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Sample records for intensity exercise intervention

  1. High-intensity training versus traditional exercise interventions for promoting health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, Lars; Sundstrup, Emil; Jakobsen, Markus D

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of brief intense interval training as exercise intervention for promoting health and to evaluate potential benefits about common interventions, that is, prolonged exercise and strength training....

  2. High-intensity training versus traditional exercise interventions for promoting health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, Lars; Sundstrup, Emil; Jakobsen, Markus D

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of brief intense interval training as exercise intervention for promoting health and to evaluate potential benefits about common interventions, that is, prolonged exercise and strength training.......The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of brief intense interval training as exercise intervention for promoting health and to evaluate potential benefits about common interventions, that is, prolonged exercise and strength training....

  3. The Effect of Structured Exercise Intervention on Intensity and Volume of Total Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niko Wasenius

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the effects of a 12-week structured exercise intervention on total physical activity and its subcategories. Twenty-three overweight or obese middle aged men with impaired glucose regulation were randomized into a 12-week Nordic walking group, a power-type resistance training group, and a non-exercise control group. Physical activity was measured with questionnaires before the intervention (1–4 weeks and during the intervention (1–12 weeks and was expressed in metabolic equivalents of task. No significant change in the volume of total physical activity between or within the groups was observed (p > 0.050. The volume of total leisure-time physical activity (structured exercises + non-structured leisure-time physical activity increased significantly in the Nordic walking group (p 0.050 compared to the control group. In both exercise groups increase in the weekly volume of total leisure-time physical activity was inversely associated with the volume of non-leisure-time physical activities. In conclusion, structured exercise intervention did not increase the volume of total physical activity. Albeit, endurance training can increase the volume of high intensity physical activities, however it is associated with compensatory decrease in lower intensity physical activities. To achieve effective personalized exercise program, individuality in compensatory behavior should be recognised.

  4. Evaluating a nationwide recreational football intervention: Recruitment, attendance, adherence, exercise intensity, and health effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fløtum, Liljan av; Ottesen, Laila; Krustrup, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The present study evaluated a nationwide exercise intervention with Football Fitness in a small-scale society. In all, 741 adult participants (20–72 yrs) were successfully recruited for Football Fitness training in local football clubs, corresponding to 2.1% of the adult population. A preinterven......-promoting nationwide training intervention for adult participants with an extraordinary recruitment, a high attendance rate, moderate adherence, high exercise intensity, and marked benefits in cardiovascular health profile and fitness.......The present study evaluated a nationwide exercise intervention with Football Fitness in a small-scale society. In all, 741 adult participants (20–72 yrs) were successfully recruited for Football Fitness training in local football clubs, corresponding to 2.1% of the adult population......). RHR was lowered (푃 health...

  5. High-intensity exercise interventions in cancer survivors: a systematic review exploring the impact on health outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toohey, Kellie; Pumpa, Kate; McKune, Andrew; Cooke, Julie; Semple, Stuart

    2018-01-01

    There is an increasing body of evidence underpinning high-intensity exercise as an effective and time-efficient intervention for improving health in cancer survivors. The aim of this study was to, (1) evaluate the efficacy and (2) the safety of high-intensity exercise interventions in improving selected health outcomes in cancer survivors. Design Systematic review. Data sources Google Scholar and EBSCO, CINAHL Plus, Computers and Applied Sciences Complete, Health Source-Consumer Edition, Health Source: Nursing/Academic Edition, MEDLINE, Web of Science and SPORTDiscuss from inception up until August 2017. Eligibility criteria Randomized controlled trials of high-intensity exercise interventions in cancer survivors (all cancer types) with health-related outcome measures. The guidelines adopted for this review were the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA). The search returned 447 articles, of which nine articles (n = 531 participants mean, age 58 ± 9.5 years) met the eligibility criteria. Exercise interventions of between 4 and 18 weeks consisting of high-intensity interval bouts of up to 4-min were compared with a continuous moderate intensity (CMIT) intervention or a control group. High-intensity exercise interventions elicited significant improvements in VO 2 max, strength, body mass, body fat and hip and waist circumference compared with CMIT and/or control groups. The studies reviewed showed low risk in participating in supervised high-intensity exercise interventions. Mixed mode high-intensity interventions which included both aerobic and resistance exercises were most effective improving the aerobic fitness levels of cancer survivors by 12.45-21.35%, from baseline to post-intervention. High-intensity exercise interventions improved physical and physiological health-related outcome measures such as cardiovascular fitness and strength in cancer survivors. Given that high-intensity exercise sessions require a

  6. Evaluating a Nationwide Recreational Football Intervention: Recruitment, Attendance, Adherence, Exercise Intensity, and Health Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fløtum, Liljan av; Ottesen, Laila S.; Krustrup, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The present study evaluated a nationwide exercise intervention with Football Fitness in a small-scale society. In all, 741 adult participants (20–72 yrs) were successfully recruited for Football Fitness training in local football clubs, corresponding to 2.1% of the adult population. A preintervention test battery including resting heart rate (RHR), blood pressure, and body mass measurements along with performance tests (Yo-Yo Intermittent Endurance level 1 (Yo-Yo IE1), the Arrowhead Agility Test, and the Flamingo Balance Test) were performed (n = 502). Training attendance (n = 310) was 1.6 ± 0.2 sessions per week (range: 0.6–2.9), corresponding to 28.8 ± 1.0 sessions during the 18 wk intervention period. After 18 wks mean arterial pressure (MAP) was −2.7 ± 0.7 mmHg lower (P 99 mmHg (−5.6 ± 1.5 mmHg; n = 50). RHR was lowered (P Football Fitness was shown to be a successful health-promoting nationwide training intervention for adult participants with an extraordinary recruitment, a high attendance rate, moderate adherence, high exercise intensity, and marked benefits in cardiovascular health profile and fitness. PMID:27437401

  7. Intensive lifestyle intervention improves cardiometabolic and exercise parameters in metabolically healthy obese and metabolically unhealthy obese individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalzill, Claudie; Nigam, Anil; Juneau, Martin; Guilbeault, Valérie; Latour, Elise; Mauriège, Pascale; Gayda, Mathieu

    2014-04-01

    The effects of an intensive lifestyle intervention including Mediterranean diet nutritional counselling and high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on body composition, cardiometabolic, and exercise parameters were studied in metabolically unhealthy obese (NMHO) and metabolically healthy but obese (MHO) subjects. Fifty-five MHO (51 ± 8 years; waist circumference, 109 ± 13 cm) and 79 NMHO subjects (54 ± 9 years; waist circumference, 112 ± 13 cm) participated in an intensive lifestyle modification program based on Mediterranean diet nutritional counselling and HIIT 2-3 times per week. Body composition, cardiometabolic, and exercise parameters were measured at baseline and after 9 months. Initially, MHO patients had a lower blood pressure (BP), fasting glycemia, triglycerides, and a higher high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak) (P lifestyle program including Mediterranean diet nutritional counselling and HIIT is an appropriate intervention in MHO and NMHO subjects with similar potential clinical health benefits including an improved body composition, BP, fasting glycemia, insulin sensitivity, VO2 peak, and muscle endurance. Copyright © 2014 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. All rights reserved.

  8. IMPACT OF DIET AND/OR EXERCISE INTERVENTION ON INFRAPATELLAR FAT PAD MORPHOLOGY - SECONDARY ANALYSIS FROM THE INTENSIVE DIET AND EXERCISE FOR ARTHRITIS (IDEA) TRIAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murillo, A. Pogacnik; Eckstein, F.; Wirth, W.; Beavers, D.; Loeser, R. F.; Nicklas, B. J.; Mihalko, S.L.; Miller, G.D.; Hunter, D.J.; Messier, S. P.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The infrapatellar fat pad (IPFP) represents intra-articular adipose tissue that may contribute to intra-articular inflammation and pain by secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Here we examined the impact of weight loss by diet and/or exercise interventions on IPFP volume. Methods Intensive Diet and Exercise for Arthritis (IDEA) was a single-blinded, single-center, 18-month, prospective, randomized controlled trial that enrolled 454 overweight and obese older adults with knee pain and radiographic osteoarthritis. Participants were randomized to 1 of 3 groups: exercise only control (E), diet-induced weight loss (D), and diet-induced weight loss + exercise (D+E). In a subsample (n=106; E: n=36; D: n=35; D+E: n=35), magnetic resonance images were acquired at baseline and 18-month follow-up, from which we analyzed IPFP volume, surface areas and thickness in this secondary analysis. Results Average weight loss in each group amounted to 1.0% in E, 10.5% in D, and 13.0% in D+E. A significant (pdiet and/or exercise, and its reduction was correlated with change in weight and body fat. PMID:28222422

  9. Impact of Diet and/or Exercise Intervention on Infrapatellar Fat Pad Morphology: Secondary Analysis from the Intensive Diet and Exercise for Arthritis (IDEA) Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogacnik Murillo, Aarón Leonardo; Eckstein, Felix; Wirth, Wolfgang; Beavers, Daniel; Loeser, Richard F; Nicklas, Barbara J; Mihalko, Shannon L; Miller, Gary D; Hunter, David J; Messier, Stephen P

    2017-01-01

    The infrapatellar fat pad (IPFP) represents intra-articular adipose tissue that may contribute to intra-articular inflammation and pain by secretion of proinflammatory cytokines. Here we examined the impact of weight loss by diet and/or exercise interventions on the IPFP volume. Intensive Diet and Exercise for Arthritis (IDEA) was a single-blinded, single-center, 18-month, prospective, randomized controlled trial that enrolled 454 overweight and obese older adults with knee pain and radiographic osteoarthritis. Participants were randomized to 1 of 3 groups: exercise-only control (E), diet-induced weight loss (D), and diet-induced weight loss + exercise (D+E). In a subsample (n = 106; E: n = 36, D: n = 35, and D+E: n = 35), magnetic resonance images were acquired at baseline and at the 18-month follow-up, from which we analyzed IPFP volume, surface areas, and thickness in this secondary analysis. The average weight loss amounted to 1.0% in the E group, 10.5% in the D group, and 13.0% in the D+E group. A significant (p diet and/or exercise, and its reduction was correlated with changes in weight and body fat. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Characterisation of the Mechanical Loads and Metabolic Intensity of the CAPO Kids Exercise Intervention for Healthy Primary School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossana C. Nogueira, Benjamin K. Weeks, Belinda R. Beck

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Sedentarism is associated with obesity and other chronic diseases at all ages. Increasing physical activity with in-school interventions, focusing on energy expenditure and bone loading reduces risk of a number of costly chronic diseases. The aim of the current study was to characterise the metabolic and musculoskeletal load intensity of the recent successful CAPO Kids exercise intervention. Pre and early pubertal children (10.4 ± 0.5 years old from the CAPO Kids trial wore an armband sensor to estimate energy expenditure during a 10-minute CAPO Kids session. Eleven participants performed manoeuvres from the session on a force platform to determine vertical ground reaction forces. In total, 28 boys and 20 girls had armband measures and 11 boys and girls undertook GRF testing. The energy expenditure associated with the 10-minute session was 39.7 ± 9.3 kcal, with an average of 4 kcal·min-1. The intensity of physical activity was ‘vigorous’ to ‘very vigorous’ for 34% of the session. Vertical ground reaction forces of the CAPO Kids manoeuvres ranged from 1.3 ± 0.2 BW (cartwheels to 5.4 ± 2.3 BW (360° jump. CAPO Kids generates adequate load intensity to stimulate positive health adaptations in both metabolic and musculoskeletal systems of pre and early pubertal children.

  11. Long-term lifestyle intervention with optimized high-intensity interval training improves body composition, cardiometabolic risk, and exercise parameters in patients with abdominal obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gremeaux, Vincent; Drigny, Joffrey; Nigam, Anil; Juneau, Martin; Guilbeault, Valérie; Latour, Elise; Gayda, Mathieu

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study was to study the impact of a combined long-term lifestyle and high-intensity interval training intervention on body composition, cardiometabolic risk, and exercise tolerance in overweight and obese subjects. Sixty-two overweight and obese subjects (53.3 ± 9.7 yrs; mean body mass index, 35.8 ± 5 kg/m(2)) were retrospectively identified at their entry into a 9-mo program consisting of individualized nutritional counselling, optimized high-intensity interval exercise, and resistance training two to three times a week. Anthropometric measurements, cardiometabolic risk factors, and exercise tolerance were measured at baseline and program completion. Adherence rate was 97%, and no adverse events occurred with high-intensity interval exercise training. Exercise training was associated with a weekly energy expenditure of 1582 ± 284 kcal. Clinically and statistically significant improvements were observed for body mass (-5.3 ± 5.2 kg), body mass index (-1.9 ± 1.9 kg/m(2)), waist circumference (-5.8 ± 5.4 cm), and maximal exercise capacity (+1.26 ± 0.84 metabolic equivalents) (P high-density lipoprotein ratio were also significantly improved (P body mass and waist circumference loss were baseline body mass index and resting metabolic rate; those for body mass index decrease were baseline waist circumference and triglyceride/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio. A long-term lifestyle intervention with optimized high-intensity interval exercise improves body composition, cardiometabolic risk, and exercise tolerance in obese subjects. This intervention seems safe, efficient, and well tolerated and could improve adherence to exercise training in this population.

