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Sample records for intensive lipid lowering

  1. Intensive lipid lowering with simvastatin and ezetimibe in aortic stenosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossebo, A.B.; Pedersen, T.R.; Boman, K.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hyperlipidemia has been suggested as a risk factor for stenosis of the aortic valve, but lipid-lowering studies have had conflicting results. METHODS: We conducted a randomized, double-blind trial involving 1873 patients with mild-to-moderate, asymptomatic aortic stenosis. The patients...

  2. Intensive lipid-lowering therapy with rosuvastatin stabilizes lipid-rich coronary plaques. Evaluation using dual-source computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soeda, Tsunenari; Uemura, Shiro; Okayama, Satoshi

    2011-01-01

    Clinical studies using invasive modalities have reported that statin therapy stabilizes coronary plaque vulnerability. The serial changes of lipid-rich coronary plaques (LRCPs) during rosuvastatin treatment were evaluated non-invasively in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) using dual-source computed tomography (DSCT). A total of 11 consecutive ACS patients, and 13 LRCPs were serially evaluated on DSCT before and 24 weeks after rosuvastatin treatment. Compared with the baseline, there was no change in post-treatment minimal lumen diameter, lumen volume, or longitudinal length of LRCPs. By contrast, the ratio of lipid core volume to plaque volume significantly decreased from 48.0±9.9% to 43.7±10.6% (P=0.04), and plaque volume decreased from 144.5±85.5 mm 3 to 119.8±78.0 mm 3 (P=0.07). The remodeling index of target LRCPs significantly decreased from 1.16±0.10 to 1.06±0.12 (P=0.02). Percent reduction of plaque volume was significantly greater in patients with a lower ratio of low-density lipoprotein to high-density lipoprotein (L/H ratio ≤1.5) at follow-up than patients with higher L/H ratio (>1.5; median -31.7% vs. -6.8%, P=0.03). Rosuvastatin therapy reduced the volume of lipid cores and LRCPs and increased the CT attenuation value of LRCPs. DSCT is an effective modality for the non-invasive evaluation of LRCPs in patients with ACS. (author)

  3. Intensive lipid lowering with atorvastatin in patients with stable coronary disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LaRosa, John C.; Grundy, Scott M.; Waters, David D.; Shear, Charles; Barter, Philip; Fruchart, Jean-Charles; Gotto, Antonio M.; Greten, Heiner; Kastelein, John J. P.; Shepherd, James; Wenger, Nanette K.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous trials have demonstrated that lowering low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels below currently recommended levels is beneficial in patients with acute coronary syndromes. We prospectively assessed the efficacy and safety of lowering LDL cholesterol levels below 100 mg

  4. Neoatherosclerosis causing occlusive in-stent restenosis: Impact of intracoronary imaging in the intensity of lipid-lowering therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martí, David, E-mail: docalcala@hotmail.com [Department of Cardiology, Hospital Central de la Defensa, Madrid (Spain); López, Edurne; Álvarez, Salvador; Palazuelos, Jorge; Rada, Ignacio [Department of Cardiology, Hospital Central de la Defensa, Madrid (Spain); Alfonso, Fernando [Department of Cardiology, Hospital Universitario de La Princesa, Madrid (Spain)

    2016-12-15

    The unique physical properties of optical coherence tomography (OCT) make it a useful technique in the study of restenosis mechanisms. In fact, OCT is able to differentiate between neointimal proliferation and neoatherosclerosis within the stent. We report a rare case of occlusive neoatherosclerosis presenting beyond one year after a successful drug-eluting stent implantation. The impact of OCT findings in the clinical decision making process is emphasized. - Highlights: • Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has the unique ability to detect lipid accumulation within the stent margins (i.e. neoatherosclerosis). • Lipid-rich tissues produce light absorption and therefore they typically attenuate backward signals. • Occlusive neoatherosclerosis may appear even in optimally implanted drug eluting stents. • OCT identification of restenosis mechanisms may have implications not only in the interventional strategy, but also in the long-term medical treatment.

  5. Neoatherosclerosis causing occlusive in-stent restenosis: Impact of intracoronary imaging in the intensity of lipid-lowering therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martí, David; López, Edurne; Álvarez, Salvador; Palazuelos, Jorge; Rada, Ignacio; Alfonso, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    The unique physical properties of optical coherence tomography (OCT) make it a useful technique in the study of restenosis mechanisms. In fact, OCT is able to differentiate between neointimal proliferation and neoatherosclerosis within the stent. We report a rare case of occlusive neoatherosclerosis presenting beyond one year after a successful drug-eluting stent implantation. The impact of OCT findings in the clinical decision making process is emphasized. - Highlights: • Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has the unique ability to detect lipid accumulation within the stent margins (i.e. neoatherosclerosis). • Lipid-rich tissues produce light absorption and therefore they typically attenuate backward signals. • Occlusive neoatherosclerosis may appear even in optimally implanted drug eluting stents. • OCT identification of restenosis mechanisms may have implications not only in the interventional strategy, but also in the long-term medical treatment.

  6. Prevention of Decline in Cognition after Stroke Trial (PODCAST): a study protocol for a factorial randomised controlled trial of intensive versus guideline lowering of blood pressure and lipids

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Stroke is a common cause of cognitive impairment and dementia. However, effective strategies for reducing the risk of post-stroke dementia remain undefined. Potential strategies include intensive lowering of blood pressure and/or lipids. Methods/Design Design: multi-centre prospective randomised open-label blinded-endpoint controlled partial-factorial phase IV trial in secondary and primary care. Participants: 100 participants from 30 UK Stroke Research Network sites who are post- ischemic stroke or intracerebral haemorrhage by three to seven months. Interventions - all patients (1:1): intensive versus guideline blood pressure lowering (target systolic cognitive decline and dementia in people with ischemic stroke; and does ‘intensive’ blood pressure lowering therapy reduce cognitive decline and dementia in patients with hemorrhagic stroke. Primary outcome: Addenbrooke’s Cognitive Examination-Revised. Secondary outcomes: feasibility of recruitment and retention of participants, tolerability and safety of the interventions, achieving and maintaining the blood pressure and lipid targets, maintaining differences in systolic blood pressure (> 10 mmHg) and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (> 1 mmol/l) between the treatment groups, and performing clinic and telephone follow-up of cognition measures. Randomisation: using stratification, minimization and simple randomization. Blinding: participants receive open-label management. Cognition is assessed both unblinded (in clinic) and blinded (by telephone) to treatment. Adjudication of events (dementia, vascular, serious adverse events) is blinded to management. Discussion The PODCAST trial is ongoing with 78 patients recruited to date from 22 sites. Outcomes of cognitive impairment and dementia are accruing. Trial registration ISRCTN85562386 PMID:24266960

  7. Intensive versus Guideline Blood Pressure and Lipid Lowering in Patients with Previous Stroke: Main Results from the Pilot 'Prevention of Decline in Cognition after Stroke Trial' (PODCAST Randomised Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip M Bath

    Full Text Available Stroke is associated with the development of cognitive impairment and dementia. We assessed the effect of intensive blood pressure (BP and/or lipid lowering on cognitive outcomes in patients with recent stroke in a pilot trial.In a multicentre, partial-factorial trial, patients with recent stroke, absence of dementia, and systolic BP (SBP 125-170 mmHg were assigned randomly to at least 6 months of intensive (target SBP <125 mmHg or guideline (target SBP <140 mmHg BP lowering. The subset of patients with ischaemic stroke and total cholesterol 3.0-8.0 mmol/l were also assigned randomly to intensive (target LDL-cholesterol <1.3 mmol/l or guideline (target LDL-c <3.0 mmol/l lipid lowering. The primary outcome was the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised (ACE-R.We enrolled 83 patients, mean age 74.0 (6.8 years, and median 4.5 months after stroke. The median follow-up was 24 months (range 1-48. Mean BP was significantly reduced with intensive compared to guideline treatment (difference -10·6/-5·5 mmHg; p<0·01, as was total/LDL-cholesterol with intensive lipid lowering compared to guideline (difference -0·54/-0·44 mmol/l; p<0·01. The ACE-R score during treatment did not differ for either treatment comparison; mean difference for BP lowering -3.6 (95% CI -9.7 to 2.4, and lipid lowering 4.4 (95% CI -2.1 to 10.9. However, intensive lipid lowering therapy was significantly associated with improved scores for ACE-R at 6 months, trail making A, modified Rankin Scale and Euro-Qol Visual Analogue Scale. There was no difference in rates of dementia or serious adverse events for either comparison.In patients with recent stroke and normal cognition, intensive BP and lipid lowering were feasible and safe, but did not alter cognition over two years. The association between intensive lipid lowering and improved scores for some secondary outcomes suggests further trials are warranted.ISRCTN ISRCTN85562386.

  8. Intensive versus Guideline Blood Pressure and Lipid Lowering in Patients with Previous Stroke: Main Results from the Pilot ‘Prevention of Decline in Cognition after Stroke Trial’ (PODCAST) Randomised Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scutt, Polly; Blackburn, Daniel J.; Ankolekar, Sandeep; Krishnan, Kailash; Ballard, Clive; Burns, Alistair; Mant, Jonathan; Passmore, Peter; Pocock, Stuart; Reckless, John; Sprigg, Nikola; Stewart, Rob; Wardlaw, Joanna M.; Ford, Gary A.

    2017-01-01

    Background Stroke is associated with the development of cognitive impairment and dementia. We assessed the effect of intensive blood pressure (BP) and/or lipid lowering on cognitive outcomes in patients with recent stroke in a pilot trial. Methods In a multicentre, partial-factorial trial, patients with recent stroke, absence of dementia, and systolic BP (SBP) 125–170 mmHg were assigned randomly to at least 6 months of intensive (target SBP Addenbrooke’s Cognitive Examination-Revised (ACE-R). Results We enrolled 83 patients, mean age 74.0 (6.8) years, and median 4.5 months after stroke. The median follow-up was 24 months (range 1–48). Mean BP was significantly reduced with intensive compared to guideline treatment (difference –10·6/–5·5 mmHg; pcognition, intensive BP and lipid lowering were feasible and safe, but did not alter cognition over two years. The association between intensive lipid lowering and improved scores for some secondary outcomes suggests further trials are warranted. Trial Registration ISRCTN ISRCTN85562386 PMID:28095412

  9. Effect of a dietary portfolio of cholesterol-lowering foods given at 2 levels of intensity of dietary advice on serum lipids in hyperlipidemia: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, David J A; Jones, Peter J H; Lamarche, Benoit; Kendall, Cyril W C; Faulkner, Dorothea; Cermakova, Luba; Gigleux, Iris; Ramprasath, Vanu; de Souza, Russell; Ireland, Chris; Patel, Darshna; Srichaikul, Korbua; Abdulnour, Shahad; Bashyam, Balachandran; Collier, Cheryl; Hoshizaki, Sandy; Josse, Robert G; Leiter, Lawrence A; Connelly, Philip W; Frohlich, Jiri

    2011-08-24

    Combining foods with recognized cholesterol-lowering properties (dietary portfolio) has proven highly effective in lowering serum cholesterol under metabolically controlled conditions. To assess the effect of a dietary portfolio administered at 2 levels of intensity on percentage change in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) among participants following self-selected diets. A parallel-design study of 351 participants with hyperlipidemia from 4 participating academic centers across Canada (Quebec City, Toronto, Winnipeg, and Vancouver) randomized between June 25, 2007, and February 19, 2009, to 1 of 3 treatments lasting 6 months. Participants received dietary advice for 6 months on either a low-saturated fat therapeutic diet (control) or a dietary portfolio, for which counseling was delivered at different frequencies, that emphasized dietary incorporation of plant sterols, soy protein, viscous fibers, and nuts. Routine dietary portfolio involved 2 clinic visits over 6 months and intensive dietary portfolio involved 7 clinic visits over 6 months. Percentage change in serum LDL-C. In the modified intention-to-treat analysis of 345 participants, the overall attrition rate was not significantly different between treatments (18% for intensive dietary portfolio, 23% for routine dietary portfolio, and 26% for control; Fisher exact test, P = .33). The LDL-C reductions from an overall mean of 171 mg/dL (95% confidence interval [CI], 168-174 mg/dL) were -13.8% (95% CI, -17.2% to -10.3%; P portfolio; -13.1% (95% CI, -16.7% to -9.5%; P portfolio; and -3.0% (95% CI, -6.1% to 0.1%; P = .06) or -8 mg/dL (95% CI, -13 to -3 mg/dL; P = .002) for the control diet. Percentage LDL-C reductions for each dietary portfolio were significantly more than the control diet (P portfolio interventions did not differ significantly (P = .66). Among participants randomized to one of the dietary portfolio interventions, percentage reduction in LDL-C on the dietary portfolio was associated

  10. Lipid-lowering treatment to the end?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Line Kirkeby; Christensen, Kaare; Kragstrup, Jakob

    2010-01-01

    People aged 80 or older are the fastest growing population in high-income countries. One of the most common causes of death among the elderly is the cardiovascular disease (CVD). Lipid-lowering treatment is common, e.g. one-third of 75-84-year-old Swedes are treated with statins. The assumption...

  11. Gemfibrozil, stretching arms beyond lipid lowering

    OpenAIRE

    Roy, Avik; Pahan, Kalipada

    2009-01-01

    Gemfibrozil is long known for its ability to reduce the level of triglycerides in the blood circulation and to decrease the risk of hyperlipidemia. However, a number of recent studies reveal that apart from its lipid-lowering effects, gemfibrozil can also regulate many other signaling pathways responsible for inflammation, switching of T-helper cells, cell-to-cell contact, migration, and oxidative stress. In this review, we have made an honest attempt to analyze various biological activities ...

  12. Gemfibrozil, stretching arms beyond lipid lowering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Avik; Pahan, Kalipada

    2009-01-01

    Gemfibrozil is long known for its ability to reduce the level of triglycerides in the blood circulation and to decrease the risk of hyperlipidemia. However, a number of recent studies reveal that apart from its lipid-lowering effects, gemfibrozil can also regulate many other signaling pathways responsible for inflammation, switching of T-helper cells, cell-to-cell contact, migration, and oxidative stress. In this review, we have made an honest attempt to analyze various biological activities of gemfibrozil and associated mechanisms that may help to consider this drug for different human disorders as primary or adjunct therapy. PMID:19694602

  13. Lipid-lowering therapy: who can benefit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewis S

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Sandra J LewisNorthwest Cardiovascular Institute, Portland, OR, USAAbstract: Cardiovascular disease (CVD is the leading cause of death in the US. Despite the decline in CVD-associated mortality rates in recent years, coronary heart disease (CHD still causes one in every six deaths in this country. Because most CHD risk factors are modifiable (eg, smoking, hypertension, obesity, onset of type 2 diabetes, and dyslipidemia, cardiovascular risk can be reduced by timely and appropriate interventions, such as smoking cessation, diet and lifestyle changes, and lipid-modifying therapy. Dyslipidemia, manifested by elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, is central to the development and progression of atherosclerosis, which can be silent for decades before triggering a first major cardiovascular event. Consequently, dyslipidemia has become a primary target of intervention in strategies for the prevention of cardiovascular events. The guidelines of the Adult Treatment Panel (ATP III, updated in 2004, recommend therapeutic lifestyle changes and the use of lipid-lowering medications, such as statins, to achieve specific LDL-C goals based on a person’s global cardiovascular risk. For high-risk individuals, such as patients with CHD and diabetic patients without CHD, an LDL-C target of < 100 mg/dL is recommended, and statin therapy should be considered to help patients achieve this goal. If correctly dosed in appropriate patients, currently approved statins are generally safe and provide significant cardiovascular benefits in diverse populations, including women, the elderly, and patients with diabetes. A recent primary prevention trial also showed that statins benefit individuals traditionally not considered at high risk of CHD, such as those with no hyperlipidemia but elevated C-reactive protein. Additional evidence suggests that statins may halt or slow atherosclerotic disease progression. Recent evidence confirms the pivotal role of

  14. Exercise Intensity Modulation of Hepatic Lipid Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio S. Lira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lipid metabolism in the liver is complex and involves the synthesis and secretion of very low density lipoproteins (VLDL, ketone bodies, and high rates of fatty acid oxidation, synthesis, and esterification. Exercise training induces several changes in lipid metabolism in the liver and affects VLDL secretion and fatty acid oxidation. These alterations are even more conspicuous in disease, as in obesity, and cancer cachexia. Our understanding of the mechanisms leading to metabolic adaptations in the liver as induced by exercise training has advanced considerably in the recent years, but much remains to be addressed. More recently, the adoption of high intensity exercise training has been put forward as a means of modulating hepatic metabolism. The purpose of the present paper is to summarise and discuss the merit of such new knowledge.

  15. Lipid-Lowering Pharmaceutical Clofibrate Inhibits Human Sweet Taste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochem, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    T1R2-T1R3 is a heteromeric receptor that binds sugars, high potency sweeteners, and sweet taste blockers. In rodents, T1R2-T1R3 is largely responsible for transducing sweet taste perception. T1R2-T1R3 is also expressed in non-taste tissues, and a growing body of evidence suggests that it helps regulate glucose and lipid metabolism. It was previously shown that clofibric acid, a blood lipid-lowering drug, binds T1R2-T1R3 and inhibits its activity in vitro. The purpose of this study was to determine whether clofibric acid inhibits sweetness perception in humans and is, therefore, a T1R2-T1R3 antagonist in vivo. Fourteen participants rated the sweetness intensity of 4 sweeteners (sucrose, sucralose, Na cyclamate, acesulfame K) across a broad range of concentrations. Each sweetener was prepared in solution neat and in mixture with either clofibric acid or lactisole. Clofibric acid inhibited sweetness of every sweetener. Consistent with competitive binding, inhibition by clofibric acid was diminished with increasing sweetener concentration. This study provides in vivo evidence that the lipid-lowering drug clofibric acid inhibits sweetness perception and is, therefore, a T1R carbohydrate receptor inhibitor. Our results are consistent with previous in vitro findings. Given that T1R2-T1R3 may in part regulate glucose and lipid metabolism, future studies should investigate the metabolic effects of T1R inhibition. PMID:27742692

  16. Lipid-lowering therapy: who can benefit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Sandra J

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the US. Despite the decline in CVD-associated mortality rates in recent years, coronary heart disease (CHD) still causes one in every six deaths in this country. Because most CHD risk factors are modifiable (eg, smoking, hypertension, obesity, onset of type 2 diabetes, and dyslipidemia), cardiovascular risk can be reduced by timely and appropriate interventions, such as smoking cessation, diet and lifestyle changes, and lipid-modifying therapy. Dyslipidemia, manifested by elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), is central to the development and progression of atherosclerosis, which can be silent for decades before triggering a first major cardiovascular event. Consequently, dyslipidemia has become a primary target of intervention in strategies for the prevention of cardiovascular events. The guidelines of the Adult Treatment Panel (ATP) III, updated in 2004, recommend therapeutic lifestyle changes and the use of lipid-lowering medications, such as statins, to achieve specific LDL-C goals based on a person's global cardiovascular risk. For high-risk individuals, such as patients with CHD and diabetic patients without CHD, an LDL-C target of < 100 mg/dL is recommended, and statin therapy should be considered to help patients achieve this goal. If correctly dosed in appropriate patients, currently approved statins are generally safe and provide significant cardiovascular benefits in diverse populations, including women, the elderly, and patients with diabetes. A recent primary prevention trial also showed that statins benefit individuals traditionally not considered at high risk of CHD, such as those with no hyperlipidemia but elevated C-reactive protein. Additional evidence suggests that statins may halt or slow atherosclerotic disease progression. Recent evidence confirms the pivotal role of statins in primary and secondary prevention.

  17. Novel approaches to lipid-lowering therapy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lines, ezetimibe is recommended as an add-on therapy for patients on ... 2 Carbohydrate and Lipid Metabolism Research Unit and Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism ... acting at the level of protein translation via RNA interference in the.

  18. Dyslipidemia: management using optimal lipid-lowering therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Matthew K

    2012-10-01

    To evaluate current approaches and explore emerging research related to dyslipidemia management. MEDLINE (2004-April 2012) was searched for randomized controlled trials using the terms dyslipidemia and lipid-lowering therapy or statin (>1000 hits). Separate searches (MEDLINE, Google) identified meta-analyses (2010-2011), disease prevalence statistics, and current consensus guidelines (2004-July 2011). Additional references were identified from the publications reviewed. English-language articles on large multicenter trials were evaluated. National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III guidelines for the reduction of cardiovascular risk recommend the attainment of specific low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) target values, based on an individual's 10-year risk of coronary heart disease or global risk. For most patients unable to achieve recommended lipid level goals with therapeutic lifestyle changes, statins are the first option for treatment. Results of large, well-controlled clinical trials have demonstrated that statins are effective in primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease in diverse populations, including patients with diabetes and the elderly, and that intensive statin therapy provides more effective lipid goal attainment and significantly greater risk reduction in patients with coronary artery disease. Statin therapy is generally well tolerated but may increase the risk of myopathy. Statin use has been associated with increases in hepatic transaminases and an increased risk of diabetes, although the absolute risk of diabetes is low compared with the risk reduction benefit. Combination therapy including a statin may be appropriate for certain populations, but the risk reduction benefits of combination therapy remain unclear. Ezetimibe is an important treatment option for patients with hypercholesterolemia who do not tolerate intensive statin therapy

  19. Xylopia Aethiopica lowers Plasma Lipid Precursors of Reproductive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Xylopia Aethiopica lowers Plasma Lipid Precursors of Reproductive Hormones in Wister Rats. PC Onyebuagu, CP Aloamaka, JC Igweh. Abstract. This study investigated the effects of dietary Xylopia aethiopica on reproductive hormones and plasma lipids in rats. 10 male and 10 female Wistar rats weighing 200-220g and ...

  20. Lipid-lowering effects of statins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos-Esquivel, Allan; Leon-Cespedes, Carlos

    2007-01-01

    Statins have become one of the most prescribed drugs in the world. These medications are used in the treatment of dyslipidemia and in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Recently, new evidence has emerged about their mechanisms of action and their pleiotropic properties, well beyond lowering cholesterol levels. This pharmacodynamic action has called the attention of many investigators who suggest their use in several diseases centered on inflammation, immune disorders and cell proliferation. Although there is wide evidence that recognizes their efficacy in several disease models, there is still a lack of studies to approve their use in clinical practice. The pharmacodynamic properties focusing on the pathophysiology that suggests their clinical use in the treatment of several diseases have been reviewed. (author) [es

  1. Effect of exercise intensity on lipid profile in sedentary obese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, Umamaheswari; Vasudevan, Kavita; Balasubramaniam, Kavita; Yerrabelli, Dhanalakshmi; Shanmugavel, Karthik; John, Nitin Ashok

    2014-07-01

    Exercise is a lifestyle change that has been recommended for lowering atherogenic index in adults. The intensity and duration of exercise to bring about a change in the lipid parameters are yet to be determined. Previous studies examining the effects of exercise intensity on lipid and lipoprotein levels have reported conflicting findings. Thus we aimed at determining the changes in lipid profile in sedentary obese adults influenced by different intensity of exercise. Study included 51 obese adults with sedentary lifestyle. Participants performed exercise of moderate intensity (n=22) and high intermittent intensity (n=29) for a duration of 40min/day for 5 days/week and 20 min/day for 3 days/week respectively on bicycle ergometer for a period of 15 weeks. Pretesting and post testing included measurement of height, weight, blood pressure and lipid profile. RESULTS were analysed using the Paired and Unpaired samples t-test. Postexercise revealed significant reduction in the LDL-C and diastolic blood pressure (plife. High intermittent intensity can be considered for individuals who have time constraints and lead a sedentary life style and moderate intensity exercise advised for individuals who are willing to create time for their health benefits. A programmed protocol of exercise will help in reduction of lipid parameters.

  2. Lipid-Lowering Pharmaceutical Clofibrate Inhibits Human Sweet Taste

    OpenAIRE

    Kochem, Matthew; Breslin, Paul A.S.

    2016-01-01

    T1R2-T1R3 is a heteromeric receptor that binds sugars, high potency sweeteners, and sweet taste blockers. In rodents, T1R2-T1R3 is largely responsible for transducing sweet taste perception. T1R2-T1R3 is also expressed in non-taste tissues, and a growing body of evidence suggests that it helps regulate glucose and lipid metabolism. It was previously shown that clofibric acid, a blood lipid-lowering drug, binds T1R2-T1R3 and inhibits its activity in vitro. The purpose of this study was to dete...

  3. Lipid-lowering nutraceuticals in clinical practice: position paper from an International Lipid Expert Panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicero, Arrigo F G; Colletti, Alessandro; Bajraktari, Gani; Descamps, Olivier; Djuric, Dragan M; Ezhov, Marat; Fras, Zlatko; Katsiki, Niki; Langlois, Michel; Latkovskis, Gustavs; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B; Paragh, Gyorgy; Mikhailidis, Dimitri P; Mitchenko, Olena; Paulweber, Bernhard; Pella, Daniel; Pitsavos, Christos; Reiner, Željko; Ray, Kausik K; Rizzo, Manfredi; Sahebkar, Amirhossein; Serban, Maria-Corina; Sperling, Laurence S; Toth, Peter P; Vinereanu, Dragos; Vrablík, Michal; Wong, Nathan D; Banach, Maciej

    2017-09-01

    In recent years, there has been growing interest in the possible use of nutraceuticals to improve and optimize dyslipidemia control and therapy. Based on the data from available studies, nutraceuticals might help patients obtain theraputic lipid goals and reduce cardiovascular residual risk. Some nutraceuticals have essential lipid-lowering properties confirmed in studies; some might also have possible positive effects on nonlipid cardiovascular risk factors and have been shown to improve early markers of vascular health such as endothelial function and pulse wave velocity. However, the clinical evidence supporting the use of a single lipid-lowering nutraceutical or a combination of them is largely variable and, for many of the nutraceuticals, the evidence is very limited and, therefore, often debatable. The purpose of this position paper is to provide consensus-based recommendations for the optimal use of lipid-lowering nutraceuticals to manage dyslipidemia in patients who are still not on statin therapy, patients who are on statin or combination therapy but have not achieved lipid goals, and patients with statin intolerance. This statement is intended for physicians and other healthcare professionals engaged in the diagnosis and management of patients with lipid disorders, especially in the primary care setting. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Lipid-lowering medication and risk of cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jørgen H.; Johansen, Christoffer; Sørensen, Henrik Toft

    1999-01-01

    of up to 4 years, 41 cancers were observed among users of lipid-lowering drugs, with 42.9 expected, to yield an age- and sex-standardized incidence ratio of 1.0 (95% confidence interval, 0.7–1.3). Although limited by small numbers and short follow-up period, examination by site of cancer and type......Low or declining levels of serum cholesterol have been associated with increased mortality from cancer. We conducted a population-based cohort study of 1882 patients from one Danish county who received lipid-lowering drugs between January 1, 1991 and December 31, 1994. During the follow-up period...... of drug provided no evidence of an association. Further research is needed, however, with longer follow-up to assess more fully any potential cancer risk with these medications....

  5. Secular trends in lipid-lowering treatment and lipid levels after a first acute myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Björck

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Lena Björck1, Catharina Welin2, Annika Rosengren11Department of medicine, Sahlgrenska University Hospital/Östra, Göteborg, Sweden; 2Institute of Health and Care Sciences, the Sahlgrenska Academy at Göteborg University, Göteborg, SwedenBackground: The beneficial effects of statins were unequivocally demonstrated in the Scandinavian Simvastatin Survival Study (4S in 1994, leading to an increase in the use of lipid-lowering drugs. However, to what extent this translates into serum cholesterol levels in a real-life setting has not been systematically investigated.Objective: To estimate secular trends from 1994 to 2002 in blood lipid levels among unselected younger patients after a first acute myocardial infarction (AMI.Method: Descriptive single centre study using consecutive data collection in 781 patients (aged <65 years hospitalized with a first AMI during the period 1994–2002.Results: From 1994–2002, the use of lipid-lowering drugs increased from 10% to 94% for men and from 23% to 90% for women. In 1994, the mean serum cholesterol levels were 6.53 mmol/l in men and 6.32 mmol/l in women, decreasing to 4.31 mmol/l and 5.13 mmol/l in men and women, respectively, in 2002. Still, only 56% of the men and 35% of the women had total serum cholesterol levels <4.5 mmol/l in 2002.Conclusion: Despite a marked increase in lipid-lowering drug treatment in which there was an increase from about 10% in 1994 to more than 90% in 2002, current target levels of <4.5 mmol/l for serum cholesterol were not achieved in a significant proportion of post-AMI patients.Keywords: lipid levels, lipid-lowering medication, myocardial infarction, risk factors

  6. A Case of Rhabdomyolysis Induced by Lipid Lowering Agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koh, Eun Mi; Lee, Tae Won; Ihn, Chun Gyoo; Kim, Kwang Won; Kim, Myung Jae; Choi, Young Kil [Kyunghee University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1990-03-15

    Bezafibrate is a lipid-lowering agent and one of the fabric acid derivatives. It is relatively safe and well tolerated and adverse reactions to bezafibrate have largely been restricted to gastrointestinal disturbances. But a few cases of rhabdomyolysis after bezafibrate administration have been reported and recently we experienced bezafibrate-induced rhabdomyolysis in patients with chronic renal failure. So we report this case with the bone scan finding and the literature review. We believe that this is the first case report of bezafibrate-induced rhabdomyolysis in Korea.

  7. A Case of Rhabdomyolysis Induced by Lipid Lowering Agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koh, Eun Mi; Lee, Tae Won; Ihn, Chun Gyoo; Kim, Kwang Won; Kim, Myung Jae; Choi, Young Kil

    1990-01-01

    Bezafibrate is a lipid-lowering agent and one of the fabric acid derivatives. It is relatively safe and well tolerated and adverse reactions to bezafibrate have largely been restricted to gastrointestinal disturbances. But a few cases of rhabdomyolysis after bezafibrate administration have been reported and recently we experienced bezafibrate-induced rhabdomyolysis in patients with chronic renal failure. So we report this case with the bone scan finding and the literature review. We believe that this is the first case report of bezafibrate-induced rhabdomyolysis in Korea.

  8. Potential synergy between lipid-lowering and blood-pressure-lowering in the Anglo-Scandinavian Cardiac Outcomes Trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sever, Peter; Dahlöf, Björn; Poulter, Neil

    2006-01-01

    A prespecified objective of the Anglo-Scandinavian Cardiac Outcomes Trial (ASCOT) was to assess whether any synergistic effects were apparent between the lipid-lowering and blood-pressure-lowering regimens in preventing cardiovascular events....

  9. Principles of health economic evaluations of lipid-lowering strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ara, Roberta; Basarir, Hasan; Ward, Sue Elizabeth

    2012-08-01

    Policy decision-making in cardiovascular disease is increasingly informed by the results generated from decision-analytic models (DAMs). The methodological approaches and assumptions used in these DAMs impact on the results generated and can influence a policy decision based on a cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) threshold. Decision makers need to be provided with a clear understanding of the key sources of evidence and how they are used in the DAM to make an informed judgement on the quality and appropriateness of the results generated. Our review identified 12 studies exploring the cost-effectiveness of pharmaceutical lipid-lowering interventions published since January 2010. All studies used Markov models with annual cycles to represent the long-term clinical pathway. Important differences in the model structures and evidence base used within the DAMs were identified. Whereas the reporting standards were reasonably good, there were many instances when reporting of methods could be improved, particularly relating to baseline risk levels, long-term benefit of treatment and health state utility values. There is a scope for improvement in the reporting of evidence and modelling approaches used within DAMs to provide decision makers with a clearer understanding of the quality and validity of the results generated. This would be assisted by fuller publication of models, perhaps through detailed web appendices.

  10. Steroidal saponin from Chlorophytum nimonii (Grah with lipid-lowering and antioxidant activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijai Lakshmi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Since drugs used these days to lower the lipids are all synthetic drugs, they have some or the other side effects, therefore in search of cheaper lipid-lowering drugs with no side effects, we have conducted a study on Chlorophytum nimonii for its lipid-lowering and antioxidant properties. Materials and Methods: Chloragin and Gemfibrozil both caused a significant decrease in the serum level of lipids in triton-induced hyperlipidemic rats, and this model has been successfully used for the evaluation of lipid-lowering activity of chloragin in the rats. Results and Discussion: The lipid-lowering action of steroidal saponin and chloragin of the C. nimonii has been studied in triton model (in cholesterol-fed hyperlipidemic rats in vivo and antioxidant activity in vitro model. Serum lipids were found to be lowered by the steroidal saponin (100 mg/kg body weight in triton WR-1339-induced hyperlipidemia. Chronic feeding of this compound (50 mg/kg in animals simultaneously fed with high-fat diet for 30 days caused lowering in the lipid and lipoproteins levels of low-density lipoproteins in experimental animals. Conclusion: Chloragin activates lipolytic enzymes in plasma and liver. Chloragin is mediated through inhibition of hepatic lipids, increased fecal bile acid excretion, and enhanced plasma lecithin cholesterol acyl transferase activities. Chloragin from the C. nimonii showed potent antioxidant activity as well.

  11. Lipid lowering and anti-atherosclerotic properties of Tinospora ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    atherosclerotic properties of Tinospora crispa aqueous extract (TCAE) on rabbits for 10 weeks. The hyperlipidemic rabbits were induced and the rabbit were given different concentration of TCAE (200, 450 and 600 mg/kg). Results from lipid analysis show ...

  12. Oceanographic conditions structure forage fishes into lipid-rich and lipid-poor communities in lower Cook Inlet, Alaska, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abookire, Alisa A.; Piatt, John F.

    2005-01-01

    Forage fishes were sampled with a mid-water trawl in lower Cook Inlet, Alaska, USA, from late July to early August 1996 to 1999. We sampled 3 oceanographically distinct areas of lower Cook Inlet: waters adjacent to Chisik Island, in Kachemak Bay, and near the Barren Islands. In 163 tows using a mid-water trawl, 229 437 fishes with fork length lipid-poor gadids (walleye pollock and Pacific cod), and significantly increased in lipid-rich species such as Pacific sand lance, Pacific herring, and capelin. ?? Inter-Research 2005.

  13. COMPARATIVE STUDY TO EVALUATE LIPID-LOWERING EFFECT OF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niteesh Shanbag

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Dyslipidaemia is a widely established risk factor for coronary artery disease. As Asians differ in pattern of various lipid abnormalities than non-Asians, this study was undertaken to compare efficacy of commonly administrated drugs, atorvastatin and fenofibrate. MATERIALS AND METHODS The present study was carried out in 100 diagnosed cases of hypertriglyceridaemia divided into two groups, A and B. The mean, standard deviation, standard error of mean and t value were calculated following 12 weeks of therapy of atorvastatin 10 mg in group A and micronized fenofibrate in group B. RESULTS Our study showed that fenofibrate is more efficacious in reducing the levels of triglycerides and rising level of HDL cholesterol, while atorvastatin is more efficacious in reducing LDL cholesterol. CONCLUSION Micronized fenofibrate has more efficiency in reducing triglycerides and raising HDL. Atorvastatin is more efficacious in reducing LDL levels.

  14. LCREP chemistry and lipids - Lower Columbia River Ecosystem Monitoring Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — 1) The purpose of this project is to document juvenile salmon habitat occurrence in the Lower Columbia River and estuary, and examine how habitat conditions...

  15. Lipid Lowering Effect of Punica granatum L. Peel in High Lipid Diet Fed Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Sadeghipour

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Many herbal medicines have been recommended for the treatment of dyslipidemia. The antilipidemic effect of hydroethanolic extract of pomegranate peel (Punica granatum L. was investigated in high lipid diet fed male rats. Intraperitoneally administration of pomegranate peel extract (50, 100, 200, and 300 mg/kg body weight for 23 days on the levels of serum cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL, HDL, alkaline phosphatase (AP, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, and alanine aminotransferase (ALT in high lipid diet fed male rats was evaluated. Treatment of pomegranate extract decreased body weight in treated rats, significantly. Administration of the plant extract significantly decreased serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-C, alkaline phosphatise, AST, and ALT levels, whereas it increased serum HDL-C in high lipid diet fed rats in comparison to saline control group. Also, histopathological study showed that treatment of pomegranate peel extract attenuates liver damage in high lipid diet fed rats in comparison to saline group. It is concluded that the plant should be considered as an excellent candidate for future studies on dyslipidemia.

  16. Lipid Lowering Effect of Punica granatum L. Peel in High Lipid Diet Fed Male Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghipour, Alireza; Ilchizadeh Kavgani, Ali; Ghahramani, Reza; Shahabzadeh, Saleh; Anissian, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Many herbal medicines have been recommended for the treatment of dyslipidemia. The antilipidemic effect of hydroethanolic extract of pomegranate peel (Punica granatum L.) was investigated in high lipid diet fed male rats. Intraperitoneally administration of pomegranate peel extract (50, 100, 200, and 300 mg/kg body weight) for 23 days on the levels of serum cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL, HDL, alkaline phosphatase (AP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in high lipid diet fed male rats was evaluated. Treatment of pomegranate extract decreased body weight in treated rats, significantly. Administration of the plant extract significantly decreased serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-C, alkaline phosphatise, AST, and ALT levels, whereas it increased serum HDL-C in high lipid diet fed rats in comparison to saline control group. Also, histopathological study showed that treatment of pomegranate peel extract attenuates liver damage in high lipid diet fed rats in comparison to saline group. It is concluded that the plant should be considered as an excellent candidate for future studies on dyslipidemia. PMID:25295067

  17. Effect of lipid lowering on new-onset atrial fibrillation in patients with asymptomatic aortic stenosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Casper N; Greve, Anders; Boman, Kurt

    2012-01-01

    Lipid-lowering drugs, particularly statins, have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties that may prevent atrial fibrillation (AF). This effect has not been investigated on new-onset AF in asymptomatic patients with aortic stenosis (AS).......Lipid-lowering drugs, particularly statins, have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties that may prevent atrial fibrillation (AF). This effect has not been investigated on new-onset AF in asymptomatic patients with aortic stenosis (AS)....

  18. Nutraceuticals in lipid-lowering treatment: a narrative review on the role of chitosan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patti, Angelo Maria; Katsiki, Niki; Nikolic, Dragana; Al-Rasadi, Khalid; Rizzo, Manfredi

    2015-05-01

    Lipid-lowering drugs may cause adverse effects and, although lipid targets may be achieved, a substantial residual cardiovascular (CV) risk remains. Treatment with agents mimicking proteins present in the body, such as incretin-based therapies, provided promising results. However, in order to improve lipids and CV risk, lifestyle measures remain important. Some researchers focused on nutraceuticals that may beneficially affect metabolic parameters and minimize CV risk. Chitosan, a dietary fiber, can regulate lipids with benefit on anthropometric parameters. The beneficial properties of dietary supplements (such as green tea extract, prebiotics, plant sterols, and stanols) on plasma lipids, lipoproteins, blood pressure, glucose, and insulin levels and their anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects are documented. However, larger, prospective clinical trials are required to confirm such benefits. Such treatments may be recommended when lipid-lowering drugs are neither indicated nor tolerated as well as in order to achieve therapeutic targets and/or overcome residual CV risk. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. Blood Pressure-Lowering Aspects of Lipid-Lowering and Anti-Diabetic Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter M. Nilsson

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have shown that blood pressure can be lowered by the use of drugs that are not traditional antihypertensive drugs. This might be of clinical importance when many risk patients are treated by combination drug therapy in order to prevent cardiovascular disease by way of improving the cardiovascular risk factor profile.

  20. Heat-induced changes to lipid molecular structure in Vimy flaxseed: Spectral intensity and molecular clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Peiqiang; Damiran, Daalkhaijav

    2011-06-01

    Autoclaving was used to manipulate nutrient utilization and availability. The objectives of this study were to characterize any changes of the functional groups mainly associated with lipid structure in flaxseed ( Linum usitatissimum, cv. Vimy), that occurred on a molecular level during the treatment process using infrared Fourier transform molecular spectroscopy. The parameters included lipid CH 3 asymmetric (ca. 2959 cm -1), CH 2 asymmetric (ca. 2928 cm -1), CH 3 symmetric (ca. 2871 cm -1) and CH 2 symmetric (ca. 2954 cm -1) functional groups, lipid carbonyl C dbnd O ester group (ca. 1745 cm -1), lipid unsaturation group (CH attached to C dbnd C) (ca. 3010 cm -1) as well as their ratios. Hierarchical cluster analysis (CLA) and principal components analysis (PCA) were conducted to identify molecular spectral differences. Flaxseed samples were kept raw for the control or autoclaved in batches at 120 °C for 20, 40 or 60 min for treatments 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Molecular spectral analysis of lipid functional group ratios showed a significant decrease ( P 0.05) on lipid carbonyl C dbnd O ester group and lipid unsaturation group (CH attached to C dbnd C) (with average spectral peak area intensities of 138.3 and 68.8 IR intensity units, respectively). Multivariate molecular spectral analyses, CLA and PCA, were unable to make distinctions between the different treatment original spectra at the CH 3 and CH 2 asymmetric and symmetric region (ca. 2988-2790 cm -1). The results indicated that autoclaving had an impact to the mid-infrared molecular spectrum of flaxseed to identify heat-induced changes in lipid conformation. A future study is needed to quantify the relationship between lipid molecular structure changes and functionality/availability.

  1. Lessons learned from a lipid lowering trial in adolescents with type 1 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bishop Franziska K

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Herein, we describe recruitment efforts for a trial of lipid-lowering medications in adolescents with type 1 diabetes, age 12–21 years. Based on our experience, future studies will require multiple centers to enroll a sufficient number of participants for adequate data to direct dyslipidemia medication treatment guidelines for adolescents with type 1 diabetes.

  2. Effects of lipid-lowering pharmaceuticals bezafibrate and clofibric acid on lipid metabolism in fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston, Anna; Caminada, Daniel; Galicia, Hector; Fent, Karl

    2009-12-01

    The lipid-lowering agents bezafibrate and clofibric acid, which occur at concentrations up to 3.1 and 1.6 microg/L, respectively, are among the most frequently found human pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment. In contrast to knowledge about their environmental occurrence, little is known about their effects in the environment. The aim of the present study was to analyze effects of these lipid-lowering agents in fish by focusing on their modes of action, lipid metabolism. Fathead minnows were exposed in aquaria to measured concentrations of 0.1, 1.27, 10.18, 101.56, and 106.7 mg/L bezafibrate and to 1.07, 10.75, and 108.91 mg/L clofibric acid for 14 and 21 d, respectively. After exposure, fish liver was analyzed for expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and the PPAR-regulated enzyme fatty acyl-coenzyme-A oxidase (FAO) involved in fatty acid oxidation. Bezafibrate had no effect, either on PPARalpha expression or on FAO activity, at all concentrations. In contrast, clofibric acid induced FAO activity in male fathead minnows at 108.91 mg/L. No increase in expression of PPARalpha messenger ribonucleic acid was observed. Egg production was apparently decreased after 21 d of exposure to 108.91 mg/L clofibric acid. The present study demonstrates that bezafibrate has very little or no effect on PPARalpha expression and FAO activity, but clofibric acid affects FAO activity.

  3. Lipid lowering treatment patterns and goal attainment in Nordic patients with hyperlipidemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svilaas, A.; Strandberg, T.; Eriksson, M.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Observational studies and surveys have shown that lipid-lowering treatment is not optimal neither with regard to number of patients treated nor with number of patients achieving recommended goals. To address this issue in the Nordic countries, we evaluated the published literature...... are inadequately treated and have not achieved recommended treatment goals of total cholesterol ... disease, age, and gender. CONCLUSIONS: There is a considerable need to improve standards of preventive cardiology. Statins have to be given evidence based to achieve treatment goals according to lipid levels, and higher doses of statins or combination therapy with a statin and a cholesterol absorption...

  4. Lipid Lowering Efficacy of Pennisetum glaucum Bran in Hyperlipidemic Albino Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Javed*, B. Aslam, M. Z. Khan1, Zia-Ur-Rahman, F. Muhammad and M. K. Saleemi1

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to determine lipid lowering efficacy of Pennisetum (P glaucum (Pearl millet, locally known as bajra, bran in hyperlipidemia albino rats. Simvastatin, (Tablet survive®, was used as cholesterol lowering synthetic drug. The period of 0-15 days was considered as a lead-in period to induce hyperlipidemia with atherogenic diet in albino rats. P. glaucum bran at dose rate of 2, 4 and 6 g/kg BW showed lipid lowering efficacy in hyperlipidemic rats at post-treatment days 30, 45 and 60. At the level of 6 g/kg, P. glaucum bran was able to produce a significant (P<0.05 increase in HDL- cholesterol (47% and fall in other lipid profile parameters i.e. total lipids (41%, triglycerides(48%, total cholesterol (39% and LDL- cholesterol (55%. P. glaucum 6 g/kg also reduced total cholesterol in liver tissue and increased fecal bile acid secretion. The results of present study suggest that 6 g/kg P. glaucum bran and 0.6 mg/kg Simvastatin were equally effective in treating hyperlipidemia in albino rats. Moreover, the potency of P. glaucum for stimulating fecal bile acid secretion in albino rats may safely be conceived, at least, as a part of mechanisms for its antihyperlipidemic efficacy.

  5. Management of lipid-lowering therapy in patients with cardiovascular events in the UK: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danese, Mark D; Gleeson, Michelle; Kutikova, Lucie; Griffiths, Robert I; Khunti, Kamlesh; Seshasai, Sreenivasa Rao Kondapally; Ray, Kausik K

    2017-05-10

    To describe low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol management and lipid-lowering treatment patterns in patients with a cardiovascular (CV) event. Retrospective cohort study using Clinical Practice Research Datalink records linked with Hospital Episode Statistics data. Routine clinical practice in the UK from 2006 to 2012. Individuals ≥18 years were selected at their first CV-related hospitalisation (first event cohort) if they had received ≥2 lipid-lowering therapy prescriptions within 180 days beforehand. Patients were stratified into four mutually exclusive subgroups based on the presence or absence of vascular disease and of diabetes. Those with a second CV hospitalisation within 36 months were included in a separate cohort (second event cohort). LDL levels in the year prior to the CV event and 12 months later as well as measures of adherence to lipid-lowering therapy during the 12 months after the CV hospitalisation. There were 24 093 patients in the first event cohort, of whom 5274 were included in the second event cohort. Most received moderate intensity statins at baseline and 12 months. Among the four first event cohort subgroups at baseline, the proportions with an LDL of event cohort (31%). An incremental 5% to 9% had an LDL below 1.8 mmol/L at 12 months, suggesting intensification of therapy. The proportion of adherent patients (medication possession ratio of≥0.8) was highest for statins, ranging from 68% to 72%. For ezetimibe, the range was 65% to 70%, and for fibrates, it was 48% to 62%. Despite the existence of effective therapies for lowering cholesterol, patients do not reach achievable LDL targets. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  6. Development and Validation of a Model to Predict Absolute Vascular Risk Reduction by Moderate-Intensity Statin Therapy in Individual Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: The Anglo Scandinavian Cardiac Outcomes Trial, Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial, and Collaborative Atorvastatin Diabetes Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaasenbrood, Lotte; Poulter, Neil R; Sever, Peter S; Colhoun, Helen M; Livingstone, Shona J; Boekholdt, S Matthijs; Pressel, Sara L; Davis, Barry R; van der Graaf, Yolanda; Visseren, Frank L J

    2016-05-01

    In this study, we aimed to translate the average relative effect of statin therapy from trial data to the individual patient with type 2 diabetes mellitus by developing and validating a model to predict individualized absolute risk reductions (ARR) of cardiovascular events. Data of 2725 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus from the Lipid Lowering Arm of the Anglo Scandinavian Cardiac Outcomes Trial (ASCOT-LLA) study (atorvastatin 10 mg versus placebo) were used for model derivation. The model was based on 8 clinical predictors including treatment allocation (statin/placebo). Ten-year individualized ARR on major cardiovascular events by statin therapy were calculated for each patient by subtracting the estimated on-treatment risk from the estimated off-treatment risk. Predicted 10-year ARR by statin therapy was 4% (median ARR, 3.2%; interquartile range, 2.5%-4.3%; 95% confidence interval for 3.2% ARR, -1.4% to 6.8%). Addition of treatment interactions did not improve model performance. Therefore, the wide distribution in ARR was a consequence of the underlying distribution in cardiovascular risk enrolled in these trials. External validation of the model was performed in data from the Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial (ALLHAT-LLT; pravastatin 40 mg versus usual care) and Collaborative Atorvastatin Diabetes Study (CARDS; atorvastatin 10 mg versus placebo) of 3878 and 2838 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, respectively. Model calibration was adequate in both external data sets, discrimination was moderate (ALLHAT-LLT: c-statistics, 0.64 [95% confidence interval, 0.61-0.67] and CARDS: 0.68 [95% confidence interval, 0.64-0.72]). ARRs of major cardiovascular events by statin therapy can be accurately estimated for individual patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus using a model based on routinely available patient characteristics. There is a wide distribution in ARR that may complement informed decision making. URL: http

  7. Prevention of cardiovascular disease based on lipid lowering treatment: a challenge for the Mexican health system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Pérez, Francisco J; Rojas, Rosalba; Villalpando, Salvador; Barquera, Simón; Rull, Juan; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A

    2010-01-01

    To estimate the percentage of Mexican adults that may require lipid-lowering treatment according to National Cholesterol Education Program-III guidelines, using data from the National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006 (ENSANut 2006). Information was obtained from 4 040 subjects aged 20 to 69 years, studied after a 9 to 12 hours fast. A cardiovascular risk equivalent was found in 13.8% and >or=2 risk factors were present in 31.5% of the population. LDL-C concentrations were above the treatment goal in 70% of the high-risk group and in 38.6% of subjects with >or=2 risk factors. Nearly 12 million Mexicans should be taught how to change their lifestyles and close to 8 million individuals require drug therapy to decrease their cardiovascular risk. Thirty percent of Mexican adults require some form of lipid-lowering treatment (lifestyle modifications in 36.25%, drug therapy in 24.19%).

  8. The lipid peroxidation intensity of fungi strains from the orders Agaricales and Polyporales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Fedotov

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to investigation of the dynamics of growth and level of spontaneous and induced lipid peroxidation intensity of Basidiomycetes strains grown by surface cultivation on a glucose-peptone medium. The materials of the research are mycelium and culture filtrates (CF of 57 strains (5 belong to 5 species from the order Polyporales s.l., and 52 belong to 7 species of the order Agaricales s.l.. To study the dynamics of growth we used a weighing method for determining the accumulation of absolutely dry biomass. Intensity of lipid peroxidation was determined by a modified spectrophotometric method for content of active to thiobarbituric acid products. It was found that the most productive in absolutely dry biomass accumulation were the strains Flammulina velutipes (Curt.: Fr. Sing. F-610 and Pleurotus eryngii (DC.: Fr. Quél. P-er. The level of spontaneous and induced LPO intensity in mycelia of all strains was higher than this figure in the culture filtrate and increased with the duration of cultivation. Dependencies between the content of lipid peroxidation products in the mycelia and CF were not established. The lowest values were recorded for biomass accumulation by the strains Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq.: Fr. P. Kumm. P-14, P-192 and P. citrinopileatus Singer. Р-сіtr. Groups of basidiomycete cultures with different levels of TBA-AP were identified. Spontaneous and induced intensivity of lipid peroxidation in all studied strains of mycelia was higher than the figure in the culture filtrate. The intensity of lipid peroxidation in both mycelia and culture filtrate constantly increased, which can be explained by the growing shortage of certain nutrients (primarily carbon and increased concentration of metabolic products in the medium. The ratio of spontaneous and induced lipid peroxidation intensity is specific to each strain and is independent of its systematic position. Shifting of prooxidant-antioxidant balance to a

  9. Lower limit of intensity for the solar activity in microwaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaufmann, P; Iacomo, P Jr; Koppe, E H; dos Santos, P M; Schaal, R E [Universidade Mackenzie, Sao Paulo (Brazil). Centro de Radio-Astronomia e Astrofisica; Blakey, J R [Surrey Univ., Guildford (UK). Dept. of Physics

    1976-01-01

    The active region McMath 10433 has produced various flares and bursts in radio frequency in the beginning of july 1974. This region was scanned countinously in 22.2 GHz with a radio telescope showing a 4 min. arc beam, in various periods of the month. In comparison with the results simultaneously obtained with a normal solar radio telescope, in 7 GHz, it was verified that there is an important explosive activity in lower levels in the limit of detection of an usual patrolling instrument. The morphology of these events, in its progress in the time, is similar to that normaly known, and allowed, the re-interpretation of simple events. A completly new type of event was defined: the fast absorptions. The correlation of events in microwaves with 'SPA' recorded in 'VLF' propagation is also discussed.

  10. High-Intensity Ultrasound to Improve Physical and Functional Properties of Lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagh, Ashwini; Birkin, Peter; Martini, Silvana

    2016-01-01

    High-intensity ultrasound (HIU) has been used in recent years to change the crystallization behavior of edible lipids. This technique can be used in combination with other processing technologies to tailor lipids' functional properties and broaden their application for various food products. In general, sonication induces crystallization, increases crystallization rate, and generates a harder and more elastic crystalline network characterized by smaller crystals with a sharper melting profile. An important application of HIU is to improve the hardness and elasticity of shortenings that have a low content of saturated fatty acids and are free of trans-fats. This review summarizes recent research that used HIU to change the physical and functional properties of edible lipids and focuses on the importance of controlling processing variables such as sonication power level and duration and crystallization temperature.

  11. High-intensity lower limb endurance training in chronic respiratory disease

    OpenAIRE

    Tanaka, Takako; Arizono, Shinichi; Hanada, Masatoshi; Senjyu, Hideaki

    2015-01-01

    High-intensity endurance training is mainly undertaken during pulmonary rehabilitation for patients with chronic respiratory disease. High-intensity endurance training is recommended in many clinical management guidelines. High-intensity endurance training involves training generally at an intensity of at 60-80% of the patient’s peak work capacity or higher. The effects of high-intensity lower limb endurance training have mostly been investigated in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD...

  12. Lipid emulsions in parenteral nutrition of intensive care patients: current thinking and future directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Gordon L.; Koletzko, Berthold V.; Singer, Pierre; Wanten, Geert J. A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Energy deficit is a common and serious problem in intensive care units and is associated with increased rates of complications, length of stay, and mortality. Parenteral nutrition (PN), either alone or in combination with enteral nutrition, can improve nutrient delivery to critically ill patients. Lipids provide a key source of calories within PN formulations, preventing or correcting energy deficits and improving outcomes. Discussion In this article, we review the role of parenteral lipid emulsions (LEs) in the management of critically ill patients and highlight important biologic activities associated with lipids. Soybean-oil-based LEs with high contents of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) were the first widely used formulations in the intensive care setting. However, they may be associated with increased rates of infection and lipid peroxidation, which can exacerbate oxidative stress. More recently developed parenteral LEs employ partial substitution of soybean oil with oils providing medium-chain triglycerides, ω-9 monounsaturated fatty acids or ω-3 PUFA. Many of these LEs have demonstrated reduced effects on oxidative stress, immune responses, and inflammation. However, the effects of these LEs on clinical outcomes have not been extensively evaluated. Conclusions Ongoing research using adequately designed and well-controlled studies that characterize the biologic properties of LEs should assist clinicians in selecting LEs within the critical care setting. Prescription of PN containing LEs should be based on available clinical data, while considering the individual patient’s physiologic profile and therapeutic requirements. PMID:20072779

  13. Supplementation of fenugreek leaves lower lipid profile in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annida, B; Stanely Mainzen Prince, P

    2004-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the lipid-lowering effect of fenugreek leaves in diabetes mellitus. Albino Wistar rats were randomly divided into six groups: normal untreated rats; streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats; STZ-induced rats + fenugreek leaves (0.5 g/kg of body weight); STZ-induced rats + fenugreek leaves (1 g/kg of body weight); STZ-induced rats + glibenclamide (600 microg/kg of body weight); and STZ-induced rats + insulin (6 units/kg of body weight). Rats were made diabetic by STZ (40 mg/kg) injected intraperitoneally. Fenugreek leaves were supplemented in the diet daily to diabetic rats for 45 days, and food intake was recorded daily. Blood glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, and free fatty acids were determined in serum, liver, heart, and kidney. Our results show that blood glucose and serum and tissue lipids were elevated in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Supplementation of fenugreek leaves lowered the lipid profile in STZ-induced diabetic rats.

  14. Effect of expectation on pain assessment of lower- and higher-intensity stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ružić, Valentina; Ivanec, Dragutin; Modić Stanke, Koraljka

    2017-01-01

    Pain modulation via expectation is a well-documented phenomenon. So far it has been shown that expectations about effectiveness of a certain treatment enhance the effectiveness of different analgesics and of drug-free pain treatments. Also, studies demonstrate that people assess same-intensity stimuli differently, depending on the experimentally induced expectations regarding the characteristics of the stimuli. Prolonged effect of expectation on pain perception and possible symmetry in conditions of lower- and higher-intensity stimuli is yet to be studied. Aim of this study is to determine the effect of expectation on the perception of pain experimentally induced by the series of higher- and lower-intensity stimuli. 192 healthy participants were assigned to four experimental groups differing by expectations regarding the intensity of painful stimuli series. Expectations of two groups were congruent with actual stimuli; one group expected and received lower-intensity stimuli and the other expected and received higher-intensity stimuli. Expectations of the remaining two groups were not congruent with actual stimuli; one group expected higher-intensity stimuli, but actually received lower-intensity stimuli while the other group expected lower-intensity stimuli, but in fact received higher-intensity ones. Each group received a series of 24 varied-intensity electrical stimuli rated by the participants on a 30° intensity scale. Expectation manipulation had statistically significant effect on pain intensity assessment. When expecting lower-intensity stimuli, the participants underestimated pain intensity and when expecting higher-intensity stimuli, they overestimated pain intensity. The effect size of expectations upon pain intensity assessment was equal for both lower- and higher-intensity stimuli. The obtained results imply that expectation manipulation can achieve the desired effect of decreasing or increasing both slight and more severe pain for a longer period of

  15. Economic Evaluation of Lipid-Lowering Therapy in the Secondary Prevention Setting in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumanan-Mendoza, Bernadette A; Mendoza, Victor L

    2013-05-01

    To determine the cost-effectiveness of lipid-lowering therapy in the secondary prevention of cardiovascular events in the Philippines. A cost-utility analysis was performed by using Markov modeling in the secondary prevention setting. The models incorporated efficacy of lipid-lowering therapy demonstrated in randomized controlled trials and mortality rates obtained from local life tables. Average and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were obtained for simvastatin, atorvastatin, pravastatin, and gemfibrozil. The costs of the following were included: medications, laboratory examinations, consultation and related expenses, and production losses. The costs were expressed in current or nominal prices as of the first quarter of 2010 (Philippine peso). Utility was expressed in quality-adjusted life-years gained. Sensitivity analyses were performed by using variations in the cost centers, discount rates, starting age, and differences in utility weights for stroke. In the analysis using the lower-priced generic counterparts, therapy using 40 mg simvastatin daily was the most cost-effective option compared with the other therapies, while pravastatin 40 mg daily was the most cost-effective alternative if the higher-priced innovator drugs were used. In all sensitivity analyses, gemfibrozil was strongly dominated by the statins. In secondary prevention, simvastatin or pravastatin were the most cost-effective options compared with atorvastatin and gemfibrozil in the Philippines. Gemfibrozil was strongly dominated by the statins. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Lipid-lowering Activity of Natural and Semi-Synthetic Sterols and Stanols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Dhiaa A; Wasan, Ellen K; Wasan, Kishor M; Gershkovich, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    Consumption of plant sterols/ stanols has long been demonstrated to reduce plasma cholesterol levels. The objective of this review is to demonstrate the lipid-lowering activity and anti-atherogenic effects of natural and semi-synthetic plant sterols/ stanols based on evidence from cell-culture studies, animal studies and clinical trials. Additionally, this review highlights certain molecular mechanisms by which plant sterols/ stanols lower plasma cholesterol levels with a special emphasis on factors that affect the cholesterol-lowering activity of plant sterols/stanols. The crystalline nature and the poor oil solubility of these natural products could be important factors that limit their cholesterol-lowering efficiency. Several attempts have been made to improve the cholesterol-lowering activity by enhancing the bioavailability of crystalline sterols and stanols. Approaches involved reduction of the crystal size and/or esterification with fatty acids from vegetable or fish oils. However, the most promising approach in this context is the chemical modification of plant sterols /stanols into water soluble disodium ascorbyl phytostanyl phosphates analogue by esterification with ascorbic acid. This novel semi-synthetic stanol derivative has improved efficacy over natural plant sterols/ stanols and can provide additional benefits by combining the cholesterol-lowering properties of plant stanols with the antioxidant potential of ascorbic acid. This article is open to POST-PUBLICATION REVIEW. Registered readers (see "For Readers") may comment by clicking on ABSTRACT on the issue's contents page.

  17. Effects of Different Exercise Intensities with Isoenergetic Expenditures on C-Reactive Protein and Blood Lipid Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsao, Te Hung; Yang, Chang Bin; Hsu, Chin Hsing

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the effects of different exercise intensities on C-reactive protein (CRP), and whether changes in CRP levels correlated with blood lipid levels. Ten men exercised at 25%, 65%, and 85% of their maximum oxygen consumption rates. Participants' blood was analyzed for CRP and blood lipid levels before and after the exercise sessions.…

  18. Complementary and alternative medicine for lowering blood lipid levels: A systematic review of systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posadzki, Paul; AlBedah, Abdullah M N; Khalil, Mohamed M K; AlQaed, Meshari S

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this article is to summarize and critically evaluate the evidence from systematic reviews (SRs) of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for lowering blood lipid levels (BLL). Eight electronic databases were searched until March 2016. Additionally, all the retrieved references were inspected manually for further relevant papers. Systematic reviews were considered eligible, if they included patients of any age and/or gender with elevated blood lipid levels using any type of CAM. We used the Oxman and AMSTAR criteria to critically appraise the methodological quality of the included SRs. Twenty-seven SRs were included in the analyses. The majority of the SRs were of high methodological quality (mean Oxman score=4.81, SD=4.88; and the mean AMSTAR score=7.22, SD=3.38). The majority of SRs (56%) arrived at equivocal conclusions (of these 8 were of high quality); 7 SRs (37%) arrived at positive conclusions (of these 6 were of high quality), and 2 (7%) arrived at negative conclusions (both were of high quality). There was conflicting evidence regarding the effectiveness of garlic; and promising evidence for yoga. To conclude, the evidence from SRs evaluating the effectiveness of CAM in lowering BLL is predominantly equivocal and confusing. Several limitations exist, such as variety of doses and preparations, confounding effects of diets and lifestyle factors, or heterogeneity of the primary trials among others. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Consumption of a dietary portfolio of cholesterol lowering foods improves blood lipids without affecting concentrations of fat soluble compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramprasath, Vanu R; Jenkins, David J A; Lamarche, Benoit; Kendall, Cyril W C; Faulkner, Dorothea; Cermakova, Luba; Couture, Patrick; Ireland, Chris; Abdulnour, Shahad; Patel, Darshna; Bashyam, Balachandran; Srichaikul, Korbua; de Souza, Russell J; Vidgen, Edward; Josse, Robert G; Leiter, Lawrence A; Connelly, Philip W; Frohlich, Jiri; Jones, Peter J H

    2014-10-18

    Consumption of a cholesterol lowering dietary portfolio including plant sterols (PS), viscous fibre, soy proteins and nuts for 6 months improves blood lipid profile. Plant sterols reduce blood cholesterol by inhibiting intestinal cholesterol absorption and concerns have been raised whether PS consumption reduces fat soluble vitamin absorption. The objective was to determine effects of consumption of a cholesterol lowering dietary portfolio on circulating concentrations of PS and fat soluble vitamins. Using a parallel design study, 351 hyperlipidemic participants from 4 centres across Canada were randomized to 1 of 3 groups. Participants followed dietary advice with control or portfolio diet. Participants on routine and intensive portfolio involved 2 and 7 clinic visits, respectively, over 6 months. No changes in plasma concentrations of α and γ tocopherol, lutein, lycopene and retinol, but decreased β-carotene concentrations were observed with intensive (week 12: p = 0.045; week 24: p = 0.039) and routine (week 12: p = 0.031; week 24: p = 0.078) portfolio groups compared to control. However, cholesterol adjusted β-carotene and fat soluble compound concentrations were not different compared to control. Plasma PS concentrations were increased with intensive (campesterol:p = 0.012; β-sitosterol:p = 0.035) and routine (campesterol: p = 0.034; β-sitosterol: p = 0.080) portfolio groups compared to control. Plasma cholesterol-adjusted campesterol and β-sitosterol concentrations were negatively correlated (p portfolio diet reduces serum total and LDL-C levels while increasing PS values, without altering fat soluble compounds concentrations. The extent of increments of PS with the current study are not deleterious and also maintaining optimum levels of fat soluble vitamins are of paramount necessity to maintain overall metabolism and health. Results indicate portfolio diet as one of the best options for CVD risk reduction

  20. Effect of lipid-lowering and anti-hypertensive drugs on plasma homocysteine levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jutta Dierkes

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Jutta Dierkes, Claus Luley, Sabine WestphalInstitute of Clinical Chemistry and Biochemistry, University Hospital Magdeburg, Germany Abstract: Elevated plasma concentrations of homocysteine, a sulfur-containing amino acid, are a risk factor for coronary, cerebral and peripheral artery disease. Next to other factors, drugs used for the prevention or treatment of cardiovascular disease may modulate plasma homocysteine levels. Thus, a drug induced homocysteine increase may counteract the desired cardioprotective effect. The aim is to summarize the current knowledge on the effect of two important classes of drugs, lipid-lowering drugs and anti-hypertensive drugs, on homocysteine metabolism. Among the lipid-lowering drugs, especially the fibric acid derivatives, which are used for treatment of hypertriglyceridemia and low HDL-cholesterol, are associated with an increase of homocysteine by 20%–50%. This increase can be reduced, but not totally avoided by the addition of folic acid, vitamin B12 and B6 to fibrates. HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins do not influence homocysteine concentrations substantially. The effects of nicotinic acid and n3-fatty acids on the homocysteine concentrations are less clear, more studies are necessary to clarify their influence on homocysteine. Antihypertensive drugs have also been studied with respect to homocysteine metabolism. A homocysteine increase has been shown after treatment with hydrochlorothiazide, a lowering was observed after treatment with ß-blockers, but no effect with ACE-inhibitors. The clinical significance of the homocysteine elevation by fibrates and thiazides is not clear. However, individual patients use these drugs for long time, indicating that even moderate increases may be important.Keywords: homocysteine, fibrates, diuretics, cardiovascular disease

  1. Combined influence of LDLR and HMGCR sequence variation on lipid-lowering response to simvastatin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangravite, Lara M.; Medina, Marisa Wong; Cui, Jinrui; Pressman, Sheila; Smith, Joshua D.; Rieder, Mark J.; Guo, Xiuqing; Nickerson, Deborah A.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Krauss, Ronald M.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives Although statins are efficacious for lowering LDL-cholesterol (LDLC), there is wide inter-individual variation in response. We tested the extent to which combined effects of common alleles of LDLR and HMGCR can contribute to this variability. Methods and Results Haplotypes in the LDLR 3′-untranslated region (3UTR) were tested for association with lipid-lowering response to simvastatin treatment in the Cholesterol and Pharmacogenetics (CAP) trial (335 African-Americans and 609European-Americans). LDLR haplotype 5 (L5)was associated with smaller simvastatin-induced reductions in LDLC, total cholesterol, non-HDL cholesterol, and apolipoprotein B (P=0.0002–0.03)in African-Americans, but not European-Americans. The combined presence of L5 and previously described HMGCR haplotypes in African-Americans was associated with significantly attenuated apoB reduction(−22.4±1.5% N=89) both compared to noncarriers (−30.6±1.5% N=78, P=0.0001) and to carriers of either individual haplotype (−28.2±1.1% N=158, P=0.001). We observed similar differences when measuring simvastatin-mediated induction of LDLR surface expression using lymphoblast cell lines (P=0.03). Conclusions We have identified a common LDLR 3UTR haplotype that is associated with attenuated lipid-lowering response to simvastatin treatment. Response was further reduced in individuals with both LDLR and previously described HMGCR haplotypes. Previously identified racial differences in statin efficacy were partially explained by increased prevalence of these combined haplotypes in African-Americans. PMID:20413733

  2. Myotoxic reactions to lipid-lowering therapy are associated with altered oxidation of fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Paul S; Ciaraldi, Theodore P; Kim, Dong-Lim; Verity, M Anthony; Wolfson, Tanya; Henry, Robert R

    2009-02-01

    Despite exceptional efficacy and safety, fear of muscle toxicity remains a major reason statins are underutilized. Evidence suggests that statin muscle toxicity may be mediated by abnormalities in lipid metabolism. To test the hypothesis that myotubes from patients intolerant of lipid-lowering therapies have abnormal fatty acid oxidation (FAO) responses we compared muscle from 11 subjects with statin intolerance (Intolerant) with muscle from seven statin-naive volunteers undergoing knee arthroplasty (Comparator). Gross muscle pathology was graded and skeletal muscle cell cultures were produced from each subject. FAO was assessed following treatment with increasing statin concentrations. There was no difference in muscle biopsy myopathy scores between the groups. Basal octanoate oxidation was greater in Intolerant than in Comparator subjects (P = 0.03). Lovastatin-stimulated palmitate oxidation tended to be greater for Intolerant compared to Control subjects' myotubes (P = 0.07 for 5 microM and P = 0.06 for 20 microM lovastatin). In conclusion abnormalities in FAO of Intolerant subjects appear to be an intrinsic characteristic of these subjects that can be measured in their cultured myotubes.

  3. Lipid-lowering and antioxidant activities of Jiang-Zhi-Ning in Traditional Chinese Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianxin; Zhao, Huihui; Yang, Ying; Liu, Bing; Ni, Jian; Wang, Wei

    2011-04-12

    Jiang-Zhi-Ning (JZN) is composed of four Chinese herbs, i.e., Fleeceflower Root, Fructus Crataegi, Folium Nelumbinis and Semen Cassiae. It was used to strengthen blood circulation of coronary artery, arrhythmia and hyperlipidemia. The main objective of this paper is to evaluate lipid-lowering and antioxidant activities of extract and effective fraction of JZN by using in vitro experiments on hyperlipidemic rats. Moreover, in vivo experiments on cells were performed to investigate lipid-lowering and antioxidant activities of effective fraction and active constituents of JZN. Wistar rats with high fat diet-induced hyperlipidemia were used as in vitro models to study biological effects of lipid-lowering and antioxidant activities of extract and effective fraction of JZN. Serum total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), Coronary Index and Atherogenic Index were investigated to evaluate lipid-lowering effects of extract and effective fraction of JZN. Serum total nitric oxide synthase (NOS), nitric oxide (NO), endothelin-1 (ET-1), malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) were detected to measure antioxidant effects of extract and effective fraction of JZN. Furthermore, oxidized low-density lipoprotein (Ox-LDL) injured human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) model was employed as in vivo experiment to study lipid-lowering and antioxidant effects of effective fraction and active constituents of JZN. NO, ET-1, MDA SOD and T-AOC in HUVECs or culture media were investigated to evaluate antioxidant activity of effective fraction and active constituents of JZN. Using human hepatoma cell line Bel-7402, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) technology was performed to investigate cholesterol metabolism effects of effective fraction and active constituents of JZN. Expressions of low density lipoprotein receptor (LDL

  4. Danish Guidelines for Lipid-lowering Treatment in Patients with Chronic Renal Failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dieperink, Hans; Christensen, Jeppe Hagstrup; Feldt-Rasmussen, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Measurement of lipid profile in adults with CKD 1-5: We recommend measuring the lipid profile (T cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and triglycerides) in all adults with newly diagnosed CKD 1-5 (including patients in renal replacement therapy). Monitoring of lipid profile in adults wit...

  5. Danish guidelines for lipid-lowering treatment in patients with chronic renal failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dieperink, Hans; Christensen, Jeppe Hagstrup; Feldt-Rasmussen, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Measurement of lipid profile in adults with CKD 1-5: We recommend measuring the lipid profile (T cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and triglycerides) in all adults with newly diagnosed CKD 1-5 (including patients in renal replacement therapy). Monitoring of lipid profile in adults wit...

  6. Lupin seeds lower plasma lipid concentrations and normalize antioxidant parameters in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman, M.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to test bitter and sweet lupin seeds for lipid-lowering and for their antioxidative activities in hypercholesterolemic rats. The levels of plasma lipid, malondialdehyde (MDA and whole blood reduced glutathione (GSH, as well as the activities of transaminases (ALT and AST, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH in plasma, superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPx in erythrocytes and plasma glutathione reductase (GR, glutathione-S-transferase (GST and catalase (CAT were examined. A hypercholesterolemia-induced diet manifested in the elevation of total lipids (TL, total cholesterol (TC, triglycerides (TG, LDL-C and MDA levels, ALT, AST, LDH activities and the depletion of GSH and enzymic antioxidants. The supplementation of a hypercholesterolemia-induced diet with bitter and sweet lupin seeds significantly lowered the plasma levels of TL, TC, TG and LDL-C. ALT, AST and LDH activities slightly decreased in treated groups compared with the hypercholesterolemic group (HC. Furthermore, the content of GSH significantly increased while MDA significantly decreased in treated groups compared with the HC group. In addition, the bitter lupin seed group improved enzymic antioxidants compared with the HC group. In general, the results indicated that the bitter lupin seed supplements are better than those containing sweet lupin seeds. These results suggested that the hypocholesterolemic effect of bitter and sweet lupin seed supplements might be due to their abilities to lower the plasma cholesterol level as well as to slow down the lipid peroxidation process and to enhance the antioxidant enzyme activity.

