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Sample records for intensity intermittent exercise

  1. High-Intensity Intermittent Exercise and Fat Loss

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    Stephen H. Boutcher

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of regular aerobic exercise on body fat is negligible; however, other forms of exercise may have a greater impact on body composition. For example, emerging research examining high-intensity intermittent exercise (HIIE indicates that it may be more effective at reducing subcutaneous and abdominal body fat than other types of exercise. The mechanisms underlying the fat reduction induced by HIIE, however, are undetermined. Regular HIIE has been shown to significantly increase both aerobic and anaerobic fitness. HIIE also significantly lowers insulin resistance and results in a number of skeletal muscle adaptations that result in enhanced skeletal muscle fat oxidation and improved glucose tolerance. This review summarizes the results of HIIE studies on fat loss, fitness, insulin resistance, and skeletal muscle. Possible mechanisms underlying HIIE-induced fat loss and implications for the use of HIIE in the treatment and prevention of obesity are also discussed.

  2. Ergogenic effects of caffeine and sodium bicarbonate supplementation on intermittent exercise performance preceded by intense arm cranking exercise

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    Marriott, Matthaus; Krustrup, Peter; Mohr, Magni

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Caffeine and sodium bicarbonate ingestion have been suggested to improve high-intensity intermittent exercise, but it is unclear if these ergogenic substances affect performance under provoked metabolic acidification. To study the effects of caffeine and sodium bicarbonate on intense...... to CAF and PLA, while no difference in heart rate was observed between trials. CONCLUSIONS: Caffeine and sodium bicarbonate administration improved Yo-Yo IR2 performance and lowered perceived exertion after intense arm cranking exercise, with greater overall effects of sodium bicarbonate intake....... intermittent exercise performance and metabolic markers under exercise-induced acidification, intense arm-cranking exercise was performed prior to intense intermittent running after intake of placebo, caffeine and sodium bicarbonate. METHODS: Male team-sports athletes (n = 12) ingested sodium bicarbonate (Na...

  3. Caffeine intake improves intense intermittent exercise performance and reduces muscle interstitial potassium accumulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohr, Magni; Nielsen, Jens Jung; Bangsbo, Jens

    2011-01-01

    The effect of oral caffeine ingestion on intense intermittent exercise performance and muscle interstitial ion concentrations was examined. The study consists of two studies (S1 and S2). In S1 twelve subjects completed the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 2 (Yo-Yo IR2) test with prior caffeine (6...... mg/kg b.w.; CAF) or placebo (PLA) intake. In S2 six subjects performed one low intense (20 W) and three intense (50 W) 3-min (separated by 5 min) one-legged knee-extension exercise bouts with (CAF) and without (CON) prior caffeine supplementation for determination of muscle interstitial K(+) and Na...

  4. Sodium bicarbonate intake improves high-intensity intermittent exercise performance in trained young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krustrup, Peter; Ermidis, Georgios; Mohr, Magni

    2015-01-01

    Background Sodium bicarbonate intake has been shown to improve exercise tolerance, but the effects on high-intensity intermittent exercise are less clear. Thus, the aim of the present study was to determine the effect of sodium bicarbonate intake on Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 2 test......) prior intake of sodium bicarbonate (0.4 g · kg−1 body weight). Heart rate and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured during the test and venous blood samples were taken frequently. Results Yo-Yo IR2 performance was 14 % higher (P = 0.04) in SBC than in CON (735 ± 61 vs 646 ± 46 m, respectively......-intensity intermittent exercise performance is improved by prior intake of sodium bicarbonate in trained young men, with concomitant elevations in blood alkalosis and peak blood lactate levels, as well as lowered rating of perceived exertion....

  5. Fatigue during high-intensity intermittent exercise: application to bodybuilding.

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    Lambert, Charles P; Flynn, Michael G

    2002-01-01

    Resistance exercise is an activity performed by individuals interested in competition, those who wish to improve muscle mass and strength for other sports, and for individuals interested in improving their strength and physical appearance. In this review we present information suggesting that phosphocreatine depletion, intramuscular acidosis and carbohydrate depletion are all potential causes of the fatigue during resistance exercise. In addition, recommendations are provided for nutritional interventions, which might delay muscle fatigue during this type of activity.

  6. Postexercise cold-water immersion improves intermittent high-intensity exercise performance in normothermia.

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    McCarthy, Avina; Mulligan, James; Egaña, Mikel

    2016-11-01

    A brief cold water immersion between 2 continuous high-intensity exercise bouts improves the performance of the latter compared with passive recovery in the heat. We investigated if this effect is apparent in normothermic conditions (∼19 °C), employing an intermittent high-intensity exercise designed to reflect the work performed at the high-intensity domain in team sports. Fifteen young active men completed 2 exhaustive cycling protocols (Ex1 and Ex2: 12 min at 85% ventilatory threshold (VT) and then an intermittent exercise alternating 30-s at 40% peak power (P peak ) and 30 s at 90% P peak to exhaustion) separated by 15 min of (i) passive rest, (ii) 5-min cold-water immersion at 8 °C, and (iii) 10-min cold-water immersion at 8 °C. Core temperature, heart rate, rates of perceived exertion, and oxygen uptake kinetics were not different during Ex1 among conditions. Time to failure during the intermittent exercise was significantly (P immersions (7.2 ± 3.5 min and 7.3 ± 3.3 min, respectively) compared with passive rest (5.8 ± 3.1 min). Core temperature, heart rate, and rates of perceived exertion were significantly (P immersions compared with passive rest. The time constant of phase II oxygen uptake response during the 85% VT bout of Ex2 was not different among the 3 conditions. A postexercise, 5- to 10-min cold-water immersion increases subsequent intermittent high-intensity exercise compared with passive rest in normothermia due, at least in part, to reductions in core temperature, circulatory strain, and effort perception.

  7. Effects of creatine supplementation on high-intensity intermittent exercise: discrepancies and methodological appraisals

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    Bruno Gualano

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2008v10n2p189 After a brief review of the literature on the effects of creatine supplementation on high-intensity intermittent exercise performance, the main aim of this study was to discuss methodological differences between studies which could explain the discrepancies observed in the literature. The effects of creatine supplementation on high-intensity intermittent exercise performance have been investigated in depth. Although the results of much research demonstrates the effi cacy of this supplement, there is just as much evidence that does not support this ergogenic effect. The explanation for this divergence appears to be multifactorial, although it is always linked to methodological characteristics. Study design (crossover or parallel groups, individual variability of muscular creatine content, chronic high meat intake, sample size, exercise protocol characteristics (body weight dependence and time between series, and gender and age all differ between studies and are potentially the variables responsible, to differing extents, for the discrepancies observed in the literature. Studies involving young males, with parallel group design, adequate statistical power, control of the incorporation of creatine into muscles, food intake assessment and intermittent exercise protocols in which performance is independent of body weight and with rest-recovery intervals of 1 to 6 minutes, usually produce positive results. The many methodological factors which can contribute to divergence on the ergogenic effects of creatine should be considered in futures studies, as well as when prescribing creatine supplementation.

  8. Beetroot Juice Supplementation Improves High-Intensity Intermittent Type Exercise Performance in Trained Soccer Players

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    Jean Nyakayiru

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available It has been shown that nitrate supplementation can enhance endurance exercise performance. Recent work suggests that nitrate ingestion can also increase intermittent type exercise performance in recreational athletes. We hypothesized that six days of nitrate supplementation can improve high-intensity intermittent type exercise performance in trained soccer players. Thirty-two male soccer players (age: 23 ± 1 years, height: 181 ± 1 m, weight: 77 ± 1 kg, playing experience: 15.2 ± 0.5 years, playing in the first team of a 2nd or 3rd Dutch amateur league club participated in this randomized, double-blind cross-over study. All subjects participated in two test days in which high-intensity intermittent running performance was assessed using the Yo-Yo IR1 test. Subjects ingested nitrate-rich (140 mL; ~800 mg nitrate/day; BR or a nitrate-depleted beetroot juice (PLA for six subsequent days, with at least eight days of wash-out between trials. The distance covered during the Yo-Yo IR1 was the primary outcome measure, while heart rate (HR was measured continuously throughout the test, and a single blood and saliva sample were collected just prior to the test. Six days of BR ingestion increased plasma and salivary nitrate and nitrite concentrations in comparison to PLA (p < 0.001, and enhanced Yo-Yo IR1 test performance by 3.4 ± 1.3% (from 1574 ± 47 to 1623 ± 48 m; p = 0.027. Mean HR was lower in the BR (172 ± 2 vs. PLA trial (175 ± 2; p = 0.014. Six days of BR ingestion effectively improves high-intensity intermittent type exercise performance in trained soccer players.

  9. The Effect of High-Intensity Intermittent Exercise on Body Composition of Overweight Young Males

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    M. Heydari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine the effect of a 12-week high intensity intermittent exercise (HIIE intervention on total body, abdominal, trunk, visceral fat mass, and fat free mass of young overweight males. Participants were randomly assigned to either exercise or control group. The intervention group received HIIE three times per week, 20 min per session, for 12 weeks. Aerobic power improved significantly (P0.05 occurred in levels of insulin, HOMA-IR, and blood lipids. Twelve weeks of HIIE resulted in significant reductions in total, abdominal, trunk, and visceral fat and significant increases in fat free mass and aerobic power.

  10. Sodium bicarbonate supplementation improves severe-intensity intermittent exercise under moderate acute hypoxic conditions.

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    Deb, Sanjoy K; Gough, Lewis A; Sparks, S Andy; McNaughton, Lars R

    2018-03-01

    Acute moderate hypoxic exposure can substantially impair exercise performance, which occurs with a concurrent exacerbated rise in hydrogen cation (H + ) production. The purpose of this study was therefore, to alleviate this acidic stress through sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO 3 ) supplementation and determine the corresponding effects on severe-intensity intermittent exercise performance. Eleven recreationally active individuals participated in this randomised, double-blind, crossover study performed under acute normobaric hypoxic conditions (FiO 2 % = 14.5%). Pre-experimental trials involved the determination of time to attain peak bicarbonate anion concentrations ([HCO 3 - ]) following NaHCO 3 ingestion. The intermittent exercise tests involved repeated 60-s work in their severe-intensity domain and 30-s recovery at 20 W to exhaustion. Participants ingested either 0.3 g kg bm -1 of NaHCO 3 or a matched placebo of 0.21 g kg bm -1 of sodium chloride prior to exercise. Exercise tolerance (+ 110.9 ± 100.6 s; 95% CI 43.3-178 s; g = 1.0) and work performed in the severe-intensity domain (+ 5.8 ± 6.6 kJ; 95% CI 1.3-9.9 kJ; g = 0.8) were enhanced with NaHCO 3 supplementation. Furthermore, a larger post-exercise blood lactate concentration was reported in the experimental group (+ 4 ± 2.4 mmol l -1 ; 95% CI 2.2-5.9; g = 1.8), while blood [HCO 3 - ] and pH remained elevated in the NaHCO 3 condition throughout experimentation. In conclusion, this study reported a positive effect of NaHCO 3 under acute moderate hypoxic conditions during intermittent exercise and therefore, may offer an ergogenic strategy to mitigate hypoxic induced declines in exercise performance.

  11. Neuromuscular fatigue during high-intensity intermittent exercise in individuals with intellectual disability.

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    Borji, Rihab; Sahli, Sonia; Zarrouk, Nidhal; Zghal, Firas; Rebai, Haithem

    2013-12-01

    This study examined neuromuscular fatigue after high-intensity intermittent exercise in 10 men with mild intellectual disability (ID) in comparison with 10 controls. Both groups performed three maximal voluntary contractions (MVC) of knee extension with 5 min in-between. The highest level achieved was selected as reference MVC. The fatiguing exercise consists of five sets with a maximal number of flexion-extension cycles at 80% of the one maximal repetition (1RM) for the right leg at 90° with 90 s rest interval between sets. The MVC was tested again after the last set. Peak force and electromyography (EMG) signals were measured during the MVC tests. Root Mean Square (RMS) and Median Frequency (MF) were calculated. Neuromuscular efficiency (NME) was calculated as the ratio of peak force to the RMS. Before exercise, individuals with ID had a lower MVC (psport train ID individuals, they should consider this nervous system weakness. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of Intermittent Neck Cooling During Repeated Bouts of High-Intensity Exercise

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    Andrew J. Galpin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this investigation was to determine the influence of intermittent neck cooling during exercise bouts designed to mimic combat sport competitions. Participants (n = 13, age = 25.3 ± 5.0 year height = 176.9 ± 7.5 cm, mass = 79.3 ± 9.0 kg, body fat = 11.8% ± 3.1% performed three trials on a cycle ergometer. Each trial consisted of two, 5-min high-intensity exercise (HEX intervals (HEX1 and HEX2—20 s at 50% peak power, followed by 15 s of rest, and a time to exhaustion (TTE test. One-minute rest intervals were given between each round (RI1 and RI2, during which researchers treated the participant’s posterior neck with either (1 wet-ice (ICE; (2 menthol spray (SPRAY; or (3 no treatment (CON. Neck (TNECK and chest (TCHEST skin temperatures were significantly lower following RI1 with ICE (vs. SPRAY. Thermal sensation decreased with ICE compared to CON following RI1, RI2, TTE, and a 2-min recovery. Rating of perceived exertion was also lower with ICE following HEX2 (vs. CON and after RI2 (vs. SPRAY. Treatment did not influence TTE (68.9 ± 18.9s. The ability of intermittent ICE to attenuate neck and chest skin temperature rises during the initial HEX stages likely explains why participants felt cooler and less exerted during equivalent HEX bouts. These data suggest intermittent ICE improves perceptual stress during short, repeated bouts of vigorous exercise.

  13. The Effect of High Intensity Intermittent Exercise on Power Output for the Upper Body

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    Leonie Harvey

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to examine and measure high intensity, intermittent upper body performance, in addition to identifying areas of the body that affect the variance in total work done during the 5 × 6 s sprint test. Fifteen males completed an upper body 5 × 6 s sprint test on a modified electro-magnetically braked cycle ergometer, which consisted of five maximal effort sprints, each 6 s in duration, separated by 24 s of passive recovery. A fly wheel braking force corresponding to 5% of the participants’ body weight was used as the implemented resistance level. Body composition was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA. Percent (% decrement was calculated as 100 − (Total work/ideal work × 100. Significant (P < 0.05 differences were found between sprints for both absolute and relative (W, W·kg−1, W·kg−1 Lean body mass (LBM and W·kg−1 Upper body lean body mass (UBLBM peak (PP and mean (MP power. The % decrement in total work done over the five sprints was 11.4%. Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis revealed that UBLBM accounts for 87% of the variance in total work done during the upper body 5 × 6 s sprint test. These results provide a descriptive analysis of upper body, high intensity intermittent exercise, demonstrating that PP and MP output decreased significantly during the upper body 5 × 6 s sprint test.

  14. Similar Anti-Inflammatory Acute Responses from Moderate-Intensity Continuous and High-Intensity Intermittent Exercise

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    Carolina Cabral-Santos, José Gerosa-Neto, Daniela Sayuri Inoue, Valéria Leme Gonçalves Panissa, Luís Alberto Gobbo, Alessandro Moura Zagatto, Eduardo Zapaterra Campos, Fábio Santos Lira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of high-intensity intermittent exercise (HIIE versus volume matched steady state exercise (SSE on inflammatory and metabolic responses. Eight physically active male subjects completed two experimental sessions, a 5-km run on a treadmill either continuously (70% vVO2max or intermittently (1:1 min at vVO2max. Blood samples were collected at rest, immediately, 30 and 60 minutes after the exercise session. Blood was analyzed for glucose, non-ester fatty acid (NEFA, uric acid, lactate, cortisol, and cytokines (IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-α levels. The lactate levels exhibited higher values immediately post-exercise than at rest (HIIE 1.34 ± 0.24 to 7.11 ± 2.85, and SSE 1.35 ± 0.14 to 4.06±1.60 mmol·L-1, p 0.05. Cortisol, IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-α levels showed time-dependent changes under the different conditions (p < 0.05, however, the area under the curve of TNF-α in the SSE were higher than HIIE (p < 0.05, and the area under the curve of IL-6 in the HIIE showed higher values than SSE (p < 0.05. In addition, both exercise conditions promote increased IL-10 levels and IL-10/TNF-α ratio (p < 0.05. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that both exercise protocols, when volume is matched, promote similar inflammatory responses, leading to an anti-inflammatory status; however, the metabolic responses are different.

  15. Sodium bicarbonate intake improves high-intensity intermittent exercise performance in trained young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krustrup, Peter; Ermidis, Georgios; Mohr, Magni

    2015-01-01

    Sodium bicarbonate intake has been shown to improve exercise tolerance, but the effects on high-intensity intermittent exercise are less clear. Thus, the aim of the present study was to determine the effect of sodium bicarbonate intake on Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 2 performance in trained young men. Thirteen men aged 23 ± 1 year (height: 180 ± 2 cm, weight: 78 ± 3 kg; VO2max: 61.3 ± 3.3 mlO2 · kg(-1) · min(-1); means ± SEM) performed the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 2 (Yo-Yo IR2) on two separate occasions in randomized order with (SBC) and without (CON) prior intake of sodium bicarbonate (0.4 g · kg(-1) body weight). Heart rate and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured during the test and venous blood samples were taken frequently. Yo-Yo IR2 performance was 14 % higher (P = 0.04) in SBC than in CON (735 ± 61 vs 646 ± 46 m, respectively). Blood pH and bicarbonate were similar between trials at baseline, but higher (P = 0.003) immediately prior to the Yo-Yo IR2 test in SBC than in CON (7.44 ± 0.01 vs 7.32 ± 0.01 and 33.7 ± 3.2 vs 27.3 ± 0.6 mmol · l(-1), respectively). Blood lactate was 0.9 ± 0.1 and 0.8 ± 0.1 mmol · l(-1) at baseline and increased to 11.3 ± 1.4 and 9.4 ± 0.8 mmol · l(-1) at exhaustion in SBC and CON, respectively, being higher (P = 0.03) in SBC. Additionally, peak blood lactate was higher (P = 0.02) in SBC than in CON (11.7 ± 1.2 vs 10.2 ± 0.7 mmol · l(-1)). Blood glucose, plasma K(+) and Na(+) were not different between trials. Peak heart rate reached at exhaustion was 197 ± 3 and 195 ± 3 bpm in SBC and CON, respectively, with no difference between conditions. RPE was 7% lower (P = 0.003) in SBC than in CON after 440 m, but similar at exhaustion (19.3 ± 0.2 and 19.5 ± 0.2). In conclusion, high-intensity intermittent exercise performance is improved by prior

  16. Effects of creatine supplementation on high-intensity intermittent exercise: discrepancies and methodological appraisals

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    Patrícia Chackur Brum

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available After a brief review of the literature on the effects of creatine supplementation on high-intensity intermittent exercise performance, the main aim of this study was to discuss methodological differences between studies which could explain the discrepancies observed in the literature. The effects of creatine supplementation on high-intensity intermittent exercise performance have been investigated in depth. Although the results of much research demonstrates the effi cacy of this supplement, there is just as much evidence that does not support this ergogenic effect. The explanation for this divergence appears to be multifactorial, although it is always linked to methodological characteristics. Study design (crossover or parallel groups, individual variability of muscular creatine content, chronic high meat intake, sample size, exercise protocol characteristics (body weight dependence and time between series, and gender and age all differ between studies and are potentially the variables responsible, to differing extents, for the discrepancies observed in the literature. Studies involving young males, with parallel group design, adequate statistical power, control of the incorporation of creatine into muscles, food intake assessment and intermittent exercise protocols in which performance is independent of body weight and with rest-recovery intervals of 1 to 6 minutes, usually produce positive results. The many methodological factors which can contribute to divergence on the ergogenic effects of creatine should be considered in futures studies, as well as when prescribing creatine supplementation. Resumo Após breve revisão da literatura existente acerca dos efeitos da suplementação de creatina no rendimento em atividades intermitentes de alta intensidade, o objetivo principal dessa revisão foi discutir diferenças metodológicas dos estudos que possam explicar a divergência encontrada na literatura. Os efeitos da suplementação de creatina

  17. The 'Critical Power' Concept: Applications to Sports Performance with a Focus on Intermittent High-Intensity Exercise.

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    Jones, Andrew M; Vanhatalo, Anni

    2017-03-01

    The curvilinear relationship between power output and the time for which it can be sustained is a fundamental and well-known feature of high-intensity exercise performance. This relationship 'levels off' at a 'critical power' (CP) that separates power outputs that can be sustained with stable values of, for example, muscle phosphocreatine, blood lactate, and pulmonary oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]), from power outputs where these variables change continuously with time until their respective minimum and maximum values are reached and exercise intolerance occurs. The amount of work that can be done during exercise above CP (the so-called W') is constant but may be utilized at different rates depending on the proximity of the exercise power output to CP. Traditionally, this two-parameter CP model has been employed to provide insights into physiological responses, fatigue mechanisms, and performance capacity during continuous constant power output exercise in discrete exercise intensity domains. However, many team sports (e.g., basketball, football, hockey, rugby) involve frequent changes in exercise intensity and, even in endurance sports (e.g., cycling, running), intensity may vary considerably with environmental/course conditions and pacing strategy. In recent years, the appeal of the CP concept has been broadened through its application to intermittent high-intensity exercise. With the assumptions that W' is utilized during work intervals above CP and reconstituted during recovery intervals below CP, it can be shown that performance during intermittent exercise is related to four factors: the intensity and duration of the work intervals and the intensity and duration of the recovery intervals. However, while the utilization of W' may be assumed to be linear, studies indicate that the reconstitution of W' may be curvilinear with kinetics that are highly variable between individuals. This has led to the development of a new CP model for intermittent exercise in

  18. Acute effects of resistance exercise and intermittent intense aerobic exercise on blood cell count and oxidative stress in trained middle-aged women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, A M; Bagatini, M D; Roth, M A; Martins, C C; Rezer, J F P; Mello, F F; Lopes, L F D; Morsch, V M; Schetinger, M R C

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of an intermittent intense aerobic exercise session and a resistance exercise session on blood cell counts and oxidative stress parameters in middle-aged women. Thirty-four women were selected and divided into three groups: RE group (performing 60 min of resistance exercises, N = 12), spinning group (performing 60 min of spinning, N = 12), and control group (not exercising regularly, N = 10). In both exercise groups, lymphocytes and monocytes decreased after 1-h recuperation (post-exercise) compared to immediately after exercise (P exercise, in both exercised groups, a significant increase in TBARS (from 16.5 ± 2 to 25 ± 2 for the spinning group and from 18.6 ± 1 to 28.2 ± 3 nmol MDA/mL serum for the RE group) and protein carbonyl (from 1.0 ± 0.3 to 1.6 ± 0.2 for the spinning group and from 0.9 ± 0.2 to 1.5 ± 0.2 nmol/mg protein for the RE group) was observed (P exercise induces immune suppression and increases the production of reactive oxygen species, causing oxidative stress in middle-aged and trained women. Furthermore, we demonstrated that trained women show improved antioxidant capacity and lower oxidative damage than sedentary ones, demonstrating the benefits of chronic regular physical activity.

  19. Acute effects of resistance exercise and intermittent intense aerobic exercise on blood cell count and oxidative stress in trained middle-aged women

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    Cardoso, A.M. [Departamento de Química, Centro de Ciências Naturais e Exatas, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Bagatini, M.D. [Curso de Enfermagem, Campus Chapecó, Universidade Federal da Fronteira Sul, Chapecó, SC (Brazil); Roth, M.A. [Departamento de Desportos Individuais, Centro de Educação Física e Desportos, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Martins, C.C.; Rezer, J.F.P. [Departamento de Química, Centro de Ciências Naturais e Exatas, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Mello, F.F. [Departamento de Desportos Individuais, Centro de Educação Física e Desportos, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Lopes, L.F.D. [Departamento de Administração, Centro de Ciências Sociais e Humanas, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Morsch, V.M.; Schetinger, M.R.C. [Departamento de Química, Centro de Ciências Naturais e Exatas, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil)

    2012-10-26

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of an intermittent intense aerobic exercise session and a resistance exercise session on blood cell counts and oxidative stress parameters in middle-aged women. Thirty-four women were selected and divided into three groups: RE group (performing 60 min of resistance exercises, N = 12), spinning group (performing 60 min of spinning, N = 12), and control group (not exercising regularly, N = 10). In both exercise groups, lymphocytes and monocytes decreased after 1-h recuperation (post-exercise) compared to immediately after exercise (P < 0.05). Immediately after exercise, in both exercised groups, a significant increase in TBARS (from 16.5 ± 2 to 25 ± 2 for the spinning group and from 18.6 ± 1 to 28.2 ± 3 nmol MDA/mL serum for the RE group) and protein carbonyl (from 1.0 ± 0.3 to 1.6 ± 0.2 for the spinning group and from 0.9 ± 0.2 to 1.5 ± 0.2 nmol/mg protein for the RE group) was observed (P < 0.05). A decrease in antioxidant activities (non-protein sulfhydryl, superoxide dismutase, catalase) was also demonstrated with a negative correlation between damage markers and antioxidant body defenses (P < 0.05). These results indicate that an acute bout of intermittent or anaerobic exercise induces immune suppression and increases the production of reactive oxygen species, causing oxidative stress in middle-aged and trained women. Furthermore, we demonstrated that trained women show improved antioxidant capacity and lower oxidative damage than sedentary ones, demonstrating the benefits of chronic regular physical activity.

  20. Acute effects of resistance exercise and intermittent intense aerobic exercise on blood cell count and oxidative stress in trained middle-aged women

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    A.M. Cardoso

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the effect of an intermittent intense aerobic exercise session and a resistance exercise session on blood cell counts and oxidative stress parameters in middle-aged women. Thirty-four women were selected and divided into three groups: RE group (performing 60 min of resistance exercises, N = 12, spinning group (performing 60 min of spinning, N = 12, and control group (not exercising regularly, N = 10. In both exercise groups, lymphocytes and monocytes decreased after 1-h recuperation (post-exercise compared to immediately after exercise (P < 0.05. Immediately after exercise, in both exercised groups, a significant increase in TBARS (from 16.5 ± 2 to 25 ± 2 for the spinning group and from 18.6 ± 1 to 28.2 ± 3 nmol MDA/mL serum for the RE group and protein carbonyl (from 1.0 ± 0.3 to 1.6 ± 0.2 for the spinning group and from 0.9 ± 0.2 to 1.5 ± 0.2 nmol/mg protein for the RE group was observed (P < 0.05. A decrease in antioxidant activities (non-protein sulfhydryl, superoxide dismutase, catalase was also demonstrated with a negative correlation between damage markers and antioxidant body defenses (P < 0.05. These results indicate that an acute bout of intermittent or anaerobic exercise induces immune suppression and increases the production of reactive oxygen species, causing oxidative stress in middle-aged and trained women. Furthermore, we demonstrated that trained women show improved antioxidant capacity and lower oxidative damage than sedentary ones, demonstrating the benefits of chronic regular physical activity.

  1. Acute effects of resistance exercise and intermittent intense aerobic exercise on blood cell count and oxidative stress in trained middle-aged women

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    Cardoso, A.M.; Bagatini, M.D.; Roth, M.A.; Martins, C.C.; Rezer, J.F.P.; Mello, F.F.; Lopes, L.F.D.; Morsch, V.M.; Schetinger, M.R.C.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of an intermittent intense aerobic exercise session and a resistance exercise session on blood cell counts and oxidative stress parameters in middle-aged women. Thirty-four women were selected and divided into three groups: RE group (performing 60 min of resistance exercises, N = 12), spinning group (performing 60 min of spinning, N = 12), and control group (not exercising regularly, N = 10). In both exercise groups, lymphocytes and monocytes decreased after 1-h recuperation (post-exercise) compared to immediately after exercise (P < 0.05). Immediately after exercise, in both exercised groups, a significant increase in TBARS (from 16.5 ± 2 to 25 ± 2 for the spinning group and from 18.6 ± 1 to 28.2 ± 3 nmol MDA/mL serum for the RE group) and protein carbonyl (from 1.0 ± 0.3 to 1.6 ± 0.2 for the spinning group and from 0.9 ± 0.2 to 1.5 ± 0.2 nmol/mg protein for the RE group) was observed (P < 0.05). A decrease in antioxidant activities (non-protein sulfhydryl, superoxide dismutase, catalase) was also demonstrated with a negative correlation between damage markers and antioxidant body defenses (P < 0.05). These results indicate that an acute bout of intermittent or anaerobic exercise induces immune suppression and increases the production of reactive oxygen species, causing oxidative stress in middle-aged and trained women. Furthermore, we demonstrated that trained women show improved antioxidant capacity and lower oxidative damage than sedentary ones, demonstrating the benefits of chronic regular physical activity

  2. High-intensity intermittent exercise and its effects on heart rate variability and subsequent strength performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Leme Gonçalves Panissa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available PRUPOSE: To investigate the effects of a 5-km high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE on heart rate variability (HRV and subsequent strength performance. METHODS: nine trained males performed a control session composed of a half-squat strength exercise (4 x 80% of one repetition maximum – 1RM in isolation and 30-min, 1-, 4-, 8- and 24-h after an HIIE (1-min at the velocity peak:1-min passive recovery. All experimental sessions were performed on different days. The maximum number of repetitions and total weight lifted during the strength exercise were registered in all conditions; in addition, prior to each session, HRV were assessed [beat-to-beat intervals (RR and log-transformed of root means square of successive differences in the normal-to-normal intervals (lnRMSSD]. RESULTS: Performance in the strength exercise dropped at 30-min (31% and 1-h (19% post-HIIE concomitantly with lower values of RR (781±79 ms; 799±134 ms, respectively in the same recovery intervals compared to the control (1015±197 ms. Inferential analysis did not detect any effect of condition on lnRMSSD, however, values were lower after 30-min (3.5±0.4 ms and 1-h (3.3±0.5 ms with moderate and large effect sizes (0.9 and 1.2, respectively compared with the control condition (3.9±0.4 ms. CONCLUSION: Both RR and lnRMSSD seem to be associated with deleterious effects on strength performance, although further studies should be conducted to clarify this association.

  3. Effect of Wheelchair Running on Recovery of Blood Lactate and Physical Performance after High-Intensity Intermittent Exercise – An Experimental Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthikeyan G

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Repetitive sprint sport players perform high intensity exercise only for a small percentage of a total game and such periods are often instrumental in determining the eventual outcome. Recovery is a key factor for performance, and constant lack of recovery or insufficient recovery turns into overtraining which is detrimental in achieving peak performance. The purpose was to find out the effect of wheelchair running on the physical performance recovery after high-intensity intermittent exercise. Method: Ten sportsmen having the age range from 20 to 29, VO2max Ranges from 60.51 to 64.29 were randomly divided into experimental and control groups. After filling pre-participation questionnaire and 30-min of supine rest, Blood lactate and the field tests for the measurement of static balance, power, speed and agility were applied. The subjects were made to run in the treadmill and to increase the intensity to reach the Target Heart Rate (THR. After 1-min the subjects were given rest for 15-s and after that they started exercise again and thus the subjects completed several bouts of such exercises until exhaustion followed by either Passive rest or wheelchair running for the duration of 10 minutes. Parameters were measures after completed the exercise bout and after the recovery. Results: After the recovery in experimental group significant improvement found only in blood lactate (p<0.01 and no significant changes found in other parameters while in control group no significant changes found in all parameters. There was no significant difference found in all the parameters including blood lactate between the groups. Conclusion: Both wheelchair running and passive recovery are same in the efficiency of blood lactate removal and restoration of physical performance following intense intermittent exercise.

  4. Application of A Physiological Strain Index in Evaluating Responses to Exercise Stress – A Comparison Between Endurance and High Intensity Intermittent Trained Athletes

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    Pokora Ilona

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The study evaluated differences in response to exercise stress between endurance and high-intensity intermittent trained athletes in a thermoneutral environment using a physiological strain index (PSI. Thirty-two subjects participated in a running exercise under normal (23°C, 50% RH conditions. The group included nine endurance trained athletes (middle-distance runners - MD, twelve high-intensity intermittent trained athletes (soccer players - HIIT and eleven students who constituted a control group. The exercise started at a speed of 4 km·h–1 which was increased every 3 min by 2 km·h–1 to volitional exhaustion. The heart rate was recorded with a heart rate monitor and aural canal temperature was measured using an aural canal temperature probe. The physiological strain index (PSI and the contribution of the circulatory and thermal components to the overall physiological strain were calculated from the heart rate and aural canal temperature. The physiological strain index differed between the study and control participants, but not between the MD and HIIT groups. The physiological strain in response to exercise stress in a thermoneutral environment was mainly determined based on the circulatory strain (MD group - 73%, HIIT group – 70%. The contribution of the circulatory and thermal components to the physiological strain did not differ significantly between the trained groups (MD and HIIT despite important differences in morphological characteristics and training-induced systemic cardiovascular and thermoregulatory adaptations.

  5. High intensity aerobic exercise training improves chronic intermittent hypoxia-induced insulin resistance without basal autophagy modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauly, Marion; Assense, Allan; Rondon, Aurélie; Thomas, Amandine; Dubouchaud, Hervé; Freyssenet, Damien; Benoit, Henri; Castells, Josiane; Flore, Patrice

    2017-03-03

    Chronic intermittent hypoxia (IH) associated with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a major risk factor for cardiovascular and metabolic diseases (insulin resistance: IR). Autophagy is involved in the pathophysiology of IR and high intensity training (HIT) has recently emerged as a potential therapy. We aimed to confirm IH-induced IR in a tissue-dependent way and to explore the preventive effect of HIT on IR-induced by IH. Thirty Swiss 129 male mice were randomly assigned to Normoxia (N), Intermittent Hypoxia (IH: 21-5% FiO 2 , 30 s cycle, 8 h/day) or IH associated with high intensity training (IH HIT). After 8 days of HIT (2*24 min, 50 to 90% of Maximal Aerobic Speed or MAS on a treadmill) mice underwent 14 days IH or N. We found that IH induced IR, characterized by a greater glycemia, an impaired insulin sensitivity and lower AKT phosphorylation in adipose tissue and liver. Nevertheless, MAS and AKT phosphorylation were greater in muscle after IH. IH associated with HIT induced better systemic insulin sensitivity and AKT phosphorylation in liver. Autophagy markers were not altered in both conditions. These findings suggest that HIT could represent a preventive strategy to limit IH-induced IR without change of basal autophagy.

  6. Investigation of the Effects of High-Intensity, Intermittent Exercise and Unanticipation on Trunk and Lower Limb Biomechanics During a Side-Cutting Maneuver Using Statistical Parametric Mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whyte, Enda F; Richter, Chris; OʼConnor, Siobhan; Moran, Kieran A

    2018-06-01

    Whyte, EF, Richter, C, O'Connor, S, and Moran, KA. Investigation of the effects of high-intensity, intermittent exercise and unanticipation on trunk and lower limb biomechanics during a side-cutting maneuver using statistical parametric mapping. J Strength Cond Res 32(6): 1583-1593, 2018-Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries frequently occur during side-cutting maneuvers when fatigued or reacting to the sporting environment. Trunk and hip biomechanics are proposed to influence ACL loading during these activities. However, the effects of fatigue and unanticipation on the biomechanics of the kinetic chain may be limited by traditional discrete point analysis. We recruited 28 male, varsity, Gaelic footballers (21.7 ± 2.2 years; 178.7 ± 14.6 m; 81.8 ± 11.4 kg) to perform anticipated and unanticipated side-cutting maneuvers before and after a high-intensity, intermittent exercise protocol (HIIP). Statistical parametric mapping (repeated-measures analysis of varience) identified differences in phases of trunk and stance leg biomechanics during weight acceptance. Unanticipation resulted in less trunk flexion (p < 0.001) and greater side flexion away from the direction of cut (p < 0.001). This led to smaller (internal) knee flexor and greater (internal) knee extensor (p = 0.002-0.007), hip adductor (p = 0.005), and hip external rotator (p = 0.007) moments. The HIIP resulted in increased trunk flexion (p < 0.001) and side flexion away from the direction of cut (p = 0.038), resulting in smaller (internal) knee extensor moments (p = 0.006). One interaction effect was noted demonstrating greater hip extensor moments in the unanticipated condition post-HIIP (p = 0.025). Results demonstrate that unanticipation resulted in trunk kinematics considered an ACL injury risk factor. A subsequent increase in frontal and transverse plane hip loading and sagittal plane knee loading was observed, which may increase ACL strain. Conversely, HIIP-induced trunk kinematic alterations

  7. The Effects of Combination of High Intensity Intermittent Exercise and Supplement Flaxseed Oil 1 ICAM- Plasma Concentration in Male Rats

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    Y Khademi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Prevalence of cardiovascular diseases is rooted in inflammation and inflammation is along with the increase of ICAM-1. The aim of the present study was to review the effect of combination of high interval training and flaxseed oil supplementation on plasma concentration of ICAM-1 of rats. Methods: In this experimental study, 30 rats were selected and divided into six groups of five male rats, including (1 control, (2 training, (3 10 mg/kg Flaxseed oil, (4 30 mg/kg Flaxseed oil, (5 training with 10 mg/kg Flaxseed oil and (6 training with 30 mg/kg Flaxseed oil. Groups of 2, 5 and 6 were trained with high intensity interval training for 10 weeks and five sessions per week, also groups 3 to 6 received flaxseed oil for 10 weeks. For statistical analysis of data two way ANOVA test was used (p≤0.05. Results: 10 weeks  treating high intensity interval training  for 10 weeks had significant effect on the increase of the plasma concentration of ICAM-1 of male rats (p=0.001. Nevertheless, Taking 10 weeks 10 and 30 mg/kg flaxseed oil supplementation for 10 weeks has significant effect on reducing  the plasma concentration of ICAM-1 of rats (p=0.001. Training and taking flaxseed oil supplementation have interactional effect on reduingc the plasma concentration of ICAM-1 of male rats (p=0.001. Conclusion: Combination of high intensity interval training and flaxseed oil supplementation has interactional effects on the improvement of plasma concentration of ICAM-1 in male rats.

  8. Muscular soreness following prolonged intermittent high-intensity shuttle running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, D; Nicholas, C W; Williams, C

    1999-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the impact of prolonged intermittent high-intensity shuttle running on soreness and markers of muscle damage. Sixteen males took part in the study, half of whom were assigned to a running group and half to a resting control group. The exercise protocol involved 90 min of intermittent shuttle running and walking (Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test: LIST), reflecting the activity pattern found in multiple-sprint sports such as soccer. Immediately after exercise, there was a significant increase (P < 0.05) in serum activities of creatine kinase and aspartate aminotransferase, and values remained above baseline for 48 h (P < 0.05). Median peak activities of creatine kinase and aspartate aminotransferase occurred 24 h post-exercise and were 774 and 43 U x l(-1), respectively. The intensity of general muscle soreness, and in the specific muscles investigated, was greater than baseline for 72 h after the shuttle test (P < 0.05), peaking 24-48 h post-exercise (P < 0.05). Muscle soreness was not correlated with either creatine kinase or aspartate aminotransferase activity. Soreness was most frequently reported in the hamstrings. Neither soreness nor serum enzyme activity changed in the controls over the 4 day observation period. It appears that unaccustomed performance of prolonged intermittent shuttle running produces a significant increase in both soreness and markers of muscle damage.

  9. The effect of running versus cycling high-intensity intermittent exercise on local tissue oxygenation and perceived enjoyment in 18–30-year-old sedentary men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Colin

    2018-01-01

    Background High-intensity interval training (HIIT) has been proposed as a time-efficient exercise format to improve exercise adherence, thereby targeting the chronic disease burden associated with sedentary behaviour. Exercise mode (cycling, running), if self-selected, will likely affect the physiological and enjoyment responses to HIIT in sedentary individuals. Differences in physiological and enjoyment responses, associated with the mode of exercise, could potentially influence the uptake and continued adherence to HIIT. It was hypothesised that in young sedentary men, local and systemic oxygen utilisation and enjoyment would be higher during a session of running HIIT, compared to a session of cycling HIIT. Methods A total of 12 sedentary men (mean ± SD; age 24 ± 3 years) completed three exercise sessions: a maximal incremental exercise test on a treadmill (MAX) followed by two experiment conditions, (1) free-paced cycling HIIT on a bicycle ergometer (HIITCYC) and (2) constant-paced running HIIT on a treadmill ergometer (HIITRUN). Deoxygenated haemoglobin (HHb) in the gastrocnemius (GN), the left vastus lateralis (LVL) and the right vastus lateralis (RVL) muscles, oxygen consumption (VO2), heart rate (HR), ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) and physical activity enjoyment (PACES) were measured during HIITCYC and HIITRUN. Results There was a higher HHb in the LVL (p = 0.001) and RVL (p = 0.002) sites and a higher VO2 (p = 0.017) and HR (p HIIT produces higher levels of physiological stress when compared to constant-paced running HIIT. Participants perceived running HIIT to be more enjoyable than cycling HIIT. These findings have implications for selection of mode of HIIT for physical stress, exercise enjoyment and compliance.

  10. The effect of running versus cycling high-intensity intermittent exercise on local tissue oxygenation and perceived enjoyment in 18-30-year-old sedentary men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriel, Yuri; Askew, Christopher D; Solomon, Colin

    2018-01-01

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) has been proposed as a time-efficient exercise format to improve exercise adherence, thereby targeting the chronic disease burden associated with sedentary behaviour. Exercise mode (cycling, running), if self-selected, will likely affect the physiological and enjoyment responses to HIIT in sedentary individuals. Differences in physiological and enjoyment responses, associated with the mode of exercise, could potentially influence the uptake and continued adherence to HIIT. It was hypothesised that in young sedentary men, local and systemic oxygen utilisation and enjoyment would be higher during a session of running HIIT, compared to a session of cycling HIIT. A total of 12 sedentary men (mean ± SD; age 24 ± 3 years) completed three exercise sessions: a maximal incremental exercise test on a treadmill (MAX) followed by two experiment conditions, (1) free-paced cycling HIIT on a bicycle ergometer (HIITCYC) and (2) constant-paced running HIIT on a treadmill ergometer (HIITRUN). Deoxygenated haemoglobin (HHb) in the gastrocnemius (GN), the left vastus lateralis (LVL) and the right vastus lateralis (RVL) muscles, oxygen consumption (VO 2 ), heart rate (HR), ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) and physical activity enjoyment (PACES) were measured during HIITCYC and HIITRUN. There was a higher HHb in the LVL ( p = 0.001) and RVL ( p = 0.002) sites and a higher VO 2 ( p = 0.017) and HR ( p HIIT produces higher levels of physiological stress when compared to constant-paced running HIIT. Participants perceived running HIIT to be more enjoyable than cycling HIIT. These findings have implications for selection of mode of HIIT for physical stress, exercise enjoyment and compliance.

  11. The Effect of Active versus Passive Recovery Periods during High Intensity Intermittent Exercise on Local Tissue Oxygenation in 18 - 30 Year Old Sedentary Men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri Kriel

    Full Text Available High intensity interval training (HIIT has been proposed as a time-efficient format of exercise to reduce the chronic disease burden associated with sedentary behaviour. Changes in oxygen utilisation at the local tissue level during an acute session of HIIT could be the primary stimulus for the health benefits associated with this format of exercise. The recovery periods of HIIT effect the physiological responses that occur during the session. It was hypothesised that in sedentary individuals, local and systemic oxygen utilisation would be higher during HIIT interspersed with active recovery periods, when compared to passive recovery periods.Twelve sedentary males (mean ± SD; age 23 ± 3 yr completed three conditions on a cycle ergometer: 1 HIIT with passive recovery periods between four bouts (HIITPASS 2 HIIT with active recovery periods between four bouts (HIITACT 3 HIITACT with four HIIT bouts replaced with passive periods (REC. Deoxygenated haemoglobin (HHb in the vastus lateralis (VL and gastrocnemius (GN muscles and the pre-frontal cortex (FH, oxygen consumption (VO2, power output and heart rate (HR were measured continuously during the three conditions.There was a significant increase in HHb at VL during bouts 2 (p = 0.017, 3 (p = 0.035 and 4 (p = 0.035 in HIITACT, compared to HIITPASS. Mean power output was significantly lower in HIITACT, compared to HIITPASS (p < 0.001. There was a significant main effect for site in both HIITPASS (p = 0.029 and HIITACT (p = 0.005. There were no significant differences in VO2 and HR between HIITPASS and HIITACT.The increase in HHb at VL and the lower mean power output during HIITACT could indicate that a higher level of deoxygenation contributes to decreased mechanical power in sedentary participants. The significant differences in HHb between sites indicates the specificity of oxygen utilisation.

  12. Effects of intermittent fasting and chronic swimming exercise on body composition and lipid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, Ruan Carlos Macedo de; Portari, Guilherme Vannucchi; Ferraz, Alex Soares Marreiros; da Silva, Tiago Eugênio Oliveira; Marocolo, Moacir

    2017-12-01

    Intermittent fasting protocol (IFP) has been suggested as a strategy to change body metabolism and improve health. The effects of IFP seem to be similar to aerobic exercise, having a hormetic adaptation according to intensity and frequency. However, the effects of combining both interventions are still unknown. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of IFP with and without endurance-exercise training on body composition, food behavior, and lipid metabolism. Twenty-week-old Wistar rats were kept under an inverted circadian cycle of 12 h with water ad libitum and assigned to 4 different groups: control group (ad libitum feeding and sedentary), exercise group (ad libitum feeding and endurance training), intermittent fasting group (IF; intermittent fasting and sedentary), and intermittent fasting and exercise group (IFEX; intermittent fasting and endurance training). After 6 weeks, the body weight of IF and IFEX animals decreased without changes in food consumption. Yet, the body composition between the 2 groups was different, with the IFEX animals containing higher total protein and lower total fat content than the IF animals. The IFEX group also showed increases in total high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and increased intramuscular lipid content. The amount of brown adipose tissue was higher in IF and IFEX groups; however, the IFEX group showed higher expression levels of uncoupling protein 1 in this tissue, indicating a greater thermogenesis. The IFP combined with endurance training is an efficient method for decreasing body mass and altering fat metabolism, without inflicting losses in protein content.

  13. Home-based exercise for elderly patients with intermittent claudication limited by osteoarticular disorders - feasibility and effectiveness of a low-intensity programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamberti, Nicola; Straudi, Sofia; Lissia, Efisio; Cavazzini, Lorenza; Buja, Sergio; Manfredini, Roberto; Basaglia, Nino; Manfredini, Fabio

    2018-04-01

    Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a common cardiovascular pathology affecting mobility in elderly. Osteoarticular diseases (ODs), responsible for functional limitations and confounding leg symptoms, may interfere with exercise therapy. This study evaluates the feasibility and effectiveness of a structured home-based exercise programme on rehabilitative outcomes in a cohort of elderly PAD patients with and without coexisting ODs. Patients were enrolled from 2002 to 2016 in an exercise programme prescribed and controlled at the hospital and based on two daily 10-minute home walking sessions below the self-selected speed. The presence and localization of ODs at baseline were derived from consultation of medical documents. The ankle-brachial index and functional outcomes, defined as speed at the onset of claudication and attainable maximal speed by an incremental treadmill test, were assessed at baseline and discharge. Feasibility was determined according to dropout rate, number of visits, duration of the programme, and adherence. A total of 1,251 PAD patients were enrolled (931 men; 71 ± 9 years; 0.63 ± 0.19 ankle-brachial index). Eight hundred sixty-four patients were free of ODs (ODfree PAD , 69 %), whereas 387 were affected by ODs (OD PAD , 31 %), predominantly located in the spine (72 %). In the logistic regression models, the presence of ODs was associated with female sex, overweight, sedentary and/or driving professions. At discharge, OD PAD and ODfree PAD did not differ in dropout rates (12 % each), programme duration (378 ± 241 vs. 390 ± 260 days), number of visits (7 ± 3 each), and adherence (80 % each). Similar improvements for OD PAD and ODfree PAD were observed for the ankle-brachial index (0.06 ± 0.12 each), the speed at onset of claudication (0.7 ± 0.7 vs. 0.7 ± 0.8 kmh-1; p = 0.70), and maximal speed (0.4 ± 0.6 vs. 0.4 ± 0.6 kmh-1; p = 0.77). Equally satisfactory rehabilitative outcomes were observed in elderly patients with claudication

  14. Environmental heat stress, hyperammonemia and nucleotide metabolism during intermittent exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohr, Magni; Rasmussen, Peter; Drust, Barry

    2006-01-01

    ) followed by five 15 s all-out sprints. Control trials were conducted in a 20°C environment while heat stress trials were performed at an ambient temperature of 40°C. Muscle biopsies and venous blood samples were obtained at rest, after 40 min of exercise and following the maximal sprints. Following......Abstract  This study investigated the influence of environmental heat stress on ammonia (NH3) accumulation in relation to nucleotide metabolism and fatigue during intermittent exercise. Eight males performed 40 min of intermittent exercise (15 s at 306±22 W alternating with 15 s of unloaded cycling...... exercise with heat stress, the core and muscle temperatures peaked at 39.5±0.2 and 40.2±0.2°C to be ~ 1°C higher (Pheat stress trial (P

  15. Muscle Fatigue during Intermittent Exercise in Individuals with Mental Retardation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafeiridis, Andreas; Giagazoglou, Paraskevi; Dipla, Konstantina; Salonikidis, Konstantinos; Karra, Chrisanthi; Kellis, Eleftherios

    2010-01-01

    This study examined fatigue profile during intermittent exercise in 10 men with mild to moderate mental retardation (MR) and 10 men without mental retardation (C). They performed 4 x 30 s maximal knee extensions and flexions with 1-min rest on an isokinetic dynamometer. Peak torque of flexors (PTFL) and extensors (PTEX), total work (TW), and…

  16. Effect of exercise intensity on exercise and post exercise energy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to determine if exercise and post exercise energy expenditure are affected by the intensity of exercise during a set distance of 4km walking and/or jogging. Subjects for this study were 12 moderately obese females with mean fat percentage of 31.7±6.3% and mean age of 38.2±4.6 years. For the low ...

  17. Exercise prescription using the heart of claudication pain onset in patients with intermittent claudication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Grizzo Cucato

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the acute metabolic and cardiovascular responses to walking exercise at an intensity corresponding to the heart rate of claudication pain onset and to investigate the effects of a 12-week walking training program at this intensity on walking capacity. METHODS: Twenty-nine patients with intermittent claudication were randomly allocated to the walking training (n = 17 or control (CO, n = 12 group. The walking training group performed an acute exercise session comprising 15×2-min bouts of walking at the heart rate of claudication pain onset, with 2-min interpolated rest intervals. The claudication symptoms and cardiovascular and metabolic responses were evaluated. Walking training was then performed at the same intensity twice each week for 12 weeks, while the control group engaged in twice weekly stretching classes. The claudication onset distance and total walking distance were evaluated before and after the interventions. Brazilian Registry Clinical Trials: RBR-7M3D8W. RESULTS: During the acute exercise session, the heart rate was maintained within tight limits. The exercise intensity was above the anaerobic threshold and >80% of the heart rate peak and VO2peak. After the exercise training period, the walking exercise group (n = 13 showed increased claudication onset distance (309±153 vs. 413±201m and total walking distance (784±182 vs. 1,100±236m compared to the control group (n = 12 (p<0.05. CONCLUSION: Walking exercise prescribed at the heart rate of claudication pain onset enables patients with intermittent claudication to exercise with tolerable levels of pain and improves walking performance.

  18. Intermittent versus continuous exercise training in chronic heart failure: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Neil A; Dieberg, Gudrun; Giallauria, Francesco

    2013-06-20

    We conducted a meta-analysis of randomized, controlled trials of combined strength and intermittent aerobic training, intermittent aerobic training only and continuous exercise training in heart failure patients. A systematic search was conducted of Medline (Ovid) (1950-September 2011), Embase.com (1974-September 2011), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and CINAHL (1981-September 19 2011). The search strategy included a mix of MeSH and free text terms for the key concepts heart failure, exercise training, interval training and intermittent exercise training. The included studies contained an aggregate of 446 patients, 212 completed intermittent exercise training, 66 only continuous exercise training, 59 completed combined intermittent and strength training and 109 sedentary controls. Weighted mean difference (MD) in Peak VO2 was 1.04mlkg(-1)min(-1) and (95% C.I.) was 0.42-1.66 (p=0.0009) in intermittent versus continuous exercise training respectively. Weighted mean difference in Peak VO2 was -1.10mlkg(-1)min(-1) (95% C.I.) was -1.83-0.37 p=0.003 for intermittent only versus intermittent and strength (combined) training respectively. In studies reporting VE/VCO2 for intermittent versus control groups, MD was -1.50 [(95% C.I. -2.64, -0.37), p=0.01] and for intermittent versus continuous exercise training MD was -1.35 [(95% C.I. -2.15, -0.55), p=0.001]. Change in peak VO2 was positively correlated with weekly exercise energy expenditure for intermittent exercise groups (r=0.48, p=0.05). Combined strength and intermittent exercise appears superior for peak VO2 changes when compared to intermittent exercise of similar exercise energy expenditure. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Adaptations with intermittent exercise training in post- and premenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seidelin, Kåre; Nyberg, Michael Permin; Piil, Peter Bergmann

    2017-01-01

    of approximately one training session per week. RESULTS: In PM, the body fat percentage decreased (P training period, with no changes in PRM. In both PM and PRM, lean body mass and maximal oxygen uptake (V˙O2max) were higher, and Yo......INTRODUCTION: The purposes of the present study was to examine the effect of intermittent exercise training on musculoskeletal and metabolic health in postmenopausal (PM) and premenopausal (PRM) women and, furthermore, to evaluate whether the adaptations can be maintained with a reduced training...... frequency. METHODS: Eighteen PM (51 ± 1 yr, mean ± SEM) and 12 PRM (48 ± 1 yr) women participated in floorball training approximately two times per week for 12 wk. In a subgroup (n = 9) of PM women (PM40), exercise training was performed for an additional 40 wk with a reduced training frequency...

  20. The Effect of One Session Continuous and Intermittent Aerobic Exercise on Blood Responses of HSP72 , Cortisol and Creatine Kinase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Amani

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Heat shock proteins help the cells’ ability to keep their structures against different stresses. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of one ses-sion continuous and intermittent aerobic exercise on blood responses of HSP72, cortisol and creatine kinase (CK. Materials & Methods: This study is semi-experimental in which 21 male student athletes were divided in continuous group (n=7, intermittent group (n=7 and control group (n=7. Exer-cise protocol of continuous group included 1 hour running with 80% maximum heart rate in-tensity and that of intermittent group was 3 stages of 20 minute running with the same inten-sity as of continuous group . Blood sampling of basal, pre exercise, immediately after exer-cise and 90 minutes after exercise were gathered and the amounts of HSP72, cortisol and CK, were measured by ELISA, RIA and Enzymatic methods respectively. The data was analyzed with one way ANOVA and repeated measure analysis of variance at P?0.05 significance level. Results: HSP72 levels in the continuous group and intermittent group despite an increase in the average did not show a statistically significant difference. Changes between the groups were significant in immediately after exercise and 90 minutes after exercise (P.values respectively 0.017 and 0.002. CK changes in continuous group were significant but cortisol changes in different stages hadn’t significant difference Conclusion: Exercise with its role associated with cortisol and CK will stimulate HSP72 and continuous exercise will make further increase in HSP72 and CK increasing leads to a greater HSP72 response. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2013; 20 (3:223-231

  1. Effects of High-Intensity Intermittent Training on Vascular Function in Obese Preadolescent Boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuensiri, Napasakorn; Suksom, Daroonwan; Tanaka, Hirofumi

    2018-01-01

    High-intensity intermittent training (HIIT) may serve as an effective alternative to traditional endurance training, since HIIT has been shown to induce greater improvements in aerobic fitness and health-related markers in adult populations. Our objective was to determine whether HIIT and supramaximal high-intensity intermittent training (supra-HIIT) would improve vascular structure and function in obese preadolescent boys. Before the baseline testing, 48 obese preadolescent boys, aged 8-12 years, were randomly assigned into control (CON; n = 16), HIIT (8 × 2 minutes at 90% peak power output, n = 16), and supra-HIIT (8 × 20 seconds at 170% peak power output, n = 16) groups. Both exercise groups performed exercises on a cycle ergometer three times/week for 12 weeks. After 12 weeks, both HIIT and supra-HIIT did not affect body mass, body fat percentage, and waist circumference. Peak oxygen consumption (VO 2 peak) increased in both HIIT and supra-HIIT groups (p HIIT and supra-HIIT groups had higher resting metabolic rate than the control group (p HIIT and supra-HIIT program (all p HIIT and supra-HIIT groups (all p HIIT and supra-HIIT have favorable effects on aerobic capacity, metabolic rate, vascular function and structure, and blood lipid profile in obese preadolescent boys. HIIT may be a time efficient and effective exercise for preventing future cardiovascular disease in obese children.

  2. Effect of high-intensity intermittent swimming training on fatty acid oxidation enzyme activity in rat skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terada, Shin; Tabata, Izumi; Higuchi, Mitsuru

    2004-02-01

    We previously reported that high-intensity exercise training significantly increased citrate synthase (CS) activity, a marker of oxidative enzyme, in rat skeletal muscle to a level equaling that attained after low-intensity prolonged exercise training (Terada et al., J Appl Physiol 90: 2019-2024, 2001). Since mitochondrial oxidative enzymes and fatty acid oxidation (FAO) enzymes are often increased simultaneously, we assessed the effect of high-intensity intermittent swimming training on FAO enzyme activity in rat skeletal muscle. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (3 to 4 weeks old) were assigned to a 10-day period of high-intensity intermittent exercise training (HIT), low-intensity prolonged exercise training (LIT), or sedentary control conditions. In the HIT group, the rats repeated fourteen 20 s swimming sessions with a weight equivalent to 14-16% of their body weight. Between the exercise sessions, a 10 s pause was allowed. Rats in the LIT group swam 6 h/day in two 3 h sessions separated by 45 min of rest. CS activity in the triceps muscle of rats in the HIT and LIT groups was significantly higher than that in the control rats by 36 and 39%, respectively. Furthermore, 3-beta hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (HAD) activity, an important enzyme in the FAO pathway in skeletal muscle, was higher in the two training groups than in the control rats (HIT: 100%, LIT: 88%). No significant difference in HAD activity was observed between the two training groups. In conclusion, the present investigation demonstrated that high-intensity intermittent swimming training elevated FAO enzyme activity in rat skeletal muscle to a level similar to that attained after 6 h of low-intensity prolonged swimming exercise training.

  3. Recovery of voluntary and evoked muscle performance following intermittent-sprint exercise in the heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffield, Rob; King, Monique; Skein, Melissa

    2009-06-01

    This study investigated the effects of hot conditions on the acute recovery of voluntary and evoked muscle performance and physiological responses following intermittent exercise. Seven youth male and six female team-sport athletes performed two sessions separated by 7 d, involving a 30-min exercise protocol and 60-min passive recovery in either 22 degrees C or 33 degrees C and 40% relative humidity. The exercise protocol involved a 20-s maximal sprint every 5 min, separated by constant-intensity exercise at 100 W on a cycle ergometer. Maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) and a resting evoked twitch (Pf) of the right knee extensors were assessed before and immediately following exercise and again 15, 30, and 60 min postexercise, and capillary blood was obtained at the same time points to measure lactate, pH, and HCO3. During and following exercise, core temperature, heart rate and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were also measured. No differences (P=0.73 to 0.95) in peak power during repeated sprints were present between conditions. Postexercise MVC was reduced (Pheat (83+/-10 vs 74+/-11% recovered). Both heart rate and core temperature were significantly higher (Precovery in the heat. Capillary blood values did not differ between conditions at any time point, whereas sessional RPE was higher 60 min postexercise in the heat. The current data suggests that passive recovery in warm temperatures not only delays cardiovascular and thermal recovery, but may also slow the recovery of MVC and RPE.

  4. Intermittent Fasting with or without Exercise Prevents Weight Gain and Improves Lipids in Diet-Induced Obese Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin A. Wilson

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Intermittent fasting (IF and high intensity interval training (HIIT are effective lifestyle interventions for improving body composition and overall health. However, the long-term effects of IF and potential synergistic effects of combining IF with exercise are unclear. The purpose of the study was to investigate the long-term effects of IF, with or without HIIT, on body composition and markers of metabolic health in diet-induced obese mice. In a randosmised, controlled design, 8-week-old C57BL/6 mice (males (n = 39 and females (n = 49 were fed a high fat (HF and sugar (S water diet (30% (w/v for 24-weeks but were separated into five groups at 12-weeks: (1 ‘obese’ baseline control (OBC; (2 no intervention (CON; (3 intermittent fasting (IF; (4 high intensity intermittent exercise (HIIT and (5 combination of dietary and exercise intervention (IF + HIIT. Body composition, strength and blood variables were measured at 0, 10 and/or 12-weeks. Intermittent fasting with or without HIIT resulted in significantly less weight gain, fat mass accumulation and reduced serum low density lipoproteins (LDL levels compared to HIIT and CON male mice (p < 0.05. The results suggest that IF, with or without HIIT, can be an effective strategy for weight gain prevention despite concurrently consuming a high fat and sugar diet.

  5. Intermittent Fasting with or without Exercise Prevents Weight Gain and Improves Lipids in Diet-Induced Obese Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Robin A; Deasy, William; Stathis, Christos G; Hayes, Alan; Cooke, Matthew B

    2018-03-12

    Intermittent fasting (IF) and high intensity interval training (HIIT) are effective lifestyle interventions for improving body composition and overall health. However, the long-term effects of IF and potential synergistic effects of combining IF with exercise are unclear. The purpose of the study was to investigate the long-term effects of IF, with or without HIIT, on body composition and markers of metabolic health in diet-induced obese mice. In a randosmised, controlled design, 8-week-old C57BL/6 mice (males ( n = 39) and females ( n = 49)) were fed a high fat (HF) and sugar (S) water diet (30% ( w / v )) for 24-weeks but were separated into five groups at 12-weeks: (1) 'obese' baseline control (OBC); (2) no intervention (CON); (3) intermittent fasting (IF); (4) high intensity intermittent exercise (HIIT) and (5) combination of dietary and exercise intervention (IF + HIIT). Body composition, strength and blood variables were measured at 0, 10 and/or 12-weeks. Intermittent fasting with or without HIIT resulted in significantly less weight gain, fat mass accumulation and reduced serum low density lipoproteins (LDL) levels compared to HIIT and CON male mice ( p < 0.05). The results suggest that IF, with or without HIIT, can be an effective strategy for weight gain prevention despite concurrently consuming a high fat and sugar diet.

  6. Intermittent Fasting with or without Exercise Prevents Weight Gain and Improves Lipids in Diet-Induced Obese Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Robin A.; Deasy, William; Stathis, Christos G.; Hayes, Alan; Cooke, Matthew B.

    2018-01-01

    Intermittent fasting (IF) and high intensity interval training (HIIT) are effective lifestyle interventions for improving body composition and overall health. However, the long-term effects of IF and potential synergistic effects of combining IF with exercise are unclear. The purpose of the study was to investigate the long-term effects of IF, with or without HIIT, on body composition and markers of metabolic health in diet-induced obese mice. In a randosmised, controlled design, 8-week-old C57BL/6 mice (males (n = 39) and females (n = 49)) were fed a high fat (HF) and sugar (S) water diet (30% (w/v)) for 24-weeks but were separated into five groups at 12-weeks: (1) ‘obese’ baseline control (OBC); (2) no intervention (CON); (3) intermittent fasting (IF); (4) high intensity intermittent exercise (HIIT) and (5) combination of dietary and exercise intervention (IF + HIIT). Body composition, strength and blood variables were measured at 0, 10 and/or 12-weeks. Intermittent fasting with or without HIIT resulted in significantly less weight gain, fat mass accumulation and reduced serum low density lipoproteins (LDL) levels compared to HIIT and CON male mice (p HIIT, can be an effective strategy for weight gain prevention despite concurrently consuming a high fat and sugar diet. PMID:29534545

  7. Effects of Intermittent Fasting, Caloric Restriction, and Ramadan Intermittent Fasting on Cognitive Performance at Rest and During Exercise in Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherif, Anissa; Roelands, Bart; Meeusen, Romain; Chamari, Karim

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this review was to highlight the potent effects of intermittent fasting on the cognitive performance of athletes at rest and during exercise. Exercise interacts with dietary factors and has a positive effect on brain functioning. Furthermore, physical activity and exercise can favorably influence brain plasticity. Mounting evidence indicates that exercise, in combination with diet, affects the management of energy metabolism and synaptic plasticity by affecting molecular mechanisms through brain-derived neurotrophic factor, an essential neurotrophin that acts at the interface of metabolism and plasticity. The literature has also shown that certain aspects of physical performance and mental health, such as coping and decision-making strategies, can be negatively affected by daylight fasting. However, there are several types of intermittent fasting. These include caloric restriction, which is distinct from fasting and allows subjects to drink water ad libitum while consuming a very low-calorie food intake. Another type is Ramadan intermittent fasting, which is a religious practice of Islam, where healthy adult Muslims do not eat or drink during daylight hours for 1 month. Other religious practices in Islam (Sunna) also encourage Muslims to practice intermittent fasting outside the month of Ramadan. Several cross-sectional and longitudinal studies have shown that intermittent fasting has crucial effects on physical and intellectual performance by affecting various aspects of bodily physiology and biochemistry that could be important for athletic success. Moreover, recent findings revealed that immunological variables are also involved in cognitive functioning and that intermittent fasting might impact the relationship between cytokine expression in the brain and cognitive deficits, including memory deficits.

  8. Physiological responses of young thoroughbred horses to intermittent high-intensity treadmill training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohmura, Hajime; Matsui, Akira; Hada, Tetsuro; Jones, James H

    2013-08-17

    Training of young Thoroughbred horses must balance development of cardiopulmonary function and aerobic capacity with loading of the musculoskeletal system that can potentially cause structural damage and/or lameness. High-speed equine treadmills are sometimes used to supplement exercise on a track in the training of young Thoroughbreds because the horse can run at high speeds but without the added weight of a rider. We tested the hypothesis that intermittent high-intensity exercise on a treadmill of young Thoroughbred horses entering training can enhance development of aerobic capacity (VO2max) and running performance more than conventional training under saddle, and do so without causing lameness. Twelve yearling Thoroughbreds trained for 8 months with conventional riding (C) only, conventional riding plus a short (2 month, S) interval of once-per-week high-intensity treadmill exercise, or a long (8 month, L) interval of once-per-week high-intensity treadmill exercise. Three treadmill exercise tests evaluated VO2max, oxygen transport and running performance variables in June of the yearling year (only for L), October of the yearling year and April of the 2-year-old year. No horses experienced lameness during the study. Aerobic capacity increased in all groups after training. In both October and April, VO2max in L was higher than in C, but did not differ between L and S or S and C. Running speeds eliciting VO2max also increased in all groups after training, with S (809±3 m/s) and L (804±9 m/s) higher than C (764±27 m/s). Maximum heart rate decreased for all groups after training. Hematocrit and hemoglobin concentration increased for L throughout training. Young Thoroughbred horses can increase aerobic capacity and running performance more than by strictly using track training under saddle with the addition of intermittent high-intensity treadmill exercise, and they can do so without experiencing lameness. This finding suggests that young racehorses might be able

  9. Contraction-induced changes in skeletal muscle Na(+), K(+) pump mRNA expression - importance of exercise intensity and Ca(2+)-mediated signalling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordsborg, Nikolai Baastrup; Kusuhara, K; Hellsten, Ylva

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Aim: To investigate if exercise intensity and Ca(2+) signalling regulate Na(+), K(+) pump mRNA expression in skeletal muscle. Methods: The importance of exercise intensity was evaluated by having trained and untrained humans perform intense intermittent and prolonged exercise. The import...

  10. Intermittent Fasting with or without Exercise Prevents Weight Gain and Improves Lipids in Diet-Induced Obese Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Robin A. Wilson; William Deasy; Christos G. Stathis; Alan Hayes; Matthew B. Cooke

    2018-01-01

    Intermittent fasting (IF) and high intensity interval training (HIIT) are effective lifestyle interventions for improving body composition and overall health. However, the long-term effects of IF and potential synergistic effects of combining IF with exercise are unclear. The purpose of the study was to investigate the long-term effects of IF, with or without HIIT, on body composition and markers of metabolic health in diet-induced obese mice. In a randosmised, controlled design, 8-week-old C...

  11. Post-prandial carbohydrate ingestion during 1-h of moderate-intensity, intermittent cycling does not improve mood, perceived exertion, or subsequent power output in recreationally-active exercisers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O’Neal Eric K

    2013-01-01

    exercisers during a 1–h, moderate-intensity aerobic workout did not alter mood or perceived exertion, nor did it affect subsequent anaerobic performance under the conditions of this study. Drinking caloric sport beverages does not benefit recreational exercisers in a non-fasted state.

  12. High Intensity Exercise in Multiple Sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wens, Inez; Dalgas, Ulrik; Vandenabeele, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Low-to-moderate intensity exercise improves muscle contractile properties and endurance capacity in multiple sclerosis (MS). The impact of high intensity exercise remains unknown. Methods Thirty-four MS patients were randomized into a sedentary control group (SED, n = 11) and 2...... exercise groups that performed 12 weeks of a high intensity interval (HITR, n = 12) or high intensity continuous cardiovascular training (HCTR, n = 11), both in combination with resistance training. M.vastus lateralis fiber cross sectional area (CSA) and proportion, knee-flexor/extensor strength, body...... composition, maximal endurance capacity and self-reported physical activity levels were assessed before and after 12 weeks. Results Compared to SED, 12 weeks of high intensity exercise increased mean fiber CSA (HITR: +21±7%, HCTR: +23±5%). Furthermore, fiber type I CSA increased in HCTR (+29±6%), whereas type...

  13. Hypotensive effects of resistance exercise with continuous and intermittent blood flow restriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Rodrigues Neto

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to compare the acute effects of low-intensity (LI resistance exercise (RE with continuous blood flow restriction (CBFR and intermittent blood flow restriction (IBFR on systolic blood pressure (SBP, diastolic blood pressure (DBP, and mean arterial pressure (MAP. After a one-repetition maximum test, 10 normotensive recreationally trained men performed three experimental protocols. In the three RE protocols, increases in SBP, DBP, and MAP were observed immediately after exercise, but the effect sizes (ESs were greater for the LI + CBFR and high-intensity protocols. There were hypotensive effects on SBP, DBP, and MAP in all three protocols; however, the effects on MAP lasted longer for the LI + IBFR and LI + CBFR protocols. These long-lasting hypotensive effects on DBP and MAP occurred in all three protocols. Thus, we conclude that the post exercise hypotensive effects on SBP, DBP, and MAP appear to occur in all three RE protocols, with the effect on SBP being longer in the LI + IBFR and LI + CBFR protocols.