  12. Exercise interventions for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ussher, Michael H; Taylor, Adrian H; Faulkner, Guy E J

    2014-08-29

    Taking regular exercise may help people give up smoking by moderating nicotine withdrawal and cravings, and by helping to manage weight gain. To determine whether exercise-based interventions alone, or combined with a smoking cessation programme, are more effective than a smoking cessation intervention alone. We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialized Register in April 2014, and searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, and CINAHL Plus in May 2014. We included randomized trials which compared an exercise programme alone, or an exercise programme as an adjunct to a cessation programme, with a cessation programme (which we considered the control in this review). Studies were required to recruit smokers or recent quitters and have a follow-up of six months or more. Studies that did not meet the full inclusion criteria because they only assessed the acute effects of exercise on smoking behaviour, or because the outcome was smoking reduction, are summarised but not formally included. We extracted data on study characteristics and smoking outcomes. Because of differences between studies in the characteristics of the interventions used we summarized the results narratively, making no attempt at meta-analysis. We assessed risk of selection and attrition bias using standard methodological procedures expected by The Cochrane Collaboration. We identified 20 trials with a total of 5,870 participants. The largest study was an internet trial with 2,318 participants, and eight trials had fewer than 30 people in each treatment arm. Studies varied in the timing and intensity of the smoking cessation and exercise programmes offered. Only one included study was judged to be at low risk of bias across all domains assessed. Four studies showed significantly higher abstinence rates in a physically active group versus a control group at end of treatment. One of these studies also showed a significant benefit for exercise versus control on abstinence at the three-month follow

  13. The effects of a novel high intensity exercise intervention on established markers of cardiovascular disease and health in Scottish adolescent youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duncan S. Buchan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effects of high intensity exercise on physical fitness components and cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors in youth. Forty-one participants (15-17 years were divided into a control and an intervention (high intensity exercise, HIT group. The HIT group (15 boys, 2 girls performed three weekly sessions over seven weeks consisting of either four to six repeats of maximal sprint running with 20-30 s recovery. The control group (20 boys, 4 girls continued their normal activity patterns. All participants had indices of obesity and blood pressure (BP recorded in addition to four physical performance measures pre-and post-intervention: cardiorespiratory fitness, muscular power, sprint speed and agility. In the HIT group, significant improvements in cardiorespiratory fitness (P<0.01 and agility (P<0.05 were noted. Participants in the control group, meanwhile, experienced a significant decrease in counter movement jump performance. These findings demonstrate that brief, intense exercise interventions are useful for improving indices of physical fitness in a short period of time.

  14. Effect of three breakfast interventions on blood glucose during low-intensity exercise performed on a treadmill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Guedes Cocate

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate blood glucose (BG response during a low-intensity activity, preceded by the consumption of three different types of breakfast (BF. Fifteen Physical Education male students of mean age of 22.7 ± 2 years were evaluated. Three BF interventions were carried out on different days :fasting; BF1: cookie, juice, apple, cereal bar or BF2: 400 mL carbohydrate drink 60 minutes before jogging/walking for 1 hour at 50-60% of maximum calculated HR (heart rate. Measurements of BG were taken at 60 and 30 minutes prior to activity and every 20 minutes during exercise. Heart rate, blood pressure (BP and RPE were also monitored. Statistical analysis was by ANOVA with Tukey test and aimed to identify differences both in effect over time and between different BF interventions, to a signifi cance level of P RESUMO O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a resposta da glicose sangüínea (GS ao longo de uma atividade de baixa intensidade, precedida pelo consumo de diferentes tipos de café da manhã (CM. Foram avaliados 15 estudantes Educação Física, do gênero masculino com idade média de 22,7 ± 2 anos. Os avaliados realizaram, em dias diferenciados, três ações de CM (CM0: jejum; CM1: biscoito, suco, maçã, barra de cereal; ou CM2: 400mL de bebida carboidratada 60 minutos antes de um trote/caminhada a 50 – 60% da FC máxima calculada com duração de uma hora. A mensuração da GS ocorreu 60 e 30 minutos antes da atividade e durante intervalos de 20 minutos no exercício. Foram também monitorizadas a FC, pressão arterial (PA e IPE. O tratamento estatístico correspondeu à ANOVA associada ao teste de Tukey, para determinar a existência de diferenças tanto no efeito tempo como entre as ações de CM, com nível de signifi cância de P < 0,05. Os resultados indicaram ausência de diferença na resposta da FC, PA e IPE entre os três procedimentos. A GS apresentou diferença estatística entre o CM1 e o CM2 no per

  15. Motivation and barriers for compliance to high-intensity physical exercise at the workplace: When intervention meets organisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredahl, Thomas Viskum Gjelstrup

    implementation. Furthermore, the results highlight the importance of ensuring legitimacy of the intervention among managers, participants and colleagues. Moreover, the data show it is important to centrally organise, structure, and ensure flexibility in the working day freeing time for participants to attend...... exercise aiming at reducing musculoskeletal disorders. The data are based upon semi‐deductive, thematic, and structured in‐depth interviews with informants with diverse fields of sedentary office work, participating in strength training at the workplace three times 20 minutes per week. Results show...... that attention should be given to the interaction between the management, the employees and the intervention since main barriers for compliance were internal working culture. The results also emphasise the need for a clear connection between implementation intentions from the management and the actual...

  16. Effect of exercise intensity on exercise and post exercise energy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to determine if exercise and post exercise energy expenditure are affected by the intensity of exercise during a set distance of 4km walking and/or jogging. Subjects for this study were 12 moderately obese females with mean fat percentage of 31.7±6.3% and mean age of 38.2±4.6 years. For the low ...

  17. Glucose response to exercise in the post-prandial period is independent of exercise intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shambrook, P; Kingsley, M I; Wundersitz, D W; Xanthos, P D; Wyckelsma, V L; Gordon, B A

    2018-03-01

    This study investigated the acute glucose response to low-intensity, moderate-intensity, and high-intensity interval exercise compared to no-exercise in healthy insufficiently active males using a four-arm, randomized, crossover design. Ten males (age: 37.3 ± 7.3 years, BMI: 29.3 ± 6.5 kg·m -2 ) completed four 30-minute interventions at weekly intervals comprising low-intensity exercise (LIE) at ~35% V˙O 2 R, moderate-intensity exercise (MIE) at ~50% V˙O 2 R, high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE) at ~80% V˙O 2 R, and a no-exercise control. Participants performed cycle ergometer exercise 30 minutes after finishing breakfast. Glucose response was assessed using a continuous glucose monitor under free-living conditions with dietary intake replicated. A significant effect for intensity on energy expenditure was identified (P exercise trial. Glucose response was not different between exercise intensities (P > .05). Twenty-four-hour AUC was not affected by exercise intensity (P = .75). There was a significant effect for exercise enjoyment (P = .02), with LIE (69 ± 4) preferred less than HIIE (mean ± SD: 84 ± 14; P = .02), MIE (73 ± 5; P = .03), and no-exercise (75 ± 4; P = .03). Exercise at any intensity 30 minutes after a meal affects glycemic regulation equally in insufficiently active males. Moderate to vigorous exercise intensities were preferred, and therefore, the exercise guidelines appear appropriate for the prevention of cardiometabolic disease. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Endothelin-1 and Exercise Intensity in Sedentary Adolescents with Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brooke E. Starkoff

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Inactivity combined with obesity during adolescence increases the risk of future cardiovascular disease. The study purpose was to compare the influence of differing intensities of exercise on endothelial function in sedentary adolescents with obesity. Participants were randomized to one of two groups in a 6-week exercise intervention: moderate intensity (MOD or high intensity interval exercise (HIIE. Endothelial function was assessed pre- and post-intervention via fasted serum levels of endothelin-1 (ET-1. Pre-measures of ET-1 concentrations were elevated at baseline. No significant differences in ET-1 were found between or within exercise groups. However, in the HIIE group, ET-1 was inversely associated with percentages of age predicted maximal heart rate achieved during the intervention (p=0.035, r=-0.567. The exercise interventions did not positively change ET-1 levels, yet participants who exercised at higher intensities in the HIIE group experienced greater decreases in ET-1. Keywords: childhood obesity, endothelial function, high intensity interval exercise

  19. Long-term effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of high versus low-to-moderate intensity resistance and endurance exercise interventions among cancer survivors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampshoff, C. S.; van Dongen, J. M.; van Mechelen, W.; Schep, G.; Vreugdenhil, A.; Twisk, J. W.R.; Bosmans, J. E.; Brug, J.; Chinapaw, M. J.M.; Buffart, Laurien M.

    Purpose: This study aimed to evaluate the long-term effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of high intensity (HI) versus low-to-moderate intensity (LMI) exercise on physical fitness, fatigue, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in cancer survivors. Methods: Two hundred seventy-seven cancer

  20. Cognitive Benefits of Exercise Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, T; Ricci, S; Massoni, F; Ricci, L; Rapp-Ricciardi, M

    2016-01-01

    Exercise, as a potent epigenetic regulator, implies the potential to counteract pathophysiological processes and alterations in most cardiovascular/respiratory cells and tissues not withstanding a paucity of understanding the underlying molecular mechanisms and doseresponse relationships. In the present account, the assets accruing from physical exercise and its influence upon executive functioning are examined. Under conditions of neuropsychiatric and neurologic ill-health, age-related deterioration of functional and biomarker indicators during healthy and disordered trajectories, neuroimmune and affective unbalance, and epigenetic pressures, exercise offers a large harvest of augmentations in health and well-being. Both animal models and human studies support the premise of manifest gains from regular exercise within several domains, besides cognitive function and mood, notably as the agency of a noninvasive, readily available therapeutic intervention.

  1. Exercise as a Counseling Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okonski, Verna O.

    2003-01-01

    The focus of wellness counseling is to guide individuals to live a healthy life in which body, mind, and spirit are integrated in order to experience fulfillment and happiness. The purpose of this article is to provide counselors steps to follow when using exercise as a counseling intervention and to provide techniques that will encourage exercise…

  2. High Intensity Exercise in Multiple Sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wens, Inez; Dalgas, Ulrik; Vandenabeele, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Low-to-moderate intensity exercise improves muscle contractile properties and endurance capacity in multiple sclerosis (MS). The impact of high intensity exercise remains unknown. Methods Thirty-four MS patients were randomized into a sedentary control group (SED, n = 11) and 2...... exercise groups that performed 12 weeks of a high intensity interval (HITR, n = 12) or high intensity continuous cardiovascular training (HCTR, n = 11), both in combination with resistance training. M.vastus lateralis fiber cross sectional area (CSA) and proportion, knee-flexor/extensor strength, body...... composition, maximal endurance capacity and self-reported physical activity levels were assessed before and after 12 weeks. Results Compared to SED, 12 weeks of high intensity exercise increased mean fiber CSA (HITR: +21±7%, HCTR: +23±5%). Furthermore, fiber type I CSA increased in HCTR (+29±6%), whereas type...

  3. High-intensity interval training evokes larger serum BDNF levels compared with intense continuous exercise.

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    Saucedo Marquez, Cinthia Maria; Vanaudenaerde, Bart; Troosters, Thierry; Wenderoth, Nicole

    2015-12-15

    Exercise can have a positive effect on the brain by activating brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-related processes. In healthy humans there appears to be a linear relationship between exercise intensity and the positive short-term effect of acute exercise on BDNF levels (i.e., the highest BDNF levels are reported after high-intensity exercise protocols). Here we performed two experiments to test the effectiveness of two high-intensity exercise protocols, both known to improve cardiovascular health, to determine whether they have a similar efficacy in affecting BDNF levels. Participants performed a continuous exercise (CON) protocol at 70% of maximal work rate and a high-intensity interval-training (HIT) protocol at 90% of maximal work rate for periods of 1 min alternating with 1 min of rest (both protocols lasted 20 min). We observed similar BDNF kinetics in both protocols, with maximal BDNF concentrations being reached toward the end of training (experiment 1). We then showed that both exercise protocols significantly increase BDNF levels compared with a rest condition (CON P = 0.04; HIT P exercise are slightly more effective than continuous high-intensity exercise for elevating serum BDNF. Additionally, 73% of the participants preferred the HIT protocol (P = 0.02). Therefore, we suggest that the HIT protocol might represent an effective and preferred intervention for elevating BDNF levels and potentially promoting brain health. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  4. Kinetic Analysis of Horizontal Plyometric Exercise Intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossow, Andrew J; Ebben, William P

    2018-05-01

    Kossow, AJ, DeChiara, TG, Neahous, SM, and Ebben, WP. Kinetic analysis of horizontal plyometric exercise intensity. J Strength Cond Res 32(5): 1222-1229, 2018-Plyometric exercises are frequently performed as part of a strength and conditioning program. Most studies assessed the kinetics of plyometric exercises primarily performed in the vertical plane. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the multiplanar kinetic characteristics of a variety of plyometric exercises, which have a significant horizontal component. This study also sought to assess sex differences in the intensity progression of these exercises. Ten men and 10 women served as subjects. The subjects performed a variety of plyometric exercises including the double-leg hop, standing long jump, single-leg standing long jump, bounding, skipping, power skipping, cone hops, and 45.72-cm hurdle hops. Subjects also performed the countermovement jump for comparison. All plyometric exercises were evaluated using a force platform. Dependent variables included the landing rate of force development and landing ground reaction forces for each exercise in the vertical, frontal, and sagittal planes. A 2-way mixed analysis of variance with repeated-measures for plyometric exercise type demonstrated main effects for exercise type for all dependent variables (p ≤ 0.001). There was no significant interaction between plyometric exercise type and sex for any of the variable assessed. Bonferroni-adjusted pairwise comparisons identified a number of differences between the plyometric exercises for the dependent variables assessed (p ≤ 0.05). These findings should be used to guide practitioners in the progression of plyometric exercise intensity, and thus program design, for those who require significant horizontal power in their sport.