    Este estudio fue diseñado para evaluar semillas de altramuces dulces y amargas como agentes que bajan los lípidos y estudiar su efecto en la actividad antioxidante en ratas hipercolesterolémicas. El nivel de lípidos en plasma, malondialdehido (MDA y glutatión reducido (GSH, así como la actividad transaminasa (ALT y AST

  7. Comparison of lipid lowering effect of extra virgin olive oil and atorvastatin in dyslipidemia in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, T.M.

    2017-01-01

    Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) is fruit oil with rich source of monounsaturated fats and powerful antioxidants. It acts as hypolipidemic agent and significant decrease of plasma lipids levelwas observed with EVOO use. Atorvastatin is hypolipidemic drug commonly used for treatment of hyperlipidaemia. The purpose of this study was to determine and compare the lipid lowering effect of EVOO with atorvastatin in type 2 diabetic dyslipidaemia which is leading cause of microvascular diseases. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 60 already diagnosed cases of type 2 diabetes mellitus with dyslipidaemia. All sixty subjects were divided into 2 groups. Atorvastatin 40mg was given to Group One and two tablespoons of extra virgin olive oil orally per day was given to Group Two. Blood was collected for estimation of plasma lipids level at base line, 4th week, and 6th weeks in two groups and was compared statistically. Results: The present study demonstrated 20-40% lipid lowering effect of atorvastatin on plasma lipids level with 9-16% increase in HDL while extra virgin olive oil showed 14 to 25% reduction in plasma lipids with 8-12% increase in HDL-cholesterol level. Conclusion: This study concludes that both atorvastatin and extra virgin olive oil are effective in reducing plasma lipids level in type 2 diabetic dyslipidaemia with more prominent effect of atorvastatin than EVOO. (author)

  8. Comparison Of Lipid Lowering Effect Of Extra Virgin Olive Oil And Atorvastatin In Dyslipidaemia In Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Tariq Mahmood; Iqbal, Sohail; Rashid, Muhammad Adnan

    2017-01-01

    Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) is fruit oil with rich source of monounsaturated fats and powerful antioxidants. It acts as hypolipidemic agent and significant decrease of plasma lipids level was observed with EVOO use. Atorvastatin is hypolipidemic drug commonly used for treatment of hyperlipidaemia. The purpose of this study was to determine & compare the lipid lowering effect of EVOO with atorvastatin in type 2 diabetic dyslipidaemia which is leading cause of microvascular diseases. This randomised controlled trial was conducted on 60 already diagnosed cases of type 2 diabetes mellitus with dyslipidaemia. All sixty subjects were divided randomly into 2 groups. Atorvastatin 40 mg was given to Group One and two tablespoons of extra virgin olive oil orally per day was given to Group Two. Blood was collected for estimation of plasma lipids level at base line, 4th week, and 6th weeks in two groups and was compared statistically. The present study demonstrated 20-40% lipid lowering effect of atorvastatin on plasma lipids level with 9-16% increase in HDL while extra virgin olive oil showed 14-25% reduction in plasma lipids with 8-12% increase in HDL-cholesterol level. This study concludes that both atorvastatin and extra virgin olive oil are effective in reducing plasma lipids level in type 2 diabetic dyslipidaemia with more prominent effect of atorvastatin than EVOO.

  9. Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) and Comorbid Major Depression with GAD Are Characterized by Enhanced Nitro-oxidative Stress, Increased Lipid Peroxidation, and Lowered Lipid-Associated Antioxidant Defenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maes, Michael; Bonifacio, Kamila Landucci; Morelli, Nayara Rampazzo; Vargas, Heber Odebrecht; Moreira, Estefânia Gastaldello; St Stoyanov, Drozdstoy; Barbosa, Décio Sabbatini; Carvalho, André F; Nunes, Sandra Odebrecht Vargas

    2018-05-07

    Accumulating evidence shows that nitro-oxidative pathways play an important role in the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD) and maybe anxiety disorders. The current study aims to examine superoxide dismutase (SOD1), catalase, lipid hydroperoxides (LOOH), nitric oxide metabolites (NOx), advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP), malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), paraoxonase 1 (PON1), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL), and uric acid (UA) in participants with and without generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) co-occurring or not with BD, MDD, or tobacco use disorder. Z unit-weighted composite scores were computed as indices of nitro-oxidative stress driving lipid and protein oxidation. SOD1, LOOH, NOx, and uric acid were significantly higher and HDL and PON1 significantly lower in participants with GAD than in those without GAD. GAD was more adequately predicted by increased SOD + LOOH + NOx and lowered HDL + PON1 composite scores. Composite scores of nitro-oxidative stress coupled with aldehyde and AOPP production were significantly increased in participants with comorbid GAD + MDD as compared with all other study groups, namely MDD, GAD + BD, BD, GAD, and healthy controls. In conclusion, GAD is characterized by increased nitro-oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation and lowered lipid-associated antioxidant defenses, while increased uric acid levels in GAD may protect against aldehyde production and protein oxidation. This study suggests that increased nitro-oxidative stress and especially increased SOD1 activity, NO production, and lipid peroxidation as well as lowered HDL-cholesterol and PON1 activity could be novel drug targets for GAD especially when comorbid with MDD.

  10. General practitioners' tacit and stated policies in the prescription of lipid lowering agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, J S; Harries, C; Dennis, I; Dean, J

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Research into general practitioners' prescribing behaviour with regard to lipid lowering agents has relied on survey methods which presume that doctors have insight into their prescribing behaviour and can describe it accurately. AIM. This study set out to measure the tacit policies used by general practitioners in prescribing lipid lowering agents and to compare these with their stated policies. METHOD. Effects of 13 separate cues on decisions to prescribe were examined. The cues included cholesterol levels and a number of associated risk factors for coronary heart disease. Doctors rated 130 imaginary cases presented by a computer. Thirty five general practitioners in the Plymouth area participated in the study. Their ages ranged from 31 to 55 years and all but four were men. The raw data in each case was a rating of the likelihood that the doctor would prescribe for the patient described. These were converted into statistical weightings by use of multiple linear regression. The pattern of (standardized) weights constituted the tacit policy for each doctor. Stated policies were measured in a subsequent interview by asking doctors to rate the influence of each cue. RESULTS. Both tacit and stated policies diverged widely between different doctors. Most doctors overestimated the number of cues that had actually influenced their decisions, and many believed that they had taken into account associated factors for coronary heart disease when they had not. On lifestyle related risks doctors were generally less likely to treat overweight people and most stated this as their policy. Most were also less likely to treat smokers but some had the opposite policy. Those less likely to treat smokers were also less likely to treat obese patients. There was also considerable variation in the extent to which the doctors took account of the attitude of the patient to receiving treatment. CONCLUSION. Doctors' policies are highly variable and particularly inconsistent in

  11. Effect of medication burden on persistent use of lipid-lowering drugs among patients with hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Teisha A; Cooke, Catherine E; Wang, Jingshu; Shaya, Fadia T; Lee, Helen Y

    2008-11-01

    To determine the effect of medication burden on persistent use of newly added lipid-lowering (LL) drugs among patients with hypertension. This retrospective database study used medical and pharmacy claims from a mid-Atlantic managed care organization. The cohort was obtained from continuous member enrollment in pharmacy and medical benefits from January 1, 2003, to December 31, 2005. Prescription claims were obtained for 18 months following the date of the first filled LL prescription (ie, index date). Patients were stratified into patients who changed LL drug or strength (group 1) and patients who did not change LL drug or strength (group 2). The primary outcome measure was persistence to newly added LL therapy. Persistence was defined by the length of time a member remained on therapy following the index date. The secondary outcome measure was the medication possession ratio (MPR). The MPR was calculated as the ratio of the sum of the days' supply of prescription filled divided by the number of days filled, plus the days' supply for the final prescription fill. Associations between the daily medication burden, defined as the number of unique drug products, and the outcome measures were analyzed. In the cohort of 3058 patients, the mean medication burden was 2.9 medications. Medication burden was positively associated with persistence and MPR through 18 months. Patients who had greater medication burden had longer persistence (P 80%) (P attention should focus on patients who have changes to their LL regimen compared with patients who continue on the same LL prescription.

  12. Characterisation and preliminary lipid-lowering evaluation of Lactobacillus isolated from a traditional Serbian dairy product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavišić, G; Ristić, S; Petrièević, S; Novaković Jovanović, J; Janać Petković, B; Strahinić, I; Piperski, V

    2015-03-01

    We investigated the potential probiotic properties of indigenous lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from Serbian homemade cheese. Seventeen LAB strains were isolated and characterised using standard protocols. One of the strains showed several probiotic properties: survival at low pH and in bile salts solution, antimicrobial activity, susceptibility to antibiotics and adhesion to hexodecane. DNA analysis identified the isolate as Lactobacillus casei, hereafter named L. casei 5s. The lipid lowering effect of L. casei 5s was evaluated in vivo using a hyperlipidemic rat model. Orally administered L. casei 5s significantly decreased the elevated total serum cholesterol and triglycerides, and attenuated macro vesicular steatosis in the liver. Moreover, L. casei 5s improved the intestinal microbial balance in favour of lactobacilli, while decreasing the number of Escherichia coli cells. The bacteria were re-isolated and identified from the surface of the intestinal mucosa and from the faecal samples of treated animals, indicating adhesiveness and colonisation ability. The results of an acute oral toxicity study in mice and the absence of translocation to other organs demonstrated the safety of the strain. In conclusion, L. casei 5s demonstrated promising probiotic potential and might be a good candidate for more detailed investigations.

  13. Gemfibrozil, a Lipid-lowering Drug, Induces Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling 3 in Glial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Arunava; Pahan, Kalipada

    2012-01-01

    Glial inflammation is an important feature of several neurodegenerative disorders. Suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) proteins play a crucial role in inhibiting cytokine signaling and inflammatory gene expression in various cell types, including glial cells. However, mechanisms by which SOCS genes could be up-regulated are poorly understood. This study underlines the importance of gemfibrozil, a Food and Drug Administration-approved lipid-lowering drug, in up-regulating the expression of SOCS3 in glial cells. Gemfibrozil increased the expression of Socs3 mRNA and protein in mouse astroglia and microglia in both a time- and dose-dependent manner. Interestingly, gemfibrozil induced the activation of type IA phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase and AKT. Accordingly, inhibition of PI 3-kinase and AKT by chemical inhibitors abrogated gemfibrozil-mediated up-regulation of SOCS3. Furthermore, we demonstrated that gemfibrozil induced the activation of Krüppel-like factor 4 (KLF4) via the PI 3-kinase-AKT pathway and that siRNA knockdown of KLF4 abrogated gemfibrozil-mediated up-regulation of SOCS3. Gemfibrozil also induced the recruitment of KLF4 to the distal, but not proximal, KLF4-binding site of the Socs3 promoter. This study delineates a novel property of gemfibrozil in up-regulating SOCS3 in glial cells via PI 3-kinase-AKT-mediated activation of KLF4 and suggests that gemfibrozil may find therapeutic application in neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:22685291

  14. Effect of homocysteine-lowering nutrients on blood lipids: results from four randomised, placebo-controlled studies in healthy humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margreet R Olthof

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Betaine (trimethylglycine lowers plasma homocysteine, a possible risk factor for cardiovascular disease. However, studies in renal patients and in obese individuals who are on a weight-loss diet suggest that betaine supplementation raises blood cholesterol; data in healthy individuals are lacking. Such an effect on cholesterol would counteract any favourable effect on homocysteine. We therefore investigated the effect of betaine, of its precursor choline in the form of phosphatidylcholine, and of the classical homocysteine-lowering vitamin folic acid on blood lipid concentrations in healthy humans. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We measured blood lipids in four placebo-controlled, randomised intervention studies that examined the effect of betaine (three studies, n = 151, folic acid (two studies, n = 75, and phosphatidylcholine (one study, n = 26 on plasma homocysteine concentrations. We combined blood lipid data from the individual studies and calculated a weighted mean change in blood lipid concentrations relative to placebo. Betaine supplementation (6 g/d for 6 wk increased blood LDL cholesterol concentrations by 0.36 mmol/l (95% confidence interval: 0.25-0.46, and triacylglycerol concentrations by 0.14 mmol/l (0.04-0.23 relative to placebo. The ratio of total to HDL cholesterol increased by 0.23 (0.14-0.32. Concentrations of HDL cholesterol were not affected. Doses of betaine lower than 6 g/d also raised LDL cholesterol, but these changes were not statistically significant. Further, the effect of betaine on LDL cholesterol was already evident after 2 wk of intervention. Phosphatidylcholine supplementation (providing approximately 2.6 g/d of choline for 2 wk increased triacylglycerol concentrations by 0.14 mmol/l (0.06-0.21, but did not affect cholesterol concentrations. Folic acid supplementation (0.8 mg/d had no effect on lipid concentrations. CONCLUSIONS: Betaine supplementation increased blood LDL cholesterol and triacylglycerol

  15. Effectiveness of lipid-lowering therapy among a sample of patients in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Enrique Machado-Alba

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the effectiveness of lipid-lowering therapy in a sample of patients affiliated with the Sistema General de Seguridad Social en Salud (the Colombian health system. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted from 1 January 2010-30 June 2011. From a total of 8 316 patients in 10 cities, a random sample of 600 was stratified according to dyslipidemia. Information on sociodemographic and anthropometric characteristics, risk factors, and pharmacological and laboratory variables were obtained from medical records. RESULTS: Subjects were predominantly female (56.2%, with a mean age of 65.1 ± 11.5 years; 93.2% had hypertension; 29.0%, diabetes mellitus; and 10.2%, a history of myocardial infarction. The patients were being treated with lovastatin (84.1% or gemfibrozil (12.3%-both at doses below what is recommended-or atorvastatin (1.8%. In patients with high cardiovascular risk, 38.6% achieved goals for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C levels (<100 mg/dL. Among those at moderate risk, 49.4% reached the target level (< 130 mg/dL. On average, there was a 4.9% reduction in LDL-C. Sex, age, history of cardiovascular disease and/or diabetes mellitus, use of hydrochlorothiazide, and poor therapy adherence were statistically associated with a lack of dyslipidemia control. CONCLUSIONS: Because a lack LDL-C control occurred in patients with two or more of the following variables: male, more than 55 years of age, diabetes and/or a history of cardiovascular disease, received lower doses of lovastatin, or non-adherent to treatment, it is recommended that medication be increased based on clearly-defined therapeutic goals and that comorbidities be assessed and effectively treated.

  16. Effectiveness of lipid-lowering therapy among a sample of patients in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado-Alba, Jorge Enrique; Murillo-Muñoz, Maria Monica; Machado-Duque, Manuel Enrique

    2013-06-01

    To determine the effectiveness of lipid-lowering therapy in a sample of patients affiliated with the Sistema General de Seguridad Social en Salud (the Colombian health system). A cross-sectional study was conducted from 1 January 2010-30 June 2011. From a total of 8 316 patients in 10 cities, a random sample of 600 was stratified according to dyslipidemia. Information on sociodemographic and anthropometric characteristics, risk factors, and pharmacological and laboratory variables were obtained from medical records. Subjects were predominantly female (56.2%), with a mean age of 65.1 ± 11.5 years; 93.2% had hypertension; 29.0%, diabetes mellitus; and 10.2%, a history of myocardial infarction. The patients were being treated with lovastatin (84.1%) or gemfibrozil (12.3%)-both at doses below what is recommended-or atorvastatin (1.8%). In patients with high cardiovascular risk, 38.6% achieved goals for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels (<100 mg/dL). Among those at moderate risk, 49.4% reached the target level (< 130 mg/dL). On average, there was a 4.9% reduction in LDL-C. Sex, age, history of cardiovascular disease and/or diabetes mellitus, use of hydrochlorothiazide, and poor therapy adherence were statistically associated with a lack of dyslipidemia control. Because a lack LDL-C control occurred in patients with two or more of the following variables: male, more than 55 years of age, diabetes and/or a history of cardiovascular disease, received lower doses of lovastatin, or non-adherent to treatment, it is recommended that medication be increased based on clearly-defined therapeutic goals and that comorbidities be assessed and effectively treated.

  17. EFFICACY OF PHYSICAL TRAINING AND ANALYSIS OF LIPID-LOWERING THERAPY IN PATIENTS WITH ISCHEMIC HEART DISEASE AFTER ACUTE CORONARY INCIDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Aronov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study efficacy of moderate-intensity physical training (PT and evaluate lipid-lowering therapy in patients with ischemic heart disease (IHD after acute coronary events in real practice.Material and methods. A total of 392 patients survived during last 3-8 weeks myocardial infarction, unstable angina or myocardial revascularization were included into the study. Inclusion of patients with stable angina pectoris after hospital treatment was also possible. Patients were randomized to the main (n=197 and control (n=195 groups. Patients of the main group received moderate-intensity PT. All patients received beta-blocker, nitrate, ACE inhibitors and acetylsalicylic acid. Frequency of lipid-lowering therapy prescription and its efficacy were assessed in both groups. Duration of the study was 1 year. The efficacy of interventions was evaluated by the dynamics of plasma lipid levels, results of bicycle ergometry and clinical end points.Results. We observed increase in exercise test duration by 32% (p<0.001, efficiency of heart work by 12% (p<0.05, decrease in frequency of angina attacks by 51% (p<0.001 in the main group. Decrease in total cholesterol (TC by -3.6% (p<0.05 and increase in high density lipoproteins (HDL cholesterol by 12.3% (p<0.01 were also observed. Differences in the dynamics of physical tolerance, levels of TC, HDL cholesterol and the TC/HDL cholesterol ratio were significant at intergroup comparison. Lipid-lowering drugs implementation was inadequate in both groups. Target plasma levels of low density lipoproteins (LDL cholesterol were reached in no one group. We registered less cardiovascular events in the main group in comparison with control one (14% vs 28%, respectively as well as hospitalizations due to IHD (11% vs 18%, respectively and number of days of disability (2.2 vs. 4.2 days per patient annually, respectively. Differences in mentioned clinical end point rates were significant between groups (p<0.05.Conclusion

  18. Reasons of general practitioners for not prescribing lipid-lowering medication to patients with diabetes : a qualitative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ab, Elisabeth; Denig, Petra; van Vliet, Ton; Dekker, Janny H.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Lipid-lowering medication remains underused, even in high-risk populations. The objective of this study was to determine factors underlying general practitioners' decisions not to prescribe such drugs to patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods: A qualitative study with semi-structured

  19. The lipid lowering drug lovastatin protects against doxorubicin-induced hepatotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henninger, Christian; Huelsenbeck, Johannes; Huelsenbeck, Stefanie; Grösch, Sabine; Schad, Arno; Lackner, Karl J.; Kaina, Bernd; Fritz, Gerhard

    2012-01-01

    Liver is the main detoxifying organ and therefore the target of high concentrations of genotoxic compounds, such as environmental carcinogens and anticancer drugs. Here, we investigated the usefulness of lovastatin, which is nowadays widely used for lipid lowering purpose, as a hepatoprotective drug following the administration of the anthracycline derivative doxorubicin in vivo. To this end, BALB/c mice were exposed to either a single high dose or three consecutive low doses of doxorubicin. Acute and subacute hepatotoxicities were analyzed with or without lovastatin co-treatment. Lovastatin protected the liver against doxorubicin-induced acute pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic stress responses as indicated by an attenuated mRNA expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), respectively. Hepatoprotection by lovastatin was due to a reduced induction of DNA damage following doxorubicin treatment. The statin also mitigated subacute anthracycline-provoked hepatotoxicity as shown on the level of doxorubicin- and epirubicin-stimulated CTGF mRNA expression as well as histopathologically detectable fibrosis and serum concentration of marker enzymes of hepatotoxicity (GPT/GLDH). Kidney damage following doxorubicin exposure was not detectable under our experimental conditions. Moreover, lovastatin showed multiple inhibitory effects on doxorubicin-triggered hepatic expression of genes involved in oxidative stress response, drug transport, DNA repair, cell cycle progression and cell death. Doxorubicin also stimulated the formation of ceramides. Ceramide production, however, was not blocked by lovastatin, indicating that hepatoprotection by lovastatin is independent of the sphingolipid metabolism. Overall, the data show that lovastatin is hepatoprotective following genotoxic stress induced by anthracyclines. Based on the data, we hypothesize that statins might be suitable to lower hepatic injury following anthracycline

  20. The lipid lowering drug lovastatin protects against doxorubicin-induced hepatotoxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henninger, Christian [Institute of Toxicology, University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Obere Zahlbacher Str. 67, D-55131 Mainz (Germany); Institute of Toxicology, University Duesseldorf, Medical Faculty, Universitätsstrasse 1, D-40225 Duesseldorf (Germany); Huelsenbeck, Johannes; Huelsenbeck, Stefanie [Institute of Toxicology, University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Obere Zahlbacher Str. 67, D-55131 Mainz (Germany); Grösch, Sabine [Institute of Clinical Pharmacology, Johann Wolfgang Goethe University Frankfurt, Theodor Stern Kai 7, D-60590 Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Schad, Arno [Institute of Pathology, University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Obere Zahlbacher Str. 67, D-55131 Mainz (Germany); Lackner, Karl J. [Institute of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Obere Zahlbacher Str. 67, D-55131 Mainz (Germany); Kaina, Bernd [Institute of Toxicology, University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Obere Zahlbacher Str. 67, D-55131 Mainz (Germany); Fritz, Gerhard, E-mail: fritz@uni-duesseldorf.de [Institute of Toxicology, University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Obere Zahlbacher Str. 67, D-55131 Mainz (Germany); Institute of Toxicology, University Duesseldorf, Medical Faculty, Universitätsstrasse 1, D-40225 Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2012-05-15

    Liver is the main detoxifying organ and therefore the target of high concentrations of genotoxic compounds, such as environmental carcinogens and anticancer drugs. Here, we investigated the usefulness of lovastatin, which is nowadays widely used for lipid lowering purpose, as a hepatoprotective drug following the administration of the anthracycline derivative doxorubicin in vivo. To this end, BALB/c mice were exposed to either a single high dose or three consecutive low doses of doxorubicin. Acute and subacute hepatotoxicities were analyzed with or without lovastatin co-treatment. Lovastatin protected the liver against doxorubicin-induced acute pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic stress responses as indicated by an attenuated mRNA expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), respectively. Hepatoprotection by lovastatin was due to a reduced induction of DNA damage following doxorubicin treatment. The statin also mitigated subacute anthracycline-provoked hepatotoxicity as shown on the level of doxorubicin- and epirubicin-stimulated CTGF mRNA expression as well as histopathologically detectable fibrosis and serum concentration of marker enzymes of hepatotoxicity (GPT/GLDH). Kidney damage following doxorubicin exposure was not detectable under our experimental conditions. Moreover, lovastatin showed multiple inhibitory effects on doxorubicin-triggered hepatic expression of genes involved in oxidative stress response, drug transport, DNA repair, cell cycle progression and cell death. Doxorubicin also stimulated the formation of ceramides. Ceramide production, however, was not blocked by lovastatin, indicating that hepatoprotection by lovastatin is independent of the sphingolipid metabolism. Overall, the data show that lovastatin is hepatoprotective following genotoxic stress induced by anthracyclines. Based on the data, we hypothesize that statins might be suitable to lower hepatic injury following anthracycline

  1. Reasons of general practitioners for not prescribing lipid-lowering medication to patients with diabetes: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AB Elisabeth

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lipid-lowering medication remains underused, even in high-risk populations. The objective of this study was to determine factors underlying general practitioners' decisions not to prescribe such drugs to patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods A qualitative study with semi-structured interviews using real cases was conducted to explore reasons for not prescribing lipid-lowering medication after a guideline was distributed that recommended the use of statins in most patients with type 2 diabetes. Seven interviews were conducted with general practitioners (GPs in The Netherlands, and analysed using an analytic inductive approach. Results Reasons for not-prescribing could be divided into patient and physician-attributed factors. According to the GPs, some patients do not follow-up on agreed medication and others object to taking lipid-lowering medication, partly for legitimate reasons such as expected or perceived side effects. Furthermore, the GPs themselves perceived reservations for prescribing lipid-lowering medication in patients with short life expectancy, expected compliance problems or near goal lipid levels. GPs sometimes postponed the start of treatment because of other priorities. Finally, barriers were seen in the GPs' practice organisation, and at the primary-secondary care interface. Conclusion Some of the barriers mentioned by GPs seem to be valid reasons, showing that guideline non-adherence can be quite rational. On the other hand, treatment quality could improve by addressing issues, such as lack of knowledge or motivation of both the patient and the GP. More structured management in general practice may also lead to better treatment.

  2. Ethanolic Extract of Vitis thunbergii Exhibits Lipid Lowering Properties via Modulation of the AMPK-ACC Pathway in Hypercholesterolemic Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Hsu Pan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitis thunbergii (VT is a wild grape that has been shown to provide various cardioprotective effects. The present study was designed to examine whether a VT extract could reduce serum lipid levels and prevent atherogenesis in a hypercholesterolemic rabbit model. At the end of an 8-week study, our results showed that a VT extract supplement markedly suppressed the serum levels of cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein, reduced lipid accumulation in liver tissues, and limited aortic fatty streaks. Our findings suggest that the VT extract activated AMPK (5′-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase with subsequent inhibition of the activation of ACC (acetyl-CoA carboxylase. Our results suggest that this VT extract could be further developed as a potential lipid-lowering agent and as a natural health food to prevent atherogenesis.

  3. Blood lipid peroxides and muscle damage increased following intensive resistance training of female weightlifters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jen-Fang; Chang, Wei-Yin; Chan, Kuei-Hui; Tsai, Wen-Yee; Lin, Chen-Li; Hsu, Mei-Chieh

    2005-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine changes in muscle cell injury and antioxidant capacity of weightlifters following a 1-week intensive resistance-training regimen. Thirty-six female subjects participated in this study, and their ages ranged from 18 to 25 years. The sample group included 19 elite weightlifters with more than 3 years of weightlifting training experience, while the control group comprised 17 non-athletic individuals. Compared with non-athletes, weightlifters had significantly lower glutathione peroxidase activity and plasma vitamin C concentrations. Weightlifters also had significantly higher malondialdehyde + 4-hydroxy 2-(E)-nonenal (MDA+4-HNE) and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) levels and creatine kinase (CK) activity. For weightlifters, the plasma vitamin E level and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) decreased, and CK activity increased significantly (P weightlifters (P injury in female weightlifters. Furthermore, proper rest after intensive training was found to be important for recovery.

  4. Genome-wide association of lipid-lowering response to statins in combined study populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathew J Barber

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Statins effectively lower total and plasma LDL-cholesterol, but the magnitude of decrease varies among individuals. To identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs contributing to this variation, we performed a combined analysis of genome-wide association (GWA results from three trials of statin efficacy.Bayesian and standard frequentist association analyses were performed on untreated and statin-mediated changes in LDL-cholesterol, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, and triglyceride on a total of 3932 subjects using data from three studies: Cholesterol and Pharmacogenetics (40 mg/day simvastatin, 6 weeks, Pravastatin/Inflammation CRP Evaluation (40 mg/day pravastatin, 24 weeks, and Treating to New Targets (10 mg/day atorvastatin, 8 weeks. Genotype imputation was used to maximize genomic coverage and to combine information across studies. Phenotypes were normalized within each study to account for systematic differences among studies, and fixed-effects combined analysis of the combined sample were performed to detect consistent effects across studies. Two SNP associations were assessed as having posterior probability greater than 50%, indicating that they were more likely than not to be genuinely associated with statin-mediated lipid response. SNP rs8014194, located within the CLMN gene on chromosome 14, was strongly associated with statin-mediated change in total cholesterol with an 84% probability by Bayesian analysis, and a p-value exceeding conventional levels of genome-wide significance by frequentist analysis (P = 1.8 x 10(-8. This SNP was less significantly associated with change in LDL-cholesterol (posterior probability = 0.16, P = 4.0 x 10(-6. Bayesian analysis also assigned a 51% probability that rs4420638, located in APOC1 and near APOE, was associated with change in LDL-cholesterol.Using combined GWA analysis from three clinical trials involving nearly 4,000 individuals treated with simvastatin, pravastatin, or atorvastatin, we

  5. Effect of Light Intensity for Optimum Biomass and Lipid Production from Scenedesmus dimorphus (Turpin) Kützing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurniawati, F. N.; Mahajoeno, E.; Sunarto; Sari, S. L. A.

    2017-07-01

    One source of alternative energy substitute for petroleum raw materials is renewable vegetable oils known as biodiesel. Biodiesel can be produced from microalgae, since it was more efficient and environmentally friendly. Scenedesmus dimorphus (Turpin) Kützing was developed as a source of biodiesel since it had potential of high lipid production. The aims of this research were to know the rate of growth of Scenedesmus dimorphus in different lighting and the optimimum light intensity for biomass and lipid production. This research used a completely randomized design consisting of 3 treatments with 3 replications. Treatments in this research were the light intensity, i.e. 7,500, 10,000, and 12,500 lux. Scenedesmus dimorphus was grew in Bold’s Basal Medium (BBM). Parameters observed in this research were the cell number, biomass and lipid production of S. dimorphus. Data were analyzed by ANOVA followed by DMRT 5%. The results showed that the optimum growth rate of S. dimorphus was in the intensity of 12,500 lux that was 100.80 x 106 cells.ml-1. The optimum production of biomass and lipids was in treatment 12,500 lux i.e; 1.1407 g.L-1 and 0.2520 g.L-1 (22.28% dry weight).

  6. Reduction in arterial wall strain with aggressive lipid-lowering therapy in patients with carotid artery disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yong, Li Zhi [School of Biological Science and Medical Engineering, Southeast Univ., Nanjing (China); Tang, T Y; Gillard, J H [School of Clinical Medicine, Univ. of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Fan, Jiang; Yun, Zhang [Qilu Hospital, Shandong Univ., Jinan (China)

    2011-05-15

    Inflammation and biomechanical factors have been associated with the development of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques. Lipid-lowering therapy has been shown to be effective in stabilizing them by reducing plaque inflammation. Its effect on arterial wall strain, however, remains unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of high- and low-dose lipid-lowering therapy using an HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor, atorvastatin, on arterial wall strain. Forty patients with carotid stenosis >40% were successfully followed up during the Atorvastatin Therapy: Effects on Reduction Of Macrophage Activity (ATHEROMA; ISRCTN64894118) Trial. All patients had plaque inflammation as shown by intraplaque accumulation of ultrasmall super paramagnetic particles of iron oxide on magnetic resonance imaging at baseline. Structural analysis was performed and change of strain was compared between high- and low-dose statin at 0 and 12 weeks. There was no significant difference in strain between the 2 groups at baseline (P=0.6). At 12 weeks, the maximum strain was significantly lower in the 80-mg group than in the 10-mg group (0.085{+-}0.033 vs. 0.169{+-}0.084; P=0.001). A significant reduction (26%) of maximum strain was observed in the 80-mg group at 12 weeks (0.018{+-}0.02; P=0.01). Aggressive lipid-lowering therapy is associated with a significant reduction in arterial wall strain. The reduction in biomechanical strain may be associated with reductions in plaque inflammatory burden. (author)

  7. Lipid-Lowering Activity of the Leaf Extracts of Vitex doniana in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of the aqueous and methanol extracts of Vitex doniana on serum lipid profile of cholesterol fed guinea–pigs was investigated. Intraperitoneal graded doses (50 and 100mg/kg) of the aqueous and methanol extracts of Vitex doniana (AEVD and MEVD) were administered to guinea-pigs in respective groups prior to ...

  8. EFFICACY AND SAFETY OF LIPID-LOWERING DRUGS IN PRIMARY AND SECONDARY PREVENTION OF CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES IN THE ELDERLY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Ushkalova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Effect of hyperlipidemia on morbidity and mortality in elderly patients is considered. Authors also cover issues of efficacy and safety of lipid-lowering therapy in primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular diseases in patients ≥80 years of age who are the most quickly growing group of population and have the highest cardiovascular risk. They stress the need to take into account polymorbidity and polypharmacy that increase the risk of adverse reactions due to the use of both statins and their drug-drug interactions, which requires an assessment of risk/benefit ratio. In addition, there is a need for development of reliable prognostic tools to predict relevant outcomes (e.g., stroke, decrease in functionality/independence, quality of life reduction and rationales for lipid-lowering therapy in the elderly and also their adherence to treatment.

  9. Light intensity as major factor to maximize biomass and lipid productivity of Ettlia sp. in CO2-controlled photoautotrophic chemostat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Seong-Hyun; Ha, Ji-San; Yoo, Chan; Srivastava, Ankita; Ahn, Chi-Yong; Cho, Dae-Hyun; La, Hyun-Joon; Han, Myung-Soo; Oh, Hee-Mock

    2017-11-01

    The optimal culture conditions are critical factors for high microalgal biomass and lipid productivity. To optimize the photoautotrophic culture conditions, combination of the pH (regulated by CO 2 supply), dilution rate, and light intensity was systematically investigated for Ettlia sp. YC001 cultivation in a chemostat during 143days. The biomass productivity increased with the increase in dilution rate and light intensity, but decreased with increasing pH. The average lipid content was 19.8% and statistically non-variable among the tested conditions. The highest biomass and lipid productivities were 1.48gL -1 d -1 and 291.4mgL -1 d -1 with a pH of 6.5, dilution rate of 0.78d -1 , and light intensity of 1500μmolphotonsm -2 s -1 . With a sufficient supply of CO 2 and nutrients, the light intensity was the main determinant of the photosynthetic rate. Therefore, the surface-to-volume ratio of a photobioreactor should enable efficient light distribution to enhance microalgal growth. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Parenteral nutrition including an omega-3 fatty-acid-containing lipid emulsion for intensive care patients in China: a pharmacoeconomic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Y

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Yufei Feng,1 Chao Li,1 Tian Zhang,1 Lorenzo Pradelli2 1Department of Pharmacy, Beijing Hospital, National Center of Gerontology, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 2AdRes Health Economics and Outcomes Research, Piazza Carlo Emanuele II, Torino, Italy Background/objectives: Parenteral nutrition (PN incorporating omega-3 fatty-acid-enriched lipid emulsions has been shown to be cost effective in Western populations. A pharmacoeconomic evaluation was performed within the Chinese intensive care unit (ICU setting. This assessed whether the additional acquisition cost of PN with omega-3 fatty-acid-enriched lipid emulsion (SMOFlipid vs standard PN was offset by improved clinical outcomes that can reduce subsequent costs. Materials and methods: A pharmacoeconomic discrete event simulation model was developed, based on an update to efficacy data from a previous international meta-analysis, with China-specific clinical and economic input parameters. Sensitivity analyses were undertaken to assess the effects of uncertainty around input parameters. Results: The model predicted that PN with an omega-3 fatty-acid-enriched lipid emulsion was more effective and less costly than PN with standard lipid emulsions for Chinese ICU patients, as follows: reduced length of overall hospital length of stay (19.48 vs 21.35 days, respectively, reduced length of ICU stay (5.03 vs 6.18 days, respectively, and prevention of 35.6% of nosocomial infections leading to a lower total cost per patient (¥47 189 [US $6937] vs ¥54 783 [US $8053], respectively. Additional treatment costs were offset by savings in overall hospital and ICU stay cost, and antibiotic cost, resulting in a mean cost saving of ¥7594 (US $1116 per patient. Sensitivity analyses confirmed the robustness of these findings. Conclusions: PN enriched with an omega-3 fatty-acid-containing lipid emulsion vs standard PN may be effective in reducing length of hospital and ICU stay and infectious complications in

  11. Muscle MRI STIR signal intensity and atrophy are correlated to focal lower limb neuropathy severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deroide, N; Bousson, V; Mambre, L; Vicaut, E; Laredo, J D; Kubis, Nathalie

    2015-03-01

    The objective is to determine if muscle MRI is useful for assessing neuropathy severity. Clinical, MRI and electromyography (EMG) examinations were performed in 17 patients with focal lower limb neuropathies. MRI Short Tau Inversion Recovery (STIR) signal intensity, amyotrophy, and muscle fatty infiltration measured after T1-weighted image acquisition, EMG spontaneous activity (SA), and maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) were graded using semiquantitative scores and quantitative scores for STIR signal intensity and were correlated to the Medical Research Council (MRC) score for testing muscle strength. Within this population, subgroups were selected according to severity (mild versus severe), duration (subacute versus chronic), and topography (distal versus proximal) of the neuropathy. EMG SA and MVC MRI amyotrophy and quantitative scoring of muscle STIR intensity were correlated with the MRC score. Moreover, MRI amyotrophy was significantly increased in severe, chronic, and proximal neuropathies along with fatty infiltration in chronic lesions. Muscle MRI atrophy and quantitative evaluation of signal intensity were correlated to MRC score in our study. Semiquantitative evaluation of muscle STIR signal was sensitive enough for detection of topography of the nerve lesion but was not suitable to assess severity. Muscle MRI could support EMG in chronic and proximal neuropathy, which showed poor sensitivity in these patients.

  12. Muscle MRI STIR signal intensity and atrophy are correlated to focal lower limb neuropathy severity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deroide, N.; Mambre, L.; Kubis, Nathalie [Service de Physiologie Clinique-Explorations Fonctionnelles, AP-HP, Hopital Lariboisiere, Paris (France); Universite Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite France, Paris (France); Bousson, V.; Laredo, J.D. [Universite Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite France, Paris (France); Radiologie Osteo-articulaire, AP-HP, Hopital Lariboisiere, Paris (France); Vicaut, E. [Universite Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite France, Paris (France); URC, AP-HP, Hopital Lariboisiere, Paris (France)

    2014-09-26

    The objective is to determine if muscle MRI is useful for assessing neuropathy severity. Clinical, MRI and electromyography (EMG) examinations were performed in 17 patients with focal lower limb neuropathies. MRI Short Tau Inversion Recovery (STIR) signal intensity, amyotrophy, and muscle fatty infiltration measured after T1-weighted image acquisition, EMG spontaneous activity (SA), and maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) were graded using semiquantitative scores and quantitative scores for STIR signal intensity and were correlated to the Medical Research Council (MRC) score for testing muscle strength. Within this population, subgroups were selected according to severity (mild versus severe), duration (subacute versus chronic), and topography (distal versus proximal) of the neuropathy. EMG SA and MVC MRI amyotrophy and quantitative scoring of muscle STIR intensity were correlated with the MRC score. Moreover, MRI amyotrophy was significantly increased in severe, chronic, and proximal neuropathies along with fatty infiltration in chronic lesions. Muscle MRI atrophy and quantitative evaluation of signal intensity were correlated to MRC score in our study. Semiquantitative evaluation of muscle STIR signal was sensitive enough for detection of topography of the nerve lesion but was not suitable to assess severity. Muscle MRI could support EMG in chronic and proximal neuropathy, which showed poor sensitivity in these patients. (orig.)

  13. The determinants of cost-effectiveness potential: an historical perspective on lipid-lowering therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refoios Camejo, Rodrigo; McGrath, Clare; Miraldo, Marisa; Rutten, Frans

    2013-05-01

    The concept of cost effectiveness emerged in an attempt to link the prices of new healthcare technologies to the immediate value they provide, with payers defining the acceptable cost per unit of incremental effect over the alternatives available. It has been suggested that such measures allow developers to assess potential market profitability in an early stage of development, but may result in discouraging investment in efficient research if not used appropriately. The objective of this study is to identify the pattern of the factors determining cost effectiveness and assess the evolution of cost-effectiveness potential for drugs in development using lipid-lowering therapy as a case study. The study is based on observational clinical and market data covering a 20-year period (from 1990 to 2010) in the UK. Real-life clinical data including total cholesterol laboratory test results were extracted from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) and are used to illustrate how the clinical effectiveness of existing standard care changed over time in patients managed in clinical practice. Prescription Cost Analysis (PCA) data were extracted and the average price of the drug mix used was computed throughout the study period. Using this information, the maximum clinical benefit and cost savings to be had were estimated for each year of the analysis using a cost-effectiveness model. Subsequently, the highest price a new technology providing the maximum clinical effectiveness possible (i.e. eliminating cardiovascular risk from high cholesterol levels) could achieve under current cost-effectiveness rules was calculated and used as a measure of the potential cost effectiveness of drugs in development. The results in this study show that the total cholesterol values of patients managed in clinical practice moved steadily towards recommended clinical targets. Overall, the absolute potential for incremental health-related quality of life decreased by approximately 78

  14. Blooming reduces the antioxidant capacity of dark chocolate in rats without lowering its capacity to improve lipid profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadwell, Naomi; Villalobos, Fatima; Kern, Mark; Hong, Mee Young

    2013-05-01

    Dark chocolate contains high levels of antioxidants which are linked to a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. Chocolate blooming occurs after exposure to high temperatures. Although bloomed chocolate is safe for human consumption, it is not known whether or not the biological function of bloomed chocolate is affected. We hypothesized that bloomed chocolate would reduce the antioxidant potential and lipid-lowering properties of chocolate through altered expression of related genes. Thirty Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 3 groups and fed either the control (CON), regular dark chocolate (RDC), or bloomed dark chocolate (BDC) diet. After 3 weeks, serum lipid levels and antioxidant capacity were measured. Hepatic expression of key genes was determined by real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Sensory characteristics of bloomed versus regular chocolate were assessed in 28 semi-trained panelists. Rats fed RDC exhibited greater serum antioxidant capacities compared to the CON (P chocolate compared to bloomed chocolate (P chocolate, these results suggest that bloomed dark chocolate yields similarly beneficial effects on most blood lipid parameters or biomarkers. However, regular dark chocolate may be more beneficial for the improvement of antioxidant status and modulation of gene expression involved in lipid metabolism and promoted greater sensory ratings. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Loss of spatacsin function alters lysosomal lipid clearance leading to upper and lower motor neuron degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branchu, Julien; Boutry, Maxime; Sourd, Laura; Depp, Marine; Leone, Céline; Corriger, Alexandrine; Vallucci, Maeva; Esteves, Typhaine; Matusiak, Raphaël; Dumont, Magali; Muriel, Marie-Paule; Santorelli, Filippo M; Brice, Alexis; El Hachimi, Khalid Hamid; Stevanin, Giovanni; Darios, Frédéric

    2017-06-01

    Mutations in SPG11 account for the most common form of autosomal recessive hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP), characterized by a gait disorder associated with various brain alterations. Mutations in the same gene are also responsible for rare forms of Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease and progressive juvenile-onset amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). To elucidate the physiopathological mechanisms underlying these human pathologies, we disrupted the Spg11 gene in mice by inserting stop codons in exon 32, mimicking the most frequent mutations found in patients. The Spg11 knockout mouse developed early-onset motor impairment and cognitive deficits. These behavioral deficits were associated with progressive brain atrophy with the loss of neurons in the primary motor cortex, cerebellum and hippocampus, as well as with accumulation of dystrophic axons in the corticospinal tract. Spinal motor neurons also degenerated and this was accompanied by fragmentation of neuromuscular junctions and muscle atrophy. This new Spg11 knockout mouse therefore recapitulates the full range of symptoms associated with SPG11 mutations observed in HSP, ALS and CMT patients. Examination of the cellular alterations observed in this model suggests that the loss of spatacsin leads to the accumulation of lipids in lysosomes by perturbing their clearance from these organelles. Altogether, our results link lysosomal dysfunction and lipid metabolism to neurodegeneration and pinpoint a critical role of spatacsin in lipid turnover. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Lipid-lowering effect of bergamot polyphenolic fraction: role of pancreatic cholesterol ester hydrolase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musolino, V; Gliozzi, M; Carresi, C; Maiuolo, J; Mollace, R; Bosco, F; Scarano, F; Scicchitano, M; Maretta, A; Palma, E; Iannone, M; Morittu, V M; Gratteri, S; Muscoli, C; Fini, M; Mollace, V

    2017-01-01

    Bergamot polyphenolic fraction (BPF) has been shown to positively modulate several mechanisms involved in metabolic syndrome, suggesting its use in therapy. In particular, it is able to induce a significant amelioration of serum lipid profile in hyperlipemic patients at different levels. The purpose of our study was to investigate the effect of BPF on cholesterol absorption physiologically mediated by pancreatic cholesterol ester hydrolase (pCEH). An in vitro activity assay was performed to study the effect of BPF on pCEH, whereas the rate of cholesterol absorption was evaluated through in vivo studies. In particular, male, Sprague-Dawley rats (200–225 g) were fed either normal chow or chow supplemented with 0.5% cholic acid, 5.5% peanut oil, and varying amounts of cholesterol (0 to 1.5%). BPF (10 mg/Kg) was daily administrated by means of a gastric gavage to animals fed with lipid supplemented diet for 4 weeks and, at the end of the study, plasma lipids and liver cholesteryl esters were measured in all experimental groups. Our results show that BPF was able to inhibit pCEH activity and this effect was confirmed, in vivo, via detection of lymphatic cholesteryl ester in rats fed with a cholesterol-rich diet. This evidence clarifies a further mechanism responsible for the hypolipemic properties of BPF previously observed in humans, confirming its beneficial effect in the therapy of hypercholesterolemia and in the treatment of metabolic syndrome.

  17. Cellular Stress Response Gene Expression During Upper and Lower Body High Intensity Exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochanowicz, Andrzej; Sawczyn, Stanisław; Niespodziński, Bartłomiej; Mieszkowski, Jan; Kochanowicz, Kazimierz; Żychowska, Małgorzata

    2017-01-01

    The aim was to compare the effect of upper and lower body high-intensity exercise on chosen genes expression in athletes and non-athletes. Fourteen elite male artistic gymnasts (EAG) aged 20.6 ± 3.3 years and 14 physically active men (PAM) aged 19.9 ± 1.0 years performed lower and upper body 30 s Wingate Tests. Blood samples were collected before, 5 and 30 minutes after each effort to assess gene expression via PCR. Significantly higher mechanical parameters after lower body exercise was observed in both groups, for relative power (8.7 ± 1.2 W/kg in gymnasts, 7.2 ± 1.2 W/kg in controls, p = 0.01) and mean power (6.7 ± 0.7 W/kg in gymnasts, 5.4 ± 0.8 W/kg in controls, p = 0.01). No differences in lower versus upper body gene expression were detected for all tested genes as well as between gymnasts and physical active man. For IL-6 m-RNA time-dependent effect was observed. Because of no significant differences in expression of genes associated with cellular stress response the similar adaptive effect to exercise may be obtained so by lower and upper body exercise.

  18. Intense lower-hybrid wave penetration and current drive in reactor-grade plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, R.H.; Rognlien, T.D; Bonoli, P.T.; Porkolab, M.

    1990-01-01

    Apply lower-hybrid power in short, intense pulses can overcome Landau damping, allowing penetration into the core of reactor-grade plasmas. We present a theoretical description of the absorption and parametric stability of the pulses, and show results of ray-tracing calculations which include the absorption calculation. Consideration of the absorption and potential source availability lead to the consideration of 5--10 GW peak power, 30--100 μs pulses for ITER, and ∼ 2 MW, 20 μs pulses for a proof-of-principle experiment in the Microwave Tokamak Experiment (MTX)

  19. Intense lower-hybrid wave penetration and current drive in reactor-grade plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, R.H.; Rognlien, T.D (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA)); Bonoli, P.T.; Porkolab, M. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (USA). Plasma Fusion Center)

    1990-01-01

    Apply lower-hybrid power in short, intense pulses can overcome Landau damping, allowing penetration into the core of reactor-grade plasmas. We present a theoretical description of the absorption and parametric stability of the pulses, and show results of ray-tracing calculations which include the absorption calculation. Consideration of the absorption and potential source availability lead to the consideration of 5--10 GW peak power, 30--100 {mu}s pulses for ITER, and {approximately} 2 MW, 20 {mu}s pulses for a proof-of-principle experiment in the Microwave Tokamak Experiment (MTX).

  20. Favorable effect of optimal lipid-lowering therapy on neointimal tissue characteristics after drug-eluting stent implantation: qualitative optical coherence tomographic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Ji-Yong; Kim, Jung-Sun; Shin, Dong-Ho; Kim, Byeong-Keuk; Ko, Young-Guk; Choi, Donghoon; Jang, Yangsoo; Hong, Myeong-Ki

    2015-10-01

    Serial follow-up optical coherence tomography (OCT) was used to evaluate the effect of optimal lipid-lowering therapy on qualitative changes in neointimal tissue characteristics after drug-eluting stent (DES) implantation. DES-treated patients (n = 218) who received statin therapy were examined with serial follow-up OCT. First and second follow-up OCT evaluations were performed approximately 6 and 18 months after the index procedure, respectively. Patients were divided into two groups, based on the level of low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), which was measured at the second follow-up. The optimal lipid-lowering group (n = 121) had an LDL-C reduction of ≥50% or an LDL-C level ≤70 mg/dL, and the conventional group (n = 97). Neointimal characteristics were qualitatively categorized as homogeneous or non-homogeneous patterns using OCT. The non-homogeneous group included heterogeneous, layered, or neoatherosclerosis patterns. Qualitative changes in neointimal tissue characteristics between the first and second follow-up OCT examinations were assessed. Between the first and second follow-up OCT procedures, the neointimal cross-sectional area increased more substantially in the conventional group (0.4 mm(2) vs. 0.2 mm(2) in the optimal lipid-lowering group, p = 0.01). The neointimal pattern changed from homogeneous to non-homogeneous less often in the optimal lipid-lowering group (1.3%, 1/77, p < 0.001) than in the conventional group (15.3%, 11/72, p = 0.44). Optimal LDL-C reduction was an independent predictor for the prevention of neointimal pattern change from homogeneous to non-homogeneous (odds ratio: 0.05, 95% confidence interval: 0.01∼0.46, p = 0.008). Our findings suggest that an intensive reduction in LDL-C levels can prevent non-homogeneous changes in the neointima and increases in neointimal cross-sectional area compared with conventional LDL-C controls. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. LIPID PRODUCTION BY DUNALIELLA SALINA IN BATCH CULTURE: EFFECTS OF NITROGEN LIMITATION AND LIGHT INTENSITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weldy, C.S.; Huesemann, M.

    2007-01-01

    Atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations are increasing and may cause unknown deleterious environmental effects if left unchecked. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has predicted in its latest report a 2°C to 4°C increase in global temperatures even with the strictest CO2 mitigation practices. Global warming can be attributed in large part to the burning of carbon-based fossil fuels, as the concentration of atmospheric CO2 is directly related to the burning of fossil fuels. Biofuels which do not add CO2 to the atmosphere are presently generated primarily from terrestrial plants, i.e., ethanol from corn grain and biodiesel from soybean oil. The production of biofuels from terrestrial plants is severely limited by the availability of fertile land. Lipid production from microalgae and its corresponding biodiesel production have been studied since the late 1970s but large scale production has remained economically infeasible due to the large costs of sterile growing conditions required for many algal species. This study focuses on the potential of the halophilic microalgae species Dunaliella salina as a source of lipids and subsequent biodiesel production. The lipid production rates under high light and low light as well as nitrogen suffi cient and nitrogen defi cient culture conditions were compared for D. salina cultured in replicate photobioreactors. The results show (a) cellular lipid content ranging from 16 to 44% (wt), (b) a maximum culture lipid concentration of 450mg lipid/L, and (c) a maximum integrated lipid production rate of 46mg lipid/L culture*day. The high amount of lipids produced suggests that D. salina, which can be mass-cultured in non-sterile outdoor ponds, has strong potential to be an economically valuable source for renewable oil and biodiesel production.

  2. Effect of Lower and Upper Body High Intensity Training on Genes Associated with Cellular Stress Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żychowska, Małgorzata; Kochanowicz, Andrzej; Kochanowicz, Kazimierz; Mieszkowski, Jan; Niespodziński, Bartłomiej; Sawczyn, Stanisław

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the effect of upper and lower body high intensity exercise (HIE) on select gene expression in athletes. Fourteen elite male artistic gymnasts (age 20.9 ± 2.6 years; weight 68.6 ± 7.2 kg; fat free mass 63.6 ± 6.7 kg; height 1.70 ± 0.04 m) performed lower and upper body 30 s Wingate Tests (WAnTs) before and after eight weeks of specific HIIT. Two milliliters of blood was collected before and after (5, 30 min, resp.) lower and upper body WAnTs, and select gene expression was determined by PCR. Eight weeks of HIIT caused a significant increase in maximal power (722 to 751 Wat), relative peak power in the lower body WAnTs (10.1 to 11 W/kg), mean power (444 to 464 W), and relative mean power (6.5 to 6.8 W/kg). No significant differences in lower versus upper body gene expression were detected after HIIT, and a significant decrease in the IL6/IL10 ratio was observed after lower (-2 ∧ 0.57 p = 0.0019) and upper (-2 ∧ 0.5 p = 0.03) WAnTs following eight weeks of HIIT. It is hypothesized that a similar adaptive response to exercise may be obtained by lower and upper body exercise.

  3. Effect of Lower and Upper Body High Intensity Training on Genes Associated with Cellular Stress Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Żychowska

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to compare the effect of upper and lower body high intensity exercise (HIE on select gene expression in athletes. Fourteen elite male artistic gymnasts (age 20.9±2.6 years; weight 68.6±7.2 kg; fat free mass 63.6±6.7 kg; height 1.70±0.04 m performed lower and upper body 30 s Wingate Tests (WAnTs before and after eight weeks of specific HIIT. Two milliliters of blood was collected before and after (5, 30 min, resp. lower and upper body WAnTs, and select gene expression was determined by PCR. Eight weeks of HIIT caused a significant increase in maximal power (722 to 751 Wat, relative peak power in the lower body WAnTs (10.1 to 11 W/kg, mean power (444 to 464 W, and relative mean power (6.5 to 6.8 W/kg. No significant differences in lower versus upper body gene expression were detected after HIIT, and a significant decrease in the IL6/IL10 ratio was observed after lower (−2∧0.57 p=0.0019 and upper (−2∧0.5 p=0.03 WAnTs following eight weeks of HIIT. It is hypothesized that a similar adaptive response to exercise may be obtained by lower and upper body exercise.

  4. Reduction in arterial wall strain with aggressive lipid-lowering therapy in patients with carotid artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zhi Yong; Tang, T.Y.; Gillard, J.H.; Jiang Fan; Zhang Yun

    2011-01-01

    Inflammation and biomechanical factors have been associated with the development of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques. Lipid-lowering therapy has been shown to be effective in stabilizing them by reducing plaque inflammation. Its effect on arterial wall strain, however, remains unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of high- and low-dose lipid-lowering therapy using an HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor, atorvastatin, on arterial wall strain. Forty patients with carotid stenosis >40% were successfully followed up during the Atorvastatin Therapy: Effects on Reduction Of Macrophage Activity (ATHEROMA; ISRCTN64894118) Trial. All patients had plaque inflammation as shown by intraplaque accumulation of ultrasmall super paramagnetic particles of iron oxide on magnetic resonance imaging at baseline. Structural analysis was performed and change of strain was compared between high- and low-dose statin at 0 and 12 weeks. There was no significant difference in strain between the 2 groups at baseline (P=0.6). At 12 weeks, the maximum strain was significantly lower in the 80-mg group than in the 10-mg group (0.085±0.033 vs. 0.169±0.084; P=0.001). A significant reduction (26%) of maximum strain was observed in the 80-mg group at 12 weeks (0.018±0.02; P=0.01). Aggressive lipid-lowering therapy is associated with a significant reduction in arterial wall strain. The reduction in biomechanical strain may be associated with reductions in plaque inflammatory burden. (author)

  5. Relationship between Lipid Phenotypes, Overweight, Lipid Lowering Drug Response and KIF6 and HMG-CoA Genotypes in a Subset of the Brisighella Heart Study Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Angelini

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The existence of genetic traits might explain the susceptibility to develop hypercholesterolemia and the inter-individual differences in statin response. This study was performed to evaluate whether individuals’ polymorphisms in HMG-CoA and KIF6 genes are independently associated with hypercholesterolemia, other lipid-associated traits, and statin response in unselected individuals enrolled in the Brisighella heart study (Survey 2012. A total of 1622 individuals, of which 183 under statin medication, were genotyped for a total of five polymorphisms (KIF6 rs20455, rs9471077, rs9462535; HMG-CoA rs3761740, rs3846662. The relationships between the five loci and clinical characteristics were analyzed. The principal basic parameters calculated on 12 h fasting blood included total cholesterol (TC, High Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (HDL-C, Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (LDL-C, and triglycerides (TG. Hypercholesterolemia was defined as a TC >200 mg/dL or use of lipid-lowering medication. 965 individuals were characterized by hypercholesterolemia; these subjects were significantly older (p < 0.001, with body mass index (BMI and waist circumference significantly higher (p < 0.001 compared to the others. HMG-CoA rs3846662 GG genotype was significantly over-represented in the hypercholesterolemic group (p = 0.030. HMG-CoA rs3846662 genotype was associated with the level of TC and LDL-C. Furthermore, in the same subset of untreated subjects, we observed a significant correlation between the KIF6 rs20455 and HDL-C. KIF6 variants were associated with a significantly lower (rs20455 or higher (rs9471077 and rs9462535 risk of obesity, in males only. No association between responsiveness to statins and the polymorphisms under investigation were observed. Our results showed associations between HMG-CoA rs3846662 and KIF6 rs20455 and lipid phenotypes, which may have an influence on dyslipidemia-related events. Moreover, this represents the first study

  6. Consultation and management of patients with lipid disorders: importance of life-style changes and intensive follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karwacki-Marugg, Claire L; Schnatz, J David

    2006-03-01

    The purpose was to compare long-term involvement (LTI) vs short-term involvement (STI) of patients in a Lipid Education Service (LES) and to assess the effects of life-style changes. Patients were referred for LTI and STI by their physicians. Three-hundred eighty-one consecutive patients, 287 LTI and 94 STI, were analyzed. The lipids in LTI patients were all significantly improved. Sixty-six percent of all LDL values were at goal as were 77% of HDL and 62% of triglyceride (NCEP-II criteria). Sixty-two percent of LDL values in coronary artery disease patients were at goal contrasted to a reported range of 9.6%-71%. Life-style changes made significant differences in the percentage of patients at lipid goals. In postprogram follow-up there were significant differences between LTI and STI patients. The LTI patients did much better in improving lipid levels at postprogram follow-up than did STI patients. These results demonstrate the importance of making life-style changes as well as the importance of intensive efforts in achieving meaningful and lasting change.

  7. Effect of intensive lipid-lowering treatment compared to moderate lipid-lowering treatment with rosuvastatin on endothelial function in high risk patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egede, Rasmus; Jensen, Lisette Okkels; Hansen, Henrik Steen

    2011-01-01

    on the endothelial function evaluated with endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent flow-mediated dilatation (FMD). METHODS: 87 Statin-naive patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) were randomized to 5mg or 40mg rosuvastatin. The FMD was assessed at baseline, 6months and after 12...

  8. Zonal differences in the distribution and morphology of lipid droplets using 4-amino-pyrazolo-(3,4 d) pyrimidine to lower cholesterol level in the rat adrenal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, D; Somogyi, J; Acs, Z; Mihály, K

    1980-01-01

    The effect of reduced blood and adrenal cholesterol levels on adrenocortical lipid droplets have been examined by treating adult rats with 4-amino-pyrazolo-(3,4 d) pyrimidine (4-APP), a drug that inhibits hepatic secretion of lipoproteins. Lowering the blood cholesterol level and the cholesterol content of the adrenals was associated with a marked reduction in the lipid droplets and with a simultaneous increase in their electron density in the inner cortical zones. In the zona glomerulosa cells, no perceptible differences were found in the quantity and morphology of lipid droplets. These data suggest that reduced blood and adrenal cholesterol levels do not affect lipids located in the zona glomerulosa and in the inner cortical zones in the same way, probably due to differences in their intracellular lipid dynamism. Noteworthy, that in spite of the marked lipid depletion, the adrenal glands retained their responsiveness to ACTH stimulation.

  9. A Systematic Review of Cardiovascular Outcomes-Based Cost-Effectiveness Analyses of Lipid-Lowering Therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Ching-Yun; Quek, Ruben G W; Villa, Guillermo; Gandra, Shravanthi R; Forbes, Carol A; Ryder, Steve; Armstrong, Nigel; Deshpande, Sohan; Duffy, Steven; Kleijnen, Jos; Lindgren, Peter

    2017-03-01

    Previous reviews have evaluated economic analyses of lipid-lowering therapies using lipid levels as surrogate markers for cardiovascular disease. However, drug approval and health technology assessment agencies have stressed that surrogates should only be used in the absence of clinical endpoints. The aim of this systematic review was to identify and summarise the methodologies, weaknesses and strengths of economic models based on atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease event rates. Cost-effectiveness evaluations of lipid-lowering therapies using cardiovascular event rates in adults with hyperlipidaemia were sought in Medline, Embase, Medline In-Process, PubMed and NHS EED and conference proceedings. Search results were independently screened, extracted and quality checked by two reviewers. Searches until February 2016 retrieved 3443 records, from which 26 studies (29 publications) were selected. Twenty-two studies evaluated secondary prevention (four also assessed primary prevention), two considered only primary prevention and two included mixed primary and secondary prevention populations. Most studies (18) based treatment-effect estimates on single trials, although more recent evaluations deployed meta-analyses (5/10 over the last 10 years). Markov models (14 studies) were most commonly used and only one study employed discrete event simulation. Models varied particularly in terms of health states and treatment-effect duration. No studies used a systematic review to obtain utilities. Most studies took a healthcare perspective (21/26) and sourced resource use from key trials instead of local data. Overall, reporting quality was suboptimal. This review reveals methodological changes over time, but reporting weaknesses remain, particularly with respect to transparency of model reporting.

  10. Evaluation of phenolic compounds and lipid-lowering effect of Morus nigra leaves extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANA LÚCIA B. ZENI

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Morus nigra L. (Moraceae is a tree known as black mulberry and the leaves are used in folk medicine in the treatment of diabetes, high cholesterol and menopause symptoms. The aim of this study was to evaluate the M. nigra leaves phytochemical profile in different extractions and the hypolipidemic effect of the infusion comparing to the fenofibrate. Morus nigra infusion (MN showed higher amounts of phenolics and flavonoids (83.85 mg/g and 79.96 µg/g, respectively, as well as antioxidant activity (83.85% than decoction or hydromethanolic extracts. Although, decoction showed the best result for ascorbic acid (4.35 mg/100 g than hydromethanolic or infusion (2.51 or 2.13 mg/100 g, respectively. The phenolic acids gallic, chlorogenic and caffeic and the flavonoids quercetin, rutin and catechin were found in the M. nigra extracts. Hyperlipidemic rats treated with 100, 200 or 400 mg/kg of MN decreased serum cholesterol, triglycerides and normalized lipoproteins. Furthermore, MN inhibited lipid peroxidation in liver, kidney and brain of hyperlipidemic rats. This study provides evidence that M. nigra leaves extracts are rich in polyphenols, mainly chlorogenic acid, which normalized hyperlipidemic disturbance. The results suggest a potential therapeutic effect of the M. nigra leaves infusion on dislipidemic condition and related oxidative stress.

  11. [Lipids and cerebrovascular disease - New therapeutic options in lowering LDL-cholesterol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovadi, Emese; Csécsei, Péter; Lovig, Csenge; Karádi, Zsófia; Szapáry, László

    2016-12-01

    Stroke is the third most common cause of death worldwide following myocardial infaction and malignancies, furthermore, its functional outcome is the worst of all conditions. Cholesterol, especially LDL-cholesterol plays a key role in the formation of atherosclerotic plaques. It has been verified recently that escalating incidence and mortality of cerebrovascular diseases are proportional to increased levels of LDL-cholesterol. Statin therapy undeniably reduces the risk of stroke, however other methods for decreasing lipid levels have not been proved significantly effective. Preventive effect of high-dose statin treatment is without doubt, although administration of such high dosage might require special precautions for patients with prior intracerebral hemorrhage and it also risks development of incident diabetes. The recently published IMPROVE-IT study is the first to prove that the addition of ezetimibe as a non-statin type drug, to statin treatment contributes to further reduction of LDL-cholesterol. The combination treatment results in additional decrease in the incidence and mortality of cerebrovascular events, without any expansion in the number or adverse effects. These results confirm the importance of any further reduction of LDL-cholesterol levels. Achieving target values with statin-ezetimibe combination allows administration of low to moderate dose of statin, which decreases risks of adverse effects related to high-dose statin therapy. Orv. Hetil., 2016, 157(52), 2059-2065.

  12. The Lipid Lowering and Cardioprotective Effects of Vernonia calvoana Ethanol Extract in Acetaminophen-Treated Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godwin Eneji Egbung

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Paracetamol overdose/abuse as a result of self-medication is a common occurrence amongst people living in low/middle income countries. The present study was designed to investigate the hypolipidemic and cardioprotective potentials of Vernonia calvoana (VC ethanol extract in acetaminophen (paracetamol-treated rats. Methods: Thirty-five Wistar rats weighing 100–150 g were randomly assigned into five groups of seven rats each. Groups 2–5 received high doses of paracetamol to induce liver damage, while group 1 was used as normal control. Afterwards, they were allowed to receive varying doses of VC (group 3 and 4 or vitamin E (group 5, whilst groups 1 and 2 were left untreated. The treatment period lasted for twenty one days after which sera were harvested and assayed for serum lipid indices using standard methods. Results: Groups 3 to 5 treated animals indicated significant decrease (p < 0.001 in low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c, total cholesterol (TC and triacylglycerol (TG levels relative to the normal and acetaminophen-treated controls, the atherogenic index showed a significant decrease (p < 0.001 in all treated groups compared with normal and acetaminophen-treated controls. However, the VC- and vitamin E-treated groups showed significant (p < 0.001 increase in high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C relative to the controls. Conclusions: Data from our study suggest that ethanol leaf extract of VC possesses probable hypolipidemic and cardioprotective effects.

  13. Assessment of serum lipid metabolism index and cytokine levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus complicated by coronary heart disease after telmisartan combined with lipid-lowering drug treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Wang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the effect of telmisartan combined with lipid-lowering drug therapy on serum lipid metabolism index and cytokine levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus complicated by coronary heart disease. Methods: A total of 106 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus complicated by coronary heart disease who were treated in our hospital between September 2013 and October 2016 were collected and then divided into the control group (n=55 who received conventional treatment + lipid-lowering drug treatment and the observation group (n=51 who received conventional treatment + lipid-lowering drug + telmisartan treatment after the therapies were reviewed. Before and after treatment, serum levels of lipid metabolism indexes, inflammatory mediators and oxidative stress indexes were compared between two groups of patients. Results: Before treatment, the differences in serum levels of lipid metabolism indexes, inflammatory mediators and oxidative stress indexes were not statistically significant between two groups of patients. After treatment, serum TG and LDL-C levels in observation group were lower than those in control group while HDL-C level was higher than that in control group; serum inflammatory mediators IL-6, IL-8, HMGB1 and TNF-α levels were lower than those in control group; serum oxidative stress indexes MDA and ROS levels were lower than those in control group while GSH-Px level was higher than that in control group. Conclusion: Telmisartan combined with lipid-lowering drug therapy can effectively optimize the lipid metabolism and reduce the systemic inflammatory response and oxidative stress response in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus complicated by coronary heart disease.

  14. The Anglo-Scandinavian Cardiac Outcomes Trial lipid lowering arm: extended observations 2 years after trial closure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sever, Peter S; Poulter, Neil R; Dahlof, Bjorn

    2008-01-01

    Aims To determine the cardiovascular benefits in those originally assigned atorvastatin in the Anglo-Scandinavian Cardiac Outcomes Trial-2.2 years after closure of the lipid-lowering arm of the trial (ASCOT-LLA). Methods and results The Blood Pressure Lowering Arm of the ASCOT trial (ASCOT......-BPLA) compared two different antihypertensive treatment strategies on cardiovascular outcomes. ASCOT-LLA was a double-blind placebo-controlled trial of atorvastatin in those enrolled into ASCOT-BPLA with total cholesterol concentrations at baseline of ... enrolled in ASCOT-BPLA and 10 305 were further assigned either atorvastatin, 10 mg, or placebo. ASCOT-LLA was stopped prematurely after a median 3.3 years follow-up because of substantial cardiovascular benefits in those assigned atorvastatin. Trial physicians were invited to offer atorvastatin to all...

  15. Patient factors influencing the prescribing of lipid lowering drugs for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease in UK general practice: a national retrospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhua Wu

    Full Text Available Guidelines indicate eligibility for lipid lowering drugs, but it is not known to what extent GPs' follow guidelines in routine clinical practice or whether additional clinical factors systematically influence their prescribing decisions.A retrospective cohort analysis was undertaken using electronic primary care records from 421 UK general practices. At baseline (May 2008 patients were aged 30 to 74 years, free from cardiovascular disease and not taking lipid lowering drugs. The outcome was prescription of a lipid lowering drug within the next two years. The proportions of eligible and ineligible patients prescribed lipid lowering drugs were reported and multivariable logistic regression models were used to investigate associations between age, sex, cardiovascular risk factors and prescribing.Of 365,718 patients with complete data, 13.8% (50,558 were prescribed lipid lowering drugs: 28.5% (21,101/74,137 of those eligible and 10.1% (29,457/291,581 of those ineligible. Only 41.7% (21,101/50,558 of those prescribed lipid lowering drugs were eligible. In multivariable analysis prescribing was most strongly associated with increasing age (OR for age ≥ 65 years 4.21; 95% CI 4.05-4.39; diabetes (OR 4.49; 95% CI 4.35-4.64; total cholesterol level ≥ 7 mmol/L (OR 2.20; 95% CI 2.12-2.29; and ≥ 4 blood pressure measurements in the past year (OR 4.24; 95% CI 4.06-4.42. The predictors were similar in eligible and ineligible patients.Most lipid lowering drugs for primary prevention are prescribed to ineligible patients. There is underuse of lipid lowering drugs in eligible patients.

  16. Sesamol, a lipid lowering agent, ameliorates aluminium chloride induced behavioral and biochemical alterations in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Jessy; Nampoothiri, Madhavan; Kumar, Nitesh; Mudgal, Jayesh; Nampurath, Gopalan Kutty; Chamallamudi, Mallikarjuna Rao

    2015-01-01

    Sesame oil from the seeds of Sesamum indicum Linn. (Pedaliaceae) has been used traditionally in Indian medical practice of Ayurveda in the treatment of central nervous system disorders and insomnia. A few published reports favor the anti-dementia effect of sesamol (SML), an active constituent of sesame oil. Thus, the present study was aimed to explore the anti-dementia effect and possible mechanism (s) of SML in aluminium chloride (AlCl3)-induced cognitive dysfunction model in rodents with special emphasis on memory centers viz., hippocampus and frontal cortex. Male Wistar rats were exposed to AlCl3 (175 mg/kg p.o.) for 60 days. SML (10 and 20 mg/kg) and rivastigmine (1 mg/kg) were administered orally 45 min before administration of AlCl3 for 60 days. Spatial memory was assessed using Morris water maze test. After 60 days of treatment animals were sacrificed, hippocampus and frontal cortex were collected and analyzed for acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) level, antioxidant enzymes (Glutathione, catalase), lipid peroxidation, and nitrite level. The circulating triglycerides, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels were also analyzed. SML significantly prevented behavioral impairments in aluminium-exposed rats. Treatment with SML reversed the increased cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL while raised the HDL levels. SML significantly corrected the effect of AlCl3 on AChE activity. Further, SML reversed the elevated nitric oxide, TNF-α and reduced antioxidant enzymes in hippocampus and frontal cortex. The present study suggests the neuro-protection by SML against cognitive dysfunction induced by environmental toxin (AlCl3) in hippocampus and frontal cortex.

  17. Bone marrow endothelial progenitors augment atherosclerotic plaque regression in a mouse model of plasma lipid lowering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Longbiao; Heuser-Baker, Janet; Herlea-Pana, Oana; Iida, Ryuji; Wang, Qilong; Zou, Ming-Hui; Barlic-Dicen, Jana

    2012-01-01

    The major event initiating atherosclerosis is hypercholesterolemia-induced disruption of vascular endothelium integrity. In settings of endothelial damage, endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are mobilized from bone marrow into circulation and home to sites of vascular injury where they aid endothelial regeneration. Given the beneficial effects of EPCs in vascular repair, we hypothesized that these cells play a pivotal role in atherosclerosis regression. We tested our hypothesis in the atherosclerosis-prone mouse model in which hypercholesterolemia, one of the main factors affecting EPC homeostasis, is reversible (Reversa mice). In these mice normalization of plasma lipids decreased atherosclerotic burden; however, plaque regression was incomplete. To explore whether endothelial progenitors contribute to atherosclerosis regression, bone marrow EPCs from a transgenic strain expressing green fluorescent protein under the control of endothelial cell-specific Tie2 promoter (Tie2-GFP+) were isolated. These cells were then adoptively transferred into atheroregressing Reversa recipients where they augmented plaque regression induced by reversal of hypercholesterolemia. Advanced plaque regression correlated with engraftment of Tie2-GFP+ EPCs into endothelium and resulted in an increase in atheroprotective nitric oxide and improved vascular relaxation. Similarly augmented plaque regression was also detected in regressing Reversa mice treated with the stem cell mobilizer AMD3100 which also mobilizes EPCs to peripheral blood. We conclude that correction of hypercholesterolemia in Reversa mice leads to partial plaque regression that can be augmented by AMD3100 treatment or by adoptive transfer of EPCs. This suggests that direct cell therapy or indirect progenitor cell mobilization therapy may be used in combination with statins to treat atherosclerosis. PMID:23081735

  18. Effect of CYP2C9*3 gene polymorphism on lipid-lowering efficacy of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the frequency of gene CYP2C9*3 in Chinese populations, and to analyze the impact of CYP2C9*3 genetic polymorphism on the cholesterol-lowering effect of fluvastatin in a Chinese hyperlipidemic population. Methods: CYP2C9 genotype was determined by polymerase chain reaction - restriction ...

