4 include both wet and dry periods, providing a valuable test of DMRT model performance. In addition, a comparison will be made for the one day of coincident observations by the University of Tokyo's Ground-Based Microwave Radiometer-7 (GBMR-7) and the TMRS. The plot-scale study in this paper establishes a baseline of DMRT performance for later studies at successively larger scales. And these scaling studies will help guide the choice of future snow retrieval algorithms and the design of future Cold Lands observing systems.

  7. Remote Cloud Sensing Intensive Observation Period (RCS-IOP) millimeter-wave radar calibration and data intercomparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekelsky, S.M.; Firda, J.M.; McIntosh, R.E. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States)] [and others

    1996-04-01

    During April 1994, the University of Massachusetts (UMass) and the Pennsylvania State University (Penn State) fielded two millimeter-wave atmospheric radars in the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Remote Cloud Sensing Intensive Operation Period (RCS-IOP) experiment. The UMass Cloud Profiling Radar System (CPRS) operates simultaneously at 33.12 GHz and 94.92 GHz through a single antenna. The Penn State radar operates at 93.95 GHz and has separate transmitting and receiving antennas. The two systems were separated by approximately 75 meters and simultaneously observed a variety of cloud types at verticle incidence over the course of the experiment. This abstract presents some initial results from our calibration efforts. An absolute calibration of the UMass radar was made from radar measurements of a trihedral corner reflector, which has a known radar cross-section. A relative calibration of between the Penn State and UMass radars is made from the statistical comparison of zenith pointing measurements of low altitude liquid clouds. Attenuation is removed with the aid of radiosonde data, and the difference in the calibration between the UMass and Penn State radars is determined by comparing the ratio of 94-GHz and 95-GHz reflectivity values to a model that accounts for parallax effects of the two antennas used in the Penn State system.

  8. Turbulence kinetic energy budget during the afternoon transition - Part 1: Observed surface TKE budget and boundary layer description for 10 intensive observation period days

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Erik; Lohou, Fabienne; Lothon, Marie; Pardyjak, Eric; Mahrt, Larry; Darbieu, Clara

    2016-07-01

    The decay of turbulence kinetic energy (TKE) and its budget in the afternoon period from midday until zero-buoyancy flux at the surface is studied in a two-part paper by means of measurements from the Boundary Layer Late Afternoon and Sunset Turbulence (BLLAST) field campaign for 10 intensive observation period days. Here, in Part 1, near-surface measurements from a small tower are used to estimate a TKE budget. The overall boundary layer characteristics and mesoscale situation at the site are also described based upon taller tower measurements, radiosoundings and remote sensing instrumentation. Analysis of the TKE budget during the afternoon transition reveals a variety of different surface layer dynamics in terms of TKE and TKE decay. This is largely attributed to variations in the 8 m wind speed, which is responsible for different amounts of near-surface shear production on different afternoons and variations within some of the afternoon periods. The partitioning of near-surface production into local dissipation and transport in neutral and unstably stratified conditions was investigated. Although variations exist both between and within afternoons, as a rule of thumb, our results suggest that about 50 % of the near-surface production of TKE is compensated for by local dissipation near the surface, leaving about 50 % available for transport. This result indicates that it is important to also consider TKE transport as a factor influencing the near-surface TKE decay rate, which in many earlier studies has mainly been linked with the production terms of TKE by buoyancy and wind shear. We also conclude that the TKE tendency is smaller than the other budget terms, indicating a quasi-stationary evolution of TKE in the afternoon transition. Even though the TKE tendency was observed to be small, a strong correlation to mean buoyancy production of -0.69 was found for the afternoon period. For comparison with previous results, the TKE budget terms are normalized with

  9. Turbulence kinetic energy budget during the afternoon transition – Part 1: Observed surface TKE budget and boundary layer description for 10 intensive observation period days

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Nilsson

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The decay of turbulence kinetic energy (TKE and its budget in the afternoon period from midday until zero-buoyancy flux at the surface is studied in a two-part paper by means of measurements from the Boundary Layer Late Afternoon and Sunset Turbulence (BLLAST field campaign for 10 intensive observation period days. Here, in Part 1, near-surface measurements from a small tower are used to estimate a TKE budget. The overall boundary layer characteristics and mesoscale situation at the site are also described based upon taller tower measurements, radiosoundings and remote sensing instrumentation. Analysis of the TKE budget during the afternoon transition reveals a variety of different surface layer dynamics in terms of TKE and TKE decay. This is largely attributed to variations in the 8 m wind speed, which is responsible for different amounts of near-surface shear production on different afternoons and variations within some of the afternoon periods. The partitioning of near-surface production into local dissipation and transport in neutral and unstably stratified conditions was investigated. Although variations exist both between and within afternoons, as a rule of thumb, our results suggest that about 50 % of the near-surface production of TKE is compensated for by local dissipation near the surface, leaving about 50 % available for transport. This result indicates that it is important to also consider TKE transport as a factor influencing the near-surface TKE decay rate, which in many earlier studies has mainly been linked with the production terms of TKE by buoyancy and wind shear. We also conclude that the TKE tendency is smaller than the other budget terms, indicating a quasi-stationary evolution of TKE in the afternoon transition. Even though the TKE tendency was observed to be small, a strong correlation to mean buoyancy production of −0.69 was found for the afternoon period. For comparison with previous results, the TKE

  10. EVALUATION OF THE THERAPEUTIC EFFICACY OF HIGH-INTENSITY PULSED-PERIODIC LASER RADIATION (CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL OBSERVATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Sokolov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available From the experience of clinical observations, we have shown a high therapeutic effectiveness of the medical laser KULON-MED in: cosmetics, non-cancer inflammatory diseases of the gastrointestinal tract and cancer (cancer of the stomach and colon as at different wavelengths, and with different types of photosensitizers. In the area of anti-tumor photodynamic therapy (PDT, based on experimental studies, we have showed the high antitumor (sarcoma S‑37 effectiveness of the laser (with the inhibition of tumor growth of up to 100% for repetitively pulsed irradiation mode, and for mode fractionation doses laser radiation. In addition, significant differences are shown in the effectiveness of anticancer PDT methods in the application of high-intensity lasers, continuous and pulsed caused fundamental properties of laser radiation characteristics – time structure of the radiation pulses. Thus, for the first time we have shown that the time of high-intensity laser pulses structure significantly affects therapeutic efficacy laser system, and hence on the mechanisms of interaction of laser radiation with biological tissue.

  11. Meteorological and dust aerosol conditions over the western Saharan region observed at Fennec Supersite-2 during the intensive observation period in June 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, M. C.; Allen, C. J. T.; Bart, M.; Bechir, M.; Bentefouet, J.; Brooks, B. J.; Cavazos-Guerra, C.; Clovis, T.; Deyane, S.; Dieh, M.; Engelstaedter, S.; Flamant, C.; Garcia-Carreras, L.; Gandega, A.; Gascoyne, M.; Hobby, M.; Kocha, C.; Lavaysse, C.; Marsham, J. H.; Martins, J. V.; McQuaid, J. B.; Ngamini, J. B.; Parker, D. J.; Podvin, T.; Rocha-Lima, A.; Traore, S.; Wang, Y.; Washington, R.

    2013-08-01

    The climate of the Sahara is relatively poorly observed and understood, leading to errors in forecast model simulations. We describe observations from the Fennec Supersite-2 (SS2) at Zouerate, Mauritania during the June 2011 Fennec Intensive Observation Period. These provide an improved basis for understanding and evaluating processes, models, and remote sensing. Conditions during June 2011 show a marked distinction between: (i) a "Maritime phase" during the early part of the month when the western sector of the Sahara experienced cool northwesterly maritime flow throughout the lower troposphere with shallow daytime boundary layers, very little dust uplift/transport or cloud cover. (ii) A subsequent "heat low" phase which coincided with a marked and rapid westward shift in the Saharan heat low towards its mid-summer climatological position and advection of a deep hot, dusty air layer from the central Sahara (the "Saharan residual layer"). This transition affected the entire western-central Sahara. Dust advected over SS2 was primarily from episodic low-level jet (LLJ)-generated emission in the northeasterly flow around surface troughs. Unlike Fennec SS1, SS2 does not often experience cold pools from moist convection and associated dust emissions. The diurnal evolution at SS2 is strongly influenced by the Atlantic inflow (AI), a northwesterly flow of shallow, cool and moist air propagating overnight from coastal West Africa to reach SS2 in the early hours. The AI cools and moistens the western Saharan and weakens the nocturnal LLJ, limiting its dust-raising potential. We quantify the ventilation and moistening of the western flank of the Sahara by (i) the large-scale flow and (ii) the regular nocturnal AI and LLJ mesoscale processes.

  12. Raman lidar measurements of water vapor and aerosols during the atmospheric radiation measurement (ARM) remote clouds sensing (RCS) intensive observation period (IOP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melfi, S.H.; Starr, D.O`C.; Whiteman, D. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States)] [and others

    1996-04-01

    The first Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) remote Cloud Study (RCS) Intensive Operations Period (IOP) was held during April 1994 at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. This experiment was conducted to evaluate and calibrate state-of-the-art, ground based remote sensing instruments and to use the data acquired by these instruments to validate retrieval algorithms developed under the ARM program.

  13. Longer rest periods for intensive rotational grazing limit diet quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Longer rest periods for intensive rotational grazing limit diet quality of sheep without enhancing environmental benefits. ... This experiment was established to compare three intensive rotational grazing strategies (fast rotation [FR], average 57-day rest; slow rotation [SR], average 114-day rest; and flexible grazing [FX], based ...

  14. The Great Plains low-level jet (LLJ) during the atmospheric radiation measurement (ARM) intensive observation period (IOP)-4 and simulations of land use pattern effect on the LLJ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Y.; Raman, S. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

    1996-04-01

    The Great Plains low-level jet (LLJ) is an important element of the low-level atmospheric circulation. It transports water vapor from the Gulf of Mexico, which in turn affects the development of weather over the Great Plains of the central United States. The LLJ is generally recognized as a complex response of the atmospheric boundary layer to the diurnal cycle of thermal forcing. Early studies have attributed the Great Plains LLJ to the diurnal oscillations of frictional effect, buoyancy over sloping terrain, and the blocking effects of the Rocky Mountains. Recent investigations show that the speed of the LLJ is also affected by the soil type and soil moisture. Some studies also suggest that synoptic patterns may play an important role in the development of the LLJ. Land surface heterogeneties significantly affect mesoscale circulations by generating strong contrasts in surface thermal fluxes. Thus one would expect that the land use pattern should have effects on the LLJ`s development and structure. In this study, we try to determine the relative roles of the synoptic forcing, planetary boundary layers (PBL) processes, and the land use pattern in the formation of the LLJ using the observations from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Intensive Operation Period (IOP)-4 and numerical sensitivity tests.

  15. Lessons learnt from the first EMEP intensive measurement periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Aas

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The first EMEP intensive measurement periods were held in June 2006 and January 2007. The measurements aimed to characterize the aerosol chemical compositions, including the gas/aerosol partitioning of inorganic compounds. The measurement program during these periods included daily or hourly measurements of the secondary inorganic components, with additional measurements of elemental- and organic carbon (EC and OC and mineral dust in PM1, PM2.5 and PM10. These measurements have provided extended knowledge regarding the composition of particulate matter and the temporal and spatial variability of PM, as well as an extended database for the assessment of chemical transport models. This paper summarise the first experiences of making use of measurements from the first EMEP intensive measurement periods along with EMEP model results from the updated model version to characterise aerosol composition. We investigated how the PM chemical composition varies between the summer and the winter month and geographically.

    The observation and model data are in general agreement regarding the main features of PM10 and PM2.5 composition and the relative contribution of different components, though the EMEP model tends to give slightly lower estimates of PM10 and PM2.5 compared to measurements. The intensive measurement data has identified areas where improvements are needed. Hourly concurrent measurements of gaseous and particulate components for the first time facilitated testing of modelled diurnal variability of the gas/aerosol partitioning of nitrogen species. In general, the modelled diurnal cycles of nitrate and ammonium aerosols are in fair agreement with the measurements, but the diurnal variability of ammonia is not well captured. The largest differences between model and observations of aerosol mass are seen in Italy during winter, which to a large extent may be

  16. Aerial Observation; A Bibliography of Periodical Articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-04-01

    99,90, Jan 1944. ’If not an Air OP why not locatinc7," 2CRA, ?0:115-123, Apr 1953. Jackson , I-ian E. "FDC an- the Artillery Air Observer," FM, 34...194, 1886. Thom.pson, Percy N;. "Organization and ’aneuver of Ficld Artillery Observation," .*IL RVW, 25:53-60, Apr 1945. "To See or not to see," JORA

  17. Optimal ground motion intensity measure for long-period structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guan, Minsheng; Du, Hongbiao; Zeng, Qingli; Cui, Jie; Jiang, Haibo

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to select the most appropriate ground motion intensity measure (IM) that is used in selecting earthquake records for the dynamic time history analysis of long-period structures. For this purpose, six reinforced concrete frame-core wall structures, designed according to modern seismic codes, are studied through dynamic time history analyses with a set of twelve selected earthquake records. Twelve IMs and two types of seismic damage indices, namely, the maximum seismic response-based and energy-based parameters, are chosen as the examined indices. Selection criteria such as correlation, efficiency, and proficiency are considered in the selection process. The optimal IM is identified by means of a comprehensive evaluation using a large number of data of correlation, efficiency, and proficiency coefficients. Numerical results illustrate that peak ground velocity is the optimal one for long-period structures and peak ground displacement is also a close contender. As compared to previous reports, the spectral-correlated parameters can only be taken as moderate IMs. Moreover, the widely used peak ground acceleration in the current seismic codes is considered inappropriate for long-period structures. (paper)

  18. The effect of the TIM program (Transfer ICU Medication reconciliation) on medication transfer errors in two Dutch intensive care units : Design of a prospective 8-month observational study with a before and after period

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.E. Bosma (Bertha); E. Meuwese (Edmé); S.S. Tan (Siok Swan); J. van Bommel (Jasper); Melief, P.H.G.J. (Piet Herman Gerard Jan); N.G.M. Hunfeld (Nicola); P.M.L.A. van den Bemt (Patricia)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstract__Background:__ The transfer of patients to and from the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) is prone to medication errors. The aim of the present study is to determine whether the number of medication errors at ICU admission and discharge and the associated potential harm and costs are

  19. Spectrographic observations of high intensity discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breton, C.; Charon, J.; Hubert, P.; Yvon, P.

    1957-01-01

    During straight discharges in deuterium at low pressure, the production of X-rays and neutrons has been observed. Spectroscopic observation of the light emitted reveals a broadening of the Balmer lines. From this a mean ionic density of the order of several 10 16 ions/cm 3 is deduced. (author) [fr

  20. Chaos and bifurcations in periodic windows observed in plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin, J.; Wang, L.; Yuan, D.P.; Gao, P.; Zhang, B.Z.

    1989-01-01

    We report the experimental observations of deterministic chaos in a steady-state plasma which is not driven by any extra periodic forces. Two routes to chaos have been found, period-doubling and intermittent chaos. The fine structures in chaos such as periodic windows and bifurcations in windows have also been observed

  1. Periodic Variations in the Coronal Green Line Intensity and their ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tribpo

    behaviour of data results as discussed by Tsubaki (1988) in the green corona line intensity. ... This work was partly supported by the Grant Agency (5017/98) of the Slovak. Academy of Sciences. One of us (M. M.) thanks IAU for travel support.

  2. Soil measurements during HAPEX-Sahel intensive observation period.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuenca, R.H.; Brouwer, J.; Chanzy, A.; Droogers, P.; Galle, S.; Gaze, S.R.; Sicot, M.; Stricker, J.N.M.; Angulo-Jaramillo, R.; Boyle, S.A.; Bromley, J.; Chebhouni, A.G.

    1997-01-01

    This article describes measurements made at each site and for each vegetation cover as part of the soils program for the HAPEX-Sahel regional scale experiment. The measurements were based on an initial sampling scheme and included profile soil water content, surface soil water content, soil water

  3. Long-period Intensity Pulsations in Coronal Loops Explained by Thermal Non-equilibrium Cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froment, C.; Auchère, F.; Bocchialini, K.; Buchlin, E.; Solomon, J. [Institut d’Astrophysique Spatiale, CNRS, Univ. Paris-Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, Bât. 121, F-91405 Orsay cedex (France); Aulanier, G. [LESIA, Observatoire de Paris, PSL Research University, CNRS, Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ. Paris 06, Univ. Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, 5 place Jules Janssen, F-92195 Meudon (France); Mikić, Z., E-mail: clara.froment@astro.uio.no [Predictive Science, Inc., San Diego, CA 92121 (United States)

    2017-02-01

    In solar coronal loops, thermal non-equilibrium (TNE) is a phenomenon that can occur when the heating is both highly stratified and quasi-constant. Unambiguous observational identification of TNE would thus permit us to strongly constrain heating scenarios. While TNE is currently the standard interpretation of coronal rain, the long-term periodic evolution predicted by simulations has never been observed. However, the detection of long-period intensity pulsations (periods of several hours) has been recently reported with the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory /EIT, and this phenomenon appears to be very common in loops. Moreover, the three intensity-pulsation events that we recently studied with the Solar Dynamics Observatory /Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) show strong evidence for TNE in warm loops. In this paper, a realistic loop geometry from linear force-free field (LFFF) extrapolations is used as input to 1D hydrodynamic simulations. Our simulations show that, for the present loop geometry, the heating has to be asymmetrical to produce TNE. We analyze in detail one particular simulation that reproduces the average thermal behavior of one of the pulsating loop bundle observed with AIA. We compare the properties of this simulation with those deduced from the observations. The magnetic topology of the LFFF extrapolations points to the presence of sites of preferred reconnection at one footpoint, supporting the presence of asymmetric heating. In addition, we can reproduce the temporal large-scale intensity properties of the pulsating loops. This simulation further strengthens the interpretation of the observed pulsations as signatures of TNE. This consequently provides important information on the heating localization and timescale for these loops.

  4. Periodic Properties and Inquiry: Student Mental Models Observed during a Periodic Table Puzzle Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Kathleen G.; Long, George R.; Briggs, Michael W.

    2012-01-01

    The mental models of both novice and advanced chemistry students were observed while the students performed a periodic table activity. The mental model framework seems to be an effective way of analyzing student behavior during learning activities. The analysis suggests that students do not recognize periodic trends through the examination of…

  5. Long-period intensity pulsations in the solar corona during activity cycle 23

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auchère, F.; Bocchialini, K.; Solomon, J.; Tison, E.

    2014-03-01

    We report on the detection (10σ) of 917 events of long-period (3 to 16 h) intensity pulsations in the 19.5 nm passband of the SOHO Extreme ultraviolet Imaging Telescope. The data set spans from January 1997 to July 2010, i.e. the entire solar cycle 23 and the beginning of cycle 24. The events can last for up to six days and have relative amplitudes up to 100%. About half of the events (54%) are found to happen in active regions, and 50% of these have been visually associated with coronal loops. The remaining 46% are localized in the quiet Sun. We performed a comprehensive analysis of the possible instrumental artefacts and we conclude that the observed signal is of solar origin. We discuss several scenarios that could explain the main characteristics of the active region events. The long periods and the amplitudes observed rule out any explanation in terms of magnetohydrodynamic waves. Thermal non-equilibrium could produce the right periods, but it fails to explain all the observed properties of coronal loops and the spatial coherence of the events. We propose that moderate temporal variations of the heating term in the energy equation, so as to avoid a thermal non-equilibrium state, could be sufficient to explain those long-period intensity pulsations. The large number of detections suggests that these pulsations are common in active regions. This would imply that the measurement of their properties could provide new constraints on the heating mechanisms of coronal loops. Movies are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  6. Quasi-periodic fluctuations of atmospheric pressure and cosmic rays observed in the stratosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodama, Masahiro; Abe, Toshiaki; Sakai, Takasuke; Kato, Masato; Kogami, Shinichi.

    1976-01-01

    Quasi-periodicities of barometric pressure and cosmic ray intensity, with 5.5-minute period and one hour persistency, have been observed by means of a high-precision barometer and a large plastic scintillation counter in a balloon at an altitude of --18 km over the Pacific Ocean. From characteristics of such short period fluctuations, it is suggested that the observed pressure fluctuation may possibly be caused by the internal atmospheric gravity wave whose amplitude and wave length are --30 m and --30 km respectively. (auth.)

  7. Radiation exposure of ventilated trauma patients in intensive care: a retrospective study comparing two time periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Micaela V; Barron, Rochelle A; Knobloch, Tom A; Pandey, Umesh; Twyford, Catherine; Freebairn, Ross C

    2012-08-01

    To describe the cumulative effective dose of radiation that was received during the initial Emergency Department assessment and ICU stay of patients admitted with trauma, who required mechanical ventilation, during two time periods. A retrospective analysis of radiological and clinical data, set in a regional nonurban ICU. Two cohorts (starting 1 January 2004 and 1 January 2009), each comprising 45 adult patients admitted with trauma who were mechanically ventilated in intensive care, were studied. Frequency and type of radiological examinations, demographic information, and clinical data were collated from the radiological database, hospital admission record and Australian Outcomes Research Tool for Intensive Care database. Cumulative effective doses were calculated and expressed as a total dose and average daily dose for each cohort. The median cumulative effective dose per patient (in milliSieverts) increased from 34.59 [interquartile range (IQR) 9.08-43.91] in 2004 to 40.51 (IQR 22.01-48.87) in 2009, P=0.045. An increased number of computed tomography examinations per patient was also observed over the same interval from an average of 2.11 (median 2, IQR 1-3) in 2004 to an average of 2.62 (2, 2-4) in 2009, P=0.046. The radiation exposure of mechanically ventilated trauma patients in intensive care has increased over time. Radiation exposure should be prospectively monitored and staff should be aware of the increased risk resulting from this change in practice.

  8. Wuchereria bancrofti in Tanzania: microfilarial periodicity and effect of blood sampling time on microfilarial intensities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Poul Erik; Niemann, L.; Meyrowitsch, Dan Wolf

    1997-01-01

    The circadian periodicity of Wuchereria bancrofti microfilarial (mf) intensities in peripheral blood was analysed in a group of infected individuals from an endemic community in north-eastern Tanzania. The mf density was quantified at two-hourly intervals for 24 hours. A clear nocturnal periodic...... of blood sampling before peak time is discussed, and the importance of taking sampling time into consideration when analysing data from epidemiological studies is emphasized. A simple method is devised which can be used to adjust for the influence of time on mf intensities, in studies where accurate...... information on mf intensities is necessary, and where it is impossible to obtain all samples at peak time....

  9. Observation of a Short Period Quasi-periodic Pulsation in Solar X-Ray, Microwave, and EUV Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Pankaj; Cho, Kyung-Suk [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI), Daejeon, 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Nakariakov, Valery M., E-mail: pankaj@kasi.re.kr [Centre for Fusion, Space and Astrophysics, Department of Physics, University of Warwick, CV4 7AL (United Kingdom)

    2017-02-10

    This paper presents the multiwavelength analysis of a 13 s quasi-periodic pulsation (QPP) observed in hard X-ray (12–300 keV) and microwave (4.9–34 GHz) emissions during a C-class flare that occurred on 2015 September 21. Atmospheric Image Assembly (AIA) 304 and 171 Å images show an emerging loop/flux tube (L1) moving radially outward, which interacts with the preexisting structures within the active region (AR). The QPP was observed during the expansion of and rising motion of L1. The Nobeyama Radioheliograph microwave images in 17/34 GHz channels reveal a single radio source that was co-spatial with a neighboring loop (L2). In addition, using AIA 304 Å images, we detected intensity oscillations in the legs of L2 with a period of about 26 s. A similar oscillation period was observed in the GOES soft X-ray flux derivative. This oscillation period seems to increase with time. We suggest that the observed QPP is most likely generated by the interaction between L2 and L3 observed in the AIA hot channels (131 and 94 Å). The merging speed of loops L2 and L3 was ∼35 km s{sup −1}. L1 was destroyed possibly by its interaction with preexisting structures in the AR, and produced a cool jet with the speed of ∼106–118 km s{sup −1} associated with a narrow CME (∼770 km s{sup −1}). Another mechanism of the QPP in terms of a sausage oscillation of the loop (L2) is also possible.

  10. Overview of the first HyMeX special observation period over Croatia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivančan-Picek, Branka; Tudor, Martina; Horvath, Kristian; Stanešić, Antonio; Ivatek-Šahdan, Stjepan

    2016-12-01

    The HYdrological cycle in the Mediterranean EXperiment (HyMeX) is intended to improve the capabilities of predicting high-impact weather events. Within its framework, the aim of the first special observation period (SOP1), 5 September to 6 November 2012, was to study heavy precipitation events and flash floods. Here, we present high-impact weather events over Croatia that occurred during SOP1. Particular attention is given to eight intense observation periods (IOPs), during which high precipitation occurred over the eastern Adriatic and Dinaric Alps. During the entire SOP1, the operational model forecasts generally well represented medium intensity precipitation, but heavy precipitation was frequently underestimated by the ALADIN model at an 8 km grid spacing and was overestimated at a higher resolution (2 km grid spacing). During IOP2, intensive rainfall occurred over a wider area around the city of Rijeka in the northern Adriatic. The short-range maximum rainfall totals were the largest ever recorded at the Rijeka station since the beginning of measurements in 1958. The rainfall amounts measured in intervals of 20, 30 and 40 min were exceptional, with return periods that exceeded a thousand, a few hundred and one hundred years, respectively. The operational precipitation forecast using the ALADIN model at an 8 km grid spacing provided guidance regarding the event but underestimated the rainfall intensity. An evaluation of numerical sensitivity experiments suggested that the forecast was slightly enhanced by improving the initial conditions through variational data assimilation. The operational non-hydrostatic run at a 2 km grid spacing using a configuration with the ALARO physics package further improved the forecast. This article highlights the need for an intensive observation period in the future over the Adriatic region to validate the simulated mechanisms and improve numerical weather predictions via data assimilation and model improvements in descriptions

  11. Intensity cut-points for the Respiratory Distress Observation Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Margaret L; Templin, Thomas N

    2015-01-01

    Background The Respiratory Distress Observation Scale© is an innovative solution to assessment when a dyspnea report cannot be elicited. The Respiratory Distress Observation Scale has acceptable reliability and validity psychometrics. Aim To identify distress-intensity cut-points of the Respiratory Distress Observation Scale. Design Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was conducted with inpatients stratified by four levels of respiratory distress—none, mild, moderate, or severe. Patients provided three self-report measures of dyspnea: dichotomous (yes/no); a ranking of none, mild, moderate, or severe; and a numerical rating scale. Respiratory distress was assessed using the Respiratory Distress Observation Scale instrument. Setting/participants Participants were 136 adult inpatients, mean age 61.8 years (standard deviation = 13.18 years), 89.7% African American, and 56.6% female, who were recruited from an urban, tertiary care hospital in the Midwest of the United States. Results In all, 47% (n = 64) self-reported dyspnea (yes/no). Ranking was distributed as follows: none = 36, mild = 35, moderate = 40, and severe = 25. Numerical rating scale scores ranged from 0 to 10, mean = 4.99 (standard deviation = 2.9). Respiratory Distress Observation Scale scores ranged from 0 to 7, median (interquartile range) = 2 (1–3). Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis–determined Respiratory Distress Observation Scale score of 0–2 suggests little or no respiratory distress; score ≥3 signified moderate to severe distress. Conclusion A Respiratory Distress Observation Scale score ≥3 signifies a patient’s need for palliation of respiratory distress. An end-point for identifying responsiveness to treatment, in other words, respiratory comfort, is Respiratory Distress Observation Scale <3. Because patients with imminent respiratory failure, as typified by dying patients, were not represented yielding lower than expected Respiratory Distress

  12. An Intensive Observation of Calving at Helheim Glacier, East Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, David M.; Voytenko, Denis; Christianson, Knut; Dixon, Timothy H.; Mei, M. Jeffrey; Parizek, Byron R.; Vankova, Irena; Walker, Ryan T.; Walter, Jacob I.; Nicholls, Keith; hide

    2016-01-01

    Calving of glacial ice into the ocean from the Greenland Ice Sheet is an important component of global sea-level rise. The calving process itself is relatively poorly observed, understood, and modeled; as such, it represents a bottleneck in improving future global sea-level estimates in climate models. We organized a pilot project to observe the calving process at Helheim Glacier in east Greenland in an effort to better understand it. During an intensive one-week survey, we deployed a suite of instrumentation, including a terrestrial radar interferometer, global positioning system (GPS) receivers, seismometers, tsunameters, and an automated weather station. We were fortunate to capture a calving process and to measure various glaciological, oceanographic, and atmospheric parameters before, during, and after the event. One outcome of our observations is evidence that the calving process actually consists of a number of discrete events, spread out over time, in this instance over at least two days. This time span has implications for models of the process. Realistic projections of future global sea level will depend on an accurate parametrization of calving, and we argue that more sustained observations will be required to reach this objective.

  13. Do French macroseismic intensity observations agree with expectations from the European Seismic Hazard Model 2013?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Julien; Beauval, Céline; Douglas, John

    2018-02-01

    Probabilistic seismic hazard assessments are the basis of modern seismic design codes. To test fully a seismic hazard curve at the return periods of interest for engineering would require many thousands of years' worth of ground-motion recordings. Because strong-motion networks are often only a few decades old (e.g. in mainland France the first accelerometric network dates from the mid-1990s), data from such sensors can be used to test hazard estimates only at very short return periods. In this article, several hundreds of years of macroseismic intensity observations for mainland France are interpolated using a robust kriging-with-a-trend technique to establish the earthquake history of every French mainland municipality. At 24 selected cities representative of the French seismic context, the number of exceedances of intensities IV, V and VI is determined over time windows considered complete. After converting these intensities to peak ground accelerations using the global conversion equation of Caprio et al. (Ground motion to intensity conversion equations (GMICEs): a global relationship and evaluation of regional dependency, Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America 105:1476-1490, 2015), these exceedances are compared with those predicted by the European Seismic Hazard Model 2013 (ESHM13). In half of the cities, the number of observed exceedances for low intensities (IV and V) is within the range of predictions of ESHM13. In the other half of the cities, the number of observed exceedances is higher than the predictions of ESHM13. For intensity VI, the match is closer, but the comparison is less meaningful due to a scarcity of data. According to this study, the ESHM13 underestimates hazard in roughly half of France, even when taking into account the uncertainty in the conversion from intensity to acceleration. However, these results are valid only for the acceleration range tested in this study (0.01 to 0.09 g).

  14. Do French macroseismic intensity observations agree with expectations from the European Seismic Hazard Model 2013?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Julien; Beauval, Céline; Douglas, John

    2018-05-01

    Probabilistic seismic hazard assessments are the basis of modern seismic design codes. To test fully a seismic hazard curve at the return periods of interest for engineering would require many thousands of years' worth of ground-motion recordings. Because strong-motion networks are often only a few decades old (e.g. in mainland France the first accelerometric network dates from the mid-1990s), data from such sensors can be used to test hazard estimates only at very short return periods. In this article, several hundreds of years of macroseismic intensity observations for mainland France are interpolated using a robust kriging-with-a-trend technique to establish the earthquake history of every French mainland municipality. At 24 selected cities representative of the French seismic context, the number of exceedances of intensities IV, V and VI is determined over time windows considered complete. After converting these intensities to peak ground accelerations using the global conversion equation of Caprio et al. (Ground motion to intensity conversion equations (GMICEs): a global relationship and evaluation of regional dependency, Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America 105:1476-1490, 2015), these exceedances are compared with those predicted by the European Seismic Hazard Model 2013 (ESHM13). In half of the cities, the number of observed exceedances for low intensities (IV and V) is within the range of predictions of ESHM13. In the other half of the cities, the number of observed exceedances is higher than the predictions of ESHM13. For intensity VI, the match is closer, but the comparison is less meaningful due to a scarcity of data. According to this study, the ESHM13 underestimates hazard in roughly half of France, even when taking into account the uncertainty in the conversion from intensity to acceleration. However, these results are valid only for the acceleration range tested in this study (0.01 to 0.09 g).

  15. Periodicities observed on solar flux index (F10.7) during geomagnetic disturbances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, B.; Narayan, C.; Chhatkuli, D. N.

    2017-12-01

    Solar activities change within the period of 11 years. Sometimes the greatest event occurs in the period of solar maxima and the lowest activity occurs in the period of solar minimum. During the time period of solar activity sunspots number will vary. A 10.7 cm solar flux measurement is a determination of the strength of solar radio emission. The solar flux index is more often used for the prediction and monitoring of the solar activity. This study mainly focused on the variation on solar flux index and amount of electromagnetic wave in the atmosphere. Both seasonal and yearly variation on solar F10.7 index. We also analyzed the dataset obatained from riometer.Both instruments show seasonal and yearly variations. We also observed the solar cycle dependence on solar flux index and found a strong dependence on solar activity. Results also show that solar intensities higher during the rising phase of solar cycle. We also observed periodicities on solar flux index using wavelet analysis. Through this analysis, it was found that the power intensities of solar flux index show a high spectral variability.

  16. Ethical issues recognized by critical care nurses in the intensive care units of a tertiary hospital during two separate periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Dong Won; Moon, Jae Young; Ku, Eun Yong; Kim, Sun Jong; Koo, Young-Mo; Kim, Ock-Joo; Lee, Soon Haeng; Jo, Min-Woo; Lim, Chae-Man; Armstrong, John David; Koh, Younsuck

    2015-04-01

    This research aimed to investigate the changes in ethical issues in everyday clinical practice recognized by critical care nurses during two observation periods. We conducted a retrospective analysis of data obtained by prospective questionnaire surveys of nurses in the intensive care units (ICU) of a tertiary university-affiliated hospital in Seoul, Korea. Data were collected prospectively during two different periods, February 2002-January 2003 (Period 1) and August 2011-July 2012 (Period 2). Significantly fewer cases with ethical issues were reported in Period 2 than in Period 1 (89 cases [2.1%] of 4,291 ICU admissions vs. 51 [0.5%] of 9,302 ICU admissions, respectively; P ethical issues in both Periods occurred in MICU. The major source of ethical issues in Periods 1 and 2 was behavior-related. Among behaviorrelated issues, inappropriate healthcare professional behavior was predominant in both periods and mainly involved resident physicians. Ethical issue numbers regarding end-oflife (EOL) care significantly decreased in the proportion with respect to ethical issues during Period 2 (P = 0.044). In conclusion, the decreased incidence of cases with identified ethical issues in Period 2 might be associated with ethical enhancement related with EOL and improvements in the ICU care environment of the studied hospital. However, behaviorrelated issues involving resident physicians represent a considerable proportion of ethical issues encountered by critical care nurses. A systemic approach to solve behavior-related issues of resident physicians seems to be required to enhance an ethical environment in the studied ICU.

  17. A non-parametric estimator for the doubly-periodic Poisson intensity function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Helmers (Roelof); I.W. Mangku (Wayan); R. Zitikis

    2007-01-01

    textabstractIn a series of papers, J. Garrido and Y. Lu have proposed and investigated a doubly-periodic Poisson model, and then applied it to analyze hurricane data. The authors have suggested several parametric models for the underlying intensity function. In the present paper we construct and

  18. The Anatomy of Directed Motivational Currents: Exploring Intense and Enduring Periods of L2 Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Alastair; Dornyei, Zoltan; Davydenko, Sofia

    2015-01-01

    In a series of articles Dörnyei and his colleagues (Dörnyei, Ibrahim, & Muir, 2015; Dörnyei, Muir, & Ibrahim, 2014; Muir & Dörnyei, 2013) describe the phenomenon of a period of intense and enduring motivation in pursuit of a highly desired personal goal or vision. These surges of motivational energy, which they call "Directed…

  19. The nocturnal acoustical intensity of the intensive care environment: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, Lori J; Currie, Marian J; Huang, Hsin-Chia Carol; Lopez, Violeta; Litton, Edward; Van Haren, Frank

    2017-01-01

    The intensive care unit (ICU) environment exposes patients to noise levels that may result in substantial sleep disruption. There is a need to accurately describe the intensity pattern and source of noise in the ICU in order to develop effective sound abatement strategies. The objectives of this study were to determine nocturnal noise levels and their variability and the related sources of noise within an Australian tertiary ICU. An observational cross-sectional study was conducted in a 24-bed open-plan ICU. Sound levels were recorded overnight during three nights at 5-s epochs using Extech (SDL 600) sound monitors. Noise sources were concurrently logged by two research assistants. The mean recorded ambient noise level in the ICU was 52.85 decibels (dB) (standard deviation (SD) 5.89), with a maximum noise recording at 98.3 dB (A). All recorded measurements exceeded the WHO recommendations. Noise variability per minute ranged from 9.9 to 44 dB (A), with peak noise levels >70 dB (A) occurring 10 times/hour (SD 11.4). Staff were identified as the most common source accounting for 35% of all noise. Mean noise levels in single-patient rooms compared with open-bed areas were 53.5 vs 53 dB ( p  = 0.37), respectively. Mean noise levels exceeded those recommended by the WHO resulting in an acoustical intensity of 193 times greater than the recommended and demonstrated a high degree of unpredictable variability, with the primary noise sources coming from staff conversations. The lack of protective effects of single rooms and the contributing effects that staffs have on noise levels are important factors when considering sound abatement strategies.

  20. Short-Period Binary Stars: Observations, Analyses, and Results

    CERN Document Server

    Milone, Eugene F; Hobill, David W

    2008-01-01

    Short-period binaries run the gamut from widely separated stars to black-hole pairs; in between are systems that include neutron stars and white dwarfs, and partially evolved systems such as tidally distorted and over-contact systems. These objects represent stages of evolution of binary stars, and their degrees of separation provide critical clues to how their evolutionary paths differ from that of single stars. The widest and least distorted systems provide astronomers with the essential precise data needed to study all stars: mass and radius. The interactions of binary star components, on the other hand, provide a natural laboratory to observe how the matter in these stars behaves under different and often varying physical conditions. Thus, cataclysmic variables with and without overpoweringly strong magnetic fields, and stars with densities from that found in the Sun to the degenerate matter of white dwarfs and the ultra-compact states of neutron stars and black holes are all discussed. The extensive inde...

  1. Elemental GCR Observations during the 2009-2010 Solar Minimum Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lave, K. A.; Israel, M. H.; Binns, W. R.; Christian, E. R.; Cummings, A. C.; Davis, A. J.; deNolfo, G. A.; Leske, R. A.; Mewaldt, R. A.; Stone, E. C.; hide

    2013-01-01

    Using observations from the Cosmic Ray Isotope Spectrometer (CRIS) onboard the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE), we present new measurements of the galactic cosmic ray (GCR) elemental composition and energy spectra for the species B through Ni in the energy range approx. 50-550 MeV/nucleon during the record setting 2009-2010 solar minimum period. These data are compared with our observations from the 1997-1998 solar minimum period, when solar modulation in the heliosphere was somewhat higher. For these species, we find that the intensities during the 2009-2010 solar minimum were approx. 20% higher than those in the previous solar minimum, and in fact were the highest GCR intensities recorded during the space age. Relative abundances for these species during the two solar minimum periods differed by small but statistically significant amounts, which are attributed to the combination of spectral shape differences between primary and secondary GCRs in the interstellar medium and differences between the levels of solar modulation in the two solar minima. We also present the secondary-to-primary ratios B/C and (Sc+Ti+V)/Fe for both solar minimum periods, and demonstrate that these ratios are reasonably well fit by a simple "leaky-box" galactic transport model that is combined with a spherically symmetric solar modulation model.

  2. Theoretical and Computational Investigation of Periodically Focused Intense Charged-Particle Beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Chiping [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Science and Fusion Center

    2013-06-26

    The purpose of this report is to summarize results of theoretical and computational investigations of periodically focused intense charged-particle beams in parameter regimes relevant to the development of advanced high-brightness, high-power accelerators for high-energy physics research. The breakthroughs and highlights in our research in the period from April 1, 2010 to March 30, 2013 were: a) Theory and simulation of adiabatic thermal Child-Langmuir flow; b) Particle-in-cell simulations of adiabatic thermal beams in periodic solenoidal focusing field; c)Dynamics of charged particles in an adiabatic thermal beam equilibrium in a periodic solenoidal focusing field; d) Training of undergraduate researchers and graduate student in accelerator and beam physics. A brief introduction and summary is presented. Detailed descriptions of research results are provided in an appendix of publications at the end of the report.

  3. Paul Trap Simulator Experiment (PTSX) to simulate intense beam propagation through a periodic focusing quadrupole field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, Ronald C.; Efthimion, Philip C.; Gilson, Erik; Majeski, Richard; Qin, Hong

    2002-01-01

    The Paul Trap Simulator Experiment (PTSX) is under construction at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory to simulate intense beam propagation through a periodic quadrupole magnetic field. In the Paul trap configuration, a long nonneutral plasma column is confined axially by dc voltages on end cylinders at z=+L and z=-L, and transverse confinement is provided by segmented cylindrical electrodes with applied oscillatory voltages ±V 0 (t) over 90 deg. segments. Because the transverse focusing force is similar in waveform to that produced by a discrete set of periodic quadrupole magnets in a frame moving with the beam, the Paul trap configuration offers the possibility of simulating intense beam propagation in a compact laboratory facility. The experimental layout is described, together with the planned experiments to study beam mismatch, envelope instabilities, halo particle production, and collective wave excitations

  4. Paul Trap Simulator Experiment (PTSX) to simulate intense beam propagation through a periodic focusing quadrupole field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Ronald C.; Efthimion, Philip C.; Gilson, Erik; Majeski, Richard; Qin, Hong

    2002-01-01

    The Paul Trap Simulator Experiment (PTSX) is under construction at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory to simulate intense beam propagation through a periodic quadrupole magnetic field. In the Paul trap configuration, a long nonneutral plasma column is confined axially by dc voltages on end cylinders at z=+L and z=-L, and transverse confinement is provided by segmented cylindrical electrodes with applied oscillatory voltages ±V0(t) over 90° segments. Because the transverse focusing force is similar in waveform to that produced by a discrete set of periodic quadrupole magnets in a frame moving with the beam, the Paul trap configuration offers the possibility of simulating intense beam propagation in a compact laboratory facility. The experimental layout is described, together with the planned experiments to study beam mismatch, envelope instabilities, halo particle production, and collective wave excitations.

  5. Growing threat of intense tropical cyclones to East Asia over the period 1977–2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Doo-Sun R; Ho, Chang-Hoi; Kim, Joo-Hong

    2014-01-01

    The threat of intense tropical cyclones (TCs) to East Asia has increased in recent decades. Integrated analyses of five available TC data sets for the period 1977–2010 revealed that the growing threat of TCs primarily results from the significant shift that the spatial positions of the maximum intensity of TCs moved closer to East Asian coastlines from Vietnam to Japan. This shift incurs a robust increase in landfall intensity over east China, Korea and Japan. In contrast, an increase of TC genesis frequency over the northern part of the South China Sea leads to a reduction in the maximum TC intensity before landfall, because of their short lifetime; thus, there are no clear tendencies in the landfall intensity across Vietnam, south China and Taiwan. All changes are related to the strengthening of the Pacific Walker circulation, closely linked with the recent manifestation that the warming trend of sea surface temperature in the tropical western Pacific is much higher than that in the central to eastern Pacific. (paper)

  6. 2-D Modelling of Long Period Variations of Galactic Cosmic Ray Intensity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siluszyk, M; Iskra, K; Alania, M

    2015-01-01

    A new two-dimensional (2-D) time dependent model describing long-period variations of the Galactic Cosmic Ray (GCR) intensity has been developed. New approximations for the changes of the magnitude B of the Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF), the tilt angle δ of the Heliospheric Neutral Sheet (HNS) and drift effects of the GCR particles have been included into the model. Moreover, temporal changes of the exponent γ expressing the power law - rigidity dependence of the amplitudes of the 11-year variation of the GCR intensity have been added. We show that changes of the expected GCR particle density precedes changes of the GCR intensity measured by the Moscow Neutron (MN) monitor by about 18 months. So ∼18 months can be taken as an effective delay time between the expected intensity caused by the combined influence of the changes of the parameters implemented in the time-dependent 2-D model and the GCR intensity measured by neutron monitors during the 21 cycle of solar activity. (paper)

  7. Clinical observations over 20 years period of Bikini victims

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumatori, Toshiyuki

    1976-01-01

    The author outlined the results of medical examinations performed in a period of 20 years on the Japanese fishermen who were exposed at Bikini in 1954. Exposure doses were estimated, and the progress of medical examinations for skin injury, hematological changes, cytogenetic changes, and spermatogenetic disturbance was described. In view of internal exposure, none of the long half-life nuclides was retained in the body. The victims were compared with the victims exposed in Marshall Islands. (Serizawa, K.)

  8. Trawl catch composition during different fishing intensity periods in two Mediterranean demersal fishing grounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Sánchez

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out in two fishing grounds on the Mediterranean continental shelf: one in the Adriatic Sea and one in the Catalan Sea. Samplings on board otter trawlers were performed from November 2002 to December 2003 in the Catalan Sea and from February 2003 to January 2004 in the Adriatic Sea. The Adriatic fishing ground was affected by high fishing intensity from January to June, while the Catalan area was highly exploited from September to February. Fishing activity in the Adriatic area was closed for 45 days, and 62 days in the Catalan area; both periods were in summer. Totals of 92 and 88 species were collected in the Adriatic and Catalan fishing grounds respectively. The species composition of the retained and discarded fractions showed close agreement between the two areas. Mullus barbatus showed very low discard rates in both areas, as well as Loligo vulgaris in the Catalan Sea and Merluccius merluccius in the Adriatic Sea. In both fishing grounds Squilla mantis showed high catch rates with low discards, except in March in the Catalan area. In the Adriatic Sea Liocarcinus depurator was characterized by large discard fractions. In both fishing grounds the retained fraction was slightly higher in the high fishing intensity periods than in the low intensity ones (Adriatic Sea: 0.613 vs 0.524; Catalan Sea: 0.597 vs 0.539, even though the Kruskall Wallis test revealed significant differences (p

  9. Possible signature of the magnetic fields related to quasi-periodic oscillations observed in microquasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kološ, Martin; Tursunov, Arman; Stuchlík, Zdeněk

    2017-12-01

    The study of quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) of X-ray flux observed in the stellar-mass black hole binaries can provide a powerful tool for testing of the phenomena occurring in the strong gravity regime. Magnetized versions of the standard geodesic models of QPOs can explain the observationally fixed data from the three microquasars. We perform a successful fitting of the HF QPOs observed for three microquasars, GRS 1915+105, XTE 1550-564 and GRO 1655-40, containing black holes, for magnetized versions of both epicyclic resonance and relativistic precession models and discuss the corresponding constraints of parameters of the model, which are the mass and spin of the black hole and the parameter related to the external magnetic field. The estimated magnetic field intensity strongly depends on the type of objects giving the observed HF QPOs. It can be as small as 10^{-5} G if electron oscillatory motion is relevant, but it can be by many orders higher for protons or ions (0.02-1 G), or even higher for charged dust or such exotic objects as lighting balls, etc. On the other hand, if we know by any means the magnetic field intensity, our model implies strong limit on the character of the oscillating matter, namely its specific charge.

  10. Possible signature of the magnetic fields related to quasi-periodic oscillations observed in microquasars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolos, Martin; Tursunov, Arman; Stuchlik, Zdenek [Silesian University in Opava, Institute of Physics and Research Centre of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, Faculty of Philosophy and Science, Opava (Czech Republic)

    2017-12-15

    The study of quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) of X-ray flux observed in the stellar-mass black hole binaries can provide a powerful tool for testing of the phenomena occurring in the strong gravity regime. Magnetized versions of the standard geodesic models of QPOs can explain the observationally fixed data from the three microquasars. We perform a successful fitting of the HF QPOs observed for three microquasars, GRS 1915+105, XTE 1550-564 and GRO 1655-40, containing black holes, for magnetized versions of both epicyclic resonance and relativistic precession models and discuss the corresponding constraints of parameters of the model, which are the mass and spin of the black hole and the parameter related to the external magnetic field. The estimated magnetic field intensity strongly depends on the type of objects giving the observed HF QPOs. It can be as small as 10{sup -5} G if electron oscillatory motion is relevant, but it can be by many orders higher for protons or ions (0.02-1 G), or even higher for charged dust or such exotic objects as lighting balls, etc. On the other hand, if we know by any means the magnetic field intensity, our model implies strong limit on the character of the oscillating matter, namely its specific charge. (orig.)

  11. Use of the spectral analysis for estimating the intensity of a weak periodic source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marseguerra, M.

    1989-01-01

    This paper deals with the possibility of exploiting spectral methods for the analysis of counting experiments in which one has to estimate the intensity of a weak periodic source of particles buried in a high background. The general theoretical expressions here obtained for the auto- and cross-spectra are applied to three kinds of simulated experiments. In all cases it turns out that the source intensity can acutally be estimated with a standard deviation comparable with that obtained in classical experiments in which the source can be moved out. Thus the spectral methods represent an interesting technique nowadays easy to implement on low-cost computers which could also be used in many research fields by suitably redesigning classical experiments. The convenience of using these methods in the field of nuclear safeguards is presently investigated in our Institute. (orig.)

  12. Short period sound speed oscillation measured by intensive XBT survey and its role on GNSS/acoustic positioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kido, M.; Matsui, R.; Imano, M.; Honsho, C.

    2017-12-01

    In the GNSS/acoustic measurement, sound speed in ocean plays a key role of accuracy of final positioning. We have shown than longer period sound speed undulation can be properly estimated from GNSS-A analysis itself in our previous work. In this work, we have carried out intensive XBT measurement to get temporal variation of sound speed in short period to be compared with GNSS-A derived one. In the individual temperature profile obtained by intensive XBT measurements (10 minutes interval up to 12 times of cast), clear vertical oscillation up to 20 m of amplitude in the shallow part were observed. These can be interpreted as gravitational internal wave with short-period and hence short wavelength anomaly. Kido et al. (2007) proposed that horizontal variation of the ocean structure can be considered employing five or more transponders at once if the structure is expressed by two quantities, i.e., horizontal gradient in x/y directions. However, this hypothesis requires that the variation must has a large spatial scale (> 2-5km) so that the horizontal variation can be regarded as linear within the extent of acoustic path to seafloor transponders. Therefore the wavelength of the above observed internal wave is getting important. The observed period of internal wave was 30-60 minute. However its wavelength cannot be directly measured. It must be estimate based on density profile of water column. In the comparison between sound speed change and positioning, the delay of their phases were 90 degree, which indicates that most steep horizontal slope of internal wave correspond to largest apparent positioning shift.

  13. Self-consistent simulation studies of periodically focused intense charged-particle beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.; Jameson, R.A.

    1995-01-01

    A self-consistent two-dimensional model is used to investigate intense charged-particle beam propagation through a periodic solenoidal focusing channel, particularly in the regime in which there is a mismatch between the beam and the focusing channel. The present self-consistent studies confirm that mismatched beams exhibit nonlinear resonances and chaotic behavior in the envelope evolution, as predicted by an earlier envelope analysis [C. Chen and R. C. Davidson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 2195 (1994)]. Transient effects due to emittance growth are studied, and halo formation is investigated. The halo size is estimated. The halo characteristics for a periodic focusing channel are found to be qualitatively the same as those for a uniform focusing channel. A threshold condition is obtained numerically for halo formation in mismatched beams in a uniform focusing channel, which indicates that relative envelope mismatch must be kept well below 20% to prevent space-charge-dominated beams from developing halos

  14. Directional Wave Spectra Observed During Intense Tropical Cyclones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, C. O.; Potter, H.; Lund, B.; Tamura, H.; Graber, H. C.

    2018-02-01

    Two deep-sea moorings were deployed 780 km off the coast of southern Taiwan for 4-5 months during the 2010 typhoon season. Directional wave spectra, wind speed and direction, and momentum fluxes were recorded on two Extreme Air-Sea Interaction buoys during the close passage of Severe Tropical Storm Dianmu and three tropical cyclones (TCs): Typhoon Fanapi, Super Typhoon Megi, and Typhoon Chaba. Conditions sampled include significant wave heights up to 11 m and wind speeds up to 26 m s-1. Details varied for large-scale spectral structure in frequency and direction but were mostly bimodal. The modes were generally composed of a swell system emanating from the most intense storm region and local wind-seas. The peak systems were consistently young, meaning actively forced by winds, when the storms were close. During the peaks of the most intense passages—Chaba at the northern mooring and Megi at the southern—the bimodal seas coalesced. During Chaba, the swell and wind-sea coupling directed the high frequency waves and the wind stress away from the wind direction. A spectral wave model was able reproduce many of the macrofeatures of the directional spectra.

  15. Impact of a standardized nurse observation protocol including MEWS after Intensive Care Unit discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Meester, K; Das, T; Hellemans, K; Verbrugghe, W; Jorens, P G; Verpooten, G A; Van Bogaert, P

    2013-02-01

    Analysis of in-hospital mortality after serious adverse events (SAE's) in our hospital showed the need for more frequent observation in medical and surgical wards. We hypothesized that the incidence of SAE's could be decreased by introducing a standard nurse observation protocol. To investigate the effect of a standard nurse observation protocol implementing the Modified Early Warning Score (MEWS) and a color graphic observation chart. Pre- and post-intervention study by analysis of patients records for a 5-day period after Intensive Care Unit (ICU) discharge to 14 medical and surgical wards before (n=530) and after (n=509) the intervention. For the total study population the mean Patient Observation Frequency Per Nursing Shift (POFPNS) during the 5-day period after ICU discharge increased from .9993 (95% C.I. .9637-1.0350) in the pre-intervention period to 1.0732 (95% C.I. 1.0362-1.1101) (p=.005) in the post-intervention period. There was an increased risk of a SAE in patients with MEWS 4 or higher in the present nursing shift (HR 8.25; 95% C.I. 2.88-23.62) and the previous nursing shift (HR 12.83;95% C.I. 4.45-36.99). There was an absolute risk reduction for SAE's within 120h after ICU discharge of 2.2% (95% C.I. -0.4-4.67%) from 5.7% to 3.5%. The intervention had a positive impact on the observation frequency. MEWS had a predictive value for SAE's in patients after ICU discharge. The drop in SAE's was substantial but did not reach statistical significance. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Dating the period when intensive anthropogenic activity began to influence the Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Jinxin; Gao, Chuanyu; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Shaoqing; He, Jiabao; Wang, Guoping

    2016-02-01

    Dating the start of intensive anthropogenic influence on ecosystems is important for identifying the conditions necessary for ecosystem recovery. However, few studies have focused on determining when anthropogenic influences on wetland began through sedimentary archives. To fill this critical gap in our knowledge, combustion sources and emission intensities, reconstructed via black carbon (BC) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analyzed in two wetlands in the Sanjiang Plain in Northeast China. 14C provided age control for the sedimentary records. By combining previous sedimentary and archaeological studies, we attempt to date the beginning of intensive anthropogenic influences on the Sanjiang Plain. Our results showed that BC deposition fluxes increased from 0.02 to 0.7 g C/m2.yr during the last 10,000 years. An upward trend was apparent during the last 500 years. Before 1200 cal yr BP, human activities were minor, such that the wetland ecosystem in the Sanjiang Plain before this period may represent the reference conditions that for the recovery of these wetlands. As the human population increased after 1200 cal yr BP, combustion sources changed and residential areas became a major source of BC and PAHs. In this way, the wetland ecosystem gradually became more heavily influenced by human activities.

  17. Dating the period when intensive anthropogenic activity began to influence the Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Jinxin; Gao, Chuanyu; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Shaoqing; He, Jiabao; Wang, Guoping

    2016-01-01

    Dating the start of intensive anthropogenic influence on ecosystems is important for identifying the conditions necessary for ecosystem recovery. However, few studies have focused on determining when anthropogenic influences on wetland began through sedimentary archives. To fill this critical gap in our knowledge, combustion sources and emission intensities, reconstructed via black carbon (BC) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analyzed in two wetlands in the Sanjiang Plain in Northeast China. 14C provided age control for the sedimentary records. By combining previous sedimentary and archaeological studies, we attempt to date the beginning of intensive anthropogenic influences on the Sanjiang Plain. Our results showed that BC deposition fluxes increased from 0.02 to 0.7 g C/m2.yr during the last 10,000 years. An upward trend was apparent during the last 500 years. Before 1200 cal yr BP, human activities were minor, such that the wetland ecosystem in the Sanjiang Plain before this period may represent the reference conditions that for the recovery of these wetlands. As the human population increased after 1200 cal yr BP, combustion sources changed and residential areas became a major source of BC and PAHs. In this way, the wetland ecosystem gradually became more heavily influenced by human activities. PMID:26907560

  18. Paul trap experiment to simulate intense nonneutral beam propagation through a periodic focusing field configuration

    CERN Document Server

    Davidson, R C; Majeski, R; Qin, H; Shvets, G

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the design concept for a compact Paul trap experimental configuration that fully simulates the collective processes and nonlinear transverse dynamics of an intense charged particle beam that propagates over large distances through a periodic quadrupole magnetic field. To summarize, a long nonneutral plasma column (L>=r sub p) is confined axially by applied DC voltages V[circ]=const. on end cylinders at z=+-L, and transverse confinement is provided by segmented cylindrical electrodes (at radius r sub w) with applied oscillatory voltages +-V sub 0 (t) over 90 deg. segments. Because the transverse focusing force is similar in waveform to that produced by a discrete set of periodic quadrupole magnets in a frame moving with the beam, the Paul trap configuration offers the possibility of simulating intense beam propagation in a compact experimental facility. The nominal operating parameters in the experimental design are: barium ions (A=137); plasma column length 2L=2 m; wall radius r sub w =10...

  19. Looking for periodicities in the hail intensity in the Andes region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prieto, R; Herrera, R; Doussel, P [Inaiglia, Mendoza (Argentina); Gimeno, L; Ribera, P [Univerisdad de Vigo, Orense (Spain); Garcia, R; Hernandez, E [Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid (Spain)

    2001-04-01

    Documental sources and categorization techniques were used to construct a series of the annual hail intensity in Mendoza area (Argentina). When the temporal series by means of Singular Spectrum Analysis (SSA) and the Maximum Entropy Method (MEM) was analyzed, we found interdecadal oscillations of periods of about 20 years and interannual oscillations of about 4 and 9 years. In addition when detrented-data were used a low frequency oscillation of about 72 years also appears. [Spanish] Para construir una serie de intensidades de granizo en el area de Mendoza (Argentina), se emplearon fuentes documentales y tecnicas de caracterizacion. Cuando se analizaron las series temporales, mediante el Analisis Singular del Expectro (SSA), y el Metodo de Maxima Entropia, encontramos oscilaciones decadales con periodos de aproximadamente 20 anos y oscilaciones interanuales de alrededor de 4 a 9 anos. Ademas cuando la variacion por tendencia de los datos se elimino, se puso de manifiesto una oscilacion de frecuencia de cerca de 72 anos.

  20. Does neonatal pain management in intensive care units differ between night and day? An observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedj, Romain; Danan, Claude; Daoud, Patrick; Zupan, Véronique; Renolleau, Sylvain; Zana, Elodie; Aizenfisz, Sophie; Lapillonne, Alexandre; de Saint Blanquat, Laure; Granier, Michèle; Durand, Philippe; Castela, Florence; Coursol, Anne; Hubert, Philippe; Cimerman, Patricia; Anand, K J S; Khoshnood, Babak; Carbajal, Ricardo

    2014-02-20

    To determine whether analgesic use for painful procedures performed in neonates in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) differs during nights and days and during each of the 6 h period of the day. Conducted as part of the prospective observational Epidemiology of Painful Procedures in Neonates study which was designed to collect in real time and around-the-clock bedside data on all painful or stressful procedures. 13 NICUs and paediatric intensive care units in the Paris Region, France. All 430 neonates admitted to the participating units during a 6-week period between September 2005 and January 2006. During the first 14 days of admission, data were collected on all painful procedures and analgesic therapy. The five most frequent procedures representing 38 012 of all 42 413 (90%) painful procedures were analysed. Observational study. We compared the use of specific analgesic for procedures performed during each of the 6 h period of a day: morning (7:00 to 12:59), afternoon, early night and late night and during daytime (morning+afternoon) and night-time (early night+late night). 7724 of 38 012 (20.3%) painful procedures were carried out with a specific analgesic treatment. For morning, afternoon, early night and late night, respectively, the use of analgesic was 25.8%, 18.9%, 18.3% and 18%. The relative reduction of analgesia was 18.3%, pnight-time and 28.8%, pday. Parental presence, nurses on 8 h shifts and written protocols for analgesia were associated with a decrease in this difference. The substantial differences in the use of analgesics around-the-clock may be questioned on quality of care grounds.

  1. Forecasting probabilistic seismic shaking for greater Tokyo from 400 years of intensity observations (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozkurt, S.; Stein, R. S.; Toda, S.

    2009-12-01

    The long recorded history of earthquakes in Japan affords an opportunity to forecast seismic shaking exclusively from past shaking. We calculate the time-averaged (Poisson) probability of severe shaking by using more than 10,000 intensity observations recorded since AD 1600 in a 350-km-wide box centered on Tokyo. Unlike other hazard assessment methods, source and site effects are included without modeling, and we do not need to know the size or location of any earthquake or the location and slip rate of any fault. The two key assumptions are that the slope of the observed frequency-intensity relation at every site is the same; and that the 400-year record is long enough to encompass the full range of seismic behavior. Tests we conduct here suggest that both assumptions are sound. The resulting 30-year probability of IJMA≥6 shaking (~PGA≥0.9 g or MMI≥IX) is 30-40% in Tokyo, Kawasaki, and Yokohama, and 10-15% in Chiba and Tsukuba. This result means that there is a 30% chance that 4 million people would be subjected to IJMA≥6 shaking during an average 30-year period. We also produce exceedance maps of peak ground acceleration for building code regulations, and calculate short-term hazard associated with a hypothetical catastrophe bond. Our results resemble an independent assessment developed from conventional seismic hazard analysis for greater Tokyo. Over 10000 intensity observations stored and analyzed using geostatistical tools of GIS. Distribution of historical data is shown on this figure.

  2. Long-period and short-period variations of ionospheric parameters studied from complex observations performed on Cuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laso, B; Lobachevskii, L A; Potapova, N I; Freizon, I A; Shapiro, B S

    1980-09-01

    Cuban data from 1978 are used to study long-period (i.e., diurnal) variations of Doppler shift on a 3000 km path at frequencies of 10 and 15 MHz these variations are related to variations of parameters on the ionospheric path. Short-period variations were also studied on the basis of Doppler shift data and vertical sounding data in the 0.000111-0.00113 Hz frequency range. The relation between the observed variations and internal gravity waves are discussed.

  3. Identification of possible intense historical geomagnetic storms using combined sunspot and auroral observations from East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Willis

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Comprehensive catalogues of ancient sunspot and auroral observations from East Asia are used to identify possible intense historical geomagnetic storms in the interval 210 BC-AD 1918. There are about 270 entries in the sunspot catalogue and about 1150 entries in the auroral catalogue. Special databases have been constructed in which the scientific information in these two catalogues is placed in specified fields. For the purposes of this study, an historical geomagnetic storm is defined in terms of an auroral observation that is apparently associated with a particular sunspot observation, in the sense that the auroral observation occurred within several days of the sunspot observation. More precisely, a selection criterion is formulated for the automatic identification of such geomagnetic storms, using the oriental records stored in the sunspot and auroral databases. The selection criterion is based on specific assumptions about the duration of sunspot visibility with the unaided eye, the likely range of heliographic longitudes of an energetic solar feature, and the likely range of transit times for ejected solar plasma to travel from the Sun to the Earth. This selection criterion results in the identification of nineteen putative historical geomagnetic storms, although two of these storms are spurious in the sense that there are two examples of a single sunspot observation being associated with two different auroral observations separated by more than half a (synodic solar rotation period. The literary and scientific reliabilities of the East Asian sunspot and auroral records that define the nineteen historical geomagnetic storms are discussed in detail in a set of appendices. A possible time sequence of events is presented for each geomagnetic storm, including possible dates for both the central meridian passage of the sunspot and the occurrence of the energetic solar feature, as well as likely transit times for the ejected solar plasma

  4. The intense magnetic storm of December 19, 1980: Observations at L = 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bering, E.A. III; Benbrook, J.R.; Haacke, R.; Dudeney, J.R.; Lanzerotti, L.J.; MacLennan, C.G.; Rosenberg, T.J.

    1991-01-01

    The intense magnetic storm of December 19, 1980 occurred during a major rocket and balloon geophysical research campaign at Siple Station, Antarctica. A balloon flight measuring the electric field and bremsstrahlung X ray flux was conducted during the main phase of the storm. The balloon data and associated ground-based data from around the world contain several lines of evidence which indicate that the dayside auroral oval expanded to an invariant latitude ≤ 59 degree during the storm. Evidence for this conclusion includes (1) the pattern of ground-based magnetic field and ionospheric electric field perturbations; (2) a substantial departure from the normal diurnal curve of the vertical component of the electric field in the stratosphere; and, (3) identical, relatively rapid equatorward motion of regions of electron precipitation, observed or inferred to occur, simultaneously at three L∼4 stations: Siple, Halley Bay and SANAE, separated by several hours in local time across the dayside. The absence of electron precipitation at Siple after this equatorward motion is an indication that the polar cap had expanded to include Siple during this interval. The power spectra of the magnetic field fluctuations at ULF observed at Siple and in a conjugate latitude chain of magnetometers were consistent with the presence of the dayside auroral oval in the near vicinity of Siple and with the presence of a major magnetospheric boundary slightly equatorward of ∼ 59 degree. The stratospheric electric field measured during the recovery phase was very large for this latitude for a period of several hours. This observation suggests that a subauroral latitude ion drift event of unusual intensity and duration accompanied this storm

  5. Spatial and spectral interpolation of ground-motion intensity measure observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worden, Charles; Thompson, Eric M.; Baker, Jack W.; Bradley, Brendon A.; Luco, Nicolas; Wilson, David

    2018-01-01

    Following a significant earthquake, ground‐motion observations are available for a limited set of locations and intensity measures (IMs). Typically, however, it is desirable to know the ground motions for additional IMs and at locations where observations are unavailable. Various interpolation methods are available, but because IMs or their logarithms are normally distributed, spatially correlated, and correlated with each other at a given location, it is possible to apply the conditional multivariate normal (MVN) distribution to the problem of estimating unobserved IMs. In this article, we review the MVN and its application to general estimation problems, and then apply the MVN to the specific problem of ground‐motion IM interpolation. In particular, we present (1) a formulation of the MVN for the simultaneous interpolation of IMs across space and IM type (most commonly, spectral response at different oscillator periods) and (2) the inclusion of uncertain observation data in the MVN formulation. These techniques, in combination with modern empirical ground‐motion models and correlation functions, provide a flexible framework for estimating a variety of IMs at arbitrary locations.

  6. Spectral albedo of seasonal snow during intensive melt period at Sodankylä, beyond the Arctic Circle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Meinander

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We have measured spectral albedo, as well as ancillary parameters, of seasonal European Arctic snow at Sodankylä, Finland (67°22' N, 26°39' E. The springtime intensive melt period was observed during the Snow Reflectance Transition Experiment (SNORTEX in April 2009. The upwelling and downwelling spectral irradiance, measured at 290–550 nm with a double monochromator spectroradiometer, revealed albedo values of ~0.5–0.7 for the ultraviolet and visible range, both under clear sky and variable cloudiness. During the most intensive snowmelt period of four days, albedo decreased from 0.65 to 0.45 at 330 nm, and from 0.72 to 0.53 at 450 nm. In the literature, the UV and VIS albedo for clean snow are ~0.97–0.99, consistent with the extremely small absorption coefficient of ice in this spectral region. Our low albedo values were supported by two independent simultaneous broadband albedo measurements, and simulated albedo data. We explain the low albedo values to be due to (i large snow grain sizes up to ~3 mm in diameter; (ii meltwater surrounding the grains and increasing the effective grain size; (iii absorption caused by impurities in the snow, with concentration of elemental carbon (black carbon in snow of 87 ppb, and organic carbon 2894 ppb, at the time of albedo measurements. The high concentrations of carbon, detected by the thermal–optical method, were due to air masses originating from the Kola Peninsula, Russia, where mining and refining industries are located.

  7. Glucose response to exercise in the post-prandial period is independent of exercise intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shambrook, P; Kingsley, M I; Wundersitz, D W; Xanthos, P D; Wyckelsma, V L; Gordon, B A

    2018-03-01

    This study investigated the acute glucose response to low-intensity, moderate-intensity, and high-intensity interval exercise compared to no-exercise in healthy insufficiently active males using a four-arm, randomized, crossover design. Ten males (age: 37.3 ± 7.3 years, BMI: 29.3 ± 6.5 kg·m -2 ) completed four 30-minute interventions at weekly intervals comprising low-intensity exercise (LIE) at ~35% V˙O 2 R, moderate-intensity exercise (MIE) at ~50% V˙O 2 R, high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE) at ~80% V˙O 2 R, and a no-exercise control. Participants performed cycle ergometer exercise 30 minutes after finishing breakfast. Glucose response was assessed using a continuous glucose monitor under free-living conditions with dietary intake replicated. A significant effect for intensity on energy expenditure was identified (P exercise trial. Glucose response was not different between exercise intensities (P > .05). Twenty-four-hour AUC was not affected by exercise intensity (P = .75). There was a significant effect for exercise enjoyment (P = .02), with LIE (69 ± 4) preferred less than HIIE (mean ± SD: 84 ± 14; P = .02), MIE (73 ± 5; P = .03), and no-exercise (75 ± 4; P = .03). Exercise at any intensity 30 minutes after a meal affects glycemic regulation equally in insufficiently active males. Moderate to vigorous exercise intensities were preferred, and therefore, the exercise guidelines appear appropriate for the prevention of cardiometabolic disease. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Mortality after discharge from the intensive care unit during the early weekend period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obel, N; Schierbeck, J; Pedersen, L

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: As a result of a shortage of intensive care capacity, patients may be discharged prematurely early during weekends which may lead to an increased mortality and risk of readmission to intensive care units (ICU). We examined whether discharge from the ICU during the first part...

  9. Developing methods of determining unknown roational periods of asteroids via observations of (3122) Florence by the Harvard Observing Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Natasha Sarah; Bieryla, Allyson; Gomez, Sebastian; Huang, Jane; Lewis, John; Todd, Zoe; Alam, Munazza; Carmichael, Theron; Garrison, Lehman H.; Weaver, Ian; Chen, Chen; McGruder, Chima; Medina, Amber

    2018-06-01

    (3122) Florence is an asteroid that made the headlines with its close approach to Earth in late 2017. It is one of the biggest and brightest near-Earth asteroids that has been discovered and it has recently been found to have two moons. By observing the light reflected off an asteroid, we can measure its brightness over time and determine the rotational period of the asteroid. An asteroid’s rotational period can reveal information about its physical characteristics, such as its shape, and further our knowledge about processes that contribute to asteroid rotation in general. The Harvard Observing Project (HOP) is an initiative that allows undergraduates to learn about observational astronomy and take part in formal data collection and analysis. Over the course of the fall 2017 semester, HOP obtained four multi-hour, continuous observations in the R-band of the asteroid using the Harvard University 16-inch Clay Telescope. In our analysis, we reduced the images and performed astrometry and photometry on the data. The asteroid’s light curve was produced using AstroImageJ and we used the Python package gatspy to determine its rotational period. We found the rotational period to be 2.22 hours +/- 0.25, which agrees with the known rotational period of 2.3580 hours +/- 0.0002. This spring 2018 semester we are applying our methods to data collected on asteroids with unknown rotational periods and plan to present our findings.

  10. QUASI-PERIODIC FLUCTUATIONS AND CHROMOSPHERIC EVAPORATION IN A SOLAR FLARE RIBBON OBSERVED BY HINODE /EIS, IRIS , AND RHESSI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brosius, Jeffrey W.; Inglis, Andrew R. [Catholic University of America at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Solar Physics Laboratory, Code 671, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Daw, Adrian N., E-mail: Jeffrey.W.Brosius@nasa.gov [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Solar Physics Laboratory, Code 671, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2016-10-20

    The Hinode /Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) obtained rapid cadence (11.2 s) EUV stare spectra of an M7.3 flare ribbon in AR 12036 on 2014 April 18. Quasi-periodic ( P ≈ 75.6 ± 9.2 s) intensity fluctuations occurred in emission lines of O iv, Mg vi, Mg vii, Si vii, Fe xiv, and Fe xvi during the flare's impulsive rise, and ended when the maximum intensity in Fe xxiii was reached. The profiles of the O iv–Fe xvi lines reveal that they were all redshifted during most of the interval of quasi-periodic intensity fluctuations, while the Fe xxiii profile revealed multiple components including one or two highly blueshifted ones. This indicates that the flare underwent explosive chromospheric evaporation during its impulsive rise. Fluctuations in the relative Doppler velocities were seen, but their amplitudes were too subtle to extract significant quasi-periodicities. RHESSI detected 25–100 keV hard-X-ray sources in the ribbon near the EIS slit's pointing position during the peaks in the EIS intensity fluctuations. The observations are consistent with a series of energy injections into the chromosphere by nonthermal particle beams. Electron densities derived with Fe xiv (4.6 × 10{sup 10} cm{sup −3}) and Mg vii (7.8 × 10{sup 9} cm{sup −3}) average line intensity ratios during the interval of quasi-periodic intensity fluctuations, combined with the radiative loss function of an optically thin plasma, yield radiative cooling times of 32 s at 2.0 × 10{sup 6} K, and 46 s at 6.3 × 10{sup 5} K (about half the quasi-period); assuming Fe xiv's density for Fe xxiii yields a radiative cooling time of 10{sup 3} s (13 times the quasi-period) at 1.4 × 10{sup 7} K.

  11. Spectrographic observations of high intensity discharges; Observation spectrographique de decharges a forte intensite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breton, C; Charon, J; Hubert, P; Yvon, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1957-07-01

    During straight discharges in deuterium at low pressure, the production of X-rays and neutrons has been observed. Spectroscopic observation of the light emitted reveals a broadening of the Balmer lines. From this a mean ionic density of the order of several 10{sup 16} ions/cm{sup 3} is deduced. (author) [French] Au cours de decharges rectilignes dans le deuterium sous basse pression, la production de rayons X et de neutrons a ete observee. L'observation spectroscopique de la lumiere emise revele un elargissement des raies de Balmer. On en deduit une densite ionique moyenne de l'ordre de quelques 10{sup 16} ions/cm{sup 3}. (auteur)

  12. Field-aligned currents observed by CHAMP during the intense 2003 geomagnetic storm events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Wang

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available This study concentrates on the characteristics of field-aligned currents (FACs in both hemispheres during the extreme storms in October and November 2003. High-resolution CHAMP magnetic data reflect the dynamics of FACs during these geomagnetic storms, which are different from normal periods. The peak intensity and most equatorward location of FACs in response to the storm phases are examined separately for both hemispheres, as well as for the dayside and nightside. The corresponding large-scale FAC peak densities are, on average, enhanced by about a factor of 5 compared to the quiet-time FACs' strengths. And the FAC densities on the dayside are, on average, 2.5 times larger in the Southern (summer than in the Northern (winter Hemisphere, while the observed intensities on the nightside are comparable between the two hemispheres. Solar wind dynamic pressure is correlated with the FACs strength on the dayside. However, the latitudinal variations of the FACs are compared with the variations in Dst and the interplanetary magnetic field component Bz, in order to determine how these parameters control the large-scale FACs' configuration in the polar region. We have determined that (1 the equatorward shift of FACs on the dayside is directly controlled by the southward IMF Bz and there is a saturation of the latitudinal displacement for large value of negative Bz. In the winter hemisphere this saturation occurs at higher latitudes than in the summer hemisphere. (2 The equatorward expansion of the nightside FACs is delayed with respect to the solar wind input. The poleward recovery of FACs on the nightside is slower than on the dayside. The latitudinal variations on the nightside are better described by the variations of the Dst index. (3 The latitudinal width of the FAC region on the nightside spreads over a wide range of about 25° in latitude.

  13. A short period of high-intensity interval training improves skeletal muscle mitochondrial function and pulmonary oxygen uptake kinetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Peter Møller; Jacobs, Robert A; Bonne, Thomas Christian

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine whether improvements in pulmonary V̇O2 kinetics following a short period of high-intensity training (HIT) would be associated with improved skeletal muscle mitochondrial function. Ten untrained male volunteers (age: 26 ± 2; mean ± SD) performed six HIT...