  5. Kinetic quantification of plyometric exercise intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebben, William P; Fauth, McKenzie L; Garceau, Luke R; Petushek, Erich J

    2011-12-01

    Ebben, WP, Fauth, ML, Garceau, LR, and Petushek, EJ. Kinetic quantification of plyometric exercise intensity. J Strength Cond Res 25(12): 3288-3298, 2011-Quantification of plyometric exercise intensity is necessary to understand the characteristics of these exercises and the proper progression of this mode of exercise. The purpose of this study was to assess the kinetic characteristics of a variety of plyometric exercises. This study also sought to assess gender differences in these variables. Twenty-six men and 23 women with previous experience in performing plyometric training served as subjects. The subjects performed a variety of plyometric exercises including line hops, 15.24-cm cone hops, squat jumps, tuck jumps, countermovement jumps (CMJs), loaded CMJs equal to 30% of 1 repetition maximum squat, depth jumps normalized to the subject's jump height (JH), and single leg jumps. All plyometric exercises were assessed with a force platform. Outcome variables associated with the takeoff, airborne, and landing phase of each plyometric exercise were evaluated. These variables included the peak vertical ground reaction force (GRF) during takeoff, the time to takeoff, flight time, JH, peak power, landing rate of force development, and peak vertical GRF during landing. A 2-way mixed analysis of variance with repeated measures for plyometric exercise type demonstrated main effects for exercise type and all outcome variables (p ≤ 0.05) and for the interaction between gender and peak vertical GRF during takeoff (p ≤ 0.05). Bonferroni-adjusted pairwise comparisons identified a number of differences between the plyometric exercises for the outcome variables assessed (p ≤ 0.05). These findings can be used to guide the progression of plyometric training by incorporating exercises of increasing intensity over the course of a program.

  6. Gait Recognition and Walking Exercise Intensity Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bor-Shing Lin

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular patients consult doctors for advice regarding regular exercise, whereas obese patients must self-manage their weight. Because a system for permanently monitoring and tracking patients’ exercise intensities and workouts is necessary, a system for recognizing gait and estimating walking exercise intensity was proposed. For gait recognition analysis, αβ filters were used to improve the recognition of athletic attitude. Furthermore, empirical mode decomposition (EMD was used to filter the noise of patients’ attitude to acquire the Fourier transform energy spectrum. Linear discriminant analysis was then applied to this energy spectrum for training and recognition. When the gait or motion was recognized, the walking exercise intensity was estimated. In addition, this study addressed the correlation between inertia and exercise intensity by using the residual function of the EMD and quadratic approximation to filter the effect of the baseline drift integral of the acceleration sensor. The increase in the determination coefficient of the regression equation from 0.55 to 0.81 proved that the accuracy of the method for estimating walking exercise intensity proposed by Kurihara was improved in this study.

  7. Exercise intensity of cycle-touring events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumayr, G; Pfister, R; Mitterbauer, G; Gaenzer, H; Sturm, W; Eibl, G; Hoertnagl, H

    2002-10-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze the exercise intensity of recreational cyclists participating in a cycling-touring event. In 14 male healthy recreational cyclists heart rate (HR) monitoring was performed during the Otztal Radmarathon 1999 (distance: 230 km; altitude difference: 5500 m) in order to evaluate the HR response and to estimate the cardiopulmonary strains for the less-trained athlete confronted with such a marathon. Four different exercise intensities were defined as percentages of maximal HR (HR(max)) as follows: recovery HR (HR(re)) 90 %. All athletes finished the competition successfully. The mean racing time was 10 h 14 min, the average speed 22.5 km/h. The mean HR(max) was 188 bpm, the average value of the measured HRs (HR(average)) was 145 bpm resulting in a mean HR(average)/HR(max) ratio of 0.77. Athletes spent 18.5 % (1 h 54 min) of total race time within HR(re), 28 % (2 h 52 min) within HR(ma), 39.5 % (4 h 02 min) within HR(ia), and 14 % (1 h 26 min) within HR(an). The vast majority of exercise was done under "aerobic conditions" (HR(re) + HR(ma) + HR(ia) = 86 % or 8 h 48 min) - confirming the knowledge that the aerobic energy supply is crucial for the performance of long-term exercise. The large amount of high exercise intensities (HR(ia) + HR(an) = 53.5 % or 5 h 30 min), however, features the intense cardiopulmonary strains evoked by such competitions. The HR response was related to the course profile with HRs significantly declining in all subjects to an extent of 10 % during the course of race. Our findings show that the exercise intensity borne by recreational cyclists during a cycle-touring event is high and very similar to that of professionals. With respect to the high cardiovascular strains a thorough medical screening is advisable for any participant of such an event combining both high volume and high intensity loads.

  8. Exercise Intensity Modulation of Hepatic Lipid Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio S. Lira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lipid metabolism in the liver is complex and involves the synthesis and secretion of very low density lipoproteins (VLDL, ketone bodies, and high rates of fatty acid oxidation, synthesis, and esterification. Exercise training induces several changes in lipid metabolism in the liver and affects VLDL secretion and fatty acid oxidation. These alterations are even more conspicuous in disease, as in obesity, and cancer cachexia. Our understanding of the mechanisms leading to metabolic adaptations in the liver as induced by exercise training has advanced considerably in the recent years, but much remains to be addressed. More recently, the adoption of high intensity exercise training has been put forward as a means of modulating hepatic metabolism. The purpose of the present paper is to summarise and discuss the merit of such new knowledge.

  9. High-intensity interval running is perceived to be more enjoyable than moderate-intensity continuous exercise: implications for exercise adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Jonathan D; Close, Graeme L; MacLaren, Don P M; Gregson, Warren; Drust, Barry; Morton, James P

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study was to objectively quantify ratings of perceived enjoyment using the Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale following high-intensity interval running versus moderate-intensity continuous running. Eight recreationally active men performed two running protocols consisting of high-intensity interval running (6 × 3 min at 90% VO(2max) interspersed with 6 × 3 min active recovery at 50% VO(2max) with a 7-min warm-up and cool down at 70% VO(2max)) or 50 min moderate-intensity continuous running at 70% VO(2max). Ratings of perceived enjoyment after exercise were higher (P running compared with continuous running (88 ± 6 vs. 61 ± 12) despite higher (P running may be relevant for improving exercise adherence, since running is a low-cost exercise intervention requiring no exercise equipment and similar relative exercise intensities have previously induced health benefits in patient populations.

  10. Impact of Mild versus Moderate Intensity Aerobic Walking Exercise ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-03-01

    Mar 1, 2014 ... Objective: To compare the effects of mild and moderate intensity treadmill walking exercises on markers of bone ... second group (B) received mild intensity aerobic exercise training. ..... Using functional loading to influence.

  11. Carbohydrate Dependence During Prolonged, Intense Endurance Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, John A; Leckey, Jill J

    2015-11-01

    A major goal of training to improve the performance of prolonged, continuous, endurance events lasting up to 3 h is to promote a range of physiological and metabolic adaptations that permit an athlete to work at both higher absolute and relative power outputs/speeds and delay the onset of fatigue (i.e., a decline in exercise intensity). To meet these goals, competitive endurance athletes undertake a prodigious volume of training, with a large proportion performed at intensities that are close to or faster than race pace and highly dependent on carbohydrate (CHO)-based fuels to sustain rates of muscle energy production [i.e., match rates of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) hydrolysis with rates of resynthesis]. Consequently, to sustain muscle energy reserves and meet the daily demands of training sessions, competitive athletes freely select CHO-rich diets. Despite renewed interest in high-fat, low-CHO diets for endurance sport, fat-rich diets do not improve training capacity or performance, but directly impair rates of muscle glycogenolysis and energy flux, limiting high-intensity ATP production. When highly trained athletes compete in endurance events lasting up to 3 h, CHO-, not fat-based fuels are the predominant fuel for the working muscles and CHO, not fat, availability becomes rate limiting for performance.

  12. Low-Intensity Repetitive Exercise Induced Rhabdomyolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Tran

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rhabdomyolysis is a rare condition caused by the proteins of damaged muscle cells entering the bloodstream and damaging the kidneys. Common symptoms of rhabdomyolysis are muscle pain and fatigue in conjunction with dark urine; kidney damage is a common symptom among these patients. We present a case of a 23-year-old woman who displayed myalgia in the upper extremities caused by low-intensity and high-repetition exercise. She was successfully diagnosed and treated for exertional rhabdomyolysis. This patient had no significant medical history that would induce this condition. We urge the emergency medical community to observe and monitor patients that complain of myalgia to ensure they are not suffering from rhabdomyolysis even in atypical cases.

  13. Predictors of Energy Compensation during Exercise Interventions: A Systematic Review

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    Marie-Ève Riou

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Weight loss from exercise-induced energy deficits is usually less than expected. The objective of this systematic review was to investigate predictors of energy compensation, which is defined as body energy changes (fat mass and fat-free mass over the total amount of exercise energy expenditure. A search was conducted in multiple databases without date limits. Of 4745 studies found, 61 were included in this systematic review with a total of 928 subjects. The overall mean energy compensation was 18% ± 93%. The analyses indicated that 48% of the variance of energy compensation is explained by the interaction between initial fat mass, age and duration of exercise interventions. Sex, frequency, intensity and dose of exercise energy expenditure were not significant predictors of energy compensation. The fitted model suggested that for a shorter study duration, lower energy compensation was observed in younger individuals with higher initial fat mass (FM. In contrast, higher energy compensation was noted for younger individuals with lower initial FM. From 25 weeks onward, energy compensation was no longer different for these predictors. For studies of longer duration (about 80 weeks, the energy compensation approached 84%. Lower energy compensation occurs with short-term exercise, and a much higher level of energy compensation accompanies long-term exercise interventions.

  14. Estimation of Exercise Intensity in “Exercise and Physical Activity Reference for Health Promotion”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohkubo, Tomoyuki; Kurihara, Yosuke; Kobayashi, Kazuyuki; Watanabe, Kajiro

    To maintain or promote the health condition of elderly citizens is quite important for Japan. Given the circumstances, the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare has established the standards for the activities and exercises for promoting the health, and quantitatively determined the exercise intensity on 107 items of activities. This exercise intensity, however, requires recording the type and the duration of the activity to be calculated. In this paper, the exercise intensities are estimated using 3D accelerometer for 25 daily activities. As the result, the exercise intensities were estimated to be within the root mean square error of 0.83 METs for all 25 activities.

  15. Acute Impact of Moderate-Intensity and Vigorous-Intensity Exercise Bouts on Daily Physical Activity Energy Expenditure in Postmenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuewen Wang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study determined whether performing a single moderate- or vigorous-intensity exercise bout impacts daily physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE, by accelerometer. Overweight/obese postmenopausal women underwent a 5-month caloric restriction and moderate- (n=18 or vigorous-intensity (n=18 center-based aerobic exercise intervention. During the last month of intervention, in women performing moderate-intensity exercise, PAEE on days with exercise (577.7±219.7 kcal⋅d−1 was higher (P=.011 than on days without exercise (450.7±140.5 kcal⋅d−1; however, the difference (127.0±188.1 kcal⋅d−1 was much lower than the energy expended during exercise. In women performing vigorous-intensity exercise, PAEE on days with exercise (450.6±153.6 kcal⋅d−1 was lower (P=.047 than on days without exercise (519.2±127.4 kcal⋅d−1. Thus, women expended more energy on physical activities outside of prescribed exercise on days they did NOT perform center-based exercise, especially if the prescribed exercise was of a higher intensity.

  16. Estimated Aerobic Capacity Changes in Adolescents with Obesity Following High Intensity Interval Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brooke E. Starkoff

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Vigorous aerobic exercise may improve aerobic capacity (VO2max and cardiometabolic profiles in adolescents with obesity, independent of changes to weight. Our aim was to assess changes in estimated VO2max in obese adolescents following a 6-week exercise program of varying intensities. Adolescents with obesity were recruited from an American mid-west children’s hospital and randomized into moderate exercise (MOD or high intensity interval exercise (HIIE groups for a 6-week exercise intervention, consisting of cycle ergometry for 40 minutes, 3 days per week. Heart rate was measured every two minutes during each exercise session.  Estimated VO2max measured via Åstrand cycle test, body composition, and physical activity (PA enjoyment evaluated via questionnaire were assessed pre/post-intervention. Twenty-seven adolescents (age 14.7±1.5; 17 female, 10 male completed the intervention. Estimated VO2max increased only in the HIIE group (20.0±5.7 to 22.7±6.5 ml/kg/min, p=0.015. The HIIE group also demonstrated increased PA enjoyment, which was correlated with average heart rate achieved during the intervention (r=0.55; p=0.043. Six weeks of HIIE elicited improvements to estimated VO2max in adolescents with obesity. Furthermore, those exercising at higher heart rates demonstrated greater PA enjoyment, implicating enjoyment as an important determinant of VO2max, specifically following higher intensity activities.