  19. New Strategies for the Development of Lipid Lowering Therapies to Reduce Cardiovascular Risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graham, Ian; Shear, Chuck; de Graeff, Pieter; Boulton, Caroline; Catapano, Alberico L.; Stough, Wendy Gattis; Carlsson, Stefan C.; de Backer, Guy; Emmerich, Joseph; Greenfeder, Scott; Kim, Albert M.; Lautsch, Dominik; Nguyen, Tu; Nissen, Steven E.; Prasad, Krishna; Ray, Kausik; Robinson, Jennifer G.; Sasiela, William J.; Bruins Slot, Karsten; Stroes, Erik; Thuren, Tom; van der Schueren, Bart; Velkovski-Rouyer, Maja; Wasserman, Scott M.; Wiklund, Olov; Zouridakis, Emmanouil

    2017-01-01

    The very high occurrence of cardiovascular events presents a major public health issue because treatment remains suboptimal. Lowering low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) with statins or ezetimibe in combination with a statin reduces major adverse cardiovascular events. The cardiovascular

  20. Intensity of lipid oxidation and formation of cholesterol oxidation products during frozen storage of raw and cooked chicken

    OpenAIRE

    Conchillo, A. (Ana); Ansorena, D. (Diana); Astiasarán, I. (Iciar)

    2004-01-01

    Raw and cooked chicken breasts were stored at −18 °C for 3 months under aerobic and vacuum conditions, and the intensity of lipid oxidation and the formation of COP (cholesterol oxidation products) were studied. Raw samples showed low COP levels (4.60–7.40 µg g−1 fat), TBARS (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) levels (0.01–0.03 mg kg−1) and peroxide values (not detected) under both aerobic and vacuum conditions. Cooked samples (grilled and roasted) showed TBARS levels of 0.36–0.99 mg kg...

  1. Randomized, placebo-controlled trial of mipomersen in patients with severe hypercholesterolemia receiving maximally tolerated lipid-lowering therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary P McGowan

    Full Text Available Mipomersen, an antisense oligonucleotide targeting apolipoprotein B synthesis, significantly reduces LDL-C and other atherogenic lipoproteins in familial hypercholesterolemia when added to ongoing maximally tolerated lipid-lowering therapy. Safety and efficacy of mipomersen in patients with severe hypercholesterolemia was evaluated.Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial. Patients (n  = 58 were ≥18 years with LDL-C ≥7.8 mmol/L or LDL-C ≥5.1 mmol/L plus CHD disease, on maximally tolerated lipid-lowering therapy that excluded apheresis. Weekly subcutaneous injections of mipomersen 200 mg (n  = 39 or placebo (n  = 19 were added to lipid-lowering therapy for 26 weeks.percent reduction in LDL-C from baseline to 2 weeks after the last dose of treatment. Mipomersen (n = 27 reduced LDL-C by 36%, from a baseline of 7.2 mmol/L, for a mean absolute reduction of 2.6 mmol/L. Conversely, mean LDL-C increased 13% in placebo (n = 18 from a baseline of 6.5 mmol/L (mipomersen vs placebo p<0.001. Mipomersen produced statistically significant (p<0.001 reductions in apolipoprotein B and lipoprotein(a, with no change in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Mild-to-moderate injection site reactions were the most frequently reported adverse events with mipomersen. Mild-to-moderate flu-like symptoms were reported more often with mipomersen. Alanine transaminase increase, aspartate transaminase increase, and hepatic steatosis occurred in 21%, 13% and 13% of mipomersen treated patients, respectively. Adverse events by category for the placebo and mipomersen groups respectively were: total adverse events, 16(84.2%, 39(100%; serious adverse events, 0(0%, 6(15.4%; discontinuations due to adverse events, 1(5.3%, 8(20.5% and cardiac adverse events, 1(5.3%, 5(12.8%.Mipomersen significantly reduced LDL-C, apolipoprotein B, total cholesterol and non-HDL-cholesterol, and lipoprotein(a. Mounting evidence suggests it may be a

  2. A comparative study of efficacy of atorvastatin, rosuvastatin, and atorvastatin + fibrates as lipid lowering agents

    OpenAIRE

    Karunasree Nagarur; Yamini Vadlamannati; Narasimha Rao Raja

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hypercholesterolemia patients are at high risk of coronary heart disease. National cholesterol education programme (NCEP) Adult Treatment Panel III guidelines provide the option of aggressively lowering Low-density cholesterol in them. Presently the standard therapy of hypercholesterolemia is by HMG co-A reductase inhibitors. Present study shows that Rosuvastatin is better than Atorvastatin, Atorvastatin and Fibrate is better than Atorvastatin monotherapy in management of hypercho...

  3. CHANGES IN LIPID PARAMETERS AND ANTROPOMETRIC INDICATORS OF DIETING DURING THE PERIOD OF INTENSIVE PREPARATIONS OF TOP ATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubiša Lilić

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Physical exercise is a planned and repeated exercise aiming to maintain and improve one or more aspects of physical condition. Increased sympathetic-adrenal activity and reduction of insulin concentration are the main stimuli of lipolysis during physical activity.The aim of this study was to investigate acute and chronic effects of intensive aerobic training program on lipid profile and antropometric parameters in young healthy soccer players.Fifteen healthy male (soccer players, average age 21.4±3.6 were included in this study. Soccer players had a minimum of 6 months continuous training that consisted of three training sessions per week. They did not smoke, take drugs or drink alcohol during the examination period. A balanced diet (60% carbohydrates, 25% lipids and 15% proteins was recommended by a nutritionist as a standard diet during the preparations period. This consisted of three repetitions of 20-min running sessions, with two 3-min breaks in-between. Target load was obtained at 120–140 bpm heart rate. Anthropometric estimation comprized determination of body fat % by impendansometer Omron BF306, body height (BH, body weight (BW, waist circumference (WC, waist/hip ratio (WHR and determination of body mass index (BMI=BW/BH2. Blood samples were taken prior to and 5-10 min after completion of exercise. Biochemical investigation comprized spectrophotometric determination of total cholesterol (TC, triglicerides (TG, HDL-C and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C. There was a significant reduction of body fat content % after 6 months of intensive physical preparation (p<0.05, but not of BMI and BW. There were no signifficant changes in waist circumference and WHR values at the end of physical preparation compared to the values from the beginning. There were not significant changes in TC and TG levels at the end of 6 months preparations; however significant changes in lipid fractions were present. There was a significant decrease in

  4. LDL-cholesterol goal attainment under persistent lipid-lowering therapy in northeast China: Subgroup analysis of the dyslipidemia international study of China (DYSIS-China).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wen; Zhang, Yu-Jiao; Bu, Xiang-Ting; Guo, Xin-Zhu; Hu, Da-Yi; Li, Zhan-Quan; Sun, Jian

    2017-11-01

    Lipid-lowering therapy with statins reduces the risk of cardiovascular events, but the efficacy of persistent treatment in a real-world setting may vary from regions. Routine lipid-lowering therapy in the region with a high prevalence of cardiovascular disease may lead to more failures of goal attainment. We therefore performed a study to observe different lipid-lowering strategies in northeast (NE) China with respect to low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) reduction and goal attainments.A cross-sectional study (DYSIS-China) was conducted in 2012, involving 25,317 patients from 122 centers across China who were diagnosed with hyperlipidemia and treated with lipid-lowering therapy for at least 3 months. Of these patients, 4559 (18.0%) were assigned to the NE group according to their residential zones.Patients in the NE group tended to be younger, female, overweight, and had more comorbidities and higher blood lipid levels than those in the non-NE group (P 24 kg/m, drinking alcohol, smoking, and being residence in NE China as independent predictors of LDL-C attainment.Despite having received persistent lipid-lowering treatments, the current situation of dyslipidemia patients in NE China is unsatisfactory. The main treatment gap might be related to the choice of statin and effective combination therapy and the control of comorbidities and obesity, especially for high-risk patients.

  5. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy shows lower intramyocellular lipid accumulation in middle-aged subjects predisposed to familial longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijsman, C A; van Opstal, A M; Kan, H E; Maier, A B; Westendorp, R G J; Slagboom, P E; Webb, A G; Mooijaart, S P; van Heemst, D

    2012-02-01

    Families predisposed to longevity show enhanced glucose tolerance and skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity compared with controls, independent of body composition and physical activity. Intramyocellular lipid (IMCL) accumulation in skeletal muscle has been associated with insulin resistance. Here, we assessed whether subjects enriched for familial longevity have lower IMCL levels. We determined IMCL levels in 48 subjects from the Leiden Longevity Study, comprising 24 offspring of nonagenarian siblings and 24 partners thereof as control subjects. IMCL levels were assessed noninvasively using short echo time proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) of the tibialis anterior muscle with a 7 Tesla human MR scanner. IMCL levels were calculated relative to the total creatine (tCr) CH3 signal. Physical activity was assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). After correction for age, sex, BMI, and physical activity, offspring of long-lived nonagenarian siblings tended to show lower IMCL levels compared with controls (IMCL/tCr: 3.1 ± 0.5 vs. 4.5 ± 0.5, respectively, P = 0.051). In a pairwise comparison, this difference reached statistical significance (P = 0.038). We conclude that offspring of nonagenarian siblings predisposed to longevity show lower IMCL levels compared with environmentally matched control subjects. Future research should focus on assessing what mechanisms may explain the lower IMCL levels in familial longevity.

  6. Lipid lowering and HDL raising gene transfer increase endothelial progenitor cells, enhance myocardial vascularity, and improve diastolic function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie C Gordts

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hypercholesterolemia and low high density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol contribute to coronary heart disease but little is known about their direct effects on myocardial function. Low HDL and raised non-HDL cholesterol levels carried increased risk for heart failure development in the Framingham study, independent of any association with myocardial infarction. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that increased endothelial progenitor cell (EPC number and function after lipid lowering or HDL raising gene transfer in C57BL/6 low density lipoprotein receptor deficient (LDLr(-/- mice may be associated with an enhanced relative vascularity in the myocardium and an improved cardiac function. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Lipid lowering and HDL raising gene transfer were performed using the E1E3E4-deleted LDLr expressing adenoviral vector AdLDLr and the human apolipoprotein A-I expressing vector AdA-I, respectively. AdLDLr transfer in C57BL/6 LDLr(-/- mice resulted in a 2.0-fold (p<0.05 increase of the circulating number of EPCs and in an improvement of EPC function as assessed by ex vivo EPC migration and EPC adhesion. Capillary density and relative vascularity in the myocardium were 28% (p<0.01 and 22% (p<0.05 higher, respectively, in AdLDLr mice compared to control mice. The peak rate of isovolumetric relaxation was increased by 12% (p<0.05 and the time constant of isovolumetric relaxation was decreased by 14% (p<0.05 after AdLDLr transfer. Similarly, HDL raising gene transfer increased EPC number and function and raised both capillary density and relative vascularity in the myocardium by 24% (p<0.05. The peak rate of isovolumetric relaxation was increased by 16% (p<0.05 in AdA-I mice compared to control mice. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Both lipid lowering and HDL raising gene transfer have beneficial effects on EPC biology, relative myocardial vascularity, and diastolic function. These findings raise concerns over the

  7. Associations of Low-Intensity Resistance Training with Body Composition and Lipid Profile in Obese Patients with Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamasaki, Hidetaka; Kawashima, Yu; Tamada, Yoshiki; Furuta, Masashi; Katsuyama, Hisayuki; Sako, Akahito; Yanai, Hidekatsu

    2015-01-01

    Resistance training to increase muscle mass and functional capacity is an integral part of diet and exercise programs for the management of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Low-intensity resistance training with slow movement and tonic force generation (LST) may be a practical and safe regimen for elderly obese individuals but the health benefits are uncertain. This study investigated the effects of LST on body composition and metabolic parameters in obese patients with type 2 diabetes. Twenty-six obese patients with type 2 diabetes engaged in LST training during hospitalization and were advised to maintain this regimen for 12 weeks after discharge. We compared lipid profile, arterial stiffness, and body composition before and after LST training. After 12 weeks of LST training, the ratio of lower extremity muscle mass to body weight increased significantly (0.176 ± 0.028 to 0.184 ± 0.023, mean ± SD), while body fat mass and body fat percentage decreased significantly (36.2 ± 10.9 kg to 34.3 ± 9.4 kg and 41.2 ± 8.6% to 40.1 ± 7.7%, respectively). Moreover, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was significantly increased (42.2 ± 14 mg/dl to 46.3 ± 12.4 mg/dl) and both free fatty acids and lipoprotein(a) were decreased (665.2 ± 212.1 μEq/l to 525.4 ± 231.3 μEq/l and 15.4 ± 18 mg/dl to 13.8 ± 18 mg/dl, respectively). No significant change was observed in arterial stiffness. Although this study was a non-controlled investigation and some confounding factors including dietary intake, medication and compliance with training might affect the study result, a brief (12-week) LST training program may be a safe and effective strategy for the management of obesity and type 2 diabetes.

  8. Associations of Low-Intensity Resistance Training with Body Composition and Lipid Profile in Obese Patients with Type 2 Diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidetaka Hamasaki

    Full Text Available Resistance training to increase muscle mass and functional capacity is an integral part of diet and exercise programs for the management of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Low-intensity resistance training with slow movement and tonic force generation (LST may be a practical and safe regimen for elderly obese individuals but the health benefits are uncertain. This study investigated the effects of LST on body composition and metabolic parameters in obese patients with type 2 diabetes. Twenty-six obese patients with type 2 diabetes engaged in LST training during hospitalization and were advised to maintain this regimen for 12 weeks after discharge. We compared lipid profile, arterial stiffness, and body composition before and after LST training. After 12 weeks of LST training, the ratio of lower extremity muscle mass to body weight increased significantly (0.176 ± 0.028 to 0.184 ± 0.023, mean ± SD, while body fat mass and body fat percentage decreased significantly (36.2 ± 10.9 kg to 34.3 ± 9.4 kg and 41.2 ± 8.6% to 40.1 ± 7.7%, respectively. Moreover, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was significantly increased (42.2 ± 14 mg/dl to 46.3 ± 12.4 mg/dl and both free fatty acids and lipoprotein(a were decreased (665.2 ± 212.1 μEq/l to 525.4 ± 231.3 μEq/l and 15.4 ± 18 mg/dl to 13.8 ± 18 mg/dl, respectively. No significant change was observed in arterial stiffness. Although this study was a non-controlled investigation and some confounding factors including dietary intake, medication and compliance with training might affect the study result, a brief (12-week LST training program may be a safe and effective strategy for the management of obesity and type 2 diabetes.

  9. Intensive Mode Delivery of a Neuroanatomy Unit: Lower Final Grades but Higher Student Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whillier, Stephney; Lystad, Reidar P.

    2013-01-01

    In 2011, Macquarie University moved to a three-session academic year which included two 13-week sessions (traditional mode) and one seven-week session (intensive mode). This study was designed to compare the intensive and traditional modes of delivery in a unit of undergraduate neuroanatomy. The new intensive mode neuroanatomy unit provided the…

  10. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy to bilateral lower limb extremities concurrently: a planning case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzgerald, Emma, E-mail: emmafitz1390@gmail.com; Miles, Wesley; Fenton, Paul; Frantzis, Jim [Radiation Oncology, Epworth HealthCare, Victoria (Australia)

    2014-09-15

    Non-melanomatous skin cancers represent 80% of all newly diagnosed cancers in Australia with basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) being the most common. A previously healthy 71-year-old woman presented with widespread and tender superficial skin cancers on the lower bilateral limbs. External beam radiation therapy through the use of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) was employed as the treatment modality of choice as this technique provides conformal dose distribution to a three-dimensional treatment volume while reducing toxicity to surrounding tissues. The patient was prescribed a dose of 60 Gy to the planning target volume (PTV) with 1.0 cm bolus over the ventral surface of each limb. The beam arrangement consisted of six treatment fields that avoided entry and exit through the contralateral limb. The treatment plans met the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) guidelines and produced highly conformal dosimetric results. Skin toxicity was measured against the National Cancer Institute: Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (NCI: CTCAE) version 3. A well-tolerated treatment was delivered with excellent results given the initial extent of the disease. This case study has demonstrated the feasibility and effectiveness of IMRT for skin cancers as an alternative to surgery and traditional superficial radiation therapy, utilising a complex PTV of the extremities for patients with similar presentations.

  11. Pretreatment with Fish Oil-Based Lipid Emulsion Modulates Muscle Leukocyte Chemotaxis in Murine Model of Sublethal Lower Limb Ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao-Ming Shih

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of a fish oil- (FO- based lipid emulsion on muscle leukocyte chemotaxis and inflammatory responses in a murine model of limb ischemia-reperfusion (IR injury. Mice were assigned randomly to 1 sham (sham group, 2 ischemic groups, and 2 IR groups. The sham group did not undergo the ischemic procedure. The mice assigned to the ischemic or IR groups were pretreated intraperitoneally with either saline or FO-based lipid emulsion for 3 consecutive days. The IR procedure was induced by applying a 4.5 oz orthodontic rubber band to the left thigh above the greater trochanter for 120 min and then cutting the band to allow reperfusion. The ischemic groups were sacrificed immediately while the IR groups were sacrificed 24 h after reperfusion. Blood, IR-injured gastrocnemius, and lung tissues were collected for analysis. The results showed that FO pretreatment suppressed the local and systemic expression of several IR-induced proinflammatory mediators. Also, the FO-pretreated group had lower blood Ly6ChiCCR2hi monocyte percentage and muscle M1/M2 ratio than the saline group at 24 h after reperfusion. These findings suggest that FO pretreatment may have a protective role in limb IR injury by modulating the expression of proinflammatory mediators and regulating the polarization of macrophage.

  12. Effects of Combined Selective Aerobic Moderate Intensity Exercises and Soya Intake on Serum Lipids and Obesity in Obese Postmenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Zarneshan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aim: Today, the percentage of deaths due to heart diseases has increased and along with the exercise training role in reducing obesity and cardiovascular disease, soy is a useful source of food in reducing blood lipid and obesity. The present study investigated the effect of combined selective short aerobic moderate intensity exercise and soya intake on serum lipids and obesity in obese postmenopausal women. Methods: In the present quasi-experimental study conducted in 2006 on women of Urmia, Iran, 56 obese postmenopausal women were selected and randomly divided into four groups of 14 subjects as follow: exercise-soya, exercise, soya, and control group. Pre- and post protocol blood samples were collected and the level of TG (Triglyceride, tCho (Total Cholesterol, LDL-C (Low density lipoprotein, HDL-C (high density lipoprotein were measured. Exercise training within the range of 60-70% maximum heart rate (MHR was performed for 60 minutes, 3 sessions per week. The subjects of soya group and exercise-soya group had a 100 gram soya nut intake daily for 10 weeks. After The training course, blood samples were taken from the subjects. The collected data was analyzed using Two-way ANOVA and paired t-test. Results: Having soya along with exercise had significant impact on reduction of TG, tCho, LDL-C means (p<0.05. Body mass index and waist to hip ratio decreased significantly in exercise-soya group after 10 weeks (p<0.05. Conclusion: Based on the findings of this study, aerobic moderate intensity exercise along with soya intake, decrease obesity and serum lipids in obese postmenopausal women.

  13. Effect of dietary intervention and lipid-lowering treatment on brachial vasoreactivity in patients with ischemic heart disease and hypercholesterolemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Eva; Møller, Jacob E; Egstrup, Kenneth

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The "Mediterranean" diet and statin treatment have both independently been shown to improve survival and reduce the risk of cardiovascular events in patients with ischemic heart disease (IHD), but no studies have evaluated the effect of this combination on endothelial function. We...... factors and vessel size (P =.02; beta = -2.66 [-4.91; -0.41]). CONCLUSION: Dietary intervention with the Mediterranean diet and statin treatment improve FMD in the brachial artery in patients with IHD and hypercholesterolemia to a greater degree than statin treatment alone....... therefore sought to evaluate the effect of the combination dietary intervention and lipid-lowering treatment on brachial vasoreactivity. METHODS: A total of 131 consecutive patients with documented IHD and a serum cholesterol level > or =5 mmol/L (193 mg/dL) were randomized to receive Mediterranean dietary...

  14. Slow VO₂ kinetics during moderate-intensity exercise as markers of lower metabolic stability and lower exercise tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, Bruno; Porcelli, Simone; Salvadego, Desy; Zoladz, Jerzy A

    2011-03-01

    An analysis of previously published data obtained by our group on patients characterized by markedly slower pulmonary VO₂ kinetics (heart transplant recipients, patients with mitochondrial myopathies, patients with McArdle disease) was carried out in order to suggest that slow VO₂ kinetics should not be considered the direct cause, but rather a marker, of impaired exercise tolerance. For a given ATP turnover rate, faster (or slower) VO₂ kinetics are associated with smaller (or greater) muscle [PCr] decreases. The latter, however, should not be taken per se responsible for the higher (or lower) exercise tolerance, but should be considered within the general concept of "metabolic stability". Good muscle metabolic stability at a given ATP turnover rate (~power output) is associated with relatively smaller decreases, compared to rest, in [PCr] and in the Gibbs free energy of ATP hydrolysis, as well as with relatively smaller increases in [Pi], [ADP(free)], [AMP(free)], and [IMP(free)], metabolites directly related to fatigue. Disturbances in muscle metabolic stability can affect muscle function in various ways, whereas good metabolic stability is associated with less fatigue and higher exercise tolerance. Smaller [PCr] decreases, however, are strictly associated with a faster VO₂ kinetics. Thus, faster VO₂ kinetics may simply be an "epiphenomenon" of a relatively higher metabolic stability, which would then represent the relevant variable in terms of fatigue and exercise tolerance.

  15. Mechanism of lipid lowering in mice expressing human apolipoprotein A5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fruchart-Najib, Jamila; Bauge, Eric; Niculescu, Loredan-Stefan; Pham, Tatiana; Thomas, Benoit; Rommens, Corinne; Majd, Zouher; Brewer, Bryan; Rubin, Edward M.; Pennacchio, Len A.; Fruchart, Jean-Charles

    2004-01-15

    Recently, we reported that apoAV plays key role in triglycerides lowering. Here, we attempted to determine the mechanism underlying this hypotriglyceridemic effect. We showed that triglyceride turnover is faster in hAPOA5 transgenic compared to wild type mice. Moreover, both apoB and apoCIII are decreased and LPL activity is increased in postheparin plasma of hAPOA5 transgenic mice. These data suggest a decrease in size and number of VLDL. To further investigate the mechanism of hAPOA5 in hyperlipidemic background, we intercrossed hAPOA5 and hAPOC3 transgenic mice. The effect resulted in a marked decreased of VLDL triglyceride, cholesterol, apolipoproteins B and CIII. In postprandial state, the triglyceride response is abolished in hAPOA5 transgenic mice. We demonstrated that in response to the fat load in hAPOA5XhAPOC3 mice, apoAV shifted from HDL to VLDL, probably to limit the elevation of triglycerides. In vitro, apoAV activates lipoprotein lipase. However, apoAV does not interact with LPL but interacts physically with apoCIII. This interaction does not seem to displace apoCIII from VLDL but may induce conformational change in apoCIII and consequently change in its function leading the activation of lipoprotein lipase.

  16. Lipid-lowering effects of statins; Efectos no hipolipemiantes de las estatinas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos-Esquivel, Allan; Leon-Cespedes, Carlos [Univ. de Costa Rica, Escuela de Medicina, Dept. de Fisiologia (Costa Rica)

    2007-10-15

    Statins have become one of the most prescribed drugs in the world. These medications are used in the treatment of dyslipidemia and in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Recently, new evidence has emerged about their mechanisms of action and their pleiotropic properties, well beyond lowering cholesterol levels. This pharmacodynamic action has called the attention of many investigators who suggest their use in several diseases centered on inflammation, immune disorders and cell proliferation. Although there is wide evidence that recognizes their efficacy in several disease models, there is still a lack of studies to approve their use in clinical practice. The pharmacodynamic properties focusing on the pathophysiology that suggests their clinical use in the treatment of several diseases have been reviewed. (author) [Spanish] Las estatinas se han convertido en una de las drogas mas prescritas en el mundo. Este tipo de farmacos es utilizado en el tratamiento de la dislipidemia y en la prevencion de la enfermedad cardiovascular. Recientemente, ha surgido nueva evidencia sobre sus mecanismos de accion y son bien conocidas sus propiedades pleiotropicas, mas alla de la disminucion de los niveles de colesterol. Esta caracteristica farmacodinamica ha llamado la atencion de muchos investigadores quienes sugieren su uso en diferentes enfermedades que se centran en la inflamacion, en desordenes de la inmunidad y en la proliferacion celular. Aunque hay amplia evidencia que reconoce su eficacia en diversos modelos de enfermedades, todavia existe una falta de estudios que apoyen su uso en la practica clinica. El mecanismo de accion de estos farmacos y de la base fisiopatologica que sugiere su uso clinico en diferentes enfermedades han sido revisados. (autor)

  17. Intense or malicious? The decoding of eyebrow-lowering frowning in laughter animations depends on the presentation mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Joyful laughter is the only laughter type that has received sufficient validation in terms of morphology (i.e., face, voice). Still, it is unclear whether joyful laughter involves one prototypical facial-morphological configuration (Duchenne Display and mouth opening) to be decoded as such, or whether qualitatively distinct facial markers occur at different stages of laughter intensity. It was proposed that intense laughter goes along with eyebrow-lowering frowning, but in decoding studies of pictures, these “frowns” were associated with perceived maliciousness rather than higher intensity. Thus, two studies were conducted to investigate the influence of the presentation mode (static, dynamic) and eyebrow-lowering frowning on the perception of laughter animations of different intensity. In Study 1, participants (N = 110) were randomly assigned to two presentation modes (static pictures vs. dynamic videos) to watch animations of Duchenne laughter and laughter with added eyebrow-lowering frowning. Ratings on the intensity, valence, and contagiousness of the laughter were completed. In Study 2, participants (N = 55) saw both animation types in both presentation modes sequentially. Results confirmed that the static presentation lead to eyebrow-lowering frowning in intense laughter being perceived as more malicious, less intense, less benevolent, and less contagious compared to the dynamic presentation. This was replicated for maliciousness in Study 2, although participants could potentially infer the “frown” as a natural element of the laugh, as they had seen the video and the picture. Thus, a dynamic presentation is necessary for detecting graduating intensity markers in the joyfully laughing face. While this study focused on the decoding, future studies should investigate the encoding of frowning in laughter. This is important, as tools assessing facially expressed joy might need to account for laughter intensity markers that differ from the Duchenne Display

  18. Cholesterol target value attainment and lipid-lowering therapy in patients with stable or acute coronary heart disease: Results from the Dyslipidemia International Study II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitt, Anselm K; Lautsch, Dominik; Ferrières, Jean; De Ferrari, Gaetano M; Vyas, Ami; Baxter, Carl A; Bash, Lori D; Ashton, Veronica; Horack, Martin; Almahmeed, Wael; Chiang, Fu-Tien; Poh, Kian Keong; Brudi, Philippe; Ambegaonkar, Baishali

    2017-11-01

    Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is a major contributor to cardiovascular disease. In the Dyslipidemia International Study II (DYSIS II), we determined LDL-C target value attainment, use of lipid-lowering therapy (LLT), and cardiovascular outcomes in patients with stable coronary heart disease (CHD) and those suffering from an acute coronary syndrome (ACS). DYSIS II included patients from 18 countries. Patients with either stable CHD or an ACS were enrolled if they were ≥18 years old and had a full lipid profile available. Data were collected at a physician visit (CHD cohort) or at hospital admission and 120 days later (ACS cohort). A total of 10,661 patients were enrolled, 6794 with stable CHD and 3867 with an ACS. Mean LDL-C levels were low at 88 mg/dl and 108 mg/dl for the CHD and ACS cohorts respectively, with only 29.4% and 18.9% displaying a level below 70 mg/dl. LLT was utilized by 93.8% of the CHD cohort, with a mean daily statin dosage of 25 ± 18 mg. The proportion of the ACS cohort treated with LLT rose from 65.2% at admission to 95.6% at follow-up. LLT-treated patients, who were female, obese, or current smokers, were less likely to achieve an LDL-C level of <70 mg/dl, while those with type 2 diabetes, chronic kidney disease, or those taking a higher statin dosage were more likely. Few of these very high-risk patients achieved the LDL-C target, indicating huge potential for improving cardiovascular outcome by use of more intensive LLT. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. A Retrospective Cohort Study of the Potency of lipid-lowering therapy and Race-gender Differences in LDL cholesterol control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiner Mark

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reasons for race and gender differences in controlling elevated low density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol may be related to variations in prescribed lipid-lowering therapy. We examined the effect of lipid-lowering drug treatment and potency on time until LDL control for black and white women and men with a baseline elevated LDL. Methods We studied 3,484 older hypertensive patients with dyslipidemia in 6 primary care practices over a 4-year timeframe. Potency of lipid-lowering drugs calculated for each treated day and summed to assess total potency for at least 6 and up to 24 months. Cox models of time to LDL control within two years and logistic regression models of control within 6 months by race-gender adjust for: demographics, clinical, health care delivery, primary/specialty care, LDL measurement, and drug potency. Results Time to LDL control decreased as lipid-lowering drug potency increased (P Conclusions Black women and, to a lesser extent, black men and white women were less likely to achieve LDL control than white men after accounting for lipid-lowering drug potency as well as diverse patient and provider factors. Future work should focus on the contributions of medication adherence and response to treatment to these clinically important differences.

  20. Threshold intensity factors as lower boundaries for crack propagation in ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Per-Ole

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Slow crack growth can be described in a v (crack velocity versus KI (stress intensity factor diagram. Slow crack growth in ceramics is attributed to corrosion assisted stress at the crack tip or at any pre-existing defect in the ceramic. The combined effect of high stresses at the crack tip and the presence of water or body fluid molecules (reducing surface energy at the crack tip induces crack propagation, which eventually may result in fatigue. The presence of a threshold in the stress intensity factor, below which no crack propagation occurs, has been the subject of important research in the last years. The higher this threshold, the higher the reliability of the ceramic, and consequently the longer its lifetime. Methods We utilize the Irwin K-field displacement relation to deduce crack tip stress intensity factors from the near crack tip profile. Cracks are initiated by indentation impressions. The threshold stress intensity factor is determined as the time limit of the tip stress intensity when the residual stresses have (nearly disappeared. Results We determined the threshold stress intensity factors for most of the all ceramic materials presently important for dental restorations in Europe. Of special significance is the finding that alumina ceramic has a threshold limit nearly identical with that of zirconia. Conclusion The intention of the present paper is to stress the point that the threshold stress intensity factor represents a more intrinsic property for a given ceramic material than the widely used toughness (bend strength or fracture toughness, which refers only to fast crack growth. Considering two ceramics with identical threshold limits, although with different critical stress intensity limits, means that both ceramics have identical starting points for slow crack growth. Fast catastrophic crack growth leading to spontaneous fatigue, however, is different. This growth starts later in those ceramic materials

  1. The Effects of Short-Term Intensive Exercise on Levels of Liver Enzymes and Serum Lipids in Kick Boxing Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ömer Kaynar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In this study, it was aimed to evaluate the ef­fects of short-term intensive exercise on liver enzymes and serum lipid levels with kick boxing athletes. Methods: 23 voluntary athletes who were between the ages of 15-46 and who engaged in kick–boxing have tak­en place this study. Athletes were made to do 45 minutes of warming-up, breathing, and stretching and 50 minutes of technical and tactical practices and then they were made to do a training match, which is equal to a 2 min­utes 3 circuits (1 minute rest kick-box match. In venous blood samples which were taken from athletes before and after training, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP and gamma glutamine transpeptidase (GGT, enzyme activity and total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C and triglycerides serum levels were analyzed via spectropho­tometric method in Beckman Coulter AU 5800 auto ana­lyzer. Body composition measurements of athletes were made with Tanita TBF 300 brand device, which works with bio-impedance analysis (BIA system. Results: As a result of our study, statistically increases in serum ALT, AST, ALP and GGT enzyme activities and in serum total cholesterol, HDL-C and LDL-C levels were detected following short-term intensive exercise, but no significant difference was observed in TG levels after in­tensive exercise. Conclusion: The blows to the abdomen during kickbox­ing sports competitions result in increased liver enzymes and increased serum lipids may occur to meet energy de­mand of the body during exercise.

  2. Effects of physical training with different intensities of effort on lipid metabolism in rats submitted to the neonatal application of alloxan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ribeiro Carla

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is a chronic disease that is characterized by insulin resistance. Its development is directly connected with the inability of insulin to exert its action, not just on carbohydrate metabolism but also on primarily on lipid metabolism. The present study aimed to compare the effects of continuous, intermittent, and strength training on serum and tissue variables on the lipid metabolism of alloxan rats. Methods Wistar rats were divided into eight groups: sedentary alloxan (SA, sedentary control (SC, continuous training alloxan (CA, intermittent training alloxan (IA, strength training alloxan (StA, continuous training control (CC, intermittent training control (IC and strength training control (StC. Alloxan (250 mg/kg bw was injected into neonatal rats at 6 days of age. The continuous training protocol consisted of 12 weeks of swimming training for 1 uninterrupted hour / day, five days/ week, supporting a load that was 5% bw. The intermittent training protocol consisted of 12 weeks of swimming training with 30 s of activity interrupted by 30 s of rest, for a total of 20 min/day, five days/ week, supporting a load that was 15% bw. The strength-training protocol consisted of 12 weeks of training, five days/week with 4 sets of 10 jumps in water with 1 min rest between sets, supporting a load that was a 50% bw. Results At 28 days, the alloxan animals exhibited higher insulin resistance as measured by the disappearance of glucose serum (% Kitt/min during the ITT. At 120 days, the sedentary alloxan animals showed higher FFA values than continuous and intermittent training alloxan. In addition, the alloxan animals that underwent intermittent and strength training showed lower FFA values compared to the corresponding controls. The continuous training protocol was less effective than the strength training protocol for reducing the levels of total cholesterol in the alloxan animals. Serum total lipid values

  3. Free-air ionization intensity in the lower atmosphere due to cosmic-ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urabe, Itsumasa; Katsurayama, Kousuke

    1979-01-01

    Being able to be determined by subtracting the gamma-ray ionization intensity from that obtained with ionization chamber, cosmic-ray ionization intensity in free air was estimated by using with 15l air-filled ionization chamber and 3''diameter spherical NaI(Tl) scintillation spectrometer. Optimum applied voltage to 15l air-filled ionization chamber was determined in accordance with Scott and Greening's formula to obtain the ionization intensity caused by gamma-rays and cosmic-rays. Pulse-height distribution of cosmic-rays created in 3''diameter spherical NaI(Tl) scintillation spectrometer was investigated for the precise determination of gamma-ray ionization intensity. Field measurements were carried out by using with these two instruments at about 1.5 meter above the ground in the several locations around Research Reactor Institute of Kyoto University. Cosmic-ray ionization intensity in free air was estimated from the results obtained with air-filled ionization chamber and was 3.33 +- 0.15 μR/hr equivalent in natural environment near Research Reactor Institute of Kyoto University. (author)

  4. Gemfibrozil, a lipid-lowering drug, induces suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 in glial cells: implications for neurodegenerative disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Arunava; Pahan, Kalipada

    2012-08-03

    Glial inflammation is an important feature of several neurodegenerative disorders. Suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) proteins play a crucial role in inhibiting cytokine signaling and inflammatory gene expression in various cell types, including glial cells. However, mechanisms by which SOCS genes could be up-regulated are poorly understood. This study underlines the importance of gemfibrozil, a Food and Drug Administration-approved lipid-lowering drug, in up-regulating the expression of SOCS3 in glial cells. Gemfibrozil increased the expression of Socs3 mRNA and protein in mouse astroglia and microglia in both a time- and dose-dependent manner. Interestingly, gemfibrozil induced the activation of type IA phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase and AKT. Accordingly, inhibition of PI 3-kinase and AKT by chemical inhibitors abrogated gemfibrozil-mediated up-regulation of SOCS3. Furthermore, we demonstrated that gemfibrozil induced the activation of Krüppel-like factor 4 (KLF4) via the PI 3-kinase-AKT pathway and that siRNA knockdown of KLF4 abrogated gemfibrozil-mediated up-regulation of SOCS3. Gemfibrozil also induced the recruitment of KLF4 to the distal, but not proximal, KLF4-binding site of the Socs3 promoter. This study delineates a novel property of gemfibrozil in up-regulating SOCS3 in glial cells via PI 3-kinase-AKT-mediated activation of KLF4 and suggests that gemfibrozil may find therapeutic application in neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative disorders.

  5. Gemfibrozil, a lipid lowering drug, inhibits the activation of primary human microglia via peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor β.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jana, Malabendu; Pahan, Kalipada

    2012-08-01

    Microglial activation participates in the pathogenesis of various neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases. However, mechanisms by which microglial activation could be controlled are poorly understood. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) are transcription factors belonging to the nuclear receptor super family with diverse effect. This study underlines the importance of PPARβ/δ in mediating the anti-inflammatory effect of gemfibrozil, an FDA-approved lipid-lowering drug, in primary human microglia. Bacterial lipopolysachharides (LPS) induced the expression of various proinflammatory molecules and upregulated the expression of microglial surface marker CD11b in human microglia. However, gemfibrozil markedly suppressed proinflammatory molecules and CD11b in LPS-stimulated microglia. Human microglia expressed PPAR-β and -γ, but not PPAR-α. Interestingly, either antisense knockdown of PPAR-β or antagonism of PPAR-β by a specific chemical antagonist abrogated gemfibrozil-mediated inhibition of microglial activation. On the other hand, blocking of PPAR-α and -γ had no effect on gemfibrozil-mediated anti-inflammatory effect in microglia. These results highlight the fact that gemfibrozil regulates microglial activation by inhibiting inflammatory gene expression in a PPAR-β dependent pathway and further reinforce its therapeutic application in several neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases.

  6. Concomitant Intake of Quercetin with a Grain-Based Diet Acutely Lowers Postprandial Plasma Glucose and Lipid Concentrations in Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Wein

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatment goals of diabetes mellitus type 2 (DMT2 include glycemic control and reduction of nonglycemic risk factors, for example, dyslipidemia. Quercetin, a plant-derived polyphenol, often discussed for possible antidiabetic effects, was investigated for acute postprandial glucose- and lipid-lowering effects in healthy growing pigs. Male pigs (n = 16, body weight = BW 25–30 kg were fed flavonoid-poor grain-based meals without (GBM or with quercetin (GBMQ. In a first experiment, postprandial plasma concentrations of glucose, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA, and triacylglycerols were analyzed in 8 pigs receiving 500 g of either GBM or GBMQ (10 mg/kg BW in a cross-over design. Blood samples were collected before, and up to 5 h every 30 min, as well as 6 and 8 h after the feeding. In the second experiment, 2 h after ingestions of 1000 g of either GBM or GBMQ (50 mg/kg BW animals were sacrificed; gastric content was collected and analyzed for dry matter content. Quercetin ingestion reduced postprandial glucose, NEFA, and TG concentration, but two hours after ingestion of the meal no effect on gastric emptying was observed. Our results point to inhibitory effects of quercetin on nutrient absorption, which appear not to be attributable to delayed gastric emptying.

  7. Changes over time in risk factors for cardiovascular disease and use of lipid-lowering drugs in HIV-infected individuals and impact on myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabin, C A; d'Arminio Monforte, A; Friis-Moller, N

    2008-01-01

    for CVD and the use of lipid-lowering therapy in HIV-infected individuals and assessed the impact of any changes on the incidence of myocardial infarction. METHODS: The Data Collection on Adverse Events of Anti-HIV Drugs Study is a collaboration of 11 cohorts of HIV-infected patients that included follow...... was more common for those with abnormal lipid values and those with traditional risk factors for CVD (male sex, older age, higher body mass index [calculated as the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters], family and personal history of CVD, and diabetes mellitus). After...... controlling for these, use of lipid-lowering drugs became relatively less common over time. The incidence of myocardial infarction (0.32 cases per 100 person-years [PY]; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.29-0.35 cases per 100 PY) appeared to remain stable. However, after controlling for changes in risk factors...

  8. Hard X-ray intensity reduction during lower hybrid current drive experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mlynar, J.; Stoeckel, J.; Magula, P.

    1993-01-01

    A strong hard X-ray intensity reduction during a standard LHCD at the CASTOR tokamak was studied. From discussion it followed that the magnetic fluctuations level decrease is likely to be responsible for this effect beside the loop voltage decrease. To verify this idea, the connection between the magnetic fluctuation level and the hard X-ray intensity was studied in a nonstandard LHCD regime with a zero loop voltage reduction. These measurements strongly supported the concept that magnetic fluctuations level substantially influences the runaway electrons cross-field transport. Though, more data and a good code for modelling the anomalous transport and hard X-rays production would be of high value. Similar measurements especially for higher RF power should be carried out soon. Besides, the reduction of hard X-rays was observed in the experiments with edge plasma polarization lately; therefore, the magnetic fluctuations level in these experiments should be studied soon. (author) 6 figs., 6 refs

  9. Effects of a high-intensity intermittent training program on aerobic capacity and lipid profile in trained subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ouerghi N

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Nejmeddine Ouerghi,1,2 Marwa Khammassi,1 Sami Boukorraa,1 Moncef Feki,2 Naziha Kaabachi,2 Anissa Bouassida,1,3 1Research Unit, Sportive Performance and Physical Rehabilitation, High Institute of Sports and Physical Education of Kef, University of Jendouba, Kef, Tunisia, 2Laboratory of Biochemistry, Rabta Hospital, Faculty of Medicine of Tunis, El Manar University, Tunis, 3Physiology Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine Ibn el Jazzar, Sousse, Tunisia Background: Data regarding the effect of training on plasma lipids are controversial. Most studies have addressed continuous or long intermittent training programs. The present study evaluated the effect of short-short high-intensity intermittent training (HIIT on aerobic capacity and plasma lipids in soccer players. Methods: The study included 24 male subjects aged 21–26 years, divided into three groups: experimental group 1 (EG1, n=8 comprising soccer players who exercised in addition to regular short-short HIIT twice a week for 12 weeks; experimental group 2 (EG2, n=8 comprising soccer players who exercised in a regular football training program; and a control group (CG, n=8 comprising untrained subjects who did not practice regular physical activity. Maximal aerobic velocity and maximal oxygen uptake along with plasma lipids were measured before and after 6 weeks and 12 weeks of the respective training program. Results: Compared with basal values, maximal oxygen uptake had significantly increased in EG1 (from 53.3±4.0 mL/min/kg to 54.8±3.0 mL/min/kg at 6 weeks [P<0.05] and to 57.0±3.2 mL/min/kg at 12 weeks [P<0.001]. Maximal oxygen uptake was increased only after 12 weeks in EG2 (from 52.8±2.7 mL/min/kg to 54.2±2.6 mL/min/kg, [P<0.05], but remain unchanged in CG. After 12 weeks of training, maximal oxygen uptake was significantly higher in EG1 than in EG2 (P<0.05. During training, no significant changes in plasma lipids occurred. However, after 12 weeks, total and low-density lipoprotein

  10. The relationship between changes in health behaviour and initiation of lipid-lowering and antihypertensive medications in individuals at high risk of ischaemic heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hempler, Nana Folmann; Krasnik, Allan; Pisinger, Charlotta

    2012-01-01

    It has been hypothesised that health conscious individuals tend to take better care of themselves by greater adherence to preventive medications. We examined, whether long-term changes in dietary habits and physical activity were associated with initiation of lipid-lowering and antihypertensive...

  11. Consumer’s Perception on Design and Layout of Consumer Medical Information Leaflets on Obesity and Lipid Lowering Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Elizabeth M.; Rajiah, Kingston; Sharma, Krishana Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Background: Printed education materials are often used to augment healthcare professional’s verbal information to consumers so it serves as an important component of symptom management. They also enhance the teaching process and can be used by consumers as a home reference. Objective: This study was aimed to interpret consumers’ perception on Consumer Medical Information Leaflets (CMILs) on obesity and lipid lowering drugs, on design and layout using the standard method such as Baker Able Leaflet Design (BALD). Material and Methods: Convenience sampling was done. The study was conducted over a period of 3 years in community pharmacy settings in Tamil Nadu, India. The Consumer Medical Information Leaflets (CMILs) were randomly collected from different community pharmacies. Total of 19 CMILs which are commonly used by the consumers were collected and CMILs were assessed using BALD assessment tool Results: According to BALD assessment (46.28%) leaflets were rated as ‘above standard’ and (53.72) leaflets were rated as ‘standard or poor’ in layout and design since their scores were less than 25. This shows that this issue may be important from the patient’s perspective, which may discourage patient from actually reading the CMILs. Conclusion: In India, generally CMILs are continued to be prepared in English and with higher proportion of consumers with English illiteracy. CMILs, which are prepared without taking consideration of reading level of consumers and proper layout and design, may not achieve the intended purpose. This is an important aspect that any company has to reckon while preparing leaflets and at least in some major local languages in which CMILs have to be prepared. PMID:24551641

  12. Gemfibrozil, a lipid-lowering drug, increases myelin genes in human oligodendrocytes via peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-β.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jana, Malabendu; Mondal, Susanta; Gonzalez, Frank J; Pahan, Kalipada

    2012-10-05

    An increase in CNS remyelination and a decrease in CNS inflammation are important steps to halt the progression of multiple sclerosis. Earlier studies have shown that gemfibrozil, a lipid-lowering drug, has anti-inflammatory properties. The current study identified another novel property of gemfibrozil in stimulating the expression of myelin-specific genes (myelin basic protein, myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein, 2',3'-cyclic-nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase, and proteolipid protein (PLP)) in primary human oligodendrocytes, mixed glial cells, and spinal cord organotypic cultures. Although gemfibrozil is a known activator of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPAR-α), we were unable to detect PPAR-α in either gemfibrozil-treated or untreated human oligodendrocytes, and gemfibrozil increased the expression of myelin genes in oligodendrocytes isolated from both wild type and PPAR-α(-/-) mice. On the other hand, gemfibrozil markedly increased the expression of PPAR-β but not PPAR-γ. Consistently, antisense knockdown of PPAR-β, but not PPAR-γ, abrogated the stimulatory effect of gemfibrozil on myelin genes in human oligodendrocytes. Gemfibrozil also did not up-regulate myelin genes in oligodendroglia isolated from PPAR-β(-/-) mice. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis showed that gemfibrozil induced the recruitment of PPAR-β to the promoter of PLP and myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein genes in human oligodendrocytes. Furthermore, gemfibrozil treatment also led to the recruitment of PPAR-β to the PLP promoter in vivo in the spinal cord of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis mice and suppression of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis symptoms in PLP-T cell receptor transgenic mice. These results suggest that gemfibrozil stimulates the expression of myelin genes via PPAR-β and that gemfibrozil, a prescribed drug for humans, may find further therapeutic use in demyelinating diseases.

  13. Gemfibrozil, a Lipid-lowering Drug, Increases Myelin Genes in Human Oligodendrocytes via Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptor-β*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jana, Malabendu; Mondal, Susanta; Gonzalez, Frank J.; Pahan, Kalipada

    2012-01-01

    An increase in CNS remyelination and a decrease in CNS inflammation are important steps to halt the progression of multiple sclerosis. Earlier studies have shown that gemfibrozil, a lipid-lowering drug, has anti-inflammatory properties. The current study identified another novel property of gemfibrozil in stimulating the expression of myelin-specific genes (myelin basic protein, myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein, 2′,3′-cyclic-nucleotide 3′-phosphodiesterase, and proteolipid protein (PLP)) in primary human oligodendrocytes, mixed glial cells, and spinal cord organotypic cultures. Although gemfibrozil is a known activator of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPAR-α), we were unable to detect PPAR-α in either gemfibrozil-treated or untreated human oligodendrocytes, and gemfibrozil increased the expression of myelin genes in oligodendrocytes isolated from both wild type and PPAR-α(−/−) mice. On the other hand, gemfibrozil markedly increased the expression of PPAR-β but not PPAR-γ. Consistently, antisense knockdown of PPAR-β, but not PPAR-γ, abrogated the stimulatory effect of gemfibrozil on myelin genes in human oligodendrocytes. Gemfibrozil also did not up-regulate myelin genes in oligodendroglia isolated from PPAR-β(−/−) mice. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis showed that gemfibrozil induced the recruitment of PPAR-β to the promoter of PLP and myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein genes in human oligodendrocytes. Furthermore, gemfibrozil treatment also led to the recruitment of PPAR-β to the PLP promoter in vivo in the spinal cord of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis mice and suppression of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis symptoms in PLP-T cell receptor transgenic mice. These results suggest that gemfibrozil stimulates the expression of myelin genes via PPAR-β and that gemfibrozil, a prescribed drug for humans, may find further therapeutic use in demyelinating diseases. PMID:22879602

  14. Consumer's Perception on Design and Layout of Consumer Medical Information Leaflets on Obesity and Lipid Lowering Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Elizabeth M; Rajiah, Kingston; Sharma, Krishana Kumar

    2013-12-01

    Printed education materials are often used to augment healthcare professional's verbal information to consumers so it serves as an important component of symptom management. They also enhance the teaching process and can be used by consumers as a home reference. This study was aimed to interpret consumers' perception on Consumer Medical Information Leaflets (CMILs) on obesity and lipid lowering drugs, on design and layout using the standard method such as Baker Able Leaflet Design (BALD). Convenience sampling was done. The study was conducted over a period of 3 years in community pharmacy settings in Tamil Nadu, India. The Consumer Medical Information Leaflets (CMILs) were randomly collected from different community pharmacies. Total of 19 CMILs which are commonly used by the consumers were collected and CMILs were assessed using BALD assessment tool Results: According to BALD assessment (46.28%) leaflets were rated as 'above standard' and (53.72) leaflets were rated as 'standard or poor' in layout and design since their scores were less than 25. This shows that this issue may be important from the patient's perspective, which may discourage patient from actually reading the CMILs. In India, generally CMILs are continued to be prepared in English and with higher proportion of consumers with English illiteracy. CMILs, which are prepared without taking consideration of reading level of consumers and proper layout and design, may not achieve the intended purpose. This is an important aspect that any company has to reckon while preparing leaflets and at least in some major local languages in which CMILs have to be prepared.

  15. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy shows lower intramyocellular lipid accumulation in middle-aged subjects predisposed to familial longevity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijsman, C. A.; van Opstal, A. M.; Kan, H. E.; Maier, A. B.; Westendorp, R. G.J.; Slagboom, P. E.; Webb, A. G.; Mooijaart, S. P.; van Heemst, D.

    Families predisposed to longevity show enhanced glucose tolerance and skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity compared with controls, independent of body composition and physical activity. Intramyocellular lipid (IMCL) accumulation in skeletal muscle has been associated with insulin resistance. Here, we

  16. The vestibulomyogenic balance response is elevated following high-intensity lengthening contractions of the lower limb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Emily I; Power, Geoffrey A; Dalton, Brian H

    2018-05-14

    The purpose was to investigate whether exercise-induced muscle weakness of the plantar and dorsiflexors through high-intensity lengthening contractions increases the vestibulomyogenic balance response. Nine males (∼25 years) participated in three experimental testing days to evaluate the vestibular control of standing balance and neuromuscular function of the plantar and dorsiflexors pre- and post (30 min, and 1 and 7 days) high-intensity lengthening plantar and dorsiflexions. To evaluate the vestibular-evoked balance response, participants stood quietly on a force plate while exposed to continuous, random electrical vestibular stimulation (EVS) for two 90-s trials. Relationships between EVS-antero-posterior (AP) forces and EVS-medial gastrocnemius electromyography (EMG) were estimated in the frequency domain (i.e., coherence). Weakness of the right plantar and dorsiflexors were assessed using maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) torque. The lengthening contractions induced a 13 and 24% reduction in plantar and dorsiflexor MVC torque, respectively (p balance response when muscle strength is reduced. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Isometric strength training lowers the O2 cost of cycling during moderate-intensity exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoladz, Jerzy A; Szkutnik, Zbigniew; Majerczak, Joanna; Grandys, Marcin; Duda, Krzysztof; Grassi, Bruno

    2012-12-01

    The effect of maximal voluntary isometric strength training of knee extensor muscles on pulmonary V'O(2) on-kinetics, the O(2) cost of cycling and peak oxygen uptake (V'O(2peak)) in humans was studied. Seven healthy males (mean ± SD, age 22.3 ± 2.0 years, body weight 75.0 ± 9.2 kg, V'O(2peak) 49.5 ± 3.8 ml kg(-1) min(-1)) performed maximal isometric strength training lasting 7 weeks (4 sessions per week). Force during maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) increased by 15 % (P Strength training resulted in a significant decrease (by ~7 %; P Isometric strength training rapidly (i.e., after 1 week) decreases the O(2) cost of cycling during moderate-intensity exercise, whereas it does not affect the amplitude of the slow component of the V'O(2) on-kinetics during heavy-intensity exercise. Isometric strength training can have beneficial effects on performance during endurance events.

  18. The effects of high-intensity resistance exercise on the blood lipid profile and liver function in hypercholesterolemic hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frajacomo, Fernando Tadeu Trevisan; Demarzo, Marcelo Marcos Piva; Fernandes, Cleverson Rodrigues; Martinello, Flávia; Bachur, José Alexandre; Uyemura, Sérgio Akira; Perez, Sérgio Eduardo de Andrade; Garcia, Sérgio Britto

    2012-06-01

    It is well established that atherogenic dyslipidemia, characterized by high levels of triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and low levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, constitutes important risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Regular exercise has been associated with a reduced risk for metabolic diseases. However, studies supporting the concept that resistance exercise is a modifier of blood lipid parameters are often contradictory. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of high-intensity resistance exercise on the serum levels of TG, TC, HDL and non-HDL cholesterol, glucose, and the liver function enzymes alanine aminotransferase (ALT, EC 2.6.1.2) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST, EC 2.6.1.1) in golden Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus (Waterhouse, 1839)) fed a hypercholesterolemic diet. Sedentary groups (S) and exercise groups (E) were fed a standard diet (SS and ES) or a cholesterol-enriched diet (standard plus 1% cholesterol, SC and EC). Resistance exercise was performed by jumps in the water, carrying a load strapped to the chest, representing 10 maximum repetitions (10 RM, 30 s rest, five days per week for five weeks). Mean blood sample comparisons were made by ANOVA + Tukey or ANOVA + Kruskal-Wallis tests (p 0.05). However, the EC group increased the glucose, non-HDL, and TC levels in comparison with the ES group. Moreover, the EC group increased the TG levels versus the SC group (p < 0.05). In addition, the ALT levels were increased only by diet treatment. These findings indicated that high-intensity resistance exercise contributed to dyslipidemia in hamsters fed a hypercholesterolemic diet, whereas liver function enzymes did not differ in regards to the exercise protocol.

  19. Electron energy distribution from intense electron beams in the upper mesosphere and lower thermosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez-Sanchez, M.; Cheng, Wai; Dvore, D.; Zahniser, M.S.

    1992-01-01

    A model was developed to calculate the electron energy spectrum created by an electron beam in the upper atmosphere. A significant feature of the model is the inclusion of the effects of electron-electron collisions which are important at high beam intensity when the ratio of the electron to ambient gas density is high. Comparing the calculated results for a 2.6-kV, 20-A beam at 110-km altitude from models with and without the electron-electron collision term, the electron-electron collisions have the effect of smoothing out the electron spectrum in the low-energy region ( 2 and O 2 are filled in, resulting in an increase in the calculated production rate of these species compared with model calculations that neglect this effect

  20. Electromyographic evaluation of high-intensity elastic resistance exercises for lower extremity muscles during bed rest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinstrup, Jonas; Skals, Sebastian; Calatayud, Joaquin

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: Prolonged hospital bed rest after severe injury or disease leads to rapid muscle atrophy and strength loss. Therefore, the main aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of lower extremity strengthening exercises using elastic resistance that can be performed while lying in a hospit......, the present study has the potential to provide a reference table of exercises to select from when individualizing and progressing strengthening exercises during the early rehabilitation of bedridden individuals....

  1. H eat storage in upper and lower body during high-intensity exercise ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Therefore, this study was designed to describe heat storage in the upper and lower bodies of SCI and able-bodied (AB) athletes. Procedure: Seven SCI and 8 AB athletes (matched for arm-crank VO2 peak) performed a ramp protocol in an environment similar to an indoor competitive environment (21˚C±1.5˚C, 55±3% ...

  2. Enhanced accumulation of glycogen, lipids and polyhydroxybutyrate under optimal nutrients and light intensities in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monshupanee, T; Incharoensakdi, A

    2014-04-01

    Glycogen (GL) and lipids (LP) are efficient biofuel substrates, whereas polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) is a potent biodegradable plastic. This study aimed to increase accumulation of these three compounds in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. Under autophototrophic growth, co-accumulation of the three compounds reached maximum level in a mid-stationary phase at 39·2% of dry weight (22·7% GL, 14·1% LP and 2·4% PHB). Nitrogen deprivation increased this to 61·5% (36·8% GL, 11·2% LP and 13·5% PHB), higher than that achieved by phosphorus, sulfur, iron or calcium deprivation. Combining nitrogen deprivation with 0·4% (w/v) glucose addition for heterophototrophic growth and optimizing the light intensity (200 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1) ) synergistically enhanced combined accumulation to 71·1% of biomass (41·3% GL, 16·7% LP and 13·1% PHB), a higher level than previously reported in Synechocystis. However, the maximum coproductivity of GL, LP and PHB (at 0·72 g l(-1) ) was obtained in the 12-day heterophototrophic culture without nitrogen deprivation. Accumulation of GL, LP and PHB was enhanced under both autophototrophic and heterophototrophic conditions by optimizations of nutrient and light supplies. This study provides a means for increasing co-production of potent bioenergy substrates and useful biomaterials in Synechocystis which may also be applicable to other cyanobacteria. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  3. Potential Lipid-Lowering Effects of Eleusine indica (L) Gaertn. Extract on High-Fat-Diet-Induced Hyperlipidemic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Siew Ling; Nalamolu, Koteswara Rao; Lai, How Yee

    2017-01-01

    To date, anti-obesity agents based on natural products are tested for their potential using lipase inhibition assay through the interference of hydrolysis of fat by lipase resulting in reduced fat absorption without altering the central mechanisms. Previous screening study had indicated strong anti-obesity potential in Eleusine indica ( E. indica ), but to date, no pharmacologic studies have been reported so far. This study was performed to investigate the lipid-lowering effects of E. indica using both in vitro and in vivo models. The crude methanolic extract of E. indica was fractionated using hexane (H-Ei), dichloromethane (DCM-Ei), ethyl acetate (EA-Ei), butanol (B-Ei), and water (W-Ei). All the extracts were tested for antilipase activity using porcine pancreatic lipase. Because H-Ei showed the highest inhibition, it was further subjected to chemical profiling using high-performance liquid chromatography. Subsequently, oral toxicity analysis of H-Ei was performed [Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development guidelines using fixed dose procedure (No. 420)]; efficacy analysis was performed using high-fat diet (HFD)-induced hyperlipidemic female Sprague-Dawley rats. According to the toxicity and efficacy analyses, H-Ei did not demonstrate any noticeable biochemical toxicity or physiologic abnormalities and did not cause any tissue damage as per histologic analysis. Furthermore, H-Ei significantly reduced body weight and improved serum profile and did not show hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity based on the serum profile. Moreover, H-Ei alleviated HFD-induced hepatosteatosis and ameliorated induced adiposity in both visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue. Our results demonstrate that H-Ei effectively improved hyperlipidemia. Further studies to explore its possibility as an alternative pharmacologic agent to treat obesity are warranted. Hexane extract of Eleusine indica (H-Ei) showed strong potential in the inhibition of porcine pancreatic lipase (27.01

  4. The interaction of energetic alpha-particles with intense lower hybrid waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisch, N.J.; Rax, J.M.

    1992-06-01

    Lower hybrid waves are a demonstrated, continuous means of driving toroidal current in a tokamak. When these waves propagate in a tokamak fusion reactor, in which there are energetic α- particles, there are conditions under which the α-particles do not appreciably damp, and may even amplify, the wave, thereby enhancing the current-drive effect. Waves traveling in one poloidal direction, in addition to being directed in one toroidal direction, are shown to be the most efficient drivers of current in the presence of the energetic α-particles

  5. Lower survival probabilities for adult Florida manatees in years with intense coastal storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langtimm, C.A.; Beck, C.A.

    2003-01-01

    The endangered Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) inhabits the subtropical waters of the southeastern United States, where hurricanes are a regular occurrence. Using mark-resighting statistical models, we analyzed 19 years of photo-identification data and detected significant annual variation in adult survival for a subpopulation in northwest Florida where human impact is low. That variation coincided with years when intense hurricanes (Category 3 or greater on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale) and a major winter storm occurred in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Mean survival probability during years with no or low intensity storms was 0.972 (approximate 95% confidence interval = 0.961-0.980) but dropped to 0.936 (0.864-0.971) in 1985 with Hurricanes Elena, Kate, and Juan; to 0.909 (0.837-0.951) in 1993 with the March "Storm of the Century"; and to 0.817 (0.735-0.878) in 1995 with Hurricanes Opal, Erin, and Allison. These drops in survival probability were not catastrophic in magnitude and were detected because of the use of state-of-the-art statistical techniques and the quality of the data. Because individuals of this small population range extensively along the north Gulf coast of Florida, it was possible to resolve storm effects on a regional scale rather than the site-specific local scale common to studies of more sedentary species. This is the first empirical evidence in support of storm effects on manatee survival and suggests a cause-effect relationship. The decreases in survival could be due to direct mortality, indirect mortality, and/or emigration from the region as a consequence of storms. Future impacts to the population by a single catastrophic hurricane, or series of smaller hurricanes, could increase the probability of extinction. With the advent in 1995 of a new 25- to 50-yr cycle of greater hurricane activity, and longer term change possible with global climate change, it becomes all the more important to reduce mortality and injury

  6. Gemfibrozil, a Lipid-lowering Drug, Inhibits the Induction of Nitric-oxide Synthase in Human Astrocytes*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahan, Kalipada; Jana, Malabendu; Liu, Xiaojuan; Taylor, Bradley S.; Wood, Charles; Fischer, Susan M.

    2007-01-01

    Gemfibrozil, a lipid-lowering drug, inhibited cytokine-induced production of NO and the expression of inducible nitric-oxide synthase (iNOS) in human U373MG astroglial cells and primary astrocytes. Similar to gemfibrozil, clofibrate, another fibrate drug, also inhibited the expression of iNOS. Inhibition of human iNOS promoter-driven luciferase activity by gemfibrozil in cytokine-stimulated U373MG astroglial cells suggests that this compound inhibits the transcription of iNOS. Since gemfibrozil is known to activate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPAR-α), we investigated the role of PPAR-α in gemfibrozil-mediated inhibition of iNOS. Gemfibrozil induced peroxisome proliferator-responsive element (PPRE)-dependent luciferase activity, which was inhibited by the expression of ΔhPPAR-α, the dominant-negative mutant of human PPAR-α. However, ΔhPPAR-α was unable to abrogate gemfibrozil-mediated inhibition of iNOS suggesting that gemfibrozil inhibits iNOS independent of PPAR-α. The human iNOS promoter contains consensus sequences for the binding of transcription factors, including interferon-γ (IFN-γ) regulatory factor-1 (IRF-1) binding to interferon-stimulated responsive element (ISRE), signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) binding to γ-activation site (GAS), nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), activator protein-1 (AP-1), and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein β (C/EBPβ); therefore, we investigated the effect of gemfibrozil on the activation of these transcription factors. The combination of interleukin (IL)-1β and IFN-γ induced the activation of NF-κB, AP-1, C/EBPβ, and GAS but not that of ISRE, suggesting that IRF-1 may not be involved in cytokine-induced expression of iNOS in human astrocytes. Interestingly, gemfibrozil strongly inhibited the activation of NF-κB, AP-1, and C/EBPβ but not that of GAS in cytokine-stimulated astroglial cells. These results suggest that gemfibrozil inhibits the induction of iNOS probably by

  7. Effects of ovariectomy and exercise training intensity on energy substrate and hepatic lipid metabolism, and spontaneous physical activity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuazon, Marc A; Campbell, Sara C; Klein, Dylan J; Shapses, Sue A; Anacker, Keith R; Anthony, Tracy G; Uzumcu, Mehmet; Henderson, Gregory C

    2018-06-01

    Menopause is associated with fatty liver, glucose dysregulation, increased body fat, and impaired bone quality. Previously, it was demonstrated that single sessions of high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE) are more effective than distance- and duration-matched continuous exercise (CE) on altering hepatic triglyceride (TG) metabolism and very-low density lipoprotein-TG (VLDL-TG) secretion. Six weeks training using these modalities was examined for effects on hepatic TG metabolism/secretion, glucose tolerance, body composition, and bone mineral density (BMD) in ovariectomized (OVX) and sham-operated (SHAM) mice. OVX and SHAM were assigned to distance- and duration-matched CE and HIIE, or sedentary control. Energy expenditure during exercise was confirmed to be identical between CE and HIIE and both similarly reduced post-exercise absolute carbohydrate oxidation and spontaneous physical activity (SPA). OVX vs. SHAM displayed impaired glucose tolerance and greater body fat despite lower hepatic TG, and these outcomes were not affected by training. Only HIIE increased hepatic AMPK in OVX and SHAM, but neither training type impacted VLDL-TG secretion. As expected, BMD was lower in OVX, and training did not affect long bones. The results reveal intensity-dependent effects on hepatic AMPK expression and general exercise effects on subsequent SPA and substrate oxidation that is independent of estrogen status. These findings support the notion that HIIE can impact aspects of liver physiology in females while the effects of exercise on whole body substrate selection appear to be independent of training intensity. However, neither exercise approach mitigated the impairment in glucose tolerance and elevated body fat occurring in OVX mice. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, other lipid-lowering medication, antiplatelet therapy, and the risk of venous thrombosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramcharan, A.S.; van Stralen, K.J.; Snoep, J.D.; Mantel-Teeuwisse, A.K.; Doggen, Catharina Jacoba Maria

    2009-01-01

    Background: Statins [3-hydroxymethyl-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors] and antiplatelet therapy reduce the risk of atherosclerotic disease. Besides a reduction of lipid levels, statins might also have antithrombotic and anti-inflammatory properties, and anti-platelet

  9. 1,8-cineole protected human lipoproteins from modification by oxidation and glycation and exhibited serum lipid-lowering and anti-inflammatory activity in zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-Hyun Cho1,2,*

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available We recently reported that a water extract of laurel or turmeric,1,8-cineole enriched fractions, showed hypolipidemic activityin the zebrafish model. Therefore, the present study investigatedthe cineole’s anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activitiesin lipoprotein metabolism in vitro and in vivo. Cineolehad inhibitory effects on cupric ion-mediated oxidation of lipoproteinsin general, while simultaneously enhancing ferric ionremoval ability in high-density lipoprotein (HDL. Hypercholesterolemiawas induced in zebrafish using cholesterol-feedingtreatment, 4% cholesterol, for 3 weeks. After feeding with orwithout the addition of cineole, the results revealed that cineolepossessed lipid-lowering and anti-inflammatory activitiesin hypercholesterolemic zebrafish. In addition, serum amyloidA and interleukin-6 levels were lowered and lipid accumulationwas decreased in the liver. Conclusively, 1,8-cineole wasfound to have anti-oxidant activities in lipoprotein metabolismboth in vitro and in vivo with simultaneous reduction of lipidaccumulation in the liver of zebrafish.

  10. Apolipoprotein E epsilon-4 polymorphism is associated with younger age at referral to a lipidology clinic and a poorer response to lipid-lowering therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monteiro Pedro

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The risk of coronary heart disease (CHD is related to environmental factors and genetic variants. Apolipoprotein E (apoE polymorphisms are heritable determinants of total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, with some authors suggesting an association between the ε4 allele and CHD. We investigated the relationship between apoE genotype and age at referral to a specialized lipid clinic by the primary care physician and whether the benefits of treatment with statin differed between genotypes. Methods We assessed individual apoE genotypes and lipid blood profile in a total of 463 patients followed at a specialized lipid clinic due to dyslipidemia, with a 3-year median follow-up time. The primary care physician at the time of the referral had no access to the apoE genotyping results. Carriers of apoE ε4/ε2 genotype were excluded. Results The frequencies of ε2, ε3 and ε4 alleles were 7.8, 78.9 and 13.3%, respectively. There were no significant differences between genders. Although with similar lipid profiles and antidyslipidemic drug usage at baseline, ε4-carriers were referred to the clinic at a younger age (44.2 ± 14.7 years compared with non-ε4 carriers (50.6 ± 13.8 years (p Conclusion Our findings support the concept that there is a reduced response to anti-dyslipidemic treatment in ε4 carriers; this can be a contributing factor for the earlier referral of these patients to our specialized lipid clinic and reinforces the usefulness of apoE genotyping in predicting patients response to lipid lowering therapies.

  11. Discovery of Potential Inhibitors of Squalene Synthase from Traditional Chinese Medicine Based on Virtual Screening and In Vitro Evaluation of Lipid-Lowering Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yankun; Chen, Xi; Luo, Ganggang; Zhang, Xu; Lu, Fang; Qiao, Liansheng; He, Wenjing; Li, Gongyu; Zhang, Yanling

    2018-04-28

    Squalene synthase (SQS), a key downstream enzyme involved in the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway, plays an important role in treating hyperlipidemia. Compared to statins, SQS inhibitors have shown a very significant lipid-lowering effect and do not cause myotoxicity. Thus, the paper aims to discover potential SQS inhibitors from Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) by the combination of molecular modeling methods and biological assays. In this study, cynarin was selected as a potential SQS inhibitor candidate compound based on its pharmacophoric properties, molecular docking studies and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Cynarin could form hydrophobic interactions with PHE54, LEU211, LEU183 and PRO292, which are regarded as important interactions for the SQS inhibitors. In addition, the lipid-lowering effect of cynarin was tested in sodium oleate-induced HepG2 cells by decreasing the lipidemic parameter triglyceride (TG) level by 22.50%. Finally. cynarin was reversely screened against other anti-hyperlipidemia targets which existed in HepG2 cells and cynarin was unable to map with the pharmacophore of these targets, which indicated that the lipid-lowering effects of cynarin might be due to the inhibition of SQS. This study discovered cynarin is a potential SQS inhibitor from TCM, which could be further clinically explored for the treatment of hyperlipidemia.

  12. A Quantitative Systems Pharmacology Platform to Investigate the Impact of Alirocumab and Cholesterol-Lowering Therapies on Lipid Profiles and Plaque Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey E Ming

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Reduction in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C is associated with decreased risk for cardiovascular disease. Alirocumab, an antibody to proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9, significantly reduces LDL-C. Here, we report development of a quantitative systems pharmacology (QSP model integrating peripheral and liver cholesterol metabolism, as well as PCSK9 function, to examine the mechanisms of action of alirocumab and other lipid-lowering therapies, including statins. The model predicts changes in LDL-C and other lipids that are consistent with effects observed in clinical trials of single or combined treatments of alirocumab and other treatments. An exploratory model to examine the effects of lipid levels on plaque dynamics was also developed. The QSP platform, on further development and qualification, may support dose optimization and clinical trial design for PCSK9 inhibitors and lipid-modulating drugs. It may also improve our understanding of factors affecting therapeutic responses in different phenotypes of dyslipidemia and cardiovascular disease.

  13. Hemodynamic and oxygenation changes in surgical intensive care unit patients with fever and fever lowering nursing interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelik, Sevim; Yildirim, Ismail; Arslan, Ibrahim; Yildirim, Sinan; Erdal, Fatih; Yandi, Yunus Emre

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of fever and nursing interventions to lower fever on hemodynamic values and oxygenation in febrile (temperature greater than 38.3°C) surgical intensive care unit patients. This retrospective study was conducted in 53 febrile patients out of 519 patients admitted to the surgical intensive care unit at a university hospital. Data were obtained from the medical records, laboratory files and nursing notes. Statistical analysis of the data was analyzed by repeated measures analysis of variance and a paired sample t-test. The average hourly urine output (F = 5.46; P = 0.002) and systolic blood pressure (F = 2.87; P = 0.03) were significantly lower after fever onset. Heart rate, respiratory rate, positive end-expiratory pressure settings and FiO(2) settings were unchanged after the development of fever. Diastolic blood pressure and oxygen saturation had non-statistically significant decreases. Nursing interventions for febrile patients consisted of medication administration (69.8%), ice (62.3%) and sponging with tepid water (62.3%). The present results showed that fever was associated with an increase in heart rate, decreased systolic arterial pressure, mean arterial pressure, oxygen saturation and hourly urine output. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  14. Starch and lipid accumulation in eight strains of six Chlorella species under comparatively high light intensity and aeration culture conditions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Takeshita, T.; Ota, M. S.; Yamazaki, T.; Hirata, A.; Zachleder, Vilém; Kawano, S.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 158, č. 2 (2014), s. 127-134 ISSN 0960-8524 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Chlorella * alga * starch * lipids Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 4.494, year: 2014

  15. Iron, Hematological Parameters and Blood Plasma Lipid Profile in Vitamin D Supplemented and Non-Supplemented Young Soccer Players Subjected to High-Intensity Interval Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastrzebska, Maria; Kaczmarczyk, Mariusz; Suárez, Arturo Diaz; Sánchez, Guillermo Felipe López; Jastrzebska, Joanna; Radziminski, Lukasz; Jastrzebski, Zbigniew

    2017-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease and anemia. Vitamin D-related changes in lipid profile have been studied extensively but the relationship between vitamin D and lipid metabolism is not completely understood. As both vitamin D and intermittent training may potentially affect iron and lipid metabolism, the aim of the study was to evaluate whether a daily supplementation of vitamin D can modulate the response of hematological and lipid parameters to high-intensity interval training (HIIT) in soccer players. Thirty-six young elite junior soccer players were included in the placebo-controlled, double-blind study. Participants were non-randomly allocated into either a supplemented group (SG, n=20, HIIT and 5,000 IU of vitamin D daily) or placebo group (PG, n=16, HIIT and sunflower oil). Hematological parameters were ascertained before and after the 8-wk training. The change score (post- and pre-training difference) was calculated for each individual and the mean change score (MCS) was compared between SG and PG using the t test and analysis of covariance. There were no differences between SG and PG at baseline. The red and white cell count, hemoglobin, hematocrit, MCHC, ferritin, and HDL-cholesterol changed significantly over the 8-wk HIIT. However, no significant differences in MCS were observed between SG and PG for any variable. A daily vitamin D supplement did not have any impact on alteration in hematological or lipid parameters in young soccer players in the course of high-intensity interval training.