  14. Effects of hydrogen rich water on prolonged intermittent exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Ponte, Alessandro; Giovanelli, Nicola; Nigris, Daniele; Lazzer, Stefano

    2018-05-01

    Recent studies showed a positive effect of hydrogen rich water (HRW) intake on acid-base homeostasis at rest. We investigated 2-weeks of HRW intake on repeated sprint performance and acid-base status during prolonged intermittent cycling exercise. In a cross over single-blind protocol, 8 trained male cyclists (age [mean±SD] 41±7 years, body mass 72.3±4.4 kg, height 1.77±0.04 m, maximal oxygen uptake [V̇O2max] 52.6±4.4 mL·kg-1·min-1) were provided daily with 2 liters of placebo normal water (PLA, pH 7.6, oxidation/reduction potential [ORP] +230 mV, free hydrogen content 0 ppb) or HRW (pH 9.8, ORP -180 mV, free Hydrogen 450 ppb). Tests were performed at baseline and after each period of 2 weeks of treatment. The treatments were counter-balanced and the sequence randomized. The 30-minute intermittent cycling trial consisted in 10 3-minute blocks, each one composed by 90 seconds at 40% V̇O2max, 60 seconds at 60% V̇O2max, 16 seconds all out sprint, and 14 seconds active recovery. Oxygen uptake (V̇O2), heart rate and power output were measured during the whole test, while mean and peak power output (PPO), time to peak power and Fatigue Index (FI) were determined during all the 16 seconds sprints. Lactate, pH and bicarbonate (HCO3-) concentrations were determined at rest and after each sprint on blood obtained by an antecubital vein indwelling catheter. In the PLA group, PPO in absolute values decreased significantly at the 8th and 9th of 10 sprints and in relative values, ΔPPO, decreased significantly at 6th, 8th and 9th of 10 sprints (by mean: -12±5%, Pmay help to maintain PPO in repetitive sprints to exhaustion over 30 minutes.

  15. Kinetic Analysis of Horizontal Plyometric Exercise Intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossow, Andrew J; Ebben, William P

    2018-05-01

    Kossow, AJ, DeChiara, TG, Neahous, SM, and Ebben, WP. Kinetic analysis of horizontal plyometric exercise intensity. J Strength Cond Res 32(5): 1222-1229, 2018-Plyometric exercises are frequently performed as part of a strength and conditioning program. Most studies assessed the kinetics of plyometric exercises primarily performed in the vertical plane. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the multiplanar kinetic characteristics of a variety of plyometric exercises, which have a significant horizontal component. This study also sought to assess sex differences in the intensity progression of these exercises. Ten men and 10 women served as subjects. The subjects performed a variety of plyometric exercises including the double-leg hop, standing long jump, single-leg standing long jump, bounding, skipping, power skipping, cone hops, and 45.72-cm hurdle hops. Subjects also performed the countermovement jump for comparison. All plyometric exercises were evaluated using a force platform. Dependent variables included the landing rate of force development and landing ground reaction forces for each exercise in the vertical, frontal, and sagittal planes. A 2-way mixed analysis of variance with repeated-measures for plyometric exercise type demonstrated main effects for exercise type for all dependent variables (p ≤ 0.001). There was no significant interaction between plyometric exercise type and sex for any of the variable assessed. Bonferroni-adjusted pairwise comparisons identified a number of differences between the plyometric exercises for the dependent variables assessed (p ≤ 0.05). These findings should be used to guide practitioners in the progression of plyometric exercise intensity, and thus program design, for those who require significant horizontal power in their sport.

  16. Effect of moderate- and high-intensity acute exercise on appetite in obese individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Catia; Stensvold, Dorthe; Finlayson, Graham

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: The effect of acute exercise, and exercise intensity, on appetite control in obese individuals requires further study. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of acute isocaloric bouts (250 kcal) of high-intensity intermittent cycling (HIIC) and moderate-intensity continuous....../obese volunteers. Participants were assigned to the control, MICC, HIIC, and S-HIIC conditions, 1 wk apart, in a counterbalanced order. Exercise was performed 1 h after a standard breakfast. An ad libitum test lunch was served 3 h after breakfast. Fasting/postprandial plasma samples of insulin, acylated ghrelin...

  17. Effect of exercise intensity on lipid profile in sedentary obese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, Umamaheswari; Vasudevan, Kavita; Balasubramaniam, Kavita; Yerrabelli, Dhanalakshmi; Shanmugavel, Karthik; John, Nitin Ashok

    2014-07-01

    Exercise is a lifestyle change that has been recommended for lowering atherogenic index in adults. The intensity and duration of exercise to bring about a change in the lipid parameters are yet to be determined. Previous studies examining the effects of exercise intensity on lipid and lipoprotein levels have reported conflicting findings. Thus we aimed at determining the changes in lipid profile in sedentary obese adults influenced by different intensity of exercise. Study included 51 obese adults with sedentary lifestyle. Participants performed exercise of moderate intensity (n=22) and high intermittent intensity (n=29) for a duration of 40min/day for 5 days/week and 20 min/day for 3 days/week respectively on bicycle ergometer for a period of 15 weeks. Pretesting and post testing included measurement of height, weight, blood pressure and lipid profile. RESULTS were analysed using the Paired and Unpaired samples t-test. Postexercise revealed significant reduction in the LDL-C and diastolic blood pressure (plife. High intermittent intensity can be considered for individuals who have time constraints and lead a sedentary life style and moderate intensity exercise advised for individuals who are willing to create time for their health benefits. A programmed protocol of exercise will help in reduction of lipid parameters.

  18. Kinetic quantification of plyometric exercise intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebben, William P; Fauth, McKenzie L; Garceau, Luke R; Petushek, Erich J

    2011-12-01

    Ebben, WP, Fauth, ML, Garceau, LR, and Petushek, EJ. Kinetic quantification of plyometric exercise intensity. J Strength Cond Res 25(12): 3288-3298, 2011-Quantification of plyometric exercise intensity is necessary to understand the characteristics of these exercises and the proper progression of this mode of exercise. The purpose of this study was to assess the kinetic characteristics of a variety of plyometric exercises. This study also sought to assess gender differences in these variables. Twenty-six men and 23 women with previous experience in performing plyometric training served as subjects. The subjects performed a variety of plyometric exercises including line hops, 15.24-cm cone hops, squat jumps, tuck jumps, countermovement jumps (CMJs), loaded CMJs equal to 30% of 1 repetition maximum squat, depth jumps normalized to the subject's jump height (JH), and single leg jumps. All plyometric exercises were assessed with a force platform. Outcome variables associated with the takeoff, airborne, and landing phase of each plyometric exercise were evaluated. These variables included the peak vertical ground reaction force (GRF) during takeoff, the time to takeoff, flight time, JH, peak power, landing rate of force development, and peak vertical GRF during landing. A 2-way mixed analysis of variance with repeated measures for plyometric exercise type demonstrated main effects for exercise type and all outcome variables (p ≤ 0.05) and for the interaction between gender and peak vertical GRF during takeoff (p ≤ 0.05). Bonferroni-adjusted pairwise comparisons identified a number of differences between the plyometric exercises for the outcome variables assessed (p ≤ 0.05). These findings can be used to guide the progression of plyometric training by incorporating exercises of increasing intensity over the course of a program.

  19. Standardized intermittent static exercise increases peritendinous blood flow in human leg

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langberg, Henning; Bülow, J; Kjaer, M

    1999-01-01

    . The radioactive isotope xenon-133 was injected just ventrally to the Achilles tendon 5 cm proximal to the tendon's insertion on the calcaneous. The disappearance of 133Xe was used to determine blood flow during intermittent static exercise of the calf muscle (1.5 s exercise/1.5 s rest) for 30 min at a workload...

  20. Gait Recognition and Walking Exercise Intensity Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bor-Shing Lin

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular patients consult doctors for advice regarding regular exercise, whereas obese patients must self-manage their weight. Because a system for permanently monitoring and tracking patients’ exercise intensities and workouts is necessary, a system for recognizing gait and estimating walking exercise intensity was proposed. For gait recognition analysis, αβ filters were used to improve the recognition of athletic attitude. Furthermore, empirical mode decomposition (EMD was used to filter the noise of patients’ attitude to acquire the Fourier transform energy spectrum. Linear discriminant analysis was then applied to this energy spectrum for training and recognition. When the gait or motion was recognized, the walking exercise intensity was estimated. In addition, this study addressed the correlation between inertia and exercise intensity by using the residual function of the EMD and quadratic approximation to filter the effect of the baseline drift integral of the acceleration sensor. The increase in the determination coefficient of the regression equation from 0.55 to 0.81 proved that the accuracy of the method for estimating walking exercise intensity proposed by Kurihara was improved in this study.

  1. Effect of intermittent aerobic exercise on sleep quality and sleep disturbances in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løppenthin, Katrine; Esbensen, Bente Appel; Jennum, Poul

    2014-01-01

    of an intermittent aerobic exercise intervention on sleep, assessed both objectively and subjectively in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. METHODS/DESIGN: A randomized controlled trial including 44 patients with rheumatoid arthritis randomly assigned to an exercise training intervention or to a control group....... The intervention consists of 18 session intermittent aerobic exercise training on a bicycle ergometer three times a week. Patients are evaluated according to objective changes in sleep as measured by polysomnography (primary outcome). Secondary outcomes include changes in subjective sleep quality and sleep...... disturbances, fatigue, pain, depressive symptoms, physical function, health-related quality of life and cardiorespiratory fitness. DISCUSSION: This trial will provide evidence of the effect of intermittent aerobic exercise on the improvement of sleep in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, which is considered...

  2. The effects of creatine pyruvate and creatine citrate on performance during high intensity exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purpura Martin

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized study was performed to evaluate the effect of oral creatine pyruvate (Cr-Pyr and creatine citrate (Cr-Cit supplementation on exercise performance in healthy young athletes. Methods Performance during intermittent handgrip exercise of maximal intensity was evaluated before (pretest and after (posttest 28 days of Cr-Pyr (5 g/d, n = 16, Cr-Cit (5 g/d, n = 16 or placebo (pla, 5 g/d, n = 17 intake. Subjects performed ten 15-sec exercise intervals, each followed by 45 sec rest periods. Results Cr-Pyr (p Conclusion It is concluded that four weeks of Cr-Pyr and Cr-Cit intake significantly improves performance during intermittent handgrip exercise of maximal intensity and that Cr-Pyr might benefit endurance, due to enhanced activity of the aerobic metabolism.

  3. High intensity intermittent games-based activity and adolescents' cognition: moderating effect of physical fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Simon B; Dring, Karah J; Morris, John G; Sunderland, Caroline; Bandelow, Stephan; Nevill, Mary E

    2018-05-08

    An acute bout of exercise elicits a beneficial effect on subsequent cognitive function in adolescents. The effect of games-based activity, an ecologically valid and attractive exercise model for young people, remains unknown; as does the moderating effect of fitness on the acute exercise-cognition relationship. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to examine the effect of games-based activity on subsequent cognition in adolescents, and the moderating effect of fitness on this relationship. Following ethical approval, 39 adolescents (12.3 ± 0.7 year) completed an exercise and resting trial in a counterbalanced, randomised crossover design. During familiarisation, participants completed a multi-stage fitness test to predict VO 2 peak. The exercise trial consisted of 60-min games-based activity (basketball), during which heart rate was 158 ± 11 beats∙min - 1 . A battery of cognitive function tests (Stroop test, Sternberg paradigm, trail making and d2 tests) were completed 30-min before, immediately following and 45-min following the basketball. Response times on the complex level of the Stroop test were enhanced both immediately (p = 0.021) and 45-min (p = 0.035) post-exercise, and response times on the five item level of the Sternberg paradigm were enhanced immediately post-exercise (p = 0.023). There were no effects on the time taken to complete the trail making test or any outcome of the d2 test. In particular, response times were enhanced in the fitter adolescents 45-min post-exercise on both levels of the Stroop test (simple, p = 0.005; complex, p = 0.040) and on the three item level of the Sternberg paradigm immediately (p = 0.017) and 45-min (p = 0.008) post-exercise. Games-based activity enhanced executive function and working memory scanning speed in adolescents, an effect particularly evident in fitter adolescents, whilst the high intensity intermittent nature of games-based activity may be too demanding for

  4. Intensive Exercise Training During Bed Rest Attenuates Deconditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, John E.

    1997-01-01

    Intensive exercise training during bed rest attenuates deconditioning. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 29, No. 2, pp. 207-215, 1997. A 30-d 6 deg head-down bed rest project was conducted to evaluate variable high-intensity, short-duration, isotonic cycle ergometer exercise (ITE) training and high-intensity intermittent resistive isokinetic exercise (IKE) training regimens designed to maintain peak VO2 and muscle mass, strength, and endurance at ambulatory control levels throughout prolonged bed rest. Other elements of the deconditioning (adaptive) syndrome, such as proprioception, psychological performance, hypovolemia, water balance, body composition, and orthostatic tolerance, were also measured. Major findings are summarized in this paper. Compared with response during bed rest of the no exercise (NOE) control group: the ITE training regimen (a) maintained work capacity (peak VO2), (b) maintained plasma and red cell volumes, (c) induced positive body water balance, (d) decreased quality of sleep and mental concentration, and (e) had no effect on the decrease in orthostatic tolerance; the IKE training regimen (f) attenuated the decrease in peak VO2 by 50%, (g) attenuated loss of red cell volume by 40% but had no effect on loss of plasma volume, (b) induced positive body water balance, (i) had no adverse effect on quality of sleep or concentration, and 0) had no effect on the decrease in orthostatic tolerance. These findings suggest that various elements of the deconditioning syndrome can be manipulated by duration and intensity of ITE or IKE training regimens and that several different training protocols will be required to maintain or restore physiological and psychological performance of individuals confined to prolonged bed rest.

  5. Fitting multistate transition models with autoregressive logistic regression : Supervised exercise in intermittent claudication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, S O; Fidler, Vaclav; Kuipers, Wietze D; Hunink, Maria G M

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a model that predicts the outcome of supervised exercise for intermittent claudication. The authors present an example of the use of autoregressive logistic regression for modeling observed longitudinal data. Data were collected from 329 participants in a

  6. Efeito da intensidade do exercício de corrida intermitente 30s:15s no tempo de manutenção no ou próximo do VO2max Effect of intensity of intermittent running exercise 30s:15s at the time maintenance at or near VO2max

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Alves de Aguiar

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo comparou o tempo mantido acima de 90% (t90VO2max e de 95% VO2max (t95VO2max em três diferentes intensidades de exercício. Após a realização de um teste incremental para determinar o VO2max, oito estudantes de educação física ativos (23 ± 3 anos executaram três sessões de exercícios intermitentes (100, 110 e 120% da velocidade do VO2max (vVO2max com razão esforço:recuperação de 30s:15s. O t95VO2max foi significantemente maior em 110%vVO2max (EI110% (218,1 ± 81,6 s quando comparado a 100%vVO2max (EI100% (91,9 ± 75,2s e a 120%vVO2max (EI120% (126,3 ± 29,4 s, porém sem diferença entre EI100% e EI120%. O t90VO2max somente apresentou diferença significante entre EI110% e EI120%. Portanto, conclui-se que durante exercício intermitente com razão 30s:15s, a intensidade de 110%vVO2max apresenta-se mais adequada para manter o VO2 próximo ou no VO2max por um tempo maior.The present study compared the time maintained above 90% (t90VO2max or 95% VO2max (t95VO2max in three different exercise intensities. After performing an incremental test to determine VO2max, eight physical education active students (23 ± 3 years performed three intermittent exercise sessions (100, 110 e 120% velocity of VO2max (vVO2max with ratio effort:recovery of 30s:15s. The t95%VO2max was significantly higher at 110%vVO2max (EI110% (218.1 ± 81.6s compared to 100% vVO2max (EI100% (91.9 ± 75.2s and 120%vVO2max (EI120% (126.3 ± 29.4s, but without differences between EI100% and EI120%. The t90%vVO2max was significantly different only between EI110% and 120%. Therefore, we conclude that during intermittent exercise with ratio 30s:15s, the intensity of 110%vVO2max appears more appropriate to maintain VO2max for a longer time.

  7. Exercise intensity of cycle-touring events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumayr, G; Pfister, R; Mitterbauer, G; Gaenzer, H; Sturm, W; Eibl, G; Hoertnagl, H

    2002-10-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze the exercise intensity of recreational cyclists participating in a cycling-touring event. In 14 male healthy recreational cyclists heart rate (HR) monitoring was performed during the Otztal Radmarathon 1999 (distance: 230 km; altitude difference: 5500 m) in order to evaluate the HR response and to estimate the cardiopulmonary strains for the less-trained athlete confronted with such a marathon. Four different exercise intensities were defined as percentages of maximal HR (HR(max)) as follows: recovery HR (HR(re)) 90 %. All athletes finished the competition successfully. The mean racing time was 10 h 14 min, the average speed 22.5 km/h. The mean HR(max) was 188 bpm, the average value of the measured HRs (HR(average)) was 145 bpm resulting in a mean HR(average)/HR(max) ratio of 0.77. Athletes spent 18.5 % (1 h 54 min) of total race time within HR(re), 28 % (2 h 52 min) within HR(ma), 39.5 % (4 h 02 min) within HR(ia), and 14 % (1 h 26 min) within HR(an). The vast majority of exercise was done under "aerobic conditions" (HR(re) + HR(ma) + HR(ia) = 86 % or 8 h 48 min) - confirming the knowledge that the aerobic energy supply is crucial for the performance of long-term exercise. The large amount of high exercise intensities (HR(ia) + HR(an) = 53.5 % or 5 h 30 min), however, features the intense cardiopulmonary strains evoked by such competitions. The HR response was related to the course profile with HRs significantly declining in all subjects to an extent of 10 % during the course of race. Our findings show that the exercise intensity borne by recreational cyclists during a cycle-touring event is high and very similar to that of professionals. With respect to the high cardiovascular strains a thorough medical screening is advisable for any participant of such an event combining both high volume and high intensity loads.

  8. Exercise Intensity Modulation of Hepatic Lipid Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio S. Lira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lipid metabolism in the liver is complex and involves the synthesis and secretion of very low density lipoproteins (VLDL, ketone bodies, and high rates of fatty acid oxidation, synthesis, and esterification. Exercise training induces several changes in lipid metabolism in the liver and affects VLDL secretion and fatty acid oxidation. These alterations are even more conspicuous in disease, as in obesity, and cancer cachexia. Our understanding of the mechanisms leading to metabolic adaptations in the liver as induced by exercise training has advanced considerably in the recent years, but much remains to be addressed. More recently, the adoption of high intensity exercise training has been put forward as a means of modulating hepatic metabolism. The purpose of the present paper is to summarise and discuss the merit of such new knowledge.

  9. Impact of Mild versus Moderate Intensity Aerobic Walking Exercise ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-03-01

    Mar 1, 2014 ... Objective: To compare the effects of mild and moderate intensity treadmill walking exercises on markers of bone ... second group (B) received mild intensity aerobic exercise training. ..... Using functional loading to influence.

  10. Improving fitness of elite handball players: small-sided games vs. high-intensity intermittent training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacono, Antonio Dello; Eliakim, Alon; Meckel, Yoav

    2015-03-01

    The present study was designed to compare the effects of high-intensity intermittent training (HIIT) and small-sided games (SSGs) training on fitness variables of elite handball players. Eighteen highly trained players (mean age ± SD: 25.6 ± 0.5 years) were assigned to either HIIT or SSGs group training protocols twice per week for 8 weeks. The HIIT consisted of 12-24 × 15 seconds of high-intensity runs interspersed by 15 seconds of recovery. The SSGs training consisted of 3 against 3 small-sided handball games. Both training methods were matched for exercise duration and recovery at each training session. Before and after 8-week training, the following fitness variables were assessed-speed: 10- and 20-m sprint time, agility: handball agility specific test (HAST), upper arm strength: 1 repetition maximum (1RM) bench press test, lower limb power: counter-movement jump tests with (CMJarm) and without (CMJ) arm movement, and aerobic fitness (yo-yo intermittent recovery test level 1 [YYIRTL1]). Significant improvement was found in the YYIRTL1 (23.3 and 26.3%, respectively), 10-m sprint (2.3 and 4.1%, respectively) and 20-m sprint (2.1 and 4%, respectively), HAST (1.1 and 2.2%, respectively), 1RM bench press (6.8 and 12.3%, respectively), CMJ (7.4 and 10.8%, respectively), and CMJarm (6.4 and 8.9%, respectively) following training in both groups (p ≤ 0.05 for all). There was a significantly greater improvement in 10- and 20-m sprint, HAST, 1RM, CMJ, and CMJarm following the SSGs training compared with the HIIT (p ≤ 0.05 for all). These results indicated that both HIIT and SSGs are effective training methods for fitness development among elite adult handball players. However, SSGs training may be considered as the preferred training regimen for improving handball-specific fitness variables during the in-season period.

  11. The Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangsbo, Jens; Iaia, F. Marcello; Krustrup, Peter

    2008-01-01

    The two Yo-Yo intermittent recovery (IR) tests evaluate an individual's ability to repeatedly perform intense exercise. The Yo-Yo IR level 1 (Yo-Yo IR1) test focuses on the capacity to carry out intermittent exercise leading to a maximal activation of the aerobic system, whereas Yo-Yo IR level 2...

  12. Acute Effect of Intermittent Exercise and Action-Based Video Game Breaks on Math Performance in Preadolescent Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Shannon S; Tooley, Trevor R; Nagy, Matthew R; O'Sullivan, Molly P; Robinson, Leah E; Colabianchi, Natalie; Hasson, Rebecca E

    2018-02-27

    The purpose of this study was to compare the acute effects of video game breaks and intermittent exercise breaks, performed at varying intensities, on math performance in preadolescent children. A total of 39 children (18 males and 21 females; aged 7-11 y) completed 4 experimental conditions in random order: 8 hours of sitting interrupted with 20 two-minute low-, moderate-, or high-intensity exercise breaks or 20 two-minute sedentary computer game breaks. The intensity of exercise breaks for the low-, moderate-, and high-intensity conditions corresponded with 25%, 50%, and 75% of heart rate reserve, respectively. Math performance was assessed 3 times throughout each condition day using a 90-second math test consisting of 40 single-digit addition and subtraction questions. There were no significant differences in percent change in math scores (correct answers out of attempted) by condition [low: -1.3 (0.8), moderate: 0.1 (1.3), high: -1.8 (0.7), and computer: -2.5 (0.8); P > .05]. There were significant differences in percent change in math scores over the course of the condition days with lower math scores reported at end-of-day test compared with midday test [-2.4 (0.5) vs -0.4 (0.3); P = .01]. There were no significant condition × time, time × age, condition × age, or condition × time × age interactions (all Ps > .05). Action-based video game and exercise breaks elicit the same level of math performance in children; however, time of day may impact this relationship. These findings may have important implications for instructional time in elementary classrooms.

  13. Consequences of intense intermittent astrophysical radiation sources for terrestrial planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melott, Adrian

    2011-11-01

    Life on Earth has developed in the context of cosmic radiation backgrounds. This in turn can be a base for comparison with other potential life-bearing planets. Many kinds of strong radiation bursts are possible by astrophysical entities ranging from gamma-ray bursts at cosmological distances to the Sun itself. Many of these present potential hazards to the biosphere: on timescales long compared with human history, the probability of an event intense enough to disrupt life on the land surface or in the oceans becomes large. One of the mechanisms which comes into play even at moderate intensities is the ionization of the Earth's atmosphere, which leads through chemical changes (specifically, depletion of stratospheric ozone) to increased ultraviolet-B flux from the Sun reaching the surface. UVB is extremely hazardous to most life due to its strong absorption by the genetic material DNA and subsequent breaking of chemical bonds. We characterize intensities at the Earth and rates or upper limits on rates. We estimate how often a major extinction-level event is probable given the current state of knowledge. Moderate level events are dominated by the Sun, but the far more severe infrequent events are dominated by gamma-ray bursts and supernovae. So-called ``short-hard'' gamma-ray bursts are a substantial threat, comparable in magnitude to supernovae and greater than that of the higher-luminosity long bursts considered in most past work. Short bursts may come with little or no warning.

  14. Effect of high-intensity training on exercise-induced gene expression specific to ion homeostasis and metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordsborg, Nikolai; Bangsbo, Jens; Pilegaard, Henriette

    2003-01-01

    Changes in gene expression during recovery from high-intensity, intermittent, one-legged exercise were studied before and after 5.5 wk of training. Genes related to metabolism, as well as Na+, K+, and pH homeostasis, were selected for analyses. After the same work was performed before and after...

  15. Does intermittent pneumatic leg compression enhance muscle recovery after strenuous eccentric exercise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, D J; Booker, H R; Mundel, T; Barnes, M J

    2013-11-01

    Intermittent pneumatic compression (IPC) has gained rapid popularity as a post-exercise recovery modality. Despite its widespread use and anecdotal claims for enhancing muscle recovery there is no scientific evidence to support its use. 10 healthy, active males performed a strenuous bout of eccentric exercise (3 sets of 100 repetitions) followed by IPC treatment or control performed immediately after exercise and at 24 and 48 h post-exercise. Muscular performance measurements were taken prior to exercise and 24, 48 and 72 h post-exercise and included single-leg vertical jump (VJ) and peak and average isometric [knee angle 75º] (ISO), concentric (CON) and eccentric (ECC) contractions performed at slow (30° · s⁻¹) and fast (180° · s⁻¹) velocities. Plasma creatine kinase (CK) samples were taken at pre- and post-exercise 24, 48 and 72 h. Strenuous eccentric exercise resulted in a significant decrease in peak ISO, peak and average CON (30° · s⁻¹) at 24 h compared to pre-exercise for both IPC and control, however VJ performance remained unchanged. There were no significant differences between conditions (IPC and control) or condition-time interactions for any of the contraction types (ISO, CON, ECC) or velocities (CON, ECC 30° · s⁻¹ and 180° · s⁻¹). However, CK was significantly elevated at 24 h compared to pre-exercise in both conditions (IPC and control). IPC did not attenuate muscle force loss following a bout of strenuous eccentric exercise in comparison to a control. While IPC has been used in the clinical setting to treat pathologic conditions, the parameters used to treat muscle damage following strenuous exercise in healthy participants are likely to be very different than those used to treat pathologic conditions. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. Effect of muscle acidity on muscle metabolism and fatigue during intense exercise in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangsbo, Jens; Madsen, K.; Kiens, Bente

    1996-01-01

    1. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of muscle pH on muscle metabolism and development of fatigue during intense exercise. 2. Seven subjects performed intense exhaustive leg exercise on two occasions: with and without preceding intense intermittent arm exercise leading to high...... or moderate (control) blood lactate concentrations (HL and C, respectively). Prior to and immediately after each exercise bout, a muscle biopsy was taken from m. vastus lateralis of the active leg. Leg blood flow was measured and femoral arterial and venous blood samples were collected before and frequently...... during the exhaustive exercises. 3. The duration of the exercise was shorter in HL than in C (3.46 +/- 0.28 vs. 4.67 +/- 0.55 min; means +/- S.E.M.; P muscle pH was the same in C and HL (7.17 vs. 7.10), but at the end of exercise muscle pH was lower in HL than in C (6.82 vs. 6...

  17. Carbohydrate Dependence During Prolonged, Intense Endurance Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, John A; Leckey, Jill J

    2015-11-01

    A major goal of training to improve the performance of prolonged, continuous, endurance events lasting up to 3 h is to promote a range of physiological and metabolic adaptations that permit an athlete to work at both higher absolute and relative power outputs/speeds and delay the onset of fatigue (i.e., a decline in exercise intensity). To meet these goals, competitive endurance athletes undertake a prodigious volume of training, with a large proportion performed at intensities that are close to or faster than race pace and highly dependent on carbohydrate (CHO)-based fuels to sustain rates of muscle energy production [i.e., match rates of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) hydrolysis with rates of resynthesis]. Consequently, to sustain muscle energy reserves and meet the daily demands of training sessions, competitive athletes freely select CHO-rich diets. Despite renewed interest in high-fat, low-CHO diets for endurance sport, fat-rich diets do not improve training capacity or performance, but directly impair rates of muscle glycogenolysis and energy flux, limiting high-intensity ATP production. When highly trained athletes compete in endurance events lasting up to 3 h, CHO-, not fat-based fuels are the predominant fuel for the working muscles and CHO, not fat, availability becomes rate limiting for performance.

  18. Low-Intensity Repetitive Exercise Induced Rhabdomyolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Tran

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rhabdomyolysis is a rare condition caused by the proteins of damaged muscle cells entering the bloodstream and damaging the kidneys. Common symptoms of rhabdomyolysis are muscle pain and fatigue in conjunction with dark urine; kidney damage is a common symptom among these patients. We present a case of a 23-year-old woman who displayed myalgia in the upper extremities caused by low-intensity and high-repetition exercise. She was successfully diagnosed and treated for exertional rhabdomyolysis. This patient had no significant medical history that would induce this condition. We urge the emergency medical community to observe and monitor patients that complain of myalgia to ensure they are not suffering from rhabdomyolysis even in atypical cases.

  19. What are the Physiological Mechanisms for Post-Exercise Cold Water Immersion in the Recovery from Prolonged Endurance and Intermittent Exercise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihsan, Mohammed; Watson, Greig; Abbiss, Chris R

    2016-08-01

    Intense training results in numerous physiological perturbations such as muscle damage, hyperthermia, dehydration and glycogen depletion. Insufficient/untimely restoration of these physiological alterations might result in sub-optimal performance during subsequent training sessions, while chronic imbalance between training stress and recovery might lead to overreaching or overtraining syndrome. The use of post-exercise cold water immersion (CWI) is gaining considerable popularity among athletes to minimize fatigue and accelerate post-exercise recovery. CWI, through its primary ability to decrease tissue temperature and blood flow, is purported to facilitate recovery by ameliorating hyperthermia and subsequent alterations to the central nervous system (CNS), reducing cardiovascular strain, removing accumulated muscle metabolic by-products, attenuating exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) and improving autonomic nervous system function. The current review aims to provide a comprehensive and detailed examination of the mechanisms underpinning acute and longer term recovery of exercise performance following post-exercise CWI. Understanding the mechanisms will aid practitioners in the application and optimisation of CWI strategies to suit specific recovery needs and consequently improve athletic performance. Much of the literature indicates that the dominant mechanism by which CWI facilitates short term recovery is via ameliorating hyperthermia and consequently CNS mediated fatigue and by reducing cardiovascular strain. In contrast, there is limited evidence to support that CWI might improve acute recovery by facilitating the removal of muscle metabolites. CWI has been shown to augment parasympathetic reactivation following exercise. While CWI-mediated parasympathetic reactivation seems detrimental to high-intensity exercise performance when performed shortly after, it has been shown to be associated with improved longer term physiological recovery and day to day

  20. Ice slurry ingestion does not enhance self-paced intermittent exercise in the heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerrett, N; Jackson, S; Yates, J; Thomas, G

    2017-11-01

    This study aimed to determine if ice slurry ingestion improved self-paced intermittent exercise in the heat. After a familiarisation session, 12 moderately trained males (30.4 ± 3.4 year, 1.8 ± 0.1 cm, 73.5 ± 14.3 kg, V˙O 2max 58.5 ± 8.1 mL/kg/min) completed two separate 31 min self-paced intermittent protocols on a non-motorised treadmill in 30.9 ± 0.9 °C, 41.1 ± 4.0% RH. Thirty minutes prior to exercise, participants consumed either 7.5 g/kg ice slurry (0.1 ± 0.1 °C) (ICE) or 7.5 g/kg water (23.4 ± 0.9 °C) (CONTROL). Despite reductions in T c (ΔT c : -0.51 ± 0.3 °C, P exercise, ICE did not enhance self-paced intermittent exercise compared to CONTROL. The average speed during the walk (CONTROL: 5.90 ± 1.0 km, ICE: 5.90 ± 1.0 km), jog (CONTROL: 8.89 ± 1.7 km, ICE: 9.11 ± 1.5 km), run (CONTROL: 12.15 ± 1.7 km, ICE: 12.54 ± 1.5 km) and sprint (CONTROL: 17.32 ± 1.3 km, ICE: 17.18 ± 1.4 km) was similar between conditions (P > 0.05). Mean T sk , T b , blood lactate, heart rate and RPE were similar between conditions (P > 0.05). The findings suggest that lowering T c prior to self-paced intermittent exercise does not translate into an improved performance. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Changes in fatigue, multiplanar knee laxity, and landing biomechanics during intermittent exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, Sandra J; Schmitz, Randy J; Cone, John R; Henson, Robert A; Montgomery, Melissa M; Pye, Michele L; Tritsch, Amanda J

    2015-05-01

    Knee laxity increases during exercise. However, no one, to our knowledge, has examined whether these increases contribute to higher-risk landing biomechanics during prolonged, fatiguing exercise. To examine associations between changes in fatigue (measured as sprint time [SPTIME]), multiplanar knee laxity (anterior-posterior [APLAX], varus-valgus [VVLAX] knee laxity, and internal-external rotation [IERLAX]) knee laxity and landing biomechanics during prolonged, intermittent exercise. Descriptive laboratory study. Laboratory and gymnasium. A total of 30 male (age = 20.3 ± 2.0 years, height = 1.79 ± 0.05 m, mass = 75.2 ± 7.2 kg) and 29 female (age = 20.5 ± 2.3 years, height = 1.67 ± 0.08 m, mass = 61.8 ± 9.0 kg) competitive athletes. A 90-minute intermittent exercise protocol (IEP) designed to simulate the physiologic and biomechanical demands of a soccer match. We measured SPTIME, APLAX, and landing biomechanics before and after warm-up, every 15 minutes during the IEP, and every 15 minutes for 1 hour after the IEP. We measured VVLAX and IERLAX before and after the warm-up, at 45 and 90 minutes during the IEP, and at 30 minutes after the IEP. We used hierarchical linear modeling to examine associations between exercise-related changes in SPTIME and knee laxity with exercise-related changes in landing biomechanics while controlling for initial (before warm-up) knee laxity. We found that SPTIME had a more global effect on landing biomechanics in women than in men, resulting in a more upright landing and a reduction in landing forces and out-of-plane motions about the knee. As APLAX increased with exercise, women increased their knee internal-rotation motion (P = .02), and men increased their hip-flexion motion and energy-absorption (P = .006) and knee-extensor loads (P = .04). As VVLAX and IERLAX increased, women went through greater knee-valgus motion and dorsiflexion and absorbed more energy at the knee (P ≤ .05), whereas men were positioned in greater hip

  2. Effects of high-intensity intermittent training on carnitine palmitoyl transferase activity in the gastrocnemius muscle of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.C. Carnevali Jr

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available We examined the capacity of high-intensity intermittent training (HI-IT to facilitate the delivery of lipids to enzymes responsible for oxidation, a task performed by the carnitine palmitoyl transferase (CPT system in the rat gastrocnemius muscle. Male adult Wistar rats (160-250 g were randomly distributed into 3 groups: sedentary (Sed, N = 5, HI-IT (N = 10, and moderate-intensity continuous training (MI-CT, N = 10. The trained groups were exercised for 8 weeks with a 10% (HI-IT and a 5% (MI-CT overload. The HI-IT group presented 11.8% decreased weight gain compared to the Sed group. The maximal activities of CPT-I, CPT-II, and citrate synthase were all increased in the HI-IT group compared to the Sed group (P < 0.01, as also was gene expression, measured by RT-PCR, of fatty acid binding protein (FABP; P < 0.01 and lipoprotein lipase (LPL; P < 0.05. Lactate dehydrogenase also presented a higher maximal activity (nmol·min-1·mg protein-1 in HI-IT (around 83%. We suggest that 8 weeks of HI-IT enhance mitochondrial lipid transport capacity thus facilitating the oxidation process in the gastrocnemius muscle. This adaptation may also be associated with the decrease in weight gain observed in the animals and was concomitant to a higher gene expression of both FABP and LPL in HI-IT, suggesting that intermittent exercise is a "time-efficient" strategy inducing metabolic adaptation.

  3. Effects of high-intensity intermittent training on carnitine palmitoyl transferase activity in the gastrocnemius muscle of rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carnevali, L.C. Jr. [Grupo de Biologia Molecular da Célula, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo SP (Brazil); Centro Universitário Ítalo-Brasileiro (Unítalo), São Paulo SP (Brazil); Eder, R.; Lira, F.S. [Grupo de Biologia Molecular da Célula, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo SP (Brazil); Lima, W.P. [Grupo de Biologia Molecular da Célula, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo SP (Brazil); Instituto Federal de Educação,Ciência e Tecnologia de São Paulo, São Paulo SP (Brazil); Gonçalves, D.C. [Grupo de Biologia Molecular da Célula, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo SP (Brazil); Zanchi, N.E. [Laboratorio de Nutrição e Metabolismo Aplicado à Atividade Motora, Escola de Educação Física e Esporte, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo SP (Brazil); Centro de Pesquisa do Genoma Humano, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo SP (Brazil); Nicastro, H. [Laboratorio de Nutrição e Metabolismo Aplicado à Atividade Motora, Escola de Educação Física e Esporte, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo SP (Brazil); Lavoie, J.M. [Department of Kinesiology, University of Montreal, Montreal (Canada); Seelaender, M.C.L. [Grupo de Biologia Molecular da Célula, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo SP (Brazil)

    2012-06-29

    We examined the capacity of high-intensity intermittent training (HI-IT) to facilitate the delivery of lipids to enzymes responsible for oxidation, a task performed by the carnitine palmitoyl transferase (CPT) system in the rat gastrocnemius muscle. Male adult Wistar rats (160-250 g) were randomly distributed into 3 groups: sedentary (Sed, N = 5), HI-IT (N = 10), and moderate-intensity continuous training (MI-CT, N = 10). The trained groups were exercised for 8 weeks with a 10% (HI-IT) and a 5% (MI-CT) overload. The HI-IT group presented 11.8% decreased weight gain compared to the Sed group. The maximal activities of CPT-I, CPT-II, and citrate synthase were all increased in the HI-IT group compared to the Sed group (P < 0.01), as also was gene expression, measured by RT-PCR, of fatty acid binding protein (FABP; P < 0.01) and lipoprotein lipase (LPL; P < 0.05). Lactate dehydrogenase also presented a higher maximal activity (nmol·min{sup −1}·mg protein{sup −1}) in HI-IT (around 83%). We suggest that 8 weeks of HI-IT enhance mitochondrial lipid transport capacity thus facilitating the oxidation process in the gastrocnemius muscle. This adaptation may also be associated with the decrease in weight gain observed in the animals and was concomitant to a higher gene expression of both FABP and LPL in HI-IT, suggesting that intermittent exercise is a “time-efficient” strategy inducing metabolic adaptation.

  4. Effects of high-intensity intermittent training on carnitine palmitoyl transferase activity in the gastrocnemius muscle of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carnevali, L.C. Jr.; Eder, R.; Lira, F.S.; Lima, W.P.; Gonçalves, D.C.; Zanchi, N.E.; Nicastro, H.; Lavoie, J.M.; Seelaender, M.C.L.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the capacity of high-intensity intermittent training (HI-IT) to facilitate the delivery of lipids to enzymes responsible for oxidation, a task performed by the carnitine palmitoyl transferase (CPT) system in the rat gastrocnemius muscle. Male adult Wistar rats (160-250 g) were randomly distributed into 3 groups: sedentary (Sed, N = 5), HI-IT (N = 10), and moderate-intensity continuous training (MI-CT, N = 10). The trained groups were exercised for 8 weeks with a 10% (HI-IT) and a 5% (MI-CT) overload. The HI-IT group presented 11.8% decreased weight gain compared to the Sed group. The maximal activities of CPT-I, CPT-II, and citrate synthase were all increased in the HI-IT group compared to the Sed group (P < 0.01), as also was gene expression, measured by RT-PCR, of fatty acid binding protein (FABP; P < 0.01) and lipoprotein lipase (LPL; P < 0.05). Lactate dehydrogenase also presented a higher maximal activity (nmol·min −1 ·mg protein −1 ) in HI-IT (around 83%). We suggest that 8 weeks of HI-IT enhance mitochondrial lipid transport capacity thus facilitating the oxidation process in the gastrocnemius muscle. This adaptation may also be associated with the decrease in weight gain observed in the animals and was concomitant to a higher gene expression of both FABP and LPL in HI-IT, suggesting that intermittent exercise is a “time-efficient” strategy inducing metabolic adaptation

  5. The Effects of Montmorency Tart Cherry Concentrate Supplementation on Recovery Following Prolonged, Intermittent Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip G. Bell

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated Montmorency tart cherry concentrate (MC supplementation on markers of recovery following prolonged, intermittent sprint activity. Sixteen semi-professional, male soccer players, who had dietary restrictions imposed for the duration of the study, were divided into two equal groups and consumed either MC or placebo (PLA supplementation for eight consecutive days (30 mL twice per day. On day 5, participants completed an adapted version of the Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test (LISTADAPT. Maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC, 20 m Sprint, counter movement jump (CMJ, agility and muscle soreness (DOMS were assessed at baseline, and 24, 48 and 72 h post-exercise. Measures of inflammation (IL-1-β, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, hsCRP, muscle damage (CK and oxidative stress (LOOH were analysed at baseline and 1, 3, 5, 24, 48 and 72 h post-exercise. Performance indices (MVIC, CMJ and agility recovered faster and muscle soreness (DOMS ratings were lower in the MC group (p < 0.05. Additionally, the acute inflammatory response (IL-6 was attenuated in the MC group. There were no effects for LOOH and CK. These findings suggest MC is efficacious in accelerating recovery following prolonged, repeat sprint activity, such as soccer and rugby, and lends further evidence that polyphenol-rich foods like MC are effective in accelerating recovery following various types of strenuous exercise.

  6. Estimation of Exercise Intensity in “Exercise and Physical Activity Reference for Health Promotion”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohkubo, Tomoyuki; Kurihara, Yosuke; Kobayashi, Kazuyuki; Watanabe, Kajiro

    To maintain or promote the health condition of elderly citizens is quite important for Japan. Given the circumstances, the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare has established the standards for the activities and exercises for promoting the health, and quantitatively determined the exercise intensity on 107 items of activities. This exercise intensity, however, requires recording the type and the duration of the activity to be calculated. In this paper, the exercise intensities are estimated using 3D accelerometer for 25 daily activities. As the result, the exercise intensities were estimated to be within the root mean square error of 0.83 METs for all 25 activities.

  7. Glucose response to exercise in the post-prandial period is independent of exercise intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shambrook, P; Kingsley, M I; Wundersitz, D W; Xanthos, P D; Wyckelsma, V L; Gordon, B A

    2018-03-01

    This study investigated the acute glucose response to low-intensity, moderate-intensity, and high-intensity interval exercise compared to no-exercise in healthy insufficiently active males using a four-arm, randomized, crossover design. Ten males (age: 37.3 ± 7.3 years, BMI: 29.3 ± 6.5 kg·m -2 ) completed four 30-minute interventions at weekly intervals comprising low-intensity exercise (LIE) at ~35% V˙O 2 R, moderate-intensity exercise (MIE) at ~50% V˙O 2 R, high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE) at ~80% V˙O 2 R, and a no-exercise control. Participants performed cycle ergometer exercise 30 minutes after finishing breakfast. Glucose response was assessed using a continuous glucose monitor under free-living conditions with dietary intake replicated. A significant effect for intensity on energy expenditure was identified (P exercise trial. Glucose response was not different between exercise intensities (P > .05). Twenty-four-hour AUC was not affected by exercise intensity (P = .75). There was a significant effect for exercise enjoyment (P = .02), with LIE (69 ± 4) preferred less than HIIE (mean ± SD: 84 ± 14; P = .02), MIE (73 ± 5; P = .03), and no-exercise (75 ± 4; P = .03). Exercise at any intensity 30 minutes after a meal affects glycemic regulation equally in insufficiently active males. Moderate to vigorous exercise intensities were preferred, and therefore, the exercise guidelines appear appropriate for the prevention of cardiometabolic disease. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Electromyographic, cerebral and muscle hemodynamic responses during intermittent, isometric contractions of the biceps brachii at three submaximal intensities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yagesh eBhambhani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the electromyographic, cerebral and muscle hemodynamic responses during intermittent isometric contractions of biceps brachii at 20%, 40% and 60% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC. Eleven volunteers completed two minutes of intermittent isometric contractions (12/min at an elbow angle of 90° interspersed with three minutes rest between intensities in systematic order. Surface electromyography (EMG was recorded from the right biceps brachii and near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS was used to simultaneously measure left prefrontal and right biceps brachii oxyhemoglobin (HbO2, deoxyhemoglobin (HHb and total hemoglobin (Hbtot. Transcranial Doppler ultrasound was used to measure middle cerebral artery velocity (MCAv bilaterally. Finger photoplethysmography was used to record beat-to-beat blood pressure and heart rate. EMG increased with force output from 20% to 60% MVC (P0.05. MCAv increased from rest to exercise but was not different among intensities (P>0.05. Force output correlated with the root mean square EMG and changes in muscle HbO2 (P0.05 at all three intensities. Force output declined by 8% from the 1st to the 24th contraction only at 60% MVC and was accompanied by systematic increases in RMS, cerebral HbO2 and Hbtot with a levelling off in muscle HbO2 and Hbtot. These changes were independent of alterations in mean arterial pressure. Since cerebral blood flow and oxygenation were elevated at 60% MVC, we attribute the development of fatigue to reduced muscle oxygen availability rather than impaired central n

  9. Improvement of thoracic aortic vasoreactivity by continuous and intermittent exercise in high-fat diet-induced obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongpeng; Yang, Zhen; Hu, Jian; Luo, Yan; Zhu, Lingqin; Yang, Huifang; Li, Guanghua

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore the effects of continuous and intermittent exercise on the thoracic aortic vasoreactivity and free radical metabolism in rats fed with a high-fat diet (HD). Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into four groups (n=8, each group): Conventional diet (CD), HD, HD with continuous exercise (HCE) and HD with intermittent exercise (HIE). HCE rats swam once/day for 90 min; HIE rats performed swimming exercises 3 times/day, 30 min each time with an interval of 4 h. In these two groups, the exercise was conducted 5 days a week for 8 weeks. Rats in the CD and HD groups were fed without swimming training. At the end of the exercise, all the rats were sacrificed and the blood, thoracic aorta and myocardium were collected immediately. The thoracic aortic vasoreactivity, the plasma total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA) and vascular endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) gene expression were measured. Compared to the control group, in the HD group the enhanced contractile response of the thoracic aortic rings to noradrenaline (NA) was observed (Pimprove the activity of the thoracic aorta in obese rats, which may be associated with enhanced antioxidant enzyme activity and reduced free radical generating. Additionally, intermittent exercise is better than the continuous exercise in improving the thoracic aorta vasoreactivity.

  10. Facial feature tracking: a psychophysiological measure to assess exercise intensity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Kathleen H; Clark, Bradley; Périard, Julien D; Goecke, Roland; Thompson, Kevin G

    2018-04-01

    The primary aim of this study was to determine whether facial feature tracking reliably measures changes in facial movement across varying exercise intensities. Fifteen cyclists completed three, incremental intensity, cycling trials to exhaustion while their faces were recorded with video cameras. Facial feature tracking was found to be a moderately reliable measure of facial movement during incremental intensity cycling (intra-class correlation coefficient = 0.65-0.68). Facial movement (whole face (WF), upper face (UF), lower face (LF) and head movement (HM)) increased with exercise intensity, from lactate threshold one (LT1) until attainment of maximal aerobic power (MAP) (WF 3464 ± 3364mm, P exercise intensities (UF minus LF at: LT1, 1048 ± 383mm; LT2, 1208 ± 611mm; MAP, 1401 ± 712mm; P exercise intensity.

  11. Increased Protein Requirements in Female Athletes after Variable-Intensity Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooding, Denise J; Packer, Jeff E; Kato, Hiroyuki; West, Daniel W D; Courtney-Martin, Glenda; Pencharz, Paul B; Moore, Daniel R

    2017-11-01

    Protein requirements are primarily studied in the context of resistance or endurance exercise with little research devoted to variable-intensity intermittent exercise characteristic of many team sports. Further, female populations are underrepresented in dietary sports science studies. We aimed to determine a dietary protein requirement in active females performing variable-intensity intermittent exercise using the indicator amino acid oxidation (IAAO) method. We hypothesized that these requirements would be greater than current IAAO-derived estimates in nonactive adult males. Six females (21.2 ± 0.8 yr, 68.8 ± 4.1 kg, 47.1 ± 1.2 mL O2·kg·min; mean ± SE) completed five to seven metabolic trials during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. Participants performed a modified Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test before consuming eight hourly mixed meals providing the test protein intake (0.2-2.66 g·kg·d), 6 g·kg·d CHO and sufficient energy for resting and exercise-induced energy expenditure. Protein was provided as crystalline amino acid modeling egg protein with [C]phenylalanine as the indicator amino acid. Phenylalanine turnover (Q) was determined from urinary [C]phenylalanine enrichment. Breath CO2 excretion (FCO2) was analyzed using mixed effects biphase linear regression with the breakpoint and upper 95% confidence interval approximating the estimated average requirement and recommended dietary allowance, respectively. Protein intake had no effect on Q (68.7 ± 7.3 μmol·kg·h; mean ± SE). FCO2 displayed a robust biphase response (R = 0.66) with an estimated average requirement of 1.41 g·kg·d and recommended dietary allowance of 1.71 g·kg·d. The protein requirement estimate of 1.41 and 1.71 g·kg·d for females performing variable-intensity intermittent exercise is greater than the IAAO-derived estimates of adult males (0.93 and 1.2 g·kg·d) and at the upper range of the American College of Sports Medicine athlete recommendations (1.2-2.0 g·kg·d).

  12. Modulation of mitochondrial biomarkers by intermittent hypobaric hypoxia and aerobic exercise after eccentric exercise in trained rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizo-Roca, David; Ríos-Kristjánsson, Juan Gabriel; Núñez-Espinosa, Cristian; Santos-Alves, Estela; Magalhães, José; Ascensão, António; Pagès, Teresa; Viscor, Ginés; Torrella, Joan Ramon

    2017-07-01

    Unaccustomed eccentric contractions induce muscle damage, calcium homeostasis disruption, and mitochondrial alterations. Since exercise and hypoxia are known to modulate mitochondrial function, we aimed to analyze the effects on eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage (EEIMD) in trained rats using 2 recovery protocols based on: (i) intermittent hypobaric hypoxia (IHH) and (ii) IHH followed by exercise. The expression of biomarkers related to mitochondrial biogenesis, dynamics, oxidative stress, and bioenergetics was evaluated. Soleus muscles were excised before (CTRL) and 1, 3, 7, and 14 days after an EEIMD protocol. The following treatments were applied 1 day after the EEIMD: passive normobaric recovery (PNR), 4 h daily exposure to passive IHH at 4000 m (PHR) or IHH exposure followed by aerobic exercise (AHR). Citrate synthase activity was reduced at 7 and 14 days after application of the EEIMD protocol. However, this reduction was attenuated in AHR rats at day 14. PGC-1α and Sirt3 and TOM20 levels had decreased after 1 and 3 days, but the AHR group exhibited increased expression of these proteins, as well as of Tfam, by the end of the protocol. Mfn2 greatly reduced during the first 72 h, but returned to basal levels passively. At day 14, AHR rats had higher levels of Mfn2, OPA1, and Drp1 than PNR animals. Both groups exposed to IHH showed a lower p66shc(ser 36 )/p66shc ratio than PNR animals, as well as higher complex IV subunit I and ANT levels. These results suggest that IHH positively modulates key mitochondrial aspects after EEIMD, especially when combined with aerobic exercise.

  13. Cold water immersion recovery following intermittent-sprint exercise in the heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pointon, Monique; Duffield, Rob; Cannon, Jack; Marino, Frank E

    2012-07-01

    This study examined the effects of cold water immersion (CWI) on recovery of neuromuscular function following simulated team-sport exercise in the heat. Ten male team-sport athletes performed two sessions of a 2 × 30-min intermittent-sprint exercise (ISE) in 32°C and 52% humidity, followed by a 20-min CWI intervention or passive recovery (CONT) in a randomized, crossover design. The ISE involved a 15-m sprint every minute separated by bouts of hard running, jogging and walking. Voluntary and evoked neuromuscular function, ratings of perceived muscle soreness (MS) and blood markers for muscle damage were measured pre- and post-exercise, immediately post-recovery, 2-h and 24-h post-recovery. Measures of core temperature (Tcore), heart rate (HR), capillary blood and perceptions of exertion, thermal strain and thirst were also recorded at the aforementioned time points. Post-exercise maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) and activation (VA) were reduced in both conditions and remained below pre-exercise values for the 24-h recovery (P recovery period (P recovery rate of reduction in Tcore, HR and MS was enhanced with CWI whilst increasing MVC and VA (P recovery MVC and activation were significantly higher in CONT compared to CWI (P = 0.05). Following exercise in the heat, CWI accelerated the reduction in thermal and cardiovascular load, and improved MVC alongside increased central activation immediately and 2-h post-recovery. However, despite improved acute recovery CWI resulted in an attenuated MVC 24-h post-recovery.

  14. Caffeine ingestion enhances perceptual responses during intermittent exercise in female team-game players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Ajmol; O'Donnell, Jemma; Von Hurst, Pamela; Foskett, Andrew; Holland, Sherina; Starck, Carlene; Rutherfurd-Markwick, Kay

    2016-01-01

    We examined the influence of caffeine supplementation on cognitive performance and perceptual responses in female team-game players taking low-dose monophasic oral contraceptives of the same hormonal composition. Ten females (24 ± 4 years; 59.7 ± 3.5 kg body mass; 2-6 training sessions per week) took part in a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover-design trial. A 90-min intermittent treadmill-running protocol was completed 60 min following ingestion of a capsule containing either 6 mg • kg(-1) anhydrous caffeine or artificial sweetener (placebo). Perceptual responses (ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), feeling scale (FS), felt arousal scale (FAS)), mood (profile of mood states (POMS)) and cognitive performance (Stroop test, choice reaction time (CRT)) were completed before, during and after the exercise protocol, as well as after ~12 h post exercise. Caffeine ingestion significantly enhanced the ratings of pleasure (P = 0.008) and arousal (P = 0.002) during the exercise protocol, as well as increased vigour (POMS; P = 0.007), while there was a tendency for reduced fatigue (POMS; P = 0.068). Caffeine ingestion showed a tendency to decrease RPE (P = 0.068) and improve reaction times in the Stroop (P = 0.072) and CRT (P = 0.087) tests. Caffeine supplementation showed a positive effect on perceptual parameters by increasing vigour and a tendency to decrease fatigue during intermittent running activity in female games players taking low-dose monophasic oral contraceptive steroids (OCS).

  15. Circulating, cell-free DNA as a marker for exercise load in intermittent sports.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils Haller

    Full Text Available Attempts to establish a biomarker reflecting individual player load in intermittent sports such as football have failed so far. Increases in circulating DNA (cfDNA have been demonstrated in various endurance sports settings. While it has been proposed that cfDNA could be a suitable marker for player load in intermittent sports, the effects on cfDNA of repeated sprinting as an essential feature in intermittent sports are unknown. For the first time, we assessed both alterations of cfDNA due to repeated maximal sprints and due to a professional football game.Nine participants were subjected to a standardised sprint training session with cross-over design of five maximal sprints of 40 meters with either "short" (1 minute or "long" pauses (5 minutes. Capillary cfDNA and lactate were measured after every sprint and venous cfDNA before and after each series of sprints. Moreover, capillary cfDNA and lactate values were taken in 23 professional football players before and after incremental exercise testing, during the course of a training week at rest (baseline and in all 17 enrolled players following a season game.Lactate and venous cfDNA increased more pronounced during "short" compared to "long" (1.4-fold, p = 0.032 and 1.7-fold, p = 0.016 and cfDNA correlated significantly with lactate (r = 0.69; p<0.001. Incremental exercise testing increased cfDNA 7.0-fold (p<0.001. The season game increased cfDNA 22.7-fold (p<0.0001, while lactate showed a 2.0-fold (p = 0.09 increase compared to baseline. Fold-changes in cfDNA correlated with distance covered during game (spearman's r = 0.87, p = 0.0012, while no correlation between lactate and the tracking data could be found.We show for the first time that cfDNA could be an objective marker for distance covered in elite intermittent sports. In contrast to the potential of more established blood-based markers like IL-6, CK, or CRP, cfDNA shows by far the strongest fold-change and a high correlation with a

  16. Evidence based exercise - clinical benefits of high intensity interval training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraev, Tim; Barclay, Gabriella

    2012-12-01

    Aerobic exercise has a marked impact on cardiovascular disease risk. Benefits include improved serum lipid profiles, blood pressure and inflammatory markers as well as reduced risk of stroke, acute coronary syndrome and overall cardiovascular mortality. Most exercise programs prescribed for fat reduction involve continuous, moderate aerobic exercise, as per Australian Heart Foundation clinical guidelines. This article describes the benefits of exercise for patients with cardiovascular and metabolic disease and details the numerous benefits of high intensity interval training (HIIT) in particular. Aerobic exercise has numerous benefits for high-risk populations and such benefits, especially weight loss, are amplified with HIIT. High intensity interval training involves repeatedly exercising at a high intensity for 30 seconds to several minutes, separated by 1-5 minutes of recovery (either no or low intensity exercise). HIT is associated with increased patient compliance and improved cardiovascular and metabolic outcomes and is suitable for implementation in both healthy and 'at risk' populations. Importantly, as some types of exercise are contraindicated in certain patient populations and HIIT is a complex concept for those unfamiliar to exercise, some patients may require specific assessment or instruction before commencing a HIIT program.

  17. Effect of moderate- and high-intensity acute exercise on appetite in obese individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Catia; Stensvold, Dorthe; Finlayson, Graham; Holst, Jens; Wisloff, Ulrik; Kulseng, Bård; Morgan, Linda; King, Neil A

    2015-01-01

    The effect of acute exercise, and exercise intensity, on appetite control in obese individuals requires further study. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of acute isocaloric bouts (250 kcal) of high-intensity intermittent cycling (HIIC) and moderate-intensity continuous cycling (MICC) or short-duration HIIC (S-HIIC) (125 kcal) and a resting control condition on the appetite hormone responses, subjective feelings of appetite, energy intake (EI), and food reward in overweight/obese individuals. This study is a randomized crossover study on 12 overweight/obese volunteers. Participants were assigned to the control, MICC, HIIC, and S-HIIC conditions, 1 wk apart, in a counterbalanced order. Exercise was performed 1 h after a standard breakfast. An ad libitum test lunch was served 3 h after breakfast. Fasting/postprandial plasma samples of insulin, acylated ghrelin, polypeptide YY3-36, and glucagon-like peptide 1 and subjective feelings of appetite were measured every 30 min for 3 h. Nutrient and taste preferences were measured at the beginning and end of each condition using the Leeds Food Preference Questionnaire. Insulin levels were significantly reduced, and glucagon-like peptide 1 levels significantly increased during all exercise bouts compared with those during rest. Acylated ghrelin plasma levels were lower in the MICC and HIIC, but not in S-HIIC, compared with those in control. There were no significant differences for polypeptide YY3-36 plasma levels, hunger or fullness ratings, EI, or food reward. Our findings suggest that, in overweight/obese individuals, isocaloric bouts of moderate- or high-intensity exercise lead to a similar appetite response. This strengthens previous findings in normal-weight individuals that acute exercise, even at high intensity, does not induce any known physiological adaptation that would lead to increased EI.

  18. SALIVARY CORTISOL RESPONSES AND PERCEIVED EXERTION DURING HIGH INTENSITY AND LOW INTENSITY BOUTS OF RESISTANCE EXERCISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison D. Egan

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to measure the salivary cortisol response to different intensities of resistance exercise. In addition, we wanted to determine the reliability of the session rating of perceived exertion (RPE scale to monitor resistance exercise intensity. Subjects (8 men, 9 women completed 2 trials of acute resistance training bouts in a counterbalanced design. The high intensity resistance exercise protocol consisted of six, ten-repetition sets using 75% of one repetition maximum (RM on a Smith machine squat and bench press exercise (12 sets total. The low intensity resistance exercise protocol consisted of three, ten-repetition sets at 30% of 1RM of the same exercises as the high intensity protocol. Both exercise bouts were performed with 2 minutes of rest between each exercise and sessions were repeated to test reliability of the measures. The order of the exercise bouts was randomized with least 72 hours between each session. Saliva samples were obtained immediately before, immediately after and 30 mins following each resistance exercise bout. RPE measures were obtained using Borg's CR-10 scale following each set. Also, the session RPE for the entire exercise session was obtained 30 minutes following completion of the session. There was a significant 97% increase in the level of salivary cortisol immediately following the high intensity exercise session (P<0.05. There was also a significant difference in salivary cortisol of 145% between the low intensity and high intensity exercise session immediately post-exercise (P<0.05. The low intensity exercise did not result in any significant changes in cortisol levels. There was also a significant difference between the session RPE values for the different intensity levels (high intensity 7.1 vs. low intensity 1.9 (P<0.05. The intraclass correlation coefficient for the session RPE measure was 0.95. It was concluded that the session RPE method is a valid and reliable method of

  19. Psychophysiological Responses to Group Exercise Training Sessions: Does Exercise Intensity Matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Vandoni

    Full Text Available Group exercise training programs were introduced as a strategy for improving health and fitness and potentially reducing dropout rates. This study examined the psychophysiological responses to group exercise training sessions. Twenty-seven adults completed two group exercise training sessions of moderate and vigorous exercise intensities in a random and counterbalanced order. The %HRR and the exertional and arousal responses to vigorous session were higher than those during the moderate session (p<0.05. Consequently, the affective responses to vigorous session were less pleasant than those during moderate session (p<0.05. These results suggest that the psychophysiological responses to group exercise training sessions are intensity-dependent. From an adherence perspective, interventionists are encouraged to emphasize group exercise training sessions at a moderate intensity to maximize affective responses and to minimize exertional responses, which in turn may positively affect future exercise behavior.

  20. Circulating, cell-free DNA as a marker for exercise load in intermittent sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, Nils; Helmig, Susanne; Taenny, Pascal; Petry, Julian; Schmidt, Sebastian; Simon, Perikles

    2018-01-01

    Attempts to establish a biomarker reflecting individual player load in intermittent sports such as football have failed so far. Increases in circulating DNA (cfDNA) have been demonstrated in various endurance sports settings. While it has been proposed that cfDNA could be a suitable marker for player load in intermittent sports, the effects on cfDNA of repeated sprinting as an essential feature in intermittent sports are unknown. For the first time, we assessed both alterations of cfDNA due to repeated maximal sprints and due to a professional football game. Nine participants were subjected to a standardised sprint training session with cross-over design of five maximal sprints of 40 meters with either "short" (1 minute) or "long" pauses (5 minutes). Capillary cfDNA and lactate were measured after every sprint and venous cfDNA before and after each series of sprints. Moreover, capillary cfDNA and lactate values were taken in 23 professional football players before and after incremental exercise testing, during the course of a training week at rest (baseline) and in all 17 enrolled players following a season game. Lactate and venous cfDNA increased more pronounced during "short" compared to "long" (1.4-fold, p = 0.032 and 1.7-fold, p = 0.016) and cfDNA correlated significantly with lactate (r = 0.69; psports. In contrast to the potential of more established blood-based markers like IL-6, CK, or CRP, cfDNA shows by far the strongest fold-change and a high correlation with a particular load related aspect in professional football.

  1. Enhanced muscle blood flow with intermittent pneumatic compression of the lower leg during plantar flexion exercise and recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuj, K A; Prince, C N; Hughson, R L; Peterson, S D

    2018-02-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that intermittent compression of the lower limb would increase blood flow during exercise and postexercise recovery. Data were collected from 12 healthy individuals (8 men) who performed 3 min of standing plantar flexion exercise. The following three conditions were tested: no applied compression (NoComp), compression during the exercise period only (ExComp), and compression during 2 min of standing postexercise recovery. Doppler ultrasound was used to determine superficial femoral artery (SFA) blood flow responses. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) and cardiac stroke volume (SV) were assessed using finger photoplethysmography, with vascular conductance (VC) calculated as VC = SFA flow/MAP. Compared with the NoComp condition, compression resulted in increased MAP during exercise [+3.5 ± 4.1 mmHg (mean ± SD)] but not during postexercise recovery (+1.6 ± 5.9 mmHg). SV increased with compression during both exercise (+4.8 ± 5.1 ml) and recovery (+8.0 ± 6.6 ml) compared with NoComp. There was a greater increase in SFA flow with compression during exercise (+52.1 ± 57.2 ml/min) and during recovery (+58.6 ± 56.7 ml/min). VC immediately following exercise was also significantly greater in the ExComp condition compared with the NoComp condition (+0.57 ± 0.42 ml·min -1 ·mmHg -1 ), suggesting the observed increase in blood flow during exercise was in part because of changes in VC. Results from this study support the hypothesis that intermittent compression applied during exercise and recovery from exercise results in increased limb blood flow, potentially contributing to changes in exercise performance and recovery. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Blood flow to working skeletal muscle is achieved in part through the rhythmic actions of the skeletal muscle pump. This study demonstrated that the application of intermittent pneumatic compression during the diastolic phase of the cardiac cycle, to mimic the mechanical

  2. Heart Rate Variability: Effect of Exercise Intensity on Postexercise Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, David V. B.; Munson, Steven C.; Maldonado-Martin, Sara; De Ste Croix, Mark B. A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the influence of two exercise intensities (moderate and severe) on heart rate variability (HRV) response in 16 runners 1 hr prior to (-1 hr) and at +1 hr, +24 hr, +48 hr, and +72 hr following each exercise session. Time domain indexes and a high frequency component showed a significant decrease…

  3. Endothelin-1 and Exercise Intensity in Sedentary Adolescents with Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brooke E. Starkoff

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Inactivity combined with obesity during adolescence increases the risk of future cardiovascular disease. The study purpose was to compare the influence of differing intensities of exercise on endothelial function in sedentary adolescents with obesity. Participants were randomized to one of two groups in a 6-week exercise intervention: moderate intensity (MOD or high intensity interval exercise (HIIE. Endothelial function was assessed pre- and post-intervention via fasted serum levels of endothelin-1 (ET-1. Pre-measures of ET-1 concentrations were elevated at baseline. No significant differences in ET-1 were found between or within exercise groups. However, in the HIIE group, ET-1 was inversely associated with percentages of age predicted maximal heart rate achieved during the intervention (p=0.035, r=-0.567. The exercise interventions did not positively change ET-1 levels, yet participants who exercised at higher intensities in the HIIE group experienced greater decreases in ET-1. Keywords: childhood obesity, endothelial function, high intensity interval exercise

  4. Long term effects of a continuous and intermittent aerobic exercise on weight changes and body fat percentage in overweight and obese women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alizadeh Z

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity and sedentary lifestyle are growing problem. The global community's concern is to find the best strategy to obtain a more efficient process of weight reduction, increase physical activity, and minimize weight regain level. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the long-term effects of a short-term intervention on weight changes.Methods: The present study is a one-year follow-up study of a 12-week intervention during which the 15 individuals in the intermittent group performed 40 minutes exercise in three bouts per day; however, the 15 participants of the continuous group did the same but 40 minutes continuously. The 15 participants in the control group had no exercise prescription. After one year, weight changes, body fat percentage, and BMI were re-evaluated in the groups.Results: After adjusting the baseline weight, patterns of change in the mean weights from the end of the third month to the twelfth month were different across groups (P=0.02. After significant weight loss in the intermittent group, the mean weight in this group increased by 2.32 kilograms during the period, although not statistically significant. No increase was observed in the control group’s mean weight (P=1.00. In the continuous group, the mean weight increased statistically (P=0.048, 3.63 kilograms.Conclusion: It seems that long-term effects of moderate intensity intermittent aerobic exercise in overweight and obese women on weight control are more efficient than those of continuous exercise. However, for a change in lifestyle and prevention of weight regain, longer follow-ups are required.

  5. Intermittent fasting modulates IgA levels in the small intestine under intense stress: a mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara-Padilla, Eleazar; Godínez-Victoria, Marycarmen; Drago-Serrano, Maria Elisa; Reyna-Garfias, Humberto; Arciniega-Martínez, Ivonne Maciel; Abarca-Rojano, Edgar; Cruz-Hernández, Teresita Rocío; Campos-Rodríguez, Rafael

    2015-08-15

    Intermittent fasting prolongs the lifespan and unlike intense stress provides health benefits. Given the role of the immunoglobulin A (IgA) in the intestinal homeostasis, the aim of this study was to assess the impact of intermittent fasting plus intense stress on secretory IgA (SIgA) production and other mucosal parameters in the duodenum and ileum. Two groups of six mice, with intermittent fasting or fed ad libitum for 12weeks, were submitted to a session of intense stress by a bout of forced swimming. Unstressed ad libitum fed or intermittently fasted groups were included as controls. After sacrifice, we evaluated intestinal SIgA and plasma adrenal hormones, lamina propria IgA+ plasma-cells, mRNA expression of polymeric immunoglobulin receptor, α- and J-chains in the liver and intestinal mucosa, as well as pro- (tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6 and Interferon-γ) and anti- (interleukin-2, -4, -10 and transforming growth factor-β) inflammatory cytokines in mucosal samples. Under intense stress, intermittent fasting down- or up-modulated the levels of most parameters in the duodenum and ileum, respectively while up-regulated corticosterone levels without affecting epinephrine. Our data suggest intermittent fasting plus intense stress elicited neuroendocrine pathways that differentially controlled IgA and pIgR expression in duodenum and ileum. These findings provide experimental foundations for a presumable impact of intermittent fasting under intense stress on the intestinal homeostasis or inflammation by triggering or reducing the IgA production in ileum or duodenum respectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Psychophysiological Responses to Group Exercise Training Sessions: Does Exercise Intensity Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandoni, Matteo; Codrons, Erwan; Marin, Luca; Correale, Luca; Bigliassi, Marcelo; Buzzachera, Cosme Franklim

    2016-01-01

    Group exercise training programs were introduced as a strategy for improving health and fitness and potentially reducing dropout rates. This study examined the psychophysiological responses to group exercise training sessions. Twenty-seven adults completed two group exercise training sessions of moderate and vigorous exercise intensities in a random and counterbalanced order. The %HRR and the exertional and arousal responses to vigorous session were higher than those during the moderate session (psession were less pleasant than those during moderate session (ptraining sessions are intensity-dependent. From an adherence perspective, interventionists are encouraged to emphasize group exercise training sessions at a moderate intensity to maximize affective responses and to minimize exertional responses, which in turn may positively affect future exercise behavior.

  7. Cancer and Exercise: Warburg Hypothesis, Tumour Metabolism and High-Intensity Anaerobic Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Peter

    2018-01-31

    There is ample evidence that regular moderate to vigorous aerobic physical activity is related to a reduced risk for various forms of cancer to suggest a causal relationship. Exercise is associated with positive changes in fitness, body composition, and physical functioning as well as in patient-reported outcomes such as fatigue, sleep quality, or health-related quality of life. Emerging evidence indicates that exercise may also be directly linked to the control of tumour biology through direct effects on tumour-intrinsic factors. Beside a multitude of effects of exercise on the human body, one underscored effect of exercise training is to target the specific metabolism of tumour cells, namely the Warburg-type highly glycolytic metabolism. Tumour metabolism as well as the tumour⁻host interaction may be selectively influenced by single bouts as well as regularly applied exercise, dependent on exercise intensity, duration, frequency and mode. High-intensity anaerobic exercise was shown to inhibit glycolysis and some studies in animals showed that effects on tumour growth might be stronger compared with moderate-intensity aerobic exercise. High-intensity exercise was shown to be safe in patients; however, it has to be applied carefully with an individualized prescription of exercise.

  8. Plasma ghrelin levels during exercise - effects of intensity and duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdmann, Johannes; Tahbaz, Rana; Lippl, Florian; Wagenpfeil, Stefan; Schusdziarra, Volker

    2007-10-04

    Ghrelin, a recently discovered hormone of gastric origin has been shown to stimulate appetite and food intake. In man it is considered to play a role in energy homeostasis and regulation of somatropic function. As exercise affects hunger/satiety sensations and food intake, at least under some experimental conditions, we investigated the effect of exercise intensity and duration on ghrelin release and subsequent ad libitum food intake in normal weight subjects. Bicycle exercise on an ergometer for 30 min at 50 W which was below the aerob-anaerobic threshold led to an increase of ghrelin which remained unchanged during the higher intensity at 100 W. Respective hunger/satiety ratings and subsequent food intake and postprandial ghrelin suppression were identical and not different from controls. In a second group 7 subjects cycled at 50 W for 30, 60 and 120 min, respectively. Ghrelin concentrations rose significantly by 50-70 pg/ml above baseline for the respective period of exercise. While postexercise premeal ghrelin levels were not significantly different subsequent food intake after 120 min of cycling was significantly greater compared to control, 30 min and 60 min exercise, respectively. The present data suggest that low rather than high-intensity exercise stimulates ghrelin levels independent of exercise duration. Stimulation of food intake during prolonged exercise is most likely not due to changes of ghrelin.