  17. Facial feature tracking: a psychophysiological measure to assess exercise intensity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Kathleen H; Clark, Bradley; Périard, Julien D; Goecke, Roland; Thompson, Kevin G

    2018-04-01

    The primary aim of this study was to determine whether facial feature tracking reliably measures changes in facial movement across varying exercise intensities. Fifteen cyclists completed three, incremental intensity, cycling trials to exhaustion while their faces were recorded with video cameras. Facial feature tracking was found to be a moderately reliable measure of facial movement during incremental intensity cycling (intra-class correlation coefficient = 0.65-0.68). Facial movement (whole face (WF), upper face (UF), lower face (LF) and head movement (HM)) increased with exercise intensity, from lactate threshold one (LT1) until attainment of maximal aerobic power (MAP) (WF 3464 ± 3364mm, P exercise intensities (UF minus LF at: LT1, 1048 ± 383mm; LT2, 1208 ± 611mm; MAP, 1401 ± 712mm; P exercise intensity.

  18. EFFECT OF HIGH & LOW INTENSITIES OF AEROBIC EXERCISE ON PHYSICAL FITNESS INDEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhusudhan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Aerobic exercise reduces body fat and improves weight control, increases HDL&Vo2 max. Also improves PFI (physical fitness index which is defined as ability to carry out daily tasks with vigour and alertness without undue fatigue. Though aerobic exercise is found to improve physical fitness, the relative merits of different intensities of aerobi c exercise in improving physical fitness is still uncertain. AIM: The present study was conducted to know the Effect of High & low intensity aerobic training on physical fitness index. MATERIALS & METHODS : 80 sedentary men (18 - 40 years were randomized in to 2 equal groups (High Intensity & low intensity group . The High [80% HR max] & Low intensity [50 % HR max] groups underwent aerobic exercise training using Bicycle ergo meter (COSCO at 900kpm & 540kpm, for 15mins/day & 30mins/day respectively, 5days a week, for a period of 14weeks. Physical fitness index of each subject was recorded by Modified Harvard step test before & after intervention. RESULTS : After 14 weeks of aerobic training both the exercise groups had improvement in PFI, but high intensity gr oup had a significant (p<0.05 improvement in PFI (97.18 - 101.14 than low intensity group (98.12 - 100.6. CONCLUSION : High intensity aerobic exercise is effective in improving physical fitness.

  19. Evidence based exercise - clinical benefits of high intensity interval training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraev, Tim; Barclay, Gabriella

    2012-12-01

    Aerobic exercise has a marked impact on cardiovascular disease risk. Benefits include improved serum lipid profiles, blood pressure and inflammatory markers as well as reduced risk of stroke, acute coronary syndrome and overall cardiovascular mortality. Most exercise programs prescribed for fat reduction involve continuous, moderate aerobic exercise, as per Australian Heart Foundation clinical guidelines. This article describes the benefits of exercise for patients with cardiovascular and metabolic disease and details the numerous benefits of high intensity interval training (HIIT) in particular. Aerobic exercise has numerous benefits for high-risk populations and such benefits, especially weight loss, are amplified with HIIT. High intensity interval training involves repeatedly exercising at a high intensity for 30 seconds to several minutes, separated by 1-5 minutes of recovery (either no or low intensity exercise). HIT is associated with increased patient compliance and improved cardiovascular and metabolic outcomes and is suitable for implementation in both healthy and 'at risk' populations. Importantly, as some types of exercise are contraindicated in certain patient populations and HIIT is a complex concept for those unfamiliar to exercise, some patients may require specific assessment or instruction before commencing a HIIT program.

  20. SALIVARY CORTISOL RESPONSES AND PERCEIVED EXERTION DURING HIGH INTENSITY AND LOW INTENSITY BOUTS OF RESISTANCE EXERCISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison D. Egan

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to measure the salivary cortisol response to different intensities of resistance exercise. In addition, we wanted to determine the reliability of the session rating of perceived exertion (RPE scale to monitor resistance exercise intensity. Subjects (8 men, 9 women completed 2 trials of acute resistance training bouts in a counterbalanced design. The high intensity resistance exercise protocol consisted of six, ten-repetition sets using 75% of one repetition maximum (RM on a Smith machine squat and bench press exercise (12 sets total. The low intensity resistance exercise protocol consisted of three, ten-repetition sets at 30% of 1RM of the same exercises as the high intensity protocol. Both exercise bouts were performed with 2 minutes of rest between each exercise and sessions were repeated to test reliability of the measures. The order of the exercise bouts was randomized with least 72 hours between each session. Saliva samples were obtained immediately before, immediately after and 30 mins following each resistance exercise bout. RPE measures were obtained using Borg's CR-10 scale following each set. Also, the session RPE for the entire exercise session was obtained 30 minutes following completion of the session. There was a significant 97% increase in the level of salivary cortisol immediately following the high intensity exercise session (P<0.05. There was also a significant difference in salivary cortisol of 145% between the low intensity and high intensity exercise session immediately post-exercise (P<0.05. The low intensity exercise did not result in any significant changes in cortisol levels. There was also a significant difference between the session RPE values for the different intensity levels (high intensity 7.1 vs. low intensity 1.9 (P<0.05. The intraclass correlation coefficient for the session RPE measure was 0.95. It was concluded that the session RPE method is a valid and reliable method of

  1. Psychophysiological Responses to Group Exercise Training Sessions: Does Exercise Intensity Matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Vandoni

    Full Text Available Group exercise training programs were introduced as a strategy for improving health and fitness and potentially reducing dropout rates. This study examined the psychophysiological responses to group exercise training sessions. Twenty-seven adults completed two group exercise training sessions of moderate and vigorous exercise intensities in a random and counterbalanced order. The %HRR and the exertional and arousal responses to vigorous session were higher than those during the moderate session (p<0.05. Consequently, the affective responses to vigorous session were less pleasant than those during moderate session (p<0.05. These results suggest that the psychophysiological responses to group exercise training sessions are intensity-dependent. From an adherence perspective, interventionists are encouraged to emphasize group exercise training sessions at a moderate intensity to maximize affective responses and to minimize exertional responses, which in turn may positively affect future exercise behavior.

  2. Heart Rate Variability: Effect of Exercise Intensity on Postexercise Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, David V. B.; Munson, Steven C.; Maldonado-Martin, Sara; De Ste Croix, Mark B. A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the influence of two exercise intensities (moderate and severe) on heart rate variability (HRV) response in 16 runners 1 hr prior to (-1 hr) and at +1 hr, +24 hr, +48 hr, and +72 hr following each exercise session. Time domain indexes and a high frequency component showed a significant decrease…

  3. AFFECTIVE RESPONSES AFTER DIFFERENT INTENSITIES OF EXERCISE IN PATIENTS WITH TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia eRzezak

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI usually have mood and anxiety symptoms secondary to their brain injury. Exercise may be a cost-effective intervention for the regulation of the affective responses of this population. However, there are no studies evaluating the effects of exercise or the optimal intensity of exercise for this clinical group. METHODS: Twelve male patients with moderate or severe TBI [mean age of 31.83 and SD of 9.53] and 12 age- and gender-matched healthy volunteers [mean age of 30.58 and SD of 9.53] participated in two sessions of exercise of high and moderate intensity. Anxiety and mood was evaluated, and subjective assessment of experience pre- and post-exercise was assessed. A mixed between and within-subjects GLM analysis was conducted to compare groups [TBI, control] over condition [baseline, session 1, session 2] allowing for group by condition interaction to be determined. Planned comparisons were also conducted to test study hypotheses.RESULTS: Although no group by condition interaction was observed, planned comparisons indicated that baseline differences between patients and controls in anxiety (Cohens’ d=1.80, tension (d=1.31, depression (d=1.18, anger (d=1.08, confusion (d=1.70, psychological distress (d=1.28 and physical symptoms (d=1.42 disappear after one session of exercise, independently of the intensity of exercise. CONCLUSIONS: A single-section of exercise, regardless of exercise intensity, had a positive effect on the affective responses of patients with TBI both by increasing positive valence feelings and decreasing negative ones. Exercise can be an easily accessible intervention that may alleviate depressive symptoms related to brain injury.

  4. Exercise Training at Maximal Fat Oxidation Intensity for Older Women with Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Sijie; Du, Ping; Zhao, Wanting; Pang, Jiaqi; Wang, Jianxiong

    2018-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the pleiotropic effects of 12 weeks of supervised exercise training at maximal fat oxidation (FATmax) intensity on body composition, lipid profile, glycemic control, insulin sensitivity and serum adipokine levels in older women with type 2 diabetes. Thirty-one women with type 2 diabetes, aged 60 to 69 years, were randomly allocated into exercise and control groups. Body composition, lipid profile, blood glucose, insulin resistance and serum leptin and adiponectin concentrations were measured before and after the intervention. Exercise group (n=16) walked at individualized FATmax intensities for 1 h/day for 3 days/week over 12 weeks. No dietary intervention was introduced during the experimental period. Maximal fat oxidation rate was 0.37±0.10 g/min, and occurred at 37.3±7.3% of the estimated VO 2 max. Within the exercise group, significant improvements were observed for most of the measured variables compared to non-exercising controls; in particular, the FATmax program reduced body fat% (presistance (pchange in daily energy intake for all participants during the intervention period. These results suggest that individualized FATmax training is an effective exercise training intensity for managing type 2 diabetes in older women. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Psychophysiological Responses to Group Exercise Training Sessions: Does Exercise Intensity Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandoni, Matteo; Codrons, Erwan; Marin, Luca; Correale, Luca; Bigliassi, Marcelo; Buzzachera, Cosme Franklim

    2016-01-01

    Group exercise training programs were introduced as a strategy for improving health and fitness and potentially reducing dropout rates. This study examined the psychophysiological responses to group exercise training sessions. Twenty-seven adults completed two group exercise training sessions of moderate and vigorous exercise intensities in a random and counterbalanced order. The %HRR and the exertional and arousal responses to vigorous session were higher than those during the moderate session (psession were less pleasant than those during moderate session (ptraining sessions are intensity-dependent. From an adherence perspective, interventionists are encouraged to emphasize group exercise training sessions at a moderate intensity to maximize affective responses and to minimize exertional responses, which in turn may positively affect future exercise behavior.

  6. Cancer and Exercise: Warburg Hypothesis, Tumour Metabolism and High-Intensity Anaerobic Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Peter

    2018-01-31

    There is ample evidence that regular moderate to vigorous aerobic physical activity is related to a reduced risk for various forms of cancer to suggest a causal relationship. Exercise is associated with positive changes in fitness, body composition, and physical functioning as well as in patient-reported outcomes such as fatigue, sleep quality, or health-related quality of life. Emerging evidence indicates that exercise may also be directly linked to the control of tumour biology through direct effects on tumour-intrinsic factors. Beside a multitude of effects of exercise on the human body, one underscored effect of exercise training is to target the specific metabolism of tumour cells, namely the Warburg-type highly glycolytic metabolism. Tumour metabolism as well as the tumour⁻host interaction may be selectively influenced by single bouts as well as regularly applied exercise, dependent on exercise intensity, duration, frequency and mode. High-intensity anaerobic exercise was shown to inhibit glycolysis and some studies in animals showed that effects on tumour growth might be stronger compared with moderate-intensity aerobic exercise. High-intensity exercise was shown to be safe in patients; however, it has to be applied carefully with an individualized prescription of exercise.

  7. Plasma ghrelin levels during exercise - effects of intensity and duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdmann, Johannes; Tahbaz, Rana; Lippl, Florian; Wagenpfeil, Stefan; Schusdziarra, Volker

    2007-10-04

    Ghrelin, a recently discovered hormone of gastric origin has been shown to stimulate appetite and food intake. In man it is considered to play a role in energy homeostasis and regulation of somatropic function. As exercise affects hunger/satiety sensations and food intake, at least under some experimental conditions, we investigated the effect of exercise intensity and duration on ghrelin release and subsequent ad libitum food intake in normal weight subjects. Bicycle exercise on an ergometer for 30 min at 50 W which was below the aerob-anaerobic threshold led to an increase of ghrelin which remained unchanged during the higher intensity at 100 W. Respective hunger/satiety ratings and subsequent food intake and postprandial ghrelin suppression were identical and not different from controls. In a second group 7 subjects cycled at 50 W for 30, 60 and 120 min, respectively. Ghrelin concentrations rose significantly by 50-70 pg/ml above baseline for the respective period of exercise. While postexercise premeal ghrelin levels were not significantly different subsequent food intake after 120 min of cycling was significantly greater compared to control, 30 min and 60 min exercise, respectively. The present data suggest that low rather than high-intensity exercise stimulates ghrelin levels independent of exercise duration. Stimulation of food intake during prolonged exercise is most likely not due to changes of ghrelin.