  16. Impact of the 2013 Cholesterol Guideline on Patterns of Lipid-Lowering Treatment in Patients with Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease or Diabetes After 1 Year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Josephine N; Kao, Tzu Chun; Caglar, Toros; Stockl, Karen M; Spertus, John A; Lew, Heidi C; Solow, Brian K; Chan, Paul S

    2016-08-01

    The 2013 ACC/AHA Guideline on the Treatment of Blood Cholesterol to Reduce Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Risk in Adults emphasizes evidence-based treatment with moderate- to high-dose statins for patients at high risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). Whether this new guideline influenced patterns of treatment 1 year after its dissemination is unknown. To compare patterns of lipid-lowering treatment before and 1 year after the release of the 2013 cholesterol guideline in 2 high-risk groups: patients with ASCVD and patients with diabetes mellitus. Using pharmacy and medical claims from a large U.S. health insurance organization, 610,535 patients with ASCVD (n = 301,440) or diabetes mellitus (n = 309,095) were identified, and statin treatment rates and statin intensity were examined before and 1 year after the dissemination of the 2013 cholesterol guideline. A standardized difference of at least 10% was required to declare the effect size meaningful. Overall, there was no change in statin treatment rates for patients with ASCVD (48.0% before guideline vs. 47.3% after, standardized difference 1.4%) or diabetes (50% vs. 51.5% after, standardized difference 2.4%). Statin initiation rates among patients not on statins before the 2013 guideline were 10.1% in patients with ASCVD and 14.3% in patients with diabetes, but these gains were offset by 13.0% and 12.2% statin discontinuation rates among ASCVD and diabetes patients, respectively. Among patients taking statins 1 year after the guideline was issued, 80% of patients with ASCVD and aged ≤ 75 years were not on guideline-recommended high-intensity statin therapy, whereas most patients with ASCVD and aged > 75 years or patients with diabetes were on moderate- or high-intensity statin treatment. One year after dissemination of the 2013 cholesterol guideline, overall treatment rates with statins among patients with ASCVD and diabetes did not change appreciably, and many patients remained either

  17. Production of branched tetraether lipids in the lower Pearl River and estuary: effects of extraction methods and impact on bGDGT proxies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanlun eZhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Branched glycerol dibiphytanyl glycerol tetraethers (bGDGTs are known as bacterial lipids that occur widely in terrestrial environments, particularly in anaerobic peat bogs and soil. We examined the abundance and distribution of bGDGTs in both core (C and polar (P lipid fractions from the water column and surface sediments in the lower Pearl River (PR and its estuary using two extraction methods (sonication vs. Bligh and Dyer. A number of soil samples in the lower PR drainage basin were also collected and extracted for bGDGTs using the sonication method. The results showed aquatic production of bGDGTs as supported by substantial abundances of P-bGDGTs in the water column and sediment samples. The bGDGT-based proxies (BIT, CBT, and MBT were not affected by the method of extraction when C-bGDGTs were analyzed; in such case, the pHCBT of the sediments reflected the soil pH of the lower PR drainage basin, and the temperature close to the annual mean air temperature in the lower PR basin. On the other hand, the P-bGDGT-derived proxies were inconsistent between the two methods. The P-bGDGTs (particularly those extracted using the sonication method may not be reliable indicators of annual mean air temperatures.

  18. Light Intensity Regulates LC-PUFA Incorporation into Lipids of Pavlova lutheri and the Final Desaturase and Elongase Activities Involved in Their Biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guihéneuf, Freddy; Mimouni, Virginie; Tremblin, Gérard; Ulmann, Lionel

    2015-02-04

    The microalga Pavlova lutheri is a candidate for the production of omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA), due to its ability to accumulate both eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acids. Outstanding questions need to be solved to understand the complexity of n-3 LC-PUFA synthesis and partitioning into lipids, especially its metabolic regulation, and which enzymes and/or abiotic factors control their biosynthesis. In this study, the radioactivity of 14 C-labeled arachidonic acid incorporated into the total lipids of P. lutheri grown under different light intensities and its conversion into labeled LC-PUFA were monitored. The results highlighted for the first time the light-dependent incorporation of LC-PUFA into lipids and the light-dependent activity of the final desaturation and elongation steps required to synthesize and accumulate n-3 C20/C22 LC-PUFA. The incorporation of arachidonic acid into lipids under low light and the related Δ17-desaturation activity measured explain the variations in fatty acid profile of P. lutheri, especially the accumulation of n-3 LC-PUFA such as EPA under low light conditions.

  19. Impact of a 12-week high-intensity interval training without caloric restriction on body composition and lipid profile in sedentary healthy overweight/obese youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khammassi, Marwa; Ouerghi, Nejmeddine; Hadj-Taieb, Sameh; Feki, Moncef; Thivel, David; Bouassida, Anissa

    2018-02-01

    Although High-intensity interval training (HIIT) has shown its effectiveness in improving body composition, cardio-respiratory fitness and lipid profile in obese adults, evidences remain limited in overweight/obese youth. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of a 12-week HIIT program without caloric restriction on body composition and lipid profile among young overweight/obese men. Twenty healthy obese youth were randomly allocated into two groups; experimental group (HIIT) and control group. The HIIT program consisted in 3 exercises sessions per week (30 sec of work at 100% maximal aerobic velocity [MAV]) interspersed by 30 sec of active recovery at 50% MAV, starting by 15 repetitions to reach 27 by the end of the program. Aerobic capacity (MAV and maximum oxygen uptake [VO2max]), body composition (body mass index [BMI], waist circumference [WC], and fat mass percent) and lipid profile (triglycerides [TG] and total, high-density lipoprotein [HDL] and low-density lipoprotein [LDL] cholesterol) were determined before and after the HIIT program. Following 12 weeks of HIIT, WC, BMI ( P HIIT group, only. Total cholesterol ( P HIIT group, while LDL and HDL cholesterol levels remained unchanged in both groups. HIIT may be particularly useful in overweight/obese youth to improve body composition, aerobic fitness and lipid profile.

  20. Endurance Training Intensity Does Not Mediate Interference to Maximal Lower-Body Strength Gain during Short-Term Concurrent Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fyfe, Jackson J; Bartlett, Jonathan D; Hanson, Erik D; Stepto, Nigel K; Bishop, David J

    2016-01-01

    We determined the effect of concurrent training incorporating either high-intensity interval training (HIT) or moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) on maximal strength, counter-movement jump (CMJ) performance, and body composition adaptations, compared with single-mode resistance training (RT). Twenty-three recreationally-active males (mean ± SD: age, 29.6 ± 5.5 y; [Formula: see text], 44 ± 11 mL kg -1 ·min -1 ) underwent 8 weeks (3 sessions·wk -1 ) of either: (1) HIT combined with RT (HIT+RT group, n = 8), (2) work-matched MICT combined with RT (MICT+RT group, n = 7), or (3) RT performed alone (RT group, n = 8). Measures of aerobic capacity, maximal (1-RM) strength, CMJ performance and body composition (DXA) were obtained before (PRE), mid-way (MID), and after (POST) training. Maximal (one-repetition maximum [1-RM]) leg press strength was improved from PRE to POST for RT (mean change ± 90% confidence interval; 38.5 ± 8.5%; effect size [ES] ± 90% confidence interval; 1.26 ± 0.24; P body lean mass was similarly increased for RT (4.1 ± 2.0%; ES; 0.33 ± 0.16; P = 0.023) and MICT+RT (3.6 ± 2.4%; ES; 0.45 ± 0.30; P = 0.052); however, this change was attenuated for HIT+RT (1.8 ± 1.6%; ES; 0.13 ± 0.12; P = 0.069). We conclude that concurrent training incorporating either HIT or work-matched MICT similarly attenuates improvements in maximal lower-body strength and indices of CMJ performance compared with RT performed alone. This suggests endurance training intensity is not a critical mediator of interference to maximal strength gain during short-term concurrent training.

  1. Lipid-based nutrient supplements do not affect efavirenz but lower plasma nevirapine concentrations in Ethiopian adult HIV patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdissa, A; Olsen, Mette Frahm; Yilma, D

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNSs) are increasingly used in HIV programmes in resource-limited settings. However, the possible effects of LNSs on the plasma concentrations of antiretroviral drugs have not been assessed. Here, we aimed to assess the effects of LNSs on plasma...... efavirenz and nevirapine trough concentrations in Ethiopian adult HIV-infected patients. METHODS: The effects of LNSs were studied in adults initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) in a randomized trial. Patients with body mass index (BMI) > 17 kg/m(2) (n = 282) received daily supplementation of an LNS.......9; -0.9 μg/mL; P = 0.01), respectively, compared with the group not receiving supplements. There were no differences between groups with respect to efavirenz plasma concentrations. The CYP2B6 516 G>T polymorphism was associated with a 5 μg/mL higher plasma efavirenz concentration compared with the wild...

  2. Glucose and Lipid Lowering Potentials of Heliotropium indicum L. Leaves in Alloxan-Induced Hyperglycaemic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasheed Bolaji IBRAHIM

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The antidiabetic potentials of Heliotropium indicum L. leaf aqueous (HILA extract used for the management of diabetes by Traditional Medicinal Practitioners (TMPs in Nigeria was assessed. Alloxan (ALX-induced hyperglycaemic rats were orally administered with known folkloric dosage of 30 and 75 mg/kg b. wt. of HILA extract, once a day, for 14 days. Fasting blood glucose (FBG levels were monitored and pancreatic histology was examined. Net hepatic glycogen (GLY concentration and lipid profiles were also determined. Prior to treatment, ALX-induced hyperglycaemia (>250 mg/dL was established in rats. Oral administration of 30 and 75 mg/kg b. wt. HILA extract to diabetic rats for 14 days caused significant reduction in FBG to baseline values observed in non-diabetic conditions. Treatment with HILA extract also showed improvement in lipid abnormalities observed in hyperglycaemic condition, levels of triglyceride, total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol were significantly reduced and HDL-cholesterol increased resulting in improved artherogenic index. Hepatic GLY concentration was significantly increased in diabetic rat treated with the extract. Histological examinations showed degenerated and sparse pancreatic islets β-cells in non-treated diabetic rat, whereas microscopy of treated rats showed mild to normal architecture with enriched β-cells. Preliminary phytochemical profiling of the extract revealed the presence of alkaloids (2.54 mg/g, saponins (0.28 mg/g, phenols (0.04 mg/g and anthraquinones (0.01 mg/g. Results from this study revealed that the aqueous leaf extract of H. indicum possesses not only antihyperglycaemic, but also antidyslipidemic activities, that may prove to be of clinical importance in the management of diabetes and associated secondary complications.

  3. Effects of powdered Montmorency tart cherry supplementation on an acute bout of intense lower body strength exercise in resistance trained males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levers, Kyle; Dalton, Ryan; Galvan, Elfego; Goodenough, Chelsea; O'Connor, Abigail; Simbo, Sunday; Barringer, Nicholas; Mertens-Talcott, Susanne U; Rasmussen, Christopher; Greenwood, Mike; Riechman, Steven; Crouse, Stephen; Kreider, Richard B

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether short-term ingestion of a powdered tart cherry supplement prior to and following intense resistance-exercise attenuates muscle soreness and recovery strength loss, while reducing markers of muscle damage, inflammation, and oxidative stress. Twenty-three healthy, resistance-trained men (20.9 ± 2.6 yr, 14.2 ± 5.4% body fat, 63.9 ± 8.6 kg FFM) were matched based on relative maximal back squat strength, age, body weight, and fat free mass. Subjects were randomly assigned to ingest, in a double blind manner, capsules containing a placebo (P, n = 12) or powdered tart cherries [CherryPURE(®)] (TC, n = 11). Participants supplemented one time daily (480 mg/d) for 10-d including day of exercise up to 48-h post-exercise. Subjects performed ten sets of ten repetitions at 70% of a 1-RM back squat exercise. Fasting blood samples, isokinetic MVCs, and quadriceps muscle soreness ratings were taken pre-lift, 60-min, 24-h, and 48-h post-lift and analyzed by MANOVA with repeated measures. Muscle soreness perception in the vastus medialis (¼) (p = 0.10) and the vastus lateralis (¼) (p = 0.024) was lower in TC over time compared to P. Compared to pre-lift, TC vastus medialis (¼) soreness was significantly attenuated up to 48-h post-lift with vastus lateralis (¼) soreness significantly lower at 24-h post-lift compared to P. TC changes in serum creatinine (p = 0.03, delta p = 0.024) and total protein (p = 0.018, delta p = 0.006) were lower over time and smaller from pre-lift levels over time compared to P Significant TC group reductions from pre-lift levels were found for AST and creatinine 48-h post-lift, bilirubin and ALT 60-min and 48-h post-lift. No significant supplementation effects were observed for serum inflammatory or anti-inflammatory markers. None of the free radical production, lipid peroxidation, or antioxidant capacity markers (NT, TBARS, TAS, SOD) demonstrated significant changes with supplementation. Changes in TC

  4. Lipid-Lowering Effects of Ethyl 2-Phenacyl-3-aryl-1H-pyrrole- 4-carboxylates in Rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce S. Burnham

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available A series of substituted 2-phenacyl-3-phenyl-1H-pyrrole-4-carboxylates were prepared from substituted acetophenones in 6 steps. The final condensations between a chloroenal and an aminoketone were carried out under neutral conditions in parallel to yield the series listed below. Selected pyrrole derivatives proved to be potent hypolipidemic agents lowering serum triglyceride concentrations in CF-1 male mice after 14 days of I.P. administration. One agent orally lowered serum cholesterol in Sprague-Dawley male rats at 2mg/kg/day after 14 days. The agents demonstrated a lowering of mouse serum LDL- cholesterol levels and selected compounds showed an elevation of serum HDL-cholesterol levels. The cholesterol concentrations in the liver were raised while the cholesterol and triglyceride contents of the aorta were significantly lowered by the selected trisubstituted pyrrole.

  5. Gemfibrozil, food and drug administration-approved lipid-lowering drug, increases longevity in mouse model of late infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Arunava; Rangasamy, Suresh Babu; Modi, Khushbu K; Pahan, Kalipada

    2017-05-01

    Late Infantile Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinosis (LINCL) is a rare neurodegenerative disease caused by mutations in the Cln2 gene that leads to deficiency or loss of function of the tripeptidyl peptidase 1 (TPP1) enzyme. TPP1 deficiency is known to cause the accumulation of autofluoroscent lipid-protein pigments in brain. Similar to other neurodegenerative disorders, LINCL is also associated with neuroinflammation and neuronal damage. Despite investigations, no effective therapy is currently available for LINCL. Therefore, we administered gemfibrozil (gem), an food and drug administration (FDA)-approved lipid-lowering drug, which has been shown to stimulate lysosomal biogenesis and induce anti-inflammation, orally, at a dose of 7.5 mg/kg body wt/day to Cln2 (-/-) mice. We observed that gem-fed Cln2 (-/-) mice lived longer by more than 10 weeks and had better motor activity compared to vehicle (0.1% Methyl cellulose) treatment. Gem treatment lowered the burden of storage materials, increased anti-inflammatory factors like SOCS3 and IL-1Ra, up-regulated anti-apoptotic molecule like phospho-Bad, and reduced neuronal apoptosis in the brain of Cln2 (-/-) mice. Collectively, this study reinforces a neuroprotective role of gem that may be of therapeutic interest in improving the quality of life in LINCL patients. © 2017 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  6. Rationale, design features, and baseline characteristics: The Heart Institute of Japan-PRoper level of lipid lOwering with Pitavastatin and Ezetimibe in acute coRonary syndrome (HIJ-PROPER).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawada-Watanabe, Erisa; Ogawa, Hiroshi; Koyanagi, Ryo; Arashi, Hiroyuki; Yamaguchi, Junichi; Matsui, Kunihiko; Hagiwara, Nobuhisa

    2017-03-01

    In contrast to current guidelines in Western countries, moderate reduction of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is recommended for Japanese patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and dyslipidemia even in secondary prevention. HIJ-PROPER (Heart Institute of Japan-PRoper level of lipid lOwering with Pitavastatin and Ezetimibe in acute coRonary syndrome) is a prospective, randomized, open-label, blinded endpoint multicenter trial designed to assess whether closely controlled LDL-C lowering with a standard statin dose plus ezetimibe, targeting LDL-C of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and dyslipidemia. We recruited patients with ACS and dyslipidemia who had undergone coronary angiography. Participants are randomly allocated to either intensive LDL-C lowering treatment (target LDL-C of acute MI in 61.5%. This study is expected to report its findings in August 2016. HIJ-PROPER will determine whether targeting LDL-C of <70mg/dL with pitavastatin plus ezetimibe can improve cardiovascular outcomes in Japanese patients with ACS and dyslipidemia in comparison to targeting LDL-C of 90-100mg/dL with standard pitavastatin monotherapy. UMIN000002742. Copyright © 2016 Japanese College of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The use of Design of Experiments and Response Surface Methodology to optimize biomass and lipid production by the oleaginous marine green alga, Nannochloropsis gaditana in response to light intensity, inoculum size and CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallenbeck, Patrick C; Grogger, Melanie; Mraz, Megan; Veverka, Donald

    2015-05-01

    Biodiesel produced from microalgal lipids is being considered as a potential source of renewable energy. However, a number of hurdles will have to be overcome if such a process is to become practical. One important factor is the volumetric production of biomass and lipid that can be achieved. The marine alga Nannochloropsis gaditana is under study since it is known to be highly oleaginous and has a number of other attractive properties. Factors that might be important in biomass and lipid production by this alga are light intensity, inoculum size and CO2. Here we have carried out for the first time a RSM-DOE study of the influence of these important culture variables and define conditions that maximize biomass production, lipid content (BODIPY® fluorescence) and total lipid production. Moreover, flow cytometry allowed the examination on a cellular level of changes that occur in cellular populations as they age and accumulate lipids. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The triple line pattern on carotid intima media thickness imaging and its relationship to cardiovascular risk factors in patients on lipid lowering therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh TA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Tania A Singh,1 Todd C Villines,2 Allen J Taylor31Division of Cardiology, Medstar Georgetown University Hospital, 2Walter Reed National Military Medical Center, Bethesda, MD, 3Georgetown University School of Medicine, Washington, DC, USA Background: Carotid intima media thickness (CIMT infrequently identifies a triple line pattern (TLP in the visualization of the internal elastic lamina. We examined the prevalence and predictors of the TLP among a consecutive series of subjects enrolled in a CIMT clinical trial, and also the effects of lipid lowering therapy.Methods: Baseline CIMT studies of subjects with known heart disease, or high risk for heart disease, were evaluated from a single site of the Arterial Biology for the Investigation of the Treatment Effects of Reducing Cholesterol 6-HDL and LDL Treatment Strategies in Atherosclerosis trial (N=120. One sonographer obtained four views of the right and left far wall common CIMT, using a 13 MHz ultrasound probe. Images were blindly reviewed for the presence of the TLP. The TLP was defined as absent (0, possible (1, or definite (2. A composite score from all four views was calculated. A patient was defined as having the TLP if the composite score was ≥4. Univariate predictors of the TLP were explored. Follow-up ultrasounds at 14 months were also reviewed for presence of the TLP.Results: The prevalence of the TLP at baseline was 22.5%. Among cardiovascular risk variables, systolic blood pressure was significantly higher in subjects displaying the TLP (141.3±15.6 mmHg versus 133.1±18.4 mmHg; P=0.036. There were no differences among those with, and without, the TLP, with respect to other cardiovascular risk variables (age, sex, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, C-reactive protein, glucose, weight, waist girth, tobacco use, medications, quantitative CIMT, or image quality. During ongoing lipid lowering therapy, the prevalence of the TLP increased to 54

  9. The effect of high intensity exercise and anticipation on trunk and lower limb biomechanics during a crossover cutting manoeuvre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whyte, Enda F; Richter, Chris; O'connor, Siobhan; Moran, Kieran A

    2018-04-01

    We investigated the effects of high intensity, intermittent exercise (HIIP) and anticipation on trunk, pelvic and lower limb biomechanics during a crossover cutting manoeuvre. Twenty-eight male, varsity athletes performed crossover cutting manoeuvres in anticipated and unanticipated conditions pre- and post-HIIP. Kinematic and kinetic variables were captured using a motion analysis system. Statistical parametric mapping (repeated-measures ANOVA) was used to identify differences in biomechanical patterns. Results demonstrated that both unanticipation and fatigue (HIIP) altered the biomechanics of the crossover cutting manoeuvre, whereas no interactions effects were observed. Unanticipation resulted in less trunk and pelvic side flexion in the direction of cut (d = 0.70 - 0.79). This led to increased hip abductor and external rotator moments and increased knee extensor and valgus moments with small effects (d = 0.24-0.42), potentially increasing ACL strain. The HIIP resulted in trivial to small effects only with a decrease in internal knee rotator and extensor moment and decreased knee power absorption (d = 0.35), reducing potential ACL strain. The effect of trunk and hip control exercises in unanticipated conditions on the crossover cutting manoeuvre should be investigated with a view to refining ACL injury prevention programmes.

  10. Lowering Whole-Body Radiation Doses in Pediatric Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy Through the Use of Unflattened Photon Beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cashmore, Jason; Ramtohul, Mark; Ford, Dan

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) has been linked with an increased risk of secondary cancer induction due to the extra leakage radiation associated with delivery of these techniques. Removal of the flattening filter offers a simple way of reducing head leakage, and it may be possible to generate equivalent IMRT plans and to deliver these on a standard linear accelerator operating in unflattened mode. Methods and Materials: An Elekta Precise linear accelerator has been commissioned to operate in both conventional and unflattened modes (energy matched at 6 MV) and a direct comparison made between the treatment planning and delivery of pediatric intracranial treatments using both approaches. These plans have been evaluated and delivered to an anthropomorphic phantom. Results: Plans generated in unflattened mode are clinically identical to those for conventional IMRT but can be delivered with greatly reduced leakage radiation. Measurements in an anthropomorphic phantom at clinically relevant positions including the thyroid, lung, ovaries, and testes show an average reduction in peripheral doses of 23.7%, 29.9%, 64.9%, and 70.0%, respectively, for identical plan delivery compared to conventional IMRT. Conclusions: IMRT delivery in unflattened mode removes an unwanted and unnecessary source of scatter from the treatment head and lowers leakage doses by up to 70%, thereby reducing the risk of radiation-induced second cancers. Removal of the flattening filter is recommended for IMRT treatments.

  11. Endurance training intensity does not mediate interference to maximal lower-body strength gain during short-term concurrent training.

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    Jackson J Fyfe

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We determined the effect of concurrent training incorporating either high-intensity interval training (HIT or moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT on maximal strength, counter-movement jump (CMJ performance, and body composition adaptations, compared with single-mode resistance training (RT. Twenty-three recreationally-active males (mean ± SD: age, 29.6 ± 5.5 y; V ̇O 2peak, 44 ± 11 mL∙kg-1•min-1 were ranked by one-repetition maximum (1-RM leg press strength and randomly allocated tounderwent 8 weeks (3 sessions•wk-1 of either: 1 HIT combined with RT (HIT+RT group, n=8, 2 work-matched MICT combined with RT (MICT+RT group, n=7, or 3 RT performed alone (RT group, n=8. Measures of aerobic capacity, maximal (1-RM strength, counter-movement jump (CMJ performance and body composition (DXA were obtained before (PRE, mid-way (MID, and after (POST eight weeks of training. Maximal (one-repetition maximum [1-RM] leg press strength was improved from PRE to POST for RT (mean change ±90% confidence interval; 38.5 ±8.5%; effect size [ES] ±90% confidence interval; 1.26 ±0.24; P<0.001, HIT+RT (28.7 ±5.3%; ES, 1.17 ±0.19; P<0.001 and MICT+RT (27.5 ±4.6%, ES, 0.81 ±0.12; P<0.001; however, the magnitude of this change was greater for RT vs. both HIT+RT (7.4 ±8.7%; ES, 0.40 ±0.40 and MICT+RT (8.2 ±9.9%; ES, 0.60 ±0.45. There were no substantial between-group differences in 1-RM bench press strength gain. RT induced greater changes in peak CMJ force vs. HIT+RT (6.8 ±4.5%; ES, 0.41 ±0.28 and MICT+RT (9.9 ±11.2%; ES, 0.54 ±0.65, and greater improvements in maximal CMJ rate of force development (RFD vs. HIT+RT (24.1 ±26.1%; ES, 0.72 ±0.88. Lower-body lean mass was similarly increased for RT (4.1 ±2.0%; ES; 0.33 ±0.16; P=0.023 and MICT+RT (3.6 ±2.4%; ES; 0.45 ±0.30; P=0.052; however, this change was attenuated for HIT+RT (1.8 ±1.6%; ES; 0.13 ±0.12; P=0.069. We conclude that concurrent training incorporating either HIT or work

  12. Dietary omega-6 fatty acid lowering increases bioavailability of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in human plasma lipid pools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Ameer Y; Cheon, Yewon; Faurot, Keturah F; Macintosh, Beth; Majchrzak-Hong, Sharon F; Mann, J Douglas; Hibbeln, Joseph R; Ringel, Amit; Ramsden, Christopher E

    2014-05-01

    Dietary linoleic acid (LA, 18:2n-6) lowering in rats reduces n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) plasma concentrations and increases n-3 PUFA (eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)) concentrations. To evaluate the extent to which 12 weeks of dietary n-6 PUFA lowering, with or without increased dietary n-3 PUFAs, alters unesterified and esterified plasma n-6 and n-3 PUFA concentrations in subjects with chronic headache. Secondary analysis of a randomized trial. Subjects with chronic headache were randomized for 12 weeks to (1) average n-3, low n-6 (L6) diet; or (2) high n-3, low n-6 LA (H3-L6) diet. Esterified and unesterified plasma fatty acids were quantified at baseline (0 weeks) and after 12 weeks on a diet. Compared to baseline, the L6 diet reduced esterified plasma LA and increased esterified n-3 PUFA concentrations (nmol/ml), but did not significantly change plasma arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6) concentration. In addition, unesterified EPA concentration was increased significantly among unesterified fatty acids. The H3-L6 diet decreased esterified LA and AA concentrations, and produced more marked increases in esterified and unesterified n-3 PUFA concentrations. Dietary n-6 PUFA lowering for 12 weeks significantly reduces LA and increases n-3 PUFA concentrations in plasma, without altering plasma AA concentration. A concurrent increase in dietary n-3 PUFAs for 12 weeks further increases n-3 PUFA plasma concentrations and reduces AA. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Effects of cultivated wild ginseng pharmacopuncture on lowering lipid and oxidative capacity in biochemical and molecular biological study in obese rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Ju Choi

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : This study was carried out to identified the effects of distilled cultivated wild ginseng pharmacopuncture to the obesity. Methods : Cultivated wild ginseng pharmacopuncture was administered on the points of chung-wan(CV12, Ch'ŏnch'u(ST25, and Chok-samni(ST36 on lowering lipid and oxidative capacity in biochemical and molecular biological aspects were investigated in obese rats fed with high fat diet. Results : 1. The contents of plasma β-lipoprotein showed a tendency to decrease in the pharmacopuncture groups compared to the control group. In the pharmacopuncture groups, the values of ST25 and ST36 pharmacopuncture groups showed lower value. 2. The contents of plasma free fatty acids showed a tendency to decrease in pharmacopuncture groups compared to the control group. However, in the pharmacopuncture groups, the values were not significantly different. 3. Plasma triglyceride and glucose showed lower value in the ST25 pharmacopuncture groups compared with the other groups. 4. The activity of AST showed a tendency to decrease in the pharmacopuncture groups. However, the activity of ALT was not significantly different in all the treatment groups. 5. Plasma total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol showed lower value in the ST25 and ST36 pharmacopuncture groups and HDL-cholesterol showed higher value in the CV12 pharmacopuncture groups than that of the other treatment groups. 6. Liver total cholesterol values didn't show significant difference in all the treatment groups, and triglyceride showed lower value in the pharmacopuncture groups. 7. The contents of plasma TBARS showed lower value in the ST25 pharmacopuncture group and contents of liver TBARS showed a tendency to decrease in the pharmacopuncture groups. However these values didn't show significant difference in the pharmaco puncture groups. 8. Liver super oxide dismutase activity showed higher value in the ST25 and ST36 pharmacopuncture groups, and the value of liver

  14. Changes in Antioxidant Defense Capability and Lipid Profile after 12-Week Low- Intensity Continuous Training in Both Cigarette and Hookah Smokers: A Follow-Up Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koubaa, Abdessalem; Triki, Moez; Trabelsi, Hajer; Masmoudi, Liwa; Sahnoun, Zouhair; Hakim, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    To examine the impact of low-intensity continuous training program on antioxidant defense capability and lipid profile in male cigarette or hookah smokers. Forty-three male adults participated in a 12-week continuous training program at an intensity of 40% of VO2max. All subjects were subjected to anthropometric, physical and biochemical tests before and after the training program. The increase of Glutathione reductase (GR) and Superoxide dismutase (SOD) is significant only for cigarette smokers (CS) and hookah smokers (HS) groups. The Malondialdehyde (MDA) decrease and α-tocopherol increase are significant only for HS group. GPx was increased in NS, CS and HS by 2.6% (p< 0.01), 2% (p< 0.05) and 1.7% (p< 0.05) respectively. Likewise, significant improvements of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and TC / HDL-C ratio were observed in three groups. En contrast no significant changes were recorded in triglycerides (TG). Also, significant reduction of total cholesterol (TC) for CS group (p< 0.01) and HS groups (p< 0.05). This continuous training program appears to have an important role in lipid levels improving and oxidative stress attenuation. PMID:26121249

  15. Genome-wide association study of triglyceride response to a high-fat meal among participants of the NHLBI Genetics of Lipid Lowering Drugs and Diet Network (GOLDN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojczynski, Mary K; Parnell, Laurence D; Pollin, Toni I; Lai, Chao Q; Feitosa, Mary F; O'Connell, Jeff R; Frazier-Wood, Alexis C; Gibson, Quince; Aslibekyan, Stella; Ryan, Kathy A; Province, Michael A; Tiwari, Hemant K; Ordovas, Jose M; Shuldiner, Alan R; Arnett, Donna K; Borecki, Ingrid B

    2015-10-01

    The triglyceride (TG) response to a high-fat meal (postprandial lipemia, PPL) affects cardiovascular disease risk and is influenced by genes and environment. Genes involved in lipid metabolism have dominated genetic studies of PPL TG response. We sought to elucidate common genetic variants through a genome-wide association (GWA) study in the Genetics of Lipid Lowering Drugs and Diet Network (GOLDN). The GOLDN GWAS discovery sample consisted of 872 participants within families of European ancestry. Genotypes for 2,543,887 variants were measured or imputed from HapMap. Replication of our top results was performed in the Heredity and Phenotype Intervention (HAPI) Heart Study (n = 843). PPL TG response phenotypes were constructed from plasma TG measured at baseline (fasting, 0 hour), 3.5 and 6 hours after a high-fat meal, using a random coefficient regression model. Association analyses were adjusted for covariates and principal components, as necessary, in a linear mixed model using the kinship matrix; additional models further adjusted for fasting TG were also performed. Meta-analysis of the discovery and replication studies (n = 1715) was performed on the top SNPs from GOLDN. GOLDN revealed 111 suggestive (p 5E-08). Of the two significant SNPs, rs964184 demonstrated evidence of replication (p = 1.20E-03) in the HAPI Heart Study and in a joint analysis, was GWA significant (p = 1.26E-09). Rs964184 has been associated with fasting lipids (TG and HDL) and is near ZPR1 (formerly ZNF259), close to the APOA1/C3/A4/A5 cluster. This association was attenuated upon additional adjustment for fasting TG. This is the first report of a genome-wide significant association with replication for a novel phenotype, namely PPL TG response. Future investigation into response phenotypes is warranted using pathway analyses, or newer genetic technologies such as metabolomics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Dietary omega-6 fatty acid lowering increases bioavailability of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in human plasma lipid pools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Ameer Y.; Cheon, Yewon; Faurot, Keturah F.; MacIntosh, Beth; Majchrzak-Hong, Sharon F.; Mann, J. Douglas; Hibbeln, Joseph R.; Ringel, Amit; Ramsden, Christopher E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Dietary linoleic acid (LA, 18:2n-6) lowering in rats reduces n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) plasma concentrations and increases n-3 PUFA (eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)) concentrations. Objective To evaluate the extent to which 12 weeks of dietary n-6 PUFA lowering, with or without increased dietary n-3 PUFAs, change unesterified and esterified plasma n-6 and n-3 PUFA concentrations in subjects with chronic headache. Design Secondary analysis of a randomized trial. Subjects with chronic headache were randomized for 12 weeks to: (1) average n-3, low n-6 (L6) diet; or (2) high n-3, low n-6 LA (H3-L6) diet. Esterified and unesterified plasma fatty acids were quantified at baseline (0 weeks) and after 12 weeks on a diet. Results Compared to baseline, the L6 diet reduced esterified plasma LA and increased esterified n-3 PUFA concentrations (nmol/ml), but did not significantly change plasma arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6) concentration. In addition, unesterified EPA concentration was increased significantly among unesterified fatty acids. The H3-L6 diet decreased esterified LA and AA concentrations, and produced more marked increases in esterified and unesterified n-3 PUFA concentrations. Conclusion Dietary n-6 PUFA lowering for 12 weeks significantly reduces LA and increases n-3 PUFA concentrations in plasma, without altering plasma AA concentration. A concurrent increase in dietary n-3 PUFA for 12 weeks further increases n-3 PUFA plasma concentrations, but also reduces AA. PMID:24675168

  17. Positive relationship between dietary fat, ethanol intake, triglycerides, and hypothalamic peptides: counteraction by lipid-lowering drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barson, Jessica R; Karatayev, Olga; Chang, Guo-Qing; Johnson, Deanne F; Bocarsly, Miriam E; Hoebel, Bartley G; Leibowitz, Sarah F

    2009-09-01

    Studies in both humans and animals suggest a positive relationship between the intake of ethanol and intake of fat, which may contribute to alcohol abuse. This relationship may be mediated, in part, by hypothalamic orexigenic peptides such as orexin (OX), which stimulate both consumption of ethanol and fat, and circulating triglycerides (TGs), which stimulate these peptides and promote consummatory behavior. The present study investigated this vicious cycle between ethanol and fat, to further characterize its relation to TGs and to test the effects of lowering TG levels. In Experiment 1, the behavioral relationship between fat intake and ethanol was confirmed. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats, chronically injected intraperitoneally with ethanol (1g/kg) and tested in terms of their preference for a high-fat diet (HFD) compared with low-fat diet (LFD), showed a significant increase in their fat preference, compared with rats injected with saline, in measures of 2h and 24h intake. Experiment 2 tested the relationship of circulating TGs in this positive association between ethanol and fat, in rats chronically consuming 9% ethanol versus water and given acute meal tests (25kcal) of a HFD versus LFD. Levels of TGs were elevated in response to both chronic drinking of ethanol versus water and acute eating of a high-fat versus low-fat meal. Most importantly, ethanol and a HFD showed an interaction effect, whereby their combination produced a considerably larger increase in TG levels (+172%) compared to ethanol with a LFD (+111%). In Experiment 3, a direct manipulation of TG levels was found to affect ethanol intake. After intragastric administration of gemfibrozil (50mg/kg) compared with vehicle, TG levels were lowered by 37%, and ethanol intake was significantly reduced. In Experiment 4, the TG-lowering drug gemfibrozil also caused a significant reduction in the expression of the orexigenic peptide, OX, in the perifornical lateral hypothalamus. These results support the

  18. Lowered iPLA2γ activity causes increased mitochondrial lipid peroxidation and mitochondrial dysfunction in a rotenone-induced model of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Honglu; Liu, Yinlong; Fu, Xian; Xu, Xiupeng; Bao, Zhongyuan; Lin, Chao; Li, Zheng; Liu, Yan; Wang, Xiaoming; You, Yongping; Liu, Ning; Ji, Jing

    2018-02-01

    iPLA 2 γ, calcium-independent phospholipase A 2 γ, discerningly hydrolyses glycerophospholipids to liberate free fatty acids. iPLA 2 γ-deficiency has been associated with abnormal mitochondrial function. More importantly, the iPLA 2 family is causative proteins in mitochondrial neurodegenerative disorders such as parkinsonian disorders. However, the mechanisms by which iPLA 2 γ affects Parkinson's disease (PD) remain unknown. Mitochondrion stress has a key part in rotenone-induced dopaminergic neuronal degeneration. The present evaluation revealed that lowered iPLA 2 γ function provokes the parkinsonian phenotype and leads to the reduction of dopamine and its metabolites, lowered survival, locomotor deficiencies, and organismal hypersensitivity to rotenone-induced oxidative stress. In addition, lowered iPLA 2 γ function escalated the amount of mitochondrial irregularities, including mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) regeneration, reduced ATP synthesis, reduced glutathione levels, and abnormal mitochondrial morphology. Further, lowered iPLA 2 γ function was tightly linked with strengthened lipid peroxidation and mitochondrial membrane flaws following rotenone treatment, which can cause cytochrome c release and eventually apoptosis. These results confirmed the important role of iPLA 2 γ, whereby decreasing iPLA 2 γ activity aggravates mitochondrial degeneration to induce neurodegenerative disorders in a rotenone rat model of Parkinson's disease. These findings may be useful in the design of rational approaches for the prevention and treatment of PD-associated symptoms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparison of Low-Dose Rosuvastatin with Atorvastatin in Lipid-Lowering Efficacy and Safety in a High-Risk Pakistani Cohort: An Open-Label Randomized Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Rehman Arshad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Treatment of hyperlipidemia is helpful in both primary and secondary prevention of coronary heart disease and stroke. Aim. To compare lipid-lowering efficacy of rosuvastatin with atorvastatin. Methodology. This open-label randomized controlled trial was carried out at 1 Mountain Medical Battalion from September 2012 to August 2013 on patients with type 2 diabetes, hypertension, myocardial infarction, or stroke, meriting treatment with a statin. Those with secondary causes of dyslipidemia were excluded. Blood samples for estimation of serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL-C, and LDL-C were collected after a 12-hour fast. Patients were randomly allocated to receive either atorvastatin 10 mg HS or rosuvastatin 5 mg HS daily. Lipid levels were rechecked after six weeks. Results. Atorvastatin was used in 63 patients and rosuvastatin in 66. There was a greater absolute and percent reduction in serum LDL-C levels with rosuvastatin as compared to atorvastatin (0.96 versus 0.54 mg/dL; P=0.011 and 24.34 versus 13.66%; P=0.045, whereas reduction in all other fractions was equal. Myalgias were seen in 5 (7.94% patients treated with atorvastatin and 8 (12.12% patients treated with rosuvastatin (P: 0.432. Conclusion. Rosuvastatin produces a greater reduction in serum LDL-C levels and should therefore be preferred over atorvastatin.

  20. Preliminary study of cell metabolism, by use of NBT test, determination the intensity of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana BEI

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Otto Warburg, in the early part of the 20th century, originated a hypothesis, that the cause of cancer is primarily a defect in energy metabolism.A decrease in the capacity of mitochondria to reduce NAD(P, together with a decline in the NAD(PH/NAD(P redox couple, uncouples oxidative phosphorylation, lead to depletion of ATP and decrease the cell viability.Nitro-bleu tetrazolium have been used to assay cell proliferation and viability. The method to measure cell proliferation is based on enzymatic cleavage of the tetrazolium salts to a water-soluble formazan dye.Succinate-tetrazolium reductase, is an enzymatic sistem, which belongs to the respiratory chain of the mitochondria and it is active only in viable cells. The reagent diffuses into the cells and it is cleaved to formazan. The absorption change is measured and analysed.Free radicals such as superoxide, can cause a damage in cellular components, but several antioxidants inhibiting the lipid peroxidation and limiting the level of free radicals in cells.In the present study we had in view the proliferation and viability of leukemia cells during antineoplastic treatment along with the alteration of the serum level of malondialdehyde (MDA and ceruloplasmin (CP. With serum level of malondialdehyde we monitored the presence of the lipid peroxidation by the reactive oxygen species, and with the oxidized ceruloplasmin level in blood serum we evidenced the activity of antioxidant system in blood.

  1. Rationale and Design of Randomized Evaluation of Aggressive or Moderate Lipid Lowering Therapy with Pitavastatin in Coronary Artery Disease (REAL-CAD) Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyauchi, Katsumi; Kimura, Takeshi; Shimokawa, Hiroaki; Daida, Hiroyuki; Iimuro, Satoshi; Iwata, Hiroshi; Ozaki, Yukio; Sakuma, Ichiro; Nakagawa, Yoshihisa; Hibi, Kiyoshi; Hiro, Takafumi; Fukumoto, Yoshihiro; Hokimoto, Seiji; Ohashi, Yasuo; Ohtsu, Hiroshi; Saito, Yasushi; Matsuzaki, Masunori; Nagai, Ryozo

    2018-03-30

    Large-scale clinical trials in patients in Western countries with coronary artery disease (CAD) have found that aggressive lipid-lowering therapy using high-dose statins reduces cardiovascular (CV) events further than low-dose statins. However, such evidence has not yet been fully established in Asian populations, including in Japan. The Randomized Evaluation of Aggressive or Moderate Lipid-Lowering Therapy with Pitavastatin in Coronary Artery Disease (REAL-CAD) study addresses whether intensification of statin therapy improves clinical outcomes in Japanese patients with CAD.REAL-CAD is a prospective, multicenter, randomized, open-label, blinded-endpoint, physician-initiated phase 4 trial in Japan. The study will recruit up to 12,600 patients with stable CAD. Patients are assigned to receive either pitavastatin 1 mg/day or pitavastatin 4 mg/day. LDL-C levels are expected to reach approximate mean values of 100 mg/dL in the low-dose pitavastatin group and 80 mg/dL in the high-dose group. The primary endpoint is the time to occurrence of a major CV event, including CV death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, non-fatal ischemic stroke, and unstable angina requiring emergency hospitalization during an average of 5 years. The large number of patients and the long follow-up period in the REAL-CAD study should ensure that there is adequate power to definitively determine if reducing LDL-C levels to approximately 80 mg/dL by high-dose statin can provide additional clinical benefit.After the study is completed, we will have categorical evidence on the optimal statin dose and target LDL-C level for secondary prevention in Japanese patients.

  2. Ischaemic preconditioning attenuates haemodynamic response and lipid peroxidation in lower-extremity surgery with unilateral pneumatic tourniquet application: a clinical pilot study.

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    Van, Mukaddes; Olguner, Cimen; Koca, Uğur; Sişman, Ali Riza; Muratli, Kivanç; Karci, Ayşe; Mavioğlu, Omür; Kilercik, Hakan

    2008-04-01

    The harmful effects of ischaemia-reperfusion on skeletal muscle during extremity surgery can be diminished by using medications or ischaemic preconditioning Twenty patients undergoing lower-limb surgery with use of a tourniquet for at least 1 hour were included in the study and randomised into two groups: a control group with only tourniquet application (T group; n=10); and an ischaemic preconditioning plus tourniquet group (IP-T group; n=10). Blood samples were obtained from the femoral vein of the relevant extremity before tourniquet application (baseline), immediately after tourniquet deflation (TD), at 10 minutes after the tourniquet deflation (TD(10min)) in the T group and additionally after ischaemic preconditioning in the IP-T group. Venous blood pH, partial oxygen pressure (P(vO2)), partial carbon dioxide pressure (P(vCO2)), lactate, potassium, sodium and glucose levels were analysed using a blood gas analyser. Plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) level, an index of lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress, was measured. Heart rate, noninvasive mean arterial pressure (MAP) and spontaneous breathing rate (SBR) were recorded at baseline, at TD, and TD(1min), TD(5min) and TD(10min). MAP decreased and SBR increased significantly at TD, TD(1min) and TD(5min) compared with baseline, and venous blood TBARS level significantly increased at TD and TD(10min) compared with baseline in the T group (all Plactate levels, which was significant compared with baseline (P<0.05) Ischaemic preconditioning attenuates haemodynamic response and lipid peroxidation during lower-extremity surgery with unilateral tourniquet application.

  3. Intensive lifestyle intervention provides rapid reduction of serum fatty acid levels in women with severe obesity without lowering omega?3 to unhealthy levels?

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    Lin, C.; Andersen, J. R.; V?ge, V.; Rajalahti, T.; Mj?s, S. A.; Kvalheim, O. M.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Serum fatty acid (FA) levels were monitored in women with severe obesity during intensive lifestyle intervention. At baseline, total FA levels and most individual FAs were elevated compared to a matching cohort of normal and overweight women (healthy controls). After 3 weeks of intensive lifestyle intervention, total level was only 11?12% higher than in the healthy controls and with almost all FAs being significantly lower than at baseline, but with levels of omega?3 being similar to ...

  4. The value of surrogate markers to monitor cholesterol absorption, synthesis and bioconversion to bile acids under lipid lowering therapies.

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    Stellaard, Frans; von Bergmann, Klaus; Sudhop, Thomas; Lütjohann, Dieter

    2017-05-01

    Regulation of cholesterol (Chol) homeostasis is controlled by three main fluxes, i.e. intestinal absorption, de novo synthesis (ChS) and catabolism, predominantly as bile acid synthesis (BAS). High serum total Chol and LDL-Chol concentrations in particular are considered risk factors and markers for the development of atherosclerosis. Pharmaceutical treatments to lower serum Chol have focused on reducing absorption or ChS and increasing BAS. Monitoring of these three parameters is complex involving isotope techniques, cholesterol balance experiments and advanced mass spectrometry based analysis methods. Surrogate markers were explored that require only one single fasting blood sample collection. These markers were validated in specific, mostly physiological conditions and during statin treatment to inhibit ChS. They were also applied under cholesterol absorption restriction, but were not validated in this condition. We retrospectively evaluated the use of serum campesterol (Camp), sitosterol (Sit) and cholestanol (Cholol) as markers for cholesterol absorption, lathosterol (Lath) as marker for ChS and 7α-hydroxycholesterol (7α-OH-Ch) and 27-hydroxycholesterol (27-OH-Ch) as markers for BAS under conditions of Chol absorption restriction. Additionally, their values were corrected for Chol concentration (R_sterol or oxysterols). Thirty-seven healthy male omnivore subjects were studied under treatments with placebo (PLAC), ezetimibe (EZE) to inhibit cholesterol absorption, simvastatin (SIMVA) to reduce cholesterol synthesis and a combination of both (EZE+SIMVA). Results were compared to those obtained in 18 pure vegetarian subjects (vegans) whose dietary Chol intake is extremely low. Relative or fractional Chol absorption (FrChA) was measured with the continuous feeding stable isotope procedure, ChS and BAS with the cholesterol balance method. The daily Chol intake (DICh) was inventoried and the daily Chol absorption (DACh) calculated. Monitoring cholesterol

  5. Effect of a 10 week high intensity interval training supplemented with green tea on lipid profiles and body composition in overweight women

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    Elham Ghasemi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Increasing the intensity of physical activity along with regular consumption of green tea can be effective on energy metabolism, weight, and body fat content. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of a 10 week. .high intensity interval training supplemented with consuming green tea .on lipid profiles and body composition in overweight women. Materials and Methods: In this quasi-experimental study, 30 overweight women were purposefully and randomly chosen and divided into 3 equal groups. Training group performed training programs including 3 sessions per week at maximum intensity of 85-95% heart rate and the supplement group consumed 3 tablets of green tea (500 mg daily for 10 weeks High intensity interval training and the supplement group both underwent intervention. Blood samples were collected before and after the intervention in fasting state. Finally,the obtained data was fed into SPSS software (V. 19 and analyzed using paired t test, covariance analysis, one way-variance analysis, and Bonferroni post- hoc tests at the significant level of P<0.05. Results: After the period of high intensity interval training and green tea supplementation triglycerides (P=0.001, LDL (P=0.02, weight (P=0.0001, body mass index (P=0.0001, and body fat percentage (P=0.0001 in all the groups and total cholesterol (P=0.01 decreased ,but  HDL (P=0.01 increased in high intensity interval training plus supplements and high intensity interval training plus placebo groups. However, these two indicators did not differ significantly in the supplement group (P=0.23 and P=0.06, respectively. Furthermore, systolic (P= 0.55 and diastolic (P= 0.15 blood pressure and waist-to-hip ratio (P= 0.08 did not change after intervention in all the groups. Conclusion: It was found that consumption of green tea along with performing of high intensity interval training can be effective in improving of cardiovascular risk factors in overweight women.

  6. The Effect of a 12-Week Moderate Intensity Interval Training Program on the Antioxidant Defense Capability and Lipid Profile in Men Smoking Cigarettes or Hookah: A Cohort Study

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    Abdessalem Koubaa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To examine the impact of interval training program on the antioxidant defense capability and lipid profile in men smoking cigarettes or hookah unable or unwilling to quit smoking. Methods. Thirty-five participants performed an interval training (2 : 1 work : rest ratio 3 times a week for 12 weeks at an intensity of 70% of VO2max. All subjects were subjected to a biochemical test session before and after the training program. Results. The increase of total antioxidant status (TAS, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, and α-tocopherol, is significant only for cigarette smokers (CS and hookah smokers (HS groups. The decrease of malondialdehyde (MDA and the increase of glutathione reductase (GR are more pronounced in smokers groups compared to those of nonsmokers (NS. Superoxide dismutase (SOD increases in NS, CS, and HS groups by 10.1%, 19.5%, and 13.3%, respectively (P<0.001. Likewise, a significant improvement of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C and TC/HDL-C ratio was observed in CS and HS groups (P<0.05. Conclusion. Although the interval training program does not have a significant effect on blood lipid levels, it seems to be very beneficial in the defense and prevention programs of oxidative stress.

  7. The effect of exercise intensity and excess postexercise oxygen consumption on postprandial blood lipids in physically inactive men.

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    Littlefield, Laurel A; Papadakis, Zacharias; Rogers, Katie M; Moncada-Jiménez, José; Taylor, J Kyle; Grandjean, Peter W

    2017-09-01

    Reductions in postprandial lipemia have been observed following aerobic exercise of sufficient energy expenditure. Increased excess postexercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) has been documented when comparing high- versus low-intensity exercise. The contribution of EPOC energy expenditure to alterations in postprandial lipemia has not been determined. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of low- and high-intensity exercise on postprandial lipemia in healthy, sedentary, overweight and obese men (age, 43 ± 10 years; peak oxygen consumption, 31.1 ± 7.5 mL·kg -1 ·min -1 ; body mass index, 31.8 ± 4.5 kg/m 2 ) and to determine the contribution of EPOC to reductions in postprandial lipemia. Participants completed 4 conditions: nonexercise control, low-intensity exercise at 40%-50% oxygen uptake reserve (LI), high-intensity exercise at 70%-80% oxygen uptake reserve (HI), and HI plus EPOC re-feeding (HI+EERM), where the difference in EPOC energy expenditure between LI and HI was re-fed in the form of a sports nutrition bar (Premier Nutrition Corp., Emeryville, Calif., USA). Two hours following exercise participants ingested a high-fat (1010 kcals, 99 g sat fat) test meal. Blood samples were obtained before exercise, before the test meal, and at 2, 4, and 6 h postprandially. Triglyceride incremental area under the curve was significantly reduced following LI, HI, and HI+EERM when compared with nonexercise control (p exercise conditions (p > 0.05). In conclusions, prior LI and HI exercise equally attenuated postprandial triglyceride responses to the test meal. The extra energy expended during EPOC does not contribute significantly to exercise energy expenditure or to reductions in postprandial lipemia in overweight men.

  8. Argan oil prevents prothrombotic complications by lowering lipid levels and platelet aggregation, enhancing oxidative status in dyslipidemic patients from the area of Rabat (Morocco).

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    Haimeur, Adil; Messaouri, Hafida; Ulmann, Lionel; Mimouni, Virginie; Masrar, Azelarab; Chraibi, Abdelmjid; Tremblin, Gérard; Meskini, Nadia

    2013-07-20

    It is now established that patients with hyperlipidemia have a high risk of atherosclerosis and thrombotic complications, which are two important events responsible for the onset and progression of cardiovascular disease. In the context of managing dyslipidemia by means of dietary advice based on the consumption of argan oil, we wanted to investigate the effect of virgin argan oil on plasma lipids, and for the first time, on the platelet hyperactivation and oxidative status associated with dyslipidemia. This study concerns patients recruited in the area of Rabat in Morocco. 39 dyslipidemic (79% women) patients were recruited for our study in the area of Rabat in Morocco. They were randomly assigned to the two following groups: the argan group, in which the subjects consumed 25 mL/day of argan oil at breakfast for 3 weeks, and the control group in which argan oil was replaced by butter. After a 3-week consumption period, blood total cholesterol was significantly lower in the argan oil group, as was LDL cholesterol (23.8% and 25.6% lower, respectively). However, the HDL cholesterol level had increased by 26% at the end of the intervention period compared to baseline. Interestingly, in the argan oil group thrombin-induced platelet aggregation was lower, and oxidative status was enhanced as a result of lower platelet MDA and higher GPx activity, respectively. In conclusion, our results, even if it is not representative of the Moroccan population, show that argan oil can prevent the prothrombotic complications associated with dyslipidemia, which are a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease.

  9. A higher-complex carbohydrate diet in gestational diabetes mellitus achieves glucose targets and lowers postprandial lipids: a randomized crossover study.

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    Hernandez, Teri L; Van Pelt, Rachael E; Anderson, Molly A; Daniels, Linda J; West, Nancy A; Donahoo, William T; Friedman, Jacob E; Barbour, Linda A

    2014-01-01

    The conventional diet approach to gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) advocates carbohydrate restriction, resulting in higher fat (HF), also a substrate for fetal fat accretion and associated with maternal insulin resistance. Consequently, there is no consensus about the ideal GDM diet. We hypothesized that, compared with a conventional, lower-carbohydrate/HF diet (40% carbohydrate/45% fat/15% protein), consumption of a higher-complex carbohydrate (HCC)/lower-fat (LF) Choosing Healthy Options in Carbohydrate Energy (CHOICE) diet (60/25/15%) would result in 24-h glucose area under the curve (AUC) profiles within therapeutic targets and lower postprandial lipids. Using a randomized, crossover design, we provided 16 GDM women (BMI 34 ± 1 kg/m2) with two 3-day isocaloric diets at 31 ± 0.5 weeks (washout between diets) and performed continuous glucose monitoring. On day 4 of each diet, we determined postprandial (5 h) glucose, insulin, triglycerides (TGs), and free fatty acids (FFAs) following a controlled breakfast meal. There were no between-diet differences for fasting or mean nocturnal glucose, but 24-h AUC was slightly higher (∼6%) on the HCC/LF CHOICE diet (P = 0.02). The continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS) revealed modestly higher 1- and 2-h postprandial glucose on CHOICE (1 h, 115 ± 2 vs. 107 ± 3 mg/dL, P ≤ 0.01; 2 h, 106 ± 3 vs. 97 ± 3 mg/dL, P = 0.001) but well below current targets. After breakfast, 5-h glucose and insulin AUCs were slightly higher (P diet. This highly controlled study randomizing isocaloric diets and using a CGMS is the first to show that liberalizing complex carbohydrates and reducing fat still achieved glycemia below current treatment targets and lower postprandial FFAs. This diet strategy may have important implications for preventing macrosomia.

  10. Prevalence and Determinants of the Use of Lipid-Lowering Agents in a Population of Older Hospitalized Patients: the Findings from the REPOSI (REgistro POliterapie Società Italiana di Medicina Interna) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolotti, Marco; Franchi, Carlotta; Rocchi, Marco B L; Miceli, Andrea; Libbra, M Vittoria; Nobili, Alessandro; Lancellotti, Giulia; Carulli, Lucia; Mussi, Chiara

    2017-04-01

    Older patients are prone to multimorbidity and polypharmacy, with an inherent risk of adverse events and drug interactions. To the best of our knowledge, available information on the appropriateness of lipid-lowering treatment is extremely limited. The aim of the present study was to quantify and characterize lipid-lowering drug use in a population of complex in-hospital older patients. We analyzed data from 87 units of internal medicine or geriatric medicine in the REPOSI (Registro Politerapie della Società Italiana di Medicina Interna) study, with reference to the 2010 and 2012 patient cohorts. Lipid-lowering drug use was closely correlated with the clinical profiles, including multimorbidity markers and polypharmacy. 2171 patients aged >65 years were enrolled (1057 males, 1114 females, mean age 78.6 years). The patients treated with lipid-lowering drugs amounted to 508 subjects (23.4%), with no gender difference. Atorvastatin (39.3%) and simvastatin (34.0%) were the most widely used statin drugs. Likelihood of treatment was associated with polypharmacy (≥5 drugs) and with higher Cumulative Illness Rating Scale (CIRS) score. At logistic regression analysis, the presence of coronary heart disease, peripheral vascular disease, and hypertension were significantly correlated with lipid-lowering drug use, whereas age showed an inverse correlation. Diabetes was not associated with drug treatment. In this in-hospital cohort, the use of lipid-lowering agents was mainly driven by patients' clinical history, most notably the presence of clinically overt manifestations of atherosclerosis. Increasing age seems to be associated with lower prescription rates. This might be indicative of cautious behavior towards a potentially toxic treatment regimen.

  11. Comparing the Trend of Physical Activity and Caloric Intake between Lipid-Lowering Drug Users and Nonusers among Adults with Dyslipidemia: Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (2010-2013).

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    Oh, Jin-Young; Chekal, Lan; Kim, Se-Won; Lee, Jee-Yon; Lee, Duk-Chul

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the physical activity and caloric intake trends of lipid-lowering drug users with those of non-users among Korean adults with dyslipidemia. This study was a repeated cross-sectional study with a nationally representative sample of 2,635 Korean adults with dyslipidemia based on the 2010-2013 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Physical activity was assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, and caloric intake was estimated through 24-hour dietary recall. All statistical analyses were conducted using IBM SPSS ver. 21.0 (IBM Co., Armonk, NY, USA). The changes in physical activity and caloric intake were investigated for lipid-lowering drug users and non-users using generalized linear models. The proportion of lipid-lowering drug users in the 2010-2013 survey population increased from 3.5% to 5.0% (PPhysical activity trends were tested separately for the lipid-lowering drug users and non-users, and a significant decrease was found among the drug users during the study period. Physical activity among the drug users in 2013 was 38% lower (1,357.3±382.7 metabolic equivalent [MET]; P for trend=0.002) than in 2010 (2,201.4±442.6 MET). In contrast, there was no statistically significant difference between drug users and non-users in the trend of caloric intake during the same period. Physical activity significantly decreased among lipid-lowering drug users between 2010 and 2013, which was not observed among non-users. The importance of physical activity may need to be re-emphasized for lipid-lowering drug users.

  12. Natural honey lowers plasma glucose, C-reactive protein, homocysteine, and blood lipids in healthy, diabetic, and hyperlipidemic subjects: comparison with dextrose and sucrose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Waili, Noori S

    2004-01-01

    , artificial honey increased LDL-C, while honey decreased LDL-C. Honey decreased cholesterol (8%), LDL-C (11%), and CRP (75%) after 15 days. In diabetic patients, honey compared with dextrose caused a significantly lower rise of PGL. Elevation of PGL was greater after honey than after sucrose at 30 minutes, and was lower after honey than it was after sucrose at 60, 120, and 180 minutes. Honey caused greater elevation of insulin than sucrose did after 30, 120, and 180 minutes. Honey reduces blood lipids, homocysteine, and CRP in normal and hyperlipidemic subjects. Honey compared with dextrose and sucrose caused lower elevation of PGL in diabetics.

  13. Protein and lipid oxidative damage and complex I content are lower in the brain of budgerigar and canaries than in mice. Relation to aging rate.

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    Pamplona, Reinald; Portero-Otín, Manuel; Sanz, Alberto; Ayala, Victoria; Vasileva, Ekaterina; Barja, Gustavo

    2005-12-01

    What are the mechanisms determining the rate of animal aging? Of the two major classes of endothermic animals, bird species are strikingly long-lived compared to mammals of similar body size and metabolic rate. Thus, they are ideal models to identify longevity-related characteristics not linked to body size or low metabolic rates. Since oxidative stress seems to be related to the basic aging process, we measured specific markers of different kinds of oxidative damage to proteins, like glutamic and aminoadipic semialdehydes (GSA and AASA, specific protein carbonyls), Nɛ-(carboxyethyl)lysine (CEL), Nɛ-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML), and Nɛ-(malondialdehyde)lysine (MDAL), as well as mitochondrial Complex I content and amino acid and membrane fatty acyl composition, in the brain of short-lived mice (maximum life span [MLSP] 3.5 years) compared with those of long-lived budgerigar 'parakeets' (MLSP, 21 years) and canaries (MLSP, 24 years). The brains of both bird species had significantly lower levels of compounds formed as a result of oxidative (GSA and AASA), glycoxidative (CEL and CML), and lipoxidative (CML and MDAL) protein modifications, as well as a lower levels of mitochondrial complex I protein. Although it is known that fatty acid unsaturation is lower in many tissues of long-lived compared to short-lived mammals, this is not true in the particular case of brain. In agreement with this, we also found that the brain tissue of bugerigars and canaries contains no fewer double bonds than that of mice. Amino acid composition analyses revealed that bird proteins have a significantly lower content of His, Leu and Phe, as well as, interestingly, of methionine, whereas Asp, Glu, Ala, Val, and Lys contents were higher than in the mammals. These results, together with those previously described in other tissues of pigeons (MLSP, 35 years) compared to rats (MLSP, 4 years), indicate that oxidative damage to proteins, lipids and mitochondrial DNA are lower in birds (very

  14. Self-Regulated Learning Skills and Online Activities between Higher and Lower Performers on a Web-Intensive Undergraduate Engineering Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawanto, Oenardi; Santoso, Harry B.; Lawanto, Kevin N.; Goodridge, Wade

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate students' self-regulated learning (SRL) skills used in a Web-intensive learning environment. The research question guiding the study was: How did the use of student SRL skills and student engagement in online activities compare between higher- and lower-performing students participating in a…

  15. Effects of cultural intensity and density regime treatment on post-thinning loblolly pine individual tree DBH increment in the lower coastal plain of the southeastern United States

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    John T. Perren; Michael Kane; Dehai Zhao; Richard Daniels

    2016-01-01

    Thinning is a well understood concept used to manage density dependent factors at the stand level. This study evaluates the effect of planting density, cultural intensity, and thinning treatment on loblolly pine post-thinning individual tree development. The Lower Coastal Plain Culture/Density Study, has four initial densities, in combination with two cultural...

  16. Medium chain acylcarnitines dominate the metabolite pattern in humans under moderate intensity exercise and support lipid oxidation.

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    Rainer Lehmann

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Exercise is an extreme physiological challenge for skeletal muscle energy metabolism and has notable health benefits. We aimed to identify and characterize metabolites, which are components of the regulatory network mediating the beneficial metabolic adaptation to exercise. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: First, we investigated plasma from healthy human subjects who completed two independent running studies under moderate, predominantly aerobic conditions. Samples obtained prior to and immediately after running and then 3 and 24 h into the recovery phase were analyzed by a non-targeted (NT- metabolomics approach applying liquid chromatography-qTOF-mass spectrometry. Under these conditions medium and long chain acylcarnitines were found to be the most discriminant plasma biomarkers of moderately intense exercise. Immediately after a 60 min (at 93% V(IAT or a 120 min run (at 70% V(IAT a pronounced, transient increase dominated by octanoyl-, decanoyl-, and dodecanoyl-carnitine was observed. The release of acylcarnitines as intermediates of partial beta-oxidation was verified in skeletal muscle cell culture experiments by probing (13C-palmitate metabolism. Further investigations in primary human myotubes and mouse muscle tissue revealed that octanoyl-, decanoyl-, and dodecanoyl-carnitine were able to support the oxidation of palmitate, proving more effective than L-carnitine. CONCLUSIONS: Medium chain acylcarnitines were identified and characterized by a functional metabolomics approach as the dominating biomarkers during a moderately intense exercise bout possessing the power to support fat oxidation. This physiological production and efflux of acylcarnitines might exert beneficial biological functions in muscle tissue.

  17. [Low-dose omega-3 fatty acids as lipid lowering agents in the practice. A field study of ambulatory patients in general practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, B; Bertsch, S

    1992-04-10

    BASICS: Clinical trials have shown that omega-3 fatty acids are also effective at smaller doses than those so far recommended for lowering lipid concentrations. Testing this finding in a large number of unselected outpatients. Open multicentric trial involving 197 patients with dyslipoproteinemia. Treatment comprised omega-3 fatty acids, 1.1 to 1.4 g per day administered for a period of 12 weeks. After 12 weeks of treatment, serum triglycerides decreased on average by about 23%, total cholesterol by about 10%, and LDL cholesterol by about 5%. HDL cholesterol rose by an average of 16%. The fish oil preparation (Eicosapen, Nycomed, Munich) was well tolerated; a fishy taste and mild gastrointestinal complaints led to discontinuation of treatment in only four cases. It was also found that the effect of omega-3 fatty acids was appreciably greater in hypertensives than in patients with normal blood pressure--not only on systolic and diastolic blood pressure, but also on serum triglycerides and HDL.

  18. The ABCs of diabetes: diabetes self-management education program for African Americans affects A1C, lipid-lowering agent prescriptions, and emergency department visits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magee, Michelle; Bowling, Andrea; Copeland, James; Fokar, Ali; Pasquale, Patricia; Youssef, Gretchen

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the feasibility and impact of a concise community-based program on diabetes self-management education (DSME), according to frequency of emergency department visits and knowledge of, prescriptions for, and control of A1C, blood pressure, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. A free community-based DSME program was placed in a public library. Adults with diabetes (N, 360) consented to participate in this prospective nonrandomized cohort study with preintervention-postintervention design. The small-group interactive DSME (two 2.5-hour classes) focused on improving cardiovascular disease risk factors and facilitating communication with the primary care physician. An increase in knowledge of American Diabetes Association-recommended targets for A1C, blood pressure, and LDL cholesterol from baseline to postintervention was seen among participants. Significant clinical outcomes included reduction in self-reported emergency department visits and reduction in mean A1C. However, despite an increase in prescriptions written for lipid-lowering drugs, blood pressure and LDL cholesterol did not change. Participants who started on insulin were more likely to achieve or maintain A1C location for offering DSME programs.

  19. High-intensity exercise training does not influence body weight but improves lipid oxidation in obese adults: a 6-week RCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbour, Georges; Iancu, Horia-Daniel

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the effects of 6 weeks of high-intensity training (HIT) on lipid oxidation (LO) rates during incremental exercises in obese adults. Twenty-four obese adults were randomised into a no-exercise control group (n=12; body mass index=33.3 (4.8) kg.m -2 ) and a HIT group (18 sessions of 6×6 s of supramaximal cycling and 2 min passive intervals; n=12; body mass index=33.2 (2.8)kg.m -2 ). The percentage of LO contribution was computed at rest and for all workloads (25, 50, 75, 100 and 125 W) in both groups before and after training via a graded maximal cycling test. After training, the HIT group showed significantly higher LO at rest and at 25, 50 and 75 W compared with baseline (ptraining group, the homoeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index decreased significantly from the baseline value (p<0.01) and the control group value (p<0.01). The increases in LO observed at rest and stages 25, 50 and 75 W were positively correlated with the declines in the HOMA-IR index (r=0.87, r=0.83, r=0.91 and r=0.88; p<0.01). In obese adults, HIT increased lipid contributions to energy release at rest and in response to incremental exercise, while there were no changes in participants' aerobic capacity. This supports the hypothesis that metabolic changes rather than improved aerobic capacity are important to improve LO. ISRCTN66508384. Stage: post-results.

  20. Effects of high-intensity interval training on body composition, aerobic and anaerobic performance and plasma lipids in overweight/obese and normal-weight young men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nejmeddine Ouerghi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available To examine the effects of short high-intensity interval training (HIIT on body composition, physical performance and plasma lipids in overweight/obese compared to normal-weight young men. Nine overweight/ obese and nine normal-weight men (control group aged 17 to 20 years underwent a HIIT programme three times per week for eight weeks. Body composition, indices of aerobic [maximal aerobic velocity (MAV and maximal oxygen uptake (VO 2max ] and anaerobic [squat jump (SJ, counter-movement jump (CMJ, five-jump test (FJT, 10-m and 30-m sprint] performances, as well as fasting plasma lipids, were assessed in the two groups at PRE and POST HIIT. The HIIT programme resulted in significant reductions in body mass (-1.62%, P=0.016, ES=0.11 and fat mass (-1.59%, P=0.021, ES=0.23 in obese, but not in normal-weight subjects. MAV (+5.55%, P=0.005, ES=0.60 and +2.96%, P=0.009, ES=0.82, VO 2max (+5.27%, P=0.006, ES=0.63 and +2.88%, P=0.009, ES=0.41, FJT (+3.63%, P=0.005, ES=0.28 and +2.94%, P=0.009, ES=0.52, SJ (+4.92%, P=0.009, ES=0.25 and +6.94%, P=0.009, ES=0.70 and CMJ (+6.84%, P=0.014, ES=0.30 and +6.69%, P=0.002, ES=0.64 significantly increased in overweight/obese and normal-weight groups, respectively. 30-m sprint time significantly decreased in both groups (-1.77%, P=0.038, ES=0.12 and -0.72%, P=0.030, ES=0.16. Plasma total cholesterol (-11.8%, P=0.026, ES=0.96, LDL cholesterol (-11.9%, P=0.050, ES=0.77 and triglycerides (-21.3%, P=0.023, ES=1.08 significantly decreased in the obese group, but not in the normalweight group. The eight-week HIIT programme resulted in a slight improvement in physical fitness and a significant decrease in plasma lipids in the obese. Short duration HIIT may contribute to an improved cardiometabolic profile in the obese.

  1. Effects of high-intensity interval training on body composition, aerobic and anaerobic performance and plasma lipids in overweight/obese and normal-weight young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouerghi, Nejmeddine; Fradj, Mohamed Kacem Ben; Bezrati, Ikram; Khammassi, Marwa; Feki, Moncef; Kaabachi, Naziha; Bouassida, Anissa

    2017-12-01

    To examine the effects of short high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on body composition, physical performance and plasma lipids in overweight/obese compared to normal-weight young men. Nine overweight/obese and nine normal-weight men (control group) aged 17 to 20 years underwent a HIIT programme three times per week for eight weeks. Body composition, indices of aerobic [maximal aerobic velocity (MAV) and maximal oxygen uptake (VO 2max )] and anaerobic [squat jump (SJ), counter-movement jump (CMJ), five-jump test (FJT), 10-m and 30-m sprint] performances, as well as fasting plasma lipids, were assessed in the two groups at PRE and POST HIIT. The HIIT programme resulted in significant reductions in body mass (-1.62%, P=0.016, ES=0.11) and fat mass (-1.59%, P=0.021, ES=0.23) in obese, but not in normal-weight subjects. MAV (+5.55%, P=0.005, ES=0.60 and +2.96%, P=0.009, ES=0.82), VO 2max (+5.27%, P=0.006, ES=0.63 and +2.88%, P=0.009, ES=0.41), FJT (+3.63%, P=0.005, ES=0.28 and +2.94%, P=0.009, ES=0.52), SJ (+4.92%, P=0.009, ES=0.25 and +6.94%, P=0.009, ES=0.70) and CMJ (+6.84%, P=0.014, ES=0.30 and +6.69%, P=0.002, ES=0.64) significantly increased in overweight/obese and normal-weight groups, respectively. 30-m sprint time significantly decreased in both groups (-1.77%, P=0.038, ES=0.12 and -0.72%, P=0.030, ES=0.16). Plasma total cholesterol (-11.8%, P=0.026, ES=0.96), LDL cholesterol (-11.9%, P=0.050, ES=0.77) and triglycerides (-21.3%, P=0.023, ES=1.08) significantly decreased in the obese group, but not in the normal-weight group. The eight-week HIIT programme resulted in a slight improvement in physical fitness and a significant decrease in plasma lipids in the obese. Short duration HIIT may contribute to an improved cardiometabolic profile in the obese.