  9. High-intensity interval training evokes larger serum BDNF levels compared with intense continuous exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saucedo Marquez, Cinthia Maria; Vanaudenaerde, Bart; Troosters, Thierry; Wenderoth, Nicole

    2015-12-15

    Exercise can have a positive effect on the brain by activating brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-related processes. In healthy humans there appears to be a linear relationship between exercise intensity and the positive short-term effect of acute exercise on BDNF levels (i.e., the highest BDNF levels are reported after high-intensity exercise protocols). Here we performed two experiments to test the effectiveness of two high-intensity exercise protocols, both known to improve cardiovascular health, to determine whether they have a similar efficacy in affecting BDNF levels. Participants performed a continuous exercise (CON) protocol at 70% of maximal work rate and a high-intensity interval-training (HIT) protocol at 90% of maximal work rate for periods of 1 min alternating with 1 min of rest (both protocols lasted 20 min). We observed similar BDNF kinetics in both protocols, with maximal BDNF concentrations being reached toward the end of training (experiment 1). We then showed that both exercise protocols significantly increase BDNF levels compared with a rest condition (CON P = 0.04; HIT P exercise are slightly more effective than continuous high-intensity exercise for elevating serum BDNF. Additionally, 73% of the participants preferred the HIT protocol (P = 0.02). Therefore, we suggest that the HIT protocol might represent an effective and preferred intervention for elevating BDNF levels and potentially promoting brain health. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  10. Comparison of the effects of growth hormone on acylated ghrelin and following acute intermittent exercise in two levels of obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Gholipour

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of obesity has risen enormously over the past few decad-es. Both food intake (Appetite and energy expenditure can influence body weight. Acylated ghrelin enhances appetite, and its plasma level is suppressed by growth horm-one. The present study, examines the effects of an intermittent exercise with progress-ive intensities on acylated ghrelin, appetite, and growth hormone in inactive male students with two levels of obesity.Methods: Eleven inactive males were allocated into two groups on the basis of their body mass index (BMI. Six subjects in group one, BMI= 31.18±0.92 kg/m2, and five subjects in group two, BMI= 36.94±2.25 kg/m2, ran on the treadmill with progressive intensities of 50, 60, 70 and 80% of VO2max for 10, 10, 5, and 2 min respectively. Blood samples were collected before the exercise (as the resting values, after each workload (during the exercise, and at 30, 60, and 120 min (during recovery.Results: Plasma acylated ghrelin concentrations and hunger ratings in two groups were decreased and remained significantly lower than resting values (P=0.008 and P=0.002 respectively at the end of the trial and there was no significant differences between groups. Growth hormone levels in two groups were increased and remained significant-ly higher than resting values (groups one P=0.012, group two P=0.005 at the end of the trial and there was no significant differences between groups. In addition, there were no significant differences between area under the curves (AUC values over total periods for acylated ghrelin, hunger ratings, and growth hormone in two groups.Conclusion: These findings indicate that individuals with two levels of obesity have the same response to the different intensities of treadmill running and two hours thereafter during recovery period, which can be considered for designing a more effective weighting loss training program.

  11. The effects of combined glucose-electrolyte and sodium bicarbonate ingestion on prolonged intermittent exercise performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Mike James; Cripps, David

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effects of combined glucose and sodium bicarbonate ingestion prior to intermittent exercise. Ninemales (mean ± s age 25.4 ± 6.6 years, body mass 78.8 ± 12.0 kg, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max)) 47.0 ± 7 ml · kg · min(-1)) undertook 4 × 45 min intermittent cycling trials including 15 × 10 s sprints one hour after ingesting placebo (PLA), glucose (CHO), sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) or a combined CHO and NaHCO3 solution (COMB). Post ingestion blood pH (7.45 ± 0.03, 7.46 ± 0.03, 7.32 ± 0.05, 7.32 ± 0.01) and bicarbonate (30.3 ± 2.1, 30.7 ± 1.8, 24.2 ± 1.2, 24.0 ± 1.8 mmol · l(-1)) were greater for NaHCO3 and COMB when compared to PLA and CHO, remaining elevated throughout exercise (main effect for trial; P < 0.05). Blood lactate concentration was greatest throughout exercise for NaHCO3 and COMB (main effect for trial; P < 0.05). Blood glucose concentration was greatest 15 min post-ingestion for CHO followed by COMB, NaHCO3 and PLA (7.13 ± 0.60, 5.58 ± 0.75, 4.51 ± 0.56, 4.46 ± 0.59 mmol · l(-1), respectively; P < 0.05). Gastrointestinal distress was lower during COMB compared to NaHCO3 at 15 min post-ingestion (P < 0.05). No differences were observed for sprint performance between trials (P = 1.00). The results of this study suggest that a combined CHO and NaHCO3 beverage reduced gastrointestinal distress and CHO availability but did not improve performance. Although there was no effect on performance an investigation of the effects in more highly trained individuals may be warranted.

  12. The effects of short work vs. longer work periods within intermittent exercise on V̇o2p kinetics, muscle deoxygenation, and energy system contribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrudden, Michael C; Keir, Daniel A; Belfry, Glen R

    2017-06-01

    We examined the effects of inserting 3-s recovery periods during high-intensity cycling exercise at 25-s and 10-s intervals on pulmonary oxygen uptake (V̇o 2p ), muscle deoxygenation [deoxyhemoglobin (HHb)], their associated kinetics (τ), and energy system contributions. Eleven men (24 ± 3 yr) completed two trials of three cycling protocols: an 8-min continuous protocol (CONT) and two 8-min intermittent exercise protocols with work-to-rest periods of 25 s to 3 s (25INT) and 10 s to 3 s (10INT). Each protocol began with a step-transition from a 20-W baseline to a power output (PO) of 60% between lactate threshold and maximal V̇o 2p (Δ60). This PO was maintained for 8 min in CONT, whereas 3-s periods of 20-W cycling were inserted every 10 s and 25 s after the transition to Δ60 in 10INT and 25INT, respectively. Breath-by-breath gas exchange measured by mass spectrometry and turbine and vastus lateralis [HHb] measured by near-infrared spectroscopy were recorded throughout. Arterialized-capillary lactate concentration ([Lac - ]) was obtained before and 2 min postexercise. The τV̇o 2p was lowest ( P 0.05) between conditions. Postexercise [Lac - ] was lowest ( P exercise speeded V̇o 2p kinetics and reduced overall V̇o 2p , suggesting an increased reliance on PCr-derived phosphorylation during the work period of INT compared with an identical PO performed continuously. NEW & NOTEWORTHY We report novel observations on the effects of differing heavy-intensity work durations between 3-s recovery periods on pulmonary oxygen uptake (V̇o 2p ) kinetics, muscle deoxygenation, and energy system contributions. Relative to continuous exercise, V̇o 2p kinetics are faster in intermittent exercise, and increased frequency of 3-s recovery periods improves microvascular O 2 delivery and reduces V̇o 2p and arterialized-capillary lactate concentration. The metabolic burden of identical intensity work is altered when performed intermittently vs. continuously. Copyright

  13. Locomotor muscle fatigue does not alter oxygen uptake kinetics during high-intensity exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Hopker

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The slow component (VO2sc that develops during high-intensity aerobic exercise is thought to be strongly associated with locomotor muscle fatigue. We sought to experimentally test this hypothesis by pre-fatiguing the locomotor muscles used during subsequent high-intensity cycling exercise. Over two separate visits, eight healthy male participants were asked to either perform a non-metabolically stressful 100 intermittent drop-jumps protocol (pre fatigue condition or rest for 33 minutes (control condition according to a random and counterbalanced order. Locomotor muscle fatigue was quantified with 6-second maximal sprints at a fixed pedaling cadence of 90 rev·min-1. Oxygen kinetics and other responses (heart rate, capillary blood lactate concentration and rating of perceived exertion, RPE were measured during two subsequent bouts of 6 min cycling exercise at 50% of the delta between the lactate threshold and VO2max determined during a preliminary incremental exercise test. All tests were performed on the same cycle ergometer. Despite significant locomotor muscle fatigue (P = 0.03, the VO2sc was not significantly different between the pre fatigue (464 ± 301 mL·min-1 and the control (556 ± 223 mL·min-1 condition (P = 0.50. Blood lactate response was not significantly different between conditions (P = 0.48 but RPE was significantly higher following the pre-fatiguing exercise protocol compared with the control condition (P < 0.01 suggesting higher muscle recruitment. These results demonstrate experimentally that locomotor muscle fatigue does not significantly alter the VO2 kinetic response to high intensity aerobic exercise, and challenge the hypothesis that the VO2sc is strongly associated with locomotor muscle fatigue.

  14. Locomotor Muscle Fatigue Does Not Alter Oxygen Uptake Kinetics during High-Intensity Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopker, James G; Caporaso, Giuseppe; Azzalin, Andrea; Carpenter, Roger; Marcora, Samuele M

    2016-01-01

    The [Formula: see text] slow component ([Formula: see text]) that develops during high-intensity aerobic exercise is thought to be strongly associated with locomotor muscle fatigue. We sought to experimentally test this hypothesis by pre-fatiguing the locomotor muscles used during subsequent high-intensity cycling exercise. Over two separate visits, eight healthy male participants were asked to either perform a non-metabolically stressful 100 intermittent drop-jumps protocol (pre-fatigue condition) or rest for 33 min (control condition) according to a random and counterbalanced order. Locomotor muscle fatigue was quantified with 6-s maximal sprints at a fixed pedaling cadence of 90 rev·min -1 . Oxygen kinetics and other responses (heart rate, capillary blood lactate concentration and rating of perceived exertion, RPE) were measured during two subsequent bouts of 6 min cycling exercise at 50% of the delta between the lactate threshold and [Formula: see text] determined during a preliminary incremental exercise test. All tests were performed on the same cycle ergometer. Despite significant locomotor muscle fatigue ( P = 0.03), the [Formula: see text] was not significantly different between the pre-fatigue (464 ± 301 mL·min -1 ) and the control (556 ± 223 mL·min -1 ) condition ( P = 0.50). Blood lactate response was not significantly different between conditions ( P = 0.48) but RPE was significantly higher following the pre-fatiguing exercise protocol compared with the control condition ( P locomotor muscle fatigue does not significantly alter the [Formula: see text] kinetic response to high intensity aerobic exercise, and challenge the hypothesis that the [Formula: see text] is strongly associated with locomotor muscle fatigue.

  15. The effect of 10 days of intermittent fasting on Wingate anaerobic power and prolonged high-intensity time-to-exhaustion cycling performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naharudin, Mohamed Nashrudin Bin; Yusof, Ashril

    2018-06-01

    Many physically active individuals have undertaken intermittent fasting to reduce their daily caloric intake. However, abstaining from meals for a specific length of time may lead to the acute disturbance of highly carbohydrate-dependent exercise performance. The purpose of this study was to observe the effect of 10 days of intermittent fasting on high-intensity type exercises, Wingate anaerobic (WT) and prolonged high-intensity time-to-exhaustion (HIT) cycling test. Twenty participants were randomised into an intermittent fasting (FAS) and a control group (CON). One day after baseline data collection on Day-0 where participants consumed their recommended daily caloric intake (FAS = 2500 ± 143 kcal day -1 ; CON = 2492 ± 20 kcal day -1 ) served over a course of five meals, the FAS group consumed only four meals where 40% was restricted by the omission of lunch (FAS = 1500 ± 55 kcal day -1 ). This diet was then continued for 10 days. Data on exercise performance and other dependent variables were collected on Day-2, -4, -6, -8 and -10. A reduction in WT power in the FAS group was observed on Day-2 (821.74 ± 66.07 W) compared to Day-0 (847.63 ± 95.94 W) with a moderate effect size (p < .05, ES = 0.4), while HIT time-to-exhaustion performance declined over the 10 days with a trend of recovery from a large to a minimum effect size (p < .05, ES = 0.8-0.3). Body weight and triglyceride were consistently reduced in the FAS group (p < .01). The present study suggests that intermittent fasting must exceed 10 days to ensure that high-intensity performance does not deteriorate because this length of time seems to be required for effective adaptation to the new dietary regimen.

  16. Exercise intensity modulates the change in cerebral blood flow following aerobic exercise in chronic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Andrew D; Crane, David E; Rajab, A Saeed; Swardfager, Walter; Marzolini, Susan; Shirzadi, Zahra; Middleton, Laura E; MacIntosh, Bradley J

    2015-08-01

    The mechanisms supporting functional improvement by aerobic exercise following stroke remain incompletely understood. This study investigated how cycling intensity and aerobic fitness influence cerebral blood flow (CBF) following a single exercise session. Thirteen community-living stroke survivors performed 20 min of semi-recumbent cycling at low and moderate intensities (40-50 and 60-70 % of heart rate reserve, respectively) as determined from an exercise stress test. CBF was quantified by arterial spin labeling MRI at baseline, as well as 30 and 50 min post-exercise. An intensity-dependent effect was observed in the right post-central and supramarginal gyri up to 50 min after exercise (uncorrected p Aerobic fitness was directly related to posterior cingulate and thalamic CBF, and inversely related to precuneal CBF at rest (R (2) ≥ 0.75); however, no relationship between fitness and the post-exercise change in CBF was observed. Divergent changes in regional CBF were observed in the right parietal cortex following low- and moderate-intensity exercise, which suggests that intensity of prescribed exercise may be useful in optimizing rehabilitation.

  17. High intensity exercise or conventional exercise for patients with rheumatoid arthritis? Outcome expectations of patients, rheumatologists, and physiotherapists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munneke, M.; de Jong, Z.; Zwinderman, A. H.; Ronday, H. K.; van den Ende, C. H. M.; Vliet Vlieland, T. P. M.; Hazes, J. M. W.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the outcome expectations of RA patients, rheumatologists, and physiotherapists regarding high intensity exercise programmes compared with conventional exercise programmes. METHODS: An exercise outcome expectations questionnaire was administered to 807 RA patients, 153

  18. The Effects of Electrostimulation and Core Exercises on Recovery After High-Intensity Exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmet Mor; Gökhan İpekoğlu; Cansel Arslanoglu; Kursat Acar; Erkal Arslanoglu

    2017-01-01

    Introduction and objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of electrostimulation and core exercises on recovery after high-intensity exercise. Methods: The participants of this study consists of 12 male bodybuilders who regularly train and between the ages 18-30. Tabata high intensity interval training (HIIT) was applied with different recovery methods to the athletes on three different days and the recovery levels of athletes were analysed. Heart rate and blood lacta...

  19. Post-plyometric exercise hypotension and heart rate in normotensive individuals: influence of exercise intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arazi, Hamid; Asadi, Abbas; Rahimzadeh, Mehdi; Moradkhani, Amir-Hossein

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of high, moderate and low intensity plyometric exercise on the post-exercise systolic and diastolic blood pressure and heart rate responses. Ten healthy normotensive men (age, 21.1±0.9 years; height, 175.8±6 cm; and body mass, 69.1±13.6 kg) volunteered to participate in this study and were evaluated for three non-consecutive days in depth jump exercise from 20-cm box (low intensity [LI]), 40-cm box (moderate intensity [MI]) and 60-cm box (high intensity [HI]) for 5 sets of 20 repetitions. After each exercise session, systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and heart rate (HR) were measured every 10 min for a period of 90 min. No significant differences were observed among post-exercise SBP, DBP and HR when the protocols (LI, MI and HI) were compared. The LI and HI protocols showed greater reduction in SBP at 40(th)-70(th) min of post-exercise (~9%), whereas the LI and MI protocols indicated greater reduction in DBP at 10(th)-50(th) min of post exercise (~10%). In addition, the change in the DBP for HI was not significant and the increases in the HR were similar for all intensities. It can be concluded that a plyometric exercise (PE) can reduce SBP and DBP post-exercise and therefore we can say that PE has significant effects for reducing BP and HR or post-exercise hypotension.

  20. Exercise attenuates intermittent hypoxia-induced cardiac fibrosis associated with sodium-hydrogen exchanger-1 in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsung-I Chen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To investigate the role of sodium–hydrogen exchanger-1 (NHE-1 and exercise training on intermittent hypoxia-induced cardiac fibrosis in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA, using an animal model mimicking the intermittent hypoxia of OSA. Methods: Eight-week-old male Sprague–Dawley rats were randomly assigned to control (CON, intermittent hypoxia (IH, exercise (EXE or IH combined with exercise (IHEXE groups. These groups were randomly assigned to subgroups receiving either a vehicle or the NHE-1 inhibitor cariporide. The EXE and IHEXE rats underwent exercise training on an animal treadmill for 10 weeks (5 days/week, 60 minutes/day, 24–30 m/minute, 2–10% grade. The IH and IHEXE rats were exposed to 14 days of IH (30 seconds of hypoxia - nadir of 2-6% O2 - followed by 45 seconds of normoxia for 8 hours/day. At the end of 10 weeks, rats were sacrificed and then hearts were removed to determine the myocardial levels of fibrosis index, oxidative stress, antioxidant capacity and NHE-1 activation. Results: Compared to the CON rats, IH induced higher cardiac fibrosis, lower myocardial catalase and superoxidative dismutase activities, higher myocardial lipid and protein peroxidation and higher NHE-1 activation (p < 0.05 for each, which were all abolished by cariporide. Compared to the IH rats, lower cardiac fibrosis, higher myocardial antioxidant capacity, lower myocardial lipid and protein peroxidation and lower NHE-1 activation were found in the IHEXE rats (p < 0.05 for each. Conclusion: IH-induced cardiac fibrosis was associated with NHE-1 hyperactivity. However, exercise training and cariporide exerted an inhibitory effect to prevent myocardial NHE-1 hyperactivity, which contributed to reduced IH-induced cardiac fibrosis. Therefore, NHE-1 plays a critical role in the effect of exercise on IH-induced increased cardiac fibrosis.

  1. Precooling leg muscle improves intermittent sprint exercise performance in hot, humid conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castle, Paul C; Macdonald, Adam L; Philp, Andrew; Webborn, Anthony; Watt, Peter W; Maxwell, Neil S

    2006-04-01

    We used three techniques of precooling to test the hypothesis that heat strain would be alleviated, muscle temperature (Tmu) would be reduced, and as a result there would be delayed decrements in peak power output (PPO) during exercise in hot, humid conditions. Twelve male team-sport players completed four cycling intermittent sprint protocols (CISP). Each CISP consisted of twenty 2-min periods, each including 10 s of passive rest, 5 s of maximal sprint against a resistance of 7.5% body mass, and 105 s of active recovery. The CISP, preceded by 20 min of no cooling (Control), precooling via an ice vest (Vest), cold water immersion (Water), and ice packs covering the upper legs (Packs), was performed in hot, humid conditions (mean +/- SE; 33.7 +/- 0.3 degrees C, 51.6 +/- 2.2% relative humidity) in a randomized order. The rate of heat strain increase during the CISP was faster in Control than Water and Packs (P body or whole body cooling.

  2. Phenylephrine decreases frontal lobe oxygenation at rest but not during moderately intense exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brassard, Patrice; Seifert, Thomas; Wissenberg, Mads

    2010-01-01

    high-intensity exercise (-3%, P=not significant), where PaCO2 decreased 7% (Padministration of phenylephrine reduced ScO2 but that the increased cerebral metabolism needed for moderately intense exercise eliminated that effect....... the administration of phenylephrine during low-intensity exercise (approximately 15%), but this was attenuated (approximately 10%) during high-intensity exercise (Padministration of phenylephrine was attenuated during low-intensity exercise (-5%, P

  3. Effects of a high-intensity intermittent training program on aerobic capacity and lipid profile in trained subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ouerghi N

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Nejmeddine Ouerghi,1,2 Marwa Khammassi,1 Sami Boukorraa,1 Moncef Feki,2 Naziha Kaabachi,2 Anissa Bouassida,1,3 1Research Unit, Sportive Performance and Physical Rehabilitation, High Institute of Sports and Physical Education of Kef, University of Jendouba, Kef, Tunisia, 2Laboratory of Biochemistry, Rabta Hospital, Faculty of Medicine of Tunis, El Manar University, Tunis, 3Physiology Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine Ibn el Jazzar, Sousse, Tunisia Background: Data regarding the effect of training on plasma lipids are controversial. Most studies have addressed continuous or long intermittent training programs. The present study evaluated the effect of short-short high-intensity intermittent training (HIIT on aerobic capacity and plasma lipids in soccer players. Methods: The study included 24 male subjects aged 21–26 years, divided into three groups: experimental group 1 (EG1, n=8 comprising soccer players who exercised in addition to regular short-short HIIT twice a week for 12 weeks; experimental group 2 (EG2, n=8 comprising soccer players who exercised in a regular football training program; and a control group (CG, n=8 comprising untrained subjects who did not practice regular physical activity. Maximal aerobic velocity and maximal oxygen uptake along with plasma lipids were measured before and after 6 weeks and 12 weeks of the respective training program. Results: Compared with basal values, maximal oxygen uptake had significantly increased in EG1 (from 53.3±4.0 mL/min/kg to 54.8±3.0 mL/min/kg at 6 weeks [P<0.05] and to 57.0±3.2 mL/min/kg at 12 weeks [P<0.001]. Maximal oxygen uptake was increased only after 12 weeks in EG2 (from 52.8±2.7 mL/min/kg to 54.2±2.6 mL/min/kg, [P<0.05], but remain unchanged in CG. After 12 weeks of training, maximal oxygen uptake was significantly higher in EG1 than in EG2 (P<0.05. During training, no significant changes in plasma lipids occurred. However, after 12 weeks, total and low-density lipoprotein

  4. Energetics of high-intensity exercise (soccer) with particular reference to fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, T

    1997-06-01

    Soccer entails intermittent exercise with bouts of short, intense activity punctuating longer periods of low-level, moderate-intensity exercise. High levels of blood lactate may sometimes be observed during a match but the active recovery periods at submaximal exercise levels allow for its removal on a continual basis. While anaerobic efforts are evident in activity with the ball and shadowing fast-moving opponents, the largest strain is placed on aerobic metabolism. On average, competitive soccer corresponds to an energy expenditure of about 75% maximal aerobic power. The energy expenditure varies with playing position, being highest among midfield players. Muscle glycogen levels can be reduced towards the end of a game, the level of reduction being reflected in a decrease in work rate. Blood glucose levels are generally well-maintained, although body temperature may rise by 2 degrees C even in temperate conditions. The distance covered by players tends to under-reflect the energy expended. Unorthodox modes of motion-running backwards and sideways, accelerating, decelerating and changing direction-accentuate the metabolic loading. These are compounded by the extra requirements for energy associated with dribbling the ball and contesting possession. The overall energy expended is extreme when players are required to play extra-time in tournaments. Training, nutritional and tactical strategies may be used to reduce the effects of fatigue that may occur late in the game.

  5. Effects of exercise intensity and creatine loading on post-resistance exercise hypotension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreno Rodrigues Moreno

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Postexercise hypotension plays an important role in the non-pharmacological treat-ment of hypertension and is characterized by a decrease in blood pressure after a single exercise bout in relation to pre-exercise levels. This study investigated the effects of exercise intensity and creatine monohydrate supplementation on postexercise hypotension, as well as the possible role of blood lactate in this response. Ten normotensive subjects underwent resistance exercise sessions before (BC and after (AC creatine supplementation: 1 muscle endurance (ME consisting of 30 repetitions at 30% of one-repetition maximum; 2 hypertrophy (HP consisting of 8 repetitions at 75% of one-repetition maximum. Blood pressure was measured before and after the exercise bout. Blood lactate was measured after the exercise bout. The HP and ME sessions promoted a decrease in systolic blood pressure (∆ -19 ± 1.0 mmHg; ∆ -15 ± 0.9 mmHg, respectively, P 0.05. In conclusion, resistance exercise intensity did not influence postexercise hypotension. Creatine supplementation attenuated the decrease in blood pressure after resistance exercise. The results suggest the involvement of blood lactate in post-resistance exercise hypotension.

  6. Effects of exercise intensity and creatine loading on post-resistance exercise hypotension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreno Rodrigues Moreno

    2009-01-01

    Postexercise hypotension plays an important role in the non-pharmacological treat-ment of hypertension and is characterized by a decrease in blood pressure after a single exercise bout in relation to pre-exercise levels. This study investigated the effects of exercise intensity and creatine monohydrate supplementation on postexercise hypotension, as well as the possible role of blood lactate in this response. Ten normotensive subjects underwent resistance exercise sessions before (BC and after (AC creatine supplementation: 1 muscle endurance (ME consisting of 30 repetitions at 30% of one-repetition maximum; 2 hypertrophy (HP consisting of 8 repetitions at 75% of one-repetition maximum. Blood pressure was measured before and after the exercise bout. Blood lactate was measured after the exercise bout. The HP and ME sessions promoted a decrease in systolic blood pressure (∆ -19 ± 1.0 mmHg; ∆ -15 ± 0.9 mmHg, respectively, P 0.05. In conclusion, resistance exercise intensity did not influence postexercise hypotension. Creatine supplementation attenuated the decrease in blood pressure after resistance exercise. The results suggest the involvement of blood lactate in post-resistance exercise hypotension.

  7. Circulating, cell-free DNA as a marker for exercise load in intermittent sports

    OpenAIRE

    Haller, Nils; Helmig, Susanne; Taenny, Pascal; Petry, Julian; Schmidt, Sebastian; Simon, Perikles

    2018-01-01

    Background Attempts to establish a biomarker reflecting individual player load in intermittent sports such as football have failed so far. Increases in circulating DNA (cfDNA) have been demonstrated in various endurance sports settings. While it has been proposed that cfDNA could be a suitable marker for player load in intermittent sports, the effects on cfDNA of repeated sprinting as an essential feature in intermittent sports are unknown. For the first time, we assessed both alterations of ...

  8. Muscle interstitial potassium kinetics during intense exhaustive exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordsborg, Nikolai; Mohr, Magni; Pedersen, Lasse Dannemann

    2003-01-01

    Interstitial K+ ([K+]i) was measured in human skeletal muscle by microdialysis during exhaustive leg exercise, with (AL) and without (L) previous intense arm exercise. In addition, the reproducibility of the [K+]i determinations was examined. Possible microdialysis-induced rupture of the sarcolemma...... was assessed by measurement of carnosine in the dialysate, because carnosine is only expected to be found intracellularly. Changes in [K+]i could be reproduced, when exhaustive leg exercise was performed on two different days, with a between-day difference of approximately 0.5 mM at rest and 1.5 m......M at exhaustion. The time to exhaustion was shorter in AL than in L (2.7 +/- 0.3 vs. 4.0 +/- 0.3 min; P exercise period in AL compared with L (9.2 +/- 0.7 vs. 6.4 +/- 0.9 mM; P

  9. Impact of Mild versus Moderate Intensity Aerobic Walking Exercise ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Patients with hemophilia A have low bone density than healthy controls. It is now widely recognized that physical activity and sports are beneficial for patients with hemophilia. Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the effects of mild and moderate intensity treadmill walking exercises on markers of ...

  10. Acute Effect of Various Exercise Intensities on Cognitive Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceylan, Halil Ibrahim; Saygin, Ozcan

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the acute effect of various exercise intensities on coincidence anticipation timing at different stimulus speeds. Fifteen male students who attend to Faculty of Sport Sciences at Mugla Sitki Kocman University, have been dealing with individual or team sports and having licenses for 5 or more years with no…

  11. High-intensity exercise and recovery during short-term ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To determine the effect of short-term creatine supplementation plus a protein-carbohydrate formula on high-intensity exercise performance and recovery. Design. A repeated-measures, experimental study, employing a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, group comparison design was used.

  12. Intermittent exercise in response to cigarette cravings in the context of an Internet-based smoking cessation program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linke, Sarah E.; Rutledge, Thomas; Myers, Mark G.

    2013-01-01

    Background Interventions using sustained aerobic exercise programs to aid smoking cessation have resulted in modest, short-term cessation rates comparable to conventional cessation methods. No smoking cessation trial to date has prescribed intermittent bouts of exercise in response to nicotine cravings. Objectives This pilot randomized controlled trial examined the feasibility and efficacy of an Internet-based smoking cessation program alone (CON) vs. the same Internet-based program + intermittent exercise in response to cigarette cravings (EX). Study population Participants (N = 38; mean age = 43.6 [SD = 11.5]; 60.5% women) were generally healthy, inactive adult smokers who desired to quit. Results The overall retention rate was 60.5% (n = 23), and no significant retention rate differences were found between groups (EX vs. CON). Although retained participants achieved a higher cessation rate (26.1%) than all enrolled participants (15.8%), adjusted intent-to-treat and per-protocol binary logistic regression analyses revealed no significant cessation rate differences between EX and CON groups. Linear regression results indicated that additional days of self-reported exercise on the study website during the intervention phase predicted significantly higher reduction rates among EX group participants, F(2, 16) = 31.08, p exercise in the presence of the apparently valuable Internet-based smoking cessation program. The results support findings from related research and underscore the need for additional investigation into both the mechanisms underlying the effect of exercise on cigarette cravings and the challenges of poor adherence in the context of exercise-based smoking cessation interventions. PMID:23956792

  13. An evaluation of low volume high-intensity intermittent training (HIIT) for health risk reduction in overweight and obese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Benjamin M; Xenophontos, Soteris; King, James A; Nimmo, Myra A

    2017-01-01

    Both sprint interval training (SIT) and high-intensity intermittent training (HIIT) have been described as time-efficient strategies for inducing favourable metabolic and cardiorespiratory adaptations in healthy and diseased participants. To date, little attention has been given to profiling the potential health benefits of HIIT or modified HIIT training within overweight and obese cohorts with particular focus on inflammation. Within this pilot trial, we tested the hypothesis that 6 sessions of HIIT performed over 2 weeks with 1-2 days' rest would improve aerobic capacity, glucose metabolism and inflammatory profile in an overweight and obese male cohort. Additionally, we profiled the potential health benefits of 4 HIIT sessions performed over the same period. 18 overweight or obese males (BMI = 31.2 ± 3.6; V̇O 2  = 30.3 ± 4.4 ml.kg.min -1 ) were studied before and 72 h after HIIT. Training sessions consisted of 10 x 1 min intervals at 90% HR peak separated by 1 min recovery periods. Exercise was performed either 6 (group 1, n  = 8) or 4 (group 2, n  = 10) times over a 2 week period. After training no changes were detected from baseline for body composition, aerobic capacity, glucose metabolism or inflammatory profile ( p  > 0.05) in either group. Both 6 and 4 sessions of HIIT performed over a 2-week period are ineffective in improving selected health markers within an overweight and obese cohort. This trial reports data from human participants and was retrospectively registered on 22/02/2017 with the ISRCTN registry, trial number ISRCTN90672085.

  14. Cold-water immersion decreases cerebral oxygenation but improves recovery after intermittent-sprint exercise in the heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minett, G M; Duffield, R; Billaut, F; Cannon, J; Portus, M R; Marino, F E

    2014-08-01

    This study examined the effects of post-exercise cooling on recovery of neuromuscular, physiological, and cerebral hemodynamic responses after intermittent-sprint exercise in the heat. Nine participants underwent three post-exercise recovery trials, including a control (CONT), mixed-method cooling (MIX), and cold-water immersion (10 °C; CWI). Voluntary force and activation were assessed simultaneously with cerebral oxygenation (near-infrared spectroscopy) pre- and post-exercise, post-intervention, and 1-h and 24-h post-exercise. Measures of heart rate, core temperature, skin temperature, muscle damage, and inflammation were also collected. Both cooling interventions reduced heart rate, core, and skin temperature post-intervention (P recovery of voluntary force by 12.7 ± 11.7% (mean ± SD) and 16.3 ± 10.5% 1-h post-exercise compared to MIX and CONT, respectively (P  0.05). CWI reduced cerebral oxygenation compared to MIX and CONT post-intervention (P recovery after post-exercise cooling appear to be disassociated with cerebral oxygenation, rather reflecting reductions in thermoregulatory demands to sustain force production. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Supervised Exercise Therapy for Intermittent Claudication Is Increasingly Endorsed by Dutch Vascular Surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hageman, David; Lauret, Gert-Jan; Gommans, Lindy N M; Koelemay, Mark J W; van Sambeek, Marc R H M; Scheltinga, Marc R M; Teijink, Joep A W

    2018-02-01

    Although supervised exercise therapy (SET) is generally accepted as an effective noninvasive treatment for intermittent claudication (IC), Dutch vascular surgeons were initially somewhat hesitant as reported by a 2011 questionnaire study. Later on, a nationwide multidisciplinary network for SET was introduced in the Netherlands. The aim of this questionnaire study was to determine possible trends in conceptions among Dutch vascular surgeons regarding the prescription of SET. In the year of 2015, Dutch vascular surgeons, fellows, and senior residents were asked to complete a 26-item questionnaire including issues that were considered relevant for prescribing SET such as patient selection criteria and comorbidity. Outcome was compared to the 2011 survey. Data of 124 respondents (82% males; mean age 46 years; 64% response rate) were analyzed. SET referral rate of new IC patients was not different over time (2015: 81% vs. 2011: 75%; P = 0.295). However, respondents were more willing to prescribe SET in IC patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (2015: 86% vs. 2011: 69%; P = 0.002). Nevertheless, a smaller portion of respondents found that SET was also indicated for aortoiliac disease (2015: 63% vs. 2011: 76%; P = 0.049). Insufficient health insurance coverage and/or personal financial resources were the most important presumed barriers preventing patients from initiating SET (80% of respondents). Moreover, 94% of respondents judged that SET should be fully reimbursed by all Dutch basic health insurances. The concept of SET for IC is nowadays generally embraced by the vast majority of Dutch vascular surgeons. SET may have gained in popularity in IC patients with cardiopulmonary comorbidity. However, SET remains underutilized for aortoiliac disease. Reimbursement is considered crucial for a successful SET implementation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of Cold (14° C) vs. Ice (5° C) Water Immersion on Recovery From Intermittent Running Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Daniel; Nunn, James; Tyler, Christopher J

    2018-03-01

    Anderson, D, Nunn, J, and Tyler, CJ. Effect of cold (14° C) vs. ice (5° C) water immersion on recovery from intermittent running exercise. J Strength Cond Res 32(3): 764-771, 2018-The purpose was to compare 14° C (CWI14° C) and 5° C (CWI5° C) cold water immersion after intermittent running. On 3 occasions, 9 male team-sport players undertook 12 minutes of CWI14° C, CWI5° C, or nonimmersed seated recovery (CON) after 45 minutes of intermittent running exercise. Maximal cycling performance and markers of recovery were measured before and in the 0-72 hours after exercise. Peak power output (PPO) was immediately reduced after all interventions (d = 1.8). CWI5° C was more effective at restoring PPO than CWI14° C (d = 0.38) and CON (d = 0.28) 24 hours after exercise, whereas both CON (d = 0.20) and CWI5 (d = 0.37) were more effective than CWI14° C after 48 hours. Cold water immersion (CWI) was more effective than CON at restoring PPO 72 hours after exercise (d = 0.28-0.30). Mean power output (MPO) was higher in CON compared with CWI5° C (d = 0.30) and CWI14° C (d = 0.21), but there was no difference between CWI5° C and CWI14° C (d = 0.08). CWI5° C was more effective than CWI14° C for restoring MPO to baseline levels 24 hours (d = 0.28) and 72 hours (d = 0.28) after exercise; however, CON was more, or equally, effective as CWI5° C and CWI14° C throughout. Lactate and creatine kinase concentrations were unaffected. Perceived muscle soreness remained elevated in CWI5 and CON throughout but was similar to baseline in CWI14° C after 72 hours. In conclusion, repeated bouts of exercise are initially impaired after 5 and 14° C CWI, but PPO may be improved 72 hours after exercise. Cold water immersion is not recommended for acute recovery based on these data. Athletes and coaches should use the time currently allocated to CWI for more effective and alternative recovery modalities.

  17. [Performance enhancement by carbohydrate intake during sport: effects of carbohydrates during and after high-intensity exercise].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beelen, Milou; Cermak, Naomi M; van Loon, Luc J C

    2015-01-01

    Endogenous carbohydrate availability does not provide sufficient energy for prolonged moderate to high-intensity exercise. Carbohydrate ingestion during high-intensity exercise can therefore enhance performance.- For exercise lasting 1 to 2.5 hours, athletes are advised to ingest 30-60 g of carbohydrates per hour.- Well-trained endurance athletes competing for longer than 2.5 hours at high intensity can metabolise up to 90 g of carbohydrates per hour, provided that a mixture of glucose and fructose is ingested.- Athletes participating in intermittent or team sports are advised to follow the same strategies but the timing of carbohydrate intake depends on the type of sport.- If top performance is required again within 24 hours after strenuous exercise, the advice is to supplement endogenous carbohydrate supplies quickly within the first few hours post-exercise by ingesting large amounts of carbohydrate (1.2 g/kg/h) or a lower amount of carbohydrate (0.8 g/kg/h) with a small amount of protein (0.2-0.4 g/kg/h).

  18. High-intensity interval exercise and cerebrovascular health: curiosity, cause, and consequence

    OpenAIRE

    Lucas, Samuel J E; Cotter, James D; Brassard, Patrice; Bailey, Damian M

    2015-01-01

    Exercise is a uniquely effective and pluripotent medicine against several noncommunicable diseases of westernised lifestyles, including protection against neurodegenerative disorders. High-intensity interval exercise training (HIT) is emerging as an effective alternative to current health-related exercise guidelines. Compared with traditional moderate-intensity continuous exercise training, HIT confers equivalent if not indeed superior metabolic, cardiac, and systemic vascular adaptation. Con...

  19. Creatine kinase response to high-intensity aerobic exercise in adult-onset muscular dystrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Søren P; Sveen, Marie-Louise; Hansen, Regitze S

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the effect of high-intensity exercise on plasma creatine kinase (CK) in patients with muscular dystrophies.......We investigated the effect of high-intensity exercise on plasma creatine kinase (CK) in patients with muscular dystrophies....

  20. High intensity interval exercise training in overweight young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sijie, T; Hainai, Y; Fengying, Y; Jianxiong, W

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this study was intended to evaluate the effects of a high intensity interval training (HIIT) program on the body composition, cardiac function and aerobic capacity in overweight young women. Sixty female university students (aged 19-20, BMI≥25kg/m2 and percentage body fat ≥ 30%) were chosen and then randomly assigned to each of the HIIT group, the moderate intensity continuous training (MICT) group and the non-training control group. The subjects in both the HIIT and MICT groups underwent exercise training five times per week for 12 weeks. In each of the training sessions, the HIIT group performed interval exercises at the individualized heart rate (HR) of 85% of VO2max and separated by brief periods of low intensity activity (HR at 50% of VO2max), while the MICT group did continuous walking and/or jogging at the individualized HR of 50% of VO2max. Both of these exercise training programs produced significant improvements in the subjects' body composition, left ventricular ejection fraction, heart rate at rest, maximal oxygen uptake and ventilatory threshold. However, the HIIT group achieved better results than those in the MICT group, as it was evaluated by the amount of the effect size. The control group did not achieve any change in all of the measured variables. The tangible results achieved by our relatively large groups of homogeneous subjects have demonstrated that the HIIT program is an effective measure for the treatment of young women who are overweight.

  1. High-Intensity Interval Training Elicits Higher Enjoyment than Moderate Intensity Continuous Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thum, Jacob S.; Parsons, Gregory; Whittle, Taylor

    2017-01-01

    Exercise adherence is affected by factors including perceptions of enjoyment, time availability, and intrinsic motivation. Approximately 50% of individuals withdraw from an exercise program within the first 6 mo of initiation, citing lack of time as a main influence. Time efficient exercise such as high intensity interval training (HIIT) may provide an alternative to moderate intensity continuous exercise (MICT) to elicit substantial health benefits. This study examined differences in enjoyment, affect, and perceived exertion between MICT and HIIT. Twelve recreationally active men and women (age = 29.5 ± 10.7 yr, VO2max = 41.4 ± 4.1 mL/kg/min, BMI = 23.1 ± 2.1 kg/m2) initially performed a VO2max test on a cycle ergometer to determine appropriate workloads for subsequent exercise bouts. Each subject returned for two additional exercise trials, performing either HIIT (eight 1 min bouts of cycling at 85% maximal workload (Wmax) with 1 min of active recovery between bouts) or MICT (20 min of cycling at 45% Wmax) in randomized order. During exercise, rating of perceived exertion (RPE), affect, and blood lactate concentration (BLa) were measured. Additionally, the Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale (PACES) was completed after exercise. Results showed higher enjoyment (p = 0.013) in response to HIIT (103.8 ± 9.4) versus MICT (84.2 ± 19.1). Eleven of 12 participants (92%) preferred HIIT to MICT. However, affect was lower (pHIIT versus MICT. Although HIIT is more physically demanding than MICT, individuals report greater enjoyment due to its time efficiency and constantly changing stimulus. Trial Registration: NCT:02981667. PMID:28076352

  2. High-Intensity Interval Training Elicits Higher Enjoyment than Moderate Intensity Continuous Exercise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob S Thum

    Full Text Available Exercise adherence is affected by factors including perceptions of enjoyment, time availability, and intrinsic motivation. Approximately 50% of individuals withdraw from an exercise program within the first 6 mo of initiation, citing lack of time as a main influence. Time efficient exercise such as high intensity interval training (HIIT may provide an alternative to moderate intensity continuous exercise (MICT to elicit substantial health benefits. This study examined differences in enjoyment, affect, and perceived exertion between MICT and HIIT. Twelve recreationally active men and women (age = 29.5 ± 10.7 yr, VO2max = 41.4 ± 4.1 mL/kg/min, BMI = 23.1 ± 2.1 kg/m2 initially performed a VO2max test on a cycle ergometer to determine appropriate workloads for subsequent exercise bouts. Each subject returned for two additional exercise trials, performing either HIIT (eight 1 min bouts of cycling at 85% maximal workload (Wmax with 1 min of active recovery between bouts or MICT (20 min of cycling at 45% Wmax in randomized order. During exercise, rating of perceived exertion (RPE, affect, and blood lactate concentration (BLa were measured. Additionally, the Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale (PACES was completed after exercise. Results showed higher enjoyment (p = 0.013 in response to HIIT (103.8 ± 9.4 versus MICT (84.2 ± 19.1. Eleven of 12 participants (92% preferred HIIT to MICT. However, affect was lower (p<0.05 and HR, RPE, and BLa were higher (p<0.05 in HIIT versus MICT. Although HIIT is more physically demanding than MICT, individuals report greater enjoyment due to its time efficiency and constantly changing stimulus.NCT:02981667.

  3. Muscle oxygen kinetics at onset of intense dynamic exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangsbo, J; Krustrup, P; González-Alonso, J

    2000-01-01

    The present study examined the onset and the rate of rise of muscle oxidation during intense exercise in humans and whether oxygen availability limits muscle oxygen uptake in the initial phase of intense exercise. Six subjects performed 3 min of intense one-legged knee-extensor exercise [65.3 +/-...

  4. Sweating away depression? The impact of intensive exercise on depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balchin, Ross; Linde, Jani; Blackhurst, Dee; Rauch, Hg Laurie; Schönbächler, Georg

    2016-08-01

    In periods of prolonged stress and pain the body produces endorphins to help endure pain. The PANIC system is built on the same pathways as the pain system and is characterized by behaviour that looks like depression. The term 'mental pain' in the context of feelings of loss is arguably justified in light of this relationship between the physical pain and social loss systems. It is reasonable to expect that endorphin release ameliorates depression. Moderately depressed males (n=30) were randomly assigned to one of three groups of varying exercise intensity. Each underwent a six-week exercise programme for three days per week, one hour per day. The HAM-D, MADRS, and ANPS were administered weekly and β-endorphin levels measured. Moderate- and high-intensity exercise improved depression levels, while very-low intensity exercise did not have as beneficial an effect. β-endorphin results were inconclusive. Participants showed a slight decrease in PANIC and FEAR, and increased SEEKING. The potential insensitivity of the assays that were utilized, and the known problems with measuring β-endorphins, may have contributed to the findings. The lack of a state measure of the basic emotion systems is problematic, as a trait measure has to be relied upon, and this likely affected the ability to accurately detect changes over time. The demonstrated improvements in depressive symptoms have important implications for the clinical treatment of patients despite the hypothesis that the PANIC system is involved in the genesis and maintenance of depression not having been conclusively confirmed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Chronic and acute inspiratory muscle loading augment the effect of a 6-week interval program on tolerance of high-intensity intermittent bouts of running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Tom K; Fu, Frank H; Eston, Roger; Chung, Pak-Kwong; Quach, Binh; Lu, Kui

    2010-11-01

    This study examined the hypothesis that chronic (training) and acute (warm-up) loaded ventilatory activities applied to the inspiratory muscles (IM) in an integrated manner would augment the training volume of an interval running program. This in turn would result in additional improvement in the maximum performance of the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test in comparison with interval training alone. Eighteen male nonprofessional athletes were allocated to either an inspiratory muscle loading (IML) group or control group. Both groups participated in a 6-week interval running program consisting of 3-4 workouts (1-3 sets of various repetitions of selected distance [100-2,400 m] per workout) per week. For the IML group, 4-week IM training (30 inspiratory efforts at 50% maximal static inspiratory pressure [P0] per set, 2 sets·d-1, 6 d·wk-1) was applied before the interval program. Specific IM warm-up (2 sets of 30 inspiratory efforts at 40% P0) was performed before each workout of the program. For the control group, neither IML was applied. In comparison with the control group, the interval training volume as indicated by the repeatability of running bouts at high intensity was approximately 27% greater in the IML group. Greater increase in the maximum performance of the Yo-Yo test (control: 16.9 ± 5.5%; IML: 30.7 ± 4.7% baseline value) was also observed after training. The enhanced exercise performance was partly attributable to the greater reductions in the sensation of breathlessness and whole-body metabolic stress during the Yo-Yo test. These findings show that the combination of chronic and acute IML into a high-intensity interval running program is a beneficial training strategy for enhancing the tolerance to high-intensity intermittent bouts of running.

  6. Exercise motivation: a cross-sectional analysis examining its relationships with frequency, intensity, and duration of exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Philip M

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is important to engage in regular physical activity in order to maintain a healthy lifestyle however a large portion of the population is insufficiently active. Understanding how different types of motivation contribute to exercise behavior is an important first step in identifying ways to increase exercise among individuals. The current study employs self-determination theory as a framework from which to examine how motivation contributes to various characteristics of exercise behavior. Methods Regular exercisers (N = 1079; n = 468 males; n = 612 females completed inventories which assessed the frequency, intensity, and duration with which they exercise, as well as the Behavioral Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire including four additional items assessing integrated regulation. Results Bivariate correlations revealed that all three behavioral indices (frequency, intensity, and duration of exercise were more highly correlated with more autonomous than controlling regulations. Regression analyses revealed that integrated and identified regulations predicted exercise frequency for males and females. Integrated regulation was found to be the only predictor of exercise duration across both genders. Finally, introjected regulation predicted exercise intensity for females only. Conclusions These findings suggest that exercise regulations that vary in their degree of internalization can differentially predict characteristics of exercise behavior. Furthermore, in the motivational profile of a regular exerciser, integrated regulation appears to be an important determinant of exercise behavior. These results highlight the importance of assessing integrated regulation in exercise settings where the goal of understanding motivated behavior has important health implications.

  7. High-Intensity Training Improves Exercise Performance in Elite Women Volleyball Players During a Competitive Season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purkhús, Elisabeth; Krustrup, Peter; Mohr, Magni

    2016-11-01

    Purkhús, E, Krustrup, P, and Mohr, M. High-intensity training improves exercise performance in elite women volleyball players during a competitive season. J Strength Cond Res 30(11): 3066-3072, 2016-Elite women volleyball players (n = 25; mean ± SD: age, 19 ± 5 years; height, 171 ± 7 cm; weight, 63 ± 10 kg) volunteered to participate in the study. They were randomized into a high-intensity training (HIT; n = 13) group and a control (CON; n = 12) group. In addition to the normal team training and games, HIT performed 6-10 × 30-seconds all-out running intervals separated by 3-minute recovery periods 3 times per week during a 4-week in-season period whereas CON only completed the team training sessions and games. Preintervention and postintervention, all players completed the arrowhead agility test (AAT), a repeated sprint test (RST; 5 × 30 meters separated by 25 seconds of recovery), and the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery level 2 test (Yo-Yo IR2) followed by a-10 minute rest period and the Yo-Yo IR1 test. Mean running distance during HIT in week 1 was 152 ± 4 m and increased (p ≤ 0.05) by 4.6% (159 ± 3 m) in week 4. The AAT performance improved (p ≤ 0.05) by 2.3% (18.87 ± 0.97-18.44 ± 1.06 seconds) and RST by 4.3% postintervention in the HIT group only. Baseline RST fatigue index was 7.0 ± 2.9 and 6.2 ± 5.0% in HIT and CON, respectively, but was lowered (p ≤ 0.05) to 2.7 ± 3.0% posttraining in HIT and remained unaltered in CON (5.5 ± 5.0%). In HIT, Yo-Yo IR2 and Yo-Yo IR1 performance improved by 12.6 and 18.3% postintervention, respectively, with greater (p ≤ 0.05) Yo-yo IR1 change scores than in CON. In conclusion, additional high-intensity in-season training performed as interval running improved agility, repeated sprint ability, and high-intensity intermittent exercise performance in elite women volleyball players.

  8. High-intensity training reduces intermittent hypoxia-induced ER stress and myocardial infarct size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdier, Guillaume; Flore, Patrice; Sanchez, Hervé; Pepin, Jean-Louis; Belaidi, Elise; Arnaud, Claire

    2016-01-15

    Chronic intermittent hypoxia (IH) is described as the major detrimental factor leading to cardiovascular morbimortality in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients. OSA patients exhibit increased infarct size after a myocardial event, and previous animal studies have shown that chronic IH could be the main mechanism. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress plays a major role in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease. High-intensity training (HIT) exerts beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system. Thus, we hypothesized that HIT could prevent IH-induced ER stress and the increase in infarct size. Male Wistar rats were exposed to 21 days of IH (21-5% fraction of inspired O2, 60-s cycle, 8 h/day) or normoxia. After 1 wk of IH alone, rats were submitted daily to both IH and HIT (2 × 24 min, 15-30m/min). Rat hearts were either rapidly frozen to evaluate ER stress by Western blot analysis or submitted to an ischemia-reperfusion protocol ex vivo (30 min of global ischemia/120 min of reperfusion). IH induced cardiac proapoptotic ER stress, characterized by increased expression of glucose-regulated protein kinase 78, phosphorylated protein kinase-like ER kinase, activating transcription factor 4, and C/EBP homologous protein. IH-induced myocardial apoptosis was confirmed by increased expression of cleaved caspase-3. These IH-associated proapoptotic alterations were associated with a significant increase in infarct size (35.4 ± 3.2% vs. 22.7 ± 1.7% of ventricles in IH + sedenary and normoxia + sedentary groups, respectively, P < 0.05). HIT prevented both the IH-induced proapoptotic ER stress and increased myocardial infarct size (28.8 ± 3.9% and 21.0 ± 5.1% in IH + HIT and normoxia + HIT groups, respectively, P = 0.28). In conclusion, these findings suggest that HIT could represent a preventive strategy to limit IH-induced myocardial ischemia-reperfusion damages in OSA patients. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  9. PGC-1α and exercise intensity dependent adaptations in mouse skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Nina; Dethlefsen, Maja Munk; Bangsbo, Jens

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the role of PGC-1α in intensity dependent exercise and exercise training-induced metabolic adaptations in mouse skeletal muscle. Whole body PGC-1α knockout (KO) and littermate wildtype (WT) mice performed a single treadmill running bout at either low...... intensity dependent increases in LC3I and LC3II protein and intensity independent decrease in p62 protein in skeletal muscle late in recovery and increased LC3II with exercise training independent of exercise intensity and volume in WT mice. Furthermore, acute exercise and exercise training did not increase...... LC3I and LC3II protein in PGC-1α KO. In addition, exercise-induced mRNA responses of PGC-1α isoforms were intensity dependent. In conclusion, these findings indicate that exercise intensity affected autophagy markers differently in skeletal muscle and suggest that PGC-1α regulates both acute...

  10. Evaluating a Nationwide Recreational Football Intervention: Recruitment, Attendance, Adherence, Exercise Intensity, and Health Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fløtum, Liljan av; Ottesen, Laila S.; Krustrup, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The present study evaluated a nationwide exercise intervention with Football Fitness in a small-scale society. In all, 741 adult participants (20–72 yrs) were successfully recruited for Football Fitness training in local football clubs, corresponding to 2.1% of the adult population. A preintervention test battery including resting heart rate (RHR), blood pressure, and body mass measurements along with performance tests (Yo-Yo Intermittent Endurance level 1 (Yo-Yo IE1), the Arrowhead Agility Test, and the Flamingo Balance Test) were performed (n = 502). Training attendance (n = 310) was 1.6 ± 0.2 sessions per week (range: 0.6–2.9), corresponding to 28.8 ± 1.0 sessions during the 18 wk intervention period. After 18 wks mean arterial pressure (MAP) was −2.7 ± 0.7 mmHg lower (P 99 mmHg (−5.6 ± 1.5 mmHg; n = 50). RHR was lowered (P Football Fitness was shown to be a successful health-promoting nationwide training intervention for adult participants with an extraordinary recruitment, a high attendance rate, moderate adherence, high exercise intensity, and marked benefits in cardiovascular health profile and fitness. PMID:27437401

  11. Short-Term High- and Moderate-Intensity Training Modifies Inflammatory and Metabolic Factors in Response to Acute Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Santos Lira

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To compare the acute and chronic effects of high intensity intermittent training (HIIT and steady state training (SST on the metabolic profile and inflammatory response in physically active men.Methods: Thirty recreationally active men were randomly allocated to a control group (n = 10, HIIT group (n = 10, or SST group (n = 10. For 5 weeks, three times per week, subjects performed HIIT (5 km 1-min at 100% of maximal aerobic speed interspersed by 1-min passive recovery or SST (5 km at 70% of maximal aerobic speed while the control group did not perform training. Blood samples were collected at fasting (~12 h, pre-exercise, immediately post, and 60 min post-acute exercise session (pre- and post-5 weeks training. Blood samples were analyzed for glucose, non-ester fatty acid (NEFA, and cytokine (IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-α levels through a three-way analysis (group, period, and moment of measurement with repeated measures in the second and third factors.Results: The results showed an effect of moment of measurement (acute session with greater values to TNF-α and glucose immediately post the exercise when compared to pre exercise session, independently of group or training period. For IL-6 there was an interaction effect for group and moment of measurement (acute session the increase occurred immediately post-exercise session and post-60 min in the HIIT group while in the SST the increase was observed only 60 min post, independently of training period. For IL-10, there was an interaction for training period (pre- and post-training and moment of measurement (acute session, in which in pre-training, pre-exercise values were lower than immediately and 60 min post-exercise, in post-training period pre-exercise values were lower than immediately post-exercise and immediately post-exercise lower than 60 min post, it was also observed that values immediately post-exercise were lower pre- than post-training, being all results independently of intensity

  12. Acute Exercise-Associated Skin Surface Temperature Changes after Resistance Training with Different Exercise Intensities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Weigert

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies showed, that changes in muscular metabolic-associated heat production and blood circulation during and after muscular work affect skin temperature (T but the results are inconsistent and the effect of exercise intensity is unclear. Objective: This study investigated the intensity-dependent reaction of T on resistance training. Methods: Ten male students participated. After acclimatization (15 min, the participants completed 3x10 repetitions of unilateral biceps curl with 30, 50 or 70% of their one-repetition-maximum (1RM in a randomized order. Skin temperature of the loaded and unloaded biceps was measured at rest (Trest, immediately following set 1, 2 and 3 (TS1,TS2,TS3 and 30 minutes post exercise (T1 - T30 with an infrared camera. Results: Two-way ANOVA detected a significant effect of the measuring time point on T (Trest to T30 of the loaded arm for 30% (Eta²=0.85, 50% (Eta²=0.88 and 70% 1RM (Eta²=0.85 and of the unloaded arm only for 30% 1RM (Eta²=0.41 (p0.05. The T values at the different measuring time points (Trest - T30 did not differ between the intensities at any time point. The loaded arm showed a mean maximum T rise to Trest of 1.8°C and on average, maximum T was reached approximately 5 minutes after the third set.  Conclusion: This study indicate a rise of T, which could be independent of the exercise intensity. Infrared thermography seems to be applicable to identify the primary used functional muscles in resistance training but this method seems not suitable to differentiate between exercise intensity from 30 to 70% 1RM.

  13. Oxidative stress and antioxidant responses to progressive resistance exercise intensity in trained and untrained males

    OpenAIRE

    H Çakır-Atabek; F Özdemir; R Çolak

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between oxidative stress and some exercise components of resistance exercise (e.g. intensity, exercise volume) has not been clearly defined. Additionally, the oxidative stress markers may respond differently in various conditions. This study aims to determine the effects of progressive intensity of resistance exercise (RE) on oxidative stress and antioxidants in trained and untrained men, and also to investigate the possible threshold intensity required to evoke oxidative str...

  14. Acute exercise and motor memory consolidation: The role of exercise intensity and timing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomas, Richard; Korsgaard Johnsen, Line; Geertsen, Svend Sparre

    2015-01-01

    Background A single bout of high intensity cycling (~90% VO2peak) immediately after motor skill training enhances motor memory consolidation. It is unclear how different parameters of exercise may influence this process and the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. We hypothesize......) accompanying skill learning and exercise. Methods Sixty able-bodied male subjects (20-35 years) were randomly assigned to one of five groups that practiced a visuomotor accuracy task. 20 min post motor skill learning (MSL), subjects in Experiment A performed either a single bout of aerobic exercise at 45% (EX...... and baseline motor performance. Delayed retention tests of motor skill were tested 24 hours (R24) & 7 days (R7) post acquisition. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was applied to the primary motor cortex to obtain measures of CSE, intracortical inhibition (SICI) and facilitation (SICF) before and after...

  15. Pacing and decision making in sport and exercise : The roles of perception and action in the regulation of exercise intensity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, Benjamin L. M.; Pepping, Gert-Jan; Hettinga, Florentina J.

    In pursuit of optimal performance, athletes and physical exercisers alike have to make decisions about how and when to invest their energy. The process of pacing has been associated with the goal-directed regulation of exercise intensity across an exercise bout. The current review explores divergent

  16. The Effects of Electrostimulation and Core Exercises on Recovery After High-Intensity Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Mor

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of electrostimulation and core exercises on recovery after high-intensity exercise. Methods: The participants of this study consists of 12 male bodybuilders who regularly train and between the ages 18-30. Tabata high intensity interval training (HIIT was applied with different recovery methods to the athletes on three different days and the recovery levels of athletes were analysed. Heart rate and blood lactate levels were measured at baseline (PRE at immediately after the HIIT (POST, at the 1 minutes after HIIT (1min, at the 5 minutes after HIIT (5min, and at the 10 minutes after HIIT (10min. On the rest days, serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH and serum creatine kinase (CK  measurements were done to determine the muscle damage. Results: The in-group comparisons for lactate levels showed no significant difference (p>0,01. The level of lactate on the 10min was found to be significantly lower than the 5min in the core exercise group (p0,01. These results show that the lactate level reaches to the maximum level after HIIT, and the level of lactate decreases between the 5th and the 10th minutes. Discussion and conclusion: These indicate that the active recovery methods are more effective than the passive. It was found that the active recovery methods accelerate the lactate removal from the metabolism and provide effective recovery in short time during the recovery period after exercise.

  17. Acute Effects of Carbohydrate Supplementation on Intermittent Sports Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Lindsay B; Rollo, Ian; Stein, Kimberly W; Jeukendrup, Asker E

    2015-07-14

    Intermittent sports (e.g., team sports) are diverse in their rules and regulations but similar in the pattern of play; that is, intermittent high-intensity movements and the execution of sport-specific skills over a prolonged period of time (~1-2 h). Performance during intermittent sports is dependent upon a combination of anaerobic and aerobic energy systems, both of which rely on muscle glycogen and/or blood glucose as an important substrate for energy production. The aims of this paper are to review: (1) potential biological mechanisms by which carbohydrate may impact intermittent sport performance; (2) the acute effects of carbohydrate ingestion on intermittent sport performance, including intermittent high-intensity exercise capacity, sprinting, jumping, skill, change of direction speed, and cognition; and (3) what recommendations can be derived for carbohydrate intake before/during exercise in intermittent sports based on the available evidence. The most researched intermittent sport is soccer but some sport-specific studies have also been conducted in other sports (e.g., rugby, field hockey, basketball, American football, and racquet sports). Carbohydrate ingestion before/during exercise has been shown in most studies to enhance intermittent high-intensity exercise capacity. However, studies have shown mixed results with regards to the acute effects of carbohydrate intake on sprinting, jumping, skill, change of direction speed, and cognition. In most of these studies the amount of carbohydrate consumed was ~30-60 g/h in the form of a 6%-7% carbohydrate solution comprised of sucrose, glucose, and/or maltodextrin. The magnitude of the impact that carbohydrate ingestion has on intermittent sport performance is likely dependent on the carbohydrate status of the individual; that is, carbohydrate ingestion has the greatest impact on performance under circumstances eliciting fatigue and/or hypoglycemia. Accordingly, carbohydrate ingestion before and during a game

  18. Acute Effects of Carbohydrate Supplementation on Intermittent Sports Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay B. Baker

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Intermittent sports (e.g., team sports are diverse in their rules and regulations but similar in the pattern of play; that is, intermittent high-intensity movements and the execution of sport-specific skills over a prolonged period of time (~1–2 h. Performance during intermittent sports is dependent upon a combination of anaerobic and aerobic energy systems, both of which rely on muscle glycogen and/or blood glucose as an important substrate for energy production. The aims of this paper are to review: (1 potential biological mechanisms by which carbohydrate may impact intermittent sport performance; (2 the acute effects of carbohydrate ingestion on intermittent sport performance, including intermittent high-intensity exercise capacity, sprinting, jumping, skill, change of direction speed, and cognition; and (3 what recommendations can be derived for carbohydrate intake before/during exercise in intermittent sports based on the available evidence. The most researched intermittent sport is soccer but some sport-specific studies have also been conducted in other sports (e.g., rugby, field hockey, basketball, American football, and racquet sports. Carbohydrate ingestion before/during exercise has been shown in most studies to enhance intermittent high-intensity exercise capacity. However, studies have shown mixed results with regards to the acute effects of carbohydrate intake on sprinting, jumping, skill, change of direction speed, and cognition. In most of these studies the amount of carbohydrate consumed was ~30–60 g/h in the form of a 6%–7% carbohydrate solution comprised of sucrose, glucose, and/or maltodextrin. The magnitude of the impact that carbohydrate ingestion has on intermittent sport performance is likely dependent on the carbohydrate status of the individual; that is, carbohydrate ingestion has the greatest impact on performance under circumstances eliciting fatigue and/or hypoglycemia. Accordingly, carbohydrate ingestion before

  19. Intensity rankings of plyometric exercises using joint power absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Lieshout, Kathryn G; Anderson, Joy G; Shelburne, Kevin B; Davidson, Bradley S

    2014-09-01

    Athletic trainers and physical therapists often progress patients through rehabilitation by selecting plyometric exercises of increasing intensity in preparation for return to sport. The purpose of this study was to quantify the intensity of seven plyometric movements commonly used in lower-extremity rehabilitation by joint-specific peak power absorption and the sum of the peak power. Ten collegiate athletes performed submaximal plyometric exercises in a single test session: vertical jump, forward jump, backward jump, box drop, box jump up, tuck jump, and depth jump. Three-dimensional kinematics and force platform data were collected to generate joint kinetics. Peak power absorption normalized to body mass was calculated at the ankle, knee, and hip, and averaged across repetitions. Joint peak power data were pooled across athletes and summed to obtain the sum of peak power. Movements were ranked from 1 (low) to 7 (high) based on the sum of peak power and joint peak power (ankle, knee, hip). The sum of peak power did not correspond with standard low, medium, and high subjective intensity ratings or joint peak power in all joints. Mixed model analyses revealed significant variance between the sum of peak power and joint peak power ranks in the forward jump, backward jump, box drop, and depth jump (P<0.05), but not in the vertical jump, box jump up, and tuck jump. Results provide intensity rankings that can be used directly by athletic trainers and physical therapists in developing protocols for rehabilitation specific to the injured joint. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. High-intensity interval running is perceived to be more enjoyable than moderate-intensity continuous exercise: implications for exercise adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Jonathan D; Close, Graeme L; MacLaren, Don P M; Gregson, Warren; Drust, Barry; Morton, James P

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study was to objectively quantify ratings of perceived enjoyment using the Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale following high-intensity interval running versus moderate-intensity continuous running. Eight recreationally active men performed two running protocols consisting of high-intensity interval running (6 × 3 min at 90% VO(2max) interspersed with 6 × 3 min active recovery at 50% VO(2max) with a 7-min warm-up and cool down at 70% VO(2max)) or 50 min moderate-intensity continuous running at 70% VO(2max). Ratings of perceived enjoyment after exercise were higher (P running compared with continuous running (88 ± 6 vs. 61 ± 12) despite higher (P running may be relevant for improving exercise adherence, since running is a low-cost exercise intervention requiring no exercise equipment and similar relative exercise intensities have previously induced health benefits in patient populations.

  1. Modified Active Videogame Play Results in Moderate-Intensity Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monedero, Javier; McDonnell, Adam C; Keoghan, Melissa; O'Gorman, Donal J

    2014-08-01

    Large proportions of the population do not meet current American College of Sports Medicine physical activity recommendations, and innovative approaches are required. Most active videogames do not require a significant amount of energy expenditure. The purpose of this study was to determine if modifying an active videogame increased exercise intensity to meet current physical activity recommendations. After completing a maximal oxygen uptake test, participants did a familiarization session on a separate day. Thirteen healthy participants 24.2±3.4 years of age played (1) a sedentary videogame, (2) an active videogame, and (3) a modified active videogame designed to increase physical activity for 46 minutes in a randomized order on separate days. Oxygen uptake, heart rate, heart rate reserve, percentage of maximal heart rate, metabolic equivalents of task, and energy expenditure were significantly higher during the modified active videogame trial than during the active videogame or sedentary videogame trials and also between the active videogame and sedentary videogame. A simple modification to an existing active videogame was sufficient to reach moderate exercise intensity. Active videogames could provide an important option for increasing daily physical activity and reducing sedentary time.

  2. Acute effects of high- and low-intensity exercise bouts on leukocyte counts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Rogério Da Silva Neves

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: When the same participants were submitted to different exercise intensities, the acute and short-term effects of exercise on white blood cells were intensity-dependent immediately after exercise (i.e., lymphocytosis and monocytosis and 2 hours after passive recovery (i.e., neutrophilia.

  3. Exercise Intensity Thresholds: Identifying the Boundaries of Sustainable Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keir, Daniel A; Fontana, Federico Y; Robertson, Taylor C; Murias, Juan M; Paterson, Donald H; Kowalchuk, John M; Pogliaghi, Silvia

    2015-09-01

    Critical power (CP), respiratory compensation point (RCP), maximal lactate steady state (MLSS), and deoxyhemoglobin breakpoint ([HHb]BP) are alternative functional indices that are thought to demarcate the highest exercise intensity that can be tolerated for long durations. We tested the hypothesis that CP, RCP, MLSS, and [HHb]BP occur at the same metabolic intensity by examining the pulmonary oxygen uptake (V˙)O2p and power output (PO) associated with each "threshold." Twelve healthy men (mean ± SD age, 27 ± 3 yr) performed the following tests on a cycle ergometer: i) four to five exhaustive tests for determination of CP, ii) two to three 30-min constant-power trials for MLSS determination, and iii) a ramp incremental exercise test from which the V˙O2p and PO at RCP and [HHb]BP were determined. During each trial, breath-by-breath V˙O2p and ventilatory variables were measured with a metabolic cart and flowmeter turbine; near-infrared spectroscopy-derived [HHb] was monitored using a frequency domain multidistance system, and arterialized capillary blood lactate was sampled at regular intervals. There were no differences (P > 0.05) among the V˙O2p values associated with CP, RCP, MLSS, and [HHb]BP (CP, 3.29 ± 0.48; RCP, 3.34 ± 0.45; MLSS, 3.27 ± 0.44; [HHb]BP, 3.41 ± 0.46 L·min(-1)); however, the PO associated with RCP (262 ± 48 W) and [HHb]BP (273 ± 41 W) were greater (P 0.05). Although the standard methods for determination of CP, RCP, MLSS, and [HHb]BP are different, these indices occur at the same V˙O2p, suggesting that i) they may manifest as a result of similar physiological phenomenon and ii) each provides a valid delineation between tolerable and intolerable constant-power exercise.

  4. The effect of metabolic syndrome components on exercise performance in patients with intermittent claudication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Andrew W; Montgomery, Polly S

    2008-06-01

    To determine the effect of metabolic syndrome components on intermittent claudication, physical function, health-related quality of life, and peripheral circulation in patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD), and to identify the metabolic syndrome components most predictive of each outcome measure. Patients limited by intermittent claudication with three (n = 48), four (n = 45), or five (n = 40) components of metabolic syndrome were studied. Patients were assessed on PAD-specific measures consisting of ankle-brachial index (ABI), initial claudication distance, absolute claudication distance, physical function measures, health-related quality of life, and calf blood flow and transcutaneous oxygen tension responses after 3 minutes of vascular occlusion. Initial claudication distance (mean +/- SD) progressively declined (P = .019) in those with three (203 +/- 167 m), four (124 +/- 77 m), and five (78 +/- 57 m) metabolic syndrome components, and absolute claudication distance progressively declined (P = .036) in these groups as well (414 +/- 224 m vs 323 +/- 153 m vs 249 +/- 152 m, respectively). Furthermore, compared with patients with only three components of metabolic syndrome, those with all five components had impaired values (P obesity was the predictor (P fasting glucose was the predictor (P intermittent claudication, physical function, health-related quality of life, and peripheral circulation. Abdominal obesity and elevated fasting glucose are the metabolic syndrome components that are most predictive of these outcome measures. Aggressively treating these metabolic syndrome components may be particularly important in managing symptoms and long-term prognosis of PAD patients.

  5. The reliability and validity of fatigue measures during short-duration maximal-intensity intermittent cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaister, Mark; Stone, Michael H; Stewart, Andrew M; Hughes, Michael; Moir, Gavin L

    2004-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to assess the reliability and validity of fatigue measures, as derived from 4 separate formulae, during tests of repeat sprint ability. On separate days over a 3-week period, 2 groups of 7 recreationally active men completed 6 trials of 1 of 2 maximal (20 x 5 seconds) intermittent cycling tests with contrasting recovery periods (10 or 30 seconds). All trials were conducted on a friction-braked cycle ergometer, and fatigue scores were derived from measures of mean power output for each sprint. Apart from formula 1, which calculated fatigue from the percentage difference in mean power output between the first and last sprint, all remaining formulae produced fatigue scores that showed a reasonably good level of test-retest reliability in both intermittent test protocols (intraclass correlation range: 0.78-0.86; 95% likely range of true values: 0.54-0.97). Although between-protocol differences in the magnitude of the fatigue scores suggested good construct validity, within-protocol differences highlighted limitations with each formula. Overall, the results support the use of the percentage decrement score as the most valid and reliable measure of fatigue during brief maximal intermittent work.