  14. Observed ozone exceedances in Italy: statistical analysis and modelling in the period 2002-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falasca, Serena; Curci, Gabriele; Candeloro, Luca; Conte, Annamaria; Ippoliti, Carla

    2017-04-01

    Local ambient air quality is strongly influenced by anthropogenic emissions and meteorological conditions. The year 2015 is considered by NASA scientists as one of the hottest at the global scale since 1880. Furthermore, in Europe it was the first summer after the introduction of Euro6 regulation, the latest emission standard for passenger vehicles. The goal of this study is twofold: (1) the investigation of the impact of the heat wave occurred in the summer of 2015 on ozone levels and (2) the exploration of the weight of temperature as driver of high-level ozone events with respect to other variables. We performed a quantitative examination of the ozone seasons (May-September) for the period 2002-2015 using ozone concentration and weather data from 24 stations across Italy. The number of exceedances of limit values set by the European directive was calculated for each year, and compared with the trend of ozone concentration and temperature. Furthermore, the data were grouped in clusters of consecutive days of ozone exceedances in order to characterize the duration and the intensity of high ozone events. Finally, we developed a multivariate logistic regression model to investigate the role of a set of independent variables (meteorological, and temporal variables, altitude, number of inhabitants, vehicle emission standard) on the probability of exceedances. Results show that 2015 is one of the hottest years after 2003. During the period 2002-2015, the average number of exceedances per station of the daily maximum 8-hour average is often higher than the limit established by the European directive (25 per year). The highest number of exceedances was 65 per station, reached in 2003. The Po Valley is confirmed as a hot spot for pollution, with more frequent exceedances and a higher sensitivity to temperature, especially at urban sites. Ozone events in 2015 were fewer than recent years, but of longer duration (on average 4 days against 3 days), and with similar mean

  15. The first observations of laser satellites from plasma created by high intense laser pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skobelev, I.Yu.; Faenov, A.Ya.; Magunov, A.I. [Multicharged Ions Spectra Data Center of VNIIFTRI, Mendeleevo (Russian Federation); Osterheld, A.; Young, B.; Dunn, J.; Stewart, R.E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Laser satellites, i.e. spectral lines caused by non-linear interaction of strong laser radiation with multicharged ions, are observed for the first time. Their identification are carried out by comparison of both experimental wavelengths and intensities with theoretical ones. It is shown that observation of laser satellites allows to measure directly the energies of ionic metastable states. (orig.). 3 refs.

  16. Experimental observation of parametric effects near period doubling in a loss-modulated CO2 laser

    OpenAIRE

    Chizhevsky, V. N.

    1996-01-01

    A number of parametric effects, such as suppression of period doubling, shift of the bifurcation point, scaling law relating the shift and the perturbation amplitude, influence of the detuning on the suppression, reaching of the maximum gain between the original and shifted bifurcation points, and scaling law for idler power are experimentally observed near period doubling bifurcation in a loss-driven CO2 laser that is subjected to periodic loss perturbations at a frequency that is close to a...

  17. Climatology and Interannual Variability of Quasi-Global Intense Precipitation Using Satellite Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricko, Martina; Adler, Robert F.; Huffman, George J.

    2016-01-01

    Climatology and variations of recent mean and intense precipitation over a near-global (50 deg. S 50 deg. N) domain on a monthly and annual time scale are analyzed. Data used to derive daily precipitation to examine the effects of spatial and temporal coverage of intense precipitation are from the current Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Multisatellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA) 3B42 version 7 precipitation product, with high spatial and temporal resolution during 1998 - 2013. Intense precipitation is defined by several different parameters, such as a 95th percentile threshold of daily precipitation, a mean precipitation that exceeds that percentile, or a fixed threshold of daily precipitation value [e.g., 25 and 50 mm day(exp -1)]. All parameters are used to identify the main characteristics of spatial and temporal variation of intense precipitation. High correlations between examined parameters are observed, especially between climatological monthly mean precipitation and intense precipitation, over both tropical land and ocean. Among the various parameters examined, the one best characterizing intense rainfall is a fraction of daily precipitation Great than or equal to 25 mm day(exp. -1), defined as a ratio between the intense precipitation above the used threshold and mean precipitation. Regions that experience an increase in mean precipitation likely experience a similar increase in intense precipitation, especially during the El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events. Improved knowledge of this intense precipitation regime and its strong connection to mean precipitation given by the fraction parameter can be used for monitoring of intense rainfall and its intensity on a global to regional scale.

  18. Candidemia in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit: A Retrospective, Observational Survey and Analysis of Literature Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppina Caggiano

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the epidemiology of Candida bloodstream infections in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU of an Italian university hospital during a 9-year period as a means of quantifying the burden of infection and identifying emerging trends. Clinical data were searched for in the microbiological laboratory database. For comparative purposes, we performed a review of NICU candidemia. Forty-one candidemia cases were reviewed (overall incidence, 3.0 per 100 admissions. Candida parapsilosis sensu stricto (58.5% and C. albicans (34.1% were the most common species recovered. A variable drift through years was observed; in 2015, 75% of the cases were caused by non-albicans species. The duration of NICU hospitalization of patients with non-albicans was significantly longer than in those with C. albicans (median days, 10 versus 12. Patients with non-albicans species were more likely to have parenteral nutrition than those with C. albicans (96.3% versus 71.4%. Candida albicans was the dominant species in Europe and America (median, 55% and 60%; resp.; non-albicans species predominate in Asia (75%. Significant geographic variation is evident among cases of candidemia in different parts of the world, recognizing the importance of epidemiological data to facilitate the treatment.

  19. DMS photochemistry during the Asian dust-storm period in the Spring of 2001: model simulations vs. field observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shon, Zang-Ho; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Swan, Hilton; Lee, Gangwoong; Kim, Yoo-Keun

    2005-01-01

    This study examines the local/regional DMS oxidation chemistry on Jeju Island (33.17 degrees N, 126.10 degrees E) during the Asian dust-storm (ADS) period of April 2001. Three ADS events were observed during the periods of April 10-12, 13-14, and 25-26, respectively. For comparative purposes, a non-Asian-dust-storm (NADS) period was also considered in this study, which represents the entire measurement periods in April except the ADS events. The atmospheric concentrations of DMS and SO2 were measured at a ground station on Jeju Island, Korea, as part of the ACE-Asia intensive operation. DMS (means of 34-52 pptv) and SO2 (means of 0.96-1.14 ppbv) levels measured during the ADS period were higher than those (mean of 0.45 ppbv) during the NADS period. The enhanced DMS levels during the ADS period were likely due to the increase in DMS flux under reduced oxidant levels (OH and NO3). SO2 levels between the two contrasting periods were affected sensitively by some factors such as air mass origins. The diurnal variation patterns of DMS observed during the two periods were largely different from those seen in the background environment (e.g., the marine boundary layer (MBL)). In contrast to the MBL, the maximum DMS value during the ADS period was seen in the late afternoon at about sunset; this reversed pattern appears to be regulated by certain factors (e.g., enhanced NO3 oxidation). The sea-to-air fluxes of DMS between the ADS and NADS periods were calculated based on the mass-balance photochemical-modeling approach; their results were clearly distinguished with the values of 4.4 and 2.4 micromole m(-2) day(-1), respectively. This study confirmed that the contribution of DMS oxidation to observed SO2 levels on Jeju Island was not significant during our study period regardless of ADS or NADS periods.

  20. Asthma changes at a Pediatric Intensive Care Unit after 10 years: Observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman A Al-Eyadhy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To describe the change in the management, and outcome of children with acute severe asthma (ASA admitted to Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU at tertiary institute, as compared to previously published report in 2003. Methods : This is a retrospective observational study. All consecutive pediatric ASA patients who were admitted to PICU during the study period were included. The data were extracted from PICU database and medical records. The Cohort in this study (2013 Cohort was compared with the Cohort of ASA, which was published in 2003 from the same institution (2003 Cohort. Results: In comparison to previous 2003 Cohort, current Cohort (2013 revealed higher mean age (5.5 vs. 3.6 years; P ≤ 0.001, higher rate of PICU admission (20.3% vs. 3.6%; P ≤ 0.007, less patients who received maintenance inhaled steroids (43.3% vs. 62.4%; P ≤ 0.03, less patients with pH <7.3 (17.9% vs. 42.9%; P ≤ 0.001. There were more patients in 2013 Cohort who received: Inhaled Ipratropium bromide (97% vs. 68%; P ≤ 0.001, intravenous magnesium sulfate (68.2% vs. none, intravenous salbutamol (13.6% vs. 3.6%; P ≤ 0.015, and noninvasive ventilation (NIV (35.8% vs. none while no patients were treated with theophylline (none vs. 62.5%. The median length of stay (LOS was 2 days while mean LOS was half a day longer in the 2013 Cohort. None of our patients required intubation, and there was no mortality. Conclusion: We observed slight shift toward older age, considerably increased the rate of PICU admission, increased utilization of Ipratropium bromide, magnesium sulfate, and NIV as important modalities of treatment.

  1. Accumulation of advanced glycation end (AGEs products in intensive care patients: an observational, prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rommes Johannes H

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oxidative stress plays an important role in the course and eventual outcome in a majority of patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU. Markers to estimate oxidative stress are not readily available in a clinical setting. AGEs accumulation has been merely described in chronic conditions, but can also occur acutely due to oxidative stress. Since AGEs have emerged to be stable end products, these can be a marker of oxidative stress. Skin autofluorescence (AF is a validated marker of tissue content of AGEs. We hypothesized that AGEs accumulate acutely in ICU patients. Methods We performed an observational prospective study in a medical surgical ICU in a university affiliated teaching hospital. All consecutively admitted ICU patients in a 2 month period were included. Skin AF was measured using an AGE reader in 35 consecutive ICU patients > 18 yrs. As a comparison, historical data of a control group (n = 231 were used. These were also used to calculate age-adjusted AF-levels (AFadj. Values are expressed as median and interquartile range [P25-P75]. Differences between groups were tested by non parametric tests. P Results AFadj values were higher in ICU patients (0.33 [0.00 - 0.68] than in controls (-0.07 [-0.29 - 0.24]; P adj were observed between acute or planned admissions, or presence of sepsis, nor was skin AFadj related to severity of disease as estimated by APACHE-II score, length of ICU, hospital stay or mortality. Conclusion Acute AGE accumulation in ICU patients was shown in this study, although group size was small. This can possibly reflect oxidative stress in ICU patients. Further studies should reveal whether AGE-accumulation will be a useful parameter in ICU patients and whether skin AF has a predictive value for outcome, which was not shown in this small study.

  2. Observations and light curve solutions of four ultrashort-period binaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kjurkchieva D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents light curve solutions of our observations of four new ultrashort-period eclipsing binaries with MS components. Two of them have periods almost at the upper limit (0.22 days of the ultrashort-period binaries, while the periods of around 0.18 days of CSS J171508.5+350658 and CSS J214633.8+120016 are amongst the shortest known orbital periods. CSS J171410.0+ 445850, CSS J214633.8+120016 and CSS J224326.0+154532 are over contact binaries with fill out factors around 0.25 while CSS J171508.5+350658 is a semidetached system. The two targets with shortest periods consist of M dwarfs.

  3. Stress intensities for nozzle cracks in reactor vessels. Reporting period, January 1, 1976--October 31, 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, C.W.; Jolles, M.; Peters, W.H.

    1976-11-01

    A series of six frozen stress photoelastic tests was conducted to investigate the distribution of stress intensity factor (SIF) along a crack which occurred at the juncture of a pipe (nozzle) with a cylindrical pressure vessel. Typical photoelastic fringe patterns are shown for slices which were taken mutually orthogonal to the flaw border and the flaw surface. A typical plot of normalized apparent SIF versus square root of normalized distance from the crack tip is presented. The variation in SIF along the flaw border is given for all six different crack geometries and also the variation of SIF with varying a/T is presented. 40 references

  4. Solar wind plasma periodicities observed at 1 AU by IMP 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paularena, K. I.; Szabo, A.; Lazarus, A. J.

    1995-01-01

    The IMP 8 spacecraft has been in Earth orbit since 1973, gathering plasma data over one complete 22-year solar cycle. These data are being examined to look for periodicities at time scales ranging from several hours to the entire span of the data set. A 1.3-year periodicity in the radial speed observed by IMP 8 and Voyager 2 has already been reported for the years from 1987 to 1993. The periodogram method, useful for unevenly sampled data such as the IMP 8 plasma data, has been used to search for other periods. It is interesting to note that the 13-year period is not present in the out-of-the-ecliptic component of the velocity (Vz), although a 1-year period is very obvious both visually and on the periodogram. Both components show a very strong peak associated with the 11-year solar cycle variation. This work will be extended to the thermal speed (a measure of the wind's temperature) and density, although the frequent correlations between these parameters and the velocity are expected to cause similar results. Additionally, the fine resolution data will be examined for shorter time periods than are visible using the hourly average data which are appropriate for longer periods. A comparison with periods observed at other spacecraft may also be made.

  5. [Intensity of negative symptoms, working memory and executive functions disturbances in schizophrenic patients in partial remission period].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintze, Beata; Borkowska, Alina

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the correlation between the level of working memory and executive functions impairment in schizophrenic subjects in their partial remission period and the intensity of psychopathological symptoms measured by PANSS scale. 45 patients with schizophrenia were included in the study (28 male and 17 female), aged 18-46 (mean 27 +/- 7) years during partial remission of psychopathological symptoms (PANSS partial remission period, the significant dysfunctions of working memory and executive functions show association with negative (not positive) schizophrenic symptoms.

  6. Do relationships exist between the scope and intensity of quality improvement activities and hospital operation performance? A 10-year observation in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Kuo-Piao; Yu, Tsung-Hsien

    2015-08-14

    The relationship between the scope and intensity of quality improvement (QI) activities and hospital performance remains unclear. This study investigated the relationship between performance, external environment, and the scope and intensity of QI activities in hospitals. The study used a longitudinal observation. Data regarding the scope and intensity of QI activities were collected using a questionnaire survey among the administrative deputy superintendents / directors of quality management center in 139 hospitals. Hospital performance indicators were abstracted from the 2000-2009 national hospitals profiles. We adopted year 2000 as the baseline, and divided the study period into three 3-year periods. The Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) model was used for the statistical analysis. Seventy-two hospitals responded to the survey, giving a response rate of 52%. The results showed a significant increase in the scope and intensity of QI activities between 2000 and 2009. The results also showed that the scope and intensity of a hospital's QI activities were associated with the scope and intensity of its competitors' QI activities in the previous period and its own prior performance. The scope of QI activities in the previous period was not significantly related to the selected hospital performance measures. However, the intensity of QI activities in the previous period showed a significant and positive relationship with the number of inpatients and the turnover of beds. The study demonstrates that the intensity of QI activities is associated with the external environment and the hospital's own performance in the previous period. Furthermore, some performance measures are associated with the intensity of the QI activities in the previous period.

  7. Effects of auditory stimulation with music of different intensities on heart period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joice A.T. do Amaral

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Various studies have indicated that music therapy with relaxant music improves cardiac function of patients treated with cardiotoxic medication and heavy-metal music acutely reduces heart rate variability (HRV. There is also evidence that white noise auditory stimulation above 50 dB causes cardiac autonomic responses. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the acute effects of musical auditory stimulation with different intensities on cardiac autonomic regulation. This study was performed on 24 healthy women between 18 and 25 years of age. We analyzed HRV in the time [standard deviation of normal-to-normal RR intervals (SDNN, percentage of adjacent RR intervals with a difference of duration >50 ms (pNN50, and root-mean square of differences between adjacent normal RR intervals in a time interval (RMSSD] and frequency [low frequency (LF, high frequency (HF, and LF/HF ratio] domains. HRV was recorded at rest for 10 minutes. Subsequently, the volunteers were exposed to baroque or heavy-metal music for 5 minutes through an earphone. The volunteers were exposed to three equivalent sound levels (60–70, 70–80, and 80–90 dB. After the first baroque or heavy-metal music, they remained at rest for 5 minutes and then they were exposed to the other music. The sequence of songs was randomized for each individual. Heavy-metal musical auditory stimulation at 80–90 dB reduced the SDNN index compared with control (44.39 ± 14.40 ms vs. 34.88 ± 8.69 ms, and stimulation at 60–70 dB decreased the LF (ms2 index compared with control (668.83 ± 648.74 ms2 vs. 392.5 ± 179.94 ms2. Baroque music at 60–70 dB reduced the LF (ms2 index (587.75 ± 318.44 ms2 vs. 376.21 ± 178.85 ms2. In conclusion, heavy-metal and baroque musical auditory stimulation at lower intensities acutely reduced global modulation of the heart and only heavy-metal music reduced HRV at higher intensities.

  8. Periods of high intensity rainfall and the safety of the Angra dos Reis nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolli, D.

    1993-01-01

    The high precipitation rates aggravate the consequences of hypothetical accidental releases of radioactive material from the Angra dos Reis Nuclear Power Plant (NPP), as determined by probabilistic risk assessment. A 30-year rainfall series was analysed, aiming at calculating the probability of occurring a given amount q of precipitation during a certain period of n days. The nine highest precipitation amounts have also been determined. The results show there was a rainier climate in the '50 s and '60 s than in the '70 s and '80 s. The risk of catastrophic landslide has been enhanced as an environmental impact of the construction of the Rio-Santos highway and NPP which have not yet gone through an abnormal rainfall period. It has been suggested that criteria should be established to reduce the nuclear power and shut down the reactor when the precipitation accumulates to a dangerous limit. (author)

  9. Observed periodicities and the spectrum of field variations in Holocene magnetic records

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panovska, S.; Finlay, Chris; Hirt, A.M.

    2013-01-01

    , globally observed, periods. Rather we find a continuous broadband spectrum, with a slope corresponding to a power law with exponent of -2.3 ± 0.6 for the period range between 300 and 4000 yr. This is consistent with the hypothesis that chaotic convection in the outer core drives the majority of secular......In order to understand mechanisms that maintain and drive the evolution of the Earth's magnetic field, a characterization of its behavior on time scales of centuries to millennia is required. We have conducted a search for periodicities in Holocene sediment magnetic records, by applying three...

  10. Evaluation of Fourier and Response Spectra at Ichihasama and Koromogawa Seismic Intensity Observation Sites During the Iwate-Miyagi Nairiku Earthquake in 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, Hayato; Miyajima, Masakatsu

    In this study, we evaluate an acceleration Fourier and response spectra at Ichihasama and Koromogawa seismic intensity observation sites which observed JMA seismic intensity of 6 upper but seismic waveform records don't exist during the Iwate-Miyagi Nairiku earthquake in 2008. Firstly, formula to evaluate acceleration Fourier and response spectra are developed using peak ground acceleration, JMA seismic intensity and predominant period of earthquake spectra based on records obtained from crustal earthquakes with Magnitude of 6 to 7. Acceleration Fourier and response spectra are evaluated for another local government site which are not chosen for development of the formula. The evaluated values mostly agree with the observed ones. Finally, acceleration Fourier and response spectra are evaluated for Ichihasama and Koromogawa observation sites. It is clarified that short period below 1 second was predominated in the evaluated spectra.

  11. Sudden Intensity Increases and Radial Gradient Changes of Cosmic Ray Mev Electrons and Protons Observed at Voyager 1 Beyond 111 AU in the Heliosheath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, W. R.; Mcdonald, F. B.; Cummings, A. C.; Stone, E. C.; Heikkila, B.; Lal, N.

    2012-01-01

    Voyager 1 has entered regions of different propagation conditions for energetic cosmic rays in the outer heliosheathat a distance of about 111 AU from the Sun. The low energy 614 MeV galactic electron intensity increased by 20over a time period 10 days and the electron radial intensity gradient abruptly decreased from 19AU to 8AU at2009.7 at a radial distance of 111.2 AU. At about 2011.2 at a distance of 116.6 AU a second abrupt intensity increase of25 was observed for electrons. After the second sudden electron increase the radial intensity gradient increased to18AU. This large positive gradient and the 13 day periodic variations of 200 MeV particles observed near theend of 2011 indicate that V1 is still within the overall heliospheric modulating region. The implications of these resultsregarding the proximity of the heliopause are discussed.

  12. Drug correction of intestinal motility disorders in intensive care in the postoperative period in surgical patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novitskaya-Usenko L.V.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: improving the results of the complex treatment of patients with surgical pathology of abdominal organs by improving prevention and treatment of motor-evacuation disorders of the gastrointestinal tract in the postoperative period. Results: the article presents data on the use of metoclopramide, L- ar¬ginine, simethicone for the prevention of postoperative dysmotility development. It is proved that L-arginine use reduces the effects of peripheral vasospasm by improving microcirculation of the intestinal wall and this leads to a more rapid recovery of motor-evacuation function of the gastrointestinal tract.

  13. Low- and high-frequency spectral behavior of cosmic-ray intensity for the period 1953–1996

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Mavromichalaki

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available A study of the cosmic-ray intensity power spectrum using the Climax Neutron Monitor data in the frequency range from 10-9 Hz to 10-7 Hz (which corresponds to periodicities from 11 years to a few months during the period 1953–1996, was carried out by means of the successive approximations method of analysis and was compared against the power spectrum and the maximum entropy methods. The contributions of the time evolution of several peaks to the global one were obtained. Except for the well-known 11-year and the 1-year variations, peaks at 7.7, 5.5, 2 and 1.7 years are found. Several peaks with periods less than 10 months have appeared in our analysis, while the occurrence of 5.1 months is obtained in all the examined solar cycles with a strong signature in cycle 21. Transitions of these quasi-periodicities are seen in power spectra plots. Some of them can be attributed to the modulation of the cosmic ray intensity by solar activity. Others are sporadic and have been previously attributed to the interplanetary magnetic field. The results obtained support once again the argument regarding the difference in the solar activity between odd and even solar cycles.Key words. Interplanetary physics (Cosmic rays, Interplanetary magnetic fields

  14. AIP1OGREN: Aerosol Observing Station Intensive Properties Value-Added Product

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koontz, Annette [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Flynn, Connor [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-09-15

    The aip1ogren value-added product (VAP) computes several aerosol intensive properties. It requires as input calibrated, corrected, aerosol extensive properties (scattering and absorption coefficients, primarily) from the Aerosol Observing Station (AOS). Aerosol extensive properties depend on both the nature of the aerosol and the amount of the aerosol. We compute several properties as relationships between the various extensive properties. These intensive properties are independent of aerosol amount and instead relate to intrinsic properties of the aerosol itself. Along with the original extensive properties we report aerosol single-scattering albedo, hemispheric backscatter fraction, asymmetry parameter, and Ångström exponent for scattering and absorption with one-minute averaging. An hourly averaged file is produced from the 1-minute files that includes all extensive and intensive properties as well as submicron scattering and submicron absorption fractions. Finally, in both the minutely and hourly files the aerosol radiative forcing efficiency is provided.

  15. X-RAY AND EUV OBSERVATIONS OF SIMULTANEOUS SHORT AND LONG PERIOD OSCILLATIONS IN HOT CORONAL ARCADE LOOPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Pankaj; Cho, Kyung-Suk; Nakariakov, Valery M.

    2015-01-01

    We report decaying quasi-periodic intensity oscillations in the X-ray (6–12 keV) and extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) channels (131, 94, 1600, 304 Å) observed by the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor and Solar Dynamics Observatory/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA), respectively, during a C-class flare. The estimated periods of oscillation and decay time in the X-ray channel (6–12 keV) were about 202 and 154 s, respectively. A similar oscillation period was detected at the footpoint of the arcade loops in the AIA 1600 and 304 Å channels. Simultaneously, AIA hot channels (94 and 131 Å) reveal propagating EUV disturbances bouncing back and forth between the footpoints of the arcade loops. The period of the oscillation and decay time were about 409 and 1121 s, respectively. The characteristic phase speed of the wave is about 560 km s −1 for about 115 Mm of loop length, which is roughly consistent with the sound speed at the temperature about 10–16 MK (480–608 km s −1 ). These EUV oscillations are consistent with the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory/Solar Ultraviolet Measurement of Emitted Radiation Doppler-shift oscillations interpreted as the global standing slow magnetoacoustic wave excited by a flare. The flare occurred at one of the footpoints of the arcade loops, where the magnetic topology was a 3D fan-spine with a null-point. Repetitive reconnection at this footpoint could have caused the periodic acceleration of non-thermal electrons that propagated to the opposite footpoint along the arcade and that are precipitating there, causing the observed 202 s periodicity. Other possible interpretations, e.g., the second harmonics of the slow mode, are also discussed

  16. X-RAY AND EUV OBSERVATIONS OF SIMULTANEOUS SHORT AND LONG PERIOD OSCILLATIONS IN HOT CORONAL ARCADE LOOPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Pankaj; Cho, Kyung-Suk [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI), Daejeon, 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Nakariakov, Valery M., E-mail: pankaj@kasi.re.kr [Centre for Fusion, Space and Astrophysics, Department of Physics, University of Warwick, CV4 7AL (United Kingdom)

    2015-05-01

    We report decaying quasi-periodic intensity oscillations in the X-ray (6–12 keV) and extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) channels (131, 94, 1600, 304 Å) observed by the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor and Solar Dynamics Observatory/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA), respectively, during a C-class flare. The estimated periods of oscillation and decay time in the X-ray channel (6–12 keV) were about 202 and 154 s, respectively. A similar oscillation period was detected at the footpoint of the arcade loops in the AIA 1600 and 304 Å channels. Simultaneously, AIA hot channels (94 and 131 Å) reveal propagating EUV disturbances bouncing back and forth between the footpoints of the arcade loops. The period of the oscillation and decay time were about 409 and 1121 s, respectively. The characteristic phase speed of the wave is about 560 km s{sup −1} for about 115 Mm of loop length, which is roughly consistent with the sound speed at the temperature about 10–16 MK (480–608 km s{sup −1}). These EUV oscillations are consistent with the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory/Solar Ultraviolet Measurement of Emitted Radiation Doppler-shift oscillations interpreted as the global standing slow magnetoacoustic wave excited by a flare. The flare occurred at one of the footpoints of the arcade loops, where the magnetic topology was a 3D fan-spine with a null-point. Repetitive reconnection at this footpoint could have caused the periodic acceleration of non-thermal electrons that propagated to the opposite footpoint along the arcade and that are precipitating there, causing the observed 202 s periodicity. Other possible interpretations, e.g., the second harmonics of the slow mode, are also discussed.

  17. Observation of short period fluctuation of CygX-1 with balloon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Michio; Sakurai, Takahisa; Uchida, Masayoshi

    1977-01-01

    CygX-1 presents very complex short period fluctuation of X-ray, therefore the hard X-ray was especially observed in 1972 and 1973 with large balloons, and the data were analyzed. This short period fluctuation and energy spectra of CygX-1 in the normal and flare time bands were compared. The observing apparatuses consisted of the 3 in diameter NaI detector and a high pressure proportional counter. The observing method is to turn the gondora alternately to the directions of source (ON) and background (OFF). As for the data analysis, the events at ON and OFF in the observation data in 1972 and 1973 were plotted for time interval. The background component is in agreement with Poisson's distribution, but source component is not. This difference for Poisson's distribution means the behavior of CygX-1. The power spectrum was analyzed, and the strong power density was observed at 5.4 x 10 -2 Hz in ON, but such power density was not observed in OFF. Accordingly this is presumed to be caused by CygX-1. The events for time interval in flare time are shown. The rise of about 2.9 σ exists at 80 msec. The count rates were compared for photon energy in the normal and flare times. The short period fluctuation of hard X-ray from CygX-1 deviates from Poisson's distribution and is different in the normal and flare times. (Nakai, Y.)

  18. Fractal water quality fluctuations spanning the periodic table in an intensively farmed watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubert, Alice H; Kirchner, James W; Gascuel-Odoux, Chantal; Faucheux, Mikael; Gruau, Gérard; Mérot, Philippe

    2014-01-21

    Recently developed measurement technologies can monitor surface water quality almost continuously, creating high-frequency multiparameter time series and raising the question of how best to extract insights from such rich data sets. Here we use spectral analysis to characterize the variability of water quality at the AgrHys observatory (Western France) over time scales ranging from 20 min to 12 years. Three years of daily sampling at the intensively farmed Kervidy-Naizin watershed reveal universal 1/f scaling for all 36 solutes, yielding spectral slopes of 1.05 ± 0.11 (mean ± standard deviation). These 36 solute concentrations show varying degrees of annual cycling, suggesting different controls on watershed export processes. Twelve years of daily samples of SO4, NO3, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) show that 1/f scaling does not continue at frequencies below 1/year in those constituents, whereas a 12-year daily record of Cl shows a general 1/f trend down to the lowest measurable frequencies. Conversely, approximately 12 months of 20 min NO3 and DOC measurements show that at frequencies higher than 1/day, the spectra of these solutes steepen to slopes of roughly 3, and at time scales shorter than 2-3 h, the spectra flatten to slopes near zero, reflecting analytical noise. These results confirm and extend the recent discovery of universal fractal 1/f scaling in water quality at the relatively pristine Plynlimon watershed in Wales, further demonstrating the importance of advective-dispersive transport mixing in catchments. However, the steeper scaling at subdaily time scales suggests additional short-term damping of solute concentrations, potentially due to in-stream or riparian processes.

  19. LOW-FREQUENCY OBSERVATIONS OF TRANSIENT QUASI-PERIODIC RADIO EMISSION FROM THE SOLAR ATMOSPHERE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasikumar Raja, K.; Ramesh, R., E-mail: sasikumar@iiap.res.in [Indian Institute of Astrophysics, II Block, Koramangala, Bangalore 560 034 (India)

    2013-09-20

    We report low-frequency observations of quasi-periodic, circularly polarized, harmonic type III radio bursts whose associated sunspot active regions were located close to the solar limb. The measured periodicity of the bursts at 80 MHz was ≈5.2 s, and their average degree of circular polarization (dcp) was ≈0.12. We calculated the associated magnetic field B (1) using the empirical relationship between the dcp and B for the harmonic type III emission, and (2) from the observed quasi-periodicity of the bursts. Both the methods result in B ≈ 4.2 G at the location of the 80 MHz plasma level (radial distance r ≈ 1.3 R{sub ☉}) in the active region corona.

  20. Biogenic Aerosol - Effect on Clouds and Climate (BAECC-ERI). Extended Radiosonde Intensive Operational Period Final Campaign Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicoll, Ken A. [Univ. of Reading (United Kingdom); O' Connor, E. [Univ. of Helsinki (Finland)

    2016-02-01

    Large-scale properties of clouds such as lifetime, optical thickness, and precipitation are all dependent on small-scale cloud microphysical processes. Such processes determine when droplets will grow or shrink, their size, and the number of cloud droplets. Although our understanding of cloud microphysics has vastly improved over the past several decades with the development of remote sensing methods such as lidar and radar, there remain a number of processes that are not well understood, such as the effect of electrical charge on cloud microphysics. To understand the various processes and feedback mechanisms, high-vertical–resolution observations are required. Radiosondes provide an ideal platform for providing routine vertical profiles of in situ measurements at any location (with a vertical resolution of a few meters). Modified meteorological radiosondes have been extensively developed at the University of Reading for measuring cloud properties, to allow measurements beyond the traditional thermodynamic quantities (pressure, temperature and relative humidity) to be obtained cost-effectively. This project aims to investigate a number of cloud processes in which in situ cloud observations from these modified radiosondes can provide information either complementary to or not obtainable by lidar/radar systems. During two intensive operational periods (IOPs) in May and August 2014 during deployment to Hyytiälä, Finland, the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility’s Second ARM Mobile Facility (AMF2) launched a total of 24 instrumented radiosondes through a number of different cloud types ranging from low-level stratiform cloud to cumulonimbus. Twelve balloon flights of an accelerometer turbulence sensor were made, which detected significant turbulence on eleven of these flights. Most of the turbulent episodes encountered were due to convective processes, but several were associated with the transition from troposphere to stratosphere at

  1. The Eldicus prospective, observational study of triage decision making in European intensive care units. Part II: Intensive care benefit for the elderly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sprung, Charles L; Artigas, Antonio; Kesecioglu, Jozef

    2012-01-01

    on mortality and intensive care unit benefit, specifically for elderly patients. DESIGN:: Prospective, observational study of triage decisions from September 2003 until March 2005. SETTING:: Eleven intensive care units in seven European countries. PATIENTS:: All patients >18 yrs with an explicit request......RATIONALE:: Life and death triage decisions are made daily by intensive care unit physicians. Admission to an intensive care unit is denied when intensive care unit resources are constrained, especially for the elderly. OBJECTIVE:: To determine the effect of intensive care unit triage decisions...... care unit rejections than younger patients and have a higher mortality when admitted, the mortality benefit appears greater for the elderly. Physicians should consider changing their intensive care unit triage practices for the elderly....

  2. Dynamics of intense rainfalls in the southern half of European Russia for the period 1960-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chizhikova, N.

    2018-01-01

    Two time periods (1960-1986 and 1986-2015) were compared in terms of mean annual frequency and mean annual sum of warm season rainfalls to quantify general trends in the changing regime of heavy precipitation over the southern part of European Russia, which is the area of the most intensive agricultural activity. The identified trends were compared with the published assessment of the intensity trends of soil erosion processes. The prevalence of the increasing tendency in the frequency and amount of precipitation is demonstrated, which undergoes against a decrease in the rate of eroded sediment accumulation and against a decrease of linear growth rate of gullies. This result rather proves the crucial contribution of the snowmelt to the soil erosion over the studied area.

  3. Intense Particulate Pollution Events Observed with Lidar over the Paris Megalopolis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chazette, Patrick; Royer, Philippe

    2016-06-01

    The great particulate pollution event that affected the Paris Megalopolis in March 2014 was due to long-range transport from the northern-northeastern Europe. Although this phenomenon has appeared as exceptional in the media, this is not an exception and similar events have already been observed by lidar measurements. Here we will briefly describe and illustrate the origin of this intense pollution obviously harmful to health.

  4. Intense Particulate Pollution Events Observed with Lidar over the Paris Megalopolis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chazette Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The great particulate pollution event that affected the Paris Megalopolis in March 2014 was due to long-range transport from the northern-northeastern Europe. Although this phenomenon has appeared as exceptional in the media, this is not an exception and similar events have already been observed by lidar measurements. Here we will briefly describe and illustrate the origin of this intense pollution obviously harmful to health.

  5. Intense Particulate Pollution Events Observed with Lidar over the Paris Megalopolis

    OpenAIRE

    Chazette Patrick; Royer Philippe

    2016-01-01

    The great particulate pollution event that affected the Paris Megalopolis in March 2014 was due to long-range transport from the northern-northeastern Europe. Although this phenomenon has appeared as exceptional in the media, this is not an exception and similar events have already been observed by lidar measurements. Here we will briefly describe and illustrate the origin of this intense pollution obviously harmful to health.

  6. Observation of quasi-periodic solar radio bursts associated with propagating fast-mode waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goddard, C. R.; Nisticò, G.; Nakariakov, V. M.; Zimovets, I. V.; White, S. M.

    2016-10-01

    Aims: Radio emission observations from the Learmonth and Bruny Island radio spectrographs are analysed to determine the nature of a train of discrete, periodic radio "sparks" (finite-bandwidth, short-duration isolated radio features) which precede a type II burst. We analyse extreme ultraviolet (EUV) imaging from SDO/AIA at multiple wavelengths and identify a series of quasi-periodic rapidly-propagating enhancements, which we interpret as a fast wave train, and link these to the detected radio features. Methods: The speeds and positions of the periodic rapidly propagating fast waves and the coronal mass ejection (CME) were recorded using running-difference images and time-distance analysis. From the frequency of the radio sparks the local electron density at the emission location was estimated for each. Using an empirical model for the scaling of density in the corona, the calculated electron density was used to obtain the height above the surface at which the emission occurs, and the propagation velocity of the emission location. Results: The period of the radio sparks, δtr = 1.78 ± 0.04 min, matches the period of the fast wave train observed at 171 Å, δtEUV = 1.7 ± 0.2 min. The inferred speed of the emission location of the radio sparks, 630 km s-1, is comparable to the measured speed of the CME leading edge, 500 km s-1, and the speeds derived from the drifting of the type II lanes. The calculated height of the radio emission (obtained from the density) matches the observed location of the CME leading edge. From the above evidence we propose that the radio sparks are caused by the quasi-periodic fast waves, and the emission is generated as they catch up and interact with the leading edge of the CME. The movie associated to Fig. 2 is available at http://www.aanda.org

  7. EVOLUTIONARY TRACKS OF TRAPPED, ACCRETING PROTOPLANETS: THE ORIGIN OF THE OBSERVED MASS-PERIOD RELATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Yasuhiro; Pudritz, Ralph E.

    2012-01-01

    The large number of observed exoplanets (∼>700) provides important constraints on their origin as deduced from the mass-period diagram of planets. The most surprising features in the diagram are (1) the (apparent) pileup of gas giants at a period of ∼500 days (∼1 AU) and (2) the so-called mass-period relation, which indicates that planetary mass is an increasing function of orbital period. We construct the evolutionary tracks of growing planets at planet traps in evolving protoplanetary disks and show that they provide a good physical understanding of how these observational properties arise. The fundamental feature of our model is that inhomogeneities in protoplanetary disks give rise to multiple (up to 3) trapping sites for rapid (type I) planetary migration of planetary cores. The viscous evolution of disks results in the slow radial movement of the traps and their cores from large to small orbital periods. In our model, the slow inward motion of planet traps is coupled with the standard core accretion scenario for planetary growth. As planets grow, type II migration takes over. Planet growth and radial movement are ultimately stalled by the dispersal of gas disks via photoevaporation. Our model makes a number of important predictions: that distinct sub-populations of planets that reflect the properties of planet traps where they have grown result in the mass-period relation, that the presence of these sub-populations naturally explains a pileup of planets at ∼1 AU, and that evolutionary tracks from the ice line do put planets at short periods and fill an earlier claimed p lanet desert — a sparse population of planets in the mass-semimajor axis diagram.

  8. New O-C Observations for 150 Algols: Insight to the Origins of Period Shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, D. I.; Harrison, T. E.; McNamara, B. J.; Vestrand, W. T.

    2005-12-01

    Many eclipsing binaries of type Algol, RS CVn, and W UMa have observed orbital period shifts. Of these, many show both increasing and decreasing period shifts. Two leading explanations for these shifts are third body effects and magnetic activity changing the oblateness of the secondary, though neither one can explain all of the observed period oscillations. The first-generation Robotic Optical Transient Search Experiment (ROTSE-I) based in Los Alamos, NM, was primarily designed to look for the optical counterparts to gamma-ray bursts as well as searching for other optical transients not detected in gamma-rays. The telescope, consisting of four 200mm camera lenses, can image the entire northern sky twice in a night, which is a very useful tool in monitoring relatively bright eclipsing binaries for period shifts. The public data release from ROTSE-I, the Northern Sky Variability Survey (NSVS), spans one year of data stating in April, 1999. O-C data for 150 eclipsing binaries are presented using the NSVS data. We revisit work by Borkovits and Hegedüs on some third body candidates in several eclipsing binary systems using recent AAVSO and NSVS data. Some unusual light curves of eclipsing binaries produced from NSVS data is presented and discussed.

  9. SPITZER OBSERVATIONS OF GX17+2: CONFIRMATION OF A PERIODIC SYNCHROTRON SOURCE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, Thomas E.; McNamara, Bernard J.; Bornak, Jillian; Gelino, Dawn M.; Wachter, Stefanie; Rupen, Michael P.; Gelino, Christopher R.

    2011-01-01

    GX17+2 is a low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB) that is also a member of a small family of LMXBs known as 'Z-sources' that are believed to have persistent X-ray luminosities that are very close to the Eddington limit. GX17+2 is highly variable at both radio and X-ray frequencies, a feature common to Z-sources. What sets GX17+2 apart is its dramatic variability in the near-infrared, where it changes by ΔK ∼ 3 mag. Previous investigations have shown that these brightenings are periodic, recurring every 3.01 days. Given its high extinction (A V ≥ 9 mag), it has not been possible to ascertain the nature of these events with ground-based observations. We report mid-infrared Spitzer observations of GX17+2 which indicate a synchrotron spectrum for the infrared brightenings. In addition, GX17+2 is highly variable in the mid-infrared during these events. The combination of the large-scale outbursts, the presence of a synchrotron spectrum, and the dramatic variability in the mid-infrared suggest that the infrared brightening events are due to the periodic transit of a synchrotron jet across our line of sight. An analysis of both new, and archival, infrared observations has led us to revise the period for these events to 3.0367 days. We also present new Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) data for GX17+2 obtained during two predicted infrared brightening events. Analysis of these new data, and data from the RXTE archive, indicates that there is no correlation between the X-ray behavior of this source and the observed infrared brightenings. We examine various scenarios that might produce periodic jet emission.

  10. Response of Runoff and Sediment on Skid Trails of Varying Gradient and Traffic Intensity over a Two-Year Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghdad Jourgholami

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Compacted soil has lower water infiltration and hydraulic conductivity, which contributes to increased runoff and erosion on slopes. The aim of the present study was to assess runoff and sediment on three skidding trail longitudinal gradients (15%, 25%, and 35% and different levels of machine traffic (low, medium, and high, over a two-year period following the impact in the Hyrcanian forest, Iran. The results show that trail gradient and traffic intensity have a significant effect on soil bulk density and total porosity on the skid trails. The average runoff amount varied significantly among trail gradients and ranged from 1.59 mm on the 15% trail gradient and 2.76 mm on the 25% trail gradient, to 4.76 mm on the 35% trail gradient in the low traffic intensity. Average sediment also increased significantly with increasing trail gradient. Average sediment was 0.01 kg m−2, 0.03 kg m−2, and 0.05 kg m−2 on the low traffic intensity in the first year for the 15%, 25%, and 35% trail gradients, respectively. The largest runoff and sediment occurred in the first year and stressed the need for applying forestry Best Management Practices such as the use of brush mats during harvesting operations, as well as the installation of water diversion structures or seeding immediately after initial soil compaction and disturbance, in order to protect the bare soil from heavy rainfall.

  11. Leisure-time physical activity and breast cancer risk by hormone receptor status: effective life periods and exercise intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Reiko; Iwasaki, Motoki; Kasuga, Yoshio; Yokoyama, Shiro; Onuma, Hiroshi; Nishimura, Hideki; Kusama, Ritsu; Shimazu, Taichi; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2010-11-01

    Physical activity may decrease breast cancer risk. However, it is unclear what intensity of exercise and during which life periods this effect on decreasing risk is efficiently expressed, and whether the associations differ by the estrogen-/progesterone- receptor (ER/PR) status of tumors. We investigated associations between age- and intensity-specific leisure-time physical activity and ER/PR-defined breast cancer risk. We conducted a hospital-based case-control study in Nagano, Japan. Subjects were 405 cases newly diagnosed (>99% known ER/PR) from 2001 to 2005, who were age-/area-matched with 405 controls. Activity was assessed with a self-reported questionnaire which considered intensity level (moderate and/or strenuous) at different ages (at 12 and 20 years, and in the previous 5 years). Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using logistic regression. Strenuous but not moderate physical activity at age 12 was inversely associated with pre- and postmenopausal breast cancer risk across ER/PR subtypes [overall OR(≥ 5 days/week vs. none) = 0.24 (0.14-0.43)]. Moderate physical activity in the previous 5 years was significantly associated with a decrease in risk for postmenopausal ER + PR + tumors only [OR(≥ 1 day/week vs. none) = 0.35 (0.18-0.67)]. Strenuous activity in teens and moderate activity after menopause may contribute to a reduction in breast cancer risk.

  12. On the Diurnal Periodicity of Representative Earthquakes in Greece: Comparison of Data from Different Observation Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desherevskii, A. V.; Sidorin, A. Ya.

    2017-12-01

    Due to the initiation of the Hellenic Unified Seismic Network (HUSN) in late 2007, the quality of observation significantly improved by 2011. For example, the representative magnitude level considerably has decreased and the number of annually recorded events has increased. The new observational system highly expanded the possibilities for studying regularities in seismicity. In view of this, the authors revisited their studies of the diurnal periodicity of representative earthquakes in Greece that was revealed earlier in the earthquake catalog before 2011. We use 18 samples of earthquakes of different magnitudes taken from the catalog of Greek earthquakes from 2011 to June 2016 to derive a series of the number of earthquakes for each of them and calculate its average diurnal course. To increase the reliability of the results, we compared the data for two regions. With a high degree of statistical significance, we have obtained that no diurnal periodicity can be found for strongly representative earthquakes. This finding differs from the estimates obtained earlier from an analysis of the catalog of earthquakes at the same area for 1995-2004 and 2005-2010, i.e., before the initiation of the Hellenic Unified Seismic Network. The new results are consistent with the hypothesis of noise discrimination (observational selection) explaining the cause of the diurnal variation of earthquakes with different sensitivity of the seismic network in daytime and nighttime periods.

  13. Spatial correlations in intense ionospheric scintillations - comparison between numerical computation and observation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumagai, H.

    1987-01-01

    The spatial correlations in intense ionospheric scintillations were analyzed by comparing numerical results with observational ones. The observational results were obtained by spaced-receiver scintillation measurements of VHF satellite radiowave. The numerical computation was made by using the fourth-order moment equation with fairly realistic ionospheric irregularity models, in which power-law irregularities with spectral index 4, both thin and thick slabs, and both isotropic and anisotropic irregularities, were considered. Evolution of the S(4) index and the transverse correlation function was computed. The numerical result that the transverse correlation distance decreases with the increase in S(4) was consistent with that obtained in the observation, suggesting that multiple scattering plays an important role in the intense scintillations observed. The anisotropy of irregularities proved to act as if the density fluctuation increased. This effect, as well as the effect of slab thickness, was evaluated by the total phase fluctuations that the radiowave experienced in the slab. On the basis of the comparison, the irregularity height and electron-density fluctuation which is necessary to produce a particular strength of scintillation were estimated. 30 references

  14. Summer weather characteristics and periodicity observed over the period 1888-2013 in the region of Belgrade, Serbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vujović, Dragana; Todorović, Nedeljko; Paskota, Mira

    2018-04-01

    With the goal of finding summer climate patterns in the region of Belgrade (Serbia) over the period 1888-2013, different techniques of multivariate statistical analysis were used in order to analyze the simultaneous changes of a number of climatologic parameters. An increasing trend of the mean daily minimum temperature was detected. In the recent decades (1960-2013), this increase was much more pronounced. The number of days with the daily minimum temperature greater or equal to 20 °C also increased significantly. Precipitation had no statistically significant trend. Spectral analysis showed a repetitive nature of the climatologic parameters which had periods that roughly can be classified into three groups, with the durations of the following: (1) 6 to 7 years, (2) 10 to 18 years, and (3) 21, 31, and 41 years. The temperature variables mainly had one period of repetitiveness of 5 to 7 years. Among other variables, the correlations of regional fluctuations of the temperature and precipitation and atmospheric circulation indices were analyzed. The North Atlantic oscillation index had the same periodicity as that of the precipitation, and it was not correlated to the temperature variables. Atlantic multidecadal oscillation index correlated well to the summer mean daily minimum and summer mean temperatures. The underlying structure of the data was analyzed by principal component analysis, which detected the following four easily interpreted dimensions: More sunshine-Higher temperature, Precipitation, Extreme heats, and Changeable summer.

  15. Observations of intense velocity shear and associated electrostatic waves near an auroral arc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelley, M.C.; Carlson, C.W.

    1977-01-01

    An intense shear in plasma flow velocity of magnitude 20 (m/s)m -1 has been detected at the edge of an auroral arc. The region of shear appears to display structure with two characteristic scale sizes. The larger structures were of the order of a few kilometers in size and were identified by a deviation of the direction of the charge sheets crossed by the rocket from a direction parallel to the visible arc. As is shown in the companion paper (Carlson and Kelley, 1977), the average (undisturbed) charge sheet was parallel to the arc. These observations are consistent with television studies which often display such structures propagating along the edges of auroral forms. Additional intense irregularities were detected with characteristic wavelengths smaller than the scale size of the shear. The irregularities are discussed in light of the branches of a velocity shear driven instability suggested by several workers: the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability operating at the longest wavelengths and the drift shear instability at the shorter. Neither mode has wavelengths as short as those observed however. A velocity shear mechanism operating at wavelengths short in comparison with the shear scale length, such as those observed here, would be of significant geophysical importance. For example, it could be responsible for production of high-latitude irregularities which exist throughout the polar cap and for the short-wavelength waves responsible for intense 3-m backscatter during equatorial spread F conditions. Since the wavelengths produced by the short-wavelength mode are in the range of typical auroral E region radars, such data must be carefully checked for F region contamination

  16. Photon energy dependent intensity variations observed in Auger spectra of free argon clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundwall, M; Lindblad, A; Bergersen, H; Rander, T; Oehrwall, G; Tchaplyguine, M; Peredkov, S; Svensson, S; Bjoerneholm, O

    2006-01-01

    Photon energy dependent intensity variations are experimentally observed in the L 2,3 M 2,3 M 2,3 Auger spectra of argon clusters. Two cluster sizes are examined in the present study. Extrinsic scattering effects, both elastic and inelastic, involving the photoelectron are discussed and suggested as the explanation of the variations in the Auger signal. The atoms in the first few coordination shells surrounding the core-ionized atom are proposed to be the main targets for the scattering processes

  17. The effect of a period of intense exercise on the marker approach to detect growth hormone doping in sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Sven Christian; Robinson, Neil; Alsayrafi, Mohammed; Bourdon, Pitre C; Schumacher, Yorck Olaf; Saugy, Martial; Giraud, Sylvain

    2014-06-01

    The major objective of this study was to investigate the effects of several days of intense exercise on the growth hormone marker approach to detect doping with human growth hormone (hGH). In addition we investigated the effect of changes in plasma volume on the test. Fifteen male athletes performed a simulated nine-day cycling stage race. Blood samples were collected twice daily over a period of 15 days (stage race + three days before and after). Plasma volumes were estimated by the optimized CO Rebreathing method. IGF-1 and P-III-NP were analyzed by Siemens Immulite and Cisbio Assays, respectively. All measured GH 2000 scores were far below the published decision limits for an adverse analytical finding. The period of exercise did not increase the GH-scores; however the accompanying effect of the increase in Plasma Volume yielded in essentially lower GH-scores. We could demonstrate that a period of heavy, long-term exercise with changes in plasma volume does not interfere with the decision limits for an adverse analytical finding. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. SOHO/SWAN OBSERVATIONS OF SHORT-PERIOD SPACECRAFT TARGET COMETS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combi, M. R.; Lee, Y.; Patel, T. S.; Maekinen, J. T. T.; Bertaux, J.-L.; Quemerais, E.

    2011-01-01

    SWAN, the Solar Wind ANisotropies all-sky hydrogen Lyα camera on the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory spacecraft that makes all-sky images of interplanetary neutral hydrogen, has an ongoing campaign to make special observations of comets, both short- and long-period ones, in addition to the serendipitous observations of comets as part of the all-sky monitoring program. We report here on a study of several short-period comets that were detected by SWAN: 21P/Giacobini-Zinner (1998 and 2005 apparitions), 19P/Borrelly (2001 apparition), 81P/Wild 2 (1997 apparition), and 103P/Hartley 2 (1997 apparition). SWAN observes comets over long continuous stretches of their visible apparitions and therefore provides excellent temporal coverage of the water production. For some of the observations we are also able to analyze an entire sequence of images over many days to several weeks/months using our time-resolved model and extract daily average water production rates over continuous periods of several days to months. The short-term (outburst) and long-term behavior can be correlated with other observations. The overall long-term variation is examined in light of seasonal effects seen in the pre- to post-perihelion differences. For 21P/Giacobini-Zinner and 81P/Wild 2 the activity variations over each apparition were more continuously monitored but nonetheless consistent with previous observations. For 19P/Borrelly we found a very steep variation of water production rates, again consistent with some previous observations, and a variation over six months around perihelion that was reasonably consistent with the spin-axis model of Schleicher et al. and the illumination of the main active areas. During the 1997-1998 apparition of 103P/Hartley 2, the target comet of the EPOXI mission (the Deep Impact extended mission), we found a variation with heliocentric distance (∼r -3.6 ) that was almost as steep as 19P/Borrelly and, given the small measured radius near aphelion, this places

  19. Intensity of emission lines of the quiescent solar corona: comparison between calculated and observed values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krissinel, Boris

    2018-03-01

    The paper reports the results of calculations of the center-to-limb intensity of optically thin line emission in EUV and FUV wavelength ranges. The calculations employ a multicomponent model for the quiescent solar corona. The model includes a collection of loops of various sizes, spicules, and free (inter-loop) matter. Theoretical intensity values are found from probabilities of encountering parts of loops in the line of sight with respect to the probability of absence of other coronal components. The model uses 12 loops with sizes from 3200 to 210000 km with different values of rarefaction index and pressure at the loop base and apex. The temperature at loop apices is 1 400 000 K. The calculations utilize the CHIANTI database. The comparison between theoretical and observed emission intensity values for coronal and transition region lines obtained by the SUMER, CDS, and EIS telescopes shows quite satisfactory agreement between them, particularly for the solar disk center. For the data acquired above the limb, the enhanced discrepancies after the analysis refer to errors in EIS measurements.

  20. Period Study and Analyses of 2017 Observations of the Totally Eclipsing, Solar Type Binary, MT Camelopardalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, Danny R.; Samec, Ronald G.; Caton, Daniel B.

    2018-06-01

    We report here on a period study and the analysis of BVRcIc light curves (taken in 2017) of MT Cam (GSC03737-01085), which is a solar type (T ~ 5500K) eclipsing binary. D. Caton observed MT Cam on 05, 14, 15, 16, and 17, December 2017 with the 0.81-m reflector at Dark Sky Observatory. Six times of minimum light were calculated from four primary eclipses and two secondary eclipses:HJD I = 24 58092.4937±0.0002, 2458102.74600±0.0021, 2458104.5769±0.0002, 2458104.9434±0.0029HJD II = 2458103.6610±0.0001, 2458104.7607±0.0020,Six times of minimum light were also calculated from data taken by Terrell, Gross, and Cooney, in their 2016 and 2004 observations (reported in IBVS #6166; TGC, hereafter). In addition, six more times of minimum light were taken from the literature. From all 18 times of minimum light, we determined the following light elements:JD Hel Min I=2458102.7460(4) + 0.36613937(5) EWe found the orbital period was constant over the 14 years spanning all observations. We note that TGC found a slightly increasing period. However, our results were obtained from a period study rather than comparison of observations from only two epochs by the Wilson-Devinney (W-D) Program. A BVRcIc Johnson-Cousins filtered simultaneous W-D Program solution gives a mass ratio (0.3385±0.0014) very nearly the same as TGC’s (0.347±0.003), and a component temperature difference of only ~40 K. As with TGC, no spot was needed in the modeling. Our modeling (beginning with Binary Maker 3.0 fits) was done without prior knowledge of TGC’s. This shows the agreement achieved when independent analyses are done with the W-D code. The present observations were taken 1.8 years later than the last curves by TGC, so some variation is expected.The Roche Lobe fill-out of the binary is ~13% and the inclination is ~83.5 degrees. The system is a shallow contact W-type W UMa Binary, albeit, the amplitudes of the primary and secondary eclipse are very nearly identical. An eclipse duration of ~21

  1. On the observed excess of retrograde orbits among long-period comets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    The distribution of orbital inclinations of the observed long-period comets is analysed. An excess of retrograde orbits is found which increases with the perihelion distance, except for the range 1.1 10 3 A U) has the same behaviour as the total sample. It is thus suggested that the excess of retrograde orbits among long-period comets is related to an already existent excess among the incoming new comets (i.e. comets driven into the planetary region by stellar perturbations). Using theoretical considerations and a numerical model it is proposed that an important fraction of the so-called new comets are actually repeating passages through the planetary region. Nearly a half of the new comets with q > 2 A U may be repeating passages. An important consequence of the presence of comets repeating passages among the new ones is the production of an excess of retrograde orbits in the whole sample. (author)

  2. Detection and plant monitoring programs: lessons from an intensive survey of Asclepias meadii with five observers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen M Alexander

    Full Text Available Monitoring programs, where numbers of individuals are followed through time, are central to conservation. Although incomplete detection is expected with wildlife surveys, this topic is rarely considered with plants. However, if plants are missed in surveys, raw count data can lead to biased estimates of population abundance and vital rates. To illustrate, we had five independent observers survey patches of the rare plant Asclepias meadii at two prairie sites. We analyzed data with two mark-recapture approaches. Using the program CAPTURE, the estimated number of patches equaled the detected number for a burned site, but exceeded detected numbers by 28% for an unburned site. Analyses of detected patches using Huggins models revealed important effects of observer, patch state (flowering/nonflowering, and patch size (number of stems on probabilities of detection. Although some results were expected (i.e. greater detection of flowering than nonflowering patches, the importance of our approach is the ability to quantify the magnitude of detection problems. We also evaluated the degree to which increased observer numbers improved detection: smaller groups (3-4 observers generally found 90 - 99% of the patches found by all five people, but pairs of observers or single observers had high error and detection depended on which individuals were involved. We conclude that an intensive study at the start of a long-term monitoring study provides essential information about probabilities of detection and what factors cause plants to be missed. This information can guide development of monitoring programs.

  3. Detection and plant monitoring programs: lessons from an intensive survey of Asclepias meadii with five observers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Helen M; Reed, Aaron W; Kettle, W Dean; Slade, Norman A; Bodbyl Roels, Sarah A; Collins, Cathy D; Salisbury, Vaughn

    2012-01-01

    Monitoring programs, where numbers of individuals are followed through time, are central to conservation. Although incomplete detection is expected with wildlife surveys, this topic is rarely considered with plants. However, if plants are missed in surveys, raw count data can lead to biased estimates of population abundance and vital rates. To illustrate, we had five independent observers survey patches of the rare plant Asclepias meadii at two prairie sites. We analyzed data with two mark-recapture approaches. Using the program CAPTURE, the estimated number of patches equaled the detected number for a burned site, but exceeded detected numbers by 28% for an unburned site. Analyses of detected patches using Huggins models revealed important effects of observer, patch state (flowering/nonflowering), and patch size (number of stems) on probabilities of detection. Although some results were expected (i.e. greater detection of flowering than nonflowering patches), the importance of our approach is the ability to quantify the magnitude of detection problems. We also evaluated the degree to which increased observer numbers improved detection: smaller groups (3-4 observers) generally found 90 - 99% of the patches found by all five people, but pairs of observers or single observers had high error and detection depended on which individuals were involved. We conclude that an intensive study at the start of a long-term monitoring study provides essential information about probabilities of detection and what factors cause plants to be missed. This information can guide development of monitoring programs.

  4. Subarcsecond bright points and quasi-periodic upflows below a quiescent filament observed by IRIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, T.; Zhang, J.

    2016-05-01

    Context. The new Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) mission provides high-resolution observations of UV spectra and slit-jaw images (SJIs). These data have become available for investigating the dynamic features in the transition region (TR) below the on-disk filaments. Aims: The driver of "counter-streaming" flows along the filament spine is still unknown yet. The magnetic structures and the upflows at the footpoints of the filaments and their relations with the filament mainbody have not been well understood. We study the dynamic evolution at the footpoints of filaments in order to find some clues for solving these questions. Methods: Using UV spectra and SJIs from the IRIS, along with coronal images and magnetograms from the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), we present the new features in a quiescent filament channel: subarcsecond bright points (BPs) and quasi-periodic upflows. Results: The BPs in the TR have a spatial scale of about 350-580 km and lifetimes of more than several tens of minutes. They are located at stronger magnetic structures in the filament channel with a magnetic flux of about 1017-1018 Mx. Quasi-periodic brightenings and upflows are observed in the BPs, and the period is about 4-5 min. The BP and the associated jet-like upflow comprise a "tadpole-shaped" structure. The upflows move along bright filament threads, and their directions are almost parallel to the spine of the filament. The upflows initiated from the BPs with opposite polarity magnetic fields have opposite directions. The velocity of the upflows in the plane of sky is about 5-50 km s-1. The emission line of Si IV 1402.77 Å at the locations of upflows exhibits obvious blueshifts of about 5-30 km s-1, and the line profile is broadened with the width of more than 20 km s-1. Conclusions: The BPs seem to be the bases of filament threads, and the upflows are able to convey mass for the dynamic balance of the filament. The "counter-streaming" flows in previous observations

  5. Corroborating a new probabilistic seismic hazard assessment for greater Tokyo from historical intensity observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozkurt, S.; Stein, R.; Toda, S.

    2006-12-01

    The long recorded history of earthquakes in Japan affords an opportunity to forecast seismic shaking exclusively from past observations of shaking. For this we analyzed 10,000 intensity observations recorded during AD 1600-2000 in a 350 x 350 km area centered on Tokyo in a Geographic Information System. A frequency-intensity curve is found for each 5 x 5 km cell, and from this the probability of exceeding any intensity level can be estimated. The principal benefits of this approach is that it builds the fewest possible assumptions into a probabilistic seismic forecast, it includes site and source effects without imposing this behavior, and we do not need to know the size or location of any earthquake or the location and slip rate of any fault. The cost is that we must abandon any attempt to make a time-dependent forecast, which could be quite different. We believe the method is suitable to many applications of probabilistic seismic hazard assessment, and to other regions. The two key assumptions are that the slope of the observed frequency-intensity relation at every site is the same, and that the 400-year record is long enough to encompass the full range of seismic behavior. Tests we conduct suggest that both assumptions are sound. The resulting 30-year probability of IJMA>=6 shaking (roughly equivalent to PGA>=0.9 g or MMI=IX-X) is 30-40% in Tokyo, Kawasaki, and Yokohama, and 10-15% in Chiba and Tsukuba, the range reflecting spatial variability and curve-fitting alternatives. The strongest shaking is forecast along the margins of Tokyo Bay, within the river sediments extending northwest from Tokyo, and at coastal sites near the plate boundary faults. We also produce long- term exceedance maps of peak ground acceleration for building code regulations, and short-term hazard maps associated with hypothetical catastrophe bonds. Our results for greater Tokyo resemble our independent Poisson probability developed from conventional seismic hazard analysis, as well as

  6. The effect of a period of intensive exercise on the isoform test to detect growth hormone doping in sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, S C; Giraud, S; Alsayrafi, M; Bourdon, P C; Schumacher, Y O; Saugy, M; Robinson, N

    2013-08-01

    The major objective of this study was to investigate the effects of several days of intense exercise on growth hormone (hGH) testing using the World Anti-Doping Agencies hGH isoform differential immunoassays. Additionally the effects of circadian variation and exercise type on the isoform ratios were also investigated. 15 male athletes performed a simulated nine day cycling stage race. Blood samples were collected twice daily over a period of 15 days (stage race+three days before and after). hGH isoforms were analysed by the official WADA immunoassays (CMZ Assay GmbH). All measured isoform ratios were far below the WADA decision limits for an adverse analytical finding. Changes in the isoform ratios could not be clearly connected to circadian variation, exercise duration or intensity. The present study demonstrates that the hGH isoform ratios are not significantly affected by exercise or circadian variation. We demonstrated that heavy, long term exercise does not interfere with the decision limits for an adverse analytical finding. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Globally Increased Crop Growth and Cropping Intensity from the Long-Term Satellite-Based Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bin

    2018-04-01

    Understanding the spatiotemporal change trend of global crop growth and multiple cropping system under climate change scenarios is a critical requirement for supporting the food security issue that maintains the function of human society. Many studies have predicted the effects of climate changes on crop production using a combination of filed studies and models, but there has been limited evidence relating decadal-scale climate change to global crop growth and the spatiotemporal distribution of multiple cropping system. Using long-term satellite-derived Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and observed climate data from 1982 to 2012, we investigated the crop growth trend, spatiotemporal pattern trend of agricultural cropping intensity, and their potential correlations with respect to the climate change drivers at a global scale. Results show that 82.97 % of global cropland maximum NDVI witnesses an increased trend while 17.03 % of that shows a decreased trend over the past three decades. The spatial distribution of multiple cropping system is observed to expand from lower latitude to higher latitude, and the increased cropping intensity is also witnessed globally. In terms of regional major crop zones, results show that all nine selected zones have an obvious upward trend of crop maximum NDVI (p impact on the crop growth trend.

  8. GLOBALLY INCREASED CROP GROWTH AND CROPPING INTENSITY FROM THE LONG-TERM SATELLITE-BASED OBSERVATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Chen

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the spatiotemporal change trend of global crop growth and multiple cropping system under climate change scenarios is a critical requirement for supporting the food security issue that maintains the function of human society. Many studies have predicted the effects of climate changes on crop production using a combination of filed studies and models, but there has been limited evidence relating decadal-scale climate change to global crop growth and the spatiotemporal distribution of multiple cropping system. Using long-term satellite-derived Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI and observed climate data from 1982 to 2012, we investigated the crop growth trend, spatiotemporal pattern trend of agricultural cropping intensity, and their potential correlations with respect to the climate change drivers at a global scale. Results show that 82.97 % of global cropland maximum NDVI witnesses an increased trend while 17.03 % of that shows a decreased trend over the past three decades. The spatial distribution of multiple cropping system is observed to expand from lower latitude to higher latitude, and the increased cropping intensity is also witnessed globally. In terms of regional major crop zones, results show that all nine selected zones have an obvious upward trend of crop maximum NDVI (p < 0.001, and as for climatic drivers, the gradual temperature and precipitation changes have had a measurable impact on the crop growth trend.

  9. OBSERVATIONS OF INTENSITY FLUCTUATIONS ATTRIBUTED TO GRANULATION AND FACULAE ON SUN-LIKE STARS FROM THE KEPLER MISSION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karoff, C.; Campante, T. L.; Ballot, J.; Kallinger, T.; Gruberbauer, M.; García, R. A.; Caldwell, D. A.; Christiansen, J. L.; Kinemuchi, K.

    2013-01-01

    Sun-like stars show intensity fluctuations on a number of timescales due to various physical phenomena on their surfaces. These phenomena can convincingly be studied in the frequency spectra of these stars—while the strongest signatures usually originate from spots, granulation, and p-mode oscillations, it has also been suggested that the frequency spectrum of the Sun contains a signature of faculae. We have analyzed three stars observed for 13 months in short cadence (58.84 s sampling) by the Kepler mission. The frequency spectra of all three stars, as for the Sun, contain signatures that we can attribute to granulation, faculae, and p-mode oscillations. The temporal variability of the signatures attributed to granulation, faculae, and p-mode oscillations was analyzed and the analysis indicates a periodic variability in the granulation and faculae signatures—comparable to what is seen in the Sun.

  10. OBSERVATIONS OF INTENSITY FLUCTUATIONS ATTRIBUTED TO GRANULATION AND FACULAE ON SUN-LIKE STARS FROM THE KEPLER MISSION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karoff, C. [Stellar Astrophysics Centre, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, Ny Munkegade 120, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Campante, T. L. [Centro de Astrofisica and Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade do Porto, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762 Porto (Portugal); Ballot, J. [CNRS, Institut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planetologie, 14 avenue Edouard Belin, F-31400, Toulouse (France); Kallinger, T. [Instituut voor Sterrenkunde, K. U. Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Gruberbauer, M. [Institute for Computational Astrophysics, Department of Astronomy and Physics, Saint Mary' s University, B3H 3C3 Halifax (Canada); Garcia, R. A. [Laboratoire AIM, CEA/DSM-CNRS-Universit Paris Diderot, IRFU/SAp, Centre de Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Caldwell, D. A.; Christiansen, J. L. [SETI Institute/NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Kinemuchi, K., E-mail: karoff@phys.au.dk [Bay Area Environmental Research Inst./NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States)

    2013-04-10

    Sun-like stars show intensity fluctuations on a number of timescales due to various physical phenomena on their surfaces. These phenomena can convincingly be studied in the frequency spectra of these stars-while the strongest signatures usually originate from spots, granulation, and p-mode oscillations, it has also been suggested that the frequency spectrum of the Sun contains a signature of faculae. We have analyzed three stars observed for 13 months in short cadence (58.84 s sampling) by the Kepler mission. The frequency spectra of all three stars, as for the Sun, contain signatures that we can attribute to granulation, faculae, and p-mode oscillations. The temporal variability of the signatures attributed to granulation, faculae, and p-mode oscillations was analyzed and the analysis indicates a periodic variability in the granulation and faculae signatures-comparable to what is seen in the Sun.

  11. Cervical Proprioception in a Young Population Who Spend Long Periods on Mobile Devices: A 2-Group Comparative Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portelli, Andrew; Reid, Susan A

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate if young people with insidious-onset neck pain who spend long periods on mobile electronic devices (known as "text neck") have impaired cervical proprioception and if this is related to time on devices. A 2-group comparative observational study was conducted at an Australian university. Twenty-two participants with text neck and 22 asymptomatic controls, all of whom were 18 to 35 years old and spent ≥4 hours per day on unsupported electronic devices, were assessed using the head repositioning accuracy (HRA) test. Differences between groups were calculated using independent sample t-tests, and correlations between neck pain intensity, time on devices, and HRA test were performed using Pearson's bivariate analysis. During cervical flexion, those with text neck (n = 22, mean age ± standard deviation [SD]: 21 ± 4 years, 59% female) had a 3.9° (SD: 1.4°) repositioning error, and the control group (n = 22, 20 ± 1 years, 68% female) had a 2.9° (SD: 1.2°) error. The mean difference was 1° (95% confidence interval: 0-2, P = .02). For other cervical movements, there was no difference between groups. There was a moderately significant correlation (P ≤ .05) between time spent on electronic devices and cervical pain intensity and between cervical pain intensity and HRA during flexion. The participants with text neck had a greater proprioceptive error during cervical flexion compared with controls. This could be related to neck pain and time spent on electronic devices. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Multidecadal trends in the duration of wet spells and associated intensity of precipitation as revealed by a very dense observational German network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zolina, Olga

    2014-01-01

    Precipitation durations and intensities over the period 1950–2008 are analysed using daily rain gauge data from the Deutsche Wetterdienst raingauge network—one of the densest and most properly maintained precipitation observational networks in Europe. Truncated geometric distribution of the family of discrete distributions was applied for quantifying probability distribution of the durations of wet spells. Further intensities of wet spells of different durations were analysed along with wet spell lengths. During the cold season (October–March) wet periods over the whole of Germany demonstrate a robust pattern of lengthening by about 2–3% for the mean durations of wet spells and up to 6% for extremely long wet periods. This tendency is clearly associated with growing (up to 10% per decade in Eastern Germany) intensity of precipitation during long wet periods (more than 5 days) and the weakening of precipitation events associated with short and moderately long wet periods with both signals being statistically significant. Trends are superimposed with interdecadal variability, which is the strongest in Northern and Central Germany. In the warm season (April–September) there is no robust pan-German trend pattern in the wet spell durations and associated precipitation intensities. Strong structural changes in winter precipitation over Germany potentially imply growing rates of winter ground water recharge over Germany and increasing probability of winter flash and river flooding. (paper)

  13. The big comet crash of 1994. Intensive observational campaign at ESO

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Astronomers all over the world are preparing themselves for observations of a most unique event: during a period of six days in July 1994, at least 21 fragments of comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 will collide with giant planet Jupiter. At the European Southern Observatory, an intensive observational campaign with most of the major telescopes at La Silla is being organized with the participation of a dozen international teams of astronomers. This is the first time ever that it has been possible to predict such a collision. Although it is difficult to make accurate estimates, it is likely that there will be important, observable effects in the Jovian atmosphere. WHAT IS KNOWN ABOUT THE COMET ? Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 is the ninth short-period comet discovered by Gene and Carolyn Shoemaker and David Levy. It was first seen on a photographic plate obtained on 18 March 1993 with the 18-inch Schmidt telescope at the Mount Palomar Observatory, California. It was close in the sky to Jupiter and orbital calculations soon showed that it moves in a very unusual orbit. While other comets revolve around the Sun, this one moves in an elongated orbit around Jupiter. It is obvious that it must have been ``captured'' rather recently by the gravitational field of the planet. It was also found that Shoemaker-Levy 9 consists of several individual bodies which move like ``pearls on a string'' in a majestic procession. It was later determined that this is because the comet suffered a dramatic break-up due to the strong attraction of Jupiter at the time of an earlier close passage to this planet in July 1992. High-resolution Hubble Space Telescope images have shown the existence of up to 21 individual fragments (termed ``nuclei''), whose diameters probably range between a few kilometres and a few hundred meters. There is also much cometary dust visible around the nuclei; it is probably a mixture of grains of different sizes, from sub-millimetre sand up to metre-sized boulders. No outgassing has so

  14. Comparison of atmospheric concentrations of currently used pesticides between urban and rural areas during intensive application period in Alsace (France) by using XAD-2® based passive samplers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liaud, Celine; Schwartz, Jean-Jacques; Millet, Maurice

    2017-07-03

    XAD-2® passive samplers (PAS) have been exposed simultaneously for 14 days on two sites, one rural and one urban, situated in Alsace (East of France) during intensive pesticides application in agriculture (between March and September). PAS have been extracted and analyzed for current-used pesticides and lindane with an analytical method coupling accelerated solvent extraction (ASE), solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and GC/MS/MS. Results show the detection of pesticides is linked to the period of application and spatial and temporal variabilities can be observed with these PAS during the selected sampling period. The spatial and temporal variability is comparable to the one previously observed by comparing data obtained with PAS with data from Hi.-Vol. samplers in an urban area. Sampling rates were calculated for some pesticides and values are comparable to the data already available in the literature. From these sampling rates, concentrations in ng m -3 of pesticides in PAS have been calculated and are in the same order of magnitude as those obtained with Hi.Vol. sampling during the same period of time.

  15. Climatic trends in Estonia during the period of instrumental observations and climate scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaagus, J.

    1996-01-01

    Weather conditions in Estonia are quite variable. Long-term periodical fluctuations have been observed in meteorological values. At the same time, the climate change during the last 100-150 years is marked. As a general tendency, the climate has become more maritime. Air pressure is characterized by an increasing trend in spring and summer, and by a decreasing trend in autumn and winter. Mean air temperature has increased, particularly over the colder half of the year. Precipitation area totals have risen, most of all in autumn and winter. Snow cover duration has decreased significantly. General circulation model-based climate change scenarios expect a general increase in air temperature in Estonia with warming in winter more significant than that in summer. Moreover, they indicate an increase in precipitation, but the results of the individual models are quite variable. The transient scenario shows that the main increase in precipitation will not occur during next decades, but only at the end of the transient period, around 2070. It can be stated that observed tendencies of climate change in Estonia concur with expected changes caused by global warming. According to the long-term fluctuations of meteorological values in Estonia, changes different from general trends can take place during the next decade. An increase in mean air pressure, sunshine duration and snow cover duration, as well as a decrease in mean air temperature and precipitation is expected in the following years

  16. Assessing spatial patterns of extreme droughts associated to return periods from observed dataset: Case study of Segura River Basin (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Galiano, Sandra G.; Diego Giraldo Osorio, Juan

    2013-04-01

    In basins of South-eastern Spain, such as the Segura River Basin (SRB), a strong decrease in runoff from the end of the 1970s has been observed. In the SRB, due to intensive reforestation aimed at halting desertification and erosion, added to climate variability and change, the default assumption of stationarity in water resources systems cannot be guaranteed. Therefore there is an important need for improvement in the ability of monitoring and predicting the impacts associated with the change of hydrologic regime. It is thus necessary to apply non-stationary probabilistic models, which are able to reproduce probability density functions whose parameters vary with time. From a high-resolution daily gridded rainfall dataset of more than 50 years (1950-2007 time period), the spatial distribution of lengths of maximum dry spells for several thresholds are assessed, applying GAMLSS (Generalized Additive Models for Location Scale and Shape) models at grid site. Results reveal an intensification of extreme drought events in some headbasins of the SRB important for water supply. The identification of spatial patterns of drought hazards at basin scale, associated to return periods, contribute to designing strategies of drought contingency preparedness and recovery operations, which are the leading edge of adaptation strategies.

  17. Intense nonneutral beam propagation in a periodic solenoidal field using a macroscopic fluid model with zero thermal emittance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, R.C.; Stoltz, P.; Chen, C.