  2. High-intensity interval training lowers blood pressure and improves apelin and NOx plasma levels in older treated hypertensive individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izadi, Mohammad Reza; Ghardashi Afousi, Alireza; Asvadi Fard, Maryam; Babaee Bigi, Mohammad Ali

    2018-02-01

    Hypertension is the major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and is one of the primary causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Apelin levels and NO bioavailability are impaired in older hypertensive patients. Exercise is an effective intervention for treating hypertension. Our purpose was to evaluate the effect of high-intensity interval training on blood pressure, apelin, and NOx plasma levels in older treated hypertensive individuals. Thirty treated hypertensive subjects (61.70 ± 5.78 years, 17 males, 13 females) were randomly divided into 6 weeks of high-intensity interval training (n = 15) and control (n = 15). The exercise training was conducted for three 35-min sessions a week (1.5-min interval at 85-90% of heart rate reserve [HRR] and 2 min active phase at 50-55% of HRR). Assessment of plasma apelin, nitrite/nitrate (NOx), and endothelin-1 (ET-1) was performed before and after the intervention. At the end of the study, apelin, and NOx plasma levels increased significantly in the high-intensity interval training (HIIT) group (P = 0.021, P = 0.003, respectively). Conversely, ET-1 plasma levels significantly decreased in the training group after the intervention (P = 0.015). Moreover, there was a positive correlation between the change of plasma apelin and change of plasma NOx (r = 0. 771, P = 0.0008). In addition, there was a negative correlation between the change of plasma ET-1, change of plasma apelin (r = - 0.595, P = 0.019), and variation of NOx (r = - 0.572, P = 0.025). This study indicates that, by increasing of apelin and NOx plasma levels, HIIT may be effective in reducing blood pressure.

  3. Plasma triglycerides and cardiovascular events in the Treating to New Targets and Incremental Decrease in End-Points through Aggressive Lipid Lowering trials of statins in patients with coronary artery disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faergeman, Ole; Holme, Ingar; Fayyad, Rana

    2009-01-01

    We determined the ability of in-trial measurements of triglycerides (TGs) to predict new cardiovascular events (CVEs) using data from the Incremental Decrease in End Points through Aggressive Lipid Lowering (IDEAL) and Treating to New Targets (TNT) trials. The trials compared atorvastatin 80 mg...

  4. Impact of statin therapy on central aortic pressures and hemodynamics: principal results of the Conduit Artery Function Evaluation-Lipid-Lowering Arm (CAFE-LLA) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Bryan; Lacy, Peter S; Cruickshank, J Kennedy; Collier, David; Hughes, Alun D; Stanton, Alice; Thom, Simon; Thurston, Herbert

    2009-01-06

    Statins reduce the risk of cardiovascular events in people with hypertension. This benefit could arise from a beneficial effect of statins on central aortic pressures and hemodynamics. The Conduit Artery Function Evaluation-Lipid-Lowering Arm (CAFE-LLA) study, an Anglo-Scandinavian Cardiac Outcomes Trial (ASCOT) substudy, investigated this hypothesis in a prospective placebo-controlled study of treated patients with hypertension. CAFE-LLA recruited 891 patients randomized to atorvastatin 10 mg/d or placebo from 5 centers in the United Kingdom and Ireland. Radial artery applanation tonometry and pulse-wave analysis were used to derive central aortic pressures and hemodynamic indices at repeated visits over 3.5 years of follow-up. Atorvastatin lowered low-density lipoprotein cholesterol by 32.4 mg/dL (95% confidence interval [CI], 28.6 to 36.3) and total cholesterol by 35.1 mg/dL (95% confidence interval, 30.9 to 39.4) relative to placebo. Time-averaged brachial blood pressure was similar in CAFE-LLA patients randomized to atorvastatin or placebo (change in brachial systolic blood pressure, -0.1 mm Hg [95% CI, -1.8 to 1.6], P=0.9; change in brachial pulse pressure, -0.02 mm Hg [95% CI, -1.6 to 1.6], P=0.9). Atorvastatin did not influence central aortic pressures (change in aortic systolic blood pressure, -0.5 mm Hg [95% CI, -2.3 to 1.2], P=0.5; change in aortic pulse pressure, -0.4 mm Hg [95% CI, -1.9 to 1.0], P=0.6) and had no influence on augmentation index (change in augmentation index, -0.4%; 95% CI, -1.7 to 0.8; P=0.5) or heart rate (change in heart rate, 0.25 bpm; 95% CI, -1.3 to 1.8; P=0.7) compared with placebo. The effect of statin or placebo therapy was not modified by the blood pressure-lowering treatment strategy in the factorial design. Statin therapy sufficient to significantly reduce cardiovascular events in treated hypertensive patients in ASCOT did not influence central aortic blood pressure or hemodynamics in a large representative cohort of ASCOT

  5. Impact of recent reforms in Austria on utilization and expenditure of PPIs and lipid-lowering drugs: implications for the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godman, Brian; Burkhardt, Thomas; Bucsics, Anna; Wettermark, Björn; Wieninger, Peter

    2009-10-01

    To assess the impact of a plethora of reforms and initiatives introduced in Austria since 2002 on the actual utilization and expenditure of proton pump inhibitors and statins. Utilization of dispensed prescriptions in ambulatory care was captured from 2001 to 2007 using defined daily doses (DDD) as well as DDDs/1000 inhabitants/day for patients covered by the social health insurance system. The data were provided by the internal data warehouse of Hauptverband der Osterreichischen Sozialversicherungsträger. Total costs in Euros were used for the analysis from the payer's perspective. The reduction in the expenditure per DDD for both generic PPIs and statins was generally in line with expectations at over 60% of originator prices before multiple sources became available. There was also increased utilization of generics following the range of demand-side initiatives. This was 89.5% for generic omeprazole versus total omeprazole and 95.1% for generic simvastatin versus total simvastatin by the end of 2007. The utilization of atorvastatin fell substantially from 36.5% of all statins in 2002 to 10.7% by the end of 2007 following restrictions on its prescribing to patients not achieving target lipid levels with, for instance, generic simvastatin. The combined initiatives reduced expenditure per DDD for the PPIs and the statins by 41 and 60%, respectively, in 2007 versus 2001 levels. This reduction translated into lower expenditure for the statins in 2007 versus 2001 despite substantially increased utilization. The results provide examples to other European countries, especially the restrictions on atorvastatin utilization. Nevertheless, further initiatives will be needed to conserve resources as utilization rates grow in chronic disease areas. This includes potential lessons from other European countries.

  6. Gemfibrozil, a lipid-lowering drug, upregulates interleukin-1 receptor antagonist in mouse cortical neurons: Implications for neuronal self-defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbett, Grant T.; Roy, Avik; Pahan, Kalipada

    2012-01-01

    Chronic inflammation is becoming a hallmark of several neurodegenerative disorders and accordingly, interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), a proinflammatory cytokine, is implicated in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. While IL-1β binds to its high-affinity receptor, interleukin-1 receptor (IL-1R), and upregulates proinflammatory signaling pathways, interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) adheres to the same receptor and inhibits proinflammatory cell signaling. Therefore, upregulation of IL-1Ra is considered important in attenuating inflammation. The present study underlines a novel application of gemfibrozil, an FDA-approved lipid-lowering drug, in increasing the expression of IL-1Ra in primary mouse and human neurons. Gemfibrozil alone induced an early and pronounced increase in the expression of IL-1Ra in primary mouse cortical neurons. Activation of type IA p110α phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K) and Akt by gemfibrozil and abrogation of gemfibrozil-induced upregulation of IL-1Ra by inhibitors of PI3-K and Akt indicate a role of the PI3-K – Akt pathway in the upregulation of IL-1Ra. Gemfibrozil also induced the activation of cAMP response element-binding (CREB) via the PI3-K – Akt pathway and siRNA attenuation of CREB abolished the gemfibrozil-mediated increase in IL-1Ra. Furthermore, gemfibrozil was able to protect neurons from IL-1β insult. However, siRNA knockdown of neuronal IL-1Ra abrogated the protective effect of gemfibrozil against IL-1β suggesting that this drug increases the defense mechanism of cortical neurons via upregulation of IL-1Ra. Together, these results highlight the importance of the PI3-K – Akt – CREB pathway in mediating gemfibrozil-induced upregulation of IL-1Ra in neurons and suggest gemfibrozil as a possible therapeutic treatment for propagating neuronal self defense in neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:22706077

  7. An acute intake of theobromine does not change postprandial lipid metabolism, whereas a high-fat meal lowers chylomicron particle number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolders, Lotte; Mensink, Ronald P; Plat, Jogchum

    2017-04-01

    Postprandial responses predict cardiovascular disease risk. However, only a few studies have compared acute postprandial effects of a low-fat, high-carbohydrate (LF) meal with a high-fat, low-carbohydrate (HF) meal. Furthermore, theobromine has favorably affected fasting lipids, but postprandial effects are unknown. Because both fat and theobromine have been reported to increase fasting apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) concentrations, the main hypothesis of this randomized, double-blind crossover study was that acute consumption of an HF meal and a theobromine meal increased postprandial apoA-I concentrations, when compared with an LF meal. Theobromine was added to the LF meal. Nine healthy men completed the study. After meal intake, blood was sampled frequently for 4hours. Postprandial apoA-I concentrations were comparable after intake of the 3 meals. Apolipoprotein B48 curves, however, were significantly lower and those of triacylglycerol were significantly higher after HF as compared with LF consumption. Postprandial free fatty acid concentrations decreased less, and glucose and insulin concentrations increased less after HF meal consumption. Except for an increase in the incremental area under the curve for insulin, theobromine did not modify responses of the LF meal. These data show that acute HF and theobromine consumption does not change postprandial apoA-I concentrations. Furthermore, acute HF consumption had divergent effects on postprandial apolipoprotein B48 and triacylglycerol responses, suggesting the formation of less, but larger chylomicrons after HF intake. Finally, except for an increase in the incremental area under the curve for insulin, acute theobromine consumption did not modify the postprandial responses of the LF meal. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Skeletal Muscle Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Lower Limbs in Late-onset Lipid Storage Myopathy with Electron Transfer Flavoprotein Dehydrogenase Gene Mutations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin-Yi Liu; Ming Jin; Zhi-Qiang Wang; Dan-Ni Wang; Jun-Jie He; Min-Ting Lin; Hong-Xia Fu

    2016-01-01

    Background:Lipid storage myopathy (LSM) is a genetically heterogeneous group with variable clinical phenotypes.Late-onset multiple acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenation deficiency (MADD) is a rather common form of LSM in China.Diagnosis and clinical management of it remain challenging,especially without robust muscle biopsy result and genetic detection.As the noninvasion and convenience,muscle magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a helpful assistant,diagnostic tool for neuromuscular disorders.However,the disease-specific MRI patterns of muscle involved and its diagnostic value in late-onset MADD have not been systematic analyzed.Methods:We assessed the MRI pattern and fat infiltration degree of the lower limb muscles in 28 late-onset MADD patients,combined with detailed clinical features and gene spectrum.Fat infiltration degree of the thigh muscle was scored while that ofgluteus was described as obvious or not.Associated muscular atrophy was defined as obvious muscle bulk reduction.Results:The mean scores were significantly different among the anterior,medial,and posterior thigh muscle groups.The mean of fat infiltration scores on posterior thigh muscle group was significantly higher than either anterior or medial thigh muscle group (P < 0.001).Moreover,the mean score on medial thigh muscle group was significantly higher than that of anterior thigh muscle group (P < 0.01).About half of the patients displayed fat infiltration and atrophy in gluteus muscles.Of 28 patients,12 exhibited atrophy in medial and/or posterior thigh muscle groups,especially in posterior thigh muscle group.Muscle edema pattern was not found in all the patients.Conclusions:Late-onset MADD patients show a typical muscular imaging pattern of fat infiltration and atrophy on anterior,posterior,and medial thigh muscle groups,with major involvement of posterior thigh muscle group and gluteus muscles and a sparing involvement of anterior thigh compartment.Our findings also suggest that muscle MRI of

  9. Low-intensity repetitive magnetic stimulation lowers action potential threshold and increases spike firing in layer 5 pyramidal neurons in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Alexander D; Hong, Ivan; Boddington, Laura J; Garrett, Andrew R; Etherington, Sarah; Reynolds, John N J; Rodger, Jennifer

    2016-10-29

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has become a popular method of modulating neural plasticity in humans. Clinically, rTMS is delivered at high intensities to modulate neuronal excitability. While the high-intensity magnetic field can be targeted to stimulate specific cortical regions, areas adjacent to the targeted area receive stimulation at a lower intensity and may contribute to the overall plasticity induced by rTMS. We have previously shown that low-intensity rTMS induces molecular and structural plasticity in vivo, but the effects on membrane properties and neural excitability have not been investigated. Here we investigated the acute effect of low-intensity repetitive magnetic stimulation (LI-rMS) on neuronal excitability and potential changes on the passive and active electrophysiological properties of layer 5 pyramidal neurons in vitro. Whole-cell current clamp recordings were made at baseline prior to subthreshold LI-rMS (600 pulses of iTBS, n=9 cells from 7 animals) or sham (n=10 cells from 9 animals), immediately after stimulation, as well as 10 and 20min post-stimulation. Our results show that LI-rMS does not alter passive membrane properties (resting membrane potential and input resistance) but hyperpolarises action potential threshold and increases evoked spike-firing frequency. Increases in spike firing frequency were present throughout the 20min post-stimulation whereas action potential (AP) threshold hyperpolarization was present immediately after stimulation and at 20min post-stimulation. These results provide evidence that LI-rMS alters neuronal excitability of excitatory neurons. We suggest that regions outside the targeted region of high-intensity rTMS are susceptible to neuromodulation and may contribute to rTMS-induced plasticity. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. All rights reserved.

  10. Predicting lower body power from vertical jump prediction equations for loaded jump squats at different intensities in men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Glenn A; Pustina, Andrew A; Mikat, Richard P; Kernozek, Thomas W

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of estimating peak lower body power from a maximal jump squat using 3 different vertical jump prediction equations. Sixty physically active college students (30 men, 30 women) performed jump squats with a weighted bar's applied load of 20, 40, and 60% of body mass across the shoulders. Each jump squat was simultaneously monitored using a force plate and a contact mat. Peak power (PP) was calculated using vertical ground reaction force from the force plate data. Commonly used equations requiring body mass and vertical jump height to estimate PP were applied such that the system mass (mass of body + applied load) was substituted for body mass. Jump height was determined from flight time as measured with a contact mat during a maximal jump squat. Estimations of PP (PP(est)) for each load and for each prediction equation were compared with criterion PP values from a force plate (PP(FP)). The PP(est) values had high test-retest reliability and were strongly correlated to PP(FP) in both men and women at all relative loads. However, only the Harman equation accurately predicted PP(FP) at all relative loads. It can therefore be concluded that the Harman equation may be used to estimate PP of a loaded jump squat knowing the system mass and peak jump height when more precise (and expensive) measurement equipment is unavailable. Further, high reliability and correlation with criterion values suggest that serial assessment of power production across training periods could be used for relative assessment of change by either of the prediction equations used in this study.

  11. Epigenome-wide association study of fasting measures of glucose, insulin, and HOMA-IR in the Genetics of Lipid Lowering Drugs and Diet Network study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, Bertha; Irvin, M Ryan; Sha, Jin; Zhi, Degui; Aslibekyan, Stella; Absher, Devin; Tiwari, Hemant K; Kabagambe, Edmond K; Ordovas, Jose M; Arnett, Donna K

    2014-02-01

    Known genetic susceptibility loci for type 2 diabetes (T2D) explain only a small proportion of heritable T2D risk. We hypothesize that DNA methylation patterns may contribute to variation in diabetes-related risk factors, and this epigenetic variation across the genome can contribute to the missing heritability in T2D and related metabolic traits. We conducted an epigenome-wide association study for fasting glucose, insulin, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) among 837 nondiabetic participants in the Genetics of Lipid Lowering Drugs and Diet Network study, divided into discovery (N = 544) and replication (N = 293) stages. Cytosine guanine dinucleotide (CpG) methylation at ∼470,000 CpG sites was assayed in CD4(+) T cells using the Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation 450 Beadchip. We fit a mixed model with the methylation status of each CpG as the dependent variable, adjusting for age, sex, study site, and T-cell purity as fixed-effects and family structure as a random-effect. A Bonferroni corrected P value of 1.1 × 10(-7) was considered significant in the discovery stage. Significant associations were tested in the replication stage using identical models. Methylation of a CpG site in ABCG1 on chromosome 21 was significantly associated with insulin (P = 1.83 × 10(-7)) and HOMA-IR (P = 1.60 × 10(-9)). Another site in the same gene was significant for HOMA-IR and of borderline significance for insulin (P = 1.29 × 10(-7) and P = 3.36 × 10(-6), respectively). Associations with the top two signals replicated for insulin and HOMA-IR (P = 5.75 × 10(-3) and P = 3.35 × 10(-2), respectively). Our findings suggest that methylation of a CpG site within ABCG1 is associated with fasting insulin and merits further evaluation as a novel disease risk marker.

  12. Baseline Quality of Life and Risk of Stroke in the ALLHAT Study (Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shams, Tanzila; Auchus, Alexander P; Oparil, Suzanne; Wright, Clinton B; Wright, Jackson; Furlan, Anthony J; Sila, Cathy A; Davis, Barry R; Pressel, Sara; Yamal, Jose-Miguel; Einhorn, Paula T; Lerner, Alan J

    2017-11-01

    The visual analogue scale is a self-reported, validated tool to measure quality of life (QoL). Our purpose was to determine whether baseline QoL predicted strokes in the ALLHAT study (Antihypertensive and Lipid Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial) and evaluate determinants of poststroke change in QoL. In the ALLHAT study, among the 33 357 patients randomized to treatment arms, 1525 experienced strokes; 1202 (79%) strokes were nonfatal. This study cohort includes 32 318 (97%) subjects who completed the baseline visual analogue scale QoL estimate. QoL was measured on a visual analogue scale and adjusted using a Torrance transformation (transformed QoL [TQoL]). Kaplan-Meier curves and adjusted proportional hazards analyses were used to estimate the effect of TQoL on the risk of stroke, on a continuous scale (0-1) and by quartiles (≤0.81, >0.81≤0.89, >0.89≤0.95, >0.95). We analyzed the change from baseline to first poststroke TQoL using adjusted linear regression. After adjusting for multiple stroke risk factors, the hazard ratio for stroke events for baseline TQoL was 0.93 (95% confidence interval, 0.89-0.98) per 0.1 U increase. The lowest baseline TQoL quartile had a 20% increased stroke risk (hazard ratio=1.20 [95% confidence interval, 1.00-1.44]) compared with the reference highest quartile TQoL. Poststroke TQoL change was significant within all treatment groups ( P ≤0.001). Multivariate regression analysis revealed that baseline TQoL was the strongest predictor of poststroke TQoL with similar results for the untransformed QoL. The lowest baseline TQoL quartile had a 20% higher stroke risk than the highest quartile. Baseline TQoL was the only factor that predicted poststroke change in TQoL. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00000542. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  13. Genome-wide association study of triglyceride response to a high-fat meal among participants of the NHLBI Genetics of Lipid Lowering Drugs and Diet Network (GOLDN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The triglyceride (TG) response to a high-fat meal (postprandial lipemia, PPL) affects cardiovascular disease risk and is influenced by genes and environment. Genes involved in lipid metabolism have dominated genetic studies of PPL TG response. We sought to elucidate common genetic variants through a...

  14. Secondary prevention care and effect: Total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and lipid-lowering drug use in women and men after incident myocardial infarction - The Tromsø Study 1994-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopstock, Laila A; Eggen, Anne Elise; Løchen, Maja-Lisa; Mathiesen, Ellisiv B; Njølstad, Inger; Wilsgaard, Tom

    2018-02-01

    Secondary prevention guidelines after myocardial infarction (MI) are gender neutral, but underutilisation of treatment in women has been reported. We investigated the change in total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels and lipid-lowering drug (LLD) use after first-ever MI in a population-based study. We followed 10,005 participants (54% women) attending the Tromsø Study 1994-1995 and 8483 participants (55% women) attending the Tromsø Study 2007-2008 for first-ever MI up to their participation in 2007-2008 and 2015-2016, respectively. We used linear and logistic regression models to investigate sex differences in change in lipid levels. A total of 395 (MI cohort I) and 132 participants (MI cohort II) had a first-ever MI during 1994-2008 and 2007-2013, respectively. Mean change in total cholesterol was -2.34 mmol/L (SD 1.15) in MI cohort I, and in LDL cholesterol was -1.63 mmol/L (SD 1.12) in MI cohort II. Men had a larger decrease in lipid levels compared to women: the linear regression coefficient for change was -0.33 (95% confidence interval [CI] -0.51 to -0.14) for total cholesterol and -0.21 (95% CI -0.37 to -0.04) for LDL cholesterol, adjusted for baseline lipid value, age and cohort. Men had 73% higher odds (95% CI 1.15-2.61) of treatment target achievement compared to women, adjusted for baseline lipid value, age and cohort. LLD use was reported in 85% of women and 92% of men in MI cohort I, and 80% in women and 89% in men in MI cohort II. Compared to men, women had significantly less decrease in lipid levels after MI, and a smaller proportion of women achieved the treatment target.

  15. Quantifying the impact of using Coronary Artery Calcium Score for risk categorization instead of Framingham Score or European Heart SCORE in lipid lowering algorithms in a Middle Eastern population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussain A. Isma’eel

    2015-10-01

    Conclusion: In this simulation, using CACS for risk categorization warrants lipid lowering treatment for 5–6% and spares 70–80% from treatment in accordance with the guidelines. Current strong evidence from double randomized clinical trials is in support of guideline recommendations. Our results call for a prospective trial to explore the benefits/risks of a CACS-based approach before any recommendations can be made.

  16. Intensive lifestyle intervention provides rapid reduction of serum fatty acid levels in women with severe obesity without lowering omega-3 to unhealthy levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, C; Andersen, J R; Våge, V; Rajalahti, T; Mjøs, S A; Kvalheim, O M

    2016-08-01

    Serum fatty acid (FA) levels were monitored in women with severe obesity during intensive lifestyle intervention. At baseline, total FA levels and most individual FAs were elevated compared to a matching cohort of normal and overweight women (healthy controls). After 3 weeks of intensive lifestyle intervention, total level was only 11-12% higher than in the healthy controls and with almost all FAs being significantly lower than at baseline, but with levels of omega-3 being similar to the healthy controls. This is contrary to observations for patients subjected to bariatric surgery where omega-3 levels dropped to levels significantly lower than in the lifestyle patients and healthy controls. During the next 3 weeks of treatment, the FA levels in lifestyle patients were unchanged, while the weight loss continued at almost the same rate as in the first 3 weeks. Multivariate analysis revealed that weight loss and change of serum FA patterns were unrelated outcomes of the intervention for lifestyle patients. For bariatric patients, these processes were associated probably due to reduced dietary input and increased input from the patients' own fat deposits, causing a higher rate of weight loss and simultaneous reduction of the ratio of serum eicosapentaenoic to arachidonic acid. © 2016 World Obesity.

  17. Inflammatory process decrease by gallium-aluminium-arsenide (GaAlAs) low intensity laser irradiation on postoperative extraction of impacted lower third molar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atihe, Mauricio Martins

    2002-01-01

    This study aimed the observation of inflammatory process decrease by the use of GaAlAs Low Intensity Laser (λ=830 nm; 40 mW) irradiation. Five patients were selected and submitted to surgery of impacted lower third molars, both right and left sides at different occasions. On a first stage, a tooth of a random chosen side - right or left - was extracted by conventional surgery, without LILT. The inflammatory process was measured at postoperative on the first, third and seventh days. This side was then called 'control side'. After 21 days, period in which the inflammatory process of the first surgery was terminated, the other side surgery took place, this time using LILT (4 J at four spots) at postoperative, first and third days. As the previous surgery, the inflammatory process was also measured at postoperative on the first, third and seventh days. This side was called 'experimental or lased side'. The inflammatory process was evaluated by measuring its four characteristic signs: swelling, pain, color and temperature. It was clearly observed a decrease for swelling, pain and color on the lased side which presented significant inference and descriptive statistics. It can be concluded that GaAlAs Low Intensity Laser (λ=830 nm) can surely be used as an additional and important anti-inflammatory source on impacted lower third molar surgeries. (author)

  18. Lipids, lipid bilayers and vesicles as seen by neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seto, Hideki

    2011-01-01

    Lipid molecules self-assemble into bilayers in water with their hydrocarbon chains facing inward due to their amphiphilic nature. The structural and dynamical properties of lipids and lipid bilayers have been studied by neutron scattering intensively. In this article, 3 topics are shown as typical examples. 1) a time-resolved small-angle neutron scattering on uni-lamellar vesicles composed of deuterated and protonated lipids to determine lipid kinetics, 2) small-angle neutron scattering to investigate spontaneous formation of nanopores on uni-lamellar vesicles, and 3) neutron spin echo study to determine bending modulus of lipid bilayers. (author)

  19. Pomegranate Polyphenols Lower Lipid Peroxidation in Adults with Type 2 Diabetes but Have No Effects in Healthy Volunteers: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arpita Basu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. To examine the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of pomegranate polyphenols in obese patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM (n=8 and in healthy nondiabetic controls (n=9. Methods. Participants received 2 capsules of pomegranate polyphenols (POMx, 1 capsule = 753 mg polyphenols daily for 4 weeks. Blood draws and anthropometrics were performed at baseline and at 4 weeks of the study. Results. Pomegranate polyphenols in healthy controls and in T2DM patients did not significantly affect body weight and blood pressure, glucose and lipids. Among clinical safety profiles, serum electrolytes, renal function tests, and hematological profiles were not significantly affected by POMx supplementation. However, aspartate aminotransferase (AST showed a significant increase in healthy controls, while alanine aminotransferase (ALT was significantly decreased in T2DM patients at 4 weeks (P<0.05, though values remained within the normal ranges. Among the biomarkers of lipid oxidation and inflammation, oxidized LDL and serum C-reactive protein (CRP did not differ at 4 weeks in either group, while pomegranate polyphenols significantly decreased malondialdehyde (MDA and hydroxynonenal (HNE only in the diabetic group versus baseline (P<0.05. Conclusions. POMx reduces lipid peroxidation in patients with T2DM, but with no effects in healthy controls, and specifically modulates liver enzymes in diabetic and nondiabetic subjects. Larger clinical trials are merited.

  20. Heavy Metal Pollution of Lakes along the Mid-Lower Reaches of the Yangtze River in China: Intensity, Sources and Spatial Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Haiao; Wu, Jinglu

    2013-01-01

    Lakes in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River form a shallow lake group unique in the World that is becoming increasingly polluted by heavy metals. Previous studies have largely focused on individual lakes, with limited exploration of the regional pattern of heavy metal pollution of the lake group in this area. This paper explores the sources, intensity and spatial patterns of heavy metal pollution of lake sediments. A total of 45 sample lakes were selected and the concentrations of key metal elements in the sediments of each lake were measured. The cluster analysis (CA), principal component analysis (PCA) and Geo-accumulation index (Ig) analysis permitted analysis of the source and pollution intensity of the target lakes. Results suggested a notable spatial variation amongst the sample lakes. Lakes in the upper part of the lower reach of the Yangtze River surrounded by typical urban landscapes were strongly or extremely polluted, with high concentrations of Pb, Zn, Cu and Cd in their sediments. This was attributed to large amount of untreated industrial discharges and municipal sewage produced within the lake catchments. In contrast, the heavy-metal pollution of lakes in the Taihu Delta area was notably lower due to industrial restructuring and implementation of effective environmental protection measures. Lakes along the middle reach of Yangtze River surrounded by agricultural areas were unpolluted to moderately polluted by heavy metals overall. Our results suggested that lakes in the central part of China require immediate attention and efforts should be made to implement management plans to prevent further degradation of water quality in these lakes. PMID:23442559

  1. High frequency migraine is associated with lower acute pain sensitivity and abnormal insula activity related to migraine pain intensity, attack frequency, and pain catastrophizing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vani A Mathur

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Migraine is a pain disorder associated with abnormal brain structure and function, yet the effect of migraine on acute pain processing remains unclear. It also remains unclear whether altered pain-related brain responses and related structural changes are associated with clinical migraine characteristics. Using fMRI and three levels of thermal stimuli (non-painful, mildly painful, and moderately painful, we compared whole-brain activity between 14 migraine patients and 14 matched controls. Although, there were no significant differences in pain thresholds and pre-scan pain ratings to mildly painful thermal stimuli, patients had aberrant suprathreshold nociceptive processing. Compared to controls, patients had reduced activity in pain modulatory regions including left dorsolateral prefrontal, posterior parietal, and middle temporal cortices and, at a lower-threshold, greater activation in the right mid-insula to moderate pain versus mild pain. We also found that pain-related activity in the insula was associated with clinical variables in patients, including associations between: bilateral anterior insula and pain catastrophizing (PCS; bilateral anterior insula and contralateral posterior insula and migraine pain intensity; and bilateral posterior insula and migraine frequency at a lower-threshold. PCS and migraine pain intensity were also negatively associated with activity in midline regions including posterior cingulate and medial prefrontal cortices. Diffusion tensor imaging revealed a negative correlation between fractional anisotropy (a measure of white matter integrity; FA and migraine duration in the right mid-insula and a positive correlation between left mid-insula FA and PCS. In sum, while patients showed lower sensitivity to acute noxious stimuli, the neuroimaging findings suggest enhanced nociceptive processing and significantly disrupted modulatory networks, particularly involving the insula cortex, associated with indices of

  2. Trends in lipid profiles and descriptive characteristics of U.S. adults with and without diabetes and cholesterol-lowering medication use-National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003-2012, United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercado, Carla I; Gregg, Edward; Gillespie, Cathleen; Loustalot, Fleetwood

    2018-01-01

    With a cholesterol-lowering focus for diabetic adults and in the age of polypharmacy, it is important to understand how lipid profile levels differ among those with and without diabetes. Investigate the means, differences, and trends in lipid profile measures [TC, total cholesterol; LDL-c, low-density lipoprotein; HDL-c, high-density lipoprotein; and TG, triglycerides] among US adults by diabetes status and cholesterol-lowering medication. Population number and proportion of adults aged ≥21 years with diabetes and taking cholesterol-lowering medication were estimated using data on 10,384 participants from NHANES 2003-2012. Age-standardized means, trends, and differences in lipid profile measures were estimated by diabetes status and cholesterol medication use. For trends and differences, linear regression analysis were used adjusted for age, gender, and race/ethnicity. Among diabetic adults, 52% were taking cholesterol-lowering medication compared to the 14% taking cholesterol-lowering medication without diabetes. Although diabetic adults had significantly lower TC and LDL-c levels than non-diabetic adults [% difference (95% confidence interval): TC = -5.2% (-6.8 --3.5), LDL-c = -8.0% (-10.4 --5.5)], the percent difference was greater among adults taking cholesterol medication [TC = -8.0% (-10.3 --5.7); LDL-c = -13.7% (-17.1 --10.2)] than adults not taking cholesterol medication [TC = -3.5% (-5.2 --1.6); LDL-c = -4.3% (-7.1 --1.5)] (interaction p-value: TC = <0.001; LDL-c = <0.001). From 2003-2012, mean TC and HDL-c significantly decreased among diabetic adults taking cholesterol medication [% difference per survey cycle (p-value for linear trend): TC = -2.3% (0.003) and HDL-c = -2.3% (0.033)]. Mean TC, HDL-c, and LDL-c levels did not significantly change from 2003 to 2012 in non-diabetic adults taking cholesterol medication or for adults not taking cholesterol medications. Diabetic adults were more likely to have lower lipid levels, except for triglyceride

  3. Total cardiovascular disease burden: comparing intensive with moderate statin therapy insights from the IDEAL (Incremental Decrease in End Points Through Aggressive Lipid Lowering) trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tikkanen, Matti J; Szarek, Michael; Fayyad, Rana

    2009-01-01

    , using the Wei, Lin, and Weissfeld method. BACKGROUND: Time-to-first-event analysis of data is frequently utilized to provide efficacy outcome information in coronary heart disease prevention trials. However, during the course of such long-term trials, a large number of events occur subsequent...

  4. Apolipoprotein CIII overexpression exacerbates diet-induced obesity due to adipose tissue higher exogenous lipid uptake and retention and lower lipolysis rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raposo, Helena F; Paiva, Adriene A; Kato, Larissa S; de Oliveira, Helena C F

    2015-01-01

    Hypertriglyceridemia is a common type of dyslipidemia found in obesity. However, it is not established whether primary hyperlipidemia can predispose to obesity. Evidences have suggested that proteins primarily related to plasma lipoprotein transport, such as apolipoprotein (apo) CIII and E, may significantly affect the process of body fat accumulation. We have previously observed an increased adiposity in response to a high fat diet (HFD) in mice overexpressing apoCIII. Here, we examined the potential mechanisms involved in this exacerbated response of apoCIII mice to the HFD. We measured body energy balance, tissue capacity to store exogenous lipids, lipogenesis and lipolysis rates in non-transgenic and apoCIII overexpressing mice fed a HFD during two months. Food intake, fat excretion and whole body CO2 production were similar in both groups. However, the adipose tissue mass (45 %) and leptin plasma levels (2-fold) were significantly greater in apoCIII mice. Lipogenesis rates were similar, while exogenous lipid retention was increased in perigonadal (2-fold) and brown adipose tissues (40 %) of apoCIII mice. In addition, adipocyte basal lipolysis (55 %) and in vivo lipolysis index (30 %) were significantly decreased in apoCIII mice. A fat tolerance test evidenced delayed plasma triglyceride clearance and greater transient availability of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) during the post-prandial state in the apoCIII mice plasma. Thus, apoCIII overexpression resulted in increased NEFA availability to adipose uptake and decreased adipocyte lipolysis, favoring lipid enlargement of adipose depots. We propose that plasma apoCIII levels represent a new risk factor for diet-induced obesity.

  5. Monitoring the deep western boundary current in the western North Pacific by echo intensity measured with lowered acoustic Doppler current profiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komaki, Kanae; Nagano, Akira

    2018-05-01

    Oxidation of iron and manganese ions is predominant in the oxygen-rich deep western boundary current (DWBC) within the Pacific Ocean. By the faster removal of particulate iron hydroxide and manganese oxide, densities of the particulate matters are considered to be lower in the DWBC than the interior region. To detect the density variation of suspended particles between the DWBC and interior regions, we analyzed echo intensity (EI) measured in the western North Pacific by hydrographic casts with a 300 kHz lowered acoustic Doppler current profiler (LADCP) in a whole water column. At depths greater than 3000 m ( 3000 dbar), EI is almost uniformly low between 12°N and 30°N but peaks sharply from 30°N to 35°N to a maximum north of 35°N. EI is found to be anomalously low in the DWBC compared to the background distribution. The DWBC pathways are identifiable by the low EI and high dissolved oxygen concentration. EI data by LADCPs and other acoustic instruments may be used to observe the temporal variations of the DWBC pathways.

  6. Quantifying the impact of using Coronary Artery Calcium Score for risk categorization instead of Framingham Score or European Heart SCORE in lipid lowering algorithms in a Middle Eastern population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isma'eel, Hussain A; Almedawar, Mohamad M; Harbieh, Bernard; Alajaji, Wissam; Al-Shaar, Laila; Hourani, Mukbil; El-Merhi, Fadi; Alam, Samir; Abchee, Antoine

    2015-10-01

    The use of the Coronary Artery Calcium Score (CACS) for risk categorization instead of the Framingham Risk Score (FRS) or European Heart SCORE (EHS) to improve classification of individuals is well documented. However, the impact of reclassifying individuals using CACS on initiating lipid lowering therapy is not well understood. We aimed to determine the percentage of individuals not requiring lipid lowering therapy as per the FRS and EHS models but are found to require it using CACS and vice versa; and to determine the level of agreement between CACS, FRS and EHS based models. Data was collected for 500 consecutive patients who had already undergone CACS. However, only 242 patients met the inclusion criteria and were included in the analysis. Risk stratification comparisons were conducted according to CACS, FRS, and EHS, and the agreement (Kappa) between them was calculated. In accordance with the models, 79.7% to 81.5% of high-risk individuals were down-classified by CACS, while 6.8% to 7.6% of individuals at intermediate risk were up-classified to high risk by CACS, with slight to moderate agreement. Moreover, CACS recommended treatment to 5.7% and 5.8% of subjects untreated according to European and Canadian guidelines, respectively; whereas 75.2% to 81.2% of those treated in line with the guidelines would not be treated based on CACS. In this simulation, using CACS for risk categorization warrants lipid lowering treatment for 5-6% and spares 70-80% from treatment in accordance with the guidelines. Current strong evidence from double randomized clinical trials is in support of guideline recommendations. Our results call for a prospective trial to explore the benefits/risks of a CACS-based approach before any recommendations can be made.

  7. The weight lowering effect of sibutramine and its impact on serum lipids in cardiovascular high risk patients with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus - an analysis from the SCOUT lead-in period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Philip T

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D and unhealthy blood lipid profile are strongly associated with the risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD. We examined whether blood lipid changes with short term administration of the weight lowering drug, sibutramine and lifestyle modification in obese and overweight high-risk patients was associated with T2D status at screening. Methods The Sibutramine Cardiovascular OUTcomes (SCOUT trial included obese and overweight patients at increased risk of cardiovascular events. All patients received guidance on diet and exercise plus once-daily 10 mg sibutramine during the 6-week, single blind lead-in period. Multivariable regression models were used to investigate factors associated with changes in lipid levels during the first four weeks of treatment. Results A total of 10 742 patients received at least one dose of sibutramine during the 6-week lead-in period of SCOUT. After four weeks, patients experienced mean reductions in low density lipoprotein (LDL-C 0.19 mmol/L, high density lipoprotein (HDL-C 0.019 mmol/L, very low density lipoprotein (VLDL-C 0.08 mmol/L, total cholesterol (TC 0.31 mmol/L and triglycerides 0.24 mmol/L (p 2 decrease in BMI in patients with T2D was associated with -0.09 mmol/L in LDL-C (P Conclusion Short term weight management with sibutramine therapy in obese or overweight high-risk patients induced significant mean reductions for all lipids. Those without T2D benefited most. Patients with hyperlipidaemia and the less obese patients also had greater falls in LDL-C and TC during weight loss. The trial is registered at ClinicalTrial.gov number: NCT00234832.

  8. Clinical Features and Outcome of Children with Severe Lower Respiratory Tract Infection Admitted to a Pediatric Intensive Care Unit in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutton, Hayley K; Zar, Heather J; Argent, Andrew C

    2018-03-09

    Severe acute lower respiratory tract infection (ALRTI) remains an important cause of childhood morbidity and mortality. This is a 12-month retrospective cohort study of children (0-12 years) admitted to a pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) with ALRTI to investigate risk factors, clinical course and in-hospital survival. In total, 265 patients (median age = 4 months [2-12 months]) were identified. In all,102 (38.5%) had co-morbid disease. Twenty-seven (10.2%) were HIV-infected and 87 (32.8%) were HIV-exposed. In-hospital mortality was 34 (12.8%)-24 (9.1%) in PICU and 10 in the wards. Median duration of intensive care unit was 4.0 days (2.0-8.0) and hospital stay was 12.5 days (7.9-28.0). In total, 192 (72.5%) children required invasive ventilation and 42 (15.8%) required inotropic support. Risk factors for mortality included severe malnutrition (odds ratio [OR] = 8.25; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.47-46.21), informal housing (OR = 11.87; CI = 1.89-20.81) or inotropic support (OR = 44.35; CI = 8.20-239.92). HIV exposure or infection was associated with a longer duration of hospital stay (OR = 4.41; CI = 2.44-6.39). Severe ALRTI is associated with a high mortality with several factors impacting on in-hospital survival.

  9. Lower inhibitory control interacts with greater pain catastrophizing to predict greater pain intensity in women with migraine and overweight/obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galioto, Rachel; O'Leary, Kevin C; Thomas, J Graham; Demos, Kathryn; Lipton, Richard B; Gunstad, John; Pavlović, Jelena M; Roth, Julie; Rathier, Lucille; Bond, Dale S

    2017-12-01

    Pain catastrophizing (PC) is associated with more severe and disabling migraine attacks. However, factors that moderate this relationship are unknown. Failure of inhibitory control (IC), or the ability to suppress automatic or inappropriate responses, may be one such factor given previous research showing a relationship between higher PC and lower IC in non-migraine samples, and research showing reduced IC in migraine. Therefore, we examined whether lower IC interacts with increased PC to predict greater migraine severity as measured by pain intensity, attack frequency, and duration. Women (n = 105) aged 18-50 years old (M = 38.0 ± 1.2) with overweight/obesity and migraine who were seeking behavioral treatment for weight loss and migraine reduction completed a 28-day smartphone-based headache diary assessing migraine headache severity. Participants then completed a modified computerized Stroop task as a measure of IC and self-report measures of PC (Pain Catastrophizing Scale [PCS]), anxiety, and depression. Linear regression was used to examine independent and joint associations of PC and IC with indices of migraine severity after controlling for age, body mass index (BMI) depression, and anxiety. Participants on average had BMI of 35.1 ± 6.5 kg/m 2 and reported 5.3 ± 2.6 migraine attacks (8.3 ± 4.4 migraine days) over 28 days that produced moderate pain intensity (5.9 ± 1.4 out of 10) with duration of 20.0 ± 14.2 h. After adjusting for covariates, higher PCS total (β = .241, SE = .14, p = .03) and magnification subscale (β = .311, SE = .51, p migraine attacks. Future studies are needed to determine whether interventions to improve IC could lead to less painful migraine attacks via improvements in PC.

  10. Reduction in cardiovascular events with atorvastatin in 2,532 patients with type 2 diabetes: Anglo-Scandinavian Cardiac Outcomes Trial--lipid-lowering arm (ASCOT-LLA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sever, Peter S; Poulter, Neil R; Dahlöf, Björn

    2005-01-01

    This study aims to establish the benefits of lowering cholesterol in diabetic patients with well-controlled hypertension and average/below-average cholesterol concentrations, but without established coronary disease....

  11. Impact of prior authorization on the use and costs of lipid-lowering medications among Michigan and Indiana dual enrollees in Medicaid and Medicare: results of a longitudinal, population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Christine Y; Law, Michael R; Soumerai, Stephen B; Graves, Amy Johnson; LeCates, Robert F; Zhang, Fang; Ross-Degnan, Dennis; Adams, Alyce S

    2011-01-01

    Some Medicaid programs have adopted prior-authorization (PA) policies that require prescribers to request approval from Medicaid before prescribing drugs not included on a preferred drug list. This study examined the association between PA policies for lipid-lowering agents in Michigan and Indiana and the use and cost of this drug class among dual enrollees in Medicare and Medicaid. Michigan and Indiana claims data from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services were assessed. Michigan Medicaid instituted a PA requirement for several lipid-lowering medications in March 2002; Indiana implemented a PA policy for drugs in this class in September 2002. Although the PA policies affected some statins, they predominantly targeted second-line treatments, including bile acid sequestrants, fibrates, and niacins. Individuals aged ≥18 years who were continuously dually enrolled in both Medicare and Medicaid from July 2000 through September 2003 were included in this longitudinal, population-based study, which included a 20-month observation period before the implementation of PA in Michigan and a 12-month follow-up period after the Indiana PA policy was initiated. Interrupted time series analysis was used to examine changes in prescription rates and pharmacy costs for lipid-lowering drugs before and after policy implementation. A total of 38,684 dual enrollees in Michigan and 29,463 in Indiana were included. Slightly more than half of the cohort were female (Michigan, 53.3% [20,614/38,684]; Indiana, 56.3% [16,595/29,463]); nearly half were aged 45 to 64 years (Michigan, 43.7% [16,921/38,684]; Indiana, 45.2% [13,321/29,463]). Most subjects were white (Michigan, 77.4% [29,957/38,684]; Indiana: 84.9% [25,022/29,463]). The PA policy was associated with an immediate 58% reduction in prescriptions for nonpreferred medications in Michigan and a corresponding increase in prescriptions for preferred agents. However, the PA policy had no apparent effect in Indiana, where there had

  12. Standardized Application of Laxatives and Physical Measures in Neurosurgical Intensive Care Patients Improves Defecation Pattern but Is Not Associated with Lower Intracranial Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Kieninger

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Inadequate bowel movements might be associated with an increase in intracranial pressure in neurosurgical patients. In this study we investigated the influence of a structured application of laxatives and physical measures following a strict standard operating procedure (SOP on bowel movement, intracranial pressure (ICP, and length of hospital stay in patients with a serious acute cerebral disorder. Methods. After the implementation of the SOP patients suffering from a neurosurgical disorder received pharmacological and nonpharmacological measures to improve bowel movements in a standardized manner within the first 5 days after admission to the intensive care unit (ICU starting on day of admission. We compared mean ICP levels, length of ICU stay, and mechanical ventilation to a historical control group. Results. Patients of the intervention group showed an adequate defecation pattern significantly more often than the patients of the control group. However, this was not associated with lower ICP values, fewer days of mechanical ventilation, or earlier discharge from ICU. Conclusions. The implementation of a SOP for bowel movement increases the frequency of adequate bowel movements in neurosurgical critical care patients. However, this seems not to be associated with reduced ICP values.

  13. Standardized application of laxatives and physical measures in neurosurgical intensive care patients improves defecation pattern but is not associated with lower intracranial pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieninger, Martin; Sinner, Barbara; Graf, Bernhard; Grassold, Astrid; Bele, Sylvia; Seemann, Milena; Künzig, Holger; Zech, Nina

    2014-01-01

    Background. Inadequate bowel movements might be associated with an increase in intracranial pressure in neurosurgical patients. In this study we investigated the influence of a structured application of laxatives and physical measures following a strict standard operating procedure (SOP) on bowel movement, intracranial pressure (ICP), and length of hospital stay in patients with a serious acute cerebral disorder. Methods. After the implementation of the SOP patients suffering from a neurosurgical disorder received pharmacological and nonpharmacological measures to improve bowel movements in a standardized manner within the first 5 days after admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) starting on day of admission. We compared mean ICP levels, length of ICU stay, and mechanical ventilation to a historical control group. Results. Patients of the intervention group showed an adequate defecation pattern significantly more often than the patients of the control group. However, this was not associated with lower ICP values, fewer days of mechanical ventilation, or earlier discharge from ICU. Conclusions. The implementation of a SOP for bowel movement increases the frequency of adequate bowel movements in neurosurgical critical care patients. However, this seems not to be associated with reduced ICP values.

  14. Lipid profile lowering effect of Soypro fermented with lactic acid bacteria isolated from Kimchi in high-fat diet-induced obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Na-Hyung; Moon, Phil-Dong; Kim, Su-Jin; Choi, In-Young; An, Hyo-Jin; Myung, Noh-Yil; Jeong, Hyun-Ja; Um, Jae-Young; Hong, Seung-Heon; Kim, Hyung-Min

    2008-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria are known to exert various physiologic functions in humans. In the current study, we investigated the effects of Soypro, a new soymilk fermented with lactic acid bacteria, like Leuconostoc kimchii, Leuconostoc citreum, and Lactobacillus plantarum, isolated from Kimchi, on adipocyte differentiation in preadipocyte 3T3-L1 cell lines and weight gain or the plasma lipid profile in Sprague-Dawley rats. Adipocyte 3T3-L1 cells treated with Soypro (10 microg/ml) significantly reduced the contents of cellular triglyceride and inhibited cell differentiation by Oil red O staining. Treatment with Soypro (10 microg/ml) for an additional two days in adipocytes inhibited the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma2 and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-alpha, transcription factors of adipocyte differentiation. Based on these in vitro studies, we examined the anti-obesity effect of Soypro in rats for six weeks. Soypro had no significant effect on high-fat diet-induced increases in body weight, food intake, or feed gain ratio. However, the administration of Soypro significantly reduced the concentration of the plasma low density lipoprotein cholesterol. Changes in the plasma levels of total cholesterol and glucose were inclined to decrease in Soypro administrated groups compared with saline treated group. Triglyceride and high density lipoprotein cholesterol values in Soypro fed groups were similar compared to those of saline fed groups. Although further research is needed, these findings suggest that Soypro decreased the levels of low density lipoprotein cholesterol in high-fat diet-induced obesity and might partially inhibit the adipocyte differentiation through the suppression of a transcription factors peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma2 and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-alpha.

  15. Investigation of the Effects of High-Intensity, Intermittent Exercise and Unanticipation on Trunk and Lower Limb Biomechanics During a Side-Cutting Maneuver Using Statistical Parametric Mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whyte, Enda F; Richter, Chris; OʼConnor, Siobhan; Moran, Kieran A

    2018-06-01

    Whyte, EF, Richter, C, O'Connor, S, and Moran, KA. Investigation of the effects of high-intensity, intermittent exercise and unanticipation on trunk and lower limb biomechanics during a side-cutting maneuver using statistical parametric mapping. J Strength Cond Res 32(6): 1583-1593, 2018-Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries frequently occur during side-cutting maneuvers when fatigued or reacting to the sporting environment. Trunk and hip biomechanics are proposed to influence ACL loading during these activities. However, the effects of fatigue and unanticipation on the biomechanics of the kinetic chain may be limited by traditional discrete point analysis. We recruited 28 male, varsity, Gaelic footballers (21.7 ± 2.2 years; 178.7 ± 14.6 m; 81.8 ± 11.4 kg) to perform anticipated and unanticipated side-cutting maneuvers before and after a high-intensity, intermittent exercise protocol (HIIP). Statistical parametric mapping (repeated-measures analysis of varience) identified differences in phases of trunk and stance leg biomechanics during weight acceptance. Unanticipation resulted in less trunk flexion (p < 0.001) and greater side flexion away from the direction of cut (p < 0.001). This led to smaller (internal) knee flexor and greater (internal) knee extensor (p = 0.002-0.007), hip adductor (p = 0.005), and hip external rotator (p = 0.007) moments. The HIIP resulted in increased trunk flexion (p < 0.001) and side flexion away from the direction of cut (p = 0.038), resulting in smaller (internal) knee extensor moments (p = 0.006). One interaction effect was noted demonstrating greater hip extensor moments in the unanticipated condition post-HIIP (p = 0.025). Results demonstrate that unanticipation resulted in trunk kinematics considered an ACL injury risk factor. A subsequent increase in frontal and transverse plane hip loading and sagittal plane knee loading was observed, which may increase ACL strain. Conversely, HIIP-induced trunk kinematic alterations

  16. Evaporation and Hydrocarbon Chain Conformation of Surface Lipid Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sledge, Samiyyah M.; Khimji, Hussain; Borchman, Douglas; Oliver, Alexandria; Michael, Heidi; Dennis, Emily K.; Gerlach, Dylan; Bhola, Rahul; Stephen, Elsa

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The inhibition of the rate of evaporation (Revap) by surface lipids is relevant to reservoirs and dry eye. Our aim was to test the idea that lipid surface films inhibit Revap. Methods Revap were determined gravimetrically. Hydrocarbon chain conformation and structure were measured using a Raman microscope. Six 1-hydroxyl hydrocarbons (11–24 carbons in length) and human meibum were studied. Reflex tears were obtained from a 62-year-old male. Results The Raman scattering intensity of the lipid film deviated by about 7 % for hydroxyl lipids and varied by 21 % for meibum films across the entire film at a resolution of 5 µm2. All of the surface lipids were ordered. Revap of the shorter chain hydroxyl lipids were slightly (7%) but significantly lower compared with the longer chain hydroxyl lipids. Revap of both groups was essentially similar to that of buffer. A hydroxyl lipid film did not influence Revap over an estimated average thickness range of 0.69 to >6.9 µm. Revap of human tears and buffer with and without human meibum (34.4 µm thick) was not significantly different. Revap of human tears was not significantly different from buffer. Conclusions Human meibum and hydroxyl lipids, regardless of their fluidity, chain length, or thickness did not inhibit Revap of buffer or tears even though they completely covered the surface. It is unlikely that hydroxyl lipids can be used to inhibit Revap of reservoirs. Our data do not support the widely accepted (yet unconfirmed) idea that the tear film lipid layer inhibits Revap of tears. PMID:27395776

  17. Texture of lipid bilayer domains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Uffe Bernchou; Brewer, Jonathan R.; Midtiby, Henrik Skov

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the texture of gel (g) domains in binary lipid membranes composed of the phospholipids DPPC and DOPC. Lateral organization of lipid bilayer membranes is a topic of fundamental and biological importance. Whereas questions related to size and composition of fluid membrane domain...... are well studied, the possibility of texture in gel domains has so far not been examined. When using polarized light for two-photon excitation of the fluorescent lipid probe Laurdan, the emission intensity is highly sensitive to the angle between the polarization and the tilt orientation of lipid acyl...... chains. By imaging the intensity variations as a function of the polarization angle, we map the lateral variations of the lipid tilt within domains. Results reveal that gel domains are composed of subdomains with different lipid tilt directions. We have applied a Fourier decomposition method...

  18. Prevalence of Non-responders for Glucose Control Markers after 10 Weeks of High-Intensity Interval Training in Adult Women with Higher and Lower Insulin Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Álvarez

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Exercise training improves performance and biochemical parameters on average, but wide interindividual variability exists, with individuals classified as responders (R or non-responders (NRs, especially between populations with higher or lower levels of insulin resistance. This study assessed the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT and the prevalence of NRs in adult women with higher and lower levels of insulin resistance.Methods: Forty adult women were assigned to a HIIT program, and after training were analyzed in two groups; a group with higher insulin resistance (H-IR, 40 ± 6 years; BMI: 29.5 ± 3.7 kg/m2; n = 20 and a group with lower insulin resistance (L-IR, 35 ± 9 years; 27.8 ± 2.8 kg/m2; n = 20. Anthropometric, cardiovascular, metabolic, and performance variables were measured at baseline and after 10 weeks of training.Results: There were significant training-induced changes [delta percent (Δ%] in fasting glucose, fasting insulin, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR scores in the H-IR group (−8.8, −26.5, −32.1%, p < 0.0001, whereas no significant changes were observed in the L-IR. Both groups showed significant pre-post changes in other anthropometric variables [waist circumference (−5.2, p < 0.010, and −3.8%, p = 0.046 and tricipital (−13.3, p < 0.010, and −13.6%, p < 0.0001, supra-iliac (−19.4, p < 0.0001, and −13.6%, p < 0.0001, and abdominal (−18.2, p < 0.0001, and −15.6%, p < 0.010 skinfold measurements]. Systolic blood pressure decreased significantly only in the L-IR group (−3.2%, p < 0.010. Both groups showed significant increases in 1RMLE (+12.9, p < 0.010, and +14.7%, p = 0.045. There were significant differences in the prevalence of NRs between the H-IR and L-IR groups for fasting glucose (25 vs. 95%, p < 0.0001 and fasting insulin (p = 0.025 but not for HOMA-IR (25 vs. 45%, p = 0.185.Conclusion: Independent of the “magnitude” of the

  19. Quantitative evaluation of high intensity signal on MIP images of carotid atherosclerotic plaques from routine TOF-MRA reveals elevated volumes of intraplaque hemorrhage and lipid rich necrotic core.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Kiyofumi; Song, Yan; Hippe, Daniel S; Sun, Jie; Dong, Li; Xu, Dongxiang; Ferguson, Marina S; Chu, Baocheng; Hatsukami, Thomas S; Chen, Min; Zhou, Cheng; Yuan, Chun

    2012-11-29

    Carotid intraplaque hemorrhage (IPH) and lipid rich necrotic core (LRNC) have been associated with accelerated plaque growth, luminal narrowing, future surface disruption and development of symptomatic events. The aim of this study was to evaluate the quantitative relationships between high intensity signals (HIS) in the plaque on TOF-MRA and IPH or LRNC volumes as measured by multicontrast weighted CMR. Seventy six patients with a suspected carotid artery stenosis or carotid plaque by ultrasonography underwent multicontrast carotid CMR. HIS presence and volume were measured from TOF-MRA MIP images while IPH and LRNC volumes were separately measured from multicontrast CMR. For detecting IPH, HIS on MIP images overall had high specificity (100.0%, 95% CI: 93.0 - 100.0%) but relatively low sensitivity (32%, 95% CI: 20.8 - 47.9%). However, the sensitivity had a significant increasing relationship with underlying IPH volume (p = 0.033) and degree of stenosis (p = 0.022). Mean IPH volume was 2.7 times larger in those with presence of HIS than in those without (142.8 ± 97.7 mm(3) vs. 53.4 ± 56.3 mm(3), p = 0.014). Similarly, mean LRNC volume was 3.4 times larger in those with HIS present (379.8 ± 203.4 mm(3) vs. 111.3 ± 122.7 mm(3), p = 0.001). There was a strong correlation between the volume of the HIS region and the IPH volume measured from multicontrast CMR (r = 0.96, p routine, clinical TOF sequences. High intensity signals in carotid plaque on TOF-MRA MIP images are associated with increased intraplaque hemorrhage and lipid-rich necrotic core volumes. The technique is most sensitive in patients with moderate to severe stenosis.

  20. Lipid somersaults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Günther-Pomorski, Thomas; Menon, Anant K.

    2016-01-01

    Membrane lipids diffuse rapidly in the plane of the membrane but their ability to flip spontaneously across a membrane bilayer is hampered by a significant energy barrier. Thus spontaneous flip-flop of polar lipids across membranes is very slow, even though it must occur rapidly to support diverse...... aspects of cellular life. Here we discuss the mechanisms by which rapid flip-flop occurs, and what role lipid flipping plays in membrane homeostasis and cell growth. We focus on conceptual aspects, highlighting mechanistic insights from biochemical and in silico experiments, and the recent, ground......-breaking identification of a number of lipid scramblases....

  1. Reduced-intensity conditioning lowers treatment-related mortality of allogeneic stem cell transplantation for chronic lymphocytic leukemia : a population-matched analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dreger, P; Brand, R; Milligan, D; Corradini, P; Finke, J; Deliliers, GL; Martino, R; Russell, N; van Biezen, A; Michallet, M; Niederwieser, D

    To elucidate whether reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) decreases treatment-related mortality (TRM) after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) for chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), we retrospectively compared 73 RIC cases from a recent EBMT survey with 82 patients from the EBMT

  2. Species-rich semi-natural grasslands have a higher resistance but a lower resilience than intensively managed agricultural grasslands in response to climate anomalies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keersmaecker, De Wanda; Rooijen, van Nils; Lhermitte, Stef; Tits, Laurent; Schaminée, Joop; Coppin, Pol; Honnay, Olivier; Somers, Ben

    2016-01-01

    The stable delivery of ecosystem services provided by grasslands is strongly dependent on the stability of grassland ecosystem functions such as biomass production. Biomass production is in turn strongly affected by the frequency and intensity of climate extremes. The aim of this study is to

  3. Effects of intensive glucose lowering on brain structure and function in people with type 2 diabetes (ACCORD MIND): a randomised open-label substudy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Launer, Lenore J; Miller, Michael E; Williamson, Jeff D; Lazar, Ron M; Gerstein, Hertzel C; Murray, Anne M; Sullivan, Mark; Horowitz, Karen R; Ding, Jingzhong; Marcovina, Santica; Lovato, Laura C; Lovato, James; Margolis, Karen L; O'Connor, Patrick; Lipkin, Edward W; Hirsch, Joy; Coker, Laura; Maldjian, Joseph; Sunshine, Jeffrey L; Truwit, Charles; Davatzikos, Christos; Bryan, R Nick

    2011-11-01

    People with type 2 diabetes are at risk of cognitive impairment and brain atrophy. We aimed to compare the effects on cognitive function and brain volume of intensive versus standard glycaemic control. The Memory in Diabetes (MIND) study was done in 52 clinical sites in North America as part of Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes (ACCORD), a double two-by-two factorial parallel group randomised trial. Participants (aged 55-80 years) with type 2 diabetes, high glycated haemoglobin A(1c) (HbA(1c)) concentrations (>7·5%; >58 mmol/mol), and a high risk of cardiovascular events were randomly assigned to receive intensive glycaemic control targeting HbA(1c) to less than 6·0% (42 mmol/mol) or a standard strategy targeting HbA(1c) to 7·0-7·9% (53-63 mmol/mol). Randomisation was via a centralised web-based system and treatment allocation was not masked from clinic staff or participants. We assessed our cognitive primary outcome, the Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST) score, at baseline and at 20 and 40 months. We assessed total brain volume (TBV), our primary brain structure outcome, with MRI at baseline and 40 months in a subset of participants. We included all participants with follow-up data in our primary analyses. In February, 2008, raised mortality risk led to the end of the intensive treatment and transition of those participants to standard treatment. We tested our cognitive function hypotheses with a mixed-effects model that incorporated information from both the 20 and 40 month outcome measures. We tested our MRI hypotheses with an ANCOVA model that included intracranial volume and factors used to stratify randomisation. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00182910. We consecutively enrolled 2977 patients (mean age 62·5 years; SD 5·8) who had been randomly assigned to treatment groups in the ACCORD study. Our primary cognitive analysis was of patients with a 20-month or 40-month DSST score: 1378 assigned to receive

  4. Lipid-lowering therapy: who can benefit?

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, Sandra J

    2011-01-01

    Sandra J LewisNorthwest Cardiovascular Institute, Portland, OR, USAAbstract: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the US. Despite the decline in CVD-associated mortality rates in recent years, coronary heart disease (CHD) still causes one in every six deaths in this country. Because most CHD risk factors are modifiable (eg, smoking, hypertension, obesity, onset of type 2 diabetes, and dyslipidemia), cardiovascular risk can be reduced by timely and appropriate interven...

  5. Prevention of cardiovascular disease based on lipid lowering treatment: a challenge for the Mexican health system Prevención de la enfermedad cardiovascular basada en tratamiento hipolipemiante: un reto para el sistema de salud de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J Gómez-Pérez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To estimate the percentage of Mexican adults that may require lipid-lowering treatment according to National Cholesterol Education Program-III guidelines, using data from the National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006 (ENSANut 2006. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Information was obtained from 4 040 subjects aged 20 to 69 years, studied after a 9 to 12 hours fast. RESULTS: A cardiovascular risk equivalent was found in 13.8% and >2 risk factors were present in 31.5% of the population. LDL-C concentrations were above the treatment goal in 70% of the high-risk group and in 38.6% of subjects with >2 risk factors. Nearly 12 million Mexicans should be taught how to change their lifestyles and close to 8 million individuals require drug therapy to decrease their cardiovascular risk. CONCLUSIONS: Thirty percent of Mexican adults require some form of lipid-lowering treatment (lifestyle modifications in 36.25%, drug therapy in 24.19%.OBJETIVO: Calcular el porcentaje de adultos que requiere tratamiento hipolipemiante de acuerdo con las recomendaciones del Programa Nacional de Educación en Colesterol-III, usando los datos de la Encuesta Nacional de Salud y Nutrición 2006. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se incluyeron 4040 individuos con edad entre 20 y 69 años estudiados bajo un ayuno de 9 a 12 horas. RESULTADOS: Un equivalente de enfermedad cardiovascular fue identificado en 13.8% de los participantes. El 31.5% de la población tenía >2 factores de riesgo cardiovascular. La concentración de colesterol LDL estuvo arriba de la meta terapéutica en 70% de los casos con alto riesgo cardiovascular y en el 38.6% de los sujetos con >2 factores de riesgo. Cerca de 12 millones de mexicanos deben modificar su estilo de vida para reducir su concentración de colesterol LDL. Casi 8 millones califican para recibir tratamiento farmacológico. CONCLUSIONES: Una tercera parte de los adultos requiere alguna forma de tratamiento hipolipemiante (cambios en el estilo de vida: 36

  6. Whey protein lowers blood pressure and improves endothelial function and lipid biomarkers in adults with prehypertension and mild hypertension: results from the chronic Whey2Go randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekete, Ágnes A; Giromini, Carlotta; Chatzidiakou, Yianna; Givens, D Ian; Lovegrove, Julie A

    2016-12-01

    milk proteins (56 g/d) for 8 wk improved vascular reactivity, biomarkers of endothelial function, and lipid risk factors. Whey-protein supplementation also lowered 24-h ambulatory SBP and DBP. These results may have important implications for public health. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02090842.

  7. Congestive heart failure is associated with lipoprotein components in statin-treated patients with coronary heart disease Insights from the Incremental Decrease in End points Through Aggressive Lipid Lowering Trial (IDEAL)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holme, Ingar; Strandberg, Timo E; Faergeman, Ole

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Very few, if any, studies have assessed the ability of apolipoproteins to predict new-onset of congestive heart failure (HF) in statin-treated patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). AIMS: To employ the Incremental Decrease in End points Through Aggressive Lipid Lowering Trial...... with the occurrence of new-onset HF. Variables related to low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) carried less predictive information than those related to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and apoA-1 was the single variable most strongly associated with HF. LDL-C was less predictive than both non......-HDL-C (total cholesterol minus HDL-C) and apoB. The ratio of apoB to apoA-1 was most strongly related to HF after adjustment for potential confounders, among which diabetes had a stronger correlation with HF than did hypertension. ApoB/apoA-1 carried approximately 2.2 times more of the statistical information...

  8. Patterns and predictors of lipid-lowering therapy in patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and/or diabetes mellitus in 2014: Insights from a large US managed-care population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steen, Dylan L; Khan, Irfan; Becker, Laura; Foody, JoAnne M; Gorcyca, Katherine; Sanchez, Robert J; Giugliano, Robert P

    2017-03-01

    Lowering low-density lipoprotein cholesterol with statins reduces risk of cardiovascular events. We examined patterns and predictors of filled prescriptions for lipid-lowering therapy (LLT) in subgroups of patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) and/or diabetes mellitus (DM). Statin treatment remains underutilized across subgroups of high CV risk patients. Patients in the Optum Research Database with these criteria were included: age ≥20 years, 2 years continuous enrollment, and ASCVD and/or DM. Patients were hierarchically classified by the presence of recent acute coronary syndrome, other coronary heart disease, ischemic stroke, peripheral arterial disease (PAD), or only DM. Predictors of filled LLT regimens were examined using multinomial logistic regression. A total of 1 055 932 individuals met all inclusion criteria. Evidence by point-in-time analysis of filled (not only written) statin prescriptions was 45% for the overall cohort. By subgroups, this was 62%, 52%, 43%, 36%, and 40% for recent acute coronary syndrome, other coronary heart disease, ischemic stroke, PAD, and only DM, respectively. Predictors of higher rates of any statin regimen included age 50 to 69 years, male sex, absence of comorbidities, and filled prescriptions of other standard-of-care therapies. In 2014, only 49% of patients with ASCVD and 40% with only DM had evidence for a filled statin prescription. Those with indications of ischemic stroke, PAD, and DM were less likely to receive statins than those with coronary conditions. Other characteristics such as advanced age, female sex, and noncardiac conditions predicted less statin utilization, thereby representing good targets for quality improvement. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Quantitative evaluation of high intensity signal on MIP images of carotid atherosclerotic plaques from routine TOF-MRA reveals elevated volumes of intraplaque hemorrhage and lipid rich necrotic core

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamada Kiyofumi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carotid intraplaque hemorrhage (IPH and lipid rich necrotic core (LRNC have been associated with accelerated plaque growth, luminal narrowing, future surface disruption and development of symptomatic events. The aim of this study was to evaluate the quantitative relationships between high intensity signals (HIS in the plaque on TOF-MRA and IPH or LRNC volumes as measured by multicontrast weighted CMR. Methods Seventy six patients with a suspected carotid artery stenosis or carotid plaque by ultrasonography underwent multicontrast carotid CMR. HIS presence and volume were measured from TOF-MRA MIP images while IPH and LRNC volumes were separately measured from multicontrast CMR. Results For detecting IPH, HIS on MIP images overall had high specificity (100.0%, 95% CI: 93.0 – 100.0% but relatively low sensitivity (32%, 95% CI: 20.8 – 47.9%. However, the sensitivity had a significant increasing relationship with underlying IPH volume (p = 0.033 and degree of stenosis (p = 0.022. Mean IPH volume was 2.7 times larger in those with presence of HIS than in those without (142.8 ± 97.7 mm3 vs. 53.4 ± 56.3 mm3, p = 0.014. Similarly, mean LRNC volume was 3.4 times larger in those with HIS present (379.8 ± 203.4 mm3 vs. 111.3 ± 122.7 mm3, p = 0.001. There was a strong correlation between the volume of the HIS region and the IPH volume measured from multicontrast CMR (r = 0.96, p  Conclusion MIP images are easily reformatted from three minute, routine, clinical TOF sequences. High intensity signals in carotid plaque on TOF-MRA MIP images are associated with increased intraplaque hemorrhage and lipid-rich necrotic core volumes. The technique is most sensitive in patients with moderate to severe stenosis.

  10. Copper surfaces are associated with significantly lower concentrations of bacteria on selected surfaces within a pediatric intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Michael G; von Dessauer, Bettina; Benavente, Carmen; Benadof, Dona; Cifuentes, Paulina; Elgueta, Alicia; Duran, Claudia; Navarrete, Maria S

    2016-02-01

    Health care-associated infections result in significant patient morbidity and mortality. Although cleaning can remove pathogens present on hospital surfaces, those surfaces may be inadequately cleaned or recontaminated within minutes. Because of copper's inherent and continuous antimicrobial properties, copper surfaces offer a solution to complement cleaning. The objective of this study was to quantitatively assess the bacterial microbial burden coincident with an assessment of the ability of antimicrobial copper to limit the microbial burden associated with 3 surfaces in a pediatric intensive care unit. A pragmatic trial was conducted enrolling 1,012 patients from 2 high acuity care units within a 249-bed tertiary care pediatric hospital over 12 months. The microbial burden was determined from 3 frequently encountered surfaces, regardless of room occupancy, twice monthly, from 16 rooms, 8 outfitted normally and 8 outfitted with antimicrobial copper. Copper surfaces were found to be equivalently antimicrobial in pediatric settings to activities reported for adult medical intensive care units. The log10 reduction to the microbial burden from antimicrobial copper surfaced bed rails was 1.996 (99%). Surprisingly, introduction of copper objects to 8 study rooms was found to suppress the microbial burden recovered from objects assessed in control rooms by log10 of 1.863 (73%). Copper surfaces warrant serious consideration when contemplating the introduction of no-touch disinfection technologies for reducing burden to limit acquisition of HAIs. Copyright © 2016 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Lipids and membrane lateral organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro eSonnino

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Shortly after the elucidation of the very basic structure and properties of cellular membranes, it became evident that cellular membranes are highly organized structures with multiple and multi-dimensional levels of order. Very early observations suggested that the lipid components of biological membranes might be active players in the creations of these levels of order. In the late 80’s, several different and diverse experimental pieces of evidence coalesced together giving rise to the lipid raft hypothesis. Lipid rafts became enormously (and, in the opinion of these authors, sometimes acritically popular, surprisingly not just within the lipidologist community (who is supposed to be naturally sensitive to the fascination of lipid rafts. Today, a PubMed search using the key word lipid rafts returned a list of 3767 papers, including 690 reviews (as a term of comparison, searching over the same time span for a very hot lipid-related key word, ceramide returned 6187 hits with 799 reviews, and a tremendous number of different cellular functions have been described as lipid raft-dependent. However, a clear consensus definition of lipid raft has been proposed only in recent times, and the basic properties, the ruling forces, and even the existence of lipid rafts in living cells have been recently matter of intense debate. The scenario that is gradually emerging from the controversies elicited by the lipid raft hypothesis emphasize multiple roles for membrane lipids in determining membrane order, that encompasses their tendency to phase separation but are clearly not limited to this. In this review, we would like to re-focus the attention of the readers on the importance of lipids in organizing the fine structure of cellular membranes.

  12. Effects of 16-week high-intensity interval training using upper and lower body ergometers on aerobic fitness and morphological changes in healthy men: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osawa, Yusuke; Azuma, Koichiro; Tabata, Shogo; Katsukawa, Fuminori; Ishida, Hiroyuki; Oguma, Yuko; Kawai, Toshihide; Itoh, Hiroshi; Okuda, Shigeo; Matsumoto, Hideo

    2014-01-01

    It is unclear whether combined leg and arm high-intensity interval training (HIIT) improves fitness and morphological characteristics equal to those of leg-based HIIT programs. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of HIIT using leg-cycling (LC) and arm-cranking (AC) ergometers with an HIIT program using only LC. Effects on aerobic capacity and skeletal muscle were analyzed. Twelve healthy male subjects were assigned into two groups. One performed LC-HIIT (n=7) and the other LC- and AC-HIIT (n=5) twice weekly for 16 weeks. The training programs consisted of eight to 12 sets of >90% VO2 (the oxygen uptake that can be utilized in one minute) peak for 60 seconds with a 60-second active rest period. VO2 peak, watt peak, and heart rate were measured during an LC incremental exercise test. The cross-sectional area (CSA) of trunk and thigh muscles as well as bone-free lean body mass were measured using magnetic resonance imaging and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The watt peak increased from baseline in both the LC (23%±38%; PHIIT program improves aerobic capacity and muscle hypertrophy in both leg and trunk muscles.