  6. Influence of Exercise Intensity for Improving Depressed Mood in Depression: A Dose-Response Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Jacob D; Koltyn, Kelli F; Stegner, Aaron J; Kim, Jee-Seon; Cook, Dane B

    2016-07-01

    Exercise effectively improves mood in major depressive disorder (MDD), but the optimal exercise stimulus to improve depressed mood is unknown. To determine the dose-response relationship of acute exercise intensity with depressed mood responses to exercise in MDD. We hypothesized that the acute response to exercise would differ between light, moderate, and hard intensity exercise with higher intensities yielding more beneficial responses. Once weekly, 24 women (age: 38.6±14.0) diagnosed with MDD underwent a 30-minute session at one of three steady-state exercise intensities (light, moderate, hard; rating of perceived exertion 11, 13 or 15) or quiet rest on a stationary bicycle. Depressed mood was evaluated with the Profile of Mood States before, 10 and 30 minutes post-exercise. Exercise reduced depressed mood 10 and 30 minutes following exercise, but this effect was not influenced by exercise intensity. Participants not currently taking antidepressants (n=10) had higher baseline depression scores, but did not demonstrate a different antidepressant response to exercise compared to those taking antidepressants. To acutely improve depressed mood, exercise of any intensity significantly improved feelings of depression with no differential effect following light, moderate, or hard exercise. Pharmacological antidepressant usage did not limit the mood-enhancing effect of acute exercise. Acute exercise should be used as a symptom management tool to improve mood in depression, with even light exercise an effective recommendation. These results need to be replicated and extended to other components of exercise prescription (e.g., duration, frequency, mode) to optimize exercise guidelines for improving depression. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. High-intensity Aerobic Exercise Blocks the Facilitation of iTBS-induced Plasticity in the Human Motor Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ashleigh E; Goldsworthy, Mitchell R; Wood, Fiona M; Olds, Timothy S; Garside, Tessa; Ridding, Michael C

    2018-03-01

    Acute exercise studies using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) can provide important insights into the mechanisms underpinning the positive relationship between regular engagement in physical activity and cortical neuroplasticity. Emerging evidence indicates that a single session of aerobic exercise can promote the response to an experimentally induced suppressive neuroplasticity paradigm; however, little is known about the neuroplasticity response to facilitatory paradigms, including intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS). To more fully characterize the effects of exercise on brain plasticity we investigated if a single 30 min bout of high-intensity cycling (80% predicted heart rate reserve) modulated the response to an iTBS paradigm compared to rest. In 18 participants (9 females; 25.5 ± 5.0 years, range: 18-35 years) iTBS was applied using standard repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation techniques immediately following exercise or 30 min of rest. Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) were recorded from the right first dorsal interosseous muscle at baseline, after the exercise/rest period but before iTBS, and at 5 time points following iTBS (0, 5, 10, 20 and 30 min). Contrary to our hypothesis, MEPs were suppressed following iTBS after a single 30 min bout of lower limb aerobic exercise compared to rest. These results indicate that acute aerobic exercise may not always enhance the response to an experimentally induced neuroplasticity paradigm. Further investigation of the factors that influence the relationship between exercise and neuroplasticity is warranted. Copyright © 2018 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Acute effects of exercise intensity on subsequent substrate utilisation, appetite, and energy balance in men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamlan, Ghalia; Bech, Paul; Robertson, M Denise; Collins, Adam L

    2017-12-01

    Exercise is capable of influencing the regulation of energy balance by acutely modulating appetite and energy intake coupled to effects on substrate utilization. Yet, few studies have examined acute effects of exercise intensity on aspects of both energy intake and energy metabolism, independently of energy cost of exercise. Furthermore, little is known as to the gender differences of these effects. One hour after a standardised breakfast, 40 (19 female), healthy participants (BMI 23.6 ± 3.6 kg·m -2 , V̇O 2peak 34.4 ± 6.8 mL·kg -1 ·min -1 ) undertook either high-intensity intermittent cycling (HIIC) consisting of 8 repeated 60 s bouts of cycling at 95% V̇O 2peak or low-intensity continuous cycling (LICC), equivalent to 50% V̇O 2peak , matched for energy cost (∼950 kJ) followed by 90 mins of rest, in a randomised crossover design. Throughout each study visit, satiety was assessed subjectively using visual analogue scales alongside blood metabolites and GLP-1. Energy expenditure and substrate utilization were measured over 75 min postexercise via indirect calorimetry. Energy intake was assessed for 48 h postintervention. No differences in appetite, GLP-1, or energy intakes were observed between HIIC and LICC, with or without stratifying for gender. Significant differences in postexercise nonesterified fatty acid concentrations were observed between intensities in both genders, coupled to a significantly lower respiratory exchange ratio following HIIC (P = 0.0028), with a trend towards greater reductions in respiratory exchange ratioin males (P = 0.079). In conclusion, high-intensity exercise, if energy matched, does not lead to greater appetite or energy intake, but may exert additional beneficial metabolic effects that may be more pronounced in males.

  9. High-intensity training versus traditional exercise interventions for promoting health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, Lars; Sundstrup, Emil; Jakobsen, Markus D

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of brief intense interval training as exercise intervention for promoting health and to evaluate potential benefits about common interventions, that is, prolonged exercise and strength training....

  10. Effects of a short-term personalized Intermittent Work Exercise Program (IWEP) on maximal cardio-respiratory function and endurance parameters among healthy young and older seniors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, T; Leprêtre, P-M; Brechat, P-H; Lonsdorfer, E; Benetos, A; Kaltenbach, G; Lonsdorfer, J

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of a short-term Intermittent Work Exercise Program (IWEP) among healthy elderly subjects. This longitudinal prospective study took place at the Strasbourg University Hospital geriatric department. One hundred and fifty older volunteers, previously determined as being free from cardiac and pulmonary disease, were separated into two age groups: the "young senior" (60.2 ± 3.1 yr) and the "older senior" groups (70.8 ± 5.2 yr). These groups were then subdivided by gender into the "young female senior", "young male senior" "older female senior" and "older male senior" groups. Before and after the IWEP, all subjects were asked to perform an incremental cycle exercise to obtain their first ventilatory threshold (VT1), maximal tolerated power (MTP), peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) and maximal minute ventilation (MMV). The IWEP consisted of a 30-min cycling exercise which took place twice a week, and was divided into six 5-min stages consisting of 4 min at VT1 intensity and 1 min at 90% MTP. An assessment was made of the effects of the IWEP on maximal cardio-respiratory function (MTP, VO2peak, MMV) and endurance parameters (VT1, heart rate [HR] measured at pretraining VT1 and lactate concentrations at pre-training MTP). This short-term training program resulted in a significant increase of MTP (from 13.2% to 20.6%), VO2peak (from 8.9% to 16.6%) and MMV (from 11.1% to 21.8%) in all groups (pseniors" were not significantly different (p>0.05) from the "young seniors" pre-training values for the same parameters. The most striking finding in this study is that after only 9 weeks, our short-term "individually-tailored" IWEP significantly improved both maximal cardio-respiratory function and endurance parameters in healthy, previously untrained seniors.

  11. Changes in bone geometry and microarchitecture caused by intermittent administration of PTH. Comparison with those by exercise load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Keiya

    2010-01-01

    There have been several studies showing that periodical intermittent medication with parathyroid hormone (PTH) causes increases in cancellous bone mass. However, there have been almost no reports comparing the effects of periodical intermittent PTH medication on bone microarchitecture with changes caused by physiological stimulation such as exercise load. In this study, we compared the effects of these two interventions on the microarchitecturural deterioration of femoral cancellous bone associated with unloading, using micro-computed tomography (micro-CT), and the effects of PTH administration and motion loading on improvement of the deteriorated structure. In the study, 32 eight-week-old male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: a control group without tail suspension (CON), a control recovery group after suspension (S+C), a suspension/PTH group (S+P), and a suspension/jumping exercise group (S+J). Periodical intermittent human PTH (1-34) was given periodically to the S+P group rats at a dose of 75 μg/kg/day five times a week for five weeks, after two weeks of exercise with suspension of the tail. The rats in the S+J group performed 40 cm-high jumping 10 times/day five times a week for five weeks. After this conditioning, upon examination, bilateral femurs were removed and the right distal metaphysis was scanned using micro-CT to obtain images of the cancellous bone region of the femur. Based on the tomographic data, indices of cancellous bone microarchitecture was the index of trabecular bone structure were determined by using three-dimensional image analysis system. In addition, to examine the geometric properties of the diaphysis, mid-portion images of the bone shaft of the left femur were obtained by micro-CT, and then the mechanical bone strength of the left femur was determined by performing a three-point bending test. Compared to the S+C group, the S+P and S+J groups showed significantly higher bone volume, bone surface mass values, superficial bone

  12. Comparison of an intermittent high-intensity vs continuous low-intensity physiotherapy service over 12 months in community-dwelling people with stroke: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse, S; Welz, A; Werner, C; Quentin, B; Wissel, J

    2011-02-01

    This study compared two modes of physiotherapy service over 12 months in community-dwelling people with stroke, either following a train-wait train paradigm by providing bouts of intense physiotherapy, or a continuous less intense programme. Randomized trial. Community-dwelling people with stroke. Fifty patients, first-time stroke, discharged home, following inpatient rehabilitation, allocated to two groups, A and B. Over 12 months, Group A (n = 25) received three two-month blocks of therapy at home, each block contained four 30 to 45 minute sessions per week, totalling 96 sessions. Group B (n = 25) continuously received two 30 to 45 minute sessions per week, totalling 104 sessions. Primary Rivermead Mobility Index (0-15), secondary upper- and lower-limb motor functions, Activities of Daily Living competence, tone and number of falls. Both groups were comparable at onset, the mean age in Group A (B) was 62.4 (61.9) years. A and B patients equally improved functions over time, between group differences did not occur. The initial (terminal) Rivermead Mobility Index was 9.4 ± 2.8 (12.2 ± 2.1) in Group A, and 8.5 ± 3.5 (11.2 ± 2.7) in Group B. More Group B patients fell seriously (7 versus 1). The intermittent high-intensity and continuous low-intensity therapy protocols were equally effective, the sheer intensity seems more important than the time-mode of application. The relatively young patients functionally improved in the first year after stroke, the reduced risk of serious falls in the intermittent high-intensity group should be validated.

  13. Intensity of swimming exercise influences aortic reactivity in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.F. Brito

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Exercise is known to cause a vasodilatory response; however, the correlation between the vasorelaxant response and different training intensities has not been investigated. Therefore, this study evaluated the vascular reactivity and lipid peroxidation after different intensities of swimming exercise in rats. Male Wistar rats (aged 8 weeks; 250-300 g underwent forced swimming for 1 h whilst tied to loads of 3, 4, 5, 6, and 8% of their body weight, respectively (groups G3, G4, G5, G6 and G8, respectively; n=5 each. Immediately after the test, the aorta was removed and suspended in an organ bath. Cumulative relaxation in response to acetylcholine (10−12-10−4 M and contraction in response to phenylephrine (10−12-10−5 M were measured. Oxidative stress was estimated by determining malondialdehyde concentration. The percentages of aorta relaxation were significantly higher in G3 (7.9±0.20, G4 (7.8±0.29, and G5 (7.9±0.21, compared to the control group (7.2±0.04, while relaxation in the G6 (7.4±0.25 and G8 (7.0±0.06 groups was similar to the control group. In contrast, the percentage of contraction was significantly higher in G6 (8.8 ±0.1 and G8 (9.7±0.29 compared to the control (7.1±0.1, G3 (7.3±0.2, G4 (7.2±0.1 and G5 (7.2±0.2% groups. Lipid peroxidation levels in the aorta were similar to control levels in G3, G4 and G5, but higher in G6 and G8, and significantly higher in G8 (one-way ANOVA. These results indicate a reduction in vasorelaxing activity and an increase in contractile activity in rat aortas after high-intensity exercise, followed by an increase in lipid peroxidation.

  14. High-intensity training versus traditional exercise interventions for promoting health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, Lars; Sundstrup, Emil; Jakobsen, Markus D

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of brief intense interval training as exercise intervention for promoting health and to evaluate potential benefits about common interventions, that is, prolonged exercise and strength training.......The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of brief intense interval training as exercise intervention for promoting health and to evaluate potential benefits about common interventions, that is, prolonged exercise and strength training....

  15. Zinc Is Indispensable in Exercise-Induced Cardioprotection against Intermittent Hypoxia-Induced Left Ventricular Function Impairment in Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsung-I Chen

    Full Text Available In obstructive sleep apnea (OSA, recurrent obstruction of the upper airway leads to intermittent hypoxia (IH during sleep, which can result in impairment of cardiac function. Although exercise can have beneficial effects against IH-induced cardiac dysfunction, the mechanism remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the interactions of zinc and exercise on IH-triggered left ventricular dysfunction in a rat model that mimics IH in OSA patients. Nine-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to either a control group (CON or to a group receiving 10 weeks of exercise training (EXE. During weeks 9 and 10, half the rats in each group were subjected to IH for 8 h per day for 14 days (IHCON, IHEXE, whereas the remainder continued to breathe room air. Rats within each of the CON, IHCON, EXE, and IHEXE groups were further randomly assigned to receive intraperitoneal injections of either zinc chloride, the zinc chelator N,N,N',N'-tetrakis(2-pyridylmethyl ethylenediamine (TPEN, or injection vehicle only. IH induced a lower left ventricular fractional shortening, reduced ejection fraction, higher myocardial levels of inflammatory factors, increased levels oxidative stress, and lower levels of antioxidative capacity, all of which were abolished by zinc treatment. IHEXE rats exhibited higher levels of cardiac function and antioxidant capacity and lower levels of inflammatory factors and oxidative stress than IHCON rats; however, IHEXE rats receiving TPEN did not exhibit these better outcomes. In conclusion, zinc is required for protecting against IH-induced LV functional impairment and likely plays a critical role in exercise-induced cardioprotection by exerting a dual antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effect.

  16. Zinc Is Indispensable in Exercise-Induced Cardioprotection against Intermittent Hypoxia-Induced Left Ventricular Function Impairment in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Michael Yu-Chih

    2016-01-01

    In obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), recurrent obstruction of the upper airway leads to intermittent hypoxia (IH) during sleep, which can result in impairment of cardiac function. Although exercise can have beneficial effects against IH-induced cardiac dysfunction, the mechanism remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the interactions of zinc and exercise on IH-triggered left ventricular dysfunction in a rat model that mimics IH in OSA patients. Nine-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to either a control group (CON) or to a group receiving 10 weeks of exercise training (EXE). During weeks 9 and 10, half the rats in each group were subjected to IH for 8 h per day for 14 days (IHCON, IHEXE), whereas the remainder continued to breathe room air. Rats within each of the CON, IHCON, EXE, and IHEXE groups were further randomly assigned to receive intraperitoneal injections of either zinc chloride, the zinc chelator N,N,N',N'-tetrakis(2-pyridylmethyl) ethylenediamine (TPEN), or injection vehicle only. IH induced a lower left ventricular fractional shortening, reduced ejection fraction, higher myocardial levels of inflammatory factors, increased levels oxidative stress, and lower levels of antioxidative capacity, all of which were abolished by zinc treatment. IHEXE rats exhibited higher levels of cardiac function and antioxidant capacity and lower levels of inflammatory factors and oxidative stress than IHCON rats; however, IHEXE rats receiving TPEN did not exhibit these better outcomes. In conclusion, zinc is required for protecting against IH-induced LV functional impairment and likely plays a critical role in exercise-induced cardioprotection by exerting a dual antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effect. PMID:27977796

  17. Time to failure and neuromuscular response to intermittent isometric exercise at different levels of vascular occlusion: a randomized crossover study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Santos Cerqueira

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose this study was investigate the effects of different vascular occlusion levels (total occlusion (TO, partial occlusion (PO or free flow (FF during intermittent isometric handgrip exercise (IIHE on the time to failure (TF and the recovery of the maximum voluntary isometric force (MVIF, median frequency (EMGFmed and peak of EMG signal (EMGpeak after failure.  Methods: Thirteen healthy men (21 ± 1.71 year carried out an IIHE until the failure at 45% of MVIF with TO, PO or FF. Occlusion pressure was determined previously to the exercise. The MVIF, EMGFmed and EMGpeak were measured before and after exercise. Results: TF (in seconds was significantly different (p < 0.05 among all investigated conditions: TO (150 ± 68, PO (390 ± 210 and FF (510 ± 240. The MVIF was lower immediately after IIHE, remaining lower eleven minutes after failure in all cases (p <0.05, when compared to pre exercise. There was a greater force reduction (p <0.05 one minute after the failure in the PO (-45.8% and FF (-39.9% conditions, when compared to TO (-28.1%. Only the PO condition caused lower MVIF (p <0.05 than in the OT, eleven minutes after the task failure. PO caused a greater reduction in EMGFmed compared TO and greater increase in EMGpeak, when compared to TO and FF (p <0.05. Conclusions: TO during IIHE lead to a lower time to failure, but a faster MVIF recovery, while the PO seems to be associated to a slower neuromuscular recovery, when compared to other conditions.

  18. Glucocorticoids improve high-intensity exercise performance in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casuso, Rafael A; Melskens, Lars; Bruhn, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    It was investigated whether oral dexamethasone (DEX) administration improves exercise performance by reducing the initial rate of muscle fatigue development during dynamic exercise.......It was investigated whether oral dexamethasone (DEX) administration improves exercise performance by reducing the initial rate of muscle fatigue development during dynamic exercise....

  19. The Effects of Exercise Intensity vs. Metabolic State on the Variability and Magnitude of Left Ventricular Twist Mechanics during Exercise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig Armstrong

    Full Text Available Increased left ventricular (LV twist and untwisting rate (LV twist mechanics are essential responses of the heart to exercise. However, previously a large variability in LV twist mechanics during exercise has been observed, which complicates the interpretation of results. This study aimed to determine some of the physiological sources of variability in LV twist mechanics during exercise. Sixteen healthy males (age: 22 ± 4 years, [Formula: see text]O2peak: 45.5 ± 6.9 ml∙kg-1∙min-1, range of individual anaerobic threshold (IAT: 32-69% of [Formula: see text]O2peak were assessed at rest and during exercise at: i the same relative exercise intensity, 40%peak, ii at 2% above IAT, and, iii at 40%peak with hypoxia (40%peak+HYP. LV volumes were not significantly different between exercise conditions (P > 0.05. However, the mean margin of error of LV twist was significantly lower (F2,47 = 2.08, P 0.05. Overall, LV twist mechanics were linearly related to rate pressure product. During exercise, the intra-individual variability of LV twist mechanics is smaller at the same relative exercise intensity compared with IAT. However, the absolute magnitude (degrees of LV twist mechanics appears to be associated with the prevailing rate pressure product. Exercise tests that evaluate LV twist mechanics should be standardised by relative exercise intensity and rate pressure product be taken into account when interpreting results.

  20. The Effects of Exercise Intensity vs. Metabolic State on the Variability and Magnitude of Left Ventricular Twist Mechanics during Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Craig; Samuel, Jake; Yarlett, Andrew; Cooper, Stephen-Mark; Stembridge, Mike; Stöhr, Eric J.

    2016-01-01

    Increased left ventricular (LV) twist and untwisting rate (LV twist mechanics) are essential responses of the heart to exercise. However, previously a large variability in LV twist mechanics during exercise has been observed, which complicates the interpretation of results. This study aimed to determine some of the physiological sources of variability in LV twist mechanics during exercise. Sixteen healthy males (age: 22 ± 4 years, V˙O2peak: 45.5 ± 6.9 ml∙kg-1∙min-1, range of individual anaerobic threshold (IAT): 32–69% of V˙O2peak) were assessed at rest and during exercise at: i) the same relative exercise intensity, 40%peak, ii) at 2% above IAT, and, iii) at 40%peak with hypoxia (40%peak+HYP). LV volumes were not significantly different between exercise conditions (P > 0.05). However, the mean margin of error of LV twist was significantly lower (F2,47 = 2.08, P 0.05). Overall, LV twist mechanics were linearly related to rate pressure product. During exercise, the intra-individual variability of LV twist mechanics is smaller at the same relative exercise intensity compared with IAT. However, the absolute magnitude (degrees) of LV twist mechanics appears to be associated with the prevailing rate pressure product. Exercise tests that evaluate LV twist mechanics should be standardised by relative exercise intensity and rate pressure product be taken into account when interpreting results. PMID:27100099

  1. High-intensity intermittent swimming improves cardiovascular health status for women with mild hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohr, Magni; Nordsborg, Nikolai Baastrup; Lindenskov, Annika

    2014-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that high-intensity swim training improves cardiovascular health status in sedentary premenopausal women with mild hypertension, sixty-two women were randomized into high-intensity (n = 21; HIT), moderate-intensity (n = 21; MOD), and control groups (n = 20; CON). HIT perfor...

  2. Effect of diabetes mellitus on walking distance parameters after supervised exercise therapy for intermittent claudication: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hageman, David; Gommans, Lindy Nm; Scheltinga, Marc Rm; Teijink, Joep Aw

    2017-02-01

    Some believe that certain patients with intermittent claudication may be unsuitable for supervised exercise therapy (SET), based on the presence of comorbidities and the possibly increased risks. We conducted a systematic review (MEDLINE, EMBASE and CENTRAL) to summarize evidence on the potential influence of diabetes mellitus (DM) on the response to SET. Randomized and nonrandomized studies that investigated the effect of DM on walking distance after SET in patients with IC were included. Considered outcome measures were maximal, pain-free and functional walking distance (MWD, PFWD and FWD). Three articles met the inclusion criteria ( n = 845). In one study, MWD was 111 meters (128%) longer in the non-DM group compared to the DM group after 3 months of follow-up ( p = 0.056). In a second study, the non-DM group demonstrated a significant increase in PFWD (114 meters, p ⩽ 0.05) after 3 months of follow-up, whereas there was no statistically significant increase for the DM group (54 meters). On the contrary, the largest study of this review did not demonstrate any adverse effect of DM on MWD and FWD after SET. In conclusion, the data evaluating the effects of DM on SET were inadequate to determine if DM impairs the exercise response. While trends in the data do not suggest an impairment, they are not conclusive. Practitioners should consider this limitation when making clinical decisions.

  3. Does exercise motivation predict engagement in objectively assessed bouts of moderate-intensity exercise? A self-determination theory perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standage, Martyn; Sebire, Simon J; Loney, Tom

    2008-08-01

    This study examined the utility of motivation as advanced by self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 2000) in predicting objectively assessed bouts of moderate intensity exercise behavior. Participants provided data pertaining to their exercise motivation. One week later, participants wore a combined accelerometer and heart rate monitor (Actiheart; Cambridge Neurotechnology Ltd) and 24-hr energy expenditure was estimated for 7 days. After controlling for gender and a combined marker of BMI and waist circumference, results showed autonomous motivation to positively predict moderate-intensity exercise bouts of >or=10 min, or=20 min, and an accumulation needed to meet public health recommendations for moderate intensity activity (i.e., ACSM/AHA guidelines). The present findings add bouts of objectively assessed exercise behavior to the growing body of literature that documents the adaptive consequences of engaging in exercise for autonomous reasons. Implications for practice and future work are discussed.

  4. Metabolic adaptations may counteract ventilatory adaptations of intermittent hypoxic exposure during submaximal exercise at altitudes up to 4000 m.

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    Martin Faulhaber

    Full Text Available Intermittent hypoxic exposure (IHE has been shown to induce aspects of altitude acclimatization which affect ventilatory, cardiovascular and metabolic responses during exercise in normoxia and hypoxia. However, knowledge on altitude-dependent effects and possible interactions remains scarce. Therefore, we determined the effects of IHE on cardiorespiratory and metabolic responses at different simulated altitudes in the same healthy subjects. Eight healthy male volunteers participated in the study and were tested before and 1 to 2 days after IHE (7 × 1 hour at 4500 m. The participants cycled at 2 submaximal workloads (corresponding to 40% and 60% of peak oxygen uptake at low altitude at simulated altitudes of 2000 m, 3000 m, and 4000 m in a randomized order. Gas analysis was performed and arterial oxygen saturation, blood lactate concentrations, and blood gases were determined during exercise. Additionally baroreflex sensitivity, hypoxic and hypercapnic ventilatory response were determined before and after IHE. Hypoxic ventilatory response was increased after IHE (p<0.05. There were no altitude-dependent changes by IHE in any of the determined parameters. However, blood lactate concentrations and carbon dioxide output were reduced; minute ventilation and arterial oxygen saturation were unchanged, and ventilatory equivalent for carbon dioxide was increased after IHE irrespective of altitude. Changes in hypoxic ventilatory response were associated with changes in blood lactate (r = -0.72, p<0.05. Changes in blood lactate correlated with changes in carbon dioxide output (r = 0.61, p<0.01 and minute ventilation (r = 0.54, p<0.01. Based on the present results it seems that the reductions in blood lactate and carbon dioxide output have counteracted the increased hypoxic ventilatory response. As a result minute ventilation and arterial oxygen saturation did not increase during submaximal exercise at simulated altitudes between 2000 m and 4000 m.

  5. Different Intensities of Treadmill Running Exercise do Not Alter Melatonin Levels in Rats

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    Ionara Rodrigues Siqueira

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Regular and moderate exercise has been considered an interesting neuroprotective strategy. Our research group demonstrated that a protocol of moderate exercise on a treadmill reduced, while a protocol of high-intensity exercise increased in vitro ischemic cell damage in Wistar rats. The molecular mechanisms by which physical exercise exerts neuroprotective effects remain unclear. Accumulating evidence suggests that exercise may have short- and long-term effects on melatonin secretion in humans. Melatonin, the main product of the pineal gland, has been shown to have neuroprotective effects in models of brain and spinal cord injury and cerebral ischemia. A dual modulation of melatonin secretion by physical activity has also been demonstrated. This study aimed to investigate the effect of different exercise intensities, moderate- and high-intensity exercise, on serum melatonin levels in rats. Methods: Thirty-five adult male Wistar rats were divided into non-exercised (sedentary and exercised (20- or 60-min sessions groups. The exercise protocols consisted of two weeks of daily treadmill training. Blood samples were collected approximately 16 hours after the last training session (8:00-10:00 and melatonin levels were assayed by ELISA. Results: The exercise protocols, two weeks of 20 min/day or 60 min/day of treadmill running, did not affect serum melatonin levels. Conclusion: Our data demonstrated that melatonin levels may not be directly involved in the exercise-induced, intensity-dependent dual effect on in vitro ischemia.

  6. [Cardiovascular recovery during intermittent exercise in highly-adherent partic pants with hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano-Montoya, Johnattan; Álvarez, Cristian; Martínez, Cristian; Salas, Andrés; Sade, Farid; Ramírez-Campillo, Rodrigo

    2016-09-01

    Despite the evidence supporting metabolic benefits of high intensity interval exercise (HIIT), there is little information about the cardiovascular response to this type of exercise in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and hypertension (HTA). To analyze the changes in heart rate at rest, at the onset and at the end of each interval of training, after twelve weeks of a HIIT program in T2D and HTA patients. Twenty-three participants with T2D and HTA (20 women) participated in a controlled HIIT program. Fourteen participants attended 90% of more session of exercise and were considered as adherent. Adherent and non-adherent participants had similar body mass index (BMI), and blood pressure. A “1x2x10” (work: rest-time: intervals) HIIT exercise protocol was used both as a test and as training method during twelve weeks. The initial and finishing heart rate (HR) of each of the ten intervals before and after the intervention were measured. After twelve weeks of HIIT intervention, adherent participants had a significant reduction in the heart rate at the onset of exercise, and during intervals 4, 5, 8 and 10. A reduction in the final heart rate was observed during intervals 8 and 10. In the same participants the greatest magnitude of reduction, at the onset or end of exercise was approximately 10 beats/min. No significant changes in BMI, resting heart rate and blood pressure were observed. A HIIT program reduces the cardiovascular effort to a given work-load and improves cardiovascular recovery after exercise.

  7. Plasma Irisin Modestly Increases during Moderate and High-Intensity Afternoon Exercise in Obese Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winn, Nathan C.; Grunewald, Zachary I.; Liu, Ying; Heden, Timothy D.; Nyhoff, Lauren M.; Kanaley, Jill A.

    2017-01-01

    Background and Purpose Irisin is an exercise-responsive myokine that has been proposed to exert anti-obesity benefits; yet its response during exercise in obese women is not described. This study characterized plasma irisin levels during a single bout of afternoon isocaloric-exercise of different intensities (moderate- vs high-intensity) in obese females. Methods Eleven obese females participated in 3 randomized study days beginning at 1600h: 1) no exercise (NoEx), 2) moderate exercise (ModEx; 55%VO2max) and 3) high intensity interval exercise (IntEx; 4 min (80%VO2max)/3 min (50% VO2max). Frequent blood samples were analyzed for glucose and lactate (whole-blood), and insulin, c-peptide, glucagon, and irisin (plasma) throughout 190 min of testing. Results Plasma irisin increased above baseline during ModEx and IntEx (P0.05). Peak irisin levels during ModEx and IntEx exercise were 11.9± 3.4% and 12.3 ± 4.1% relative to baseline (Pexercise intensities (P>0.05). Irisin levels remained elevated above resting for 125 minutes post-exercise during ModEx, whereas levels returned to baseline within 15 minutes post-exercise during IntEx. Similarly, no associations were found between plasma irisin levels and circulating lactate, glucose, insulin, c-peptide, or glucagon among study days (P>0.05). However, there was an inverse association between basal irisin and lean mass (r = -0.70, P = 0.01). Conclusion A single bout of moderate and high intensity afternoon exercise induces modest increases in circulating irisin concentrations during exercise; however the regulation post-exercise appears to be dimorphic between exercise intensity in obese females. Future studies are needed to compare morning and afternoon exercise on irisin secretion. PMID:28125733

  8. Differences in the Intensity and Duration of Adolescents' Sports and Exercise across Physical and Social Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunton, Genevieve Fridlund; Berrigan, David; Ballard-Barbash, Rachel; Perna, Frank; Graubard, Barry I.; Atienza, Audie A.

    2012-01-01

    We used data from the American Time Use Survey (years 2003-06) to analyze whether the intensity and duration of high school students' (ages 15-18 years) sports and exercise bouts differed across physical and social environments. Boys' sports and exercise bouts were more likely to reach a vigorous intensity when taking place at school and with…

  9. The Effect of Low and Moderate Intensity Aerobic Exercises on Sleep Quality in Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Ali Akbari Kamrani

    2015-04-01

    Conclusion Generally, aerobic exercises with moderate intensity (60-70% max HR had a positive and significant effect on sleep quality and its components. We recommend the aerobic exercises with moderate intensity as a useful medical treatment for improving sleep quality and its components among community older adults

  10. The Effect of Low and Moderate Intensity Aerobic Exercises on Self-Concept in Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Ali Akbari Kamrani

    2015-07-01

    Conclusion Aerobic exercises with moderate intensity (60-70% max HR have a positive and significant effect on self-concept. Based on these findings, aerobic exercises with moderate intensity is recommended as a useful method for improving this personality trait among older adults.

  11. Variable-Intensity Simulated Team-Sport Exercise Increases Daily Protein Requirements in Active Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packer, Jeffrey E; Wooding, Denise J; Kato, Hiroyuki; Courtney-Martin, Glenda; Pencharz, Paul B; Moore, Daniel R

    2017-01-01

    Protein requirements are generally increased in strength and endurance trained athletes relative to their sedentary peers. However, less is known about the daily requirement for this important macronutrient in individuals performing variable intensity, stop-and-go type exercise that is typical for team sport athletes. The objective of the present study was to determine protein requirements in active, trained adult males performing a simulated soccer match using the minimally invasive indicator amino acid oxidation (IAAO) method. After 2 days of controlled diet (1.2 g⋅kg -1 ⋅day -1 protein), seven trained males (23 ± 1 years; 177.5 ± 6.7 cm; 82.3 ± 6.1 kg; 13.5% ± 4.7% body fat; 52.3 ± 5.9 ml O 2 ⋅kg -1 ⋅min -1 ; mean ± SD) performed an acute bout of variable intensity exercise in the form of a modified Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test (4 × 15 min of exercise over 75 min). Immediately after exercise, hourly meals were consumed providing a variable amount of protein (0.2-2.6 g⋅kg -1 ⋅day -1 ) and sufficient energy and carbohydrate (6 g⋅kg -1 ⋅day -1 ). Protein was provided as a crystalline amino acids modeled after egg protein with the exception of phenylalanine and tyrosine, which were provided in excess to ensure the metabolic partitioning of the indicator amino acid (i.e., [1- 13 C]phenylalanine included within the phenylalanine intake) was directed toward oxidation when protein intake was limiting. Whole body phenylalanine flux and 13 CO 2 excretion (F 13 CO 2 ) were determined at metabolic and isotopic steady state from urine and breath samples, respectively. Biphasic linear regression analysis was performed on F 13 CO 2 to determine the estimated average requirement (EAR) for protein with a safe intake defined as the upper 95% confidence interval. Phenylalanine flux was not impacted by protein intake ( P  = 0.45). Bi-phase linear regression ( R 2  = 0.64) of F 13 CO 2 resulted

  12. Variable-Intensity Simulated Team-Sport Exercise Increases Daily Protein Requirements in Active Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey E. Packer

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Protein requirements are generally increased in strength and endurance trained athletes relative to their sedentary peers. However, less is known about the daily requirement for this important macronutrient in individuals performing variable intensity, stop-and-go type exercise that is typical for team sport athletes. The objective of the present study was to determine protein requirements in active, trained adult males performing a simulated soccer match using the minimally invasive indicator amino acid oxidation (IAAO method. After 2 days of controlled diet (1.2 g⋅kg−1⋅day−1 protein, seven trained males (23 ± 1 years; 177.5 ± 6.7 cm; 82.3 ± 6.1 kg; 13.5% ± 4.7% body fat; 52.3 ± 5.9 ml O2⋅kg−1⋅min-1; mean ± SD performed an acute bout of variable intensity exercise in the form of a modified Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test (4 × 15 min of exercise over 75 min. Immediately after exercise, hourly meals were consumed providing a variable amount of protein (0.2–2.6 g⋅kg−1⋅day−1 and sufficient energy and carbohydrate (6 g⋅kg−1⋅day−1. Protein was provided as a crystalline amino acids modeled after egg protein with the exception of phenylalanine and tyrosine, which were provided in excess to ensure the metabolic partitioning of the indicator amino acid (i.e., [1-13C]phenylalanine included within the phenylalanine intake was directed toward oxidation when protein intake was limiting. Whole body phenylalanine flux and 13CO2 excretion (F13CO2 were determined at metabolic and isotopic steady state from urine and breath samples, respectively. Biphasic linear regression analysis was performed on F13CO2 to determine the estimated average requirement (EAR for protein with a safe intake defined as the upper 95% confidence interval. Phenylalanine flux was not impacted by protein intake (P = 0.45. Bi-phase linear regression (R2 = 0.64 of F13CO2 resulted in an EAR

  13. Exercise countermeasures for long-duration spaceflight: muscle- and intensity-specific considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trappe, Todd

    2012-07-01

    On-orbit and ground-based microgravity simulation studies have provided a wealth of information regarding the efficacy of exercise countermeasures for protecting skeletal muscle and cardiovascular function during long-duration spaceflights. While it appears that exercise will be the central component to maintaining skeletal muscle and cardiovascular health of astronauts, the current exercise prescription is not completely effective and is time consuming. This lecture will focus on recent exercise physiology studies examining high intensity, low volume exercise in relation to muscle specific and cardiovascular health. These studies provide the basis of the next generation exercise prescription currently being implemented during long-duration space missions on the International Space Station.

  14. Moderating influence of dominant attentional style and exercise intensity on responses to asynchronous music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Jasmin C; Karageorghis, Costas I

    2013-12-01

    We examined independent and combined influences of asynchronous music and dominant attentional style (DAS) on psychological and psychophysical variables during exercise using mixed methods. Participants (N = 34) were grouped according to DAS and completed treadmill runs at three intensities (low, moderate, high) crossed with three music conditions (motivational, oudeterous, no-music control). State attentional focus shifted from dissociative to associative with increasing intensity and was most aligned with DAS during moderate-intensity exercise. Both music conditions facilitated dissociation at low-to-moderate intensities. At high exercise intensity, both music conditions were associated with reduced RPE among participants with an associative DAS. Dissociators reported higher RPE overall during moderate and high intensities. Psychological responses were most positive in the motivational condition, followed by oudeterous and control. Findings illustrate the relevance of individual differences in DAS as well as task intensity and duration when selecting music for exercise.

  15. Benefits of a low intensity exercise programme during haemodialysis sessions in elderly patients

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    Vicent Esteve Simo

    2015-07-01

    Conclusions: (1 An adapted low intensity exercise programme improved muscle strength, functional capacity and health-related quality of life in our elderly patients on HD. (2 Our results highlight the benefits from exercise in HD patients even in this elderly population. (3 In elderly patients on HD, it is worth considering an adapted low intensity intradialytic exercise programme as a part of a comprehensive care.

  16. High-intensity exercise training for the prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rynders, Corey A; Weltman, Arthur

    2014-02-01

    Aerobic exercise training and diet are recommended for the primary prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. The American Diabetes Association (ADA) recommends that adults with prediabetes engage in ≥ 150 minutes per week of moderate activity and target a 7% weight loss. However, traditional moderate-intensity (MI) exercise training programs are often difficult to sustain for prediabetic adults; a commonly cited barrier to physical activity in this population is the "lack of time" to exercise. When matched for total energy expenditure, high-intensity (HI) exercise training has a lower overall time commitment compared with traditional low-intensity (LI) or MI exercise training. Several recent studies comparing HI exercise training with LI and MI exercise training reported that HI exercise training improves skeletal muscle metabolic control and cardiovascular function in a comparable and/or superior way relative to LI and MI exercise training. Although patients can accrue all exercise benefits by performing LI or MI activities such as walking, HI activities represent a time-efficient alternative to meeting physical activity guidelines. High-intensity exercise training is a potent tool for improving cardiometabolic risk for prediabetic patients with limited time and may be prescribed when appropriate.

  17. Muscle and intensity based hamstring exercise classification in elite female track and field athletes: implications for exercise selection during rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsaklis, Panagiotis; Malliaropoulos, Nikos; Mendiguchia, Jurdan; Korakakis, Vasileios; Tsapralis, Kyriakos; Pyne, Debasish; Malliaras, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Background Hamstring injuries are common in many sports, including track and field. Strains occur in different parts of the hamstring muscle but very little is known about whether common hamstring loading exercises specifically load different hamstring components. The purpose of this study was to investigate muscle activation of different components of the hamstring muscle during common hamstring loading exercises. Methods Twenty elite female track and field athletes were recruited into this study, which had a single-sample, repeated-measures design. Each athlete performed ten hamstring loading exercises, and an electromyogram (EMG) was recorded from the biceps femoris and semitendinosus components of the hamstring. Hamstring EMG during maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) was used to normalize the mean data across ten repetitions of each exercise. An electrogoniometer synchronized to the EMG was used to determine whether peak EMG activity occurred during muscle-tendon unit lengthening, shortening, or no change in length. Mean EMG values were compared between the two recording sites for each exercise using the Student’s t-test. Results The lunge, dead lift, and kettle swings were low intensity (hamstring bridge, and hamstring curl were all medium intensity exercises (≥50% or hamstrings. Low, medium, and high intensity exercises were demonstrated. This information enables the clinician, strength and conditioning coach and physiotherapist to better understand intensity- and muscle-specific activation during hamstring muscle rehabilitation. Therefore, these results may help in designing progressive strengthening and rehabilitation and prevention programs. PMID:26170726

  18. Comparison of affective responses during and after low volume high-intensity interval exercise, continuous moderate- and continuous high-intensity exercise in active, untrained, healthy males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niven, Ailsa; Thow, Jacqueline; Holroyd, Jack; Turner, Anthony P; Phillips, Shaun M

    2018-09-01

    This study compared affective responses to low volume high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE), moderate-intensity continuous exercise (MICE) and high-intensity continuous exercise (HICE). Twelve untrained males ([Formula: see text] 48.2 ± 6.7 ml·kg -1 ·min -1 ) completed MICE (30 min cycle at 85% of ventilatory threshold (VT)), HICE (cycle at 105% of VT matched with MICE for total work), and HIIE (10 x 6 s cycle sprints with 60 s recovery). Affective valence and perceived activation were measured before exercise, post warm-up, every 20% of exercise time, and 1, 5, 10, and 15 min post-exercise. Affective valence during exercise declined by 1.75 ± 2.42, 1.17 ± 1.99, and 0.42 ± 1.38 units in HICE, HIIE, and MICE, respectively, but was not statistically influenced by trial (P = 0.35), time (P = 0.06), or interaction effect (P = 0.08). Affective valence during HICE and HIIE was consistently less positive than MICE. Affective valence post-exercise was not statistically influenced by trial (P = 0.10) and at 5 min post-exercise exceeded end-exercise values (P = 0.048). Circumplex profiles showed no negative affect in any trial. Affective responses to low volume HIIE are similar to HICE but remain positive and rebound rapidly, suggesting it may be a potential alternative exercise prescription.

  19. The Influence of Creatine Monohydrate on Strength and Endurance After Doing Physical Exercise With Maximum Intensity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asrofi Shicas Nabawi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was: (1 to analyze the effect of creatine monohydrate to give strength after doing physical exercise with maximum intensity, towards endurance after doing physical exercise with maximum intensity, (2 to analyze the effect of non creatine monohydrate to give strength after doing physical exercise with maximum intensity, towards endurance after doing physical exercise with maximum intensity, (3 to analyze the results of the difference by administering creatine and non creatine on strength and endurance after exercise with maximum intensity. This type of research used in this research was quantitative with quasi experimental research methods. The design of this study was using pretest and posttest control group design, and data analysis was using a paired sample t-test. The process of data collection was done with the test leg muscle strength using a strength test with back and leg dynamometer, sit ups test with 1 minute sit ups, push ups test with push ups and 30 seconds with a VO2max test cosmed quart CPET during the pretest and posttest. Furthermore, the data were analyzed using SPSS 22.0 series. The results showed: (1 There was the influence of creatine administration against the strength after doing exercise with maximum intensity; (2 There was the influence of creatine administration against the group endurance after doing exercise with maximum intensity; (3 There was the influence of non creatine against the force after exercise maximum intensity; (4 There was the influence of non creatine against the group after endurance exercise maximum intensity; (5 The significant difference with the provision of non creatine and creatine from creatine group difference delta at higher against the increased strength and endurance after exercise maximum intensity. Based on the above analysis, it can be concluded that the increased strength and durability for each of the groups after being given a workout.

  20. Effect of exercise intensity on circulating microparticles in men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shill, Daniel D; Lansford, Kasey A; Hempel, Hannah K; Call, Jarrod A; Murrow, Jonathan R; Jenkins, Nathan T

    2018-05-01

    What is the central question of this study? What is the effect of exercise intensity on circulating microparticle populations in young, healthy men and women? What is the main finding and its importance? Acute, moderate-intensity continuous exercise and high-intensity interval exercise altered distinct microparticle populations during and after exercise in addition to a sex-specific response in CD62E + microparticles. The microparticles studied contribute to cardiovascular disease progression, regulate vascular function and facilitate new blood vessel formation. Thus, characterizing the impact of intensity on exercise-induced microparticle responses advances our understanding of potential mechanisms underlying the beneficial vascular adaptations to exercise. Circulating microparticles (MPs) are biological vectors of information within the cardiovascular system that elicit both deleterious and beneficial effects on the vasculature. Acute exercise has been shown to alter MP concentrations, probably through a shear stress-dependent mechanism, but evidence is limited. Therefore, we investigated the effect of exercise intensity on plasma levels of CD34 + and CD62E + MPs in young, healthy men and women. Blood samples were collected before, during and after two energy-matched bouts of acute treadmill exercise: interval exercise (10 × 1 min intervals at ∼95% of maximal oxygen uptake V̇O2max) and continuous exercise (65% V̇O2max). Continuous exercise, but not interval exercise, reduced CD62E + MP concentrations in men and women by 18% immediately after exercise (from 914.5 ± 589.6 to 754.4 ± 390.5 MPs μl -1 ; P interval exercise did not alter CD62E + MPs per se, the concentrations after interval exercise were higher than those observed after continuous exercise (P interval exercise in men or women. Our results suggest that exercise-induced MP alterations are intensity dependent and sex specific and impact MP populations differentially. © 2018 The Authors

  1. Impact of aerobic exercise intensity on craving and reactivity to smoking cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janse Van Rensburg, Kate; Elibero, Andrea; Kilpatrick, Marcus; Drobes, David J

    2013-06-01

    Aerobic exercise can acutely reduce cigarette cravings during periods of nicotine deprivation. The primary aim of this study was to assess the differential effects of light and vigorous intensity aerobic exercise on cigarette cravings, subjective and physiological reactivity to smoking cues, and affect after overnight nicotine deprivation. A secondary aim was to examine cortisol change as a mediator of the effects of exercise on smoking motivation. 162 (55 female, 107 male) overnight nicotine-deprived smokers were randomized to one of three exercise conditions: light intensity, vigorous intensity, or a passive control condition. After each condition, participants engaged in a standardized cue reactivity assessment. Self-reported urges to smoke, affect, and salivary cortisol were assessed at baseline (i.e., before each condition), immediately after each condition, and after the cue reactivity assessment. Light and vigorous exercise significantly decreased urges to smoke and increased positive affect, relative to the control condition. In addition, those in the vigorous exercise condition demonstrated suppressed appetitive reactivity to smoking cues, as indexed by the startle eyeblink reflex. Although exercise intensity was associated with expected changes in cortisol concentration, these effects were not related to changes in craving or cue reactivity. Both light and vigorous exercise can reduce general cravings to smoke, whereas vigorous exercise appears especially well-suited for reducing appetitive reactions to cues that may precede smoking. Results did not support exercise-induced cortisol release as a mechanism for these effects. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  2. Aerobic Games and Playful exercises in 9-YearOld Boys: Intensity and Fitness Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnar E Mathisen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Previous research on exercise for pre-adolescents with the purpose of improving aerobic fitness levels has yielded contradictory results. Sufficient training intensity, frequency and duration are the crucial factors in achieving this goal; the question, however, is whether it is possible to reach sufficient intensity levels using aerobic games and playful exercises. Variety and fun are the important factors in motivating children to participate in physical exercises and sports. Therefore, the aim of the study was to investigate the effect of high intensity exercises in pre-adolescent boys, using programs consisting of fun activities and aerobic games. The findings show that the participants achieved intensity levels above 80 % of HRpeak on average in about 60 % of the total exercise time, resulting in significantly improved aerobic fitness.

  3. Ammonia metabolism during intense dynamic exercise and recovery in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graham, T; Bangsbo, Jens; Gollnick, PD

    1990-01-01

     declined immediately on cessation of exercise. Recovery was complete in approximately 20 min. Arterial [NH3] increased less rapidly and reached itsmaximum 2-3 min into recovery. These data demonstrate that NH3 clearance is more sensitive to the cessation of exercise than is NH3 release from skeletal muscle. Muscle [NH...

  4. Psychobiological Responses to Preferred and Prescribed Intensity Exercise in Major Depressive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Jacob D; Ellingson, Laura D; Koltyn, Kelli F; Stegner, Aaron J; Kim, Jee-Seon; Cook, Dane B

    2016-11-01

    Exercise acutely improves mood in major depressive disorder (MDD). However, it is unknown whether benefits differ depending on whether exercise intensity is self-selected or prescribed. This study aimed to compare psychological and biological responses to preferred and prescribed steady-state exercise intensities to a patient-selected preferred intensity. Female adults (N = 24, age = 38.6 ± 14.0 yr) diagnosed with MDD completed four 30-min sessions of cycling exercise at three prescribed intensities (RPE of 11, 13, and 15) and one session with a self-selected intensity (preferred). Order was randomized and counterbalanced. Depressed mood (DM) was evaluated before, 10 min, and 30 min postexercise using the Profile of Mood States. Serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) was measured before and within 10 min postexercise. Changes in BDNF and DM for the preferred session were compared with the following prescribed sessions: 1) performed at the most similar intensity (matched on RPE; closest) and 2) with the greatest improvement in DM (greatest). Compared with the preferred session, improvement in DM was significantly larger after the greatest session (30 min postexercise: -11.8 ± 7.4 vs -3.4 ± 4.8), and the BDNF response was significantly greater after the closest session (5.4 ± 6.9 vs -1.4 ± 9.8 ng·mL). Permitting patients to select their own exercise intensity did not maximize improvements in mood. Further, preferred intensity exercise was also associated with a smaller BDNF response. Overall, the results suggest that exercise undertaken to improve mood should be prescribed on an individual basis in MDD and not necessarily based on the patient's preferred intensity. Clinicians, psychologists, and other practitioners should consider providing clear exercise intensity recommendations for symptom management in depression rather than allowing patients to self-select their intensity.

  5. Arthritis patients show long-term benefits from 3 weeks intensive exercise training directly following hospital discharge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulthuis, Y.; Drossaers-Bakker, K.W.; Drossaers-Bakker, K.W.; Taal, Erik; Rasker, Johannes J.; Oostveen, J.; van 't Pad Bosch, P.; Oosterveld, F.; van de Laar, Mart A F J

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To examine the efficacy of short-term intensive exercise training (IET) directly following hospital discharge. - Methods: In the Disabled Arthritis Patients Post-hospitalization Intensive Exercise Rehabilitation (DAPPER) study, patients with rheumatoid arthritis or osteoarthritis were

  6. The effects of continuous and intermittent aerobic exercise on lipid profile and fasting blood sugar in women with a body mass index more than 25 kg/m2: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alizadeh Z

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available "n 800x600 Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";} Background: Obesity is a major health problem all around the world. On the other hand, few people, especially women, are physically active to the levels recommended by Healthy People 2010 web site managed by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. The objective of this study was to compare the potential effects of intermittent and continuous exercise programs combined with concurrent calorie restriction diets on lipid profile and fasting blood sugar in overweight and obese females."n"nMethods : Forty-five women with a sedentary life style and a BMI greater than 25 kg/m2, were randomly assigned to one of the three groups (15 subjects in each group: a 40 minutes of medium-intensity intermittent exercise (64-76% of maximal heart rate, 3 bouts per day for 5 days a week, b a single bout of a 40-minute continuous exercise per day for 5 days a week, C the non-exercising control group. A self-monitored calorie restricted diet was recommended to all participants by a dietitian. The lipid profile, fasting blood sugar and blood pressure of all participants were assessed at baseline and 12 weeks after the intervention period."n"nResults : After the intervention, there were no significant differences among the groups in terms of lipid profile [cholesterol (P=0.94, triglyceride (P=0.62] fasting blood sugar (P=0.054, systolic blood pressure (P=0.84 or diastolic blood pressure (P=0.30."n"nConclusion: There seems to be no significant differences between short term continuous and intermittent aerobic

  7. Effects of treadmill exercise intensity on spatial working memory and long-term memory in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Qin; Wang, Gong-Wu

    2016-03-15

    Moderate exercise promotes learning and memory. Most studies mainly focused on memory exercise effects of in the ageing and patients. There is lack of quantitative research about effect of regular exercise intensity on different memory types in normal subjects. Present study investigated the effects of different intensities of treadmill exercise on working memory and long-term memory. Fifty female Wistar rats were trained by T-maze delayed spatial alternation (DSA) task with 3 delays (10s, 60s and 300s). Then they got a 30min treadmill exercise for 30days in 4 intensities (control, 0m/min; lower, 15m/min; middle, 20m/min, and higher, 30m/min). Then animals were tested in DSA, passive avoidance and Morris water maze tasks. 1. Exercise increased the neuronal density of hippocampal subregions (CA1, CA3 and dentate gyrus) vs. naïve/control. 2. In DSA task, all groups have similar baseline, lower intensity improved 10s delay accuracy vs. baseline/control; middle and higher intensities improved 300s delay accuracy vs. baseline/control. 3. In water maze learning, all groups successfully found the platform, but middle intensity improved platform field crossing times vs. control in test phase. Present results suggested that treadmill exercise can improve long-term spatial memory and working memory; lower intensity benefits to short-term delayed working memory, and middle or higher intensity benefits to long-term delayed working memory. There was an inverted U dose-effect relationship between exercise intensity and memory performance, but exercise -working memory effect was impacted by delay duration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Is Moderate Intensity Exercise Training Combined with High Intensity Interval Training More Effective at Improving Cardiorespiratory Fitness than Moderate Intensity Exercise Training Alone?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendon H. Roxburgh, Paul B. Nolan, Ryan M. Weatherwax, Lance C. Dalleck

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of either continuous moderate intensity exercise training (CMIET alone vs. CMIET combined with a single weekly bout of high intensity interval training (HIIT on cardiorespiratory fitness. Twenty nine sedentary participants (36.3 ± 6.9 yrs at moderate risk of cardiovascular disease were recruited for 12 weeks of exercise training on a treadmill and cycle ergometer. Participants were randomised into three groups: CMIET + HIIT (n = 7; 8-12 x 60 sec at 100% VO2max, 150 sec active recovery, CMIET (n = 6; 30 min at 45-60% oxygen consumption reserve (VO2R and a sedentary control group (n = 7. Participants in the CMIET + HIIT group performed a single weekly bout of HIIT and four weekly sessions of CMIET, whilst the CMIET group performed five weekly CMIET sessions. Probabilistic magnitude-based inferences were determined to assess the likelihood that the true value of the effect represents substantial change. Relative VO2max increased by 10.1% (benefit possible relative to control in in the CMIET + HIIT group (32.7 ± 9.2 to 36.0 ± 11.5 mL·kg-1·min-1 and 3.9% (benefit possible relative to control in the CMIET group (33.2 ± 4.0 to 34.5 ± 6.1 mL·kg-1·min-1, whilst there was a 5.7% decrease in the control group (30.0 ± 4.6 to 28.3 ± 6.5 mL·kg-1·min-1. It was ‘unclear’ if a clinically significant difference existed between the effect of CMIET + HIIT and CMIET on the change in VO2max. Both exercising groups showed clinically meaningful improvements in VO2max. Nevertheless, it remains ‘unclear’ whether one type of exercise training regimen elicits a superior improvement in cardiorespiratory fitness relative to its counterpart.

  9. Poorer Intermittent Sprints Performance in Ramadan-Fasted Muslim Footballers despite Controlling for Pre-Exercise Dietary Intake, Sleep and Training Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Abdul Rashid; Che Muhamad, Ahmad Munir; Roslan, Siti Raifana; Ghulam Mohamed, Nazirah; Singh, Rabindarjeet; Chia, Michael Yong Hwa

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the effects of Ramadan fasting on sprint performance during prolonged intermittent exercise in trained Muslim footballers, under controlled pre-exercise conditions. A within-group, cross-over study design with two non-fasted or Control trials performed before (i.e., CON1) and after (CON2) the Ramadan month, and with the Ramadan-fasted (RAM) trials performed within the Ramadan month. After familiarization, 14 players completed a modified 60-min (4 × 15-min exercise blocks interspersed with 3-min intervals) of the Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test (mLIST) of fixed speeds of walking, jogging, running, but with all-out effort sprints. During the interval periods, capillary blood glucose and blood lactate measures were taken, rectal and skin temperatures were recorded and maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVIC) of the dominant leg and hand-grip were performed to provide some indication to the cause(s) of ‘fatigue’ during exercise. Players were provided with standardized 24-h pre-packed meals prior to all trials. Sleep hours were objectively assessed and perceived training loads were monitored and these were equivalent between RAM and CON trials. Sprint times throughout mLIST were significantly faster in both CON1 and CON2 as compared to RAM trials (all P performance in RAM was observed as early as during the first 15-min of the mLIST. Blood markers, MVIC and thermoregulatory results were not substantially different between both CON and RAM trials. In conclusion, despite similarities in dietary intake, sleeping hours and training loads between conditions, results still indicate that Ramadan fasting had an adverse effect on prolonged intermittent performance. Nocebo effects plays a dominant role during exercise in the Ramadan-fasted state. PMID:29910364

  10. Poorer Intermittent Sprints Performance in Ramadan-Fasted Muslim Footballers despite Controlling for Pre-Exercise Dietary Intake, Sleep and Training Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Rashid Aziz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the effects of Ramadan fasting on sprint performance during prolonged intermittent exercise in trained Muslim footballers, under controlled pre-exercise conditions. A within-group, cross-over study design with two non-fasted or Control trials performed before (i.e., CON1 and after (CON2 the Ramadan month, and with the Ramadan-fasted (RAM trials performed within the Ramadan month. After familiarization, 14 players completed a modified 60-min (4 × 15-min exercise blocks interspersed with 3-min intervals of the Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test (mLIST of fixed speeds of walking, jogging, running, but with all-out effort sprints. During the interval periods, capillary blood glucose and blood lactate measures were taken, rectal and skin temperatures were recorded and maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVIC of the dominant leg and hand-grip were performed to provide some indication to the cause(s of ‘fatigue’ during exercise. Players were provided with standardized 24-h pre-packed meals prior to all trials. Sleep hours were objectively assessed and perceived training loads were monitored and these were equivalent between RAM and CON trials. Sprint times throughout mLIST were significantly faster in both CON1 and CON2 as compared to RAM trials (all P < 0.017; d = small to moderate, and this poorer performance in RAM was observed as early as during the first 15-min of the mLIST. Blood markers, MVIC and thermoregulatory results were not substantially different between both CON and RAM trials. In conclusion, despite similarities in dietary intake, sleeping hours and training loads between conditions, results still indicate that Ramadan fasting had an adverse effect on prolonged intermittent performance. Nocebo effects plays a dominant role during exercise in the Ramadan-fasted state.

  11. Astrophysical ionizing radiation and Earth: a brief review and census of intermittent intense sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melott, Adrian L; Thomas, Brian C

    2011-05-01

    Cosmic radiation backgrounds are a constraint on life, and their distribution will affect the Galactic Habitable Zone. Life on Earth has developed in the context of these backgrounds, and characterizing event rates will elaborate the important influences. This in turn can be a base for comparison with other potential life-bearing planets. In this review, we estimate the intensities and rates of occurrence of many kinds of strong radiation bursts by astrophysical entities, ranging from gamma-ray bursts at cosmological distances to the Sun itself. Many of these present potential hazards to the biosphere; on timescales long compared with human history, the probability of an event intense enough to disrupt life on the land surface or in the oceans becomes large. Both photons (e.g., X-rays) and high-energy protons and other nuclei (often called "cosmic rays") constitute hazards. For either species, one of the mechanisms that comes into play even at moderate intensities is the ionization of Earth's atmosphere, which leads through chemical changes (specifically, depletion of stratospheric ozone) to increased ultraviolet B flux from the Sun reaching the surface. UVB is extremely hazardous to most life due to its strong absorption by the genetic material DNA and subsequent breaking of chemical bonds. This often leads to mutation or cell death. It is easily lethal to the microorganisms that lie at the base of the food chain in the ocean. We enumerate the known sources of radiation and characterize their intensities at Earth and rates or upper limits on these quantities. When possible, we estimate a "lethal interval," our best estimate of how often a major extinction-level event is probable given the current state of knowledge; we base these estimates on computed or expected depletion of stratospheric ozone. In general, moderate-level events are dominated by the Sun, but the far more severe infrequent events are probably dominated by gamma-ray bursts and supernovae. We note

  12. Astrophysical Ionizing Radiation and Earth: A Brief Review and Census of Intermittent Intense Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melott, Adrian L.; Thomas, Brian C.

    2011-05-01

    Cosmic radiation backgrounds are a constraint on life, and their distribution will affect the Galactic Habitable Zone. Life on Earth has developed in the context of these backgrounds, and characterizing event rates will elaborate the important influences. This in turn can be a base for comparison with other potential life-bearing planets. In this review, we estimate the intensities and rates of occurrence of many kinds of strong radiation bursts by astrophysical entities, ranging from gamma-ray bursts at cosmological distances to the Sun itself. Many of these present potential hazards to the biosphere; on timescales long compared with human history, the probability of an event intense enough to disrupt life on the land surface or in the oceans becomes large. Both photons (e.g., X-rays) and high-energy protons and other nuclei (often called "cosmic rays") constitute hazards. For either species, one of the mechanisms that comes into play even at moderate intensities is the ionization of Earth's atmosphere, which leads through chemical changes (specifically, depletion of stratospheric ozone) to increased ultraviolet B flux from the Sun reaching the surface. UVB is extremely hazardous to most life due to its strong absorption by the genetic material DNA and subsequent breaking of chemical bonds. This often leads to mutation or cell death. It is easily lethal to the microorganisms that lie at the base of the food chain in the ocean. We enumerate the known sources of radiation and characterize their intensities at Earth and rates or upper limits on these quantities. When possible, we estimate a "lethal interval," our best estimate of how often a major extinction-level event is probable given the current state of knowledge; we base these estimates on computed or expected depletion of stratospheric ozone. In general, moderate-level events are dominated by the Sun, but the far more severe infrequent events are probably dominated by gamma-ray bursts and supernovae. We note

  13. Attentional bias to emotional stimuli is altered during moderate- but not high-intensity exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Qu; Smith, J Carson

    2011-12-01

    Little is known regarding how attention to emotional stimuli is affected during simultaneously performed exercise. Attentional biases to emotional face stimuli were assessed in 34 college students (17 women) using the dot-probe task during counterbalanced conditions of moderate- (heart rate at 45% peak oxygen consumption) and high-intensity exercise (heart rate at 80% peak oxygen consumption) compared with seated rest. The dot-probe task consisted of 1 emotional face (pleasant or unpleasant) paired with a neutral face for 1,000 ms; 256 trials (128 trials for each valence) were presented during each condition. Each condition lasted approximately 10 min. Participants were instructed to perform each trial of the dot-probe task as quickly and accurately as possible during the exercise and rest conditions. During moderate-intensity exercise, participants exhibited significantly greater attentional bias scores to pleasant compared with unpleasant faces (p bias scores to emotional faces did not differ at rest or during high-intensity exercise (p > .05). In addition, the attentional bias to unpleasant faces was significantly reduced during moderate-intensity exercise compared with that during rest (p emotional stimuli and away from unpleasant emotional stimuli. Future work is needed to determine whether acute exercise may be an effective treatment approach to reduce negative bias or enhance positive bias in individuals diagnosed with mood or anxiety disorders, or whether attentional bias during exercise predicts adherence to exercise. (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved.

  14. The Effect of Music on Exercise Intensity among Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley C. Woodman

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD are at risk for obesity, commonly have sleep disorders, and exhibit stereotypic behaviors that disrupt their learning. Vigorous levels of exercise have been shown to ameliorate these issues in children with ASD, but little research exists to provide techniques for motivating children with ASD to engage in exercise. The present study examined the effect of music on exercise intensity in a group of 13 elementary school students with ASD. Data were collected across six days during structured (e.g., verbal and physical prompts and unstructured (e.g., minimal prompting exercise periods. During these exercise periods, three music conditions were randomized: no music, slow-tempo music, and fast-tempo music. Exercise intensity, measured in Metabolic Equivalent of Tasks by triaxial accelerometers, was greatest during the structured exercise periods and during the slow music condition. Student characteristics moderated the impact of music condition on exercise intensity, such that students with high levels of adaptive behavior or lower levels of maladaptive behavior displayed greater exercise intensity during the fast music condition.

  15. The Effect of Music on Exercise Intensity among Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodman, Ashley C; Breviglia, Emily; Mori, Yumiko; Golden, Rebecca; Maina, John; Wisniewski, Hannah

    2018-02-26

    Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are at risk for obesity, commonly have sleep disorders, and exhibit stereotypic behaviors that disrupt their learning. Vigorous levels of exercise have been shown to ameliorate these issues in children with ASD, but little research exists to provide techniques for motivating children with ASD to engage in exercise. The present study examined the effect of music on exercise intensity in a group of 13 elementary school students with ASD. Data were collected across six days during structured (e.g., verbal and physical prompts) and unstructured (e.g., minimal prompting) exercise periods. During these exercise periods, three music conditions were randomized: no music, slow-tempo music, and fast-tempo music. Exercise intensity, measured in Metabolic Equivalent of Tasks by triaxial accelerometers, was greatest during the structured exercise periods and during the slow music condition. Student characteristics moderated the impact of music condition on exercise intensity, such that students with high levels of adaptive behavior or lower levels of maladaptive behavior displayed greater exercise intensity during the fast music condition.

  16. Intermittent Standing but not a Moderate Exercise Bout Reduces Postprandial Glycemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benatti, Fabiana B; Larsen, Sidsel A; Kofoed, Katja

    2017-01-01

    moderate-intensity walking bout followed by 8.5 h of sitting (MVPA), and 30-min moderate-intensity walking bout followed by 15-min standing bouts every 30 min during 8.5 h of sitting (MVPA + STAND). Three standardized meals on intervention day (day 1) and breakfast the following day (day 2) were served....... RESULTS: Cumulative postprandial glucose response (incremental area under the curve) was lower in STAND versus SIT (↓27%, P = 0.04, effect size [ES] = -0.7) because of decreases in postprandial glucose after breakfast on day 1 (STAND vs SIT: ↓40%, P = 0.01, ES = -0.7) and day 2 (STAND vs SIT: ↓33%, P = 0...... breakfast on day 1 only (MVPA vs SIT: ↓36%, P = 0.003, ES = -0.7; MVPA + STAND vs SIT: ↓43%, P = 0.0001, ES = -0.8). CONCLUSION: Breaking up prolonged sitting with nonambulatory standing across 9 h acutely reduced postprandial glycemic response during and the day after the intervention independent...

  17. Appetite and gut hormone responses to moderate-intensity continuous exercise versus high-intensity interval exercise, in normoxic and hypoxic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Daniel P; Smith, Lindsey R; Chrismas, Bryna C; Taylor, Lee; Stensel, David J; Deighton, Kevin; Douglas, Jessica A; Kerr, Catherine J

    2015-06-01

    This study investigated the effects of continuous moderate-intensity exercise (MIE) and high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE) in combination with short exposure to hypoxia on appetite and plasma concentrations of acylated ghrelin, peptide YY (PYY), and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). Twelve healthy males completed four, 2.6 h trials in a random order: (1) MIE-normoxia, (2) MIE-hypoxia, (3) HIIE-normoxia, and (4) HIIE-hypoxia. Exercise took place in an environmental chamber. During MIE, participants ran for 50 min at 70% of altitude-specific maximal oxygen uptake (V˙O2max) and during HIIE performed 6 × 3 min running at 90% V˙O2max interspersed with 6 × 3 min active recovery at 50% V˙O2max with a 7 min warm-up and cool-down at 70% V˙O2max (50 min total). In hypoxic trials, exercise was performed at a simulated altitude of 2980 m (14.5% O2). Exercise was completed after a standardised breakfast. A second meal standardised to 30% of participants' daily energy requirements was provided 45 min after exercise. Appetite was suppressed more in hypoxia than normoxia during exercise, post-exercise, and for the full 2.6 h trial period (linear mixed modelling, p  0.05). These findings demonstrate that short exposure to hypoxia causes suppressions in appetite and plasma acylated ghrelin concentrations. Furthermore, appetite responses to exercise do not appear to be influenced by exercise modality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. EFFECT OF HIGH & LOW INTENSITIES OF AEROBIC EXERCISE ON PHYSICAL FITNESS INDEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhusudhan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Aerobic exercise reduces body fat and improves weight control, increases HDL&Vo2 max. Also improves PFI (physical fitness index which is defined as ability to carry out daily tasks with vigour and alertness without undue fatigue. Though aerobic exercise is found to improve physical fitness, the relative merits of different intensities of aerobi c exercise in improving physical fitness is still uncertain. AIM: The present study was conducted to know the Effect of High & low intensity aerobic training on physical fitness index. MATERIALS & METHODS : 80 sedentary men (18 - 40 years were randomized in to 2 equal groups (High Intensity & low intensity group . The High [80% HR max] & Low intensity [50 % HR max] groups underwent aerobic exercise training using Bicycle ergo meter (COSCO at 900kpm & 540kpm, for 15mins/day & 30mins/day respectively, 5days a week, for a period of 14weeks. Physical fitness index of each subject was recorded by Modified Harvard step test before & after intervention. RESULTS : After 14 weeks of aerobic training both the exercise groups had improvement in PFI, but high intensity gr oup had a significant (p<0.05 improvement in PFI (97.18 - 101.14 than low intensity group (98.12 - 100.6. CONCLUSION : High intensity aerobic exercise is effective in improving physical fitness.

  19. Influence of prior intense exercise and cold water immersion in recovery for performance and physiological response during subsequent exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Peter Møller; Bangsbo, Jens

    2016-01-01

    ) and the influence from prior intense exercise on subsequent performance and physiological response to moderate and maximal exercise with and without the use of cold water immersion (CWI) in recovery (part B). In part A, performance times during eight World championships for male track cyclists were extracted from...... min preceded by an identical warm-up period in both a control setting (CON) and using cold water immersion in recovery (CWI; 15 min at 15°C). Performance was lowered (P

  20. Influence of two high-intensity intermittent training programmes on anaerobic capacity in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Buśko

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to determine the influence of a maximal effort training programme with variation of the pedalling rate on the anaerobic capacity, post-exercise maximal concentration of lactic acid (LA and acid-alkali balance changes in the capillary blood. Identification of the dependence between the lactic acid concentration and the anaerobic capacity produced in the Wingate test was also the goal. The hypothesis that cycloergometer training consisting of maximal efforts with a load equal to 10% of body weight (BW will elicit bigger changes of measured values in comparison to training with a load of 5% BW was verified. Twenty non-athletes, students of UPE took part in the study. They were divided into 2 groups. The first group (M10; n=9 performed maximal efforts with a load equal to 10% of body weight (BW. The second group (M5; n=11 performed maximal efforts with a load of 5% BW. Control measurements of anaerobic capacity (Wingate test were taken every Monday: before the test (0, during 4 weeks of training (1-4 and for 2 weeks after the test (5-6. Blood for the determination of lactic acid concentration and acid-alkali balance was taken from the fingertip before performing the Wingate test – in the 5th, 7th, 9th and 30th resting minute. Changes of maximal power (Pmax were not statistically significant in either group. Significant differences were found between the two groups after the second week of rest. For mean power (Pm the most important changes were noted in the first week from training (M10 – 6.5%; M5 – 11.0% No significant differences were found between groups. Average values of the individual LA concentration peak (the highest LA concentration occurring after the Wingate test for each individual changed significantly in group M10 from 15.233±2.367 mmol/l in the measurement made before training to 12.340±2.353 mmol/l in the measurement taken 2 weeks after training. Group M5 is characterised by a change of this factor

  1. Exercising for Life? Energy Metabolism, Body Composition, and Longevity in Mice Exercising at Different Intensities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaanholt, Lobke M.; Daan, Serge; Garland, Theodore; Visser, G. Henk; Garland Jr., Theodore

    2010-01-01

    Studies that have found a positive influence of moderate, non-exhaustive exercise on life expectancy contradict the rate-of-living theory, which predicts that high energy expenditure in exercising animals should shorten life. We investigated effects of exercise on energy metabolism and life span in

  2. Electromyogram median power frequency in dynamic exercise at medium exercise intensities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ament, W; Bonga, GJJ; Hof, AL; Verkerke, GJ

    The electromyogram (EMG) median power Frequency of the calf muscles was investigated during an exhausting treadmill exercise and a 20-min recovery period. The exercise was an uphill run at a speed of 5 km . h(-1) and a gradient of 20%. During exercise there was no decrease of EMG median power

  3. Low intensity exercise training improves skeletal muscle regeneration potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziana ePietrangelo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine whether 12 days of low-to-moderate exercise training at low altitude (598 m a.s.l. improves skeletal muscle regeneration in sedentary adult women.Methods: Satellite cells were obtained from the vastus lateralis skeletal muscle of seven women before and after this exercise training at low altitude. They were investigated for differentiation aspects, superoxide anion production, antioxidant enzymes, mitochondrial potential variation after a depolarizing insult, intracellular Ca2+ concentrations, and micro (miRNA expression (miR-1, miR-133, miR-206.Results: In these myogenic populations of adult stem cells, those obtained after exercise training, showed increased Fusion Index and intracellular Ca2+ concentrations. This exercise training also generally reduced superoxide anion production in cells (by 12% to 67%, although not in two women, where there was an increase of ~15% along with a reduced superoxide dismutase activity. miRNA expression showed an exercise-induced epigenetic transcription profile that was specific according to the reduced or increased superoxide anion production of the cells. Conclusions: The present study shows that low-to-moderate exercise training at low altitude improves the regenerative capacity of skeletal muscle in adult women. The differentiation of cells was favored by increased intracellular calcium concentration and increased the fusion index. This low-to-moderate training at low altitude also depicted the epigenetic signature of cells.