    1997-08-01

    A macroscopic fluid model is developed to describe the nonlinear dynamics and collective processes in an intense high-current beam propagating in the z-direction through a periodic focusing solenoidal field B z (z + S) = B z (z), where S is the axial periodicity length. The analysis assumes that space-charge effects dominate the effects of thermal beam emittance, Kr b 2 much-gt ε th 2 , and is based on the macroscopic moment-Maxwell equations, truncated by neglecting the pressure tensor and higher-order moments. Assuming a thin beam with r b much-lt S, azimuthally symmetric beam equilibria with ∂/∂t = 0 = ∂/∂θ are investigated. To illustrate the considerable flexibility of the macroscopic formalism, assuming (nearly) uniform axial flow velocity V b over the beam cross section, beam equilibrium properties are calculated for two examples: (a) uniform radial density profile over the interval 0 ≤ r b (z), and (b) an infinitesimally thin annular beam centered at r = r b (z). The analysis generally allows for the azimuthal flow velocity V θb (r,z) to differ from the Larmor frequency, and the model is used to calculate the (leading-order) correction δV zb (r,z) to the axial flow velocity for the step-function density profile in case (a) above

  18. Effect of high wavelengths low intensity light during dark period on physical exercise performance, biochemical and haematological parameters of swimming rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, W; Gobatto, C

    2016-03-01

    Nocturnal rodents should be assessed at an appropriate time of day, which leads to a challenge in identifying an adequate environmental light which allows animal visualisation without perturbing physiological homeostasis. Thus, we analysed the influence of high wavelength and low intensity light during dark period on physical exercise and biochemical and haematological parameters of nocturnal rats. We submitted 80 animals to an exhaustive exercise at individualised intensity under two different illuminations during dark period. Red light (> 600 nm; sports performance experiments.

  19. Hand disinfection in a neonatal intensive care unit: continuous electronic monitoring over a one-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helder, Onno K; van Goudoever, Johannes B; Hop, Wim C J; Brug, Johannes; Kornelisse, René F

    2012-10-08

    Good hand hygiene compliance is essential to prevent nosocomial infections in healthcare settings. Direct observation of hand hygiene compliance is the gold standard but is time consuming. An electronic dispenser with built-in wireless recording equipment allows continuous monitoring of its usage. The purpose of this study was to monitor the use of alcohol-based hand rub dispensers with a built-in electronic counter in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) setting and to determine compliance with hand hygiene protocols by direct observation. A one-year observational study was conducted at a 27 bed level III NICU at a university hospital. All healthcare workers employed at the NICU participated in the study. The use of bedside dispensers was continuously monitored and compliance with hand hygiene was determined by random direct observations. A total of 258,436 hand disinfection events were recorded; i.e. a median (interquartile range) of 697 (559-840) per day. The median (interquartile range) number of hand disinfection events performed per healthcare worker during the day, evening, and night shifts was 13.5 (10.8 - 16.7), 19.8 (16.3 - 24.1), and 16.6 (14.2 - 19.3), respectively. In 65.8% of the 1,168 observations of patient contacts requiring hand hygiene, healthcare workers fully complied with the protocol. We conclude that the electronic devices provide useful information on frequency, time, and location of its use, and also reveal trends in hand disinfection events over time. Direct observations offer essential data on compliance with the hand hygiene protocol. In future research, data generated by the electronic devices can be supplementary used to evaluate the effectiveness of hand hygiene promotion campaigns.

  20. Acute tendon changes in intense CrossFit workout: an observational cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisker, F Y; Kildegaard, S; Thygesen, M; Grosen, K; Pfeiffer-Jensen, M

    2017-11-01

    CrossFit is a fitness program that has become increasingly popular in the Western world, but as in other sports, the risk of injury is present. Only a few studies have addressed health benefits and injuries in CrossFit. It is known that chronically overloaded tendons will thicken and increase the risk of tendinopathy. However, it remains unknown whether acute overload caused by strenuous, high-intensity exercise will exert changes in tendons and if these changes can be detected and described by ultrasonography. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of acute overload on tendon thickness using ultrasonography. Standardized ultrasound measurements of the patella, Achilles, and plantaris tendons were performed before and after a specific workout in 34 healthy subjects. Significant increases were observed in patella tendon thickness before (M = 4.5, SD = 0.6) and after (M = 5.0, SD = 0.7) highly intense strenuous exercise, with an estimated mean differences of 0.47 mm (95% CI: 0.35-0.59 mm; P CrossFit exercises. In order to understand the underlying mechanisms of the findings and possibly utilize this to gain a better understanding, further studies must be conducted. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Estimating interevent time distributions from finite observation periods in communication networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivelä, Mikko; Porter, Mason A.

    2015-11-01

    A diverse variety of processes—including recurrent disease episodes, neuron firing, and communication patterns among humans—can be described using interevent time (IET) distributions. Many such processes are ongoing, although event sequences are only available during a finite observation window. Because the observation time window is more likely to begin or end during long IETs than during short ones, the analysis of such data is susceptible to a bias induced by the finite observation period. In this paper, we illustrate how this length bias is born and how it can be corrected without assuming any particular shape for the IET distribution. To do this, we model event sequences using stationary renewal processes, and we formulate simple heuristics for determining the severity of the bias. To illustrate our results, we focus on the example of empirical communication networks, which are temporal networks that are constructed from communication events. The IET distributions of such systems guide efforts to build models of human behavior, and the variance of IETs is very important for estimating the spreading rate of information in networks of temporal interactions. We analyze several well-known data sets from the literature, and we find that the resulting bias can lead to systematic underestimates of the variance in the IET distributions and that correcting for the bias can lead to qualitatively different results for the tails of the IET distributions.

  2. Nurse staffing, medical staffing and mortality in Intensive Care: An observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Elizabeth; Barron, David N; Harrison, David; Rafferty, Anne Marie; Rowan, Kathy; Sanderson, Colin

    2014-05-01

    To investigate whether the size of the workforce (nurses, doctors and support staff) has an impact on the survival chances of critically ill patients both in the intensive care unit (ICU) and in the hospital. Investigations of intensive care outcomes suggest that some of the variation in patient survival rates might be related to staffing levels and workload, but the evidence is still equivocal. Information about patients, including the outcome of care (whether the patient lived or died) came from the Intensive Care National Audit & Research Centre (ICNARC) Case Mix Programme. An Audit Commission survey of ICUs conducted in 1998 gave information about staffing levels. The merged dataset had information on 65 ICUs and 38,168 patients. This is currently the best available dataset for testing the relationship between staffing and outcomes in UK ICUs. A cross-sectional, retrospective, risk adjusted observational study. Multivariable, multilevel logistic regression. ICU and in-hospital mortality. After controlling for patient characteristics and workload we found that higher numbers of nurses per bed (odds ratio: 0.90, 95% confidence interval: [0.83, 0.97]) and higher numbers of consultants (0.85, [0.76, 0.95]) were associated with higher survival rates. Further exploration revealed that the number of nurses had the greatest impact on patients at high risk of death (0.98, [0.96, 0.99]) whereas the effect of medical staffing was unchanged across the range of patient acuity (1.00, [0.97, 1.03]). No relationship between patient outcomes and the number of support staff (administrative, clerical, technical and scientific staff) was found. Distinguishing between direct care and supernumerary nurses and restricting the analysis to patients who had been in the unit for more than 8h made little difference to the results. Separate analysis of in-unit and in-hospital survival showed that the clinical workforce in intensive care had a greater impact on ICU mortality than on

  3. The Colorado Ultraviolet Transit Experiment (CUTE): Observing Mass Loss on Short-Period Exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, Arika; Fleming, Brian; France, Kevin

    2018-06-01

    The Colorado Ultraviolet Transit Experiment (CUTE) is an NUV spectrograph packaged into a 6U CubeSat, designed to characterize the interaction between exoplanetary atmospheres and their host stars. CUTE will conduct a transit spectroscopy survey, gathering data over multiple transits on more than 12 short-period exoplanets with a range of masses and radii. The instrument will characterize the spectral properties of the transit light curves to atomic and molecular absorption features predicted to exist in the upper atmospheres of these planets, including Mg I, Mg II, Fe II, and OH. The shape and evolution of these spectral light curves will be used to quantify mass loss rates, the stellar drives of that mass loss, and the possible existence of exoplanetary magnetic fiends. This poster presents the science motivation for CUTE, planned observation and data analysis methods, and expected results.

  4. Observed hierarchy of student proficiency with period, frequency, and angular frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas T. Young

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In the context of a generic harmonic oscillator, we investigated students’ accuracy in determining the period, frequency, and angular frequency from mathematical and graphical representations. In a series of studies including interviews, free response tests, and multiple choice tests developed in an iterative process, we assessed students in both algebra-based and calculus-based, traditionally instructed university-level introductory physics courses. Using the results, we categorized nine skills necessary for proficiency in determining period, frequency, and angular frequency. Overall results reveal that, postinstruction, proficiency is quite low: only about 20%–40% of students mastered most of the nine skills. Next, we used a semiquantitative, intuitive method to investigate the hierarchical structure of the nine skills. We also employed the more formal item tree analysis method to verify this structure and found that the skills form a multilevel, nonlinear hierarchy, with mastery of some skills being prerequisite for mastery in other skills. Finally, we implemented a targeted, 30-min group-work activity to improve proficiency in these skills and found a 1 standard deviation gain in accuracy. Overall, the results suggest that many students currently lack these essential skills, targeted practice may lead to required mastery, and that the observed hierarchical structure in the skills suggests that instruction should especially attend to the skills lower in the hierarchy.

  5. Quasi-16-day period oscillations observed in middle atmospheric ozone and temperature in Antarctica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demissie, T.D.; Hibbins, R.E.; Espy, P.J. [Norwegian Univ. of Science and Technology (NTNU), Trondheim (Norway); Birkeland Centre for Space Science, Bergen (Norway); Kleinknecht, N.H.; Straub, C. [Norwegian Univ. of Science and Technology (NTNU), Trondheim (Norway)

    2013-09-01

    Nightly averaged mesospheric temperature derived from the hydroxyl nightglow at Rothera station (67 34' S, 68 08' W) and nightly midnight measurements of ozone mixing ratio obtained from Troll station (72 01' S, 2 32' E) in Antarctica have been used to investigate the presence and vertical profile of the quasi-16-day planetary wave in the stratosphere and mesosphere during the Antarctic winter of 2009. The variations caused by planetary waves on the ozone mixing ratio and temperature are discussed, and spectral and cross-correlation analyses are performed to extract the wave amplitudes and to examine the vertical structure of the wave from 34 to 80 km. The results show that while planetary-wave signatures with periods 3-12 days are strong below the stratopause, the oscillations associated with the 16-day wave are the strongest and present in both the mesosphere and stratosphere. The period of the wave is found to increase below 42 km due to the Doppler shifting by the strong eastward zonal wind. The 16-day oscillation in the temperature is found to be correlated and phase coherent with the corresponding oscillation observed in O{sub 3} volume mixing ratio at all levels, and the wave is found to have vertical phase fronts consistent with a normal mode structure. (orig.)

  6. Detecting atmospheric normal modes with periods less than 6 h by barometric observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermolenko, S. I.; Shved, G. M.; Jacobi, Ch.

    2018-04-01

    The theory of atmospheric normal modes (ANMs) predicts the existence of relatively short-period gravity-inertia ANMs. Simultaneous observations of surface air-pressure variations by barometers at distant stations of the Global Geodynamics Project network during an interval of 6 months were used to detect individual gravity-inertia ANMs with periods of ∼2-5 h. Evidence was found for five ANMs with a lifetime of ∼10 days. The data of the stations, which are close in both latitude and longitude, were utilized for deriving the phases of the detected ANMs. The phases revealed wave propagation to the west and increase of zonal wavenumbers with frequency. As all the detected gravity-inertia ANMs are westward propagating, they are suggested to be generated due to the breakdown of migrating solar tides and/or large-scale Rossby waves. The existence of an ANM background will complicate the detection of the translational motions of the Earth's inner core.

  7. Extreme value analysis of meterological parameters observed at Narora during the period 1989-2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varakhedkar, V.K.; Dube, B.; Gurg, R.P.

    2002-08-01

    The design of engineering structures requires an understanding of extreme weather conditions that may occur at the site of interest, which is very essential, so that the structures can be designed to withstand weather stresses. In this report an analysis of extreme values of meteorological parameters observed at Narora for the period 1989- 2001 is described. The parameters considered are maximum and minimum air temperature, minimum relative humidity, maximum wind speed, maximum rainfall in a day and month, and annual rainfall. The extreme value analysis reveals that the variables such as annual maximum air temperature, minimum relative humidity and monthly maximum rainfall obey Fisher -Tippet Type -I extreme value distribution where as annual minimum air temperature, maximum hourly wind speed, daily maximum rainfall and maximum and minimum annual rainfall, obey Fisher -Tippet Type -2 extreme value distribution function. Various distribution function parameters for each variable are determined. Extreme values corresponding to return periods of 50 years and 100 years are worked out. These derived extreme values are particularly useful for arriving at suitable design values to ensure the safety of any civil structure in Narora area with respect to stresses due to weather conditions. (author)

  8. CHANGES IN LIPID PARAMETERS AND ANTROPOMETRIC INDICATORS OF DIETING DURING THE PERIOD OF INTENSIVE PREPARATIONS OF TOP ATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubiša Lilić

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Physical exercise is a planned and repeated exercise aiming to maintain and improve one or more aspects of physical condition. Increased sympathetic-adrenal activity and reduction of insulin concentration are the main stimuli of lipolysis during physical activity.The aim of this study was to investigate acute and chronic effects of intensive aerobic training program on lipid profile and antropometric parameters in young healthy soccer players.Fifteen healthy male (soccer players, average age 21.4±3.6 were included in this study. Soccer players had a minimum of 6 months continuous training that consisted of three training sessions per week. They did not smoke, take drugs or drink alcohol during the examination period. A balanced diet (60% carbohydrates, 25% lipids and 15% proteins was recommended by a nutritionist as a standard diet during the preparations period. This consisted of three repetitions of 20-min running sessions, with two 3-min breaks in-between. Target load was obtained at 120–140 bpm heart rate. Anthropometric estimation comprized determination of body fat % by impendansometer Omron BF306, body height (BH, body weight (BW, waist circumference (WC, waist/hip ratio (WHR and determination of body mass index (BMI=BW/BH2. Blood samples were taken prior to and 5-10 min after completion of exercise. Biochemical investigation comprized spectrophotometric determination of total cholesterol (TC, triglicerides (TG, HDL-C and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C. There was a significant reduction of body fat content % after 6 months of intensive physical preparation (p<0.05, but not of BMI and BW. There were no signifficant changes in waist circumference and WHR values at the end of physical preparation compared to the values from the beginning. There were not significant changes in TC and TG levels at the end of 6 months preparations; however significant changes in lipid fractions were present. There was a significant decrease in

  9. High-resolution refinement of a storm loss model and estimation of return periods of loss-intensive storms over Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. Donat

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A refined model for the calculation of storm losses is presented, making use of high-resolution insurance loss records for Germany and allowing loss estimates on a spatial level of administrative districts and for single storm events. Storm losses are calculated on the basis of wind speeds from both ERA-Interim and NCEP reanalyses. The loss model reproduces the spatial distribution of observed losses well by taking specific regional loss characteristics into account. This also permits high-accuracy estimates of total cumulated losses, though slightly underestimating the country-wide loss sums for storm "Kyrill", the most severe event in the insurance loss records from 1997 to 2007. A larger deviation, which is assigned to the relatively coarse resolution of the NCEP reanalysis, is only found for one specific rather small-scale event, not adequately captured by this dataset.

    The loss model is subsequently applied to the complete reanalysis period to extend the storm event catalogue to cover years when no systematic insurance records are available. This allows the consideration of loss-intensive storm events back to 1948, enlarging the event catalogue to cover the recent 60+ years, and to investigate the statistical characteristics of severe storm loss events in Germany based on a larger sample than provided by the insurance records only. Extreme value analysis is applied to the loss data to estimate the return periods of loss-intensive storms, yielding a return period for storm "Kyrill", for example, of approximately 15 to 21 years.

  10. Metabolic observations during the treatment of obese patients by periods of total starvation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riet, H.G. van; Schwarz, F.; Kinderen, P.J. der; Veeman, W.

    Ten very obese female patients were treated by periods of total starvation lasting 10 days each. In the interval between these starvation periods, a diet of 600 calories was given. Twenty-one periods were completed, 6 patients went through 3 periods each. The fasting was generally well tolerated;

  11. High energy X-ray observations of CYG X-3 from from OSO-8: Further evidence of a 34.1 day period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, J. F.; Crannell, C. J.; Dennis, B. R.; Frost, K. J.; Orwig, L. E.

    1981-01-01

    The X-ray source Cyg X-3 (=4U2030+40) was observed with the high energy X-ray spectrometer on OSO-8 for two weeks in 1975 and in 1976 and for one week in 1977. No change in spectral shape and intensity above 23 keV was observed from year to year. No correlation is observed between the source's intensity and the phase of the 34.1 day period discovered by Molteni, et al. (1980). The pulsed fraction of the 4.8 hour light curve between 23 and 73 keV varies from week to week, however, and the magnitude of the pulsed fraction appears to be correlated with the 34.1 day phase. No immediate explanation of this behavior is apparent in terms of previously proposed models of the source.

  12. Change in maximal fat oxidation in response to different regimes of periodized high-intensity interval training (HIIT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astorino, Todd A; Edmunds, Ross M; Clark, Amy; Gallant, Rachael; King, Leesa; Ordille, Gina M; Heath, Brendyn; Montell, Matthew; Bandong, Jason

    2017-04-01

    Increased capacity for fat oxidation (FatOx) is demonstrated in response to chronic endurance training as well as high-intensity interval training (HIIT). This study examined changes in maximal fat oxidation (MFO) in response to 20 sessions of periodized HIIT in an attempt to identify if various regimes of HIIT similarly augment capacity for FatOx. Thirty-nine habitually active men and women (mean age and VO 2 max = 22.5 ± 4.4 year and 40.0 ± 5.6 mL/kg/min) completed training and 32 men and women with similar physical activity and fitness level served as non-exercising controls (CON). Training consisted of ten sessions of progressive low-volume HIIT on the cycle ergometer after which participants completed an additional ten sessions of sprint interval training (SIT), high-volume HIIT, or periodized HIIT, whose assignment was randomized. Before and throughout training, MFO, FatOx, and carbohydrate oxidation (CHOOx) were assessed during progressive cycling to exhaustion. Compared to CON, there was no effect of HIIT on MFO (p = 0.11). Small increases (p = 0.03) in FatOx were evident in response to HIIT leading to an additional 4.3 g of fat oxidized, although this value may not be clinically meaningful. Our results refute the widely reported increases in capacity for FatOx demonstrated with HIIT, which is likely due to marked day-to-day variability in determinations of MFO and exercise fat oxidation as well as the heterogeneity of our sample.

  13. IUE observations of long period eclipsing binaries: a study of accretion onto non-degenerate stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plavec, M.J.

    1980-01-01

    It has long been thought that β Lyrae is a unique system, by virtue of its UV spectrum and its nature. The author argues that a whole class of interacting long-period binaries exists, similar to β Lyrae. According to IUE observations made in 1978-79 this group comprises: RX Cas, SX Cas, V 367 Cyg, W Cru, β Lyr, and W Ser. AR Pav is a transition case linking them with the symbiotics. The author also suggests that HD 218393 (KX And), HD 72754, and HD 51480 are their non-eclipsing counterparts. The whole group is called the W Serpentis stars. These systems are mass-transfering binaries (case B) in which the mass transfer rate is relatively high, probably on the order 10 -6 to 10 -4 solar masses/year. They display an ultraviolet continuum with a color temperature definitely higher than the one observed in the optical region. Even more characteristical is the presence of strong emission lines of N V, C IV, Si IV, Fe III, Al III, and lower ions of C and Si. The author discusses these phenomena on the assumption that they are due to accretion onto non-degenerate stars. (Auth.)

  14. ELF whistler events with a reduced intensity observed by the DEMETER spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahlava, J.; Nemec, F.; Santolik, O.; Kolmasova, I.; Parrot, M.

    2017-12-01

    A survey of VLF frequency-time spectrograms obtained by the DEMETER spacecraft (2004-2010, altitude about 700 km) revealed that the intensity of fractional hop whistlers is sometimes significantly reduced at specific frequencies. These frequencies are typically above about 3.4 kHz (second cutoff frequency of the Earth-ionosphere waveguide), and they vary smoothly in time. The events were explained by the wave propagation in the Earth-ionosphere waveguide, and a resulting interference of the first few waveguide modes. We analyze the events whose frequency-time structure is rather similar, but at frequencies below 1 kHz. Altogether, 284 events are identified during the periods with active Burst mode, when high resolution data are measured by DEMETER. The vast majority of events (93%) occurs during the nighttime. All six electromagnetic field components are available, which allows us to perform a detailed wave analysis. An overview of the properties of these events is presented, and their possible origin is discussed.

  15. First observations of intensity-dependent effects for transversely split beams during multiturn extraction studies at the CERN Proton Synchrotron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Gilardoni

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available During the commissioning of the CERN Proton Synchrotron multiturn extraction, tests with different beam intensities were performed in order to probe the behavior of resonance crossing in the presence of possible space charge effects. The initial beam intensity before transverse splitting was varied and the properties of the five beamlets obtained by crossing the fourth-order horizontal resonance were studied. A clear dependence of the beamlets’ parameters on the total beam intensity was found, which is the first direct observation of intensity-dependent effects for such a peculiar beam type. The experimental results are presented and discussed in detail in this paper.

  16. Treatment and follow-up results of children with electrical burn who observed in burn intensive care unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çiğdem Aliosmanoğlu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Electrical burns are infrequent relative to other injuries, but they are associated with high morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to assess management and follow-up results of pediatric patients’ who observed in intensive care unit and also review the precautions for preventing electrical burns.Materials and methods: Totally 22 patients aged under 17 years who were observed in the burn intensive care unit of Şanlıurfa Education and Research Hospital during the period between July 2009-October 2010. Cases were investigated retrospectively. The patients’ age, gender, total burn surface area, length of stay in hospital, musculo-skeletal system complication, cardiovascular system complication, kidney damage and attempts were recorded.Results: Of the 22 cases, 19 (86.3% were male and 3 (13.7% were female. The mean age of the patients was 11.5 years. In 10 (45.4% children burns were occurred in workplace and working area and 12 (54.6% were occurred in the home environment. Depth of burns were third degree in 10 (45.4% children and second degree in 12 (54.6%. The mean percentage of burn surface area was 25.9%. The mean length of stay in hospital was 17 days. Debridement and grafting were performed to 12 (54.6% cases and 10 (45.4% children were treated with dressings. No patient had increased creatinine kinase levels, oliguria, myoglobuinuria and arrhythmia. The mean hospitalization time was 17 days.Conclusion: Nearly half of patients underwent debridement plus grafting. None of our patients developed renal failure other severe system dysfunction.

  17. Desertification, resilience, and re-greening in the African Sahel - a matter of the observation period?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusserow, Hannelore

    2017-12-01

    Since the turn of the millennium various scientific publications have been discussing a re-greening of the Sahel after the 1980s drought mainly based on coarse-resolution satellite data. However, the author's own field studies suggest that the situation is far more complex and that both paradigms, the encroaching Sahara and the re-greening Sahel, need to be questioned.This paper discusses the concepts of desertification, resilience, and re-greening by addressing four main aspects: (i) the relevance of edaphic factors for a vegetation re-greening, (ii-iii) the importance of the selected observation period in the debate on Sahel greening or browning, and (iv) modifications in the vegetation pattern as possible indicators of ecosystem changes (shift from originally diffuse to contracted vegetation patterns).The data referred to in this paper cover a time period of more than 150 years and include the author's own research results from the early 1980s until today. A special emphasis, apart from fieldwork data and remote sensing data, is laid on the historical documents.The key findings summarised at the end show the following: (i) vegetation recovery predominantly depends on soil types; (ii) when discussing Sahel greening vs. Sahel browning, the majority of research papers only focus on post-drought conditions. Taking pre-drought conditions (before the 1980s) into account, however, is essential to fully understand the situation. Botanical investigations and remote-sensing-based time series clearly show a substantial decline in woody species diversity and cover density compared to pre-drought conditions; (iii) the self-organised patchiness of vegetation is considered to be an important indicator of ecosystem changes.

  18. Medication Errors in an Internal Intensive Care Unit of a Large Teaching Hospital: A Direct Observation Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saadat Delfani

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Medication errors account for about 78% of serious medical errors in intensive care unit (ICU. So far no study has been performed in Iran to evaluate all type of possible medication errors in ICU. Therefore the objective of this study was to reveal the frequency, type and consequences of all type of errors in an ICU of a large teaching hospital. The prospective observational study was conducted in an 11 bed internal ICU of a university hospital in Shiraz. In each shift all processes that were performed on one selected patient was observed and recorded by a trained pharmacist. Observer would intervene only if medication error would cause substantial harm. The data was evaluated and then were entered in a form that was designed for this purpose. The study continued for 38 shifts. During this period, a total of 442 errors per 5785 opportunities for errors (7.6% occurred. Of those, there were 9.8% administration errors, 6.8% prescribing errors, 3.3% transcription errors and, 2.3% dispensing errors. Totally 45 interventions were made, 40% of interventions result in the correction of errors. The most common causes of errors were observed to be: rule violations, slip and memory lapses and lack of drug knowledge. According to our results, the rate of errors is alarming and requires implementation of a serious solution. Since our system lacks a well-organize detection and reporting mechanism, there is no means for preventing errors in the first place. Hence, as the first step we must implement a system where errors are routinely detected and reported.

  19. Observed temporal evolution of global mean age of stratospheric air for the 2002 to 2010 period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. Stiller

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available An extensive observational data set, consisting of more than 106 SF6 vertical profiles from MIPAS measurements distributed over the whole globe has been condensed into monthly zonal means of mean age of air for the period September 2002 to January 2010, binned at 10° latitude and 1–2 km altitude. The data were analysed with respect to their temporal variation by fitting a regression model consisting of a constant and a linear increase term, 2 proxies for the QBO variation, sinusoidal terms for the seasonal and semi-annual variation and overtones for the correction of the shapes to the observed data set. The impact of subsidence of mesospheric SF6-depleted air and in-mixing into non-polar latitudes on mid-latitudinal absolute age of air and its linear increase was assessed and found to be small.

    The linear increase of mean age of stratospheric air was found to be positive and partly larger than the trend derived by Engel et al. (2009 for most of the Northern mid-latitudes, the middle stratosphere in the tropics, and parts of the Southern mid-latitudes, as well as for the Southern polar upper stratosphere. Multi-year decrease of age of air was found for the lowermost and the upper stratospheric tropics, for parts of Southern mid-latitudes, and for the Northern polar regions. Analysis of the amplitudes and phases of the seasonal variation shed light on the coupling of stratospheric regions to each other. In particular, the Northern mid-latitude stratosphere is well coupled to the tropics, while the Northern lowermost mid-latitudinal stratosphere is decoupled, confirming the separation of the shallow branch of the Brewer-Dobson circulation from the deep branch. We suggest an overall increased tropical upwelling, together with weakening of mixing barriers, especially in the Northern Hemisphere, as a hypothetical model to explain the observed pattern of linear multi-year increase/decrease, and amplitudes

  20. Comparing NEXRAD Operational Precipitation Estimates and Raingage Observations of Intense Precipitation in the Missouri River Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, C. B.

    2002-05-01

    Accurate observation of precipitation is critical to the study and modeling of land surface hydrologic processes. NEXRAD radar-based precipitation estimates are increasingly used in field experiments, hydrologic modeling, and water and energy budget studies due to their high spatial and temporal resolution, national coverage, and perceived accuracy. Extensive development and testing of NEXRAD precipitation algorithms have been carried out in the Southern Plains. Previous studies (Young et al. 2000, Young et al. 1999, Smith et al. 1996) indicate that NEXRAD operational products tend to underestimate precipitation at light rain rates. This study investigates the performance of NEXRAD precipitation estimates of high-intensity rainfall, focusing on flood-producing storms in the Missouri River Basin. NEXRAD estimates for these storms are compared with data from multiple raingage networks, including NWS recording and non-recording gages and ALERT raingage data for the Kansas City metropolitan area. Analyses include comparisons of gage and radar data at a wide range of temporal and spatial scales. Particular attention is paid to the October 4th, 1998, storm that produced severe flooding in Kansas City. NOTE: The phrase `NEXRAD operational products' in this abstract includes precipitation estimates generated using the Stage III and P1 algorithms. Both of these products estimate hourly accumulations on the (approximately) 4 km HRAP grid.

  1. Prospective Observational Evaluation of Sedation and Pain Management Guideline Adherence Across New Jersey Intensive Care Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brophy, Alison; Cardinale, Maria; Andrews, Liza B; Kaplan, Justin B; Adams, Christopher; Opsha, Yekaterina; Brandt, Kimberly A; Dixit, Deepali; Nerenberg, Steven F; Saleh, Julie A

    2018-01-01

    The practice guidelines for the management of pain, agitation, and delirium (PAD) from the Society of Critical Care Medicine shifted from primarily focusing on the treatment of anxiety in 2002 to the treatment of pain in 2013. This prospective, observational, multicenter study aimed to assess the degree of practice adherence to the PAD guidelines for ventilated patients in New Jersey intensive care units (ICUs). Pharmacist investigators at 8 centers designated 4 days at least 10 days apart to evaluate all patients on mechanical ventilation. The primary outcomes included adherence to 4 guideline recommendations: treatment of pain before sedation, use of nonnarcotic analgesic medications, use of nonbenzodiazepine sedative medications, and use of goal-directed sedation. Of 138 patients evaluated, 50% had a primary medical diagnosis (as opposed to surgical, cardiac, or neurological diagnosis), and the median Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score was 7. Pain was treated prior to administration of sedatives in 55.4% of subjects, with fentanyl being the primary analgesic used. In addition, 19% received no analgesia, and 11.5% received nonopioid analgesia. Sedative agents were administered to 87 subjects (48 nonbenzodiazepine and 39 benzodiazepine). Of those receiving benzodiazepines, 22 received intermittent bolus regimens and 16 received continuous infusions, of which 5 were for another indication besides sedation. Validated scales measuring the degree of sedation were completed at least once in 56 (81.6%) patients receiving sedatives. Current sedation practices suggest that integration of evidence-based PAD guidelines across New Jersey adult ICUs is inconsistent despite pharmacist involvement.

  2. Observation of intense beam in low pressure from IPR Plasma Focus facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, R.; Shyam, A.; Chaturvedi, S.; Lathi, D.; Sarkar, Partha; Chaudhari, V.; Verma, R.; Shukla, R.; Debnath, K.; Sonara, J.; Shah, K.; Adhikary, B.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Plasma focus (PF) is a powerful source of various ionizing radiation such as charged particles beam (ions and electrons), X-ray, neutrons etc. This device can operate from energy level of 50J to 1MJ. Plasma Focus is relatively small, simple and cheap in comparison with other radiation sources based on isotopes, accelerators and fusion reactors. Radiation pulse from PF is strong and very short. Now with the new pulsed power technology this device can be operated repeatedly with enhanced lifetime. All these features make plasma focus a versatile device for academic as well as industrial interest such as hot plasma physics and plasma collective processes, equation of state of matter under extreme conditions, material science including material characterization, dynamic equation control, and surface modification and destruction test. Intense burst of neutrons have been observed from a low energy (3.6 kJ) Mather type plasma focus device operated in 0.4 Torr pressure of deuterium medium at IPR. The emitted neutrons (10 9 /shot), that are accompanied by a strong hard X-ray pulse, were found to be having energy up to 3.26 MeV in the axial direction of the device

  3. Effect of periodized high intensity interval training (HIIT) on body composition and attitudes towards hunger in active men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astorino, Todd A; Heath, Brendyn; Bandong, Jason; Ordille, Gina M; Contreras, Ramon; Montell, Matthew; Schubert, Matthew M

    2018-01-01

    High intensity interval training (HIIT) increases maximal oxygen uptake similar to aerobic exercise. However, changes in body composition are equivocal in response to HIIT. We examined changes in body composition and dietary restraint in response to 20 sessions of HIIT varying in structure. Thirty nine active men and women (age and VO2max=22.5±4.4 years and 40.1±5.6 mL/kg/min) were randomized to one of three periodized HIIT regimes performed on a cycle ergometer. Before and after training, body composition was assessed using skinfolds (SKF), circumference measures, and Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA) following standardized procedures. Hunger, restraint, and disinhibition were also measured using the 3-Factor Eating Questionnaire and Power of Food Survey. Control participants (N.=32, age and VO2max=25.6±4.4 years and 40.6±4.9 mL/kg/min) matched for age and fitness level underwent all testing but did not complete HIIT. There was no change (P>0.05) in body mass, circumferences, or BIA-derived body fat in response to HIIT. However, SKF-derived body fat declined (P=0.04) with HIIT, and gender x time (P=0.03) and gender x time x regimen interactions (P=0.04) were shown in that women but not men exhibited significant reductions in body fat. Hunger was reduced from baseline to post-training (P=0.028), but this response was not different in response to HIIT compared to controls. Twenty sessions of low-volume HIIT reduce body fat in women but not men, but do not alter perceptions of hunger.

  4. Predictors of stress among parents in pediatric intensive care unit: a prospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aamir, Mohd; Mittal, Kundan; Kaushik, Jaya Shankar; Kashyap, Haripal; Kaur, Gurpreet

    2014-11-01

    To determine the sociodemographic and clinical factors leading to stress among parents whose children are admitted in pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). A prospective observational study was conducted in PICU of a tertiary care hospital of north India. Parents of children admitted to PICU for at least 48 h duration were eligible for participation. At the end of 48 h, parental stress was assessed using parental stress scale (PSS:PICU) questionnaire which was administered to the parents. Baseline demographic and clinical parameters of children admitted to PICU were recorded. The parental stress was compared with demographic and clinical characteristics of children using appropriate statistical methods. A total of 49 parents were finally eligible for participation. Mean (SD) parental stress scores was highest in domains of procedures [1.52 (0.66)] and behavior and emotional [1.32 (0.42)] subscales. Mean (SD) total parental stress score among intubated children [1.31 (0.25)] was significantly more than among non intubated children [0.97 (0.26)] (p parental stress score were comparable in terms of gender (p = 0.15) and socioeconomic status (p = 0.32). On subscale analysis, it was found that professional communication is a significant stressor in age groups 0-12 mo [0.61(0.41)] (p = 0.02). It was observed that parents of intubated children were significantly stressed by the physical appearance of their children (p parental role (p = 0.002). Total parental stress score had a positive correlation with PRISM score (r = 0.308). Indian parents are stressed maximally with environment of PICU. Factor leading to parental stress was intubation status of the child and was not affected by gender or socio demographic profile of the parents.

  5. Observations of electrons in the Intense Pulse Neutron Source (IPNS) Rapid Cycling Synchrotron (RCS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dooling, J.C.; Brumwell, F.R.; Czyz, W.S.; Harkay, K.C.; Lien, M.K.; McMichael, G.E.

    2004-01-01

    In the process of accelerating protons from 50 to 450 MeV at 30 Hz, low-energy electrons are generated within the IPNS RCS vacuum chamber. Electrons from background gas stripping are detected using an Ionization Profile Monitor (IPM) to generate integrated, horizontal charge distributions of the single-harmonic bunch during acceleration. Recently, a Retarding Field Analyzer (RFA) was installed in the RCS to look for evidence of beam-induced multipacting by measuring the electrons ejected by the space charge of the beam. A wide-band, high-gain transimpedance amplifier has been built to observe time structure in the electron signal detected with the RFA. Though a noisy power supply prevented full I-V characteristics from being obtained, interesting features are observed; especially, after the period of phase modulation between the rf cavities that is deliberately introduced during the cycle. The phase modulation generates a longitudinal quadrupole oscillation in the bunch, which is believed to enhance beam stability. Preliminary results indicate that electron multipacting is not significant in the RCS. The effects of background gas neutralization are considered and details of the RFA measurements are presented.

  6. Mathematical observations on the relation between eclosion periods and the copulation rate of cicadas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saisho, Yasumasa

    2010-04-01

    In many species of cicadas the peak of eclosion of males precedes that of females. In this paper, we construct a stochastic model and consider whether this sexual difference of eclosion periods works against mating or not. We also discuss the relation between the peak period of copulations and the development of population number by using this model.

  7. High-latitude long-period pulsations in the atmospheric electricity according to observations at Schpitzbergen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klejmenova, N.G.; Kozyreva, O.V.; Mikhnovski, S.; Shimanski, A.; Ermolenko, D.Yu.

    1992-01-01

    The spectrum of long-period oscillations in the electric and magnetic fields is investigated for the first time using the data on simultaneous digital recording in the high altitudes at Schpitzbergen. It is established that during both tranquil and perturbed period at any time of the day, spectrum variation in electric and magnetic fields feature a decline discrete nature

  8. Constraining the interaction between dark sectors with future HI intensity mapping observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaodong; Ma, Yin-Zhe; Weltman, Amanda

    2018-04-01

    We study a model of interacting dark matter and dark energy, in which the two components are coupled. We calculate the predictions for the 21-cm intensity mapping power spectra, and forecast the detectability with future single-dish intensity mapping surveys (BINGO, FAST and SKA-I). Since dark energy is turned on at z ˜1 , which falls into the sensitivity range of these radio surveys, the HI intensity mapping technique is an efficient tool to constrain the interaction. By comparing with current constraints on dark sector interactions, we find that future radio surveys will produce tight and reliable constraints on the coupling parameters.

  9. Observation of intensity of cosmic rays and daily magnetic shifts near meridian 70° in the South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordaro, E. G.; Gálvez, D.; Laroze, D.

    2016-05-01

    In analysis of experiments carried during September 2008 using secondary cosmic ray detectors located in Chacaltaya (Bolivia) and Niteroi (Brazil), Augusto et al. (2010) showed an increase in the intensity of charged particles which takes place 3 h after sunrise and lasts until 1 h after sunset, furthermore they said that during this period the solar magnetic field lines overtake the Earth‧s surface. These stations are located within the South Atlantic Magnetic Anomaly (SAMA), having both different magnetic rigidities. To reproduce data from the Niteroi and Chacaltaya stations, we record data during the same hours and days using our neutron monitors, muon telescopes and magnetometers within the stations Putre and Los Cerrillos. Our observation stations in Putre and Cerrillos are located at 18°11‧47.8″S, 69°33‧10.9″W at an altitude of 3600 m and 33°29‧42.3″S, 70°42‧59.81″W with 570 m height above sea level, respectively. These stations are located within the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAMA) and are separated approximately 1700 km from each other and 1700 km from the center of the anomaly. Our network is composed furthermore by two auxiliary Cosmic Ray and/or Geomagnetic stations located at different latitudes along 70°W meridian, LARC and O'Higgins stations, which are located within Antarctic territory, covering a broad part of the Southern Hemisphere. Our magnetometer data shows that for each of the components, shifts in the magnetic field intensity for every station (even for those out of the SAMA) lasted between 3 and 4 h after sunrise and 1 and 2 h past sunset, which are the periods when the geomagnetic field is modulated by the transit of the dayside to nightside and nightside to dayside. We believe that, although the magnetometric data indicates the magnetic reconnection for the Chilean region, there is no direct influence from the SAMA other than the lower rigidity cut-off that leads to an increased count rate. Other details about the

  10. Geochemistry of PM10 over Europe during the EMEP intensive measurement periods in summer 2012 and winter 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Alastuey

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The third intensive measurement period (IMP organised by the European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP under the UNECE CLTRAP took place in summer 2012 and winter 2013, with PM10 filter samples concurrently collected at 20 (16 EMEP regional background sites across Europe for subsequent analysis of their mineral dust content. All samples were analysed by the same or a comparable methodology. Higher PM10 mineral dust loadings were observed at most sites in summer (0.5–10 µg m−3 compared to winter (0.2–2 µg m−3, with the most elevated concentrations in the southern- and easternmost countries, accounting for 20–40 % of PM10. Saharan dust outbreaks were responsible for the high summer dust loadings at western and central European sites, whereas regional or local sources explained the elevated concentrations observed at eastern sites. The eastern Mediterranean sites experienced elevated levels due to African dust outbreaks during both summer and winter. The mineral dust composition varied more in winter than in summer, with a higher relative contribution of anthropogenic dust during the former period. A relatively high contribution of K from non-mineral and non-sea-salt sources, such as biomass burning, was evident in winter at some of the central and eastern European sites. The spatial distribution of some components and metals reveals the influence of specific anthropogenic sources on a regional scale: shipping emissions (V, Ni, and SO42− in the Mediterranean region, metallurgy (Cr, Ni, and Mn in central and eastern Europe, high temperature processes (As, Pb, and SO42− in eastern countries, and traffic (Cu at sites affected by emissions from nearby cities.

  11. Characterization of intense aerosol episodes in the Mediterranean basin from satellite observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkikas, Antonis; Hatzianastassiou, Nikos; Mihalopoulos, Nikolaos

    2014-05-01

    The properties and distribution of aerosols over the broader Mediterranean region are complex since particles of different nature are either produced within its boundaries or transported from other regions. Thus, coarse dust aerosols are transported primarily from Sahara and secondarily from Middle East, while fine polluted aerosols are either produced locally from anthropogenic activities or they are transported from neighbouring or remote European areas. Also during summer biomass aerosols are transported towards the Mediterranean, originating from massive and extended fires occurring in northern Balkans and Eastern Europe and favoured by the prevailing synoptic conditions. In addition, sea-salt aerosols originate from the Mediterranean Sea or the Atlantic Ocean. Occasionally, aerosols are encountered at very high concentrations (aerosol episodes or events) significantly affecting atmospheric dynamics and climate as well as human health. Given the coexistence of different aerosols as internal and external mixtures characterizing and discriminating between the different types of aerosol episodes is a big challenge. A characterization and classification of intense aerosol episodes in the Mediterranean basin (March 2000 - February 2007) is attempted in the present study. This is achieved by implementing an objective and dynamic algorithm which uses daily aerosol optical properties derived from satellite measurements, namely MODIS-Terra, Earth Probe (EP)-TOMS and OMI-Aura. The aerosol episodes are first classified into strong and extreme ones, according to their intensity, by means of aerosol optical depth at 550nm (AOD550nm). Subsequently, they are discriminated into the following aerosol types: (i) biomass/urban-industrial (BU), (ii) desert dust (DD), (iii) sea-salt like (SS), (iv) mixed (MX) and (v) undetermined (UN). The classification is based on aerosol optical properties accounting for the particles' size (Ångström exponent, Effective radius), the

  12. Observations of a free-energy source for intense electrostatic waves. [in upper atmosphere near upper hybrid resonance frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurth, W. S.; Frank, L. A.; Gurnett, D. A.; Burek, B. G.; Ashour-Abdalla, M.

    1980-01-01

    Significant progress has been made in understanding intense electrostatic waves near the upper hybrid resonance frequency in terms of the theory of multiharmonic cyclotron emission using a classical loss-cone distribution function as a model. Recent observations by Hawkeye 1 and GEOS 1 have verified the existence of loss-cone distributions in association with the intense electrostatic wave events, however, other observations by Hawkeye and ISEE have indicated that loss cones are not always observable during the wave events, and in fact other forms of free energy may also be responsible for the instability. Now, for the first time, a positively sloped feature in the perpendicular distribution function has been uniquely identified with intense electrostatic wave activity. Correspondingly, we suggest that the theory is flexible under substantial modifications of the model distribution function.

  13. Reflecting on mirror mechanisms: motor resonance effects during action observation only present with low-intensity transcranial magnetic stimulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela Loporto

    Full Text Available Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS studies indicate that the observation of other people's actions influences the excitability of the observer's motor system. Motor evoked potential (MEP amplitudes typically increase in muscles which would be active during the execution of the observed action. This 'motor resonance' effect is thought to result from activity in mirror neuron regions, which enhance the excitability of the primary motor cortex (M1 via cortico-cortical pathways. The importance of TMS intensity has not yet been recognised in this area of research. Low-intensity TMS predominately activates corticospinal neurons indirectly, whereas high-intensity TMS can directly activate corticospinal axons. This indicates that motor resonance effects should be more prominent when using low-intensity TMS. A related issue is that TMS is typically applied over a single optimal scalp position (OSP to simultaneously elicit MEPs from several muscles. Whether this confounds results, due to differences in the manner that TMS activates spatially separate cortical representations, has not yet been explored. In the current study, MEP amplitudes, resulting from single-pulse TMS applied over M1, were recorded from the first dorsal interosseous (FDI and abductor digiti minimi (ADM muscles during the observation of simple finger abductions. We tested if the TMS intensity (110% vs. 130% resting motor threshold or stimulating position (FDI-OSP vs. ADM-OSP influenced the magnitude of the motor resonance effects. Results showed that the MEP facilitation recorded in the FDI muscle during the observation of index-finger abductions was only detected using low-intensity TMS. In contrast, changes in the OSP had a negligible effect on the presence of motor resonance effects in either the FDI or ADM muscles. These findings support the hypothesis that MN activity enhances M1 excitability via cortico-cortical pathways and highlight a methodological framework by which the

  14. Mental health consultations in the perinatal period: a cost-analysis of Medicare services provided to women during a period of intense mental health reform in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Georgina M; Randall, Sean; Mihalopoulos, Cathrine; Reilly, Nicole; Sullivan, Elizabeth A; Highet, Nicole; Morgan, Vera A; Croft, Maxine L; Chatterton, Mary Lou; Austin, Marie-Paule

    2017-12-05

    Objective To quantify total provider fees, benefits paid by the Australian Government and out-of-pocket patients' costs of mental health Medicare Benefits Schedule (MBS) consultations provided to women in the perinatal period (pregnancy to end of the first postnatal year). Method A retrospective study of MBS utilisation and costs (in 2011-12 A$) for women giving birth between 2006 and 2010 by state, provider-type, and geographic remoteness was undertaken. Results The cost of mental health consultations during the perinatal period was A$17.5million for women giving birth in 2007, rising to A$29million in 2010. Almost 9% of women giving birth in 2007 had a mental health consultation compared with more than 14% in 2010. An increase in women accessing consultations, along with an increase in the average number of consultations received, were the main drivers of the increased cost, with costs per service remaining stable. There was a shift to non-specialist care and bulk billing rates increased from 44% to 52% over the study period. In 2010, the average total cost (provider fees) per woman accessing mental health consultations during the perinatal period was A$689, and the average cost per service was A$133. Compared with women residing in regional and remote areas, women residing in major cities where more likely to access consultations, and these were more likely to be with a psychiatrist rather than an allied health professional or general practitioner. Conclusion Increased access to mental health consultations has coincided with the introduction of recent mental health initiatives, however disparities exist based on geographic location. This detailed cost analysis identifies inequities of access to perinatal mental health services in regional and remote areas and provides important data for economic and policy analysis of future mental health initiatives. What is known about the topic? The mental healthcare landscape in Australia has changed significantly over the

  15. Turing patterns in parabolic systems of conservation laws and numerically observed stability of periodic waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Blake; Jung, Soyeun; Zumbrun, Kevin

    2018-03-01

    Turing patterns on unbounded domains have been widely studied in systems of reaction-diffusion equations. However, up to now, they have not been studied for systems of conservation laws. Here, we (i) derive conditions for Turing instability in conservation laws and (ii) use these conditions to find families of periodic solutions bifurcating from uniform states, numerically continuing these families into the large-amplitude regime. For the examples studied, numerical stability analysis suggests that stable periodic waves can emerge either from supercritical Turing bifurcations or, via secondary bifurcation as amplitude is increased, from subcritical Turing bifurcations. This answers in the affirmative a question of Oh-Zumbrun whether stable periodic solutions of conservation laws can occur. Determination of a full small-amplitude stability diagram - specifically, determination of rigorous Eckhaus-type stability conditions - remains an interesting open problem.

  16. Extreme values of meteorological parameters observed at Kalpakkam during the period 1968-1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balagurunathan, M.R.; Chandresekharan, E.; Rajan, M.P.; Gurg, R.P.

    2001-05-01

    In the design phase of engineering structures, an understanding of extreme weather conditions that may occur at the site of interest is very essential, so that the structures can be designed to withstand climatological stresses during its life time. In this report an analysis of extreme values of meteorological parameters at Kalpakkam for the period 1968-99, which provide an insight into such situations is described. The extreme value analysis reveals that all the variables obey Fisher-Tippet Type-I extreme value distribution function. Parameter values of extreme value analysis functions are presented for the variables studied and the 50- and 100- year return period extreme values are arrived at. Frequency distribution of rainfall parameters is investigated. Time series of annual rainfall data suggests a cycle of 2-3 years period. (author)

  17. Observations of MeV electrons and scattered light from intense, subpicosecond laser-plasma interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darrow, C.; Lane, S.; Klem, D.; Perry, M.D.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper the authors present work in progress in their experimental investigation of the coupling of intense, subpicosecond laser pulses with plasmas preformed on solid targets. (This situation is to be contrasted with the interaction of intense laser fields with solid-density matter. A subject which has generated considerable interest in the last several years.) The characterization of the energy distribution of energetic electrons which escape a solid target irradiated by an intense laser is discussed. The authors have also performed experiments to study the excitation of parametric instabilities near the quarter-critical layer and second-harmonic generation near the critical layer in the plasma. They discuss some preliminary scattered light spectroscopy measurements

  18. Observed Hierarchy of Student Proficiency with Period, Frequency, and Angular Frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Nicholas T.; Heckler, Andrew F.

    2018-01-01

    In the context of a generic harmonic oscillator, we investigated students' accuracy in determining the period, frequency, and angular frequency from mathematical and graphical representations. In a series of studies including interviews, free response tests, and multiple-choice tests developed in an iterative process, we assessed students in both…

  19. Quasi-periodic VLF emissions observed during daytime at a low ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    at a low latitude Indian ground station Jammu. K K Singh1, J .... Figure 4. Typical example of pulsing VLF hiss emission of longer period recorded during daytime at Jammu on 20 ..... Further,. Ward (1983) also paid attention to a certain simi-.

  20. Influence of composite period and date of observation on phenological metrics extracted from MODIS data

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wessels, Konrad J

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available ) The 8-day, 500m MODIS data (MOD09) for the Skukuza EOS site were downloaded from the MODIS ASCII Subsets website (http://daac.ornl.gov/cgi-bin/MODIS/GR_1/button.slim.pl). The data comprised 14 x 14 pixels of data covering a 7x7 km area for the period...

  1. Non-equilibrium ionization by a periodic electron beam. I. Synthetic coronal spectra and implications for interpretation of observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzifčáková, E.; Dudík, J.; Mackovjak, Š.

    2016-05-01

    Context. Coronal heating is currently thought to proceed via the mechanism of nanoflares, small-scale and possibly recurring heating events that release magnetic energy. Aims: We investigate the effects of a periodic high-energy electron beam on the synthetic spectra of coronal Fe ions. Methods: Initially, the coronal plasma is assumed to be Maxwellian with a temperature of 1 MK. The high-energy beam, described by a κ-distribution, is then switched on every period P for the duration of P/ 2. The periods are on the order of several tens of seconds, similar to exposure times or cadences of space-borne spectrometers. Ionization, recombination, and excitation rates for the respective distributions are used to calculate the resulting non-equilibrium ionization state of Fe and the instantaneous and period-averaged synthetic spectra. Results: Under the presence of the periodic electron beam, the plasma is out of ionization equilibrium at all times. The resulting spectra averaged over one period are almost always multithermal if interpreted in terms of ionization equilibrium for either a Maxwellian or a κ-distribution. Exceptions occur, however; the EM-loci curves appear to have a nearly isothermal crossing-point for some values of κs. The instantaneous spectra show fast changes in intensities of some lines, especially those formed outside of the peak of the respective EM(T) distributions if the ionization equilibrium is assumed. Movies 1-5 are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  2. Exploring changes in rainfall intensity and seasonal variability in the Southeastern U.S.: Stakeholder engagement, observations, and adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel R. Dourte

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of rainfall has major impacts in agriculture, affecting the soil, hydrology, and plant health in agricultural systems. The goal of this study was to test for recent changes in rainfall intensity and seasonal rainfall variability in the Southeastern U.S. by exploring the data collaboratively with agricultural stakeholders. Daily rainfall records from the Global Historical Climatology Network were used to analyze changes in rain intensity and seasonal rainfall variability. During the last 30 years (1985–2014, there has been a significant change (53% increase in the number of extreme rainfall days (>152.4 mm/day and there have been significant decreases in the number of moderate intensity (12.7–25.4 mm/day and heavy (25.4–76.2 mm/day rainfall days in the Southeastern U.S., when compared to the previous 30-year period (1955–1984. There have also been significant decreases in the return period of months in which greater than half of the monthly total rain occurred in a single day; this is an original, stakeholder-developed rainfall intensity metric. The variability in spring and summer rainfall increased during the last 30 years, but winter and fall showed less variability in seasonal totals in the last 30 years. In agricultural systems, rainfall is one of the leading factors affecting yield variability; so it can be expected that more variable rainfall and more intense rain events could bring new challenges to agricultural production. However, these changes can also present opportunities for producers who are taking measures to adjust management strategies to make their systems more resilient to increased rain intensity and variability.

  3. The first coordinated observations of mid-latitude E-region quasi-periodic radar echoes and lower thermospheric 557.7-nm airglow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Ogawa

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available We present the first coordinated observations of quasi-periodic (QP radar echoes from sporadic-E (Es field-aligned irregularities (FAIs, OI 557.7-nm airglow, and neutral winds in a common volume over Shigaraki, Japan (34.9° N, 136.1° E on the night of 5 August 2002 during the SEEK-2 campaign. QP echo altitudes of 90-110 km were lower than usual by 10 km, enabling us to make a detailed comparison among QP echoes, airglow intensity, and neutral wind at around 96 km altitude. Eastward movement of the QP echo regions is consistent with the motions of neutral winds, airglow structures, and FAIs, suggesting that the electrodynamics of Es-layers is fundamentally controlled by the neutral atmospheric dynamics. During the QP echo event, the echo altitudes clearly went up (down in harmony with an airglow enhancement (subsidence that also moved to the east. This fact suggests that the eastward-moving enhanced airglow region included an upward (downward component of neutral winds to raise (lower the altitude of the wind-shear node responsible for the Es formation. The airglow intensity, echo intensity, and Doppler velocity of FAIs at around 96 km altitude fluctuated with periods from 10 min to 1h, indicating that these parameters were modulated with short-period atmospheric disturbances. Some QP echo regions below 100km altitude contained small-scale QP structures in which very strong neutral winds exceeding 100 m/s existed. The results are compared with recent observations, theories, and simulations of QP echoes. Keywords. Ionosphere (Ionosphere-atmosphere interactions; Ionospheric irregularities; Mid-latitude ionosphere

  4. Observational Estimates of the Horizontal Eddy Diffusivity and Mixing Length in the Low-Level Region of Intense Hurricanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    flight-level data collected by research aircraft that penetrated the eyewalls of Category 5 Hurricane Hugo (1989), Category 4 Hurricane Allen (1980) and...data collected by research aircraft that penetrated the eyewalls of Category 5 Hurricane Hugo 42 (1989), Category 4 Hurricane Allen (1980) and Category...understood. 87 Using the data from the periods of eyewall penetrations in the intense Hurricanes Hugo 88 (1989) and Allen (1980), Zhang et al. (2011a

  5. Multi-point ground-based ULF magnetic field observations in Europe during seismic active periods in 2004 and 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Prattes

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available We present the results of ground-based Ultra Low Frequency (ULF magnetic field measurements observed from June to August 2004 during the Bovec earthquake on 12 July 2004. Further we give information about the seismic activity in the local observatory region for an extended time span 2004 and 2005. ULF magnetic field data are provided by the South European Geomagnetic Array (SEGMA where the experience and heritage from the CHInese MAGnetometer (CHIMAG fluxgate magnetometer comes to application. The intensities of the horizontal H and vertical Z magnetic field and the polarization ratio R of the vertical and horizontal magnetic field intensity are analyzed taking into consideration three SEGMA observatories located at different close distances and directions from the earthquake epicenter. We observed a significant increase of high polarization ratios during strong seismic activity at the observatory nearest to the Bovec earthquake epicenter. Apart from indirect ionospheric effects electromagnetic noise could be emitted in the lithosphere due to tectonic effects in the earthquake focus region causing anomalies of the vertical magnetic field intensity. Assuming that the measured vertical magnetic field intensities are of lithospheric origin, we roughly estimate the amplitude of electromagnetic noise in the Earths crust considering an average electrical conductivity of <σ>=10−3 S/m and a certain distance of the observatory to the earthquake epicenter.

  6. The HyMeX Special Observation Period in Central Italy: precipitation measurements, retrieval techniques and preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvio Marzano, Frank; Baldini, Luca; Picciotti, Errico; Colantonio, Matteo; Barbieri, Stefano; Di Fabio, Saverio; Montopoli, Mario; Vulpiani, Gianfranco; Roberto, Nicoletta; Adirosi, Elisa; Gorgucci, Eugenio; Anagnostou, Marios N.; Kalogiros, John; Anagnostou, Emmanouil N.; Ferretti, Rossella; Gatlin, Patrick.; Wingo, Matt; Petersen, Walt

    2013-04-01

    The Mediterranean area concentrates the major natural risks related to the water cycle, including heavy precipitation and flash-flooding during the fall season. The capability to predict such high-impact events remains weak because of the contribution of very fine-scale processes and their non-linear interactions with the larger scale processes. These societal and science issues motivate the HyMeX (Hydrological cycle in the Mediterranean Experiment, http://www.hymex.org/) experimental programme. HyMeX aims at a better quantification and understanding of the water cycle in the Mediterranean with emphasis on intense events. The observation strategy of HyMEX is organized in a long-term (4 years) Enhanced Observation Periods (EOP) and short-term (2 months) Special Observation Periods (SOP). HyMEX has identified 3 main Mediterranean target areas: North-West (NW), Adriatic (A) and South-East (SE). Within each target area several hydrometeorological sites for heavy rainfall and flash flooding have been set up. The hydrometeorological site in Central Italy (CI) is interested by both western and eastern fronts coming from the Atlantic Ocean and Siberia, respectively. Orographic precipitations play an important role due to the central Apennine range, which reaches nearly 3000 m (Gran Sasso peak). Moreover, convective systems commonly develop in CI during late summer and beginning of autumn, often causing localized hailstorms with cluster organized cells. Western fronts may heavily hit the Tiber basin crossing large urban areas (Rome), whereas eastern fronts can cause flash floods along the Adriatic coastline. Two major basins are involved within CI region: Tiber basin (1000 km long) and its tributary Aniene and the Aterno-Pescara basin (300 km long). The first HyMeX SOP1.1 was carried out from Sept. till Nov. 2012 in the NW target area. The Italian SOP1.1 was coordinated by the Centre of Excellence CETEMPS, University of L'Aquila, a city located in the CI heart. The CI area

  7. Behaviour of 7Be air concentration observed during a period of 13 years and comparison with sun activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cannizzaro, F.; Greco, G.; Raneli, M.; Spitale, M.C.; Tomarchio, E.

    1995-01-01

    The study reported in this work is addressed to review the time variations of the air-borne concentration of cosmogenic 7 Be obtained in the period January 1982-December 1994. Among other things, the observation of a long-term modulation present in the average monthly concentrations led us to perform a comparison with the behaviour in the same period of solar activity owing to its important influence on cosmic rays, from which the 7 Be production originates. (author)

  8. Refeeding syndrome influences outcome of anorexia nervosa patients in intensive care unit: an observational study

    OpenAIRE

    Vignaud, Marie; Constantin, Jean-Michel; Ruivard, Marc; Villemeyre-Plane, Michele; Futier, Emmanuel; Bazin, Jean-Etienne; Annane, Djillali

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Data on the epidemiology and management of anorexia nervosa (AN) in the intensive care unit (ICU) are scarce. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and associated morbidity and mortality of AN in French ICUs. Methods We randomly selected 30 ICUs throughout France. Thereafter, we retrospectively analyzed all patients with AN admitted to any of these 30 ICUs between May 2006 and May 2008. We considered demographic data, diagnosis at admission and complications occurr...

  9. Conjugate observations of quasi-periodic emissions by Cluster and DEMETER spacecraft

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Němec, F.; Santolík, Ondřej; Parrot, M.; Pickett, J. S.; Hayosh, Mykhaylo; Cornilleau-Wehrlin, N.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 118, č. 1 (2013), s. 198-208 ISSN 2169-9380 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP205/10/2279; GA ČR(CZ) GAP209/11/2280 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GPP209/12/P658 Program:GP Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : quasi-periodic * QP emissions Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 3.440, year: 2013 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1029/2012JA018380/abstract

  10. Observation of self-assembled periodic nano-structures induced by femtosecond laser in both ablation and deposition regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Mingzhen; Zhang, Haitao; Her, Tsing-Hua

    2008-02-01

    We observed the spontaneous formation of periodic nano-structures in both femtosecond laser ablation and deposition. The former involved 400-nm femtosecond pulses from a 250-KHz regenerated amplified mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser and periodic nanocracks and the nano-structure are in the form of periodic nanocracks in the substrate, the latter applied an 80-MHz mode-locked Ti:sapphire oscillator with pulse energy less than half nanojoule in a laser-induced chemical vapor deposition configuration and tungsten nanogratings grow heterogeneously on top of the substrates. These two observed periodic nanostructures have opposite orientations respecting to laser polarization: the periodic nanocracks are perpendicular to, whereas the deposited tungsten nanogratings are parallel to laser polarization direction. By translating the substrate respecting to the laser focus, both the periodic nanocrack and tungsten nanograting extend to the whole scanning range. The deposited tungsten nanogratings possess excellent uniformity on both the grating period and tooth length. Both the attributes can be tuned precisely by controlling the laser power and scanning speed. Furthermore, we discovered that the teeth of transverse tungsten nanogratings are self aligned along their axial direction during multiple scanning with appropriate offset between scans. We demonstrate the feasibility of fabricating large-area one-dimensional grating by exploiting such unique property. These distinct phenomena of nanocracks and tungsten nanogratings indicate different responsible mechanisms.

  11. Kinetic description of intense nonneutral beam propagation through a periodic solenoidal focusing field based on the nonlinear Vlasov-Maxwell equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, R.C.; Chen, C.

    1997-08-01

    A kinetic description of intense nonneutral beam propagation through a periodic solenoidal focusing field B sol (rvec x) is developed. The analysis is carried out for a thin beam with characteristic beam radius r b much-lt S, and directed axial momentum γ b mβ b c (in the z-direction) large compared with the transverse momentum and axial momentum spread of the beam particles. Making use of the nonlinear Vlasov-Maxwell equations for general distribution function f b (rvec x,rvec p,t) and self-consistent electrostatic field consistent with the thin-beam approximation, the kinetic model is used to investigate detailed beam equilibrium properties for a variety of distribution functions. Examples are presented both for the case of a uniform solenoidal focusing field B z (z) = B 0 = const. and for the case of a periodic solenoidal focusing field B z (z + S) = B z (z). The nonlinear Vlasov-Maxwell equations are simplified in the thin-beam approximation, and an alternative Hamiltonian formulation is developed that is particularly well-suited to intense beam propagation in periodic focusing systems. Based on the present analysis, the Vlasov-Maxwell description of intense nonneutral beam propagation through a periodic solenoidal focusing field rvec B sol (rvec x) is found to be remarkably tractable and rich in physics content. The Vlasov-Maxwell formalism developed here can be extended in a straightforward manner to investigate detailed stability behavior for perturbations about specific choices of beam equilibria

  12. Family Interaction in the Newborn Period: Some Findings, Some Observations, and Some Unresolved Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parke, Ross D.

    This paper presents two studies which explored the manner in which the father interacts with his newborn infant and compared paternal and maternal interaction patterns. In contrast to earlier studies, a direct observational approach was employed that permitted a detailed specification of father behaviors in the presence of the newborn. In the…

  13. Seasonal and Lunar Month Periods Observed in Natural Neutron Flux at High Altitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenkin, Yuri; Alekseenko, Victor; Cai, Zeyu; Cao, Zhen; Cattaneo, Claudio; Cui, Shuwang; Giroletti, Elio; Gromushkin, Dmitry; Guo, Cong; Guo, Xuewen; He, Huihai; Liu, Ye; Ma, Xinhua; Shchegolev, Oleg; Vallania, Piero; Vigorito, Carlo; Zhao, Jing

    2017-07-01

    Air radon concentration measurement is useful for research on geophysical effects, but it is strongly sensitive to site geology and many geophysical and microclimatic processes such as wind, ventilation, air humidity and so on inducing very big fluctuations on the concentration of radon in air. On the contrary, monitoring the radon concentration in soil by measuring the thermal neutron flux reduces environmental effects. In this paper, we report some experimental results on the natural thermal neutron flux as well as on the concentration of air radon and its variations at 4300 m asl. These results were obtained with unshielded thermal neutron scintillation detectors (en-detectors) and radon monitors located inside the ARGO-YBJ experimental hall. The correlation of these variations with the lunar month and 1-year period is undoubtedly confirmed. A method for earthquake prediction provided by a global net of en-detectors is currently under study.

  14. Relativistic Electrons Observed at UARS and the Interpretation of their Storm-Associated Intensity Variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesnell, W. D.; Goldberg, R. A.; Chenette, D. L.; Gaines, E. E.

    1999-01-01

    The High Energy Particle Spectrometer (HEPS) instrument on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) provides a database of electron intensities well resolved in energy and pitch-angle. Because of its 57 deg. orbital inclination, UARS encounters with magnetic shells L greater than 2 occur quite far off-equator (B/B (sub 0) greater than 9), corresponding to equatorial pitch angle alpha (sub 0) greater than 20 deg. Data acquired by HEPS (October 1991 through September 1994) span the declining phase of Solar Cycle 22. To reveal the storm-associated time dependence of relativistic electron intensities over the wide range of energies (50 keV to 5 MeV) covered by HEPS, we divide the daily average of the measured spectrum at a given L value (bin width = 0.25) by the corresponding 500-day average and plot the results with a color scale that spans only 2.5 decades. The data show that our off-equatorial electron intensities typically increase with time after the end of recovery phase (not during main phase or recovery phase) of each geomagnetic storm. The delay in off-equatorial energetic electron response and the subsequent lifetime of the corresponding electron flux enhancement seem to increase with particle energy above 300 keV. The trend below 300 keV seems to be opposite, such that the delay varies inversely with electron energy. Our working hypothesis for interpretation is that stormtime radial transport tends to increase the phase-space densities of trapped relativistic electrons but typically leads to a flux increases at specified energies only as the current (as indicated by Dst) decays. Flux enhancements in early recovery phase are greatest for equatorially mirroring electrons, and to pitch-angle anisotropies are initially large. Subsequent pitch-angle diffusion broadens the flux enhancement to particles that mirror off equator, thus gradually increasing low-altitude electron intensities (as detected by HEPS/UARS) on time scales equal to about 20% of

  15. EARLY OPTICAL OBSERVATIONS OF GAMMA-RAY BURSTS BY THE TAROT TELESCOPES: PERIOD 2001-2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klotz, A.; Boer, M.; Atteia, J. L.; Gendre, B.

    2009-01-01

    The Telescopes a Action Rapide pour les Objets Transitoires telescopes are two robotic observatories designed to observe the prompt optical emission counterpart and the early afterglow of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). We present data acquired between 2001 and 2008 and discuss the properties of the optical emission of GRBs, noting various interesting results. The optical emission observed during the prompt GRB phase is rarely very bright: we estimate that 5%-20% of GRBs exhibit a bright optical flash (R < 14) during the prompt gamma-ray emission, and that more than 50% of the GRBs have an optical emission fainter than R = 15.5 when the gamma-ray emission is active. We study the apparent optical brightness distribution of GRBs at 1000 s showing that our observations confirm the distribution derived by other groups. The combination of these results with those obtained by other rapid slewing telescopes allows us to better characterize the early optical emission of GRBs and to emphasize the importance of very early multiwavelength GRB studies for the understanding of the physics of the ejecta.

  16. Postaccident changes in heath status of the Chornobyl cleanup workers 1986-1987 (period of observation 1988-2012)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buzunov, V.O.; Vojchulene, Yu.S.; Domashevs'ka, T.Je.; Khabarova, T.P.; Kortushyin, G.Yi.

    2015-01-01

    Long-term cohort epidemiological study (period of observation 1988-2012) has been conducted using data of the State Registry of Ukraine of Persons Affected by the Chornobyl Accident. Study cohort - 196,423 males-participants of the Chornobyl recovery operations in 1986-1987. Epidemiological and mathematical- and-statistical methods were used. We have found a dramatic deterioration of the Chornobyl cleanup workers' health due to the growth of wide range of nontumor diseases, especially circulatory, digestive, respiratory, endocrine, genitourinary and nervous system diseases. In postaccident period, disability and mortality have increased significantly due to nontumor diseases. Circulatory diseases make major contribution to the structure of causes of disability and death. When studying the dynamics of nontumor incidence, we have found that in 1988-1992 the highest, throughout postaccident period, rate of mental and behavioral disorders, diseases of the nervous system was mainly due to disorders of the autonomic nervous system. Since 1993-1997, rate of this pathology has significantly reduced and remained stable in subsequent years of observation. Thus, we can assume that in the early postaccident period, stress factor in combination with radiation one had the greatest impact on health of cleanup workers, resulting in the development of other nontumor diseases in the remote postaccident period. The study revealed an evident increase in nontumor incidence, disability and mortality from nontumor diseases among Chornobyl cleanup workers 1986-1987; the highest rate of nontumor incidence was observed 12-21 years after the Chornobyl accident

  17. The academic trend of Oriental Medicine during the Japanese colonial period as observed through the publication of medical books

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KIM Nam-il

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This thesis examines the academical trend of Oriental Medicine in the Japanese colonial period observed through medical books published during the Japanese colonial period.This is a period in which Western Medicine was introduced,and due to the lean-to-one-side policy by the Japanese, Western Medicine became the mainstream medical science while Oriental Medicine was pushed to the outskirts.Even after all this,the academic activity was flourishing during this period compared to any other periods. This article is divided into various chapters each with its own theme in order to understand the academic trend of Oriental Medicine during the Japanese colonial period.Focusing on the publication of medical books, this article is divided and observed according to various themes such as the study of Dong-Eui-Bo-Gam(東醫寶鑑,the study of Bang-Yak-Hap- Pyeun(方藥合編,the study of Sang-Han-Ron(傷寒論,the study of Sa-sang (四象constitutional medicine,the study of Eui-Hak-Ip-Mun (醫學入門,the study about Bu-Yang-Ron(扶陽論,On-Bo-Ron(溫補論,and pediatrics, compromise between Western and Oriental Medicine,the study of experience medicine,the study of acupuncture and moxibustion,and etc.

  18. He+ dominance in the plasmasphere during geomagnetically disturbed periods: 1. Observational results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. R. Wilford

    Full Text Available Observations made by the DMSP F10 satellite during the recovery phase from geomagnetic disturbances in June 1991 show regions of He+ dominance around 830 km altitude at 09:00 MLT. These regions are co-located with a trough in ionisation observed around 55° in the winter hemisphere. Plasma temperature and concentration observations made during the severe geomagnetic storm of 24 March 1991 are used as a case study to determine the effects of geomagnetic disturbances along the orbit of the F10 satellite. Previous explanations for He+ dominance in this trough region relate to the part of the respective flux tubes that is in darkness. Such conditions are not relevant for this study, since the whole of the respective flux tubes are sunlit. A new mechanism is proposed to explain the He+ dominance in the trough region. This mechanism is based on plasma transport and chemical reaction effects in the F-region and topside ionosphere, and on the time scales for such chemical reactions. Flux tubes previously depleted by geomagnetic storm effects refill during the recovery phase from the ionosphere as a result of pressure differences along the flux tubes. Following a geomagnetic disturbance, the He+ ion recovers quickly via the rapid photoionisation of neutral helium, in the F-region and the topside. The recovery of the O+ and H+ ions is less rapid. This is proposed as a result of the respective charge exchange reactions with neutral atomic hydrogen and oxygen. Preliminary model calculations support the proposed mechanism.Key words. Magnetospheric physics (storms and sub-storms, plasmasphere

  19. Suzaku And Multi-Wavelength Observations of OJ 287 During the Periodic Optical Outburst in 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seta, Hiromi; /Saitama U.; Isobe, N.; /Kyoto U.; Tashiro, Makoto S.; /Saitama U.; Yaji, Yuichi; /Saitama U.; Arai, Akira; /Hiroshima U.; Fukuhara, Masayuki; /Tokyo U. /Grad. U. for Adv. Stud., Nagano; Kohno, Kotaro; /Tokyo U.; Nakanishi, Koichiro; /Grad. U. for Adv. Stud., Nagano; Sasada, Mahito; /Hiroshima U.; Shimajiri, Yoshito; /Tokyo U. /Grad. U. for Adv. Stud., Nagano; Tosaki, Tomoka; /Grad. U. for Adv. Stud., Nagano; Uemura, Makoto; /Hiroshima U.; Anderhub, Hans; /Zurich, ETH; Antonelli, L.A.; /INFN, Rome; Antoranz, Pedro; /Madrid U.; Backes, Michael; /Dortmund U.; Baixeras, Carmen; /Barcelona, Autonoma U.; Balestra, Silvia; /Madrid U.; Barrio, Juan Abel; /Madrid U.; Bastieri, Denis; /Padua U. /INFN, Padua; Becerra Gonzalez, Josefa; /IAC, La Laguna /Dortmund U. /Lodz U. /Lodz U. /DESY /Zurich, ETH /Munich, Max Planck Inst. /Padua U. /INFN, Padua /Siena U. /INFN, Siena /Barcelona, IEEC /Munich, Max Planck Inst. /Barcelona, IEEC /Madrid U. /Zurich, ETH /Wurzburg U. /Zurich, ETH /Madrid U. /Munich, Max Planck Inst. /Zurich, ETH /Madrid U. /Barcelona, IFAE /IAC, La Laguna /Laguna U., Tenerife /INFN, Rome /Dortmund U. /Udine U. /INFN, Udine /INFN, Padua /Udine U. /INFN, Udine /Barcelona, IEEC /Madrid U. /Udine U. /INFN, Udine /Udine U. /INFN, Udine /Udine U. /INFN, Udine /IAC, La Laguna /Madrid, CIEMAT /Sierra Nevada Observ. /Zurich, ETH /Padua U. /INFN, Padua /Wurzburg U. /Barcelona, IFAE /UC, Davis /Barcelona, IFAE /Barcelona, IFAE /Madrid U. /Barcelona, Autonoma U. /Munich, Max Planck Inst. /IAC, La Laguna /Laguna U., Tenerife /Barcelona, IFAE /IAC, La Laguna /Munich, Max Planck Inst. /Barcelona, Autonoma U. /Munich, Max Planck Inst. /SLAC /IAC, La Laguna /Laguna U., Tenerife /Zurich, ETH /Wurzburg U. /Munich, Max Planck Inst. /Munich, Max Planck Inst. /Munich, Max Planck Inst. /Zurich, ETH /INFN, Rome /UC, Davis /Siena U. /INFN, Siena /Turku U. /Padua U. /INFN, Padua /Udine U. /INFN, Udine /Padua U. /INFN, Padua /Zurich, ETH /Munich, Max Planck Inst. /DESY /Sofiya, Inst. Nucl. Res. /Udine U. /INFN, Udine /Wurzburg U. /INFN, Rome /Padua U. /INFN, Padua /Barcelona, IFAE /Barcelona, IFAE /Siena U. /INFN, Siena /Wurzburg U. /Madrid U. /Munich, Max Planck Inst. /Munich, Max Planck Inst. /Barcelona, IEEC /Sierra Nevada Observ. /Barcelona, IFAE /Madrid U. /Turku U. /Munich, Max Planck Inst. /Munich, Max Planck Inst. /UC, Santa Cruz /Madrid U. /Siena U. /INFN, Siena /Barcelona, IEEC /Turku U. /Padua U. /INFN, Padua /Zurich, ETH /Siena U. /INFN, Siena /Sierra Nevada Observ. /Udine U. /INFN, Udine /INFN, Trieste /Padua U. /INFN, Padua /Sierra Nevada Observ. /Padua U. /INFN, Padua /Barcelona, IFAE /Barcelona, IFAE /Dortmund U. /Barcelona, IEEC /ICREA, Barcelona /Barcelona, IFAE /Zurich, ETH /Barcelona, Autonoma U. /Wurzburg U. /Padua U. /INFN, Padua /Munich, Max Planck Inst. /INFN, Rome /Sierra Nevada Observ. /DESY /Padua U. /INFN, Padua /Udine U. /INFN, Udine /Munich, Max Planck Inst. /Munich, Max Planck Inst. /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /Barcelona, IFAE /Barcelona, IEEC /Turku U. /Munich, Max Planck Inst. /Lodz U. /Lodz U. /Wurzburg U. /Siena U. /INFN, Siena /Zurich, ETH /Turku U. /INFN, Rome /Sofiya, Inst. Nucl. Res. /Barcelona, IFAE /Munich, Max Planck Inst. /DESY /ICREA, Barcelona /Barcelona, IEEC /Siena U. /INFN, Siena /Sofiya, Inst. Nucl. Res. /Munich, Max Planck Inst. /Munich, Max Planck Inst. /Barcelona, IEEC /Sierra Nevada Observ. /Barcelona, IFAE /Barcelona, Autonoma U.