  8. Brain reactivity to visual food stimuli after moderate-intensity exercise in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masterson, Travis D; Kirwan, C Brock; Davidson, Lance E; Larson, Michael J; Keller, Kathleen L; Fearnbach, S Nicole; Evans, Alyssa; LeCheminant, James D

    2017-09-19

    Exercise may play a role in moderating eating behaviors. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of an acute bout of exercise on neural responses to visual food stimuli in children ages 8-11 years. We hypothesized that acute exercise would result in reduced activity in reward areas of the brain. Using a randomized cross-over design, 26 healthy weight children completed two separate laboratory conditions (exercise; sedentary). During the exercise condition, each participant completed a 30-min bout of exercise at moderate-intensity (~ 67% HR maximum) on a motor-driven treadmill. During the sedentary session, participants sat continuously for 30 min. Neural responses to high- and low-calorie pictures of food were determined immediately following each condition using functional magnetic resonance imaging. There was a significant exercise condition*stimulus-type (high- vs. low-calorie pictures) interaction in the left hippocampus and right medial temporal lobe (p visual food stimuli differently following an acute bout of exercise compared to a non-exercise sedentary session in 8-11 year-old children. Specifically, an acute bout of exercise results in greater activation to high-calorie and reduced activation to low-calorie pictures of food in both the left hippocampus and right medial temporal lobe. This study shows that response to external food cues can be altered by exercise and understanding this mechanism will inform the development of future interventions aimed at altering energy intake in children.

  9. Exercise intensity modulates the change in cerebral blood flow following aerobic exercise in chronic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Andrew D; Crane, David E; Rajab, A Saeed; Swardfager, Walter; Marzolini, Susan; Shirzadi, Zahra; Middleton, Laura E; MacIntosh, Bradley J

    2015-08-01

    The mechanisms supporting functional improvement by aerobic exercise following stroke remain incompletely understood. This study investigated how cycling intensity and aerobic fitness influence cerebral blood flow (CBF) following a single exercise session. Thirteen community-living stroke survivors performed 20 min of semi-recumbent cycling at low and moderate intensities (40-50 and 60-70 % of heart rate reserve, respectively) as determined from an exercise stress test. CBF was quantified by arterial spin labeling MRI at baseline, as well as 30 and 50 min post-exercise. An intensity-dependent effect was observed in the right post-central and supramarginal gyri up to 50 min after exercise (uncorrected p Aerobic fitness was directly related to posterior cingulate and thalamic CBF, and inversely related to precuneal CBF at rest (R (2) ≥ 0.75); however, no relationship between fitness and the post-exercise change in CBF was observed. Divergent changes in regional CBF were observed in the right parietal cortex following low- and moderate-intensity exercise, which suggests that intensity of prescribed exercise may be useful in optimizing rehabilitation.

  10. High-intensity interval exercise and cerebrovascular health: curiosity, cause, and consequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Samuel J E; Cotter, James D; Brassard, Patrice; Bailey, Damian M

    2015-06-01

    Exercise is a uniquely effective and pluripotent medicine against several noncommunicable diseases of westernised lifestyles, including protection against neurodegenerative disorders. High-intensity interval exercise training (HIT) is emerging as an effective alternative to current health-related exercise guidelines. Compared with traditional moderate-intensity continuous exercise training, HIT confers equivalent if not indeed superior metabolic, cardiac, and systemic vascular adaptation. Consequently, HIT is being promoted as a more time-efficient and practical approach to optimize health thereby reducing the burden of disease associated with physical inactivity. However, no studies to date have examined the impact of HIT on the cerebrovasculature and corresponding implications for cognitive function. This review critiques the implications of HIT for cerebrovascular function, with a focus on the mechanisms and translational impact for patient health and well-being. It also introduces similarly novel interventions currently under investigation as alternative means of accelerating exercise-induced cerebrovascular adaptation. We highlight a need for studies of the mechanisms and thereby also the optimal dose-response strategies to guide exercise prescription, and for studies to explore alternative approaches to optimize exercise outcomes in brain-related health and disease prevention. From a clinical perspective, interventions that selectively target the aging brain have the potential to prevent stroke and associated neurovascular diseases.

  11. The Effect of High-Intensity Intermittent Exercise on Body Composition of Overweight Young Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Heydari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine the effect of a 12-week high intensity intermittent exercise (HIIE intervention on total body, abdominal, trunk, visceral fat mass, and fat free mass of young overweight males. Participants were randomly assigned to either exercise or control group. The intervention group received HIIE three times per week, 20 min per session, for 12 weeks. Aerobic power improved significantly (P0.05 occurred in levels of insulin, HOMA-IR, and blood lipids. Twelve weeks of HIIE resulted in significant reductions in total, abdominal, trunk, and visceral fat and significant increases in fat free mass and aerobic power.

  12. Exercise self-efficacy intervention in overweight and obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Jude

    2016-06-01

    This study investigated the effects of a brief tailored intervention on self-efficacy beliefs and exercise energy expenditure in active and inactive overweight and obese women. Participants were randomly assigned to either control (N = 50) or intervention (N = 47) conditions, and their exercise self-efficacy was assessed three times over a 12-week period. Results showed that the intervention increased schedule, physical, exercise-worries efficacy, and energy expenditure in the previously inactive group. The results suggest that self-efficacy interventions are effective at increasing exercise energy expenditure in inactive overweight and obese women. © The Author(s) 2014.

  13. High intensity exercise or conventional exercise for patients with rheumatoid arthritis? Outcome expectations of patients, rheumatologists, and physiotherapists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munneke, M.; de Jong, Z.; Zwinderman, A. H.; Ronday, H. K.; van den Ende, C. H. M.; Vliet Vlieland, T. P. M.; Hazes, J. M. W.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the outcome expectations of RA patients, rheumatologists, and physiotherapists regarding high intensity exercise programmes compared with conventional exercise programmes. METHODS: An exercise outcome expectations questionnaire was administered to 807 RA patients, 153

  14. Fatigue during high-intensity intermittent exercise: application to bodybuilding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Charles P; Flynn, Michael G

    2002-01-01

    Resistance exercise is an activity performed by individuals interested in competition, those who wish to improve muscle mass and strength for other sports, and for individuals interested in improving their strength and physical appearance. In this review we present information suggesting that phosphocreatine depletion, intramuscular acidosis and carbohydrate depletion are all potential causes of the fatigue during resistance exercise. In addition, recommendations are provided for nutritional interventions, which might delay muscle fatigue during this type of activity.

  15. Moderate-to-high intensity aerobic exercise in patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Kristian S; Sobol, Nanna; Beyer, Nina

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Physical exercise may modulate neuropathology and symptoms of Alzheimer's disease (AD). This pilot study assessed the feasibility of conducting a study of moderate-to-high intensity aerobic exercise in home-dwelling patients with mild AD. METHODS: An uncontrolled preintervention......-postintervention test design with a single group receiving the same intervention. A total of eight patients with mild to moderate AD from the Copenhagen Memory clinic were included in the study. The intervention lasted for 14 weeks and consisted of supervised, 1-h sessions of aerobic exercise three times per week (50......-60% of heart rate reserve for a two-week adaptation period and 70-80 % of heart rate reserve for the remaining 12 weeks) Feasibility was assessed based on acceptability, including attendance and drop-out, safety, and patients' and caregivers' attitudes towards the intervention as well as other relevant...

  16. The Effects of Electrostimulation and Core Exercises on Recovery After High-Intensity Exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmet Mor; Gökhan İpekoğlu; Cansel Arslanoglu; Kursat Acar; Erkal Arslanoglu

    2017-01-01

    Introduction and objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of electrostimulation and core exercises on recovery after high-intensity exercise. Methods: The participants of this study consists of 12 male bodybuilders who regularly train and between the ages 18-30. Tabata high intensity interval training (HIIT) was applied with different recovery methods to the athletes on three different days and the recovery levels of athletes were analysed. Heart rate and blood lacta...

  17. Post-plyometric exercise hypotension and heart rate in normotensive individuals: influence of exercise intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arazi, Hamid; Asadi, Abbas; Rahimzadeh, Mehdi; Moradkhani, Amir-Hossein

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of high, moderate and low intensity plyometric exercise on the post-exercise systolic and diastolic blood pressure and heart rate responses. Ten healthy normotensive men (age, 21.1±0.9 years; height, 175.8±6 cm; and body mass, 69.1±13.6 kg) volunteered to participate in this study and were evaluated for three non-consecutive days in depth jump exercise from 20-cm box (low intensity [LI]), 40-cm box (moderate intensity [MI]) and 60-cm box (high intensity [HI]) for 5 sets of 20 repetitions. After each exercise session, systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and heart rate (HR) were measured every 10 min for a period of 90 min. No significant differences were observed among post-exercise SBP, DBP and HR when the protocols (LI, MI and HI) were compared. The LI and HI protocols showed greater reduction in SBP at 40(th)-70(th) min of post-exercise (~9%), whereas the LI and MI protocols indicated greater reduction in DBP at 10(th)-50(th) min of post exercise (~10%). In addition, the change in the DBP for HI was not significant and the increases in the HR were similar for all intensities. It can be concluded that a plyometric exercise (PE) can reduce SBP and DBP post-exercise and therefore we can say that PE has significant effects for reducing BP and HR or post-exercise hypotension.

  18. Phenylephrine decreases frontal lobe oxygenation at rest but not during moderately intense exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brassard, Patrice; Seifert, Thomas; Wissenberg, Mads

    2010-01-01

    high-intensity exercise (-3%, P=not significant), where PaCO2 decreased 7% (Padministration of phenylephrine reduced ScO2 but that the increased cerebral metabolism needed for moderately intense exercise eliminated that effect....... the administration of phenylephrine during low-intensity exercise (approximately 15%), but this was attenuated (approximately 10%) during high-intensity exercise (Padministration of phenylephrine was attenuated during low-intensity exercise (-5%, P

  19. Effects of exercise intensity and creatine loading on post-resistance exercise hypotension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreno Rodrigues Moreno

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Postexercise hypotension plays an important role in the non-pharmacological treat-ment of hypertension and is characterized by a decrease in blood pressure after a single exercise bout in relation to pre-exercise levels. This study investigated the effects of exercise intensity and creatine monohydrate supplementation on postexercise hypotension, as well as the possible role of blood lactate in this response. Ten normotensive subjects underwent resistance exercise sessions before (BC and after (AC creatine supplementation: 1 muscle endurance (ME consisting of 30 repetitions at 30% of one-repetition maximum; 2 hypertrophy (HP consisting of 8 repetitions at 75% of one-repetition maximum. Blood pressure was measured before and after the exercise bout. Blood lactate was measured after the exercise bout. The HP and ME sessions promoted a decrease in systolic blood pressure (∆ -19 ± 1.0 mmHg; ∆ -15 ± 0.9 mmHg, respectively, P 0.05. In conclusion, resistance exercise intensity did not influence postexercise hypotension. Creatine supplementation attenuated the decrease in blood pressure after resistance exercise. The results suggest the involvement of blood lactate in post-resistance exercise hypotension.

  20. Effects of exercise intensity and creatine loading on post-resistance exercise hypotension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreno Rodrigues Moreno

    2009-01-01

    Postexercise hypotension plays an important role in the non-pharmacological treat-ment of hypertension and is characterized by a decrease in blood pressure after a single exercise bout in relation to pre-exercise levels. This study investigated the effects of exercise intensity and creatine monohydrate supplementation on postexercise hypotension, as well as the possible role of blood lactate in this response. Ten normotensive subjects underwent resistance exercise sessions before (BC and after (AC creatine supplementation: 1 muscle endurance (ME consisting of 30 repetitions at 30% of one-repetition maximum; 2 hypertrophy (HP consisting of 8 repetitions at 75% of one-repetition maximum. Blood pressure was measured before and after the exercise bout. Blood lactate was measured after the exercise bout. The HP and ME sessions promoted a decrease in systolic blood pressure (∆ -19 ± 1.0 mmHg; ∆ -15 ± 0.9 mmHg, respectively, P 0.05. In conclusion, resistance exercise intensity did not influence postexercise hypotension. Creatine supplementation attenuated the decrease in blood pressure after resistance exercise. The results suggest the involvement of blood lactate in post-resistance exercise hypotension.

  1. High-Intensity Intermittent Exercise and Fat Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen H. Boutcher

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of regular aerobic exercise on body fat is negligible; however, other forms of exercise may have a greater impact on body composition. For example, emerging research examining high-intensity intermittent exercise (HIIE indicates that it may be more effective at reducing subcutaneous and abdominal body fat than other types of exercise. The mechanisms underlying the fat reduction induced by HIIE, however, are undetermined. Regular HIIE has been shown to significantly increase both aerobic and anaerobic fitness. HIIE also significantly lowers insulin resistance and results in a number of skeletal muscle adaptations that result in enhanced skeletal muscle fat oxidation and improved glucose tolerance. This review summarizes the results of HIIE studies on fat loss, fitness, insulin resistance, and skeletal muscle. Possible mechanisms underlying HIIE-induced fat loss and implications for the use of HIIE in the treatment and prevention of obesity are also discussed.

  2. Muscle interstitial potassium kinetics during intense exhaustive exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordsborg, Nikolai; Mohr, Magni; Pedersen, Lasse Dannemann

    2003-01-01

    Interstitial K+ ([K+]i) was measured in human skeletal muscle by microdialysis during exhaustive leg exercise, with (AL) and without (L) previous intense arm exercise. In addition, the reproducibility of the [K+]i determinations was examined. Possible microdialysis-induced rupture of the sarcolemma...... was assessed by measurement of carnosine in the dialysate, because carnosine is only expected to be found intracellularly. Changes in [K+]i could be reproduced, when exhaustive leg exercise was performed on two different days, with a between-day difference of approximately 0.5 mM at rest and 1.5 m......M at exhaustion. The time to exhaustion was shorter in AL than in L (2.7 +/- 0.3 vs. 4.0 +/- 0.3 min; P exercise period in AL compared with L (9.2 +/- 0.7 vs. 6.4 +/- 0.9 mM; P

  3. Impact of Mild versus Moderate Intensity Aerobic Walking Exercise ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Patients with hemophilia A have low bone density than healthy controls. It is now widely recognized that physical activity and sports are beneficial for patients with hemophilia. Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the effects of mild and moderate intensity treadmill walking exercises on markers of ...