  13. Psychosocial resiliency is associated with lower emotional distress among dyads of patients and their informal caregivers in the neuroscience intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Kelly M; Riklin, Eric; Jacobs, Jamie M; Rosand, Jonathan; Vranceanu, Ana-Maria

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of the study is to examine the associations of patients' and their informal caregivers' psychosocial resiliency factors with their own and their partners' emotion domains (distress, anxiety, depression, and anger) after admission to the neuroscience intensive care unit (Neuro-ICU). Eighty-three dyads of patients (total n = 87) and their informal caregivers (total n = 99) participated in this observational, cross-sectional study by self-reporting demographics and measures of resiliency factors (mindfulness [Cognitive and Affective Mindfulness Scale Revised], coping [Measure of Coping Status-A], intimate bond [Intimate Bond Measure], self-efficacy [patients: General Self-Efficacy Scale; caregivers: Revised Caregiver Self-Efficacy Scale]) and emotion domains (Emotion Thermometers) within 2 weeks of Neuro-ICU admission. There were no differences between patients' and caregivers' levels of psychosocial resiliency, distress, or anxiety. Patients reported greater depression and anger relative to their caregivers. Overall, roughly half of patients (50.6%) and caregivers (42.4%) reported clinically significant emotional distress. Patients' and caregivers' own psychosocial resiliency factors were associated with their own, but not their partner's, emotion domains. Findings of high distress among both patients and caregivers at admission emphasize the importance of attending to the mental health of both patients and caregivers in the Neuro-ICU. As modifiable psychosocial resiliency factors were associated with emotion domains for both patients and caregivers, interventions to enhance these factors may ameliorate emotional distress among these vulnerable populations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Gemfibrozil and Fenofibrate, Food and Drug Administration-approved Lipid-lowering Drugs, Up-regulate Tripeptidyl-peptidase 1 in Brain Cells via Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptor α

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Arunava; Corbett, Grant T.; Gonzalez, Frank J.; Pahan, Kalipada

    2012-01-01

    The classical late infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (LINCLs) is an autosomal recessive disease, where the defective gene is Cln2, encoding tripeptidyl-peptidase I (TPP1). At the molecular level, LINCL is caused by accumulation of autofluorescent storage materials in neurons and other cell types. Currently, there is no established treatment for this fatal disease. This study reveals a novel use of gemfibrozil and fenofibrate, Food and Drug Administration-approved lipid-lowering drugs, in up-regulating TPP1 in brain cells. Both gemfibrozil and fenofibrate up-regulated mRNA, protein, and enzymatic activity of TPP1 in primary mouse neurons and astrocytes as well as human astrocytes and neuronal cells. Because gemfibrozil and fenofibrate are known to activate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPARα), the role of PPARα in gemfibrozil- and fenofibrate-mediated up-regulation of TPP1 was investigated revealing that both drugs up-regulated TPP1 mRNA, protein, and enzymatic activity both in vitro and in vivo in wild type (WT) and PPARβ−/−, but not PPARα−/−, mice. In an attempt to delineate the mechanism of TPP1 up-regulation, it was found that the effects of the fibrate drugs were abrogated in the absence of retinoid X receptor-α (RXRα), a molecule known to form a heterodimer with PPARα. Accordingly, all-trans-retinoic acid, alone or together with gemfibrozil, up-regulated TPP1. Co-immunoprecipitation and ChIP studies revealed the formation of a PPARα/RXRα heterodimer and binding of the heterodimer to an RXR-binding site on the Cln2 promoter. Together, this study demonstrates a unique mechanism for the up-regulation of TPP1 by fibrate drugs via PPARα/RXRα pathway. PMID:22989886

  15. Gemfibrozil and fenofibrate, Food and Drug Administration-approved lipid-lowering drugs, up-regulate tripeptidyl-peptidase 1 in brain cells via peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α: implications for late infantile Batten disease therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Arunava; Corbett, Grant T; Gonzalez, Frank J; Pahan, Kalipada

    2012-11-09

    The classical late infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (LINCLs) is an autosomal recessive disease, where the defective gene is Cln2, encoding tripeptidyl-peptidase I (TPP1). At the molecular level, LINCL is caused by accumulation of autofluorescent storage materials in neurons and other cell types. Currently, there is no established treatment for this fatal disease. This study reveals a novel use of gemfibrozil and fenofibrate, Food and Drug Administration-approved lipid-lowering drugs, in up-regulating TPP1 in brain cells. Both gemfibrozil and fenofibrate up-regulated mRNA, protein, and enzymatic activity of TPP1 in primary mouse neurons and astrocytes as well as human astrocytes and neuronal cells. Because gemfibrozil and fenofibrate are known to activate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPARα), the role of PPARα in gemfibrozil- and fenofibrate-mediated up-regulation of TPP1 was investigated revealing that both drugs up-regulated TPP1 mRNA, protein, and enzymatic activity both in vitro and in vivo in wild type (WT) and PPARβ(-/-), but not PPARα(-/-), mice. In an attempt to delineate the mechanism of TPP1 up-regulation, it was found that the effects of the fibrate drugs were abrogated in the absence of retinoid X receptor-α (RXRα), a molecule known to form a heterodimer with PPARα. Accordingly, all-trans-retinoic acid, alone or together with gemfibrozil, up-regulated TPP1. Co-immunoprecipitation and ChIP studies revealed the formation of a PPARα/RXRα heterodimer and binding of the heterodimer to an RXR-binding site on the Cln2 promoter. Together, this study demonstrates a unique mechanism for the up-regulation of TPP1 by fibrate drugs via PPARα/RXRα pathway.

  16. Lipid Neuroprotectants and Traumatic Glaucomatous Neurodegeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    not in individuals suffering from glaucoma (endogenous lipids ). The proposed research is to develop several such lipids as potential glaucoma...The proposed research will further assess the efficacy of the new lipids to lower IOP using mouse and monkeys that can develop glaucoma naturally or...of seminars and posters. Two high school students during summer (as part of their HHMI research program) learned hands-on about lipid analyses. A

  17. Pharmacogenetics of lipid diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ordovas Jose M

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The genetic basis for most of the rare lipid monogenic disorders have been elucidated, but the challenge remains in determining the combination of genes that contribute to the genetic variability in lipid levels in the general population; this has been estimated to be in the range of 40-60 per cent of the total variability. Therefore, the effect of common polymorphisms on lipid phenotypes will be greatly modulated by gene-gene and gene-environment interactions. This approach can also be used to characterise the individuality of the response to lipid-lowering therapies, whether using drugs (pharmacogenetics or dietary interventions (nutrigenetics. In this regard, multiple studies have already described significant interactions between candidate genes for lipid and drug metabolism that modulate therapeutic response--although the outcomes of these studies have been controversial and call for more rigorous experimental design and analytical approaches. Once solid evidence about the predictive value of genetic panels is obtained, risk and therapeutic algorithms can begin to be generated that should provide an accurate measure of genetic predisposition, as well as targeted behavioural modifications or drugs of choice and personalised dosages of these drugs.

  18. Lipid Nanotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gijsje Koenderink

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology is a multidisciplinary field that covers a vast and diverse array of devices and machines derived from engineering, physics, materials science, chemistry and biology. These devices have found applications in biomedical sciences, such as targeted drug delivery, bio-imaging, sensing and diagnosis of pathologies at early stages. In these applications, nano-devices typically interface with the plasma membrane of cells. On the other hand, naturally occurring nanostructures in biology have been a source of inspiration for new nanotechnological designs and hybrid nanostructures made of biological and non-biological, organic and inorganic building blocks. Lipids, with their amphiphilicity, diversity of head and tail chemistry, and antifouling properties that block nonspecific binding to lipid-coated surfaces, provide a powerful toolbox for nanotechnology. This review discusses the progress in the emerging field of lipid nanotechnology.

  19. Effects of 16-week high-intensity interval training using upper and lower body ergometers on aerobic fitness and morphological changes in healthy men: a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osawa Y

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Yusuke Osawa,1,2,* Koichiro Azuma,3,* Shogo Tabata,3 Fuminori Katsukawa,2 Hiroyuki Ishida,2 Yuko Oguma,2 Toshihide Kawai,4 Hiroshi Itoh,4 Shigeo Okuda,5 Hideo Matsumoto3 1Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan; 2Sports Medicine Research Center, Keio University, Kanagawa, Japan; 3Institute for Integrated Sports Medicine, School of Medicine, Keio University, Tokyo, Japan; 4Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, Keio University, Tokyo, Japan; 5Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Keio University, Tokyo, Japan *Yusuke Osawa and Koichiro Azuma are co-first authors of this article Abstract: It is unclear whether combined leg and arm high-intensity interval training (HIIT improves fitness and morphological characteristics equal to those of leg-based HIIT programs. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of HIIT using leg-cycling (LC and arm-cranking (AC ergometers with an HIIT program using only LC. Effects on aerobic capacity and skeletal muscle were analyzed. Twelve healthy male subjects were assigned into two groups. One performed LC-HIIT (n=7 and the other LC- and AC-HIIT (n=5 twice weekly for 16 weeks. The training programs consisted of eight to 12 sets of >90% VO2 (the oxygen uptake that can be utilized in one minute peak for 60 seconds with a 60-second active rest period. VO2 peak, watt peak, and heart rate were measured during an LC incremental exercise test. The cross-sectional area (CSA of trunk and thigh muscles as well as bone-free lean body mass were measured using magnetic resonance imaging and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The watt peak increased from baseline in both the LC (23%±38%; P<0.05 and the LC–AC groups (11%±9%; P<0.05. The CSA of the quadriceps femoris muscles also increased from baseline in both the LC (11%±4%; P<0.05 and the LC–AC groups (5%±5%; P<0.05. In contrast, increases were observed in the CSA of

  20. An Intense Traveling Airglow Front in the Upper Mesosphere-Lower Thermosphere with Characteristic of a Turbulent Bore Observed over Alice Springs, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walterscheid, R. L.; Hecht, J. H.; Hickey, M. P.; Gelinas, L. J.; Vincent, R. A.; Reid, I. M.; Woithe, J.

    2010-12-01

    The Aerospace Corporation’s Nightglow Imager observed a large step-function change in airglow in the form of a traveling front in the OH and O2 airglow emissions over Alice Springs Australia on February 2, 2003. The front exhibited a stepwise increase of nearly a factor two in the OH brightness and a stepwise decrease in the O2 brightness. The change in brightness in each layer was associated with a strong leading disturbance followed by a train of weak barely visible waves. The OH airglow brightness behind the front was the brightness night for 02 at Alice Springs that we have measured in seven years of observations. The OH brightness was among the five brightest. The event was associated with a strong phase-locked two-day wave (TDW).We have analyzed the stability conditions for the upper mesosphere and lower thermosphere and found that the airglow layers were found in a region of strong ducting. The thermal structure was obtained from combining data from the SABER instrument on the TIMED satellite and the NRLMSISE-00 model. The wind profile was obtained by combining the HWM07 model and MF radar winds from Buckland Park Australia. We found that the TDW-disturbed profile was significantly more effective in supporting a high degree of ducting than a profile based only on HWM07 winds. Dramatic wall events have been interpreted as manifestations of undular bores (e.g., Smith et al. [2003]). Undular bores are nonlinear high Froude number events that must generate an ever increasing train of waves to carry the excess energy away from the bore front. Only a very weak wave train behind the initial disturbance was seen for the Alice Springs event. The form of the amplitude ordering was not typical of a nonlinear wave train. Therefore a bore interpretation requires another means of energy dissipation, namely turbulent dissipation. We suggest that a reasonable interpretation of the observed event is a turbulent bore. We are unaware of any previous event having

  1. Lipid Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A routine cardiac risk assessment typically includes a fasting lipid panel. Beyond that, research continues into the usefulness of other non-traditional markers of cardiac risk, such as Lp-PLA 2 . A health practitioner may choose to evaluate one or more ...

  2. LipidPedia: a comprehensive lipid knowledgebase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Tien-Chueh; Tseng, Yufeng Jane

    2018-04-10

    Lipids are divided into fatty acyls, glycerolipids, glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids, saccharolipids, sterols, prenol lipids and polyketides. Fatty acyls and glycerolipids are commonly used as energy storage, whereas glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids, sterols and saccharolipids are common used as components of cell membranes. Lipids in fatty acyls, glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids and sterols classes play important roles in signaling. Although more than 36 million lipids can be identified or computationally generated, no single lipid database provides comprehensive information on lipids. Furthermore, the complex systematic or common names of lipids make the discovery of related information challenging. Here, we present LipidPedia, a comprehensive lipid knowledgebase. The content of this database is derived from integrating annotation data with full-text mining of 3,923 lipids and more than 400,000 annotations of associated diseases, pathways, functions, and locations that are essential for interpreting lipid functions and mechanisms from over 1,400,000 scientific publications. Each lipid in LipidPedia also has its own entry containing a text summary curated from the most frequently cited diseases, pathways, genes, locations, functions, lipids and experimental models in the biomedical literature. LipidPedia aims to provide an overall synopsis of lipids to summarize lipid annotations and provide a detailed listing of references for understanding complex lipid functions and mechanisms. LipidPedia is available at http://lipidpedia.cmdm.tw. yjtseng@csie.ntu.edu.tw. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  3. Research on deeply purifying effluent from uranium mining and metallurgy to remove uranium by ion exchange. Pt.2: Elution uranium from lower loaded uranium resin by the intense fractionation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jianguo; Chen Shaoqiang; Qi Jing

    2002-01-01

    Developing macroporous resin for purifying uranium effluent from uranium mining and metallurgy is presented. The Intense Fractionation Process is employed to elute uranium from lower loaded uranium resin by the eluent of sulfuric acid and ammonium sulfate. The result is indicated that the uranium concentration in the rich elutriant is greatly increased, and the rich liquor is only one bed column volume, uranium concentration in the elutriant is increased two times which concentration is 10.1 g/L. The eluent is saved about 50% compared with the conventional fixed bed elution operation. And also the acidity in the rich elutriant is of benefit to the later precipitation process in uranium recovery

  4. Treatment-resistant hypertension and the incidence of cardiovascular disease and end-stage renal disease: results from the Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial (ALLHAT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntner, Paul; Davis, Barry R; Cushman, William C; Bangalore, Sripal; Calhoun, David A; Pressel, Sara L; Black, Henry R; Kostis, John B; Probstfield, Jeffrey L; Whelton, Paul K; Rahman, Mahboob

    2014-11-01

    Apparent treatment-resistant hypertension (aTRH) is defined as uncontrolled hypertension despite the use of ≥3 antihypertensive medication classes or controlled hypertension while treated with ≥4 antihypertensive medication classes. Although a high prevalence of aTRH has been reported, few data are available on its association with cardiovascular and renal outcomes. We analyzed data on 14 684 Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial (ALLHAT) participants to determine the association between aTRH (n=1870) with coronary heart disease, stroke, all-cause mortality, heart failure, peripheral artery disease, and end-stage renal disease. We defined aTRH as blood pressure not at goal (systolic/diastolic blood pressure ≥140/90 mm Hg) while taking ≥3 classes of antihypertensive medication or taking ≥4 classes of antihypertensive medication with blood pressure at goal during the year 2 ALLHAT study visit (1996-2000). Use of a diuretic was not required to meet the definition of aTRH. Follow-up occurred through 2002. The multivariable adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) comparing participants with versus without aTRH were as follows: coronary heart disease (1.44 [1.18-1.76]), stroke (1.57 [1.18-2.08]), all-cause mortality (1.30 [1.11-1.52]), heart failure (1.88 [1.52-2.34]), peripheral artery disease (1.23 [0.85-1.79]), and end-stage renal disease (1.95 [1.11-3.41]). aTRH was also associated with the pooled outcomes of combined coronary heart disease (hazard ratio, 1.47; 95% confidence interval, 1.26-1.71) and combined cardiovascular disease (hazard ratio, 1.46; 95% confidence interval, 1.29-1.64). These results demonstrate that aTRH increases the risk for cardiovascular disease and end-stage renal disease. Studies are needed to identify approaches to prevent aTRH and reduce risk for adverse outcomes among individuals with aTRH. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  5. Efficacy and safety of alirocumab in patients with hypercholesterolemia not adequately controlled with non-statin lipid-lowering therapy or the lowest strength of statin: ODYSSEY NIPPON study design and rationale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teramoto, Tamio; Kondo, Akira; Kiyosue, Arihiro; Harada-Shiba, Mariko; Ishigaki, Yasushi; Tobita, Kimimasa; Kawabata, Yumiko; Ozaki, Asuka; Baccara-Dinet, Marie T; Sata, Masataka

    2017-06-17

    Statins are generally well-tolerated and serious side effects are infrequent, but some patients experience adverse events and reduce their statin dose or discontinue treatment altogether. Alirocumab is a highly specific, fully human monoclonal antibody to proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9), which can produce substantial and sustained reductions of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). The randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, phase 3 ODYSSEY NIPPON study will explore alirocumab 150 mg every 4 weeks (Q4W) in 163 Japanese patients with hypercholesterolemia who are on the lowest-strength dose of atorvastatin (5 mg/day) or are receiving a non-statin lipid-lowering therapy (LLT) (fenofibrate, bezafibrate, ezetimibe, or diet therapy alone). Hypercholesterolemia is defined as LDL-C ≥ 100 mg/dL (2.6 mmol/L) in patients with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia or non-familial hypercholesterolemia with a history of documented coronary heart disease, or ≥120 mg/dL (3.1 mmol/L) in patients with non-familial hypercholesterolemia classified as primary prevention category III (i.e. high-risk patients). During the 12-week double-blind treatment period, patients will be randomized (1:1:1) to receive alirocumab subcutaneously (SC) 150 mg Q4W alternating with placebo for alirocumab Q4W, or alirocumab 150 mg SC every 2 weeks (Q2W), or SC placebo Q2W. The primary efficacy endpoint is the percentage change in calculated LDL-C from baseline to week 12. The long-term safety and tolerability of alirocumab will also be investigated. The ODYSSEY NIPPON study will provide insights into the efficacy and safety of alirocumab 150 mg Q4W or 150 mg Q2W among Japanese patients with hypercholesterolemia who are on the lowest-strength dose of atorvastatin, or are receiving a non-statin LLT (including diet therapy alone). ClinicalTrials.gov number: NCT02584504.

  6. Parenteral lipid administration to very-low-birth-weight infants-early introduction of lipids and use of new lipid emulsions: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlaardingerbroek, Hester; Veldhorst, Margriet A. B.; Spronk, Sandra; van den Akker, Chris H. P.; van Goudoever, Johannes B.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The use of intravenous lipid emulsions in preterm infants has been limited by concerns regarding impaired lipid tolerance. As a result, the time of initiation of parenteral lipid infusion to very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants varies widely among different neonatal intensive care units.

  7. Exogenous lipid pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernasconi, A.; Gavelli, G.; Zompatori, M.; Galleri, C.; Zanasi, A.; Fabbri, M.; Bazzocchi, F.

    1988-01-01

    Exogenous lipid pneumonia (ELP) is caused by the aspiration of animal, vegetal or, more often, mineral oils. Even though it may also be acute, ELP is most frequently a chronic disease, affecting people with predisposing factors, such as neuromuscular disorders, structural abnormalities and so on; very often exogenous lipid pneumonia is found in tracheotomized patients. The pathology of lipid pneumonia is a chronic inflammatory process evolving in foreign-body-like reaction, and eventually in ''end-stage lung'' condition. Clinically, most patients are asymptomatic; few cases only present with cough, dyspnea and chest pain. Eight cases of ELP, studied over the past 3 years, are described in this paper. All the patients were examined by chest radiographs and standard tomograms; 3 patients underwent CT. X-ray features were mono/bilateral consolidation of the lower zones, with air bronchogram and variable reduction in volume. CT density was not specific for fat tissue. In all cases the diagnosis was confirmed at biopsy. In 5 patients, followed for at least one year, clinical-radiological features showed no change. Thus, complications of ELP (especially malignant evolution) could be excluded. The authors conclude that lipid pneumonia must be considered in differential diagnosis of patients with history of usage of oils and compatible X-ray findings. The usefulness of an accurate follow-up is stressed

  8. Elucidating the mechanisms of nanodiamond-promoted structural disruption of crystallised lipid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Zak E; Walsh, Tiffany R

    2016-10-12

    The removal or structural disruption of crystallised lipid is a pivotal but energy-intensive step in a wide range of industrial and biological processes. Strategies to disrupt the structure of crystallised lipid in aqueous solution at lower temperatures are much needed, where nanoparticle-based strategies show enormous promise. Using the aqueous tristearin bilayer as a model for crystallised lipid, we demonstrate that the synergistic use of surfactant and detonation nanodiamonds can depress the onset temperature at which disruption of the crystallised lipid structure occurs. Our simulations reveal the molecular-scale mechanisms by which this disruption takes place, indicating that the nanodiamonds serve a dual purpose. First, the nanodiamonds are predicted to facilitate delivery of surfactant to the lipid/water interface, and second, nanodiamond adsorption acts to roughen the lipid/water interface, enhancing ingress of surfactant into the bilayer. We find the balance of the hydrophobic surface area of the nanodiamond and the nanodiamond surface charge density to be a key determinant of the effectiveness of using nanodiamonds to facilitate lipid disruption. For the nanodiamond size considered here, we identify a moderate surface charge density, that ensures the nanodiamonds are neither too hydrophobic nor too hydrophilic, to be optimal.

  9. Microemulsion extrusion technique : a new method to produce lipid nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jesus, Marcelo Bispo; Radaic, Allan; Zuhorn, Inge S.; de Paula, Eneida

    2013-01-01

    Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) and nano-structured lipid carriers (NLC) have been intensively investigated for different applications, including their use as drug and gene delivery systems. Different techniques have been employed to produce lipid nanoparticles, of which high pressure homogenization

  10. Comparison of atorvastatin 80 mg/day versus simvastatin 20 to 40 mg/day on frequency of cardiovascular events late (five years) after acute myocardial infarction (from the Incremental Decrease in End Points through Aggressive Lipid Lowering [IDEAL] trial)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, TR; Cater, Nilo B; Faergeman, Ole

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that benefits of intensive statin therapy compared to standard statin therapy begin shortly after an acute event and are continued up to 2 years of follow-up. However, whether efficacy and safety of intensive statin therapy in patients with a recent cardiac even...

  11. The effect of aggressive versus standard lipid lowering by atorvastatin on diabetic dyslipidemia - The DALI Study : a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial in patients with type 2 diabetes and diabetic dyslipidemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkplanken, [No Value; Hoogerbrugge, N; Jansen, H; Jansen, H; Princen, HMG; Huisman, MV; van de Ree, MA; Stolk, RP; van Venrooij, FV; Banga, JD; Dallinga-Thie, G

    OBJECTIVE - In patients with type 2 diabetes, intensive glucose regulation, although effective for microangiopathy, has not been shown to have unambiguous preventive effects on the occurrence of cardiovascular disease. Patients with diabetes show a characteristic dyslipidermia (high triglyceride

  12. Combined effects of headgroup charge and tail unsaturation of lipids on lateral organization and diffusion of lipids in model biomembranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xiao-Jie; Liang Qing

    2017-01-01

    Lateral organization and dynamics of lipids in plasma membranes are crucial for several cellular processes such as signal transduction across the membrane and still remain elusive. In this paper, using coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulation, we theoretically study the combined effects of headgroup charge and tail unsaturation of lipids on the lateral organization and diffusion of lipids in ternary lipid bilayers. In neutral ternary lipid bilayers composed of saturated lipids, unsaturated lipids, and cholesterols, under the conditions of given temperature and components, the main factor for the phase separation is the unsaturation of unsaturated lipids and the bilayers can be separated into liquid-ordered domains enriched in saturated lipids and cholesterols and liquid-disordered domains enriched in unsaturated lipids. Once the headgroup charge is introduced, the electrostatic repulsion between the negatively charged lipid headgroups will increase the distance between the charged lipids. We find that the lateral organization and diffusion of the lipids in the (partially) charged ternary lipid bilayers are determined by the competition between the headgroup charge and the unsaturation of the unsaturated lipids. In the bilayers containing unsaturated lipids with lower unsaturation, the headgroup charge plays a crucial role in the lateral organization and diffusion of lipids. The headgroup charge may make the lipid domains unstable and even can suppress phase separation of the lipids in some systems. However, in the bilayers containing highly unsaturated lipids, the lateral organization and diffusion of lipids are mainly dominated by the unsaturation of the unsaturated lipids. This work may provide some theoretical insights into understanding the formation of nanosized domains and lateral diffusion of lipids in plasma membranes. (paper)

  13. Engineering the lipid layer of lipid-PLGA hybrid nanoparticles for enhanced in vitro cellular uptake and improved stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yun; Hoerle, Reece; Ehrich, Marion; Zhang, Chenming

    2015-12-01

    Lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles (NPs), consisting of a polymeric core and a lipid shell, have been intensively examined as delivery systems for cancer drugs, imaging agents, and vaccines. For applications in vaccine particularly, the hybrid NPs need to be able to protect the enclosed antigens during circulation, easily be up-taken by dendritic cells, and possess good stability for prolonged storage. However, the influence of lipid composition on the performance of hybrid NPs has not been well studied. In this study, we demonstrate that higher concentrations of cholesterol in the lipid layer enable slower and more controlled antigen release from lipid-poly(lactide-co-glycolide) acid (lipid-PLGA) NPs in human serum and phosphate buffered saline (PBS). Higher concentrations of cholesterol also promoted in vitro cellular uptake of hybrid NPs, improved the stability of the lipid layer, and protected the integrity of the hybrid structure during long-term storage. However, stabilized hybrid structures of high cholesterol content tended to fuse with each other during storage, resulting in significant size increase and lowered cellular uptake. Additional experiments demonstrated that PEGylation of NPs could effectively minimize fusion-caused size increase after long term storage, leading to improved cellular uptake, although excessive PEGylation will not be beneficial and led to reduced improvement. This paper reports the engineering of the lipid layer that encloses a polymeric nanoparticle, which can be used as a carrier for drug and vaccine molecules for targeted delivery. We demonstrated that the concentration of cholesterol is critical for the stability and uptake of the hybrid nanoparticles by dendritic cells, a targeted cell for the delivery of immune effector molecules. However, we found that hybrid nanoparticles with high cholesterol concentration tend to fuse during storage resulting in larger particles with decreased cellular uptake. This problem is

  14. Analysis of Lipid Experiments (ALEX)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husen, Peter; Tarasov, Kirill; Katafiasz, Maciej

    2013-01-01

    Global lipidomics analysis across large sample sizes produces high-content datasets that require dedicated software tools supporting lipid identification and quantification, efficient data management and lipidome visualization. Here we present a novel software-based platform for streamlined data...... processing, management and visualization of shotgun lipidomics data acquired using high-resolution Orbitrap mass spectrometry. The platform features the ALEX framework designed for automated identification and export of lipid species intensity directly from proprietary mass spectral data files......, and an auxiliary workflow using database exploration tools for integration of sample information, computation of lipid abundance and lipidome visualization. A key feature of the platform is the organization of lipidomics data in "database table format" which provides the user with an unsurpassed flexibility...

  15. Chemical Profiling and Bioactivity of Body Wall Lipids from Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander N. Shikov

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The lipids from gonads and polyhydroxynaphthoquinone pigments from body walls of sea urchins are intensively studied. However, little is known about the body wall (BW lipids. Ethanol extract (55 °C contained about equal amounts of saturated (SaFA and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA representing 60% of total fatty acids, with myristic, palmitic and eicosenoic acids as major SaFAs and MUFAs, respectively. Non-methylene-interrupted dienes (13% were composed of eicosadienoic and docosadienoic acids. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA included two main components, n6 arachidonic and n3 eicosapentaenoic acids, even with equal concentrations (15 μg/mg and a balanced n6/n3 PUFA ratio (0.86. The UPLC-ELSD analysis showed that a great majority of the lipids (80% in the ethanolic extract were phosphatidylcholine (60 μg/mg and phosphatidylethanolamine (40 μg/mg, while the proportion of neutral lipids remained lower than 20%. In addition, alkoxyglycerol derivatives—chimyl, selachyl, and batyl alcohols—were quantified. We have assumed that the mechanism of action of body wall lipids in the present study is via the inhibition of MAPK p38, COX-1, and COX-2. Our findings open the prospective to utilize this lipid fraction as a source for the development of drugs with anti-inflammatory activity.

  16. X-ray emission reduction and photon dose lowering by energy loss of fast electrons induced by return current during the interaction of a short-pulse high-intensity laser on a metal solid target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compant La Fontaine, A.

    2018-04-01

    During the interaction of a short-pulse high-intensity laser with the preplasma produced by the pulse's pedestal in front of a high-Z metal solid target, high-energy electrons are produced, which in turn create an X-ray source by interacting with the atoms of the converter target. The current brought by the hot electrons is almost completely neutralized by a return current j → driven by the background electrons of the conductive target, and the force exerted on the hot electrons by the electric field E → which induces Ohmic heating j → .E → , produced by the background electrons, reduces the energy of the hot electrons and thus lowers the X-ray emission and photon dose. This effect is analyzed here by means of a simple 1-D temperature model which contains the most significant terms of the relativistic Fokker-Planck equation with electron multiple scattering, and the energy equations of ions, hot, and cold electrons are then solved numerically. This Ohmic heating energy loss fraction τOh is introduced as a corrective term in an improved photon dose model. For instance, for a ps laser pulse with 10 μm spot size, the dose obtained with a tantalum target is reduced by less than about 10% to 40% by the Ohmic heating, depending upon the plasma scale length, target thickness, laser parameters, and in particular its spot size. The laser and plasma parameters may be optimized to limit the effect of Ohmic heating, for instance at a small plasma scale length or small laser spot size. Conversely, others regimes not suitable for dose production are identified. For instance, the resistive heating is enhanced in a foam target or at a long plasma scale length and high laser spot size and intensity, as the mean emission angle θ0 of the incident hot electron bunch given by the ponderomotive force is small; thus, the dose produced by a laser interacting in a gas jet may be inhibited under these circumstances. The resistive heating may also be maximized in order to reduce

  17. Spontaneous charged lipid transfer between lipid vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richens, Joanna L; Tyler, Arwen I I; Barriga, Hanna M G; Bramble, Jonathan P; Law, Robert V; Brooks, Nicholas J; Seddon, John M; Ces, Oscar; O'Shea, Paul

    2017-10-03

    An assay to study the spontaneous charged lipid transfer between lipid vesicles is described. A donor/acceptor vesicle system is employed, where neutrally charged acceptor vesicles are fluorescently labelled with the electrostatic membrane probe Fluoresceinphosphatidylethanolamine (FPE). Upon addition of charged donor vesicles, transfer of negatively charged lipid occurs, resulting in a fluorescently detectable change in the membrane potential of the acceptor vesicles. Using this approach we have studied the transfer properties of a range of lipids, varying both the headgroup and the chain length. At the low vesicle concentrations chosen, the transfer follows a first-order process where lipid monomers are transferred presumably through the aqueous solution phase from donor to acceptor vesicle. The rate of transfer decreases with increasing chain length which is consistent with energy models previously reported for lipid monomer vesicle interactions. Our assay improves on existing methods allowing the study of a range of unmodified lipids, continuous monitoring of transfer and simplified experimental procedures.

  18. Lipid phase control of DNA delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koynova, Rumiana; Wang, Li; Tarahovsky, Yury; MacDonald, Robert C. (NWU)

    2010-01-18

    Cationic lipids form nanoscale complexes (lipoplexes) with polyanionic DNA and can be utilized to deliver DNA to cells for transfection. Here we report the correlation between delivery efficiency of these DNA carriers and the mesomorphic phases they form when interacting with anionic membrane lipids. Specifically, formulations that are particularly effective DNA carriers form phases of highest negative interfacial curvature when mixed with anionic lipids, whereas less effective formulations form phases of lower curvature. Structural evolution of the carrier lipid/DNA complexes upon interaction with cellular lipids is hence suggested as a controlling factor in lipid-mediated DNA delivery. A strategy for optimizing lipofection is deduced. The behavior of a highly effective lipoplex formulation, DOTAP/DOPE, is found to conform to this 'efficiency formula'.

  19. Exogenous and endogenous lipids of human hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coderch, L; Oliver, M A; Martínez, V; Manich, A M; Rubio, L; Martí, M

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the external and internal lipids of Caucasian hair and their influence in different hair properties such as moisture content, hydrophobic character, and mechanical properties. Lipid extraction and their analysis by thin layer chromatography with flame ionization detector were carried out. Lipid rearrangement and water sorption and desorption evaluation of these fibers with and without lipids will also be determined using different techniques such as differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis and dynamic vapor sorption, mainly to evaluate permeation changes of these hair fibers possibly related to the fluidity of the lipids extracted. Caucasian fibers were found to be well hydrated, and moisture diminution was observed mainly for the external lipid extracted fibers. Unexpectedly, the lipid extraction promoted an increase in the break tenacity of the Caucasian fibers. The hydrophobic character of the fiber surfaces indicates the marked hydrophobicity of all fibers. Delipidization promotes only a slight diminution of their hydrophobic properties. Water uptake and desorption studies indicate an important water regain for Caucasian fibers. The external extracted hair fibers presented a diminution of maximum water regain, which surprisingly increases with the following internal lipid extraction. This can be due to a higher water desorption found only for external extracted fibers. The relationship between fluidity of lipids extracted and hair fiber water diffusion were established. Extraction of internal lipids of Caucasian fibers, which have a higher unsaturated lipid content than external lipids of the same hair fiber, leads to a lower water permeability of the fiber. On the capillar formulations should be considered the importance of lipid fluidity to modify the permeability of the fiber. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Effect of dietary lipid, carnitine and exercise on lipid profile in rat blood, liver and muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanth, Jyothsna; Jeevaratnam, K

    2009-09-01

    Aim of this study was to investigate the influence of physical exercise on effects of the daily intake of vegetarian diet of either vegetable hydrogenated fat (HF) or peanut oil (PO) with or without carnitine on the lipid profile. Eight groups of male Wistar rats were fed HF-diet (4 groups) or PO-diet (4 groups), with or without carnitine for 24 weeks. One group for each diet acted as sedentary control while the other groups were allowed swimming for 1 hr a day, 6 days/week, for 24 weeks. Plasma triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), HDL-cholesterol, free fatty acids (FFA), liver and thigh muscle glycogen, total fat (TF), TG, TC and FFA were analyzed. HF-fed rats showed significantly increased plasma TC, VLDL+LDL-cholesterol and TG compared to PO-fed rats, wherein a lowered plasma TC, TG levels in all the groups with significantly increased liver cholesterol and decreased muscle cholesterol was observed. Physical exercise of moderate intensity reduced plasma TC and TG accompanied by significantly reduced tissue TG and cholesterol while FFA and glycogen increased in all the groups. The influence of exercise was less pronounced in carnitine supplemented rats since carnitine could significantly reduce TG in plasma and tissues of sedentary rats. Results from the present study showed that the intake of HF diet significantly increased the plasma and tissue lipid profile and MUFA-rich diet or carnitine supplementation and/or exercise may ameliorate the deleterious effects of HF.

  1. Influence of dihydroquercetin on the lipid peroxidation of mice during post-radiation period

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teselkin, Yu. O.; Babenkova, I. V.; Tjukavkina, N. A.; Rulenko, I. A.; Kolesnik, Yu. A.; Kolhir, V. K.; Eichholz, A. A. [Department of Biophysics, Russian Medical University, Ostrovityanova Street 1, Moscow 117869 (Russian Federation)

    1998-07-01

    The effect of the natural antioxidant dihydroquercetin was examined on the process of free radical oxidation of serum and liver lipids of mice, after a single 4 Gy dose of γ-irradiation. The content of lipid peroxidation products reacting with thiobarbituric acid in irradiated animals receiving oral dihydroquercetin (experimental) for 155 days after irradiation was significantly lower compared with animals receiving irradiation and no antioxidant (controls). The intensity of Fe{sup 2+}-induced chemiluminescence of liver homogenates of experimental mice was lower by the end of the experiment (p < 0.001) than the chemiluminescence of liver homogenates of both control and intact animals. It is assumed that this was due to the preferential uptake of dihydroquercetin by the liver. (author)

  2. Prevention of coronary and stroke events with atorvastatin in hypertensive patients who have average or lower-than-average cholesterol concentrations, in the Anglo-Scandinavian Cardiac Outcomes Trial--Lipid Lowering Arm (ASCOT-LLA): a multicentre randomised controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sever, Peter S; Dahlöf, Björn; Poulter, Neil R

    2003-01-01

    The lowering of cholesterol concentrations in individuals at high risk of cardiovascular disease improves outcome. No study, however, has assessed benefits of cholesterol lowering in the primary prevention of coronary heart disease (CHD) in hypertensive patients who are not conventionally deemed ...

  3. Prevention of coronary and stroke events with atorvastatin in hypertensive patients who have average or lower-than-average cholesterol concentrations, in the Anglo-Scandinavian Cardiac Outcomes Trial--Lipid Lowering Arm (ASCOT-LLA): a multicentre randomised controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sever, Peter S; Dahlöf, Björn; Poulter, Neil R

    2004-01-01

    The lowering of cholesterol concentrations in individuals at high risk of cardiovascular disease improves outcome. No study, however, has assessed benefits of cholesterol lowering in the primary prevention of coronary heart disease (CHD) in hypertensive patients who are not conventionally deemed ...

  4. Physical activity, sedentary behavior time and lipid levels in the Observation of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Luxembourg study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crichton, Georgina E; Alkerwi, Ala'a

    2015-08-11

    Recently attention has been drawn to the health impacts of time spent engaging in sedentary behaviors. While many studies have investigated general physical activity (PA) in relation to blood lipid levels, the current study aimed to examine the intensity of activity, including sedentary behavior time, and time spent engaging in moderate and intense PA, with concentrations of HDL and LDL-cholesterol, total cholesterol, and triglycerides. Participants comprised 1331 individuals, aged 18 to 70 years, from the Observation of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Luxembourg (ORISCAV-LUX) study, who underwent objective cardiovascular health assessments and completed the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). Time spent engaging in sedentary behaviors (screen time on a workday and a day off, and total sitting time on a work day), and moderate and intense PA, were related to levels of HDL and LDL-cholesterol, total cholesterol, and triglycerides. Analyses were conducted in the whole sample, and then with stratification according to BMI (normal weight versus overweight/obese). Both lower screen time during days off and higher intense PA time were significantly associated with higher HDL-cholesterol after full adjustment for socio-demographic factors, dietary factors and smoking (both p sedentary behavior time variables were observed (all p sedentary behavior time variable and lipid levels in those overweight or obese. Spending less time in sedentary behaviors, and engaging in medium levels of intense physical activity may be associated with a more favorable blood lipid profile, particularly with regard to levels of HDL and triglycerides.

  5. The impact of lipid composition on the stability of the tear fluid lipid layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulovesi, P.; Telenius, J.; Koivuniemi, A.

    2012-01-01

    The tear fluid protects the corneal epithelium from drying and pathogens and it also provides nutrients to these cells. Tear fluid is composed of an aqueous layer as well as a lipid layer that resides at the air-tear interface. The function of the lipid layer is to lower the surface tension of th......-neutral lipid ratio. The results provide a plausible rationale for the development of dry eye syndrome in blepharitis patients.......The tear fluid protects the corneal epithelium from drying and pathogens and it also provides nutrients to these cells. Tear fluid is composed of an aqueous layer as well as a lipid layer that resides at the air-tear interface. The function of the lipid layer is to lower the surface tension...

  6. Artificial Lipid Membranes: Past, Present, and Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siontorou, Christina G; Nikoleli, Georgia-Paraskevi; Nikolelis, Dimitrios P; Karapetis, Stefanos K

    2017-07-26

    The multifaceted role of biological membranes prompted early the development of artificial lipid-based models with a primary view of reconstituting the natural functions in vitro so as to study and exploit chemoreception for sensor engineering. Over the years, a fair amount of knowledge on the artificial lipid membranes, as both, suspended or supported lipid films and liposomes, has been disseminated and has helped to diversify and expand initial scopes. Artificial lipid membranes can be constructed by several methods, stabilized by various means, functionalized in a variety of ways, experimented upon intensively, and broadly utilized in sensor development, drug testing, drug discovery or as molecular tools and research probes for elucidating the mechanics and the mechanisms of biological membranes. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art, discusses the diversity of applications, and presents future perspectives. The newly-introduced field of artificial cells further broadens the applicability of artificial membranes in studying the evolution of life.

  7. Sonochemiluminescence observation of lipid- and polymer-shelled ultrasound contrast agents in 1.2 MHz focused ultrasound field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Yangzi; Cao, Hua; Zhang, Shusheng; Yin, Hui; Wan, Mingxi

    2013-01-01

    Ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs) are frequently added into the focused ultrasound field as cavitation nuclei to enhance the therapeutic efficiency. Since their presence will distort the pressure field and make the process unpredictable, comprehension of their behaviors especially the active zone spatial distribution is an important part of better monitoring and using of UCAs. As shell materials can strongly alter the acoustic behavior of UCAs, two different shells coated UCAs, lipid-shelled and polymer-shelled UCAs, in a 1.2 MHz focused ultrasound field were studied by the Sonochemiluminescence (SCL) method and compared. The SCL spatial distribution of lipid-shelled group differed from that of polymer-shelled group. The shell material and the character of focused ultrasound field work together to the SCL distribution, causing the lipid-shelled group to have a maximum SCL intensity in pre-focal region at lower input power than that of polymer-shelled group, and a brighter SCL intensity in post-focal region at high input power. The SCL inactive area of these two groups both increased with the input power. The general behavior of the UCAs can be studied by both the average SCL intensity and the backscatter signals. As polymer-shelled UCAs are more resistant to acoustic pressure, they had a higher destruction power and showed less reactivation than lipid-shelled ones. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Lipid exchange by ultracentrifugation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drachmann, Nikolaj Düring; Olesen, Claus

    2014-01-01

    , and the complex interplay between the lipids and the P-type ATPases are still not well understood. We here describe a robust method to exchange the majority of the lipids surrounding the ATPase after solubilisation and/or purification with a target lipid of interest. The method is based on an ultracentrifugation...... step, where the protein sample is spun through a dense buffer containing large excess of the target lipid, which results in an approximately 80-85 % lipid exchange. The method is a very gently technique that maintains protein folding during the process, hence allowing further characterization...

  9. Future directions in lipid therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansell, Benjamin

    2002-01-01

    Cholesterol management to reduce the burden of cardiovascular disease is a major public health concern. Despite widespread recognition of lipid abnormalities as cardiovascular risk factors, significant cardiovascular event reductions with cholesterol-lowering therapies, and dissemination of treatment guidelines, most high-risk patients are not at target lipid levels. In addition to lifestyle changes, four major drug classes are available to modify lipid levels: fibrates, niacin, resins, and statins. High efficacy and tolerability in clinical trials make statins the most widely prescribed of these agents. Newer, more potent members of this class and novel formulations of niacin and resins may provide more effective therapy for dyslipidemia with fewer side effects. Several agents in development (cholesterol-absorption inhibitors and ACAT inhibitors) exploit mechanisms of action complementary to those of current treatments and combined with statins may produce greater improvements in lipid profiles than are now possible. These innovations should enable a greater number of patients to achieve more aggressive cholesterol goals, thereby reducing the risk of cardiovascular events.

  10. Lipid Structure in Triolein Lipid Droplets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaban, Vitaly V; Khandelia, Himanshu

    2014-01-01

    of a mass of hydrophobic lipid esters coved by phospholipid monolayer. The small size and unique architecture of LDs makes it complicated to study LD structure by modern experimental methods. We discuss coarse-grained molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of LD formation in systems containing 1-palmitoyl-2...... to coarse-grained simulations, the presence of PE lipids at the interface has a little impact on distribution of components and on the overall LD structure. (4) The thickness of the lipid monolayer at the surface of the droplet is similar to the thickness of one leaflet of a bilayer. Computer simulations......Lipid droplets (LDs) are primary repositories of esterified fatty acids and sterols in animal cells. These organelles originate on the lumenal or cytoplasmic side of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane and are released to the cytosol. In contrast to other intracellular organelles, LDs are composed...

  11. Control of lipid oxidation at the mitochondrial level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahlin, Kent

    2009-01-01

    , but the mechanisms regulating fuel preferences remain unclear. During intense exercise, oxidation of long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs) decreases, and the major control is likely to be at the mitochondrial level. Potential mitochondrial sites for control of lipid oxidation include transport of LCFAs into mitochondrial......-oxidation by redox state is thought to be an important mechanism for the slowing of lipid oxidation during intensive exercise....

  12. Skin collagen glycation, glycoxidation, and crosslinking are lower in subjects with long-term intensive versus conventional therapy of type 1 diabetes - Relevance of glycated collagen products versus HbA(1c) as markers of diabetic complications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monnier, VM; Bautista, O; Kenny, D; Sell, DR; Fogarty, J; Dahms, W; Cleary, PA; Lachin, J; Genuth, S

    The relationships between long-term intensive control of glycemia and indicators of skin collagen glycation (furosine), glycoxidation (pentosidine and N-epsilon-[carboxymethyl]-lysine [CML]), and crosslinking (acid and pepsin solubility) were examined in 216 patients with type 1 diabetes from the

  13. Factors associated with lipid goal attainment among acute coronary syndrome patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd-Zulkefli SZ

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Siti-Zainora Mohd-Zulkefli, Marhanis-Salihah Omar, Adyani Md-Redzuan Faculty of Pharmacy, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Background: The incidence of acute coronary syndrome (ACS, one of the most common cardiovascular diseases, is high. Lipid goal attainment is one of the important factors to reduce the risk of recurrent heart attack. Identification of factors influencing lipid goal attainment such as age, female, race, underlying comorbidities, intensity of lipid-lowering therapy, patients’ knowledge, and patients’ belief about medicine would be beneficial in achieving the lipid goal. This study is aimed to determine lipid profile attainment and prescribing pattern of lipid-lowering therapy as well as to identify factors influencing lipid profile attainment among ACS patients.Patients and methods: This researcher-assisted cross-sectional survey was carried out at a cardiology clinic in a tertiary hospital from March to May 2015.Results: A total of 101 ACS patients were involved in this study. The mean values for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were 2.75 (0.82 mmol/L and 1.14 (0.27 mmol/L, respectively, while the median value for triglyceride level was 2.75 (0.82 mmol/L. Only 15.8% of our participants achieved the targeted LDL-C. Simvastatin 20 mg was the most common regimen prescribed. Predictors for better LDL-C attainment were younger age (β=-0.228; P=0.032 and higher knowledge score (β=-0.255; P=0.049, while predictors for high-density lipoprotein cholesterol attainment were male (β=0.268; P=0.006, smoking (β=-0.192; P=0.045, and higher knowledge score (β=-0.195; P=0.039. Smoking (β=-0.361; P<0.0001 was the only predictor for higher triglyceride level.Conclusion: Younger age, female, lower knowledge score, and smoking status are good predictors for lipid attainment among ACS patients. Keywords: influence, disease, drug use, patient 

  14. Characterization of lipid oxidation process of beef during repeated freeze-thaw by electron spin resonance technology and Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qingmin; Xie, Yunfei; Xi, Jinzhong; Guo, Yahui; Qian, He; Cheng, Yuliang; Chen, Yi; Yao, Weirong

    2018-03-15

    In this study, electron spin resonance (ESR) and Raman spectroscopy were applied to characterize lipid oxidation of beef during repeated freeze-thaw (RFT). Besides the conventional indexes including peroxide values (PV), thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and acid values (AV) were evaluated, the radical and molecular structure changes were also measured by ESR and Raman spectroscopy. The results showed that PV, TBARS and AV were increased (PRaman intensity of ν(CC) stretching region (1655cm -1 ) was decreased during RFT. Furthermore, lower Raman intensity ratio of I 1655 /I 1442 , I 1655 /I 1745 that determine total unsaturation was also observed. Significant correlations (pRaman spectroscopy. Our result has proved that ESR and Raman spectroscopy showed great potential in characterizing lipid oxidation process of beef during RFT. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Recruiting intensity

    OpenAIRE

    R. Jason Faberman

    2014-01-01

    To hire new workers, employers use a variety of recruiting methods in addition to posting a vacancy announcement. The intensity with which employers use these alternative methods can vary widely with a firm’s performance and with the business cycle. In fact, persistently low recruiting intensity helps to explain the sluggish pace of US job growth following the Great Recession.

  16. Effect of tetrahydrocurcumin on lipid peroxidation and lipids in streptozotocin-nicotinamide-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugan, Pidaran; Pari, Leelavinothan

    2006-08-01

    Hyperlipidaemia is an associated complication of diabetes mellitus. We recently reported that tetrahydrocurcumin lowered the blood glucose in diabetic rats. In the present study, we have investigated the effect of tetrahydrocurcumin, one of the active metabolites of curcumin on lipid profile and lipid peroxidation in streptozotocin-nicotinamide-induced diabetic rats. Tetrahydrocurcumin 80 mg/kg body weight was administered orally to diabetic rats for 45 days, resulted a significant reduction in blood glucose and significant increase in plasma insulin in diabetic rats, which proved its antidiabetic effect. Tetrahydrocurcumin also caused a significant reduction in lipid peroxidation (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and hydroperoxides) and lipids (cholesterol, triglycerides, free fatty acids and phospholipids) in serum and tissues, suggesting its role in protection against lipid peroxidation and its antihyperlipidemic effect. Tetrahydrocurcumin showed a better effect when compared with curcumin. Results of the present study indicate that tetrahydrocurcumin showed antihyperlipidaemic effect in addition to its antidiabetic effect in type 2 diabetic rats.

  17. Polyene-lipids: a new tool to image lipids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuerschner, Lars; Ejsing, Christer S.; Ekroos, Kim

    2005-01-01

    conjugated double bonds as a new type of lipid tag. Polyene-lipids exhibit a unique structural similarity to natural lipids, which results in minimal effects on the lipid properties. Analyzing membrane phase partitioning, an important biophysical and biological property of lipids, we demonstrated......Microscopy of lipids in living cells is currently hampered by a lack of adequate fluorescent tags. The most frequently used tags, NBD and BODIPY, strongly influence the properties of lipids, yielding analogs with quite different characteristics. Here, we introduce polyene-lipids containing five...... the superiority of polyene-lipids to both NBD- and BODIPY-tagged lipids. Cells readily take up various polyene-lipid precursors and generate the expected end products with no apparent disturbance by the tag. Applying two-photon excitation microscopy, we imaged the distribution of polyene-lipids in living...

  18. Lipid-lowering drugs (statins) and peripheral neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emad, Mohammadreza; Arjmand, Hosein; Farpour, Hamid Reza; Kardeh, Bahareh

    2018-03-01

    Peripheral neuropathy is a disorder with often unknown causes. Some drugs, including statins, are proposed to be among the causes of peripheral neuropathy. This study aimed at evaluating this condition by electrodiagnostic study among patients who had received statins. This case-control study was conducted in Shiraz, Iran in 2015, and included 39 patients aged 35-55 who had received statins for at least 6 months, and 39 healthy matched controls. Using electrodiagnosis, the sensory and motor wave features (amplitude, latency and nerve conduction velocity) of the peripheral nerves (Median, Ulnar, Tibial, Sural, and Peroneal) were evaluated among the subjects. Data were analyzed using SPSS software and pneuropathy, there were no significant differences in any of the definitions presented for peripheral neuropathy. However, the difference was close to significance for one definition [2 abnormalities in 2 nerves (p=0.055)]. Regarding mean values of the features, significant differences were observed in two features: amplitude of the peroneal motor nerve (p=0.048) and amplitude of the sural sensory nerve (p=0.036). Since statins are widely used, awareness regarding their side-effects would lead to better treatment. Even though no significant differences were found between the groups regarding the occurrence of peripheral neuropathy, there were significant differences in amplitudes of the sural sensory response and the peroneal motor response. This indicates the involvement of peripheral nerves. Therefore, we recommend that patients and physicians should be informed about the possible symptoms of this condition.

  19. Temperature dependent heterogeneous rotational correlation in lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadashvand, Neda; Othon, Christina M

    2016-11-15

    Lipid structures exhibit complex and highly dynamic lateral structure; and changes in lipid density and fluidity are believed to play an essential role in membrane targeting and function. The dynamic structure of liquids on the molecular scale can exhibit complex transient density fluctuations. Here the lateral heterogeneity of lipid dynamics is explored in free standing lipid monolayers. As the temperature is lowered the probes exhibit increasingly broad and heterogeneous rotational correlation. This increase in heterogeneity appears to exhibit a critical onset, similar to those observed for glass forming fluids. We explore heterogeneous relaxation in in a single constituent lipid monolayer of 1, 2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine  by measuring the rotational diffusion of a fluorescent probe (1-palmitoyl-2-[1]-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine), which is embedded in the lipid monolayer at low labeling density. Dynamic distributions are measured using wide-field time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy. The observed relaxation exhibits a narrow, liquid-like distribution at high temperatures (τ ∼ 2.4 ns), consistent with previous experimental measures (Dadashvand et al 2014 Struct. Dyn. 1 054701, Loura and Ramalho 2007 Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1768 467-478). However, as the temperature is quenched, the distribution broadens, and we observe the appearance of a long relaxation population (τ ∼ 16.5 ns). This supports the heterogeneity observed for lipids at high packing densities, and demonstrates that the nanoscale diffusion and reorganization in lipid structures can be significantly complex, even in the simplest amorphous architectures. Dynamical heterogeneity of this form can have a significant impact on the organization, permeability and energetics of lipid membrane structures.

  20. LipidMatch: an automated workflow for rule-based lipid identification using untargeted high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koelmel, Jeremy P; Kroeger, Nicholas M; Ulmer, Candice Z; Bowden, John A; Patterson, Rainey E; Cochran, Jason A; Beecher, Christopher W W; Garrett, Timothy J; Yost, Richard A

    2017-07-10

    Lipids are ubiquitous and serve numerous biological functions; thus lipids have been shown to have great potential as candidates for elucidating biomarkers and pathway perturbations associated with disease. Methods expanding coverage of the lipidome increase the likelihood of biomarker discovery and could lead to more comprehensive understanding of disease etiology. We introduce LipidMatch, an R-based tool for lipid identification for liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry workflows. LipidMatch currently has over 250,000 lipid species spanning 56 lipid types contained in in silico fragmentation libraries. Unique fragmentation libraries, compared to other open source software, include oxidized lipids, bile acids, sphingosines, and previously uncharacterized adducts, including ammoniated cardiolipins. LipidMatch uses rule-based identification. For each lipid type, the user can select which fragments must be observed for identification. Rule-based identification allows for correct annotation of lipids based on the fragments observed, unlike typical identification based solely on spectral similarity scores, where over-reporting structural details that are not conferred by fragmentation data is common. Another unique feature of LipidMatch is ranking lipid identifications for a given feature by the sum of fragment intensities. For each lipid candidate, the intensities of experimental fragments with exact mass matches to expected in silico fragments are summed. The lipid identifications with the greatest summed intensity using this ranking algorithm were comparable to other lipid identification software annotations, MS-DIAL and Greazy. For example, for features with identifications from all 3 software, 92% of LipidMatch identifications by fatty acyl constituents were corroborated by at least one other software in positive mode and 98% in negative ion mode. LipidMatch allows users to annotate lipids across a wide range of high resolution tandem mass spectrometry

  1. The evolution of lipids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Y. H.; Sugai, A.; Uda, I.; Itoh, T.

    2001-01-01

    Living organisms on the Earth which are divided into three major domains - Archaea, Bacteria, and Eucarya, probably came from a common ancestral cell. Because there are many thermophilic microorganisms near the root of the universal phylogenetic tree, the common ancestral cell should be considered to be a thermophilic microorganism. The existence of a cell is necessary for the living organisms; the cell membrane is the essential structural component of a cell, so its amphiphilic property is vital for the molecule of lipids for cell membranes. Tetraether type glycerophospholipids with C 40 isoprenoid chains are major membrane lipids widely distributed in archaeal cells. Cyclization number of C 40 isoprenoid chains in thermophilic archaea influences the fluidity of lipids whereas the number of carbons and degree of unsaturation in fatty acids do so in bacteria and eucarya. In addition to the cyclization of the tetraether lipids, covalent bonding of two C 40 isoprenoid chains was found in hyperthermophiles. These characteristic structures of the lipids seem to contribute to their fundamental physiological roles in hyperthermophiles. Stereochemical differences between G-1-P archaeal lipids and G-3-P bacterial and eucaryal lipids might have occured by the function of some proteins long after the first cell was developed by the reactions of small organic molecules. We propose that the structure of lipids of the common ancestral cell may have been similar to those of hyperthermophilic archaea.

  2. Lysosomal lipid storage diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Heike; Sandhoff, Konrad

    2011-06-01

    Lysosomal lipid storage diseases, or lipidoses, are inherited metabolic disorders in which typically lipids accumulate in cells and tissues. Complex lipids, such as glycosphingolipids, are constitutively degraded within the endolysosomal system by soluble hydrolytic enzymes with the help of lipid binding proteins in a sequential manner. Because of a functionally impaired hydrolase or auxiliary protein, their lipid substrates cannot be degraded, accumulate in the lysosome, and slowly spread to other intracellular membranes. In Niemann-Pick type C disease, cholesterol transport is impaired and unesterified cholesterol accumulates in the late endosome. In most lysosomal lipid storage diseases, the accumulation of one or few lipids leads to the coprecipitation of other hydrophobic substances in the endolysosomal system, such as lipids and proteins, causing a "traffic jam." This can impair lysosomal function, such as delivery of nutrients through the endolysosomal system, leading to a state of cellular starvation. Therapeutic approaches are currently restricted to mild forms of diseases with significant residual catabolic activities and without brain involvement.

  3. Lipid bilayers and interfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kik, R.A.

    2007-01-01

    In biological systems lipid bilayers are subject to many different interactions with other entities. These can range from proteins that are attached to the hydrophilic region of the bilayer or transmembrane proteins that interact with the hydrophobic region of the lipid bilayer. Interaction between

  4. Quality control of photosystem II: lipid peroxidation accelerates photoinhibition under excessive illumination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiffanie Chan

    Full Text Available Environmental stresses lower the efficiency of photosynthesis and sometimes cause irreversible damage to plant functions. When spinach thylakoids and Photosystem II membranes were illuminated with excessive visible light (100-1,000 µmol photons m(-1 s(-1 for 10 min at either 20°C or 30°C, the optimum quantum yield of Photosystem II decreased as the light intensity and temperature increased. Reactive oxygen species and endogenous cationic radicals produced through a photochemical reaction at and/or near the reaction center have been implicated in the damage to the D1 protein. Here we present evidence that lipid peroxidation induced by the illumination is involved in the damage to the D1 protein and the subunits of the light-harvesting complex of Photosystem II. This is reasoned from the results that considerable lipid peroxidation occurred in the thylakoids in the light, and that lipoxygenase externally added in the dark induced inhibition of Photosystem II activity in the thylakoids, production of singlet oxygen, which was monitored by electron paramagnetic resonance spin trapping, and damage to the D1 protein, in parallel with lipid peroxidation. Modification of the subunits of the light-harvesting complex of Photosystem II by malondialdehyde as well as oxidation of the subunits was also observed. We suggest that mainly singlet oxygen formed through lipid peroxidation under light stress participates in damaging the Photosystem II subunits.

  5. Sound intensity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crocker, Malcolm J.; Jacobsen, Finn

    1998-01-01

    This chapter is an overview, intended for readers with no special knowledge about this particular topic. The chapter deals with all aspects of sound intensity and its measurement from the fundamental theoretical background to practical applications of the measurement technique.......This chapter is an overview, intended for readers with no special knowledge about this particular topic. The chapter deals with all aspects of sound intensity and its measurement from the fundamental theoretical background to practical applications of the measurement technique....

  6. Sound Intensity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crocker, M.J.; Jacobsen, Finn

    1997-01-01

    This chapter is an overview, intended for readers with no special knowledge about this particular topic. The chapter deals with all aspects of sound intensity and its measurement from the fundamental theoretical background to practical applications of the measurement technique.......This chapter is an overview, intended for readers with no special knowledge about this particular topic. The chapter deals with all aspects of sound intensity and its measurement from the fundamental theoretical background to practical applications of the measurement technique....

  7. Giant lipid vesicles under electric field pulses assessed by non invasive imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauroy, Chloé; Portet, Thomas; Winterhalder, Martin; Bellard, Elisabeth; Blache, Marie-Claire; Teissié, Justin; Zumbusch, Andreas; Rols, Marie-Pierre

    2012-10-01

    We present experimental results regarding the effects of electric pulses on giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs). We have used phase contrast and coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy as relevant optical approaches to gain insight into membrane changes under electropermeabilization. No addition of exogenous molecules (lipid analogue, fluorescent dye) was needed. Therefore, experiments were performed on pure lipid systems avoiding possible artefacts linked to their use. Structural membrane changes were assessed by loss of contrast inside the GUVs due to sucrose and glucose mixing. Our observations, performed at the single vesicle level, indicate these changes are under the control of the number of pulses and field intensity. Larger number of pulses enhances membrane alterations. A threshold value of the field intensity must be applied to allow exchange of molecules between GUVs and the external medium. This threshold depends on the size of the vesicles, the larger GUVs being affected at lower electric field strengths than the smaller ones. Our experimental data are well described by a simple model in which molecule entry is driven by direct exchange. The CARS microscopic study of the effect of pulse duration confirms that pulses, in the ms time range, induce loss of lipids and membrane deformations facing the electrodes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Antimicrobial role of human meibomian lipids at the ocular surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudgil, Poonam

    2014-10-14

    Human meibomian lipids form the outermost lipid layer of the tear film and serve many important functions to maintain its integrity. Although not investigated earlier, these lipids may have antimicrobial properties that help in strengthening the innate host defense of tears at the ocular surface. The aim of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial role of human meibomian lipids. Ocular pathogenic bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus 31, Pseudomonas aeruginosa 19, Pseudomonas aeruginosa 20, and Serratia marcescens 35, were grown in the presence and absence of human meibomian lipids in an artificial tear solution at the physiological temperature. Viable counts were obtained to note the number of bacteria surviving the treatment with meibomian lipids. Bacterial cells were imaged using scanning electron microscopy to observe the damages caused by meibomian lipids. Viable count results showed that in the presence of meibomian lipids, growth of all bacteria was considerably lower. Scanning electron microscopy showed that meibomian lipids caused extensive cellular damage to bacteria as manifested in smaller size, loss of aggregation, abnormal phenotype, cellular distortion, damaged cell wall, and cell lysis. This is the first-ever report of the antimicrobial role of human meibomian lipids. These lipids possess antimicrobial properties against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and are involved in the innate host defense of tears in protecting the ocular surface against microbial pathogens. Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  9. Mass spectrometry imaging: Towards a lipid microscope?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touboul, David; Brunelle, Alain; Laprévote, Olivier

    2011-01-01

    Biological imaging techniques are the most efficient way to locally measure the variation of different parameters on tissue sections. These analyses are gaining increasing interest since 20 years and allow observing extremely complex biological phenomena at lower and lower time and resolution scale. Nevertheless, most of them only target very few compounds of interest, which are chosen a priori, due to their low resolution power and sensitivity. New chemical imaging technique has to be introduced in order to overcome these limitations, leading to more informative and sensitive analyses for biologists and physicians. Two major mass spectrometry methods can be efficiently used to generate the distribution of biological compounds over a tissue section. Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionisation-Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-MS) needs the co-crystallization of the sample with a matrix before to be irradiated by a laser, whereas the analyte is directly desorbed by a primary ion bombardment for Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) experiments. In both cases, energy used for desorption/ionization is locally deposited -some tens of microns for the laser and some hundreds of nanometers for the ion beam- meaning that small areas over the surface sample can be separately analyzed. Step by step analysis allows spectrum acquisitions over the tissue sections and the data are treated by modern informatics software in order to create ion density maps, i.e., the intensity plot of one specific ion versus the (x,y) position. Main advantages of SIMS and MALDI compared to other chemical imaging techniques lie in the simultaneous acquisition of a large number of biological compounds in mixture with an excellent sensitivity obtained by Time-of-Flight (ToF) mass analyzer. Moreover, data treatment is done a posteriori, due to the fact that no compound is selectively marked, and let us access to the localization of different lipid classes in only one complete acquisition. Copyright © 2010

  10. Avanti lipid tools: connecting lipids, technology, and cell biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Kacee H; Tytler, Ewan M; Tipton, John; Hill, Kasey L; Burgess, Stephen W; Shaw, Walter A

    2014-08-01

    Lipid research is challenging owing to the complexity and diversity of the lipidome. Here we review a set of experimental tools developed for the seasoned lipid researcher, as well as, those who are new to the field of lipid research. Novel tools for probing protein-lipid interactions, applications for lipid binding antibodies, enhanced systems for the cellular delivery of lipids, improved visualization of lipid membranes using gold-labeled lipids, and advances in mass spectrometric analysis techniques will be discussed. Because lipid mediators are known to participate in a host of signal transduction and trafficking pathways within the cell, a comprehensive lipid toolbox that aids the science of lipidomics research is essential to better understand the molecular mechanisms of interactions between cellular components. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Tools to study lipid functions. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Synthesis of Lipidated Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejuch, Tom; Waldmann, Herbert

    2016-08-17

    Protein lipidation is one of the major post-translational modifications (PTM) of proteins. The attachment of the lipid moiety frequently determines the localization and the function of the lipoproteins. Lipidated proteins participate in many essential biological processes in eukaryotic cells, including vesicular trafficking, signal transduction, and regulation of the immune response. Malfunction of these cellular processes usually leads to various diseases such as cancer. Understanding the mechanism of cellular signaling and identifying the protein-protein and protein-lipid interactions in which the lipoproteins are involved is a crucial task. To achieve these goals, fully functional lipidated proteins are required. However, access to lipoproteins by means of standard expression is often rather limited. Therefore, semisynthetic methods, involving the synthesis of lipidated peptides and their subsequent chemoselective ligation to yield full-length lipoproteins, were developed. In this Review we summarize the commonly used methods for lipoprotein synthesis and the development of the corresponding chemoselective ligation techniques. Several key studies involving full-length semisynthetic lipidated Ras, Rheb, and LC3 proteins are presented.

  12. Perspectives on marine zooplankton lipids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kattner, G.; Hagen, W.; Lee, R.F.

    2007-01-01

    We developed new perspectives to identify important questions and to propose approaches for future research on marine food web lipids. They were related to (i) structure and function of lipids, (ii) lipid changes during critical life phases, (iii) trophic marker lipids, and (iv) potential impact...... of climate change. The first addresses the role of lipids in membranes, storage lipids, and buoyancy with the following key question: How are the properties of membranes and deposits affected by the various types of lipids? The second deals with the importance of various types of lipids during reproduction......, development, and resting phases and addresses the role of the different storage lipids during growth and dormancy. The third relates to trophic marker lipids, which are an important tool to follow lipid and energy transfer through the food web. The central question is how can fatty acids be used to identify...

  13. Peculiarities of Airway Inflammation and Lipid Peroxidation in the Development of Hyperosmotic Airway Hyperresponsiveness in Patients with Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey B. Pirogov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to evaluate the role of airway cellular inflammation and the lipid peroxidation level in the development of airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR to inhalation of hypertonic saline (IHS. Methods and Results: The study included the estimation of inflammatory-cellular composition, intracellular concentration of myeloperoxidase (MPO in induced sputum (IS, serum levels of lipid hydroperoxides (LHP, ceruloplasmin, and vitamin E in 29 patients with asthma and 12 healthy persons. AHR to IHS was assessed by spirometry after 3-min IHS via ultrasonic nebulizer. Patients with asthma had higher indices of leukocytes destruction and cytolysis intensity with the increased leukocyte count in IS. Maximum values of neutrophils cytolysis intensity and leukocytic MPO were found in IS of the patients with AHR to IHS. After the bronchial provocation, serum concentration of LHP was higher in these patients in comparison with the patients without the AHR and control groups. In addition, patients with asthma had lower level of antioxidants than healthy subjects. Conclusion: Marked inflammation involving MPO-activated leukocytes and intensive lipid peroxidation underlie the excessive airway response to IHS.

  14. Alzheimer’s disease prevention – The emerging role of lipids and diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartmann Tobias

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Although Alzheimer’s disease (AD causes massive and irreversible neurodegeneration, prevention and curing early stages of the disease appears to represent a realistic goal to be achieved in future. In fact, one of the very first effective treatments available could be derived from ordinary food sources. Overproduction of the amyloidogenic peptide Aβ42 causes AD. Thus far two physiological regulatory cycles were identified in which Aβ peptides play a major role. These regulatory cycles are involved in cholesterol and sphingolipid homeostasis. Moreover, Aβ production is under physiological conditions tightly regulated and its production rate is highly sensitive to alterations of the cellular membrane composition. Several lipids, sterols and fatty acids have thus far been identified to affect Aβ production. Most knowledge thus far has been gathered about those lipids which are themselves are target of Aβ mediated lipid homeostasis, cholesterol and sphingomyelin. E.g. cholesterol strongly increases Aβ production and cholesterol lowering with statins is a matter of intense clinical research not only for cardiovascular disease preventions but now also for AD therapy. Special interest received n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially DHA, because of their Aβ lowering effect in combination with favorable pharmacokinetics and neuroprotective properties.

  15. Effects of adipose tissue distribution on maximum lipid oxidation rate during exercise in normal-weight women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isacco, L; Thivel, D; Duclos, M; Aucouturier, J; Boisseau, N

    2014-06-01

    Fat mass localization affects lipid metabolism differently at rest and during exercise in overweight and normal-weight subjects. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of a low vs high ratio of abdominal to lower-body fat mass (index of adipose tissue distribution) on the exercise intensity (Lipox(max)) that elicits the maximum lipid oxidation rate in normal-weight women. Twenty-one normal-weight women (22.0 ± 0.6 years, 22.3 ± 0.1 kg.m(-2)) were separated into two groups of either a low or high abdominal to lower-body fat mass ratio [L-A/LB (n = 11) or H-A/LB (n = 10), respectively]. Lipox(max) and maximum lipid oxidation rate (MLOR) were determined during a submaximum incremental exercise test. Abdominal and lower-body fat mass were determined from DXA scans. The two groups did not differ in aerobic fitness, total fat mass, or total and localized fat-free mass. Lipox(max) and MLOR were significantly lower in H-A/LB vs L-A/LB women (43 ± 3% VO(2max) vs 54 ± 4% VO(2max), and 4.8 ± 0.6 mg min(-1)kg FFM(-1)vs 8.4 ± 0.9 mg min(-1)kg FFM(-1), respectively; P normal-weight women, a predominantly abdominal fat mass distribution compared with a predominantly peripheral fat mass distribution is associated with a lower capacity to maximize lipid oxidation during exercise, as evidenced by their lower Lipox(max) and MLOR. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Functional and structural vascular adaptations following 8 weeks of low volume high intensity interval training in lower leg of type 2 diabetes patients and individuals at high risk of metabolic syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Søren Møller; Thorup, Anne Cathrine Sønderstgaard; Overgaard, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    We wished to investigate the effects of 8 weeks of low volume high intensity interval training (HIIT) on endothelial function of popliteal artery and circulating cell adhesion molecules in type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients and matched controls (CON). Methods: Over 8 weeks, non-active T2D patients...... and CONs cycled three times per week (10 × 60 sec HIIT). Pre- and post-HIIT measurements of endothelial function were conducted by applying flow-mediated dilation (FMD) along with taking venous blood samples. Results: Baseline diameter of popliteal artery increased significantly from an average of 5.53 mm.......12% to 6.58% in the CON-group (p = 0.004) and 4.84% to 5.66% in the T2D-group: (p = 0.045). The shear rate reduced significantly in both groups (CON-group: p = 0.04; T2D-group: p = 0.002). Circulating cell adhesion molecules remained unchanged (p > 0.05). Conclusion: HIIT induced an improvement...

  17. A Proposed Algorithm of Screening and Management of Lipids in Adults for Iranian Family Physicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Esmaeil Managheb

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease (CVD due to atherosclerosis is the foremost cause of premature mortality and of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs in developed and developing countries (1. The associated mortality is preventable through treatment of dyslipidemia (2. Over half of the first CHD events and 3/4 of CHD deaths are preventable by controlling the risk factors, including diet, exercise, weight and blood pressure control; prescription of aspirin and tobacco cessation ; and lowering lipids (3. Dyslipidemia covers the broad spectrum of lipid abnormalities (4. However, elevations of the total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C have received the most attention (4. Epidemiologic data revealed that about 70 mil­lion Americans had elevated levels of LDL cholesterol between 2005 and 2008 (5. Abnormalities in lipid components are prevalent in Iran and they are more common among men in urban areas. Urbanization, unhealthy diet and sedentary lifestyle are the underlying reasons for the high prevalence of dyslipidemia in Iran (4. Dyslipidemias may be related to other diseases (secondary dyslipidemias; therefore, secondary causes of abnormal lipid levels should be considered first and treated when appropriate (6. The primary target in treating dyslipidemia has been and will probably continue to be LDL cholesterol because it is the most atherogenic lipoprotein which correlates more closely than other lipids with CHD (7. Statin therapy is likely to continue to be emphasized because they are the most effective lipid-lowering agents for reducing LDL cholesterol concentrations, and their efficacy for lowering the risk for cardiovascular events has been proven (8. Every 1.0 mmol/L (40 mg/dL reduction in LDL-C is associated with a corresponding 22% reduction in CVD mortality and morbidity (9. Patients with an elevated LDL-cholesterol level should begin the Therapeutic Lifestyle Changes program as well as an individualized program of

  18. Mechanism of liver lipid accumulation in X-irradiated rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aiyar, A.S.; De, A.K.