    2011-12-01

    Suzaku observations of the blazar OJ 287 were performed in 2007 April 10-13 and November 7-9. They correspond to a quiescent and a flaring state, respectively. The X-ray spectra of the source can be well described with single power-law models in both exposures. The derived X-ray photon index and the flux density at 1 keV were found to be {Lambda} = 1.65 {+-} 0.02 and S{sub 1keV} = 215 {+-} 5 nJy, in the quiescent state. In the flaring state, the source exhibited a harder X-ray spectrum ({Lambda} = 1.50 {+-} 0.01) with a nearly doubled X-ray flux density S{sub 1keV} = 404{sub -5}{sup +6} nJy. Moreover, significant hard X-ray signals were detected up to {approx} 27 keV. In cooperation with the Suzaku, simultaneous radio, optical, and very-high-energy {gamma}-ray observations of OJ 287 were performed with the Nobeyama Millimeter Array, the KANATA telescope, and the MAGIC telescope, respectively. The radio and optical fluxes in the flaring state (3.04 {+-} 0.46 Jy and 8.93 {+-} 0.05 mJy at 86.75 Hz and in the V-band, respectively) were found to be higher by a factor of 2-3 than those in the quiescent state (1.73 {+-} 0.26 Jy and 3.03 {+-} 0.01 mJy at 86.75 Hz and in the V-band, respectively). No notable {gamma}-ray events were detected in either observation. The spectral energy distribution of OJ 287 indicated that the X-ray spectrum was dominated by inverse Compton radiation in both observations, while synchrotron radiation exhibited a spectral cutoff around the optical frequency. Furthermore, no significant difference in the synchrotron cutoff frequency was found between the quiescent and flaring states. According to a simple synchrotron self-Compton model, the change of the spectral energy distribution is due to an increase in the energy density of electrons with small changes of both the magnetic field strength and the maximum Lorentz factor of electrons.

  20. Cold-fluid theory of equilibrium and stability of a high-intensity periodically twisted ellipse-shaped charged-particle beam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Zhou

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that there exists an exact paraxial cold-fluid equilibrium of a high-intensity, space-charge-dominated charged-particle beam with a periodically twisted elliptic cross section in a nonaxisymmetric periodic magnetic field. Generalized envelope equations, which determine the beam envelopes, ellipse orientation, density, and internal flow velocity profiles, are derived. Nonrelativistic and relativistic examples of such beam equilibria are presented. The equilibrium and stability of such beams are demonstrated by self-consistent particle-in-cell (PIC simulations.

  1. A two year observational study of nicotinamide and intensive insulin therapy in patients with recent onset type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crinó, A; Schiaffini, R; Ciampalini, P; Suraci, M C; Manfrini, S; Visalli, N; Matteoli, M C; Patera, P; Buzzetti, R; Guglielmi, C; Spera, S; Costanza, F; Fioriti, E; Pitocco, D; Pozzilli, P

    2005-08-01

    A number of trials have evaluated residual beta-cell function in patients with recent onset type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM1) treated with nicotinamide in addition to intensive insulin therapy (IIT). In most studies, only a slight decline of C-peptide secretion was observed 12 months after diagnosis; however, no data is available on C-peptide secretion and metabolic control in patients continuing nicotinamide and IIT for up to 2 years after diagnosis. We retrospectively analysed data from 25 patients (mean age 14.7 years +/- 5 SD) with DM1 in whom nicotinamide at a dose of 25 mg/kg b. wt. was added from diagnosis (< 4 weeks) to IIT (three injections of regular insulin at meals + one NPH at bed time) and continued for up to 2 years after diagnosis. Data were also analysed from patients (n = 27) in whom IIT was introduced at diagnosis and who were similarly followed for 2 years. Baseline C-peptide as well as insulin dose and HbA1c levels were evaluated at 12 and 24 months after diagnosis. In the course of the follow-up, patients on nicotinamide + IIT or IIT alone did not significantly differ in terms of C-peptide secretion (values at 24 months in the two groups were 0.19 +/- 0.24 nM vs 0.19 +/- 0.13 nM, respectively). Insulin requirement (0.6 +/- 0.3 U/kg/day vs 0.7 +/- 0.2 U/kg/day at 24 months, respectively) did not differ between the two groups. However, HbA1c was significantly lower 2 years after diagnosis in patients treated with nicotinamide + IIT (6.09 +/- 0.9% vs 6.98 +/- 0.9%, respectively, p < 0.01). No adverse effects were observed in patients receiving nicotinamide for 2 years. Implementation of IIT with the addition of nicotinamide at diagnosis continued for 2 years improves metabolic control as assessed by HbA1c. In both nicotinamide and control patients, no decline in C-peptide was detected 2 years after diagnosis, indicating that IIT preserves C-peptide secretion. We conclude that nicotinamide + IIT at diagnosis of DM1 prolonged for up to 2 years can be

  2. Long-term Observations of Intense Precipitation Small-scale Spatial Variability in a Semi-arid Catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cropp, E. L.; Hazenberg, P.; Castro, C. L.; Demaria, E. M.

    2017-12-01

    In the southwestern US, the summertime North American Monsoon (NAM) provides about 60% of the region's annual precipitation. Recent research using high-resolution atmospheric model simulations and retrospective predictions has shown that since the 1950's, and more specifically in the last few decades, the mean daily precipitation in the southwestern U.S. during the NAM has followed a decreasing trend. Furthermore, days with more extreme precipitation have intensified. The current work focuses the impact of these long-term changes on the observed small-scale spatial variability of intense precipitation. Since limited long-term high-resolution observational data exist to support such climatological-induced spatial changes in precipitation frequency and intensity, the current work utilizes observations from the USDA-ARS Walnut Gulch Experimental Watershed (WGEW) in southeastern Arizona. Within this 150 km^2 catchment over 90 rain gauges have been installed since the 1950s, measuring at sub-hourly resolution. We have applied geospatial analyses and the kriging interpolation technique to identify long-term changes in the spatial and temporal correlation and anisotropy of intense precipitation. The observed results will be compared with the previously model simulated results, as well as related to large-scale variations in climate patterns, such as the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO).

  3. Prediction of SEP Peak Proton Intensity Based on CME Speed, Direction and Observations of Associated Solar Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, I. G.; Mays, M. L.; Thompson, B. J.; Kwon, R.; Frechette, B. P.

    2017-12-01

    We assess whether a formula obtained by Richardson et al. (Solar Phys., 289, 3059, 2014; DOI 10.1007/s11207-014-0524-8) relating the intensity of 14-24 MeV protons in a solar energetic particle event at 1 AU to the solar event location and the speed of the associated coronal mass ejection (CME), may be used to "predict" the intensity of a solar energetic particle event. Starting with a subset of several hundred CMEs in the CCMC/SWRC DONKI real-time database (http://kauai.ccmc.gsfc.nasa.gov/DONKI/) selected without consideration of whether they were associated with SEP events, we first use the CME speed and direction to predict the proton intensity at Earth or the STEREO spacecraft using this formula. Since most of these CMEs were not in fact associated with SEP events, many "false alarms" result. We then examine whether considering other phenomena which may accompany the CMEs, such as the X-ray flare intensity and the properties of type II and type III radio emissions, may help to reduce the false alarm rate. We also use CME parameters calculated from an ellipsoidal shell fit to multi-spacecraft CME shock observations for a smaller number of events to predict the SEP intensity. We calculate skill scores for each case and assess whether the Richardson et al. (2014) formula, using additional observations to reduce the false alarm rate, has any potential as a SEP prediction tool, assuming that the required observations could be acquired sufficiently rapidly following the onset of the related solar event/CME.

  4. Observations of short period seismic scattered waves by small seismic arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Simini

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available The most recent observations of well correlated seismic phases in the high frequency coda of local earthquakes recorded throughout the world are reported. In particular the main results, obtained on two active volcanoes, Teide and Deception, using small array are described. The ZLC (Zero Lag Cross-correlation method and polarization analysis have been applied to the data in order to distinguish the main phases in the recorded seismograms and their azimuths and apparent velocities. The results obtained at the Teide volcano demonstrate that the uncorrelated part of the seismograms may be produced by multiple scattering from randomly distributed heterogeneity, while the well correlated part, showing SH type polarization or the possible presence of Rayleigh surface waves, may be generated by single scattering by strong scatterers. At the Deception Volcano strong scattering, strongly focused in a precise direction, is deduced from the data. In that case, all the coda radiation is composed of surface waves.

  5. Experimental observation of parametric instabilities at laser intensities relevant for shock ignition

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cristoforetti, G.; Colaïtis, A.; Antonelli, L.; Atzeni, S.; Baffigi, F.; Batani, D.; Barbato, F.; Boutoux, G.; Dudžák, Roman; Koester, P.; Krouský, Eduard; Labate, L.; Nicolaï, P.; Renner, Oldřich; Skoric, M.; Tikhonchuk, V.; Gizzi, L.A.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 117, č. 3 (2017), č. článku 35001. ISSN 0295-5075 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC528; GA MŠk LM2010014; GA MŠk EF15_008/0000162 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 633053 - EUROfusion Grant - others:EU - ICT(XE) COST Action IC1208; ELI Beamlines(XE) CZ.02.1.01/0.0/0.0/15_008/0000162 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 ; RVO:68378271 Keywords : laser intensity regime * Stimulated Brillouin Scattering (SBS) * Stimulated Raman Scattering (SRS) * Two-Plasmon Decay (TPD) Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics; BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics (FZU-D) OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics); Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) (FZU-D) Impact factor: 1.957, year: 2016 https://doi.org/10.1209/0295-5075/117/35001

  6. Heating of a dense plasma with an intense relativistic electron beam: initial observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montgomery, M.D.; Parker, J.V.; Riepe, K.B.; Sheffield, R.L.

    1981-01-01

    A dense (approx. 10 17 cm -3 ) plasma has been heated via the relativistic two-stream instability using a 3 MeV, intense (5 x 10 5 A/cm 2 ) electron beam. Evidence for heating has been obtained with diamagnetic loops, thin-foil witness plates, and a 2-channel, broad-band soft x-ray detector. Measurements of energy loss from the beam using calorimetry techniques have been attempted. The measured strong dependence of heating on beam transverse temperature and the very short interaction length ( 100 ns after the beam pulse are consistent with a plasma temperature <150 eV and line emission near 80 to 90 eV

  7. DNA biosynthesis content and intensiveness in mice thymus at early periods following fast neutron irradiation with different energy rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indyk, V.M.; Antonenko, G.I.; Parnovskaya, N.V.

    1988-01-01

    Biosynthesis of dna of the thymic glands of animals irradiated by fast neutrons with different energy values in the early post-irradiation period is investigated. It is shown that the rate of mass recovery in organs, their cellular nature, dna content and indices of their specific activity have the dose and time dependences, as well as they considerably differ at different neutron energies and different quality radiation. With the increase of neutron energy value their biological effectiveness decreases

  8. MODIS Airborne Simulator (MAS) Measurements Taken Onboard the NASAER-2 During the TOGA COARE Intensive Observing Period

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The TOGA COARE Data Information System has responsibility for distributing information about TOGA COAREdatasets and access paths.The MAS data are available upon...

  9. Tomographic intensity mapping versus galaxy surveys: observing the Universe in H α emission with new generation instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, B. Marta; Zaroubi, Saleem; Kooistra, Robin; Cooray, Asantha

    2018-04-01

    The H α line emission is an important probe for a number of fundamental quantities in galaxies, including their number density, star formation rate (SFR), and overall gas content. A new generation of low-resolution intensity mapping (IM) probes, e.g. SPHEREx and CDIM, will observe galaxies in H α emission over a large fraction of the sky from the local Universe till a redshift of z ˜ 6 - 10, respectively. This will also be the target line for observations by the high-resolution Euclid and WFIRST instruments in the z ˜ 0.7-2 redshift range. In this paper, we estimate the intensity and power spectra of the H α line in the z ˜ 0-5 redshift range using observed line luminosity functions (LFs), when possible, and simulations, otherwise. We estimate the significance of our predictions by accounting for the modelling uncertainties (e.g. SFR, extinction, etc.) and observational contamination. We find that IM surveys can make a statistical detection of the full H α emission between z ˜ 0.8 and 5. Moreover, we find that the high-frequency resolution and the sensitivity of the planned CDIM surveys allow for the separation of H α emission from several interloping lines. We explore ways to use the combination of these line intensities to probe galaxy properties. As expected, our study indicates that galaxy surveys will only detect bright galaxies that contribute up to a few per cent of the overall H α intensity. However, these surveys will provide important constraints on the high end of the H α LF and put strong constraints on the active galactic nucleus LF.

  10. Using a didactic model to improve patient observation skills in neonatal intensive care nurse trainees - a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solberg, Marianne Trygg; Tandberg, Bente Silnes; Lerdal, Anners

    2012-08-01

    To implement a didactic model for students specialising in intensive care nursing (n=12) and nurses working in neonatal intensive care units (NICU) (n=17). To evaluate nurse self-assessments following observation of children with congenital heart disease (CHD), before and after participation in the programme, as well as the usefulness of the programme. A pilot study with a pre- and post-test design, using self-administered questionnaires. The didactic model increased the number of clinical observations and assessments of physiological factors made by both students and NICU nurses during evaluation of children with suspected CHD. The majority of nurses reported that both participation in the programme and the didactic model were useful and they demonstrated high-level knowledge, according to Bloom's taxonomy for cognitive learning. In particular, subjects found that the literature provided and structured bedside guidance in the clinical setting assisted learning. Intensive care students and NICU nurses performed clinical observations and physical factor assessments more frequently after completing the programme, compared with baseline. We speculate that this didactic model may also be useful in other clinical settings. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Simultaneous Remote Observations of Intense Reconnection Effects by DMSP and MMS Spacecraft During a Storm Time Substorm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varsani, A; Nakamura, R; Sergeev, V A; Baumjohann, W; Owen, C J; Petrukovich, A A; Yao, Z; Nakamura, T K M; Kubyshkina, M V; Sotirelis, T; Burch, J L; Genestreti, K J; Vörös, Z; Andriopoulou, M; Gershman, D J; Avanov, L A; Magnes, W; Russell, C T; Plaschke, F; Khotyaintsev, Y V; Giles, B L; Coffey, V N; Dorelli, J C; Strangeway, R J; Torbert, R B; Lindqvist, P-A; Ergun, R

    2017-11-01

    During a magnetic storm on 23 June 2015, several very intense substorms took place, with signatures observed by multiple spacecraft including DMSP and Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS). At the time of interest, DMSP F18 crossed inbound through a poleward expanding auroral bulge boundary at 23.5 h magnetic local time (MLT), while MMS was located duskward of 22 h MLT during an inward crossing of the expanding plasma sheet boundary. The two spacecraft observed a consistent set of signatures as they simultaneously crossed the reconnection separatrix layer during this very intense reconnection event. These include (1) energy dispersion of the energetic ions and electrons traveling earthward, accompanied with high electron energies in the vicinity of the separatrix; (2) energy dispersion of polar rain electrons, with a high-energy cutoff; and (3) intense inward convection of the magnetic field lines at the MMS location. The high temporal resolution measurements by MMS provide unprecedented observations of the outermost electron boundary layer. We discuss the relevance of the energy dispersion of the electrons, and their pitch angle distribution, to the spatial and temporal evolution of the boundary layer. The results indicate that the underlying magnetotail magnetic reconnection process was an intrinsically impulsive and the active X-line was located relatively close to the Earth, approximately at 16-18 R E .

  12. Tidally distorted exoplanets: Density corrections for short-period hot-Jupiters based solely on observable parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burton, J. R.; Watson, C. A.; Fitzsimmons, A.; Moulds, V. [Astrophysics Research Centre, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Pollacco, D.; Wheatley, P. J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Littlefair, S. P., E-mail: jburton04@qub.ac.uk [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S3 7RH (United Kingdom)

    2014-07-10

    The close proximity of short-period hot-Jupiters to their parent star means they are subject to extreme tidal forces. This has a profound effect on their structure and, as a result, density measurements that assume that the planet is spherical can be incorrect. We have simulated the tidally distorted surface for 34 known short-period hot-Jupiters, assuming surfaces of constant gravitational equipotential for the planet, and the resulting densities have been calculated based only on observed parameters of the exoplanet systems. Comparing these results to the density values, assuming the planets are spherical, shows that there is an appreciable change in the measured density for planets with very short periods (typically less than two days). For one of the shortest-period systems, WASP-19b, we determine a decrease in bulk density of 12% from the spherical case and, for the majority of systems in this study, this value is in the range of 1%-5%. On the other hand, we also find cases where the distortion is negligible (relative to the measurement errors on the planetary parameters) even in the cases of some very short period systems, depending on the mass ratio and planetary radius. For high-density gas planets requiring apparently anomalously large core masses, density corrections due to tidal deformation could become important for the shortest-period systems.

  13. Drift Compression and Final Focus for Intense Heavy Ion Beams with Non-periodic, Time-dependent Lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong Qin; Davidson, Ronald C.; Barnard, John J.; Lee, Edward P.

    2005-01-01

    In the currently envisioned configurations for heavy ion fusion, it is necessary to longitudinally compress the beam bunches by a large factor after the acceleration phase. Because the space-charge force increases as the beam is compressed, the beam size in the transverse direction will increase in a periodic quadrupole lattice. If an active control of the beam size is desired, a larger focusing force is needed to confine the beam in the transverse direction, and a non-periodic quadrupole lattice along the beam path is necessary. In this paper, we describe the design of such a focusing lattice using the transverse envelope equations. A drift compression and final focus lattice should focus the entire beam pulse onto the same focal spot on the target. This is difficult with a fixed lattice, because different slices of the beam may have different perveance and emittance. Four time-dependent magnets are introduced in the upstream of drift compression to focus the entire pulse onto the sam e focal spot. Drift compression and final focusing schemes are developed for a typical heavy ion fusion driver and for the Integrated Beam Experiment (IBX) being designed by the Heavy Ion Fusion Virtual National Laboratory

  14. Hand disinfection in a neonatal intensive care unit: continuous electronic monitoring over a one-year period

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helder, O.K.; van Goudoever, J.B.; Hop, W.C.J.; Brug, J.; Kornelisse, R.F.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Good hand hygiene compliance is essential to prevent nosocomial infections in healthcare settings. Direct observation of hand hygiene compliance is the gold standard but is time consuming. An electronic dispenser with built-in wireless recording equipment allows continuous monitoring of

  15. Measurement of filling factor 5/2 quasiparticle interference with observation of charge e/4 and e/2 period oscillations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willett, R L; Pfeiffer, L N; West, K W

    2009-06-02

    A standing problem in low-dimensional electron systems is the nature of the 5/2 fractional quantum Hall (FQH) state: Its elementary excitations are a focus for both elucidating the state's properties and as candidates in methods to perform topological quantum computation. Interferometric devices may be used to manipulate and measure quantum Hall edge excitations. Here we use a small-area edge state interferometer designed to observe quasiparticle interference effects. Oscillations consistent in detail with the Aharonov-Bohm effect are observed for integer quantum Hall and FQH states (filling factors nu = 2, 5/3, and 7/3) with periods corresponding to their respective charges and magnetic field positions. With these factors as charge calibrations, periodic transmission through the device consistent with quasiparticle charge e/4 is observed at nu = 5/2 and at lowest temperatures. The principal finding of this work is that, in addition to these e/4 oscillations, periodic structures corresponding to e/2 are also observed at 5/2 nu and at lowest temperatures. Properties of the e/4 and e/2 oscillations are examined with the device sensitivity sufficient to observe temperature evolution of the 5/2 quasiparticle interference. In the model of quasiparticle interference, this presence of an effective e/2 period may empirically reflect an e/2 quasiparticle charge or may reflect multiple passes of the e/4 quasiparticle around the interferometer. These results are discussed within a picture of e/4 quasiparticle excitations potentially possessing non-Abelian statistics. These studies demonstrate the capacity to perform interferometry on 5/2 excitations and reveal properties important for understanding this state and its excitations.

  16. Physicians' attentional performance following a 24-hour observation period: do we need to regulate sleep prior to work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, P; Maximova, K; Jirsch, J D

    2017-08-01

    The tradition of physicians working while sleep deprived is increasingly criticised. Medical regulatory bodies have restricted resident physician duty-hours, not addressing the greater population of physicians. We aimed to assess factors such as sleep duration prior to a 24-hour observation period on physicians' attention. We studied 70 physicians (mean age 38 years old (SD 10.8 years)): 36 residents and 34 faculty from call rosters at the University of Alberta. Among 70 physicians, 52 (74%) performed overnight call; 18 did not perform overnight call and were recruited to control for the learning effect of repetitive neuropsychological testing. Attentional Network Test (ANT) measured physicians' attention at the beginning and end of the 24-hour observation period. Participants self-reported ideal sleep needs, sleep duration in the 24 hours prior to (ie, baseline) and during the 24-hour observation period (ie, follow-up). Median regression models examined effects on ANT parameters. Sleep deprivation at follow-up was associated with reduced attentional accuracy following the 24-hour observation period, but only for physicians more sleep deprived at baseline. Other components of attention were not associated with sleep deprivation after adjusting for repetitive testing. Age, years since medical school and caffeine use did not impact changes in ANT parameters. Our study suggests that baseline sleep before 24 hours of observation impacts the accuracy of physicians' attentional testing at 24 hours. Further study is required to determine if optimising physician sleep prior to overnight call shifts is a sustainable strategy to mitigate the effects of sleep deprivation. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  17. Refeeding syndrome influences outcome of anorexia nervosa patients in intensive care unit: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignaud, Marie; Constantin, Jean-Michel; Ruivard, Marc; Villemeyre-Plane, Michele; Futier, Emmanuel; Bazin, Jean-Etienne; Annane, Djillali

    2010-01-01

    Data on the epidemiology and management of anorexia nervosa (AN) in the intensive care unit (ICU) are scarce. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and associated morbidity and mortality of AN in French ICUs. We randomly selected 30 ICUs throughout France. Thereafter, we retrospectively analyzed all patients with AN admitted to any of these 30 ICUs between May 2006 and May 2008. We considered demographic data, diagnosis at admission and complications occurring during the stay, focusing on refeeding syndrome and management of refeeding. Eleven of the 30 ICUs participated in the retrospective study, featuring 68 patients, including 62 women. Average body mass index at the admission was 12 ± 3 kg/m2. Twenty one were mechanically ventilated, mainly for neurological reasons. The reported average calorie intake was 22.3 ± 13 kcal/kg/24 h. Major diagnoses at admission were metabolic problems, refeeding survey and voluntary drug intoxication and infection. The most common complications were metabolic, hematological, hepatic, and infectious events, of which 10% occurred during refeeding. Seven patients developed refeeding syndrome. At day one, the average calorie intake was higher for patients who developed refeeding syndrome (23.2 ± 5 Kcal/kg/j; n = 7) versus patients without refeeding syndrome (14.1 ± 3 Kcal/kg/j; n = 61) P = 0.02. Seven patients died, two from acute respiratory distress syndrome and five from multiorgan-failure associated with major hydroelectrolytic problems. The frequency of AN in ICU patients is very low and the crude mortality in this group is about 10%. Prevention and early-detection of refeeding syndrome is the key point.

  18. Differences in rain rate intensities between TRMM observations and community atmosphere model simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yi; Bowman, Kenneth P.; Jackson, Charles

    2007-01-01

    Precipitation related latent heating is important in driving the atmospheric general circulation and in generating intraseasonal to decadal atmospheric variability. Our ability to project future climate change, especially trends in costly precipitation extremes, hinges upon whether coupled GCMs capture processes that affect precipitation characteristics. Our study compares the tropical-subtropical precipitation characteristics of simulations by the NCAR CAM3.1 atmospheric GCM and observations derived from the NASA Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite. Despite a fairly good simulation of the annual mean rain rate, CAM rains about 10-50% more often than the real world and fails to capture heavy rainfall associated with deep convective systems over subtropical South America and U.S. Southern Plains. When it rains, there is a likelihood of 0.96-1.0 that it rains lightly in the model, compared to values of 0.84-1.0 in TRMM data. On the other hand, the likelihood of the occurrence of moderate to heavy rainfall is an order of magnitude higher in observations (0.12-0.2) than that in the model (model compensates for the lack of heavy precipitation through raining more frequently within the light rain category, which leads to an annual rainfall amount close to what is observed. CAM captures the qualitative change of rain rate PDF from a "dry" oceanic to a "wet" oceanic region, but it fails to simulate the change of precipitation characteristics from an oceanic region to a land region where thunderstorm rainfall dominates.

  19. Observation of a periodic runaway in the reactive Ar/O2 high power impulse magnetron sputtering discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedmohammad Shayestehaminzadeh

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the observation of a periodic runaway of plasma to a higher density for the reactive discharge of the target material (Ti with moderate sputter yield. Variable emission of secondary electrons, for the alternating transition of the target from metal mode to oxide mode, is understood to be the main reason for the runaway occurring periodically. Increasing the pulsing frequency can bring the target back to a metal (or suboxide mode, and eliminate the periodic transition of the target. Therefore, a pulsing frequency interval is defined for the reactive Ar/O2 discharge in order to sustain the plasma in a runaway-free mode without exceeding the maximum power that the magnetron can tolerate.

  20. Period variations in pulsating X-ray sources. I. Accretion flow parameters and neutron star structure from timing observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamb, F.K.; Pines, D.; Shaham, J.

    1978-01-01

    We show that valuable information about both accretion flows and neutron star structure can be obtained from X-ray timing observations of period variations in pulsating sources. Such variations can result from variations in the accretion flow, or from internal torque variations, associated with oscillations of the fluid core or the unpinning of vortices in the inner crust. We develop a statistical description of torque variations in terms of noise processes, indicate how the applicability of such a description may be tested observationally, and show how it may be used to determine from observation both the properties of accretion flows and the internal structure of neutron stars, including the relative inertial moments of the crust and superfluid neutron core, the crust-core coupling time, and the frequencies of any low-frequency internal collective modes. Particular attention is paid to the physical origin of spin-down episodes; it is shown that usyc episodes may result either from external torque reversals or from internal torque variations.With the aid of the statistical description, the response of the star to torque fluctuations is calculated for three stellar models: (i) a completely rigid star; (ii) a two-component star; and (iii) a two-component star with a finite-frequency internal mode, such as the Tkachenko mode of a rotating neutron superfluid. Our calculations show that fluctuating torques could account for the period the period variations and spin-down episodes observed in Her X-1 and Cen X-3, including the large spin-down event observed in the latter source during 1972 September-October. The torque noise strengths inferred from current timing observations using the simple two-component models are shown to be consistent with those to be expected from fluctuations in accretion flows onto magnetic neutron stars

  1. On the number of observable customers, served during he busy period of GI/GI/infinity queue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dvurechenskij, A.

    1982-01-01

    It is proved that the number of observable customers, served during the busy period of the GI/GI infinity queue with infinitely many servers has a geometric distribution. The parameter of this distribution is determined, too. It is shown that the normalized distributions converge to the exponential distribution. As a particular result is obtained that the distribution of the number of nonabsorbing streamers in a streamer blob has a geometric distribution

  2. LONGITUDINAL AND RADIAL DEPENDENCE OF SOLAR ENERGETIC PARTICLE PEAK INTENSITIES: STEREO, ACE, SOHO, GOES, AND MESSENGER OBSERVATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lario, D.; Ho, G. C.; Decker, R. B.; Roelof, E. C. [The Johns Hopkins University, Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel, MD 20723 (United States); Aran, A. [Departament d' Astronomia i Meteorologia, Institut de Ciencies del Cosmos, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Gomez-Herrero, R.; Dresing, N.; Heber, B., E-mail: david.lario@jhuapl.edu [Institute of Experimental and Applied Physics, Christian-Albrechts University of Kiel, Kiel (Germany)

    2013-04-10

    Simultaneous measurements of solar energetic particle (SEP) events by two or more of the spacecraft located near 1 AU during the rising phase of solar cycle 24 (i.e., STEREO-A, STEREO-B, and near-Earth spacecraft such as ACE, SOHO, and GOES) are used to determine the longitudinal dependence of 71-112 keV electron, 0.7-3 MeV electron, 15-40 MeV proton, and 25-53 MeV proton peak intensities measured in the prompt component of SEP events. Distributions of the peak intensities for the selected 35 events with identifiable solar origin are approximated by the form exp [ - ({phi} - {phi}{sub 0}){sup 2}/2{sigma}{sup 2}], where {phi} is the longitudinal separation between the parent active region and the footpoint of the nominal interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) line connecting each spacecraft with the Sun, {phi}{sub 0} is the distribution centroid, and {sigma} determines the longitudinal gradient. The MESSENGER spacecraft, at helioradii R < 1 AU, allows us to determine a lower limit to the radial dependence of the 71-112 keV electron peak intensities measured along IMF lines. We find five events for which the nominal magnetic footpoint of MESSENGER was less than 20 Degree-Sign apart from the nominal footpoint of a spacecraft near 1 AU. Although the expected theoretical radial dependence for the peak intensity of the events observed along the same field line can be approximated by a functional form R {sup -{alpha}} with {alpha} < 3, we find two events for which {alpha} > 3. These two cases correspond to SEP events occurring in a complex interplanetary medium that favored the enhancement of peak intensities near Mercury but hindered the SEP transport to 1 AU.

  3. Observation of muon intensity variations by season with the MINOS near detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamson, P.; Anghel, I.; Aurisano, A.; Barr, G.; Bishai, M.; Blake, A.; Bock, G. J.; Bogert, D.; Cao, S. V.; Castromonte, C. M.; Childress, S.; Coelho, J. A. B.; Corwin, L.; Cronin-Hennessy, D.; de Jong, J. K.; Devan, A. V.; Devenish, N. E.; Diwan, M. V.; Escobar, C. O.; Evans, J. J.; Falk, E.; Feldman, G. J.; Fields, T. H.; Frohne, M. V.; Gallagher, H. R.; Gomes, R. A.; Goodman, M. C.; Gouffon, P.; Graf, N.; Gran, R.; Grzelak, K.; Habig, A.; Hahn, S. R.; Hartnell, J.; Hatcher, R.; Holin, A.; Huang, J.; Hylen, J.; Irwin, G. M.; Isvan, Z.; James, C.; Jensen, D.; Kafka, T.; Kasahara, S. M. S.; Koizumi, G.; Kordosky, M.; Kreymer, A.; Lang, K.; Ling, J.; Litchfield, P. J.; Lucas, P.; Mann, W. A.; Marshak, M. L.; Mathis, M.; Mayer, N.; McGivern, C.; Medeiros, M. M.; Mehdiyev, R.; Meier, J. R.; Messier, M. D.; Miller, W. H.; Mishra, S. R.; Moed Sher, S.; Moore, C. D.; Mualem, L.; Musser, J.; Naples, D.; Nelson, J. K.; Newman, H. B.; Nichol, R. J.; Nowak, J. A.; O’Connor, J.; Orchanian, M.; Osprey, S.; Pahlka, R. B.; Paley, J.; Patterson, R. B.; Pawloski, G.; Perch, A.; Phan-Budd, S.; Plunkett, R. K.; Poonthottathil, N.; Qiu, X.; Radovic, A.; Rebel, B.; Rosenfeld, C.; Rubin, H. A.; Sanchez, M. C.; Schneps, J.; Schreckenberger, A.; Schreiner, P.; Sharma, R.; Sousa, A.; Tagg, N.; Talaga, R. L.; Thomas, J.; Thomson, M. A.; Tian, X.; Timmons, A.; Tognini, S. C.; Toner, R.; Torretta, D.; Urheim, J.; Vahle, P.; Viren, B.; Weber, A.; Webb, R. C.; White, C.; Whitehead, L.; Whitehead, L. H.; Wojcicki, S. G.; Zwaska, R.

    2014-07-01

    A sample of 1.53$\\times$10$^{9}$ cosmic-ray-induced single muon events has been recorded at 225 meters-water-equivalent using the MINOS Near Detector. The underground muon rate is observed to be highly correlated with the effective atmospheric temperature. The coefficient $\\alpha_{T}$, relating the change in the muon rate to the change in the vertical effective temperature, is determined to be 0.428$\\pm$0.003(stat.)$\\pm$0.059(syst.). An alternative description is provided by the weighted effective temperature, introduced to account for the differences in the temperature profile and muon flux as a function of zenith angle. Using the latter estimation of temperature, the coefficient is determined to be 0.352$\\pm$0.003(stat.)$\\pm$0.046(syst.).

  4. Carboxyhemoglobin levels in medical intensive care patients: a retrospective, observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazekas, Andreas S; Wewalka, Marlene; Zauner, Christian; Funk, Georg-Christian

    2012-01-11

    Critical illness leads to increased endogenous production of carbon monoxide (CO) due to the induction of the stress-response enzyme, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). There is evidence for the cytoprotective and anti-inflammatory effects of CO based on animal studies. In critically ill patients after cardiothoracic surgery, low minimum and high maximum carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) levels were shown to be associated with increased mortality, which suggests that there is an 'optimal range' for HO-1 activity. Our study aimed to test whether this relationship between COHb and outcome exists in non-surgical ICU patients. We conducted a retrospective, observational study in a medical ICU at a university hospital in Vienna, Austria involving 868 critically ill patients. No interventions were undertaken. Arterial COHb was measured on admission and during the course of treatment in the ICU. The association between arterial COHb levels and ICU mortality was evaluated using bivariate tests and a logistic regression model. Minimum COHb levels were slightly lower in non-survivors compared to survivors (0.9%, 0.7% to 1.2% versus 1.2%, 0.9% to 1.5%; P=0.0001), and the average COHb levels were marginally lower in non-survivors compared to survivors (1.5%, 1.2% to 1.8% versus 1.6%, 1.4% to 1.9%, P=0.003). The multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that the association between a low minimum COHb level and increased mortality was independent of the severity of illness and the type of organ failure. Critically ill patients surviving the admission to a medical ICU had slightly higher minimum and marginally higher average COHb levels when compared to non-survivors. Even though the observed differences are statistically significant, the minute margins would not qualify COHb as a predictive marker for ICU mortality.

  5. The ICAP Active Learning Framework Predicts the Learning Gains Observed in Intensely Active Classroom Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin L. Wiggins

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available STEM classrooms (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics in postsecondary education are rapidly improved by the proper use of active learning techniques. These techniques occupy a descriptive spectrum that transcends passive teaching toward active, constructive, and, finally, interactive methods. While aspects of this framework have been examined, no large-scale or actual classroom-based data exist to inform postsecondary education STEM instructors about possible learning gains. We describe the results of a quasi-experimental study to test the apex of the ICAP framework (interactive, constructive, active, and passive in this ecological classroom environment. Students in interactive classrooms demonstrate significantly improved learning outcomes relative to students in constructive classrooms. This improvement in learning is relatively subtle; similar experimental designs without repeated measures would be unlikely to have the power to observe this significance. We discuss the importance of seemingly small learning gains that might propagate throughout a course or departmental curriculum, as well as improvements with the necessity for faculty to develop and implement similar activities.

  6. Soliton-induced nonlocal resonances observed through high-intensity tunable spectrally compressed second-harmonic peaks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Binbin; Guo, Hairun; Bache, Morten

    2014-01-01

    Experimental data of femtosecond thick-crystal second-harmonic generation show that when tuning away from phase matching, a dominating narrow spectral peak appears in the second harmonic that can be tuned over hundreds of nanometers by changing the phase-mismatch parameter. Traditional theory...... and the nonlocal theory indirectly proves that we have observed a soliton-induced nonlocal resonance. The soliton exists in the self-defocusing regime of the cascaded nonlinear interaction and in the normal dispersion regime of the crystal, and needs high input intensities to become excited....

  7. Travelling Ionospheric Disturbances Observed During Sudden Stratospheric Warming, Equinox and Solstice Periods with Kharkiv and Millstone Hill Incoherent Scatter Radars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncharenko, L. P.; Panasenko, S.; Aksonova, K.; Erickson, P. J.; Domnin, I. F.

    2016-12-01

    Travelling ionospheric disturbances (TIDs) play a key role in the coupling of different ionospheric regions through momentum an energy transfer. They are thought to be mostly associated with atmospheric gravity waves and are known to strongly affect radio propagation conditions. The incoherent scatter (IS) method enables TIDs detection in such ionospheric parameters as electron density, ion and electron temperatures, and plasma velocity along radar beam, thus providing critical information needed to examine different hypothesis about association of TIDs with their sources. In 2016, several joint measuring campaigns were conducted using Kharkiv (49.6 N, 36.4 E) and Millstone Hill (42.6 N, 288.5 E) IS radars. These campaigns covered the periods of sudden stratospheric warnings (SSW) in February, vernal equinox and summer solstice. For consistency, the data acquired by radars were processed using the same data analysis methods. The results obtained show the TIDs to be detected throughout all observation intervals in February measurements. The differences found in the behavior of TIDs over Kharkiv and Millstone Hill sites may be partially explained by variations in stratospheric wind velocity vectors during SSW period. As for March equinox and June solstice, the prevailing TIDs are observed near solar terminators. Their periods vary mostly in the range of 40 - 80 minutes, relative amplitudes are about 0.05 - 0.3 of the background electron density, and the maximum values are observed at the heights of 200 - 250 km. Systematic long-term observations of wave processes in the ionosphere with multiple IS facilities can reveal interhemispheric variability in TID parameters, give better understanding the mechanisms of TID generation and propagation, and improve regional and global ionospheric models.

  8. Development of Lightning Observation Network in the Western Pacific Region for the Intensity Prediction of Severe Weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, M.; Takahashi, Y.; Yamashita, K.; Kubota, H.; Hamada, J. I.; Momota, E.; Marciano, J. J.

    2017-12-01

    Lightning activity represents the thunderstorm activity, that is, the precipitation and/or updraft intensity and area. Thunderstorm activity is also an important parameter in terms of the energy inputs from the ocean to the atmosphere inside tropical cyclone, which is one of severe weather events. Recent studies suggest that it is possible to predict the maximum wind velocity and minimum pressure near the center of the tropical cyclone by one or two days before if we monitor the lightning activities in the tropical cyclone. Many countries in the western Pacific region suffer from the attack of tropical cyclone (typhoon) and have a strong demand to predict the intensity development of typhoons. Thus, we started developing a new lightning observation system and installing the observation system at Guam, Palau, and Manila in the Philippines from this summer. The lightning observation system consists of a VLF sensor detecting lightning-excited electromagnetic waves in the frequency range of 1-5 kHz, an automatic data-processing unit, solar panels, and batteries. Lightning-excited pulse signals detected by the VLF sensor are automatically analyzed by the data-processing unit, and only the extracted information of the trigger time and pulse amplitude is transmitted to a data server via the 3G data communications. In addition, we are now developing an upgraded lightning and weather observation system, which will be installed at 50 automated weather stations in Metro Manila and 10 radar sites in the Philippines under the 5-year project (SATREPS) scheme. At the presentation, we will show the initial results derived from the lightning observation system in detail and will show the detailed future plan of the SATREPS project.

  9. Intensive precipitation observation greatly improves hydrological modelling of the poorly gauged high mountain Mabengnong catchment in the Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Zhang, Fan; Zhang, Hongbo; Scott, Christopher A.; Zeng, Chen; Shi, Xiaonan

    2018-01-01

    Precipitation is one of the most critical inputs for models used to improve understanding of hydrological processes. In high mountain areas, it is challenging to generate a reliable precipitation data set capturing the spatial and temporal heterogeneity due to the harsh climate, extreme terrain and the lack of observations. This study conducts intensive observation of precipitation in the Mabengnong catchment in the southeast of the Tibetan Plateau during July to August 2013. Because precipitation is greatly influenced by altitude, the observed data are used to characterize the precipitation gradient (PG) and hourly distribution (HD), showing that the average PG is 0.10, 0.28 and 0.26 mm/d/100 m and the average duration is around 0.1, 0.8 and 5.2 h for trace, light and moderate rain, respectively. A distributed biosphere hydrological model based on water and energy budgets with improved physical process for snow (WEB-DHM-S) is applied to simulate the hydrological processes with gridded precipitation data derived from a lower altitude meteorological station and the PG and HD characterized for the study area. The observed runoff, MODIS/Terra snow cover area (SCA) data, and MODIS/Terra land surface temperature (LST) data are used for model calibration and validation. Runoff, SCA and LST simulations all show reasonable results. Sensitivity analyses illustrate that runoff is largely underestimated without considering PG, indicating that short-term intensive precipitation observation has the potential to greatly improve hydrological modelling of poorly gauged high mountain catchments.

  10. Hydrological modelling of the Mabengnong catchment in the southeast Tibet with support of short term intensive precipitation observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L.; Zhang, F.; Zhang, H.; Scott, C. A.; Zeng, C.; SHI, X.

    2017-12-01

    Precipitation is one of the crucial inputs for models used to better understand hydrological processes. In high mountain areas, it is a difficult task to obtain a reliable precipitation data set describing the spatial and temporal characteristic due to the limited meteorological observations and high variability of precipitation. This study carries out intensive observation of precipitation in a high mountain catchment in the southeast of the Tibet during July to August 2013. According to the rain gauges set up at different altitudes, it is found that precipitation is greatly influenced by altitude. The observed precipitation is used to depict the precipitation gradient (PG) and hourly distribution (HD), showing that the average duration is around 0.1, 0.8 and 6.0 hours and the average PG is 0.10, 0.28 and 0.26 mm/d/100m for trace, light and moderate rain, respectively. Based on the gridded precipitation derived from the PG and HD and the nearby Linzhi meteorological station at lower altitude, a distributed biosphere hydrological model based on water and energy budgets (WEB-DHM) is applied to simulate the hydrological processes. Beside the observed runoff, MODIS/Terra snow cover area (SCA) data, and MODIS/Terra land surface temperature (LST) data are also used for model calibration and validation. The resulting runoff, SCA and LST simulations are all reasonable. Sensitivity analyses indicate that runoff is greatly underestimated without considering PG, illustrating that short-term intensive precipitation observation contributes to improving hydrological modelling of poorly gauged high mountain catchments.

  11. The Effect of Active versus Passive Recovery Periods during High Intensity Intermittent Exercise on Local Tissue Oxygenation in 18 - 30 Year Old Sedentary Men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri Kriel

    Full Text Available High intensity interval training (HIIT has been proposed as a time-efficient format of exercise to reduce the chronic disease burden associated with sedentary behaviour. Changes in oxygen utilisation at the local tissue level during an acute session of HIIT could be the primary stimulus for the health benefits associated with this format of exercise. The recovery periods of HIIT effect the physiological responses that occur during the session. It was hypothesised that in sedentary individuals, local and systemic oxygen utilisation would be higher during HIIT interspersed with active recovery periods, when compared to passive recovery periods.Twelve sedentary males (mean ± SD; age 23 ± 3 yr completed three conditions on a cycle ergometer: 1 HIIT with passive recovery periods between four bouts (HIITPASS 2 HIIT with active recovery periods between four bouts (HIITACT 3 HIITACT with four HIIT bouts replaced with passive periods (REC. Deoxygenated haemoglobin (HHb in the vastus lateralis (VL and gastrocnemius (GN muscles and the pre-frontal cortex (FH, oxygen consumption (VO2, power output and heart rate (HR were measured continuously during the three conditions.There was a significant increase in HHb at VL during bouts 2 (p = 0.017, 3 (p = 0.035 and 4 (p = 0.035 in HIITACT, compared to HIITPASS. Mean power output was significantly lower in HIITACT, compared to HIITPASS (p < 0.001. There was a significant main effect for site in both HIITPASS (p = 0.029 and HIITACT (p = 0.005. There were no significant differences in VO2 and HR between HIITPASS and HIITACT.The increase in HHb at VL and the lower mean power output during HIITACT could indicate that a higher level of deoxygenation contributes to decreased mechanical power in sedentary participants. The significant differences in HHb between sites indicates the specificity of oxygen utilisation.

  12. The energy intensity target in China's 11th Five-Year Plan period-Local implementation and achievements in Shanxi Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Daisheng; Aunan, Kristin; Martin Seip, Hans; Vennemo, Haakon

    2011-01-01

    Facing the mounting pressure on energy security and increasing environmental concerns about air pollution and climate change, the Chinese government set a mandatory goal of 20% reduction of energy intensity in its 11th Five-Year Plan period (FYP, 2006-2010). In this paper we use Shanxi province to illustrate how policies and measures are implemented in practice at a provincial level as a response to the National FYP issued by the central government. Local policies are described and their effects are analyzed. We compare reported energy saving achievements with our own estimates and conclude that the achievements in Shanxi probably have been substantial since the start of the 11th FYP period. The most important measures taken by provincial and local governments seem to be in the secondary sector, such as Top-200/Top-1000 program and phasing out outdated technologies. However, Shanxi has still a long way to go to achieve satisfactory energy use. Further improvement of energy intensity will require continuing efforts. Although many measures are necessary, improving the energy efficiency in heavy industries and reducing the dependence on these industries should be particularly effective. - Highlights: → We use Shanxi province to illustrate how local policies respond to the National FYP. → Energy saving in Shanxi has been substantial since the start of the 11th FYP. → Assumptions about baseline energy use strongly affects energy saving estimates. → The most important measures taken by local governments are in the secondary sector. → Further improvement of energy intensity will require efforts especially in heavy industries.

  13. Beam-induced and cosmic-ray backgrounds observed in the ATLAS detector during the LHC 2012 proton-proton running period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdinov, O.; Abeloos, B.; Aben, R.; Abolins, M.; AbouZeid, O.S.; Abraham, N.L.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Abreu, R.; Abulaiti, Y.; Acharya, B.S.; Adamczyk, L.; Adams, D.L.; Adelman, J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses various observations on beam-induced and cosmic-ray backgrounds in the ATLAS detector during the LHC 2012 proton-proton run. Building on published results based on 2011 data, the correlations between background and residual pressure of the beam vacuum are revisited. Ghost charge evolution over 2012 and its role for backgrounds are evaluated. New methods to monitor ghost charge with beam-gas rates are presented and observations of LHC abort gap population by ghost charge are discussed in detail. Fake jets from colliding bunches and from ghost charge are analysed with improved methods, showing that ghost charge in individual radio-frequency buckets of the LHC can be resolved. Some results of two short periods of dedicated cosmic-ray background data-taking are shown; in particular cosmic-ray muon induced fake jet rates are compared to Monte Carlo simulations and to the fake jet rates from beam background. A thorough analysis of a particular LHC fill, where abnormally high background was observed, is presented. Correlations between backgrounds and beam intensity losses in special fills with very high β * are studied.

  14. Observations of long-period waves in the nearshore waters of central west coast of India during the fall inter-monsoon period

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Amrutha, M.M.; SanilKumar, V.; Jesbin, G.

    variability in both long period waves and short period waves need more detailed study. Acknowledgments The authors acknowledge the Earth System Science Organization, Ministry of Earth Sciences, New Delhi for providing the financial support to conduct part... Geraldton. Proceedings of the 2009 Pacific Coasts and Ports Conference, Wellington, New Zealand. Mehta, A. V., & Krishnamurti, T. N., 1988. Interannual variability of the 30 to 50 day wave motions. Journal of the Meteorological Society of Japan, 66...

  15. Occurrence of blowing snow events at an alpine site over a 10-year period: Observations and modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vionnet, V.; Guyomarc'h, G.; Naaim Bouvet, F.; Martin, E.; Durand, Y.; Bellot, H.; Bel, C.; Puglièse, P.

    2013-05-01

    Blowing snow events control the evolution of the snow pack in mountainous areas and cause inhomogeneous snow distribution. The goal of this study is to identify the main features of blowing snow events at an alpine site and assess the ability of the detailed snowpack model Crocus to reproduce the occurrence of these events in a 1D configuration. We created a database of blowing snow events observed over 10 years at our experimental site. Occurrences of blowing snow events were divided into cases with and without concurrent falling snow. Overall, snow transport is observed during 10.5% of the time in winter and occurs with concurrent falling snow 37.3% of the time. Wind speed and snow age control the frequency of occurrence. Model results illustrate the necessity of taking the wind-dependence of falling snow grain characteristics into account to simulate periods of snow transport and mass fluxes satisfactorily during those periods. The high rate of false alarms produced by the model is investigated in detail for winter 2010/2011 using measurements from snow particle counters.

  16. FASTSAT-HSV01 Synergistic Observations of the Magnetospheric Response During Active Periods: MINI-ME, PISA and TTI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Joseph C.; Collier, Michael R.; Rowland, Douglas E.; Sigwarth, John B.; Boudreaux, Mark E.

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the complex processes within the inner magnetosphere of Earth particularly during storm periods requires coordinated observations of the particle and field environment using both in-situ and remote sensing techniques. In fact in order to gain a better understanding of our Heliophysics and potentially improve our space weather forecasting capabilities, new observation mission approaches and new instrument technologies which can provide both cost effective and robust regular observations of magnetospheric activity and other space weather related phenomenon are necessary. As part of the effort to demonstrate new instrument techniques and achieve necessary coordinated observation missions, NASA's Fast Affordable Science and Technology Satellite Huntsville 01 mission (FASTSAT-HSVOI) scheduled for launch in 2010 will afford a highly synergistic solution which satisfies payload mission opportunities and launch requirements as well as contributing iri the near term to our improved understanding of Heliophysics. NASA's FASTSAT-HSV01 spacecraft on the DoD Space Test Program-S26 (STP-S26) Mission is a multi-payload mission executed by the DoD Space Test Program (STP) at the Space Development and Test Wing (SDTW), Kirtland AFB, NM. and is an example of a responsive and economical breakthrough in providing new possibilities for small space technology-driven and research missions. FASTSAT-HSV is a unique spacecraft platform that can carry multiple small instruments or experiments to low-Earth orbit on a wide range of expendable launch vehicles for a fraction of the cost traditionally required for such missions. The FASTSAT-HSV01 mission allows NASA to mature and transition a technical capability to industry while increasing low-cost access to space for small science and technology (ST) payloads. The FASTSAT-HSV01 payload includes three NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) new technology built instruments that will study the terrestrial space environment and

  17. Observations of Fe XIV Line Intensity Variations in the Solar Corona During the 21 August 2017 Solar Eclipse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Payton; Ladd, Edwin

    2018-01-01

    We present time- and spatially-resolved observations of the inner solar corona in the 5303 Å line of Fe XIV, taken during the 21 August 2017 solar eclipse from a field observing site in Crossville, TN. These observations are used to characterize the intensity variations in this coronal emission line, and to compare with oscillation predictions from models for heating the corona by magnetic wave dissipation.The observations were taken with two Explore Scientific ED 102CF 102 mm aperture triplet apochromatic refractors. One system used a DayStar custom-built 5 Å FWHM filter centered on the Fe XIV coronal spectral line and an Atik Titan camera for image collection. The setup produced images with a pixel size of 2.15 arcseconds (~1.5 Mm at the distance to the Sun), and a field of view of 1420 x 1060 arcseconds, covering approximately 20% of the entire solar limb centered near the emerging sunspot complex AR 2672. We obtained images with an exposure time of 0.22 seconds and a frame rate of 2.36 Hz, for a total of 361 images during totality.An identical, co-aligned telescope/camera system observed the same portion of the solar corona, but with a 100 Å FWHM Baader Planetarium solar continuum filter centered on a wavelength of 5400 Å. Images with an exposure time of 0.01 seconds were obtained with a frame rate of 4.05 Hz. These simultaneous observations are used as a control to monitor brightness variations not related to coronal line oscillations.

  18. Observations and Modelling of Winds and Waves during the Surface Wave Dynamics Experiment. Report 1. Intensive Observation Period IOP-1, 20-31 October 1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-04-01

    Grds ..Atlatic. Ocean Bain Scale Model 70 60 so 40 t l f l 30 tl -201 -40 0-5 -60 -100I I8 fil0 -4I2 04 Figure 10: AtlantI Ikea taills i moeIrd Cha...between wind fields is 6 hr. The GSFC model winds are determined with the successive correction method which uses seven sweeps over the model domain and... successively reduces the area of influence in each pass from 500 km to 120 km. Consistency checks and error minimization are only performed at buoy

  19. Experimental Observation of Generation of Superradiance Pulses in the Process of Backscattering of Pump Wave on the Intense Electron Bunch

    CERN Document Server

    Ginzburg, N S; Denisov, G G; Rozental, R M; Sergeev, A; Zotova, I V

    2005-01-01

    Recently significant progress was archived in the generation of multimegawatt subnanosecond pulses in millimeter wave band utilizing the cyclotron and Cherenkov mechanisms of superradiance (SR) [1,2]. We study the novel mechanism of SR when the powerful pumping wave undergoes the stimulated back scattering on the intense electron bunch. Due to the Doppler up shift the radiation frequency can significantly exceed the frequency of the pumping wave. With the relativistic microwave generator as a pumping wave source such a mechanism can be used for generation of the powerful pulse radiation in the short millimeter and submillimeter wave bands. Experiments on the observation of the stimulated scattering in the superradiance regime were carried out at Institute of Electrophysics RAS with two synchronized accelerators. The 4 ns electron beam from the first accelerator is used for generation of the 38 GHz 100 MW pumping wave which subsequently scattered on the subnanosecond 250 keV 1 kA electron bunch produced by the...

  20. The spatial intensity distribution of selected emission lines for Herbig-Haro 1 - Comparison between theory and observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noriega-Crespo, A.; Bohm, K.H.; Raga, A.C.

    1989-01-01

    In this paper, it is shown that most of the spatial intensity distribution of 11 selected emission lines for Herbig-Haro 1 (including the forbidden S II emission lines at 6731 A and 4069 A, the forbidden O III line at 5007 A, and the forbidden O II line at 3727 A) can be explained by a bow shock with a shock velocity of about 150-200 km/sec at the stagnation point, and under the assumption that the gas entering the shock is fully preionized. The results are based on three spectrograms (with a total exposure time of 180 min) obtained consecutively. Specifically, the ratios of each of the forbidden lines to H-alpha were studied, which permitted a critical test of the model. The agreement between the theoretical predictions and the observations was found to be remarkable, considering the complex geometry that a bow shock could have. 38 refs

  1. Deriving the solar activity cycle modulation on cosmic ray intensity observed by Nagoya muon detector from October 1970 until December 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mendonça, Rafael R. S.; Braga, Carlos. R.; Echer, Ezequiel; Dal Lago, Alisson; Rockenbach, Marlos; Schuch, Nelson J.; Munakata, Kazuoki

    2017-10-01

    It is well known that the cosmic ray intensity observed at the Earth's surface presents an 11 and 22-yr variations associated with the solar activity cycle. However, the observation and analysis of this modulation through ground muon detectors datahave been difficult due to the temperature effect. Furthermore, instrumental changes or temporary problems may difficult the analysis of these variations. In this work, we analyze the cosmic ray intensity observed since October 1970 until December 2012 by the Nagoya muon detector. We show the results obtained after analyzing all discontinuities and gaps present in this data and removing changes not related to natural phenomena. We also show the results found using the mass weighted method for eliminate the influence of atmospheric temperature changes on muon intensity observed at ground. As a preliminary result of our analyses, we show the solar cycle modulation in the muon intensity observed for more than 40 years.

  2. Period-doubling bifurcation cascade observed in a ferromagnetic nanoparticle under the action of a spin-polarized current

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horley, Paul P., E-mail: paul.horley@cimav.edu.mx [Centro de Investigación en Materiales Avanzados, S.C. (CIMAV), Chihuahua/Monterrey, 120 Avenida Miguel de Cervantes, 31109 Chihuahua (Mexico); Kushnir, Mykola Ya. [Yuri Fedkovych Chernivtsi National University, 2 Kotsyubynsky str., 58012 Chernivtsi (Ukraine); Morales-Meza, Mishel [Centro de Investigación en Materiales Avanzados, S.C. (CIMAV), Chihuahua/Monterrey, 120 Avenida Miguel de Cervantes, 31109 Chihuahua (Mexico); Sukhov, Alexander [Institut für Physik, Martin-Luther Universität Halle-Wittenberg, 06120 Halle (Saale) (Germany); Rusyn, Volodymyr [Yuri Fedkovych Chernivtsi National University, 2 Kotsyubynsky str., 58012 Chernivtsi (Ukraine)

    2016-04-01

    We report on complex magnetization dynamics in a forced spin valve oscillator subjected to a varying magnetic field and a constant spin-polarized current. The transition from periodic to chaotic magnetic motion was illustrated with bifurcation diagrams and Hausdorff dimension – the methods developed for dissipative self-organizing systems. It was shown that bifurcation cascades can be obtained either by tuning the injected spin-polarized current or by changing the magnitude of applied magnetic field. The order–chaos transition in magnetization dynamics can be also directly observed from the hysteresis curves. The resulting complex oscillations are useful for development of spin-valve devices operating in harmonic and chaotic modes.

  3. Extreme value analysis of meteorological parameters observed during the period 1994-2001 at Kakrapar Atomic Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramkumar, S.; Dole, M.L.; Nankar, D.P.; Rajan, M.P.; Gurg, R.P.

    2003-01-01

    In the design of engineering structures, an understanding of extreme weather conditions that may occur at the site of interest is very essential, so that the structures can be designed to withstand such situations. In this report an analysis of extreme values of meteorological parameters observed at Kakrapar Atomic Power Station site for the period 1994 -2001 is described. The parameters considered are maximum and minimum air temperature, maximum wind speed and gust, and maximum rainfall in a month, in a day, in an hour and annual rainfall. The extreme value analysis reveals that annual rainfall, maximum monthly rainfall, minimum air temperature and maximum wind speed at 10 m obey Fisher-Tippet Type -1 distribution whereas maximum daily rainfall, maximum hourly rainfall, maxinlum air temperature and maximum wind speed at 30 m obey Fisher-Tippet Type -2 distribution function. There is no difference in correlation coefficients and fit both extreme value distribution function. Co-efficients of the distribution functions for each variable are established. Extreme values of parameters corresponding to return periods of 50 and 100 years are derived. These derived extreme values are particularly useful for arriving at suitable design basis values to ensure the safety of any civil structure in and around Kakrapar Atomic Power Station site with respect to stresses due to weather conditions. (author)

  4. Experimental observation of chaotic phase synchronization of a periodically pump-modulated multimode microchip Nd:YVO{sub 4} laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Chien-Hui; Kuo, Chie-Tong [Department of Physics, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 804, Taiwan, ROC (China); Hsu, Tzu-Fang, E-mail: tfhsu@mail.npue.edu.tw [Department of Applied Physics, National Pingtung University of Education, Pingtung 900, Taiwan, ROC (China); Jan, Hengtai; Han, Shiang-Yi [Department of Physics, National Kaohsiung Normal University, No. 62, Shenjhong Rd., Yanchao District, Kaohsiung City 824, Taiwan, ROC (China); Ho, Ming-Chung, E-mail: t1603@nknucc.nknu.edu.tw [Department of Physics, National Kaohsiung Normal University, No. 62, Shenjhong Rd., Yanchao District, Kaohsiung City 824, Taiwan, ROC (China); Jiang, I-Min [Department of Physics, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 804, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2012-03-12

    In this Letter we demonstrate the experimental observation of chaotic phase synchronization (CPS) in a periodically pump-modulated multimode microchip Nd:YVO{sub 4} laser. PS transition is displayed via the stroboscopic technique. We apply the recurrence probability and correlation probability of recurrence to estimate the degree of PS. The degree of PS is studied taking into account the modulation amplitude and modulation frequency. We also propose an experimental compatible numerical simulation to reflect the fact that the Arnold tongues are experimentally and numerically exhibited in the periodically pump-modulated multimode microchip Nd:YVO{sub 4} laser. -- Highlights: ► We show chaotic phase synchronization in a pump-modulated microchip Nd:YVO{sub 4} laser. ► Phase synchronization (PS) transition is displayed via the stroboscopic technique. ► The degree of PS is studied taking into account the modulation parameters. ► The Arnold tongues are experimentally and numerically exhibited in the laser.

  5. Quasi-periodic oscillations in accreting magnetic white dwarfs. II. The asset of numerical modelling for interpreting observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busschaert, C.; Falize, É.; Michaut, C.; Bonnet-Bidaud, J.-M.; Mouchet, M.

    2015-07-01

    Context. Magnetic cataclysmic variables are close binary systems containing a strongly magnetized white dwarf that accretes matter coming from an M-dwarf companion. The high magnetic field strength leads to the formation of an accretion column instead of an accretion disk. High-energy radiation coming from those objects is emitted from the column close to the white dwarf photosphere at the impact region. Its properties depend on the characteristics of the white dwarf and an accurate accretion column model allows the properties of the binary system to be inferred, such as the white dwarf mass, its magnetic field, and the accretion rate. Aims: We study the temporal and spectral behaviour of the accretion region and use the tools we developed to accurately connect the simulation results to the X-ray and optical astronomical observations. Methods: The radiation hydrodynamics code Hades was adapted to simulate this specific accretion phenomena. Classical approaches were used to model the radiative losses of the two main radiative processes: bremsstrahlung and cyclotron. Synthetic light curves and X-ray spectra were extracted from numerical simulations. A fast Fourier analysis was performed on the simulated light curves. The oscillation frequencies and amplitudes in the X-ray and optical domains are studied to compare those numerical results to observational ones. Different dimensional formulae were developed to complete the numerical evaluations. Results: The complete characterization of the emitting region is described for the two main radiative regimes: when only the bremsstrahlung losses and when both cyclotron and bremsstrahlung losses are considered. The effect of the non-linear cooling instability regime on the accretion column behaviour is analysed. Variation in luminosity on short timescales (~1 s quasi-periodic oscillations) is an expected consequence of this specific dynamic. The importance of secondary shock instability on the quasi-periodic oscillation

  6. Potential of Future Hurricane Imaging Radiometer (HIRAD) Ocean Surface Wind Observations for Determining Tropical Storm Vortex Intensity and Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atlas, Robert; Bailey, M. C.; Black, Peter; James, Mark; Johnson, James; Jones, Linwood; Miller, Timothy; Ruf, Christopher; Uhlhorn, Eric

    2008-01-01

    The Hurricane Imaging Radiometer (HIRAD) is an innovative technology development, which offers the potential of new and unique remotely sensed observations of both extreme oceanic wind events and strong precipitation from either UAS or satellite platforms. It is based on the airborne Stepped Frequency Microwave Radiometer (SFMR), which is a proven aircraft remote sensing technique for observing tropical cyclone ocean surface wind speeds and rain rates, including those of major hurricane intensity. The proposed HIRAD instrument advances beyond the current nadir viewing SFMR to an equivalent wide-swath SFMR imager using passive microwave synthetic thinned aperture radiometer technology. This sensor will operate over 4-7 GHz (C-band frequencies) where the required tropical cyclone remote sensing physics has been validated by both SFMR and WindSat radiometers. HIRAD incorporates a unique, technologically advanced array antenna and several other technologies successfully demonstrated by the NASA's Instrument Incubator Program. A brassboard version of the instrument is complete and has been successfully tested in an anechoic chamber, and development of the aircraft instrument is well underway. HIRAD will be a compact, lightweight, low-power instrument with no moving parts that will produce wide-swath imagery of ocean vector winds and rain during hurricane conditions when existing microwave sensors (radiometers or scatterometers) are hindered. Preliminary studies show that HIRAD will have a significant positive impact on analyses as either a new aircraft or satellite sensor.

  7. Cometary ion dynamics observed in the close vicinity of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko during the intermediate activity period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berčič, L.; Behar, E.; Nilsson, H.; Nicolaou, G.; Wieser, G. Stenberg; Wieser, M.; Goetz, C.

    2018-06-01

    Aims: Cometary ions are constantly produced in the coma, and once produced they are accelerated and eventually escape the coma. We describe and interpret the dynamics of the cometary ion flow, of an intermediate active comet, very close to the nucleus and in the terminator plane. Methods: We analysed in situ ion and magnetic field measurements, and characterise the velocity distribution functions (mostly using plasma moments). We propose a statistical approach over a period of one month. Results: On average, two populations were observed, separated in phase space. The motion of the first is governed by its interaction with the solar wind farther upstream, while the second one is accelerated in the inner coma and displays characteristics compatible with an ambipolar electric field. Both populations display a consistent anti-sunward velocity component. Conclusions: Cometary ions born in different regions of the coma are seen close to the nucleus of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko with distinct motions governed in one case by the solar wind electric field and in the other case by the position relative to the nucleus. A consistent anti-sunward component is observed for all cometary ions. An asymmetry is found in the average cometary ion density in a solar wind electric field reference frame, with higher density in the negative (south) electric field hemisphere. There is no corresponding signature in the average magnetic field strength.

  8. Synchronous observations of long-periodic geomagnetic pulsations on the ATS-6 satellite and on the Earth surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barfild, Dzh.N.; Bondarenko, N.M.; Buloshnikov, A.M.; Gokhberg, M.B.; Kalisher, A.L.; Mak-Ferron, R.L.; Troitskaya, V.A.

    1977-01-01

    Geomagnetic pulsations of the Pi2 and Pc4 types recorded by the ATS-6 geostationary satellite and by observatories located near the geomagnetic longitude of the space satellite from the 24th of May, 1974 to the 1st of September, 1976 are compared. The periods of the Pi2 pulsations measured by the space satellite and on the Earth practically coincide, dynamic spectra and spectral densities are similar. The amplitude of the Pi2 pulsations recorded in auroral latitudes is several times wider than the amplitude measured by the ATS-6 while in middle latitudes the amplitude is much smaller than on the satellite. The Pc4 pulsations are not practically observed on the Earth for they are probably excited in narrow local areas of the magnitosphere. In order to arrive to the single-valued solution of the problem of the mechanism of the generation and localization of the pulsation source it is necessary to carry out simultaneous observations on the Earth and in the magnitosphere

  9. Subjective and objective observation of skin graft recovery on Indonesian local cat with different periods of transplantation time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin; Gunanti; Handharyani, Ekowati; Noviana, Deni

    2016-05-01

    The success of a skin graft in a cat is highly dependent on the granulation formed by the base of recipient bed. Granulation by the base of recipient bed will form after several days after injury. This research aimed to observe subjective and objective profile of skin graft recovery on forelimb of cats with different periods of donor skin placement. Nine male Indonesian local cats aged 1-2 years old, weighing 3-4 kg were divided into three groups. The first surgery for creating defect wound of 2 cm×2 cm in size was performed in the whole group. The wound was left for several days with the respective interval for each group, respectively: Group I (for 2 days), Group II (for 4 days), and Group III (for 6 days). In the whole group, the second surgery was done by the harvesting skin of thoracic area which then applied on recipient bed of respective groups. The donor skin on Group II was accepted faster compared to Group I and Group III. The donor skin did not show color differences compared to surrounding skin, painless, bright red in bleeding test had faster both hair growth and drug absorption. Test toward the size of donor skin and the effect of drugs did not show a significant difference between each group. The observe subjective and objective profile of skin graft recovery on forelimb of cats on Group II were accepted faster compared to Group I and III.

  10. TIME DELAYS IN QUASI-PERIODIC PULSATIONS OBSERVED DURING THE X2.2 SOLAR FLARE ON 2011 FEBRUARY 15

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolla, L.; Marque, C.; Seaton, D. B.; Dominique, M.; Berghmans, D.; Cabanas, C.; De Groof, A.; Verdini, A.; West, M. J.; Zhukov, A. N. [Solar-Terrestrial Center of Excellence, Royal Observatory of Belgium, Avenue Circulaire 3, B-1180 Brussels (Belgium); Van Doorsselaere, T. [Centrum voor Plasma-Astrofysica, Department of Mathematics, KULeuven, Celestijnenlaan 200B bus 2400, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Schmutz, W. [Physikalisch-Meteorologisches Observatorium Davos, World Radiation Center, Davos Dorf (Switzerland); Zender, J., E-mail: dolla@sidc.be [European Space Agency, ESTEC, Keplerlaan 1, 2201 AZ Noordwijk (Netherlands)

    2012-04-10

    We report observations of quasi-periodic pulsations (QPPs) during the X2.2 flare of 2011 February 15, observed simultaneously in several wavebands. We focus on fluctuations on timescale 1-30 s and find different time lags between different wavebands. During the impulsive phase, the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager channels in the range 25-100 keV lead all the other channels. They are followed by the Nobeyama RadioPolarimeters at 9 and 17 GHz and the extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) channels of the Euv SpectroPhotometer (ESP) on board the Solar Dynamic Observatory. The zirconium and aluminum filter channels of the Large Yield Radiometer on board the Project for On-Board Autonomy satellite and the soft X-ray (SXR) channel of ESP follow. The largest lags occur in observations from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite, where the channel at 1-8 A leads the 0.5-4 A channel by several seconds. The time lags between the first and last channels is up to Almost-Equal-To 9 s. We identified at least two distinct time intervals during the flare impulsive phase, during which the QPPs were associated with two different sources in the Nobeyama RadioHeliograph at 17 GHz. The radio as well as the hard X-ray channels showed different lags during these two intervals. To our knowledge, this is the first time that time lags are reported between EUV and SXR fluctuations on these timescales. We discuss possible emission mechanisms and interpretations, including flare electron trapping.

  11. Process monitoring in intensive care with the use of cumulative expected minus observed mortality and risk-adjusted P charts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockings, Jerome G L; Cook, David A; Iqbal, Rehana K

    2006-02-01

    A health care system is a complex adaptive system. The effect of a single intervention, incorporated into a complex clinical environment, may be different from that expected. A national database such as the Intensive Care National Audit & Research Centre (ICNARC) Case Mix Programme in the UK represents a centralised monitoring, surveillance and reporting system for retrospective quality and comparative audit. This can be supplemented with real-time process monitoring at a local level for continuous process improvement, allowing early detection of the impact of both unplanned and deliberately imposed changes in the clinical environment. Demographic and UK Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) data were prospectively collected on all patients admitted to a UK regional hospital between 1 January 2003 and 30 June 2004 in accordance with the ICNARC Case Mix Programme. We present a cumulative expected minus observed (E-O) plot and the risk-adjusted p chart as methods of continuous process monitoring. We describe the construction and interpretation of these charts and show how they can be used to detect planned or unplanned organisational process changes affecting mortality outcomes. Five hundred and eighty-nine adult patients were included. The overall death rate was 0.78 of predicted. Calibration showed excess survival in ranges above 30% risk of death. The E-O plot confirmed a survival above that predicted. Small transient variations were seen in the slope that could represent random effects, or real but transient changes in the quality of care. The risk-adjusted p chart showed several observations below the 2 SD control limits of the expected mortality rate. These plots provide rapid analysis of risk-adjusted performance suitable for local application and interpretation. The E-O chart provided rapid easily visible feedback of changes in risk-adjusted mortality, while the risk-adjusted p chart allowed statistical evaluation. Local analysis of

  12. Tropical cyclones-Pacific Asian Research Campaign for Improvement of Intensity estimations/forecasts (T-PARCII): A research plan of typhoon aircraft observations in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuboki, Kazuhisa

    2017-04-01

    Typhoons are the most devastating weather system occurring in the western North Pacific and the South China Sea. Violent wind and heavy rainfall associated with a typhoon cause huge disaster in East Asia including Japan. In 2013, Supertyphoon Haiyan struck the Philippines caused a very high storm surge and more than 7000 people were killed. In 2015, two typhoons approached the main islands of Japan and severe flood occurred in the northern Kanto region. Typhoons are still the largest cause of natural disaster in East Asia. Moreover, many researches have projected increase of typhoon intensity with the climate change. This suggests that a typhoon risk is increasing in East Asia. However, the historical data of typhoon include large uncertainty. In particular, intensity data of the most intense typhoon category have larger error after the US aircraft reconnaissance of typhoon was terminated in 1987.The main objective of the present study is improvements of typhoon intensity estimations and of forecasts of intensity and track. We will perform aircraft observation of typhoon and the observed data are assimilated to numerical models to improve intensity estimation. Using radars and balloons, observations of thermodynamical and cloud-microphysical processes of typhoons will be also performed to improve physical processes of numerical model. In typhoon seasons (mostly in August and September), we will perform aircraft observations of typhoons. Using dropsondes from the aircraft, temperature, humidity, pressure, and wind are measured in surroundings of the typhoon inner core region. The dropsonde data are assimilated to a cloud-resolving model which has been developed in Nagoya University and named the Cloud Resolving Storm Simulator (CReSS). Then, more accurate estimations and forecasts of the typhoon intensity will be made as well as typhoon tracks. Furthermore, we will utilize a ground-based balloon with microscope camera, X-band precipitation radar, Ka-band cloud radar

  13. [Evaluation of immunosuppressive treatment on homocystein levels in patients after kidney transplantation during a 2 year observation period].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksamit, Dariusz; Janda, Katarzyna; Kuźniewski, Marek; Krzanowski, Marcin; Ignacak, Ewa; Betkowska-Prokop, Alina; Chowaniec, Eve; Sułowicz, Wladysław

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of the type of prescribed immunosuppression: cyclosporine A (CsA) vs. tacrolimus (Tac) on remote homocystein levels in patients (pts) after kidney transplantation (Ktx). The study included 51 pts (17 F, 34 M) aged 15 to 62 years (mean 38.1) after cadaver Ktx. The mean observation period equaled 21.2 months (6 -24); while total observation period was 90 personlyears. Before Ktx, 46 pts were treated with maintenance hemodialysis (HD), while 5 by peritoneal dialysis (PD). After Ktx, patients had immunosuppression prescribed according to the following schemes: prednisone (P) + CsA + azathioprine (AZA) - 12 pts; P + CsA + mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) -26 pts; P + Tac + MMF - 11 pts; and P + Tac + AZA - 2 pts. Hcy level was measured using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Serum creatinine level was measured by standard method using the Hitachi 917 analyzer. Creatinine clearance was calculated based on the Cockcroft-Gault formula. Patient's blood was drawn before Ktx and 3, 6, 9, 12,15, 18, 21 and 24 months post procedure. Delayed graft function (DGF) after Ktx was diagnosed in 29 pts (56.9%) and this group required from 4 to 28 HD sessions (mean 14 sessions). Hcy level did not significantly differ between pts requiring (29 pts) and not requiring (22 pts) HD treatment after Ktx. It was also noted that the number of performed HD sessions did not significantly correlate with Hcy levels 24 months after Ktx (R =0.04, p=0.81). No relationship was found (non-parametric Spearman test) between the drop in Hcy level 3 months after Ktx as compare with value before Ktx and ischemia time (R=0.09, p=0.49), number of compatible HLA A and B (R=0.07, p=0.63), and DR antigens (R=0.09, p=0.51). Decrease in Hcy level (before Ktx and 24 months after Ktx) did not significantly correlate with the above parameters, respectively: R=-0.14, p=0.40; R=0.06, p=0.73; R=0.12, p=0.45; R=0.11, p=0.50. Decrease in Hcy level (before Ktx and 3

  14. Can the periodic spectral modulations observed in 236 Sloan Sky Survey stars be due to dark matter effects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamburini, Fabrizio; Licata, Ignazio

    2017-09-01

    The search for dark matter (DM) is one of the most active and challenging areas of current research. Possible DM candidates are ultralight fields such as axions and weak interacting massive particles (WIMPs). Axions piled up in the center of stars are supposed to generate matter/DM configurations with oscillating geometries at a very rapid frequency, which is a multiple of the axion mass m B (Brito et al (2015); Brito et al (2016)). Borra and Trottier (2016) recently found peculiar ultrafast periodic spectral modulations in 236 main sequence stars in the sample of 2.5 million spectra of galactic halo stars of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (˜1% of main sequence stars in the F-K spectral range) that were interpreted as optical signals from extraterrestrial civilizations, suggesting them as possible candidates for the search for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI) program. We argue, instead, that this could be the first indirect evidence of bosonic axion-like DM fields inside main sequence stars, with a stable radiative nucleus, where a stable DM core can be hosted. These oscillations were not observed in earlier stellar spectral classes probably because of the impossibility of starting a stable oscillatory regime due to the presence of chaotic motions in their convective nuclei. The axion mass values, (50< {m}B< 2.4× {10}3) μ {eV}, obtained from the frequency range observed by Borra and Trottier, (0.6070< f< 0.6077) THz, agree with the recent theoretical results from high-temperature lattice quantum chromodynamics (Borsanyi et al (2016); Borsanyi et al (2016b)).