  4. Acute Effect of Various Exercise Intensities on Cognitive Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceylan, Halil Ibrahim; Saygin, Ozcan

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the acute effect of various exercise intensities on coincidence anticipation timing at different stimulus speeds. Fifteen male students who attend to Faculty of Sport Sciences at Mugla Sitki Kocman University, have been dealing with individual or team sports and having licenses for 5 or more years with no…

  5. High-intensity exercise and recovery during short-term ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To determine the effect of short-term creatine supplementation plus a protein-carbohydrate formula on high-intensity exercise performance and recovery. Design. A repeated-measures, experimental study, employing a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, group comparison design was used.

  6. Exposing College Students to Exercise: The Training Interventions and Genetics of Exercise Response (TIGER) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sailors, Mary H.; Jackson, Andrew S.; McFarlin, Brian K.; Turpin, Ian; Ellis, Kenneth J.; Foreyt, John P.; Hoelscher, Deanna M.; Bray, Molly S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The Training Interventions and Genetics of Exercise Response (TIGER) study is an exercise program designed to introduce sedentary college students to regular physical activity and to identify genetic factors that influence response to exercise. Participants: A multiracial/ethnic cohort (N = 1,567; 39% male), age 18 to 35 years,…

  7. Case Series of a Knowledge Translation Intervention to Increase Upper Limb Exercise in Stroke Rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, Louise A; McMahon, Naoimh E; Tyson, Sarah F; Watkins, Caroline L; Eng, Janice J

    2016-12-01

    Current approaches to upper limb rehabilitation are not sufficient to drive neural reorganization and maximize recovery after stroke. To address this evidence-practice gap, a knowledge translation intervention using the Behaviour Change Wheel was developed. The intervention involves collaboratively working with stroke therapy teams to change their practice and increase therapy intensity by therapists prescribing supplementary self-directed arm exercise. The purposes of this case series are: (1) to provide an illustrative example of how a research-informed process changed clinical practice and (2) to report on staff members' and patients' perceptions of the utility of the developed intervention. A participatory action research approach was used in 3 stroke rehabilitation units in the United Kingdom. The intervention aimed to change 4 therapist-level behaviors: (1) screening patients for suitability for supplementary self-directed arm exercise, (2) provision of exercises, (3) involving family and caregivers in assisting with exercises, and (4) monitoring and progressing exercises. Data on changes in practice were collected by therapy teams using a bespoke audit tool. Utility of the intervention was explored in qualitative interviews with patients and staff. Components of the intervention were successfully embedded in 2 of the 3 stroke units. At these sites, almost all admitted patients were screened for suitability for supplementary self-directed exercise. Exercises were provided to 77%, 70%, and 88% of suitable patients across the 3 sites. Involving family and caregivers and monitoring and progressing exercises were not performed consistently. This case series is an example of how a rigorous research-informed knowledge translation process resulted in practice change. Research is needed to demonstrate that these changes can translate into increased intensity of upper limb exercise and affect patient outcomes. © 2016 American Physical Therapy Association.

  8. BDNF mediates improvements in executive function following a 1-year exercise intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Lynn Leckie

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Executive function declines with age, but engaging in aerobic exercise may attenuate decline. One mechanism by which aerobic exercise may preserve executive function is through the up-regulation of brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF, which also declines with age. The present study examined BDNF as a mediator of the effects of a 1-year walking intervention on executive function in 90 older adults (mean age = 66.82. Participants were randomized to a stretching and toning control group or a moderate intensity walking intervention group. BDNF serum levels and performance on a task-switching paradigm were collected at baseline and follow-up. We found that age moderated the effect of intervention group on changes in BDNF levels, with those in the highest age quartile showing the greatest increase in BDNF after 1-year of moderate intensity walking exercise (p = .036. The mediation analyses revealed that BDNF mediated the effect of the intervention on task-switch accuracy, but did so as a function of age, such that exercise-induced changes in BDNF mediated the effect of exercise on task-switch performance only for individuals over the age of 71. These results demonstrate that both age and BDNF serum levels are important factors to consider when investigating the mechanisms by which exercise interventions influence cognitive outcomes, particularly in elderly populations.

  9. Nutritional interventions and the IL-6 response to exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennigar, Stephen R; McClung, James P; Pasiakos, Stefan M

    2017-09-01

    IL-6 is a pleiotropic cytokine with a wide range of biologic effects. In response to prolonged exercise, IL-6 is synthesized by contracting skeletal muscle and released into circulation. Circulating IL-6 is thought to maintain energy status during exercise by acting as an energy sensor for contracting muscle and stimulating glucose production. If tissue damage occurs, immune cells infiltrate and secrete cytokines, including IL-6, to repair skeletal muscle damage. With adequate rest and nutrition, the IL-6 response to exercise is attenuated as skeletal muscle adapts to training. However, sustained elevations in IL-6 due to repeated bouts of unaccustomed activities or prolonged exercise with limited rest may result in untoward physiologic effects, such as accelerated muscle proteolysis and diminished nutrient absorption, and may impair normal adaptive responses to training. Recent intervention studies have explored the role of mixed meals or carbohydrate, protein, ω-3 fatty acid, or antioxidant supplementation in mitigating exercise-induced increases in IL-6. Emerging evidence suggests that sufficient energy intake before exercise is an important factor in attenuating exercise-induced IL-6 by maintaining muscle glycogen. We detail various nutritional interventions that may affect the IL-6 response to exercise in healthy human adults and provide recommendations for future research exploring the role of IL-6 in the adaptive response to exercise.-Hennigar, S. R., McClung, J. P., Pasiakos, S. M. Nutritional interventions and the IL-6 response to exercise. © FASEB.

  10. Intensive Exercise Training During Bed Rest Attenuates Deconditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, John E.

    1997-01-01

    Intensive exercise training during bed rest attenuates deconditioning. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 29, No. 2, pp. 207-215, 1997. A 30-d 6 deg head-down bed rest project was conducted to evaluate variable high-intensity, short-duration, isotonic cycle ergometer exercise (ITE) training and high-intensity intermittent resistive isokinetic exercise (IKE) training regimens designed to maintain peak VO2 and muscle mass, strength, and endurance at ambulatory control levels throughout prolonged bed rest. Other elements of the deconditioning (adaptive) syndrome, such as proprioception, psychological performance, hypovolemia, water balance, body composition, and orthostatic tolerance, were also measured. Major findings are summarized in this paper. Compared with response during bed rest of the no exercise (NOE) control group: the ITE training regimen (a) maintained work capacity (peak VO2), (b) maintained plasma and red cell volumes, (c) induced positive body water balance, (d) decreased quality of sleep and mental concentration, and (e) had no effect on the decrease in orthostatic tolerance; the IKE training regimen (f) attenuated the decrease in peak VO2 by 50%, (g) attenuated loss of red cell volume by 40% but had no effect on loss of plasma volume, (b) induced positive body water balance, (i) had no adverse effect on quality of sleep or concentration, and 0) had no effect on the decrease in orthostatic tolerance. These findings suggest that various elements of the deconditioning syndrome can be manipulated by duration and intensity of ITE or IKE training regimens and that several different training protocols will be required to maintain or restore physiological and psychological performance of individuals confined to prolonged bed rest.

  11. High-intensity interval exercise and cerebrovascular health: curiosity, cause, and consequence

    OpenAIRE

    Lucas, Samuel J E; Cotter, James D; Brassard, Patrice; Bailey, Damian M

    2015-01-01

    Exercise is a uniquely effective and pluripotent medicine against several noncommunicable diseases of westernised lifestyles, including protection against neurodegenerative disorders. High-intensity interval exercise training (HIT) is emerging as an effective alternative to current health-related exercise guidelines. Compared with traditional moderate-intensity continuous exercise training, HIT confers equivalent if not indeed superior metabolic, cardiac, and systemic vascular adaptation. Con...

  12. Creatine kinase response to high-intensity aerobic exercise in adult-onset muscular dystrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Søren P; Sveen, Marie-Louise; Hansen, Regitze S

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the effect of high-intensity exercise on plasma creatine kinase (CK) in patients with muscular dystrophies.......We investigated the effect of high-intensity exercise on plasma creatine kinase (CK) in patients with muscular dystrophies....

  13. High intensity interval exercise training in overweight young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sijie, T; Hainai, Y; Fengying, Y; Jianxiong, W

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this study was intended to evaluate the effects of a high intensity interval training (HIIT) program on the body composition, cardiac function and aerobic capacity in overweight young women. Sixty female university students (aged 19-20, BMI≥25kg/m2 and percentage body fat ≥ 30%) were chosen and then randomly assigned to each of the HIIT group, the moderate intensity continuous training (MICT) group and the non-training control group. The subjects in both the HIIT and MICT groups underwent exercise training five times per week for 12 weeks. In each of the training sessions, the HIIT group performed interval exercises at the individualized heart rate (HR) of 85% of VO2max and separated by brief periods of low intensity activity (HR at 50% of VO2max), while the MICT group did continuous walking and/or jogging at the individualized HR of 50% of VO2max. Both of these exercise training programs produced significant improvements in the subjects' body composition, left ventricular ejection fraction, heart rate at rest, maximal oxygen uptake and ventilatory threshold. However, the HIIT group achieved better results than those in the MICT group, as it was evaluated by the amount of the effect size. The control group did not achieve any change in all of the measured variables. The tangible results achieved by our relatively large groups of homogeneous subjects have demonstrated that the HIIT program is an effective measure for the treatment of young women who are overweight.

  14. High-Intensity Interval Training Elicits Higher Enjoyment than Moderate Intensity Continuous Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thum, Jacob S.; Parsons, Gregory; Whittle, Taylor

    2017-01-01

    Exercise adherence is affected by factors including perceptions of enjoyment, time availability, and intrinsic motivation. Approximately 50% of individuals withdraw from an exercise program within the first 6 mo of initiation, citing lack of time as a main influence. Time efficient exercise such as high intensity interval training (HIIT) may provide an alternative to moderate intensity continuous exercise (MICT) to elicit substantial health benefits. This study examined differences in enjoyment, affect, and perceived exertion between MICT and HIIT. Twelve recreationally active men and women (age = 29.5 ± 10.7 yr, VO2max = 41.4 ± 4.1 mL/kg/min, BMI = 23.1 ± 2.1 kg/m2) initially performed a VO2max test on a cycle ergometer to determine appropriate workloads for subsequent exercise bouts. Each subject returned for two additional exercise trials, performing either HIIT (eight 1 min bouts of cycling at 85% maximal workload (Wmax) with 1 min of active recovery between bouts) or MICT (20 min of cycling at 45% Wmax) in randomized order. During exercise, rating of perceived exertion (RPE), affect, and blood lactate concentration (BLa) were measured. Additionally, the Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale (PACES) was completed after exercise. Results showed higher enjoyment (p = 0.013) in response to HIIT (103.8 ± 9.4) versus MICT (84.2 ± 19.1). Eleven of 12 participants (92%) preferred HIIT to MICT. However, affect was lower (pHIIT versus MICT. Although HIIT is more physically demanding than MICT, individuals report greater enjoyment due to its time efficiency and constantly changing stimulus. Trial Registration: NCT:02981667. PMID:28076352

  15. High-Intensity Interval Training Elicits Higher Enjoyment than Moderate Intensity Continuous Exercise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob S Thum

    Full Text Available Exercise adherence is affected by factors including perceptions of enjoyment, time availability, and intrinsic motivation. Approximately 50% of individuals withdraw from an exercise program within the first 6 mo of initiation, citing lack of time as a main influence. Time efficient exercise such as high intensity interval training (HIIT may provide an alternative to moderate intensity continuous exercise (MICT to elicit substantial health benefits. This study examined differences in enjoyment, affect, and perceived exertion between MICT and HIIT. Twelve recreationally active men and women (age = 29.5 ± 10.7 yr, VO2max = 41.4 ± 4.1 mL/kg/min, BMI = 23.1 ± 2.1 kg/m2 initially performed a VO2max test on a cycle ergometer to determine appropriate workloads for subsequent exercise bouts. Each subject returned for two additional exercise trials, performing either HIIT (eight 1 min bouts of cycling at 85% maximal workload (Wmax with 1 min of active recovery between bouts or MICT (20 min of cycling at 45% Wmax in randomized order. During exercise, rating of perceived exertion (RPE, affect, and blood lactate concentration (BLa were measured. Additionally, the Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale (PACES was completed after exercise. Results showed higher enjoyment (p = 0.013 in response to HIIT (103.8 ± 9.4 versus MICT (84.2 ± 19.1. Eleven of 12 participants (92% preferred HIIT to MICT. However, affect was lower (p<0.05 and HR, RPE, and BLa were higher (p<0.05 in HIIT versus MICT. Although HIIT is more physically demanding than MICT, individuals report greater enjoyment due to its time efficiency and constantly changing stimulus.NCT:02981667.