  4. Sustained, Low?Intensity Exercise Achieved by a Dynamic Feeding System Decreases Body Fat in Ponies

    OpenAIRE

    de Laat, M.A.; Hampson, B.A.; Sillence, M.N.; Pollitt, C.C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Obesity in horses is increasing in prevalence and can be associated with insulin insensitivity and laminitis. Current treatment strategies for obesity include dietary restriction and exercise. However, whether exercise alone is effective for decreasing body fat is uncertain. Hypothesis Our hypothesis was that twice daily use of a dynamic feeding system for 3 months would induce sustained, low?intensity exercise thereby decreasing adiposity and improving insulin sensitivity (SI). An...

  5. Effect of sodium bicarbonate and Beta-alanine on repeated sprints during intermittent exercise performed in hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Bryan; Sale, Craig; Harris, Roger C; Sunderland, Caroline

    2014-04-01

    To investigate the separate and combined effects of sodium bicarbonate and beta-alanine supplementation on repeated sprints during simulated match play performed in hypoxia. Study A: 20 recreationally active participants performed two trials following acute supplementation with either sodium bicarbonate (0.3 g·kg-1BM) or placebo (maltodextrin). Study B: 16 recreationally active participants were supplemented with either a placebo or beta-alanine for 5 weeks (6.4 g·day-1 for 4 weeks, 3.2 g·day-1 for 1 week), and performed one trial before supplementation (with maltodextrin) and two following supplementation (with sodium bicarbonate and maltodextrin). Trials consisted of 3 sets of 5 × 6 s repeated sprints performed during a football specific intermittent treadmill protocol performed in hypoxia (15.5% O2). Mean (MPO) and peak (PPO) power output were recorded as the performance measures. Study A: Overall MPO was lower with sodium bicarbonate than placebo (p = .02, 539.4 ± 84.5 vs. 554.0 ± 84.6 W), although there was no effect across sets (all p > .05). Study B: There was no effect of beta-alanine, or cosupplementation with sodium bicarbonate, on either parameter, although there was a trend toward higher MPO with sodium bicarbonate (p = .07). The effect of sodium bicarbonate on repeated sprints was equivocal, although there was no effect of beta-alanine or cosupplementation with sodium bicarbonate. Individual variation may have contributed to differences in results with sodium bicarbonate, although the lack of an effect with beta-alanine suggests this type of exercise may not be influenced by increased buffering capacity.

  6. High- and moderate-intensity aerobic exercise and excess post-exercise oxygen consumption in men with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, I; Welde, B; Martins, C; Tjønna, A E

    2014-06-01

    Physical activity is central in prevention and treatment of metabolic syndrome. High-intensity aerobic exercise can induce larger energy expenditure per unit of time compared with moderate-intensity exercise. Furthermore, it may induce larger energy expenditure at post-exercise recovery. The aim of this study is to compare the excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) in three different aerobic exercise sessions in men with metabolic syndrome. Seven men (age: 56.7 ± 10.8) with metabolic syndrome participated in this crossover study. The sessions consisted of one aerobic interval (1-AIT), four aerobic intervals (4-AIT), and 47-min continuous moderate exercise (CME) on separate days, with at least 48 h between each test day. Resting metabolic rate (RMR) was measured pre-exercise and used as baseline value. EPOC was measured until baseline metabolic rate was re-established. An increase in O2 uptake lasting for 70.4 ± 24.8 min (4-AIT), 35.9 ± 17.3 min (1-AIT), and 45.6 ± 17.3 min (CME) was observed. EPOC were 2.9 ± 1.7 L O2 (4-AIT), 1.3 ±  .1 L O2 (1-AIT), and 1.4 ± 1.1 L O2 (CME). There were significant differences (P exercise intensity has a significant positive effect on EPOC in men with metabolic syndrome. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Moderate intensity exercise as an adjunct to standard smoking cessation treatment for women: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David M; Whiteley, Jessica A; Dunsiger, Shira; Jennings, Ernestine G; Albrecht, Anna E; Ussher, Michael H; Ciccolo, Joseph T; Parisi, Alfred F; Marcus, Bess H

    2010-06-01

    Previous randomized controlled trials have not supported moderate intensity exercise as an efficacious adjunct to smoking cessation treatments for women; however, compliance with exercise programs in these studies has been poor. The purpose of this pilot study was to estimate the effects of moderate intensity exercise on smoking cessation outcomes under optimal conditions for exercise program compliance. Sixty previously sedentary, healthy, female smokers were randomized to an 8-week program consisting of brief baseline smoking cessation counseling and the nicotine patch plus either 150 min/week of moderate intensity exercise or contact control. Participants attended a median of 86.4% and 95.5% of prescribed exercise/control sessions, respectively. There was a moderate, though statistically nonsignificant, effect of exercise at post-treatment for objectively verified 7-day point prevalence abstinence (48.3% vs. 23.3%; OR = 3.07, 95% CI: 0.89-11.07) and prolonged abstinence (34.5% vs. 20.0%; OR = 2.11, 95% CI: 0.56-8.32). Effects were attenuated when controlling for potential confounders, and after a 1-month, no-treatment period. The findings provide a preliminary indication that, given adequate compliance, moderate intensity exercise may enhance short-term smoking cessation outcomes for women; however, a larger trial is warranted. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Benefits of Moderate-Intensity Exercise during a Calorie-Restricted Low-Fat Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apekey, Tanefa A.; Morris, A. E. J.; Fagbemi, S.; Griffiths, G. J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Despite the health benefits, many people do not undertake regular exercise. This study investigated the effects of moderate-intensity exercise on cardiorespiratory fitness (lung age, blood pressure and maximal aerobic power, VO[subscript 2]max), serum lipids concentration and body mass index (BMI) in sedentary overweight/obese adults…

  9. Loading intensity of jumping exercises in post-menopausal women: Implications for osteogenic training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smale, K B; Hansen, L H; Kristensen, J K

    2018-01-01

    Post‐menopausal women frequently exhibit low bone mineral density, and therefore, evidence‐based exercises that induce osteogenic loading and prevent osteoporosis are often essential. The purpose of this study was to investigate the loading intensity of 3 different jumping exercises in post‐menop...

  10. Moderate-to-high intensity physical exercise in patients with Alzheimer’s disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Kristine; Sobol, Nanna A.; Frederiksen, Kristian S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Studies of physical exercise in patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) are few and results have been inconsistent. Objective: To assess the effects of a moderate-to-high intensity aerobic exercise program in patients with mild AD. Methods: In a randomized controlled trial, we recruited...

  11. Kinesiophobia is associated with pain intensity but not pain sensitivity before and after exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vægter, Henrik Bjarke; Madsen, Anders Bjarke; Handberg, Gitte

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare clinical pain intensity, exercise performance, pain sensitivity and the effect of aerobic and isometric exercise on local and remote pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) in patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain with high and low levels of kinesiophobia. DESIGN: An experiment...

  12. Arterialized and venous blood lactate concentration difference during different exercise intensities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro C. Felippe

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion: These results suggest a delayed lactate appearance in the venous blood, which is accentuated at higher exercise intensities. The lactate measured in arterialized and venous blood is interchangeable only when blood samples are collected at least 10 minutes after the exercise starts.

  13. Effects of cluster vs. traditional plyometric training sets on maximal-intensity exercise performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Asadi

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Although both plyometric training methods improved lower body maximal-intensity exercise performance, the traditional sets methods resulted in greater adaptations in sprint performance, while the cluster sets method resulted in greater jump and agility adaptations.

  14. Virtual and live social facilitation while exergaming: competitiveness moderates exercise intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Amanda L; Anderson-Hanley, Cay; Arciero, Paul J

    2012-04-01

    Grounded in social facilitation theory, this study compared the impact on exercise intensity of a virtual versus a live competitor, when riding a virtual reality-enhanced stationary bike ("cybercycle"). It was hypothesized that competitiveness would moderate effects. Twenty-three female college students were exposed to three conditions on a cybercycle: solo training, virtual competitor, and live competitor. After training without a competitor (solo condition for familiarization with equipment), participants competed against a virtual avatar or live rider (random order of presentation). A repeated-measures analysis revealed a significant condition (virtual/live) by competitiveness (high/low) interaction for exercise intensity (watts). More competitive participants exhibited significantly greater exercise intensity when competing against a live versus virtual competitor. The implication is that live competitors can have an added social facilitation effect and influence exercise intensity, although competitiveness moderates this effect.

  15. THE ROLE OF AEROBIC CAPACITY IN HIGH-INTENSITY INTERMITTENT EFFORTS IN ICE-HOCKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Stanula

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of this study was to determine a relationship between aerobic capacity ( ·VO2max and fatigue from high-intensity skating in elite male hockey players. The subjects were twenty-four male members of the senior national ice hockey team of Poland who played the position of forward or defence. Each subject completed an on-ice Repeated-Skate Sprint test (RSS consisting of 6 timed 89-m sprints, with 30 s of rest between subsequent efforts, and an incremental test on a cycle ergometer in the laboratory, the aim of which was to establish their maximal oxygen uptake ( ·VO2max. The analysis of variance showed that each next repetition in the 6x89 m test was significantly longer than the previous one (F5,138=53.33, p<0.001. An analysis of the fatigue index (FI calculated from the times recorded for subsequent repetitions showed that the value of the FI increased with subsequent repetitions, reaching its maximum between repetitions 5 and 6 (3.10±1.16%. The total FI was 13.77±1.74%. The coefficient of correlation between ·VO2max and the total FI for 6 sprints on the distance of 89 m (r =–0.584 was significant (p=0.003. The variance in the index of players’ fatigue in the 6x89 m test accounted for 34% of the variance in ·VO2max. The 6x89 m test proposed in this study offers a high test-retest correlation coefficient (r=0.78. Even though the test is criticized for being too exhaustive and thereby for producing highly variable results it still seems that it was well selected for repeated sprint ability testing in hockey players.

  16. Effect of exercise intensity on albuminuria in adolescents with Type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornhauser, C; Malacara, J-M; Macías-Cervantes, M-H; Rivera-Cisneros, A-E

    2012-01-01

    Exercise may be useful to detect patients with diabetes prone to develop persistent microalbuminuria. We studied the relationship between exercise intensity, measured as maximal oxygen consumption (VO(2)max), and microalbuminuria in patients with Type 1 diabetes mellitus patients. We studied 10 patients, age range 10-18 years, with Type 1 diabetes who were normotensive and normoalbuminuric, with less than 10 years since diagnosis. Patients had normal renal function, without infections or clinical evidence of complications. Metabolic control was intensively adjusted in all patients. They underwent three consecutive physical exercise tests, reaching 100, 80 and 60% of the maximal cardiac frequency response. Eight patients had adequate to regular metabolic control. All patients had lower than predicted VO(2)max values. At 60%, only three patients showed microalbuminuria in excess of 20 μg/min, two of them had inadequate metabolic control. Post-exercise microalbuminuria exceeded normal values in nine, seven and three patients when submitted to 100, 80 and 60% of exercise intensity, respectively. Microalbuminuria increased with exercise intensity. Sex, body composition and VO(2)max were the main factors associated with microalbuminuria. The prognostic significance of albuminuria induced by intense exercise in these subjects with Type 1 diabetes is not yet known. © 2011 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2011 Diabetes UK.

  17. Higher exercise intensity delays postexercise recovery of impedance-derived cardiac sympathetic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Scott; Jay, Ollie; Graham, Kenneth S; Davis, Glen M

    2017-08-01

    Systolic time intervals (STIs) provide noninvasive insights into cardiac sympathetic neural activity (cSNA). As the effect of exercise intensity on postexercise STI recovery is unclear, this study investigated the STI recovery profile after different exercise intensities. Eleven healthy males cycled for 8 min at 3 separate intensities: LOW (40%-45%), MOD (75%-80%), and HIGH (90%-95%) of heart-rate (HR) reserve. Bio-impedance cardiography was used to assess STIs - primarily pre-ejection period (PEP; inversely correlated with cSNA), as well as left ventricular ejection time (LVET) and PEP:LVET - during 10 min seated recovery immediately postexercise. Heart-rate variability (HRV), i.e., natural-logarithm of root mean square of successive differences (Ln-RMSSD), was calculated as an index of cardiac parasympathetic neural activity (cPNA). Higher preceding exercise intensity elicited a slower recovery of HR and Ln-RMSSD (p return to baseline by 10 min following any intensity (p ≤ 0.009). Recovery of STIs was also slower following higher intensity exercise (p ≤ 0.002). By 30 s postexercise, higher preceding intensity resulted in a lower PEP (98 ± 14 ms, 75 ± 6 ms, 66 ± 5 ms for LOW, MOD, and HIGH, respectively, p fashion. While exercise intensity must be considered, acute recovery may be a valuable period during which to concurrently monitor these noninvasive indices, to identify potentially abnormal cardiac autonomic responses.

  18. No Effect of Exercise Intensity on Appetite in Highly-Trained Endurance Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Stephanie M; Hand, Taryn M; Larson-Meyer, D Enette; Austin, Kathleen J; Alexander, Brenda M; Manore, Melinda M

    2016-04-18

    In endurance-trained men, an acute bout of exercise is shown to suppress post-exercise appetite, yet limited research has examined this response in women. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of exercise intensity on appetite and gut hormone responses in endurance-trained women. Highly-trained women (n = 15, 18-40 years, 58.4 ± 6.4 kg, VO2MAX = 55.2 ± 4.3 mL/kg/min) completed isocaloric bouts (500 kcals or 2093 kJ) of moderate-intensity (MIE, 60% VO2MAX) and high-intensity (HIE, 85% VO2MAX) treadmill running at the same time of day, following a similar 48-h diet/exercise period, and at least 1-week apart. Blood was drawn pre-exercise (baseline), immediately post-exercise and every 20-min for the next 60-min. Plasma concentrations of acylated ghrelin, PYY3-36, GLP-1 and subjective appetite ratings via visual analog scale (VAS) were assessed at each time point. Acylated ghrelin decreased (p = 0.014) and PYY3-36 and GLP-1 increased (p = 0.036, p exercise, indicating appetite suppression. VAS ratings of hunger and desire to eat decreased immediately post-exercise (p = 0.0012, p = 0.0031, respectively), also indicating appetite suppression. There were no differences between exercise intensities for appetite hormones or VAS. Similar to males, post-exercise appetite regulatory hormones were altered toward suppression in highly-trained women and independent of energy cost of exercise. Results are important for female athletes striving to optimize nutrition for endurance performance.

  19. Transient increase in homocysteine but not hyperhomocysteinemia during acute exercise at different intensities in sedentary individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Iglesias-Gutiérrez

    Full Text Available Considering that hyperhomocysteinemia is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease, the purpose of this study was to determine the kinetics of serum homocysteine (tHcy and the vitamins involved in its metabolism (folates, B(12, and B(6 in response to acute exercise at different intensities. Eight sedentary males (18-27 yr took part in the study. Subjects were required to complete two isocaloric (400 kcal acute exercise trials on separate occasions at 40% (low intensity, LI and 80% VO(2peak (high intensity, HI. Blood samples were drawn at different points before (pre4 and pre0 h, during (exer10, exer20, exer30, exer45, and exer60 min, and after exercise (post0, post3, and post19 h. Dietary, genetic, and lifestyle factors were controlled. Maximum tHcy occurred during exercise, both at LI (8.6 (8.0-10.1 µmol/L, 9.3% increase from pre0 and HI (9.4 (8.2-10.6 µmol/L, 25.7% increase from pre0, coinciding with an accumulated energy expenditure independent of the exercise intensity. From this point onwards tHcy declined until the cessation of exercise and continued descending. At post19, tHcy was not different from pre-exercise values. No values of hyperhomocysteinemia were observed at any sampling point and intensity. In conclusion, acute exercise in sedentary individuals, even at HI, shows no negative effect on tHcy when at least 400 kcal are spent during exercise and the nutritional status for folate, B(12, and B(6 is adequate, since no hyperhomocysteinemia has been observed and basal concentrations were recovered in less than 24 h. This could be relevant for further informing healthy exercise recommendations.

  20. The effect of high intensity exercise and anticipation on trunk and lower limb biomechanics during a crossover cutting manoeuvre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whyte, Enda F; Richter, Chris; O'connor, Siobhan; Moran, Kieran A

    2018-04-01

    We investigated the effects of high intensity, intermittent exercise (HIIP) and anticipation on trunk, pelvic and lower limb biomechanics during a crossover cutting manoeuvre. Twenty-eight male, varsity athletes performed crossover cutting manoeuvres in anticipated and unanticipated conditions pre- and post-HIIP. Kinematic and kinetic variables were captured using a motion analysis system. Statistical parametric mapping (repeated-measures ANOVA) was used to identify differences in biomechanical patterns. Results demonstrated that both unanticipation and fatigue (HIIP) altered the biomechanics of the crossover cutting manoeuvre, whereas no interactions effects were observed. Unanticipation resulted in less trunk and pelvic side flexion in the direction of cut (d = 0.70 - 0.79). This led to increased hip abductor and external rotator moments and increased knee extensor and valgus moments with small effects (d = 0.24-0.42), potentially increasing ACL strain. The HIIP resulted in trivial to small effects only with a decrease in internal knee rotator and extensor moment and decreased knee power absorption (d = 0.35), reducing potential ACL strain. The effect of trunk and hip control exercises in unanticipated conditions on the crossover cutting manoeuvre should be investigated with a view to refining ACL injury prevention programmes.

  1. Objective and subjective measures of exercise intensity during thermo-neutral and hot yoga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Corinne N; Lannan, Stephanie M; Zuhl, Micah N; Mora-Rodriguez, Ricardo; Nelson, Rachael K

    2018-04-01

    While hot yoga has gained enormous popularity in recent years, owing in part to increased environmental challenge associated with exercise in the heat, it is not clear whether hot yoga is more vigorous than thermo-neutral yoga. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine objective and subjective measures of exercise intensity during constant intensity yoga in a hot and thermo-neutral environment. Using a randomized, crossover design, 14 participants completed 2 identical ∼20-min yoga sessions in a hot (35.3 ± 0.8 °C; humidity: 20.5% ± 1.4%) and thermo-neutral (22.1 ± 0.2 °C; humidity: 27.8% ± 1.6%) environment. Oxygen consumption and heart rate (HR) were recorded as objective measures (percentage of maximal oxygen consumption and percentage of maximal HR (%HRmax)) and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) was recorded as a subjective measure of exercise intensity. There was no difference in exercise intensity based on percentage of maximal oxygen consumption during hot versus thermo-neutral yoga (30.9% ± 2.3% vs. 30.5% ± 1.8%, p = 0.68). However, exercise intensity was significantly higher during hot versus thermo-neutral yoga based on %HRmax (67.0% ± 2.3% vs. 60.8% ± 1.9%, p = 0.01) and RPE (12 ± 1 vs. 11 ± 1, p = 0.04). According to established exercise intensities, hot yoga was classified as light-intensity exercise based on percentage of maximal oxygen consumption but moderate-intensity exercise based on %HRmax and RPE while thermo-neutral yoga was classified as light-intensity exercise based on percentage of maximal oxygen uptake, %HRmax, and RPE. Despite the added hemodynamic stress and perception that yoga is more strenuous in a hot environment, we observed similar oxygen consumption during hot versus thermo-neutral yoga, classifying both exercise modalities as light-intensity exercise.

  2. High Intensity Exercise in Multiple Sclerosis: Effects on Muscle Contractile Characteristics and Exercise Capacity, a Randomised Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inez Wens

    Full Text Available Low-to-moderate intensity exercise improves muscle contractile properties and endurance capacity in multiple sclerosis (MS. The impact of high intensity exercise remains unknown.Thirty-four MS patients were randomized into a sedentary control group (SED, n = 11 and 2 exercise groups that performed 12 weeks of a high intensity interval (HITR, n = 12 or high intensity continuous cardiovascular training (HCTR, n = 11, both in combination with resistance training. M.vastus lateralis fiber cross sectional area (CSA and proportion, knee-flexor/extensor strength, body composition, maximal endurance capacity and self-reported physical activity levels were assessed before and after 12 weeks.Compared to SED, 12 weeks of high intensity exercise increased mean fiber CSA (HITR: +21 ± 7%, HCTR: +23 ± 5%. Furthermore, fiber type I CSA increased in HCTR (+29 ± 6%, whereas type II (+23 ± 7% and IIa (+23 ± 6%, CSA increased in HITR. Muscle strength improved in HITR and HCTR (between +13 ± 7% and +45 ± 20% and body fat percentage tended to decrease (HITR: -3.9 ± 2.0% and HCTR: -2.5 ± 1.2%. Furthermore, endurance capacity (Wmax +21 ± 4%, time to exhaustion +24 ± 5%, VO2max +17 ± 5% and lean tissue mass (+1.4 ± 0.5% only increased in HITR. Finally self-reported physical activity levels increased 73 ± 19% and 86 ± 27% in HCTR and HITR, respectively.High intensity cardiovascular exercise combined with resistance training was safe, well tolerated and improved muscle contractile characteristics and endurance capacity in MS.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01845896.

  3. The impact of intermittent exercise in a hypoxic environment on redox status and cardiac troponin release in the serum of well-trained marathon runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feifei; Nie, Jinlei; Lu, Yifan; Tong, Tom Kwok Keung; Yi, Longyan; Yan, Huiping; Fu, Frank Hoo Kin; Ma, Shengxia

    2016-10-01

    To investigate the effects of hypoxic training on redox status and cardiac troponin (cTn) release after intermittent exercise. Nine well-trained male marathon runners (age, 21.7 ± 2.3 year; body mass, 64.7 ± 4.8 kg; height, 177.9 ± 3.8 cm; and VO2max, 64.3 ± 6.7 ml kg(-1) min(-1)) completed intermittent exercise under normoxic [trial N; fraction of inspiration oxygen (FIO2), 21.0 %] and hypoxic (trial H; FIO2, 14.4 %) conditions in random order. Each bout of intermittent exercise included hard run (16.2 ± 0.8 km h(-1)) at 90 % VO2max for 2 min followed by easy run (9.0 ± 0.4 km h(-1)) at 50 % VO2max for 2 min and 23 bouts in 92 min totally. Malondialdehyde, reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase, an estimate of total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT), and cardiac troponin I (cTnI) were measured before, immediately after (0 h), and 2, 4, and 24 h after the completion of trials N and H. GSH was increased immediately after trial N. T-AOC was lower 4 h after trial H than trial N. Hs-cTnT was elevated from 0 to 4 h and returned to baseline 24 h after both trials. CTnI was increased after trial H; peaked at 2-4 h and returned to below the detection by 24 h. The overall redox status was balanced under normoxic conditions, and exercise-induced cTn release did not deviate. However, the protective effects of antioxidant were weaker in the hypoxic state than normoxic, and the stress on the myocardium induced by intermittent exercise was transiently aggravated.

  4. Muscle and intensity based hamstring exercise classification in elite female track and field athletes: implications for exercise selection during rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsaklis P

    2015-06-01

    exercise. An electrogoniometer synchronized to the EMG was used to determine whether peak EMG activity occurred during muscle-tendon unit lengthening, shortening, or no change in length. Mean EMG values were compared between the two recording sites for each exercise using the Student's t-test.Results: The lunge, dead lift, and kettle swings were low intensity (<50% MVIC and all showed higher EMG activity for semitendinosus than for biceps femoris. Bridge was low but approaching medium intensity, and the TRX, hamstring bridge, and hamstring curl were all medium intensity exercises (≥50% or <80% MVIC. The Nordic, fitball, and slide leg exercises were all high intensity exercises. Only the fitball exercise showed higher EMG activity in the biceps femoris compared with the semitendinosus. Only lunge and kettle swings showed peak EMG in the muscle-tendon unit lengthening phase and both these exercises involved faster speed.Conclusion: Some exercises selectively activated the lateral and medial distal hamstrings. Low, medium, and high intensity exercises were demonstrated. This information enables the clinician, strength and conditioning coach and physiotherapist to better understand intensity- and muscle-specific activation during hamstring muscle rehabilitation. Therefore, these results may help in designing progressive strengthening and rehabilitation and prevention programs.Keywords: hamstring injuries, exercise, rehabilitation

  5. No effect of glycogen level on glycogen metabolism during high intensity exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vandenberghe, Katleen; Hespel, P.; Eynde, Bart Vanden

    1995-01-01

    , either for 1 min 45 s (protocol 1; N = 18) or to exhaustion (protocol 2; N = 14). The exercise tests were preceded by either 5 d on a controlled normal (N) diet, or by 2 d of glycogen-depleting exercise accompanied by the normal diet followed by 3 d on a carbohydrate-rich (CHR) diet. In protocol 1......This study examined the effect of glycogen supercompensation on glycogen breakdown, muscle and blood lactate accumulation, blood-pH, and performance during short-term high-intensity exercise. Young healthy volunteers performed two supramaximal (125% of VO2max) exercise tests on a bicycle ergometer...

  6. Low intensity aerobic exercise and oxidative stress markers in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouzid, Mohamed A; Hammouda, Omar; Matran, Régis; Robin, Sophie; Fabre, Claudine

    2014-10-01

    This comparative study examined the effects of regular low intensity aerobic exercise on oxidative stress markers in older adults. The study was carried out on 15 sedentary subjects (age: 65.1 ± 3.5 years) versus 18 subjects performing fitness exercises (age: 65.8 ± 3.3 years). Before and after an incremental exercise test, oxidative stress markers were assessed. Superoxide dismutase was higher at rest and at the recovery for the physically active subjects compared with sedentary subjects (p aerobic exercise may be useful to prevent the decline of antioxidants linked with aging.

  7. Brain reactivity to visual food stimuli after moderate-intensity exercise in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masterson, Travis D; Kirwan, C Brock; Davidson, Lance E; Larson, Michael J; Keller, Kathleen L; Fearnbach, S Nicole; Evans, Alyssa; LeCheminant, James D

    2017-09-19

    Exercise may play a role in moderating eating behaviors. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of an acute bout of exercise on neural responses to visual food stimuli in children ages 8-11 years. We hypothesized that acute exercise would result in reduced activity in reward areas of the brain. Using a randomized cross-over design, 26 healthy weight children completed two separate laboratory conditions (exercise; sedentary). During the exercise condition, each participant completed a 30-min bout of exercise at moderate-intensity (~ 67% HR maximum) on a motor-driven treadmill. During the sedentary session, participants sat continuously for 30 min. Neural responses to high- and low-calorie pictures of food were determined immediately following each condition using functional magnetic resonance imaging. There was a significant exercise condition*stimulus-type (high- vs. low-calorie pictures) interaction in the left hippocampus and right medial temporal lobe (p visual food stimuli differently following an acute bout of exercise compared to a non-exercise sedentary session in 8-11 year-old children. Specifically, an acute bout of exercise results in greater activation to high-calorie and reduced activation to low-calorie pictures of food in both the left hippocampus and right medial temporal lobe. This study shows that response to external food cues can be altered by exercise and understanding this mechanism will inform the development of future interventions aimed at altering energy intake in children.

  8. The Effects of Maximal Intensity Exercise on Cognitive Performance in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Roy David

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available High intensity physical exercise has previously been found to lead to a decline in cognitive performance of adults. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of maximal intensity exercise on cognitive performance of children. Using a repeated-measures design, 20 children and adolescents aged 8-17 years completed a battery of tests measuring memory and attention. Forward and Backward Digit Span tests, the Rey Auditory-Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT and the Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST were performed at baseline, immediately after, and one hour after a maximal cardiopulmonary exercise test. Forward and Backward Digit Span scores significantly improved post-recovery compared with baseline measurements. There was a significant decrease in RAVLT scores post-exercise, which returned to baseline values after recovery. The DSST test scores were mildly elevated from post-exercise to after recovery. Maximal intensity exercise in children and adolescents may result in both beneficial and detrimental cognitive effects, including transient impairment in verbal learning. Cognitive functions applying short term memory improve following a recovery period. Parents, educators and coaches should consider these changes in memory and attention following high-intensity exercise activities in children.

  9. Self-selected music-induced reduction of perceived exertion during moderate-intensity exercise does not interfere with post-exercise improvements in inhibitory control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Daichi; Tsukamoto, Hayato; Suga, Tadashi; Takenaka, Saki; Hamaoka, Takafumi; Hashimoto, Takeshi; Isaka, Tadao

    2018-05-26

    Acute aerobic exercise improves inhibitory control (IC). This improvement is often associated with increases in perceived exertion during exercise. However, listening to music during aerobic exercise mitigates an exercise-induced increase in perceived exertion. Thus, it is hypothesized that such effects of music may interfere with exercise-induced improvements in IC. To test this hypothesis, we examined the effect of music on post-exercise IC improvements that were induced by moderate-intensity exercise. Fifteen healthy young men performed cycle ergometer exercise with music or non-music. The exercise was performed using a moderate-intensity of 60% of VO 2 peak for 30 min. The music condition was performed while listening to self-selected music. The non-music condition involved no music. To evaluate IC, the Stroop task was administered before exercise, immediately after exercise, and during the 30-min post-exercise recovery period. The rate of perceived exertion immediately before moderate-intensity exercise completed was significantly lower in music condition than in non-music condition. The IC significantly improved immediately after exercise and during the post-exercise recovery period compared to before exercise in both music and non-music conditions. The post-exercise IC improvements did not significantly differ between the two conditions. These findings indicate that self-selected music-induced mitigation of the increase in perceived exertion during moderate-intensity exercise dose not interfere with exercise-induced improvements in IC. Therefore, we suggest that listening to music may be a beneficial strategy in mitigating the increase in perceived exertion during aerobic exercise without decreasing the positive effects on IC. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Moderate-intensity aerobic exercise improves sleep quality in men older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shams Amir

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of present research was to investigate the effect of low and moderate intensity aerobic exercises on sleep quality in older adults. The statistical sample included 45 volunteer elderly men with age range of 60-70 years old that divided randomly in two experimental groups (aerobic exercise with low and moderate intensity and one control group. The maximum heart rate (MaxHR of subjects was obtained by subtracting one's age from 220. Furthermore, based on aerobic exercise type (40-50% MaxHR for low intensity group and 60-70% MaxHR for moderate intensity group the target MaxHR was calculated for each subject. The exercise protocol consisted of 8 weeks aerobic exercises (2 sessions in per-week based on Rockport one-mile walking/running test and the control group continued their daily activities. All subjects in per-test and post-test stages were completed the Petersburg Sleep Quality Index (PSQI. Results in post-test stage showed that there were significant differences between control and experimental groups in sleep quality and its components (P<0.05. Also, the Tukey Post Hoc showed that the moderate intensity group scores in sleep quality and its components were better than other groups (P<0.05. Finally, the low intensity group scores were better than control group (P<0.05. Generally, the present research showed that the aerobic exercises with moderate intensity have a positive and significant effect on sleep quality and its components. Thus, based on these findings, the moderate intensity aerobic exercises as a useful and medical method for improve the sleep quality among community older adults was recommended.

  11. No Effect of Exercise Intensity on Appetite in Highly-Trained Endurance Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Stephanie M.; Hand, Taryn M.; Larson-Meyer, D. Enette; Austin, Kathleen J.; Alexander, Brenda M.; Manore, Melinda M.

    2016-01-01

    In endurance-trained men, an acute bout of exercise is shown to suppress post-exercise appetite, yet limited research has examined this response in women. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of exercise intensity on appetite and gut hormone responses in endurance-trained women. Highly-trained women (n = 15, 18–40 years, 58.4 ± 6.4 kg, VO2MAX = 55.2 ± 4.3 mL/kg/min) completed isocaloric bouts (500 kcals or 2093 kJ) of moderate-intensity (MIE, 60% VO2MAX) and high-intensity (HIE, 85% VO2MAX) treadmill running at the same time of day, following a similar 48-h diet/exercise period, and at least 1-week apart. Blood was drawn pre-exercise (baseline), immediately post-exercise and every 20-min for the next 60-min. Plasma concentrations of acylated ghrelin, PYY3–36, GLP-1 and subjective appetite ratings via visual analog scale (VAS) were assessed at each time point. Acylated ghrelin decreased (p = 0.014) and PYY3–36 and GLP-1 increased (p = 0.036, p appetite suppression. VAS ratings of hunger and desire to eat decreased immediately post-exercise (p = 0.0012, p = 0.0031, respectively), also indicating appetite suppression. There were no differences between exercise intensities for appetite hormones or VAS. Similar to males, post-exercise appetite regulatory hormones were altered toward suppression in highly-trained women and independent of energy cost of exercise. Results are important for female athletes striving to optimize nutrition for endurance performance. PMID:27096869

  12. AFFECTIVE RESPONSES AFTER DIFFERENT INTENSITIES OF EXERCISE IN PATIENTS WITH TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY

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    Patricia eRzezak

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI usually have mood and anxiety symptoms secondary to their brain injury. Exercise may be a cost-effective intervention for the regulation of the affective responses of this population. However, there are no studies evaluating the effects of exercise or the optimal intensity of exercise for this clinical group. METHODS: Twelve male patients with moderate or severe TBI [mean age of 31.83 and SD of 9.53] and 12 age- and gender-matched healthy volunteers [mean age of 30.58 and SD of 9.53] participated in two sessions of exercise of high and moderate intensity. Anxiety and mood was evaluated, and subjective assessment of experience pre- and post-exercise was assessed. A mixed between and within-subjects GLM analysis was conducted to compare groups [TBI, control] over condition [baseline, session 1, session 2] allowing for group by condition interaction to be determined. Planned comparisons were also conducted to test study hypotheses.RESULTS: Although no group by condition interaction was observed, planned comparisons indicated that baseline differences between patients and controls in anxiety (Cohens’ d=1.80, tension (d=1.31, depression (d=1.18, anger (d=1.08, confusion (d=1.70, psychological distress (d=1.28 and physical symptoms (d=1.42 disappear after one session of exercise, independently of the intensity of exercise. CONCLUSIONS: A single-section of exercise, regardless of exercise intensity, had a positive effect on the affective responses of patients with TBI both by increasing positive valence feelings and decreasing negative ones. Exercise can be an easily accessible intervention that may alleviate depressive symptoms related to brain injury.

  13. Effect of previous exhaustive exercise on metabolism and fatigue development during intense exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iaia, F. M.; Perez-Gomez, J.; Nordsborg, Nikolai

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined how metabolic response and work capacity are affected by previous exhaustive exercise. Seven subjects performed an exhaustive cycle exercise ( approximately 130%-max; EX2) after warm-up (CON) and 2 min after an exhaustive bout at a very high (VH; approximately 30 s), high...

  14. Effects of music and video on perceived exertion during high-intensity exercise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Enoch C.Chow; Jennifer L.Etnier

    2017-01-01

    Background:Dissociative attentional stimuli (e.g.,music,video) are effective in decreasing ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) during low-to-moderate intensity exercise,but have inconsistent results during exercise at higher intensity.The purpose of this study was to assess attentional focus and RPE during high-intensity exercise as a function of being exposed to music,video,both (music and video),or a no-treatment control condition.Methods:During the first session,healthy men (n =15) completed a maximal fitness test to determine the workload necessary for high-intensity exercise (operationalized as 125% ventilatory threshold) to be performed during subsequent sessions.On 4 subsequent days,they completed 20 min of high-intensity exercise in a no-treatment control condition or while listening to music,watching a video,or both.Attentional focus,RPE,heart rate,and distance covered were measured every 4 min during the exercise.Results:Music and video in combination resulted in significantly lower RPE across time (partial η2 =0.36) and the size of the effect increased over time (partial η2 =0.14).Additionally,music and video in combination resulted in a significantly more dissociative focus than the other conditions (partial η2 =0.29).Conclusion:Music and video in combination may result in lower perceived exertion during high-intensity exercise when compared to music or video in isolation.Future research will be necessary to test if reductions in perceived exertion in response to dissociative attentional stimuli have implications for exercise adherence.

  15. Physiological adaptations to interval training and the role of exercise intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacInnis, Martin J; Gibala, Martin J

    2017-05-01

    Interval exercise typically involves repeated bouts of relatively intense exercise interspersed by short periods of recovery. A common classification scheme subdivides this method into high-intensity interval training (HIIT; 'near maximal' efforts) and sprint interval training (SIT; 'supramaximal' efforts). Both forms of interval training induce the classic physiological adaptations characteristic of moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) such as increased aerobic capacity (V̇O2 max ) and mitochondrial content. This brief review considers the role of exercise intensity in mediating physiological adaptations to training, with a focus on the capacity for aerobic energy metabolism. With respect to skeletal muscle adaptations, cellular stress and the resultant metabolic signals for mitochondrial biogenesis depend largely on exercise intensity, with limited work suggesting that increases in mitochondrial content are superior after HIIT compared to MICT, at least when matched-work comparisons are made within the same individual. It is well established that SIT increases mitochondrial content to a similar extent to MICT despite a reduced exercise volume. At the whole-body level, V̇O2 max is generally increased more by HIIT than MICT for a given training volume, whereas SIT and MICT similarly improve V̇O2 max despite differences in training volume. There is less evidence available regarding the role of exercise intensity in mediating changes in skeletal muscle capillary density, maximum stroke volume and cardiac output, and blood volume. Furthermore, the interactions between intensity and duration and frequency have not been thoroughly explored. While interval training is clearly a potent stimulus for physiological remodelling in humans, the integrative response to this type of exercise warrants further attention, especially in comparison to traditional endurance training. © 2016 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2016 The Physiological Society.

  16. Acute Impact of Moderate-Intensity and Vigorous-Intensity Exercise Bouts on Daily Physical Activity Energy Expenditure in Postmenopausal Women

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    Xuewen Wang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study determined whether performing a single moderate- or vigorous-intensity exercise bout impacts daily physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE, by accelerometer. Overweight/obese postmenopausal women underwent a 5-month caloric restriction and moderate- (n=18 or vigorous-intensity (n=18 center-based aerobic exercise intervention. During the last month of intervention, in women performing moderate-intensity exercise, PAEE on days with exercise (577.7±219.7 kcal⋅d−1 was higher (P=.011 than on days without exercise (450.7±140.5 kcal⋅d−1; however, the difference (127.0±188.1 kcal⋅d−1 was much lower than the energy expended during exercise. In women performing vigorous-intensity exercise, PAEE on days with exercise (450.6±153.6 kcal⋅d−1 was lower (P=.047 than on days without exercise (519.2±127.4 kcal⋅d−1. Thus, women expended more energy on physical activities outside of prescribed exercise on days they did NOT perform center-based exercise, especially if the prescribed exercise was of a higher intensity.

  17. Estimated Aerobic Capacity Changes in Adolescents with Obesity Following High Intensity Interval Exercise

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    Brooke E. Starkoff

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Vigorous aerobic exercise may improve aerobic capacity (VO2max and cardiometabolic profiles in adolescents with obesity, independent of changes to weight. Our aim was to assess changes in estimated VO2max in obese adolescents following a 6-week exercise program of varying intensities. Adolescents with obesity were recruited from an American mid-west children’s hospital and randomized into moderate exercise (MOD or high intensity interval exercise (HIIE groups for a 6-week exercise intervention, consisting of cycle ergometry for 40 minutes, 3 days per week. Heart rate was measured every two minutes during each exercise session.  Estimated VO2max measured via Åstrand cycle test, body composition, and physical activity (PA enjoyment evaluated via questionnaire were assessed pre/post-intervention. Twenty-seven adolescents (age 14.7±1.5; 17 female, 10 male completed the intervention. Estimated VO2max increased only in the HIIE group (20.0±5.7 to 22.7±6.5 ml/kg/min, p=0.015. The HIIE group also demonstrated increased PA enjoyment, which was correlated with average heart rate achieved during the intervention (r=0.55; p=0.043. Six weeks of HIIE elicited improvements to estimated VO2max in adolescents with obesity. Furthermore, those exercising at higher heart rates demonstrated greater PA enjoyment, implicating enjoyment as an important determinant of VO2max, specifically following higher intensity activities.

  18. High-intensity interval training using whole-body exercises: training recommendations and methodological overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Alexandre F; Baker, Julien S; Figueira Junior, Aylton J; Bocalini, Danilo S

    2017-05-04

    HIIT whole body (HWB)-based exercise is a new calisthenics exercise programme approach that can be considered an effective and safe method to improve physical fitness and body composition. HWB is a method that can be applied to different populations and ages. The purpose of this study was to describe possible methodologies for performing physical training based on whole-body exercise in healthy subjects. The HWB sessions consist of a repeated stimulus based on high-intensity exercise that also include monitoring time to effort, time to recuperation and session time. The exercise intensity is related to the maximal number of movements possible in a given time; therefore, the exercise sessions can be characterized as maximal. The intensity can be recorded using ratings of perceived exertion. Weekly training frequency and exercise selection should be structured according to individual subject functional fitness. Using this simple method, there is potential for greater adherence to physical activity which can promote health benefits to all members of society. © 2017 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Fatiguing exercise intensity influences the relationship between parameters reflecting neuromuscular function and postural control variables.

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    Sébastien Boyas

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of fatiguing exercise intensity on the nature and extent of fatigue-induced changes in neuromuscular function and postural stability in quiet standing. We also explored the contribution of selected neuromuscular mechanisms involved in force production to postural stability impairment observed following fatigue using an approach based on multivariate regressions. Eighteen young subjects performed 30-s postural trials on one leg with their eyes closed. Postural trials were performed before and after fatiguing exercises of different intensities: 25, 50 and 75% of maximal isometric plantarflexor torque. Fatiguing exercises consisted of sustaining a plantarflexor isometric contraction at the target intensity until task failure. Maximal isometric plantarflexor torque, electromyographic activity of plantarflexor and dorsiflexor muscles, activation level (twitch interpolation technique and twitch contractile properties of plantarflexors were used to characterize neuromuscular function. The 25% exercise was associated with greater central fatigue whereas the 50 and 75% exercises involved mostly peripheral fatigue. However, all fatiguing exercises induced similar alterations in postural stability, which was unexpected considering previous literature. Stepwise multiple regression analyses showed that fatigue-related changes in selected parameters related to neuromuscular function could explain more than half (0.51≤R(2≤0.82 of the changes in postural variables for the 25% exercise. On the other hand, regression models were less predictive (0.17≤R(2≤0.73 for the 50 and 75% exercises. This study suggests that fatiguing exercise intensity does not influence the extent of postural stability impairment, but does influence the type of fatigue induced and the neuromuscular function predictors explaining changes in postural variables.

  20. Blood lactate clearance after maximal exercise depends on active recovery intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devlin, J; Paton, B; Poole, L; Sun, W; Ferguson, C; Wilson, J; Kemi, O J

    2014-06-01

    High-intensity exercise is time-limited by onset of fatigue, marked by accumulation of blood lactate. This is accentuated at maximal, all-out exercise that rapidly accumulates high blood lactate. The optimal active recovery intensity for clearing lactate after such maximal, all-out exercise remains unknown. Thus, we studied the intensity-dependence of lactate clearance during active recovery after maximal exercise. We constructed a standardized maximal, all-out treadmill exercise protocol that predictably lead to voluntary exhaustion and blood lactate concentration>10 mM. Next, subjects ran series of all-out bouts that increased blood lactate concentration to 11.5±0.2 mM, followed by recovery exercises ranging 0% (passive)-100% of the lactate threshold. Repeated measurements showed faster lactate clearance during active versus passive recovery (P40%>passive recovery, Pexercise clears accumulated blood lactate faster than passive recovery in an intensity-dependent manner, with maximum clearance occurring at active recovery of 80% of lactate threshold.

  1. Exercise Guidelines to Promote Cardiometabolic Health in Spinal Cord Injured Humans: Time to Raise the Intensity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nightingale, Tom E; Metcalfe, Richard S; Vollaard, Niels B; Bilzon, James L

    2017-08-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a life-changing event that, as a result of paralysis, negatively influences habitual levels of physical activity and hence cardiometabolic health. Performing regular structured exercise therefore appears extremely important in persons with SCI. However, exercise options are mainly limited to the upper body, which involves a smaller activated muscle mass compared with the mainly leg-based activities commonly performed by nondisabled individuals. Current exercise guidelines for SCI focus predominantly on relative short durations of moderate-intensity aerobic upper-body exercise, yet contemporary evidence suggests this is not sufficient to induce meaningful improvements in risk factors for the prevention of cardiometabolic disease in this population. As such, these guidelines and their physiological basis require reappraisal. In this special communication, we propose that high-intensity interval training (HIIT) may be a viable alternative exercise strategy to promote vigorous-intensity exercise and prevent cardiometabolic disease in persons with SCI. Supplementing the limited data from SCI cohorts with consistent findings from studies in nondisabled populations, we present strong evidence to suggest that HIIT is superior to moderate-intensity aerobic exercise for improving cardiorespiratory fitness, insulin sensitivity, and vascular function. The potential application and safety of HIIT in this population is also discussed. We conclude that increasing exercise intensity could offer a simple, readily available, time-efficient solution to improve cardiometabolic health in persons with SCI. We call for high-quality randomized controlled trials to examine the efficacy and safety of HIIT in this population. Copyright © 2017 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Plasma growth hormone, cortisol and testosterone responses to repeated and intermittent ergometer exercise at different pedalling rates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BH Opaszowski

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was the evaluation of the hormonal response to the repeated and intermittent exercises at different rates. Nine students of the physical education (age: 24.1±0.39 years; body mass: 81.2±10.17kg; height: 182.1±7.32 cm; VO2max – 4.121±0.697 l O2/min performed in the laboratory conditions series of 5 efforts on the cycle ergometer lasting for 3 min with the loading of 250 W and divided with 2 min intervals. In the first day the pedalling rate amounted to 45circ/min (W45, in the second day to 80circ/min (W80. In both cases the work performed (225 kJ, time lasting and power of efforts were the same. The growth hormone (GH, testosterone (T and cortisol (C were denoted in the capillary blood taken with the immuno-enzymatic methods from the finger tip. The anabolic – catabolic index (T/C was also determined. The blood acid – alkali balance parameters were registered using the gas analyser Ciba-Corning 248. The blood was taken: before effort, after third effort (13 min, immediately after fifth effort (23 min and 30 min after the test. Series of the repeated and intermittent exercises caused the significant (P<0.05 lowering of the capillary blood pH, respectively from: 7.392–7.409 before effort to: 7.316±0.092 (W45 and 7.287±0.068 (W80 after fifth effort. The differences between W45 and W80 were statistically insignificant. The highest concentrations of GH and T were noticed after all efforts in both series. The T concentration grew significantly, similarly in both series: W45 –5.8±1.93 and W80 –5.9±1.59 ng/ml from the restful level ≈ 4.6 ng/ml. The significant differentiation of the response on different pedalling rates was observed in case of GH. The highest GH concentration amounted to: 7.7±5.43 ng/ml after W45 and after W80 to: 16.8±6.68 ng/ml. The GH concentration changes presented lower level (P<0.05 during work performed with the smaller rate i.e.: 45circ/min. As regards cortisol (C, the significant

  3. Oxidative stress and antioxidant responses to progressive resistance exercise intensity in trained and untrained males

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    H Çakır-Atabek

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between oxidative stress and some exercise components of resistance exercise (e.g. intensity, exercise volume has not been clearly defined. Additionally, the oxidative stress markers may respond differently in various conditions. This study aims to determine the effects of progressive intensity of resistance exercise (RE on oxidative stress and antioxidants in trained and untrained men, and also to investigate the possible threshold intensity required to evoke oxidative stress. RE trained (N=8 and untrained (N=8 men performed the leg extension RE at progressive intensities standardized for total volume: 1x17 reps at 50% of one-repetition maximum (1RM; 1x14 reps at 60% of 1RM; 1x12 reps at 70% of 1RM; 2x5 reps at 80% of 1RM; and 3x3 reps at 90% of 1RM. Blood samples were drawn before (PRE and immediately after each intensity, and after 30 minutes, 60 minutes and 24 hours following the RE. Lipid-hydroperoxide (LHP significantly increased during the test and then decreased during the recovery in both groups (p0.05. Standardized volume of RE increased oxidative stress responses. Our study suggests that lower intensity (50% is enough to increase LHP, whereas higher intensity (more than 80% is required to evoke protein oxidation.

  4. High intensity interval exercise is an effective alternative to moderate intensity exercise for improving glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in adolescent boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockcroft, Emma J; Williams, Craig A; Tomlinson, Owen W; Vlachopoulos, Dimitris; Jackman, Sarah R; Armstrong, Neil; Barker, Alan R

    2015-11-01

    High-intensity interval exercise (HIIE) may offer a time efficient means to improve health outcomes compared to moderate-intensity exercise (MIE). This study examined the acute effect of HIIE compared to a work-matched bout of MIE on glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity (IS), resting fat oxidation and exercise enjoyment in adolescent boys. Within-measures design with counterbalanced experimental conditions. Nine boys (14.2 ± 0.4 years) completed three conditions on separate days in a counterbalanced order: (1) HIIE; (2) work matched MIE, both on a cycle ergometer; and (3) rest (CON). An oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed after exercise or rest and the area under curve (AUC) responses for plasma [glucose] and [insulin] were calculated, and IS estimated (Cederholm index). Energy expenditure and fat oxidation were measured following the OGTT using indirect calorimetry. Exercise enjoyment was assessed using the Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale. The incremental AUC (iAUC) for plasma [glucose] was reduced following both MIE (-23.9%, P = 0.013, effect size [ES] = -0.64) and HIIE (-28.9%, P=0.008, ES = -0.84) compared to CON. The iAUC for plasma [insulin] was lower for HIIE (-24.2%, P = 0.021, ES = -0.71) and MIE (-29.1%, P = 0.012, ES = -0.79) compared to CON. IS increased by 11.2% after HIIE (P = 0.03, ES = 0.76) and 8.4% after MIE (P = 0.10, ES = 0.58). There was a trend for an increase in fat oxidation following HIIE (P = 0.097, ES = 0.70). Both HIIE and MIE were rated as equally enjoyable (P > 0.05, ES effective alternative to MIE for improving glucose tolerance and IS in adolescent boys immediately after exercise. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Oxidative stress does not influence local sweat rate during high-intensity exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meade, Robert D; Fujii, Naoto; Poirier, Martin P; Boulay, Pierre; Sigal, Ronald J; Kenny, Glen P

    2018-02-01

    What is the central question of this study? We evaluated whether oxidative stress attenuates the contribution of nitric oxide to sweating during high-intensity exercise. What is the main finding and its importance? In contrast to our previous report of an oxidative stress-mediated reduction in nitric oxide-dependent cutaneous vasodilatation in this cohort during intense exercise, we demonstrated no influence of local ascorbate administration on the sweating response during moderate- (∼51% peak oxygen uptake) or high-intensity exercise (∼72% peak oxygen uptake). These new findings provide important mechanistic insight into how exercise-induced oxidative stress impacts sudomotor activity. Nitric oxide (NO)-dependent sweating is diminished during high- but not moderate-intensity exercise. We evaluated whether this impairment stems from increased oxidative stress during high-intensity exercise. On two separate days, 11 young (24 ± 4 years) men cycled in the heat (35°C) at a moderate [500 W; 52 ± 6% peak oxygen uptake (V̇O2 peak )] or high (700 W; 71 ± 5% V̇O2 peak ) rate of metabolic heat production. Each session included two 30 min exercise bouts separated by a 20 min recovery period. Local sweat rate was monitored at four forearm skin sites continuously perfused via intradermal microdialysis with the following: (i) lactated Ringer solution (Control); (ii) 10 mm ascorbate (Ascorbate; non-selective antioxidant); (iii) 10 mm N G -nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME; NO synthase inhibitor); or (iv) 10 mm ascorbate plus 10 mm l-NAME (Ascorbate + l-NAME). During moderate exercise, sweat rate was attenuated at the l-NAME and Ascorbate + l-NAME sites (both ∼1.0 mg min -1  cm -2 ; all P < 0.05) but not at the Ascorbate site (∼1.1 mg min -1  cm -2 ; both P ≥ 0.28) in comparison to the Control site (∼1.1 mg min -1  cm -2 ). However, no differences were observed between treatment sites (∼1.4 mg min -1  cm -2 ; P = 0

  6. Effects of Resistance Exercise Intensity on Cytokine and Chemokine Gene Expression in Atopic Dermatitis Mouse Model

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    Eun-Ju Choi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Although the evidence is unclear, literature indicates that resistance exercise reduces inflammation in colorectal disease. The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of colon tissue on cytokine and chemokine gene expression with changes in resistance exercise intensity. Material and Methods: We divided male BABL/c mice into 6 groups (each group n=10, total=60 (control group: CON, low resistance exercise group: EX_L, high resistance exercise group: EX_H, atopic dermatitis group: AD, atopic dermatitis+low resistance exercise group: AD+EX_L, atopic dermatitis+high resistance exercise group: AD+EX_H and subjected them to ladder climbing resistance exercise for 4 weeks. After 24 h of each exercise schedule, a real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed to determine mRNA expression of interleukin-6 (IL-6 and chemokine ligand 20 (CCL20. Results: The AD group showed significantly higher mRNA expression of IL-6 and CCL20 compared with the CON, EX_L, EX_H, AD+EX_L, and AD+EX_H groups (p<0.05. Conclusion: In conclusion, both high and low resistance exercise effectively decreases the concentration of IL-6 and CCL20 in mice with and without AD.

  7. Influence of acute exercise of varying intensity and duration on postprandial oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canale, Robert E; Farney, Tyler M; McCarthy, Cameron G; Bloomer, Richard J

    2014-09-01

    Aerobic exercise can reduce postprandial lipemia, and possibly oxidative stress, when performed prior to a lipid-rich meal. To compare the impact of acute exercise on postprandial oxidative stress. We compared aerobic and anaerobic exercise bouts of different intensities and durations on postprandial blood triglycerides (TAG), oxidative stress biomarkers (malondialdehyde, hydrogen peroxide, advanced oxidation protein products), and antioxidant status (trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase). Twelve trained men (21-35 years) underwent four conditions: (1) No exercise rest; (2) 60-min aerobic exercise at 70% heart rate reserve; (3) five 60-s sprints at 100% max capacity; and (4) ten 15-s sprints at 200% max capacity. All exercise bouts were performed on a cycle ergometer. A high-fat meal was consumed 1 h after exercise cessation. Blood samples were collected pre-meal and 2 and 4 h post-meal and analyzed for TAG, oxidative stress biomarkers, and antioxidant status. No significant interaction or condition effects were noted for any variable (p > 0.05), with acute exercise having little to no effect on the magnitude of postprandial oxidative stress. In a sample of healthy, well-trained men, neither aerobic nor anaerobic exercise attenuates postprandial oxidative stress in response to a high-fat meal.

  8. Low blood flow at onset of moderate-intensity exercise does not limit muscle oxygen uptake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyberg, Michael Permin; Mortensen, Stefan P; Saltin, Bengt

    2010-01-01

    The effect of low blood flow at onset of moderate-intensity exercise on the rate of rise in muscle oxygen uptake was examined. Seven male subjects performed a 3.5-min one-legged knee-extensor exercise bout (24 +/- 1 W, mean +/- SD) without (Con) and with (double blockade; DB) arterial infusion...... of inhibitors of nitric oxide synthase (N(G)-monomethyl-l-arginine) and cyclooxygenase (indomethacin) to inhibit the synthesis of nitric oxide and prostanoids, respectively. Leg blood flow and leg oxygen delivery throughout exercise was 25-50% lower (P ... +/- 12 vs. 262 +/- 39 ml/min). The present data demonstrate that muscle blood flow and oxygen delivery can be markedly reduced without affecting muscle oxygen uptake in the initial phase of moderate-intensity exercise, suggesting that blood flow does not limit muscle oxygen uptake at the onset...

  9. Effects of Exercise Intensity on Postexercise Endothelial Function and Oxidative Stress

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    Conor McClean

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To measure endothelial function and oxidative stress immediately, 90 minutes, and three hours after exercise of varying intensities. Methods. Sixteen apparently healthy men completed three exercise bouts of treadmill running for 30 minutes at 55% V˙O2max (mild; 20 minutes at 75% V˙O2max (moderate; or 5 minutes at 100% V˙O2max (maximal in random order. Brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD was assessed with venous blood samples drawn for measurement of endothelin-1 (ET-1, lipid hydroperoxides (LOOHs, and lipid soluble antioxidants. Results. LOOH increased immediately following moderate exercise (P0.05. Conclusions. Acute exercise at different intensities elicits varied effects on oxidative stress, shear rate, and ET-1 that do not appear to mediate changes in endothelial function measured by FMD.

  10. Effects of aerobic training intensity on resting, exercise and post-exercise blood pressure, heart rate and heart-rate variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelissen, V A; Verheyden, B; Aubert, A E; Fagard, R H

    2010-03-01

    We aimed to investigate the effects of endurance training intensity (1) on systolic blood pressure (SBP) and heart rate (HR) at rest before exercise, and during and after a maximal exercise test; and (2) on measures of HR variability at rest before exercise and during recovery from the exercise test, in at least 55-year-old healthy sedentary men and women. A randomized crossover study comprising three 10-week periods was performed. In the first and third period, participants exercised at lower or higher intensity (33% or 66% of HR reserve) in random order, with a sedentary period in between. Training programmes were identical except for intensity, and were performed under supervision thrice for 1 h per week. The results show that in the three conditions, that is, at rest before exercise, during exercise and during recovery, we found endurance training at lower and higher intensity to reduce SBP significantly (Pendurance training did not affect the response of SBP after an acute bout of exercise. The effect of training on HR at rest, during exercise and recovery was more pronounced (Pendurance training had no significant effect on sympathovagal balance. In conclusion, in participants at higher age, both training programmes exert similar effects on SBP at rest, during exercise and during post-exercise recovery, whereas the effects on HR are more pronounced after higher intensity training.

  11. V02 'overshoot' during moderate-intensity exercise in endurance-trained athletes: the influence of exercise modality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilding, Andrew E; Jones, Andrew M

    2008-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of exercise modality on the 'overshoot' in V(O2) that has been reported following the onset of moderate-intensity (below the gas exchange threshold, GET) exercise in endurance athletes. Seven trained endurance cyclists and seven trained endurance runners completed six square-wave transitions to a work-rate or running speed requiring 80% of mode-specific GET during both cycle and treadmill running exercise. The kinetics of V(O2) was assessed using non-linear regression and any overshoot in V(O2) was quantified as the integrated volume (IV) of O(2) consumed above the steady-state requirement. During cycling, an overshoot in V(O2) was evident in all seven cyclists (IV = 136 +/- 41 ml) and in four runners (IV = 81 +/- 94 ml). During running, an overshoot in V(O2) was evident in four runners (IV = 72 +/- 61 ml) but no cyclists. These data challenge the notion that V(O2) always rises towards a steady-state with near-exponential kinetics in this exercise intensity domain. The greater incidence of the V(O2) overshoot during cycling (11/14 subjects) compared to running (4/14 subjects) indicates that the overshoot phenomenon is related to an interaction between high levels of aerobic fitness and exercise modality. We speculate that a transient loss in muscle efficiency as a consequence of a non-constant ATP requirement following the onset of constant-work-rate exercise or an initially excessive recruitment of motor units (relative to the work-rate) might contribute to the overshoot phenomenon.

  12. High-intensity exercise and recovery during short-term ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to power athletes and other individuals wishing to improve performance in ... effect of creatine supplementation on physical performance. It has been reported that ... high-intensity work performance.1,2,5,16,31,36 Such activities as resistance ...

  13. Association between exercise intensity and renal blood flow evaluated using ultrasound echo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Shotaro; Yasuno, Tetsuhiko; Matsuda, Takuro; Fujimi, Kanta; Ito, Ai; Yoshimura, Saki; Uehara, Yoshinari; Tanaka, Hiroaki; Saito, Takao; Higaki, Yasuki

    2018-03-10

    High-intensity exercise reduces renal blood flow (RBF) and may transiently exacerbate renal dysfunction. RBF has previously been measured invasively by administration of an indicator material; however, non-invasive measurement is now possible with technological innovations. This study examined variations in RBF at different exercise intensities using ultrasound echo. Eight healthy men with normal renal function (eGFR cys 114 ± 19 mL/min/1.73 m 2 ) participated in this study. Using a bicycle ergometer, participants underwent an incremental exercise test using a ramp protocol (20 W/min) until exhaustion in Study 1 and the lactate acid breaking point (LaBP) was calculated. Participants underwent a multi-stage test at exercise intensities of 60, 80, 100, 120, and 140% LaBP in Study 2. RBF was measured by ultrasound echo at rest and 5 min after exercise in Study 1 and at rest and immediately after each exercise in Study 2. To determine the mechanisms behind RBF decline, a catheter was placed into the antecubital vein to study vasoconstriction dynamics. RBF after maximum exercise decreased by 51% in Study 1. In Study 2, RBF showed no significant decrease until 80% LaBP, and showed a significant decrease (31%) at 100% LaBP compared with at rest (p blood lactate. Reduction in RBF with exercise above the intensity at LaBP was due to decreased cross-sectional area rather than time-averaged flow velocity.

  14. Effects of exercise intensity on hypertension prevalence in Korean men with high sodium intake

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Min Hee; Lee, Hae-Jeung

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of present study was to investigate the effects of exercise intensity on hypertension prevalence in Korean men with high sodium intake. [Subjects and Methods] This study was based on the data collected from 2007 to 2013 in the Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey. A total of 8853 male adults were included in the analysis. The odds ratios for hypertension according to exercise groups were assessed by using logistic regression of each sodium intake gro...

  15. Does high intensity exercise affects irisin plasma levels in hemodialysis patients? A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Gormicho Boavida Marques Esgalhado

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background: Irisin is a recently identified exercise-induced hormone that stimulates the "browning" of the white adipose tissue, at least in mice. In chronic kidney disease (CKD patients, irisin regulation is not fully understood, and little attention has been given to the effects of exercise on irisin levels in these patients. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of high intensity exercise on irisin plasma levels in CKD patients under hemodialysis (HD. Methods: Fifteen HD patients (5 men, 44.4 ± 15.1 years old were studied and served as their own controls. High intensity (single session intradialytic strength exercises consisted of three sets of ten repetitions with four different movements in both lower limbs during 30 minutes. Blood samples were collected on different days (exercise and non-exercise day at exactly the same time (30 and 60 minutes after the start of dialysis session. Plasma irisin levels were measured by ELISA assay and anthropometric and biochemical parameters were evaluated. Results: Irisin plasma levels were significantly reduced in both exercise day (125.0 ± 18.5 to 117.4 ± 15.0 ng/mL, p=0.02 and non-exercise day (121.5 ± 13.7 to 115.4 ± 17.2 ng/mL, p=0.02 after 60 minutes of dialysis. Conclusion: These data suggest that intense intradialytic strength exercise was unable to increase the circulating concentration of irisin in HD patients. Moreover, our data show that after one hour of dialysis session, irisin plasma levels may be reduced.

  16. Exploring physical activity behaviour - needs for and interest in a technology-delivered, home-based exercise programme among patients with intermittent claudication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelis, Nils; Buys, Roselien; Fourneau, Inge; Dewit, Tijl; Cornelissen, Véronique

    2018-02-01

    Supervised walking is a first line therapy in peripheral arterial disease (PAD) with complaints of intermittent claudication. However, uptake of supervised programmes is low. Home-based exercise seems an appealing alternative; especially since technological advances, such as tele-coaching and tele-monitoring, may facilitate the process and support patients when adopting a physically active lifestyle. To guide the development of such an intervention, it is important to identify barriers of physical activity and the needs and interests for technology-enabled exercise in this patient group. PAD patients were recruited at the vascular centre of UZ Leuven (Belgium). A questionnaire assessing PA (SF-International Physical Activity Questionnaire), barriers to PA, and interest in technology-supported exercise (Technology Usage Questionnaire) was completed. Descriptive and correlation analyses were performed. Ninety-nine patients (76 men; mean age 69 years) completed the survey. Physical activity levels were low in 48 %, moderate in 29 %, and high in 23 %. Intermittent claudication itself is the most important barrier for enhanced PA, with most patients reporting pain (93 %), need for rest (92 %), and obstacles worsening their pain (74 %) as barriers. A total of 93 % participants owned a mobile phone; 76 % had Internet access. Eighty-seven reported the need for an exercise programme, with 67 % showing interest in tele-coaching to support exercise. If technology was available, three-quarter stated they would be interested in home-based tele-coaching using the Internet (preferably e-mails, 86 %); 50 % via mobile phone, 87 % preferred text messages. Both were inversely related to age (rpb = 0.363 and rpb = 0.255, p < 0.05). Acquaintance with elastic bands or gaming platforms was moderate (55 and 49 %, respectively), but patients were interested in using them as alternatives (84 and 42 %). Interest in platforms was age-dependent (rs = -0.508, p < 0.01). PAD patients show

  17. High intensity physical exercise and pain in the neck and upper limb among slaughterhouse workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundstrup, Emil; Jakobsen, Markus D.; Andersen, Kenneth Jay

    2014-01-01

    and pain among 595 slaughterhouse workers in Denmark, Europe. Using logistic regression analyses, odds ratios for pain and work disability as a function of physical exercise, gender, age, BMI, smoking, and job position were estimated. The prevalence of pain in the neck, shoulder, elbow, and hand...... about the effect among workers with repetitive and forceful work demands. Before performing randomized controlled trials it may be beneficial to assess the cross-sectional connection between exercise and musculoskeletal pain. We investigated the association between high intensity physical exercise....../wrist was 48%, 60%, 40%, and 52%, respectively. The odds for experiencing neck pain were significantly lower among slaughterhouse workers performing physical exercise (OR = 0.70, CI: 0.49-0.997), whereas the odds for pain in the shoulders, elbow, or hand/wrist were not associated with exercise. The present...

  18. A database for analysis of speech under physical stress: detection of exercise intensity while running and talking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Truong, Khiet Phuong; Nieuwenhuys, Arne; Beek, Peter; Evers, Vanessa

    One of the ways to gauge your own exercise intensity while running, is to assess your capability of talking while running: if you can still speak comfortably, you are running within the recommended intensity guidelines. This subjective way of estimating one's exercise intensity by talking (i.e. the

  19. Analog Exercise Hardware to Implement a High Intensity Exercise Program During Bed Rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loerch, Linda; Newby, Nate; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori

    2012-01-01

    Background: In order to evaluate novel countermeasure protocols in a space flight analog prior to validation on the International Space Station (ISS), NASA's Human Research Program (HRP) is sponsoring a multi-investigator bedrest campaign that utilizes a combination of commercial and custom-made exercise training hardware to conduct daily resistive and aerobic exercise protocols. This paper will describe these pieces of hardware and how they are used to support current bedrest studies at NASA's Flight Analog Research Unit in Galveston, TX. Discussion: To implement candidate exercise countermeasure studies during extended bed rest studies the following analog hardware are being utilized: Stand alone Zero-Gravity Locomotion Simulator (sZLS) -- a custom built device by NASA, the sZLS allows bedrest subjects to remain supine as they run on a vertically-oriented treadmill (0-15 miles/hour). The treadmill includes a pneumatic subject loading device to provide variable body loading (0-100%) and a harness to keep the subject in contact with the motorized treadmill to provide a ground reaction force at their feet that is quantified by a Kistler Force Plate. Supine Cycle Ergometer -- a commercially available supine cycle ergometer (Lode, Groningen, Netherlands) is used for all cycle ergometer sessions. The ergometer has adjustable shoulder supports and handgrips to help stabilize the subject during exercise. Horizontal Squat Device (HSD) -- a custom built device by Quantum Fitness Corp (Stafford, TX), the HSD allows for squat exercises to be performed while lying in a supine position. The HSD can provide 0 to 600 pounds of force in selectable 5 lb increments, and allows hip translation in both the vertical and horizontal planes. Prone Leg Curl -- a commercially available prone leg curl machine (Cybex International Inc., Medway, MA) is used to complete leg curl exercises. Horizontal Leg Press -- a commercially available horizontal leg press (Quantum Fitness Corporation) is

  20. Translation of incremental talk test responses to steady-state exercise training intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Ellen; Menke, Miranda; Foster, Carl; Porcari, John P; Gibson, Mark; Bubbers, Terresa

    2014-01-01

    The Talk Test (TT) is a submaximal, incremental exercise test that has been shown to be useful in prescribing exercise training intensity. It is based on a subject's ability to speak comfortably during exercise. This study defined the amount of reduction in absolute workload intensity from an incremental exercise test using the TT to give appropriate absolute training intensity for cardiac rehabilitation patients. Patients in an outpatient rehabilitation program (N = 30) performed an incremental exercise test with the TT given every 2-minute stage. Patients rated their speech comfort after reciting a standardized paragraph. Anything other than a "yes" response was considered the "equivocal" stage, while all preceding stages were "positive" stages. The last stage with the unequivocally positive ability to speak was the Last Positive (LP), and the preceding stages were (LP-1 and LP-2). Subsequently, three 20-minute steady-state training bouts were performed in random order at the absolute workload at the LP, LP-1, and LP-2 stages of the incremental test. Speech comfort, heart rate (HR), and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were recorded every 5 minutes. The 20-minute exercise training bout was completed fully by LP (n = 19), LP-1 (n = 28), and LP-2 (n = 30). Heart rate, RPE, and speech comfort were similar through the LP-1 and LP-2 tests, but the LP stage was markedly more difficult. Steady-state exercise training intensity was easily and appropriately prescribed at intensity associated with the LP-1 and LP-2 stages of the TT. The LP stage may be too difficult for patients in a cardiac rehabilitation program.