  15. Subjective and objective observation of skin graft recovery on Indonesian local cat with different periods of transplantation time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erwin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The success of a skin graft in a cat is highly dependent on the granulation formed by the base of recipient bed. Granulation by the base of recipient bed will form after several days after injury. This research aimed to observe subjective and objective profile of skin graft recovery on forelimb of cats with different periods of donor skin placement. Materials and Methods: Nine male Indonesian local cats aged 1-2 years old, weighing 3-4 kg were divided into three groups. The first surgery for creating defect wound of 2 cm×2 cm in size was performed in the whole group. The wound was left for several days with the respective interval for each group, respectively: Group I (for 2 days, Group II (for 4 days, and Group III (for 6 days. In the whole group, the second surgery was done by the harvesting skin of thoracic area which then applied on recipient bed of respective groups. Result: The donor skin on Group II was accepted faster compared to Group I and Group III. The donor skin did not show color differences compared to surrounding skin, painless, bright red in bleeding test had faster both hair growth and drug absorption. Test toward the size of donor skin and the effect of drugs did not show a significant difference between each group. Conclusion: The observe subjective and objective profile of skin graft recovery on forelimb of cats on Group II were accepted faster compared to Group I and III.

  16. Hydrometeorological aspects of the Real-Time Ultrafinescale Forecast Support during the Special Observing Period of the MAP*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Benoit

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available During the Special Observation Period (SOP, 7 September–15 November, 1999 of the Mesoscale Alpine Programme (MAP, the Canadian Mesoscale Compressible Community Model (MC2 was run in real time at a horizontal resolution of 3 km on a computational domain of 350☓300☓50 grid points, covering the whole of the Alpine region. The WATFLOOD model was passively coupled to the MC2; the former is an integrated set of computer programs to forecast flood flows, using all available data, for catchments with response times ranging from one hour to several weeks. The unique aspect of this contribution is the operational application of numerical weather prediction data to forecast flows over a very large, multinational domain. An overview of the system performance from the hydrometeorological aspect is presented, mostly for the real-time results, but also from subsequent analyses. A streamflow validation of the precipitation is included for large basins covering upper parts of the Rhine and the Rhone, and parts of the Po and of the Danube. In general, the MC2/WATFLOOD model underestimated the total runoff because of the under-prediction of precipitation by MC2 during the MAP SOP. After the field experiment, a coding error in the cloud microphysics scheme of MC2 explains this underestimation to a large extent. A sensitivity study revealed that the simulated flows reproduce the major features of the observed flow record for most of the flow stations. The experiment was considered successful because two out of three possible flood events in the Swiss-Italian border region were predicted correctly by data from the numerical weather models linked to the hydrological model and no flow events were missed. This study has demonstrated that a flow forecast from a coupled atmospheric-hydrological model can serve as a useful first alert and quantitative forecast. Keywords: mesoscale atmospheric model, hydrological model, flood forecasting, Alps

  17. Evaluating team-based inter-professional advanced life support training in intensive care-a prospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewster, D J; Barrett, J A; Gherardin, E; O'Neill, J A; Sage, D; Hanlon, G

    2017-01-01

    Recent focus on national standards within Australian hospitals has prompted a focus on the training of our staff in advanced life support (ALS). Research in critical care nursing has questioned the traditional annual certification of ALS competence as the best method of delivering this training. Simulation and team-based training may provide better ALS education to intensive care unit (ICU) staff. Our new inter-professional team-based advanced life support program involved ICU staff in a large private metropolitan ICU. A prospective observational study using three standardised questionnaires and two multiple choice questionnaire assessments was conducted. Ninety-nine staff demonstrated a 17.8% (95% confidence interval 4.2-31, P =0.01) increase in overall ICU nursing attendance at training sessions. Questionnaire response rates were 93 (94%), 99 (100%) and 60 (61%) respectively; 51 (52%) staff returned all three. Criteria were assessed by scores from 0 to 10. Nurses reported improved satisfaction with the education program (9.4 to 7.1, P versus 7.9 and 8.2, P versus 7.4 and 7.8, P versus 8.1, P =0.04). The new program cost approximately an extra $16,500 in nursing salaries. We concluded that team-based, inter-professional ALS training produced statistically significant improvements in nursing attendance, satisfaction with ALS education, confidence and role understanding compared to traditional ALS training.

  18. External Validation of Risk Prediction Scores for Invasive Candidiasis in a Medical/Surgical Intensive Care Unit: An Observational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Armin; Baronia, Arvind Kumar; Azim, Afzal; Marak, Rungmei S. K.; Yadav, Reema; Sharma, Preeti; Gurjar, Mohan; Poddar, Banani; Singh, Ratender Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to conduct external validation of risk prediction scores for invasive candidiasis. Methods: We conducted a prospective observational study in a 12-bedded adult medical/surgical Intensive Care Unit (ICU) to evaluate Candida score >3, colonization index (CI) >0.5, corrected CI >0.4 (CCI), and Ostrosky's clinical prediction rule (CPR). Patients' characteristics and risk factors for invasive candidiasis were noted. Patients were divided into two groups; invasive candidiasis and no-invasive candidiasis. Results: Of 198 patients, 17 developed invasive candidiasis. Discriminatory power (area under receiver operator curve [AUROC]) for Candida score, CI, CCI, and CPR were 0.66, 0.67, 0.63, and 0.62, respectively. A large number of patients in the no-invasive candidiasis group (114 out of 181) were exposed to antifungal agents during their stay in ICU. Subgroup analysis was carried out after excluding such patients from no-invasive candidiasis group. AUROC of Candida score, CI, CCI, and CPR were 0.7, 0.7, 0.65, and 0.72, respectively, and positive predictive values (PPVs) were in the range of 25%–47%, along with negative predictive values (NPVs) in the range of 84%–96% in the subgroup analysis. Conclusion: Currently available risk prediction scores have good NPV but poor PPV. They are useful for selecting patients who are not likely to benefit from antifungal therapy. PMID:28904481

  19. The features of sporadic hyperbolic meteors observed by television techniques in the period of 2007-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guliyev, Ayyub; Nabiyev, Shaig

    2015-12-01

    The features of 238 hyperbolic meteors observed within the framework of the Japanese program SonotaCo in the period of 2007-2009 are investigated in this paper. Irregularity of the eccentricities, explicitly dominance of retrograde orbits over direct ones, absence of domination of perihelia closes the ecliptic, irregular distribution of angular elements for these bodies' orbits were noticed. The values of eccentricities are distributed in the interval from 1 up to 1.31. The significant concentration of these particles perihelia closes the anti-apex of the Sun's peculiarity movements in the Galaxy was noticed. Distribution of elements of orbits in the galactic system of coordinates was considered also, however it was not possible to find the appreciable regularities. The distributions of the distant nodes and MOID-Minimum Orbit Intersection Distance of the hyperbolic meteors relatively to the orbits of the planets-giants were investigated as well. However it was not possible to prove, that the majority of the particles could receive the hyperbolic excess of speed due to the gravitational influence of the planets-giants. The statistics of relation of the hyperbolic meteors with 14 known trans-Neptunian planetary bodies brighter 3m.5 is considered. Testing of the distant nodes and MOID values only for 2003 MW12, 2007 OR10 and Qaoaor have the positive results. In the next stage we have made analogical calculations for the 78 TNO having absolute brightness 5m.5 also and obtained the reasonable results for 9 of them.

  20. Intestinal stoma in patients with colorectal cancer from the perspective of 20-year period of clinical observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banaszkiewicz, Zbigniew; Woda, Łukasz P; Zwoliński, Tomasz; Tojek, Krzysztof; Jarmocik, Paweł; Jawień, Arkadiusz

    2015-01-01

    Intestinal stoma is a procedure most often performed in patients with colorectal cancer. To identify the percentage of patients with colorectal cancer in which the intestinal stoma was performed. We retrospectively analysed 443 patients treated during a 20-year period (1994-2013) due to colorectal cancer, in which the intestinal stoma was made during the first surgical intervention. In the second analysed decade, a significant decrease in the percentage of created stomas, definitive stomas in particular, was observed. Stomas were made significantly more often in patients with a tumour located in the rectum, the left half of the colon, and in patients undergoing urgent surgeries. An increased incidence of intestinal stomas was associated with a higher severity of illness and higher proportion of unresectable and non-radical procedures. The definitive stomas were significantly more often made in men and in patients with tumours located in the rectum, whereas temporary stomas were created significantly more often in patients undergoing urgent operations. In the last decade (2004-2013) the number of intestinal stomas in patients operated due to colorectal cancer was significantly reduced.

  1. Periodicities in the X-ray Emission from the Solar Corona: SphinX and SOXS Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steślicki, M.; Awasthi, A. K.; Gryciuk, M.; Jain, R.

    The structure and evolution of the solar magnetic field is driven by a magnetohydrodynamic dynamo operating in the solar interior, which induces various solar activities that exhibit periodic variations on different timescales. Therefore, probing the periodic nature of emission originating from the solar corona may provide insights of the convection-zone-photosphere-corona coupling processes. We present the study of the mid-range periodicities, between rotation period (˜27 days) and the Schwabe cycle period (˜11 yr), in the solar soft X-ray emission, based on the data obtained by two instruments: SphinX and SOXS in various energy bands.

  2. [Changes observed in three quality indicators after the implementation of improvement strategies in the respiratory intensive care unit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez Maldonado, Pablo; Cueto Robledo, Guillermo; Cicero Sabido, Raúl

    2015-04-01

    To compare the results of quality monitoring after the implementation of improvement strategies in the respiratory intensive care unit (RICU). A prospective, comparative, longitudinal and interventional study was carried out. The RICU of Hospital General de México (Mexico). All patients admitted to the RICU from March 2012 to March 2013. An evidence-based bundle of interventions was implemented in order to reduce the ratios of three quality indicators: non-planned extubation (NPE), reintubation, and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). NPE, reintubation and VAP ratios. A total of 232 patients were admitted, with a mean age of 49.5±17.8years; 119 (50.5%) were woman. The mean Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS-3) was 49.8±17, and the mean Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score was 5.3±4.1. The mortality rate in the RICU was 38.7%. The standardized mortality ratio was 1.50 (95%CI: 1.20-1.84). An improved ratio was observed for reintubation and NPE indicators compared to the ratios of the previous 2011 cohort: 1.6% vs. 7% (P=.02) and 8.1 vs. 17 episodes per 1000 days of mechanical ventilation (P=.04), respectively. A worsened VAP ratio was observed: 18.4 vs. 15.1 episodes per 1000 days of mechanical ventilation (P=.5). Quality improvement is feasible with the identification of areas of opportunity and the implementation of strategies. Nevertheless, the implementation of a bundle of preventive measures in itself does not guarantee improvements. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  3. The Influence of Synoptic Meteorology on Convective Boundary Layer Characteristics and the Observed Chemical Response During PROPHET 2000 and 2001 Summer Intensives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilly, M. A.; Moody, J. L.; Carroll, M.; Brown, W. O.; Cohn, S. A.

    2002-12-01

    PROPHET conducted atmospheric chemistry intensives that were coordinated with continuous measurements of the atmospheric boundary layer at the University of Michigan Biological Station (UMBS) during July and August of 2000 and 2001. Observations of ozone and trace gas precursors were made on a 31-meter tower within a mixed hardwood forest. A National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) integrated sounding system (915-MHz Doppler wind profiler, radio acoustic sounder, surface meteorological tower, and rawinsonde system) was deployed in a nearby clearing. This facility provided detailed measurements of atmospheric boundary layer structure. The site is located at the northern tip of the Michigan's lower peninsula. Typically, a contaminated maritime-subtropical air mass lies to the south, while a relatively clean continental-polar air mass lies to the north, resulting in two distinct synoptic transport regimes. Published work, based on analyses of back trajectories and 1998 chemical data, has shown the influence of air mass origin on trace gas mixing ratios and the same trends are observed in 2000 and 2001 chemical data. Besides directly affecting the chemistry observed at the site, the large-scale synoptic meteorology has a major influence on convective boundary layer (CBL) characteristics. CBL data were obtained from the range corrected signal-to-noise ratio, derived from the Doppler spectra measured by the wind profiler. Distinct differences between CBL characteristics, such as growth rates, time period of maximum growth, average height throughout evolution, and maximum height, are illustrated for differing synoptic patterns. Typically, dry northerly flow results when UMBS is positioned on the leading edge of surface anticyclones moving out of Canada after frontal passages. The dry air mass accompanied with relatively clear skies allows intense solar radiation to go directly into surface heating; the result is rapid CBL development. By contrast, warm, moist air

  4. The Mucosal Immune Function Is Not Compromised during a Period of High-Intensity Interval Training. Is It Time to Reconsider an Old Assumption?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Born, Dennis-Peter; Zinner, Christoph; Sperlich, Billy

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the study was to evaluate the mucosal immune function and circadian variation of salivary cortisol, Immunoglobin-A (sIgA) secretion rate and mood during a period of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) compared to long-slow distance training (LSD). Methods: Recreational male runners (n = 28) completed nine sessions of either HIIT or LSD within 3 weeks. The HIIT involved 4 × 4 min of running at 90–95% of maximum heart rate interspersed with 3 min of active recovery while the LSD comprised of continuous running at 70–75% of maximum heart rate for 60–80 min. The psycho-immunological stress-response was investigated with a full daily profile of salivary cortisol and immunoglobin-A (sIgA) secretion rate along with the mood state on a baseline day, the first and last day of training and at follow-up 4 days after the last day of training. Before and after the training period, each athlete's running performance and peak oxygen uptake (V·O2peak) was determined with an incremental exercise test. Results: The HIIT resulted in a longer time-to-exhaustion (P = 0.02) and increased V·O2peak compared to LSD (P = 0.01). The circadian variation of sIgA secretion rate showed highest values in the morning immediately after waking up followed by a decrease throughout the day in both groups (P HIIT, the wake-up response of sIgA secretion rate was higher on the last day of training (P HIIT and LSD (P HIIT indicates no compromised mucosal immune function compared to LSD and shows the functional adaptation of the mucosal immune system in response to the increased stress and training load of nine sessions of HIIT. PMID:28744226

  5. Cavity Ring-Down Measurement of Aerosol Optical Properties During the Asian Dust Above Monterey Experiment and DOE Aerosol Intensive Operating Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, K.; Strawa, A. W.; Provencal, R.; Castaneda, R.; Bucholtz, A.; Schmid, B.

    2004-01-01

    Large uncertainties in the effects of aerosols on climate require improved in-situ measurements of extinction coefficient and single-scattering albedo. This paper describes preliminary results from Cadenza, a new continuous wave cavity ring-down (CW-CRD) instrument designed to address these uncertainties. Cadenza measures the aerosol extinction coefficient for 675 nm and 1550 nm light, and simultaneously measures the scattering coefficient at 675 nm. In the past year Cadenza was deployed in the Asian Dust Above Monterey (ADAM) and DOE Aerosol Intensive Operating Period (IOP) field projects. During these flights Cadenza produced measurements of aerosol extinction in the range from 0.2 to 300/Mm with an estimated precision of 0.1/Mm for 1550 nm light and 0.2/Mm for 675 nm light. Cadenza data from the ADAM and Aerosol IOP missions compared favorably with data from the other instruments aboard the CIRPAS Twin Otter aircraft and participating in those projects. We present comparisons between the Cadenza measurements and those from a TSI nephelometer, Particle Soot Absorption Photometer (PSAP), and the AATS 14 sun-photometer. Measurements of the optical properties of smoke and dust plumes sampled during these campaigns are presented and estimates of heating rates due to these plumes are made.

  6. Assessing and evaluating urban VOC emissions in mid-latitude megacities from intensive observations in Paris and Los Angeles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borbon, A.; Gilman, J. B.; Kuster, W. C.; McKeen, S. A.; Holloway, J. S.; Gros, V.; Gaimoz, C.; Beekmann, M.; De Gouw, J. A.

    2011-12-01

    Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) affect urban air quality and regional climate change by contributing to ozone formation and the build-up of Secondary Organic Aerosols (SOA). Quantification of VOC emissions is a first critical step to predict VOC environmental impacts and to design effective abatement strategies. Indeed, the quality of ozone and SOA forecasts strongly depends on an accurate knowledge of the primary VOC emissions. However, commonly used bottom-up approaches are highly uncertain due to source multiplicity (combustion processes, storage and distribution of fossil fuels, solvent use, etc.) because of numerous controlling factors (driving conditions, fuel type, temperature, radiation, etc.), and their great variability in time and space. Field observations of VOC and other trace gases can provide valuable top-down constraints to evaluate VOC emission inventories at urban scales. In addition, the implementation of emission reduction measures raises the question of the increasing importance of VOC sources other than traffic. Here, we will evaluate VOC emissions of two mid-latitude megacities in the Northern Hemisphere: the Greater Paris area (Europe) and Los Angeles (USA). In 2009 and 2010, three intensive field campaigns took place in Paris and Los Angeles in the framework of the MEGAPOLI (EU FP7) and CalNex-2010 projects, respectively. Very detailed measurements of aerosol composition and properties, and their gaseous VOC precursors were carried out at ground-based sites (urban center and suburban) and on various mobile platforms. This contribution uses a comprehensive suite of VOC measurements collected by GC-MS/FID techniques at ground-based sites in both cities by a source-receptor methodology. First, emission ratios were estimated from the observations (uncertainty of ± 20%) and compared regarding regional characteristics and European vs. Californian control policies. Then, determined emission ratios were used to assess the accuracy of up

  7. Pulsations and period changes of the non-Blazhko RR lyrae variable Y oct observed from Dome A, Antarctica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhihua, Huang; Jianning, Fu; Weikai, Zong; Lingzhi, Wang; Zonghong, Zhu [Department of Astronomy, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); M, Macri Lucas; Lifan, Wang [Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX (United States); Ashley, Michael C. B.; S, Lawrence Jon; Daniel, Luong-Van [School of Physics, University of New South Wales, NSW (Australia); Xiangqun, Cui; Long-Long, Feng; Xuefei, Gong; Qiang, Liu; Huigen, Yang; Xiangyan, Yuan; Xu, Zhou; Zhenxi, Zhu [Chinese Center for Antarctic Astronomy, Nanjing (China); R, Pennypacker Carl [Center for Astrophysics, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); G, York Donald, E-mail: jnfu@bnu.edu.cn [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics and Enrico Fermi Institute, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2015-01-01

    During the operation of the Chinese Small Telescope Array (CSTAR) in Dome A of Antarctica in the years 2008, 2009, and 2010, large amounts of photometric data have been obtained for variable stars in the CSTAR field. We present here the study of one of six RR Lyrae variables, Y Oct, observed with CSTAR in Dome A, Antarctica. Photometric data in the i band were obtained in 2008 and 2010, with a duty cycle (defined as the fraction of time representing scientifically available data to CSTAR observation time) of about 44% and 52%, respectively. In 2009, photometric data in the g and r bands were gathered for this star, with a duty cycle of 65% and 60%, respectively. Fourier analysis of the data in the three bands only shows the fundamental frequency and its harmonics, which is characteristic of the non-Blazhko RR Lyrae variables. Values of the fundamental frequency and the amplitudes, as well as the total pulsation amplitude, are obtained from the data in the three bands separately. The amplitude of the fundamental frequency and the total pulsation amplitude in the g band are the largest, and those in the i band the smallest. Two-hundred fifty-one times of maximum are obtained from the three seasons of data, which are analyzed together with 38 maximum times provided in the GEOS RR Lyrae database. A period change rate of −0.96 ± 0.07 days Myr{sup −1} is then obtained, which is a surprisingly large negative value. Based on relations available in the literature, the following physical parameters are derived: [Fe/H] = −1.41 ± 0.14, M{sub V} = 0.696 ± 0.014 mag, V−K = 1.182 ± 0.028 mag, logT{sub eff} = 3.802 ± 0.003 K, logg = 2.705 ± 0.004, logL/L{sub ⊙} = 1.625 ± 0.013, and logM/M{sub ⊙} = −0.240 ± 0.019.

  8. BACTERIAL COLONY GROWTH IN THE VENTILATOR CIRCUIT OF THE INTENSIVE OBSERVATION UNIT AT RSUD DR. SOETOMO SURABAYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fajar Perdhana

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP remains a problem with the highest cos, morbidity and mortalityt in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU. The correlation between mechanical ventilation and pneumonia is considered as common sense, yet scientific evidence to support this statement is still needed. This research aims to analyze the bacterial colony grows in mechanical ventilation circuit and those grew in the patient’s sputum culture. We performed an observational study. Samples for bacterial culture were taken from ventilator circuit and patient sputum on Day-0, Day-3 and Day-7. Sputum samplings are collected using double catheter tracheal aspiration technique; Results are then analyzed with Chi-square test. While the similarity of bacteria species in ventilator circuit to patient’s sputum is analyzed with Binomial test. Two samples are dropped out immediately due to the rate of bacterial growth on Day-0. Bacterial colony growth in ventilator circuit shows a significant difference on Day-3 and Day-7 at 50% and 92% respectively (p = 0.05. A comparison for the bacterial similarity of the ventilator circuit and patient’s sputum shows that the bacterial growth on Day-3 is 7 out of 14 (50% and 3 with more than 105 CFU/ml colony; while on Day-7, there are 13 out of 14 positive bacterial growth, both in the circuit and the patient’s sputum. Among them, 5 out of 14 (35% of the bacterial colony which grow in the circuit have the same species as those grow in patient’s sputum. The recent study shows that there is bacteria colony growth in the ventilator circuit after Day-3 and a significant increase on Day-7. Almost half of the colony illustrates similar species from both ventilator circuit and patient’s sputum. This suggests that the bacterial growth on Day-7 in the ventilator circuit might be related to those growth in patient’s sputum.

  9. INTERPLANETARY SUPRATHERMAL He+ AND He++ OBSERVATIONS DURING QUIET PERIODS FROM 1 TO 9 AU AND IMPLICATIONS FOR PARTICLE ACCELERATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, M. E.; Schwadron, N. A.; Hamilton, D. C.; DiFabio, R. D.; Squier, R. K.

    2009-01-01

    We measured quiet-time differential intensities of ∼2-60 keV nucleon -1 He + and He ++ during the 1999-2004, 1-9 AU portion of Cassini's interplanetary cruise to Saturn and found that the He + /He ++ composition ratio grows as the distance from the Sun r increases. An increase in the ratio is expected from the theoretical pickup ion and solar wind intensities, but the absolute He + intensity, counter to the predicted falling r -1 dependence of the density, is actually slightly increasing, and He ++ falls off much more slowly than the r -2 dependence one might expect from a population with a solar source. With an approximately r 2.2 radial dependence, our rigorous numerical transport and acceleration model (with stochastic acceleration) matches the higher-energy (>13 keV nucleon -1 ) measured He + /He ++ composition profiles well, as does our analytical theory. Two acceleration processes are likely needed: the composition ratios are explainable by stochastic acceleration while a velocity-dependent mechanism that acts beyond 1 AU equally on He + and He ++ is required to explain the spatial intensity profiles.

  10. Southern high-latitude Digisonde observations of ionosphere E-region Bragg scatter during intense lacuna conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. P. Monselesan

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available During summer months at solar cycle minimum, F-region lacuna and slant-Es conditions (SEC are common features of daytime ionograms recorded around local magnetic noon at Casey, Antarctica. Digisonde measurements of drift velocity height profiles show that the occurrence of lacuna prevents the determination of F-region drift velocities and also affects E-region drift velocity measurements. Unique E-region spectral features revealed as intervals of Bragg scatter superimposed on typical background E-region reflection were observed in Digisonde Doppler spectra during intense lacuna conditions. Daytime E-region Doppler spectra recorded at carrier frequencies from 1.5 to 2.7MHz, below the E-region critical frequency foE, have two side-peaks corresponding to Bragg scatter at approximately ±1-2Hz symmetrically located on each side of a central-peak corresponding to near-zenith total reflections. Angle-of-arrival information and ray-tracing simulations show that echo returns are coming from oblique directions most likely resulting from direct backscatter from just below the total reflection height for each sounding frequency. The Bragg backscatter events are shown to manifest during polar lacuna conditions, and to affect the determination of E-region background drift velocities, and as such must be considered when using standard Doppler-sorted interferometry (DSI techniques to estimate ionospheric drift velocities. Given the Doppler and spatial separation of the echoes determined from high-resolution Doppler measurements, we are able to estimate the Bragg scatter phase velocity independently from the bulk E-region motion. The phase velocity coincides with the ExB direction derived from in situ fluxgate magnetometer records. When ionospheric refraction is considered, the phase velocity amplitudes deduced from DSI are comparable to the ion-acoustic speed expected in the E-region. We briefly consider the plausibility that these

  11. Southern high-latitude Digisonde observations of ionosphere E-region Bragg scatter during intense lacuna conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. P. Monselesan

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available During summer months at solar cycle minimum, F-region lacuna and slant-Es conditions (SEC are common features of daytime ionograms recorded around local magnetic noon at Casey, Antarctica. Digisonde measurements of drift velocity height profiles show that the occurrence of lacuna prevents the determination of F-region drift velocities and also affects E-region drift velocity measurements. Unique E-region spectral features revealed as intervals of Bragg scatter superimposed on typical background E-region reflection were observed in Digisonde Doppler spectra during intense lacuna conditions. Daytime E-region Doppler spectra recorded at carrier frequencies from 1.5 to 2.7MHz, below the E-region critical frequency foE, have two side-peaks corresponding to Bragg scatter at approximately ±1-2Hz symmetrically located on each side of a central-peak corresponding to near-zenith total reflections. Angle-of-arrival information and ray-tracing simulations show that echo returns are coming from oblique directions most likely resulting from direct backscatter from just below the total reflection height for each sounding frequency. The Bragg backscatter events are shown to manifest during polar lacuna conditions, and to affect the determination of E-region background drift velocities, and as such must be considered when using standard Doppler-sorted interferometry (DSI techniques to estimate ionospheric drift velocities. Given the Doppler and spatial separation of the echoes determined from high-resolution Doppler measurements, we are able to estimate the Bragg scatter phase velocity independently from the bulk E-region motion. The phase velocity coincides with the ExB direction derived from in situ fluxgate magnetometer records. When ionospheric refraction is considered, the phase velocity amplitudes deduced from DSI are comparable to the ion-acoustic speed expected in the E-region. We briefly consider the plausibility that these previously unreported polar

  12. Observational calibration of the projection factor of Cepheids. IV. Period-projection factor relation of Galactic and Magellanic Cloud Cepheids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallenne, A.; Kervella, P.; Mérand, A.; Pietrzyński, G.; Gieren, W.; Nardetto, N.; Trahin, B.

    2017-11-01

    Context. The Baade-Wesselink (BW) method, which combines linear and angular diameter variations, is the most common method to determine the distances to pulsating stars. However, the projection factor, p-factor, used to convert radial velocities into pulsation velocities, is still poorly calibrated. This parameter is critical on the use of this technique, and often leads to 5-10% uncertainties on the derived distances. Aims: We focus on empirically measuring the p-factor of a homogeneous sample of 29 LMC and 10 SMC Cepheids for which an accurate average distances were estimated from eclipsing binary systems. Methods: We used the SPIPS algorithm, which is an implementation of the BW technique. Unlike other conventional methods, SPIPS combines all observables, i.e. radial velocities, multi-band photometry and interferometry into a consistent physical modelling to estimate the parameters of the stars. The large number and their redundancy insure its robustness and improves the statistical precision. Results: We successfully estimated the p-factor of several Magellanic Cloud Cepheids. Combined with our previous Galactic results, we find the following P-p relation: -0.08± 0.04(log P-1.18) + 1.24± 0.02. We find no evidence of a metallicity dependent p-factor. We also derive a new calibration of the period-radius relation, log R = 0.684± 0.007(log P-0.517) + 1.489± 0.002, with an intrinsic dispersion of 0.020. We detect an infrared excess for all stars at 3.6 μm and 4.5 μm, which might be the signature of circumstellar dust. We measure a mean offset of Δm3.6 = 0.057 ± 0.006 mag and Δm4.5 = 0.065 ± 0.008 mag. Conclusions: We provide a new P-p relation based on a multi-wavelength fit that can be used for the distance scale calibration from the BW method. The dispersion is due to the LMC and SMC width we took into account because individual Cepheids distances are unknown. The new P-R relation has a small intrinsic dispersion: 4.5% in radius. This precision will

  13. Intense energetic electron flux enhancements in Mercury's magnetosphere: An integrated view with high-resolution observations from MESSENGER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Daniel N; Dewey, Ryan M; Lawrence, David J; Goldsten, John O; Peplowski, Patrick N; Korth, Haje; Slavin, James A; Krimigis, Stamatios M; Anderson, Brian J; Ho, George C; McNutt, Ralph L; Raines, Jim M; Schriver, David; Solomon, Sean C

    2016-03-01

    The MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) mission to Mercury has provided a wealth of new data about energetic particle phenomena. With observations from MESSENGER's Energetic Particle Spectrometer, as well as data arising from energetic electrons recorded by the X-Ray Spectrometer and Gamma-Ray and Neutron Spectrometer (GRNS) instruments, recent work greatly extends our record of the acceleration, transport, and loss of energetic electrons at Mercury. The combined data sets include measurements from a few keV up to several hundred keV in electron kinetic energy and have permitted relatively good spatial and temporal resolution for many events. We focus here on the detailed nature of energetic electron bursts measured by the GRNS system, and we place these events in the context of solar wind and magnetospheric forcing at Mercury. Our examination of data at high temporal resolution (10 ms) during the period March 2013 through October 2014 supports strongly the view that energetic electrons are accelerated in the near-tail region of Mercury's magnetosphere and are subsequently "injected" onto closed magnetic field lines on the planetary nightside. The electrons populate the plasma sheet and drift rapidly eastward toward the dawn and prenoon sectors, at times executing multiple complete drifts around the planet to form "quasi-trapped" populations.

  14. The Effect of a Moderate Intensity Aerobic Exercise Followed by a Period of Detraining on Femoral Micro structures and It\\'s Strength in Oophorectomized Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Hojjati

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and aim: Exercise activities increase bone mass, however, the effect of  detraining and inactivity on osteoporosis in active people who take part in regular physical activity, are still not well understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of treadmill running exercise together with detraining on osteoporosis in Oophorectomized rats. Methods: Fifty female rats divided randomly into control experimental 1 (oophorectomized rats for 12 weeks experimental 2 (oophorectomized rats for 22 weeks experimental 3 (oophorectomized rats undergoing treadmill running exercise and experimental 4 (oophorectomized rats undergoing treadmill running exercise together with a period of detraining groups. Control group sacrificed in the beginning of the study. The experimental groups of 3 and 4 exercised for 10 weeks. After the training period, The experimental groups of 1 and 3 were sacrificed, while, experimental groups 4 and 2 remained detraining. The exercise program consisted of running on a treadmill (3 days/week for 10 weeks. The speed of treadmill was adjusted constant at 12 m/min and the duration of exercise began from 10 min in the first week and reached up to 64 min in the 10th week of exercise. At the end of study, all rats were sacrificed and their femurs were removed for bone micro structures (cortical and trabecular thickness, and trabecular separation and bone strength analysis. We used One-Way ANOVA and  post hoc Scheffe test to compare the groups after evaluation of Homology of variances by Shapiro wilk test. P&le 0.05 considered significant. Results: Trabecular thickness decreased significantly in experimental groups of 1 and 2 compared with control group (P<0.05. Bone strength and cortical thicknesses decreased significantly in experimental groups of 2 compared with control group (P<0.01. Bone strength and femoral micro structures improved in experimental group of 3 compared with experimental group of 1 and in

  15. Magnet Cycles and Stability Periods of the CMS Structures from 2008 to 2013 as Observed by the Link Alignment System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arce, P.; Barcala, J.M.; Calvo, E.; Ferrando, A.; Josa, M.I.; Molinero, A.; Navarrete, J.; Oller, J.C.

    2015-01-01

    In this document Magnet Cycles and Stability Periods of the CMS Experiment are studied with the recorded Alignment Link System data along the 2008 to 2013 years of operation. The motions of the mechanical structures due to the magnetic field forces are studied including an in-depth analysis of the relative distance between the endcap structures and the central Tracker body during the Stability Periods to verify the mechanical stability of the detector during the physics data taking.

  16. The epidemiology of sepsis in Brazilian intensive care units (the Sepsis PREvalence Assessment Database, SPREAD): an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Flavia R; Cavalcanti, Alexandre Biasi; Bozza, Fernando Augusto; Ferreira, Elaine M; Angotti Carrara, Fernanda Sousa; Sousa, Juliana Lubarino; Caixeta, Noemi; Salomao, Reinaldo; Angus, Derek C; Pontes Azevedo, Luciano Cesar

    2017-11-01

    The sepsis burden on acute care services in middle-income countries is a cause for concern. We estimated incidence, prevalence, and mortality of sepsis in adult Brazilian intensive care units (ICUs) and association of ICU organisational factors with outcome. We did a 1-day point prevalence study with follow-up of patients in ICU with sepsis in a nationally representative pseudo-random sample. We produced a sampling frame initially stratified by geographical region. Each stratum was then stratified by hospitals' main source of income (serving general public vs privately insured individuals) and ICU size (ten or fewer beds vs more than ten beds), finally generating 40 strata. In each stratum we selected a random sample of ICUs so as to enrol the total required beds in 1690 Brazilian adult ICUs. We followed up patients until hospital discharge censored at 60 days, estimated incidence from prevalence and length of stay, and generated national estimates. We assessed mortality prognostic factors using random-effects logistic regression models. On Feb 27, 2014, 227 (72%) of 317 ICUs that were randomly selected provided data on 2632 patients, of whom 794 had sepsis (30·2 septic patients per 100 ICU beds, 95% CI 28·4-31·9). The ICU sepsis incidence was 36·3 per 1000 patient-days (95% CI 29·8-44·0) and mortality was observed in 439 (55·7%) of 788 patients (95% CI 52·2-59·2). Low availability of resources (odds ratio [OR] 1·67, 95% CI 1·02-2·75, p=0·045) and adequacy of treatment (OR 0·56, 0·37-0·84, p=0·006) were independently associated with mortality. The projected incidence rate is 290 per 100 000 population (95% CI 237·9-351·2) of adult cases of ICU-treated sepsis per year, which yields about 420 000 cases annually, of whom 230 000 die in hospital. The incidence, prevalence, and mortality of ICU-treated sepsis is high in Brazil. Outcome varies considerably, and is associated with access to adequate resources and treatment. Our results show the

  17. Inter-annual variability of aerosol optical depth over the tropical Atlantic Ocean based on MODIS-Aqua observations over the period 2002-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkikas, Antonis; Hatzianastassiou, Nikolaos

    2013-04-01

    The tropical Atlantic Ocean is affected by dust and biomass burning aerosol loads transported from the western parts of the Saharan desert and the sub-Sahel regions, respectively. The spatial and temporal patterns of this transport are determined by the aerosol emission rates, their deposition (wet and dry), by the latitudinal shift of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) and the prevailing wind fields. More specifically, in summer, Saharan dust aerosols are transported towards the Atlantic Ocean, even reaching the Gulf of Mexico, while in winter the Atlantic Ocean transport takes place in more southern latitudes, near the equator, sometimes reaching the northern parts of South America. In the later case, dust is mixed with biomass burning aerosols originating from agricultural activities in the sub-Sahel, associated with prevailing north-easterly airflow (Harmattan winds). Satellite observations are the appropriate tool for describing this African aerosol export, which is important to atmospheric, oceanic and climate processes, offering the advantage of complete spatial coverage. In the present study, we use satellite measurements of aerosol optical depth at 550nm (AOD550nm), on a daily and monthly basis, derived from MODIS-Aqua platform, at 1ox1o spatial resolution (Level 3), for the period 2002-2012. The primary objective is to determine the pixel-level and regional mean anomalies of AOD550nm over the entire study period. The regime of the anomalies of African export is interpreted in relation to the aerosol source areas, precipitation, wind patterns and temporal variability of the North Atlantic Oscillation Index (NAOI). In order to ensure availability of AOD over the Sahara desert, MODIS-Aqua Deep Blue products are also used. As for precipitation, Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) data at 2.5ox2.5o are used. The wind fields are taken from the National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP). Apart from the regime of African aerosol export

  18. Validation and Evaluation of Two Observational Pain Assessment Tools in a Trauma and Neurosurgical Intensive Care Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Topolovec-Vranic

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Studies have demonstrated that patients in the intensive care unit experience high levels of pain. While many of these patients are nonverbal at some point during their stay, there are few valid tools available to assess pain in this group.

  19. LONGITUDINAL AND RADIAL DEPENDENCE OF SOLAR ENERGETIC PARTICLE PEAK INTENSITIES: STEREO, ACE, SOHO, GOES, AND MESSENGER OBSERVATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lario, D.; Ho, G. C.; Decker, R. B.; Roelof, E. C.; Aran, A.; Gómez-Herrero, R.; Dresing, N.; Heber, B.

    2013-01-01

    Simultaneous measurements of solar energetic particle (SEP) events by two or more of the spacecraft located near 1 AU during the rising phase of solar cycle 24 (i.e., STEREO-A, STEREO-B, and near-Earth spacecraft such as ACE, SOHO, and GOES) are used to determine the longitudinal dependence of 71-112 keV electron, 0.7-3 MeV electron, 15-40 MeV proton, and 25-53 MeV proton peak intensities measured in the prompt component of SEP events. Distributions of the peak intensities for the selected 35 events with identifiable solar origin are approximated by the form exp [ – (φ – φ 0 ) 2 /2σ 2 ], where φ is the longitudinal separation between the parent active region and the footpoint of the nominal interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) line connecting each spacecraft with the Sun, φ 0 is the distribution centroid, and σ determines the longitudinal gradient. The MESSENGER spacecraft, at helioradii R –α with α 3. These two cases correspond to SEP events occurring in a complex interplanetary medium that favored the enhancement of peak intensities near Mercury but hindered the SEP transport to 1 AU.

  20. Using dissolved gases to observe the evolution of groundwater age in a mountain watershed over a period of thirteen years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Andrew H.

    2011-01-01

    Baseflows in snowmelt-dominated mountain streams are critical for sustaining ecosystems and water resources during periods of greatest demand. Future climate predictions for mountainous areas throughout much of the western U.S. include increasing temperatures, declining snowpacks, and earlier snowmelt periods. The degree to and rate at which these changes will affect baseflows in mountain streams remains unknown, largely because baseflows are groundwater-fed and the relationship between climate and groundwater recharge/discharge rates in mountain watersheds is uncertain. We use groundwater age determinations from multiple dissolved gas tracers (CFCs, SF6, and 3H/3He) to track changes in groundwater age over a period of thirteen years in the Sagehen Creek watershed, Sierra Nevada Mountains, CA. Data were collected from springs and wells in 2009 and 2010 and combined with those obtained in prior studies from 1997 to 2003. Apparent ages range from 0 to >60 years. Comparison between variations in age and variations in snow water equivalent (SWE) and mean annual air temperature reveals the degree of correlation between these climate variables and recharge rate. Further, comparison of apparent ages from individual springs obtained at different times and using different tracers helps constrain the age distribution in the sampled waters. The age data are generally more consistent with an exponential age distribution than with piston-flow. However, many samples, even those with relatively old mean ages, must have a disproportionately large very young fraction that responds directly to annual SWE variations. These findings have important implications for how future baseflows may respond to decreasing SWE.

  1. Simultaneous observations of quasi-periodic ELF/VLF wave emissions and electron precipitation by DEMETER satellite: A case study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hayosh, Mykhaylo; Pasmanik, D. L.; Demekhov, A. G.; Santolík, Ondřej; Parrot, M.; Titova, E. E.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 118, č. 7 (2013), s. 4523-4533 ISSN 2169-9380 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP209/11/2280; GA MŠk LH12231 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : quasi-periodic ELF/VLF emission s in the magnetosphere * wave-particle interactions * demeter spacecraft measurements * whistler-mode waves Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 3.440, year: 2013 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/jgra.50179/abstract

  2. Daytime descending intermediate layers observed over a sub-tropical Indian station Waltair during low-solar activity period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Niranjan

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Study on daytime descending intermediate layer over subtropical Indian station Waltair (17.7° N, 83.3° E geographic, 6.4° N, 10° E geomagnetic, 20° N dip located in the equatorial anomaly transition region, using an IPS 42 Digital Ionosonde during the low solar activity year 2004 showed that the layers occur in the altitude range of 140–160 km with maximum occurrence during winter solstice. The layers observed during daytime occur with a double peak variation throughout the year with less occurrence probability and shorter duration presence during forenoon hours. The morning layer descent was associated with a density increase where as during afternoon hours a decrease in density was observed. The downward drift velocity was about 8 km/h during morning hours and between 7–11 km/h during afternoon hours, with a low descent rate of around 4.5 km/h during summer morning hours. The results indicate the presence of a 6 h tide at this location as observed from the characteristics of the descending layers, unlike at majority of locations where a significant semi diurnal trend is observed. The study brings out the complex nature of the tidal interaction at different locations.

  3. Clinical outcomes with olanzapine long-acting injection: impact of the 3-hour observation period on patient satisfaction and well-being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand E

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Ernie Anand,1 Lovisa Berggren,2 John Landry,3 Ágoston Tóth,4 Holland C Detke5 1Neuroscience Medical Affairs, Eli Lilly & Company Ltd, Windlesham, UK; 2Global Statistical Sciences, Lilly Deutschland GmbH, Bad Homburg, Germany; 3Global Statistical Sciences, Eli Lilly Canada Inc., Toronto, ON, Canada; 4Neuroscience, Lilly Hungary, Budapest, Hungary; 5Psychiatry and Pain Disorders, Lilly Research Laboratories, Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN, USA Background: The objective of the present analysis is to determine the impact of the 3-hour observation period for olanzapine long-acting injection (LAI on patient satisfaction and well-being by comparing data collected before and after its implementation. Methods: This is a post hoc analysis of patients treated with olanzapine LAI in 1 a 6-month fixed-dose randomized controlled trial and/or 2 a 6-year open-label safety study. This analysis was limited to patients with schizophrenia who were treated with olanzapine LAI consistent with the approved indication and dosing recommendations of the European Union Summary of Product Characteristics (N=966. Of the 966 patients, the analysis further focused only on those patients who received both 1 at least one injection before the implementation of the 3-hour observation period and 2 at least one injection after implementation of the 3-hour observation period (N=487. Patient satisfaction was assessed with the three-item Patient Satisfaction with Medication Questionnaire-Modified. Responses were averaged across all postbaseline visits occurring before (ie, without the implementation of the 3-hour observation period and across all postbaseline visits occurring after (ie, with the implementation of the 3-hour observation period. In addition, the rate of postinjection delirium/sedation syndrome events was calculated. Results: There was no meaningful change after implementation of the 3-hour observation period in satisfaction (before: mean [SD] =4.0 [1.02] and

  4. Energetic intensity and exportation: an analysis of the period 1997-2004; Intensidade energetica e exportacao: uma analise do periodo 1997-2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Munir Younes; Bermann, Celio [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Programa Interunidades de Pos-Graduacao em Energia (PIPGE)]. E-mails: munir@iee.usp.br; muniryounes@yahoo.com.br; cbermann@iee.usp.br; Cavaliero, Karla Kazue Nakao [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica. Programa de Pos-graduacao em Planejamento de Sistemas Energeticos]. E-mail: cavaliero@fem.unicamp.br

    2006-07-01

    This paper aims to analyze the course of industrial energy intensity from 1997 to 2004. A historical retrospective was done in order to explain how the Brazilian industrial option has been influencing the profile of this index, demonstrating that Brazil is following a different trajectory in comparison to the developed countries. To achieve this, an analysis was conducted of the whole metallurgical industry, along with the paper, cellulose and mineral industries and the total Brazilian Industry. The energy intensity, the elasticity energy consume product and the export quantum indicators were calculated for the industry and for each sub sector. To conclude, the results will be discussed and commented. (author)

  5. The mechanism and theoretical basis of the management of intensity of the heat transfer control through periodic influences on the turbulent boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalnogov, Vladislav N.; Fedorov, Ruslan V.; Khakhaleva, Larisa V.; Chukalin, Andrey V.; Bondarenko, Aleksandr A.; Kovrizhnykh, Evgeny N.

    2017-07-01

    Generalization of classical model of a displacement way on the transfer of heat exchange and mass exchange of a stream in the boundary layer, confirmed by the control action of the different nature, is undertaken. Here are given the results of numerical research which have allowed explaining the mechanism, to reveal efficiency and limits of various ways of management of intensity in exchange processes. The possibility of management of intensity in processes of a thermolysis and friction by use of the perforated surface with the damping cavities is analyzed.

  6. Debris flow recurrence periods and multi-temporal observations of colluvial fan evolution in central Spitsbergen (Svalbard)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardt, H.; Reiss, D.; Hiesinger, H.; Hauber, E.; Johnsson, A.

    2017-11-01

    Fan-shaped accumulations of debris flow deposits are common landforms in polar regions such as Svalbard. Although depositional processes in these environments are of high interest to climate as well as Mars-analog research, several parameters, e.g., debris flow recurrence periods, remain poorly constrained. Here, we present an investigation based on remote sensing as well as in situ data of a 0.4 km2 large colluvial fan in Hanaskogdalen, central Spitsbergen. We analyzed high resolution satellite and aerial images covering five decades from 1961 to 2014 and correlated them with lichenometric dating as well as meteorological data. Image analyses and lichenometry deliver consistent results and show that the recurrence period of large debris flows (≥ 400 m3) is about 5 to 10 years, with smaller flows averaging at two per year in the period from 2008 to 2013. While this is up to two orders of magnitude shorter than previous estimates for Svalbard (80 to 500 years), we found the average volume of 220 m3 per individual flow to be similar to previous estimates for the region. Image data also reveal that an avulsion took place between 1961 and 1976, when the active part of the fan moved from its eastern to its western portion. A case study of the effects of a light rain event ( 5 mm/day) in the rainy summer of 2013, which triggered a large debris flow, further shows that even light precipitation can trigger major flows. This is made possible by multiple light rain events or gradual snow melt pre-saturating the permafrost ground and has to be taken into account when predicting the likelihood of potentially hazardous mass wasting in polar regions. Furthermore, our findings imply a current net deposition rate on the colluvial fan of 480 m3/year, which is slightly less than the integrated net deposition rate of 576 to 720 m3/year resulting from the current fan volume divided by the 12,500 to 10,000 years since the onset of fan build-up after the area's deglaciation. However

  7. Chromospheric activity of periodic variable stars (including eclipsing binaries) observed in DR2 LAMOST stellar spectral survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liyun; Lu, Hongpeng; Han, Xianming L.; Jiang, Linyan; Li, Zhongmu; Zhang, Yong; Hou, Yonghui; Wang, Yuefei; Cao, Zihuang

    2018-05-01

    The LAMOST spectral survey provides a rich databases for studying stellar spectroscopic properties and chromospheric activity. We cross-matched a total of 105,287 periodic variable stars from several photometric surveys and databases (CSS, LINEAR, Kepler, a recently updated eclipsing star catalogue, ASAS, NSVS, some part of SuperWASP survey, variable stars from the Tsinghua University-NAOC Transient Survey, and other objects from some new references) with four million stellar spectra published in the LAMOST data release 2 (DR2). We found 15,955 spectra for 11,469 stars (including 5398 eclipsing binaries). We calculated their equivalent widths (EWs) of their Hα, Hβ, Hγ, Hδ and Caii H lines. Using the Hα line EW, we found 447 spectra with emission above continuum for a total of 316 stars (178 eclipsing binaries). We identified 86 active stars (including 44 eclipsing binaries) with repeated LAMOST spectra. A total of 68 stars (including 34 eclipsing binaries) show chromospheric activity variability. We also found LAMOST spectra of 12 cataclysmic variables, five of which show chromospheric activity variability. We also made photometric follow-up studies of three short period targets (DY CVn, HAT-192-0001481, and LAMOST J164933.24+141255.0) using the Xinglong 60-cm telescope and the SARA 90-cm and 1-m telescopes, and obtained new BVRI CCD light curves. We analyzed these light curves and obtained orbital and starspot parameters. We detected the first flare event with a huge brightness increase of more than about 1.5 magnitudes in R filter in LAMOST J164933.24+141255.0.

  8. ON THE ANTI-CORRELATION BETWEEN SPECTRAL LINE BROADENING AND INTENSITY IN CORONAL STRUCTURES OBSERVED WITH EIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, J. T.; Martens, P. C. H.

    2011-01-01

    The advance in spectral resolution of the Extreme Ultraviolet Imaging (EIS) spectrometer on board Hinode has allowed for more detailed analysis of coronal spectral lines. Large line broadening and blueshifted velocities have been found in the periphery of active region (AR) cores and near the footpoints of coronal loops. This line broadening is yet to be understood. We study the correlation of intensity and line width for entire ARs and sub-regions selected to include coronal features. The results show that although a slight positive correlation can be found when considering whole images, many sub-regions have a negative correlation between intensity and line width. Sections of a coronal loop display some of the largest anti-correlations found for this study with the increased line broadening occurring directly adjacent to the footpoint section of the loop structure, not at the footpoint itself. The broadened lines may be due to a second Doppler-shifted component that is separate from the main emitting feature such as a coronal loop, but related in their excitation. The small size of these features forces the considerations of investigator and instrumental effects. Preliminary analyses are shown that indicate the possibility of a point-spread function that is not azimuthally symmetric and may affect velocity and line profile measurements.

  9. Observed tail current systems associated with bursty bulk flows and auroral streamers during a period of multiple substorms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Forsyth

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available We present a multi-instrument study of a substorm bursty bulk flow (BBF and auroral streamer. During a substorm on 25 August 2003, which was one of a series of substorms that occurred between 00:00 and 05:00 UT, the Cluster spacecraft encountered a BBF event travelling Earthwards and duskwards with a velocity of ~500 km s−1 some nine minutes after the onset of the substorm. Coincident with this event the IMAGE spacecraft detected an auroral streamer in the substorm auroral bulge in the Southern Hemisphere near the footpoints of the Cluster spacecraft. Using FluxGate Magnetometer (FGM data from the four Cluster spacecraft, we determine the field-aligned currents in the BBF, using the curlometer technique, to have been ~5 mA km−2. When projected into the ionosphere, these currents give ionospheric field-aligned currents of ~18 A km−2, which is comparable with previously observed ionospheric field-aligned currents associated with BBFs and auroral streamers. The observations of the BBF are consistent with the plasma "bubble" model of Chen and Wolf (1993. Furthermore, we show that the observations of the BBF are consistent with the creation of the BBF by the reconnection of open field lines Earthward of a substorm associated near-Earth neutral line.

  10. Observed tail current systems associated with bursty bulk flows and auroral streamers during a period of multiple substorms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Forsyth

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available We present a multi-instrument study of a substorm bursty bulk flow (BBF and auroral streamer. During a substorm on 25 August 2003, which was one of a series of substorms that occurred between 00:00 and 05:00 UT, the Cluster spacecraft encountered a BBF event travelling Earthwards and duskwards with a velocity of ~500 km s−1 some nine minutes after the onset of the substorm. Coincident with this event the IMAGE spacecraft detected an auroral streamer in the substorm auroral bulge in the Southern Hemisphere near the footpoints of the Cluster spacecraft. Using FluxGate Magnetometer (FGM data from the four Cluster spacecraft, we determine the field-aligned currents in the BBF, using the curlometer technique, to have been ~5 mA km−2. When projected into the ionosphere, these currents give ionospheric field-aligned currents of ~18 A km−2, which is comparable with previously observed ionospheric field-aligned currents associated with BBFs and auroral streamers. The observations of the BBF are consistent with the plasma "bubble" model of Chen and Wolf (1993. Furthermore, we show that the observations of the BBF are consistent with the creation of the BBF by the reconnection of open field lines Earthward of a substorm associated near-Earth neutral line.

  11. Fire weather conditions and fire-atmosphere interactions observed during low-intensity prescribed fires - RxCADRE 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig B. Clements; Neil P. Lareau; Daisuke Seto; Jonathan Contezac; Braniff Davis; Casey Teske; Thomas J. Zajkowski; Andrew T. Hudak; Benjamin C. Bright; Matthew B. Dickinson; Bret W. Butler; Daniel Jimenez; J. Kevin. Hiers

    2016-01-01

    The role of fire-atmosphere coupling on fire behaviour is not well established, and to date few field observations have been made to investigate the interactions between fire spread and fire-induced winds. Therefore, comprehensive field observations are needed to better understand micrometeorological aspects of fire spread. To address this need, meteorological...

  12. Application of Cherenkov light observation to reactor measurements (1). Estimation of reactor power from Cherenkov light intensity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Keiichi; Takeuchi, Tomoaki; Kimura, Nobuaki; Ohtsuka, Noriaki; Tsuchiya, Kunihiko; Sano, Tadafumi; Nakajima, Ken; Homma, Ryohei; Kosuge, Fumiaki

    2015-01-01

    Development of the reactor measurement system was started to obtain the real-time in-core nuclear and thermal information, where the quantitative measurement of brightness of Cherenkov light was investigated. The system would be applied as a monitoring system in severe accidents and for the advanced operation management technology in existing LWRs. The calculation and the observation were performed to obtain the quantity of the Cherenkov light caused by the gamma and beta rays emitted from the fuels in the core of Kyoto University Research Reactor. The results indicate that the real-time reactor power can be estimated from the brightness of the Cherenkov light observed by a CCD camera. This method can also work for the estimation of the burn-up of spent fuels at commercial reactors. Since the observed brightness value of the Cherenkov light was influenced by the camera position, the optical observation method should be improved to achieve high accuracy observation. (author)

  13. Development and validation of an observation tool for the assessment of nursing pain management practices in intensive care unit in a standardized clinical simulation setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosselin, Emilie; Bourgault, Patricia; Lavoie, Stephan; Coleman, Robin-Marie; Méziat-Burdin, Anne

    2014-12-01

    Pain management in the intensive care unit is often inadequate. There is no tool available to assess nursing pain management practices. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a measuring tool to assess nursing pain management in the intensive care unit during standardized clinical simulation. A literature review was performed to identify relevant components demonstrating optimal pain management in adult intensive care units and to integrate them in an observation tool. This tool was submitted to an expert panel and pretested. It was then used to assess pain management practice during 26 discrete standardized clinical simulation sessions with intensive care nurses. The Nursing Observation Tool for Pain Management (NOTPaM) contains 28 statements grouped into 8 categories, which are grouped into 4 dimensions: subjective assessment, objective assessment, interventions, and reassessment. The tool's internal consistency was calculated at a Cronbach's alpha of 0.436 for the whole tool; the alpha varies from 0.328 to 0.518 for each dimension. To evaluate the inter-rater reliability, intra-class correlation coefficient was used, which was calculated at 0.751 (p nurses' pain management in a standardized clinical simulation. The NOTPaM is the first tool created for this purpose. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. An observational study of atmospheric ice nuclei number concentration during three fog-haze weather periods in Shenyang, northeastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liguang; Zhou, Deping; Wang, Yangfeng; Hong, Ye; Cui, Jin; Jiang, Peng

    2017-05-01

    Characteristics of ice nuclei (IN) number concentrations during three fog-haze weather periods from November 2010 to January 2012 in Shenyang were presented in this paper. A static diffusion chamber was used and sampling of IN aerosols was conducted using a membrane filter method. Sampling membrane filter processing conditions were unified in the activation temperature at - 15 °C under conditions of 20% ice supersaturation and 3% water supersaturation. The variations of natural IN number concentrations in different weather conditions were investigated. The relations between the meteorological factors and the IN number concentrations were analyzed, and relationships between pollutants and IN number concentrations were also studied. The results showed that mean IN number concentration were 38.68 L- 1 at - 20 °C in Shenyang, for all measurements. Mean IN number concentrations are higher during haze days (55.92 L- 1 at - 20 °C) and lower after rain. Of all meteorological factors, wind speed, boundary stability, and airflow direction appeared to influence IN number concentrations. IN number concentrations were positively correlated with particulate matters PM1, PM2.5, and PM10 during haze weather.

  15. Features of time–intensity curve parameters of colorectal adenocarcinomas evaluated by double-contrast enhanced ultrasonography: Initial observation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuang Hua; Yang Zhigang; Wang Ziqiang; Wang Xiaodong; Chen Huijiao; Zhang Yuanchuan; Luo Yan

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study is to investigate the value of double contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (DCEU) in assessing microcirculation of colorectal adenocarcinomas and to describe the perfusion features of the tumours. Material and methods: DCEUS was performed in 42 patients with adenocarcinoma. The time–intensity curve parameters (arrival time (AT), time-to-peak (TTP), peak intensity (PI) and area under the curve (AUC)) within the tumours were extracted. The parameters were compared among the tumours with different CEUS features and stages. Results: The mean values of AT, TTP, PI and AUC of the colorectal adenocarcinomas were 13.68 ± 13.36 s, 32.61 ± 19.56 s, 19.82 ± 16.54 dB and 271.10 ± 159.19 dB s, respectively. In the adenocarcinomas with necrosis, the mean values of AUC was significantly lower than that of the adenocarcinomas without (231.10 ± 219.27 dB s, 278.10 ± 123.20 dB s, p = 0.004). In the adenocarcinomas with necrosis, the AUC and PI of the non-necrotic part were significantly higher than that of the necrotic part (p = 0.007, 0.0025, respectively). AUC increased progressively in the subgroups of T2, T3 and T4 and the difference of AUC between T2 and T4 subgroup was significant (p = 0.008). Conclusions: Double contrast-enhanced ultrasonography is a valuable technique for quantifying tumour vascularity of colorectal adenocarcinomas. AUC was significantly different in the subgroups of different T stage. AUC and PI could reflect the different perfusion status of tumours with or without necrosis.

  16. Nonadiabatic dynamics in intense continuous wave laser fields and real-time observation of the associated wavepacket bifurcation in terms of spectrogram of induced photon emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Yuta; Arasaki, Yasuki; Takatsuka, Kazuo

    2016-11-14

    We propose a theoretical principle to directly monitor the bifurcation of quantum wavepackets passing through nonadiabatic regions of a molecule that is placed in intense continuous wave (CW) laser fields. This idea makes use of the phenomenon of laser-driven photon emission from molecules that can undergo nonadiabatic transitions between ionic and covalent potential energy surfaces like Li + F - and LiF. The resultant photon emission spectra are of anomalous yet characteristic frequency and intensity, if pumped to an energy level in which the nonadiabatic region is accessible and placed in a CW laser field. The proposed method is designed to take the time-frequency spectrogram with an appropriate time-window from this photon emission to detect the time evolution of the frequency and intensity, which depends on the dynamics and location of the relevant nuclear wavepackets. This method is specifically designed for the study of dynamics in intense CW laser fields and is rather limited in scope than other techniques for femtosecond chemical dynamics in vacuum. The following characteristic features of dynamics can be mapped onto the spectrogram: (1) the period of driven vibrational motion (temporally confined vibrational states in otherwise dissociative channels, the period and other states of which dramatically vary depending on the CW driving lasers applied), (2) the existence of multiple nuclear wavepackets running individually on the field-dressed potential energy surfaces, (3) the time scale of coherent interaction between the nuclear wavepackets running on ionic and covalent electronic states after their branching (the so-called coherence time in the terminology of the theory of nonadiabatic interaction), and so on.

  17. Dose- and age-dependent cardiovascular mortality among inhabitants of the Chornobyl contaminated areas. 1988-2010 observation period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buzunov, V.O.; Prikashchikova, K.Je.; Domashevs'ka, T.Je.; Kostyuk, G.V.; Gubyina, Yi.G.; Tereshchenko, S.O.

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular mortality among inhabitants of contaminated areas of Ukraine is dependent on the total cumulative effective doses and age at the time of the Chornobyl accident. It is proved by a significantly higher (p < 0.05) mortality in people exposed to 21.00-50.0 mSv radiation doses compared to those having 5.6-20.99 mSv exposures. Mortality was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in age groups with higher doses as opposed to those with low ones. Maximum mortality was observed among inhabitants aged 40-60, while the lowest death rate - in patients younger than 18 years old. The data obtained also suggest that the radiation factor can be considered here as one accelerating the aging and pathophysiological abnormalities in survivors. Coronary heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, arterial hypertension, diseases of arteries, arterioles and capillaries are the main causes of death from cardiovascular disease in people under investigation

  18. Modeling long period swell in Southern California: Practical boundary conditions from buoy observations and global wave model predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, S. C.; O'Reilly, W. C.; Guza, R. T.

    2016-02-01

    Accurate, unbiased, high-resolution (in space and time) nearshore wave predictions are needed to drive models of beach erosion, coastal flooding, and alongshore transport of sediment, biota and pollutants. On highly sheltered shorelines, wave predictions are sensitive to the directions of onshore propagating waves, and nearshore model prediction error is often dominated by uncertainty in offshore boundary conditions. Offshore islands and shoals, and coastline curvature, create complex sheltering patterns over the 250km span of southern California (SC) shoreline. Here, regional wave model skill in SC was compared for different offshore boundary conditions created using offshore buoy observations and global wave model hindcasts (National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration Wave Watch 3, WW3). Spectral ray-tracing methods were used to transform incident offshore swell (0.04-0.09Hz) energy at high directional resolution (1-deg). Model skill is assessed for predictions (wave height, direction, and alongshore radiation stress) at 16 nearshore buoy sites between 2000 and 2009. Model skill using buoy-derived boundary conditions is higher than with WW3-derived boundary conditions. Buoy-driven nearshore model results are similar with various assumptions about the true offshore directional distribution (maximum entropy, Bayesian direct, and 2nd derivative smoothness). Two methods combining offshore buoy observations with WW3 predictions in the offshore boundary condition did not improve nearshore skill above buoy-only methods. A case example at Oceanside harbor shows strong sensitivity of alongshore sediment transport predictions to different offshore boundary conditions. Despite this uncertainty in alongshore transport magnitude, alongshore gradients in transport (e.g. the location of model accretion and erosion zones) are determined by the local bathymetry, and are similar for all predictions.

  19. Observations and modeling of the companions of short period binary millisecond pulsars: evidence for high-mass neutron stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeder, Joshua; Halpern, Jules

    2014-01-01

    We present observations of fields containing eight recently discovered binary millisecond pulsars using the telescopes at MDM Observatory. Optical counterparts to four of these systems are detected, one of which, PSR J2214+3000, is a novel detection. Additionally, we present the fully phase-resolved B, V, and R light curves of the optical counterparts to two objects, PSR J1810+1744 and PSR J2215+5135 for which we employ model fitting using the eclipsing light curve (ELC) model of Orosz and Hauschildt to measure the unknown system parameters. For PSR J1810+1744, we find that the system parameters cannot be fit even assuming that 100% of the spin-down luminosity of the pulsar is irradiating the secondary, and so radial velocity measurements of this object will be required for the complete solution. However, PSR J2215+5135 exhibits light curves that are extremely well constrained using the ELC model and we find that the mass of the neutron star is constrained by these and the radio observations to be M NS > 1.75 M ☉ at the 3σ level. We also find a discrepancy between the model temperature and the measured colors of this object, which we interpret as possible evidence for an additional high-temperature source such as a quiescent disk. Given this and the fact that PSR J2215+5135 contains a relatively high mass companion (M c > 0.1 M ☉ ), we propose that similar to the binary pulsar systems PSR J1023+0038 and IGR J18245–2452, the pulsar may transition between accretion- and rotation-powered modes.

  20. Non-periodic multi-slit masking for a single counter rotating 2-disc chopper and channeling guides for high resolution and high intensity neutron TOF spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartkowiak, M.; Hofmann, T.; Stüßer, N.

    2017-02-01

    Energy resolution is an important design goal for time-of-flight instruments and neutron spectroscopy. For high-resolution applications, it is required that the burst times of choppers be short, going down to the µs-range. To produce short pulses while maintaining high neutron flux, we propose beam masks with more than two slits on a counter-rotating 2-disc chopper, behind specially adapted focusing multi-channel guides. A novel non-regular arrangement of the slits ensures that the beam opens only once per chopper cycle, when the masks are congruently aligned. Additionally, beam splitting and intensity focusing by guides before and after the chopper position provide high intensities even for small samples. Phase-space analysis and Monte Carlo simulations on examples of four-slit masks with adapted guide geometries show the potential of the proposed setup.

  1. Evolution of ventricular outpouching through the fetal and postnatal periods: Unabating dilemma of serial observation or surgical correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niraj Kumar Dipak

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Ventricular outpouching is a rare finding in prenatal sonography and the main differential diagnoses are diverticulum, aneurysm, and pseudoaneurysm in addition to congenital cysts and clefts. The various modes of fetal presentation of congenital ventricular outpouching include an abnormal four-chamber view on fetal two-dimensional echocardiogram, fetal arrhythmia, fetal hydrops, and pericardial effusion. Left ventricular aneurysm (LVA/nonapical diverticula are usually isolated defects. Apical diverticula are always associated with midline thoracoabdominal defects (epigastric pulsating diverticulum or large omphalocele and other structural malformations of the heart. Most patients with LVA/congenital ventricular diverticulum remain clinically asymptomatic but they can potentially give rise to complications such as ventricular tachyarrhythmias, systemic embolism, sudden death, spontaneous rupture, and severe valvular regurgitation. The treatment of asymptomatic LVA and isolated congenital ventricular diverticulum is still undefined. In this review, our aim is to outline a systematic approach to a fetus detected with ventricular outpouching. Starting with prevalence and its types, issues in fetal management, natural course and evolution postbirth, and finally the perpetual dilemma of serial observation or surgical correction is discussed.

  2. Long-period effects of the Denali earthquake on water bodies in the Puget Lowland: Observations and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barberopoulou, A.; Qamar, A.; Pratt, T.L.; Steele, W.P.

    2006-01-01

    Analysis of strong-motion instrument recordings in Seattle, Washington, resulting from the 2002 Mw 7.9 Denali, Alaska, earthquake reveals that amplification in the 0.2-to 1.0-Hz frequency band is largely governed by the shallow sediments both inside and outside the sedimentary basins beneath the Puget Lowland. Sites above the deep sedimentary strata show additional seismic-wave amplification in the 0.04- to 0.2-Hz frequency range. Surface waves generated by the Mw 7.9 Denali, Alaska, earthquake of 3 November 2002 produced pronounced water waves across Washington state. The largest water waves coincided with the area of largest seismic-wave amplification underlain by the Seattle basin. In the current work, we present reports that show Lakes Union and Washington, both located on the Seattle basin, are susceptible to large water waves generated by large local earthquakes and teleseisms. A simple model of a water body is adopted to explain the generation of waves in water basins. This model provides reasonable estimates for the water-wave amplitudes in swimming pools during the Denali earthquake but appears to underestimate the waves observed in Lake Union.

  3. Principal component analysis of the main factors of line intensity enhancements observed in oscillating direct current plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoiljkovic, Milovan M.; Pasti, Igor A.; Momcilovic, Milos D.; Savovic, Jelena J.; Pavlovic, Mirjana S.

    2010-01-01

    Enhancement of emission line intensities by induced oscillations of direct current (DC) arc plasma with continuous aerosol sample supply was investigated using multivariate statistics. Principal component analysis (PCA) was employed to evaluate enhancements of 34 atomic spectral lines belonging to 33 elements and 35 ionic spectral lines belonging to 23 elements. Correlation and classification of the elements were done not only by a single property such as the first ionization energy, but also by considering other relevant parameters. Special attention was paid to the influence of the oxide bond strength in an attempt to clarify/predict the enhancement effect. Energies of vaporization, atomization, and excitation were also considered in the analysis. In the case of atomic lines, the best correlation between the enhancements and first ionization energies was obtained as a negative correlation, with weak consistency in grouping of elements in score plots. Conversely, in the case of ionic lines, the best correlation of the enhancements with the sum of the first ionization energies and oxide bond energies was obtained as a positive correlation, with four distinctive groups of elements. The role of the gas-phase atom-oxide bond energy in the entire enhancement effect is underlined.

  4. Low intensity areas observed T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging of the cerebral cortex in various neurological diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imon, Yukari [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1996-02-01

    We retrospectively studied magnetic resonance images of the brain in 158 patients (8 cases of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, 16 cases of Alzheimer`s disease, 8 cases of Parkinson`s disease, 53 cases of multiple cerebral infarct, 20 cases of other central nervous system (CNS) diseases, and 53 cases without any CNS disease) to examine the appearance of T2-weighted low signal intensity areas (LIA) in the cerebral cortex. The age of subjects ranged from 36 to 85 years with the mean 65.0 and SD 9.9 years. LIA in the motor and sensory cortices, and brain atrophy were evaluated visually on axial images of the spin-echo sequence obtained with a 1.5 tesla system. The incidence of LIA in the motor cortex was significantly higher in all CNS diseases than in cases without any CNS disease, but not significantly different among CNS diseases. LIA in the motor cortex showed a correlation with age, temporal and parietal atrophy. The appearance of LIA in the sensory cortex correlated with that of LIA in the motor cortex, and parietal atrophy. These results suggest that LIA may appear according to age and be associated with the accumulation of nonheme iron in the cortex, especially in patients with CNS diseases. (author)

  5. Incidence and Risk Factors for Delirium among Mechanically Ventilated Patients in an African Intensive Care Setting: An Observational Multicenter Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Kwizera

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Delirium is common among mechanically ventilated patients in the intensive care unit (ICU. There are little data regarding delirium among mechanically ventilated patients in Africa. We sought to determine the burden of delirium and associated factors in Uganda. Methods. We conducted a multicenter prospective study among mechanically ventilated patients in Uganda. Eligible patients were screened daily for delirium using the confusional assessment method (CAM-ICU. Comparisons were made using t-test, chi-squares, and Fisher’s exact test. Predictors were assessed using logistic regression. The level of statistical significance was set at P<0.05. Results. Of 160 patients, 81 (51% had delirium. Median time to onset of delirium was 3.7 days. At bivariate analysis, history of mental illness, sedation, multiorgan dysfunction, neurosurgery, tachypnea, low mean arterial pressure, oliguria, fevers, metabolic acidosis, respiratory acidosis, anaemia, physical restraints, marital status, and endotracheal tube use were significant predictors. At multivariable analysis, having a history of mental illness, sedation, respiratory acidosis, higher PEEP, endotracheal tubes, and anaemia predicted delirium. Conclusion. The prevalence of delirium in a young African population is lower than expected considering the high mortality. A history of mental illness, anaemia, sedation, endotracheal tube use, and respiratory acidosis were factors associated with delirium.

  6. The statistical properties of spread F observed at Hainan station during the declining period of the 23rd solar cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. J. Wang

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The temporal variations of the low latitude nighttime spread F (SF observed by DPS-4 digisonde at low latitude Hainan station (geog. 19.5° N, 109.1° E, dip lat. 9.5° N during the declining solar cycle 23 from March 2002 to February 2008 are studied. The spread F measured by the digisonde were classified into four types, i.e., frequency SF (FSF, range SF (RSF, mixed SF (MSF, and strong range SF (SSF. The statistical results show that MSF and SSF are the outstanding irregularities in Hainan, MSF mainly occurs during summer and low solar activity years, whereas SSF mainly occurs during equinoxes and high solar activity years. The SSF has a diurnal peak before midnight and usually appears during 20:00–02:00 LT, whereas MSF peaks nearly or after midnight and occurs during 22:00–06:00 LT. The time of maximum occurrence of SSF is later in summer than in equinoxes and this time delay can be caused by the later reversal time of the E×B drift in summer. The SunSpot Number (SSN dependence of each type SF is different during different season. The FSF is independent of SSN during each season; RSF with SSN is positive relation during equinoxes and summer and is no relationship during the winter; MSF is significant dependence on SSN during the summer and winter, and does not relate to SSN during the equinoxes; SSF is clearly increasing with SSN during equinoxes and summer, while it is independent of SSN during the winter. The occurrence numbers of each type SF and total SF have the same trend, i.e., increasing as Kp increases from 0 to 1, and then decreasing as increasing Kp. The correlation with Kp is negative for RSF, MSF, SSF and total SF, but is vague for the FSF.

  7. Systematic Review of Self-Report Measures of Pain Intensity in 3- and 4-Year-Old Children: Bridging a Period of Rapid Cognitive Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Baeyer, Carl L; Jaaniste, Tiina; Vo, Henry L T; Brunsdon, Georgie; Lao, Hsuan-Chih; Champion, G David

    2017-09-01

    Claims are made for the validity of some self-report pain scales for 3- and 4-year-old children, but little is known about their ability to use such tools. This systematic review identified self-report pain intensity measures used with 3- and/or 4- year-old participants (3-4yo) and considered their reliability and validity within this age span. The search protocol identified research articles that included 3-4yo, reported use of any pain scale, and included self-reported pain intensity ratings. A total of 1,590 articles were screened and 617 articles met inclusion criteria. Of the included studies, 98% aggregated self-report data for 3-4yo with data for older children, leading to overestimates of the reliability and validity of self-report in the younger age group. In the 14 studies that provided nonaggregated data for 3-4yo, there was no evidence for 3-year-old and weak evidence for 4-year-old children being able to use published self-report pain intensity tools in a valid or reliable way. Preschool-age children have been reported to do better with fewer than the 6 response options offered on published faces scales. Simplified tools are being developed for young children; however, more research is needed before these are adopted. Some self-report pain scales have been promoted for use with 3- and 4-year-old children, but this is on the basis of studies that aggregated data for younger and older children, resulting in overestimates of reliability and validity for the preschool-age children. Scales with fewer response options show promise, at least for 4-year-old children. Copyright © 2017 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Seismic Intensity Map Triggered by Observed Strong Motion Records Considering Site Amplification and its service based on Geo-spatial International Standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuoka, Masashi

    2014-01-01

    Instrumental seismic intensity measurement is carried out at approximately 4,200 points in Japan, but the correct values at points without seismometers cannot always be provided because seismic motion depends on geologic and geomorphologic features. Quick provision of accurate information on seismic intensity distribution over wide areas is required for disaster mitigation. To estimate seismic intensity at specific points, it is important to prepare ground amplification characteristics for local areas beforehand and use an interpolation algorithm. The QuiQuake system (quick estimation system for earthquake maps triggered by using observation records from K-NET and KiK-net that have been released by the National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention), which uses these, was developed; it can be started up automatically using seismograms and can immediately display a seismic intensity distribution map. The calculation results are sent to IAEA and JNES in the form of strong motion evaluation maps with a mesh size of 250 x 250 m. These maps are also sent to the general public via social networking web sites. (author)

  9. How labour intensive is a doctor-based delivery model for antiretroviral treatment (ART)? Evidence from an observational study in Siem Reap, Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Damme, Wim; Kheang, Soy Ty; Janssens, Bart; Kober, Katharina

    2007-05-01

    Funding for scaling-up antiretroviral treatment (ART) in low-income countries has increased substantially, but the lack of human resources for health (HRH) is increasingly being identified as an important constraint for scaling-up ART. In a clinic run by Médecins Sans Frontières in Siem Reap, Cambodia, we documented the use of doctor-time for ART in September 2004 and in August 2005, for different phases in ART (pre-ART, ART initiation, ART follow-up Year 1, & ART follow-up Year 2). Based on these observations and using a variety of assumptions for survival of patients on ART (between 90 and 95% annually) and for further reductions in doctor-time per patient (between 0 and 10% annually), we estimated the need for doctors for the period 2004 till 2013 in the Siem Reap clinic, and in a hypothetical district in sub-Saharan Africa. In the Siem Reap clinic, we found that from 2004 to 2005 the doctor-time needed per patient was reduced by between 14% and 33%, thanks to a reduction in number of visits per patient and shorter consultation times. In 2004, 2.06 full-time equivalent (FTE) doctors were needed for 522 patients on ART, and in 2005 this was slightly reduced to 1.97 FTE doctors for 911 patients on ART. By 2013, Siem Reap clinic will need between 2 and 5 FTE doctors for ART. In a district in sub-Saharan Africa with 200,000 inhabitants and 20% adult HIV prevalence, using a similar doctor-based ART delivery model, between 4 and 11 FTE doctors would be needed to cover 50% of ART needs. ART is labour intensive. Important reductions in doctor-time per patient can be realized during scaling-up. The doctor-based ART delivery model analysed seems adequate for Cambodia. However, for many districts in sub-Saharan Africa a doctor-based ART delivery model may be incompatible with their HRH constraints.