  16. The impact of high and low-intensity exercise in adolescents with movement impairment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Liu

    Full Text Available Five to six percent of young people have movement impairment (MI associated with reduced exercise tolerance and physical activity levels which persist into adulthood. To better understand the exercise experience in MI, we determined the physiological and perceptual responses during and following a bout of exercise performed at different intensities typically experienced during sport in youth with MI. Thirty-eight adolescents (11-18 years categorised on the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency-2 Short-Form performed a peak oxygen uptake bike test ([Formula: see text] test at visit 1 (V1. At visits 2 (V2 and 3 (V3, participants were randomly assigned to both low-intensity (LI 30min exercise at 50% peak power output (PPO50% and high-intensity (HI 30s cycling at PPO100%, interspersed with 30s rest, for 30min protocol (matched for total work. Heart rate (HR and rating of perceived exertion (RPE for legs, breathing and overall was measured before, during and at 1, 3 and 7-min post-exercise (P1, P3, P7. There was a significant difference in [Formula: see text] between groups (MI:31.5±9.2 vs. NMI:40.0±9.5ml⋅kg-1⋅min-1, p0.05. Both groups experienced similar RPE for breathing and overall (MI:7.0±3.0 vs. NMI:6.0±2.0, p>0.05 at both intensities, but reported higher legs RPE towards the end (p<0.01. Significant differences were found in HRrecovery at P1 post-HI (MI:128±25.9 vs. NMI:154±20.2, p<0.05 but not for legs RPE. Perceived fatigue appears to limit exercise in youth with MI in both high and low-intensity exercise types. Our findings suggest interventions reducing perceived fatigue during exercise may improve exercise tolerance and positively impact on engagement in physical activities.

  17. Effect the exercise program on neuropathic pain intensity in patients with paraplegia Spinal Cord Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedghi Goyaghaj N

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Patients with spinal cord injury suffer from continuous and persistent neuropathic pain that has a destructive impact on their quality of life. Exercise therapy is one of the non-pharmacological interventions that is recommended to control chronic pain, This study aimed to determine the effect of exercise program on neuropathic pain intensity in patients with paraplegia Spinal Cord Injury. Materials and Method: This study is a clinical trial.that population was the all of the patients with spinal cord injury, who referred to one of the educational hospitals in Tehran in 2014, 40 patient were selected based on purposive sampling and were randomly allocated into two groups of experimental and control. Exercise program for paraplegia spinal cord injury was implemented in experimental group during twelve 45-60minutes sessions, twice a week. Data collection was done before and one week after the intervention through using personal information form and, The International Spinal Cord Injury Pain Basic Data Set. Data were analyzed with statistical software SPSS19 and Fisher's exact test, Independent samples T-test Paired T-test and Chi square. Results: The mean score of neuropathic pain intensity before the intervention was 8.05 ± 1.51 in intervention group and 7.57 ± 1.21 in the control group. These amounts after the intervention were 5.55 ± 1.61 and 7.37 ± 1.05 respectively (p < 0.001. Conclusion: Results showed that the regular exercise program can reduce neuropathic pain severity in patients with spinal cord injuries and it can be recommended as a non-pharmacological method of pain control in these patients.

  18. Benefits of different intensity of aerobic exercise in modulating body composition among obese young adults: a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Chih-Hui; Ko, Ming-Chen; Wu, Long-Shan; Yeh, Ding-Peng; Kan, Nai-Wen; Lee, Po-Fu; Hsieh, Jenn-Woei; Tseng, Ching-Yu; Ho, Chien-Chang

    2017-08-24

    The aim of present study was to compare the effects of different aerobic exercise intensities and energy expenditures on the body composition of sedentary obese college students in Taiwan. Forty-eight obese participants [body mass index (BMI) ≥ 27 kg/m 2 , age 18-26 years] were randomized into four equal groups (n = 12): light-intensity training group (LITG), 40%-50% heart rate reserve (HRR); middle-intensity training group (MITG), 50%-70% HRR; high-intensity training group (HITG), 70%-80% HRR; and control group (CG). The aerobic exercise training program was conducted for 60 min per day on a treadmill 3 days per week for 12 weeks. All participant anthropometric data, blood biochemical parameters, and health-related physical fitness components were measured at baseline and after 12 weeks. At baseline, the anthropometric indices did not differ significantly among the four groups (p > 0.05). After 12-week exercise intervention, the HITG and MITG had significantly more changes in body weight, waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) than the LITG. The changes in BMI and body fat percentage differed among all four groups (p exercise intervention with high energy expenditure can considerably reduce body weight, body fat, WC, WHR, and WHtR, whereas a light-intensity exercise intervention can significantly reduce body weight and body fat. Current Controlled Trials TPECTR09831410900 , registered on 24 th Dec 2009.

  19. IMPROVING THE REPORTING OF THERAPEUTIC EXERCISE INTERVENTIONS IN REHABILITATION RESEARCH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Phil; Hoogenboom, Barb; Voight, Michael

    2017-04-01

    The foundation of evidence-based practice lies in clinical research, which is based on the utilization of the scientific method. The scientific method requires that all details of the experiment be provided in publications to support replication of the study in order to evaluate and validate the results. More importantly, clinical research can only be translated into practice when researchers provide explicit details of the study. Too often, rehabilitation exercise intervention studies lack the appropriate detail to allow clinicians to replicate the exercise protocol in their patient populations. Therefore, the purpose of this clinical commentary is to provide guidelines for optimal reporting of therapeutic exercise interventions in rehabilitation research. 5.

  20. Interventions for promoting habitual exercise in people living with and beyond cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourke, Liam; Homer, Kate E; Thaha, Mohamed A; Steed, Liz; Rosario, Derek J; Robb, Karen A; Saxton, John M; Taylor, Stephanie J C

    2013-09-24

    cannot be safely excluded without assessment of the full text (e.g. when no abstract is available). All eligible papers were formally abstracted by at least two members of the review author team working independently (LB and KH) and using the data collection form. When possible, and if appropriate, we performed a fixed-effect meta-analysis of study outcomes. For continuous outcomes (e.g. cardiorespiratory fitness), we extracted the final value, the standard deviation of the outcome of interest and the number of participants assessed at follow-up in each treatment arm, to estimate standardised mean difference (SMD) between treatment arms. SMD was used, as investigators used heterogeneous methods to assess individual outcomes. If a meta-analysis was not possible or was not appropriate, we synthesised studies as a narrative. Fourteen trials were included in this review, involving a total of 648 participants. Only studies involving breast, prostate or colorectal cancer were identified as eligible. Just six trials incorporated a target level of exercise that could meet current recommendations. Only three trials were identified that attempted to objectively validate independent exercise behaviour with accelerometers or heart rate monitoring. Adherence to exercise interventions, which is crucial for understanding treatment dose, is often poorly reported. It is important to note that the fundamental metrics of exercise behaviour (i.e. frequency, intensity and duration, repetitions, sets and intensity of resistance training), although easy to devise and report, are seldom included in published clinical trials.None of the included trials reported that 75% or greater adherence (the stated primary outcome for this review) of the intervention group met current aerobic exercise recommendations at any given follow-up. Just two trials reported six weeks of resistance exercise behaviour that would meet the guideline recommendations. However, three trials reported adherence of 75% or

  1. Muscle oxygen kinetics at onset of intense dynamic exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangsbo, J; Krustrup, P; González-Alonso, J

    2000-01-01

    The present study examined the onset and the rate of rise of muscle oxidation during intense exercise in humans and whether oxygen availability limits muscle oxygen uptake in the initial phase of intense exercise. Six subjects performed 3 min of intense one-legged knee-extensor exercise [65.3 +/-...

  2. Sweating away depression? The impact of intensive exercise on depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balchin, Ross; Linde, Jani; Blackhurst, Dee; Rauch, Hg Laurie; Schönbächler, Georg

    2016-08-01

    In periods of prolonged stress and pain the body produces endorphins to help endure pain. The PANIC system is built on the same pathways as the pain system and is characterized by behaviour that looks like depression. The term 'mental pain' in the context of feelings of loss is arguably justified in light of this relationship between the physical pain and social loss systems. It is reasonable to expect that endorphin release ameliorates depression. Moderately depressed males (n=30) were randomly assigned to one of three groups of varying exercise intensity. Each underwent a six-week exercise programme for three days per week, one hour per day. The HAM-D, MADRS, and ANPS were administered weekly and β-endorphin levels measured. Moderate- and high-intensity exercise improved depression levels, while very-low intensity exercise did not have as beneficial an effect. β-endorphin results were inconclusive. Participants showed a slight decrease in PANIC and FEAR, and increased SEEKING. The potential insensitivity of the assays that were utilized, and the known problems with measuring β-endorphins, may have contributed to the findings. The lack of a state measure of the basic emotion systems is problematic, as a trait measure has to be relied upon, and this likely affected the ability to accurately detect changes over time. The demonstrated improvements in depressive symptoms have important implications for the clinical treatment of patients despite the hypothesis that the PANIC system is involved in the genesis and maintenance of depression not having been conclusively confirmed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of exercise amount and intensity on abdominal obesity and glucose tolerance in obese adults: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Robert; Hudson, Robert; Stotz, Paula J; Lam, Miu

    2015-03-03

    Exercise reduces obesity and related glucose tolerance, but whether increasing exercise intensity offers additional benefit at fixed exercise amounts is unknown. To determine the separate effects of exercise amount and intensity on abdominal obesity and glucose tolerance. 24-week, single-center, parallel-group trial from 2009 to 2013. (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00955071). Kingston, Ontario, Canada. 300 abdominally obese adults. Control (no exercise) (n = 75) or 5 weekly sessions of low-amount, low-intensity exercise (LALI) (180 and 300 kcal/session for women and men, respectively, at 50% of maximum oxygen consumption [V̇o2peak]) (n = 73); high-amount, low-intensity exercise (HALI) (360 and 600 kcal/session, respectively, at 50% of V̇o2peak) (n = 76); or high-amount, high-intensity exercise (HAHI) (360 and 600 kcal/session, respectively, at 75% of V̇o2peak) (n = 76). Daily unsupervised physical activity and sedentary time were measured by accelerometer. Waist circumference and 2-hour glucose level (primary outcomes) and cardiorespiratory fitness and measures of insulin action (secondary measurements). 217 participants (72.3%) completed the intervention. Mean exercise time in minutes per session was 31 (SD, 4.4) for LALI, 58 (SD, 7.6) for HALI, and 40 (SD, 6.2) for HAHI. Daily unsupervised physical activity and sedentary time did not change in any exercise group versus control (P > 0.33). After adjustment for age and sex in a linear mixed model, reductions in waist circumference were greater in the LALI (-3.9 cm [95% CI, -5.6 to -2.3 cm]; P exercise groups (P > 0.43). After adjustment for covariates, reductions in 2-hour glucose level were greater in the HAHI group (-0.7 mmol/L [-12.5 mg/dL] [CI, -1.3 to -0.1 mmol/L {-23.5 to -1.5 mg/dL}]; P = 0.027) than the control group but did not differ for the LALI or HALI group versus the control group (P > 0.159). Weight loss was greater in all exercise groups than the control group (P exercise groups (P > 0.182). The

  4. Exercise motivation: a cross-sectional analysis examining its relationships with frequency, intensity, and duration of exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Philip M

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is important to engage in regular physical activity in order to maintain a healthy lifestyle however a large portion of the population is insufficiently active. Understanding how different types of motivation contribute to exercise behavior is an important first step in identifying ways to increase exercise among individuals. The current study employs self-determination theory as a framework from which to examine how motivation contributes to various characteristics of exercise behavior. Methods Regular exercisers (N = 1079; n = 468 males; n = 612 females completed inventories which assessed the frequency, intensity, and duration with which they exercise, as well as the Behavioral Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire including four additional items assessing integrated regulation. Results Bivariate correlations revealed that all three behavioral indices (frequency, intensity, and duration of exercise were more highly correlated with more autonomous than controlling regulations. Regression analyses revealed that integrated and identified regulations predicted exercise frequency for males and females. Integrated regulation was found to be the only predictor of exercise duration across both genders. Finally, introjected regulation predicted exercise intensity for females only. Conclusions These findings suggest that exercise regulations that vary in their degree of internalization can differentially predict characteristics of exercise behavior. Furthermore, in the motivational profile of a regular exerciser, integrated regulation appears to be an important determinant of exercise behavior. These results highlight the importance of assessing integrated regulation in exercise settings where the goal of understanding motivated behavior has important health implications.

  5. Strength and Cardiorespiratory Exercise Rehabilitation for Severely Burned Patients During Intensive Care Units: A Survey of Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambiaso-Daniel, Janos; Parry, Ingrid; Rivas, Eric; Kemp-Offenberg, Jennifer; Sen, Soman; Rizzo, Julie A; Serghiou, Michael A; Kowalske, Karen; Wolf, Steven E; Herndon, David N; Suman, Oscar E

    2018-03-22

    Minimizing the deconditioning of burn injury through early rehabilitation programs (RP) in the intensive care unit (ICU) is of importance for improving the recovery time. The aim of this study was to assess current standard of care (SOC) for early ICU exercise programs in major burn centers. We designed a survey investigating exercise RP on the ICU for burn patients with >30% total burned surface area. The survey was composed of 23 questions and submitted electronically via SurveyMonkey® to six major (pediatric and adult) burn centers in Texas and California. All centers responded and reported exercise as part of their RP on the ICU. The characteristics of exercises implemented were not uniform. All centers reported to perform resistive and aerobic exercises but only 83% reported isotonic and isometric exercises. Determination of intensity of exercise varied with 50% of centers using patient tolerance and 17% using vital signs. Frequency of isotonic, isometric, aerobic, and resistive exercise was reported as daily by 80%, 80%, 83%, and 50% of centers, respectively. Duration for all types of exercises was extremely variable. Mobilization was used as a form of exercise by 100% of burn centers. Our results demonstrate that although early RP seem to be integral during burn survivor's ICU stay, no SOC exists. Moreover, early RP are inconsistently administered and large variations exist in frequency, intensity, duration, and type of exercise. Thus, future prospective studies investigating the various components of exercise interventions are needed to establish a SOC and determine how and if early exercise benefits the burn survivor.