  1. EFFECT OF IMMEDIATE AND DELAYED COLD WATER IMMERSION AFTER A HIGH INTENSITY EXERCISE SESSION ON SUBSEQUENT RUN PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ned Brophy-Williams

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to determine the effects of cold water immersion (CWI performed immediately or 3 h after a high intensity interval exercise session (HIIS on next-day exercise performance. Eight male athletes performed three HIIS at 90%VO2max velocity followed by either a passive recovery (CON, CWI performed immediately post-exercise (CWI(0 or CWI performed 3 h post-exercise (CWI(3. Recovery trials were performed in a counter balanced manner. Participants then returned 24 h later and completed a muscle soreness and a totally quality recovery perception (TQRP questionnaire, which was then followed by the Yoyo Intermittent Recovery Test [level 1] (YRT. Venous blood samples were collected pre-HIIS and pre-YRT to determine C-Reactive Protein (CRP levels. Significantly more shuttles were performed during the YRT following CWI(0 compared to the CON trial (p=0.017, ES = 0. 8, while differences between the CWI(3 and the CON trials approached significance (p = 0.058, ES = 0.5. Performance on the YRT between the CWI(0 and CWI(3 trials were similar (p = 0.147, ES = 0. 3. Qualitative analyses demonstrated a 98% and 92% likely beneficial effect of CWI(0 and CWI(3 on next day performance, compared to CON, respectively, while CWI(0 resulted in a 79% likely benefit when compared to CWI(3. CRP values were significantly lower pre-YRT, compared to baseline, following CWI(0 (p = 0.0.36 and CWI(3 (p = 0.045, but were similar for CON (p = 0.157. Muscle soreness scores were similar between trials (p = 1.10, while TQRP scores were significantly lower for CON compared to CWI(0 (p = 0.002 and CWI(3 (p = 0.024. Immediate CWI resulted in superior next-day YRT performance compared to CON, while delayed (3 h CWI was also likely to be beneficial. Qualitative analyses suggested that CWI(0 resulted in better performance than CWI(3. These results are important for athletes who do not have immediate access to CWI following exercise

  2. Moderate-to-High Intensity Physical Exercise in Patients with Alzheimer's Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Kristine; Sobol, Nanna A; Frederiksen, Kristian S

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies of physical exercise in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) are few and results have been inconsistent. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of a moderate-to-high intensity aerobic exercise program in patients with mild AD. METHODS: In a randomized controlled trial, we recruite...... reduced neuropsychiatric symptoms in patients with mild AD, with possible additional benefits of preserved cognition in a subgroup of patients exercising with high attendance and intensity.......BACKGROUND: Studies of physical exercise in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) are few and results have been inconsistent. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of a moderate-to-high intensity aerobic exercise program in patients with mild AD. METHODS: In a randomized controlled trial, we recruited...... 200 patients with mild AD to a supervised exercise group (60-min sessions three times a week for 16 weeks) or to a control group. Primary outcome was change from baseline in cognitive performance estimated by Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT) in the intention-to-treat (ITT) group. Secondary outcomes...

  3. Exercise Training at Maximal Fat Oxidation Intensity for Older Women with Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Sijie; Du, Ping; Zhao, Wanting; Pang, Jiaqi; Wang, Jianxiong

    2018-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the pleiotropic effects of 12 weeks of supervised exercise training at maximal fat oxidation (FATmax) intensity on body composition, lipid profile, glycemic control, insulin sensitivity and serum adipokine levels in older women with type 2 diabetes. Thirty-one women with type 2 diabetes, aged 60 to 69 years, were randomly allocated into exercise and control groups. Body composition, lipid profile, blood glucose, insulin resistance and serum leptin and adiponectin concentrations were measured before and after the intervention. Exercise group (n=16) walked at individualized FATmax intensities for 1 h/day for 3 days/week over 12 weeks. No dietary intervention was introduced during the experimental period. Maximal fat oxidation rate was 0.37±0.10 g/min, and occurred at 37.3±7.3% of the estimated VO 2 max. Within the exercise group, significant improvements were observed for most of the measured variables compared to non-exercising controls; in particular, the FATmax program reduced body fat% (presistance (pchange in daily energy intake for all participants during the intervention period. These results suggest that individualized FATmax training is an effective exercise training intensity for managing type 2 diabetes in older women. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Moderate intensity sports and exercise is associated with glycaemic control in women with gestational diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrlich, S F; Hedderson, M M; Brown, S D; Sternfeld, B; Chasan-Taber, L; Feng, J; Adams, J; Ching, J; Crites, Y; Quesenberry, C P; Ferrara, A

    2017-10-01

    To assess the association of regular, unsupervised sports and exercise during pregnancy, by intensity level, with glycaemic control in women with gestational diabetes (GDM). Prospective cohort study of 971 women who, shortly after being diagnosed with GDM, completed a Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire assessing moderate and vigorous intensity sports and exercise in the past 3 months. Self-monitored capillary glucose values were obtained for the 6-week period following the questionnaire, with optimal glycaemic control defined≥80% values meeting the targetssports and exercise ([MET×hours]/week), the highest quartile, compared to the lowest, had significantly increased odds of optimal control (OR=1.82 [95% CI: 1.06-3.14] P=0.03). There were significant trends for decreasing mean 1-hour post breakfast, lunch and dinner glycaemia with increasing quartile of moderate activity (all Psports and exercise was associated with decreased mean 1-hour post breakfast and lunch glycaemia (both Psports and exercise, reported shortly after GDM diagnosis, were significantly associated with increased odds of achieving glycaemic control. Clinicians should be aware that unsupervised moderate intensity sports and exercise performed in mid-pregnancy aids in subsequent glycaemic control among women with GDM. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Exercise intensities of gardening tasks within older adult allotment gardeners in Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Jemma L; Smith, Alexander; Backx, Karianne; Clayton, Deborah A

    2015-04-01

    Previous research has suggested that gardening activity could be an effective form of regular exercise for improving physical and psychological health in later life. However, there is a lack of data regarding the exercise intensities of various gardening tasks across different types of gardening and different populations. The purpose of this study was to examine the exercise intensity of gardening activity for older adult allotment gardeners in Wales, United Kingdom following a similar procedure used in previous studies conducted in the United States and South Korea by Park and colleagues (2008a; 2011). Oxygen consumption (VO2) and energy expenditure for six gardening tasks were measured via indirect calorimetery using the portable Oxycon mobile device. From these measures, estimated metabolic equivalent units (METs) were calculated. Consistent with Park et al. (2008a; 2011) the six gardening tasks were classified as low to moderate-high intensity physical activities based on their metabolic values (1.9-5.7 METs).

  6. Acute Hypotension after High-Intensity Interval Exercise in Metabolic Syndrome Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Palomo, Felix; Ramirez-Jimenez, Miguel; Ortega, Juan Fernando; Pallarés, Jesús G; Mora-Rodriguez, Ricardo

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the magnitude of post-exercise hypotension (PEH) after a bout of cycling exercise using high-intensity interval training (HIIT) in comparison to a bout of traditional moderate-intensity continuous exercise (CE). After supine rest 14 obese (31±1 kg·m -2 ) middle-age (57±2 y) metabolic syndrome patients (50% hypertensive) underwent a bout of HIIT or a bout of CE in a random order and then returned to supine recovery for another 45 min. Exercise trials were isocaloric and compared to a no-exercise trial (CONT) of supine rest for a total of 160 min. Before and after exercise we assessed blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), cardiac output (Q), systemic vascular resistance (SVR), intestinal temperature (T INT ), forearm skin blood flow (S K BF) and percent dehydration. HIIT produced a larger post-exercise reduction in systolic blood pressure than CE in the hypertensive group (-20±6 vs. -5±3 mmHg) and in the normotensive group (-8±3 vs. -3±2 mmHg) while HIIT reduced SVR below CE (Pexercise T INT and S K BF increased only after HIIT (all Pexercise method to CE to acutely reduce blood pressure in MSyn subjects. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. High-intensity interval exercise and cerebrovascular health: curiosity, cause, and consequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Samuel J E; Cotter, James D; Brassard, Patrice; Bailey, Damian M

    2015-06-01

    Exercise is a uniquely effective and pluripotent medicine against several noncommunicable diseases of westernised lifestyles, including protection against neurodegenerative disorders. High-intensity interval exercise training (HIT) is emerging as an effective alternative to current health-related exercise guidelines. Compared with traditional moderate-intensity continuous exercise training, HIT confers equivalent if not indeed superior metabolic, cardiac, and systemic vascular adaptation. Consequently, HIT is being promoted as a more time-efficient and practical approach to optimize health thereby reducing the burden of disease associated with physical inactivity. However, no studies to date have examined the impact of HIT on the cerebrovasculature and corresponding implications for cognitive function. This review critiques the implications of HIT for cerebrovascular function, with a focus on the mechanisms and translational impact for patient health and well-being. It also introduces similarly novel interventions currently under investigation as alternative means of accelerating exercise-induced cerebrovascular adaptation. We highlight a need for studies of the mechanisms and thereby also the optimal dose-response strategies to guide exercise prescription, and for studies to explore alternative approaches to optimize exercise outcomes in brain-related health and disease prevention. From a clinical perspective, interventions that selectively target the aging brain have the potential to prevent stroke and associated neurovascular diseases.

  8. Effect of the exercise of walkers performed in public squares with spontaneous or prescribed intensity on post-exercise hypotension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Taís Feitosa da; Souza, Alesandra Araújo de; Lima, Fabiano Ferreira de; Suassuna, Jennifer Ariely Sales; Couto, Henrique Eduardo Paiva Lira do; Tenório, Gustavo Roque; Silva, Maria Irene de Andrade Gomes; Dias, Guilherme Leandebal Bonifácio; Silva, Alexandre Sérgio

    2017-07-20

    To quantify the intensity adopted by walkers in public squares and check the occurrence and magnitude of post-exercise hypotension in the spontaneously adopted intensity and in a prescribed intensity. In 98 volunteers (38 of them being hypertensive), walkers in public squares of the city of João Pessoa, State of Paraíba, Brazil, we have identified the intensity of a usual training monitored by heart rate and we have investigated the occurrence and magnitude of post-exercise hypotension. Subsequently, participants were instructed to walk with moderate intensity. Blood pressure was measured after rest and during post-exercise recovery. Of the total participants, 41% of the hypertensive and 36% of the normotensive individuals walked with light intensity. With the prescription, intensity increased to 55% and 52%, for the hypertensive and normotensive individuals, respectively. In the usual and prescribed intensity, the hypertensive individuals had post-exercise hypotension of -3.7±11.6 mmHg and -4.72±12.8 mmHg, respectively. There was no correlation between post-exercise hypotension and the initial systolic component of the hypertensive individuals (r2 = 0.2; p < 0.002). Walkers in public squares choose light intensity for walking. When they exercise with the prescribed intensity, they increase the intensity, but the magnitude of the PEH is not increase with this guidance. Quantificar a intensidade adotada por caminhantes em praças públicas e verificar a ocorrência e a magnitude da hipotensão pós-exercício na intensidade espontaneamente adotada e em uma intensidade prescrita. Em 98 voluntários (38 hipertensos), caminhantes em praças públicas da cidade de João Pessoa, PB, identificamos a intensidade de um treino habitual monitorada por meio da frequência cardíaca e averiguamos a ocorrência e magnitude de hipotensão pós-exercício. Posteriormente, os participantes foram instruídos a caminhar com intensidade moderada. A pressão arterial foi aferida ap

  9. Exercise Intensity and Incidence of Metabolic Syndrome: The SUN Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo-Santamaria, María; Fernandez-Montero, Alejandro; Martinez-Gonzalez, Miguel A; Moreno-Galarraga, Laura; Sanchez-Villegas, Almudena; Barrio-Lopez, María T; Bes-Rastrollo, Maira

    2017-04-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that vigorous physical activity may be associated with higher cardioprotective benefits than moderate physical activity. This study aimed to assess the long-term relationship between the intensity of leisure time physical activity (LTPA) and the risk of developing metabolic syndrome (MS) in a prospective cohort study. The Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra (SUN) Project comprises Spanish university graduates. Participants (n=10,145) initially free of MS were followed for a minimum of 6 years (2008-2014). Analysis was conducted in 2015. Physical activity was assessed though a validated questionnaire. The intensity of each physical activity was measured in METs. The intensity of LTPA was estimated by the ratio between total METs/week and total hours of LTPA/week, obtaining the mean METs/hour of LTPA. MS was defined according to the harmonizing definition. The association between the intensity of LTPA (METs/hour) and MS was assessed with logistic regression models adjusting for potential confounders. Among 10,145 participants initially free of any MS criteria, 412 new MS cases were observed. Vigorous LTPA was associated with a 37% relatively lower risk (AOR=0.63, 95% CI=0.44, 0.89) compared with light LTPA. For a given total energy expenditure, independent of the time spent on it, participants who performed vigorous LTPA exhibited a higher reduction in the risk of MS than those who performed light to moderate LTPA. Vigorous LTPA was significantly associated with lower risk of developing MS after a 6-year follow-up period. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Auditory feedback improves heart rate moderation during moderate-intensity exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaykevich, Alex; Grove, J Robert; Jackson, Ben; Landers, Grant J; Dimmock, James

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study is to determine whether exposure to automated HR feedback can produce improvements in the ability to regulate HR during moderate-intensity exercise and to evaluate the persistence of these improvements after feedback is removed. Twenty healthy adults performed 10 indoor exercise sessions on cycle ergometers over 5 wk after a twice-weekly schedule. During these sessions (FB), participants received auditory feedback designed to maintain HR within a personalized, moderate-intensity training zone between 70% and 80% of estimated maximum HR. All feedback was delivered via a custom mobile software application. Participants underwent an initial assessment (PREFB) to measure their ability to maintain exercise intensity defined by the training zone without use of feedback. After completing the feedback training, participants performed three additional assessments identical to PREFB at 1 wk (POST1), 2 wk (POST2), and 4 wk (POST3) after their last feedback session. Time in zone (TIZ), defined as the ratio of the time spent within the training zone divided by the overall time of exercise, rate of perceived exertion, instrumental attitudes, and affective attitudes were then evaluated to assess results using two-way, mixed-model ANOVA with sessions and gender as factors. Training with feedback significantly improved TIZ (P moderate-intensity exercise in healthy adults.

  11. Short-term intense exercise training reduces stress markers and alters the transcriptional response to exercise in skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinkley, J Matthew; Konopka, Adam R; Suer, Miranda K; Harber, Matthew P

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine the influence of short-term intense endurance training on cycling performance, along with the acute and chronic signaling responses of skeletal muscle stress and stability markers. Ten recreationally active subjects (25 ± 2 yr, 79 ± 3 kg, 47 ± 2 ml·kg -1 ·min -1 ) were studied before and after a 12-day cycling protocol to examine the effects of short-term intense (70-100% V̇o 2max ) exercise training on resting and exercise-induced regulation of molecular factors related to skeletal muscle cellular stress and protein stability. Skeletal muscle biopsies were taken at rest and 3 h following a 20-km cycle time trial on days 1 and 12 to measure mRNA expression and protein content. Training improved ( P stress. The maintenance in the myocellular environment may be due to synthesis of cytoprotective markers, along with enhanced degradation of damage proteins, as training tended ( P short-term intense training enhances protein stability, creating a cellular environment capable of resistance to exercise-induced stress, which may be favorable for adaptation. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  12. Time perception, pacing and exercise intensity: maximal exercise distorts the perception of time

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, A. M.; McCormick, A.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction\\ud \\ud Currently there are no data examining the impact of exercise on the perception of time, which is surprising as optimal competitive performance is dependent on accurate pacing using knowledge of time elapsed.\\ud \\ud \\ud Methods\\ud \\ud With institutional ethics approval, 12 recreationally active adult participants (f = 7, m = 5) undertook both 30 s Wingate cycles and 20 min (1200 s) rowing ergometer bouts as short and long duration self-paced exercise trials, in each of thre...

  13. Dose-response relationships between exercise intensity, cravings, and inhibitory control in methamphetamine dependence: An ERPs study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dongshi; Zhou, Chenglin; Zhao, Min; Wu, Xueping; Chang, Yu-Kai

    2016-04-01

    The present study integrated behavioral and neuroelectric approaches for determining the dose-response relationships between exercise intensity and methamphetamine (MA) craving and between exercise intensity and inhibitory control in individuals with MA dependence. Ninety-two individuals with MA dependence were randomly assigned to an exercise group (light, moderate, or vigorous intensity) or to a reading control group. The participants then completed a craving self-report at four time points: before exercise, during exercise, immediately after exercise, and 50 min after exercise. Event-related potentials were also recorded while the participants completed a standard Go/NoGo task and an MA-related Go/NoGo task approximately 20 min after exercise cessation. The reduction in self-reported MA craving scores of the moderate and vigorous intensity groups was greater than that of the light intensity and control groups during acute exercise as well as immediately and 50 min following exercise termination. Additionally, an inverted-U-shaped relationship between exercise intensity and inhibitory control was generally observed for the behavioral and neuroelectric indices, with the moderate intensity group exhibiting shorter Go reaction times, increased NoGo accuracy, and larger NoGo-N2 amplitudes. Acute exercise may provide benefits for MA-associated craving and inhibitory control in MA-dependent individuals, as revealed by behavioral and neuroelectric measures. Moderate-intensity exercise may be associated with more positive effects, providing preliminary evidence for the establishment of an exercise prescription regarding intensity for MA dependence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Metabolism and inflammatory mediators in the peritendinous space measured by microdialysis during intermittent isometric exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langberg, Henning; Skovgaard, D; Karamouzis, M

    1999-01-01

    healthy humans were studied at rest, during 30 min of intermittent static plantar flexion of the ankle at a workload corresponding to individual body weight, and during 60 min of recovery. Microdialysis was performed in both legs with simultaneous determination of blood flow by 133Xe washout in the same...

  15. The Metabolic Cost of a High Intensity Exercise Program During Bed Rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackney, Kyle; Everett, Meghan; Guined, Jamie; Cunningham, Daid

    2012-01-01

    Background: Given that disuse-related skeletal muscle atrophy may be exacerbated by an imbalance between energy intake and output, the amount of energy required to complete exercise countermeasures is an important consideration in the well being of subject health during bed rest and spaceflight. Objective: To evaluate the energy cost of a high intensity exercise program performed during short duration bed rest. Methods: 9 subjects (8 male and 1 female; 34.5 +/- 8.2 years) underwent 14 days of bed rest and exercise countermeasures. Exercise energy expenditure and excess post exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) were collected once in each of 5 different exercise protocols (30 second, 2 minute and 4 minute intervals, continuous aerobic and a variety of resistance exercises) during bed rest. Body mass, basal metabolic rate (BMR), upper and lower leg muscle, subcutaneous, and intramuscular adipose tissue (IMAT) volumes were assessed before and at the end of bed rest. Results: There were no significant differences in body mass (pre: 75.1 +/- 10.5 kg; post: 75.2 +/- 10.1 kg), BMR (pre: 1649 +/- 216 kcal; post: 1657 +/- 177 kcal), muscle subcutaneous, or IMAT volumes (Table 2) after 14 days of bed rest and exercise. Body mass was maintained with an average daily intake of 2710 +/- 262 kcal (36.2 +/- 2.1 kcal/kg/day), while average daily energy expenditure was 2579 +/-311 kcal (34.5 +/- 3.6 kcal/kg/day). Exercise energy expenditure was significantly greater as a result of continuous aerobic exercise than all other exercise protocols.

  16. Effect of ubiquinol supplementation on biochemical and oxidative stress indexes after intense exercise in young athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlando, Patrick; Silvestri, Sonia; Galeazzi, Roberta; Antonicelli, Roberto; Marcheggiani, Fabio; Cirilli, Ilenia; Bacchetti, Tiziana; Tiano, Luca

    2018-12-01

    Physical exercise significantly impacts the biochemistry of the organism. Ubiquinone is a key component of the mitochondrial respiratory chain and ubiquinol, its reduced and active form, is an emerging molecule in sport nutrition. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of ubiquinol supplementation on biochemical and oxidative stress indexes after an intense bout of exercise. 21 male young athletes (26 + 5 years of age) were randomized in two groups according to a double blind cross-over study, either supplemented with ubiquinol (200 mg/day) or placebo for 1 month. Blood was withdrawn before and after a single bout of intense exercise (40 min run at 85% maxHR). Physical performance, hematochemical parameters, ubiquinone/ubiquinol plasma content, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level, mitochondrial membrane depolarization, paraoxonase activity and oxidative DNA damage were analyzed. A single bout of intense exercise produced a significant increase in most hematochemical indexes, in particular CK and Mb while, on the contrary, normalized coenzyme Q 10 plasma content decreased significantly in all subjects. Ubiquinol supplementation prevented exercise-induced CoQ deprivation and decrease in paraoxonase activity. Moreover at a cellular level, in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, ubiquinol supplementation was associated with a significant decrease in cytosolic ROS while mitochondrial membrane potential and oxidative DNA damage remained unchanged. Data highlights a very rapid dynamic of CoQ depletion following intense exercise underlying an increased demand by the organism. Ubiquinol supplementation minimized exercise-induced depletion and enhanced plasma and cellular antioxidant levels but it was not able to improve physical performance indexes or markers of muscular damage.

  17. Determination of the exercise intensity that elicits maximal fat oxidation in individuals with obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dandanell, Sune; Præst, Charlotte Boslev; Søndergård, Stine Dam; Skovborg, Camilla; Dela, Flemming; Larsen, Steen; Helge, Jørn Wulff

    2017-04-01

    Maximal fat oxidation (MFO) and the exercise intensity that elicits MFO (Fat Max ) are commonly determined by indirect calorimetry during graded exercise tests in both obese and normal-weight individuals. However, no protocol has been validated in individuals with obesity. Thus, the aims were to develop a graded exercise protocol for determination of Fat Max in individuals with obesity, and to test validity and inter-method reliability. Fat oxidation was assessed over a range of exercise intensities in 16 individuals (age: 28 (26-29) years; body mass index: 36 (35-38) kg·m -2 ; 95% confidence interval) on a cycle ergometer. The graded exercise protocol was validated against a short continuous exercise (SCE) protocol, in which Fat Max was determined from fat oxidation at rest and during 10 min of continuous exercise at 35%, 50%, and 65% of maximal oxygen uptake. Intraclass and Pearson correlation coefficients between the protocols were 0.75 and 0.72 and within-subject coefficient of variation (CV) was 5 (3-7)%. A Bland-Altman plot revealed a bias of -3% points of maximal oxygen uptake (limits of agreement: -12 to 7). A tendency towards a systematic difference (p = 0.06) was observed, where Fat Max occurred at 42 (40-44)% and 45 (43-47)% of maximal oxygen uptake with the graded and the SCE protocol, respectively. In conclusion, there was a high-excellent correlation and a low CV between the 2 protocols, suggesting that the graded exercise protocol has a high inter-method reliability. However, considerable intra-individual variation and a trend towards systematic difference between the protocols reveal that further optimization of the graded exercise protocol is needed to improve validity.

  18. Acute effect of exercise intensity and duration on acylated ghrelin and hunger in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broom, David R; Miyashita, Masashi; Wasse, Lucy K; Pulsford, Richard; King, James A; Thackray, Alice E; Stensel, David J

    2017-03-01

    Acute exercise transiently suppresses the orexigenic gut hormone acylated ghrelin, but the extent to which exercise intensity and duration determine this response is not fully understood. The effects of manipulating exercise intensity and duration on acylated ghrelin concentrations and hunger were examined in two experiments. In experiment one, nine healthy males completed three, 4-h conditions (control, moderate-intensity running (MOD) and vigorous-intensity running (VIG)), with an energy expenditure of ~2.5 MJ induced in both MOD (55-min running at 52% peak oxygen uptake (V.O 2peak )) and VIG (36-min running at 75% V.O 2peak ). In experiment two, nine healthy males completed three, 9-h conditions (control, 45-min running (EX45) and 90-min running (EX90)). Exercise was performed at 70% V.O 2peak In both experiments, participants consumed standardised meals, and acylated ghrelin concentrations and hunger were quantified at predetermined intervals. In experiment one, delta acylated ghrelin concentrations were lower than control in MOD (ES = 0.44, P = 0.01) and VIG (ES = 0.98, P Hunger ratings were similar across the conditions (P = 0.35). In experiment two, delta acylated ghrelin concentrations were lower than control in EX45 (ES = 0.77, P Hunger ratings were lower than control in EX45 (ES = 0.20, P = 0.01) and EX90 (ES = 0.27, P = 0.001); EX45 and EX90 were similar (ES = 0.07, P = 0.34). Hunger and delta acylated ghrelin concentrations remained suppressed at 1.5 h in EX90 but not EX45. In conclusion, exercise intensity, and to a lesser extent duration, are determinants of the acylated ghrelin response to acute exercise. © 2017 Society for Endocrinology.

  19. Hormonal (Cortical-Gonadotropic Axis) and Physical Changes With Two Years Intense Exercise Training in Elite Young Soccer Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammami, Mohamed Ali; Ben Abderrahman, Abderraouf; Hackney, Anthony C; Kebsi, Wiem; Owen, Adam L; Nebigh, Amar; Racil, Ghazi; Tabka, Zouhair; Zouhal, Hassane

    2017-09-01

    Hammami, MA, Ben Abderrahman, A, Hackney, AC, Kebsi, W, Owen, AL, Nebigh, A, Racil, G, Tabka, Z, and Zouhal, H. Hormonal (cortical-gonadotropic axis) and physical changes with two years intense exercise training in elite young soccer players. J Strength Cond Res 31(9): 2388-2397, 2017-The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of 2 soccer-training seasons on physical fitness and hormone concentrations in elite youth soccer players. Twenty male elite soccer players (SP, age 14.5 ± 0.4 years) and 20 male control subjects (CS, age 14.3 ± 0.3 years) participated in the study. Anthropometric measurements, aerobic (Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test Level 1 [YYIRT1]) and anaerobic soccer relevant performances (jump and sprint tests), blood testosterone (T), cortisol (C), sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), and T/C ratio were assessed 5 times (from T0 to T4) during 2 competitive seasons. Significant differences from basal values (Δ) of T, SHBG, and C between SP and CS were observed (p soccer players group compared with controls. Our findings also show that the T concentrations and power performance outcomes co-vary positively over the 2 soccer seasons in soccer players.

  20. The physiological stress response to high-intensity sprint exercise following the ingestion of sodium bicarbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peart, Daniel J; Kirk, Richard J; Hillman, Angela R; Madden, Leigh A; Siegler, Jason C; Vince, Rebecca V

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of pre-exercise alkalosis on the physiological stress response to high-intensity exercise. Seven physically active males (age 22 ± 3 years, height 1.82 ± 0.06 m, mass 81.3 ± 8.4 kg and peak power output 300 ± 22 W) performed a repeated sprint cycle exercise following a dose of 0.3 g kg(-1) body mass of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO(3)) (BICARB), or a placebo of 0.045 g kg(-1) body mass of sodium chloride (PLAC). Monocyte-expressed heat shock protein 72 (HSP72) and plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were significantly attenuated in BICARB compared to PLAC (p = 0.04 and p = 0.039, respectively), however total anti-oxidant capacity, the ratio of oxidised to total glutathione, cortisol, interleukin 6 and interleukin 8 were not significantly induced by the exercise. In conclusion, monocyte-expressed HSP72 is significantly increased following high-intensity anaerobic exercise, and its attenuation following such exercise with the ingestion of NaHCO(3) is unlikely to be due to a decreased oxidative stress.

  1. The Effect of Structured Exercise Intervention on Intensity and Volume of Total Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niko Wasenius

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the effects of a 12-week structured exercise intervention on total physical activity and its subcategories. Twenty-three overweight or obese middle aged men with impaired glucose regulation were randomized into a 12-week Nordic walking group, a power-type resistance training group, and a non-exercise control group. Physical activity was measured with questionnaires before the intervention (1–4 weeks and during the intervention (1–12 weeks and was expressed in metabolic equivalents of task. No significant change in the volume of total physical activity between or within the groups was observed (p > 0.050. The volume of total leisure-time physical activity (structured exercises + non-structured leisure-time physical activity increased significantly in the Nordic walking group (p 0.050 compared to the control group. In both exercise groups increase in the weekly volume of total leisure-time physical activity was inversely associated with the volume of non-leisure-time physical activities. In conclusion, structured exercise intervention did not increase the volume of total physical activity. Albeit, endurance training can increase the volume of high intensity physical activities, however it is associated with compensatory decrease in lower intensity physical activities. To achieve effective personalized exercise program, individuality in compensatory behavior should be recognised.

  2. Low blood flow at onset of moderate intensity exercise does not limit muscle oxygen uptake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyberg, Michael Permin; Mortensen, Stefan Peter; Saltin, Bengt

    2010-01-01

    The effect of low blood flow at onset of moderate intensity exercise on the rate of rise in muscle oxygen uptake was examined. Seven male subjects performed a 3.5 minute one-legged knee-extensor exercise bout (24+/-1 (+/-S.D.) W) without (CON) and with (double blockade; DB) arterial infusion of i....... Additionally, prostanoids and/or NO appear to play important roles in elevating skeletal muscle blood flow in the initial phase of exercise. Key words: Oxygen delivery, oxygen extraction, nitric oxide, prostanoids.......The effect of low blood flow at onset of moderate intensity exercise on the rate of rise in muscle oxygen uptake was examined. Seven male subjects performed a 3.5 minute one-legged knee-extensor exercise bout (24+/-1 (+/-S.D.) W) without (CON) and with (double blockade; DB) arterial infusion...... of inhibitors of nitric oxide synthase (NOS; L-NMMA) and cyclooxygenase (COX; indomethacin) in order to inhibit the synthesis of nitric oxide (NO) and prostanoids, respectively.. Leg blood flow and leg oxygen delivery throughout exercise was 25-50 % lower (P

  3. Effects of exercise intensity on food intake and appetite in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomerleau, Marjorie; Imbeault, Pascal; Parker, Torrey; Doucet, Eric

    2004-11-01

    Increasing exercise intensity has been shown to reduce energy intake in men. The main objective of this study was to investigate the effects of exercise intensity on energy intake in women. Thirteen moderately active (peak oxygen uptake: 44.0 +/- 4.7 mL . kg(-1) . min(-1)) women [body mass index (in kg/m(2)): 22.2 +/- 2.4; age: 22.2 +/- 2.0 y] were subjected to 3 experimental conditions: control with no exercise and 2 equicaloric (350 kcal) low- (LIE) and high- (HIE) intensity exercise sessions at 40% and 70% of peak oxygen uptake, respectively. After each session, the participants ate ad libitum from buffet-type meals at lunch and dinner and ate snacks during the afternoon and evening. Visual analogue scales were used to rate appetite. More energy was ingested at lunchtime after the HIE session than after the control session (878 +/- 309 and 751 +/- 230 kcal, respectively; P = 0.02). Relative energy intake (postexercise energy intake corrected for the energy cost of exercise above the resting level) at lunch was lower after the LIE session than after the control session (530 +/- 233 and 751 +/- 230 kcal, respectively; P kcal, respectively; P daily energy intake tended to increase during the HIE session relative to that during the control session. No treatment effect was found for appetite scores throughout the experiment. The results suggest that HIE increases energy intake in women.

  4. The impact of brief high-intensity exercise on blood glucose levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adams OP

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available O Peter AdamsFaculty of Medical Sciences, the University of the West Indies, Cave Hill Campus, St Michael, BarbadosBackground: Moderate-intensity exercise improves blood glucose (BG, but most people fail to achieve the required exercise volume. High-intensity exercise (HIE protocols vary. Maximal cycle ergometer sprint interval training typically requires only 2.5 minutes of HIE and a total training time commitment (including rest and warm up of 25 minutes per session. The effect of brief high-intensity exercise on blood glucose levels of people with and without diabetes is reviewed.Methods: HIE (≥80% maximal oxygen uptake, VO2max studies with ≤15 minutes HIE per session were reviewed.Results: Six studies of nondiabetics (51 males, 14 females requiring 7.5 to 20 minutes/week of HIE are reviewed. Two weeks of sprint interval training increased insulin sensitivity up to 3 days postintervention. Twelve weeks near maximal interval running (total exercise time 40 minutes/week improved BG to a similar extent as running at 65% VO2max for 150 minutes/week. Eight studies of diabetics (41 type 1 and 22 type 2 subjects were reviewed. Six were of a single exercise session with 44 seconds to 13 minutes of HIE, and the others were 2 and 7 weeks duration with 20 and 2 minutes/week HIE, respectively. With type 1 and 2 diabetes, BG was generally higher during and up to 2 hours after HIE compared to controls. With type 1 diabetics, BG decreased from midnight to 6 AM following HIE the previous morning. With type 2 diabetes, a single session improved postprandial BG for 24 hours, while a 2-week program reduced the average BG by 13% at 48 to 72 hours after exercise and also increased GLUT4 by 369%.Conclusion: Very brief HIE improves BG 1 to 3 days postexercise in both diabetics and nondiabetics. HIE is unlikely to cause hypoglycemia during and immediately after exercise. Larger and longer randomized studies are needed to determine the safety, acceptability, long

  5. The impact of high and low-intensity exercise in adolescents with movement impairment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Liu

    Full Text Available Five to six percent of young people have movement impairment (MI associated with reduced exercise tolerance and physical activity levels which persist into adulthood. To better understand the exercise experience in MI, we determined the physiological and perceptual responses during and following a bout of exercise performed at different intensities typically experienced during sport in youth with MI. Thirty-eight adolescents (11-18 years categorised on the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency-2 Short-Form performed a peak oxygen uptake bike test ([Formula: see text] test at visit 1 (V1. At visits 2 (V2 and 3 (V3, participants were randomly assigned to both low-intensity (LI 30min exercise at 50% peak power output (PPO50% and high-intensity (HI 30s cycling at PPO100%, interspersed with 30s rest, for 30min protocol (matched for total work. Heart rate (HR and rating of perceived exertion (RPE for legs, breathing and overall was measured before, during and at 1, 3 and 7-min post-exercise (P1, P3, P7. There was a significant difference in [Formula: see text] between groups (MI:31.5±9.2 vs. NMI:40.0±9.5ml⋅kg-1⋅min-1, p0.05. Both groups experienced similar RPE for breathing and overall (MI:7.0±3.0 vs. NMI:6.0±2.0, p>0.05 at both intensities, but reported higher legs RPE towards the end (p<0.01. Significant differences were found in HRrecovery at P1 post-HI (MI:128±25.9 vs. NMI:154±20.2, p<0.05 but not for legs RPE. Perceived fatigue appears to limit exercise in youth with MI in both high and low-intensity exercise types. Our findings suggest interventions reducing perceived fatigue during exercise may improve exercise tolerance and positively impact on engagement in physical activities.

  6. Acute molecular responses to concurrent resistance and high-intensity interval exercise in untrained skeletal muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, Jamie K; Faulkner, Steve H; Jackson, Andrew P; King, James A; Nimmo, Myra A

    2015-01-01

    Concurrent training involving resistance and endurance exercise may augment the benefits of single-mode training for the purpose of improving health. However, muscle adaptations, associated with resistance exercise, may be blunted by a subsequent bout of endurance exercise, via molecular interference. High-intensity interval training (HIIT), generating similar adaptations to endurance exercise, may offer an alternative exercise mode to traditional endurance exercise. This study examined the influence of an acute HIIT session on the molecular responses following resistance exercise in untrained skeletal muscle. Ten male participants performed resistance exercise (4 × 8 leg extensions, 70% 1RM, (RE)) or RE followed by HIIT (10 × 1 min at 90% HRmax, (RE+HIIT)). Muscle biopsies were collected from the vastus lateralis before, 2 and 6 h post-RE to determine intramuscular protein phosphorylation and mRNA responses. Phosphorylation of Akt (Ser473) decreased at 6 h in both trials (P HIIT (P HIIT with PGC-1α and PGC-1α-ex1b remaining elevated at 6 h, whereas RE-induced increases at 2 and 6 h for PGC-1α-ex1b only (P HIIT versus RE at 2 and 6 h (P effect on protein signaling and mRNA expression, and suggest that HIIT may be an alternative to endurance exercise when performed after resistance exercise in the same training session to optimize adaptations. PMID:25902785

  7. Pacing and decision making in sport and exercise: the roles of perception and action in the regulation of exercise intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smits, Benjamin L M; Pepping, Gert-Jan; Hettinga, Florentina J

    2014-06-01

    In pursuit of optimal performance, athletes and physical exercisers alike have to make decisions about how and when to invest their energy. The process of pacing has been associated with the goal-directed regulation of exercise intensity across an exercise bout. The current review explores divergent views on understanding underlying mechanisms of decision making in pacing. Current pacing literature provides a wide range of aspects that might be involved in the determination of an athlete's pacing strategy, but lacks in explaining how perception and action are coupled in establishing behaviour. In contrast, decision-making literature rooted in the understanding that perception and action are coupled provides refreshing perspectives on explaining the mechanisms that underlie natural interactive behaviour. Contrary to the assumption of behaviour that is managed by a higher-order governor that passively constructs internal representations of the world, an ecological approach is considered. According to this approach, knowledge is rooted in the direct experience of meaningful environmental objects and events in individual environmental processes. To assist a neuropsychological explanation of decision making in exercise regulation, the relevance of the affordance competition hypothesis is explored. By considering pacing as a behavioural expression of continuous decision making, new insights on underlying mechanisms in pacing and optimal performance can be developed.

  8. Scapular muscle activity from selected strengthening exercises performed at low and high intensity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Christoffer H; Zebis, Mette K; Saervoll, Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    A balanced level of muscle strength between the different parts of the scapular muscles is important to optimize performance and prevent injuries in athletes. Emerging evidence suggests that many athletes lack balanced strength in the scapular muscles. Evidence based recommendations are important...... for proper exercise prescription. This study determines scapular muscle activity during strengthening exercises for scapular muscles performed at low and high intensities (Borg-CR10 level 3 and 8). Surface electromyography (EMG) from selected scapular muscles was recorded during seven strengthening exercises...... and expressed as a percentage of the maximal EMG. Seventeen women (aged 24-55 years) without serious disorders participated. Several of the investigated exercises - press-up, prone flexion, one-arm row and prone abduction at Borg 3 and press-up, push-up plus and one-arm row at Borg 8 - predominantly activated...

  9. Impact of high intensity exercise on muscle morphology in EAE rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wens, I; Dalgas, U; Verboven, K

    2015-01-01

    paralysis (experiment 2, n=40), isokinetic foot extensor strength, cross sectional area (CSA) of tibialis anterior (TA), extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and soleus (SOL) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels were assessed. EAE reduced muscle fiber CSA of TA, EDL and SOL. In general, exercise......The impact of high-intensity exercise on disease progression and muscle contractile properties in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) remains unclear. Control (CON) and EAE rats were divided into sedentary and exercise groups. Before onset (experiment 1, n=40) and after hindquarter...... was not able to affect CSA, whereas it delayed hindquarter paralysis peak. CON muscle work peaked and declined, while it remained stable in EAE. BDNF-responses were not affected by EAE or exercise. In conclusion, EAE affected CSA-properties of TA, EDL and SOL, which could, partly, explain the absence of peak...

  10. Negative affect as a mediator of the relationship between vigorous-intensity exercise and smoking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tart, C.D.; Leyro, T.M.; Richter, A.; Zvolensky, M.J.; Smits, J.A.J.

    2010-01-01

    The present cross-sectional study evaluated whether people who engage in vigorous-intensity exercise are better able to regulate negative affective states, thereby changing core maintenance factors of smoking. Participants were a community sample of adults (n = 270) who completed self-report

  11. Influence of exercise intensity on skeletal muscle blood flow, O2 extraction and O2 uptake on-kinetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Andrew M; Krustrup, Peter; Wilkerson, Daryl P

    2012-01-01

    Key points Following the start of low-intensity exercise in healthy humans, it has been established that the kinetics of muscle O(2) delivery is faster than, and does not limit, the kinetics of muscle O(2) uptake. Direct data are lacking, however, on the question of whether O(2) delivery might...... limit O(2) uptake kinetics during high-intensity exercise. In this study, we made frequent measurements of muscle blood flow, arterial-to-venous O(2) difference (a- difference) and O(2) uptake following the onset of multiple transitions of both low-intensity and high-intensity knee-extension exercise...... in the same subjects. We show that although blood flow kinetics is slower for high-intensity compared with low-intensity exercise, this does not result in slower O(2) uptake kinetics. These results indicate that muscle O(2) delivery does not limit O(2) uptake during knee-extension exercise in healthy humans....

  12. High-intensity intermittent "5-10-15" running reduces body fat, and increases lean body mass, bone mineral density, and performance in untrained subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravnholt, Tanja Højegaard; Tybirk, Jonas; Jørgensen, Niklas Rye

    2018-01-01

    treadmill running (P running at 85% of maximal aerobic speed was lower (P beneficial changes and better performance......The present study examined the effect of intense intermittent running with 5 s sprints on body composition, fitness level, and performance in untrained subjects aged 36-53 years. For 7 weeks, the subjects carried out 3 days a week 5-10-15 training consisting of 3-9 blocks of 4 repetitions of 15, 10......, and 5 s low-, moderate-, and high-speed running, respectively. Body fat mass was 4.3% lower (P 

  13. High-intensity intermittent "5-10-15" running reduces body fat, and increases lean body mass, bone mineral density, and performance in untrained subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravnholt, Tanja Højegaard; Tybirk, Jonas; Jørgensen, Niklas Rye

    2018-01-01

    , and 5 s low-, moderate-, and high-speed running, respectively. Body fat mass was 4.3% lower (P bone mineral density was 1.1 and 0.9% higher (P bone turnover markers osteocalcin......The present study examined the effect of intense intermittent running with 5 s sprints on body composition, fitness level, and performance in untrained subjects aged 36-53 years. For 7 weeks, the subjects carried out 3 days a week 5-10-15 training consisting of 3-9 blocks of 4 repetitions of 15, 10...

  14. Effects of Different Exercise Intensities with Isoenergetic Expenditures on C-Reactive Protein and Blood Lipid Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsao, Te Hung; Yang, Chang Bin; Hsu, Chin Hsing

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the effects of different exercise intensities on C-reactive protein (CRP), and whether changes in CRP levels correlated with blood lipid levels. Ten men exercised at 25%, 65%, and 85% of their maximum oxygen consumption rates. Participants' blood was analyzed for CRP and blood lipid levels before and after the exercise sessions.…

  15. Exercise volume and intensity: a dose-response relationship with health benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulds, Heather J A; Bredin, Shannon S D; Charlesworth, Sarah A; Ivey, Adam C; Warburton, Darren E R

    2014-08-01

    The health benefits of exercise are well established. However, the relationship between exercise volume and intensity and health benefits remains unclear, particularly the benefits of low-volume and intensity exercise. The primary purpose of this investigation was, therefore, to examine the dose-response relationship between exercise volume and intensity with derived health benefits including volumes and intensity of activity well below international recommendations. Generally healthy, active participants (n = 72; age = 44 ± 13 years) were assigned randomly to control (n = 10) or one of five 13-week exercise programs: (1) 10-min brisk walking 1×/week (n = 10), (2) 10-min brisk walking 3×/week (n = 10), (3) 30-min brisk walking 3×/week (n = 18), (4) 60-min brisk walking 3×/week (n = 10), and (5) 30-min running 3×/week (n = 14), in addition to their regular physical activity. Health measures evaluated pre- and post-training including blood pressure, body composition, fasting lipids and glucose, and maximal aerobic power (VO2max). Health improvements were observed among programs at least 30 min in duration, including body composition and VO2max: 30-min walking 28.8-34.5 mL kg(-1) min(-1), 60-min walking 25.1-28.9 mL kg(-1) min(-1), and 30-min running 32.4-36.4 mL kg(-1) min(-1). The greater intensity running program also demonstrated improvements in triglycerides. In healthy active individuals, a physical activity program of at least 30 min in duration for three sessions/per week is associated with consistent improvements in health status.

  16. Appetite, food intake and gut hormone responses to intense aerobic exercise of different duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holliday, Adrian; Blannin, Andrew

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of the study is to investigate the effect of acute bouts of high-intensity aerobic exercise of differing durations on subjective appetite, food intake and appetite-associated hormones in endurance-trained males. Twelve endurance-trained males (age = 21 ± 2 years; BMI = 21.0 ± 1.6 kg/m 2 ; VO 2max  = 61.6 ± 6.0 mL/kg/min) completed four trials, within a maximum 28 day period, in a counterbalanced order: resting (REST); 15 min exercise bout (15-min); 30 min exercise bout (30-min) and 45 min exercise bout (45-min). All exercise was completed on a cycle ergometer at an intensity of ~76% VO 2max Sixty minutes post exercise, participants consumed an ad libitum meal. Measures of subjective appetite and blood samples were obtained throughout the morning, with plasma analyzed for acylated ghrelin, total polypeptide tyrosine-tyrosine (PYY) and total glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) concentrations. The following results were obtained: Neither subjective appetite nor absolute food intake differed between trials. Relative energy intake (intake - expenditure) was significantly greater after REST (2641 ± 1616 kJ) compared with both 30-min (1039 ± 1520 kJ) and 45-min (260 ± 1731 kJ), and significantly greater after 15-min (2699 ± 1239 kJ) compared with 45-min (condition main effect, P  exercise in 30-min and 45-min, respectively (condition × time interaction, P  exercise trials (condition × time interaction, P  = 0.011); the greatest, most enduring suppression, was observed in 45-min. PYY concentration was unchanged with exercise. In conclusion, high-intensity aerobic cycling lasting up to 45 min did not suppress subjective appetite or affect absolute food intake, but did reduce relative energy intake, in well-trained endurance athletes. Findings question the role of appetite hormones in regulating subjective appetite in the acute post-exercise period. © 2017 Society for Endocrinology.

  17. Pragmatic randomised controlled trial of preferred intensity exercise in women living with depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morres Ioannis

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exercise may be effective in treating depression, but trials testing its effect in depressed women are rare. Aim To compare the effect of exercise of preferred intensity with exercise of prescribed intensity in thirty-eight women living with depression. Methods A Pragmatic RCT of 12 sessions of exercise at preferred intensity compared with 12 sessions at prescribed intensity. Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale (RSES, General Health Questionnaire 12 (GHQ-12, heart rate (HR, Rating of Perceived Exertion Scale (RPE, Quality of Life in Depression Scale (QLDS, Multi-Dimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MDSPSS, SF12 Health Survey and exercise participation rates were compared between groups. Results Intervention participants had statistically better BDI (t = 2.638, df = 36, p = 0.006, 95% mean (SD 26.5 (10.7, CI-20.4 to -2.7, d = 0.86, GHQ-12 (t = 3.284, df = 36, p = 0.001, mean (SD 8.3 (3.7 95% CI -6.5 to -1.5, d = 1.08, RSES (t = 2.045, df = 36, p = 0.024, mean (SD 11.3 (5.8, 95% CI 0.3 -6.4, d = 0.25, QLDS (t = 1.902, df = 36, p = 0.0325, mean (SD 15.5 (7.9, 95% CI -12.2 -0.4, d = 0.27 RPE scores (t = 1.755, df = 36, p = 0.0475, mean (SD 9.2 (3.2, 95% CI -.5 - 5.2, d = 0.77 and attended more exercise sessions (t = 1.781, df = 36, p = 0.0415, number of sessions 8 (65%, 95% CI-0.3 -4.8, d = 0.58. SF-12, MSPSS and HR did not differ significantly between groups. Conclusions Exercise of preferred intensity improves psychological, physiological and social outcomes, and exercise participation rates in women living with depression. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00546221

  18. A preliminary investigation on exercise intensities of gardening tasks in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sin-Ae; Shoemaker, Candice A; Haub, Mark D

    2008-12-01

    Heart rate (HR) was measured continuously while men (n=6) and women (n=2) ages 71 to 85 years (M=77.4, SD=4.1) completed nine gardening tasks. HR and VO2 from a submaximal graded exercise test were used to estimate gardening VO2, energy expenditure, % HRmax, and metabolic equivalents (METs). Tasks were low to moderate intensity physical activity (1.6-3.6 METs); those which worked the upper and lower body were moderate intensity physical activity while those that worked primarily the upper body were low intensity physical activity.

  19. Limitations in intense exercise performance of athletes - effect of speed endurance training on ion handling and fatigue development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hostrup, Morten; Bangsbo, Jens

    2017-01-01

    Mechanisms underlying fatigue development and limitations for performance during intense exercise have been intensively studied during the past couple of decades. Fatigue development may involve several interacting factors and depends on type of exercise undertaken and training level of the indiv...

  20. High Intensity Exercise Countermeasures does not Prevent Orthostatic Intolerance Following Prolonged Bed Rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platts, Steven H.; Stenger, Michael B.; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori L.; Lee, Stuart M. C.

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 20% of Space Shuttle astronauts became presyncopal during operational stand and 80deg head-up tilt tests, and the prevalence of orthostatic intolerance increases after longer missions. Greater than 60% of the US astronauts participating in Mir and early International Space Station missions experienced presyncope during post-flight tilt tests, perhaps related to limitations of the exercise hardware that prevented high intensity exercise training until later ISS missions. The objective of this study was to determine whether an intense resistive and aerobic exercise countermeasure program designed to prevent cardiovascular and musculoskeletal deconditioning during 70 d of bed rest (BR), a space flight analog, would protect against post-BR orthostatic intolerance. METHODS Twenty-six subjects were randomly assigned to one of three groups: non-exercise controls (n=11) or one of two exercise groups (ExA, n=8; ExB, n=7). Both ExA and ExB groups performed the same resistive and aerobic exercise countermeasures during BR, but one exercise group received testosterone supplementation while the other received a placebo during BR in a double-blinded fashion. On 3 d/wk, subjects performed lower body resistive exercise and 30 min of continuous aerobic exercise (=75% max heart rate). On the other 3 d/wk, subjects performed only highintensity, interval-style aerobic exercise. Orthostatic intolerance was assessed using a 15-min 80? head-up tilt test performed 2 d (BR-2) before and on the last day of BR (BR70). Plasma volume was measured using carbon monoxide rebreathing on BR-3 and before rising on the first recovery day (BR+0). The code for the exercise groups has not been broken, and results are reported here without group identification. RESULTS Only one subject became presyncopal during tilt testing on BR-2, but 7 of 11 (63%) controls, 3 of 8 (38%) ExA, and 4 of 7 (57%) ExB subjects were presyncopal on BR70. Survival analysis of post-BR tilt tests revealed no

  1. Energy intermittency

    CERN Document Server

    Sorensen, Bent

    2014-01-01

    The first book to consider intermittency as a key point of an energy system, Energy Intermittency describes different levels of variability for traditional and renewable energy sources, presenting detailed solutions for handling energy intermittency through trade, collaboration, demand management, and active energy storage. Addressing energy supply intermittency systematically, this practical text:Analyzes typical time-distributions and intervals between episodes of demand-supply mismatch and explores their dependence on system layouts and energy source characteristicsSimulates scenarios regar

  2. The effects of phosphatidylserine on endocrine response to moderate intensity exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purpura Martin

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous research has indicated that phosphatidylserine (PS supplementation has the potential to attenuate the serum cortisol response to acute exercise stress. Equivocal findings suggest that this effect might be dose dependent. This study aimed to examine the influence of short-term supplementation with a moderate dose of PS (600 mg per day on plasma concentrations of cortisol, lactate, growth hormone and testosterone before, during, and following moderate intensity exercise in healthy males. Methods 10 healthy male subjects participated in the study. Each subject was assigned to ingest 600 mg PS or placebo per day for 10 days using a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover design. Serial venous blood samples were taken at rest, after a 15 minute moderate intensity exercise protocol on a cycle ergometer that consisted of five 3-minute incremental stages beginning at 65% and ending at 85% VO2 max, and during a 65 minute passive recovery. Plasma samples were assessed for cortisol, growth hormone, testosterone, lactate and testosterone to cortisol ratio for treatment (PS or placebo. Results Mean peak cortisol concentrations and area under the curve (AUC were lower following PS (39 ± 1% and 35 ± 0%, respectively when compared to placebo (p Conclusion The findings suggest that PS is an effective supplement for combating exercise-induced stress and preventing the physiological deterioration that can accompany too much exercise. PS supplementation promotes a desired hormonal status for athletes by blunting increases in cortisol levels.

  3. Effects of fat adaptation on glucose kinetics and substrate oxidation during low-intensity exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagan, J D; Geor, R J; Harris, P A; Hoekstra, K; Gardner, S; Hudson, C; Prince, A

    2002-09-01

    This study was designed to determine the effects of fat adaptation on carbohydrate and fat oxidation in conditioned horses during low-intensity exercise. Five mature Arabians were studied. The study was conducted as a crossover design with 2 dietary periods, each of 10 week's duration: a) a control (CON) diet, and b) a fat-supplemented (FAT) diet. The total amount of digestible energy (DE) supplied by the fat in the CON and FAT diets was 7% and 29%, respectively. During each period, the horses completed exercise tests at the beginning of the period (Week 0) and after 5 and 10 weeks on the diet. Tests consisted of 90 min of exercise at a speed calculated to elicit 35% VO2max on a treadmill inclined to 3 degrees. Oxygen consumption (VO2), carbon dioxide production (VCO2), and respiratory exchange ratio (RER) were measured at 15-min intervals. For determination of glucose kinetics, a stable isotope ([6-6-d2] glucose) technique was used. Compared to the CON diet, FAT diet consumption for 5-10 weeks was associated with an altered metabolic response to low-intensity exercise, as evidenced by a more than 30% reduction in the production and utilisation of glucose; a decrease in RER; a decrease in the estimated rate of whole-body carbohydrate utilisation; and an increase in the whole-body rate of lipid oxidation during exercise.

  4. Effects of intensive therapy using gait trainer or floor walking exercises early after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peurala, Sinikka H; Airaksinen, Olavi; Huuskonen, Pirjo; Jäkälä, Pekka; Juhakoski, Mika; Sandell, Kaisa; Tarkka, Ina M; Sivenius, Juhani

    2009-02-01

    To analyse the effects of gait therapy for patients after acute stroke in a randomized controlled trial. Fifty-six patients with a mean of 8 days post-stroke participated in: (i) gait trainer exercise; (ii) walking training over ground; or (iii) conventional treatment. Patients in the gait trainer exercise and walking groups practiced gait for 15 sessions over 3 weeks and received additional physiotherapy. Functional Ambulatory Category and several secondary outcome measures assessing gait and mobility were administered before and after rehabilitation and at 6-month follow-up. Patients also evaluated their own effort. Walking ability improved more with intensive walk training compared with conventional treatment; median Functional Ambulatory Category was zero in all patients at the start of the study, but it was 3 in both walk-training groups and 0.5 in the conventional treatment group at the end of the therapy. Median Functional Ambulatory Category was 4 in both walk-training groups and 2.5 in conventional treatment group at 6-month follow-up. Mean accomplished walking distance was not different between the gait trainer exercise and over ground walking groups. Borg scale indicated more effort in over ground walking. Secondary outcomes also indicated improvements. Exercise therapy with walking training improved gait function irrespective of the method used, but the time and effort required to achieve the results favour the gait trainer exercise. Early intensive gait training resulted in better walking ability than did conventional treatment.

  5. Cardiorespiratory responses and reduced apneic time to cold-water face immersion after high intensity exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinidou, Sylvia; Soultanakis, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Apnea after exercise may evoke a neurally mediated conflict that may affect apneic time and create a cardiovascular strain. The physiological responses, induced by apnea with face immersion in cold water (10 °C), after a 3-min exercise bout, at 85% of VO2max,were examined in 10 swimmers. A pre-selected 40-s apnea, completed after rest (AAR), could not be met after exercise (AAE), and was terminated with an agonal gasp reflex, and a reduction of apneic time, by 75%. Bradycardia was evident with immersion after both, 40-s of AAR and after AAE (P<0.05). The dramatic elevation of, systolic pressure and pulse pressure, after AAE, were indicative of cardiovascular stress. Blood pressure after exercise without apnea was not equally elevated. The activation of neurally opposing functions as those elicited by the diving reflex after high intensity exercise may create an autonomic conflict possibly related to oxygen-conserving reflexes stimulated by the trigeminal nerve, and those elicited by exercise. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Where does HIT fit? An examination of the affective response to high-intensity intervals in comparison to continuous moderate- and continuous vigorous-intensity exercise in the exercise intensity-affect continuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Mary E; Bourne, Jessica E; Little, Jonathan P

    2014-01-01

    Affect experienced during an exercise session is purported to predict future exercise behaviour. Compared to continuous moderate-intensity exercise (CMI), the affective response to continuous vigorous-intensity exercise (CVI) has consistently been shown to be more aversive. The affective response, and overall tolerability to high-intensity interval training (HIT), is less studied. To date, there has yet to be a comparison between HIT, CVI, and CMI. The purpose of this study was to compare the tolerability and affective responses during HIT to CVI and CMI. This study utilized a repeated measures, randomized, counter-balanced design. Forty-four participants visited the laboratory on four occasions. Baseline fitness testing was conducted to establish peak power output in Watts (W peak). Three subsequent visits involved a single bout of a) HIT, corresponding to 1-minute at ∼ 100% W peak and 1-minute at ∼ 20% W peak for 20 minutes, b) CMI, corresponding to ∼ 40% W peak for 40 minutes, and c) CVI, corresponding to ∼ 80% W peak for 20 minutes. The order of the sessions was randomized. Affective responses were measured before, during and after each session. Task self-efficacy, intentions, enjoyment and preference were measured after sessions. Participants reported greater enjoyment of HIT as compared to CMI and CVI, with over 50% of participants reporting a preference to engage in HIT as opposed to either CMI or CVI. HIT was considered more pleasurable than CVI after exercise, but less pleasurable than CMI at these times. Despite this participants reported being just as confident to engage in HIT as they were CMI, but less confident to engage in CVI. This study highlights the utility of HIT in inactive individuals, and suggests that it may be a viable alternative to traditionally prescribed continuous modalities of exercise for promoting self-efficacy and enjoyment of exercise.

  7. Where does HIT fit? An examination of the affective response to high-intensity intervals in comparison to continuous moderate- and continuous vigorous-intensity exercise in the exercise intensity-affect continuum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary E Jung

    Full Text Available Affect experienced during an exercise session is purported to predict future exercise behaviour. Compared to continuous moderate-intensity exercise (CMI, the affective response to continuous vigorous-intensity exercise (CVI has consistently been shown to be more aversive. The affective response, and overall tolerability to high-intensity interval training (HIT, is less studied. To date, there has yet to be a comparison between HIT, CVI, and CMI. The purpose of this study was to compare the tolerability and affective responses during HIT to CVI and CMI. This study utilized a repeated measures, randomized, counter-balanced design. Forty-four participants visited the laboratory on four occasions. Baseline fitness testing was conducted to establish peak power output in Watts (W peak. Three subsequent visits involved a single bout of a HIT, corresponding to 1-minute at ∼ 100% W peak and 1-minute at ∼ 20% W peak for 20 minutes, b CMI, corresponding to ∼ 40% W peak for 40 minutes, and c CVI, corresponding to ∼ 80% W peak for 20 minutes. The order of the sessions was randomized. Affective responses were measured before, during and after each session. Task self-efficacy, intentions, enjoyment and preference were measured after sessions. Participants reported greater enjoyment of HIT as compared to CMI and CVI, with over 50% of participants reporting a preference to engage in HIT as opposed to either CMI or CVI. HIT was considered more pleasurable than CVI after exercise, but less pleasurable than CMI at these times. Despite this participants reported being just as confident to engage in HIT as they were CMI, but less confident to engage in CVI. This study highlights the utility of HIT in inactive individuals, and suggests that it may be a viable alternative to traditionally prescribed continuous modalities of exercise for promoting self-efficacy and enjoyment of exercise.

  8. The Physiological Regulation of Skeletal Muscle Fatty Acid Supply and Oxidation During Moderate-Intensity Exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Hall, Gerrit

    2015-01-01

    ) in the muscle of the very-low-density lipoproteins and in the (semi) post-prandial state chylomicrons may also contribute. In this review, the NEFA fluxes and oxidation by skeletal muscle during prolonged moderate-intensity exercise are described in terms of the integration of physiological systems. Steps...... demand of the exercising muscle is the main driving force for all physiological regulatory processes. It elicits functional hyperemia, increasing the recruitment of capillaries and muscle blood flow resulting in increased NEFA delivery and accessibility to NEFA transporters and LPL. It also releases...

  9. Comparison of oxygen uptake during and after the execution of resistance exercises and exercises performed on ergometers, matched for intensity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilaça-Alves José

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the values of oxygen uptake (VO2 during and after strength training exercises (STe and ergometer exercises (Ee, matched for intensity and exercise time. Eight men (24 ± 2.33 years performed upper and lower body cycling Ee at the individual’s ventilatory threshold (VE/VCO2. The STe session included half squats and the bench press which were performed with a load at the individual blood lactate concentration of 4 mmol/l. Both sessions lasted 30 minutes, alternating 50 seconds of effort with a 10 second transition time between upper and lower body work. The averaged overall VO2 between sessions was significantly higher for Ee (24.96 ± 3.6 ml·kg·min-1 compared to STe (21.66 ± 1.77 ml·kg·min-1 (p = 0.035, but this difference was only seen for the first 20 minutes of exercise. Absolute VO2 values between sessions did not reveal differences. There were more statistically greater values in Ee compared to STe, regarding VO2 of lower limbs (25.44 ± 3.84 ml·kg·min-1 versus 21.83 ± 2·24 ml·kg·min-1; p = 0.038 and upper limbs (24.49 ± 3.84 ml·kg·min-1 versus 21.54 ± 1.77 ml·kg·min-1; p = 0.047. There were further significant differences regarding the moment effect (p<0.0001 of both STe and Ee sessions. With respect to the moment × session effect, only VO2 5 minutes into recovery showed significant differences (p = 0.017. In conclusion, although significant increases in VO2 were seen following Ee compared to STe, it appears that the load/intensity, and not the material/equipment used for the execution of an exercise, are variables that best influence oxygen uptake.

  10. Negative affect as a mediator of the relationship between vigorous-intensity exercise and smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tart, Candyce D; Leyro, Teresa M; Richter, Ashley; Zvolensky, Michael J; Rosenfield, David; Smits, Jasper A J

    2010-06-01

    The present cross-sectional study evaluated whether people who engage in vigorous-intensity exercise are better able to regulate negative affective states, thereby changing core maintenance factors of smoking. Participants were a community sample of adults (n = 270) who completed self-report measures of physical activity, cigarette smoking, anxiety sensitivity, and negative affect. Consistent with hypothesis, vigorous-intensity exercise was related to lower levels of cigarette smoking, accounting for 10% of the variance in smoking. Additionally, negative affect mediated the relationship between vigorous-intensity physical activity and cigarette smoking, accounting for about 12% of this relation. Furthermore, these relationships were stronger for individuals with high anxiety sensitivity than for those with low anxiety sensitivity; including anxiety sensitivity as a moderator of the mediated relationship increased the amount of variance accounted for by negative affect to 17%. The findings are discussed in relation to developing further scientific insight into the mechanisms and pathways relevant to understanding the association among vigorous-intensity exercise, smoking, and emotional vulnerability. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. High-Intensity Exercise as a Dishabituating Stimulus Restores Counterregulatory Responses in Recurrently Hypoglycemic Rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeilly, Alison D; Gallagher, Jennifer R; Huang, Jeffrey T-J; Ashford, Michael L J; McCrimmon, Rory J

    2017-06-01

    Hypoglycemia is a major adverse effect of insulin therapy for people with type 1 diabetes (T1D). Profound defects in the normal counterregulatory response to hypoglycemia explain the frequency of hypoglycemia occurrence in T1D. Defective counterregulation results to a large extent from prior exposure to hypoglycemia per se, leading to a condition called impaired awareness of hypoglycemia (IAH), the cause of which is unknown. In the current study, we investigate the hypothesis that IAH develops through a special type of adaptive memory referred to as habituation. To test this hypothesis, we used a novel intense stimulus (high-intensity exercise) to demonstrate two classic features of a habituated response, namely dishabituation and response recovery. We demonstrate that after recurrent hypoglycemia the introduction of a novel dishabituating stimulus (a single burst of high-intensity exercise) in male Sprague-Dawley rats restores the defective hypoglycemia counterregulatory response. In addition, the rats showed an enhanced response to the novel stimulus (response recovery). We make the further observation using proteomic analysis of hypothalamic extracts that high-intensity exercise in recurrently hypoglycemic rats increases levels of a number of proteins linked with brain-derived neurotrophic factor signaling. These findings may lead to novel therapeutic approaches for individuals with T1D and IAH. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  12. Effect of a 1-hour single bout of moderate-intensity exercise on fat oxidation kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenevière, Xavier; Borrani, Fabio; Ebenegger, Vincent; Gojanovic, Boris; Malatesta, Davide

    2009-12-01

    The present study aimed to examine the effects of a prior 1-hour continuous exercise bout (CONT) at an intensity (Fat(max)) that elicits the maximal fat oxidation (MFO) on the fat oxidation kinetics during a subsequent submaximal incremental test (IncrC). Twenty moderately trained subjects (9 men and 11 women) performed a graded test on a treadmill (Incr), with 3-minute stages and 1-km.h(-1) increments. Fat oxidation was measured using indirect calorimetry and plotted as a function of exercise intensity. A mathematical model (SIN) including 3 independent variables (dilatation, symmetry, and translation) was used to characterize the shape of fat oxidation kinetics and to determine Fat(max) and MFO. On a second visit, the subjects performed CONT at Fat(max) followed by IncrC. After CONT performed at 57% +/- 3% (means +/- SE) maximal oxygen uptake (Vo(2max)), the respiratory exchange ratio during IncrC was lower at every stage compared with Incr (P rates from 35% to 70% Vo(2max) (P .05), whereas symmetry tended to be greater in IncrC (P = .096). This study showed that the prior 1-hour continuous moderate-intensity exercise bout increased Fat(max), MFO, and fat oxidation rates over a wide range of intensities during the postexercise incremental test. Moreover, the shape of the postexercise fat oxidation kinetics tended to have a rightward asymmetry.

  13. Tolerance to exercise intensity modulates pleasure when exercising in music: The upsides of acoustic energy for High Tolerant individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauraine Carlier

    Full Text Available Moderate physical activity can be experienced by some as pleasurable and by others as discouraging. This may be why many people lack sufficient motivation to participate in the recommended 150 minutes of moderately intense exercise per week. In the present study, we assessed how pleasure and enjoyment were modulated differently by one's tolerance to self-paced physical activity. Sixty-three healthy individuals were allocated to three independent experimental conditions: a resting condition (watching TV, a cycling in silence condition, and a cycling in music condition. The tolerance threshold was assessed using the PRETIE-Questionnaire. Physical activity consisted in cycling during 30 minutes, at an intensity perceived as "somewhat difficult" on the Ratings of Perceived Exertion Scale. While controlling for self-reported physical activity level, results revealed that for the same perception of exertion and a similar level of enjoyment, the High Tolerance group produced more power output than the Low Tolerance group. There was a positive effect of music for High Tolerant individuals only, with music inducing greater power output and more pleasure. There was an effect of music on heart rate frequency in the Low Tolerant individuals without benefits in power output or pleasure. Our results suggest that for Low Tolerant individuals, energizing environments can interfere with the promised (positive distracting effects of music. Hence, tolerance to physical effort must be taken into account to conceive training sessions that seek to use distracting methods as means to sustain pleasurable exercising over time.

  14. Tolerance to exercise intensity modulates pleasure when exercising in music: The upsides of acoustic energy for High Tolerant individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlier, Mauraine; Delevoye-Turrell, Yvonne

    2017-01-01

    Moderate physical activity can be experienced by some as pleasurable and by others as discouraging. This may be why many people lack sufficient motivation to participate in the recommended 150 minutes of moderately intense exercise per week. In the present study, we assessed how pleasure and enjoyment were modulated differently by one's tolerance to self-paced physical activity. Sixty-three healthy individuals were allocated to three independent experimental conditions: a resting condition (watching TV), a cycling in silence condition, and a cycling in music condition. The tolerance threshold was assessed using the PRETIE-Questionnaire. Physical activity consisted in cycling during 30 minutes, at an intensity perceived as "somewhat difficult" on the Ratings of Perceived Exertion Scale. While controlling for self-reported physical activity level, results revealed that for the same perception of exertion and a similar level of enjoyment, the High Tolerance group produced more power output than the Low Tolerance group. There was a positive effect of music for High Tolerant individuals only, with music inducing greater power output and more pleasure. There was an effect of music on heart rate frequency in the Low Tolerant individuals without benefits in power output or pleasure. Our results suggest that for Low Tolerant individuals, energizing environments can interfere with the promised (positive) distracting effects of music. Hence, tolerance to physical effort must be taken into account to conceive training sessions that seek to use distracting methods as means to sustain pleasurable exercising over time.

  15. Regulation of PDH in human arm and leg muscles at rest and during intense exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiilerich, Kristian; Birk, Jesper Bratz; Damsgaard, Rasmus

    2008-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) is differentially regulated in specific human muscles, regulation of PDH was examined in triceps, deltoid, and vastus lateralis at rest and during intense exercise. To elicit considerable glycogen use, subjects performed 30 min of exhaustive...... arm cycling on two occasions and leg cycling exercise on a third day. Muscle biopsies were obtained from deltoid or triceps on the arm exercise days and from vastus lateralis on the leg cycling day. Resting PDH protein content and phosphorylation on PDH-E1 alpha sites 1 and 2 were higher (P ....05) in vastus lateralis than in triceps and deltoid as was the activity of oxidative enzymes. Net muscle glycogen utilization was similar in vastus lateralis and triceps ( approximately 50%) but less in deltoid (likely reflecting less recruitment of deltoid), while muscle lactate accumulation was approximately...

  16. Evaluating a nationwide recreational football intervention: Recruitment, attendance, adherence, exercise intensity, and health effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fløtum, Liljan av; Ottesen, Laila; Krustrup, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The present study evaluated a nationwide exercise intervention with Football Fitness in a small-scale society. In all, 741 adult participants (20–72 yrs) were successfully recruited for Football Fitness training in local football clubs, corresponding to 2.1% of the adult population. A preinterven......-promoting nationwide training intervention for adult participants with an extraordinary recruitment, a high attendance rate, moderate adherence, high exercise intensity, and marked benefits in cardiovascular health profile and fitness.......The present study evaluated a nationwide exercise intervention with Football Fitness in a small-scale society. In all, 741 adult participants (20–72 yrs) were successfully recruited for Football Fitness training in local football clubs, corresponding to 2.1% of the adult population......). RHR was lowered (푃 health...

  17. Moderate-to-high intensity aerobic exercise in patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Kristian S; Sobol, Nanna; Beyer, Nina

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Physical exercise may modulate neuropathology and symptoms of Alzheimer's disease (AD). This pilot study assessed the feasibility of conducting a study of moderate-to-high intensity aerobic exercise in home-dwelling patients with mild AD. METHODS: An uncontrolled preintervention......-postintervention test design with a single group receiving the same intervention. A total of eight patients with mild to moderate AD from the Copenhagen Memory clinic were included in the study. The intervention lasted for 14 weeks and consisted of supervised, 1-h sessions of aerobic exercise three times per week (50......-60% of heart rate reserve for a two-week adaptation period and 70-80 % of heart rate reserve for the remaining 12 weeks) Feasibility was assessed based on acceptability, including attendance and drop-out, safety, and patients' and caregivers' attitudes towards the intervention as well as other relevant...