    1978-01-01

    The incorporation, both in vivo and in vitro, of 14 C-acetate into hepatic lipids, notably the triglyceride and free fatty acid fractions, is greatly reduced following whole-body irradiation and is indicative of significantly reduced lipogenesis. Irradiation results in a several-fold increase in fatty acid oxidation, by the liver in vitro as well as in the whole animal, during the phase of active hepatic lipid accumulation. Small increases in lipoprotein lipase activity of adipose, immediately following irradiation and up to 24 hours, and the attendant marked fall in adipose lipids are suggestive of increased mobilization of peripheral lipids during the early period. However, in view of the fact that maximum lipid accumulations occurs very much later, inflow of extra-hepatic lipid into liver does not appear to be of major etiological significance. There is three-fold experimental evidence in support of an impairment of trigylceride transport from liver being primarily responsible for the build-up of liver lipids: (I) Triton WR-1339 induced hypertriglyceridemia is totally absent in the irradiated rat during the period when liver lipids increase significantly; (II) the rate of disappearance of radioactivity from pre-labeled hepatic lipids is considerably lower in the irradiated rats; and (III) the irradiated rats show decrease in lipoproteins of liver cell-sap and of serum, the latter being more marked and a lowered synthesis of the lipoproteins, as assessed by labeling of the protein moiety. (orig.) [de

  19. Mechanism of liver lipid accumulation in X-irradiated rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aiyar, A S; De, A K [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India). Biochemistry and Food Technology Div.

    1978-03-01

    The incorporation, both in vivo and in vitro, of /sup 14/C-acetate into hepatic lipids, notably the triglyceride and free fatty acid fractions, is greatly reduced following whole-body irradiation and is indicative of significantly reduced lipogenesis. Irradiation results in a several-fold increase in fatty acid oxidation, by the liver in vitro as well as in the whole animal, during the phase of active hepatic lipid accumulation. Small increases in lipoprotein lipase activity of adipose, immediately following irradiation and up to 24 hours, and the attendant marked fall in adipose lipids are suggestive of increased mobilization of peripheral lipids during the early period. However, in view of the fact that maximum lipid accumulations occurs very much later, inflow of extra-hepatic lipid into liver does not appear to be of major etiological significance. There is three-fold experimental evidence in support of an impairment of trigylceride transport from liver being primarily responsible for the build-up of liver lipids: (I) Triton WR-1339 induced hypertriglyceridemia is totally absent in the irradiated rat during the period when liver lipids increase significantly; (II) the rate of disappearance of radioactivity from pre-labeled hepatic lipids is considerably lower in the irradiated rats; and (III) the irradiated rats show decrease in lipoproteins of liver cell-sap and of serum, the latter being more marked and a lowered synthesis of the lipoproteins, as assessed by labeling of the protein moiety.

  20. Prophylactic lower para-aortic irradiation using intensity-modulated radiotherapy mitigates the risk of para-aortic recurrence in locally advanced cervical cancer: A 10-year institutional experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jie; Lin, Jhen-Bin; Chang, Chih-Long; Jan, Ya-Ting; Sun, Fang-Ju; Wu, Meng-Hao; Chen, Yu-Jen

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate the effects of prophylactic sub-renal vein radiotherapy (SRVRT) using intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for cervical cancer. A total of 206 patients with FIGO stage IB2-IVA cervical cancer and negative para-aortic lymph nodes (PALNs) who underwent pelvic IMRT (PRT) or SRVRT between 2004 and 2013 at our institution were reviewed. SRVRT cranially extended the PRT field for PALNs up to the left renal vein level. The prescribed dose was consistent 50.4Gy in 28 fractions. Overall, 110 and 96 patients underwent PRT and SRVRT, respectively. The SRVRT group had more advanced disease based on FIGO stage and positive pelvic lymph nodes (PLNs). The median follow-up time was 60months (range, 7-143). For the total study population, the 5-year PALN recurrence-free survival (PARFS) and overall survival (OS) for PRT vs. SRVRT were 87.6% vs. 97.9% (p=0.03) and 74.5% vs. 87.8% (p=0.04), respectively. In patients with FIGO III-IVA or positive PLNs, the 5-year PARFS and OS for PRT vs. SRVRT were 80.1% vs. 96.4% (p=0.02) and 58.1% vs. 83.5% (p=0.012), respectively. However, there were no significant differences in these outcomes for patients with FIGO IB-IIB and negative PLNs. In a multivariate analysis, only SRVRT was associated with better PARFS (HR, 0.21; 95% CI, 0.06-0.78; p=0.02). The SRVRT did not significantly increase severe late toxicities. Prophylactic SRVRT using IMRT reduced PALN recurrence with tolerable toxicities, supporting the application of risk-based radiation fields for cervical cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Acyl-Lipid Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li-Beisson, Yonghua; Shorrosh, Basil; Beisson, Fred; Andersson, Mats X.; Arondel, Vincent; Bates, Philip D.; Baud, Sébastien; Bird, David; DeBono, Allan; Durrett, Timothy P.; Franke, Rochus B.; Graham, Ian A.; Katayama, Kenta; Kelly, Amélie A.; Larson, Tony; Markham, Jonathan E.; Miquel, Martine; Molina, Isabel; Nishida, Ikuo; Rowland, Owen; Samuels, Lacey; Schmid, Katherine M.; Wada, Hajime; Welti, Ruth; Xu, Changcheng; Zallot, Rémi; Ohlrogge, John

    2013-01-01

    Acyl lipids in Arabidopsis and all other plants have a myriad of diverse functions. These include providing the core diffusion barrier of the membranes that separates cells and subcellular organelles. This function alone involves more than 10 membrane lipid classes, including the phospholipids, galactolipids, and sphingolipids, and within each class the variations in acyl chain composition expand the number of structures to several hundred possible molecular species. Acyl lipids in the form of triacylglycerol account for 35% of the weight of Arabidopsis seeds and represent their major form of carbon and energy storage. A layer of cutin and cuticular waxes that restricts the loss of water and provides protection from invasions by pathogens and other stresses covers the entire aerial surface of Arabidopsis. Similar functions are provided by suberin and its associated waxes that are localized in roots, seed coats, and abscission zones and are produced in response to wounding. This chapter focuses on the metabolic pathways that are associated with the biosynthesis and degradation of the acyl lipids mentioned above. These pathways, enzymes, and genes are also presented in detail in an associated website (ARALIP: http://aralip.plantbiology.msu.edu/). Protocols and methods used for analysis of Arabidopsis lipids are provided. Finally, a detailed summary of the composition of Arabidopsis lipids is provided in three figures and 15 tables. PMID:23505340

  2. Microalgal lipids biochemistry and biotechnological perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellou, Stamatia; Baeshen, Mohammed N; Elazzazy, Ahmed M; Aggeli, Dimitra; Sayegh, Fotoon; Aggelis, George

    2014-12-01

    In the last few years, there has been an intense interest in using microalgal lipids in food, chemical and pharmaceutical industries and cosmetology, while a noteworthy research has been performed focusing on all aspects of microalgal lipid production. This includes basic research on the pathways of solar energy conversion and on lipid biosynthesis and catabolism, and applied research dealing with the various biological and technical bottlenecks of the lipid production process. In here, we review the current knowledge in microalgal lipids with respect to their metabolism and various biotechnological applications, and we discuss potential future perspectives. The committing step in fatty acid biosynthesis is the carboxylation of acetyl-CoA to form malonyl-CoA that is then introduced in the fatty acid synthesis cycle leading to the formation of palmitic and stearic acids. Oleic acid may also be synthesized after stearic acid desaturation while further conversions of the fatty acids (i.e. desaturations, elongations) occur after their esterification with structural lipids of both plastids and the endoplasmic reticulum. The aliphatic chains are also used as building blocks for structuring storage acylglycerols via the Kennedy pathway. Current research, aiming to enhance lipogenesis in the microalgal cell, is focusing on over-expressing key-enzymes involved in the earlier steps of the pathway of fatty acid synthesis. A complementary plan would be the repression of lipid catabolism by down-regulating acylglycerol hydrolysis and/or β-oxidation. The tendency of oleaginous microalgae to synthesize, apart from lipids, significant amounts of other energy-rich compounds such as sugars, in processes competitive to lipogenesis, deserves attention since the lipid yield may be considerably increased by blocking competitive metabolic pathways. The majority of microalgal production occurs in outdoor cultivation and for this reason biotechnological applications face some difficulties

  3. Overweight and Obesity, Lipid Profile and Atherogenic Indices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Male subjects were found to have more favorable plasma lipid profile (lower LDL. ... C) than the females. ... social habits with a low level of physical activity, which may predispose them ... greater physical activity and regular medical check.up.

  4. Intensive mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vannini, Phillip; Bissell, David; Jensen, Ole B.

    with fieldwork conducted in Canada, Denmark and Australia to develop our understanding of the experiential politics of long distance workers. Rather than focusing on the extensive dimensions of mobilities that are implicated in patterns and trends, our paper turns to the intensive dimensions of this experience......This paper explores the intensities of long distance commuting journeys as a way of exploring how bodily sensibilities are being changed by the mobilities that they undertake. The context of this paper is that many people are travelling further to work than ever before owing to a variety of factors...... which relate to transport, housing and employment. Yet we argue that the experiential dimensions of long distance mobilities have not received the attention that they deserve within geographical research on mobilities. This paper combines ideas from mobilities research and contemporary social theory...

  5. High intensity interval training improves liver and adipose tissue insulin sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcinko, Katarina; Sikkema, Sarah R.; Samaan, M. Constantine; Kemp, Bruce E.; Fullerton, Morgan D.; Steinberg, Gregory R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Endurance exercise training reduces insulin resistance, adipose tissue inflammation and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), an effect often associated with modest weight loss. Recent studies have indicated that high-intensity interval training (HIIT) lowers blood glucose in individuals with type 2 diabetes independently of weight loss; however, the organs affected and mechanisms mediating the glucose lowering effects are not known. Intense exercise increases phosphorylation and inhibition of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) by AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in muscle, adipose tissue and liver. AMPK and ACC are key enzymes regulating fatty acid metabolism, liver fat content, adipose tissue inflammation and insulin sensitivity but the importance of this pathway in regulating insulin sensitivity with HIIT is unknown. Methods In the current study, the effects of 6 weeks of HIIT were examined using obese mice with serine–alanine knock-in mutations on the AMPK phosphorylation sites of ACC1 and ACC2 (AccDKI) or wild-type (WT) controls. Results HIIT lowered blood glucose and increased exercise capacity, food intake, basal activity levels, carbohydrate oxidation and liver and adipose tissue insulin sensitivity in HFD-fed WT and AccDKI mice. These changes occurred independently of weight loss or reductions in adiposity, inflammation and liver lipid content. Conclusions These data indicate that HIIT lowers blood glucose levels by improving adipose and liver insulin sensitivity independently of changes in adiposity, adipose tissue inflammation, liver lipid content or AMPK phosphorylation of ACC. PMID:26909307

  6. LIPID ACCUMULATION OF CHLORELLA VULGARIS UNDER DIFFERENT PHOSPHATE CONCENTRATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Karolina Rokicka

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The cultivation and utilization of microalgae is now a intensively developing area of research. Some species of microalgae, under appropriate conditions, accumulate large amounts of lipids in the cells. This lipids have a suitable profile of fatty acids for biodiesel production. The culture of microalgae for lipids accumulation should be performed in certain physicochemical conditions. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of variable ortophophates concentrations in the culture medium for lipids accumulation of microalgae Chlorella vulgaris and to determine of parameters of the phosphoric shock in the medium. The study confirmed the possibility of the use of the phosphoric shock in the medium to maximize lipids accumulation by the microalgae Chlorella vulgaris. In the study, 45.23% of the oil was obtained from the biomass from the culture with phosphoric shock in the medium and 18% less of the oil was obtained from the biomass from the standard culture.

  7. Lipids: From Chemical Structures, Biosynthesis, and Analyses to Industrial Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li-Beisson, Yonghua; Nakamura, Yuki; Harwood, John

    2016-01-01

    Lipids are one of the major subcellular components, and play numerous essential functions. As well as their physiological roles, oils stored in biomass are useful commodities for a variety of biotechnological applications including food, chemical feedstocks, and fuel. Due to their agronomic as well as economic and societal importance, lipids have historically been subjected to intensive studies. Major current efforts are to increase the energy density of cell biomass, and/or create designer oils suitable for specific applications. This chapter covers some basic aspects of what one needs to know about lipids: definition, structure, function, metabolism and focus is also given on the development of modern lipid analytical tools and major current engineering approaches for biotechnological applications. This introductory chapter is intended to serve as a primer for all subsequent chapters in this book outlining current development in specific areas of lipids and their metabolism.

  8. A single-step method for rapid extraction of total lipids from green microalgae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Axelsson

    Full Text Available Microalgae produce a wide range of lipid compounds of potential commercial interest. Total lipid extraction performed by conventional extraction methods, relying on the chloroform-methanol solvent system are too laborious and time consuming for screening large numbers of samples. In this study, three previous extraction methods devised by Folch et al. (1957, Bligh and Dyer (1959 and Selstam and Öquist (1985 were compared and a faster single-step procedure was developed for extraction of total lipids from green microalgae. In the single-step procedure, 8 ml of a 2∶1 chloroform-methanol (v/v mixture was added to fresh or frozen microalgal paste or pulverized dry algal biomass contained in a glass centrifuge tube. The biomass was manually suspended by vigorously shaking the tube for a few seconds and 2 ml of a 0.73% NaCl water solution was added. Phase separation was facilitated by 2 min of centrifugation at 350 g and the lower phase was recovered for analysis. An uncharacterized microalgal polyculture and the green microalgae Scenedesmus dimorphus, Selenastrum minutum, and Chlorella protothecoides were subjected to the different extraction methods and various techniques of biomass homogenization. The less labour intensive single-step procedure presented here allowed simultaneous recovery of total lipid extracts from multiple samples of green microalgae with quantitative yields and fatty acid profiles comparable to those of the previous methods. While the single-step procedure is highly correlated in lipid extractability (r² = 0.985 to the previous method of Folch et al. (1957, it allowed at least five times higher sample throughput.

  9. Lipid Cell Biology: A Focus on Lipids in Cell Division.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storck, Elisabeth M; Özbalci, Cagakan; Eggert, Ulrike S

    2018-06-20

    Cells depend on hugely diverse lipidomes for many functions. The actions and structural integrity of the plasma membrane and most organelles also critically depend on membranes and their lipid components. Despite the biological importance of lipids, our understanding of lipid engagement, especially the roles of lipid hydrophobic alkyl side chains, in key cellular processes is still developing. Emerging research has begun to dissect the importance of lipids in intricate events such as cell division. This review discusses how these structurally diverse biomolecules are spatially and temporally regulated during cell division, with a focus on cytokinesis. We analyze how lipids facilitate changes in cellular morphology during division and how they participate in key signaling events. We identify which cytokinesis proteins are associated with membranes, suggesting lipid interactions. More broadly, we highlight key unaddressed questions in lipid cell biology and techniques, including mass spectrometry, advanced imaging, and chemical biology, which will help us gain insights into the functional roles of lipids.

  10. Comparison of serum lipid management between elderly and non-elderly patients with and without coronary heart disease (CHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rumiko Shimizu

    2016-12-01

    In conclusion, in CHD, serum lipid goal attainment was comparable between the two age groups although the lipid-lowering drugs were less frequently prescribed in patients aged ≥75. Without CHD, it was significantly better in patients aged ≥75 than those aged <75 although the lipid-lowering drug subscription rates were comparable between the two age groups.

  11. A chemiluminescent method for determination of lipid peroxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Xiaofeng; Hu Tianxi; Fan Xiaobing

    2003-01-01

    We established a chemiluminescent system for determination of lipid peroxidation and screening anti-oxidants. The lipid containing unsaturated fatly acids was injected into a galls tube. Luminol solution and the deionized water were added into it too. The glass tube was put into a preincubation box to incubate it for 0.5 h at 37 degree C. AAPH solution was injected into the tube for immediate measurement in a biochemiluminometer at 38-39 degree C. The pulses /6s(CP6s) were determined with T-2 program. Chemiluminescent dynamic and lipid peroxidation changes were observed continuously. Once the CL intensity of lipid peroxidation got peak, the antioxidant which has different concentration was added immediately in situ. A certain CL intensity (CP6s) was chosen as evaluation index to compare the activity of antioxidants. A luminol chemiluminescent system for determination of lipid peroxidation has been made. It was found that Vit. C, teapolyphenol, and glutathione have effects on scavenging lipid free radicals. The new method is quick, sensitive, and simple for determination of lipid peroxidation and screening antioxidants

  12. Lipid management in ramadan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slim, Ines; Ach, Koussay; Chaieb, Larbi

    2015-05-01

    During Ramadan fast, Muslims must refrain from smoking, eating, drinking, having sexual activity, and consuming oral medications from sunrise to sunset. It has been previously shown that Ramadan fasting induces favourable changes on metabolic parameters, reduces oxidative stress and inflammation and promotes cardiovascular benefits. Although ill people are exempted from fasting, most patients with chronic diseases are keen on performing this Islamic-ritual. During recent years, Risk stratification and treatment adjustment during Ramadan are well known and structured in several guidelines for patients with diabetes mellitus. Data related to the effect of Ramadan fast on lipid profiles are less known and several controversies have been reported. Here, we focus on lipid profile and lipid management during Ramadan taking into account comorbidities and cardiovascular risk.

  13. Heart, lipids and hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Wolf

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in general population. Besides well-known risk factors such as hypertension, impaired glucose tolerance and dyslipidemia, growing evidence suggests that hormonal changes in various endocrine diseases also impact the cardiac morphology and function. Recent studies highlight the importance of ectopic intracellular myocardial and pericardial lipid deposition, since even slight changes of these fat depots are associated with alterations in cardiac performance. In this review, we overview the effects of hormones, including insulin, thyroid hormones, growth hormone and cortisol, on heart function, focusing on their impact on myocardial lipid metabolism, cardiac substrate utilization and ectopic lipid deposition, in order to highlight the important role of even subtle hormonal changes for heart function in various endocrine and metabolic diseases.

  14. High-Intensity Interval Training as a Tool for Counteracting Dyslipidemia in Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Cristian; Ramirez-Campillo, Rodrigo; Martinez-Salazar, Cristian; Castillo, Angélica; Gallardo, Francisco; Ciolac, Emmanuel Gomes

    2018-05-01

    Sedentary overweight or obese adult (agehigh-intensity interval training (HIIT) program. Triglycerides reduced significantly ( P high-density lipoprotein increased ( P body composition improved ( P <0.05) in all groups. The HIIT program was effective for restoring lipid profile of DYS and DYSHG, and fasting glucose of DYSHG to levels similar to those of CON, with a weekly time commitment 25% to 56% lower than the minimum recommended in current exercise guidelines. These findings suggest that HIIT may be a time-efficient intervention for counteracting dyslipidemia. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. The Potential of Microalgae Lipids for Edible Oil Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yanfei; Zhang, Dongmei; Xue, Shengzhang; Wang, Meng; Cong, Wei

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of oil-rich green algae, Chlorella vulgaris, Scenedesmus obliquus, and Nannochloropsis oceanica, to produce edible oil with respect to lipid and residue properties. The results showed that C. vulgaris and N. oceanica had similarly much higher lipid recovery (about 50 %) in hexane extraction than that of S. obliquus (about 25 %), and C. vulgaris had the highest content of neutral lipids among the three algae. The fatty acid compositions of neutral lipids from C. vulgaris and S. obliquus were mainly C16 and C18, resembling that of vegetable oils. ARA and EPA were the specific valuable fatty acids in lipids of N. oceanica, but the content of which was lower in neutral lipids. Phytol was identified as the major unsaponifiable component in lipids of the three algae. Combined with the evaluation of the ratios in SFA/MUFA/PUFA, (n-6):(n-3) and content of free fatty acids, lipids obtained from C. vulgaris displayed the great potential for edible oil production. Lipids of N. oceanica showed the highest antioxidant activity, and its residue contained the largest amounts of protein as well as the amino acid compositions were greatly beneficial to the health of human beings.

  16. Oxidative stress and antioxidant responses to progressive resistance exercise intensity in trained and untrained males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Çakır-Atabek

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between oxidative stress and some exercise components of resistance exercise (e.g. intensity, exercise volume has not been clearly defined. Additionally, the oxidative stress markers may respond differently in various conditions. This study aims to determine the effects of progressive intensity of resistance exercise (RE on oxidative stress and antioxidants in trained and untrained men, and also to investigate the possible threshold intensity required to evoke oxidative stress. RE trained (N=8 and untrained (N=8 men performed the leg extension RE at progressive intensities standardized for total volume: 1x17 reps at 50% of one-repetition maximum (1RM; 1x14 reps at 60% of 1RM; 1x12 reps at 70% of 1RM; 2x5 reps at 80% of 1RM; and 3x3 reps at 90% of 1RM. Blood samples were drawn before (PRE and immediately after each intensity, and after 30 minutes, 60 minutes and 24 hours following the RE. Lipid-hydroperoxide (LHP significantly increased during the test and then decreased during the recovery in both groups (p0.05. Standardized volume of RE increased oxidative stress responses. Our study suggests that lower intensity (50% is enough to increase LHP, whereas higher intensity (more than 80% is required to evoke protein oxidation.

  17. Extraction of microalgal lipids and the influence of polar lipids on biodiesel production by lipase-catalyzed transesterification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro López, Elvira; Robles Medina, Alfonso; González Moreno, Pedro Antonio; Esteban Cerdán, Luis; Molina Grima, Emilio

    2016-09-01

    In order to obtain microalgal saponifiable lipids (SLs) fractions containing different polar lipid (glycolipids and phospholipids) contents, SLs were extracted from wet Nannochloropsis gaditana microalgal biomass using seven extraction systems, and the polar lipid contents of some fractions were reduced by low temperature acetone crystallization. We observed that the polar lipid content in the extracted lipids depended on the polarity of the first solvent used in the extraction system. Lipid fractions with polar lipid contents between 75.1% and 15.3% were obtained. Some of these fractions were transformed into fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs, biodiesel) by methanolysis, catalyzed by the lipases Novozym 435 and Rhizopus oryzae in tert-butanol medium. We observed that the reaction velocity was higher the lower the polar lipid content, and that the final FAME conversions achieved after using the same lipase batch to catalyze consecutive reactions decreased in relation to an increase in the polar lipid content. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Microemulsion extrusion technique: a new method to produce lipid nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jesus, Marcelo Bispo de, E-mail: dejesusmb@gmail.com; Radaic, Allan [University of Campinas-UNICAMP, Department of Biochemistry, Institute of Biology (Brazil); Zuhorn, Inge S. [University of Groningen, Department of Membrane Cell Biology, University Medical Center (Netherlands); Paula, Eneida de [University of Campinas-UNICAMP, Department of Biochemistry, Institute of Biology (Brazil)

    2013-10-15

    Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) and nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) have been intensively investigated for different applications, including their use as drug and gene delivery systems. Different techniques have been employed to produce lipid nanoparticles, of which high pressure homogenization is the standard technique that is adopted nowadays. Although this method has a high efficiency, does not require the use of organic solvents, and allows large-scale production, some limitations impede its application at laboratory scale: the equipment is expensive, there is a need of huge amounts of surfactants and co-surfactants during the preparation, and the operating conditions are energy intensive. Here, we present the microemulsion extrusion technique as an alternative method to prepare lipid nanoparticles. The parameters to produce lipid nanoparticles using microemulsion extrusion were established, and the lipid particles produced (SLN, NLC, and liposomes) were characterized with regard to size (from 130 to 190 nm), zeta potential, and drug (mitoxantrone) and gene (pDNA) delivery properties. In addition, the particles' in vitro co-delivery capacity (to carry mitoxantrone plus pDNA encoding the phosphatase and tensin homologue, PTEN) was tested in normal (BALB 3T3 fibroblast) and cancer (PC3 prostate and MCF-7 breast) cell lines. The results show that the microemulsion extrusion technique is fast, inexpensive, reproducible, free of organic solvents, and suitable for small volume preparations of lipid nanoparticles. Its application is particularly interesting when using rare and/or costly drugs or ingredients (e.g., cationic lipids for gene delivery or labeled lipids for nanoparticle tracking/diagnosis)

  19. Microemulsion extrusion technique: a new method to produce lipid nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jesus, Marcelo Bispo de; Radaic, Allan; Zuhorn, Inge S.; Paula, Eneida de

    2013-01-01

    Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) and nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) have been intensively investigated for different applications, including their use as drug and gene delivery systems. Different techniques have been employed to produce lipid nanoparticles, of which high pressure homogenization is the standard technique that is adopted nowadays. Although this method has a high efficiency, does not require the use of organic solvents, and allows large-scale production, some limitations impede its application at laboratory scale: the equipment is expensive, there is a need of huge amounts of surfactants and co-surfactants during the preparation, and the operating conditions are energy intensive. Here, we present the microemulsion extrusion technique as an alternative method to prepare lipid nanoparticles. The parameters to produce lipid nanoparticles using microemulsion extrusion were established, and the lipid particles produced (SLN, NLC, and liposomes) were characterized with regard to size (from 130 to 190 nm), zeta potential, and drug (mitoxantrone) and gene (pDNA) delivery properties. In addition, the particles’ in vitro co-delivery capacity (to carry mitoxantrone plus pDNA encoding the phosphatase and tensin homologue, PTEN) was tested in normal (BALB 3T3 fibroblast) and cancer (PC3 prostate and MCF-7 breast) cell lines. The results show that the microemulsion extrusion technique is fast, inexpensive, reproducible, free of organic solvents, and suitable for small volume preparations of lipid nanoparticles. Its application is particularly interesting when using rare and/or costly drugs or ingredients (e.g., cationic lipids for gene delivery or labeled lipids for nanoparticle tracking/diagnosis)

  20. Lipid storage myopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Claudio; Dimauro, Salvatore

    2008-10-01

    The aim of this review is to provide an update on disorders of lipid metabolism affecting skeletal muscle exclusively or predominantly and to summarize recent clinical, genetic, and therapeutic studies in this field. Over the past 5 years, new clinical phenotypes and genetic loci have been described, unusual pathogenic mechanisms have been elucidated, and novel pharmacological approaches have been developed. At least one genetic defect responsible for the myopathic form of CoQ10 deficiency has been identified, causing a disorder that is allelic with the late-onset riboflavine-responsive form of multiple acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenation deficiency. Novel mechanisms involved in the lipolytic breakdown of cellular lipid depots have been described and have led to the identification of genes and mutations responsible for multisystemic neutral lipid storage disorders, characterized by accumulation of triglyceride in multiple tissues, including muscle. Defects in lipid metabolism can affect either the mitochondrial transport and oxidation of exogenous fatty acid or the catabolism of endogenous triglycerides. These disorders impair energy production and almost invariably involve skeletal muscle, causing progressive myopathy with muscle weakness, or recurrent acute episodes of rhabdomyolysis triggered by exercise, fasting, or infections. Clinical and genetic characterization of these disorders has important implications both for accurate diagnostic approach and for development of therapeutic strategies.

  1. Lipids in airway secretions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhaskar, K.R.; DeFeudis O'Sullivan, D.; Opaskar-Hincman, H.; Reid, L.M.

    1987-01-01

    Lipids form a significant portion of airway mucus yet they have not received the same attention that epithelial glycoproteins have. We have analysed, by thin layer chromatography, lipids present in airway mucus under 'normal' and hypersecretory (pathological) conditions.The 'normals' included (1) bronchial lavage obtained from healthy human volunteers and from dogs and (2) secretions produced ''in vitro'' by human (bronchial) and canine (tracheal) explants. Hypersecretory mucus samples included (1) lavage from dogs made bronchitic by exposure to SO 2 , (2) bronchial aspirates from acute and chronic tracheostomy patients, (3) sputum from patients with cystic fibrosis and chronic bronchitis and (4) postmortem secretions from patients who died from sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) or from status asthmaticus. Cholesterol was found to be the predominant lipid in 'normal' mucus with lesser amounts of phospholipids. No glycolipids were detected. In the hypersecretory mucus, in addition to neutral and phospholipids, glycolipids were present in appreciable amounts, often the predominant species, suggesting that these may be useful as markers of disease. Radioactive precursors 14 C acetate and 14 C palmitate were incorporated into lipids secreted ''in vitro'' by canine tracheal explants indicating that they are synthesised by the airway. (author)

  2. Lipid Therapy for Intoxications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robben, Joris Henricus; Dijkman, Marieke Annet

    This review discusses the use of intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE) in the treatment of intoxications with lipophilic agents in veterinary medicine. Despite growing scientific evidence that ILE has merit in the treatment of certain poisonings, there is still uncertainty on the optimal composition of

  3. Lipid Therapy for Intoxications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robben, Joris Henricus; Dijkman, Marieke Annet

    2017-01-01

    This review discusses the use of intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE) in the treatment of intoxications with lipophilic agents in veterinary medicine. Despite growing scientific evidence that ILE has merit in the treatment of certain poisonings, there is still uncertainty on the optimal composition of

  4. Inflammatory process decrease by gallium-aluminium-arsenide (GaAlAs) low intensity laser irradiation on postoperative extraction of impacted lower third molar; Reducao de processo inflamatorio com aplicacao de laser de arseneto de galio aluminio ({lambda}=830 nm) em pos-operatorio de exodontia de terceiros molares inferiores inclusos ou semi-inclusos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atihe, Mauricio Martins

    2002-07-01

    This study aimed the observation of inflammatory process decrease by the use of GaAlAs Low Intensity Laser ({lambda}=830 nm; 40 mW) irradiation. Five patients were selected and submitted to surgery of impacted lower third molars, both right and left sides at different occasions. On a first stage, a tooth of a random chosen side - right or left - was extracted by conventional surgery, without LILT. The inflammatory process was measured at postoperative on the first, third and seventh days. This side was then called 'control side'. After 21 days, period in which the inflammatory process of the first surgery was terminated, the other side surgery took place, this time using LILT (4 J at four spots) at postoperative, first and third days. As the previous surgery, the inflammatory process was also measured at postoperative on the first, third and seventh days. This side was called 'experimental or lased side'. The inflammatory process was evaluated by measuring its four characteristic signs: swelling, pain, color and temperature. It was clearly observed a decrease for swelling, pain and color on the lased side which presented significant inference and descriptive statistics. It can be concluded that GaAlAs Low Intensity Laser ({lambda}=830 nm) can surely be used as an additional and important anti-inflammatory source on impacted lower third molar surgeries. (author)

  5. Inflammatory process decrease by gallium-aluminium-arsenide (GaAlAs) low intensity laser irradiation on postoperative extraction of impacted lower third molar; Reducao de processo inflamatorio com aplicacao de laser de arseneto de galio aluminio ({lambda}=830 nm) em pos-operatorio de exodontia de terceiros molares inferiores inclusos ou semi-inclusos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atihe, Mauricio Martins

    2002-07-01

    This study aimed the observation of inflammatory process decrease by the use of GaAlAs Low Intensity Laser ({lambda}=830 nm; 40 mW) irradiation. Five patients were selected and submitted to surgery of impacted lower third molars, both right and left sides at different occasions. On a first stage, a tooth of a random chosen side - right or left - was extracted by conventional surgery, without LILT. The inflammatory process was measured at postoperative on the first, third and seventh days. This side was then called 'control side'. After 21 days, period in which the inflammatory process of the first surgery was terminated, the other side surgery took place, this time using LILT (4 J at four spots) at postoperative, first and third days. As the previous surgery, the inflammatory process was also measured at postoperative on the first, third and seventh days. This side was called 'experimental or lased side'. The inflammatory process was evaluated by measuring its four characteristic signs: swelling, pain, color and temperature. It was clearly observed a decrease for swelling, pain and color on the lased side which presented significant inference and descriptive statistics. It can be concluded that GaAlAs Low Intensity Laser ({lambda}=830 nm) can surely be used as an additional and important anti-inflammatory source on impacted lower third molar surgeries. (author)

  6. Big, Fat World of Lipids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... offered a more quantitative and systematic approach to lipids research. Much of the effort has been led by a research consortium called LIPID MAPS. With funding from the National Institutes of ...

  7. Amphotericin B Lipid Complex Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amphotericin B lipid complex injection is used to treat serious, possibly life-threatening fungal infections in people who did ... respond or are unable to tolerate conventional amphotericin B therapy. Amphotericin B lipid complex injection is in ...

  8. Effects of high-intensity interval versus mild-intensity endurance training on metabolic phenotype and corticosterone response in rats fed a high-fat or control diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youqing Shen

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of high-intensity interval training (HI to mild-intensity endurance training (ME, combined with a high-fat diet (HFD or control diet (CD on metabolic phenotype and corticosterone levels in rats. Fifty-three rats were randomized to 6 groups according to diet and training regimen as follows: CD and sedentary (CS, n = 11, CD and ME (CME, n = 8, CD and HI (CHI, n = 8, HFD and sedentary (HS, n = 10, HFD and ME (HME, n = 8, and HFD and HI (HHI, n = 8. All exercise groups were trained for 10 weeks and had matched running distances. Dietary intake, body composition, blood metabolites, and corticosterone levels were measured. Histological lipid droplets were observed in the livers. The HFD led to hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia and higher body fat (all, P 0.06, as well as higher corticosterone levels (P < 0.01, η2 = 0.09 compared with the CD groups. Exercise training improved fat weight, glucose, and lipid profiles, and reduced corticosterone levels (P < 0.01, η2 = 0.123. Furthermore, body and fat weight, serum glucose and triglycerides, lipid content in the liver, and corticosterone levels (P < 0.05 were lower with HI training compared to ME training. Reductions in HFD-induced body weight gain, blood glucose and lipid profiles, and corticosterone levels, as well as improvements in QUICKI were better with HHI compared to HME. Correlation analyses revealed that corticosterone levels were significantly associated with phenotype variables (P < 0.01. Corticosterone level was inversely correlated with QUICKI (r = -0.38, P < 0.01. Altogether, these results indicate that HFD may elicit an exacerbated basal serum corticosterone level and thus producing a metabolic imbalance. Compared with ME training, HI training contributes to greater improvements in metabolic and corticosterone responses, leading to a greater reduction in susceptibility to HFD-induced disorders.

  9. Chemical Profiles of Microalgae with Emphasis on Lipids: A Subcontract Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tornabene, T. G.; Hubbard, J. S.

    1984-09-01

    Well balanced cultivated cells that are healthy and unstressed produce the optimum cellular yield. All stress studies for lipids production should be conducted with the established cell mass and not be administered during active cultivation. Cells cultivated continually in suboptimum conditions produce lower cellular yields and continuous cultivation in suboptimum media and environmental conditions produce lower than normal lipid levels. Lipid triggers are preceded by a burst of carbohydrate synthesis and storage.

  10. Collection and conversion of algal lipid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ching-Chieh

    Sustainable economic activities mandate a significant replacement of fossil energy by renewable forms. Algae-derived biofuels are increasingly seen as an alternative source of energy with potential to supplement the world's ever increasing demand. Our primary objective is, once the algae were cultivated, to eliminate or make more efficient energy-intensive processing steps of collection, drying, grinding, and solvent extraction prior to conversion. To overcome the processing barrier, we propose to streamline from cultivated algae to biodiesel via algal biomass collection by sand filtration, cell rupturing with ozone, and immediate transesterification. To collect the algal biomass, the specific Chlorococcum aquaticum suspension was acidified to pH 3.3 to promote agglomeration prior to sand filtration. The algae-loaded filter bed was drained of free water and added with methanol and ozonated for 2 min to rupture cell membrane to accelerate release of the cellular contents. The methanol solution now containing the dissolved lipid product was collected by draining, while the filter bed was regenerated by further ozonation when needed. The results showed 95% collection of the algal biomass from the suspension and a 16% yield of lipid from the algae, as well as restoration of filtration velocity of the sand bed via ozonation. The results further showed increased lipid yield upon cell rupturing and transesterified products composed entirely of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) compounds, demonstrating that the rupture and transesterification processes could proceed consecutively in the same medium, requiring no separate steps of drying, extraction, and conversion. The FAME products from algae without exposure to ozone were mainly of 16 to 18 carbons containing up to 3 double bonds, while those from algae having been ozonated were smaller, highly saturated hydrocarbons. The new technique streamlines individual steps from cultivated algal lipid to transesterified products and

  11. [Review: plant polyphenols modulate lipid metabolism and related molecular mechanism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yan-li; Zou, Yu-xiao; Liu, Fan; Li, Hong-zhi

    2015-11-01

    Lipid metabolism disorder is an important risk factor to obesity, hyperlipidemia and type 2 diabetes as well as other chronic metabolic disease. It is also a key target in preventing metabolic syndrome, chronic disease prevention. Plant polyphenol plays an important role in maintaining or improving lipid profile in a variety of ways. including regulating cholesterol absorption, inhibiting synthesis and secretion of triglyceride, and lowering plasma low density lipoprotein oxidation, etc. The purpose of this article is to review the lipid regulation effects of plant polyphenols and its related mechanisms.

  12. Anionic solid lipid nanoparticles supported on protamine/DNA complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Jiesheng; Liu Chunxi; Chen Zhijin; Zhang Na; Wang Aihua

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to design novel anionic ternary nanoparticles for gene delivery. These ternary nanoparticles were equipped with protamine/DNA binary complexes (150-200 nm) as the support, and the anionic formation was achieved by absorption of anionic solid lipid nanoparticles (≤20 nm) onto the surface of the binary complexes. The small solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) were prepared by a modified film dispersion-ultrasonication method, and adsorption of the anionic SLNs onto the binary complexes was typically carried out in water via electrostatic interaction. The formulated ternary nanoparticles were found to be relatively uniform in size (257.7 ± 10.6 nm) with a 'bumpy' surface, and the surface charge inversion from 19.28 ± 1.14 mV to -17.16 ± 1.92 mV could be considered as evidence of the formation of the ternary nanoparticles. The fluorescence intensity measurements from three batches of the ternary nanoparticles gave a mean adsorption efficiency of 96.75 ± 1.13%. Circular dichroism spectra analysis showed that the protamine/DNA complexes had been coated by small SLNs, and that the anionic ternary nanoparticles formed did not disturb the construction of the binary complexes. SYBR Green I analysis suggested that the ternary nanoparticles could protect the DNA from nuclease degradation, and cell viability assay results showed that they exhibit lower cytotoxicity to A549 cells compared with the binary complexes and lipofectamine. The transfection efficiency of the ternary nanoparticles was better than that of naked DNA and the binary complexes, and almost equal to that of lipofectamine/DNA complexes, as revealed by inversion fluorescence microscope observation. These results indicated that the anionic ternary nanoparticles could facilitate gene transfer in cultured cells, and might alleviate the drawbacks of the conventional cationic vector/DNA complexes for gene delivery in vivo

  13. Dynamics of triacylglycerol and EPA production in Phaeodactylum tricornutum under nitrogen starvation at different light intensities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilse M Remmers

    Full Text Available Lipid production in microalgae is highly dependent on the applied light intensity. However, for the EPA producing model-diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum, clear consensus on the impact of incident light intensity on lipid productivity is still lacking. This study quantifies the impact of different incident light intensities on the biomass, TAG and EPA yield on light in nitrogen starved batch cultures of P. tricornutum. The maximum biomass concentration and maximum TAG and EPA contents were found to be independent of the applied light intensity. The lipid yield on light was reduced at elevated light intensities (>100 μmol m-2 s-1. The highest TAG yield on light (112 mg TAG molph-1 was found at the lowest light intensity tested (60 μmol m-2 s-1, which is still relatively low to values reported in literature for other algae. Furthermore, mass balance analysis showed that the EPA fraction in TAG may originate from photosynthetic membrane lipids.

  14. Effects of Ferulago angulata Extract on Serum Lipids and Lipid Peroxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Rafieian-kopaei

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Nowadays, herbs they are considered to be the main source of effective drugs for lowering serum lipids and lipid peroxidation. The present experimental animal study aimed to assess the impact of Ferulago angulata on serum lipid profiles, and on levels of lipid peroxidation. Methods. Fifty male Wistar rats, weighing 250–300 g, were randomly divided into five equal groups (ten rats in each. The rat groups received different diets as follows: Group I: fat-rich diet; Group II: fat-rich diet plus hydroalcoholic extracts of Ferulago angulata at a dose of 400 mg/kg; Group III: fat-rich diet plus hydroalcoholic extracts of Ferulago angulata at a dose of 600 mg/kg; Group IV: fat-rich diet plus atorvastatin; Group V: common stock diet. The levels of serum glucose and lipids and the atherogenic index were measured. In addition, malondialdehyde (MDA, thiol oxidation, carbonyl concentrations, C-reactive proteins, and antioxidant capacity were evaluated in each group of rats. Results. Interestingly, by adding a hydroalcoholic extract of Ferulago angulata to the high-fat diet, the levels of total cholesterol and low-density lipoproteins (LDL in the high-fat diet rats were both significantly reduced. This result was considerably greater compared to when atorvastatin was added as an antilipid drug. The beneficial effects of the Ferulago angulata extract on lowering the level of triglycerides was observed only when a high dosage of this plant extraction was added to a high fat diet. Furthermore, the level of malondialdehyde, was significantly affected by the use of the plant extract in a high-fat diet, compared with a normal regimen or high-fat diet alone. Conclusion. Administration of a hydroalcoholic extract of Ferulago angulata can reduce serum levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, and LDL. It can also inhibit lipid peroxidation.

  15. Unraveling lipid metabolism in lipid-dependent pathogenic Malassezia yeasts

    OpenAIRE

    Celis Ramirez, A.M.

    2017-01-01

    Malassezia yeasts are lipid-dependent fungal species that are common members of the human and animal skin microbiota. The lipid-dependency is a crucial trait in the adaptation process to grow on the skin but also plays a role in their pathogenic life style. Malassezia species can cause several skin infections like dandruff or seborrheic dermatitis but also bloodstream infections. Understanding the lipid metabolism in Malassezia is essential to understand its life style as skin commensal and p...

  16. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Compartir For more help with what counts as aerobic activity, watch this video: Windows Media Player, 4: ... ways to understand and measure the intensity of aerobic activity: relative intensity and absolute intensity. Relative Intensity ...

  17. Adsorption of lysozyme to phospholipid and meibomian lipid monolayer films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudgil, Poonam; Torres, Margaux; Millar, Thomas J

    2006-03-15

    It is believed that a lipid layer forms the outer layer of the pre-ocular tear film and this layer helps maintain tear film stability by lowering its surface tension. Proteins of the aqueous layer of the tear film (beneath the lipid layer) may also contribute to reducing surface tension by adsorbing to, or penetrating the lipid layer. The purpose of this study was to compare the penetration of lysozyme, a tear protein, into films of meibomian lipids and phospholipids held at different surface pressures to determine if lysozyme were part of the surface layer of the tear film. Films of meibomian lipids or phospholipids were spread onto the surface of a buffered aqueous subphase. Films were compressed to particular pressures and lysozyme was injected into the subphase. Changes in surface pressure were monitored to determine adsorption or penetration of lysozyme into the surface film. Lysozyme penetrated a meibomian lipid film at all pressures tested (max=20 mN/m). It also penetrated phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylserine or phosphatidylethanolamine lipid films up to a pressure of 20 mN/m. It was not able to penetrate a phosphatidylcholine film at pressures >or=10 mN/m irrespective of the temperature being at 20 or 37 degrees C. However, it was able to penetrate it at very low pressures (<10 mN/m). Epifluorescence microscopy showed that the protein either adsorbs to or penetrates the lipid layer and the pattern of mixing depended upon the lipid at the surface. These results indicate that lysozyme is present at the surface of the tear film where it contributes to decreasing the surface tension by adsorbing and penetrating the meibomian lipids. Thus it helps to stabilize the tear film.

  18. Control of lipid oxidation in extruded salmon jerky snacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Jian; Perkins, L Brian; Dougherty, Michael P; Camire, Mary Ellen

    2011-01-01

    A shelf-life study was conducted to evaluate the effect of antioxidants on oxidative stability of extruded jerky-style salmon snacks. Deterioration of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) due to lipid oxidation is a major concern for this healthy snack. A control jerky with no added antioxidants and 4 jerkies with antioxidants (rosemary, mixed tocopherols, tertiary butylhydroquinone, and ascorbyl palmitate) added as 0.02% of the lipid content were extruded in duplicate in a Coperion ZSK-25 twin screw extruder. Salmon jerkies from each formulation were placed in 3 mil barrier pouches, flushed with nitrogen, and stored at 35 °C and 75% relative humidity. Lipid oxidation was evaluated as by peroxide value and malonaldehyde content. Other chemical analyses included total fatty acid composition, lipid content, moisture, water activity, pH, and salt. Astaxanthin and CIE L*, a*, b* color were also analyzed at 4-wk intervals. Rosemary inhibited peroxide formation better than did other antioxidants at week 8; no treatment inhibited malonaldehyde levels. All jerkies had lower astaxanthin levels after 8 wk, but rosemary-treated jerky had higher pigment concentrations than did the control at weeks 4 and 8. Protection of omega-3 lipids in these extruded jerkies must be improved to offer consumers a convenient source of these healthful lipids. Practical Application: Salmon flesh can be extruded to produce a jerky that provides 410 mg of omega-3 lipids per serving. Natural antioxidants such as rosemary should be added at levels over 0.02% of the lipid content to help control lipid oxidation. Astaxanthin and CIE a* values correlated well with lipid stability and could be used to monitor quality during storage if initial values are known.

  19. Lipid aspiration pneumonia due to gastroesophageal reflux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfson, B.J.; Temple Univ., Philadelphia, PA; Allen, J.L.; Panitch, H.B.; Temple Univ., Philadelphia, PA; Karmazin, N.; Temple Univ., Philadelphia, PA

    1989-01-01

    The development of lipid aspiration pneumonia after chronic nasopharyngeal installation of mineral oil was first described in 1925 by Laughlin. Since that time this entity has been well recognized and numerous substances have been identified or implicated as the aspirated material. The classic radiographic appearance of severe chronic lipid aspiration pneumonia has been described as consisting of intense perihilar infiltrates. However, the radiographic findings are more often non-specific and usually consist of varying degrees of diffuse interstitial infiltrates that tend to be more prominent in the perihilar regions and the right lung. We are reporting a case of biopsy-proven lipid aspiration pneumonia in an infant with known gastro-esophageal reflux (GER) who had medium-chain triglyceride oil administered via nasogastric tube. Serial roentgenograms demonstrated a changing pulmonary pattern from diffuse bilateral interstitial infiltrates initially to a diffuse alveolar pattern at the time of the lung biopsy. Modern medicine has developed new methods for providing nourishment to sick newborns and infants to improve their nutritional status and help them to grow. One such method involves the administration of medium-chain triglycerides (MCT oil) into the GI tract via a nasogastric or nasoenteral tube. The purpose of this report is to describe a significant complication of this method of providing nutrition to an infant with gastroesophageal reflux (GER) and the diagnostic dilemma it presented. (orig.)

  20. Probing lipid membrane electrostatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi

    The electrostatic properties of lipid bilayer membranes play a significant role in many biological processes. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is highly sensitive to membrane surface potential in electrolyte solutions. With fully characterized probe tips, AFM can perform quantitative electrostatic analysis of lipid membranes. Electrostatic interactions between Silicon nitride probes and supported zwitterionic dioleoylphosphatidylcholine (DOPC) bilayer with a variable fraction of anionic dioleoylphosphatidylserine (DOPS) were measured by AFM. Classical Gouy-Chapman theory was used to model the membrane electrostatics. The nonlinear Poisson-Boltzmann equation was numerically solved with finite element method to provide the potential distribution around the AFM tips. Theoretical tip-sample electrostatic interactions were calculated with the surface integral of both Maxwell and osmotic stress tensors on tip surface. The measured forces were interpreted with theoretical forces and the resulting surface charge densities of the membrane surfaces were in quantitative agreement with the Gouy-Chapman-Stern model of membrane charge regulation. It was demonstrated that the AFM can quantitatively detect membrane surface potential at a separation of several screening lengths, and that the AFM probe only perturbs the membrane surface potential by external field created by the internai membrane dipole moment. The analysis yields a dipole moment of 1.5 Debye per lipid with a dipole potential of +275 mV for supported DOPC membranes. This new ability to quantitatively measure the membrane dipole density in a noninvasive manner will be useful in identifying the biological effects of the dipole potential. Finally, heterogeneous model membranes were studied with fluid electric force microscopy (FEFM). Electrostatic mapping was demonstrated with 50 nm resolution. The capabilities of quantitative electrostatic measurement and lateral charge density mapping make AFM a unique and powerful

  1. Association between chronic periodontitis and serum lipid levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pejčić Ana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Periodontitis is a local inflammatory process mediating destruction of periodontal tissues triggered by bacterial insult. However, this disease is also characterized by systemic inflammatory host responses that may contrbute, in part, to the recently reported increased risk for systemic diseases, including an altered lipid metabolism. On the other hand, many people in the world are affected by hyperlipidemia, which is a known risk faktor for atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between periodontal disease and blood lipid levels. Methods. A total of 50 patients with periodontitis included in this study had no documented history of recent acute coronary events. The healthy, non-periodontal subjects (comparison group comprised 25 subjects. All the patients were periodontology examined and completed a medical history. Dental plaque index, probing depth, gingival index bleeding on probing and clinical attechment levels were recorded. Blood samples were taken on admission for measurements of serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, hight density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-cholesterol, and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-cholesterol. Results. The obtained results showed that mean levels of cholesterol (6.09 ± 1.61 mmol/L, triglycerdes (2.19+1.67mmol/l and LDL cholesterol (4.09 ± 1.40 mmol/L in individuals with periodontitis were higer, and levels od HDL (1.43 ± 0.51 mmol/L was lower than those of individuals without periodontitis (4.86 ± 1.37; 1.14 ± 0.71; 3.18 ± 0.64; 1.53 ± 0.32 mmol/L, respectively. Conclusion. This study confirms a significant relationship between periodontal disease, regardless its intensity, and blood lipid levels in the studied population. The results imply that periodontitis may be a risk factor and may contribute to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases (CVD. However, future prospective randomized studies have to determine whether

  2. Lipid-rich and protein-poor carbon allocation patterns of phytoplankton in the northern Chukchi Sea, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Mi Sun; Joo, Hui Tae; Park, Jung Woo; Kang, Jae Joong; Kang, Sung-Ho; Lee, Sang H.

    2018-04-01

    The carbon allocations of phytoplankton into different photosynthetic end products (lipids, LMWM, polysaccharides, and proteins) were determined to understand physiological conditions of phytoplankton in the northern Chukchi Sea during the Korean Arctic expedition, 2011, using the 13C isotope tracer technique. The carbon allocation rates of lipids, LMWM, polysaccharides, and proteins were 0.00009-0.00062 h-1, 0.00001-0.00049 h-1, 0.00001-0.00025 h-1, and 0.00001-0.00062 h-1 within the euphotic depths from surface to 1% light depths during our cruise period, respectively. Significant relationships between protein production rates and chlorophyll a concentrations (large and total) were found in this study. Moreover, we found a significant negative relationship between lipid production rates and ammonium concentrations. These relationships match well with the previous results for environmental/physiological conditions for phytoplankton growth. Overall, phytoplankton allocated more photosynthetic carbon into lipids (42.5 ± 17.7%) whereas relatively lower to proteins (20.4 ± 15.5%) in this study. The lipid-rich and protein-poor allocation patterns in this study suggest that phytoplankton in the northern Chukchi Sea were in a stationary growth phase under nutrient deficient condition based on biological and environmental conditions observed during our study period. Based on comparison with the previous studies in the northern Bering Sea and southern Chukchi Sea, we found that the photosynthetic carbon allocation patterns depending on physiological status of phytoplankton under the different growth and/or nutrient conditions could be largely vary at different regions in the Arctic Ocean. More intensive research on the physiological status of phytoplankton is further required to determine how phytoplankton response to the changing environmental conditions and consequently how they impact on higher trophic levels in marine ecosystems in the Arctic Ocean.

  3. Ultrasound-assisted extraction of lipids from Chlorella vulgaris using [Bmim][MeSO4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young-Hoo; Park, Saerom; Kim, Min Hoo; Choi, Yong-Keun; Yang, Yung-Hun; Kim, Hyung Joo; Kim, Hyungsup; Kim, Han-Soo; Song, Kyung-Guen; Lee, Sang Hyun

    2013-01-01

    Lipids from Chlorella vulgaris were successfully extracted using an ionic liquid, [Bmim][MeSO 4 ]. [Bmim][MeSO 4 ] dissolved C. vulgaris, leaving the lipids insoluble. The undissolved lipids could easily be recovered due to the lower density of the lipid phase. Furthermore, ultrasound irradiation highly enhanced the extraction rate and yield with [Bmim][MeSO 4 ]. The total amounts of lipid extracted from C. vulgaris by the Soxhlet method and the Bligh and Dyer's method were 21 and 29 mg/g dry cell weight (DCW), respectively, whereas it was 47 mg/g DCW with [Bmim][MeSO 4 ]. Additionally, the amount of lipid extracted using [Bmim][MeSO 4 ] was 1.6 times greater with ultrasound irradiation. The rate of extraction of lipids from C. vulgaris with [Bmim][MeSO 4 ] was also 2.7 times greater with ultrasound irradiation. The fatty acid profiles of the lipids extracted using [Bmim][MeSO 4 ] were very similar to those of the lipids obtained by Bligh and Dyer's method. -- Highlights: •[Bmim][MeSO 4 ] efficiently extracted lipids from algae without pretreatment. •Ultrasound irradiation highly enhanced the extraction rate and yield of the extraction system using IL. •Fatty acid profiles of lipids extracted using [Bmim][MeSO 4 ] were similar to those of the lipids obtained by conventional methods

  4. French intensive truck garden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, T D

    1983-01-01

    The French Intensive approach to truck gardening has the potential to provide substantially higher yields and lower per acre costs than do conventional farming techniques. It was the intent of this grant to show that there is the potential to accomplish the gains that the French Intensive method has to offer. It is obvious that locally grown food can greatly reduce transportation energy costs but when there is the consideration of higher efficiencies there will also be energy cost reductions due to lower fertilizer and pesticide useage. As with any farming technique, there is a substantial time interval for complete soil recovery after there have been made substantial soil modifications. There were major crop improvements even though there was such a short time since the soil had been greatly disturbed. It was also the intent of this grant to accomplish two other major objectives: first, the garden was managed under organic techniques which meant that there were no chemical fertilizers or synthetic pesticides to be used. Second, the garden was constructed so that a handicapped person in a wheelchair could manage and have a higher degree of self sufficiency with the garden. As an overall result, I would say that the garden has taken the first step of success and each year should become better.

  5. Unraveling lipid metabolism in lipid-dependent pathogenic Malassezia yeasts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Celis Ramirez, A.M.

    2017-01-01

    Malassezia yeasts are lipid-dependent fungal species that are common members of the human and animal skin microbiota. The lipid-dependency is a crucial trait in the adaptation process to grow on the skin but also plays a role in their pathogenic life style. Malassezia species can cause several skin

  6. Update of the LIPID MAPS comprehensive classification system for lipids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fahy, E.; Subramaniam, S.; Murphy, R.C.; Nishijima, M.; Raetz, C.R.H.; Shimizu, T.; Spener, F.; van Meer, G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/068570368; Wakelam, M.J.O.; Dennis, E.A.

    2009-01-01

    In 2005, the International Lipid Classification and Nomenclature Committee under the sponsorship of the LIPID MAPS Consortium developed and established a “Comprehensive Classification System for Lipids” based on well-defined chemical and biochemical principles and using an ontology that is

  7. Lipid synthesis in the aorta of chick and other species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, A.R.

    1976-01-01

    The relative rate of fatty acid biosynthesis from labelled acetate in the adipose tissue of chicken is much lower than that in the rat (O'Hea and Leveille, 1968). To determine similar species differences in lipid synthesis in the aortas of cock, rat, rabbit and monkey, thoracic and abdominal segments of fresh aortas were incubated in vitro with (1- 14 C)-acetate for 3 h. Total lipids and their fractions (free and total cholesterol, free fatty acids, triglycerides and phospholipids) were counted for radioactivity. Incorporation of radioactivity into total as well as all classes of lipids was several times greater in chicken than in other species. Significant and consistent incorporation into cholesterol occurred only in chicks. Synthesis into total lipids and triglycerides was greater in the thoracic segment of chicks. These findings (Rao and Rao, 1968) are consistent with the ready susceptibility of chicken to atherosclerosis. (author)

  8. Marine lipids and the bioavailability of omega-3 fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mu, Huiling; Müllertz, Anette

    2015-01-01

    of omega-3 fatty acids has been reported to be affected by several factors; among the important factors were the digestion and absorption processes of omega-3 containing lipids in the gastrointestinal tract. Both lipid structures and food structures can affect the bioavailability of omega-3 fatty acids....... In vitro studies provided a mechanistic understanding on the varied bioavailability caused by different lipid structures, the lower relative bioavailability of omega-3 fatty acids from FAEE formulation was closely related to the slower digestion rate of FAEE. Microencapsulated fish oil has often been used...... as a food additive because of its better chemical stability; studies showed that microencapsulation did not affect the bioavailability significantly. Even though food structures also affect the digestion and absorption of omega-3 containing lipids, several studies have shown that long-term intake of fish...

  9. Blood lipids analysis in patients with hepatitis and hepatic fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Si Jianhong

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the correlationship between blood hepatic fibrosis markers and blood lipids levels. Methods: Serum hepatic fibrosis markers (HA, PC III, IV-C, LN) levels were determined with RIA and serum lipids (TG, TCh HDL; LDL, apoA1, apoB) were measured with biochemical methods in 98 patients with hepatitis in various stages and 50 controls. Liver biopsy was done in all the hepatitis patients. Results: Hepatic fibrosis was classified into 5 grades (S0-S4) according to the pathology shown in the biopsy specimen. The serum lipid levels decreased along with the increase of severity of fibrosis from S0 to S4. Levels in S4 patients were significantly lower than those in controls (P 0.05). Conclusion: The serum hepatic fibrosis markers levels increased and lipids levels decreased along with the progress of hepatitis from acute to cirrhosis. (authors)

  10. Effects of aerobic exercise on lipids and lipoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yating; Xu, Danyan

    2017-07-05

    Dyslipidemia is the risk of cardiovascular disease, and their relationship is clear. Lowering serum cholesterol can reduce the risk of coronary heart disease. At present, the main treatment is taking medicine, however, drug treatment has its limitations. Exercise not only has a positive effect on individuals with dyslipidemia, but can also help improve lipids profile. This review is intending to provide information on the effects of exercise training on both tranditional lipids, for example, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides and new lipids and lipoproteins such as non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and postprandial lipoprotein. The mechanisms of aerobic exercise on lipids and lipoproteins are also briefly described.

  11. Differentiating pheochromocytoma from lipid-poor adrenocortical adenoma by CT texture analysis: feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Gu-Mu-Yang; Shi, Bing; Sun, Hao; Jin, Zheng-Yu; Xue, Hua-Dan

    2017-09-01

    To investigate the feasibility of using CT texture analysis (CTTA) to differentiate pheochromocytoma from lipid-poor adrenocortical adenoma (lp-ACA). Ninety-eight pheochromocytomas and 66 lp-ACAs were included in this retrospective study. CTTA was performed on unenhanced and enhanced images. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed, and the area under the ROC curve (AUC) was calculated for texture parameters that were significantly different for the objective. Diagnostic accuracies were evaluated using the cutoff values of texture parameters with the highest AUCs. Compared to lp-ACAs, pheochromocytomas had significantly higher mean gray-level intensity (Mean), entropy, and mean of positive pixels (MPP), but lower skewness and kurtosis on unenhanced images (P feasible to use CTTA to differentiate pheochromocytoma from lp-ACA.

  12. Interactions of polyphenols with carbohydrates, lipids and proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobek, Lidija

    2015-05-15

    Polyphenols are secondary metabolites in plants, investigated intensively because of their potential positive effects on human health. Their bioavailability and mechanism of positive effects have been studied, in vitro and in vivo. Lately, a high number of studies takes into account the interactions of polyphenols with compounds present in foods, like carbohydrates, proteins or lipids, because these food constituents can have significant effects on the activity of phenolic compounds. This paper reviews the interactions between phenolic compounds and lipids, carbohydrates and proteins and their impact on polyphenol activity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Application of image cytometry to characterize heterologous lipid flippases in yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Maria Stumph; Costa, Sara; Theorin, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Lipid flippases are integral membrane proteins that play a central role in moving lipids across cellular membranes. Some of these transporters are ATPases that couple lipid translocation to ATP hydrolysis, whereas others function without any discernible metabolic energy input. A growing number...... is typically monitored by flow cytometry, a costly and maintenance-intensive method. Here, we have optimized a protocol to use an automated image-based cell counter to accurately measure lipid uptake by heterologous lipid flippases expressed in yeast. The method was validated by comparison with the classical...... for characterization of lipid flippase activity, and should be readily adaptable to analyze a variety of other transport systems in yeast, parasites, and mammalian cells. © 2016 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry....

  14. Cell-based lipid flippase assay employing fluorescent lipid derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Maria Stumph; Costa, Sara; Günther-Pomorski, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    P-type ATPases in the P4 subfamily (P4-ATPases) are transmembrane proteins unique for eukaryotes that act as lipid flippases, i.e., to translocate phospholipids from the exofacial to the cytofacial monolayer of cellular membranes. While initially characterized as aminophospholipid translocases, s...... flippase activities in the plasma membrane of cells, using yeast as an example.......P-type ATPases in the P4 subfamily (P4-ATPases) are transmembrane proteins unique for eukaryotes that act as lipid flippases, i.e., to translocate phospholipids from the exofacial to the cytofacial monolayer of cellular membranes. While initially characterized as aminophospholipid translocases......, studies of individual P4-ATPase family members from fungi, plants, and animals show that P4-ATPases differ in their substrate specificities and mediate transport of a broader range of lipid substrates. Here, we describe an assay based on fluorescent lipid derivatives to monitor and characterize lipid...

  15. Enhancement of Skeletal Muscle in Aged Rats Following High-Intensity Stretch-Shortening Contraction Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rader, Erik P; Naimo, Marshall A; Layner, Kayla N; Triscuit, Alyssa M; Chetlin, Robert D; Ensey, James; Baker, Brent A

    2017-04-01

    Exercise is the most accessible, efficacious, and multifactorial intervention to improve health and treat chronic disease. High-intensity resistance exercise, in particular, also maximizes skeletal muscle size and strength-outcomes crucial at advanced age. However, such training is capable of inducing muscle maladaptation when misapplied at old age. Therefore, characterization of parameters (e.g., mode and frequency) that foster adaptation is an active research area. To address this issue, we utilized a rodent model that allowed training at maximal intensity in terms of muscle activation and tested the hypothesis that muscles of old rats adapt to stretch-shortening contraction (SSC) training, provided the training frequency is sufficiently low. At termination of training, normalized muscle mass (i.e., muscle mass divided by tibia length) and muscle quality (isometric force divided by normalized muscle mass) were determined. For young rats, normalized muscle mass increased by ∼20% regardless of training frequency. No difference was observed for muscle quality values after 2 days versus 3 days per week training (0.65 ± 0.09 N/mg/mm vs. 0.59 ± 0.05 N/mg/mm, respectively). For old rats following 3 days per week training, normalized muscle mass was unaltered and muscle quality was 30% lower than young levels. Following 2 days per week training at old age, normalized muscle mass increased by 17% and muscle quality was restored to young levels. To investigate this enhanced response, oxidative stress was assessed by lipid peroxidation quantification. For young rats, lipid peroxidation levels were unaltered by training. With aging, baseline levels of lipid peroxidation increased by 1.5-fold. For old rats, only 2 days per week training decreased lipid peroxidation to levels indistinguishable from young values. These results imply that, appropriately scheduled high-intensity SSC training at old age is capable of restoring muscle to a younger phenotype in terms

  16. Solid lipid nanoparticles for parenteral drug delivery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wissing, S.A.; Kayser, Oliver; Muller, R.H.

    2004-01-01

    This review describes the use of nanoparticles based on solid lipids for the parenteral application of drugs. Firstly, different types of nanoparticles based on solid lipids such as "solid lipid nanoparticles" (SLN), "nanostructured lipid carriers" (NLC) and "lipid drug conjugate" (LDC)

  17. Structural properties of lipid reconstructs and lipid composition of normotensive and hypertensive rat vascular smooth muscle cell membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.R. Oliveira

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Multiple cell membrane alterations have been reported to be the cause of various forms of hypertension. The present study focuses on the lipid portion of the membranes, characterizing the microviscosity of membranes reconstituted with lipids extracted from the aorta and mesenteric arteries of spontaneously hypertensive (SHR and normotensive control rat strains (WKY and NWR. Membrane-incorporated phospholipid spin labels were used to monitor the bilayer structure at different depths. The packing of lipids extracted from both aorta and mesenteric arteries of normotensive and hypertensive rats was similar. Lipid extract analysis showed similar phospholipid composition for all membranes. However, cholesterol content was lower in SHR arteries than in normotensive animal arteries. These findings contrast with the fact that the SHR aorta is hyporeactive while the SHR mesenteric artery is hyperreactive to vasopressor agents when compared to the vessels of normotensive animal strains. Hence, factors other than microviscosity of bulk lipids contribute to the vascular smooth muscle reactivity and hypertension of SHR. The excess cholesterol in the arteries of normotensive animal strains apparently is not dissolved in bulk lipids and is not directly related to vascular reactivity since it is present in both the aorta and mesenteric arteries. The lower cholesterol concentrations in SHR arteries may in fact result from metabolic differences due to the hypertensive state or to genes that co-segregate with those that determine hypertension during the process of strain selection.

  18. Analysis of lipid profile in lipid storage myopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguennouz, M'hammed; Beccaria, Marco; Purcaro, Giorgia; Oteri, Marianna; Micalizzi, Giuseppe; Musumesci, Olimpia; Ciranni, Annmaria; Di Giorgio, Rosa Maria; Toscano, Antonio; Dugo, Paola; Mondello, Luigi

    2016-09-01

    Lipid dysmetabolism disease is a condition in which lipids are stored abnormally in organs and tissues throughout the body, causing muscle weakness (myopathy). Usually, the diagnosis of this disease and its characterization goes through dosage of Acyl CoA in plasma accompanied with evidence of droplets of intra-fibrils lipids in the patient muscle biopsy. However, to understand the pathophysiological mechanisms of lipid storage diseases, it is useful to identify the nature of lipids deposited in muscle fiber. In this work fatty acids and triglycerides profile of lipid accumulated in the muscle of people suffering from myopathies syndromes was characterized. In particular, the analyses were carried out on the muscle biopsy of people afflicted by lipid storage myopathy, such as multiple acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency, and neutral lipid storage disease with myopathy, and by the intramitochondrial lipid storage dysfunctions, such as deficiencies of carnitine palmitoyltransferase II enzyme. A single step extraction and derivatization procedure was applied to analyze fatty acids from muscle tissues by gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector and with an electronic impact mass spectrometer. Triglycerides, extracted by using n-hexane, were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometer equipped with an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization interface. The most representative fatty acids in all samples were: C16:0 in the 13-24% range, C18:1n9 in the 20-52% range, and C18:2n6 in the 10-25% range. These fatty acids were part of the most representative triglycerides in all samples. The data obtained was statistically elaborated performing a principal component analysis. A satisfactory discrimination was obtained among the different diseases. Using component 1 vs component 3 a 43.3% of total variance was explained. Such results suggest the important role that lipid profile characterization can have in supporting a correct

  19. Air-to-sea fluxes of lipids at enewetak atoll

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zafiriou, O.C.; Gagosian, R.B.; Peltzer, E.T.; Alford, J.B.; Loder, T.

    1985-01-01

    We report data for the Enewetak site of the SEAREX program from the rainy season in 1979. The concentrations of n-alkanes, n-alkanols, sterols, n-alkanoic acids and their salts, and total organic compounds in rain are reported, as well as the apparent gaseous hydrocarbon concentrations. These data and information on the particulate forms are analyzed in conjunction with ancillary chemical and meterological data to draw inferences about sources, fluxes, and chemical speciations. While the higher molecular weight lipid biomarker components are exclusively terrestrial, the organic carbon in rain may be derived from atmospheric transformations of terrestrial carbon. Distinctively marine components are nearly absent. Comparison of the scavenging ratios of the organic components in rain vs. those for clays reveals that the alkanoic acids and the higher molecular weight alkanols behave as essentially particulate materials, whereas lower alkanols and most hydrocarbons show much higher scavenging ratios, probably due to the involvement of a gaseous phase or sampling artifact. Vaporization in the atmosphere and scaveging of a gas phase would lead to higher scaveging ratios; vaporization during sampling would give low aerosol concentrations and high gas-phase concentrations, leading to high scavening ratios. The major fluxes at Enewetak result from rain rather than dry deposition, and extrapolating the measured values to meaningful annual averages requires adjustment for seasonally varying source intensity and rain dynamics. Aerosol data for other seasons and other substances are used to correct for source-strength intensity variations, and a 210 Pb/organic compound correlation is established and extrapolated to adjust for rainfall volume effects

  20. Dermal extracellular lipid in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stromberg, M W; Hinsman, E J; Hullinger, R L

    1990-01-01

    A light and electron microscopic study of the skin of domestic chickens, seagulls, and antarctic penguins revealed abundant extracellular dermal lipid and intracellular epidermal lipid. Dermal lipid appeared ultrastructurally as extracellular droplets varying from less than 1 micron to more than 25 microns in diameter. The droplets were often irregularly contoured, sometimes round, and of relatively low electron density. Processes of fibrocytes were often seen in contact with extracellular lipid droplets. Sometimes a portion of such a droplet was missing, and this missing part appeared to have been "digested away" by the cell process. In places where cells or cell processes are in contact with fact droplets, there are sometimes extracellular membranous whorls or fragments which have been associated with the presence of fatty acids. Occasionally (in the comb) free fat particles were seen in intimate contact with extravasated erythrocytes. Fat droplets were seen in the lumen of small dermal blood and lymph vessels. We suggest that the dermal extracellular lipid originates in the adipocyte layer and following hydrolysis the free fatty acids diffuse into the epidermis. Here they become the raw material for forming the abundant neutral lipid contained in many of the epidermal cells of both birds and dolphins. The heretofore unreported presence and apparently normal utilization of abundant extracellular lipid in birds, as well as the presence of relatively large droplets of neutral lipid in dermal vessels, pose questions which require a thorough reappraisal of present concepts of the ways in which fat is distributed and utilized in the body.

  1. The Flexibility of Ectopic Lipids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Loher

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In addition to the subcutaneous and the visceral fat tissue, lipids can also be stored in non-adipose tissue such as in hepatocytes (intrahepatocellular lipids; IHCL, skeletal (intramyocellular lipids; IMCL or cardiac muscle cells (intracardiomyocellular lipids; ICCL. Ectopic lipids are flexible fuel stores that can be depleted by physical exercise and repleted by diet. They are related to obesity and insulin resistance. Quantification of IMCL was initially performed invasively, using muscle biopsies with biochemical and/or histological analysis. 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS is now a validated method that allows for not only quantifying IMCL non-invasively and repeatedly, but also assessing IHCL and ICCL. This review summarizes the current available knowledge on the flexibility of ectopic lipids. The available evidence suggests a complex interplay between quantitative and qualitative diet, fat availability (fat mass, insulin action, and physical exercise, all important factors that influence the flexibility of ectopic lipids. Furthermore, the time frame of the intervention on these parameters (short-term vs. long-term appears to be critical. Consequently, standardization of physical activity and diet are critical when assessing ectopic lipids in predefined clinical situations.

  2. Neuroimaging of Lipid Storage Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieger, Deborah; Auerbach, Sarah; Robinson, Paul; Gropman, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Lipid storage diseases, also known as the lipidoses, are a group of inherited metabolic disorders in which there is lipid accumulation in various cell types, including the central nervous system, because of the deficiency of a variety of enzymes. Over time, excessive storage can cause permanent cellular and tissue damage. The brain is particularly…

  3. Fasting and nonfasting lipid levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langsted, Anne; Freiberg, Jacob J; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2008-01-01

    Lipid profiles are usually measured after fasting. We tested the hypotheses that these levels change only minimally in response to normal food intake and that nonfasting levels predict cardiovascular events.......Lipid profiles are usually measured after fasting. We tested the hypotheses that these levels change only minimally in response to normal food intake and that nonfasting levels predict cardiovascular events....