  10. How labour intensive is a doctor-based delivery model for antiretroviral treatment (ART? Evidence from an observational study in Siem Reap, Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janssens Bart

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Funding for scaling-up antiretroviral treatment (ART in low-income countries has increased substantially, but the lack of human resources for health (HRH is increasingly being identified as an important constraint for scaling-up ART. Methods In a clinic run by Médecins Sans Frontières in Siem Reap, Cambodia, we documented the use of doctor-time for ART in September 2004 and in August 2005, for different phases in ART (pre-ART, ART initiation, ART follow-up Year 1, & ART follow-up Year 2. Based on these observations and using a variety of assumptions for survival of patients on ART (between 90 and 95% annually and for further reductions in doctor-time per patient (between 0 and 10% annually, we estimated the need for doctors for the period 2004 till 2013 in the Siem Reap clinic, and in a hypothetical district in sub-Saharan Africa. Results In the Siem Reap clinic, we found that from 2004 to 2005 the doctor-time needed per patient was reduced by between 14% and 33%, thanks to a reduction in number of visits per patient and shorter consultation times. In 2004, 2.06 full-time equivalent (FTE doctors were needed for 522 patients on ART, and in 2005 this was slightly reduced to 1.97 FTE doctors for 911 patients on ART. By 2013, Siem Reap clinic will need between 2 and 5 FTE doctors for ART. In a district in sub-Saharan Africa with 200,000 inhabitants and 20% adult HIV prevalence, using a similar doctor-based ART delivery model, between 4 and 11 FTE doctors would be needed to cover 50% of ART needs. Conclusion ART is labour intensive. Important reductions in doctor-time per patient can be realized during scaling-up. The doctor-based ART delivery model analysed seems adequate for Cambodia. However, for many districts in sub-Saharan Africa a doctor-based ART delivery model may be incompatible with their HRH constraints.

  11. Are trends in billing for high-intensity emergency care explained by changes in services provided in the emergency department? An observational study among US Medicare beneficiaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Laura G; Wild, Robert C; Orav, E John; Hsia, Renee Y

    2018-01-01

    Objective There has been concern that an increase in billing for high-intensity emergency care is due to changes in coding practices facilitated by electronic health records. We sought to characterise the trends in billing for high-intensity emergency care among Medicare beneficiaries and to examine the degree to which trends in high-intensity billing are explained by changes in patient characteristics and services provided in the emergency department (ED). Design, setting and participants Observational study using traditional Medicare claims to identify ED visits at non-federal acute care hospitals for elderly beneficiaries in 2006, 2009 and 2012. Outcomes measures Billing intensity was defined by emergency physician evaluation and management (E&M) codes. We tested for overall trends in high-intensity billing (E&M codes 99285, 99291 and 99292) and in services provided over time using linear regression models, adjusting for patient characteristics. Additionally, we tested for time trends in rates of admission to the hospital and to the intensive care unit (ICU). Next, we classified outpatient visits into 39 diagnosis categories and analysed the change in proportion of high-intensity visits versus the change in number of services. Finally, we quantified the extent to which trends in high-intensity billing are explained by changes in patient demographics and services provided in the ED using multivariable modelling. Results High-intensity visits grew from 45.8% of 671 103 visits in 2006 to 57.8% of 629 010 visits in 2012 (2.0% absolute increase per year; 95% CI 1.97% to 2.03%) as did the mean number of services provided for admitted (1.28 to 1.41; +0.02 increase in procedures per year; 95% CI 0.018 to 0.021) and discharged ED patients (7.1 to 8.6; +0.25 increase in services per year; 95% CI 0.245 to 0.255). There was a reduction in hospital admission rate from 40.1% to 35.9% (−0.68% per year; 95% CI −0.71% to −0.65%; Pbilled as high intensity

  12. Direct observation of electrothermal instability structures on intensely Ohmically heated aluminum with current flowing in a surface skin layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awe, Thomas

    2017-10-01

    Implosions on the Z Facility assemble high-energy-density plasmas for radiation effects and ICF experiments, but achievable stagnation pressures and temperatures are degraded by the Magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor (MRT) instability. While the beryllium liners (tubes) used in Magnetized Liner Inertial Fusion (MagLIF) experiments are astonishingly smooth (10 to 50 nm RMS roughness), they also contain distributed micron-scale resistive inclusions, and large MRT amplitudes are observed. Early in the implosion, an electrothermal instability (ETI) may provide a perturbation which greatly exceeds the initial surface roughness of the liner. Resistive inhomogeneities drive nonuniform current density and Joule heating, resulting in locally higher temperature, and thus still higher resistivity. Such unstable temperature and pressure growth produce density perturbations which seed MRT. For MagLIF liners, ETI seeding of MRT has been inferred by evaluating late-time MRT, but a direct observation of ETI is not made. ETI is directly observed on the surface of 1.0-mm-diameter solid Al rods pulsed to 1 MA in 100 ns via high resolution gated optical imaging (2 ns temporal and 3 micron spatial resolution). Aluminum 6061 alloy rods, with micron-scale resistive inclusions, consistently first demonstrate overheating from distinct, 10-micron-scale, sub-eV spots, which 5-10 ns later merge into azimuthally stretched elliptical spots and discrete strata (40-100 microns wide by 10 microns tall). Axial plasma filaments form shortly thereafter. Surface plasma can be suppressed for rods coated with dielectric, enabling extended study of the evolution of stratified ETI structures, and experimental inference of ETI growth rates. This fundamentally new and highly 3-dimensional dataset informs ETI physics, including when the ETI seed of MRT may be initiated.

  13. Monitoring the hand hygiene compliance of health care workers in a general intensive care unit: Use of continuous closed circle television versus overt observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brotfain, Evgeni; Livshiz-Riven, Ilana; Gushansky, Alexander; Erblat, Alexander; Koyfman, Leonid; Ziv, Tomer; Saidel-Odes, Lisa; Klein, Moti; Borer, Abraham

    2017-08-01

    A variety of hand hygiene monitoring programs (HHMPs) have come into use in hospitals throughout the world. In the present study, we compare continuous closed circle television (CCTV) with overt observation for monitoring the hand hygiene compliance of health care workers (HCWs) in a general intensive care unit (GICU). This is a cross-sectional and comparative study. In this study, we use a novel hand hygiene CCTV monitoring system for hand hygiene performance monitoring. The study population incorporated all the GICU HCWs, including registered nurses, staff physicians, and auxiliary workers. All HCWs of our GICU were observed, including ICU registered nurses, ICU staff physicians, and auxiliary workers participated in the present study. Overall, each observer team did 50 sessions in each arm of the study. Total number of hand hygiene opportunities was approaching 500 opportunities. The compliance rates when only overt observations were performed was higher than when only covert observations were performed with a delta of approximately 10% (209 out of 590 [35.43%] vs 130 out of 533 [24.39%]; P hand hygiene. However, there is no clear basis for incorporating a CCTV observation modality into a health care system that already operates an overt observation program. We have shown that CCTV methodology records a different distribution of opportunities for performing hand hygiene and of actual performances of hand hygiene compared with overt observation. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Analysis of the isoprene chemistry observed during the New England Air Quality Study (NEAQS) 2002 intensive experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, James M.; Marchewka, Mathew; Bertman, Steven B.; Goldan, Paul; Kuster, William; de Gouw, Joost; Warneke, Carsten; Williams, Eric; Lerner, Brian; Murphy, Paul; Apel, Eric; Fehsenfeld, Fred C.

    2006-12-01

    Isoprene and its first and second generation photochemical products, methyl vinyl ketone (MVK), methacrolein (MACR), and peroxymethacrylic nitric anhydride (MPAN), were measured off the coast of New England during the 2002 New England Air Quality Study (NEAQS) on board the NOAA Research Vessel Ronald H. Brown. The results of these measurements were analyzed using a simple sequential reaction model that has been used previously to examine regional oxidant chemistry. The highest isoprene impact was observed in air masses that had passed over an area of high isoprene emission WSW of Boston. The relative concentrations of isoprene and its first generation products show that the photochemistry is consistently "older" than the isoprene photochemistry observed at continental sites. The sequential reaction model was also applied to the aldehyde-PANs (Peroxycarboxylic nitric anhydride) system, and the resulting PPN (peroxypropionic nitric anhydride)/propanal and PAN (peroxyacetic nitric anhydride)/acetaldehyde relationships were consistent with additional sources of PAN in this environment, e.g., isoprene photochemistry. This isoprene source was estimated to result in approximately 1.6 to 4 times more PAN in this environment relative to that produced from anthropogenic VOCs (volatile organic compounds) alone.

  15. Correlation between risk factors during the neonatal period and appearance of retinopathy of prematurity in preterm infants in neonatal intensive care units in Alexandria, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel Hadi AM

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Ahmed Mahmoud Abdel Hadi, Islam Shereen HamdyDepartment of Ophthalmology, Alexandria University Hospital, Alexandria, EgyptBackground: This study aimed to identify the main risk factors for development of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP in neonatal intensive care units in Alexandria, Egypt, from January 2010 to January 2012.Methods: A prospective cohort study was undertaken in infants weighing < 1250 g and maternal postmenstrual age < 32 weeks if there was concern about prolonged exposure to oxygen. The main clinical outcomes were occurrence of any stage of ROP and in particular severe ROP. Perinatal variables considered were: birth weight, gestational age, gender, method of ventilation (nasal continuous airway pressure or intermittent mechanical ventilation, packed red blood cell and/or plasma transfusion, occurrence of sepsis, neonatal indirect hyperbilirubinemia, intraventricular hemorrhage, and patent ductus arteriosus. After obtaining informed consent from the parents, infants at risk were examined for ROP using indirect ophthalmoscopy, ie, RetCam II fundus photography.Results: The study included 152 infants of mean gestational age 31.02 weeks and mean birth weight 1.229 kg. Seventy-two cases (47.5% were male and 80 cases (52.5% were female. Of the cases screened, 100 (65.6% had no ROP, 52 had ROP of any stage (34.4%, and 27 (18% had stage 1, five (3.3% had stage 2, 17 (11.5% had stage 3, and three (1.6% had stage 4 disease. No infants had stage 5 ROP. Of all our cases with ROP, 15 (28.6% had prethreshold disease type 1 that required treatment, comprising 9.8% of all cases screened for ROP. Using stepwise logistic regression analysis, all risk factors studied were found to be significantly associated with the development of ROP, except for neonatal indirect hyperbilirubinemia. Severity of ROP was inversely proportional to birth weight and gestational age.Conclusion: ROP occurred in 34.4% of all infants screened in the neonatal intensive

  16. The influence of ionizing radiation of high intensity on the functional status of monkey brain. Clinical picture of early postirradiation period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legeza, V.I.; Turlakov, Yu.S.

    1990-01-01

    In experiments with Macaca fascicularis a study was made of early manifestations of the central nervous system (CNS) disturbances caused by exposure to 24 MeV electrons (45 Gy). The results obtained permit us to distinguish two main ways (stereotypes) by which a clinical picture of early postirradiation period develops: comatose and noncomatose. A general clinical characteristic of each stereotype and stages of their development are presented. The postirradiation disturbances of nervous and psychis activity of monkeys are considered within the framework of the concept concerning acute reactions of exogenous type. It is suggested that the course of the early postirradiation period is conditioned by the involvement of some phylogenically determined, universal systemic mechanisms of the CNS response to external harmful effects

  17. The wrong and wounding road: Paediatric polytrauma admitted to a level 1 trauma intensive care unit over a 5-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidoo, Natasha; Muckart, David J J

    2015-09-19

    Injury in childhood is a major cause of potentially preventable morbidity and mortality. In order to implement effective preventive strategies, epidemiological data on mechanisms of injury and outcome are essential. To assess the causation, severity of injury, morbidity and mortality of paediatric trauma admitted to a level 1 trauma intensive care unit (TICU). Children were defined as being 25 in 98 patients (54.1%), 16-25 in 51 (28.2%), 9-15 in 9 (4.9%) and 25. Of the 26 patients who died, 88.4% had a head injury, 46.2% an extremity injury, 38.5% an external injury, 34.6% abdominal or chest injuries, 19.2% neck injury and 11.5% facial injury. Motor vehicle-related injuries, especially PMVCs, dominate severe paediatric trauma and there is an urgent need for more road traffic education and stringent measures to decrease the incidence and associated morbidity and mortality.

  18. [Evaluation of the interdependence between homocystein and folic acid levels in patients after kidney transplantation during a 2 year observation period].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janda, Katarzyna; Aksamit, Dariusz; Krzanowski, Marcin; Kuzniewski, Marek; Sułowicz, Władysław

    2013-01-01

    Patients on maintenance dialysis have increased heomocystein (Hcy) serum levels. The aim of the study was to evaluate the interdependence between Hcy and folic acid (FA) levels in renal transplant patients (pts) at various time periods during a two year observation period after kidney transplantation (Ktx). The study included 51 pts (17 F, 34 M) aged 15-62 years (median 38.1) after deceased donors Ktx. Before Ktx, 46 pts were treated with maintenance hemodialysis (HD), while 5 by peritoneal dialysis (PD). The mean observation period equaled 21.2 months (6-24 months); while total observation period was 90 person/years. Hcy level was measured using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). FA level was measured using chemiluminesence method (standard methods) using the Immulite 2000 analyzer. Patients blood was drawn before Ktx and 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 21 and 24 months after procedure. An increased Hcy level (>15 micromol/l) - mean 28.5 +/- 17.8 micromol/l (range from 10.2 micromol/l to 116.8 micromol/I) was noted in the blood of 44 pts before Ktx (86.3% of the examined population). In 31 pts after Ktx (60.8% of the examined population), mean Hcy level remained increased above 15 micromol/I (mean Hcy - 19.2 +/- 5.8 micromol/I). A negative correlation was found between the levels of Hcy and FA directly before Ktx (R= -0.28, p15 micromol/l (36.4 ng/ml vs. 62.5 ng/ml). Statistically significant decrease of Hcy concentration was observed after Ktx as compare with values before procedure, however not reached normal values. Significant decrease of FA concentration after Ktx is most likely associated with the discontinuation of FA supplementation, as well as due to the restoration of the erythropoietic line.

  19. X-ray and optical observations of the ultrashort period dwarf nova SW Ursae Majoris - A likely new DQ Herculis star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafter, A. W.; Szkody, P.; Thorstensen, J. R.

    1986-01-01

    Time-resolved X-ray and optical photometric and optical spectroscopic observations of the ultrashort period cataclysmic variable SW UMa are reported. The spectroscopic observations reveal the presence of an s-wave component which is almost in phase with the extreme line wings and presumably the white dwarf. This very unusual phasing in conjunction with the available optical and X-ray data seems to indicate that a region of enhanced emission exists on the opposite side of the disk from the expected location of the hot spot. The photometric observations reveal the presence of a hump in the light curve occurring at an orbital phase which is consistent with the phase at which the region of enhanced line emission is most favorably seen. Changes in the hump amplitude are seen from night to night, and a 15.9 min periodicity is evident in the light curve. The optical and X-ray periodicities suggest that SW UMa is a member of the DQ Her class of cataclysmic variables.

  20. Biomass production of intensively grown poplars in the southernmost part of Sweden: Observations of characters, traits and growth potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christersson, Lars

    2006-01-01

    Observation of possibilities and problems was performed when trying to optimise growing conditions for high biomass production by irrigation and fertilisation in a clone test of poplar on sandy soil in the south of Sweden. One hundred and eight clones of pure Populus trichocarpa and hybrids between P. trichocarpa and P. deltoides were evaluated for growth rate, phenology, quality, frost hardiness and pest resistance. Some fertilisation experiments were performed. In some years, some unfertilised clones produced up to 2 kg m -2 of woody dry biomass. Some fertilised clones produced almost twice as much in the years following fertilisation. Stem canker was the main cause of serious injuries in all hybrids, but pure P. trichocarpa stems were not affected. The cimbicid sawfly (Cimbex lutea) caused damage to the quality of the trees in the form of curved stems of some clones. Winter frost killed top shoots of the hybrids in a year with particularly low winter temperatures with long duration. Summer frost (in June) killed up to 1 m of some young top shoots in some clones in the first 3-4 years. The results are discussed in terms of radiation utilisation efficiency, energy efficient ratio, and water and nutrient use efficiency. The discussion finishes with the conclusion that fertilisation, but not irrigation, can be economically motivated. If irrigation is to be economic, then the main objective of the whole operation should be to produce drinkable water from water polluted by society. Biomass production would then be a bonus

  1. Influenza in hospitalized children in Ireland in the pandemic period and the 2010/2011 season: risk factors for paediatric intensive-care-unit admission.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Rebolledo, J

    2013-11-11

    SUMMARY Influenza causes significant morbidity and mortality in children. This study\\'s objectives were to describe influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 during the pandemic, to compare it with circulating influenza in 2010\\/2011, and to identify risk factors for severe influenza defined as requiring admission to a paediatric intensive care unit (PICU). Children hospitalized with influenza during the pandemic were older, and more likely to have received antiviral therapy than children hospitalized during the 2010\\/2011 season. In 2010\\/2011, only one child admitted to a PICU with underlying medical conditions had been vaccinated. The risk of severe illness in the pandemic was higher in females and those with underlying conditions. In 2010\\/2011, infection with influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 compared to other influenza viruses was a significant risk factor for severe disease. An incremental relationship was found between the number of underlying conditions and PICU admission. These findings highlight the importance of improving low vaccination uptake and increasing the use of antivirals in vulnerable children.

  2. Unmanned observatory for auroral physics study on the Antarctic Continent-Multipoint ground-based observations during the IMS period (1976-1978-

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaru Ayukawa

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available The International Magnetospheric Study (IMS was carried out for three years from 1976. The Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition (JARE participated in this IMS project. The main purpose of the IMS project in JARE was the synthetic observation of polar magnetic substorms. In order to study polar magnetic substorms, a multipoint ground observation network was planned around Syowa, including unmanned stations. In the construction of an unmanned observatory system in Antarctica, there have been difficulties, such as insuffcient information about enviromental conditions, the construction support capability, power supply and others. During the IMS period, the U. S. A., former Soviet Union, Australia and the United Kingdom also started to develop unmanned observation systems. In this report, we describe the development of a JARE unmanned observatory for upper atmosphere physics and also the scientific results.

  3. High-intensity preoperative training improves physical and functional recovery in the early post-operative periods after total knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calatayud, Joaquin; Casaña, Jose; Ezzatvar, Yasmin

    2017-01-01

    the preoperative period reduces pain and improves lower limb muscle strength, ROM and functional task performance before surgery, resulting in a reduced length of stay at the hospital and a faster physical and functional recovery after TKA. The present training programme can be used by specialists to speed up......-four subjects (7 men, 37 women) scheduled for unilateral TKA for osteoarthritis (OA) during 2014 participated in this randomized controlled trial. Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), the Physical Functioning Scale of the Short Form-36 questionnaire (SF-36), a 10-cm visual...... analogue scale (VAS), isometric knee flexion, isometric knee extension, isometric hip abduction, active knee range of motion and functional tasks (Timed Up and Go test and Stair ascent-descent test) were assessed at 8 weeks before surgery (T1), after 8 weeks of training (T2), 1 month after TKA (T3...

  4. An intervention to improve the catheter associated urinary tract infection rate in a medical intensive care unit: Direct observation of catheter insertion procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galiczewski, Janet M; Shurpin, Kathleen M

    2017-06-01

    Healthcare associated infections from indwelling urinary catheters lead to increased patient morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this study was to determine if direct observation of the urinary catheter insertion procedure, as compared to the standard process, decreased catheter utilization and urinary tract infection rates. This case control study was conducted in a medical intensive care unit. During phase I, a retrospective data review was conducted on utilsiation and urinary catheter infection rates when practitioners followed the institution's standard insertion algorithm. During phase II, an intervention of direct observation was added to the standard insertion procedure. The results demonstrated no change in utilization rates, however, CAUTI rates decreased from 2.24 to 0 per 1000 catheter days. The findings from this study may promote changes in clinical practice guidelines leading to a reduction in urinary catheter utilization and infection rates and improved patient outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Clinical Observation of Recombinant Human Vascular Endostatin Durative Transfusion Combined with Window Period Arterial Infusion Chemotherapy in the Treatment of 
Advanced Lung Squamous Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan LV

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Lung cancer is one of the most common malignant tumors in China. The aim of this study is to observe the efficacy and safety of recombinant human vascular endostatin (endostar durative transfusion combined with window period arterial infusion chemotherapy in the treatment of advanced lung squamous carcinoma. Methods From February 2014 to January 2015, 10 cases of the cytological or histological pathology diagnosed stage IIIb - stage IV lung squamous carcinoma were treated with recombinant human vascular endostatin (30 mg/d durative transfusion combined with window period arterial infusion chemotherapy. Over the same period of 10 cases stage IIIb - stage IV lung squamous carcinoma patients for pure arterial perfusion chemotherapy were compared. Recombinant human vascular endostatin was durative transfused every 24 hours for 7 days in combination group, and in the 4th day of window period, the 10 patients were received artery infusion chemotherapy, using docetaxel combined with cisplatin. Pure treatment group received the same arterial perfusion chemotherapy regimen. 4 weeks was a cycle. 4 weeks after 2 cycles, to evaluate the short-term effects and the adverse drug reactions. Results 2 groups of patients were received 2 cycles treatments. The response rate (RR was 70.0%, and the disease control rate (DCR was 90.0% in the combination group; In the pure treatment group were 50.0%, 70.0% respectively, there were no statistically significant difference (P=0.650, 0.582. The adverse reactions of the treatment were mild, including level 1-2 of gastrointestinal reaction and blood toxicity, there were no statistically significant difference (P=0.999, P=0.628. In the combination group, 1 patient occurred level 1 of cardiac toxicity. Conclusion Recombinant human vascular endostatin durative transfusion combined with window period arterial infusion chemotherapy in the treatment of advanced lung squamous carcinoma could take a

  6. Water vapour inter-comparison effort in the framework of the hydrological cycle in the mediterranean experiment - special observation period (hymex-sop1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summa, Donato; Di Girolamo, Paolo; Flamant, Cyrille; De Rosa, Benedetto; Cacciani, Marco; Stelitano, Dario

    2018-04-01

    Accurate measurements of the vertical profiles of water vapour are of paramount importance for most key areas of atmospheric sciences. A comprehensive inter-comparison between different remote sensing and in-situ sensors has been carried out in the frame work of the first Special Observing Period of the Hydrological cycle in the Mediterranean Experiment for the purpose of obtaining accurate error estimates for these sensors. The inter-comparison involves a ground-based Raman lidar (BASIL), an airborne DIAL (LEANDRE2), a microwave radiometer, radiosondes and aircraft in-situ sensors.

  7. Water vapour inter-comparison effort in the framework of the hydrological cycle in the mediterranean experiment – special observation period (hymex-sop1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Summa Donato

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate measurements of the vertical profiles of water vapour are of paramount importance for most key areas of atmospheric sciences. A comprehensive inter-comparison between different remote sensing and in-situ sensors has been carried out in the frame work of the first Special Observing Period of the Hydrological cycle in the Mediterranean Experiment for the purpose of obtaining accurate error estimates for these sensors. The inter-comparison involves a ground-based Raman lidar (BASIL, an airborne DIAL (LEANDRE2, a microwave radiometer, radiosondes and aircraft in-situ sensors.

  8. Statistical characteristics of sudden stratospheric warming as observed over the observatoire de Haute Provence (44°N, 6°E) during the 1981-2001 period

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sivakumar, V

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available of stratospheric sudden warming as observed over the Observatoire de Haute Provence (44°N, 6°E) during the period 1981-2001 D.V. Acharyulu, V. Sivakumar*, H. Bencherif, B. Morel, Laboratoire de l’Atmosphère et des Cyclones (LACy), CNRS–UMR 8105, Université de... La Réunion, FRANCE. * Also at National Laser Centre, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), Pretoria, SOUTH AFRICA. A. Hauchecorne Service d’Aéronomie, CNRS, Paris, FRANCE. D.N. Rao National Atmosphere Research Laboratory...

  9. Mortality coefficients among personnel of radiochemical plants of open-quotes Mayakclose quotes-Combine for 40-year period of observation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshurnikova, N.A.; Komleva, N.S.; Baisogolov, G.D.

    1993-01-01

    The results of the epidemiological research, conducted among the personnel of the radiochemical plants of open-quotes Mayakclose quotes. Combine are as follows: during the 40-year-period of observation the mortality rate from all and separate causes, except age, is lower, than the expected one, which is calculated on the basis of the National Statistics. Oncological mortality rate is reliably higher, than the expected one, which is conditioned by the high frequency of lung cancer and leucaemia. Internal α-irradiation plays the leading role in the induction of lung cancer, and the increase of mortality rate from leukemia is closely connected with external γ-irradiation

  10. Incidence of hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis in dogs and cats with and without nasogastric tubes over a period of up to 36 hours in the intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chih, Annie; Rudloff, Elke; Waldner, Cheryl; Linklater, Andrew K J

    2018-05-01

    To evaluate the incidence of hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis (HCMA) in dogs and cats in the ICU that had intermittent nasogastric tube (NGT) aspiration for up to 36 hours. Prospective cohort study (December 2013 to October 2014). Privately owned emergency and referral teaching hospital. Forty-nine client-owned dogs and 16 client-owned cats. Patients wherein NGT placement was recommended and client consent was obtained were included in the interventional group. Those with an NGT placed (NGT group) had the NGT aspirated every 4 hours. Patients for whom placement of a NGT was declined by the owner served as a reference group (NoNGT). Venous blood gas and electrolyte values were obtained every 12 hours. Thirty-five dogs and cats had an NGT placed. Thirty dogs and cats did not have an NGT placed. The serum venous blood gas and electrolyte changes were compared over time within the NGT group and between the NGT and NoNGT groups. No cases developed HCMA. In the NGT group, blood pH increased over time. There was no significant difference between the NGT and the NoNGT group in the average value of pH, HCO 3 - , base excess, chloride, or corrected chloride. Serum venous blood gas, chloride, and corrected chloride changes were not associated with the volumes of gastric fluid aspirated over time. In this small population of dogs and cats, intermittent NGT aspiration was not associated with the development of HCMA over a period of up to 36 hours after NGT placement. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2018.

  11. Milk yield and composition of crossbred Sahelian × Anglo-Nubian goats in the semi-intensive system in Mali during the preweaning period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanogo, Souleymane; Shaker, Mohamed Momani; Nantoumé, Hamidou; Salem, Abdel-Fattah Z M

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate milk yield and its composition during the preweaning period for Sahelian goats (SG) and Anglo-Nubian (AN) crossbred depending on some factors. The experiments were conducted from January to December 2008 for 44 suckled and hand-milked does, randomized, and divided into two equal groups: SG (n = 22) and F(1) Anglo-Nubian × Sahelian goats (1/2AN; n = 22). The does and their offsprings were kept in a pen where they stayed indoors for 45 days before they were allowed outdoors when the weather was suitable. Each category received supplemental feeds depending on the season (rainy season, dry cold season, and dry hot season). The average daily milk yield was recorded weekly from parturition to 100 days of age. Individual milk samples were taken for chemical analysis in connection with the yield measurements twice per month from the fourth week of lactation throughout the different seasons (rainy, cold dry, and hot dry). The daily milk yield differed between breed types (P = 0.001) during the preweaning, while the effect of kids' sex on daily milk production was not significant. Litter size affected milk yield up to day 60 (P = 0.032) where does with twins producing more milk than those with single kid. However, at day 100, both groups had similar (P = 0.001) milk production. Total milk yield at weaning increased by 103 % in 1/2AN over SG. The highest concentration of total solids of milk was (12.76 %) recorded in the hot dry season. The results of this study indicate that crossbreeding native Sahelian goats with high potential Anglo-Nubian buck improved milk production and its composition.

  12. Pregnant women maintain body temperatures within safe limits during moderate-intensity aqua-aerobic classes conducted in pools heated up to 33 degrees Celsius: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brearley, Amanda L; Sherburn, Margaret; Galea, Mary P; Clarke, Sandy J

    2015-10-01

    What is the body temperature response of healthy pregnant women exercising at moderate intensity in an aqua-aerobics class where the water temperature is in the range of 28 to 33 degrees Celsius, as typically found in community swimming pools? An observational study. One hundred and nine women in the second and third trimester of pregnancy who were enrolled in a standardised aqua-aerobics class. Tympanic temperature was measured at rest pre-immersion (T1), after 35minutes of moderate-intensity aqua-aerobic exercise (T2), after a further 10minutes of light exercise while still in the water (T3) and finally on departure from the facility (T4). The range of water temperatures in seven indoor community pools was 28.8 to 33.4 degrees Celsius. Body temperature increased by a mean of 0.16 degrees Celsius (SD 0.35, ptemperature response was not related to the water temperature (T2 r = -0.01, p = 0.9; T3 r = -0.02, p=0.9; T4 r=0.03, p=0.8). Analysis of variance demonstrated no difference in body temperature response between participants when grouped in the cooler, medium and warmer water temperatures (T2 F=0.94, p=0.40; T3 F=0.93, p=0.40; T4 F=0.70, p=0.50). Healthy pregnant women maintain body temperatures within safe limits during moderate-intensity aqua-aerobic exercise conducted in pools heated up to 33 degrees Celsius. The study provides evidence to inform guidelines for safe water temperatures for aqua-aerobic exercise during pregnancy. Copyright © 2015 Australian Physiotherapy Association. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Brazil-USA Collaborative Research: Modifications by Anthropogenic Pollution of the Natural Atmospheric Chemistry and Particle Microphysics of the Tropical Rain Forest During the GoAmazon Intensive Operating Periods (IOPs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Saewung [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States)

    2017-08-01

    Manaus, a city of nearly two million people, represents an isolated urban area having a distinct urban pollution plume within the otherwise pristine Amazon Basin. The plume has high concentrations of oxides of nitrogen and sulfur, carbon monoxide, particle concentrations, and soot, among other pollutants. Critically, the distinct plume in the setting of the surrounding tropical rain forest serves as a natural laboratory to allow direct comparisons between periods of pollution influence to those of pristine conditions. The funded activity of this report is related to the Brazil-USA collaborative project during the two Intensive Operating Periods (wet season, 1 Feb - 31 Mar 2014; dry season, 15 Aug - 15 Oct 2014) of GoAmazon2014/5. The project addresses key science questions regarding the modification of the natural atmospheric chemistry and particle microphysics of the forest by present and future anthropogenic pollution.

  14. Day-to-day thermosphere parameter variation as deduced from Millstone Hill incoherent scatter radar observations during March 16-22, 1990 magnetic storm period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Mikhailov

    1997-11-01

    Full Text Available A self-consistent method for day-time F2-region modelling was applied to the analysis of Millstone Hill incoherent scatter observations during the storm period of March 16-22, 1990. The method allows us to calculate in a self-consistent way neutral composition, temperature and meridional wind as well as the ionized species height distribution. Theoretically calculated Ne(h profiles fit the observed daytime ones with great accuracy in the whole range of heights above 150 km for both quiet and disturbed days. The overall increase in Tex by 270 K from March 16 to March 22 reflects the increase of solar activity level during the period in question. A 30% decrease in [O] and a two-fold increase in [N2] are calculated for the disturbed day of March 22 relative to quiet time prestorm conditions. Only a small reaction to the first geomagnetic disturbance on March 18 and the initial phase of the second storm on March 20 was found in [O] and [N2] variations. The meridional neutral wind inferred from plasma vertical drift clearly demonstrates the dependence on the geomagnetic activity level being more equatorward on disturbed days. Small positive F2-layer storm effects on March 18 and 20 are totally attributed to the decrease in the northward neutral wind but not to changes in neutral composition. A moderate (by a factor of 1.5 O/N2 ratio decrease relative to the MSIS-83 model prediction is required to describe the observed NmF2 decrease on the most disturbed day of March 22, but virtually no change of this ratio is needed for March 21.

  15. Survival of inlays and partial crowns made of IPS empress after a 10-year observation period and in relation to various treatment parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoll, Richard; Cappel, I; Jablonski-Momeni, Anahita; Pieper, K; Stachniss, V

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluated the long-term survival of inlays and partial crowns made of IPS Empress. For this purpose, the patient data of a prospective study were examined in retrospect and statistically evaluated. All of the inlays and partial crowns fabricated of IPS-Empress within the Department of Operative Dentistry at the School of Dental Medicine of Philipps University, Marburg, Germany were systematically recorded in a database between 1991 and 2001. The corresponding patient files were revised at the end of 2001. The information gathered in this way was used to evaluate the survival of the restorations using the method described by Kaplan and Meyer. A total of n = 1624 restorations were fabricated of IPS-Empress within the observation period. During this time, n = 53 failures were recorded. The remaining restorations were observed for a mean period of 18.77 months. The failures were mainly attributed to fractures, endodontic problems and cementation errors. The last failure was established after 82 months. At this stage, a cumulative survival probability of p = 0.81 was registered with a standard error of 0.04. At this time, n = 30 restorations were still being observed. Restorations on vital teeth (n = 1588) showed 46 failures, with a cumulative survival probability of p = 0.82. Restorations performed on non-vital teeth (n = 36) showed seven failures, with a cumulative survival probability of p = 0.53. Highly significant differences were found between the two groups (p < 0.0001) in a log-rank test. No significant difference (p = 0.41) was found between the patients treated by students (n = 909) and those treated by qualified dentists (n = 715). Likewise, no difference (p = 0.13) was established between the restorations seated with a high viscosity cement (n = 295) and those placed with a low viscosity cement (n = 1329).

  16. Amino-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide as a predictor of outcome in patients admitted to intensive care. A prospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Geer, Lina; Fredrikson, Mats; Oscarsson, Anna

    2012-06-01

    Amino-terminal pro-brain-type natriuretic peptide is known to predict outcome in patients with heart failure, but its role in an intensive care setting is not yet fully established. To assess the incidence of elevated amino-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-pro-BNP) on admission to intensive care and its relation to death in the ICU and within 30 days. Prospective, observational cohort study. A mixed non-cardiothoracic tertiary ICU in Sweden. NT-pro-BNP was collected from 481 consecutive patients on admission to intensive care, in addition to data on patient characteristics and outcome. A receiver-operating characteristic curve was used to identify a discriminatory level of significance, a stepwise logistic regression analysis to correct for other clinical factors and a Kaplan-Meier analysis to assess survival. The correlation between Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS) 3, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score (SOFA) and NT-pro-BNP was analysed using Spearman's correlation test. Quartiles of NT-pro-BNP elevation were compared for baseline data and outcome using a logistic regression model. An NT-pro-BNP more than 1380 ng -l on admission was an independent predictor of death in the ICU and within 30 days [odds ratio (OR) 2.6; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.5 to 4.4] and was present in 44% of patients. Thirty-three percent of patients with NT-pro-BNP more than 1380 ng -1, and 14.6% of patients below that threshold died within 30 days (log rank P=0.005). NT-pro-BNP correlated moderately with SAPS 3 and with SOFA on admission (Spearman's ρ 0.5552 and 0.5129, respectively). In quartiles of NT-pro-BNP elevation on admission, severity of illness and mortality increased significantly (30-day mortality 36.1%; OR 3.9; 95% CI, 2.0 to 7.3 in the quartile with the highest values, vs. 12.8% in the lowest quartile). We conclude that NT-pro-BNP is commonly elevated on admission to intensive care, that it increases with severity of illness and that it is an

  17. Observation of material, thickness, and bremsstrahlung x-ray intensity dependent effects in moderate and high Z targets in a gamma and x-ray LIDAR experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xiaodong, E-mail: xzhang39@utk.edu [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of Tennessee, TN 37996 (United States); Ayaz-Maierhafer, Birsen; Laubach, Mitchell A. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of Tennessee, TN 37996 (United States); Hayward, Jason P. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of Tennessee, TN 37996 (United States); Oak Ridge National Lab, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States)

    2015-06-01

    A high energy gamma and x-ray LIDAR system consisting of a fast pulse (~50 ps, FWHM) LINAC and a Cherenkov detection system was used to investigate response differences among materials, their thicknesses, and bremsstrahlung x-ray intensities. The energies and pulse width of electrons used to produce bremsstrahlung x-rays were set at 20 or 40 MeV and 50 ps FWHM duration, respectively. The Cherenkov detector was built with a fused silica glass optically coupled to a 51 mm fast timing photomultiplier tube, which has an intrinsic energy threshold of 340.7 keV for Compton backscattered gammas. Such a fast detection system yields a coincidence resolving time of 93 ps FWHM, which is equivalent to a depth resolving capability of about 3 cm FWHM. The thicknesses of iron and lead targets were varied from 1 in. to 7 in. with a step of 1 in., and the thicknesses of DU were varied from 1/3 in. to 1 in. with a step of 1/3 in. The experimental results show that iron targets tend to produce a factor of five less observed x-rays and gammas, with less energetic photoelectron frequency distributions, compared with DU and lead targets for the same beam intensity and target thicknesses. Additionally, the self-shielding effect causes the lead to yield more gammas than the DU considering the experimental observation point. For the setup used in this study, a charge per pulse in the range of 1–2.5 nC yields the best resolving capability between the DU and lead targets.

  18. Correlation between the luminosity and spin-period changes during outbursts of 12 Be binary pulsars observed by the MAXI/GSC and the Fermi/GBM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugizaki, Mutsumi; Mihara, Tatehiro; Nakajima, Motoki; Makishima, Kazuo

    2017-12-01

    To study observationally the spin-period changes of accreting pulsars caused by the accretion torque, the present work analyzes X-ray light curves of 12 Be binary pulsars obtained by the MAXI Gas-Slit Camera all-sky survey and their pulse periods measured by the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor pulsar project, both covering more than six years, from 2009 August to 2016 March. The 12 objects were selected because they are accompanied by clear optical identification and accurate measurements of surface magnetic fields. The luminosity L and the spin-frequency derivatives \\dot{ν}, measured during large outbursts with L ≳ 1 × 1037 erg s-1, were found to follow approximately the theoretical relations in the accretion torque models, represented by \\dot{ν} ∝ L^{α} (α ≃ 1), and the coefficient of proportionality between \\dot{ν} and Lα agrees, within a factor of ˜3, with that proposed by Ghosh and Lamb (1979b, ApJ, 234, 296). In the course of the present study, the orbital elements of several sources were refined.

  19. Aerosol meteorology of Maritime Continent for the 2012 7SEAS southwest monsoon intensive study - Part 2: Philippine receptor observations of fine-scale aerosol behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Jeffrey S.; Lagrosas, Nofel D.; Jonsson, Haflidi H.; Reid, Elizabeth A.; Atwood, Samuel A.; Boyd, Thomas J.; Ghate, Virendra P.; Xian, Peng; Posselt, Derek J.; Simpas, James B.; Uy, Sherdon N.; Zaiger, Kimo; Blake, Donald R.; Bucholtz, Anthony; Campbell, James R.; Chew, Boon Ning; Cliff, Steven S.; Holben, Brent N.; Holz, Robert E.; Hyer, Edward J.; Kreidenweis, Sonia M.; Kuciauskas, Arunas P.; Lolli, Simone; Oo, Min; Perry, Kevin D.; Salinas, Santo V.; Sessions, Walter R.; Smirnov, Alexander; Walker, Annette L.; Wang, Qing; Yu, Liya; Zhang, Jianglong; Zhao, Yongjing

    2016-11-01

    The largest 7 Southeast Asian Studies (7SEAS) operations period within the Maritime Continent (MC) occurred in the August-September 2012 biomass burning season. Data included were observations aboard the M/Y Vasco, dispatched to the Palawan Archipelago and Sulu Sea of the Philippines for September 2012. At these locations, the Vasco observed MC smoke and pollution entering the southwest monsoon (SWM) monsoonal trough. Here we describe the research cruise findings and the finer-scale aerosol meteorology of this convectively active region. This 2012 cruise complemented a 2-week cruise in 2011 and was generally consistent with previous findings in terms of how smoke emission and transport related to monsoonal flows, tropical cyclones (TC), and the covariance between smoke transport events and the atmosphere's thermodynamic structure. Biomass burning plumes were usually mixed with significant amounts of anthropogenic pollution. Also key to aerosol behavior were squall lines and cold pools propagating across the South China Sea (SCS) and scavenging aerosol particles in their path. However, the 2012 cruise showed much higher modulation in aerosol frequency than its 2011 counterpart. Whereas in 2011 large synoptic-scale aerosol events transported high concentrations of smoke into the Philippines over days, in 2012 measured aerosol events exhibited a much shorter-term variation, sometimes only 3-12 h. Strong monsoonal flow reversals were also experienced in 2012. Nucleation events in cleaner and polluted conditions, as well as in urban plumes, were observed. Perhaps most interestingly, several cases of squall lines preceding major aerosol events were observed, as opposed to 2011 observations where these lines largely scavenged aerosol particles from the marine boundary layer. Combined, these observations indicate pockets of high and low particle counts that are not uncommon in the region. These perturbations are difficult to observe by satellite and very difficult to model

  20. Aerosol meteorology of Maritime Continent for the 2012 7SEAS southwest monsoon intensive study – Part 2: Philippine receptor observations of fine-scale aerosol behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. S. Reid

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The largest 7 Southeast Asian Studies (7SEAS operations period within the Maritime Continent (MC occurred in the August–September 2012 biomass burning season. Data included were observations aboard the M/Y Vasco, dispatched to the Palawan Archipelago and Sulu Sea of the Philippines for September 2012. At these locations, the Vasco observed MC smoke and pollution entering the southwest monsoon (SWM monsoonal trough. Here we describe the research cruise findings and the finer-scale aerosol meteorology of this convectively active region. This 2012 cruise complemented a 2-week cruise in 2011 and was generally consistent with previous findings in terms of how smoke emission and transport related to monsoonal flows, tropical cyclones (TC, and the covariance between smoke transport events and the atmosphere's thermodynamic structure. Biomass burning plumes were usually mixed with significant amounts of anthropogenic pollution. Also key to aerosol behavior were squall lines and cold pools propagating across the South China Sea (SCS and scavenging aerosol particles in their path. However, the 2012 cruise showed much higher modulation in aerosol frequency than its 2011 counterpart. Whereas in 2011 large synoptic-scale aerosol events transported high concentrations of smoke into the Philippines over days, in 2012 measured aerosol events exhibited a much shorter-term variation, sometimes only 3–12 h. Strong monsoonal flow reversals were also experienced in 2012. Nucleation events in cleaner and polluted conditions, as well as in urban plumes, were observed. Perhaps most interestingly, several cases of squall lines preceding major aerosol events were observed, as opposed to 2011 observations where these lines largely scavenged aerosol particles from the marine boundary layer. Combined, these observations indicate pockets of high and low particle counts that are not uncommon in the region. These perturbations are difficult to observe by satellite and

  1. Aerosol Meteorology of Maritime Continent for the 2012 7SEAS Southwest Monsoon Intensive Study - Part 2: Philippine Receptor Observations of Fine-Scale Aerosol Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Jeffrey S.; Lagrosas, Nofel D.; Jonsson, Haflidi H.; Reid, Elizabeth A.; Atwood, Samuel A.; Boyd, Thomas J.; Ghate, Virendra P.; Xian, Peng; Posselt, Derek J.; Simpas, James B.; hide

    2016-01-01

    The largest 7 Southeast Asian Studies (7SEAS) operations period within the Maritime Continent (MC) occurred in the August-September 2012 biomass burning season. Data included were observations aboard the MY Vasco, dispatched to the Palawan Archipelago and Sulu Sea of the Philippines for September 2012. At these locations, the Vasco observed MC smoke and pollution entering the southwest monsoon (SWM) monsoonal trough. Here we describe the research cruise findings and the finer-scale aerosol meteorology of this convectively active region. This 2012 cruise complemented a 2-week cruise in 2011 and was generally consistent with previous findings in terms of how smoke emission and transport related to monsoonal flows, tropical cyclones (TC), and the covariance between smoke transport events and the atmosphere's thermodynamic structure. Biomass burning plumes were usually mixed with significant amounts of anthropogenic pollution. Also key to aerosol behavior were squall lines and cold pools propagating across the South China Sea (SCS) and scavenging aerosol particles in their path. However, the 2012 cruise showed much higher modulation in aerosol frequency than its 2011 counterpart. Whereas in 2011 large synoptic-scale aerosol events transported high concentrations of smoke into the Philippines over days, in 2012 measured aerosol events exhibited a much shorter-term variation, sometimes only 312h. Strong monsoonal flow reversals were also experienced in 2012. Nucleation events in cleaner and polluted conditions, as well as in urban plumes, were observed. Perhaps most interestingly, several cases of squall lines preceding major aerosol events were observed, as opposed to 2011 observations where these lines largely scavenged aerosol particles from the marine boundary layer. Combined, these observations indicate pockets of high and low particle counts that are not uncommon in the region. These perturbations are difficult to observe by satellite and very difficult to model

  2. Aerosol meteorology of Maritime Continent for the 2012 7SEAS southwest monsoon intensive study – Part 2: Philippine receptor observations of fine-scale aerosol behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, Jeffrey S.; Lagrosas, Nofel D.; Jonsson, Haflidi H.; Reid, Elizabeth A.; Atwood, Samuel A.; Boyd, Thomas J.; Ghate, Virendra P.; Xian, Peng; Posselt, Derek J.; Simpas, James B.; Uy, Sherdon N.; Zaiger, Kimo; Blake, Donald R.; Bucholtz, Anthony; Campbell, James R.; Chew, Boon Ning; Cliff, Steven S.; Holben, Brent N.; Holz, Robert E.; Hyer, Edward J.; Kreidenweis, Sonia M.; Kuciauskas, Arunas P.; Lolli, Simone; Oo, Min; Perry, Kevin D.; Salinas, Santo V.; Sessions, Walter R.; Smirnov, Alexander; Walker, Annette L.; Wang, Qing; Yu, Liya; Zhang, Jianglong; Zhao, Yongjing

    2016-01-01

    The largest 7 Southeast Asian Studies (7SEAS) operations period within the Maritime Continent (MC) occurred in the August–September 2012 biomass burning season. Data included were observations aboard the M/Y Vasco, dispatched to the Palawan Archipelago and Sulu Sea of the Philippines for September 2012. At these locations, the Vasco observed MC smoke and pollution entering the southwest monsoon (SWM) monsoonal trough. Here we describe the research cruise findings and the finer-scale aerosol meteorology of this convectively active region. This 2012 cruise complemented a 2-week cruise in 2011 and was generally consistent with previous findings in terms of how smoke emission and transport related to monsoonal flows, tropical cyclones (TC), and the covariance between smoke transport events and the atmosphere's thermodynamic structure. Biomass burning plumes were usually mixed with significant amounts of anthropogenic pollution. Also key to aerosol behavior were squall lines and cold pools propagating across the South China Sea (SCS) and scavenging aerosol particles in their path. However, the 2012 cruise showed much higher modulation in aerosol frequency than its 2011 counterpart. Whereas in 2011 large synoptic-scale aerosol events transported high concentrations of smoke into the Philippines over days, in 2012 measured aerosol events exhibited a much shorter-term variation, sometimes only 3$-$12 h. Strong monsoonal flow reversals were also experienced in 2012. Nucleation events in cleaner and polluted conditions, as well as in urban plumes, were observed. Perhaps most interestingly, several cases of squall lines preceding major aerosol events were observed, as opposed to 2011 observations where these lines largely scavenged aerosol particles from the marine boundary layer. Combined, these observations indicate pockets of high and low particle counts that are not uncommon in the region. These perturbations are difficult to observe by satellite

  3. Improvement of the management of infants, children and adults with a molecular diagnosis of Enterovirus meningitis during two observational study periods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Archimbaud

    Full Text Available Enteroviruses (EVs are a major cause of aseptic meningitis, and RNA detection using molecular assay is the gold standard diagnostic test. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of an EV positive diagnosis on the clinical management of patients admitted for meningitis over the course of two observational study periods (2005 and 2008-09 in the same clinical departments. We further investigated in multivariate analysis various factors possibly associated with hospital length of stay (LOS in all age groups (infants, children, and adults. The results showed an overall improvement in the management of patients (n = 142 between the study periods, resulting in a significantly shorter hospital LOS for adults and children, and a shorter duration of antibiotic use for adults and infants. In multivariate analysis, we observed that the time from molecular test results to discharge of patients and the median duration of antibiotic treatment were associated with an increase in LOS in all age groups. In addition, among adults, the turnaround time of the molecular assay was significantly correlated with LOS. The use of CT scan in children and hospital admission outside the peak of EV prevalence in infants tended to increase LOS. In conclusion, the shorter length of stay of patients with meningitis in this study was due to various factors including the rapidity of the EV molecular test (particularly in adults, greater physician responsiveness after a positive result (in adults and children, and greater experience on the part of physicians in handling EV meningitis, as evidenced by the shorter duration of antibiotic use in adults and infants.

  4. Improvement of the Management of Infants, Children and Adults with a Molecular Diagnosis of Enterovirus Meningitis during Two Observational Study Periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archimbaud, Christine; Ouchchane, Lemlih; Mirand, Audrey; Chambon, Martine; Demeocq, François; Labbé, André; Laurichesse, Henri; Schmidt, Jeannot; Clavelou, Pierre; Aumaître, Olivier; Regagnon, Christel; Bailly, Jean-Luc; Henquell, Cécile; Peigue-Lafeuille, Hélène

    2013-01-01

    Enteroviruses (EVs) are a major cause of aseptic meningitis, and RNA detection using molecular assay is the gold standard diagnostic test. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of an EV positive diagnosis on the clinical management of patients admitted for meningitis over the course of two observational study periods (2005 and 2008–09) in the same clinical departments. We further investigated in multivariate analysis various factors possibly associated with hospital length of stay (LOS) in all age groups (infants, children, and adults). The results showed an overall improvement in the management of patients (n = 142) between the study periods, resulting in a significantly shorter hospital LOS for adults and children, and a shorter duration of antibiotic use for adults and infants. In multivariate analysis, we observed that the time from molecular test results to discharge of patients and the median duration of antibiotic treatment were associated with an increase in LOS in all age groups. In addition, among adults, the turnaround time of the molecular assay was significantly correlated with LOS. The use of CT scan in children and hospital admission outside the peak of EV prevalence in infants tended to increase LOS. In conclusion, the shorter length of stay of patients with meningitis in this study was due to various factors including the rapidity of the EV molecular test (particularly in adults), greater physician responsiveness after a positive result (in adults and children), and greater experience on the part of physicians in handling EV meningitis, as evidenced by the shorter duration of antibiotic use in adults and infants. PMID:23874676

  5. Rainfall and runoff Intensity-Duration-Frequency Curves for Washington State considering the change and uncertainty of observed and anticipated extreme rainfall and snow events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demissie, Y. K.; Mortuza, M. R.; Li, H. Y.

    2015-12-01

    The observed and anticipated increasing trends in extreme storm magnitude and frequency, as well as the associated flooding risk in the Pacific Northwest highlighted the need for revising and updating the local intensity-duration-frequency (IDF) curves, which are commonly used for designing critical water infrastructure. In Washington State, much of the drainage system installed in the last several decades uses IDF curves that are outdated by as much as half a century, making the system inadequate and vulnerable for flooding as seen more frequently in recent years. In this study, we have developed new and forward looking rainfall and runoff IDF curves for each county in Washington State using recently observed and projected precipitation data. Regional frequency analysis coupled with Bayesian uncertainty quantification and model averaging methods were used to developed and update the rainfall IDF curves, which were then used in watershed and snow models to develop the runoff IDF curves that explicitly account for effects of snow and drainage characteristic into the IDF curves and related designs. The resulted rainfall and runoff IDF curves provide more reliable, forward looking, and spatially resolved characteristics of storm events that can assist local decision makers and engineers to thoroughly review and/or update the current design standards for urban and rural storm water management infrastructure in order to reduce the potential ramifications of increasing severe storms and resulting floods on existing and planned storm drainage and flood management systems in the state.

  6. In situ observations of the influence of a large onshore wind farm on near-surface temperature, turbulence intensity and wind speed profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Craig M.; Barthelmie, R. J.; Pryor, S. C.

    2013-09-01

    Observations of wakes from individual wind turbines and a multi-megawatt wind energy installation in the Midwestern US indicate that directly downstream of a turbine (at a distance of 190 m, or 2.4 rotor diameters (D)), there is a clear impact on wind speed and turbulence intensity (TI) throughout the rotor swept area. However, at a downwind distance of 2.1 km (26 D downstream of the closest wind turbine) the wake of the whole wind farm is not evident. There is no significant reduction of hub-height wind speed or increase in TI especially during daytime. Thus, in high turbulence regimes even very large wind installations may have only a modest impact on downstream flow fields. No impact is observable in daytime vertical potential temperature gradients at downwind distances of >2 km, but at night the presence of the wind farm does significantly decrease the vertical gradients of potential temperature (though the profile remains stably stratified), largely by increasing the temperature at 2 m.

  7. In situ observations of the influence of a large onshore wind farm on near-surface temperature, turbulence intensity and wind speed profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Craig M; Barthelmie, R J; Pryor, S C

    2013-01-01

    Observations of wakes from individual wind turbines and a multi-megawatt wind energy installation in the Midwestern US indicate that directly downstream of a turbine (at a distance of 190 m, or 2.4 rotor diameters (D)), there is a clear impact on wind speed and turbulence intensity (TI) throughout the rotor swept area. However, at a downwind distance of 2.1 km (26 D downstream of the closest wind turbine) the wake of the whole wind farm is not evident. There is no significant reduction of hub-height wind speed or increase in TI especially during daytime. Thus, in high turbulence regimes even very large wind installations may have only a modest impact on downstream flow fields. No impact is observable in daytime vertical potential temperature gradients at downwind distances of >2 km, but at night the presence of the wind farm does significantly decrease the vertical gradients of potential temperature (though the profile remains stably stratified), largely by increasing the temperature at 2 m. (letter)

  8. Beam-induced and cosmic-ray backgrounds observed in the ATLAS detector during the LHC 2012 proton-proton running period