  18. Influence of exercise intensity on skeletal muscle blood flow, O2 extraction and O2 uptake on-kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Andrew M; Krustrup, Peter; Wilkerson, Daryl P; Berger, Nicolas J; Calbet, José A; Bangsbo, Jens

    2012-01-01

    Following the start of low-intensity exercise in healthy humans, it has been established that the kinetics of skeletal muscle O2 delivery is faster than, and does not limit, the kinetics of muscle O2 uptake (). Direct data are lacking, however, on the question of whether O2 delivery might limit kinetics during high-intensity exercise. Using multiple exercise transitions to enhance confidence in parameter estimation, we therefore investigated the kinetics of, and inter-relationships between, muscle blood flow (), a– difference and following the onset of low-intensity (LI) and high-intensity (HI) exercise. Seven healthy males completed four 6 min bouts of LI and four 6 min bouts of HI single-legged knee-extension exercise. Blood was frequently drawn from the femoral artery and vein during exercise and , a– difference and were calculated and subsequently modelled using non-linear regression techniques. For LI, the fundamental component mean response time (MRTp) for kinetics was significantly shorter than kinetics (mean ± SEM, 18 ± 4 vs. 30 ± 4 s; P exercise intensities; however, the MRTp for a– difference was significantly shorter for HI compared with LI (17 ± 3 vs. 28 ± 4 s; P exercise and remained unaltered thereafter, with no differences between LI and HI. These results indicate that bulk O2 delivery does not limit kinetics following the onset of LI or HI knee-extension exercise. PMID:22711961

  19. Cardiorespiratory fitness modulates the acute flow-mediated dilation response following high-intensity but not moderate-intensity exercise in elderly men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Tom G; Perissiou, Maria; Windsor, Mark; Russell, Fraser; Golledge, Jonathan; Green, Daniel J; Askew, Christopher D

    2017-05-01

    Impaired endothelial function is observed with aging and in those with low cardiorespiratory fitness (V̇o 2peak ). Improvements in endothelial function with exercise training are somewhat dependent on the intensity of exercise. While the acute stimulus for this improvement is not completely understood, it may, in part, be due to the flow-mediated dilation (FMD) response to acute exercise. We examined the hypothesis that exercise intensity alters the brachial (systemic) FMD response in elderly men and is modulated by V̇o 2peak Forty-seven elderly men were stratified into lower (V̇o 2peak = 24.3 ± 2.9 ml·kg -1 ·min -1 ; n = 27) and higher fit groups (V̇o 2peak = 35.4 ± 5.5 ml·kg -1 ·min -1 ; n = 20) after a test of cycling peak power output (PPO). In randomized order, participants undertook moderate-intensity continuous exercise (MICE; 40% PPO) or high-intensity interval cycling exercise (HIIE; 70% PPO) or no-exercise control. Brachial FMD was assessed at rest and 10 and 60 min after exercise. FMD increased after MICE in both groups {increase of 0.86% [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.17-1.56], P = 0.01} and normalized after 60 min. In the lower fit group, FMD was reduced after HIIE [reduction of 0.85% (95% CI, 0.12-1.58), P = 0.02] and remained decreased at 60 min. In the higher fit group, FMD was unchanged immediately after HIIE and increased after 60 min [increase of 1.52% (95% CI, 0.41-2.62), P exercise control, FMD was reduced in both groups after 60 min ( P = 0.05). Exercise intensity alters the acute FMD response in elderly men and V̇o 2peak modulates the FMD response following HIIE but not MICE. The sustained decrease in FMD in the lower fit group following HIIE may represent a signal for vascular adaptation or endothelial fatigue. NEW & NOTEWORTHY This study is the first to show that moderate-intensity continuous cycling exercise increased flow-mediated dilation (FMD) transiently before normalization of FMD after 1 h, irrespective of

  20. Low Intensity Physical Exercise Attenuates Cardiac Remodeling and Myocardial Oxidative Stress and Dysfunction in Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Gimenes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the effects of a low intensity aerobic exercise protocol on cardiac remodeling and myocardial function in diabetic rats. Wistar rats were assigned into four groups: sedentary control (C-Sed, exercised control (C-Ex, sedentary diabetes (DM-Sed, and exercised diabetes (DM-Ex. Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin. Rats exercised for 9 weeks in treadmill at 11 m/min, 18 min/day. Myocardial function was evaluated in left ventricular (LV papillary muscles and oxidative stress in LV tissue. Statistical analysis was given by ANOVA or Kruskal-Wallis. Echocardiogram showed diabetic groups with higher LV diastolic diameter-to-body weight ratio and lower posterior wall shortening velocity than controls. Left atrium diameter was lower in DM-Ex than DM-Sed (C-Sed: 5.73±0.49; C-Ex: 5.67±0.53; DM-Sed: 6.41±0.54; DM-Ex: 5.81±0.50 mm; P<0.05 DM-Sed vs C-Sed and DM-Ex. Papillary muscle function was depressed in DM-Sed compared to C-Sed. Exercise attenuated this change in DM-Ex. Lipid hydroperoxide concentration was higher in DM-Sed than C-Sed and DM-Ex. Catalase and superoxide dismutase activities were lower in diabetics than controls and higher in DM-Ex than DM-Sed. Glutathione peroxidase activity was lower in DM-Sed than C-Sed and DM-Ex. Conclusion. Low intensity exercise attenuates left atrium dilation and myocardial oxidative stress and dysfunction in type 1 diabetic rats.

  1. The influence of respiratory acid-base changes on muscle performance and excitability of the sarcolemma during strenuous intermittent hand grip exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbert, M; Shushakov, V; Maassen, N

    2012-02-01

    Acidification has been reported to provide protective effects on force production in vitro. Thus, in this study, we tested if respiratory acid-base changes influence muscle function and excitability in vivo. Nine subjects performed strenuous, intermittent hand grip exercises (10 cycles of 15 s of work/45 s of rest) under respiratory acidosis by CO(2) rebreathing, alkalosis by hyperventilation, or control. The Pco(2), pH, K(+) concentration ([K(+)]), and Na(+) concentration were measured in venous and arterialized blood. Compound action potentials (M-wave) were elicited to examine the excitability of the sarcolemma. The surface electromyogram (EMG) was recorded to estimate the central drive to the muscle. The lowest venous pH during the exercise period was 7.24 ± 0.03 in controls, 7.31 ± 0.05 with alkalosis, and 7.17 ± 0.04 with acidosis (P alkalosis, and, after the second cycle, it was smaller with acidosis than with the control condition (P Respiratory alkalosis stabilized the M-wave area without influencing performance. Thus, we did not find a direct link between performance and alteration of excitability of the sarcolemma due to changes in pH in vivo.

  2. Effects of intense aerobic exercise and/or antihypertensive medication in individuals with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Jimenez, M; Morales-Palomo, F; Ortega, J F; Mora-Rodriguez, R

    2018-05-17

    We studied the blood pressure lowering effects of a bout of exercise and/or antihypertensive medicine with the goal of studying if exercise could substitute or enhance pharmacologic hypertension treatment. Twenty-three hypertensive metabolic syndrome patients chronically medicated with angiotensin II receptor 1 blockade antihypertensive medicine underwent 24-hr monitoring in four separated days in a randomized order; a) after taking their habitual dose of antihypertensive medicine (AHM trial), b) substituting their medicine by placebo medicine (PLAC trial), c) placebo medicine with a morning bout of intense aerobic exercise (PLAC+EXER trial) and d) combining the exercise and antihypertensive medicine (AHM+EXER trial). We found that in trials with AHM subjects had lower plasma aldosterone/renin activity ratio evidencing treatment compliance. Before exercise, the trials with AHM displayed lower systolic (130±16 vs 133±15 mmHg; P=0.018) and mean blood pressures (94±11 vs 96±10 mmHg; P=0.036) than trials with placebo medication. Acutely (i.e., 30 min after treatments) combining AHM+EXER lowered systolic blood pressure (SBP) below the effects of PLAC+EXER (-8.1±1.6 vs -4.9±1.5 mmHg; P=0.015). Twenty-four hour monitoring revealed no differences among trials in body motion. However, PLAC+EXER and AHM lowered SBP below PLAC during the first 10 hours, time at which PLAC+EXER effects faded out (i.e., at 19 PM). Adding exercise to medication (i.e., AHM+EXER) resulted in longer reductions in SBP than with exercise alone (PLAC+EXER). In summary, one bout of intense aerobic exercise in the morning cannot substitute the long-lasting effects of antihypertensive medicine in lowering blood pressure, but their combination is superior to exercise alone. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  3. Social cognitive theory correlates of moderate-intensity exercise among adults with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiss, Valerie J; Petosa, R L

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify social cognitive theory (SCT) correlates of moderate- to vigorous-intensity exercise (MVPA) among adults with type 2 diabetes. Adults with type 2 diabetes (N = 181) participated in the study. Participants were recruited through ResearchMatch.org to complete an online survey. The survey used previously validated instruments to measure dimensions of self-efficacy, self-regulation, social support, outcome expectations, the physical environment, and minutes of MVPA per week. Spearman Rank Correlations were used to determine the relationship between SCT variables and MVPA. Classification and Regression Analysis using a decision tree model was used to determine the amount of variance in MVPA explained by SCT variables. Due to low levels of vigorous activity, only moderate-intensity exercise (MIE) was analyzed. SCT variables explained 42.4% of the variance in MIE. Self-monitoring, social support from family, social support from friends, and self-evaluative outcome expectations all contributed to the variability in MIE. Other contributing variables included self-reward, task self-efficacy, social outcome expectations, overcoming barriers, and self-efficacy for making time for exercise. SCT is a useful theory for identifying correlates of MIE among adults with type 2 diabetes. The SCT correlates can be used to refine diabetes education programs to target the adoption and maintenance of regular exercise.

  4. The association between pregame snacks and exercise intensity, stress, and fatigue in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacheck, Jennifer M; Rasmussen, Helen M; Hall, Meghan M; Kafka, Tamar; Blumberg, Jeffrey B; Economos, Christina D

    2014-05-01

    To investigate the association between pregame snacks varying in macronutrient content and exercise intensity, physiological stress, and fatigue in young soccer players. One hour before a 50-min soccer game, children (n = 79; 9.1 ± 0.8 y) were randomly assigned to consume a raisin-, peanut-butter-, or cereal-based snack. Body mass index, blood glucose, and salivary measures of stress (cortisol and immunoglobulin A-IgA) were measured pre- and post-game. Exercise intensity was measured by accelerometry. Self-administered questionnaires were used to assess diet quality and fatigue. Analysis of covariance was used to examine the relationship between pregame snacks and biochemical outcomes. Postgame glucose and cortisol increased [12.9 ± 21.3 mg/dL (p fatigue (p fatigue but not changes in blood sugar or stress biomarkers following a soccer game in children.

  5. Influence of music on performance and psychophysiological responses during moderate-intensity exercise preceded by fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes-Silva, Joao P; Lima-Silva, Adriano E; Bertuzzi, Romulo; Silva-Cavalcante, Marcos D

    2015-02-01

    We examined the effects of listening to music on time to exhaustion and psychophysiological responses during moderate-intensity exercise performed in fatigued and non-fatigued conditions. Fourteen healthy men performed moderate-intensity exercise (60% Wmax) until exhaustion under four different conditions: with and without pre-fatigue (induced by 100 drop jumps) and listening and not listening to music. Time to exhaustion was lower in the fatigued than the non-fatigued condition regardless listening to music. Similarly, RPE was higher in the fatigued than the non-fatigued condition, but music had no effect. On the other hand, listening to music decreased the associative thoughts regardless of fatigue status. Heart rate was not influenced by any treatment. These results suggest that listening to music changes attentional focus but is not able to reverse fatigue-derived alteration of performance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A DIGE proteomic analysis for high-intensity exercise-trained rat skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Wataru; Fujimoto, Eri; Higuchi, Mitsuru; Tabata, Izumi

    2010-09-01

    Exercise training induces various adaptations in skeletal muscles. However, the mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we conducted 2D-DIGE proteomic analysis, which has not yet been used for elucidating adaptations of skeletal muscle after high-intensity exercise training (HIT). For 5 days, rats performed HIT, which consisted of 14 20-s swimming exercise bouts carrying a weight (14% of the body weight), and 10-s pause between bouts. The 2D-DIGE analysis was conducted on epitrochlearis muscles excised 18 h after the final training exercise. Proteomic profiling revealed that out of 800 detected and matched spots, 13 proteins exhibited changed expression by HIT compared with sedentary rats. All proteins were identified by MALDI-TOF/MS. Furthermore, using western immunoblot analyses, significantly changed expressions of NDUFS1 and parvalbumin (PV) were validated in relation to HIT. In conclusion, the proteomic 2D-DIGE analysis following HIT-identified expressions of NDUFS1 and PV, previously unknown to have functions related to exercise-training adaptations.

  7. Urine concentrations of oral salbutamol in samples collected after intense exercise in endurance athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hostrup, Morten; Kalsen, Anders; Auchenberg, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Our objective was to investigate urine concentrations of 8 mg oral salbutamol in samples collected after intense exercise in endurance athletes. Nine male endurance athletes with a VO2max of 70.2 ± 5.9 mL/min/kg (mean ± SD) took part in the study. Two hours after administration of 8 mg oral...

  8. Plasma volume shifts with immersion at rest and two exercise intensities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertl, A C; Bernauer, E M; Hom, C A

    1991-04-01

    Eight men were studied to determine the effect of cycling exercise on plasma volume (PV) during water immersion to the xiphoid process (WIX). In all protocols the subjects were seated upright. After 30 min of rest, subjects were immersed in 34.5 degrees C water and seated on a cycling ergometer. During three 1 h WIX protocols, subjects either remained at rest (No Ex) or pedaled from minutes 20 to 30 at 38% (Ex1) or 62% (Ex2) of peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak). Hematocrit (Hct) and hemoglobin concentration [( Hb]) from venous blood samples were compared pre-WIX and at minutes 20, 30, 40, and 60. Percent change in PV (delta PV) was calculated from pre-WIX Hct and [Hb] within each protocol. Hct and [Hb] decreased after 20 min of resting WIX (P less than 0.017). In the No Ex protocol, there were no further significant changes in these variables, with delta PV values of +10.4% at minute 20 and at a peak of +13.5% at minute 40. In Ex1 and Ex2, cycling increased Hct and [Hb] (P less than 0.01, minute 30 vs No Ex), with delta PV values at minute 30 of +3.7% and -0.9%, respectively, vs +12.8% in No Ex. Minute 60 values between protocols were not significantly different (mean delta PV of +10.8 +/- 0.6% SD). The hemodilution associated with WIX was either partially or completely attenuated by cycling exercise; the degree of hemoconcentration was related to exercise intensity. The exercise-induced hemoconcentration was reversed by 30 min of resting WIX. Exercise during WIX appears to cause similar decreases in PV, as does exercise in air provided that postural hemoconcentration prior to exercise is not already maximal.

  9. Ammonia uptake in inactive muscles during exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangsbo, Jens; Kiens, Bente; Richter, Erik

    1996-01-01

    The present study examined NH3 (ammonia and ammonium) uptake in resting leg muscle. Six male subjects performed intermittent arm exercise at various intensities in two separate 32-min periods (part I and part II) and in one subsequent 20-min period in which one-legged exercise was also performed ...

  10. Exercise intensity levels in children with cerebral palsy while playing with an active video game console.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Maxime; Ballaz, Laurent; Hart, Raphael; Lemay, Martin

    2013-08-01

    Children with cerebral palsy (CP) are prone to secondary complications related to physical inactivity and poor cardiorespiratory capacity. This problem could be greatly attenuated through the use of video games that incorporate physical activity for 2 reasons: Video games already represent an important component of leisure time in younger people, and such games can lead to a high level of exercise intensity in people who are healthy. The study objective was to evaluate exercise intensity in children with spastic diplegic CP and children who were typically developing while playing with an active video game console. This was a cross-sectional study. Ten children (7-12 years old) with spastic diplegic CP (Gross Motor Function Classification System level I or II) and 10 children who were age matched and typically developing were evaluated in a movement analysis laboratory. Four games were played with the active video game console (jogging, bicycling, snowboarding, and skiing) for 40 minutes. Heart rate was recorded during the entire playing period with a heart rate belt monitor. Exercise intensity was defined as the percentage of heart rate reserve (HRR). In addition, lower extremity motion analysis was carried out during the final minute of the playing period for the jogging and bicycling games. No difference between groups was observed for any variables. A main effect of games was observed for the amount of time spent at an intensity greater than 40% of HRR. Specifically, more than 50% of the playing time for the jogging game and more than 30% of the playing time for the bicycling game were spent at an intensity greater than 40% of HRR. In addition, the jogging game produced a larger range of motion than the bicycling game. A limitation of this study was the relatively small and heterogeneous sample. For all 4 games, similar exercise intensity levels were observed for children who were typically developing and children with CP, suggesting that children with CP could

  11. Protection against severe hypokalemia but impaired cardiac repolarization after intense rowing exercise in healthy humans receiving salbutamol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Atanasovska, Tania; Smith, Robert; Graff, Claus

    2018-01-01

    repolarization (QT hysteresis). Eleven healthy adults participated in a randomized, counterbalanced, double-blind trial receiving either 1000 µg salbutamol (SAL) or placebo (PLAC) by inhalation. Arterial plasma potassium concentration ([K+]a) was measured at rest, during 3 min intense rowing exercise and 60 min......-exercise (Peffect). [K+]a was lower after SAL than PLAC, from 2 min pre-exercise until 2.5 min during exercise, and at 50 and 60 min post-exercise (P...-exercise decline in [K+]a was correlated with QT hysteresis (r=0.343, n=112, pooled data, P=0.001). Thus the decrease in [K+]a from end-exercise by ~4 mM was associated with reduced QT hysteresis by ~75 ms. Whilst salbutamol lowered [K+]a during exercise, no additive hypokalemic effects occurred in early recovery...

  12. Free testosterone as marker of adaptation to medium-intensive exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shkurnikov, M U; Donnikov, A E; Akimov, E B; Sakharov, D A; Tonevitsky, A G

    2008-09-01

    A 4-week study of adaptation reserves of the body was carried out during medium intensive exercise (medium intensive training: 60-80% threshold anaerobic metabolism). Two groups of athletes were singled out by the results of pulsometry analysis: with less than 20% work duration at the level above the 80% threshold anaerobic metabolism and with more than 20% work duration at the level above 80% threshold anaerobic metabolism. No appreciable differences between the concentrations of total testosterone, growth hormone, and cortisol before and after exercise in the groups with different percentage of anaerobic work duration were detected. In group 1 the concentrations of free testosterone did not change throughout the period of observation in comparison with the levels before training. In group 2, the level of free testosterone increased in comparison with the basal level: from 0.61+/-0.12 nmol/liter at the end of week 1 to 0.98+/-0.11 nmol/liter at the end of week 4 (p<0.01). The results indicate that the level of free testosterone can be used for evaluating the degree of athlete's adaptation to medium intensive exercise.

  13. The Effect of High-Intensity Intermittent Training (HIIT and Consumption of Probiotic Supplement on Immune Cells, C – reactive Protein, and IgA in Young Football Player

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Jahani Ghaeh Ghashlagh

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and Objectives: High intensity exercise weakens the immune system and causes upper respiratory tract infection (URTI. Probiotic supplements reduce the incidence of infections. In the present study, the effect of 8-week high-intensity intermittent training along with probiotic yogurt consumption, was investigated on immune cells, CRP, and IgA in young football players. Methods: In this quasi-experimental and applied study, 36 healthy young men (16 to 19 years were randomly divided into two groups of supplement–training (ST and training (T, with a mean height of 172±0.77 cm, weight of 66.76±5.87, and BMI of 21.27±2.09. Fasting blood samples were taken before and after 8-week training and after aerobic and anaerobic capacity tests. The subjects performed three 90-minute sessions of training, and the experimental group had probiotic yogurt (400ml twice a day. Data were analyzed using Mann-Whitney-U test and repeated measurements at the significance level of p>0.05. Results: After training program, in the experimental group, lymphocytes, neutrophils, IgA, and C-reactive protein significantly increased, and no URTI case was observed. Conclusion: The results of this study indicated that training and consumption of probiotic supplement improve aerobic and anaerobic capacity and strengthen, immune system, and reduce the risk of URTI in ST group, therefore its daily consumption is recommended in athletes who perform intense physical training. Keywords: Reactive protein C; Immunoglobulin A; Probiotics; Immune cells; Respiratory tract infections.

  14. The effect of intense intermittent training with and without taking vitamin E on mRNA expression of p53/PTEN tumor suppressing genes in prostate glands of male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Esmaeil Afzalpour

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity and diet are the most important modifiable determinants of cancer risk. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of intense intermittent training with and without taking vitamin E on expression of p53 and PTEN tumor suppressing genes in the prostate gland of male rats. For this purpose, 50 Sprague-Dawley male rats were randomly assigned into 5 groups: [1] control (CON, n = 10, [2] sham (S, n = 10, [3] intense intermittent training (IIT, n = 10, [4] intense intermittent training + vitamin E (IIT + VE, n = 10, [5] vitamin E (VE, n = 10. Protocol of this study was implemented for 6 days per week for 6 weeks, with observing the overload principle on the motorized treadmill. After implementing training protocol, expression rate of p53 and PTEN genes reduced significantly (p<0.000, p<0.031, respectively. Taking vitamin E with intermittent training caused significant reduction in p53 expression (p<0.013, while it caused significant increase in expression of PTEN (p<0.035. These results showed that intense intermittent training reduces expression of p53 and PTEN tumor suppressing genes and taking supplementation vitamin E along with this type of training could cause different effects in expression of these tumor suppressor genes.

  15. Intensity of Leisure-Time Exercise and Risk of Depressive Symptoms Among Japanese Workers: A Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwahara, Keisuke; Honda, Toru; Nakagawa, Tohru; Yamamoto, Shuichiro; Hayashi, Takeshi; Mizoue, Tetsuya

    2018-02-05

    Data on the effect of physical activity intensity on depression is scarce. We investigated the prospective association between intensity of leisure-time exercise and risk of depressive symptoms among Japanese workers. The participants were 29,052 employees (24,653 men and 4,399 women) aged 20 to 64 years without psychiatric disease including depressive symptoms at health checkup in 2006-2007 and were followed up until 2014-2015. Details of leisure-time exercise were ascertained via a questionnaire. Depressive states were assessed using a 13-item questionnaire. Multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio of depressive symptoms was estimated using Cox regression analysis. During a mean follow-up of 5.8 years with 168,203 person-years, 6,847 workers developed depressive symptoms. Compared with workers who engaged in no exercise during leisure-time (0 MET-hours per week), hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) associated with >0 to workers who engaged in moderate-intensity exercise alone; 0.93 (0.82-1.06), 0.82 (0.68-0.98), and 0.83 (0.71-0.98) among workers who engaged in vigorous-intensity exercise alone; and 0.96 (0.80-1.15), 0.80 (0.67-0.95), and 0.76 (0.66-0.87) among workers who engaged in both moderate- and vigorous-intensity exercise with adjustment for age, sex, lifestyles, work-related and socioeconomic factors, and body mass index. Additional adjustment for baseline depression score attenuated the inverse association, especially among those who engaged in moderate-intensity exercise alone. The results suggest that vigorous-intensity exercise alone or vigorous-intensity combined with moderate-intensity exercise would prevent depressive symptoms among Japanese workers.

  16. [High versus moderate intense running exercise - effects on cardiometabolic risk-factors in untrained males].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemmler, Wolfgang; Lell, M; Scharf, M; Fraunberger, L; von Stengel, S

    2015-01-01

    Introduction | The philosophy on how to improve cardiometabolic risk factors most efficiently by endurance exercise is still controversial. To determine the effect of high-intensity (interval) training (HI[I]T) vs. moderate-intensity continuous exercise (MICE) training on cardiometabolic risk factors we conducted a 16-week crossover randomized controlled trial. Methods | 81 healthy untrained middle aged men were randomly assigned to a HI(I)T-group and a control-group that started the MICE running program after their control status. HI(I)T consisted of running exercise around or above the individual anaerobic threshold (≈ 80- 100 % HRmax); MICE focused on continuous running exercise at ≈ 65-77.5 % HRmax. Both protocols were comparable with respect to energy consumption. Study endpoints were cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2max), left ventricular mass index (LVMI), metabolic syndrome Z-score (MetS-Z-score), intima-media-thickness (IMT) and body composition. Results | VO2max-changes in this overweighed male cohort significantly (p=0.002) differ between HIIT (14.7 ± 9.3 %, p=0.001) and MICE (7.9 ± 7.4 %,p=0.001). LVMI, as determined via magnetic resonance imaging, significantly increased in both exercise groups (HIIT: 8.5 ± 5.4 %, p=0.001 vs. MICE: 5.3 ± 4.0 %, p=0.001), however the change was significantly more pronounced (p=0.005) in the HIIT-group. MetS-Z-score (HIIT: -2.06 ± 1.31, p=0.001 vs. MICE: -1.60 ± 1.77, p=0.001) and IMT (4.6 ± 5.9 % p=0.011 vs. 4.4 ± 8.1 %, p=0.019) did not show significant group-differences. Reductions of fat mass (-4.9 ± 9.0 %, p=0.010 vs. -9.5 ± 9.4, p=0.001) were significantly higher among the MICE-participants (p=0.034), however, the same was true (p=0.008) for lean body mass (0.5 ± 2.3 %, p=0.381 vs. -1.3 ± 2.0 %, p=0.003). Conclusion | In summary high-intensity interval training tends to impact cardiometabolic health more favorable compared with a moderate-intensity continuous endurance exercise protocol.

  17. Effects of exercise amount and intensity on abdominal obesity and glucose tolerance in obese adults: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Robert; Hudson, Robert; Stotz, Paula J; Lam, Miu

    2015-03-03

    Exercise reduces obesity and related glucose tolerance, but whether increasing exercise intensity offers additional benefit at fixed exercise amounts is unknown. To determine the separate effects of exercise amount and intensity on abdominal obesity and glucose tolerance. 24-week, single-center, parallel-group trial from 2009 to 2013. (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00955071). Kingston, Ontario, Canada. 300 abdominally obese adults. Control (no exercise) (n = 75) or 5 weekly sessions of low-amount, low-intensity exercise (LALI) (180 and 300 kcal/session for women and men, respectively, at 50% of maximum oxygen consumption [V̇o2peak]) (n = 73); high-amount, low-intensity exercise (HALI) (360 and 600 kcal/session, respectively, at 50% of V̇o2peak) (n = 76); or high-amount, high-intensity exercise (HAHI) (360 and 600 kcal/session, respectively, at 75% of V̇o2peak) (n = 76). Daily unsupervised physical activity and sedentary time were measured by accelerometer. Waist circumference and 2-hour glucose level (primary outcomes) and cardiorespiratory fitness and measures of insulin action (secondary measurements). 217 participants (72.3%) completed the intervention. Mean exercise time in minutes per session was 31 (SD, 4.4) for LALI, 58 (SD, 7.6) for HALI, and 40 (SD, 6.2) for HAHI. Daily unsupervised physical activity and sedentary time did not change in any exercise group versus control (P > 0.33). After adjustment for age and sex in a linear mixed model, reductions in waist circumference were greater in the LALI (-3.9 cm [95% CI, -5.6 to -2.3 cm]; P exercise groups (P > 0.43). After adjustment for covariates, reductions in 2-hour glucose level were greater in the HAHI group (-0.7 mmol/L [-12.5 mg/dL] [CI, -1.3 to -0.1 mmol/L {-23.5 to -1.5 mg/dL}]; P = 0.027) than the control group but did not differ for the LALI or HALI group versus the control group (P > 0.159). Weight loss was greater in all exercise groups than the control group (P exercise groups (P > 0.182). The

  18. Effects of Twice-Weekly Intense Aerobic Exercise in Early Subacute Stroke: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg, Klas; Kleist, Marie; Falk, Lars; Enthoven, Paul

    2016-08-01

    To examine the effects of 12 weeks of twice-weekly intensive aerobic exercise on physical function and quality of life after subacute stroke. Randomized controlled trial. Ambulatory care. Patients (N=56; 28 women) aged ≥50 years who had a mild stroke (98% ischemic) and were discharged to independent living and enrolled 20 days (median) after stroke onset. Sixty minutes of group aerobic exercise, including 2 sets of 8 minutes of exercise with intensity up to exertion level 14 or 15 of 20 on the Borg rating of perceived exertion scale, twice weekly for 12 weeks (n=29). The nonintervention group (n=27) received no organized rehabilitation or scheduled physical exercise. Primary outcome measures included aerobic capacity on the standard ergometer exercise stress test (peak work rate) and walking distance on the 6-minute walk test (6MWT). Secondary outcome measures included maximum walking speed for 10m, balance on the timed Up and Go (TUG) test and single leg stance (SLS), health-related quality of life on the European Quality of Life Scale (EQ-5D), and participation and recovery after stroke on the Stroke Impact Scale (SIS) version 2.0 domains 8 and 9. Participants were evaluated pre- and postintervention. Patient-reported measures were also evaluated at 6-month follow-up. The following improved significantly more in the intervention group (pre- to postintervention): peak work rate (group × time interaction, P=.006), 6MWT (P=.011), maximum walking speed for 10m (Pbalance, health-related quality of life, and patient-reported recovery. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Sustained, Low-Intensity Exercise Achieved by a Dynamic Feeding System Decreases Body Fat in Ponies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Laat, M A; Hampson, B A; Sillence, M N; Pollitt, C C

    2016-09-01

    Obesity in horses is increasing in prevalence and can be associated with insulin insensitivity and laminitis. Current treatment strategies for obesity include dietary restriction and exercise. However, whether exercise alone is effective for decreasing body fat is uncertain. Our hypothesis was that twice daily use of a dynamic feeding system for 3 months would induce sustained, low-intensity exercise thereby decreasing adiposity and improving insulin sensitivity (SI). Eight, university-owned, mixed-breed, adult ponies with body condition scores (BCS) ≥5/9 were used. Two treatments ("feeder on" or "feeder off") were administered for a 3-month period by a randomized, crossover design (n = 4/treatment). An interim equilibration period of 6 weeks at pasture separated the 2 study phases. Measurements of body mass (body weight, BCS, cresty neck score [CrNS], and morphometry), body fat (determined before and after the "feeder on" treatment only), triglycerides, and insulin sensitivity (SI; combined glucose-insulin test) were undertaken before and after treatments. The dynamic feeding system induced a 3.7-fold increase in the daily distance travelled (n = 6), compared to with a stationary feeder, which significantly decreased mean BCS (6.53 ± 0.94 to 5.38 ± 1.71), CrNS (2.56 ± 1.12 to 1.63 ± 1.06) and body fat (by 4.95%). An improvement in SI did not occur in all ponies. A dynamic feeding system can be used to induce sustained (daily), low-intensity exercise that promotes weight loss in ponies. However, this exercise may not be sufficient to substantially improve SI. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  20. The diurnal patterns of cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone in relation to intense aerobic exercise in recreationally trained soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labsy, Z; Prieur, F; Le Panse, B; Do, M C; Gagey, O; Lasne, F; Collomp, K

    2013-03-01

    Diurnal patterns of cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) secretion, the two main peripheral secretory products of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal neuroendocrine stress axis, have been well characterized in rest conditions but not in relation to physical exercise. The purpose of this investigation was therefore to determine the effects of an intense 90-min aerobic exercise on the waking diurnal cortisol and DHEA cycles on three separate days [without exercise, with morning exercise (10:00-11:30 h), and with afternoon exercise (14:00-15:30 h)] in nine recreationally trained soccer players. Saliva samples were collected at awakening, 30 min after awakening, and then every 2 h from 08:00 to 22:00 h. A burst of secretory activity was found for cortisol (p exercise days under all conditions. However, there was a significant increase in salivary cortisol concentrations on the morning-exercise and afternoon-exercise days at, respectively, 12:00 h (p exercise was not evident for DHEA. The results of this investigation indicate that 90 min of intense aerobic exercise does not affect the circadian pattern of salivary adrenal steroids in recreationally trained athletes over a 16-h waking period, despite a transitory increase in post-exercise cortisol concentration. Further studies are necessary to determine whether these results are applicable to elite athletes or patients with cortisol or DHEA deficiency.

  1. The Effect of Natural or Simulated Altitude Training on High-Intensity Intermittent Running Performance in Team-Sport Athletes: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlin, Michael J; Lizamore, Catherine A; Hopkins, Will G

    2018-02-01

    While adaptation to hypoxia at natural or simulated altitude has long been used with endurance athletes, it has only recently gained popularity for team-sport athletes. To analyse the effect of hypoxic interventions on high-intensity intermittent running performance in team-sport athletes. A systematic literature search of five journal databases was performed. Percent change in performance (distance covered) in the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test (level 1 and level 2 were used without differentiation) in hypoxic (natural or simulated altitude) and control (sea level or normoxic placebo) groups was meta-analyzed with a mixed model. The modifying effects of study characteristics (type and dose of hypoxic exposure, training duration, post-altitude duration) were estimated with fixed effects, random effects allowed for repeated measurement within studies and residual real differences between studies, and the standard-error weighting factors were derived or imputed via standard deviations of change scores. Effects and their uncertainty were assessed with magnitude-based inference, with a smallest important improvement of 4% estimated via between-athlete standard deviations of performance at baseline. Ten studies qualified for inclusion, but two were excluded owing to small sample size and risk of publication bias. Hypoxic interventions occurred over a period of 7-28 days, and the range of total hypoxic exposure (in effective altitude-hours) was 4.5-33 km h in the intermittent-hypoxia studies and 180-710 km h in the live-high studies. There were 11 control and 15 experimental study-estimates in the final meta-analysis. Training effects were moderate and very likely beneficial in the control groups at 1 week (20 ± 14%, percent estimate, ± 90% confidence limits) and 4-week post-intervention (25 ± 23%). The intermittent and live-high hypoxic groups experienced additional likely beneficial gains at 1 week (13 ± 16%; 13 ± 15%) and 4-week post

  2. Long-Term Low Intensity Physical Exercise Attenuates Heart Failure Development in Aging Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana U. Pagan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Physical exercise is a strategy to control hypertension and attenuate pressure overload-induced cardiac remodeling. The influence of exercise on cardiac remodeling during uncontrolled hypertension is not established. We evaluated the effects of a long-term low intensity aerobic exercise protocol on heart failure (HF development and cardiac remodeling in aging spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR. Methods: Sixteen month old SHR (n=50 and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY, n=35 rats were divided into sedentary (SED and exercised (EX groups. Rats exercised in treadmill at 12 m/min, 30 min/day, 5 days/week, for four months. The frequency of HF features was evaluated at euthanasia. Statistical analyses: ANOVA and Tukey or Mann-Whitney, and Goodman test. Results: Despite slightly higher systolic blood pressure, SHR-EX had better functional capacity and lower HF frequency than SHR-SED. Echocardiography and tissue Doppler imaging showed no differences between SHR groups. In SHR-EX, however, left ventricular (LV systolic diameter, larger in SHR-SED than WKY-SED, and endocardial fractional shortening, lower in SHR-SED than WKY-SED, had values between those in WKY-EX and SHR-SED not differing from either group. Myocardial function, assessed in LV papillary muscles, showed improvement in SHR-EX over SHR-SED and WKY-EX. LV myocardial collagen fraction and type I and III collagen gene expression were increased in SHR groups. Myocardial hydroxyproline concentration was lower in SHR-EX than SHR-SED. Lysyl oxidase gene expression was higher in SHR-SED than WKY-SED. Conclusion: Exercise improves functional capacity and reduces decompensated HF in aging SHR independent of elevated arterial pressure. Improvement in functional status is combined with attenuation of LV and myocardial dysfunction and fibrosis.

  3. Acute and Post-Exercise Physiological Responses to High-Intensity Interval Training in Endurance and Sprint Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Cipryan, Lukas; Tschakert, Gerhard; Hofmann, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the presented study was to compare acute and post-exercise differences in cardiorespiratory, metabolic, cardiac autonomic, inflammatory and muscle damage responses to high-intensity interval exercise (HIIT) between endurance and sprint athletes. The study group consisted of sixteen highly-trained males (age 22.1 �� 2.5 years) participating in endurance (n = 8) or sprint (n = 8) sporting events. All the participants underwent three exercise sessions: short HIIT (work interval du...

  4. Acute and Post-Exercise Physiological Responses to High-Intensity Interval Training in Endurance and Sprint Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Lukas Cipryan, Gerhard Tschakert, Peter Hofmann

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the presented study was to compare acute and post-exercise differences in cardiorespiratory, metabolic, cardiac autonomic, inflammatory and muscle damage responses to high-intensity interval exercise (HIIT) between endurance and sprint athletes. The study group consisted of sixteen highly-trained males (age 22.1 ± 2.5 years) participating in endurance (n = 8) or sprint (n = 8) sporting events. All the participants underwent three exercise sessions: short HIIT (work interval dur...

  5. The heart rate increase at the onset of high-work intensity exercise is accelerated by central blood volume loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Tadayoshi; Oshima, Yoshitake; Ikuta, Komei; Kinoshita, Hiroshi

    2006-01-01

    Using a water immersion (WI) method, the combined effect of central blood volume (CBV) loading and work intensity on the time course of heart rate (HR) at the onset of upright dynamic exercise was investigated. Seven males cranked a cycle ergometer for 12 min using their un-immersed arms at low-, moderate- and high-work intensities, followed by a 12-min rest. For WI, the pre-exercise resting cardiac output increased by 36%, while HR decreased by 22% [from 76.8 (10.4) to 59.6 (9.8) beats/min]. WI also increased the high-frequency (HF, 0.15-0.40 Hz) component of the HR variability, suggesting an increased vagal activity. During the initial 2 min of the exercise period at low-work intensity, HR increased by 34.9 and 25.8% in the WI and control conditions, respectively. These were 117 and 73% at high-work intensity, indicating more accelerated HR with WI than the control. The plasma norepinephrine concentration increased less during high-work intensity exercise during WI, as compared to exercise during control conditions. In conclusion, the HR increase at the onset of high-work intensity exercise is accelerated by CBV loading but not at low intensity, possibly reflecting vago-sympathetic interaction and reduced baroreflex sensitivity.

  6. Low- Versus High-Intensity Plyometric Exercise During Rehabilitation After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmielewski, Terese L; George, Steven Z; Tillman, Susan M; Moser, Michael W; Lentz, Trevor A; Indelicato, Peter A; Trumble, Troy N; Shuster, Jonathan J; Cicuttini, Flavia M; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan

    2016-03-01

    Plyometric exercise is used during rehabilitation after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction to facilitate the return to sports participation. However, clinical outcomes have not been examined, and high loads on the lower extremity could be detrimental to knee articular cartilage. To compare the immediate effect of low- and high-intensity plyometric exercise during rehabilitation after ACL reconstruction on knee function, articular cartilage metabolism, and other clinically relevant measures. Randomized controlled trial; Level of evidence, 2. Twenty-four patients who underwent unilateral ACL reconstruction (mean, 14.3 weeks after surgery; range, 12.1-17.7 weeks) were assigned to 8 weeks (16 visits) of low- or high-intensity plyometric exercise consisting of running, jumping, and agility activities. Groups were distinguished by the expected magnitude of vertical ground-reaction forces. Testing was conducted before and after the intervention. Primary outcomes were self-reported knee function (International Knee Documentation Committee [IKDC] subjective knee form) and a biomarker of articular cartilage degradation (urine concentrations of crosslinked C-telopeptide fragments of type II collagen [uCTX-II]). Secondary outcomes included additional biomarkers of articular cartilage metabolism (urinary concentrations of the neoepitope of type II collagen cleavage at the C-terminal three-quarter-length fragment [uC2C], serum concentrations of the C-terminal propeptide of newly formed type II collagen [sCPII]) and inflammation (tumor necrosis factor-α), functional performance (maximal vertical jump and single-legged hop), knee impairments (anterior knee laxity, average knee pain intensity, normalized quadriceps strength, quadriceps symmetry index), and psychosocial status (kinesiophobia, knee activity self-efficacy, pain catastrophizing). The change in each measure was compared between groups. Values before and after the intervention were compared with the groups

  7. Strength and Cardiorespiratory Exercise Rehabilitation for Severely Burned Patients During Intensive Care Units: A Survey of Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambiaso-Daniel, Janos; Parry, Ingrid; Rivas, Eric; Kemp-Offenberg, Jennifer; Sen, Soman; Rizzo, Julie A; Serghiou, Michael A; Kowalske, Karen; Wolf, Steven E; Herndon, David N; Suman, Oscar E

    2018-03-22

    Minimizing the deconditioning of burn injury through early rehabilitation programs (RP) in the intensive care unit (ICU) is of importance for improving the recovery time. The aim of this study was to assess current standard of care (SOC) for early ICU exercise programs in major burn centers. We designed a survey investigating exercise RP on the ICU for burn patients with >30% total burned surface area. The survey was composed of 23 questions and submitted electronically via SurveyMonkey® to six major (pediatric and adult) burn centers in Texas and California. All centers responded and reported exercise as part of their RP on the ICU. The characteristics of exercises implemented were not uniform. All centers reported to perform resistive and aerobic exercises but only 83% reported isotonic and isometric exercises. Determination of intensity of exercise varied with 50% of centers using patient tolerance and 17% using vital signs. Frequency of isotonic, isometric, aerobic, and resistive exercise was reported as daily by 80%, 80%, 83%, and 50% of centers, respectively. Duration for all types of exercises was extremely variable. Mobilization was used as a form of exercise by 100% of burn centers. Our results demonstrate that although early RP seem to be integral during burn survivor's ICU stay, no SOC exists. Moreover, early RP are inconsistently administered and large variations exist in frequency, intensity, duration, and type of exercise. Thus, future prospective studies investigating the various components of exercise interventions are needed to establish a SOC and determine how and if early exercise benefits the burn survivor.

  8. Identification of cardiac repercussions after intense and prolonged concentric isokinetic exercise in young sedentary people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Goff, Caroline; Kaux, Jean-François; Couffignal, Vincent; Coubard, Romain; Mélon, Pierre; Cavalier, Etienne; Croisier, Jean-Louis

    2015-09-01

    Cardiopathies are the world's leading cause of mortality and morbidity. Although rare, cardiovascular accidents can occur during intense and infrequent sporting activity, particularly among those who are unaware of their heart condition. The development of cardiospecific biochemical markers has led to a reconsideration of the role of biology in the diagnosis of cardiovascular illnesses. The aim of this study therefore was, through the use of cardiac biomarker assays, to highlight the impact of sustained physical effort in the form of intense and prolonged concentric isokinetic exercise and to research potential cardiovascular risks. Eighteen subjects participated in a maximal concentric isokinetic exercise involving 30 knee flexion-extensions for each leg. Five blood tests were taken to study the kinetics of the cardiac biomarkers. Haemodynamic parameters were measured continuously using a Portapres, and respiratory parameters were measured using a Sensormedics Vmax 29C. The results showed significant increases in the creatine kinase, myoglobin, homocysteine and haemoglobin cardiac markers. Evolutionary trends were also observed for the following biomarkers: NT-proBNP, myeloperoxydase and C-reactive protein. All the physiological parameters measured presented statistically significant changes. Isokinetic effort leads to the release of cardiac markers in the blood, but these do not exceed the reference values in healthy subjects. Maximal concentric isokinetic exercise does not, therefore, lead to an increased risk of cardiovascular pathologies. © 2014 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Pacing Profiles in Competitive Track Races: Regulation of Exercise Intensity Is Related to Cognitive Ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Biesen, Debbie; Hettinga, Florentina J; McCulloch, Katina; Vanlandewijck, Yves

    2016-01-01

    Pacing has been defined as the goal-directed regulation of exercise intensity over an exercise bout, in which athletes need to decide how and when to invest their energy. The purpose of this study was to explore if the regulation of exercise intensity during competitive track races is different between runners with and without intellectual impairment, which is characterized by significant limitations in intellectual functioning (IQ ≤ 75) and adaptive behavioral deficits, diagnosed before the age of 18. The samples included elite runners with intellectual impairment ( N = 36) and a comparison group of world class runners without impairment ( N = 39), of which 47 were 400 m runners (all male) and 28 were 1500 m-runners (15 male and 13 female). Pacing was analyzed by means of 100 m split times (for 400 m races) and 200 m split times (for 1500 m races). Based on the split times, the average velocity was calculated for four segments of the races. Velocity fluctuations were defined as the differences in velocity between consecutive race segments. A mixed model ANOVA revealed significant differences in pacing profiles between runners with and without intellectual impairment ( p competitive races.

  10. Cellular Stress Response Gene Expression During Upper and Lower Body High Intensity Exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochanowicz, Andrzej; Sawczyn, Stanisław; Niespodziński, Bartłomiej; Mieszkowski, Jan; Kochanowicz, Kazimierz; Żychowska, Małgorzata

    2017-01-01

    The aim was to compare the effect of upper and lower body high-intensity exercise on chosen genes expression in athletes and non-athletes. Fourteen elite male artistic gymnasts (EAG) aged 20.6 ± 3.3 years and 14 physically active men (PAM) aged 19.9 ± 1.0 years performed lower and upper body 30 s Wingate Tests. Blood samples were collected before, 5 and 30 minutes after each effort to assess gene expression via PCR. Significantly higher mechanical parameters after lower body exercise was observed in both groups, for relative power (8.7 ± 1.2 W/kg in gymnasts, 7.2 ± 1.2 W/kg in controls, p = 0.01) and mean power (6.7 ± 0.7 W/kg in gymnasts, 5.4 ± 0.8 W/kg in controls, p = 0.01). No differences in lower versus upper body gene expression were detected for all tested genes as well as between gymnasts and physical active man. For IL-6 m-RNA time-dependent effect was observed. Because of no significant differences in expression of genes associated with cellular stress response the similar adaptive effect to exercise may be obtained so by lower and upper body exercise.

  11. Estimation of coronary wave intensity analysis using noninvasive techniques and its application to exercise physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broyd, Christopher J; Nijjer, Sukhjinder; Sen, Sayan; Petraco, Ricardo; Jones, Siana; Al-Lamee, Rasha; Foin, Nicolas; Al-Bustami, Mahmud; Sethi, Amarjit; Kaprielian, Raffi; Ramrakha, Punit; Khan, Masood; Malik, Iqbal S; Francis, Darrel P; Parker, Kim; Hughes, Alun D; Mikhail, Ghada W; Mayet, Jamil; Davies, Justin E

    2016-03-01

    Wave intensity analysis (WIA) has found particular applicability in the coronary circulation where it can quantify traveling waves that accelerate and decelerate blood flow. The most important wave for the regulation of flow is the backward-traveling decompression wave (BDW). Coronary WIA has hitherto always been calculated from invasive measures of pressure and flow. However, recently it has become feasible to obtain estimates of these waveforms noninvasively. In this study we set out to assess the agreement between invasive and noninvasive coronary WIA at rest and measure the effect of exercise. Twenty-two patients (mean age 60) with unobstructed coronaries underwent invasive WIA in the left anterior descending artery (LAD). Immediately afterwards, noninvasive LAD flow and pressure were recorded and WIA calculated from pulsed-wave Doppler coronary flow velocity and central blood pressure waveforms measured using a cuff-based technique. Nine of these patients underwent noninvasive coronary WIA assessment during exercise. A pattern of six waves were observed in both modalities. The BDW was similar between invasive and noninvasive measures [peak: 14.9 ± 7.8 vs. -13.8 ± 7.1 × 10(4) W·m(-2)·s(-2), concordance correlation coefficient (CCC): 0.73, P Exercise increased the BDW: at maximum exercise peak BDW was -47.0 ± 29.5 × 10(4) W·m(-2)·s(-2) (P Physiological Society.

  12. What influences acceptability and engagement with a high intensity exercise programme for people with stroke? A qualitative descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signal, Nada; McPherson, Kathryn; Lewis, Gwyn; Kayes, Nicola; Saywell, Nicola; Mudge, Suzie; Taylor, Denise

    2016-10-14

    Intensity refers to the amount of effort or rate of work undertaken during exercise. People receiving rehabilitation after stroke frequently do not reach the moderate to high intensity exercise recommended to maximise gains. To explore the factors that influence the acceptability of, and engagement with, a high intensity group-based exercise programme for people with stroke. This qualitative descriptive study included 14 people with stroke who had completed a 12-week, high intensity group-based exercise rehabilitation programme. Semi-structured interviews were used to explore the acceptability of high intensity exercise and the barriers and facilitators to engagement. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and analysed using qualitative content analysis. The participants found high intensity exercise rehabilitation acceptable despite describing the exercise intensity as hard and reporting post-exercise fatigue. Participants accepted the fatigue as a normal response to exercise, and it did not appear to negatively influence engagement. The ease with which an individual engaged in high intensity exercise rehabilitation appeared to be mediated by inter-related factors, including: seeing progress, sourcing motivation, working hard, the people involved and the fit with the person and their life. Participants directly related the intensity of their effort to the gains that they made. In this study, people with stroke viewed training at higher intensities as a facilitator, not a barrier, to engagement in exercise rehabilitation. The findings may challenge assumptions about the influence of exercise intensity on engagement.

  13. Comparison of the effect of different intensity exercise on a bicycle ergometer on postprandial lipidemia in type II diabetic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narges Argani

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Postprandial lipid clearance failure and lipoprotein disorders, which are independent risk factors for cardiovascular diseases are well-recognized in type II diabetes. Reduction of fats through exercise has been proved, though the mechanism is not well-defined, and the effects of different intensity exercise on postprandial lipidemia in diabetes type II is unknown. This study aims to find these effects using a cycle ergometer. METHODS: On three different days, 15 type II diabetics (10 women and 5 men, with a mean age 42.07 ± 6.05 years, weight 94.64 ± 4.37 kg, height 159.78 ± 9.09 cm, and body mass index 29.83 ± 3.93 kg/m2, consumed a full fat breakfast (750-800 kcal, 85% fat, and 150 min later, blood samples were taken from them to measure their lipid profile. The 1st day was the control day, without any exercises. Seven days later, 90 min after enriched breakfast, they did 30 min of exercise on the cycle ergometer with intensity of 55-70% of maximum heart rate (HRmax, and 14 days later, 90 min after enriched breakfast, they did 30 min of exercise with intensity of 70-85% of HRmax. RESULTS: According to Friedman non-parametric test, high-density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol serum level significantly increased after 30 min of moderate intensity exercise (P > 0.05, from 39.4 ± 5.2 to 48.6 ± 9.3, while this increase was insignificant after a higher intensity exercise. Neither intensity levels had any significant effects on triglyceride or on low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. CONCLUSION: Results showed that moderate intensity exercise was more effective in increasing HDL cholesterol level in type II diabetics.   Keywords: Postprandial Lipidemia, Resistance Exercise, Bicycle Ergometer, Type II Diabetes 

  14. Individual assessment of intensity-level for exercise training in patients with coronary artery disease is necessary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwland, W; Berkhuysen, MA; Van Veldhuisen, DJ; Rispens, P

    Background: Target intensity-level of exercise training in patients with coronary artery disease is adjusted usually by a target heart rate (THR). This THR is aimed to be at or nearby the anaerobic threshold (AT) and is calculated commonly from parameters of regular exercise training, instead of an

  15. Impact of an intensive dynamic exercise program on oxidative stress and on the outcome in patients with fibromyalgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal F Soliman

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion Twelve weeks of intensive dynamic exercise program should be recommended to patients with FM as it was effective in decreasing the oxidative stress parameters, increasing the antioxidant parameters, and improving the clinical outcome of this disease.

  16. Influence of Disease Severity and Exercise Limitation on Exercise Training Intensity and Load and Health Benefits From Pulmonary Rehabilitation in Patients with COPD: AN EXPLORATORY STUDY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Virginia C; Fuhr, Desi P; Byers, Bradley W; Selzler, Anne-Marie; Moore, Linn E; Stickland, Michael K

    2018-04-11

    Some patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) fail to achieve health benefits with pulmonary rehabilitation (PR). Exercise intensity and load represent stimulus for adaptation but it is unclear whether inappropriate exercise intensity and/or load are affected by severity of COPD, which may affect health benefits. The purpose was to determine whether COPD severity and/or the severity of pulmonary limitation to exercise (PLE) impacted exercising intensity or load and whether resultant intensity/load affected health outcomes derived from PR. Patients with COPD (n = 58, age = 67 ± 7 y, forced expiratory volume in the first second of expiration [FEV1] % predicted = 52 ± 21%) were recruited upon referral to PR. Primary health outcomes evaluated were 6-min walk distance and St George's Respiratory Questionnaire. Patients were stratified for disease severity using Global Initiative for Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) staging and PLE severity by change in inspiratory capacity during exercise. Exercise intensity and load were calculated from daily exercise records. Participants achieved comparable training duration and load regardless of GOLD severity. Patients with more severe PLE achieved greater training duration (more severe: 546 ± 143 min., less severe: 451 ± 109 min., P = .036), and relative training load (more severe: 2200.8 ± 595.3 kcal, less severe: 1648.3 ± 597.8 kcal, P = .007). Greater overall training load was associated with greater improvements in 6-min walk distance (r = 0.24, P = .035). No significant relationships were observed between PLE, GOLD severity, training parameters, and St George's Respiratory Questionnaire response. Improvements in exercise tolerance can be explained by achieving greater training loads, demonstrating the importance of appropriate training load to maximize health outcomes in PR.

  17. The Effect of Different Intensities of Treadmill Exercise on Cognitive Function Deficit Following a Severe Controlled Cortical Impact in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiafeng Shen

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Exercise has been proposed for the treatment of traumatic brain injury (TBI. However, the proper intensity of exercise in the early phase following a severe TBI is largely unknown. To compare two different treadmill exercise intensities on the cognitive function following a severe TBI in its early phase, rats experienced a controlled cortical impact (CCI and were forced to treadmill exercise for 14 days. The results revealed that the rats in the low intensity exercise group had a shorter latency to locate a platform and a significantly better improvement in spatial memory in the Morris water maze (MWM compared to the control group (p 0.05. The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and p-CREB protein levels in the contralateral hippocampus were increased significantly in the low intensity exercise group. Our results suggest that 2 weeks of low intensity of treadmill exercise is beneficial for improving cognitive function and increasing hippocampal BDNF expression after a severe TBI in its early phase.

  18. Impact of different intensities of intermittent theta burst stimulation on the cortical properties during TMS-EEG and working memory performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Sung Wook; Rogasch, Nigel C; Hoy, Kate E; Sullivan, Caley M; Cash, Robin F H; Fitzgerald, Paul B

    2018-02-01

    Intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS) is a noninvasive brain stimulation technique capable of increasing cortical excitability beyond the stimulation period. Due to the rapid induction of modulatory effects, prefrontal application of iTBS is gaining popularity as a therapeutic tool for psychiatric disorders such as depression. In an attempt to increase efficacy, higher than conventional intensities are currently being applied. The assumption that this increases neuromodulatory may be mechanistically false for iTBS. This study examined the influence of intensity on the neurophysiological and behavioural effects of iTBS in the prefrontal cortex. Sixteen healthy participants received iTBS over prefrontal cortex at either 50, 75 or 100% resting motor threshold in separate sessions. Single-pulse TMS and concurrent electroencephalography (EEG) was used to assess changes in cortical reactivity measured as TMS-evoked potentials and oscillations. The n-back task was used to assess changes in working memory performance. The data can be summarised as an inverse U-shape relationship between intensity and iTBS plastic effects, where 75% iTBS yielded the largest neurophysiological changes. Improvement in reaction time in the 3-back task was supported by the change in alpha power, however, comparison between conditions revealed no significant differences. The assumption that higher intensity results in greater neuromodulatory effects may be false, at least in healthy individuals, and should be carefully considered for clinical populations. Neurophysiological changes associated with working memory following iTBS suggest functional relevance. However, the effects of different intensities on behavioural performance remain elusive in the present healthy sample. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Versatility of `hemorheologic fitness' according to exercise intensity: emphasis on the "healthy primitive lifestyle"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brun, Jean-Frédéric; Varlet-Marie, Emmanuelle; Chevance, Guillaume; Pollatz, Marion; Fedou, Christine; de Mauverger, Eric Raynaud

    2014-05-01

    We recently proposed a unifying hypothesis to reconcile unexpected findings in exercise hemorheology and the classical concepts of "hemorheologic fitness" and the "triphasic effects of exercise", based on the "healthy primitive lifestyle" paradigm. This paradigm assumes that evolution has selected genetic polymorphisms leading to insulin resistance as an adaptative strategy to cope with continuous low intensity physical activity and a special alimentation moderately high in protein, rich in low glycemic index carbohydrates, and poor in saturated fat. According to this protocol the true physiological picture would be that of an individual whose exercise and nutritional habits are close from this lifestyle, both sedentary subjects and trained athletes representing situations on the edge of this model. Unfortunately samples of people truly adhering to this ancestral lifestyle are hard to obtain. In order to address this picture we tried to compare databases obtained with our preceding published studies. As a model of the "healthy primitive lifestyle" we selected patients trained at low intensity (LI) and given an advice of protein intake around 1.2 g/kg/day. Results show a continuum for plasma viscosity which seems to be lower in athletes than LI-trained and even more sedentaries. When sedentary subjects become obese the most obvious characteristic is an increase in red blood cell (RBC) aggregation correlated to the size of fat stores. It is clear that 3 months of LI are not a perfect model of "healthy primitive lifestyle", but these data suggest that the most important effect of LI regular exercise is to decrease plasma viscosity and that sedentarity increases RBC aggregation mostly when it results in increased fat storage.

  20. Effect of different exercise intensities on the pancreas of animals with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Fernanda; Lima, Nathalia Ea; Ornelas, Elisabete; Simardi, Lucila; Fonseca, Fernando Luiz Affonso; Maifrino, Laura Beatriz Mesiano

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MS) comprises several metabolic disorders that are risk factors for cardiovascular disease and has its source connected to the accumulation of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and development of insulin resistance. Despite studies showing beneficial results of exercise on several risk factors for cardiovascular disease, studies evaluating the effects of different intensities of exercise training on the pancreas with experimental models are scarce. In total, 20 Wistar rats were used, divided into four groups: control (C), metabolic syndrome (MS and without exercise), metabolic syndrome and practice of walking (MSWalk), and metabolic syndrome and practice of running (MSRun). The applied procedures were induction of MS by fructose in drinking water; experimental protocol of walking and running; weighing of body mass and VAT; sacrifice of animals with blood collection and removal of organs and processing of samples for light microscopy using the analysis of volume densities (Vv) of the studied structures. Running showed a reduction of VAT weight (-54%), triglyceride levels (-40%), Vv[islet] (-62%), Vv[islet.cells] (-22%), Vv[islet.insterstitial] (-44%), and Vv[acinar.insterstitial] (-24%) and an increase of Vv[acini] (+21%) and Vv[acinar.cells] (+22%). Regarding walking, we observed a decrease of VAT weight (-34%) and triglyceride levels (-27%), an increase of Vv[islet.cells] (+72%) and Vv[acinar.cells] (+7%), and a decrease of Vv[acini] (-4%) and Vv[acinar.insterstitial] (-16%) when compared with those in the MS group. Our results suggest that the experimental model with low-intensity exercise (walking) seems to be more particularly recommended for preventing morphological and metabolic disorders occurring in the MS.

  1. Effect the exercise program on neuropathic pain intensity in patients with paraplegia Spinal Cord Injury

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    Sedghi Goyaghaj N

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Patients with spinal cord injury suffer from continuous and persistent neuropathic pain that has a destructive impact on their quality of life. Exercise therapy is one of the non-pharmacological interventions that is recommended to control chronic pain, This study aimed to determine the effect of exercise program on neuropathic pain intensity in patients with paraplegia Spinal Cord Injury. Materials and Method: This study is a clinical trial.that population was the all of the patients with spinal cord injury, who referred to one of the educational hospitals in Tehran in 2014, 40 patient were selected based on purposive sampling and were randomly allocated into two groups of experimental and control. Exercise program for paraplegia spinal cord injury was implemented in experimental group during twelve 45-60minutes sessions, twice a week. Data collection was done before and one week after the intervention through using personal information form and, The International Spinal Cord Injury Pain Basic Data Set. Data were analyzed with statistical software SPSS19 and Fisher's exact test, Independent samples T-test Paired T-test and Chi square. Results: The mean score of neuropathic pain intensity before the intervention was 8.05 ± 1.51 in intervention group and 7.57 ± 1.21 in the control group. These amounts after the intervention were 5.55 ± 1.61 and 7.37 ± 1.05 respectively (p < 0.001. Conclusion: Results showed that the regular exercise program can reduce neuropathic pain severity in patients with spinal cord injuries and it can be recommended as a non-pharmacological method of pain control in these patients.

  2. Motor effort training with low exercise intensity improves muscle strength and descending command in aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Changhao; Ranganathan, Vinoth K; Zhang, Junmei; Siemionow, Vlodek; Yue, Guang H

    2016-06-01

    This study explored the effect of high mental effort training (MET) and conventional strength training (CST) on increasing voluntary muscle strength and brain signal associated with producing maximal muscle force in healthy aging. Twenty-seven older adults (age: 75 ± 7.9 yr, 8 women) were assigned into 1 of 3 groups: MET group-trained with low-intensity (30% maximal voluntary contraction [MVC]) physical exercise combined with MET, CST group-trained with high-intensity muscle contractions, or control (CTRL) group-no training of any kind. MET and CST lasted for 12 weeks (5 sessions/week). The participants' elbow flexion strength of the right arm, electromyography (EMG), and motor activity-related cortical potential (MRCP) directly related to the strength production were measured before and after training. The CST group had the highest strength gain (17.6%, P boarder-line significance level (12.11%, P = 0.061) and that for CTRL group was only 4.9% (P = 0.539). These results suggest that high mental effort training combined with low-intensity physical exercise is an effective method for voluntary muscle strengthening and this approach is especially beneficial for those who are physically weak and have difficulty undergoing conventional strength training.

  3. Supplemental Oxygen During High-Intensity Exercise Training in Nonhypoxemic Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neunhäuserer, Daniel; Steidle-Kloc, Eva; Weiss, Gertraud; Kaiser, Bernhard; Niederseer, David; Hartl, Sylvia; Tschentscher, Marcus; Egger, Andreas; Schönfelder, Martin; Lamprecht, Bernd; Studnicka, Michael; Niebauer, Josef

    2016-11-01

    Physical exercise training is an evidence-based treatment in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and patients' peak work rate is associated with reduced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease mortality. We assessed whether supplemental oxygen during exercise training in nonhypoxemic patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease might lead to superior training outcomes, including improved peak work rate. This was a randomized, double-blind, controlled, crossover trial. Twenty-nine patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (aged 63.5 ± 5.9 years; forced expiratory volume in 1 second percent predicted, 46.4 ± 8.6) completed 2 consecutive 6-week periods of endurance and strength training with progressive intensity, which was performed 3 times per week with supplemental oxygen or compressed medical air (flow via nasal cannula: 10 L/min). Each session of electrocardiography-controlled interval cycling lasted 31 minutes and consisted of a warm-up, 7 cycles of 1-minute intervals at 70% to 80% of peak work rate alternating with 2 minutes of active recovery, and final cooldown. Thereafter, patients completed 8 strength-training exercises of 1 set each with 8 to 15 repetitions to failure. Change in peak work rate was the primary study end point. The increase in peak work rate was more than twice as high when patients exercised with supplemental oxygen compared with medical air (0.16 ± 0.02 W/kg vs 0.07 ± 0.02 W/kg; P work rate was 39.1% of the overall training effect, whereas it had no influence on strength gain (P > .1 for all exercises). We report that supplemental oxygen in nonhypoxemic chronic obstructive pulmonary disease doubled the effect of endurance training but had no effect on strength gain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Changes of Physiological Tremor Following Maximum Intensity Exercise in Male and Female Young Swimmers

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    Gajewski Jan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of this study was to determine the changes in postural physiological tremor following maximum intensity effort performed on arm ergometer by young male and female swimmers. Methods. Ten female and nine male young swimmers served as subjects in the study. Forearm tremor was measured accelerometrically in the sitting position before the 30-second Wingate Anaerobic Test on arm ergometer and then 5, 15 and 30 minutes post-test. Results. Low-frequency tremor log-amplitude (L1−5 increased (repeated factor: p < 0.05 from −7.92 ± 0.45 to −7.44 ± 0.45 and from −6.81 ± 0.52 to −6.35 ± 0.58 in women and men, respectively (gender: p < 0.05 5 minute post-test. Tremor log-amplitude (L15−20 increased (repeated factor: p < 0.001 from −9.26 ± 0.70 to −8.59 ± 0.61 and from −8.79 ± 0.65 to −8.39 ± 0.79 in women and men, respectively 5 minute post-test. No effect of gender was found for high frequency range.The increased tremor amplitude was observed even 30 minute post-exercise. Mean frequency of tremor spectra gradually decreased post-exercises (p < 0.001. Conclusions. Exercise-induced changes in tremor were similar in males and females. A fatigue produced a decrement in the mean frequency of tremor what suggested decreased muscle stiffness post-exercise. Such changes intremorafter exercise may be used as the indicator of fatigue in the nervous system.

  5. High-intensity exercise interventions in cancer survivors: a systematic review exploring the impact on health outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toohey, Kellie; Pumpa, Kate; McKune, Andrew; Cooke, Julie; Semple, Stuart

    2018-01-01

    There is an increasing body of evidence underpinning high-intensity exercise as an effective and time-efficient intervention for improving health in cancer survivors. The aim of this study was to, (1) evaluate the efficacy and (2) the safety of high-intensity exercise interventions in improving selected health outcomes in cancer survivors. Design Systematic review. Data sources Google Scholar and EBSCO, CINAHL Plus, Computers and Applied Sciences Complete, Health Source-Consumer Edition, Health Source: Nursing/Academic Edition, MEDLINE, Web of Science and SPORTDiscuss from inception up until August 2017. Eligibility criteria Randomized controlled trials of high-intensity exercise interventions in cancer survivors (all cancer types) with health-related outcome measures. The guidelines adopted for this review were the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA). The search returned 447 articles, of which nine articles (n = 531 participants mean, age 58 ± 9.5 years) met the eligibility criteria. Exercise interventions of between 4 and 18 weeks consisting of high-intensity interval bouts of up to 4-min were compared with a continuous moderate intensity (CMIT) intervention or a control group. High-intensity exercise interventions elicited significant improvements in VO 2 max, strength, body mass, body fat and hip and waist circumference compared with CMIT and/or control groups. The studies reviewed showed low risk in participating in supervised high-intensity exercise interventions. Mixed mode high-intensity interventions which included both aerobic and resistance exercises were most effective improving the aerobic fitness levels of cancer survivors by 12.45-21.35%, from baseline to post-intervention. High-intensity exercise interventions improved physical and physiological health-related outcome measures such as cardiovascular fitness and strength in cancer survivors. Given that high-intensity exercise sessions require a

  6. Effect of exercise training intensity on mitochondrial dynamics and mitophagy in post myocardial infarction rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babak Ebadi

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Myocardial infarction (MI is the most common type of heart disease. According to recent studies, mitochondrial dysfunction has been suggested as a central player in cardiac disease and evidences point out the association of mitochondrial morphology with development of heart diseases. Exercise training plays a protective role against cardiovascular disease. However, the role of exercise training on proteins involved in mitochondrial dynamics and mitophagy system are not well understood. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate these on cardiac mitochondrial dynamic and mitophagy proteins in rats with myocardial infarction. The present study was post-test design experiment with the control group. after MI with ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD and ensuring the creation of MI by echocardiography, male rats were subjected to high intensity interval training (HIIT, moderate (MIIT, low (LIIT, sedentary myocardial infarction (SED-MI and healthy control groups. After six weeks exercise, the levels of MFN2, DRP1, Parkin, P62 and PGC-1α proteins were measured by ELISA method. Data analysis showed that proteins levels of MFN2, PGC-1α, Parkin and P62 decreased significantly in SED-MI group compared to healthy control while DRP1 protein levels increased significantly (P≤0.05. Also, MFN2 and PGC-1α proteins increased in MIIT group compared with SED-MI group and DRP1 protein levels were significantly decreased (P≤0.05. Moderate-intensity interval training (MIIT resulted to improve mitochondrial fusion and fusion proteins in rats with myocardial infarction. While high and low intensity interval training (HIIT, LIIT, despite increasing MFN2 and PGC-1α and reducing DRP1, failed to improve fusion and mitochondrial fission

  7. Increased self-efficacy: the experience of high-intensity exercise of nursing home residents with dementia - a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Cecilie Fromholt; Telenius, Elisabeth Wiken; Engedal, Knut; Bergland, Astrid

    2015-09-14

    There has been increasing interest in the use of non-pharmacological interventions, such as physical exercise, to improve the well-being of nursing home residents with dementia. For reasons regarding disease symptoms, persons with dementia might find it difficult to participate in exercise programs. Therefore, it is important to find ways to successfully promote regular exercise for patients in residential care. Several quantitative studies have established the positive effects of exercise on biopsychosocial factors, such as self-efficacy in older people; however, little is known regarding the qualitative aspects of participating in an exercise program among older people with dementia. From the perspective of residents, we explored the experiences of participating in a high-intensity functional exercise program among nursing home residents with dementia. The participants were eight elderly people with mild-to-moderate dementia. We conducted semi-structured interviews one week after they had finished a 10-week supervised high-intensity exercise program. We analyzed the data using an inductive content analysis. Five overreaching and interrelated themes emerged from the interviews: "Pushing the limits," "Being invested in," "Relationships facilitate exercise participation," "Exercise revives the body, increases independence and improves self-esteem" and "Physical activity is a basic human necessity--use it or lose it!" The results were interpreted in light of Bandura's self-efficacy theory. The exercise program seemed to improve self-efficacy through several mechanisms. By being involved, "being invested in" and having something expected of them, the participants gained a sense of empowerment in their everyday lives. The importance of social influences related to the exercise instructor and the exercise group was accentuated by the participants. The nursing home residents had, for the most part, positive experiences with regard to participating in the exercise program

  8. [Rhabdomyolysis in a well-trained woman after unusually intense exercise].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Christian; Jensen, Mogens Pfeiffer

    2014-06-16

    A 35-year-old woman was acutely hospitalized with oedema of the upper limbs, reduced force, severe movement reduction and muscle pain in both upper extremities. Her symptoms started after three days of intense exercise doing kayaking and a lot of pull-ups in crossfit. Rhabdomyolysis is a syndrome, characterized by muscle necrosis. Usually there is a marked elevation of creatine kinase (CK) concentration with symptoms as described and myoglobinuria (dark coloured urine). After hard muscular work there will often be asymptomatic, but significant elevations in CK concentration, and in rare cases life-threatening rhabdomyolysis with electrolyte imbalances and acute kidney failure.

  9. Hatha Yoga Practices: Energy Expenditure, Respiratory Changes and Intensity of Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Uday Sankar; Pathak, Anjana; Tomer, Omveer Singh

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to critically observe the energy expenditure, exercise intensity and respiratory changes during a full yoga practice session. Oxygen consumption (V˙O2), carbon dioxide output (V˙CO2), pulmonary ventilation (V˙E), respiratory rate (Fr) and tidal volume (VT), were measured in 16 physical posture (asanas), five yoga breathing maneuvers (BM) and two types of meditation. Twenty male (age 27.3 ± 3.5 years, height 166.6 ± 5.4 cm and body weight 58.8 ± 9.6 kg) yoga instructors were studied. Their maximal oxygen consumption (V˙O2max) was recorded. The exercise intensity in asanas was expressed in percentage V˙O2max . In asanas, exercise intensity varied from 9.9 to 26.5% of V˙O2max . Highest energy cost was 3.02 kcal min−1. In BM highest V˙E was 53.7 ± 15.5 l min−1. VT was 0.97 ± 0.59, 1.41 ± 1.27 and 1.28 ± l/breath with corresponding Fr of 14.0 ± 5.3, 10.0 ± 6.35, 10.0 ± 5.8 breaths/min. Average energy expenditure in asanas, BM and meditation were 2.29, 1.91 and 1.37 kcal min−1, respectively. Metabolic rate was generally in the range of 1-2 metabolic equivalents (MET) except in three asanas where it was >2 MET. V˙O2 was 0.27 ± 0.05 and 0.24 ± 0.04 l min−1 in meditation and Shavasana, respectively. Although yogic practices are low intensity exercises within lactate threshold, physical performance improvement is possible owing to both better economy of breathing by BM and also by improvement in cardiovascular reserve. Other factors such as psycho-physiological and better relaxation may contribute to it. PMID:21799675

  10. Muscle performance following an acute bout of plyometric training combined with low or high intensity weight exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beneka, Anastasia G; Malliou, Paraskevi K; Missailidou, Victoria; Chatzinikolaou, Athanasios; Fatouros, Ioannis; Gourgoulis, Vassilios; Georgiadis, Elias

    2013-01-01

    To determine the time course of performance responses after an acute bout of plyometric exercise combined with high and low intensity weight training, a 3-group (including a control group), repeated-measures design was employed. Changes in performance were monitored through jumping ability by measuring countermovement and squat jumping, and strength performance assessment through isometric and isokinetic testing of knee extensors (at two different velocities). Participants in both experimental groups performed a plyometric protocol consisting of 50 jumps over 50 cm hurdles and 50 drop jumps from a 50 cm plyometric box. Additionally, each group performed two basic weight exercises consisting of leg presses and leg extensions at 90-95% of maximum muscle strength for the high intensity group and 60% of maximum muscle strength for the low intensity group. The results of the study suggest that an acute bout of intense plyometric exercise combined with weight exercise induces time-dependent changes in performance, which are also dependent on the nature of exercise protocol and testing procedures. In conclusion, acute plyometric exercise with weight exercise may induce a substantial decline in jumping performance for as long as 72 hours but not in other forms of muscle strength.