  4. Lipid and bile acid analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Argmann, Carmen A.; Houten, Sander M.; Champy, Marie-France; Auwerx, Johan

    2006-01-01

    Lipids are important body constituents that are vital for cellular, tissue, and whole-body homeostasis. Lipids serve as crucial membrane components, constitute the body's main energy reservoir, and are important signaling molecules. As a consequence of these pleiotropic functions, many common

  5. Lipid-protein interactions in plasma membranes of fiber cells isolated from the human eye lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raguz, Marija; Mainali, Laxman; O'Brien, William J; Subczynski, Witold K

    2014-03-01

    The protein content in human lens membranes is extremely high, increases with age, and is higher in the nucleus as compared with the cortex, which should strongly affect the organization and properties of the lipid bilayer portion of intact membranes. To assess these effects, the intact cortical and nuclear fiber cell plasma membranes isolated from human lenses from 41- to 60-year-old donors were studied using electron paramagnetic resonance spin-labeling methods. Results were compared with those obtained for lens lipid membranes prepared from total lipid extracts from human eyes of the same age group [Mainali, L., Raguz, M., O'Brien, W. J., and Subczynski, W. K. (2013) Biochim. Biophys. Acta]. Differences were considered to be mainly due to the effect of membrane proteins. The lipid-bilayer portions of intact membranes were significantly less fluid than lipid bilayers of lens lipid membranes, prepared without proteins. The intact membranes were found to contain three distinct lipid environments termed the bulk lipid domain, boundary lipid domain, and trapped lipid domain. However, the cholesterol bilayer domain, which was detected in cortical and nuclear lens lipid membranes, was not detected in intact membranes. The relative amounts of bulk and trapped lipids were evaluated. The amount of lipids in domains uniquely formed due to the presence of membrane proteins was greater in nuclear membranes than in cortical membranes. Thus, it is evident that the rigidity of nuclear membranes is greater than that of cortical membranes. Also the permeability coefficients for oxygen measured in domains of nuclear membranes were significantly lower than appropriate coefficients measured in cortical membranes. Relationships between the organization of lipids into lipid domains in fiber cells plasma membranes and the organization of membrane proteins are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Antioxidant activity of pomegranate peel extract on lipid and protein oxidation in beef meatballs during frozen storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turgut, Sebahattin Serhat; Işıkçı, Fatma; Soyer, Ayla

    2017-07-01

    Antioxidant effect of pomegranate peel extract (PE) to retard lipid and protein oxidation in beef meatballs was investigated during frozen storage at -18±1°C. Concentrated and freeze dried aqueous extract of pomegranate peel was incorporated into freshly prepared meatball mix at 0.5% and 1.0% concentrations, and compared with 0.01% butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and control (without any antioxidant). In PE treated samples, particularly in high PE concentration, peroxide, malondialdehyde and carbonyl formation, loss of total protein solubility and sulfhydryl groups were significantly lower than control after 6months of storage. A diminution of both myofibrillar (MP) and sarcoplasmic (SP) proteins of high molecular weight was detected after 6months of the storage according to gel electrophoresis patterns. The 1.0% PE led to maintain colour intensity (C) and hue (h°) value. The results from sensory analyses revealed that PE addition to meatballs was effective on preventing rancid odour formation. Addition of both 0.5 and 1% PE in meatballs reduced lipid and protein oxidation and improved sensory scores. These results indicated that PE was effective on retarding lipid and protein oxidations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Lysosomal degradation of membrane lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolter, Thomas; Sandhoff, Konrad

    2010-05-03

    The constitutive degradation of membrane components takes place in the acidic compartments of a cell, the endosomes and lysosomes. Sites of lipid degradation are intralysosomal membranes that are formed in endosomes, where the lipid composition is adjusted for degradation. Cholesterol is sorted out of the inner membranes, their content in bis(monoacylglycero)phosphate increases, and, most likely, sphingomyelin is degraded to ceramide. Together with endosomal and lysosomal lipid-binding proteins, the Niemann-Pick disease, type C2-protein, the GM2-activator, and the saposins sap-A, -B, -C, and -D, a suitable membrane lipid composition is required for degradation of complex lipids by hydrolytic enzymes. Copyright 2009 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of Difference in Fatty Acid Chain Lengths of Medium- Chain Lipids on Lipid/Surfactant/Water Phase Diagrams and Drug Solubility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hetal N. Prajapati

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Lipids consisting of medium chain fatty acids are commonly used in the development of lipid-based selfemulsifying and self-microemulsifying drug delivery systems. However, no systematic approach to selecting one lipid over another has been reported in the literature. In this study, propylene glycol (PG monoester (PG monocaprylate, Capmul PG-8® and PG diester (PG dicaprylocaprate, Captex 200P® of C8-fatty acids were compared with PG monoester (PG monolaurate, Capmul PG-12® and PG diester (PG dilaurate, Capmul PG-2L® of C12-fatty acids with respect to their phase diagrams, and especially for their ability to form microemulsions in the presence of a common surfactant, Cremophor EL®, and water. The solubility of two model drugs, danazol and probucol, in the lipids and lipid/surfactant mixtures were also compared. The effect of the chain length of medium-chain fatty acids (C8 versus C12 on the phase diagrams of the lipids was minimal. Both shorter and longer chain lipids formed essentially similar microemulsion and emulsion regions in the presence of Cremophor EL® and water, although the C12-fatty acid esters formed larger gel regions in the phase diagrams than the C8-fatty acid esters. When monoesters were mixed with their respective diesters at 1:1 ratios, larger microemulsion regions with lower lipid particle sizes were observed compared to those obtained with individual lipids alone. While the solubility of both danazol and probucol increased greatly in all lipids studied, compared to their aqueous solubility, the solubility in C12-fatty acid esters was found to be lower than in C8-fatty acid esters when the lipids were used alone. This difference in solubility due to the difference in fatty acid chain length, practically disappeared when the lipids were combined with the surfactant.

  9. Lipid profiling in sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Fenfen; Wu, Xuemin; Zhao, Luyao; Liu, Xiaohui; Qi, Juanjuan; Wang, Xueying; Wang, Jiawei

    2017-06-01

    High value-added reutilization of sewage sludge from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is essential in sustainable development in WWTPs. However, despite the advantage of high value reutilization, this process must be based on a detailed study of organics in sludge. We used the methods employed in life sciences to determine the profile of lipids (cellular lipids, free fatty acids (FFAs), and wax/gum) in five sludge samples obtained from three typical WWTPs in Beijing; these samples include one sludge sample from a primary sedimentation tank, two activated sludge samples from two Anaerobic-Anoxic-Oxic (A2/O) tanks, and two activated sludge samples from two membrane bioreactor tanks. The percentage of total raw lipids varied from 2.90% to 12.3%. Sludge from the primary sedimentation tank showed the highest concentrations of lipid, FFA, and wax/gum and the second highest concentration of cellular lipids. All activated sludge contained an abundance of cellular lipids (>54%). Cells in sludge can from plants, animals, microbes and so on in wastewater. Approximately 14 species of cellular lipids were identified, including considerable high value-potential ceramide (9567-38774 mg/kg), coenzyme (937-3897 mg/kg), and some phosphatidylcholine (75-548 mg/kg). The presence of those lipid constituents would thus require a wider range of recovery methods for sludge. Both cellular lipids and FFAs contain an abundance of C16-C18 lipids at high saturation level, and they serve as good resources for biodiesel production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 45 David, Age 65 Harold, Age 67 Data & Statistics Facts About Physical Activity Data, Trends and Maps ... relative intensity and absolute intensity. Relative Intensity The level of effort required by a person to do ...

  11. Characterization of lipid rafts in human platelets using nuclear magnetic resonance: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua F. Ceñido

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Lipid microdomains (‘lipid rafts’ are plasma membrane subregions, enriched in cholesterol and glycosphingolipids, which participate dynamically in cell signaling and molecular trafficking operations. One strategy for the study of the physicochemical properties of lipid rafts in model membrane systems has been the use of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR, but until now this spectroscopic method has not been considered a clinically relevant tool. We performed a proof-of-concept study to test the feasibility of using NMR to study lipid rafts in human tissues. Platelets were selected as a cost-effective and minimally invasive model system in which lipid rafts have previously been studied using other approaches. Platelets were isolated from plasma of medication-free adult research participants (n=13 and lysed with homogenization and sonication. Lipid-enriched fractions were obtained using a discontinuous sucrose gradient. Association of lipid fractions with GM1 ganglioside was tested using HRP-conjugated cholera toxin B subunit dot blot assays. 1H high resolution magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (HRMAS NMR spectra obtained with single-pulse Bloch decay experiments yielded spectral linewidths and intensities as a function of temperature. Rates of lipid lateral diffusion that reported on raft size were measured with a two-dimensional stimulated echo longitudinal encode-decode NMR experiment. We found that lipid fractions at 10–35% sucrose density associated with GM1 ganglioside, a marker for lipid rafts. NMR spectra of the membrane phospholipids featured a prominent ‘centerband’ peak associated with the hydrocarbon chain methylene resonance at 1.3 ppm; the linewidth (full width at half-maximum intensity of this ‘centerband’ peak, together with the ratio of intensities between the centerband and ‘spinning sideband’ peaks, agreed well with values reported previously for lipid rafts in model membranes. Decreasing

  12. Lipid Peroxidation and Antioxidant Status in Preeclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rokeya Begum

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Preeclampsia is the most common and major medical complication of pregnancy with a high incidence of maternal and foetal morbidity and mortality. During pregnancy abnormally increased lipid peroxidation and free radical formation as well as significantly decreased antioxidants production in maternal blood may lead to pathogenesis of preeclampsia. So, we designed this study as little information is known about lipid peroxidation and antioxidant level in preeclampsia. Objectives: To assess the serum malondialdehyde (MDA level as a lipid peroxidation product and vitamin E (antioxidant level in women with preeclampsia as well as in normal pregnancy and to compare the values. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 60 women aged from 25 to 35 years in the department of Biochemistry, Budi Kemuliaan Maternity Hospital (BKMH in Jakarta during the period April to July 2004. Twenty were normal pregnant women and 20 were preeclamptic patients. For comparison age matched 20 apparently healthy nonpregnant women were included in the study. The study subjects were selected from outpatient department (OPD of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of BKMH in Jakarta. Serum MDA (lipid peroxidation product level was measured by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances assay (TBRAS method and vitamin E was estimated spectroflurometrically. Data were analyzed by unpaired Student’s t test between the groups by using SPSS version 12. Results: The mean serum MDA levels were significantly higher in normal pregnancy and also in preeclampsia than that of nonpregnant control group women (p<0.001. Again the serum MDA levels were significantly higher in preeclampsia than that of normal pregnant women (p<0.001. The serum vitamin E levels were significantly lower in preeclampsia and also in normal pregnancy than that of nonpregnant control women (p<0.001. Moreover, the serum vitamin E levels were significantly lower in preeclampsia compared to that of normal

  13. Coral lipids and environmental stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harriott, V J

    1993-04-01

    Environmental monitoring of coral reefs is presently limited by difficulties in recognising coral stress, other than by monitoring coral mortality over time. A recent report described an experiment demonstrating that a measured lipid index declined in shaded corals. The technique described might have application in monitoring coral health, with a decline in coral lipid index as an indicator of coral stress. The application of the technique as a practical monitoring tool was tested for two coral species from the Great Barrier Reef. Consistent with the previous results, lipid index for Pocillopora damicornis initially declined over a period of three weeks in corals maintained in filtered seawater in the dark, indicating possible utilization of lipid stored as energy reserves. However, lipid index subsequently rose to near normal levels. In contrast, lipid index of Acropora formosa increased after four weeks in the dark in filtered seawater. The results showed considerable variability in lipid content between samples from the same colony. Results were also found to be dependent on fixation times and sample weight, introducing potential error into the practical application of the technique. The method as described would be unsuitable for monitoring environmental stress in corals, but the search for a practical method to monitor coral health should continue, given its importance in coral reef management.

  14. Lipid composition of human meibum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Schnetler

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The structure and function of meibomian gland lipids in the tear film are highly complex. Evidence shows that the precorneal tear film consists of discrete layers: the inner mucin layer, the middle aqueous layer and the outer lipid layer. In this review we focus on the outer, biphasic lipid layer of the tear film which consists of a ‘thick’ outer, non-polar layer  and a ‘thin’ inner, polar layer. We discuss the main composition of the polar and non-polar lipids within meibum (wax esters, cholesteryl esters, mono-, di- and tri-acylglycerols, ceramides, phospholipids  et cetera. We address the composition of meibomian lipids in subjects suffering from various ocular diseases in comparison with the composition in healthy individuals. Further analysis is needed to determine whether a correlation exists between the etiology of various ocular diseases and the fluctuation on the lipids as well as to establish whether or not tear lipid analysis can be used as a diagnostic tool.

  15. Evaluation of the application of chemical shift for the detection of lipid in brain lesion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, C.J. [Department of Biomedical Imaging, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Ng, K.H., E-mail: ngkh@um.edu.m [Department of Biomedical Imaging, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Ramli, N.; Azman, R.R. [Department of Biomedical Imaging, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2011-02-15

    Non-invasive detection of the presence of lipids is particularly important in staging of intracranial tumours. Presence of lipid peak in aggressive intracranial tumours has been reported widely using MR spectroscopy. However this method has limitation due to long imaging time and artefacts formed by adjacent bones. Chemical shift MR imaging (with has shorter imaging time) is an alternative method that had been used to detect presence of lipid in vivo by means of signal intensity loss. The purpose of this study was to evaluate gradient echo in- and opposed-phase chemical shift pulse sequences for detection of lipid elements in brain lesion. Ten cylindered phantoms measuring 3 x 3 cm were filled with various mixtures of lipid and water: 0-90% lipid, in 10% step by weight. The gradient echo in- and opposed-phase chemical shift sequences were performed using a 1.5 T MRI (Magnetom Vision, Siemens) with a head coil. In addition, we performed MRI and chemical shift studies on 32 patients with brain lesion. We then analysed the association between out of phase intensity value and classification of the lesions. For phantom containing 50% lipid, maximum signal loss on opposed-phase images was observed. There were significant differences between in- and opposed-phase lipid-water phantom images (P = 0.0054). Most of the benign lesions fall into the positive out of phase intensity value, and malignant lesions fall into negative out of phase intensity value. We conclude that chemical shift artefact can be applied in detecting and characterising lipid elements in brain lesion.

  16. Evaluation of the application of chemical shift for the detection of lipid in brain lesion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, C.J.; Ng, K.H.; Ramli, N.; Azman, R.R.

    2011-01-01

    Non-invasive detection of the presence of lipids is particularly important in staging of intracranial tumours. Presence of lipid peak in aggressive intracranial tumours has been reported widely using MR spectroscopy. However this method has limitation due to long imaging time and artefacts formed by adjacent bones. Chemical shift MR imaging (with has shorter imaging time) is an alternative method that had been used to detect presence of lipid in vivo by means of signal intensity loss. The purpose of this study was to evaluate gradient echo in- and opposed-phase chemical shift pulse sequences for detection of lipid elements in brain lesion. Ten cylindered phantoms measuring 3 x 3 cm were filled with various mixtures of lipid and water: 0-90% lipid, in 10% step by weight. The gradient echo in- and opposed-phase chemical shift sequences were performed using a 1.5 T MRI (Magnetom Vision, Siemens) with a head coil. In addition, we performed MRI and chemical shift studies on 32 patients with brain lesion. We then analysed the association between out of phase intensity value and classification of the lesions. For phantom containing 50% lipid, maximum signal loss on opposed-phase images was observed. There were significant differences between in- and opposed-phase lipid-water phantom images (P = 0.0054). Most of the benign lesions fall into the positive out of phase intensity value, and malignant lesions fall into negative out of phase intensity value. We conclude that chemical shift artefact can be applied in detecting and characterising lipid elements in brain lesion.

  17. Effects of intermittent fasting and chronic swimming exercise on body composition and lipid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, Ruan Carlos Macedo de; Portari, Guilherme Vannucchi; Ferraz, Alex Soares Marreiros; da Silva, Tiago Eugênio Oliveira; Marocolo, Moacir

    2017-12-01

    Intermittent fasting protocol (IFP) has been suggested as a strategy to change body metabolism and improve health. The effects of IFP seem to be similar to aerobic exercise, having a hormetic adaptation according to intensity and frequency. However, the effects of combining both interventions are still unknown. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of IFP with and without endurance-exercise training on body composition, food behavior, and lipid metabolism. Twenty-week-old Wistar rats were kept under an inverted circadian cycle of 12 h with water ad libitum and assigned to 4 different groups: control group (ad libitum feeding and sedentary), exercise group (ad libitum feeding and endurance training), intermittent fasting group (IF; intermittent fasting and sedentary), and intermittent fasting and exercise group (IFEX; intermittent fasting and endurance training). After 6 weeks, the body weight of IF and IFEX animals decreased without changes in food consumption. Yet, the body composition between the 2 groups was different, with the IFEX animals containing higher total protein and lower total fat content than the IF animals. The IFEX group also showed increases in total high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and increased intramuscular lipid content. The amount of brown adipose tissue was higher in IF and IFEX groups; however, the IFEX group showed higher expression levels of uncoupling protein 1 in this tissue, indicating a greater thermogenesis. The IFP combined with endurance training is an efficient method for decreasing body mass and altering fat metabolism, without inflicting losses in protein content.

  18. Study on Suitable Light Conditions and Efficient Lipid Extraction Technologies for Biodiesel Production Based on Microalgae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yao; Zhang, Qingtao; Sun, Yuan; Yang, Chengjia

    2018-01-01

    As a new generation biodiesel feedstock, microalgae have most potential to replace fossil fuel. However, the limited scale and high cost are two bottleneck problems. Efficient microwave-assisted lipid extraction technologies and suitable light conditions for Chlorella Sorokiniana need further study for lowering the cost. In this study, three photoperiod groups(24L:0D, 12L:12D, 0L:24D), three illumination intensity groups (1800 lux, 3600 lux, 5400 lux)and four light spectrum groups (Red, green, blue, and white) were used to culture Chlorella Sorokiniana to investigate those effects on algae growth rate and biomass accumulation. The suitable microwave treatment was also studied to achieve an optimizing quantum fracturing technology. 400 w, 750 w and 1000 w microwave power were set and 60 °C, 75 °C, 90 °C microwave conditions were investigated. The results showed that Chlorella Sorokiniana under 24L:0D photoperiod with 5400 lux white light can achieve better growth rate. The 90 °C / 1000w microwave treatment was identified as the most simple, easy, and effective way for lipid extraction from Chlorella Sorokiniana. As the raw material of biodiesel production, C18:1, C18:2 and C18:3 have accounted for important components of fatty acid in Chlorella Sorokiniana. Therefore, Chlorella Sorokiniana is a good raw material for the production of good quality biodiesel under suitable and efficient technologies.

  19. Physical Activity and Lipid Profile in the ELSA-Brasil Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Raquel Caroline; Diniz, Maria de Fátima Haueisen Sander; Alvim, Sheila; Vidigal, Pedro Guatimosim; Fedeli, Ligia Maria Giongo; Barreto, Sandhi Maria

    2016-01-01

    Background Regular physical activity (PA) induces desirable changes in plasma levels of high- and low-density lipoproteins (HDL and LDL, respectively) and triglycerides (TG), important risk factors for cardiometabolic diseases. However, doubts whether intensity and duration have equivalent benefits remain. Objective To assess the association of PA intensity and duration with HDL, LDL and TG levels. Methods Cross-sectional study with 12,688 participants from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) baseline, who were not on lipid-lowering medication. After adjustment for important covariates, multiple linear regression was used to assess the association of PA intensity and duration with HDL, LDL and TG (natural logarithm) levels. Results Both moderate and vigorous PA and PA practice ≥ 150 min/week were significantly associated with higher HDL and lower TG levels. Vigorous PA was associated with lower LDL only on univariate analysis. After adjustments, moderate and vigorous PA increased mean HDL level by 0.89 mg/dL and 1.71 mg/dL, respectively, and reduced TG geometric mean by 0.98 mg/dL and 0.93 mg/dL, respectively. PA practice ≥ 150 min/week increased mean HDL level by 1.05 mg/dL, and decreased TG geometric mean by 0.98 mg/dL. Conclusion Our findings reinforce the benefits of both PA parameters studied on HDL and TG levels, with a slight advantage for vigorous PA as compared to the recommendation based only on PA duration. PMID:27355470

  20. Acute lower extremity ischaemia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acute lower extremity ischaemia. Acute lower limb ischaemia is a surgical emergency. ... is ~1.5 cases per 10 000 persons per year. Acute ischaemia ... Table 2. Clinical features discriminating embolic from thrombotic ALEXI. Clinical features.

  1. Effects of temperature during frozen storage on lipid deterioration of saithe (Pollachius virens) and hoki (Macruronus novaezelandiae) muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsdottir, Magnea G; Sveinsdottir, Kolbrun; Kristinsson, Hordur G; Villot, Dominique; Craft, Brian D; Arason, Sigurjon

    2014-08-01

    Lipid deterioration of two lean fish species, saithe (Pollachius virens) and hoki (Macruronus novaezelandiae), during frozen storage at -20 and -30°C (up to 18months) was studied. Lipid composition, lipid oxidation and hydrolysis, and sensory attributes were evaluated on both light and dark muscles of the fish species. Results showed significant lipid deterioration with extended storage time, but lower storage temperature showed significantly more preservative effects. A marked difference was observed between the composition of dark muscle of hoki and saithe. Polyunsaturated fatty acids were the predominant lipids in dark muscle of saithe, while monounsaturated fatty acids were predominant in dark muscle of hoki. Further, the hydrolytic activity differed greatly between dark muscle of hoki and saithe, with significantly lower activity observed in hoki. Present results indicate that both tertiary lipid oxidation and hydrolysis products are appropriate for assessing lipid deterioration of saithe and hoki light muscle during frozen storage. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Spastin binds to lipid droplets and affects lipid metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chrisovalantis Papadopoulos

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Mutations in SPAST, encoding spastin, are the most common cause of autosomal dominant hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP. HSP is characterized by weakness and spasticity of the lower limbs, owing to progressive retrograde degeneration of the long corticospinal axons. Spastin is a conserved microtubule (MT-severing protein, involved in processes requiring rearrangement of the cytoskeleton in concert to membrane remodeling, such as neurite branching, axonal growth, midbody abscission, and endosome tubulation. Two isoforms of spastin are synthesized from alternative initiation codons (M1 and M87. We now show that spastin-M1 can sort from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER to pre- and mature lipid droplets (LDs. A hydrophobic motif comprised of amino acids 57 through 86 of spastin was sufficient to direct a reporter protein to LDs, while mutation of arginine 65 to glycine abolished LD targeting. Increased levels of spastin-M1 expression reduced the number but increased the size of LDs. Expression of a mutant unable to bind and sever MTs caused clustering of LDs. Consistent with these findings, ubiquitous overexpression of Dspastin in Drosophila led to bigger and less numerous LDs in the fat bodies and increased triacylglycerol levels. In contrast, Dspastin overexpression increased LD number when expressed specifically in skeletal muscles or nerves. Downregulation of Dspastin and expression of a dominant-negative variant decreased LD number in Drosophila nerves, skeletal muscle and fat bodies, and reduced triacylglycerol levels in the larvae. Moreover, we found reduced amount of fat stores in intestinal cells of worms in which the spas-1 homologue was either depleted by RNA interference or deleted. Taken together, our data uncovers an evolutionarily conserved role of spastin as a positive regulator of LD metabolism and open up the possibility that dysfunction of LDs in axons may contribute to the pathogenesis of HSP.

  3. Intensively Cultivated Landscape and Varroa Mite Infestation Are Associated with Reduced Honey Bee Nutritional State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolezal, Adam G; Carrillo-Tripp, Jimena; Miller, W Allen; Bonning, Bryony C; Toth, Amy L

    2016-01-01

    As key pollinators, honey bees are crucial to many natural and agricultural ecosystems. An important factor in the health of honey bees is the availability of diverse floral resources. However, in many parts of the world, high-intensity agriculture could result in a reduction in honey bee forage. Previous studies have investigated how the landscape surrounding honey bee hives affects some aspects of honey bee health, but to our knowledge there have been no investigations of the effects of intensively cultivated landscapes on indicators of individual bee health such as nutritional physiology and pathogen loads. Furthermore, agricultural landscapes in different regions vary greatly in forage and land management, indicating a need for additional information on the relationship between honey bee health and landscape cultivation. Here, we add to this growing body of information by investigating differences in nutritional physiology between honey bees kept in areas of comparatively low and high cultivation in an area generally high agricultural intensity in the Midwestern United States. We focused on bees collected directly before winter, because overwintering stress poses one of the most serious problems for honey bees in temperate climates. We found that honey bees kept in areas of lower cultivation exhibited higher lipid levels than those kept in areas of high cultivation, but this effect was observed only in colonies that were free of Varroa mites. Furthermore, we found that the presence of mites was associated with lower lipid levels and higher titers of deformed wing virus (DWV), as well as a non-significant trend towards higher overwinter losses. Overall, these results show that mite infestation interacts with landscape, obscuring the effects of landscape alone and suggesting that the benefits of improved foraging landscape could be lost without adequate control of mite infestations.

  4. Intensively Cultivated Landscape and Varroa Mite Infestation Are Associated with Reduced Honey Bee Nutritional State.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam G Dolezal

    Full Text Available As key pollinators, honey bees are crucial to many natural and agricultural ecosystems. An important factor in the health of honey bees is the availability of diverse floral resources. However, in many parts of the world, high-intensity agriculture could result in a reduction in honey bee forage. Previous studies have investigated how the landscape surrounding honey bee hives affects some aspects of honey bee health, but to our knowledge there have been no investigations of the effects of intensively cultivated landscapes on indicators of individual bee health such as nutritional physiology and pathogen loads. Furthermore, agricultural landscapes in different regions vary greatly in forage and land management, indicating a need for additional information on the relationship between honey bee health and landscape cultivation. Here, we add to this growing body of information by investigating differences in nutritional physiology between honey bees kept in areas of comparatively low and high cultivation in an area generally high agricultural intensity in the Midwestern United States. We focused on bees collected directly before winter, because overwintering stress poses one of the most serious problems for honey bees in temperate climates. We found that honey bees kept in areas of lower cultivation exhibited higher lipid levels than those kept in areas of high cultivation, but this effect was observed only in colonies that were free of Varroa mites. Furthermore, we found that the presence of mites was associated with lower lipid levels and higher titers of deformed wing virus (DWV, as well as a non-significant trend towards higher overwinter losses. Overall, these results show that mite infestation interacts with landscape, obscuring the effects of landscape alone and suggesting that the benefits of improved foraging landscape could be lost without adequate control of mite infestations.

  5. Effect of lipid extraction on analyses of stable carbon and stable nitrogen isotopes in coastal organisms of the Aleutian archipelago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricca, M.A.; Miles, A.K.; Anthony, R.G.; Deng, X.; Hung, S.S.O.

    2007-01-01

    We tested whether extracting lipids reduced confounding variation in ??13C and ??15N values by analyzing paired lipid-extracted (LE) and non-lipid-extracted (NLE) samples of bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus (L., 1766)) whole eggs, muscle tissue from nine seabird and one terrestrial bird species, muscle tissue from four marine fish species, and blue mussels (Mytilus edulis L., 1758) collected from the Aleutian archipelago, Alaska. Lipid extraction significantly increased ??13C by an average of 2.0??? in whole eggs, 0.8??? in avian muscle, 0.2??? in fish muscle, and 0.6??? in blue mussels. Lower ??13C values in NLE samples covaried positively with lipid content across all sample types. Lower ??13C values in NLE samples were not correlated with lipid content within bald eagle eggs and blue mussels, but covaried positively with percent lipid in avian and fish muscles. Neither lipid extraction nor percent lipid significantly changed ??15N values for any sample type. Lower ??13C values in most NLE avian and fish muscle tissues should not confound interpretation of pelagic versus nearshore sources of primary production, but lipid extraction may be necessary when highly precise estimates of ??13C are needed. Lipid extraction may not be necessary when only ??15N is of interest. ?? 2007 NRC.

  6. Lipid metabolism in cancer cachexia.

    OpenAIRE

    Mulligan, H. D.; Beck, S. A.; Tisdale, M. J.

    1992-01-01

    The effect of cancer cachexia on the oxidative metabolism of lipids has been studied in mice transplanted either with the MAC16 adenocarcinoma, which induces profound loss of body weight and depletion of lipid stores, or the MAC13 adenocarcinoma, which is the same histological type, but which grows without an effect on host body weight or lipid stores. While oxidation of D-[U-14C]glucose did not differ between animals bearing tumours of either type and non-tumour bearing controls, oxidation o...

  7. Effects of atorvastatin and rosuvastatin on blood lipids, platelet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blood lipids, PAR, inflammatory factors and carotid atherosclerotic plaque were recorded and compared. Results: Following treatment, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in the observation group were significantly lower (p < 0.05) than in the control group, while high ...

  8. Alterations in serum lipid, lipoprotein and visceral abdominal fat pad ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Commercially available garlic preparation in the form of garlic oil, garlic powder and pills are widely used for certain therapeutic purposes, including lowering blood pressure and improving lipid profile. The aim of the present study was to determine short term effects of dietary consumption of garlic on the serum levels of ...

  9. Symbiodinium genotypic and environmental controls on lipids in reef building corals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy F Cooper

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lipids in reef building corals can be divided into two classes; non-polar storage lipids, e.g. wax esters and triglycerides, and polar structural lipids, e.g. phospholipids and cholesterol. Differences among algal endosymbiont types are known to have important influences on processes including growth and the photobiology of scleractinian corals yet very little is known about the role of symbiont types on lipid energy reserves. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The ratio of storage lipid and structural lipid fractions of Scott Reef corals were determined by thin layer chromatography. The lipid fraction ratio varied with depth and depended on symbiont type harboured by two corals (Seriatopora hystrix and Pachyseris speciosa. S. hystrix colonies associated with Symbiodinium C1 or C1/C# at deep depths (>23 m had lower lipid fraction ratios (i.e. approximately equal parts of storage and structural lipids than those with Symbiodinium D1 in shallow depths (<23 m, which had higher lipid fraction ratios (i.e. approximately double amounts of storage relative to structural lipid. Further, there was a non-linear relationship between the lipid fraction ratio and depth for S. hystrix with a modal peak at ∼23 m coinciding with the same depth as the shift from clade D to C types. In contrast, the proportional relationship between the lipid fraction ratio and depth for P. speciosa, which exhibited high specificity for Symbiodinium C3 like across the depth gradient, was indicative of greater amounts of storage lipids contained in the deep colonies. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study has demonstrated that Symbiodinium exert significant controls over the quality of coral energy reserves over a large-scale depth gradient. We conclude that the competitive advantages and metabolic costs that arise from flexible associations with divergent symbiont types are offset by energetic trade-offs for the coral host.

  10. Oxidative stability of mayonnaise containing structured lipids produced from sunflower oil and caprylic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Charlotte; Xu, Xuebing; Nielsen, Nina Skall

    2003-01-01

    Mayonnaise based on enzymatically produced specific structured lipid (SL) from sunflower oil and caprylic acid was compared with mayonnaise based on traditional sunflower oil (SO) or chemically randomized lipid (RL) with respect to their oxidative stability, sensory and rheological properties......, but was most likely influenced by the structure of the lipid, the lower tocopherol content and the higher initial levels of lipid hydroperoxides and secondary volatile oxidation compounds in the SL itself compared with the RL and traditional sunflower oil employed. EDTA was a strong antioxidant, while propyl...

  11. Watching individual molecules flex within lipid membranes using SERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Richard W.; Benz, Felix; Sigle, Daniel O.; Bowman, Richard W.; Bao, Peng; Roth, Johannes S.; Heath, George R.; Evans, Stephen D.; Baumberg, Jeremy J.

    2014-08-01

    Interrogating individual molecules within bio-membranes is key to deepening our understanding of biological processes essential for life. Using Raman spectroscopy to map molecular vibrations is ideal to non-destructively `fingerprint' biomolecules for dynamic information on their molecular structure, composition and conformation. Such tag-free tracking of molecules within lipid bio-membranes can directly connect structure and function. In this paper, stable co-assembly with gold nano-components in a `nanoparticle-on-mirror' geometry strongly enhances the local optical field and reduces the volume probed to a few nm3, enabling repeated measurements for many tens of minutes on the same molecules. The intense gap plasmons are assembled around model bio-membranes providing molecular identification of the diffusing lipids. Our experiments clearly evidence measurement of individual lipids flexing through telltale rapid correlated vibrational shifts and intensity fluctuations in the Raman spectrum. These track molecules that undergo bending and conformational changes within the probe volume, through their interactions with the environment. This technique allows for in situ high-speed single-molecule investigations of the molecules embedded within lipid bio-membranes. It thus offers a new way to investigate the hidden dynamics of cell membranes important to a myriad of life processes.

  12. Muscle Lipid Metabolism: Role of Lipid Droplets and Perilipins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Esteban Morales

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle is one of the main regulators of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in our organism, and therefore, it is highly susceptible to changes in glucose and fatty acid (FA availability. Skeletal muscle is an extremely complex tissue: its metabolic capacity depends on the type of fibers it is made up of and the level of stimulation it undergoes, such as acute or chronic contraction. Obesity is often associated with increased FA levels, which leads to the accumulation of toxic lipid intermediates, oxidative stress, and autophagy in skeletal fibers. This lipotoxicity is one of the most common causes of insulin resistance (IR. In this scenario, the “isolation” of certain lipids in specific cell compartments, through the action of the specific lipid droplet, perilipin (PLIN family of proteins, is conceived as a lifeguard compensatory strategy. In this review, we summarize the cellular mechanism underlying lipid mobilization and metabolism inside skeletal muscle, focusing on the function of lipid droplets, the PLIN family of proteins, and how these entities are modified in exercise, obesity, and IR conditions.

  13. Lipid-Altering Therapies and the Progression of Atherosclerotic Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wierzbicki, Anthony S.

    2007-01-01

    Lipids play a key role in the progression of atherosclerosis, and lipid-lowering therapies have been studied for 30 years in coronary disease. Measurement of the progression of atherosclerosis through carotid intima-media thickness, coronary mean lumen diameter, and, mostly recently, intravascular ultrasound is generally accepted. This article reviews the role of lipid-lowering therapies in changing the rate of atherosclerosis progression in the coronary and carotid circulations. Statins are the primary therapy used to reduce atherosclerosis and cardiovascular events, including strokes and transient ischemic attacks, and have benefits in reducing events in patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy. In contrast, data for other agents, including fibrates and nicotinic acid, in reducing the progression of atherosclerosis are less extensive and not as well known. There is increasing interest in optimizing the whole lipid profile, as this might deliver extra benefits over and above statin therapy alone. Initial proof of this concept has recently come from studies that measured the progression of atherosclerosis and showed that adding nicotinic acid to statin therapy and, more directly, infusion of high-density lipoprotein-like particles reduced progression and indeed might induce regression of the disease. It is likely that the management of significant carotid stenosis will become ever more drug focused and will be customized to the lipid profile of each patient with intervention reserved only for late-stage symptomatic disease

  14. THE ROLE OF GROWTH HORMONE IN LIPID METABOLISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Gusti Ayu Dewi Ratnayanti

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Growth hormone (GH is one of the hormones that regulate metabolism, including lipid metabolism. GH can regulate the amount of fat in the tissue and also the level of lipid profile. Growth hormone affects the lipid in the tissue and blood by modulating the lipid metabolism, especially through the regulation of synthesis, excretion and breakdown of internal lipids. Research showed that GH could consistently lower the level of total cholesterol and LDL, whereas its effect on triglyceride and HDL level showed varying results. Growth hormone induces lypolisis by stimulating the activity of HSL and LPL and thereby influenced the triglyceride level and tissue fat storage. Cholesterol and lipoprotein levels are controlled by regulating the synthesis of cholesterol by lowering the activity of HMGCoA reductase. The excretion of cholesterol through the bile is also enhanced by stimulating the activity of enzymes C7?OH. The breakdown of VLDL and LDL are enhanced by increasing the expression of LDL receptor and ApoE as well as affecting the editing of mRNA ApoB100. Increase activity of LPL is also known to be the important factor in the HDL metabolism

  15. Cholesterol Induced Changes in the Characteristics of the Time Series From Planar Lipid Bilayer Membrane during Electroporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotulska, M.; Koronkiewicz, S.; Kalinowski, S.

    2002-01-01

    The electroporation can be used as a non-toxic method for introducing exogenous macromolecules, especially DNA and drugs, into various types of cells. Research in to new therapeutic methods based on Long Duration Electroporation (LDE) is of special interest. A new current-clamp method makes possible the electroporation of very long duration with no damage to bio-membranes. In this paper we compare responses of lipid planar bilayer membranes at physiological concentration of KCl, with lipid membranes formed at higher ionic strength, and membranes containing cholesterol. A longer lifespan of the membranes with cholesterol and membranes with increased ionic strength could be observed. Sensitivity of the power spectrum response to the presence of cholesterol, ionic strength, current intensity, and membrane ageing was examined. The membrane memory was analyzed by means of autocorrelation function and rescaled range analysis. We showed that the memory of the system decreases for higher current intensities and this relation is pronounced better at higher ionic strength. At low current intensities all membranes showed slightly persistent type of noise behavior with crossover to Brownian type of noise for higher current value. The transition w as much faster for higher ionic strength, where the next transition to anti-persistent response was observed for relatively low currents. Very interesting results were obtained from power spectrum analysis. At low current intensity, all membranes exhibited 1/f noise, which disappeared for higher currents, maintaining f β type with rising value of β. Membranes formed at lower ionic strength and with cholesterol showed a pronounced tendency to lose flicker noise while ageing, also with rising β value. (author)

  16. Blood lipids and prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bull, Caroline J; Bonilla, Carolina; Holly, Jeff M P

    2016-01-01

    Genetic risk scores were used as unconfounded instruments for specific lipid traits (Mendelian randomization) to assess whether circulating lipids causally influence prostate cancer risk. Data from 22,249 prostate cancer cases and 22,133 controls from 22 studies within the international PRACTICAL...... into logistic regression models to estimate the presence (and direction) of any causal effect of each lipid trait on prostate cancer risk. There was weak evidence for an association between the LDL genetic score and cancer grade: the odds ratio (OR) per genetically instrumented standard deviation (SD) in LDL.......95, 3.00; P = 0.08). The rs12916-T variant in 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGCR) was inversely associated with prostate cancer (OR: 0.97; 95% CI: 0.94, 1.00; P = 0.03). In conclusion, circulating lipids, instrumented by our genetic risk scores, did not appear to alter prostate cancer risk...

  17. Bioactive Lipids in Dairy Fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellgren, Lars; Nordby, Pernille

    2017-01-01

    Milk fat is the most important energy source for the newborn infant beside its important role as energy source, milk fat also contain a range of bioactive lipids, that potentially can modulate the immune response and metabolic regulation in the child. In this chapter we review the literature on b...... on bioactive dairy fatty acids: conjugated linoleic acid, branched chained and odd chained fatty acids, as well as bioactive complex lipids such as sphingomyelin and gangliosides....

  18. Mitochondrial mass is inversely correlated to complete lipid oxidation in human myotubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaster, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Exercise increases while physical inactivity decrease mitochondrial content and oxidative capacity of skeletal muscles in vivo. It is unknown whether mitochondrial mass and substrate oxidation are related in non-contracting skeletal muscle. Mitochondrial mass, ATP, ADP, AMP, glucose and lipid......, basal glucose oxidation and incomplete lipid oxidation were significantly increased while complete lipid oxidation was lower. Mitochondrial mass was not correlated to glucose oxidation or incomplete lipid oxidation in human myotubes but inversely correlated to complete lipid oxidation. Thus within...... a stable energetic background, an increased mitochondrial mass in human myotubes was not positive correlated to an increased substrate oxidation as expected from skeletal muscles in vivo but surprisingly with a reduced complete lipid oxidation....

  19. Effect of exercise on lipid peroxidation in student soccer players

    OpenAIRE

    Puspaningtyas, Desty Ervira; Afriani, Yuni; Mahfida, Silvi Lailatul; Kushartanti, Wara; Farmawati, Arta

    2018-01-01

    Training is conducted to improve physiological functions that can support improvementof cardio-respiratory function (O2max). However, intensive training can lead to oxidativestress, which can contribute to health problems. The purpose of this study was to evaluatethe effect of training on serum lipid peroxidation levels in student soccer players. Thestudy was pre-experimental study with a one-shot case design conducted in April 2014.Twelve student soccer players from UGM who chosen by purposi...

  20. Intensive Treat-to-Target Statin Therapy in High-Risk Japanese Patients With Hypercholesterolemia and Diabetic Retinopathy: Report of a Randomized Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Hiroshi; Komuro, Issei; Takeuchi, Masahiro; Akasaka, Takashi; Daida, Hiroyuki; Egashira, Yoshiki; Fujita, Hideo; Higaki, Jitsuo; Hirata, Ken-Ichi; Ishibashi, Shun; Isshiki, Takaaki; Ito, Sadayoshi; Kashiwagi, Atsunori; Kato, Satoshi; Kitagawa, Kazuo; Kitakaze, Masafumi; Kitazono, Takanari; Kurabayashi, Masahiko; Miyauchi, Katsumi; Murakami, Tomoaki; Murohara, Toyoaki; Node, Koichi; Ogawa, Susumu; Saito, Yoshihiko; Seino, Yoshihiko; Shigeeda, Takashi; Shindo, Shunya; Sugawara, Masahiro; Sugiyama, Seigo; Terauchi, Yasuo; Tsutsui, Hiroyuki; Ueshima, Kenji; Utsunomiya, Kazunori; Yamagishi, Masakazu; Yamazaki, Tsutomu; Yo, Shoei; Yokote, Koutaro; Yoshida, Kiyoshi; Yoshimura, Michihiro; Yoshimura, Nagahisa; Nakao, Kazuwa; Nagai, Ryozo

    2018-06-01

    Diabetes is associated with high risk of cardiovascular (CV) events, particularly in patients with dyslipidemia and diabetic complications. We investigated the incidence of CV events with intensive or standard lipid-lowering therapy in patients with hypercholesterolemia, diabetic retinopathy, and no history of coronary artery disease (treat-to-target approach). In this multicenter, prospective, randomized, open-label, blinded end point study, eligible patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to intensive statin therapy targeting LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) targeting LDL-C 100-120 mg/dL ( n = 2,524). Mean follow-up was 37 ± 13 months. LDL-C at 36 months was 76.5 ± 21.6 mg/dL in the intensive group and 104.1 ± 22.1 mg/dL in the standard group ( P target strategy in high-risk patients deserves further investigation. © 2018 by the American Diabetes Association.

  1. Efficient replacement of plasma membrane outer leaflet phospholipids and sphingolipids in cells with exogenous lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guangtao; Kim, JiHyun; Huang, Zhen; St Clair, Johnna R; Brown, Deborah A; London, Erwin

    2016-12-06

    Our understanding of membranes and membrane lipid function has lagged far behind that of nucleic acids and proteins, largely because it is difficult to manipulate cellular membrane lipid composition. To help solve this problem, we show that methyl-α-cyclodextrin (MαCD)-catalyzed lipid exchange can be used to maximally replace the sphingolipids and phospholipids in the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane of living mammalian cells with exogenous lipids, including unnatural lipids. In addition, lipid exchange experiments revealed that 70-80% of cell sphingomyelin resided in the plasma membrane outer leaflet; the asymmetry of metabolically active cells was similar to that previously defined for erythrocytes, as judged by outer leaflet lipid composition; and plasma membrane outer leaflet phosphatidylcholine had a significantly lower level of unsaturation than phosphatidylcholine in the remainder of the cell. The data also provided a rough estimate for the total cellular lipids residing in the plasma membrane (about half). In addition to such lipidomics applications, the exchange method should have wide potential for investigations of lipid function and modification of cellular behavior by modification of lipids.

  2. [Lipids of Aureobasidium (Pullularia) pullulans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elinov, N P; Iurlova, N A; Efimova, T P

    1975-01-01

    Fractional composition of free and bound lipids was studied in Aureobasidium (Pullularia) pullulans 8 by preparative TLC on Silufol. Bound lipids contained a fraction (27.76 +/- 0.5%) of dark brown colour, similar to melanin. The composition of fatty acids was studied by GLC. The following fatty acids were identified and determined quantitatively: C12:0, C14:0, C15:0, C16:0, C18:0, C18:1+C15:2. The following fatty acids predominated in free and bound lipids: C16:0, C18:1+C18:2. The ratio between unsaturated and saturated fatty acids in all fractions of free and bound lipids was more than unity. The following parameters were determined for lipids; ester number (173.89 and 178.53); iodine number (44.1 and 33.10), and saponification number (181.17 and 206.03) (the values are given for free and bound lipids, respectively).

  3. Defining Lipid Transport Pathways in Animal Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagano, Richard E.; Sleight, Richard G.

    1985-09-01

    A new technique for studying the metabolism and intracellular transport of lipid molecules in living cells based on the use of fluorescent lipid analogs is described. The cellular processing of various intermediates (phosphatidic acid and ceramide) and end products (phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine) in lipid biosynthesis is reviewed and a working model for compartmentalization during lipid biosynthesis is presented.

  4. Development and Validation of a Model to Predict Absolute Vascular Risk Reduction by Moderate-Intensity Statin Therapy in Individual Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: The Anglo Scandinavian Cardiac Outcomes Trial, Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial, and Collaborative Atorvastatin Diabetes Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaasenbrood, Lotte; Poulter, Neil R.; Sever, Peter S.; Colhoun, Helen M.; Livingstone, Shona J.; Boekholdt, S. Matthijs; Pressel, Sara L.; Davis, Barry R.; van der Graaf, Yolanda; Visseren, Frank L. J.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to translate the average relative effect of statin therapy from trial data to the individual patient with type 2 diabetes mellitus by developing and validating a model to predict individualized absolute risk reductions (ARR) of cardiovascular events. Data of 2725 patients

  5. Dietary sphingolipids lower plasma cholesterol and triacylglycerol and prevent liver steatosis in APOE*3Leiden mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duivenvoorden, Ilse; Voshol, Peter J.; Rensen, Patrick C. N.; van Duyvenvoorde, Wim; Romijn, Johannes A.; Emeis, Jef J.; Havekes, Louis M.; Nieuwenhuizen, Willem F.

    2006-01-01

    The prevalence of dyslipidemia and obesity resulting from excess energy intake and physical inactivity is increasing. The liver plays a pivotal role in systemic lipid homeostasis. Effective, natural dietary interventions that lower plasma lipids and promote liver health are needed. Our goal was to

  6. Dietary sphingolipids lower plasma cholesterol and triacylglycerol and prevent liver steatosis in APOE*3Leiden mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duivenvoorden, I.; Voshol, P.J.; Rensen, P.C.N.; Duyvenvoorde, W. van; Romijn, J.A.; Emeis, J.J.; Havekes, L.M.; Nieuwenhuizen, W.F.

    2006-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of dyslipidemia and obesity resulting from excess energy intake and physical inactivity is increasing. The liver plays a pivotal role in systemic lipid homeostasis. Effective, natural dietary interventions that lower plasma lipids and promote liver health are needed.

  7. Effect of grazing frequency and intensity on Lolium perenne L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ) system. Low frequency, low intensity grazing produced lower CDMD and herbage N levels than higher grazing frequencies and intensities. These differences were, however, generally small. Overall, levels of herbage digestibility (estimated ...

  8. Modeling growth, lipid accumulation and lipid turnover in submerged batch cultures of Umbelopsis isabellina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meeuwse, P.; Akbari, P.; Tramper, J.; Rinzema, A.

    2012-01-01

    The production of lipids by oleaginous yeast and fungi becomes more important because these lipids can be used for biodiesel production. To understand the process of lipid production better, we developed a model for growth, lipid production and lipid turnover in submerged batch fermentation. This

  9. Metabonomics uncovers a reversible proatherogenic lipid profile during infliximab therapy of inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum, Jacob Tveiten; Steenholdt, Casper; Ainsworth, Mark

    2017-01-01

    and controls. Metabolites holding differential power belonged primarily to lipids and phospholipids with proatherogenic characteristics and metabolites in the pyruvate metabolism, suggestive of an intense inflammation-driven energy demand. IBD patients not responding to IFX were identified as a potentially...... changes taking place during induction treatment with IFX. Of distinct clinical relevance is the identification of a reversible proatherogenic lipid profile in IBD patients with active disease, which partially explains the increased risk of cardiovascular disease associated with IBD....

  10. Antihypertensive neutral lipid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, F.L.; Blank, M.L.

    1984-10-26

    The invention relates to the discovery of a class of neutral acetylated either-linked glycerolipids having the capacity to lower blood presure in warm-blooded animals. This physiological effect is structure sensitive requiring a long chain alkyl group at the sn-1 position and a short carbon chain acyl group (acetyl or propionyl) at the sn-2 position, and a hydroxyl group at the sn-3 position.

  11. Lipid nanoparticle interactions and assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preiss, Matthew Ryan

    Novel liposome-nanoparticle assemblies (LNAs) provide a biologically inspired route for designing multifunctional bionanotheranostics. LNAs combine the benefits of lipids and liposomes to encapsulate, transport, and protect hydrophilic and hydrophobic therapeutics with functional nanoparticles. Functional nanoparticles endow LNAs with additional capabilities, including the ability to target diseases, triggered drug release, controlled therapeutic output, and diagnostic capabilities to produce a drug delivery system that can effectively and efficiently deliver therapeutics while reducing side effects. Not only could LNAs make existing drugs better, they could also provide an avenue to allow once promising non-approved drugs (rejected due to harmful side effects, inadequate pharmacokinetics, and poor efficacy) to be safely used through targeted and controlled delivery directly to the diseased site. LNAs have the potential to be stimuli responsive, delivering drugs on command by external (ultrasound, RF heating, etc.) or internal (pH, blood sugar, heart rate, etc.) stimuli. Individually, lipids and nanoparticles have been clinically approved for therapy, such as Doxil (a liposomal doxorubicin for cancer treatment), and diagnosis, such as Feridex (an iron oxide nanoparticle an MRI contrast enhancement agent for liver tumors). In order to engineer these multifunctional LNAs for theranostic applications, the interactions between nanoparticles and lipids must be better understood. This research sought to explore the formation, design, structures, characteristics, and functions of LNAs. To achieve this goal, different types of LNAs were formed, specifically magnetoliposomes, bilayer decorated LNAs (DLNAs), and lipid-coated magnetic nanoparticles (LMNPs). A fluorescent probe was embedded in the lipid bilayer of magnetoliposomes allowing the local temperature and membrane fluidity to be observed. When subjected to an electromagnetic field that heated the encapsulated iron

  12. Lower Churchill project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, B. [Nalcor Energy, St. John' s, Newfoundland (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    This paper discusses the Lower Churchill Hydroelectric Generation Project in Newfoundland Labrador. The project is of national interest as it creates jobs and benefits across Canada. It provides inter provincial electricity grid integration, provides significant contribution to lower emissions and enables development of other renewable generation.

  13. 1H-NMR of human blood lipids in cases of malignant and benign tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yushmanov, V.E.; Kotrikadze, N.G.; Pershin, A.D.; Dzhishkariani, O.S.; Tsartsidze, M.A.; Lomsadze, B.A.; Sibel'dina, L.A.

    1989-01-01

    High resolution 1 H-NMR (360MH z ) combined with thin-layer chromatography was used to study profile and molecular structure changes of inverted micelles of human blood developing in patients with malignant and benign tumors of the breast and uterus. Alterations were demonstrated in relative intensities of some lipid NMR peaks in tumor, as compared to normal blood. Changes in blood - lipid levels, e.g. cholesterol, in tumor affect lipid structural and dynamical status thus elucidating NMR-regularities obtained

  14. Scenarios of future energy intensities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    In this chapter, the authors present scenarios of potential change in energy intensities in the OECD countries and in the Soviet Union. These scenarios are meant to illustrate how intensities might evolve over the next 20 years given different conditions with respect to energy prices, energy-efficiency policies, and other key factors. Changes in intensity will also be affected by the rates of growth and stock turnover in each sector. They have not tried to forecast how activity levels and structure will evolve. However, the OECD scenarios assume a world in which GDP averages growth in the 2-3%/year range, with some differences among countries. For the Soviet Union, the degree and pace of intensity decline will be highly dependent on the success of the transition to a market economy; each scenario explicitly envisions a different degree of success. They have not constructed comparable scenarios for the developing countries. The scenarios presented in this chapter do not predict what will happen in the future. They believe, however, that they illustrate a plausible set of outcomes if energy prices, policies, programs, and other factors evolve as described in each case. With higher energy prices and vigorous policies and programs, intensities in the OECD countries in 2010 could be nearly 50% less on average than the level where trends seem to be point. In the former Soviet Union, a combination of rapid, successful economic reform and extra effort to improve energy efficiency might result in average intensity being nearly 40% less than in a slow reform case. And in the LDCs, a mixture of sound policies, programs, and energy pricing reform could also lead to intensities being far lower than they would be otherwise. 8 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab

  15. Effects of dexmedetomidine on renal tissue after lower limb ischemia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Meral Erdal Erbatur

    2017-01-10

    Jan 10, 2017 ... dexmedetomidine-treated group, TBARS, NOS, CAT, and GST levels were significantly lower than those measured in ... hypertension, ischemic heart disease, nephropathy, .... Mechanisms responsible for increased inflammatory response in ..... intestinal lipid peroxidation does not minimize mor- phologic ...

  16. Dyslipidemias and Cardiovascular Prevention: Tailoring Treatment According to Lipid Phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanin, Veronika; Pfetsch, Vanessa; Koenig, Wolfgang

    2017-07-01

    This study aimed to present the current information on the genetic background of dyslipidemias and provide insights into the complex pathophysiological role of several plasma lipids/lipoproteins in the pathogenesis of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Furthermore, we aim to summarize established therapies and describe the scientific rationale for the development of novel therapeutic strategies. Evidence from genetic studies suggests that besides lowering low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, pharmacological reduction of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, or lipoprotein(a) will reduce risk for coronary heart disease. Dyslipidemia, in particular hypercholesterolemia, is a common clinical condition and represents an important determinant of atherosclerotic vascular disease. Treatment decisions are currently guided by the causative lipid phenotype and the presence of other risk factors suggesting a very high cardiovascular risk. Therefore, the identification of lipid disorders and the optimal combination of therapeutic strategies provide an outstanding opportunity for reducing the onset and burden of cardiovascular disease.

  17. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... using relative intensity, people pay attention to how physical activity affects their heart rate and breathing. The talk test is a simple way to measure relative intensity. ...

  18. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Older Adults Overcoming Barriers Measuring Physical Activity Intensity Target Heart Rate & Estimated Maximum Heart Rate Perceived Exertion ( ... a heavy backpack Other Methods of Measuring Intensity Target Heart Rate and Estimated Maximum Heart Rate Perceived ...

  19. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Share Compartir For more help with what counts as aerobic activity, watch this video: Windows Media Player, ... The table below lists examples of activities classified as moderate-intensity or vigorous-intensity based upon the ...

  20. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for a breath. Absolute Intensity The amount of energy used by the body per minute of activity. ... or vigorous-intensity based upon the amount of energy used by the body while doing the activity. ...

  1. Iowa Intensive Archaeological Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — This shape file contains intensive level archaeological survey areas for the state of Iowa. All intensive Phase I surveys that are submitted to the State Historic...

  2. Control of lipid oxidation during exercise: role of energy state and mitochondrial factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahlin, K; Harris, R C

    2008-01-01

    Despite considerable progress during recent years our understanding of how lipid oxidation (LOx) is controlled during exercise remains incomplete. This review focuses on the role of mitochondria and energy state in the control of LOx. LOx increases in parallel with increased energy demand up...... to an exercise intensity of about 50-60% of VO(2max) after which the contribution of lipid decreases. The switch from lipid to carbohydrate (CHO) is of energetic advantage due to the increased ATP/O(2) yield. In the low-intensity domain (energy state will stimulate both LOx...... during high-intensity exercise. Another potential mechanism, suggested in this review, is that Acyl-CoA synthetase (ACS), an initial step in LCFA catabolism, functions as a regulator of LOx. ACS activity is suggested to be under control of CoASH and energy state. Furthermore, evidence exists...

  3. Rainfed intensive crop systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Jørgen E

    2014-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the importance of intensive cropping systems in contributing to the world supply of food and feed. The impact of climate change on intensive crop production systems is also discussed.......This chapter focuses on the importance of intensive cropping systems in contributing to the world supply of food and feed. The impact of climate change on intensive crop production systems is also discussed....

  4. Lipids, lipid droplets and lipoproteins in their cellular context; an ultrastructural approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mesman, R.J.

    2013-01-01

    Lipids are essential for cellular life, functioning either organized as bilayer membranes to compartmentalize cellular processes, as signaling molecules or as metabolic energy storage. Our current knowledge on lipid organization and cellular lipid homeostasis is mainly based on biochemical data.

  5. Intensive lifestyle changes for reversal of coronary heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornish, D; Scherwitz, L W; Billings, J H; Brown, S E; Gould, K L; Merritt, T A; Sparler, S; Armstrong, W T; Ports, T A; Kirkeeide, R L; Hogeboom, C; Brand, R J

    1998-12-16

    The Lifestyle Heart Trial demonstrated that intensive lifestyle changes may lead to regression of coronary atherosclerosis after 1 year. To determine the feasibility of patients to sustain intensive lifestyle changes for a total of 5 years and the effects of these lifestyle changes (without lipid-lowering drugs) on coronary heart disease. Randomized controlled trial conducted from 1986 to 1992 using a randomized invitational design. Forty-eight patients with moderate to severe coronary heart disease were randomized to an intensive lifestyle change group or to a usual-care control group, and 35 completed the 5-year follow-up quantitative coronary arteriography. Two tertiary care university medical centers. Intensive lifestyle changes (10% fat whole foods vegetarian diet, aerobic exercise, stress management training, smoking cessation, group psychosocial support) for 5 years. Adherence to intensive lifestyle changes, changes in coronary artery percent diameter stenosis, and cardiac events. Experimental group patients (20 [71%] of 28 patients completed 5-year follow-up) made and maintained comprehensive lifestyle changes for 5 years, whereas control group patients (15 [75%] of 20 patients completed 5-year follow-up) made more moderate changes. In the experimental group, the average percent diameter stenosis at baseline decreased 1.75 absolute percentage points after 1 year (a 4.5% relative improvement) and by 3.1 absolute percentage points after 5 years (a 7.9% relative improvement). In contrast, the average percent diameter stenosis in the control group increased by 2.3 percentage points after 1 year (a 5.4% relative worsening) and by 11.8 percentage points after 5 years (a 27.7% relative worsening) (P=.001 between groups. Twenty-five cardiac events occurred in 28 experimental group patients vs 45 events in 20 control group patients during the 5-year follow-up (risk ratio for any event for the control group, 2.47 [95% confidence interval, 1.48-4.20]). More regression

  6. Effects of stocking density on lipid deposition and expression of lipid-related genes in Amur sturgeon (Acipenser schrenckii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yuanyuan; Wen, Haishen; Li, Yun; Li, Jifang; He, Feng; Ni, Meng

    2017-12-01

    To investigate the correlation between lipid deposition variation and stocking density in Amur sturgeon (Acipenser schrenckii) and the possible physiological mechanism, fish were conducted in different stocking densities (LSD 5.5 kg/m 3 , MSD 8.0 kg/m 3 , and HSD 11.0 kg/m 3 ) for 70 days and then the growth index, lipid content, lipase activities, and the mRNA expressions of lipid-related genes were examined. Results showed that fish subjected to higher stocking density presented lower final body weights (FBW), specific growth ratio (SGR), and gonad adipose tissue index (GAI) (P density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) decreased significantly with increasing stocking density, while no significant change was observed for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). Furthermore, the cDNAs encoding lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and hepatic lipase (HL) were isolated in Amur sturgeon, respectively. The full-length LPL cDNA was composed of 1757 bp with an open reading frame of 501 amino acids, while the complete nucleotide sequences of HL covered 1747 bp encoding 499 amino acids. In the liver, the activities and mRNA levels of LPL were markedly lower in HSD group, which were consistent with the variation tendency of HL. Fish reared in HSD group also presented lower levels of activities and mRNA expression of LPL in the muscle and gonad. Moreover, the expressions of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) in both the liver and skeletal muscle were significantly upregulated in HSD group. Overall, the results indicated that high stocking density negatively affects growth performance and lipid deposition of Amur sturgeon to a certain extent. The downregulation of LPL and HL and the upregulation of PPARα may be responsible for the lower lipid distribution of Amur sturgeon in higher stocking density.

  7. Altered lipid homeostasis in Sertoli cells stressed by mild hyperthermia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana S Vallés

    Full Text Available Spermatogenesis is known to be vulnerable to temperature. Exposures of rat testis to moderate hyperthermia result in loss of germ cells with survival of Sertoli cells (SC. Because SC provide structural and metabolic support to germ cells, our aim was to test the hypothesis that these exposures affect SC functions, thus contributing to germ cell damage. In vivo, regularly repeated exposures (one of 15 min per day, once a day during 5 days of rat testes to 43 °C led to accumulation of neutral lipids. This SC-specific lipid function took 1-2 weeks after the last of these exposures to be maximal. In cultured SC, similar daily exposures for 15 min to 43 °C resulted in significant increase in triacylglycerol levels and accumulation of lipid droplets. After incubations with [3H]arachidonate, the labeling of cardiolipin decreased more than that of other lipid classes. Another specifically mitochondrial lipid metabolic function, fatty acid oxidation, also declined. These lipid changes suggested that temperature affects SC mitochondrial physiology, which was confirmed by significantly increased degrees of membrane depolarization and ROS production. This concurred with reduced expression of two SC-specific proteins, transferrin, and Wilms' Tumor 1 protein, markers of SC secretion and differentiation functions, respectively, and with an intense SC cytoskeletal perturbation, evident by loss of microtubule network (α-tubulin and microfilament (f-actin organization. Albeit temporary and potentially reversible, hyperthermia-induced SC structural and metabolic alterations may be long-lasting and/or extensive enough to respond for the decreased survival of the germ cells they normally foster.

  8. Thermodynamics of interaction of ionic liquids with lipid monolayer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, G; Mitra, S; Mandal, P; Dutta, S; Giri, R P; Ghosh, S K

    2018-06-01

    Understanding the interaction of ionic liquids with cellular membrane becomes utterly important to comprehend the activities of these liquids in living organisms. Lipid monolayer formed at the air-water interface is employed as a model system to follow this interaction by investigating important thermodynamic parameters. The penetration kinetics of the imidazolium-based ionic liquid 1-decyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([DMIM][BF4]) into the zwitterionic 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) lipid layer is found to follow the Boltzmann-like equation that reveals the characteristic time constant which is observed to be the function of initial surface pressure. The enthalpy and entropy calculated from temperature-dependent pressure-area isotherms of the monolayer show that the added ionic liquids bring about a disordering effect in the lipid film. The change in Gibbs free energy indicates that an ionic liquid with longer chain has a far greater disordering effect compared to an ionic liquid with shorter chain. The differential scanning calorimetric measurement on a multilamellar vesicle system shows the main phase transition temperature to shift to a lower value, which, again, indicates the disordering effect of the ionic liquid on lipid membrane. All these studies fundamentally point out that, when ionic liquids interact with lipid molecules, the self-assembled structure of a cellular membrane gets perturbed, which may be the mechanism of these molecules having adverse effects on living organisms.

  9. A layer model of ethanol partitioning into lipid membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizza, David T; Gawrisch, Klaus

    2009-06-01

    The effect of membrane composition on ethanol partitioning into lipid bilayers was assessed by headspace gas chromatography. A series of model membranes with different compositions have been investigated. Membranes were exposed to a physiological ethanol concentration of 20 mmol/l. The concentration of membranes was 20 wt% which roughly corresponds to values found in tissue. Partitioning depended on the chemical nature of polar groups at the lipid/water interface. Compared to phosphatidylcholine, lipids with headgroups containing phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylserine, and sphingomyelin showed enhanced partitioning while headgroups containing phosphatidylethanolamine resulted in a lower partition coefficient. The molar partition coefficient was independent of a membrane's hydrophobic volume. This observation is in agreement with our previously published NMR results which showed that ethanol resides almost exclusively within the membrane/water interface. At an ethanol concentration of 20 mmol/l in water, ethanol concentrations at the lipid/water interface are in the range from 30-15 mmol/l, corresponding to one ethanol molecule per 100-200 lipids.

  10. Metabolic control by S6 kinases depends on dietary lipids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara R Castañeda

    Full Text Available Targeted deletion of S6 kinase (S6K 1 in mice leads to higher energy expenditure and improved glucose metabolism. However, the molecular mechanisms controlling these effects remain to be fully elucidated. Here, we analyze the potential role of dietary lipids in regulating the mTORC1/S6K system. Analysis of S6K phosphorylation in vivo and in vitro showed that dietary lipids activate S6K, and this effect is not dependent upon amino acids. Comparison of male mice lacking S6K1 and 2 (S6K-dko with wt controls showed that S6K-dko mice are protected against obesity and glucose intolerance induced by a high-fat diet. S6K-dko mice fed a high-fat diet had increased energy expenditure, improved glucose tolerance, lower fat mass gain, and changes in markers of lipid metabolism. Importantly, however, these metabolic phenotypes were dependent upon dietary lipids, with no such effects observed in S6K-dko mice fed a fat-free diet. These changes appear to be mediated via modulation of cellular metabolism in skeletal muscle, as shown by the expression of genes involved in energy metabolism. Taken together, our results suggest that the metabolic functions of S6K in vivo play a key role as a molecular interface connecting dietary lipids to the endogenous control of energy metabolism.

  11. Natural lipid extracts and biomembrane-mimicking lipid compositions are disposed to form nonlamellar phases, and they release DNA from lipoplexes most efficiently

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koynova, Rumiana; MacDonald, Robert C. (NWU)

    2010-01-18

    A viewpoint now emerging is that a critical factor in lipid-mediated transfection (lipofection) is the structural evolution of lipoplexes upon interacting and mixing with cellular lipids. Here we report our finding that lipid mixtures mimicking biomembrane lipid compositions are superior to pure anionic liposomes in their ability to release DNA from lipoplexes (cationic lipid/DNA complexes), even though they have a much lower negative charge density (and thus lower capacity to neutralize the positive charge of the lipoplex lipids). Flow fluorometry revealed that the portion of DNA released after a 30-min incubation of the cationic O-ethylphosphatidylcholine lipoplexes with the anionic phosphatidylserine or phosphatidylglycerol was 19% and 37%, respectively, whereas a mixture mimicking biomembranes (MM: phosphatidylcholine/phosphatidylethanolamine/phosphatidylserine /cholesterol 45:20:20:15 w/w) and polar lipid extract from bovine liver released 62% and 74%, respectively, of the DNA content. A possible reason for this superior power in releasing DNA by the natural lipid mixtures was suggested by structural experiments: while pure anionic lipids typically form lamellae, the natural lipid mixtures exhibited a surprising predilection to form nonlamellar phases. Thus, the MM mixture arranged into lamellar arrays at physiological temperature, but began to convert to the hexagonal phase at a slightly higher temperature, {approx} 40-45 C. A propensity to form nonlamellar phases (hexagonal, cubic, micellar) at close to physiological temperatures was also found with the lipid extracts from natural tissues (from bovine liver, brain, and heart). This result reveals that electrostatic interactions are only one of the factors involved in lipid-mediated DNA delivery. The tendency of lipid bilayers to form nonlamellar phases has been described in terms of bilayer 'frustration' which imposes a nonzero intrinsic curvature of the two opposing monolayers. Because the stored

  12. Moringa Leaves Prevent Hepatic Lipid Accumulation and Inflammation in Guinea Pigs by Reducing the Expression of Genes Involved in Lipid Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almatrafi, Manal Mused; Vergara-Jimenez, Marcela; Murillo, Ana Gabriela; Norris, Gregory H; Blesso, Christopher N; Fernandez, Maria Luz

    2017-06-22

    To investigate the mechanisms by which Moringa oleifera leaves (ML) modulate hepatic lipids, guinea pigs were allocated to either control (0% ML), 10% Low Moringa (LM) or 15% High Moringa (HM) diets with 0.25% dietary cholesterol to induce hepatic steatosis. After 6 weeks, guinea pigs were sacrificed and liver and plasma were collected to determine plasma lipids, hepatic lipids, cytokines and the expression of genes involved in hepatic cholesterol (CH) and triglyceride (TG) metabolism. There were no differences in plasma lipids among groups. A dose-response effect of ML was observed in hepatic lipids (CH and TG) with the lowest concentrations in the HM group ( p < 0.001), consistent with histological evaluation of lipid droplets. Hepatic gene expression of diglyceride acyltransferase-2 and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ, as well as protein concentrations interleukin (IL)-1β and interferon-γ, were lowest in the HM group ( p < 0.005). Hepatic gene expression of cluster of differentiation-68 and sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c were 60% lower in both the LM and HM groups compared to controls ( p < 0.01). This study demonstrates that ML may prevent hepatic steatosis by affecting gene expression related to hepatic lipids synthesis resulting in lower concentrations of cholesterol and triglycerides and reduced inflammation in the liver.

  13. Moringa Leaves Prevent Hepatic Lipid Accumulation and Inflammation in Guinea Pigs by Reducing the Expression of Genes Involved in Lipid Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almatrafi, Manal Mused; Vergara-Jimenez, Marcela; Murillo, Ana Gabriela; Norris, Gregory H.; Blesso, Christopher N.; Fernandez, Maria Luz

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the mechanisms by which Moringa oleifera leaves (ML) modulate hepatic lipids, guinea pigs were allocated to either control (0% ML), 10% Low Moringa (LM) or 15% High Moringa (HM) diets with 0.25% dietary cholesterol to induce hepatic steatosis. After 6 weeks, guinea pigs were sacrificed and liver and plasma were collected to determine plasma lipids, hepatic lipids, cytokines and the expression of genes involved in hepatic cholesterol (CH) and triglyceride (TG) metabolism. There were no differences in plasma lipids among groups. A dose-response effect of ML was observed in hepatic lipids (CH and TG) with the lowest concentrations in the HM group (p < 0.001), consistent with histological evaluation of lipid droplets. Hepatic gene expression of diglyceride acyltransferase-2 and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ, as well as protein concentrations interleukin (IL)-1β and interferon-γ, were lowest in the HM group (p < 0.005). Hepatic gene expression of cluster of differentiation-68 and sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c were 60% lower in both the LM and HM groups compared to controls (p < 0.01). This study demonstrates that ML may prevent hepatic steatosis by affecting gene expression related to hepatic lipids synthesis resulting in lower concentrations of cholesterol and triglycerides and reduced inflammation in the liver. PMID:28640194

  14. Moringa Leaves Prevent Hepatic Lipid Accumulation and Inflammation in Guinea Pigs by Reducing the Expression of Genes Involved in Lipid Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manal Mused Almatrafi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the mechanisms by which Moringa oleifera leaves (ML modulate hepatic lipids, guinea pigs were allocated to either control (0% ML, 10% Low Moringa (LM or 15% High Moringa (HM diets with 0.25% dietary cholesterol to induce hepatic steatosis. After 6 weeks, guinea pigs were sacrificed and liver and plasma were collected to determine plasma lipids, hepatic lipids, cytokines and the expression of genes involved in hepatic cholesterol (CH and triglyceride (TG metabolism. There were no differences in plasma lipids among groups. A dose-response effect of ML was observed in hepatic lipids (CH and TG with the lowest concentrations in the HM group (p < 0.001, consistent with histological evaluation of lipid droplets. Hepatic gene expression of diglyceride acyltransferase-2 and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ, as well as protein concentrations interleukin (IL-1β and interferon-γ, were lowest in the HM group (p < 0.005. Hepatic gene expression of cluster of differentiation-68 and sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c were 60% lower in both the LM and HM groups compared to controls (p < 0.01. This study demonstrates that ML may prevent hepatic steatosis by affecting gene expression related to hepatic lipids synthesis resulting in lower concentrations of cholesterol and triglycerides and reduced inflammation in the liver.

  15. Gene therapy for lipid disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rader Daniel J

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Lipid disorders are associated with atherosclerotic vascular disease, and therapy is associated with a substantial reduction in cardiovascular events. Current approaches to the treatment of lipid disorders are ineffective in a substantial number of patients. New therapies for refractory hypercholesterolemia, severe hypertriglyceridemia, and low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol are needed: somatic gene therapy is one viable approach. The molecular etiology and pathophysiology of most of the candidate diseases are well understood. Animal models exist for the diseases and in many cases preclinical proof-of-principle studies have already been performed. There has been progress in the development of vectors that provide long-term gene expression. New clinical gene therapy trials for lipid disorders are likely to be initiated within the next few years.

  16. Levels of bioactive lipids in cooking oils: olive oil is the richest source of oleoyl serine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Heather B; Leishman, Emma

    2016-05-01

    Rates of osteoporosis are significantly lower in regions of the world where olive oil consumption is a dietary cornerstone. Olive oil may represent a source of oleoyl serine (OS), which showed efficacy in animal models of osteoporosis. Here, we tested the hypothesis that OS as well as structurally analogous N-acyl amide and 2-acyl glycerol lipids are present in the following cooking oils: olive, walnut, canola, high heat canola, peanut, safflower, sesame, toasted sesame, grape seed, and smart balance omega. Methanolic lipid extracts from each of the cooking oils were partially purified on C-18 solid-phase extraction columns. Extracts were analyzed with high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and 33 lipids were measured in each sample, including OS and bioactive analogs. Of the oils screened here, walnut oil had the highest number of lipids detected (22/33). Olive oil had the second highest number of lipids detected (20/33), whereas grape-seed and high-heat canola oil were tied for lowest number of detected lipids (6/33). OS was detected in 8 of the 10 oils tested and the levels were highest in olive oil, suggesting that there is something about the olive plant that enriches this lipid. Cooking oils contain varying levels of bioactive lipids from the N-acyl amide and 2-acyl glycerol families. Olive oil is a dietary source of OS, which may contribute to lowered prevalence of osteoporosis in countries with high consumption of this oil.

  17. Strategies for Lipid Production Improvement in Microalgae as a Biodiesel Feedstock

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    L. D. Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In response to the energy crisis, global warming, and climate changes, microalgae have received a great deal of attention as a biofuel feedstock. Due to a high lipid content in microalgal cells, microalgae present as a promising alternative source for the production of biodiesel. Environmental and culturing condition variations can alter lipid production as well as chemical compositions of microalgae. Therefore, application of the strategies to activate lipid accumulation opens the door for lipid overproduction in microalgae. Until now, many original studies regarding the approaches for enhanced microalgal lipid production have been reported in an effort to push forward the production of microalgal biodiesel. However, the current literature demonstrates fragmented information available regarding the strategies for lipid production improvement. From the systematic point of view, the review highlights the main approaches for microalgal lipid accumulation induction to expedite the application of microalgal biodiesel as an alternative to fossil diesel for sustainable environment. Of th