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, Georges; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdinov, Ovsat; Abeloos, Baptiste; Aben, Rosemarie; Abolins, Maris; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abraham, Nicola; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Abreu, Ricardo; Abulaiti, Yiming; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adams, David; Adelman, Jahred; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adye, Tim; Affolder, Tony; Agatonovic-Jovin, Tatjana; Agricola, Johannes; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Ahlen, Steven; Ahmadov, Faig; Aielli, Giulio; Akerstedt, Henrik; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimov, Andrei; Alberghi, Gian Luigi; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Alconada Verzini, Maria Josefina; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Aliev, Malik; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alison, John; Alkire, Steven Patrick; Allbrooke, Benedict; Allen, Benjamin William; Allport, Phillip; Aloisio, Alberto; Alonso, Alejandro; Alonso, Francisco; Alpigiani, Cristiano; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; Άlvarez Piqueras, Damián; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amadio, Brian Thomas; Amako, Katsuya; Amaral Coutinho, Yara; Amelung, Christoph; Amidei, Dante; Amor Dos Santos, Susana Patricia; Amorim, Antonio; Amoroso, Simone; Amram, Nir; Amundsen, Glenn; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, Gabriel; Anders, John Kenneth; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Angelidakis, Stylianos; Angelozzi, Ivan; Anger, Philipp; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anisenkov, Alexey; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Antos, Jaroslav; Anulli, Fabio; Aoki, Masato; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Arabidze, Giorgi; Arai, Yasuo; Araque, Juan Pedro; Arce, Ayana; Arduh, Francisco Anuar; Arduini, Gianluigi; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Argyropoulos, Spyridon; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Armitage, Lewis James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnold, Hannah; Arratia, Miguel; Arslan, Ozan; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Artz, Sebastian; Asai, Shoji; Asbah, Nedaa; Ashkenazi, Adi; Åsman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astalos, Robert; Atkinson, Markus; Atlay, Naim Bora; Augsten, Kamil; Avolio, Giuseppe; Axen, Bradley; Ayoub, Mohamad Kassem; Azuelos, Georges; Baak, Max; Baas, Alessandra; Baca, Matthew John; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Backes, Moritz; Backhaus, Malte; Bagiacchi, Paolo; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bai, Yu; Baines, John; Baker, Oliver Keith; Baldin, Evgenii; Balek, Petr; Balestri, Thomas; Balli, Fabrice; Balunas, William Keaton; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Swagato; Bannoura, Arwa A E; Barak, Liron; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Barillari, Teresa; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnes, Sarah Louise; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Barnovska, Zuzana; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barranco Navarro, Laura; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartos, Pavol; Basalaev, Artem; Bassalat, Ahmed; Basye, Austin; Bates, Richard; Batista, Santiago Juan; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Marco; Bauce, Matteo; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beacham, James Baker; Beattie, Michael David; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans~Peter; Becker, Kathrin; Becker, Maurice; Beckingham, Matthew; Becot, Cyril; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bedognetti, Matteo; Bee, Christopher; Beemster, Lars; Beermann, Thomas; Begel, Michael; Behr, Janna Katharina; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, Andrew Stuart; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellerive, Alain; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Belyaev, Nikita; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Bender, Michael; Bendtz, Katarina; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benhar Noccioli, Eleonora; Benitez, Jose; Benitez Garcia, Jorge-Armando; Benjamin, Douglas; Bensinger, James; Bentvelsen, Stan; Beresford, Lydia; Beretta, Matteo; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Beringer, Jürg; Berlendis, Simon; Bernard, Nathan Rogers; Bernius, Catrin; Bernlochner, Florian Urs; Berry, Tracey; Berta, Peter; Bertella, Claudia; Bertoli, Gabriele; Bertolucci, Federico; Bertram, Iain Alexander; Bertsche, Carolyn; Bertsche, David; Besjes, Geert-Jan; Bessidskaia Bylund, Olga; Bessner, Martin Florian; Besson, Nathalie; Betancourt, Christopher; Bethke, Siegfried; Bevan, Adrian John; Bhimji, Wahid; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianchini, Louis; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Biedermann, Dustin; Bielski, Rafal; Biesuz, Nicolo Vladi; Biglietti, Michela; Bilbao De Mendizabal, Javier; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Binet, Sebastien; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Biondi, Silvia; Bjergaard, David Martin; Black, Curtis; Black, James; Black, Kevin; Blackburn, Daniel; Blair, Robert; Blanchard, Jean-Baptiste; Blanco, Jacobo Ezequiel; Blazek, Tomas; Bloch, Ingo; Blocker, Craig; Blum, Walter; Blumenschein, Ulrike; Blunier, Sylvain; Bobbink, Gerjan; Bobrovnikov, Victor; Bocchetta, Simona Serena; Bocci, Andrea; Bock, Christopher; Boehler, Michael; Boerner, Daniela; Bogaerts, Joannes Andreas; Bogavac, Danijela; Bogdanchikov, Alexander; Bohm, Christian; Boisvert, Veronique; Bold, Tomasz; Boldea, Venera; Boldyrev, Alexey; Bomben, Marco; Bona, Marcella; Boonekamp, Maarten; Borisov, Anatoly; Borissov, Guennadi; Bortfeldt, Jonathan; Bortoletto, Daniela; Bortolotto, Valerio; Bos, Kors; Boscherini, Davide; Bosman, Martine; Bossio Sola, Jonathan David; Boudreau, Joseph; Bouffard, Julian; Bouhova-Thacker, Evelina Vassileva; Boumediene, Djamel Eddine; Bourdarios, Claire; Boutle, Sarah Kate; Boveia, Antonio; Boyd, James; Boyko, Igor; Bracinik, Juraj; Brandt, Andrew; Brandt, Gerhard; Brandt, Oleg; Bratzler, Uwe; Brau, Benjamin; Brau, James; Braun, Helmut; Breaden Madden, William Dmitri; Brendlinger, Kurt; Brennan, Amelia Jean; Brenner, Lydia; Brenner, Richard; Bressler, Shikma; Bristow, Timothy Michael; Britton, Dave; Britzger, Daniel; Brochu, Frederic; Brock, Ian; Brock, Raymond; Brooijmans, Gustaaf; Brooks, Timothy; Brooks, William; Brosamer, Jacquelyn; Brost, Elizabeth; Broughton, James; Bruce, Roderik; Bruckman de Renstrom, Pawel; Bruncko, Dusan; Bruneliere, Renaud; Bruni, Alessia; Bruni, Graziano; Brunt, Benjamin; Bruschi, Marco; Bruscino, Nello; Bryant, Patrick; Bryngemark, Lene; Buanes, Trygve; Buat, Quentin; Buchholz, Peter; Buckley, Andrew; Budagov, Ioulian; Buehrer, Felix; Bugge, Magnar Kopangen; Bulekov, Oleg; Bullock, Daniel; Burckhart, Helfried; Burdin, Sergey; Burgard, Carsten Daniel; Burghgrave, Blake; Burka, Klaudia; Burke, Stephen; Burmeister, Ingo; Busato, Emmanuel; Büscher, Daniel; Büscher, Volker; Bussey, Peter; Butler, John; Butt, Aatif Imtiaz; Buttar, Craig; Butterworth, Jonathan; Butti, Pierfrancesco; Buttinger, William; Buzatu, Adrian; Buzykaev, Aleksey; Cabrera Urbán, Susana; Caforio, Davide; Cairo, Valentina; Cakir, Orhan; Calace, Noemi; Calafiura, Paolo; Calandri, Alessandro; Calderini, Giovanni; Calfayan, Philippe; Caloba, Luiz; Calvet, David; Calvet, Samuel; Calvet, Thomas Philippe; Camacho Toro, Reina; Camarda, Stefano; Camarri, Paolo; Cameron, David; Caminal Armadans, Roger; Camincher, Clement; Campana, Simone; Campanelli, Mario; Campoverde, Angel; Canale, Vincenzo; Canepa, Anadi; Cano Bret, Marc; Cantero, Josu; Cantrill, Robert; Cao, Tingting; Capeans Garrido, Maria Del Mar; Caprini, Irinel; Caprini, Mihai; Capua, Marcella; Caputo, Regina; Carbone, Ryne Michael; Cardarelli, Roberto; Cardillo, Fabio; Carli, Tancredi; Carlino, Gianpaolo; Carminati, Leonardo; Caron, Sascha; Carquin, Edson; Carrillo-Montoya, German D; Carter, Janet; Carvalho, João; Casadei, Diego; Casado, Maria Pilar; Casolino, Mirkoantonio; Casper, David William; Castaneda-Miranda, Elizabeth; Castelli, Angelantonio; Castillo Gimenez, Victoria; Castro, Nuno Filipe; Catinaccio, Andrea; Catmore, James; Cattai, Ariella; Caudron, Julien; Cavaliere, Viviana; Cavallaro, Emanuele; Cavalli, Donatella; Cavalli-Sforza, Matteo; Cavasinni, Vincenzo; Ceradini, Filippo; Cerda Alberich, Leonor; Cerio, Benjamin; Santiago Cerqueira, Augusto; Cerri, Alessandro; Cerrito, Lucio; Cerutti, Fabio; Cerv, Matevz; Cervelli, Alberto; Cetin, Serkant Ali; Chafaq, Aziz; Chakraborty, Dhiman; Chalupkova, Ina; Chan, Stephen Kam-wah; Chan, Yat Long; Chang, Philip; Chapman, John Derek; Charlton, Dave; Chatterjee, Avishek; Chau, Chav Chhiv; Chavez Barajas, Carlos Alberto; Che, Siinn; Cheatham, Susan; Chegwidden, Andrew; Chekanov, Sergei; Chekulaev, Sergey; Chelkov, Gueorgui; Chelstowska, Magda Anna; Chen, Chunhui; Chen, Hucheng; Chen, Karen; Chen, Shenjian; Chen, Shion; Chen, Xin; Chen, Ye; Cheng, Hok Chuen; Cheng, Huajie; Cheng, Yangyang; Cheplakov, Alexander; Cheremushkina, Evgenia; Cherkaoui El Moursli, Rajaa; Chernyatin, Valeriy; Cheu, Elliott; Chevalier, Laurent; Chiarella, Vitaliano; Chiarelli, Giorgio; Chiodini, Gabriele; Chisholm, Andrew; Chitan, Adrian; Chizhov, Mihail; Choi, Kyungeon; Chomont, Arthur Rene; Chouridou, Sofia; Chow, Bonnie Kar Bo; Christodoulou, Valentinos; Chromek-Burckhart, Doris; Chudoba, Jiri; Chuinard, Annabelle Julia; Chwastowski, Janusz; Chytka, Ladislav; Ciapetti, Guido; Ciftci, Abbas Kenan; Cinca, Diane; Cindro, Vladimir; Cioara, Irina Antonela; Ciocio, Alessandra; Cirotto, Francesco; Citron, Zvi Hirsh; Ciubancan, Mihai; Clark, Allan G; Clark, Brian Lee; Clark, Michael; Clark, Philip James; Clarke, Robert; Clement, Christophe; Coadou, Yann; Cobal, Marina; Coccaro, Andrea; Cochran, James H; Coffey, Laurel; Colasurdo, Luca; Cole, Brian; Cole, Stephen; Colijn, Auke-Pieter; Collot, Johann; Colombo, Tommaso; Compostella, Gabriele; Conde Muiño, Patricia; Coniavitis, Elias; Connell, Simon Henry; Connelly, Ian; Consorti, Valerio; Constantinescu, Serban; Conta, Claudio; Conti, Geraldine; Conventi, Francesco; Cooke, Mark; Cooper, Ben; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; Cornelissen, Thijs; Corradi, Massimo; Corriveau, Francois; Corso-Radu, Alina; Cortes-Gonzalez, Arely; Cortiana, Giorgio; Costa, Giuseppe; Costa, María José; Costanzo, Davide; Cottin, Giovanna; Cowan, Glen; Cox, Brian; Cranmer, Kyle; Crawley, Samuel Joseph; Cree, Graham; Crépé-Renaudin, Sabine; Crescioli, Francesco; Cribbs, Wayne Allen; Crispin Ortuzar, Mireia; Cristinziani, Markus; Croft, Vince; Crosetti, Giovanni; Cuhadar Donszelmann, Tulay; Cummings, Jane; Curatolo, Maria; Cúth, Jakub; Cuthbert, Cameron; Czirr, Hendrik; Czodrowski, Patrick; D'Auria, Saverio; D'Onofrio, Monica; Da Cunha Sargedas De Sousa, Mario Jose; Da Via, Cinzia; Dabrowski, Wladyslaw; Dai, Tiesheng; Dale, Orjan; Dallaire, Frederick; Dallapiccola, Carlo; Dam, Mogens; Dandoy, Jeffrey Rogers; Dang, Nguyen Phuong; Daniells, Andrew Christopher; Dann, Nicholas Stuart; Danninger, Matthias; Dano Hoffmann, Maria; Dao, Valerio; Darbo, Giovanni; Darmora, Smita; Dassoulas, James; Dattagupta, Aparajita; Davey, Will; David, Claire; Davidek, Tomas; Davies, Merlin; Davison, Peter; Davygora, Yuriy; Dawe, Edmund; Dawson, Ian; Daya-Ishmukhametova, Rozmin; De, Kaushik; de Asmundis, Riccardo; De Benedetti, Abraham; De Castro, Stefano; De Cecco, Sandro; De Groot, Nicolo; de Jong, Paul; De la Torre, Hector; De Lorenzi, Francesco; De Pedis, Daniele; De Salvo, Alessandro; De Sanctis, Umberto; De Santo, Antonella; De Vivie De Regie, Jean-Baptiste; Dearnaley, William James; Debbe, Ramiro; Debenedetti, Chiara; Dedovich, Dmitri; Deigaard, Ingrid; Del Peso, Jose; Del Prete, Tarcisio; Delgove, David; Deliot, Frederic; Delitzsch, Chris Malena; Deliyergiyev, Maksym; Dell'Acqua, Andrea; Dell'Asta, Lidia; Dell'Orso, Mauro; Della Pietra, Massimo; della Volpe, Domenico; Delmastro, Marco; Delsart, Pierre-Antoine; Deluca, Carolina; DeMarco, David; Demers, Sarah; Demichev, Mikhail; Demilly, Aurelien; Denisov, Sergey; Denysiuk, Denys; Derendarz, Dominik; Derkaoui, Jamal Eddine; Derue, Frederic; Dervan, Paul; Desch, Klaus Kurt; Deterre, Cecile; Dette, Karola; Deviveiros, Pier-Olivier; Dewhurst, Alastair; Dhaliwal, Saminder; Di Ciaccio, Anna; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Clemente, William Kennedy; Di Donato, Camilla; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Di Girolamo, Beniamino; Di Micco, Biagio; Di Nardo, Roberto; Di Simone, Andrea; Di Sipio, Riccardo; Di Valentino, David; Diaconu, Cristinel; Diamond, Miriam; Dias, Flavia; Diaz, Marco Aurelio; Diehl, Edward; Dietrich, Janet; Diglio, Sara; Dimitrievska, Aleksandra; Dingfelder, Jochen; Dita, Petre; Dita, Sanda; Dittus, Fridolin; Djama, Fares; Djobava, Tamar; Djuvsland, Julia Isabell; Barros do Vale, Maria Aline; Dobos, Daniel; Dobre, Monica; Doglioni, Caterina; Dohmae, Takeshi; Dolejsi, Jiri; Dolezal, Zdenek; Dolgoshein, Boris; Donadelli, Marisilvia; Donati, Simone; Dondero, Paolo; Donini, Julien; Dopke, Jens; Doria, Alessandra; Dova, Maria-Teresa; Doyle, Tony; Drechsler, Eric; Dris, Manolis; Du, Yanyan; Duarte-Campderros, Jorge; Duchovni, Ehud; Duckeck, Guenter; Ducu, Otilia Anamaria; Duda, Dominik; Dudarev, Alexey; Duflot, Laurent; Duguid, Liam; Dührssen, Michael; Dunford, Monica; Duran Yildiz, Hatice; Düren, Michael; Durglishvili, Archil; Duschinger, Dirk; Dutta, Baishali; Dyndal, Mateusz; Eckardt, Christoph; Ecker, Katharina Maria; Edgar, Ryan Christopher; Edson, William; Edwards, Nicholas Charles; Eifert, Till; Eigen, Gerald; Einsweiler, Kevin; Ekelof, Tord; El Kacimi, Mohamed; Ellajosyula, Venugopal; Ellert, Mattias; Elles, Sabine; Ellinghaus, Frank; Elliot, Alison; Ellis, Nicolas; Elmsheuser, Johannes; Elsing, Markus; Emeliyanov, Dmitry; Enari, Yuji; Endner, Oliver Chris; Endo, Masaki; Ennis, Joseph Stanford; Erdmann, Johannes; Ereditato, Antonio; Ernis, Gunar; Ernst, Jesse; Ernst, Michael; Errede, Steven; Ertel, Eugen; Escalier, Marc; Esch, Hendrik; Escobar, Carlos; Esposito, Bellisario; Etienvre, Anne-Isabelle; Etzion, Erez; Evans, Hal; Ezhilov, Alexey; Fabbri, Federica; Fabbri, Laura; Facini, Gabriel; Fakhrutdinov, Rinat; Falciano, Speranza; Falla, Rebecca Jane; Faltova, Jana; Fang, Yaquan; Fanti, Marcello; Farbin, Amir; Farilla, Addolorata; Farina, Christian; Farooque, Trisha; Farrell, Steven; Farrington, Sinead; Farthouat, Philippe; Fassi, Farida; Fassnacht, Patrick; Fassouliotis, Dimitrios; Faucci Giannelli, Michele; Favareto, Andrea; Fawcett, William James; Fayard, Louis; Fedin, Oleg; Fedorko, Wojciech; Feigl, Simon; Feligioni, Lorenzo; Feng, Cunfeng; Feng, Eric; Feng, Haolu; Fenyuk, Alexander; Feremenga, Last; Fernandez Martinez, Patricia; Fernandez Perez, Sonia; Ferrando, James; Ferrari, Arnaud; Ferrari, Pamela; Ferrari, Roberto; Ferreira de Lima, Danilo Enoque; Ferrer, Antonio; Ferrere, Didier; Ferretti, Claudio; Ferretto Parodi, Andrea; Fiedler, Frank; Filipčič, Andrej; Filipuzzi, Marco; Filthaut, Frank; Fincke-Keeler, Margret; Finelli, Kevin Daniel; Fiolhais, Miguel; Fiorini, Luca; Firan, Ana; Fischer, Adam; Fischer, Cora; Fischer, Julia; Fisher, Wade Cameron; Flaschel, Nils; Fleck, Ivor; Fleischmann, Philipp; Fletcher, Gareth Thomas; Fletcher, Gregory; Fletcher, Rob Roy MacGregor; Flick, Tobias; Floderus, Anders; Flores Castillo, Luis; Flowerdew, Michael; Forcolin, Giulio Tiziano; Formica, Andrea; Forti, Alessandra; Foster, Andrew Geoffrey; Fournier, Daniel; Fox, Harald; Fracchia, Silvia; Francavilla, Paolo; Franchini, Matteo; Francis, David; Franconi, Laura; Franklin, Melissa; Frate, Meghan; Fraternali, Marco; Freeborn, David; Fressard-Batraneanu, Silvia; Friedrich, Felix; Froidevaux, Daniel; Frost, James; Fukunaga, Chikara; Fullana Torregrosa, Esteban; Fusayasu, Takahiro; Fuster, Juan; Gabaldon, Carolina; Gabizon, Ofir; Gabrielli, Alessandro; Gabrielli, Andrea; Gach, Grzegorz; Gadatsch, Stefan; Gadomski, Szymon; Gagliardi, Guido; Gagnon, Louis Guillaume; Gagnon, Pauline; Galea, Cristina; Galhardo, Bruno; Gallas, Elizabeth; Gallop, Bruce; Gallus, Petr; Galster, Gorm Aske Gram Krohn; Gan, KK; Gao, Jun; Gao, Yanyan; Gao, Yongsheng; Garay Walls, Francisca; García, Carmen; García Navarro, José Enrique; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; Gardner, Robert; Garelli, Nicoletta; Garonne, Vincent; Gascon Bravo, Alberto; Gatti, Claudio; Gaudiello, Andrea; Gaudio, Gabriella; Gaur, Bakul; Gauthier, Lea; Gavrilenko, Igor; Gay, Colin; Gaycken, Goetz; Gazis, Evangelos; Gecse, Zoltan; Gee, Norman; Geich-Gimbel, Christoph; Geisler, Manuel Patrice; Gemme, Claudia; Genest, Marie-Hélène; Geng, Cong; Gentile, Simonetta; George, Simon; Gerbaudo, Davide; Gershon, Avi; Ghasemi, Sara; Ghazlane, Hamid; Ghneimat, Mazuza; Giacobbe, Benedetto; Giagu, Stefano; Giannetti, Paola; Gibbard, Bruce; Gibson, Stephen; Gignac, Matthew; Gilchriese, Murdock; Gillam, Thomas; Gillberg, Dag; Gilles, Geoffrey; Gingrich, Douglas; Giokaris, Nikos; Giordani, MarioPaolo; Giorgi, Filippo Maria; Giorgi, Francesco Michelangelo; Giraud, Pierre-Francois; Giromini, Paolo; Giugni, Danilo; Giuli, Francesco; Giuliani, Claudia; Giulini, Maddalena; Gjelsten, Børge Kile; Gkaitatzis, Stamatios; Gkialas, Ioannis; Gkougkousis, Evangelos Leonidas; Gladilin, Leonid; Glasman, Claudia; Glatzer, Julian; Glaysher, Paul; Glazov, Alexandre; Goblirsch-Kolb, Maximilian; Godlewski, Jan; Goldfarb, Steven; Golling, Tobias; Golubkov, Dmitry; Gomes, Agostinho; Gonçalo, Ricardo; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, Joao; Gonella, Laura; Gongadze, Alexi; González de la Hoz, Santiago; Gonzalez Parra, Garoe; Gonzalez-Sevilla, Sergio; Goossens, Luc; Gorbounov, Petr Andreevich; Gordon, Howard; Gorelov, Igor; Gorini, Benedetto; Gorini, Edoardo; Gorišek, Andrej; Gornicki, Edward; Goshaw, Alfred; Gössling, Claus; Gostkin, Mikhail Ivanovitch; Goudet, Christophe Raymond; Goujdami, Driss; Goussiou, Anna; Govender, Nicolin; Gozani, Eitan; Graber, Lars; Grabowska-Bold, Iwona; Gradin, Per Olov Joakim; Grafström, Per; Gramling, Johanna; Gramstad, Eirik; Grancagnolo, Sergio; Gratchev, Vadim; Gray, Heather; Graziani, Enrico; Greenwood, Zeno Dixon; Grefe, Christian; Gregersen, Kristian; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Philippe; Grevtsov, Kirill; Griffiths, Justin; Grillo, Alexander; Grimm, Kathryn; Grinstein, Sebastian; Gris, Philippe Luc Yves; Grivaz, Jean-Francois; Groh, Sabrina; Grohs, Johannes Philipp; Gross, Eilam; Grosse-Knetter, Joern; Grossi, Giulio Cornelio; Grout, Zara Jane; Guan, Liang; Guan, Wen; Guenther, Jaroslav; Guescini, Francesco; Guest, Daniel; Gueta, Orel; Guido, Elisa; Guillemin, Thibault; Guindon, Stefan; Gul, Umar; Gumpert, Christian; Guo, Jun; Guo, Yicheng; Gupta, Shaun; Gustavino, Giuliano; Gutierrez, Phillip; Gutierrez Ortiz, Nicolas Gilberto; Gutschow, Christian; Guyot, Claude; Gwenlan, Claire; Gwilliam, Carl; Haas, Andy; Haber, Carl; Hadavand, Haleh Khani; Haddad, Nacim; Hadef, Asma; Haefner, Petra; Hageböck, Stephan; Hajduk, Zbigniew; Hakobyan, Hrachya; Haleem, Mahsana; Haley, Joseph; Hall, David; Halladjian, Garabed; Hallewell, Gregory David; Hamacher, Klaus; Hamal, Petr; Hamano, Kenji; Hamilton, Andrew; Hamity, Guillermo Nicolas; Hamnett, Phillip George; Han, Liang; Hanagaki, Kazunori; Hanawa, Keita; Hance, Michael; Haney, Bijan; Hanke, Paul; Hanna, Remie; Hansen, Jørgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; Hansen, Maike Christina; Hansen, Peter Henrik; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hard, Andrew; Harenberg, Torsten; Hariri, Faten; Harkusha, Siarhei; Harrington, Robert; Harrison, Paul Fraser; Hartjes, Fred; Hasegawa, Makoto; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hasib, A; Hassani, Samira; Haug, Sigve; Hauser, Reiner; Hauswald, Lorenz; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawkes, Christopher; Hawkings, Richard John; Hawkins, Anthony David; Hayden, Daniel; Hays, Chris; Hays, Jonathan Michael; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; Head, Simon; Heck, Tobias; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heim, Sarah; Heim, Timon; Heinemann, Beate; Heinrich, Jochen Jens; Heinrich, Lukas; Heinz, Christian; Hejbal, Jiri; Helary, Louis; Hellman, Sten; Helsens, Clement; Henderson, James; Henderson, Robert; Heng, Yang; Henkelmann, Steffen; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Herbert, Geoffrey Henry; Hernández Jiménez, Yesenia; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Hesketh, Gavin Grant; Hessey, Nigel; Hetherly, Jeffrey Wayne; Hickling, Robert; Higón-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hill, Ewan; Hill, John; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillier, Stephen; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hines, Elizabeth; Hinman, Rachel Reisner; Hirose, Minoru; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hodgson, Paul; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoenig, Friedrich; Hohlfeld, Marc; Hohn, David; Holmes, Tova Ray; Homann, Michael; Hong, Tae Min; Hooberman, Benjamin Henry; Hopkins, Walter; Horii, Yasuyuki; Horton, Arthur James; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hou, Suen; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howard, Jacob; Howarth, James; Hrabovsky, Miroslav; Hristova, Ivana; Hrivnac, Julius; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hrynevich, Aliaksei; Hsu, Catherine; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Hu, Diedi; Hu, Qipeng; Huang, Yanping; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huegging, Fabian; Huffman, Todd Brian; Hughes, Emlyn; Hughes, Gareth; Huhtinen, Mika; Hülsing, Tobias Alexander; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibragimov, Iskander; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Ideal, Emma; Idrissi, Zineb; Iengo, Paolo; Igonkina, Olga; Iizawa, Tomoya; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikeno, Masahiro; Ilchenko, Iurii; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Ilic, Nikolina; Ince, Tayfun; Introzzi, Gianluca; Ioannou, Pavlos; Iodice, Mauro; Iordanidou, Kalliopi; Ippolito, Valerio; Irles Quiles, Adrian; Isaksson, Charlie; Ishino, Masaya; Ishitsuka, Masaki; Ishmukhametov, Renat; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Ito, Fumiaki; Iturbe Ponce, Julia Mariana; Iuppa, Roberto; Ivarsson, Jenny; Iwanski, Wieslaw; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jabbar, Samina; Jackson, Brett; Jackson, Matthew; Jackson, Paul; Jain, Vivek; Jakobi, Katharina Bianca; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakoubek, Tomas; Jamin, David Olivier; Jana, Dilip; Jansen, Eric; Jansky, Roland; Janssen, Jens; Janus, Michel; Jarlskog, Göran; Javadov, Namig; Javůrek, Tomáš; Jeanneau, Fabien; Jeanty, Laura; Jejelava, Juansher; Jeng, Geng-yuan; Jennens, David; Jenni, Peter; Jentzsch, Jennifer; Jeske, Carl; Jézéquel, Stéphane; Ji, Haoshuang; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Hai; Jiang, Yi; Jiggins, Stephen; Jimenez Pena, Javier; Jin, Shan; Jinaru, Adam; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Johansson, Per; Johns, Kenneth; Johnson, William Joseph; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Graham; Jones, Roger; Jones, Sarah; Jones, Tim; Jongmanns, Jan; Jorge, Pedro; Jovicevic, Jelena; Ju, Xiangyang; Juste Rozas, Aurelio; Köhler, Markus Konrad; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kahn, Sebastien Jonathan; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kalderon, Charles William; Kaluza, Adam; Kama, Sami; Kamenshchikov, Andrey; Kanaya, Naoko; Kaneti, Steven; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kaplan, Laser Seymour; Kapliy, Anton; Kar, Deepak; Karakostas, Konstantinos; Karamaoun, Andrew; Karastathis, Nikolaos; Kareem, Mohammad Jawad; Karentzos, Efstathios; Karnevskiy, Mikhail; Karpov, Sergey; Karpova, Zoya; Karthik, Krishnaiyengar; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kasahara, Kota; Kashif, Lashkar; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kataoka, Yousuke; Kato, Chikuma; Katre, Akshay; Katzy, Judith; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kazama, Shingo; Kazanin, Vassili; Keeler, Richard; Kehoe, Robert; Keller, John; Kempster, Jacob Julian; Kentaro, Kawade; Keoshkerian, Houry; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerševan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Keyes, Robert; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khandanyan, Hovhannes; Khanov, Alexander; Kharlamov, Alexey; Khoo, Teng Jian; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kido, Shogo; Kim, Hee Yeun; Kim, Shinhong; Kim, Young-Kee; Kimura, Naoki; Kind, Oliver Maria; King, Barry; King, Matthew; King, Samuel Burton; Kirk, Julie; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kishimoto, Tomoe; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kiss, Florian; Kiuchi, Kenji; Kivernyk, Oleh; Kladiva, Eduard; Klein, Matthew Henry; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klimek, Pawel; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klinger, Joel Alexander; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Kluge, Eike-Erik; Kluit, Peter; Kluth, Stefan; Knapik, Joanna; Kneringer, Emmerich; Knoops, Edith; Knue, Andrea; Kobayashi, Aine; Kobayashi, Dai; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Kocian, Martin; Kodys, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Kogan, Lucy Anne; Koi, Tatsumi; Kolanoski, Hermann; Kolb, Mathis; Koletsou, Iro; Komar, Aston; Komori, Yuto; Kondo, Takahiko; Kondrashova, Nataliia; Köneke, Karsten; König, Adriaan; Kono, Takanori; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Kopeliansky, Revital; Koperny, Stefan; Köpke, Lutz; Kopp, Anna Katharina; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Korn, Andreas; Korol, Aleksandr; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kosek, Tomas; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Kourkoumeli-Charalampidi, Athina; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Kouskoura, Vasiliki; Koutsman, Alex; Kowalewska, Anna Bozena; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasnopevtsev, Dimitriy; Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Kraus, Jana; Kravchenko, Anton; Kretz, Moritz; Kretzschmar, Jan; Kreutzfeldt, Kristof; Krieger, Peter; Krizka, Karol; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Krüger, Hans; Krumnack, Nils; Kruse, Amanda; Kruse, Mark; Kruskal, Michael; Kubota, Takashi; Kucuk, Hilal; Kuday, Sinan; Kuechler, Jan Thomas; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuger, Fabian; Kuhl, Andrew; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kukhtin, Victor; Kukla, Romain; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kuna, Marine; Kunigo, Takuto; Kupco, Alexander; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kus, Vlastimil; Kuwertz, Emma Sian; Kuze, Masahiro; Kvita, Jiri; Kwan, Tony; Kyriazopoulos, Dimitrios; La Rosa, Alessandro; La Rosa Navarro, Jose Luis; La Rotonda, Laura; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacey, James; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Lacuesta, Vicente Ramón; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Remi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lagouri, Theodota; Lai, Stanley; Lammers, Sabine; Lampl, Walter; Lançon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Lang, Valerie Susanne; Lange, J örn Christian; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Lanza, Agostino; Laplace, Sandrine; Lapoire, Cecile; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Lasagni Manghi, Federico; Lassnig, Mario; Laurelli, Paolo; Lavrijsen, Wim; Law, Alexander; Laycock, Paul; Lazovich, Tomo; Lazzaroni, Massimo; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Menedeu, Eve; Le Quilleuc, Eloi; LeBlanc, Matthew Edgar; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne Agnes Marie; Lee, Claire Alexandra; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lee, Lawrence; Lefebvre, Guillaume; Lefebvre, Michel; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehan, Allan; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Lei, Xiaowen; Leight, William Axel; Leisos, Antonios; Leister, Andrew Gerard; Leite, Marco Aurelio Lisboa; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Lemmer, Boris; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatjana; Lenzi, Bruno; Leone, Robert; Leone, Sandra; Leonidopoulos, Christos; Leontsinis, Stefanos; Lerner, Giuseppe; Leroy, Claude; Lesage, Arthur; Lester, Christopher; Levchenko, Mikhail; Levêque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Levy, Mark; Leyko, Agnieszka; Leyton, Michael; Li, Bing; Li, Haifeng; Li, Ho Ling; Li, Lei; Li, Liang; Li, Qi; Li, Shu; Li, Xingguo; Li, Yichen; Liang, Zhijun; Liao, Hongbo; Liberti, Barbara; Liblong, Aaron; Lichard, Peter; Lie, Ki; Liebal, Jessica; Liebig, Wolfgang; Limbach, Christian; Limosani, Antonio; Lin, Simon; Lin, Tai-Hua; Lindquist, Brian Edward; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipniacka, Anna; Lisovyi, Mykhailo; Liss, Tony; Lissauer, David; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Liu, Bo; Liu, Dong; Liu, Hao; Liu, Hongbin; Liu, Jian; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Kun; Liu, Lulu; Liu, Miaoyuan; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Yanlin; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Lleres, Annick; Llorente Merino, Javier; Lloyd, Stephen; Lo Sterzo, Francesco; Lobodzinska, Ewelina; Loch, Peter; Lockman, William; Loebinger, Fred; Loevschall-Jensen, Ask Emil; Loew, Kevin Michael; Loginov, Andrey; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Long, Brian Alexander; Long, Jonathan David; Long, Robin Eamonn; Longo, Luigi; Looper, Kristina Anne; Lopes, Lourenco; Lopez Mateos, David; Lopez Paredes, Brais; Lopez Paz, Ivan; Lopez Solis, Alvaro; Lorenz, Jeanette; Lorenzo Martinez, Narei; Losada, Marta; Lösel, Philipp Jonathan; Lou, XinChou; Lounis, Abdenour; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lu, Haonan; Lu, Nan; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Luedtke, Christian; Luehring, Frederick; Lukas, Wolfgang; Luminari, Lamberto; Lundberg, Olof; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Lynn, David; Lysak, Roman; Lytken, Else; Lyubushkin, Vladimir; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Ma, Yanhui; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Macdonald, Calum Michael; Maček, Boštjan; Machado Miguens, Joana; Madaffari, Daniele; Madar, Romain; Maddocks, Harvey Jonathan; Mader, Wolfgang; Madsen, Alexander; Maeda, Junpei; Maeland, Steffen; Maeno, Tadashi; Maevskiy, Artem; Magradze, Erekle; Mahlstedt, Joern; Maiani, Camilla; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maier, Andreas Alexander; Maier, Thomas; Maio, Amélia; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makovec, Nikola; Malaescu, Bogdan; Malecki, Pawel; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Malone, Caitlin; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyukov, Sergei; Mamuzic, Judita; Mancini, Giada; Mandelli, Beatrice; Mandelli, Luciano; Mandić, Igor; Maneira, José; Manhaes de Andrade Filho, Luciano; Manjarres Ramos, Joany; Mann, Alexander; Mansoulie, Bruno; Mantifel, Rodger; Mantoani, Matteo; Manzoni, Stefano; Mapelli, Livio; Marceca, Gino; March, Luis; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marjanovic, Marija; Marley, Daniel; Marroquim, Fernando; Marsden, Stephen Philip; Marshall, Zach; Marti, Lukas Fritz; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Brian Thomas; Martin, Tim; Martin, Victoria Jane; Martin dit Latour, Bertrand; Martinez, Mario; Martin-Haugh, Stewart; Martoiu, Victor Sorin; Martyniuk, Alex; Marx, Marilyn; Marzano, Francesco; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Massa, Ignazio; Massa, Lorenzo; Mastrandrea, Paolo; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Mättig, Peter; Mattmann, Johannes; Maurer, Julien; Maxfield, Stephen; Maximov, Dmitriy; Mazini, Rachid; Mazza, Simone Michele; Mc Fadden, Neil Christopher; Mc Goldrick, Garrin; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Robert; McCarthy, Tom; McClymont, Laurie; McFarlane, Kenneth; Mcfayden, Josh; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; McMahon, Steve; McPherson, Robert; Medinnis, Michael; Meehan, Samuel; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meier, Karlheinz; Meineck, Christian; Meirose, Bernhard; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Meloni, Federico; Mengarelli, Alberto; Menke, Sven; Meoni, Evelin; Mercurio, Kevin Michael; Mergelmeyer, Sebastian; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meyer, Carsten; Meyer, Christopher; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Meyer Zu Theenhausen, Hanno; Middleton, Robin; Miglioranzi, Silvia; Mijović, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikuž, Marko; Milesi, Marco; Milic, Adriana; Miller, David; Mills, Corrinne; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Minaenko, Andrey; Minami, Yuto; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mistry, Khilesh; Mitani, Takashi; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitsou, Vasiliki A; Miucci, Antonio; Miyagawa, Paul; Mjörnmark, Jan-Ulf; Moa, Torbjoern; Mochizuki, Kazuya; Mohapatra, Soumya; Mohr, Wolfgang; Molander, Simon; Moles-Valls, Regina; Monden, Ryutaro; Mondragon, Matthew Craig; Mönig, Klaus; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montalbano, Alyssa; Montejo Berlingen, Javier; Monticelli, Fernando; Monzani, Simone; Moore, Roger; Morange, Nicolas; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Mori, Daniel; Mori, Tatsuya; Morii, Masahiro; Morinaga, Masahiro; Morisbak, Vanja; Moritz, Sebastian; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morris, John; Mortensen, Simon Stark; Morvaj, Ljiljana; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Josh; Motohashi, Kazuki; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Mouraviev, Sergei; Moyse, Edward; Muanza, Steve; Mudd, Richard; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Ralph Soeren Peter; Mueller, Thibaut; Muenstermann, Daniel; Mullen, Paul; Mullier, Geoffrey; Munoz Sanchez, Francisca Javiela; Murillo Quijada, Javier Alberto; Murray, Bill; Musheghyan, Haykuhi; Muskinja, Miha; Myagkov, Alexey; Myska, Miroslav; Nachman, Benjamin Philip; Nackenhorst, Olaf; Nadal, Jordi; Nagai, Koichi; Nagai, Ryo; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nagata, Kazuki; Nagel, Martin; Nagy, Elemer; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakahama, Yu; Nakamura, Koji; Nakamura, Tomoaki; Nakano, Itsuo; Namasivayam, Harisankar; Naranjo Garcia, Roger Felipe; Narayan, Rohin; Narrias Villar, Daniel Isaac; Naryshkin, Iouri; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Nayyar, Ruchika; Neal, Homer; Nechaeva, Polina; Neep, Thomas James; Nef, Pascal Daniel; Negri, Andrea; Negrini, Matteo; Nektarijevic, Snezana; Nellist, Clara; Nelson, Andrew; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nepomuceno, Andre Asevedo; Nessi, Marzio; Neubauer, Mark; Neumann, Manuel; Neves, Ricardo; Nevski, Pavel; Newman, Paul; Nguyen, Duong Hai; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nicquevert, Bertrand; Nielsen, Jason; Nikiforov, Andriy; Nikolaenko, Vladimir; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsen, Jon Kerr; Nilsson, Paul; Ninomiya, Yoichi; Nisati, Aleandro; Nisius, Richard; Nobe, Takuya; Nodulman, Lawrence; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Nooney, Tamsin; Norberg, Scarlet; Nordberg, Markus; Norjoharuddeen, Nurfikri; Novgorodova, Olga; Nowak, Sebastian; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nozka, Libor; Ntekas, Konstantinos; Nurse, Emily; Nuti, Francesco; O'grady, Fionnbarr; O'Neil, Dugan; O'Rourke, Abigail Alexandra; O'Shea, Val; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Obermann, Theresa; Ocariz, Jose; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Ochoa, Ines; Ochoa-Ricoux, Juan Pedro; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Ogren, Harold; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Ohman, Henrik; Oide, Hideyuki; Okawa, Hideki; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Okuyama, Toyonobu; Olariu, Albert; Oleiro Seabra, Luis Filipe; Olivares Pino, Sebastian Andres; Oliveira Damazio, Denis; Olszewski, Andrzej; Olszowska, Jolanta; Onofre, António; Onogi, Kouta; Onyisi, Peter; Oram, Christopher; Oreglia, Mark; Oren, Yona; Orestano, Domizia; Orlando, Nicola; Orr, Robert; Osculati, Bianca; Ospanov, Rustem; Otero y Garzon, Gustavo; Otono, Hidetoshi; Ouchrif, Mohamed; Ould-Saada, Farid; Ouraou, Ahmimed; Oussoren, Koen Pieter; Ouyang, Qun; Ovcharova, Ana; Owen, Mark; Owen, Rhys Edward; Ozcan, Veysi Erkcan; Ozturk, Nurcan; Pachal, Katherine; Pacheco Pages, Andres; Padilla Aranda, Cristobal; Pagáčová, Martina; Pagan Griso, Simone; Paige, Frank; Pais, Preema; Pajchel, Katarina; Palacino, Gabriel; Palestini, Sandro; Palka, Marek; Pallin, Dominique; Palm, Marcus; Palma, Alberto; Panagiotopoulou, Evgenia; Pandini, Carlo Enrico; Panduro Vazquez, William; Pani, Priscilla; Panitkin, Sergey; Pantea, Dan; Paolozzi, Lorenzo; Papadopoulou, Theodora; Papageorgiou, Konstantinos; Paramonov, Alexander; Paredes Hernandez, Daniela; Parker, Adam Jackson; Parker, Michael Andrew; Parker, Kerry Ann; Parodi, Fabrizio; Parsons, John; Parzefall, Ulrich; Pascuzzi, Vincent; Pasqualucci, Enrico; Passaggio, Stefano; Pastore, Fernanda; Pastore, Francesca; Pásztor, Gabriella; Pataraia, Sophio; Patel, Nikhul; Pater, Joleen; Pauly, Thilo; Pearce, James; Pearson, Benjamin; Pedersen, Lars Egholm; Pedersen, Maiken; Pedraza Lopez, Sebastian; Pedro, Rute; Peleganchuk, Sergey; Pelikan, Daniel; Penc, Ondrej; Peng, Cong; Peng, Haiping; Penwell, John; Peralva, Bernardo; Perego, Marta Maria; Perepelitsa, Dennis; Perez Codina, Estel; Perini, Laura; Pernegger, Heinz; Perrella, Sabrina; Peschke, Richard; Peshekhonov, Vladimir; Peters, Krisztian; Peters, Yvonne; Petersen, Brian; Petersen, Troels; Petit, Elisabeth; Petridis, Andreas; Petridou, Chariclia; Petroff, Pierre; Petrolo, Emilio; Petrov, Mariyan; Petrucci, Fabrizio; Pettersson, Nora Emilia; Peyaud, Alan; Pezoa, Raquel; Phillips, Peter William; Piacquadio, Giacinto; Pianori, Elisabetta; Picazio, Attilio; Piccaro, Elisa; Piccinini, Maurizio; Pickering, Mark Andrew; Piegaia, Ricardo; Pilcher, James; Pilkington, Andrew; Pin, Arnaud Willy J; Pina, João Antonio; Pinamonti, Michele; Pinfold, James; Pingel, Almut; Pires, Sylvestre; Pirumov, Hayk; Pitt, Michael; Plazak, Lukas; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Pleskot, Vojtech; Plotnikova, Elena; Plucinski, Pawel; Pluth, Daniel; Poettgen, Ruth; Poggioli, Luc; Pohl, David-leon; Polesello, Giacomo; Poley, Anne-luise; Policicchio, Antonio; Polifka, Richard; Polini, Alessandro; Pollard, Christopher Samuel; Polychronakos, Venetios; Pommès, Kathy; Pontecorvo, Ludovico; Pope, Bernard; Popeneciu, Gabriel Alexandru; Popovic, Dragan; Poppleton, Alan; Pospisil, Stanislav; Potamianos, Karolos; Potrap, Igor; Potter, Christina; Potter, Christopher; Poulard, Gilbert; Poveda, Joaquin; Pozdnyakov, Valery; Pozo Astigarraga, Mikel Eukeni; Pralavorio, Pascal; Pranko, Aliaksandr; Prell, Soeren; Price, Darren; Price, Lawrence; Primavera, Margherita; Prince, Sebastien; Proissl, Manuel; Prokofiev, Kirill; Prokoshin, Fedor; Protopopescu, Serban; Proudfoot, James; Przybycien, Mariusz; Puddu, Daniele; Puldon, David; Purohit, Milind; Puzo, Patrick; Qian, Jianming; Qin, Gang; Qin, Yang; Quadt, Arnulf; Quayle, William; Queitsch-Maitland, Michaela; Quilty, Donnchadha; Raddum, Silje; Radeka, Veljko; Radescu, Voica; Radhakrishnan, Sooraj Krishnan; Radloff, Peter; Rados, Pere; Ragusa, Francesco; Rahal, Ghita; Raine, John Andrew; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Rammensee, Michael; Rangel-Smith, Camila; Ratti, Maria Giulia; Rauscher, Felix; Rave, Stefan; Ravenscroft, Thomas; Raymond, Michel; Read, Alexander Lincoln; Readioff, Nathan Peter; Rebuzzi, Daniela; Redelbach, Andreas; Redlinger, George; Reece, Ryan; Reeves, Kendall; Rehnisch, Laura; Reichert, Joseph; Reisin, Hernan; Rembser, Christoph; Ren, Huan; Rescigno, Marco; Resconi, Silvia; Rezanova, Olga; Reznicek, Pavel; Rezvani, Reyhaneh; Richter, Robert; Richter, Stefan; Richter-Was, Elzbieta; Ricken, Oliver; Ridel, Melissa; Rieck, Patrick; Riegel, Christian Johann; Rieger, Julia; Rifki, Othmane; Rijssenbeek, Michael; Rimoldi, Adele; Rinaldi, Lorenzo; Ristić, Branislav; Ritsch, Elmar; Riu, Imma; Rizatdinova, Flera; Rizvi, Eram; Rizzi, Chiara; Robertson, Steven; Robichaud-Veronneau, Andree; Robinson, Dave; Robinson, James; Robson, Aidan; Roda, Chiara; Rodina, Yulia; Rodriguez Perez, Andrea; Rodriguez Rodriguez, Daniel; Roe, Shaun; Rogan, Christopher Sean; Røhne, Ole; Romaniouk, Anatoli; Romano, Marino; Romano Saez, Silvestre Marino; Romero Adam, Elena; Rompotis, Nikolaos; Ronzani, Manfredi; Roos, Lydia; Ros, Eduardo; Rosati, Stefano; Rosbach, Kilian; Rose, Peyton; Rosenthal, Oliver; Rossetti, Valerio; Rossi, Elvira; Rossi, Leonardo Paolo; Rosten, Jonatan; Rosten, Rachel; Rotaru, Marina; Roth, Itamar; Rothberg, Joseph; Rousseau, David; Royon, Christophe; Rozanov, Alexandre; Rozen, Yoram; Ruan, Xifeng; Rubbo, Francesco; Rubinskiy, Igor; Rud, Viacheslav; Rudolph, Matthew Scott; Rühr, Frederik; Ruiz-Martinez, Aranzazu; Rurikova, Zuzana; Rusakovich, Nikolai; Ruschke, Alexander; Russell, Heather; Rutherfoord, John; Ruthmann, Nils; Ryabov, Yury; Rybar, Martin; Rybkin, Grigori; Ryu, Soo; Ryzhov, Andrey; Saavedra, Aldo; Sabato, Gabriele; Sacerdoti, Sabrina; Sadrozinski, Hartmut; Sadykov, Renat; Safai Tehrani, Francesco; Saha, Puja; Sahinsoy, Merve; Saimpert, Matthias; Saito, Tomoyuki; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Sakurai, Yuki; Salamanna, Giuseppe; Salamon, Andrea; Salazar Loyola, Javier Esteban; Salek, David; Sales De Bruin, Pedro Henrique; Salihagic, Denis; Salnikov, Andrei; Salt, José; Salvatore, Daniela; Salvatore, Pasquale Fabrizio; Salvucci, Antonio; Salzburger, Andreas; Sammel, Dirk; Sampsonidis, Dimitrios; Sanchez, Arturo; Sánchez, Javier; Sanchez Martinez, Victoria; Sandaker, Heidi; Sandbach, Ruth Laura; Sander, Heinz Georg; Sanders, Michiel; Sandhoff, Marisa; Sandoval, Carlos; Sandstroem, Rikard; Sankey, Dave; Sannino, Mario; Sansoni, Andrea; Santoni, Claudio; Santonico, Rinaldo; Santos, Helena; Santoyo Castillo, Itzebelt; Sapp, Kevin; Sapronov, Andrey; Saraiva, João; Sarrazin, Bjorn; Sasaki, Osamu; Sasaki, Yuichi; Sato, Koji; Sauvage, Gilles; Sauvan, Emmanuel; Savage, Graham; Savard, Pierre; Sawyer, Craig; Sawyer, Lee; Saxon, James; Sbarra, Carla; Sbrizzi, Antonio; Scanlon, Tim; Scannicchio, Diana; Scarcella, Mark; Scarfone, Valerio; Schaarschmidt, Jana; Schacht, Peter; Schaefer, Douglas; Schaefer, Ralph; Schaeffer, Jan; Schaepe, Steffen; Schaetzel, Sebastian; Schäfer, Uli; Schaffer, Arthur; Schaile, Dorothee; Schamberger, R Dean; Scharf, Veit; Schegelsky, Valery; Scheirich, Daniel; Schernau, Michael; Schiavi, Carlo; Schillo, Christian; Schioppa, Marco; Schlenker, Stefan; Schmieden, Kristof; Schmitt, Christian; Schmitt, Stefan; Schmitz, Simon; Schneider, Basil; Schnellbach, Yan Jie; Schnoor, Ulrike; Schoeffel, Laurent; Schoening, Andre; Schoenrock, Bradley Daniel; Schopf, Elisabeth; Schorlemmer, Andre Lukas; Schott, Matthias; Schovancova, Jaroslava; Schramm, Steven; Schreyer, Manuel; Schuh, Natascha; Schultens, Martin Johannes; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Schulz, Holger; Schumacher, Markus; Schumm, Bruce; Schune, Philippe; Schwanenberger, Christian; Schwartzman, Ariel; Schwarz, Thomas Andrew; Schwegler, Philipp; Schweiger, Hansdieter; Schwemling, Philippe; Schwienhorst, Reinhard; Schwindling, Jerome; Schwindt, Thomas; Sciolla, Gabriella; Scuri, Fabrizio; Scutti, Federico; Searcy, Jacob; Seema, Pienpen; Seidel, Sally; Seiden, Abraham; Seifert, Frank; Seixas, José; Sekhniaidze, Givi; Sekhon, Karishma; Sekula, Stephen; Seliverstov, Dmitry; Semprini-Cesari, Nicola; Serfon, Cedric; Serin, Laurent; Serkin, Leonid; Sessa, Marco; Seuster, Rolf; Severini, Horst; Sfiligoj, Tina; Sforza, Federico; Sfyrla, Anna; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Shaikh, Nabila Wahab; Shan, Lianyou; Shang, Ruo-yu; Shank, James; Shapiro, Marjorie; Shatalov, Pavel; Shaw, Kate; Shaw, Savanna Marie; Shcherbakova, Anna; Shehu, Ciwake Yusufu; Sherwood, Peter; Shi, Liaoshan; Shimizu, Shima; Shimmin, Chase Owen; Shimojima, Makoto; Shiyakova, Mariya; Shmeleva, Alevtina; Shoaleh Saadi, Diane; Shochet, Mel; Shojaii, Seyedruhollah; Shrestha, Suyog; Shulga, Evgeny; Shupe, Michael; Sicho, Petr; Sidebo, Per Edvin; Sidiropoulou, Ourania; Sidorov, Dmitri; Sidoti, Antonio; Siegert, Frank; Sijacki, Djordje; Silva, José; Silverstein, Samuel; Simak, Vladislav; Simard, Olivier; Simic, Ljiljana; Simion, Stefan; Simioni, Eduard; Simmons, Brinick; Simon, Dorian; Simon, Manuel; Sinervo, Pekka; Sinev, Nikolai; Sioli, Maximiliano; Siragusa, Giovanni; Sivoklokov, Serguei; Sjölin, Jörgen; Sjursen, Therese; Skinner, Malcolm Bruce; Skottowe, Hugh Philip; Skubic, Patrick; Slater, Mark; Slavicek, Tomas; Slawinska, Magdalena; Sliwa, Krzysztof; Slovak, Radim; Smakhtin, Vladimir; Smart, Ben; Smestad, Lillian; Smirnov, Sergei; Smirnov, Yury; Smirnova, Lidia; Smirnova, Oxana; Smith, Matthew; Smith, Russell; Smizanska, Maria; Smolek, Karel; Snesarev, Andrei; Snidero, Giacomo; Snyder, Scott; Sobie, Randall; Socher, Felix; Soffer, Abner; Soh, Dart-yin; Sokhrannyi, Grygorii; Solans Sanchez, Carlos; Solar, Michael; Soldatov, Evgeny; Soldevila, Urmila; Solodkov, Alexander; Soloshenko, Alexei; Solovyanov, Oleg; Solovyev, Victor; Sommer, Philip; Son, Hyungsuk; Song, Hong Ye; Sood, Alexander; Sopczak, Andre; Sopko, Vit; Sorin, Veronica; Sosa, David; Sotiropoulou, Calliope Louisa; Soualah, Rachik; Soukharev, Andrey; South, David; Sowden, Benjamin; Spagnolo, Stefania; Spalla, Margherita; Spangenberg, Martin; Spanò, Francesco; Sperlich, Dennis; Spettel, Fabian; Spighi, Roberto; Spigo, Giancarlo; Spiller, Laurence Anthony; Spousta, Martin; St Denis, Richard Dante; Stabile, Alberto; Stahlman, Jonathan; Stamen, Rainer; Stamm, Soren; Stanecka, Ewa; Stanek, Robert; Stanescu, Cristian; Stanescu-Bellu, Madalina; Stanitzki, Marcel Michael; Stapnes, Steinar; Starchenko, Evgeny; Stark, Giordon; Stark, Jan; Staroba, Pavel; Starovoitov, Pavel; Stärz, Steffen; Staszewski, Rafal; Steinberg, Peter; Stelzer, Bernd; Stelzer, Harald Joerg; Stelzer-Chilton, Oliver; Stenzel, Hasko; Stewart, Graeme; Stillings, Jan Andre; Stockton, Mark; Stoebe, Michael; Stoicea, Gabriel; Stolte, Philipp; Stonjek, Stefan; Stradling, Alden; Straessner, Arno; Stramaglia, Maria Elena; Strandberg, Jonas; Strandberg, Sara; Strandlie, Are; Strauss, Michael; Strizenec, Pavol; Ströhmer, Raimund; Strom, David; Stroynowski, Ryszard; Strubig, Antonia; Stucci, Stefania Antonia; Stugu, Bjarne; Styles, Nicholas Adam; Su, Dong; Su, Jun; Subramaniam, Rajivalochan; Suchek, Stanislav; Sugaya, Yorihito; Suk, Michal; Sulin, Vladimir; Sultansoy, Saleh; Sumida, Toshi; Sun, Siyuan; Sun, Xiaohu; Sundermann, Jan Erik; Suruliz, Kerim; Susinno, Giancarlo; Sutton, Mark; Suzuki, Shota; Svatos, Michal; Swiatlowski, Maximilian; Sykora, Ivan; Sykora, Tomas; Ta, Duc; Taccini, Cecilia; Tackmann, Kerstin; Taenzer, Joe; Taffard, Anyes; Tafirout, Reda; Taiblum, Nimrod; Takai, Helio; Takashima, Ryuichi; Takeda, Hiroshi; Takeshita, Tohru; Takubo, Yosuke; Talby, Mossadek; Talyshev, Alexey; Tam, Jason; Tan, Kong Guan; Tanaka, Junichi; Tanaka, Reisaburo; Tanaka, Shuji; Tannenwald, Benjamin Bordy; Tapia Araya, Sebastian; Tapprogge, Stefan; Tarem, Shlomit; Tartarelli, Giuseppe Francesco; Tas, Petr; Tasevsky, Marek; Tashiro, Takuya; Tassi, Enrico; Tavares Delgado, Ademar; Tayalati, Yahya; Taylor, Aaron; Taylor, Geoffrey; Taylor, Pierre Thor Elliot; Taylor, Wendy; Teischinger, Florian Alfred; Teixeira-Dias, Pedro; Temming, Kim Katrin; Temple, Darren; Ten Kate, Herman; Teng, Ping-Kun; Teoh, Jia Jian; Tepel, Fabian-Phillipp; Terada, Susumu; Terashi, Koji; Terron, Juan; Terzo, Stefano; Testa, Marianna; Teuscher, Richard; Theveneaux-Pelzer, Timothée; Thomas, Juergen; Thomas-Wilsker, Joshuha; Thompson, Emily; Thompson, Paul; Thompson, Ray; Thompson, Stan; Thomsen, Lotte Ansgaard; Thomson, Evelyn; Thomson, Mark; Tibbetts, Mark James; Ticse Torres, Royer Edson; Tikhomirov, Vladimir; Tikhonov, Yury; Timoshenko, Sergey; Tipton, Paul; Tisserant, Sylvain; Todome, Kazuki; Todorov, Theodore; Todorova-Nova, Sharka; Tojo, Junji; Tokár, Stanislav; Tokushuku, Katsuo; Tolley, Emma; Tomlinson, Lee; Tomoto, Makoto; Tompkins, Lauren; Toms, Konstantin; Tong, Baojia(Tony); Torrence, Eric; Torres, Heberth; Torró Pastor, Emma; Toth, Jozsef; Touchard, Francois; Tovey, Daniel; Trefzger, Thomas; Tricoli, Alessandro; Trigger, Isabel Marian; Trincaz-Duvoid, Sophie; Tripiana, Martin; Trischuk, William; Trocmé, Benjamin; Trofymov, Artur; Troncon, Clara; Trottier-McDonald, Michel; Trovatelli, Monica; Truong, Loan; Trzebinski, Maciej; Trzupek, Adam; Tseng, Jeffrey; Tsiareshka, Pavel; Tsipolitis, Georgios; Tsirintanis, Nikolaos; Tsiskaridze, Shota; Tsiskaridze, Vakhtang; Tskhadadze, Edisher; Tsui, Ka Ming; Tsukerman, Ilya; Tsulaia, Vakhtang; Tsuno, Soshi; Tsybychev, Dmitri; Tudorache, Alexandra; Tudorache, Valentina; Tuna, Alexander Naip; Tupputi, Salvatore; Turchikhin, Semen; Turecek, Daniel; Turgeman, Daniel; Turra, Ruggero; Turvey, Andrew John; Tuts, Michael; Tyndel, Mike; Ucchielli, Giulia; Ueda, Ikuo; Ueno, Ryuichi; Ughetto, Michael; Ukegawa, Fumihiko; Unal, Guillaume; Undrus, Alexander; Unel, Gokhan; Ungaro, Francesca; Unno, Yoshinobu; Unverdorben, Christopher; Urban, Jozef; Urquijo, Phillip; Urrejola, Pedro; Usai, Giulio; Usanova, Anna; Vacavant, Laurent; Vacek, Vaclav; Vachon, Brigitte; Valderanis, Chrysostomos; Valdes Santurio, Eduardo; Valencic, Nika; Valentinetti, Sara; Valero, Alberto; Valery, Loic; Valkar, Stefan; Vallecorsa, Sofia; Valls Ferrer, Juan Antonio; Van Den Wollenberg, Wouter; Van Der Deijl, Pieter; van der Geer, Rogier; van der Graaf, Harry; van Eldik, Niels; van Gemmeren, Peter; Van Nieuwkoop, Jacobus; van Vulpen, Ivo; van Woerden, Marius Cornelis; Vanadia, Marco; Vandelli, Wainer; Vanguri, Rami; Vaniachine, Alexandre; Vankov, Peter; Vardanyan, Gagik; Vari, Riccardo; Varnes, Erich; Varol, Tulin; Varouchas, Dimitris; Vartapetian, Armen; Varvell, Kevin; Vasquez, Jared Gregory; Vazeille, Francois; Vazquez Schroeder, Tamara; Veatch, Jason; Veloce, Laurelle Maria; Veloso, Filipe; Veneziano, Stefano; Ventura, Andrea; Venturi, Manuela; Venturi, Nicola; Venturini, Alessio; Vercesi, Valerio; Verducci, Monica; Verkerke, Wouter; Vermeulen, Jos; Vest, Anja; Vetterli, Michel; Viazlo, Oleksandr; Vichou, Irene; Vickey, Trevor; Vickey Boeriu, Oana Elena; Viehhauser, Georg; Viel, Simon; Vigani, Luigi; Vigne, Ralph; Villa, Mauro; Villaplana Perez, Miguel; Vilucchi, Elisabetta; Vincter, Manuella; Vinogradov, Vladimir; Vittori, Camilla; Vivarelli, Iacopo; Vlachos, Sotirios; Vlasak, Michal; Vogel, Marcelo; Vokac, Petr; Volpi, Guido; Volpi, Matteo; von der Schmitt, Hans; von Toerne, Eckhard; Vorobel, Vit; Vorobev, Konstantin; Vos, Marcel; Voss, Rudiger; Vossebeld, Joost; Vranjes, Nenad; Vranjes Milosavljevic, Marija; Vrba, Vaclav; Vreeswijk, Marcel; Vuillermet, Raphael; Vukotic, Ilija; Vykydal, Zdenek; Wagner, Peter; Wagner, Wolfgang; Wahlberg, Hernan; Wahrmund, Sebastian; Wakabayashi, Jun; Walder, James; Walker, Rodney; Walkowiak, Wolfgang; Wallangen, Veronica; Wang, Chao; Wang, Chao; Wang, Fuquan; Wang, Haichen; Wang, Hulin; Wang, Jike; Wang, Jin; Wang, Kuhan; Wang, Rui; Wang, Song-Ming; Wang, Tan; Wang, Tingting; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Wanotayaroj, Chaowaroj; Warburton, Andreas; Ward, Patricia; Wardrope, David Robert; Washbrook, Andrew; Watkins, Peter; Watson, Alan; Watson, Ian; Watson, Miriam; Watts, Gordon; Watts, Stephen; Waugh, Ben; Webb, Samuel; Weber, Michele; Weber, Stefan Wolf; Webster, Jordan S; Weidberg, Anthony; Weinert, Benjamin; Weingarten, Jens; Weiser, Christian; Weits, Hartger; Wells, Phillippa; Wenaus, Torre; Wengler, Thorsten; Wenig, Siegfried; Wermes, Norbert; Werner, Matthias; Werner, Per; Wessels, Martin; Wetter, Jeffrey; Whalen, Kathleen; Whallon, Nikola Lazar; Wharton, Andrew Mark; White, Andrew; White, Martin; White, Ryan; White, Sebastian; Whiteson, Daniel; Wickens, Fred; Wiedenmann, Werner; Wielers, Monika; Wienemann, Peter; Wiglesworth, Craig; Wiik-Fuchs, Liv Antje Mari; Wildauer, Andreas; Wilk, Fabian; Wilkens, Henric George; Williams, Hugh; Williams, Sarah; Willis, Christopher; Willocq, Stephane; Wilson, John; Wingerter-Seez, Isabelle; Winklmeier, Frank; Winston, Oliver James; Winter, Benedict Tobias; Wittgen, Matthias; Wittkowski, Josephine; Wollstadt, Simon Jakob; Wolter, Marcin Wladyslaw; Wolters, Helmut; Wosiek, Barbara; Wotschack, Jorg; Woudstra, Martin; Wozniak, Krzysztof; Wu, Mengqing; Wu, Miles; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, Xin; Wu, Yusheng; Wyatt, Terry Richard; Wynne, Benjamin; Xella, Stefania; Xu, Da; Xu, Lailin; Yabsley, Bruce; Yacoob, Sahal; Yakabe, Ryota; Yamaguchi, Daiki; Yamaguchi, Yohei; Yamamoto, Akira; Yamamoto, Shimpei; Yamanaka, Takashi; Yamauchi, Katsuya; Yamazaki, Yuji; Yan, Zhen; Yang, Haijun; Yang, Hongtao; Yang, Yi; Yang, Zongchang; Yao, Weiming; Yap, Yee Chinn; Yasu, Yoshiji; Yatsenko, Elena; Yau Wong, Kaven Henry; Ye, Jingbo; Ye, Shuwei; Yeletskikh, Ivan; Yen, Andy L; Yildirim, Eda; Yorita, Kohei; Yoshida, Rikutaro; Yoshihara, Keisuke; Young, Charles; Young, Christopher John; Youssef, Saul; Yu, David Ren-Hwa; Yu, Jaehoon; Yu, Jiaming; Yu, Jie; Yuan, Li; Yuen, Stephanie P; Yusuff, Imran; Zabinski, Bartlomiej; Zaidan, Remi; Zaitsev, Alexander; Zakharchuk, Nataliia; Zalieckas, Justas; Zaman, Aungshuman; Zambito, Stefano; Zanello, Lucia; Zanzi, Daniele; Zeitnitz, Christian; Zeman, Martin; Zemla, Andrzej; Zeng, Jian Cong; Zeng, Qi; Zengel, Keith; Zenin, Oleg; Ženiš, Tibor; Zerwas, Dirk; Zhang, Dongliang; Zhang, Fangzhou; Zhang, Guangyi; Zhang, Huijun; Zhang, Jinlong; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Ruiqi; Zhang, Xueyao; Zhang, Zhiqing; Zhao, Xiandong; Zhao, Yongke; Zhao, Zhengguo; Zhemchugov, Alexey; Zhong, Jiahang; Zhou, Bing; Zhou, Chen; Zhou, Lei; Zhou, Li; Zhou, Mingliang; Zhou, Ning; Zhu, Cheng Guang; Zhu, Hongbo; Zhu, Junjie; Zhu, Yingchun; Zhuang, Xuai; Zhukov, Konstantin; Zibell, Andre; Zieminska, Daria; Zimine, Nikolai; Zimmermann, Christoph; Zimmermann, Stephanie; Zinonos, Zinonas; Zinser, Markus; Ziolkowski, Michael; Živković, Lidija; Zobernig, Georg; Zoccoli, Antonio; zur Nedden, Martin; Zurzolo, Giovanni; Zwalinski, Lukasz

    2016-05-20

    This paper discusses various observations on beam-induced and cosmic-ray backgrounds in the ATLAS detector during the LHC 2012 proton-proton run. Building on published results based on 2011 data, the correlations between background and residual pressure of the beam vacuum are revisited. Ghost charge evolution over 2012 and its role for backgrounds are evaluated. New methods to monitor ghost charge with beam-gas rates are presented and observations of LHC abort gap population by ghost charge are discussed in detail. Fake jets from colliding bunches and from ghost charge are analysed with improved methods, showing that ghost charge in individual radio-frequency buckets of the LHC can be resolved. Some results of two short periods of dedicated cosmic-ray background data-taking are shown; in particular cosmic-ray muon induced fake jet rates are compared to Monte Carlo simulations and to the fake jet rates from beam background. A thorough analysis of a particular LHC fill, where abnormally high background was obse...

  9. The Drop of the Coherence of the Lower Kilohertz Quasi-periodic Brightness Variations is Also Observed in XTE J1701-462

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barret, D.; Bachetti, M.; Miller, M. Coleman

    2011-02-01

    We investigate the quality factor and root mean square (rms) amplitude of the lower kilohertz quasi-periodic brightness variations (kHz QPOs) from XTE J1701-462, a unique X-ray source which was observed in both the so-called Z and atoll states. Correcting for the frequency drift of the QPO, we show that, as in all sources for which such a correction can be applied, the quality factor and rms amplitude drops sharply above a critical frequency. For XTE J1701-462, this frequency is estimated to be ~800 Hz, where the quality factor reaches a maximum of ~200 (e.g., a value consistent with the one observed from more classical systems, such as 4U 1636-536). Such a drop has been interpreted as the signature of the innermost stable circular orbit, and that interpretation is consistent with the observations we report here. The kHz QPOs in the Z state are much less coherent and lower amplitude than they are in the atoll state. We argue that the change of the QPO properties between the two source states is related to the change of the scale height of the accretion disk; a prediction of the toy model proposed by Barret et al. As a by-product of our analysis, we also increased the significance of the upper kHz QPO detected in the atoll phase up to 4.8σ (single trial significance) and show that the frequency separation (266.5 ± 13.1 Hz) is comparable with the one measured from simultaneous twin QPOs in the Z phase.

  10. Polarization of a periodic solar microwave burst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaufmann, P [Universidade Mackenzie, Sao Paulo (Brazil). Centro de Radio-Astronomia e Astrofisica

    1976-09-01

    No fluctuations in polarization have been found during a 7 GHz solar burst showing 17s periodic pulses in intensity. Polarization effects can be produced by the propagation media in the active centre, which are not affected directly by the burst source, but situated more deeply than the observed heights at that microwave frequency.

  11. Information structure and organisation in change of shift reports: An observational study of nursing hand-offs in a Paediatric Intensive Care Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster-Hunt, Tara; Parush, Avi; Ellis, Jacqueline; Thomas, Margot; Rashotte, Judy

    2015-06-01

    Patient hand-offs involve the exchange of critical information. Ineffective hand-offs can result in reduced patient safety by leading to wrong treatment, delayed diagnoses or other outcomes that can negatively affect the healthcare system. The objectives of this study were to uncover the structure of the information conveyed during patient hand-offs and look for principles characterising the organisation of the information. With an observational study approach, data was gathered during the morning and evening nursing change of shift hand-offs in a Paediatric Intensive Care Unit. Content analysis identified a common meta-structure used for information transfer that contained categories with varying degrees of information integration and the repetition of high consequence information. Differences were found in the organisation of the hand-off structures, and these varied as a function of nursing experience. The findings are discussed in terms of the potential benefits of computerised tools which utilise standardised structure for information transfer and the implications for future education and critical care skill acquisition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. What impact did a Paediatric Early Warning system have on emergency admissions to the paediatric intensive care unit? An observational cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sefton, G; McGrath, C; Tume, L; Lane, S; Lisboa, P J G; Carrol, E D

    2015-04-01

    The ideology underpinning Paediatric Early Warning systems (PEWs) is that earlier recognition of deteriorating in-patients would improve clinical outcomes. To explore how the introduction of PEWs at a tertiary children's hospital affects emergency admissions to the Paediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) and the impact on service delivery. To compare 'in-house' emergency admissions to PICU with 'external' admissions transferred from District General Hospitals (without PEWs). A before-and-after observational study August 2005-July 2006 (pre), August 2006-July 2007 (post) implementation of PEWs at the tertiary children's hospital. The median Paediatric Index of Mortality (PIM2) reduced; 0.44 vs 0.60 (pemergency admissions to PICU. A 39% reduction in emergency admission total beds days reduced cancellation of major elective surgical cases and refusal of external PICU referrals. Following introduction of PEWs at a tertiary children's hospital PIM2 was reduced, patients required less PICU interventions and had a shorter length of stay. PICU service delivery improved. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Burnout and job satisfaction of intensive care personnel and the relationship with personality and religious traits: An observational, multicenter, cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntantana, Asimenia; Matamis, Dimitrios; Savvidou, Savvoula; Giannakou, Maria; Gouva, Mary; Nakos, George; Koulouras, Vasilios

    2017-08-01

    To investigate if burnout in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) is influenced by aspects of personality, religiosity and job satisfaction. Cross-sectional study, designed to assess burnout in the ICU and to investigate possible determinants. Three different questionnaires were used: the Malach Burnout Inventory, the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire and the Spiritual/Religious Attitudes Questionnaire. Predicting factors for high burnout were identified by multivariate logistic regression analysis. This national study was addressed to physicians and nurses working full-time in 18 Greek ICU departments from June to December 2015. The participation rate was 67.9% (n=149) and 65% (n=320) for ICU physicians and nurses, respectively). High job satisfaction was recorded in both doctors (80.8%) and nurses (63.4%). Burnout was observed in 32.8% of the study participants, higher in nurses compared to doctors (pJob satisfaction (OR 0.26, 95%CI 0.14-0.48, psatisfaction with current End-of-Life care (OR 0.41, 95%CI 0.23-0.76, p=0.005) and isolation feelings after decisions to forego life sustaining treatments (OR 3.48, 95%CI 1.25-9.65, p=0.017). Personality traits, job satisfaction and the way End-of-Life care is practiced influence burnout in the ICU. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The FIRO-2017 Field Campaign: Findings from a Unique Observing Period in the Russian River Watershed in Northern California during Jan - Mar 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, A. M.; Ralph, M.; Demirdjian, R.; Kawzenuk, B.; Cannon, F.; Cordeira, J. M.

    2017-12-01

    Forecast Informed Reservoir Operations (FIRO) is a proposed water management strategy that aims to improve water supply, maintain reduction in flood risk, and achieve ecosystem sustainability using data from state of the art watershed monitoring and weather and water forecasting. The first testbed for this strategy is Lake Mendocino, in the Russian River Watershed in northern California. In order to accomplish these goals, it is necessary to understand and better predict Atmospheric Rivers (ARs), which provide 50% of the annual precipitation, and cause most of the heavy rain and flood events in this watershed. To support this effort, a field campaign was held during January-March 2017 in the Russian River Watershed with the science objectives of understanding AR evolution as the AR makes landfall and interacts with terrain, assess reasons for additional variance in the relationship between storm total precipitation and bulk water vapor flux, and to form a unique database for model verification. Coastal and inland field sites equipped with multiple ground-based sensors as well as Vaisala radiosonde systems were deployed to support these objectives. The 2017 water year was among the wettest recorded in California. During the January-March 2017 period, the coastal/inland pair of radiosonde systems captured 13 storms with maximum integrated vapor transport (IVT) values nearing 1200 kg/m/s. This presentation will provide an overview of the water year and the field campaign observations. Results indicate that bulk upslope water vapor flux measured by the ARO, which is the measurement regularly available to forecasters and researchers, correlates extremely well with integrated vapor transport (IVT). The profiles of water vapor flux observed by the coastal and inland sites are very different both in maximum flux magnitude and height of the maximum flux.

  15. Comparison of 37 months global net radiation flux derived from PICARD-BOS over the same period observations of CERES and ARGO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ping; Wild, Martin

    2016-04-01

    The absolute level of the global net radiation flux (NRF) is fixed at the level of [0.5-1.0] Wm-2 based on the ocean heat content measurements [1]. The space derived global NRF is at the same order of magnitude than the ocean [2]. Considering the atmosphere has a negligible effects on the global NRF determination, the surface global NRF is consistent with the values determined from space [3]. Instead of studying the absolute level of the global NRF, we focus on the interannual variation of global net radiation flux, which were derived from the PICARD-BOS experiment and its comparison with values over the same period but obtained from the NASA-CERES system and inferred from the ocean heat content survey by ARGO network. [1] Allan, Richard P., Chunlei Liu, Norman G. Loeb, Matthew D. Palmer, Malcolm Roberts, Doug Smith, and Pier-Luigi Vidale (2014), Changes in global net radiative imbalance 1985-2012, Geophysical Research Letters, 41 (no.15), 5588-5597. [2] Loeb, Norman G., John M. Lyman, Gregory C. Johnson, Richard P. Allan, David R. Doelling, Takmeng Wong, Brian J. Soden, and Graeme L. Stephens (2012), Observed changes in top-of-the-atmosphere radiation and upper-ocean heating consistent within uncertainty, Nature Geoscience, 5 (no.2), 110-113. [3] Wild, Martin, Doris Folini, Maria Z. Hakuba, Christoph Schar, Sonia I. Seneviratne, Seiji Kato, David Rutan, Christof Ammann, Eric F. Wood, and Gert Konig-Langlo (2015), the energy balance over land and oceans: an assessment based on direct observations and CMIP5 climate models, Climate Dynamics, 44 (no.11-12), 3393-3429.

  16. Incidence, Microbiological Profile and Risk Factors of Healthcare-Associated Infections in Intensive Care Units: A 10 Year Observation in a Provincial Hospital in Southern Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kołpa, Małgorzata; Wałaszek, Marta; Gniadek, Agnieszka; Wolak, Zdzisław; Dobroś, Wiesław

    2018-01-01

    Healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) occurring in patients treated in an intensive care unit (ICU) are serious complications in the treatment process. Aetiological factors of these infections can have an impact on treatment effects, treatment duration and mortality. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence and microbiological profile of HAIs in patients hospitalized in an ICU over a span of 10 years. The active surveillance method was used to detect HAIs in adult patients who spent over 48 h in a general ICU ward located in southern Poland between 2007 and 2016. The study was conducted in compliance with the methodology recommended by the Healthcare-associated Infections Surveillance Network (HAI-Net) of the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC). During the 10 years of the study, 1849 patients hospitalized in an ICU for a total of 17,599 days acquired 510 with overall HAIs rates of 27.6% and 29.0% infections per 1000 ICU days. Intubation-associated pneumonia (IAP) posed the greatest risk (15.2 per 1000 ventilator days), followed by CLA-BSI (8.0 per 1000 catheter days) and CA-UTI (3.0 per 1000 catheter days). The most common isolated microorganism was Acinetobacter baumannii (25%) followed by Coagulaase-negativ staphylococci (15%), Escherichia coli (9%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (8%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (7%), Candida albicans (6%). Acinetobacter baumannii in 87% and were classified as extensive-drug resistant (XDR). In summary, in ICU patients pneumonia and bloodstream infections were the most frequently found. Acinetobacter baumannii strains were most often isolated from clinical materials taken from HAI patients and showed resistance to many groups of antibiotics. A trend of increasing resistance of Acinetobacter baumannii to carbapenems was observed. PMID:29324651

  17. Colonization of patients, healthcare workers, and the environment with healthcare-associated Staphylococcus epidermidis genotypes in an intensive care unit: a prospective observational cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widerström, Micael; Wiström, Johan; Edebro, Helén; Marklund, Elisabeth; Backman, Mattias; Lindqvist, Per; Monsen, Tor

    2016-12-09

    During the last decades, healthcare-associated genotypes of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis (HA-MRSE) have been established as important opportunistic pathogens. However, data on potential reservoirs on HA-MRSE is limited. The aim of the present study was to investigate the dynamics and to which extent HA-MRSE genotypes colonize patients, healthcare workers (HCWs) and the environment in an intensive care unit (ICU). Over 12 months in 2006-2007, swab samples were obtained from patients admitted directly from the community to the ICU and patients transferred from a referral hospital, as well as from HCWs, and the ICU environment. Patients were sampled every third day during hospitalization. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed according to EUCAST guidelines. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and multilocus sequence typing were used to determine the genetic relatedness of a subset of MRSE isolates. We identified 620 MRSE isolates from 570 cultures obtained from 37 HCWs, 14 patients, and 14 environmental surfaces in the ICU. HA-MRSE genotypes were identified at admission in only one of the nine patients admitted directly from the community, of which the majority subsequently were colonized by HA-MRSE genotypes within 3 days during hospitalization. Almost all (89%) of HCWs were nasal carriers of HA-MRSE genotypes. Similarly, a significant proportion of patients transferred from the referral hospital and fomites in the ICU were widely colonized with HA-MRSE genotypes. Patients transferred from a referral hospital, HCWs, and the hospital environment serve as important reservoirs for HA-MRSE. These observations highlight the need for implementation of effective infection prevention and control measures aiming at reducing HA-MRSE transmission in the healthcare setting.

  18. HONO and Inorganic Fine Particle Composition in Typical Monsoon Region with Intensive Anthropogenic Emission: In-situ Observations and Source Identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Y.; Nie, W.; Ding, A.; Huang, X.

    2015-12-01

    Yangtze River Delta (YRD) is one of the most typical monsoon area with probably the most largest population intensity in the world. With sharply economic development and the large anthropogenic emissions, fine particle pollution have been one of the major air quality problem and may further have impact on the climate system. Though a lot of control policy (sulfur emission have been decreasing from 2007) have been conducted in the region, studies showed the sulfate in fine particles still take major fraction as the nitrate from nitrogen oxides increased significantly. In this study, the role of inorganic chemical compositions in fine particles was investigated with two years in-situ observation. Sulfate and Nitrate contribute to fine particle mass equally in general, but sulfate contributes more during summer and nitrate played more important role in winter. Using lagrangian dispersion backward modeling and source contribution clustering method, the impact of airmass coming from different source region (industrial, dust, biogenic emissions, etc) on fine particle inorganic compositions were discussed. Furthermore, we found two unique cases showing in-situ implications for sulfate formation by nitrogen dioxide oxidation mechanisms. It was showed that the mixing of anthropogenic pollutants with long-range transported mineral dust and biomass burning plume would enhance the sulfate formation by different chemistry mechanisms. This study focus on the complex aspects of fine particle formation in airmasses from different source regions: . It highlights the effect of NOx in enhancing the atmospheric oxidization capacity and indicates a potentially very important impact of increasing NOx on air pollution formation and regional climate change in East Asia.

  19. New Modalities for the Administration of Inhaled Nitric Oxide in Intensive Care Units After Cardiac Surgery or for Neonatal Indications: A Prospective Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudard, Philippe; Barbanti, Claudio; Rozec, Bertrand; Mauriat, Philippe; M'rini, Mimoun; Cambonie, Gilles; Liet, Jean Michel; Girard, Claude; Leger, Pierre Louis; Assaf, Ziad; Damas, Pierre; Loron, Gauthier; Lecourt, Laurent; Amour, Julien; Pouard, Philippe

    2018-04-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) has a well-known efficacy in pulmonary hypertension (PH), with wide use for 20 years in many countries. The objective of this study was to describe the current use of NO in real life and the gap with the guidelines. This is a multicenter, prospective, observational study on inhaled NO administered through an integrated delivery and monitoring device and indicated for PH according to the market authorizations. The characteristics of NO therapy and ventilation modes were observed. Concomitant pulmonary vasodilator treatments, safety data, and outcome were also collected. Quantitative data are expressed as median (25th, 75th percentile). Over 1 year, 236 patients were included from 14 equipped and trained centers: 117 adults and 81 children with PH associated with cardiac surgery and 38 neonates with persistent PH of the newborn. Inhaled NO was initiated before intensive care unit (ICU) admission in 57%, 12.7%, and 38.9% with an initial dose of 10 (10, 15) ppm, 20 (18, 20) ppm, and 17 (11, 20) ppm, and a median duration of administration of 3.9 (1.9, 6.1) days, 3.8 (1.8, 6.8) days, and 3.1 (1.0, 5.7) days, respectively, for the adult population, pediatric cardiac group, and newborns. The treatment was performed using administration synchronized to the mechanical ventilation. The dose was gradually decreased before withdrawal in 86% of the cases according to the usual procedure of each center. Adverse events included rebound effect for 3.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.9%-8.5%) of adults, 1.2% (95% CI, 0.0%-6.7%) of children, and 2.6% (95% CI, 0.1%-13.8%) of neonates and methemoglobinemia exceeded 2.5% for 5 of 62 monitored patients. Other pulmonary vasodilators were associated with NO in 23% of adults, 95% of children, and 23.7% of neonates. ICU stay was respectively 10 (6, 22) days, 7.5 (5.5, 15) days, and 9 (8, 15) days and ICU mortality was 22.2%, 6.2%, and 7.9% for adults, children, and neonates, respectively. This study confirms the safety

  20. Intensive Case Management for Addiction to promote engagement with care of people with severe mental and substance use disorders: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morandi, Stéphane; Silva, Benedetta; Golay, Philippe; Bonsack, Charles

    2017-05-25

    Co-occurring severe mental and substance use disorders are associated with physical, psychological and social complications such as homelessness and unemployment. People with severe mental and substance use disorders are difficult to engage with care. The lack of treatment worsens their health and social conditions and increases treatment costs, as emergency department visits arise. Case management has proved to be effective in promoting engagement with care of people with severe mental and substance use disorders. However, this impact seemed mainly related to the case management model. The Intensive Case Management for Addiction (ICMA) aimed to improve engagement with care of people with severe mental and substance use disorders, insufficiently engaged with standard treatment. This innovative multidisciplinary mobile team programme combined Assertive Community Treatment and Critical Time Intervention methodologies. The aim of the study was to observe the impact of ICMA upon service use, treatment adherence and quality of support networks. Participants' psychosocial and mental functioning, and substance use were also assessed throughout the intervention. The study was observational. Eligible participants were all the people entering the programme during the first year of implementation (April 2014-April 2015). Data were collected through structured questionnaires and medical charts. Assessments were conducted at baseline and at 12 months follow-up or at the end of the programme if completed earlier. McNemar-Bowker's Test, General Linear Model repeated-measures analysis of variance and non-parametric Wilcoxon Signed Rank tests were used for the analysis. A total of 30 participants took part in the study. Results showed a significant reduction in the number of participants visiting the general emergency department compared to baseline. A significantly decreased number of psychiatric emergency department visits was also registered. Moreover, at follow-up participants

  1. Predictors for replanning in loco-regionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients undergoing intensity-modulated radiation therapy: a prospective observational study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, DanFang; Yan, SenXiang; Wang, QiDong; Liao, XinBiao; Lu, ZhongJie; Wang, YiXiang

    2013-01-01

    Replanning in intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) has been reported to improve quality of life and loco-regional control in patients with nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC). Determination of the criteria for replanning is, however, urgently needed. We conducted a prospective study to determine when and for what type of patients is replanning preferred through weekly repeat computed tomography (CT) imaging during the course of IMRT. We recruited 20 patients who were diagnosed as having loco-regionally advanced, non-metastatic stage III or IVa NPC and treated with concurrent platinum-based chemoradiotherapy (CRT) using IMRT. Patients received CT simulation (sim-CT) and plain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) plus diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) weekly for five consecutive weeks. The gross tumor volume (GTV) and clinical target volume (CTV) were delineated and recorded weekly based on the CT-CT fusion. The relationship between GTV/CTV reduction and clinical characteristics of the patients were assessed using Pearson correlation test. GTV and CTV decreased during the treatment by 36.03 mL (range, 10.91–98.82 mL) and 76.79 mL (range, 33.94–125.14 mL), respectively, after 25 fractions of treatment. The percentage reductions from their initial volume were 38.4% (range, 25.3–50.7%) and 11.8% (range, 6.7–18.3%), respectively. The greatest reductions in GTV and CTV were observed at the fourth week (i.e., upon completion of 20 fractions), compared to pre-treatment sim-CT. Weight loss and CTV reduction were significantly correlated with pre-treatment body mass index (BMI) (r = 0.58, P = 0.012, and r = 0.48, P = 0.046, respectively). However, no significant correlation was observed between CTV reduction and initial tumor volume. In addition, GTV reduction was not significantly correlated with pre-treatment tumor volume (P = 0.65), but negatively correlated with pre-treatment tumor apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values (r = −0.46, P = 0.042). Our results indicate

  2. Beam-induced and cosmic-ray backgrounds observed in the ATLAS detector during the LHC 2012 proton-proton running period

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Chudoba, Jiří; Havránek, Miroslav; Hejbal, Jiří; Jakoubek, Tomáš; Kepka, Oldřich; Kupčo, Alexander; Lokajíček, Miloš; Lysák, Roman; Marčišovský, Michal; Mikeštíková, Marcela; Němeček, Stanislav; Penc, Ondřej; Šícho, Petr; Staroba, Pavel; Svatoš, Michal; Taševský, Marek

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 11, May (2016), s. 1-82, č. článku P05013. ISSN 1748-0221 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : beam-line instrumentation * data analysis * beam position and profile monitors * beam-intensity monitors * bunch length monitors Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 1.220, year: 2016

  3. Brazil-USA Collaborative Research: Modifications by Anthropogenic Pollution of the Natural Atmospheric Chemistry and Particle Microphysics of the Tropical Rain Forest During the GoAmazon Intensive Operating Periods (IOPs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, Jose-Luis [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Day, Douglas A. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Martin, Scot T. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Kim, Saewung [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Smith, James [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Souza, Rodrigo [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Barbosa, Henry [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2017-08-04

    Manaus, a city of nearly two million people, represents an isolated urban area having a distinct urban pollution plume within the otherwise pristine Amazon Basin. The plume has high concentrations of oxides of nitrogen and sulfur, carbon monoxide, particle concentrations, and soot, among other pollutants. Critically, the distinct plume in the setting of the surrounding tropical rain forest serves as a natural laboratory to allow direct comparisons between periods of pollution influence to those of pristine conditions. The funded activity of this report is related to the Brazil-USA collaborative project during the two Intensive Operating Periods (wet season, 1 Feb - 31 Mar 2014; dry season, 15 Aug - 15 Oct 2014) of GoAmazon2014/5. The project addresses key science questions regarding the modification of the natural atmospheric chemistry and particle microphysics of the forest by present and future anthropogenic pollution. The first objective of the project was to understand and quantify the interactions of biogenic and anthropogenic emissions with respect to the production of secondary organic material. In clean conditions in the Amazon basin, secondary organic material dominates the diameter distribution of the submicron particles. How and why is the diameter distribution shifted by pollution? The second objective followed from the first in that, although the diameter distribution is dominated by secondary organic material, the actual source of new particle production remains uncertain (i.e., the number concentration). The second objective was to test the hypothesis that new particles under natural conditions are produced as a result of evaporation of primary particles emitted by fungal spores as well as to investigate any shifts in this mechanism under pollution conditions, e.g., in consequence to the high concentrations of SO2 in the pollution plume. Combined, the number-diameter distribution is the key connection to upscaling to the effects of aerosol

  4. High-intensity interval training (HIIT) increases insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) in sedentary aging men but not masters' athletes: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Peter; Hayes, Lawrence D; Sculthorpe, Nicholas; Grace, Fergal M

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this investigation was to examine the impact high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on serum insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) in active compared with sedentary aging men. 22 lifetime sedentary (SED; 62 ± 2 years) and 17 masters' athletes (LEX; 60 ± 5 years) were recruited to the study. As HIIT requires preconditioning exercise in sedentary cohorts, the study required three assessment phases; enrollment (phase A), following preconditioning exercise (phase B), and post-HIIT (phase C). Serum IGF-I was determined by electrochemiluminescent immunoassay. IGF-I was higher in LEX compared to SED at baseline (p = 0.007, Cohen's d = 0.91), and phase B (p = 0.083, Cohen's d = 0.59), with only a small difference at C (p = 0.291, Cohen's d = 0.35). SED experienced a small increase in IGF-I following preconditioning from 13.1 ± 4.7 to 14.2 ± 6.0 μg·dl -1 (p = 0.376, Cohen's d = 0.22), followed by a larger increase post-HIIT (16.9 ± 4.4 μg·dl -1 ), which was significantly elevated compared with baseline (p = 0.002, Cohen's d = 0.85), and post-preconditioning (p = 0.005, Cohen's d = 0.51). LEX experienced a trivial changes in IGF-I from A to B (18.2 ± 6.4 to 17.2 ± 3.7 μg·dl -1 [p = 0.538, Cohen's d = 0.19]), and a small change post-HIIT (18.4 ± 4.1 μg·dl -1 [p = 0.283, Cohen's d = 0.31]). Small increases were observed in fat-free mass in both groups following HIIT (p HIIT with preconditioning exercise abrogates the age associated difference in IGF-I between SED and LEX, and induces small improvements in fat-free mass in both SED and LEX.

  5. Coronary heart disease among adult population evacuated from the 30-km zone of the Chernobyl NPP (Descriptive epidemiologic research results. Observation period 1988-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga A. Kapustynskaia

    2015-02-01

    determination and analyses of the dynamics of the evacuated adults sickness rate of the coronary heart disease also including its particular types including of age at the time of the accident sex and from the moment of the accident. The materials of the Ukrainian public register of people who suffered from the Chernobyl accident (UPR and the statistical data of the Ministry of Healthcare about the sickness of the Ukrainian population are used in the article. Subject of inquiry: adult population at the time of the accident avacuated from the 30-km Zone of the Chernobyl APP. Object of research - Coronary heart disease. The research was made on the coronary heart disease in whole and also due to nosological forms: angina pectoris; cardiac infarction; chronic coronary heart disease. Descriptive epidemiologic research was made for the period of 1988-2010 years. The cohort of adult avacuated population constituted 55022 people, 22056 men and 32966 women off them. For the comparison the statistic data about the sickness of adult population of Ukraine were used. In the article was also used the method of inner comparison, which allows to evaluate the credibility of the sickness rate figures difference for the periods of observation. The analisys is carried through following five periods (1988-1992 years, 1993-1997 years, 1998-2002 years, 2003-2008 years, 2009-2010 years. In accordance with the 24-years medical observation was determined that the coronary heart disease incidence of the adult evacuated population has significant differences due to age, sex and time. The increase in the coronary heart disease incidence regardless age at the moment of the accident is to be considered for the period of 12-22 years. The peak of the sickness for those, who were 40-60 at the time of the accident, was registered for the third period of observation, i. e. after 12-16 years from the moment of the accident at the Chernobyl NPP, for those, evacuated at the age of 18-39 – after 17-22 years and

  6. Transfusão de sangue em terapia intensiva: um estudo epidemiológico observacional Blood transfusion in intensive care: an epidemiological observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Rodolfo Rocco

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: A transfusão de concentrado de hemácias (CHA é muito freqüente no centro de tratamento intensivo (CTI, mas as conseqüências da anemia nos pacientes gravemente enfermos ainda são obscuras. Os objetivos desse estudo foram avaliar a freqüência, as indicações, os limiares transfusionais e o prognóstico dos pacientes criticamente enfermos que receberam CHA. MÉTODO: Estudo prospectivo de coorte realizado no CTI médico-cirúrgico de um Hospital Universitário durante 16 meses. Foram coletados dados demográficos, clínicos e os relacionados a transfusão de CHA. Regressão logística binária foi utilizada após as análises univariadas. RESULTADOS: Dos 698 pacientes internados, 244 (35% foram transfundidos com CHA. Os pacientes clínicos e em pós-operatório de urgência foram mais transfundidos. Os limiares transfusionais foram: hematócrito = 22,8% ± 4,5% e hemoglobina = 7,9 ± 1,4 g/dL. Os pacientes transfundidos receberam em média 4,4 ± 3,7 CHA e apresentaram maior letalidade no CTI (39,8% versus 13,2%; p 5 unidades e escore SAPS II. CONCLUSÕES: A transfusão de CHA é freqüente no CTI, particularmente nos pacientes internados por problemas clínicos e após cirurgias de emergência, com internação prolongada, em VM e com cirrose hepática. O limiar transfusional observado foi mais baixo que aquele assinalado pela literatura. A transfusão de CHA foi associada com maior letalidade.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Packed red blood cell (PRBC transfusion is frequent in intensive care unit (ICU. However, the consequences of anemia in ICU patients are poorly understood. Our aim was to evaluate the prevalence, indications, pre-transfusion hematocrit and hemoglobin levels, and outcomes of ICU patients transfused with PRBC. METHODS: Prospective cohort study conducted at a medical-surgical ICU of a teaching hospital during a 16-month period. Patients' demographic, clinical, laboratory and transfusion-related data

  7. Investigating the application of motion accelerometers as a sleep monitoring technique and the clinical burden of the intensive care environment on sleep quality: study protocol for a prospective observational study in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, Lori J; Currie, Marian J; Huang, Hsin-Chia Carol; Litton, Edward; Wibrow, Bradley; Lopez, Violeta; Haren, Frank Van

    2018-01-21

    Sleep is a state of quiescence that facilitates the significant restorative processes that enhance individuals' physiological and psychological well-being. Patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) experience substantial sleep disturbance. Despite the biological importance of sleep, sleep monitoring does not form part of standard clinical care for critically ill patients. There exists an unmet need to assess the feasibility and accuracy of a range of sleep assessment techniques that have the potential to allow widespread implementation of sleep monitoring in the ICU. The coprimary outcome measures of this study are to: determine the accuracy and feasibility of motion accelerometer monitoring (ie, actigraphy) and subjective assessments of sleep (nursing-based observations and patient self-reports) to the gold standard of sleep monitoring (ie, polysomnography) in evaluating sleep continuity and disturbance. The secondary outcome measures of the study will include: (1) the association between sleep disturbance and environmental factors (eg, noise, light and clinical interactions) and (2) to describe the sleep architecture of intensive care patients. A prospective, single centre observational design with a within subjects' assessment of sleep monitoring techniques. The sample will comprise 80 adults (aged 18 years or more) inclusive of ventilated and non-ventilated patients, admitted to a tertiary ICU with a Richmond Agitation-Sedation Scale score between +2 (agitated) and -3 (moderate sedation) and an anticipated length of stay >24 hours. Patients' sleep quality, total sleep time and sleep fragmentations will be continuously monitored for 24 hours using polysomnography and actigraphy. Behavioural assessments (nursing observations) and patients' self-reports of sleep quality will be assessed during the 24-hour period using the Richards-Campbell Sleep Questionnaire, subjective sleepiness evaluated via the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale, along with a

  8. Gross rainfall amount and maximum rainfall intensity in 60-minute influence on interception loss of shrubs: a 10-year observation in the Tengger Desert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi-Shan; Zhao, Yang; Li, Xin-Rong; Huang, Lei; Tan, Hui-Juan

    2016-05-17

    In water-limited regions, rainfall interception is influenced by rainfall properties and crown characteristics. Rainfall properties, aside from gross rainfall amount and duration (GR and RD), maximum rainfall intensity and rainless gap (RG), within rain events may heavily affect throughfall and interception by plants. From 2004 to 2014 (except for 2007), individual shrubs of Caragana korshinskii and Artemisia ordosica were selected to measure throughfall during 210 rain events. Various rainfall properties were auto-measured and crown characteristics, i.e., height, branch and leaf area index, crown area and volume of two shrubs were also measured. The relative interceptions of C. korshinskii and A. ordosica were 29.1% and 17.1%, respectively. Rainfall properties have more contributions than crown characteristics to throughfall and interception of shrubs. Throughfall and interception of shrubs can be explained by GR, RI60 (maximum rainfall intensities during 60 min), RD and RG in deceasing importance. However, relative throughfall and interception of two shrubs have different responses to rainfall properties and crown characteristics, those of C. korshinskii were closely related to rainfall properties, while those of A. ordosica were more dependent on crown characteristics. We highlight long-term monitoring is very necessary to determine the relationships between throughfall and interception with crown characteristics.

  9. Prevalence of Cancers of Female Organs among Patients with Diabetes Type 2 in Kelantan, Malaysia: Observations over an 11 Year Period and Strategies to Reduce the Incidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalil, Nur Asyilla Che; Zin, Anani Aila Mat; Othman, Nor Hayati

    2015-01-01

    Kelantan is one of the states in Malaysia which has a high prevalence of type 2 diabetes (DM2). Other than with endometrial carcinoma, the association of DM2 with particular female cancers is not known. To determine the proportion of breast, cervical, ovarian and endometrial cancers among females with DM2 diagnosed in Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM) over an 11 year period. All histologically confirmed cases of breast, endometrial, cervical and ovarian carcinomas admitted to the Hospital were included in the study. The patient diabetic status was traced from the hospital medical records. There was a total of 860 cases of breast, cervical, ovarian and endometrial carcinomas over this period. Breast carcinoma was the commonest, accounting for 437/860 (50.8%) followed by cervix, 159/860 (18.5%), ovarian, 143/860 (16.6%) and endometrial carcinomas, 121/860 (14.1%). Out of these, 228/860 (26.5%) were confirmed diabetics. Endometrial carcinoma patients showed the highest proportion being diabetics, 42.1% (51/121), followed by ovarian cancer, 25.9% (37/143), breast carcinoma, 23.6% (103/437) and cervical cancer 23.3% (37/159). There is a significant proportion of DM2 among women with these four cancers, endometrial carcinoma being the highest followed by ovarian, breast and cervical carcinoma. The rising trend of these four cancers is in tandem with an increasing trend of DM2 in the community. In populations where diabetes is prevalent, screening for epithelial cancers should be rigourous. Diabetic clinics should include screening for these cancers among their female patients and gynecology clinics should screen the women they treat for their diabetes status.