  11. Influence of priming exercise on pulmonary O2 uptake kinetics during transitions to high-intensity exercise from an elevated baseline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiMenna, Fred J; Wilkerson, Daryl P; Burnley, Mark; Jones, Andrew M

    2008-08-01

    It has been suggested that the slower O2 uptake (VO2) kinetics observed when exercise is initiated from an elevated baseline metabolic rate are linked to an impairment of muscle O2 delivery. We hypothesized that "priming" exercise would significantly reduce the phase II time constant (tau) during subsequent severe-intensity cycle exercise initiated from an elevated baseline metabolic rate. Seven healthy men completed exercise transitions to 70% of the difference between gas exchange threshold (GET) and peak VO2 from a moderate-intensity baseline (90% GET) on three occasions in each of the "unprimed" and "primed" conditions. Pulmonary gas exchange, heart rate, and the electromyogram of m. vastus lateralis were measured during all tests. The phase II VO2 kinetics were slower when severe exercise was initiated from a baseline of moderate exercise compared with unloaded pedaling (mean+/-SD tau, 42+/-15 vs. 33+/-8 s; P0.05). The amplitude of the VO2 slow component and the change in electromyogram from minutes 2 to 6 were both significantly reduced following priming exercise (VO2 slow component: from 0.47+/-0.09 to 0.27+/-0.13 l/min; change in integrated electromyogram between 2 and 6 min: from 51+/-35 to 26+/-43% of baseline; Pchanges in muscle fiber activation.

  12. Global Metabolic Stress of Isoeffort Continuous and High Intensity Interval Aerobic Exercise: A Comparative 1H NMR Metabonomic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafeiridis, Andreas; Chatziioannou, Anastasia Chrysovalantou; Sarivasiliou, Haralambos; Kyparos, Antonios; Nikolaidis, Michalis G; Vrabas, Ioannis S; Pechlivanis, Alexandros; Zoumpoulakis, Panagiotis; Baskakis, Constantinos; Dipla, Konstantina; Theodoridis, Georgios A

    2016-12-02

    The overall metabolic/energetic stress that occurs during an acute bout of exercise is proposed to be the main driving force for long-term training adaptations. Continuous and high-intensity interval exercise protocols (HIIE) are currently prescribed to acquire the muscular and metabolic benefits of aerobic training. We applied 1 H NMR-based metabonomics to compare the overall metabolic perturbation and activation of individual bioenergetic pathways of three popular aerobic exercises matched for effort/strain. Nine men performed continuous, long-interval (3 min), and short-interval (30 s) bouts of exercise under isoeffort conditions. Blood was collected before and after exercise. The multivariate PCA and OPLS-DA models showed a distinct separation of pre- and postexercise samples in three protocols. The two models did not discriminate the postexercise overall metabolic profiles of the three exercise types. Analysis focused on muscle bioenergetic pathways revealed an extensive upregulation of carbohydrate-lipid metabolism and the TCA cycle in all three protocols; there were only a few differences among protocols in the postexercise abundance of molecules when long-interval bouts were performed. In conclusion, continuous and HIIE exercise protocols, when performed with similar effort/strain, induce comparable global metabolic response/stress despite their marked differences in work-bout intensities. This study highlights the importance of NMR metabonomics in comprehensive monitoring of metabolic consequences of exercise training in the blood of athletes and exercising individuals.

  13. The effect of exercise intensity and excess postexercise oxygen consumption on postprandial blood lipids in physically inactive men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littlefield, Laurel A; Papadakis, Zacharias; Rogers, Katie M; Moncada-Jiménez, José; Taylor, J Kyle; Grandjean, Peter W

    2017-09-01

    Reductions in postprandial lipemia have been observed following aerobic exercise of sufficient energy expenditure. Increased excess postexercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) has been documented when comparing high- versus low-intensity exercise. The contribution of EPOC energy expenditure to alterations in postprandial lipemia has not been determined. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of low- and high-intensity exercise on postprandial lipemia in healthy, sedentary, overweight and obese men (age, 43 ± 10 years; peak oxygen consumption, 31.1 ± 7.5 mL·kg -1 ·min -1 ; body mass index, 31.8 ± 4.5 kg/m 2 ) and to determine the contribution of EPOC to reductions in postprandial lipemia. Participants completed 4 conditions: nonexercise control, low-intensity exercise at 40%-50% oxygen uptake reserve (LI), high-intensity exercise at 70%-80% oxygen uptake reserve (HI), and HI plus EPOC re-feeding (HI+EERM), where the difference in EPOC energy expenditure between LI and HI was re-fed in the form of a sports nutrition bar (Premier Nutrition Corp., Emeryville, Calif., USA). Two hours following exercise participants ingested a high-fat (1010 kcals, 99 g sat fat) test meal. Blood samples were obtained before exercise, before the test meal, and at 2, 4, and 6 h postprandially. Triglyceride incremental area under the curve was significantly reduced following LI, HI, and HI+EERM when compared with nonexercise control (p exercise conditions (p > 0.05). In conclusions, prior LI and HI exercise equally attenuated postprandial triglyceride responses to the test meal. The extra energy expended during EPOC does not contribute significantly to exercise energy expenditure or to reductions in postprandial lipemia in overweight men.

  14. Effects of High-Intensity Blood Flow Restriction Exercise on Muscle Fatigue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neto Gabriel R.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Strength training combined with blood flow restriction (BFR have been used to improve the levels of muscle adaptation. The aim of this paper was to investigate the acute effect of high intensity squats with and without blood flow restriction on muscular fatigue levels. Twelve athletes (aged 25.95 ± 0.84 years were randomized into two groups: without Blood Flow Restriction (NFR, n = 6 and With Blood Flow Restriction (WFR, n = 6 that performed a series of free weight squats with 80% 1-RM until concentric failure. The strength of the quadriceps extensors was assessed in a maximum voluntary isometric contraction integrated to signals from the surface electromyogram. The average frequency showed significant reductions in the WFR group for the vastus lateralis and vastus medialis muscles, and intergroup only for the vastus medialis. In conclusion, a set of squats at high intensity with BFR could compromise muscle strength immediately after exercise, however, differences were not significant between groups.

  15. Very Low Volume High-Intensity Interval Exercise Is More Effective in Young Than Old Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raulas Krusnauskas

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the acute neuromuscular and stress responses to three different high-intensity interval training sessions in young (age 19.5±1.3 years and older (age 65.7±2.8 years women. Cycling exercise comprised either 6 × 5 s or 3 × 30 s all-out, or 3 × 60 s submaximal, efforts each performed 5 weeks apart in randomized order. Peak and average power was higher in young than in older women and was largest during the 6 × 5 s strategy in both groups (p<0.05. The decrease in the ratio of torques evoked by 20 and 100 Hz electrical stimulation, representing low-frequency fatigue, was more evident after the 3 × 30 and 3 × 60 s than the 6 × 5 s bout in both groups and was larger in young than in older women (p<0.05. Both groups preferred 6 × 5 s cycling for further training. In conclusion, in young women, very low volume (6 × 5 s all-out exercise induces significant physiological stress and seems to be an effective means of training. For older women, longer exercise sessions (3 × 60 s are more stressful than shorter ones but are still tolerable psychologically.

  16. Exercise intensities during a ballet lesson in female adolescents with different technical ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidetti, L; Gallotta, M C; Emerenziani, G P; Baldari, C

    2007-09-01

    To investigate the exercise intensity during a typical grade five ballet lesson, thirty-nine dancers (13 - 16 yrs) were divided into three different technical proficiency groups: low level (n = 13), intermediate level (n = 14), and high level (n = 12). A progressively incremented treadmill test was administered to determine VO(2max), individual ventilatory threshold (IVT), and the individual anaerobic threshold (IAT). Oxygen uptake (VO(2)), heart rate (HR) and blood lactate (La) were then evaluated during a grade five ballet lesson. Oxygen uptake at IVT, IAT and maximal oxygen uptake were greater (p ballet lesson were similar among groups. During the ballet lesson, low technical level dancers had more V.O (2) and La values above (p < 0.05) the IAT than the other groups. Correlation analysis revealed that the number of exercises performed above IAT was positively related to anthropometric characteristics (BMI, %FM; r = 0.36, p < 0.05; r = 0.46, p < 0.01), negatively related to fitness parameters (VO(2IVT), VO(2IAT), VO(2max); r between - 0.43 and - 0.69; p < 0.001) and to technical level (r = - 0.70; p < 0.001). The subjects classified as having low technical abilities had lower fitness levels and performed more exercises above IAT than the more skilled dancers.

  17. Effect of different exercise intensities on the pancreas of animals with metabolic syndrome

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    Amaral F

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Fernanda Amaral,1 Nathalia EA Lima,1 Elisabete Ornelas,1 Lucila Simardi,2 Fernando Luiz Affonso Fonseca,2,3 Laura Beatriz Mesiano Maifrino1,4 1Laboratório de Estudos Morfoquantitativo e Imunohistoquímico, Universidade São Judas Tadeu, São Paulo, Brazil; 2Faculdade de Medicina do ABC, Santo André, São Paulo, Brazil; 3Departamento de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; 4Instituto Dante Pazzanese de Cardiologia, São Paulo, Brazil Introduction: Metabolic syndrome (MS comprises several metabolic disorders that are risk factors for cardiovascular disease and has its source connected to the accumulation of visceral adipose tissue (VAT and development of insulin resistance. Despite studies showing beneficial results of exercise on several risk factors for cardiovascular disease, studies evaluating the effects of different intensities of exercise training on the pancreas with experimental models are scarce. Methods: In total, 20 Wistar rats were used, divided into four groups: control (C, metabolic syndrome (MS and without exercise, metabolic syndrome and practice of walking (MSWalk, and metabolic syndrome and practice of running (MSRun. The applied procedures were induction of MS by fructose in drinking water; experimental protocol of walking and running; weighing of body mass and VAT; sacrifice of animals with blood collection and removal of organs and processing of samples for light microscopy using the analysis of volume densities (Vv of the studied structures. Results: Running showed a reduction of VAT weight (–54%, triglyceride levels (–40%, Vv[islet] (–62%, Vv[islet.cells] (–22%, Vv[islet.insterstitial] (–44%, and Vv[acinar.insterstitial] (–24% and an increase of Vv[acini] (+21% and Vv[acinar.cells] (+22%. Regarding walking, we observed a decrease of VAT weight (–34% and triglyceride levels (–27%, an increase of Vv[islet.cells] (+72% and Vv[acinar.cells] (+7%, and a decrease of Vv

  18. Low-intensity aerobic exercise training: inhibition of skeletal muscle atrophy in high-fat-diet-induced ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye Jin; Lee, Won Jun

    2017-09-30

    Postmenopausal women are highly susceptible to diseases, such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, osteoporosis, or skeletal muscle atrophy and many people recognize the need for regular physical activity. Aerobic exercise training is known to improve the oxidative capacity and insulin sensitivity of skeletal muscles. This study aimed to investigate the role of low-intensity aerobic exercise training on skeletal muscle protein degradation or synthesis in the plantaris muscles of high-fat-fed ovariectomized rats. Ovariectomized female rats were divided into two groups: a high-fat diet-sedentary group (HFD), and a high-fat diet-aerobic exercise group (HFD+EX). The exercise group exercised aerobically on a treadmill 5 days/week for 8 weeks. The rats progressively ran 30 min/day at 15 m/min, up to 40 min/day at 18 m/min, 0% slope, in the last 4 weeks. Although aerobic exercise led to significantly increased AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation at Thr172, phosphorylation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) substrate Thr389 S6K1 level did not decrease. Additionally, even though Akt activity did not increase at Ser473, the atrogin-1 level significantly decreased in the exercise group compared to the non-exercise group. Immunohistochemical staining revealed that high-fat-induced TSC2 protein expression was eliminated in response to aerobic exercise. These results suggest that aerobic exercise can inhibit skeletal muscle protein degradation, but it cannot increase protein synthesis in the plantaris muscle of high-fat-fed ovariectomized rats. Our findings have implications in understanding skeletal muscle mass maintenance with low intensity aerobic exercise in post-menopausal women. ©2017 The Korean Society for Exercise Nutrition

  19. Pacing Profiles in Competitive Track Races: Regulation of Exercise Intensity is related to Cognitive Ability

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    Debbie Van Biesen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Pacing has been defined as the goal-directed regulation of exercise intensity over an exercise bout, in which athletes need to decide how and when to invest their energy. The purpose of this study was to explore if the regulation of exercise intensity during competitive track races is different between runners with and without intellectual impairment, which is characterized by significant limitations in intellectual functioning (IQ≤75 and adaptive behavioral deficits, diagnosed before the age of 18. The samples included elite runners with intellectual impairment (N= 36 and a comparison group of world class runners without impairment (N= 39, of which 47 were 400m runners (all male and 28 were 1500m-runners (15 male and 13 female. Pacing was analysed by means of 100m split times (for 400m races and 200m split times (for 1500m races. Based on the split times, the average velocity was calculated for four segments of the races. Velocity fluctuations were defined as the differences in velocity between consecutive race segments. A mixed model ANOVA revealed significant differences in pacing profiles between runners with and without intellectual impairment (p<.05. Maximal velocity of elite 400m runners with intellectual impairment in the first race segment (7.9 ± 0.3 m/s was well below the top-velocity reached by world level 400m runners without intellectual impairment (8.9 ±0.2 m/s, and their overall pace was slower (F=120.7, p<.05. In addition, both groups followed a different pacing profile and inter-individual differences in pacing profiles were larger, with differences most pronounced for 1500m races. Whereas male 1500m-runners without intellectual impairment reached a high velocity in the first 100m (7.2±0.1 m/s, slowly decelerated in the second race segment (-0.6±0.1 m/s, and finished with an end sprint (+0.9±0.1 m/s; the 1500m runners with intellectual impairment started slower (6.1±0.3 m/s, accelerated in the second segment (+ 0.2±0

  20. Metabolic responses to high protein diet in Korean elite bodybuilders with high-intensity resistance exercise

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    Choue Ryowon

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High protein diet has been known to cause metabolic acidosis, which is manifested by increased urinary excretion of nitrogen and calcium. Bodybuilders habitually consumed excessive dietary protein over the amounts recommended for them to promote muscle mass accretion. This study investigated the metabolic response to high protein consumption in the elite bodybuilders. Methods Eight elite Korean bodybuilders within the age from 18 to 25, mean age 21.5 ± 2.6. For data collection, anthropometry, blood and urinary analysis, and dietary assessment were conducted. Results They consumed large amounts of protein (4.3 ± 1.2 g/kg BW/day and calories (5,621.7 ± 1,354.7 kcal/day, as well as more than the recommended amounts of vitamins and minerals, including potassium and calcium. Serum creatinine (1.3 ± 0.1 mg/dl and potassium (5.9 ± 0.8 mmol/L, and urinary urea nitrogen (24.7 ± 9.5 mg/dl and creatinine (2.3 ± 0.7 mg/dl were observed to be higher than the normal reference ranges. Urinary calcium (0.3 ± 0.1 mg/dl, and phosphorus (1.3 ± 0.4 mg/dl were on the border of upper limit of the reference range and the urine pH was in normal range. Conclusions Increased urinary excretion of urea nitrogen and creatinine might be due to the high rates of protein metabolism that follow high protein intake and muscle turnover. The obvious evidence of metabolic acidosis in response to high protein diet in the subjects with high potassium intake and intensive resistance exercise were not shown in this study results. However, this study implied that resistance exercise with adequate mineral supplementation, such as potassium and calcium, could reduce or offset the negative effects of protein-generated metabolic changes. This study provides preliminary information of metabolic response to high protein intake in bodybuilders who engaged in high-intensity resistance exercise. Further studies will be needed to determine the effects of the intensity

  1. Isometric strength training lowers the O2 cost of cycling during moderate-intensity exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoladz, Jerzy A; Szkutnik, Zbigniew; Majerczak, Joanna; Grandys, Marcin; Duda, Krzysztof; Grassi, Bruno

    2012-12-01

    The effect of maximal voluntary isometric strength training of knee extensor muscles on pulmonary V'O(2) on-kinetics, the O(2) cost of cycling and peak oxygen uptake (V'O(2peak)) in humans was studied. Seven healthy males (mean ± SD, age 22.3 ± 2.0 years, body weight 75.0 ± 9.2 kg, V'O(2peak) 49.5 ± 3.8 ml kg(-1) min(-1)) performed maximal isometric strength training lasting 7 weeks (4 sessions per week). Force during maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) increased by 15 % (P Strength training resulted in a significant decrease (by ~7 %; P Isometric strength training rapidly (i.e., after 1 week) decreases the O(2) cost of cycling during moderate-intensity exercise, whereas it does not affect the amplitude of the slow component of the V'O(2) on-kinetics during heavy-intensity exercise. Isometric strength training can have beneficial effects on performance during endurance events.

  2. The Effects of Combination of High Intensity Intermittent Exercise and Supplement Flaxseed Oil 1 ICAM- Plasma Concentration in Male Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Y Khademi; MA Azarbayejani; SA Hosseini

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Prevalence of cardiovascular diseases is rooted in inflammation and inflammation is along with the increase of ICAM-1. The aim of the present study was to review the effect of combination of high interval training and flaxseed oil supplementation on plasma concentration of ICAM-1 of rats. Methods: In this experimental study, 30 rats were selected and divided into six groups of five male rats, including (1) control, (2) training, (3) 10 mg/kg Flaxseed oil, (4) 30 mg/kg Flaxse...

  3. Determination of strength exercise intensities based on the load-power-velocity relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandačka, Daniel; Beremlijski, Petr

    2011-06-01

    The velocity of movement and applied load affect the production of mechanical power output and subsequently the extent of the adaptation stimulus in strength exercises. We do not know of any known function describing the relationship of power and velocity and load in the bench press exercise. The objective of the study is to find a function modeling of the relationship of relative velocity, relative load and mechanical power output for the bench press exercise and to determine the intensity zones of the exercise for specifically focused strength training of soccer players. Fifteen highly trained soccer players at the start of a competition period were studied. The subjects of study performed bench presses with the load of 0, 10, 30, 50, 70 and 90% of the predetermined one repetition maximum with maximum possible speed of movement. The mean measured power and velocity for each load (kg) were used to develop a multiple linear regression function which describes the quadratic relationship between the ratio of power (W) to maximum power (W) and the ratios of the load (kg) to one repetition maximum (kg) and the velocity (m•s(-1)) to maximal velocity (m•s(-1)). The quadratic function of two variables that modeled the searched relationship explained 74% of measured values in the acceleration phase and 75% of measured values from the entire extent of the positive power movement in the lift. The optimal load for reaching maximum power output suitable for the dynamics effort strength training was 40% of one repetition maximum, while the optimal mean velocity would be 75% of maximal velocity. Moreover, four zones: maximum power, maximum velocity, velocity-power and strength-power were determined on the basis of the regression function.

  4. Exercise intensity, redox homeostasis and inflammation in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallard, Alistair R; Hollekim-Strand, Siri Marte; Coombes, Jeff S; Ingul, Charlotte B

    2017-10-01

    To compare 12 weeks of exercise training at two intensities on oxidative stress, antioxidants and inflammatory biomarkers in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Randomized trial. Thirty-six participants with T2D were randomized to complete either 12 weeks of treadmill based high-intensity interval training (HIIT) or moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT), followed by 40 weeks of home-based training at the same intensities. Plasma inflammation, oxidative stress and antioxidant biomarkers (total F2-isoprostanes, protein carbonyls, total antioxidant capacity, glutathione peroxidase activity, interleukin-10, interleukin-6, interleukin-8 and TNF-α) were measured at baseline, 12-weeks and 1-year. There were no significant changes (p>0.05) in oxidative stress and inflammation biomarkers from baseline to 12-weeks in either intervention. A decrease in total antioxidant capacity in the MICT group from baseline to 1-year by 0.05mmol/L (p=0.05) was observed. There was a significant difference (p<0.05) when groups were separated by sex with females in the MICT group having a 22.1% (p<0.05) decrease in protein carbonyls from baseline to 1-year. HIIT and MICT had no acute effect on oxidative stress and inflammatory biomarkers in patients with T2D. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of Whole-Body Electromyostimulation versus High-Intensity Resistance Exercise on Body Composition and Strength: A Randomized Controlled Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Kemmler

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available High-intensity (resistance exercise (HIT and whole-body electromyostimulation (WB-EMS are both approaches to realize time-efficient favorable changes of body composition and strength. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of WB-EMS compared with the gold standard reference HIT, for improving body composition and muscle strength in middle-aged men. Forty-eight healthy untrained men, 30–50 years old, were randomly allocated to either HIT (2 sessions/week or a WB-EMS group (3 sessions/2 weeks that exercised for 16 weeks. HIT was applied as “single-set-to-failure protocol,” while WB-EMS was conducted with intermittent stimulation (6 s WB-EMS, 4 s rest; 85 Hz, 350 ms over 20 minutes. The main outcome parameters were lean body mass (LBM as determined via dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and maximum dynamic leg-extensor strength (isokinetic leg-press. LBM changes of both groups (HIT 1.25 ± 1.44% versus WB-EMS 0.93±1.15% were significant (p=.001; however, no significant group differences were detected (p=.395. Leg-extensor strength also increased in both groups (HIT 12.7±14.7%, p=.002, versus WB-EMS 7.3±10.3%, p=.012 with no significant (p=.215 between-group difference. Corresponding changes were also determined for body fat and back-extensor strength. Conclusion. In summary, WB-EMS can be considered as a time-efficient but pricy option to HIT-resistance exercise for people aiming at the improvement of general strength and body composition.

  6. Biochemical changes in response to intensive resistance exercise training in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautmans, Ivan; Njemini, Rose; Vasseur, Sabine; Chabert, Hans; Moens, Lisa; Demanet, Christian; Mets, Tony

    2005-01-01

    It is assumed that low-grade inflammation, characterized by increased circulating IL-6 and TNF-alpha, is related to the development of sarcopenia. Physical exercise, especially high intensity resistance training, has been shown to be effective in restoring the strength deficit in the elderly. Intensive exercise is accompanied by significant release of IL-6 and TNF-alpha into the blood circulation, but does not result in muscle wasting. Exercise-induced changes in heat-shock protein (Hsp), responsible for cellular protection during stressful situations, might interfere with the acute phase reaction and muscle adaptation. To investigate if intensive strength training in elderly persons induces changes in Hsp70 expression, and if these changes are related to changes in the acute phase reaction or muscle adaptation. 31 elderly persons (aged 68.4+/-5.4 years) performed 6 weeks' intensive strength training. At baseline and after 6 weeks, muscle strength, functional performance (physical activity profile, 6-min walk, 30- second chair stand, grip strength, chair sit & reach and back scratch), linear isokinetic leg extension, circulating IL-6, TNF-alpha, IL-10 and TGF-beta, and Hsp70 in monocytes (M) and lymphocytes (L) immediately after sampling (IAS), after incubation at 37 and 42 degrees C were determined. In 12 participants, cytokines were determined in untrained and trained conditions before and after a single training session. After 6 weeks' training, muscle strength and functional performance improved significantly, together with decreased Hsp70 IAS and Hsp70 37 degrees C and increased Hsp70 42 degrees C (all p42 degrees C in M and L. In an untrained condition, training induced an increase of IL-6 (p<0.05) and a tendency of IL-10 to decrease (p=0.06). In a trained condition the decrease of IL-10 disappeared. Baseline physical activity and 6-min walk distance correlated negatively with circulating IL-6 (p<0.05); except for a negative correlation between TGF-beta and

  7. The influence of high intensity exercise and the Val66Met polymorphism on circulating BDNF and locomotor learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helm, Erin E; Matt, Kathleen S; Kirschner, Kenneth F; Pohlig, Ryan T; Kohl, Dave; Reisman, Darcy S

    2017-10-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been directly related to exercise-enhanced motor performance in the neurologically injured animal model; however literature concerning the role of BDNF in the enhancement of motor learning in the human population is limited. Previous studies in healthy subjects have examined the relationship between intensity of an acute bout of exercise, increases in peripheral BDNF and motor learning of a simple isometric upper extremity task. The current study examined the role of high intensity exercise on upregulation of peripheral BDNF levels as well as the role of high intensity exercise in mediation of motor learning and retention of a novel locomotor task in neurologically intact adults. In addition, the impact of a single nucleotide polymorphism in the BDNF gene (Val66Met) in moderating the relationship between exercise and motor learning was explored. It was hypothesized that participation in high intensity exercise prior to practicing a novel walking task (split-belt treadmill walking) would elicit increases in peripheral BDNF as well as promote an increased rate and magnitude of within session learning and retention on a second day of exposure to the walking task. Within session learning and retention would be moderated by the presence or absence of Val66Met polymorphism. Fifty-four neurologically intact participants participated in two sessions of split-belt treadmill walking. Step length and limb phase were measured to assess learning of spatial and temporal parameters of walking. Serum BDNF was collected prior to and immediately following either high intensity exercise or 5min of quiet rest. The results demonstrated that high intensity exercise provides limited additional benefit to learning of a novel locomotor pattern in neurologically intact adults, despite increases in circulating BDNF. In addition, presence of a single nucleotide polymorphism on the BDNF gene did not moderate the magnitude of serum BDNF increases

  8. Benefits of different intensity of aerobic exercise in modulating body composition among obese young adults: a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Chih-Hui; Ko, Ming-Chen; Wu, Long-Shan; Yeh, Ding-Peng; Kan, Nai-Wen; Lee, Po-Fu; Hsieh, Jenn-Woei; Tseng, Ching-Yu; Ho, Chien-Chang

    2017-08-24

    The aim of present study was to compare the effects of different aerobic exercise intensities and energy expenditures on the body composition of sedentary obese college students in Taiwan. Forty-eight obese participants [body mass index (BMI) ≥ 27 kg/m 2 , age 18-26 years] were randomized into four equal groups (n = 12): light-intensity training group (LITG), 40%-50% heart rate reserve (HRR); middle-intensity training group (MITG), 50%-70% HRR; high-intensity training group (HITG), 70%-80% HRR; and control group (CG). The aerobic exercise training program was conducted for 60 min per day on a treadmill 3 days per week for 12 weeks. All participant anthropometric data, blood biochemical parameters, and health-related physical fitness components were measured at baseline and after 12 weeks. At baseline, the anthropometric indices did not differ significantly among the four groups (p > 0.05). After 12-week exercise intervention, the HITG and MITG had significantly more changes in body weight, waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) than the LITG. The changes in BMI and body fat percentage differed among all four groups (p exercise intervention with high energy expenditure can considerably reduce body weight, body fat, WC, WHR, and WHtR, whereas a light-intensity exercise intervention can significantly reduce body weight and body fat. Current Controlled Trials TPECTR09831410900 , registered on 24 th Dec 2009.

  9. Acute Low-Volume High-Intensity Interval Exercise and Continuous Moderate-Intensity Exercise Elicit a Similar Improvement in 24-h Glycemic Control in Overweight and Obese Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Lewan; Shaw, Christopher S; Banting, Lauren; Levinger, Itamar; Hill, Karen M; McAinch, Andrew J; Stepto, Nigel K

    2016-01-01

    Background: Acute exercise reduces postprandial oxidative stress and glycemia; however, the effects of exercise intensity are unclear. We investigated the effect of acute low-volume high-intensity interval-exercise (LV-HIIE) and continuous moderate-intensity exercise (CMIE) on glycemic control and oxidative stress in overweight and obese, inactive adults. Methods: Twenty-seven adults were randomly allocated to perform a single session of LV-HIIE (9 females, 5 males; age: 30 ± 1 years; BMI: 29 ± 1 kg·m -2 ; mean ± SEM) or CMIE (8 females, 5 males; age: 30 ± 2.0; BMI: 30 ± 2.0) 1 h after consumption of a standard breakfast. Plasma redox status, glucose and insulin were measured. Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) was conducted during the 24-h period before (rest day) and after exercise (exercise day). Results: Plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS; 29 ±13%, p improvement in 24-h average glucose levels (-5 ± 2%, p improving 24-h glycemic control in overweight and obese adults.

  10. The Accumulative Effect of Concentric‐Biased and Eccentric‐ Biased Exercise on Cardiorespiratory and Metabolic Responses to Subsequent Low‐Intensity Exercise: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavin James Peter

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated the accumulative effect of concentric-biased and eccentric-biased exercise on cardiorespiratory, metabolic and neuromuscular responses to low-intensity exercise performed hours later. Fourteen young men cycled at low-intensity (~60 rpm at 50% maximal oxygen uptake for 10 min before, and 12 h after: concentric-biased, single-leg cycling exercise (CON (performed ~19:30 h and eccentric-biased, double-leg knee extension exercise (ECC (~06:30 h the following morning. Respiratory measures were sampled breath-by-breath, with oxidation values derived from stoichiometry equations. Knee extensor neuromuscular function was assessed before and after CON and ECC. Cardiorespiratory responses during low-intensity cycling were unchanged by accumulative CON and ECC. The RER was lower during low-intensity exercise 12 h after CON and ECC (0.88 ± 0.08, when compared to baseline (0.92 ± 0.09; p = 0.02. Fat oxidation increased from baseline (0.24 ± 0.2 g·min1 to 12 h after CON and ECC (0.39 ± 0.2 g·min1; p = 0.01. Carbohydrate oxidation decreased from baseline (1.59 ± 0.4 g·min-1 to 12 h after CON and ECC (1.36 ± 0.4 g·min1; p = 0.03. These were accompanied by knee extensor force loss (right leg: -11.6%, p < 0.001; left leg: -10.6%, p = 0.02 and muscle soreness (right leg: 2.5 ± 0.9, p < 0.0001; left leg: 2.3 ± 1.2, p < 0.01. Subsequent concentric-biased and eccentric-biased exercise led to increased fat oxidation and decreased carbohydrate oxidation, without impairing cardiorespiration, during low-intensity cycling. An accumulation of fatiguing and damaging exercise increases fat utilisation during low intensity exercise performed as little as 12 h later.

  11. Cordyceps militaris improves tolerance to high intensity exercise after acute and chronic supplementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Katie R.; Smith-Ryan, Abbie E.; Roelofs, Erica J.; Trexler, Eric T.; Mock, Meredith G.

    2016-01-01

    To determine the effects of a mushroom blend containing cordyceps militaris on high intensity exercise after 1- and 3-weeks of supplementation. Twenty-eight individuals (Mean ± SD; Age=22.7 ± 4.1 yrs; Height=175.4 ± 8.7 cm; Weight=71.6 ± 12.0 kg) participated in this randomized, repeated measures, double-blind, placebo-controlled design. Maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max), time to exhaustion (TTE), and ventilatory threshold (VT) were measured during a maximal graded exercise test on a cycle ergometer. Relative peak power output (RPP), average power output (AvgP), and percent drop (%drop) were recorded during a 3-minute maximal cycle test with resistance at 4.5% body weight. Subjects consumed 4 g·d−1 mushroom blend (MR) or maltodextrin (PL) for 1 week. Ten volunteers supplemented for an additional 2 weeks. Exercise tests were separated by at least 48-hours and repeated following supplementation periods. One week of supplementation elicited no significant time × treatment interaction for VO2max (p=0.364), VT (p=0.514), TTE (p=0.540), RPP (p=0.134), AvgP (p=0.398), or %drop (p=0.823). After 3-weeks, VO2max significantly improved (p=0.042) in MR (+4.8 ml·kg−1·min−1), but not PL (+0.9 ml·kg−1·min−1). Analysis of 95% confidence intervals revealed significant improvements in TTE after 1- (+28.1 s) and 3-weeks (+69.8 s) in MR, but not PL, with additional improvements in VO2max (+4.8 ml·kg−1·min−1) and VT (+0.7 l·min−1) after 3-weeks. Acute supplementation with a cordyceps militaris containing mushroom blend may improve tolerance to high intensity exercise; greater benefits may be elicited with consistent chronic supplementation. PMID:27408987

  12. Skeletal muscle eEF2 and 4EBP1 phosphorylation during endurance exercise is dependent on intensity and muscle fiber type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Adam John; Bisiani, Bruno; Vistisen, Bodil

    2009-01-01

    that the increase in skeletal muscle eEF2 Thr(56) phosphorylation was restricted to type I myofibers. Taken together, these data suggest that the depression of skeletal muscle protein synthesis with endurance-type exercise may be regulated at both initiation (i.e. 4EBP1) and elongation (i.e. eEF2) steps, with eEF2......Protein synthesis in skeletal muscle is known to decrease during exercise and it has been suggested that this may depend on the magnitude of the relative metabolic stress within the contracting muscle. To examine the mechanisms behind this, the effect of exercise intensity on skeletal muscle......) increased during exercise but was not influenced by exercise intensity, and was lower than rest 30min after exercise. On the other hand, 4EBP1 phosphorylation at Thr(37/46) decreased during exercise and this decrease was greater at higher exercise intensities, and was similar to rest 30min after exercise...

  13. Adaptation and Retention of a Perceptual-Motor Task in Children: Effects of a Single Bout of Intense Endurance Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer-Uris, Blai; Busquets, Albert; Angulo-Barroso, Rosa

    2018-02-01

    We assessed the effect of an acute intense exercise bout on the adaptation and consolidation of a visuomotor adaptation task in children. We also sought to assess if exercise and learning task presentation order could affect task consolidation. Thirty-three children were randomly assigned to one of three groups: (a) exercise before the learning task, (b) exercise after the learning task, and (c) only learning task. Baseline performance was assessed by practicing the learning task in a 0° rotation condition. Afterward, a 60° rotation-adaptation set was applied followed by three rotated retention sets after 1 hr, 24 hr, and 7 days. For the exercise groups, exercise was presented before or after the motor adaptation. Results showed no group differences during the motor adaptation while exercise seemed to enhance motor consolidation. Greater consolidation enhancement was found in participants who exercised before the learning task. Our data support the importance of exercise to improve motor-memory consolidation in children.

  14. Intermittent pneumatic compression to prevent venous thromboembolism in patients with high risk of bleeding hospitalized in intensive care units: the CIREA1 randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignon, Philippe; Dequin, Pierre-François; Renault, Anne; Mathonnet, Armelle; Paleiron, Nicolas; Imbert, Audrey; Chatellier, Delphine; Gissot, Valérie; Lhéritier, Gwenaelle; Aboyans, Victor; Prat, Gwenael; Garot, Denis; Boulain, Thierry; Diehl, Jean-Luc; Bressollette, Luc; Delluc, Aurélien; Lacut, Karine

    2013-05-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a frequent and serious problem in intensive care units (ICU). Anticoagulant treatments have demonstrated their efficacy in preventing VTE. However, when the bleeding risk is high, they are contraindicated, and mechanical devices are recommended. To date, mechanical prophylaxis has not been rigorously evaluated in any trials in ICU patients. In this multicenter, open-label, randomized trial with blinded evaluation of endpoints, we randomly assigned 407 patients with a high risk of bleeding to receive intermittent pneumatic compression (IPC) associated with graduated compression stockings (GCS) or GCS alone for 6 days during their ICU stay. The primary endpoint was the occurrence of a VTE between days 1 and 6, including nonfatal symptomatic documented VTE, or death due to a pulmonary embolism, or asymptomatic deep vein thrombosis detected by ultrasonography systematically performed on day 6. The primary outcome was assessed in 363 patients (89.2%). By day 6, the incidence of the primary outcome was 5.6% (10 of 179 patients) in the IPC + GCS group and 9.2% (17 of 184 patients) in the GCS group (relative risk 0.60; 95% confidence interval 0.28-1.28; p = 0.19). Tolerance of IPC was poor in only 12 patients (6.0%). No intergroup difference in mortality rate was observed. With the limitation of a low statistical power, our results do not support the superiority of the combination of IPC + GCS compared to GCS alone to prevent VTE in ICU patients at high risk of bleeding.

  15. Intermittent-sprint performance and muscle glycogen after 30 h of sleep deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skein, Melissa; Duffield, Rob; Edge, Johann; Short, Michael J; Mündel, Toby

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of 30 h of sleep deprivation on consecutive-day intermittent-sprint performance and muscle glycogen content. Ten male, team-sport athletes performed a single-day "baseline" session and two consecutive-day experimental trials separated either by a normal night's sleep (CONT1 and CONT2) or no sleep (SDEP1 and SDEP2). Each session included a 30-min graded exercise run and 50-min intermittent-sprint exercise protocol, including a 15-m maximal sprint every minute and self-paced exercise bouts of varying intensities. Muscle biopsies were extracted before and after exercise during the baseline session and before exercise on day 2 during experimental trials. Voluntary force and activation of the right quadriceps, nude mass, HR, core temperature, capillary blood lactate and glucose, RPE, and a modified POMS were recorded before, after, and during the exercise protocols. Mean sprint times were slower on SDEP2 (2.78±0.17 s) compared with SDEP1 (2.70±0.16 s) and CONT2 (2.74±0.15 s, PSleep loss did not affect RPE but negatively affected POMS ratings (PSleep loss and associated reductions in muscle glycogen and perceptual stress reduced sprint performance and slowed pacing strategies during intermittent-sprint exercise for male team-sport athletes.

  16. INFLUENCE OF RAMADAN FASTING ON ANAEROBIC PERFORMANCE AND RECOVERY FOLLOWING SHORT TIME HIGH INTENSITY EXERCISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umid Karli

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Ramadan fasting on anaerobic power and capacity and the removal rate of lactate after short time high intensity exercise in power athletes. Ten male elite power athletes (2 wrestlers, 7 sprinters and 1 thrower, aged 20-24 yr, mean age 22.30 ± 1.25 yr participated in this study. The subjects were tested three times [3 days before the beginning of Ramadan (Pre-RF, the last 3 days of Ramadan (End-RF and the last 3 days of the 4th week after the end of Ramadan (After-RF]. Anaerobic power and capacity were measured by using the Wingate Anaerobic Test (WAnT at Pre-RF, End-RF and After- RF. Capillary blood samples for lactate analyses and heart rate recordings were taken at rest, immediately after WAnT and throughout the recovery period. Repeated measures of ANOVA indicated that there were no significant changes in body weight, body mass index, fat free mass, percentage of body fat, daily sleeping time and daily caloric intake associated with Ramadan fasting. No significant changes were found in total body water either, but urinary density measured at End-RF was significantly higher than After-RF. Similarity among peak HR and peak LA values at Pre-RF, End- RF and After-RF demonstrated that cardiovascular and metabolic stress caused by WAnT was not affected by Ramadan fasting. In addition, no influence of Ramadan fasting on anaerobic power and capacity and removal rate of LA from blood following high intensity exercise was observed. The results of this study revealed that if strength-power training is performed regularly and daily food intake, body fluid balance and daily sleeping time are maintained as before Ramadan, Ramadan fasting will not have adverse effects on body composition, anaerobic power and capacity, and LA metabolism during and after high intensity exercise in power athletes

  17. High-Intensity Exercise Induced Oxidative Stress and Skeletal Muscle Damage in Postpubertal Boys and Girls: A Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Sangita; Chaki, Biswajit; Chattopadhyay, Sreya; Bandyopadhyay, Amit

    2018-04-01

    Pal, S, Chaki, B, Chattopadhyay, S, and Bandyopadhyay, A. High-intensity exercise induced oxidative stress and skeletal muscle damage in post-pubertal boys and girls: a comparative study. J Strength Cond Res 32(4): 1045-1052, 2018-The purpose of this study was to examine the sex variation in high-intensity exercise induced oxidative stress and muscle damage among 44 sedentary postpubertal boys and girls through estimation of postexercise release pattern of muscle damage markers like creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and oxidative stress markers like extent of lipid peroxidation (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances) and catalase activity. Muscle damage markers like creatine kinase, LDH, ALT, and AST were measured before, immediately after, and 24 and 48 hours after high-intensity incremental treadmill running. Oxidative stress markers like thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances and catalase activity were estimated before and immediately after the exercise. Lipid peroxidation and serum catalase activity increased significantly in both groups after exercise (p exercise level at 24 and 48 hours after exercise in both the sexes, (p exercise, the pattern of postexercise release of these markers were found to be similar in both the groups. Accordingly, it has been concluded from the present investigation that high-intensity exercise induces significant oxidative stress and increases indices of skeletal muscle damage in both postpubertal girls and boys. However, postpubertal girls are relatively better protected from oxidative stress and muscle damage as compared to the boys of similar age and physical activity level. It is further evident that sex difference may not be apparent for all the biomarkers of muscle damage in this age group.

  18. Hormone Responses to an Acute Bout of Low Intensity Blood Flow Restricted Resistance Exercise in College-Aged Females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eonho Kim

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine whether the acute hormone response to exercise differed between low intensity blood flow restricted resistance exercise and traditional high-intensity resistance exercise in college-aged women. A total of 13 healthy women (aged 18-25 yrs, who were taking oral contraceptives, volunteered for this randomized crossover study. Subjects performed a session of low intensity blood flow restricted resistance exercise (BFR (20% of 1-RM, 1 set 30 reps, 2 sets 15 reps and a session of traditional high intensity resistance exercise without blood flow restriction (HI (3 sets of 10 repetitions at 80% of 1-RM on separate days. Fasting serum cortisol and growth hormone (GH and blood lactate responses were measured in the morning pre and post exercise sessions. GH (Change: HI: 6.34 ± 1.72; BFR: 4.22 ± 1.40 ng·mL-1 and cortisol (Change: HI: 4.46 ± 1.53; BFR: 8.10 ± 2.30 ug·dL-1 significantly (p < 0.05 increased immediately post exercise for both protocols compared to baseline and there were no significant differences between the protocols for these responses. In contrast, blood lactate levels (HI: 7.35 ± 0.45; BFR: 4.02 ± 0.33 mmol·L-1 and ratings of perceived exertion were significantly (p < 0.01 higher for the HI protocol. In conclusion, acute BFR restricted resistance exercise stimulated similar increases in anabolic and catabolic hormone responses in young women.

  19. Randomized controlled trial of the effects of high intensity and low-to-moderate intensity exercise on physical fitness and fatigue in cancer survivors: results of the Resistance and Endurance exercise After ChemoTherapy (REACT) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampshoff, Caroline S; Chinapaw, Mai J M; Brug, Johannes; Twisk, Jos W R; Schep, Goof; Nijziel, Marten R; van Mechelen, Willem; Buffart, Laurien M

    2015-10-29

    International evidence-based guidelines recommend physical exercise to form part of standard care for all cancer survivors. However, at present, the optimum exercise intensity is unclear. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a high intensity (HI) and low-to-moderate intensity (LMI) resistance and endurance exercise program compared with a wait list control (WLC) group on physical fitness and fatigue in a mixed group of cancer survivors who completed primary cancer treatment, including chemotherapy. Overall, 277 cancer survivors were randomized to 12 weeks of HI exercise (n = 91), LMI exercise (n = 95), or WLC (n = 91). Both interventions were identical with respect to exercise type, duration and frequency, and only differed in intensity. Measurements were performed at baseline (4-6 weeks after primary treatment) and post-intervention. The primary outcomes were cardiorespiratory fitness (peakVO2), muscle strength (grip strength and 30-second chair-stand test), and self-reported fatigue (Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory; MFI). Secondary outcomes included health-related quality of life, physical activity, daily functioning, body composition, mood, and sleep disturbances. Multilevel linear regression analyses were performed to estimate intervention effects using an intention-to-treat principle. In the HI and LMI groups, 74 % and 70 % of the participants attended more than 80 % of the prescribed exercise sessions, respectively (P = 0.53). HI (β = 2.2; 95 % CI, 1.2-3.1) and LMI (β = 1.3; 95 % CI, 0.3-2.3) exercise showed significantly larger improvements in peakVO2 compared to WLC. Improvements in peakVO2 were larger for HI than LMI exercise (β = 0.9; 95 % CI, -0.1 to 1.9), but the difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.08). No intervention effects were found for grip strength and the 30-second chair-stand test. HI and LMI exercise significantly reduced general and physical fatigue and reduced activity

  20. High Intensity Physical Exercise and Pain in the Neck and Upper Limb among Slaughterhouse Workers: Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Sundstrup

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Slaughterhouse work involves a high degree of repetitive and forceful upper limb movements and thus implies an elevated risk of work-related musculoskeletal disorders. High intensity strength training effectively rehabilitates musculoskeletal disorders among sedentary employees, but less is known about the effect among workers with repetitive and forceful work demands. Before performing randomized controlled trials it may be beneficial to assess the cross-sectional connection between exercise and musculoskeletal pain. We investigated the association between high intensity physical exercise and pain among 595 slaughterhouse workers in Denmark, Europe. Using logistic regression analyses, odds ratios for pain and work disability as a function of physical exercise, gender, age, BMI, smoking, and job position were estimated. The prevalence of pain in the neck, shoulder, elbow, and hand/wrist was 48%, 60%, 40%, and 52%, respectively. The odds for experiencing neck pain were significantly lower among slaughterhouse workers performing physical exercise (OR = 0.70, CI: 0.49–0.997, whereas the odds for pain in the shoulders, elbow, or hand/wrist were not associated with exercise. The present study can be used as general reference of pain in the neck and upper extremity among slaughterhouse workers. Future studies should investigate the effect of high intensity physical exercise on neck and upper limb pain in slaughterhouse workers.

  1. Heterogeneous recruitment of quadriceps muscle portions and fibre types during moderate intensity knee-extensor exercise: effect of thigh occlusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krustrup, Peter; Söderlund, Karin; Relu, Mihai U.

    2009-01-01

    temperature increase (DeltaT(m)) in RF was 0.52+/-0.09 degrees C, which was 57% and 73% higher (Pmuscle CP in slow twitch (ST) and fast......The involvement of quadriceps femoris muscle portions and fibre type recruitment was studied during submaximal knee-extensor exercise without and with thigh occlusion (OCC) and compared with responses during intense exercise. Six healthy male subjects performed 90-s of moderate exercise without...... twitch (FT) fibres was 81% and 91% of resting levels, respectively, with lower (Pfibres had CP levels below mean-1 SD, respectively, with corresponding values for FT fibres being 41...

  2. Intensive training and reduced volume increases muscle FXYD1 expression and phosphorylation at rest and during exercise in athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Martin; Gunnarsson, Thomas Gunnar Petursson; Christensen, Peter Møller

    2016-01-01

    and phosphorylation were determined by western blotting. Expression of FXYD1 (30%), actin (40%), mTOR (12%), PLN (16%) and CaMKII γ/δ (25%) was higher (P... and during exercise, mainly achieved by an increased FXYD1 ser68 phosphorylation, compared to before the intervention. CaMKII thr287 and eEF2 thr56 phosphorylation at rest and during exercise, overall PKCα/β thr638/641 and mTOR ser2448 phosphorylation during repeated intense exercise as well as resting PLN...

  3. High Intensity Resistive and Rowing Exercise Countermeasures Do Not Prevent Orthostatic Intolerance Following 70 Days of Bed Rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Stuart M. C.; Stenger, Michael B.; Laurie, Steven S.; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori L.; Platts, Steven H.

    2015-01-01

    More than 60% of US astronauts participating in Mir and early International Space Station missions (greater than 5 months) were unable to complete a 10-min 80 deg head-up tilt test on landing day. This high incidence of post-spaceflight orthostatic intolerance may be related to limitations of the inflight exercise hardware that prevented high intensity training. PURPOSE: This study sought to determine if a countermeasure program that included intense lower-body resistive and rowing exercises designed to prevent cardiovascular and musculoskeletal deconditioning during 70 days of 6 deg head-down tilt bed rest (BR), a spaceflight analog, also would protect against post- BR orthostatic intolerance. METHODS: Sixteen males participated in this study and performed no exercise (Control, n=10) or performed an intense supine exercise protocol with resistive and aerobic components (Exercise, n=6). On 3 days/week, exercise subjects performed lower body resistive exercise and a 30-min continuous bout of rowing (greater than or equal to 75% max heart rate). On 3 other days/week, subjects performed only high-intensity, interval-style rowing. Orthostatic intolerance was assessed using a 15-min 80 deg head-up tilt test performed 2 days (BR-2) before and on the last day of BR (BR70). Plasma volume was measured using a carbon monoxide rebreathing technique on BR-3 and before rising on the first recovery day (BR+0). RESULTS: Following 70 days of BR, tilt tolerance time decreased significantly in both the Control (BR-2: 15.0 +/- 0.0, BR70: 9.9 +/- 4.6 min, mean +/- SD) and Exercise (BR-2: 12.2 +/- 4.7, BR70: 4.9 +/- 1.9 min) subjects, but the decreased tilt tolerance time was not different between groups (Control: -34 +/- 31, Exercise: -56 +/- 16%). Plasma volume also decreased (Control: -0.56 +/- 0.40, Exercise: -0.48 +/- 0.33 L) from pre to post-BR, with no differences between groups (Control: -18 +/- 11%, Exerciser: -15 +/-1 0%). CONCLUSIONS: These findings confirm previous reports

  4. Exercise-intensity dependent alterations in plasma redox status do not reflect skeletal muscle redox-sensitive protein signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Lewan; Trewin, Adam; Levinger, Itamar; Shaw, Christopher S; Stepto, Nigel K

    2018-04-01

    Redox homeostasis and redox-sensitive protein signaling play a role in exercise-induced adaptation. The effects of sprint-interval exercise (SIE), high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE) and continuous moderate-intensity exercise (CMIE), on post-exercise plasma redox status are unclear. Furthermore, whether post-exercise plasma redox status reflects skeletal muscle redox-sensitive protein signaling is unknown. In a randomized crossover design, eight healthy adults performed a cycling session of HIIE (5×4min at 75% W max ), SIE (4×30s Wingate's), and CMIE work-matched to HIIE (30min at 50% of W max ). Plasma hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and catalase activity were measured immediately post, 1h, 2h and 3h post-exercise. Plasma redox status biomarkers were correlated with phosphorylation of skeletal muscle p38-MAPK, JNK, NF-κB, and IκBα protein content immediately and 3h post-exercise. Plasma catalase activity was greater with SIE (56.6±3.8Uml -1 ) compared to CMIE (42.7±3.2, pexercise plasma TBARS and SOD activity significantly (pexercise protocol. A significant positive correlation was detected between plasma catalase activity and skeletal muscle p38-MAPK phosphorylation 3h post-exercise (r=0.40, p=0.04). No other correlations were detected (all p>0.05). Low-volume SIE elicited greater post-exercise plasma catalase activity compared to HIIE and CMIE, and greater H 2 O 2 compared to CMIE. Plasma redox status did not, however, adequately reflect skeletal muscle redox-sensitive protein signaling. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Continuous Exercise but Not High Intensity Interval Training Improves Fat Distribution in Overweight Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelley E. Keating

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of high intensity interval training (HIIT versus continuous aerobic exercise training (CONT or placebo (PLA on body composition by randomized controlled design. Methods. Work capacity and body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry were measured before and after 12 weeks of intervention in 38 previously inactive overweight adults. Results. There was a significant group × time interaction for change in work capacity (P<0.001, which increased significantly in CONT (23.8±3.0% and HIIT (22.3±3.5% but not PLA (3.1±5.0%. There was a near-significant main effect for percentage trunk fat, with trunk fat reducing in CONT by 3.1±1.6% and in PLA by 1.1±0.4%, but not in HIIT (increase of 0.7±1.0% (P=0.07. There was a significant reduction in android fat percentage in CONT (2.7±1.3% and PLA (1.4±0.8% but not HIIT (increase of 0.8±0.7% (P=0.04. Conclusion. These data suggest that HIIT may be advocated as a time-efficient strategy for eliciting comparable fitness benefits to traditional continuous exercise in inactive, overweight adults. However, in this population HIIT does not confer the same benefit to body fat levels as continuous exercise training.

  6. Effects of training status and exercise intensity on phase II VO2 kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppo, Katrien; Bouckaert, Jacques; Jones, Andrew M

    2004-02-01

    To test the hypotheses that: 1) the time constant for the fast component of .VO2 kinetics (tau1) at exercise onset would be faster in trained than in untrained subjects for both moderate and heavy exercise, and that 2) tau1 would become progressively slower in untrained subjects at higher power outputs but be invariant in trained subjects. Eight untrained subjects (.VO2peak: 42.9 +/- 5.1 mL.kg-1.min-1) and seven trained cyclists (.VO2peak: 66.6 +/- 2.5 mL.kg-1.min-1) completed square-wave transitions to power outputs requiring 60% and 80% of gas exchange threshold (GET), and 50% of the difference between GET and .VO2 peak (50%Delta) from a baseline of "unloaded" cycling. .VO2 was measured breath-by-breath and individual responses were modeled using nonlinear regression techniques. A repeated measures ANOVA revealed that the tau1 was significantly smaller (i.e., the kinetics were faster) in the trained compared with the untrained subjects and that tau1 became significantly greater (i.e., the kinetics were slowed) at higher power outputs both in the untrained (60%GET: 17.8 +/- 3.8 s, 80%GET: 21.5 +/- 6.6 s, and 50%Delta: 23.5 +/- 2.8 s) and the trained (60%GET: 8.9 +/- 1.3 s, 80%GET: 11.7 +/- 2.5 s, and 50%Delta: 15.2 +/- 2.0 s) subjects (P exercise intensity domain (recruitment of higher threshold motor units.

  7. The role of aerobic fitness and exercise intensity on endurance performance in uncompensable heat stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Périard, Julien D; Caillaud, Corinne; Thompson, Martin W

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the influence of aerobic fitness and exercise intensity on the development of thermal and cardiovascular strain in uncompensable heat stress conditions. In three separate trials, eight aerobically trained and eight untrained subjects cycled to exhaustion at 60% (H60%) and 75% (H75%) of maximal oxygen uptake [Formula: see text] in 40°C conditions, and for 60 min at 60% [Formula: see text] in 18°C conditions (CON). Training status had no influence on time to exhaustion between trained (61 ± 10 and 31 ± 9 min) and untrained (58 ± 12 and 26 ± 10 min) subjects (H60% and H75%, respectively). Rectal temperature at exhaustion was also not significantly different between trained (39.8 ± 0.3, 39.3 ± 0.6 and 38.2 ± 0.3°C) and untrained (39.4 ± 0.5, 38.8 ± 0.5 and 38.2 ± 0.4°C) subjects, but was different between trials (H60%, H75% and CON, respectively; P exercise was terminated on reaching the ethics approved rectal temperature limit in four trained subjects in the H60% trial and two in the H75% trial, it is speculated that increased rectal temperature may have further occurred in this cohort. Nonetheless, exhaustion occurred >96% of maximum heart rate in both cohorts and was accompanied by significant declines in stroke volume (15-26%), cardiac output (5-10%) and mean arterial pressure (9-13%) (P aerobic exercise in the heat in both trained and untrained subjects.

  8. Response of Leptin and C-reactive Protein Serum Levels to 12 Weeks Moderate Intensity Aerobic Exercise in Obese Men

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    Sonia Ghiasi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of 12 weeks moderate intensity aerobic exercise on leptin and C-reactive protein serum levels in obese men. The study was conducted in Urmia- Iran in 2015. Twenty-four obese men with an aged range 40-50 yrs. were enrolled into the study. Subjects were randomized to one of 2 groups exercise (n=12 and control groups (n=12. The exercise group performed aerobic exercise training up to 50-70 % heart rate reserve, three times a week for 12 weeks. Leptin and CRP serum level was measured by ELISA method before and after the 12 weeks. After 12 weeks exercise training, leptin and CRP serum level in the exercise group compared to the control group, were decreased significantly (P<0.05. To sum up, 12 weeks moderate intensity aerobic exercise in the reduction of CRP and leptin concentration had a prominent role that might be effective in reducing weight and improving cardiovascular risk factors.

  9. The effect of prolonged light intensity exercise in the heat on executive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Sarah M; Erin, Jennifer R; Pryor, Riana R; Khorana, Priya; Suyama, Joe; Guyette, Frank X; Reis, Steven E; Hostler, David

    2013-09-01

    When people are involved in outdoor activities, it is important to be able to assess a situation and make rational decisions. The goal of this study is to determine the effects of 90 minutes of light-intensity exercise in a hot environment on executive functioning capabilities of healthy individuals. In this prospective laboratory study, 40 healthy male and female subjects 18 to 45 years of age performed treadmill exercise while wearing athletic clothing and a backpack in either a hot or temperate environment. Vital signs, core and skin temperature, and perceptual measures (thermal sensation, sweating, comfort, and perceived exertion) were measured before, during, and after the treadmill test. Cognitive function was measured before and after the treadmill test using the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) and a Psychomotor Vigilance Test (PVT). Subjects in the hot condition reached a similar core temp of 38.2° ± 0.5°C vs 37.7° ± 0.3°C (P = .325) in the temperate group but had a higher heart rate (P affect executive function or vigilance. Copyright © 2013 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Erythropoietin does not reduce plasma lactate, H+, and K+ during intense exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordsborg, Nikolai Baastrup; Robach, P; Boushel, R

    2015-01-01

    It is investigated if recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) treatment for 15 weeks (n = 8) reduces extracellular accumulation of metabolic stress markers such as lactate, H(+) , and K(+) during incremental exhaustive exercise. After rHuEPO treatment, normalization of blood volume...... and composition by hemodilution preceded an additional incremental test. Group averages were calculated for an exercise intensity ∼80% of pre-rHuEPO peak power output. After rHuEPO treatment, leg lactate release to the plasma compartment was similar to before (4.3 ± 1.6 vs 3.9 ± 2.5 mmol/min) and remained similar...... after hemodilution. Venous lactate concentration was higher (P release to the plasma compartment after rHuEPO was similar to before (19.6 ± 5.4 vs 17.6 ± 6.0 mmol/min) and remained similar after hemodilution. Nevertheless, venous p...

  11. Prescribed differences in exercise intensity based on the TCAR test over sandy ground and grass.

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    Juliano Fernandes da Silva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The intensity of training might be influenced by exercise mode and type of terrain. Thus, the objective of this study was a to compare the physiological indices determined in the TCAR test carried out on natural grass (NG and sandy ground (SG, and b to analyze heart rate (HR and blood lactate responses during constant exercise on SG and NG. Ten soccer players (15.11 ± 1.1 years, 168 ± 4.0 cm, 60 ± 4.0 kg were submitted to the TCAR test to determine peak velocity (PV and the intensity corresponding to 80.4% PV (V80.4 on NG and SG. The second evaluation consisted of two constant load tests (CLT (80.4% PV on NG and SG with a duration of 27 min. The paired Student t-test was used to compare the tests carried out on NG and SG. ANOVA (two-way, complemented by the Tukey test, was used to compare lactate concentrations [La] at 9, 18 and 27 min between the two types of terrain. A p value <0.05 was adopted. PV and V80.4 (15.3±1.0 and 12.3±0.6 km/h were significantly higher on grass than on sand (14.3±1.0 and 11.5±0.4 km/h. Lactate concentration during the CLT [LaV80.4] was significantly higher on sand (4.1±0.9 mmol/L than on grass (2.8±0.7 mmol/L. In the CLT, no significant difference in mean HR was observed between the two terrains, whereas there was a difference in [La]. In conclusion, the type of terrain interferes with indicators associated with aerobic power and capacity obtained by the TCAR test.

  12. EFFECT OF HIGH-INTENSITY EXERCISE ON ENDOTHELIAL FUNCTION IN PATIENTS WITH T2DM

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    Carlos Alberto da Silva

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Diabetes mellitus is the most common metabolic disease worldwide. Endothelial dysfunction characteristic of these patients is one of the major risk factors for atherosclerosis. Early diagnosis of endothelial dysfunction is essential for the treatment especially of non-invasive manner, such as flow mediated dilation. Physical exercise is capable of generating beneficial adaptations may improve endothelial function. Objective: Identify the effect of physical exercise, using the clinical technique of ultrasound in the assessment of the endothelial function of patients with metabolic syndrome or type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods: Thirty-one patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus or metabolic syndrome were studied, with a mean age (± SD of 58±6 years, randomized into three groups. The training was performed for 50 minutes, four times a week. Before and after six weeks of training, subjects performed the endurance test and a study of the endothelial function of the brachial artery by high-resolution ultrasound. Results: After hyperemia, the percentage of arterial diameter was significantly higher for the high-intensity group (HI before = 2.52±2.85mm and after = 31.81±12.21mm; LI before = 3.23±3.52mm and after = 20.61±7.76mm; controls before = 3.56±2.33mm and after = 2.43±2.14mm; p<0.05. Conclusions: The high-intensity aerobic training improved the vasodilatation response-dependent endothelium, recorded by ultrasound, in patients with metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes.

  13. Effect of moderate versus high intensity interval exercise training on vascular function in inactive latin-american adults: a randomized clinical trial

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández Quiñonez, Paula Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Exercise training is effective for improving cardiometabolic health and physical fitness in inactive adults. However, limited research has been conducted on the optimal exercise training intensity for this population. We investigate the effect of moderate versus high intensity interval exercise training on vascular function and physical fitness in physically inactive adults. Twenty inactive adults were randomly allocated to receive either moderate intensity training (MCT group) or high intens...

  14. Comparison of chest pain, electrocardiographic changes and thallium-201 scintigraphy during varying exercise intensities in men with stable angina pectoris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heller, G.V.; Ahmed, I.; Tilkemeier, P.L.; Barbour, M.M.; Garber, C.E.

    1991-01-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the presence of angina pectoris, electrocardiographic changes and reversible thallium-201 defects resulting from 2 different levels of exercise in 19 patients with known coronary artery disease and evidence of exercise-induced ischemia. The exercise protocols consisted of a symptom-limited incremental exercise test (Bruce protocol) followed within 3 to 14 days by a submaximal, steady-state exercise test performed at 70% of the maximal heart rate achieved during the Bruce protocol. The presence and time of onset of angina and electrocardiographic changes (greater than or equal to 0.1 mV ST-segment depression) as well as oxygen uptake, exercise duration and pressure-rate product were recorded. Thallium-201 (2.5 to 3.0 mCi) was injected during the last minute of exercise during both protocols, and the images were analyzed using both computer-assisted quantitation and visual interpretations. Incremental exercise resulted in anginal symptoms in 84% of patients, and electrocardiographic changes and reversible thallium-201 defects in all patients. In contrast, submaximal exercise produced anginal symptoms in only 26% (p less than 0.01) and electrocardiographic changes in only 47% (p less than 0.05), but resulted in thallium-201 defects in 89% of patients (p = not significant). The locations of the thallium-201 defects, when present, were not different between the 2 exercise protocols. These findings confirm the sequence of the ischemic cascade using 2 levels of exercise and demonstrate that the cascade theory is applicable during varying ischemic intensities in the same patient

  15. Redesigning an intensive insulin service for patients with type 1 diabetes: a patient consultation exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozcan S

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Seyda Ozcan,1–3 Helen Rogers,3 Pratik Choudhary,3 Stephanie A Amiel,3 Alison Cox,3 Angus Forbes2,3 1Department of Medical Nursing, Florence Nightingale Nursing Faculty, Istanbul University, Istanbul, Turkey; 2Department of Primary and Intermediate Care, Florence Nightingale School of Nursing and Midwifery, King’s College London, London, United Kingdom; 3Department of Diabetes, King's College Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, London, United Kingdom Context: Providing effective support for patients in using insulin effectively is essential for good diabetes care. For that support to be effective it must reflect and attend to the needs of patients. Purpose: To explore the perspectives of adult type 1 diabetes patients on their current diabetes care in order to generate ideas for creating a new patient centered intensive insulin clinic. Methods: A multi-method approach was used, comprising: an observational exercise of current clinical care; three focus groups (n = 17; and a survey of service users (n = 419 to test the ideas generated from the observational exercise and focus groups (rating 1 to 5 in terms of importance. The ideas generated by the multi-method approach were organized thematically and mapped onto the Chronic Care Model (CCM. Results: The themes and preferences for service redesign in relation to CCM components were: health care organization, there was an interest in having enhanced systems for sharing clinical information; self-management support, patients would like more flexible and easy to access resources and more help with diabetes technology and psychosocial support; delivery system design and clinical information systems, the need for greater integration of care and better use of clinic time; productive relationships, participants would like more continuity; access to health professionals, patient involvement and care planning. The findings from the patient survey indicate high preferences for most of the areas for service

  16. Influence of acute high-intensity aerobic interval exercise bout on selective attention and short-term memory tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Christiano R R; Tessaro, Victor H; Teixeira, Luis A C; Murakava, Karina; Roschel, Hamilton; Gualano, Bruno; Takito, Monica Y

    2014-02-01

    Acute moderate intensity continuous aerobic exercise can improve specific cognitive functions, such as short-term memory and selective attention. Moreover, high-intensity interval training (HIT) has been recently proposed as a time-efficient alternative to traditional cardiorespiratory exercise. However, considering previous speculations that the exercise intensity affects cognition in a U-shaped fashion, it was hypothesized that a HIT session may impair cognitive performance. Therefore, this study assessed the effects of an acute HIT session on selective attention and short-term memory tasks. 22 healthy middle-aged individuals (M age = 53.7 yr.) engaged in both (1) a HIT session, 10 1 min. cycling bouts at the intensity corresponding to 80% of the reserve heart rate interspersed by 1 min. active pauses cycling at 60% of the reserve heart rate and (2) a control session, consisting of an active condition with low-intensity active stretching exercise. Before and after each experimental session, cognitive performance was assessed by the Victoria Version of the Stroop test (a selective attention test) and the Digit Span test (a short-term memory test). Following the HIT session, the time to complete the Stroop "Color word" test was significantly lower when compared with that of the control session. The performances in the other subtasks of the Stroop test as well as in the Digit Span test were not significantly different. A HIT session can improve cognitive function.

  17. Intermittent hydronephrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knop, J.; Vogel, H.; Hupe, W.

    1981-01-01

    An intermittent hydronephrosis was observed in a 40-year old patient. This disease pattern is due to an incongruity between the formation of urine and the transport capacity in the ureteropelvic junction. The latent impediment of flow becomes manifest with increased urine secretion. Irreversible renal damage can be the result of the repeatedly occurring hydronephrotic crises. (orig.) [de

  18. Effects of Combined Selective Aerobic Moderate Intensity Exercises and Soya Intake on Serum Lipids and Obesity in Obese Postmenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Zarneshan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aim: Today, the percentage of deaths due to heart diseases has increased and along with the exercise training role in reducing obesity and cardiovascular disease, soy is a useful source of food in reducing blood lipid and obesity. The present study investigated the effect of combined selective short aerobic moderate intensity exercise and soya intake on serum lipids and obesity in obese postmenopausal women. Methods: In the present quasi-experimental study conducted in 2006 on women of Urmia, Iran, 56 obese postmenopausal women were selected and randomly divided into four groups of 14 subjects as follow: exercise-soya, exercise, soya, and control group. Pre- and post protocol blood samples were collected and the level of TG (Triglyceride, tCho (Total Cholesterol, LDL-C (Low density lipoprotein, HDL-C (high density lipoprotein were measured. Exercise training within the range of 60-70% maximum heart rate (MHR was performed for 60 minutes, 3 sessions per week. The subjects of soya group and exercise-soya group had a 100 gram soya nut intake daily for 10 weeks. After The training course, blood samples were taken from the subjects. The collected data was analyzed using Two-way ANOVA and paired t-test. Results: Having soya along with exercise had significant impact on reduction of TG, tCho, LDL-C means (p<0.05. Body mass index and waist to hip ratio decreased significantly in exercise-soya group after 10 weeks (p<0.05. Conclusion: Based on the findings of this study, aerobic moderate intensity exercise along with soya intake, decrease obesity and serum lipids in obese postmenopausal women.

  19. Acute and Post-Exercise Physiological Responses to High-Intensity Interval Training in Endurance and Sprint Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipryan, Lukas; Tschakert, Gerhard; Hofmann, Peter

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of the presented study was to compare acute and post-exercise differences in cardiorespiratory, metabolic, cardiac autonomic, inflammatory and muscle damage responses to high-intensity interval exercise (HIIT) between endurance and sprint athletes. The study group consisted of sixteen highly-trained males (age 22.1 ± 2.5 years) participating in endurance (n = 8) or sprint (n = 8) sporting events. All the participants underwent three exercise sessions: short HIIT (work interval duration 30s), long HIIT (3min) and constant load exercise (CE). The exercise interventions were matched for mean power, total time and in case of HIIT interventions also for work-to-relief ratio. The acute cardiorespiratory (HR, V̇ O 2 , RER) and metabolic (lactate) variables as well as the post-exercise changes (up to 3 h) in the heart rate variability, inflammation (interleukin-6, leucocytes) and muscle damage (creatine kinase, myoglobin) were monitored. Endurance athletes performed exercise interventions with moderately (CE) or largely (both HIIT modes) higher mean V̇ O 2 . These differences were trivial/small when V̇ O 2 was expressed as a percentage of V̇ O 2max . Moderately to largely lower RER and lactate values were found in endurance athletes. Markers of cardiac autonomic regulation, inflammation and muscle damage did not reveal any considerable differences between endurance and sprint athletes. In conclusions, endurance athletes were able to perform both HIIT formats with increased reliance on aerobic metabolic pathways although exercise intensity was identical in relative terms for all the participants. However, other markers of the acute and early post-exercise physiological response to these HIIT interventions indicated similarities between endurance and sprint athletes.

  20. Acute and Post-Exercise Physiological Responses to High-Intensity Interval Training in Endurance and Sprint Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas Cipryan, Gerhard Tschakert, Peter Hofmann

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the presented study was to compare acute and post-exercise differences in cardiorespiratory, metabolic, cardiac autonomic, inflammatory and muscle damage responses to high-intensity interval exercise (HIIT between endurance and sprint athletes. The study group consisted of sixteen highly-trained males (age 22.1 ± 2.5 years participating in endurance (n = 8 or sprint (n = 8 sporting events. All the participants underwent three exercise sessions: short HIIT (work interval duration 30s, long HIIT (3min and constant load exercise (CE. The exercise interventions were matched for mean power, total time and in case of HIIT interventions also for work-to-relief ratio. The acute cardiorespiratory (HR, V̇O2, RER and metabolic (lactate variables as well as the post-exercise changes (up to 3 h in the heart rate variability, inflammation (interleukin-6, leucocytes and muscle damage (creatine kinase, myoglobin were monitored. Endurance athletes performed exercise interventions with moderately (CE or largely (both HIIT modes higher mean V̇O2. These differences were trivial/small when V̇O2 was expressed as a percentage of V̇O2max. Moderately to largely lower RER and lactate values were found in endurance athletes. Markers of cardiac autonomic regulation, inflammation and muscle damage did not reveal any considerable differences between endurance and sprint athletes. In conclusions, endurance athletes were able to perform both HIIT formats with increased reliance on aerobic metabolic pathways although exercise intensity was identical in relative terms for all the participants. However, other markers of the acute and early post-exercise physiological response to these HIIT interventions indicated similarities between endurance and sprint athletes.