  10. Correlation between ionospheric potential and the intensity of cosmic rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyerott, R.E.; Reagan, J.B.; Evans, J.E.

    1983-01-01

    Ionospheric potential variations with a period of about 10 yr have been observed in the data that have been acquired to date. Previous studies have shown that these variations appear to be correlated inversely with sunspot number and with solar wind velocity, and directly with cosmic ray intensity. Since the cosmic ray intensity is inversely correlated with sunspot number and solar wind velocity, these correlations all suggest that the long period variations are of solar origin. In this report it is shown that, over the limited period for which ionospheric potential measurements exist, the long period variations are better correlated with the aerosol burden injected into the stratosphere by large volcanic eruptions than with the intensity of cosmic rays. This result indicates that the long period variations in ionospheric potential are of terrestrial rather than solar origin. 20 references

  11. Evaluation of ERA-Interim, MERRA, NCEP-DOE R2 and CFSR Reanalysis precipitation Data using Gauge Observation over Ethiopia for a period of 33 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tewodros Woldemariam Tesfaye

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The vital demand of reliable climatic and hydrologic data of fine spatial and temporal resolution triggered the employment of reanalysis datasets as a surrogate in most of the hydrological modelling exercises. This study examines the performance of four widely used reanalysis datasets: ERA-Interim, NCEP-DOE R2, MERRA and CFSR, in reproducing the spatio-temporal characteristics of observed daily precipitation of different stations spread across Ethiopia, East Africa. The appropriateness of relying on reanalysis datasets for hydrologic modelling, climate change impact assessment and regional modelling studies is assessed using various statistical and non-parametric techniques. ERA-Interim is found to exhibit higher correlation and least root mean square error values with observed daily rainfall, which is followed by CFSR and MERRA in most of the stations. The variability of daily precipitation is better captured by ERA, CFSR and MERRA, while NCEP-DOE R2 overestimated the spread of the precipitation data. While ERA overestimates the probability of moderate rainfall, it is seemingly better in capturing the probability of low rainfall. CFSR captures the overall distribution reasonable well. NCEP-DOE R2 appears to be outperforming others in capturing the probabilities of higher magnitude rainfall. Climatological seasonal cycle and the characteristics of wet and dry spells are compared further, where ERA seemingly replicates the pattern more effectively. However, observed rainfall exhibits higher frequency of short wet spells when compared to that of any reanalysis datasets. MERRA relatively underperforms in simulating the wet spell characteristics of observed daily rainfall. CFSR overestimates the mean wet spell length and mean dry spell length. Spatial trend analysis indicates that the northern and central western Ethiopia show increasing trends, whereas the Central and Eastern Ethiopia as well as the Southern Ethiopia stations show either no trend

  12. Diverse Eruptive Activity Revealed by Acoustic and Electromagnetic Observations of the 14 July 2013 Intense Vulcanian Eruption of Tungurahua Volcano, Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J. F.; Johnson, J. B.; Steele, A. L.; Ruiz, M. C.; Brand, B. D.

    2018-04-01

    During the powerful July 2013 eruption of Tungurahua volcano, Ecuador, we recorded exceptionally high amplitude, long-period infrasound (1,600-Pa peak-to-peak amplitude, 5.5-s period) on sensors within 2 km of the vent alongside electromagnetic signals from volcanic lightning serendipitously captured as interference. This explosion was one of Tungurahua's most powerful vulcanian eruptions since recent activity began in 1999, and its acoustic wave is among the most powerful volcanic infrasound ever recorded anywhere. We use these data to quantify erupted volume from the main explosion and to classify postexplosive degassing into distinct emission styles. Additionally, we demonstrate a highly effective method of recording lightning-related electromagnetic signals alongside infrasound. Detailed chronologies of powerful vulcanian eruptions are rare; this study demonstrates that diverse eruptive processes can occur in such eruptions and that near-vent infrasound and electromagnetic data can elucidate them.

  13. Application of low current intensity electrolytic treatment for the chlorides extraction in underwater archaeological objects of iron. Observation of the mineralogical phases evolution through XRD-Rietveld

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bethencourt, M.; Gil, M. L. A.; Fernandez-Lorenzo, C.; Santos, A.

    2004-01-01

    With the purpose of optimising a suitable methodology for the conservation of an archaeological object of iron, a low current intensities electrolytic treatment has been applied, to a piece of cast iron, proving to be effective in the extraction of chloride ions from the structure of akaganeite, principal corrosion product of iron in the marine medium. The monitoring of the electrolytic treatment has been proven by applying the Rietveld method to the patterns XRD of samples extracted from the corroded surface before and after the treatment. This method has permitted the unequivocal determination of the akaganeite and its chemical composition. This identification has been corroborated by means of SEM and EDS. After the electrolytic treatment, akaganeite was not present in the sample. (Author) 9 refs

  14. Recruiting intensity

    OpenAIRE

    R. Jason Faberman

    2014-01-01

    To hire new workers, employers use a variety of recruiting methods in addition to posting a vacancy announcement. The intensity with which employers use these alternative methods can vary widely with a firm’s performance and with the business cycle. In fact, persistently low recruiting intensity helps to explain the sluggish pace of US job growth following the Great Recession.

  15. Field observation of morpho-dynamic processes during storms at a Pacific beach, Japan: role of long-period waves in storm-induced berm erosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuguchi, Masaru; Seki, Katsumi

    2015-01-01

    Many ultrasonic wave gages were placed with a small spacing across the swash zone to monitor either sand level or water level. Continuous monitoring conducted for a few years enabled the collection of data on the change in wave properties as well as swash-zone profiles. Data sets including two cases of large-scale berm erosion were analyzed. The results showed that 1) shoreline erosion started when high waves with significant power in long-period (1 to 2 min.) waves reached the top of a well-developed berm with the help of rising tide; 2) the beach in the swash zone was eroded with higher elevation being more depressed, while the bottom elevation just outside the swash zone remained almost unchanged; and 3) erosion stopped in a few hours after the berm was completely eroded or the swash-zone slope became uniformly mild. These findings strongly suggest that long waves play a dominant role in the swash-zone dynamics associated with these erosional events.

  16. The role of nocturnal delivery and delivery during the holiday period in Finland on obstetric anal sphincter rupture rates- a population based observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vehviläinen-Julkunen Katri

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obstetric anal sphincter rupture (OASR is a serious complication of delivery, which frequently results in faecal incontinence despite primary repair and has serious implications for women's health. The objective of this study was to assess whether human factors, workload and staffing at night, at weekends and during holidays has an effect on the increasing OASR rates among all singleton vaginal deliveries (n = 514,741 having occurred between 1997 and 2007 in Finland. Women (n = 2,849 with OASR were compared in terms of possible risk factors to women without OASR using stepwise logistic regression analysis. Findings In Finland, the increase in OASR rate is striking, from 0.2% in 1997 to 0.9% in 2007. OASR rates varied from 0.49% to 0.58% (≤ 0.001 according to the time of day, and were lowest at night. After adjustment for patient-mix and the use of interventions, the risk of OASR was 11% lower (95% CI 3-18% at night and 15% lower (95% CI 3-26% in July - the main holiday month. Only 14% of the increased OASR risk during the day time (8-23.59 was attributable to vacuum assistance and birth weight, whereas the holiday period had no effect. Conclusions Decreased OASR rates at night and in July suggest that human factors such as decreased alertness due to fatigue or hospitals' administrative factors such as workload and staffing did not increase the rates of OASR.

  17. Revisiting the Brazilian scenario of registry and protection of cultivars: an analysis of the period from 1998 to 2010, its dynamics and legal observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinho, C D; Martins, F J O; Amaral, S C S; Amaral Júnior, A T; Gonçalves, L S A; de Mello, M P

    2011-05-03

    During the last 20 years, the national production of grains has increased 156.1%; productivity increased 93.8% and there has been an increase of 29.1% in cultivated area. Currently, agribusiness is responsible for 40% of Brazilian exports. Nevertheless, there is little quantitative information on the main plant species of economic interest that have been registered and protected in the Agriculture, Fisheries and Food Supply Ministry (MAPA) by public and private companies, as well as by public-private partnerships. Consequently, we investigated the registry and protection of 27 species of economic interest, including the 15 that are the basis of the Brazilian diet, based on the information available on the site CultivarWeb, of MAPA, for the period from 1998 to August 30, 2010. We also examined the legislation that regulates registration and protection procedures and its implications for plant breeding and plant product development. It was found that the private sector controls 73.1% of the registrations and 53.56% of the protections, while 10.73% of the protections were of material developed overseas. Public-private partnerships contributed little to the development of new cultivars, with 0.5% of the registries and 3.61% of the protections. We conclude that plant protection directed private investment to development of wheat and rice varieties, with the greatest public investments directed to corn and sorghum. After the Cultivar Protection Law was implemented, there was restriction of access to germplasm banks, which could inhibit advances in Brazilian plant breeding programs, indicating a need for revision of this legal barrier.

  18. Problem Periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ovary syndrome. Read our information on PCOS for teens , and see your doctor if you think you may have PCOS. Major weight loss. Girls who have anorexia will often stop having periods. When to see ...

  19. Inter-observer reliability of high-resolution ultrasonography in the assessment of bone erosions in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: experience of an intensive dedicated training programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Marwin; Filippucci, Emilio; Ruta, Santiago; Salaffi, Fausto; Blasetti, Patrizia; Di Geso, Luca; Grassi, Walter

    2011-02-01

    The present study was aimed at testing the ability of a rheumatologist without experience in ultrasound (US) who attended an intensive 4-week training programme focused on US assessing bone erosions in the hands and feet in patients with RA. Twenty patients diagnosed with RA according to the ACR criteria were included in the study. All US examinations were performed bilaterally by two investigators (with different experience in the field of musculoskeletal US) at the following sites: the dorsal, lateral and volar aspect of the second metacarpal, ulnar and fifth metatarsal head; and the dorsal and volar aspect of the third metacarpal and second proximal heads. Each quadrant was scanning in longitudinal and transverse scans for assessing the qualitative, semiquantitative and quantitative US findings indicative of bone erosions according the OMERACT preliminary definition. Both κ-values and overall agreement percentages of qualitative and semiquantitative assessments showed moderate to excellent agreement between the two investigators. Similar results were obtained for the quantitative assessment with the concordance correlation coefficient value always significant. The only exception was the volar aspects, in particular those of the fifth metatarsal head. Our study suggests that after a 4-week dedicated training programme, a rheumatologist without experience in US is able to detect and score bone erosions in the hands and feet of patients with RA.

  20. Trends in nitrogen concentrations and load in 48 minor streams draining intensively farmed Danish catchments, 1990-2014. How can the observed trend be explained?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windolf, Jørgen; Børgesen, Christen; Blicher-Mathiesen, Gitte; Kronvang, Brian; Larsen, Søren E.; Tornbjerg, Henrik

    2016-04-01

    The total land-based nitrogen load to Danish coastal waters has decreased by 50% since 1990 through a reduction of the outlet of nitrogen from sewage point sources and diffuse sources. On a national scale nitrogen load from diffuse sources, has been reduced by 43% , mainly due to limitation of the amount of N input to different crops, rules for timing and application of manure, mandatory demands for catch crops and restoration of wetlands. The latter increasing the nitrogen retention capacity in surface waters. However, on a local scale huge variations exist in the reduction of the diffuse nitrogen load. Since 1990, an important part of the Danish national monitoring program on the aquatic environment (NOVANA) has been directed at quantifying the nitrogen concentrations and load in 48 minor streams draining small intensively farmed catchments. The 48 catchments have a mean size of 18 km2, farmed area constitutes more than 60% of the catchment area and the catchments have no significant outlets of sewage to the streams. The statistical trend results (based on a seasonal Mann-Kendall) from these 48 streams show a 9-65% reduction in the diffuse nitrogen load (mean: 48%). The large differences in trends in the diffuse N load are related to differences in catchment-specific variables such as nitrogen surpluses, nitrogen leaching from the root zone, hydrogeology and nitrogen retention in ground and surface waters.

  1. Sound intensity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crocker, Malcolm J.; Jacobsen, Finn

    1998-01-01

    This chapter is an overview, intended for readers with no special knowledge about this particular topic. The chapter deals with all aspects of sound intensity and its measurement from the fundamental theoretical background to practical applications of the measurement technique.......This chapter is an overview, intended for readers with no special knowledge about this particular topic. The chapter deals with all aspects of sound intensity and its measurement from the fundamental theoretical background to practical applications of the measurement technique....

  2. Sound Intensity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crocker, M.J.; Jacobsen, Finn

    1997-01-01

    This chapter is an overview, intended for readers with no special knowledge about this particular topic. The chapter deals with all aspects of sound intensity and its measurement from the fundamental theoretical background to practical applications of the measurement technique.......This chapter is an overview, intended for readers with no special knowledge about this particular topic. The chapter deals with all aspects of sound intensity and its measurement from the fundamental theoretical background to practical applications of the measurement technique....

  3. Validity and reliability of a tool for determining appropriateness of days of stay: an observational study in the orthopedic intensive rehabilitation facilities in Italy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida Bianco

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To test the validity and reliability of a tool specifically developed for the evaluation of appropriateness in rehabilitation facilities and to assess the prevalence of appropriateness of the days of stay. METHODS: The tool underwent a process of cross-cultural translation, content validity, and test-retest validity. Two hospital-based rehabilitation wards providing intensive rehabilitation care located in the Region of Calabria, Southern Italy, were randomly selected. A review of medical records on a random sample of patients aged 18 or more was performed. RESULTS: The process of validation resulted in modifying some of the criteria used for the evaluation of appropriateness. Test-retest reliability showed that the agreement and the k statistic for the assessment of the appropriateness of days of stay were 93.4% and 0.82, respectively. A total of 371 patient days was reviewed, and 22.9% of the days of stay in the sample were judged to be inappropriate. The most frequently selected appropriateness criterion was the evaluation of patients by rehabilitation professionals for at least 3 hours on the index day (40.8%; moreover, the most frequent primary reason accounting for the inappropriate days of stay was social and/or family environment issues (34.1%. CONCLUSIONS: The findings showed that the tool used is reliable and have adequate validity to measure the extent of appropriateness of days of stay in rehabilitation facilities and that the prevalence of inappropriateness is contained in the investigated settings. Further research is needed to expand appropriateness evaluation to other rehabilitation settings, and to investigate more thoroughly internal and external causes of inappropriate use of rehabilitation services.

  4. Delirium and coma evaluated in mechanically ventilated patients in the intensive care unit in Japan: a multi-institutional prospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuruta, Ryosuke; Oda, Yasutaka; Shintani, Ayumi; Nunomiya, Shin; Hashimoto, Satoru; Nakagawa, Takashi; Oida, Yasuhisa; Miyazaki, Dai; Yabe, Shigemi

    2014-06-01

    The object of this study is to evaluate the prevalence and effects of delirium on 28-day mortality in critically ill patients on mechanical ventilation in Japan. Prospective cohort study was conducted in medical and surgical intensive care units (ICUs) of 24 medical centers. Patients were followed up daily for delirium during ICU stay after enrollment. Coma was defined with the Richmond Agitation Sedation Scale score of -4 or -5. Delirium was diagnosed using the Confusion Assessment Method for the ICU. The Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to assess the effects of delirium and coma on 28-day mortality, time to extubation, and time to ICU discharge; delirium and coma were included as time-varying covariates after controlling for age, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score, ventilator-associated pneumonia, and the reason for intubation with infection. Of 180 patients, 115 patients (64%) developed delirium. Moreover, 15 patients (8%) died within 28 days after ICU admission, including 7 patients who experienced coma and 8 patients who experienced both coma and delirium. There were no deaths among patients who did not experience coma. Delirium was associated with a shorter time to extubation (hazard ratio [HR], 2.52; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.65-3.85; Pcoma, although statistical significance was not detected due to limited analytical power (HR, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.34-1.12; P=.114). Delirium during ICU stay was not associated with higher mortality. Further study is needed to investigate the discrepancy between these and previous data. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Weekly Volume and Dosimetric Changes During Chemoradiotherapy With Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy for Head and Neck Cancer: A Prospective Observational Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhide, Shreerang A [Institute of Cancer Research, 237 Fulham Road, London SW6 6JB (United Kingdom); Head and Neck Unit, Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust Hospital, London SW3 6JJ (United Kingdom); Davies, Mark; Burke, Kevin; McNair, Helen A; Hansen, Vibeke [Department of Radiation Oncology, Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust Hospital, London and Sutton (United Kingdom); Barbachano, Y [Department of Statistics, Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust Hospital, London and Sutton (United Kingdom); El-Hariry, I A [Head and Neck Unit, Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust Hospital, London SW3 6JJ (United Kingdom); Newbold, Kate [Department of Radiation Oncology, Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust Hospital, London and Sutton (United Kingdom); Harrington, Kevin J [Institute of Cancer Research, 237 Fulham Road, London SW6 6JB (United Kingdom); Head and Neck Unit, Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust Hospital, London SW3 6JJ (United Kingdom); Nutting, Christopher M., E-mail: chris.nutting@rmh.nhs.u [Head and Neck Unit, Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust Hospital, London SW3 6JJ (United Kingdom)

    2010-04-15

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate prospectively the weekly volume changes in the target volumes and organs at risk and the resulting dosimetric changes during induction chemotherapy followed by chemoradiotherapy with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (C-IMRT) for head-and-neck cancer patients. Methods and Materials: Patients receiving C-IMRT for head-and-neck cancer had repeat CT scans at weeks 2, 3, 4, and 5 during radiotherapy. The volume changes of clinical target volume 1 (CTV1) and CTV2 and the resulting dosimetric changes to planning target volume 1 (PTV1) and PTV2 and the organs at risk were measured. Results: The most significant volume differences were seen at week 2 for CTV1 and CTV2. The reductions in the volumes of CTV1 and CTV2 at week 2 were 3.2% and 10%, respectively (p = 0.003 and p < 0.001). The volume changes resulted in a significant reduction in the minimum dose to PTV1 and PTV2 (2 Gy, p = 0.002, and 3.9 Gy, p = 0.03, respectively) and an increased dose range across PTV1 and PTV2 (2.5 Gy, p < 0.001, and 5.1 Gy, p = 0.008, respectively). There was a 15% reduction in the parotid volumes by week 2 (p < 0.001) and 31% by week 4 (p < 0.001). There was a statistically significant increase in the mean dose to the ipsilateral parotid only at week 4 (2.7 Gy, p = 0.006). The parotid glands shifted medially by an average of 2.3 mm (p < 0.001) by week 4. Conclusion: The most significant volumetric changes and dosimetric alterations in the tumor volumes and organs at risk during a course of C-IMRT occur by week 2 of radiotherapy. Further adaptive radiotherapy with replanning, if appropriate, is recommended.

  6. Evaluation of super intense geomagnetic storms and related structures of the interplanetary medium through the observation of cosmic rays of high energy surface; Analise de tempestades geomagneticas super intensas e de estruturas do meio interplanetario relacionadas, atraves da observacao de raios cosmicos de superficie de alta energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savian, Jairo Francisco; Schuch, Nelson J., E-mail: savian@lacesm.ufsm.br, E-mail: njschuch@lacesm.ufsm.br [Centro Regional Sul de Pesquisas Espaciais - CRSPE/INPE-MCT, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Silva, Marlos Rockenbach da; Lago, Alisson dal; Gonzalez, Walter Demetrio, E-mail: marlos@dge.inpe.br, E-mail: dallago@dge.inpe.br, E-mail: gonzalez@dge.inpe.br [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais - INPE-MCT, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Munakata, Kazuoki [Physics Department, Shinshu University, Matsumoto (Japan)

    2005-04-15

    It is believed that the physical mechanism responsible for the transference of energy from the solar wind to the Earth magnetosphere is the reconnection between the interplanetary magnetic field and the terrestrial magnetic field (Tsurutani and Gonzalez, 1997). The necessary criterion for a intense geomagnetic storms to occur, Dst < -100nT, is the existence of a dawn-dusk interplanetary electric field larger than 5 mV/m, for a period larger than 3 hours. Cosmic rays have been studied as a natural phenomenon that can tell much about both Earth's environment in space and distant astrophysical processes (Jokipii, 2000). A solar disturbance propagating away from the Sun affects the pre-existing population of galactic cosmic rays in a number of ways. The most famous one is known as the 'Forbush decrease', which is a suppression of ground cosmic-ray counts observed during geomagnetic disturbances. The objective of this work is to study the response of the Southern Space Observatory ground Muon Telescope observations, installed in Sao Martinho da Serra, RS, Brazil, to 3 super intense geomagnetic storms, combining observation provided by L1 satellites and ground detectors. (author)

  7. Myasthenic crisis patients who require intensive care unit management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaguchi, Hideya; Yamashita, Satoshi; Hirano, Teruyuki; Nakajima, Makoto; Kimura, En; Maeda, Yasushi; Uchino, Makoto

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this report was to investigate predictive factors that necessitate intensive care in myasthenic crisis (MC). We retrospectively reviewed MC patients at our institution and compared ICU and ward management groups. Higher MG-ADL scale scores, non-ocular initial symptoms, infection-triggered findings, and higher MGFA classification were observed more frequently in the ICU group. In patients with these prognostic factors, better outcomes may be obtained with early institution of intensive care. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Nature and Intensity of the 22-23 April 2015 Eruptions of Volcán Calbuco, Chile, from Satellite, Lightning, and Field Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Eaton, A. R.; Amigo, A.; Bertin, D.; Mastin, L. G.; Giacosa, R.; Behnke, S. A.

    2015-12-01

    On 22 April 2015, Calbuco Volcano in southern Chile erupted for the first time in 43 years. The two primary phases of eruption, separated by a few hours, produced pyroclastic density currents, lahars, and spectacular vertical eruption columns that rose into the stratosphere. Clear weather conditions allowed the populated areas of Puerto Montt and Puerto Varas full view of the lightning-rich eruption, which was rapidly shared through social media. A wealth of remote-sensing data was also publically available in near real-time. We used this information to assess the eruption behavior by combining satellite-based umbrella growth rates, and the location and frequency of volcanic lightning. Umbrella expansion rates from GOES-13 satellite retrievals correspond to eruption rates of about 4x106 kg s-1 for the first eruptive phase and 6x106 kg s-1 for the second phase, following the approach of Pouget et al. (2013, JVGR, 258, 100-112). The location and timing of lightning flashes were obtained from the World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN) Global Volcanic Lightning Monitor, which is updated approximately every minute (Ewert et al., 2010, Fall AGU Abstract AE31A-04). Interestingly, the onset of detected flashes was delayed by ~30 min after the start of each eruptive phase. Lighting provided a useful proxy for the waxing or waning intensity of the eruption, and helped identify the end of significant ash emissions. Using the 1-D volcanic plume model Plumeria, we have also simulated the vertical distribution of ash and ice in the plumes to examine potential causes of the extraordinary amount of volcanic lightning (1,094 flashes detected). Our analysis provides information on eruption timing, duration, and mass flow rate, which are necessary for ash dispersal modeling within hours of eruption. Results are also consistent with the field-based measurements of total erupted volume. We suggest that the combination of satellite-detected umbrella expansion rates with lightning

  9. An Intense Traveling Airglow Front in the Upper Mesosphere-Lower Thermosphere with Characteristic of a Turbulent Bore Observed over Alice Springs, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walterscheid, R. L.; Hecht, J. H.; Hickey, M. P.; Gelinas, L. J.; Vincent, R. A.; Reid, I. M.; Woithe, J.

    2010-12-01

    The Aerospace Corporation’s Nightglow Imager observed a large step-function change in airglow in the form of a traveling front in the OH and O2 airglow emissions over Alice Springs Australia on February 2, 2003. The front exhibited a stepwise increase of nearly a factor two in the OH brightness and a stepwise decrease in the O2 brightness. The change in brightness in each layer was associated with a strong leading disturbance followed by a train of weak barely visible waves. The OH airglow brightness behind the front was the brightness night for 02 at Alice Springs that we have measured in seven years of observations. The OH brightness was among the five brightest. The event was associated with a strong phase-locked two-day wave (TDW).We have analyzed the stability conditions for the upper mesosphere and lower thermosphere and found that the airglow layers were found in a region of strong ducting. The thermal structure was obtained from combining data from the SABER instrument on the TIMED satellite and the NRLMSISE-00 model. The wind profile was obtained by combining the HWM07 model and MF radar winds from Buckland Park Australia. We found that the TDW-disturbed profile was significantly more effective in supporting a high degree of ducting than a profile based only on HWM07 winds. Dramatic wall events have been interpreted as manifestations of undular bores (e.g., Smith et al. [2003]). Undular bores are nonlinear high Froude number events that must generate an ever increasing train of waves to carry the excess energy away from the bore front. Only a very weak wave train behind the initial disturbance was seen for the Alice Springs event. The form of the amplitude ordering was not typical of a nonlinear wave train. Therefore a bore interpretation requires another means of energy dissipation, namely turbulent dissipation. We suggest that a reasonable interpretation of the observed event is a turbulent bore. We are unaware of any previous event having

  10. Clustered multistate models with observation level random effects, mover-stayer effects and dynamic covariates: modelling transition intensities and sojourn times in a study of psoriatic arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiu, Sean; Farewell, Vernon T; Tom, Brian D M

    2018-02-01

    In psoriatic arthritis, it is important to understand the joint activity (represented by swelling and pain) and damage processes because both are related to severe physical disability. The paper aims to provide a comprehensive investigation into both processes occurring over time, in particular their relationship, by specifying a joint multistate model at the individual hand joint level, which also accounts for many of their important features. As there are multiple hand joints, such an analysis will be based on the use of clustered multistate models. Here we consider an observation level random-effects structure with dynamic covariates and allow for the possibility that a subpopulation of patients is at minimal risk of damage. Such an analysis is found to provide further understanding of the activity-damage relationship beyond that provided by previous analyses. Consideration is also given to the modelling of mean sojourn times and jump probabilities. In particular, a novel model parameterization which allows easily interpretable covariate effects to act on these quantities is proposed.

  11. Impact of harmful use of alcohol on the sedation of critical patients on mechanical ventilation: A multicentre prospective, observational study in 8 Spanish intensive care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandiumenge, A; Torrado, H; Muñoz, T; Alonso, M Á; Jiménez, M J; Alonso, J; Pardo, C; Chamorro, C

    2016-05-01

    To evaluate the impact of a history of harmful use of alcohol (HUA) on sedoanalgesia practices and outcomes in patients on mechanical ventilation (MV). A prospective, observational multicentre study was made of all adults consecutively admitted during 30 days to 8 Spanish ICUs. Patients on MV >24h were followed-up on until discharge from the ICU or death. Data on HUA, smoking, the use of illegal (IP) and medically prescribed psychotropics (MPP), sedoanalgesia practices and their related complications (sedative failure [SF] and sedative withdrawal [SW]), as well as outcome, were prospectively recorded. A total of 23.4% (119/509) of the admitted patients received MV >24h; 68.9% were males; age 57.0 (17.9) years; APACHE II score 18.8 (7.2); with a medical cause of admission in 53.9%. Half of them consumed at least one psychotropic agent (smoking 27.7%, HUA 25.2%; MPP 9.2%; and IP 7.6%). HUA patients more frequently required PS (86.7% vs. 64%; p2 sedatives (56.7% vs. 28.1%; p<0.02). HUA was associated to an eightfold (p<0.001) and fourfold (p<0.02) increase in SF and SW, respectively. In turn, the duration of MV and the stay in the ICU was increased by 151h (p<0.02) and 4.4 days (p<0.02), respectively, when compared with the non-HUA group. No differences were found in terms of mortality. HUA may be associated to a higher risk of SF and WS, and can prolong MV and the duration of stay in the ICU in critical patients. Early identification could allow the implementation of specific sedation strategies aimed at preventing these complications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  12. Long-period ground motions at near-regional distances caused by the PL wave from, inland earthquakes: Observation and numerical simulation of the 2004 Mid-Niigata, Japan, Mw6.6 earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furumura, T.; Kennett, B. L. N.

    2017-12-01

    We examine the development of large, long-period ground motions at near-regional distances (D=50-200 km) generated by the PL wave from large, shallow inland earthquakes, based on the analysis of strong motion records and finite-difference method (FDM) simulations of seismic wave propagation. PL wave can be represented as leaking modes of the crustal waveguide and are commonly observed at regional distances between 300 to 1000 km as a dispersed, long-period signal with a dominant period of about 20 s. However, observations of recent earthquakes at the dense K-NET and KiK-net strong motion networks in Japan demonstrate the dominance of the PL wave at near-regional (D=50-200 km) distances as, e.g., for the 2004 Mid Niigata, Japan, earthquake (Mw6.6; h=13 km). The observed PL wave signal between P and S wave shows a large, dispersed wave packet with dominant period of about T=4-10 s with amplitude almost comparable to or larger than the later arrival of the S and surface waves. Thus, the early arrivals of the long-period PL wave immediately after P wave can enhance resonance with large-scale constructions such as high-rise buildings and large oil-storage tanks etc. with potential for disaster. Such strong effects often occurred during the 2004 Mid Niigata earthquakes and other large earthquakes which occurred nearby the Kanto (Tokyo) basin. FDM simulation of seismic wave propagation employing realistic 3-D sedimentary structure models demonstrates the process by which the PL wave develops at near-regional distances from shallow, crustal earthquakes by constructive interference of the P wave in the long-period band. The amplitude of the PL wave is very sensitive to low-velocity structure in the near-surface. Lowered velocities help to develop large SV-to-P conversion and weaken the P-to-SV conversion at the free surface. Both effects enhance the multiple P reflections in the crustal waveguide and prevent the leakage of seismic energy into the mantle. However, a very

  13. Lidar Observations of Aerosol Disturbances of the Stratosphere over Tomsk (56.5∘N; 85.0∘E in Volcanic Activity Period 2006–2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg E. Bazhenov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The lidar measurements (Tomsk: 56.5∘N; 85.0∘E of the optical characteristics of the stratospheric aerosol layer (SAL in the volcanic activity period 2006–2011 are summarized and analyzed. The background SAL state with minimum aerosol content, observed since 1997 under the conditions of long-term volcanically quiet period, was interrupted in October 2006 by series of explosive eruptions of volcanoes of Pacific Ring of Fire: Rabaul (October 2006, New Guinea; Okmok and Kasatochi (July-August 2008, Aleutian Islands; Redoubt (March-April 2009, Alaska; Sarychev Peak (June 2009, Kuril Islands; Grimsvötn (May 2011, Iceland. A short-term and minor disturbance of the lower stratosphere was also observed in April 2010 after eruption of the Icelandic volcano Eyjafjallajokull. The developed regional empirical model of the vertical distribution of background SAL optical characteristics was used to identify the periods of elevated stratospheric aerosol content after each of the volcanic eruptions. Trends of variations in the total ozone content are also considered.

  14. SDO/AIA Observations of Quasi-periodic Fast (~1000 km/s) Propagating (QFP) Waves as Evidence of Fast-mode Magnetosonic Waves in the Low Corona: Statistics and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, W.; Ofman, L.; Title, A. M.; Zhao, J.; Aschwanden, M. J.

    2011-12-01

    Recent EUV imaging observations from SDO/AIA led to the discovery of quasi-periodic fast (~2000 km/s) propagating (QFP) waves in active regions (Liu et al. 2011). They were interpreted as fast-mode magnetosonic waves and reproduced in 3D MHD simulations (Ofman et al. 2011). Since then, we have extended our study to a sample of more than a dozen such waves observed during the SDO mission (2010/04-now). We will present the statistical properties of these waves including: (1) Their projected speeds measured in the plane of the sky are about 400-2200 km/s, which, as the lower limits of their true speeds in 3D space, fall in the expected range of coronal Alfven or fast-mode speeds. (2) They usually originate near flare kernels, often in the wake of a coronal mass ejection, and propagate in narrow funnels of coronal loops that serve as waveguides. (3) These waves are launched repeatedly with quasi-periodicities in the 30-200 seconds range, often lasting for more than one hour; some frequencies coincide with those of the quasi-periodic pulsations (QPPs) in the accompanying flare, suggestive a common excitation mechanism. We obtained the k-omega diagrams and dispersion relations of these waves using Fourier analysis. We estimate their energy fluxes and discuss their contribution to coronal heating as well as their diagnostic potential for coronal seismology.

  15. Intensive mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vannini, Phillip; Bissell, David; Jensen, Ole B.

    with fieldwork conducted in Canada, Denmark and Australia to develop our understanding of the experiential politics of long distance workers. Rather than focusing on the extensive dimensions of mobilities that are implicated in patterns and trends, our paper turns to the intensive dimensions of this experience......This paper explores the intensities of long distance commuting journeys as a way of exploring how bodily sensibilities are being changed by the mobilities that they undertake. The context of this paper is that many people are travelling further to work than ever before owing to a variety of factors...... which relate to transport, housing and employment. Yet we argue that the experiential dimensions of long distance mobilities have not received the attention that they deserve within geographical research on mobilities. This paper combines ideas from mobilities research and contemporary social theory...

  16. Rocket observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-05-01

    The Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS) sounding rocket experiments were carried out during the periods of August to September, 1982, January to February and August to September, 1983 and January to February, 1984 with sounding rockets. Among 9 rockets, 3 were K-9M, 1 was S-210, 3 were S-310 and 2 were S-520. Two scientific satellites were launched on February 20, 1983 for solar physics and on February 14, 1984 for X-ray astronomy. These satellites were named as TENMA and OHZORA and designated as 1983-011A and 1984-015A, respectively. Their initial orbital elements are also described. A payload recovery was successfully carried out by S-520-6 rocket as a part of MINIX (Microwave Ionosphere Non-linear Interaction Experiment) which is a scientific study of nonlinear plasma phenomena in conjunction with the environmental assessment study for the future SPS project. Near IR observation of the background sky shows a more intense flux than expected possibly coming from some extragalactic origin and this may be related to the evolution of the universe. US-Japan cooperative program of Tether Experiment was done on board US rocket.

  17. Mid-Term Quasi-Periodicities and Solar Cycle Variation of the White-Light Corona from 18.5 Years (1996.0 - 2014.5) of LASCO Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlyaeva, T.; Lamy, P.; Llebaria, A.

    2015-07-01

    We report on the analysis of the temporal evolution of the solar corona based on 18.5 years (1996.0 - 2014.5) of white-light observations with the SOHO/LASCO-C2 coronagraph. This evolution is quantified by generating spatially integrated values of the K-corona radiance, first globally, then in latitudinal sectors. The analysis considers time series of monthly values and 13-month running means of the radiance as well as several indices and proxies of solar activity. We study correlation, wavelet time-frequency spectra, and cross-coherence and phase spectra between these quantities. Our results give a detailed insight on how the corona responds to solar activity over timescales ranging from mid-term quasi-periodicities (also known as quasi-biennial oscillations or QBOs) to the long-term 11 year solar cycle. The amplitude of the variation between successive solar maxima and minima (modulation factor) very much depends upon the strength of the cycle and upon the heliographic latitude. An asymmetry is observed during the ascending phase of Solar Cycle 24, prominently in the royal and polar sectors, with north leading. Most prominent QBOs are a quasi-annual period during the maximum phase of Solar Cycle 23 and a shorter period, seven to eight months, in the ascending and maximum phases of Solar Cycle 24. They share the same properties as the solar QBOs: variable periodicity, intermittency, asymmetric development in the northern and southern solar hemispheres, and largest amplitudes during the maximum phase of solar cycles. The strongest correlation of the temporal variations of the coronal radiance - and consequently the coronal electron density - is found with the total magnetic flux. Considering that the morphology of the solar corona is also directly controlled by the topology of the magnetic field, this correlation reinforces the view that they are intimately connected, including their variability at all timescales.

  18. [Intensive medicine in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    Intensive care medicine is a medical specialty that was officially established in our country in 1978, with a 5-year training program including two years of common core training followed by three years of specific training in an intensive care unit accredited for training. During this 32-year period, intensive care medicine has carried out an intense and varied activity, which has allowed its positioning as an attractive and with future specialty in the hospital setting. This document summarizes the history of the specialty, its current situation, the key role played in the programs of organ donation and transplantation of the National Transplant Organization (after more than 20 years of mutual collaboration), its training activities with the development of the National Plan of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation, with a trajectory of more than 25 years, its interest in providing care based on quality and safety programs for the severely ill patient. It also describes the development of reference registries due to the need for reliable data on the care process for the most prevalent diseases, such as ischemic heart disease or ICU-acquired infections, based on long-term experience (more than 15 years), which results in the availability of epidemiological information and characteristics of care that may affect the practical patient's care. Moreover, features of its scientific society (SEMICYUC) are reported, an organization that agglutinates the interests of more than 280 ICUs and more than 2700 intensivists, with reference to the journal Medicina Intensiva, the official journal of the society and the Panamerican and Iberian Federation of Critical Medicine and Intensive Care Societies. Medicina Intensiva is indexed in the Thompson Reuters products of Science Citation Index Expanded (Scisearch(®)) and Journal Citation Reports, Science Edition. The important contribution of the Spanish intensive care medicine to the scientific community is also analyzed, and in relation to

  19. Towards higher intensities

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    Over the past 2 weeks, commissioning of the machine protection system has advanced significantly, opening up the possibility of higher intensity collisions at 3.5 TeV. The intensity has been increased from 2 bunches of 1010 protons to 6 bunches of 2x1010 protons. Luminosities of 6x1028 cm-2s-1 have been achieved at the start of fills, a factor of 60 higher than those provided for the first collisions on 30 March.   The recent increase in LHC luminosity as recorded by the experiments. (Graph courtesy of the experiments and M. Ferro-Luzzi) To increase the luminosity further, the commissioning crews are now trying to push up the intensity of the individual proton bunches. After the successful injection of nominal intensity bunches containing 1.1x1011 protons, collisions were subsequently achieved at 450 GeV with these intensities. However, half-way through the first ramping of these nominal intensity bunches to 3.5 TeV on 15 May, a beam instability was observed, leading to partial beam loss...

  20. Research Directed at Developing a Classical Theory to Describe Isotope Separation of Polyatomic Molecules Illuminated by Intense Infrared Radiation. Final Report for period May 7, 1979 to September 30, 1979; Extension December 31, 1997

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, W. E. Jr.

    1981-12-01

    This final report describes research on the theory of isotope separation produced by the illumination of polyatomic molecules by intense infrared laser radiation. This process is investigated by treating the molecule, sulfur hexafluoride, as a system of seven classical particles that obey the Newtonian equations of motion. A minicomputer is used to integrate these differential equations. The particles are acted on by interatomic forces, and by the time-dependent electric field of the laser. We have a very satisfactory expression for the interaction of the laser and the molecule which is compatible with infrared absorption and spectroscopic data. The interatomic potential is capable of improvement, and progress on this problem is still being made. We have made several computer runs of the dynamical behavior of the molecule using a reasonably good model for the interatomic force law. For the laser parameters chosen, we find that typically the molecule passes quickly through the resonance region into the quasi-continuum and even well into the real continuum before dissociation actually occurs. When viewed on a display terminal, the motions are exceedingly complex. As an aid to the visualization of the process, we have made a number of 16 mm movies depicting a three-dimensional representation of the motion of the seven particles. These show even more clearly the enormous complexity of the motions, and make clear the desirability of finding ways of characterizing the motion in simple ways without giving all of the numerical detail. One of the ways to do this is to introduce statistical parameters such as a temperature associated with the distribution of kinetic energies of the single particle. We have made such an analysis of our data runs, and have found favorable indications that such methods will prove useful in keeping track of the dynamical histories.

  1. Photolysis of Periodate and Periodic Acid in Aqueous Solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sehested, Knud; Kläning, U. K.

    1978-01-01

    The photochemistry of periodate and periodic acid in aqueous solution was studied (i) by quantum yield measurements at low light intensity (ii) by flash photolysis, and (iii) by photolysis of glassy samples at 77 K. The photochemical studies were supplemented with pulse radiolysis studies...... of aqueous periodate solutions and with kinetic studies using stopped-flow technique. In strongly alkaline solution the photodecomposition of periodate proceeds via formation of O– and IVI. At pH solution O3 P is formed in a small...

  2. Rapid oscillations in cataclysmic variables. VI. Periodicities in erupting dwarf novae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, J.

    1981-01-01

    We report an extensive study of the coherent oscillations observed in high-speed photometry of dwarf novae during eruption. The oscillations are in all cases singly periodic and sinusoidal to the limits of measurement. The detection of oscillations in 14 separate eruptions of AH Her and SY Cnc enables a general study of period variations. The stars trace out characteristic loops (''banana diagrams'') in the period-intensity plane. New detections are also reported for SS Cyg, EM Cyg, and HT Cas

  3. Intensity Conserving Spectral Fitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimchuk, J. A.; Patsourakos, S.; Tripathi, D.

    2015-01-01

    The detailed shapes of spectral line profiles provide valuable information about the emitting plasma, especially when the plasma contains an unresolved mixture of velocities, temperatures, and densities. As a result of finite spectral resolution, the intensity measured by a spectrometer is the average intensity across a wavelength bin of non-zero size. It is assigned to the wavelength position at the center of the bin. However, the actual intensity at that discrete position will be different if the profile is curved, as it invariably is. Standard fitting routines (spline, Gaussian, etc.) do not account for this difference, and this can result in significant errors when making sensitive measurements. Detection of asymmetries in solar coronal emission lines is one example. Removal of line blends is another. We have developed an iterative procedure that corrects for this effect. It can be used with any fitting function, but we employ a cubic spline in a new analysis routine called Intensity Conserving Spline Interpolation (ICSI). As the name implies, it conserves the observed intensity within each wavelength bin, which ordinary fits do not. Given the rapid convergence, speed of computation, and ease of use, we suggest that ICSI be made a standard component of the processing pipeline for spectroscopic data.

  4. Long-term analyses of snow dynamics within the french Alps on the 1900-2100 period. Analyses of historical snow water equivalent observations, modelisations and projections of a hundred of snow courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathevet, T.; Joel, G.; Gottardi, F.; Nemoz, B.

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this communication is to present analyses of climate variability and change on snow water equivalent (SWE) observations, reconstructions (1900-2016) and scenarii (2020-2100) of a hundred of snow courses dissiminated within the french Alps. This issue became particularly important since a decade, in regions where snow variability had a large impact on water resources availability, poor snow conditions in ski resorts and artificial snow production. As a water resources manager in french mountainuous regions, EDF (french hydropower company) has developed and managed a hydrometeorological network since 1950. A recent data rescue research allowed to digitize long term SWE manual measurments of a hundred of snow courses within the french Alps. EDF have been operating an automatic SWE sensors network, complementary to the snow course network. Based on numerous SWE observations time-series and snow accumulation and melt model (Garavaglia et al., 2017), continuous daily historical SWE time-series have been reconstructed within the 1950-2016 period. These reconstructions have been extented to 1900 using 20 CR reanalyses (ANATEM method, Kuentz et al., 2015) and up to 2100 using GIEC Climate Change scenarii. Considering various mountainous areas within the french Alps, this communication focuses on : (1) long term (1900-2016) analyses of variability and trend of total precipitation, air temperature, snow water equivalent, snow line altitude, snow season length , (2) long term variability of hydrological regime of snow dominated watersheds and (3) future trends (2020 -2100) using GIEC Climate Change scenarii. Comparing historical period (1950-1984) to recent period (1984-2016), quantitative results within a region in the north Alps (Maurienne) shows an increase of air temperature by 1.2 °C, an increase of snow line height by 200m, a reduction of SWE by 200 mm/year and a reduction of snow season length by 15 days. These analyses will be extended from north to south

  5. Interplanetary magnetic field associated changes in cosmic ray intensity and geomagnetic field during 1973-75

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, R.L.; Shukla, J.P.; Shukla, A.K.; Sharma, S.M.; Agrawal, S.P.

    1979-01-01

    The effects of interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) B and its Bsub(z) component on cosmic ray intensity and geomagnetic field variations have been examined for the period 1973-75. It is observed that: (1) B >= 10γ (magnetic blobs) is pre-requisite in producing cosmic ray intensity and geomagnetic field variations of varying magnitudes, (2) the longer existence of magnetic blobs on successive days produces larger decreases in cosmic ray intensity and geomagnetic field and (3) the southward component (Bsub(z)) of IMF generally gives rise to large Asub(p) changes, though it is not effective in producing cosmic ray intensity decreases. (auth.)

  6. [Recommendation on temperature management after cardiopulmonary arrest and severe traumatic brain injury in childhood beyond the neonatal period : Statement of the German Society for Neonatology and Pediatric Intensive Care Medicine (GNPI) and the scientific Working Group for Paediatric Anaesthesia (WAKKA) of the German Society of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care (DGAI)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, S; Eich, C; Rellensmann, G; Schuhmann, M U; Nicolai, T; Hoffmann, F

    2017-02-01

    The available data on the effectiveness of therapeutic hypothermia in different patient groups are heterogeneous. Although the benefits have been proven for some collectives, recommendations for the use of hypothermia treatment in other groups are based on less robust data and conclusions by analogy. This article gives a review of the current evidence of temperature management in all age groups and based on this state of knowledge, recommends active temperature management with the primary aim of strict normothermia (36-36.5 °C) for 72 hours after cardiopulmonary arrest or severe traumatic brain injury for children beyond the neonatal period.

  7. Development and comparison of different intensity duration ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian Journal of Technology ... Microsoft Excel software was used to develop exponential, logarithmic and power intensity-duration-frequency models for return period (T) of duration-frequency models for return period (T) of between 2 years and 100 years using rainfall intensity data for durations of 2, 5, 10, 15, 30, 60, ...

  8. Macroseismic intensity attenuation in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaghmaei-Sabegh, Saman

    2018-01-01

    Macroseismic intensity data plays an important role in the process of seismic hazard analysis as well in developing of reliable earthquake loss models. This paper presents a physical-based model to predict macroseismic intensity attenuation based on 560 intensity data obtained in Iran in the time period 1975-2013. The geometric spreading and energy absorption of seismic waves have been considered in the proposed model. The proposed easy to implement relation describes the intensity simply as a function of moment magnitude, source to site distance and focal depth. The prediction capability of the proposed model is assessed by means of residuals analysis. Prediction results have been compared with those of other intensity prediction models for Italy, Turkey, Iran and central Asia. The results indicate the higher attenuation rate for the study area in distances less than 70km.

  9. [Medication errors in Spanish intensive care units].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino, P; Martín, M C; Alonso, A; Gutiérrez, I; Alvarez, J; Becerril, F

    2013-01-01

    To estimate the incidence of medication errors in Spanish intensive care units. Post hoc study of the SYREC trial. A longitudinal observational study carried out during 24 hours in patients admitted to the ICU. Spanish intensive care units. Patients admitted to the intensive care unit participating in the SYREC during the period of study. Risk, individual risk, and rate of medication errors. The final study sample consisted of 1017 patients from 79 intensive care units; 591 (58%) were affected by one or more incidents. Of these, 253 (43%) had at least one medication-related incident. The total number of incidents reported was 1424, of which 350 (25%) were medication errors. The risk of suffering at least one incident was 22% (IQR: 8-50%) while the individual risk was 21% (IQR: 8-42%). The medication error rate was 1.13 medication errors per 100 patient-days of stay. Most incidents occurred in the prescription (34%) and administration (28%) phases, 16% resulted in patient harm, and 82% were considered "totally avoidable". Medication errors are among the most frequent types of incidents in critically ill patients, and are more common in the prescription and administration stages. Although most such incidents have no clinical consequences, a significant percentage prove harmful for the patient, and a large proportion are avoidable. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. and SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  10. Alcohol dependence and physical comorbidity: Increased prevalence but reduced relevance of individual comorbidities for hospital-based mortality during a 12.5-year observation period in general hospital admissions in urban North-West England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoepf, D; Heun, R

    2015-06-01

    Alcohol dependence (AD) is associated with an increase in physical comorbidities. The effects of these diseases on general hospital-based mortality are unclear. Consequently, we conducted a mortality study in which we investigated if the burden of physical comorbidities and their relevance on general hospital-based mortality differs between individuals with and without AD during a 12.5-year observation period in general hospital admissions. During 1 January 2000 and 30 June 2012, 23,371 individuals with AD were admitted at least once to seven General Manchester Hospitals. Their physical comorbidities with a prevalence≥1% were compared to those of 233,710 randomly selected hospital controls, group-matched for age and gender (regardless of primary admission diagnosis or specialized treatments). Physical comorbidities that increased the risk of hospital-based mortality (but not outside of the hospital) during the observation period were identified using multiple logistic regression analyses. Hospital-based mortality rates were 20.4% in the AD sample and 8.3% in the control sample. Individuals with AD compared to controls had a higher burden of physical comorbidities, i.e. alcoholic liver and pancreatic diseases, diseases of the conducting airways, neurological and circulatory diseases, diseases of the upper gastrointestinal tract, renal diseases, cellulitis, iron deficiency anemia, fracture neck of femur, and peripheral vascular disease. In contrast, coronary heart related diseases, risk factors of cardiovascular disease, diverticular disease and cataracts were less frequent in individuals with AD than in controls. Thirty-two individual physical comorbidities contributed to the prediction of hospital-based mortality in univariate analyses in the AD sample; alcoholic liver disease (33.7%), hypertension (16.9%), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (14.1%), and pneumonia (13.3%) were the most frequent diagnoses in deceased individuals with AD. Multiple forward

  11. To observe the intensity of the inflammatory reaction caused by neonatal urine and meconium on the intestinal wall of rats in order to understand etiology of intestinal damage in gastroschisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devdas S Samala

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this experimental study was to observe the intensity of the inflammatory reaction caused by neonatal urine and meconium on the intestinal wall of rats to better understand etiology of intestinal damage in gastroschisis. Materials and Methods: A total of 24 adult Wistar rats were used as experimental models to simulate the effect of exposed bowel in cases of gastroschisis. The peritoneal cavity of the rats was injected with substances which constitute human amniotic fluid to study the effect on the bowel. Sterile urine and meconium were obtained from newborn humans. The rats were divided into four groups according to the material to be injected. In Group I (Control group 3 mL of distilled water was injected, in Group II (Urine group 3 mL of neonatal urine was injected, in Group III (Meconium group 5% meconium suspension was injected, while in Group IV, a combination of 5% meconium suspension and urine was injected. A total of 3mL solution was injected into the right inferior quadrant twice a day for 5 days. The animals were sacrificed on the 6 th day by a high dose of thiopentone sodium. A segment of small bowel specimen was excised, fixed in paraffin, and stained with hematoxylin-eosin for microscopic analysis for determination of the degree of inflammatory reaction in the intestinal wall. All pathology specimens were studied by the same pathologist. Results: The maximum bowel damage was seen in Group II (Urine group in the form of serositis, severe enteritis, parietal necrosis, and peeling. A lesser degree of damage was observed in Group III (Meconium group as mild enteritis (mild lymphoid hyperplasia. The least damage was seen in Group IV (Combination of meconium and urine and Group I (Control group. Conclusion: The intraabdominal injection of neonatal human urine produces significant inflammatory reactions in the intestinal wall of rats.

  12. Periodic precursors of nonlinear dynamical transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Yu; Dong Shihai; Lozada-Cassou, M.

    2004-01-01

    We study the resonant response of a nonlinear system to external periodic perturbations. We show by numerical simulation that the periodic resonance curve may anticipate the dynamical instability of the unperturbed nonlinear periodic system, at parameter values far away from the bifurcation points. In the presence of noise, the buried intrinsic periodic dynamics can be picked out by analyzing the system's response to periodic modulation of appropriate intensity

  13. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Compartir For more help with what counts as aerobic activity, watch this video: Windows Media Player, 4: ... ways to understand and measure the intensity of aerobic activity: relative intensity and absolute intensity. Relative Intensity ...

  14. High-intensity interval training evokes larger serum BDNF levels compared with intense continuous exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saucedo Marquez, Cinthia Maria; Vanaudenaerde, Bart; Troosters, Thierry; Wenderoth, Nicole

    2015-12-15

    Exercise can have a positive effect on the brain by activating brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-related processes. In healthy humans there appears to be a linear relationship between exercise intensity and the positive short-term effect of acute exercise on BDNF levels (i.e., the highest BDNF levels are reported after high-intensity exercise protocols). Here we performed two experiments to test the effectiveness of two high-intensity exercise protocols, both known to improve cardiovascular health, to determine whether they have a similar efficacy in affecting BDNF levels. Participants performed a continuous exercise (CON) protocol at 70% of maximal work rate and a high-intensity interval-training (HIT) protocol at 90% of maximal work rate for periods of 1 min alternating with 1 min of rest (both protocols lasted 20 min). We observed similar BDNF kinetics in both protocols, with maximal BDNF concentrations being reached toward the end of training (experiment 1). We then showed that both exercise protocols significantly increase BDNF levels compared with a rest condition (CON P = 0.04; HIT P exercise are slightly more effective than continuous high-intensity exercise for elevating serum BDNF. Additionally, 73% of the participants preferred the HIT protocol (P = 0.02). Therefore, we suggest that the HIT protocol might represent an effective and preferred intervention for elevating BDNF levels and potentially promoting brain health. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  15. Stimulus intensity and the psychological refractory period II auditive stimuli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, W.G.; Schuur, van R.

    1970-01-01

    In experiments in which stimuli are presented closely spaced in time, subjects exhibit a limitation in the transmission of the signals. The result is either a delayed response or a less accurate response. This phenomenon has been called the psychological refractory phase (Telford, 1931). It is

  16. Resistencia a antibióticos de bacilos GRAM negativos aislados en unidades de cuidados intensivos: Análisis comparativo de dos periódos (1998-2001 Bacterial resistance to antibiotics in gram negative isolates from intensive care units: Comparative analysis between two periods (1998-2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. H. Rodriguez

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Se comparó la incidencia relativa de las diferentes especies de bacilos gram-negativos y la resistencia a varios antibacterianos, en dos muestras de aislamientos clínicos correspondientes a cinco meses del año 1998 y del mismo período del año 2001, con el objetivo de conocer la evolución de ambos, frecuencia de cada especie como agente etiológico, y resistencia a antimicrobianos. Para ello se analizaron en cada período 100 aislamientos de bacilos gram-negativos obtenidos de muestras clínicas de pacientes internados en salas de cuidados intensivos del Hospital de Clínicas José de San Martín. Se determinó la especie bacteriana y la concentración inhibitoria mínima de cada antibiótico. Acinetobacter spp. fue el microorganismo más aislado en ambos períodos. El porcentaje de aislamientos resistentes a imipenem fue del 60%, mientras que a ciprofloxacina y cefalosporinas de tercera generación fue superior al 80%. En Klebsiella pneumoniae el porcentaje de aislamientos resistentes a cefalosporinas de tercera generación disminuyó del 71.4 al 30% (pThe incidence and drug susceptibility of gram-negative isolates from clinical samples of patients from different intensive care units at the Hospital de Clinicas José de San Martín were analysed. Two hundred isolates during the same five months period, in two different years (1998 and 2001 were obtained and evaluated. Acinetobacter spp., was the most frequently isolated microorganism. Resistance to imipenem was observed in 60% of these isolations while resistance to 3rd generation cephalosporin and ciprofloxacin was observed in more than 80%. Klebsiella pneumoniae was not resistant to imipenem, the resistance to 3rd and 4rth generation cephalosporins decreased from 71.4 to 30% of isolates (p<0.05, while ciprofloxacin resistance increased from 5 to 20% (p<0.05. An increasing resistance to imipenem in Pseudomonas aeruginosa was noted, from 15.4 to 68% (p<0.05%; to ciprofloxacin, from 31.4 to

  17. Intensive social cognitive treatment (can do treatment) with participation of support partners in persons with relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis: observation of improved self-efficacy, quality of life, anxiety and depression 1 year later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongen, Peter Joseph; Heerings, Marco; Ruimschotel, Rob; Hussaarts, Astrid; Duyverman, Lotte; van der Zande, Anneke; Valkenburg-Vissers, Joyce; van Droffelaar, Maarten; Lemmens, Wim; Donders, Rogier; Visser, Leo H

    2016-07-29

    In persons with multiple sclerosis (MS) self-efficacy positively affects health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and physical activity. In a previous study we observed that 6 months after an intensive 3-day social cognitive treatment (Can Do treatment) with the participation of support partners, self-efficacy and HRQoL had improved in persons with relapsing remitting MS (RRMS). Given the chronic nature of the disease, it is important to know whether these beneficial changes may last. Can Do treatment was given to 60 persons with MS and their support partners. At baseline and 12 months after treatment self-efficacy control, self-efficacy function, physical and mental HRQoL, anxiety, depression and fatigue were assessed via self-report questionnaires. Differences were tested via a paired t test. Of the 57 persons with MS that completed the baseline assessment and the 3-day treatment, 38 filled in the 12th month questionnaires (response rate 66.7 %), 22 with RRMS and 14 with progressive MS. In the RR group self-efficacy control had increased by 20.2 % and physical HRQoL by 15.0 %, and depression and anxiety had decreased by 29.8 and 25.9 %, respectively (all P treatment (Can Do treatment) with the participation of support partners may have long lasting beneficial effects on the self-efficacy and HRQoL in persons with RRMS; and that improvements in anxiety and depression, not seen in the 6-month study, may yet develop at 12 months.

  18. The impact of healthcare professionals' personality and religious beliefs on the decisions to forego life sustaining treatments: an observational, multicentre, cross-sectional study in Greek intensive care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntantana, Asimenia; Matamis, Dimitrios; Savvidou, Savvoula; Marmanidou, Kyriaki; Giannakou, Maria; Gouva, Μary; Nakos, George; Koulouras, Vasilios

    2017-07-21

    To assess the opinion of intensive care unit (ICU) personnel and the impact of their personality and religious beliefs on decisions to forego life-sustaining treatments (DFLSTs). Cross-sectional, observational, national study in 18 multidisciplinary Greek ICUs, with >6 beds, between June and December 2015. 149 doctors and 320 nurses who voluntarily and anonymously answered the End-of-Life (EoL) attitudes, Personality (EPQ) and Religion (SpREUK) questionnaires. Multivariate analysis was used to detect the impact of personality and religious beliefs on the DFLSTs. The participation rate was 65.7%. Significant differences in DFLSTs between doctors and nurses were identified. 71.4% of doctors and 59.8% of nurses stated that the family was not properly informed about DFLST and the main reason was the family's inability to understand medical details. 51% of doctors expressed fear of litigation and 47% of them declared that this concern influenced the information given to family and nursing staff. 7.5% of the nurses considered DFLSTs dangerous, criminal or illegal. Multivariate logistic regression identified that to be a nurse and to have a high neuroticism score were independent predictors for preferring the term 'passive euthanasia' over 'futile care' (OR 4.41, 95% CI 2.21 to 8.82, ppersonality trait (OR 2.45, 95% CI 1.25 to 4.80, ppersonality and religious beliefs influence the attitudes of ICU personnel when making decisions to forego life-sustaining treatments. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  19. Sound generating flames of a gas turbine burner observed by laser-induced fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubschmid, W; Inauen, A.; Bombach, R.; Kreutner, W.; Schenker, S.; Zajadatz, M. [Alstom (Switzerland); Motz, C. [Alstom (Switzerland); Haffner, K. [Alstom (Switzerland); Paschereit, C.O. [Alstom (Switzerland)

    2002-03-01

    We performed 2-D OH LIF measurements to investigate the sound emission of a gas turbine combustor. The measured LIF signal was averaged over pulses at constant phase of the dominant acoustic oscillation. A periodic variation in intensity and position of the signal is observed and it is related to the measured sound intensity. (author)

  20. The influence of the utilization time of brush heads from different types of power toothbrushes on oral hygiene assessed over a 6-month observation period: A randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmickler, Jan; Wurbs, Sabine; Wurbs, Susanne; Kramer, Katharina; Rinke, Sven; Hornecker, Else; Mausberg, Rainer F; Ziebolz, Dirk

    2016-12-01

    This randomized clinical trial investigated the influence of the utilization time of brush heads from different types of power toothbrushes [oscillating rotating (OR) and sonic action (SA)93; on oral hygiene (plaque accumulation and gingival inflammation) over a 6-month observation period. 49 participants were randomly allocated into two groups: use of the same brush head over 6 months (NR: non-replacement) or replacement of brush head every 4 weeks over 6 months (R: replacement). Each group was subdivided into two subgroups according to kind of toothbrush (TB) used (OR and SA). Modified Quigley-Hein plaque index (QHI), papilla bleeding index (PBI), and gingival index (GI) were recorded at baseline and 2, 8, 12, 16, and 24 weeks after baseline. After 24 weeks, participants of both groups (R and NR) received a new brush head. At week 26, final QHI, PBI, and GI were recorded. QHI decreased between baseline and follow-up visits in R groups (P 0.05). There was no significant effect of time on PBI or GI in any of R subgroups (P> 0.05). In NR oscillating/rotating TB: significant increase in PBI and GI was detected 24 weeks after baseline (PBI: P= 0.02, GI: P= 0.03); sonic action TBs showed significant decrease in PBI at every follow-up visit (P< 0.05), except at 24 weeks after baseline (P= 0.73). GI was significantly decreased at 2 weeks after baseline only (P< 0.01). Six-month use of the same brush head reduced effectiveness in removing plaque, and gingival inflammation appeared to increase after a utilization time of over 4 months. Replacing brush heads is advised after 4 months.

  1. Preliminary results from the oribiting solar observatory 8: Velocities in the solar chromosphere observed in the Si II lambda1816 line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chipman, E.G.; Bruner, E.C. Jr.; Shine, R.A.; Lites, B.W.; Rottman, G.J.; Athay, R.G.; White, O.R.

    1976-01-01

    The University of Colorado instrument on OSO-8 was used to measure repeated line profiles of the Si II lambda1816 line over quiet and active areas of approximately 20'' by 5'' during entire orbits of 60 minutes. Velocity oscillations with periods near 300 s are observed in approximately half of the time series, and periods near 180 s are sometimes observed. Periodic intensity variations are also observed at both of these periods. For both periods, the intensity leads the velocity in phase by approximately 30degree

  2. Observing participating observation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Tina Bering

    2011-01-01

    Current methodology concerning participating observation in general leaves the act of observation unobserved. Approaching participating observation from systems theory offers fundamental new insights into the topic. Observation is always participation. There is no way to escape becoming...

  3. Observing participating observation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Tina Bering

    2010-01-01

    Current methodology concerning participating observation in general leaves the act of observation unobserved. Approaching participating observation from systems theory offers fundamental new insights into the topic. Observation is always participation. There is no way to escape becoming...

  4. Hiss emissions during quiet and disturbed periods

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    sound. VLF hiss activity observed at ground stations spread in latitude and ... The intensity and dynamic spectrum of VLF hiss can be explained by ... have shown experimentally that amplification of background noise to the level of observed.

  5. Self-assembly of colloidal bands driven by a periodic external field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunes, André S.; Araújo, Nuno A. M., E-mail: nmaraujo@fc.ul.pt; Telo da Gama, Margarida M. [Departamento de Física, Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade de Lisboa, P-1749-016 Lisboa, Portugal and Centro de Física Teórica e Computacional, Universidade de Lisboa, P-1749-016 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2016-01-21

    We study the formation of bands of colloidal particles driven by periodic external fields. Using Brownian dynamics, we determine the dependence of the band width on the strength of the particle interactions and on the intensity and periodicity of the field. We also investigate the switching (field-on) dynamics and the relaxation times as a function of the system parameters. The observed scaling relations were analyzed using a simple dynamic density-functional theory of fluids.

  6. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 45 David, Age 65 Harold, Age 67 Data & Statistics Facts About Physical Activity Data, Trends and Maps ... relative intensity and absolute intensity. Relative Intensity The level of effort required by a person to do ...

  7. Hematologic Toxicity in Patients Treated With Postprostatectomy Whole-Pelvis Irradiation With Different Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy Techniques Is Not Negligible and Is Prolonged: Preliminary Results of a Longitudinal, Observational Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cozzarini, Cesare, E-mail: cozzarini.cesare@hsr.it [Department of Radiotherapy, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan (Italy); Chiorda, Barbara Noris [Department of Radiotherapy, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan (Italy); Sini, Carla; Fiorino, Claudio [Department of Medical Physics, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan (Italy); Briganti, Alberto; Montorsi, Francesco [Department of Urology, Vita-Salute University, Milan (Italy); Di Muzio, Nadia [Department of Radiotherapy, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan (Italy)

    2016-06-01

    Purpose: To address the thus-far poorly investigated severity and duration of hematologic toxicity from whole-pelvis radiation therapy (WPRT) in a cohort of chemo-naïve patients treated with postprostatectomy radiation therapy including WPRT with different intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) techniques, doses, and fractionations. Methods and Materials: This analysis pertains to 125 patients (70 from a pilot study and 55 from an observational protocol) for whom 1 baseline and at least 3 subsequent blood samples (median 6), obtained at irradiation midpoint and end, and thereafter at 3, 6, and 12 months, were available. Patients were treated with adjuvant (n=73) or salvage intent; static-field IMRT (n=19); volumetric modulated arc therapy (n=60) or helical Tomotherapy (n=46); and conventional (n=39) or moderately hypofractionated (median 2.35 Gy per fraction, n=86) regimens. The median 2-Gy equivalent dose (EQD2) to the prostatic bed was 70.4 Gy with a lymph-nodal planning target volume of 50.2 Gy. Clinical and dosimetric data were collected. Results: Both leukopenia and thrombocytopenia were significant (median nadir count 65% and 67% of baseline, respectively), with leukopenia also persisting (1-year median count 75% of baseline). Lymphopenia was the major contributor to the severity and 1-year persistence of leukopenia; all patients developed acute grade ≥1 lymphopenia (61% and 26% grade 2 and ≥3, respectively), whereas 1-year grade ≥2 lymphopenia was still present in 16%. In addition to an independent predictive role of corresponding baseline values, multivariable analyses highlighted that higher EQD2 doses to lymph nodal planning target volume increased risk of acute neutropenia and hypofractionation for acute thrombocytopenia. Of note, patients of older age were at higher risk for acute grade 2 lymphopenia, and interestingly, increased risk of grade >2 lymphopenia for those who smoked at least one year. No role for different IMRT techniques

  8. Hematologic Toxicity in Patients Treated With Postprostatectomy Whole-Pelvis Irradiation With Different Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy Techniques Is Not Negligible and Is Prolonged: Preliminary Results of a Longitudinal, Observational Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cozzarini, Cesare; Chiorda, Barbara Noris; Sini, Carla; Fiorino, Claudio; Briganti, Alberto; Montorsi, Francesco; Di Muzio, Nadia

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To address the thus-far poorly investigated severity and duration of hematologic toxicity from whole-pelvis radiation therapy (WPRT) in a cohort of chemo-naïve patients treated with postprostatectomy radiation therapy including WPRT with different intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) techniques, doses, and fractionations. Methods and Materials: This analysis pertains to 125 patients (70 from a pilot study and 55 from an observational protocol) for whom 1 baseline and at least 3 subsequent blood samples (median 6), obtained at irradiation midpoint and end, and thereafter at 3, 6, and 12 months, were available. Patients were treated with adjuvant (n=73) or salvage intent; static-field IMRT (n=19); volumetric modulated arc therapy (n=60) or helical Tomotherapy (n=46); and conventional (n=39) or moderately hypofractionated (median 2.35 Gy per fraction, n=86) regimens. The median 2-Gy equivalent dose (EQD2) to the prostatic bed was 70.4 Gy with a lymph-nodal planning target volume of 50.2 Gy. Clinical and dosimetric data were collected. Results: Both leukopenia and thrombocytopenia were significant (median nadir count 65% and 67% of baseline, respectively), with leukopenia also persisting (1-year median count 75% of baseline). Lymphopenia was the major contributor to the severity and 1-year persistence of leukopenia; all patients developed acute grade ≥1 lymphopenia (61% and 26% grade 2 and ≥3, respectively), whereas 1-year grade ≥2 lymphopenia was still present in 16%. In addition to an independent predictive role of corresponding baseline values, multivariable analyses highlighted that higher EQD2 doses to lymph nodal planning target volume increased risk of acute neutropenia and hypofractionation for acute thrombocytopenia. Of note, patients of older age were at higher risk for acute grade 2 lymphopenia, and interestingly, increased risk of grade >2 lymphopenia for those who smoked at least one year. No role for different IMRT techniques

  9. DETECTION OF POLARIZED QUASI-PERIODIC MICROSTRUCTURE EMISSION IN MILLISECOND PULSARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De, Kishalay; Sharma, Prateek [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Gupta, Yashwant, E-mail: kde@caltech.edu [National Centre for Radio Astrophysics, TIFR, Pune University Campus, Post Bag 3, Pune 411007 (India)

    2016-12-10

    Microstructure emission, involving short timescale, often quasi-periodic, intensity fluctuations in subpulse emission, is well known in normal period pulsars. In this Letter, we present the first detections of quasi-periodic microstructure emission from millisecond pulsars (MSPs), from Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope observations of two MSPs at 325 and 610 MHz. Similar to the characteristics of microstructure observed in normal period pulsars, we find that these features are often highly polarized and exhibit quasi-periodic behavior on top of broader subpulse emission, with periods of the order of a few μ s. By measuring their widths and periodicities from single pulse intensity profiles and their autocorrelation functions, we extend the microstructure timescale–rotation period relationship by more than an order of magnitude down to rotation periods ∼5 ms, and find it to be consistent with the relationship derived earlier for normal pulsars. The similarity of behavior is remarkable, given the significantly different physical properties of MSPs and normal period pulsars, and rules out several previous speculations about the possible different characteristics of microstructure in MSP radio emission. We discuss the possible reasons for the non-detection of these features in previous high time resolution MSP studies along with the physical implications of our results, both in terms of a geometric beam sweeping model and temporal modulation model for micropulse production.

  10. Intense pulsed neutron source accelerator status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potts, C.W.; Brumwell, F.R.; Stipp, V.F.

    1983-01-01

    The Intense Pulsed Neutron Source (IPNS) facility has been in operation since November 1, 1981. From that date through August 1, 1983, the accelerator system was scheduled for 7191 hours of operation. During this period, 627 million pulses totaling about 1.1 x 10 21 protons were delivered to the spallation target. The accelerator has exceeded goals set in 1981 by averaging 8.65 μA over this two year period. This average beam current, while modest by the standards of proposed machines, makes the IPNS synchrotron (Rapid Cycling Synchrotron [RCS]) the highest intensity proton synchrotron in the world today. Detailed data on accelerator operation are presented. Weekly average currents of 12 μA have been achieved along with peaks of 13.9 μA. A great deal has been learned about the required operating constraints during high beam current operation. It should be possible to increase the average beam current during this next year to 12 μA while observing these restraints. Improvement plans have been formulated to increase the beam current to 16 μA over the next three years

  11. Evolution of periodicity in periodical cicadas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Hiromu; Kakishima, Satoshi; Uehara, Takashi; Morita, Satoru; Koyama, Takuya; Sota, Teiji; Cooley, John R; Yoshimura, Jin

    2015-09-14

    Periodical cicadas (Magicicada spp.) in the USA are famous for their unique prime-numbered life cycles of 13 and 17 years and their nearly perfectly synchronized mass emergences. Because almost all known species of cicada are non-periodical, periodicity is assumed to be a derived state. A leading hypothesis for the evolution of periodicity in Magicicada implicates the decline in average temperature during glacial periods. During the evolution of periodicity, the determinant of maturation in ancestral cicadas is hypothesized to have switched from size dependence to time (period) dependence. The selection for the prime-numbered cycles should have taken place only after the fixation of periodicity. Here, we build an individual-based model of cicadas under conditions of climatic cooling to explore the fixation of periodicity. In our model, under cold environments, extremely long juvenile stages lead to extremely low adult densities, limiting mating opportunities and favouring the evolution of synchronized emergence. Our results indicate that these changes, which were triggered by glacial cooling, could have led to the fixation of periodicity in the non-periodical ancestors.

  12. Transient phenomena in cosmic ray intensity during extreme events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Rekha; Mishra, Rajesh K.

    2008-04-01

    In the present work an analysis has been made of the extreme events occurring during July 2005. Specifically, a rather intense Forbush decrease was observed at different neutron monitors all over the world during 16 July 2005. An effort has been made to study the effect of this unusual event on cosmic ray intensity as well as various solar and interplanetary plasma parameters. It is noteworthy that during 11 to 18 July 2005 the solar activity ranged from low to very active. Especially low levels occurred on 11, 15, and 17 July whereas high levels took place on 14 and 16 July 2005. The Sun is observed to be active during 11 to 18 July 2005, the interplanetary magnetic field intensity lies within 15 nT, and solar wind velocity was limited to ˜500 kms-1. The geomagnetic activity during this period remains very quiet, the Kp index did not exceed 5, the disturbance storm time Dst index remains ˜-70 nT and no sudden storm commencement has been detected during this period. It is noted that for the majority of the hours, the north/south component of the interplanetary magnetic field, Bz, remains negative, and the cosmic ray intensity increases and shows good/high correlation with Bz, as the polarity of Bz tends to shift from negative to positive values, the intensity decreases and shows good/high anti-correlation with Bz. The cosmic ray intensity tends to decrease with increase of interplanetary magnetic field strength (B) and shows anti-correlation for the majority of the days.

  13. Rationalization of Comet Halley's periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belton, Michael J. S.

    1990-01-01

    The sense of long axis orientation of Comet Halley during the Vega 1 encounter must be reversed from that deduced by Sagdeev et al. (1986) in order to harmonize the comet nucleus' Vega/Giotto-observed orientations with periodicities extracted from time-series brightness data. It is also demonstrated that Vega/Giotto observations can be satisfied by either a 2.2- or 3.7-day long-axis free precession period. A novel Fourier algorithm is used to reanalyze five independent data sets; strong evidence is adduced for periods harmonically related to a 7.4-day period. The preferred candidate models for Halley's nuclear rotation are characterized by a long-axis precession period of 3.7 days.

  14. Sulphur mountain: Cosmic ray intensity records

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkatesan, D.; Mathews, T.

    1985-01-01

    This book deals with the comic ray intensity registrations at the Sulphur Mountain Cosmic Ray Laboratory. The time series of intensity form a valuable data-set, for studying cosmic ray intensity variations and their dependence on solar activity. The IGY neutron monitor started operating from July 1, 1957 and continued through 1963. Daily mean values are tabulated for the period and these are also represented in plots. This monitor was set up by the National Research Council of Canada

  15. Chaos to periodicity and periodicity to chaos by periodic perturbations in the Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Qianshu; Zhu Rui

    2004-01-01

    A three-variable model of the Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction system subject to external sinusoidal perturbations is investigated by means of frequency spectrum analysis. In the period-1 window of the model, the transitions from periodicity to chaos are observed; in the chaotic window, the transitions from chaos to periodicity are found. The former might be understood by the circle map of two coupled oscillators, and the latter is partly explained by the resonance between the main frequency of the chaos and the frequency of the external periodic perturbations

  16. Deciphering Periodic Methanol Masers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecklum, Bringfried; Caratti o Garatti, Alessio; Henning, Thomas; Hodapp, Klaus; Hopp, Ulrich; Kraus, Alex; Linz, Hendrik; Sanna, Alberto; Sobolev, Andrej; Wolf, Verena

    2018-05-01

    Impressive progress has been made in recent years on massive star formation, yet the involved high optical depths even at submm/mm wavelengths make it difficult to reveal its details. Recently, accretion bursts of massive YSOs have been identified to cause flares of Class II methanol masers (methanol masers for short) due to enhanced mid-IR pumping. This opens a new window to protostellar accretion variability, and implies that periodic methanol masers hint at cyclic accretion. Pinning down the cause of the periodicity requires joint IR and radio monitoring. We derived the first IR light curve of a periodic maser host from NEOWISE data. The source, G107.298+5.639, is an intermediate-mass YSO hosting methanol and water masers which flare every 34.5 days. Our recent joint K-band and radio observations yielded first but marginal evidence for a phase lag between the rise of IR and maser emission, respectively, and revealed that both NEOWISE and K-band light curves are strongly affected by the li