  6. Pragmatic randomised controlled trial of preferred intensity exercise in women living with depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morres Ioannis

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exercise may be effective in treating depression, but trials testing its effect in depressed women are rare. Aim To compare the effect of exercise of preferred intensity with exercise of prescribed intensity in thirty-eight women living with depression. Methods A Pragmatic RCT of 12 sessions of exercise at preferred intensity compared with 12 sessions at prescribed intensity. Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale (RSES, General Health Questionnaire 12 (GHQ-12, heart rate (HR, Rating of Perceived Exertion Scale (RPE, Quality of Life in Depression Scale (QLDS, Multi-Dimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MDSPSS, SF12 Health Survey and exercise participation rates were compared between groups. Results Intervention participants had statistically better BDI (t = 2.638, df = 36, p = 0.006, 95% mean (SD 26.5 (10.7, CI-20.4 to -2.7, d = 0.86, GHQ-12 (t = 3.284, df = 36, p = 0.001, mean (SD 8.3 (3.7 95% CI -6.5 to -1.5, d = 1.08, RSES (t = 2.045, df = 36, p = 0.024, mean (SD 11.3 (5.8, 95% CI 0.3 -6.4, d = 0.25, QLDS (t = 1.902, df = 36, p = 0.0325, mean (SD 15.5 (7.9, 95% CI -12.2 -0.4, d = 0.27 RPE scores (t = 1.755, df = 36, p = 0.0475, mean (SD 9.2 (3.2, 95% CI -.5 - 5.2, d = 0.77 and attended more exercise sessions (t = 1.781, df = 36, p = 0.0415, number of sessions 8 (65%, 95% CI-0.3 -4.8, d = 0.58. SF-12, MSPSS and HR did not differ significantly between groups. Conclusions Exercise of preferred intensity improves psychological, physiological and social outcomes, and exercise participation rates in women living with depression. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00546221

  7. PGC-1α and exercise intensity dependent adaptations in mouse skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Nina; Dethlefsen, Maja Munk; Bangsbo, Jens

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the role of PGC-1α in intensity dependent exercise and exercise training-induced metabolic adaptations in mouse skeletal muscle. Whole body PGC-1α knockout (KO) and littermate wildtype (WT) mice performed a single treadmill running bout at either low...... intensity dependent increases in LC3I and LC3II protein and intensity independent decrease in p62 protein in skeletal muscle late in recovery and increased LC3II with exercise training independent of exercise intensity and volume in WT mice. Furthermore, acute exercise and exercise training did not increase...... LC3I and LC3II protein in PGC-1α KO. In addition, exercise-induced mRNA responses of PGC-1α isoforms were intensity dependent. In conclusion, these findings indicate that exercise intensity affected autophagy markers differently in skeletal muscle and suggest that PGC-1α regulates both acute...

  8. Dropouts and Compliance in Exercise Interventions Targeting Bone Mineral Density in Adults: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George A. Kelley

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Dropouts and compliance to exercise interventions targeting bone mineral density (BMD in adults are not well established. The purpose of this study was to address that gap. Methods. Meta-analysis of randomized controlled exercise intervention trials in adults ≥18 years of age. The primary outcomes were dropouts in the exercise and control groups as well as compliance to the exercise interventions. A random-effects model was used to pool results. Moderator analyses were conducted using mixed-effects ANOVA-like models and metaregression. Statistical significance was set at . Results. Thirty-six studies representing 3,297 participants (1,855 exercise, 1,442 control were included. Dropout rates in the exercise and control groups averaged 20.9% (95% CI 16.7%–25.9% and 15.9% (11.8%–21.1% while compliance to exercise was 76.3% (71.7%–80.3%. For both exercise and control groups, greater dropout rates were associated with studies conducted in the USA versus other countries, females versus males, premenopausal versus postmenopausal women, younger versus older participants, longer studies (controls only, and high- versus moderate-intensity training (exercisers only. Greater compliance to exercise was associated with being female, home- or facility-based exercise versus both, and shorter studies. Conclusion. These findings provide important information for researchers and practitioners with respect to exercise programs targeting BMD in adults.

  9. [Influence of an 8-week exercise intervention on body composition, physical fitness, and mental health in female nursing students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Fumio; Yamada, Hisao; Morikawa, Sachiko

    2013-03-01

    To determine the effectiveness of habitual exercise on the health promotion of college students, we measured the body composition and physical fitness of female nursing students before (Pre) and after (Post) an 8-week low-intensity exercise intervention. We also conducted a questionnaire survey of their mental health condition before and at every 4 weeks during the intervention. The quantity of physical exercise increased (P exercise intervention did not alter the body weight, but decreased the body fat (Pre, 26.8 ± 0.5%; Post, 24.9 ± 0.5%, P health were significantly raised by the intervention. These results suggest that habitual exercise for 8 weeks was effective for the promotion of physical and mental health in female nursing students.

  10. Exercise-based smoking cessation interventions among women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linke, Sarah E; Ciccolo, Joseph T; Ussher, Michael; Marcus, Bess H

    2013-01-01

    Although smoking rates are lower among women than men, women are less likely to quit smoking in cessation trials. This is in part due to their tendency to smoke to help prevent or mitigate negative mood/affect, depression and/or postcessation weight gain. Exercise helps to alleviate women's fear of postcessation weight gain and reduces their cessation-related mood symptoms, making it a theoretically ideal smoking cessation intervention for women. In addition, short bouts of exercise decrease cigarette cravings and withdrawal symptoms among temporarily abstinent smokers. However, results from exercise-based smoking cessation interventions to date have been mostly nonsignificant. This paper describes the theoretical mechanisms (psychological, behavioral, physiological and neurobiological) and practical reasons underlying our belief that exercise-based smoking cessation interventions should not yet be abandoned despite their current paucity of supporting evidence. It also presents ideas for modifying future exercise-based smoking cessation interventions to increase adherence and, as a result, more accurately evaluate the effect of exercise on smoking cessation.

  11. Acute Exercise-Associated Skin Surface Temperature Changes after Resistance Training with Different Exercise Intensities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Weigert

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies showed, that changes in muscular metabolic-associated heat production and blood circulation during and after muscular work affect skin temperature (T but the results are inconsistent and the effect of exercise intensity is unclear. Objective: This study investigated the intensity-dependent reaction of T on resistance training. Methods: Ten male students participated. After acclimatization (15 min, the participants completed 3x10 repetitions of unilateral biceps curl with 30, 50 or 70% of their one-repetition-maximum (1RM in a randomized order. Skin temperature of the loaded and unloaded biceps was measured at rest (Trest, immediately following set 1, 2 and 3 (TS1,TS2,TS3 and 30 minutes post exercise (T1 - T30 with an infrared camera. Results: Two-way ANOVA detected a significant effect of the measuring time point on T (Trest to T30 of the loaded arm for 30% (Eta²=0.85, 50% (Eta²=0.88 and 70% 1RM (Eta²=0.85 and of the unloaded arm only for 30% 1RM (Eta²=0.41 (p0.05. The T values at the different measuring time points (Trest - T30 did not differ between the intensities at any time point. The loaded arm showed a mean maximum T rise to Trest of 1.8°C and on average, maximum T was reached approximately 5 minutes after the third set.  Conclusion: This study indicate a rise of T, which could be independent of the exercise intensity. Infrared thermography seems to be applicable to identify the primary used functional muscles in resistance training but this method seems not suitable to differentiate between exercise intensity from 30 to 70% 1RM.

  12. Oxidative stress and antioxidant responses to progressive resistance exercise intensity in trained and untrained males

    OpenAIRE

    H Çakır-Atabek; F Özdemir; R Çolak

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between oxidative stress and some exercise components of resistance exercise (e.g. intensity, exercise volume) has not been clearly defined. Additionally, the oxidative stress markers may respond differently in various conditions. This study aims to determine the effects of progressive intensity of resistance exercise (RE) on oxidative stress and antioxidants in trained and untrained men, and also to investigate the possible threshold intensity required to evoke oxidative str...

  13. Acute exercise and motor memory consolidation: The role of exercise intensity and timing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomas, Richard; Korsgaard Johnsen, Line; Geertsen, Svend Sparre

    2015-01-01

    Background A single bout of high intensity cycling (~90% VO2peak) immediately after motor skill training enhances motor memory consolidation. It is unclear how different parameters of exercise may influence this process and the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. We hypothesize......) accompanying skill learning and exercise. Methods Sixty able-bodied male subjects (20-35 years) were randomly assigned to one of five groups that practiced a visuomotor accuracy task. 20 min post motor skill learning (MSL), subjects in Experiment A performed either a single bout of aerobic exercise at 45% (EX...... and baseline motor performance. Delayed retention tests of motor skill were tested 24 hours (R24) & 7 days (R7) post acquisition. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was applied to the primary motor cortex to obtain measures of CSE, intracortical inhibition (SICI) and facilitation (SICF) before and after...

  14. Exercise and cognition in multiple sclerosis: The importance of acute exercise for developing better interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandroff, Brian M

    2015-12-01

    Cognitive dysfunction is highly prevalent, disabling, and poorly-managed in persons with multiple sclerosis (MS). Exercise training represents a promising approach for managing this clinical symptom of the disease. However, results from early randomized controlled trials of exercise on cognition in MS are equivocal, perhaps due to methodological concerns. This underscores the importance of considering the well-established literature in the general population that documents robust, beneficial effects of exercise training on cognition across the lifespan. The development of such successful interventions is based on examinations of fitness, physical activity, and acute exercise effects on cognition. Applying such an evidence-based approach in MS serves as a way of better informing exercise training interventions for improving cognition in this population. To that end, this paper provides a focused, updated review on the evidence describing exercise effects on cognition in MS, and develops a rationale and framework for examining acute exercise on cognitive outcomes in this population. This will provide keen insight for better developing exercise interventions for managing cognitive impairment in MS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Pacing and decision making in sport and exercise : The roles of perception and action in the regulation of exercise intensity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, Benjamin L. M.; Pepping, Gert-Jan; Hettinga, Florentina J.

    In pursuit of optimal performance, athletes and physical exercisers alike have to make decisions about how and when to invest their energy. The process of pacing has been associated with the goal-directed regulation of exercise intensity across an exercise bout. The current review explores divergent

  16. Using memories to motivate future behaviour: an experimental exercise intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biondolillo, Mathew J; Pillemer, David B

    2015-01-01

    This study tested a novel memory-based experimental intervention to increase exercise activity. Undergraduate students completed a two-part online survey ostensibly regarding college activity choices. At Time 1, they completed questionnaires that included assessments of exercise-related attitudes, motivation and self-reported behaviours. Next, they described a memory of a positive or negative experience that would increase their motivation to exercise; students in a control condition did not receive a memory prompt. Finally, they rated their intentions to exercise in the future. Eight days following Time 1, students received a Time 2 survey that included an assessment of their self-reported exercise during the prior week. Students in the positive memory condition reported higher levels of subsequent exercise than those in the control condition; students in the negative memory condition reported intermediate levels of exercise. Activating a positive motivational memory had a significant effect on students' self-reported exercise activity even after controlling for prior attitudes, motivation and exercise activity.

  17. Intensive Intervention Practice Guide: School-Based Functional Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, Brittany; Pokorski, Elizabeth A.; Kumm, Skip; Sterrett, Brittany I.

    2017-01-01

    The National Center for Leadership in Intensive Intervention (NCLII), a consortium funded by the Office of Special Education Programs (OSEP), prepares special education leaders to become experts in research on intensive intervention for students with disabilities who have persistent and severe academic (e.g., reading and math) and behavioral…

  18. Synthesis Reports on Intensive Academic and Behavioral Intervention: Annotated Bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casasanto-Ferro, Julia; Gandhi, Allison; Shami, Muna; Danielson, Lou; Bzura, Robin

    2015-01-01

    This document is the first in a series of products that will be developed under the knowledge production service area of the National Center on Intensive Intervention (NCII), with the purpose of describing and communicating the results of research on intensive intervention. The synthesis studies summarized here, and others to be identified, will…

  19. The Effects of Electrostimulation and Core Exercises on Recovery After High-Intensity Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Mor

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of electrostimulation and core exercises on recovery after high-intensity exercise. Methods: The participants of this study consists of 12 male bodybuilders who regularly train and between the ages 18-30. Tabata high intensity interval training (HIIT was applied with different recovery methods to the athletes on three different days and the recovery levels of athletes were analysed. Heart rate and blood lactate levels were measured at baseline (PRE at immediately after the HIIT (POST, at the 1 minutes after HIIT (1min, at the 5 minutes after HIIT (5min, and at the 10 minutes after HIIT (10min. On the rest days, serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH and serum creatine kinase (CK  measurements were done to determine the muscle damage. Results: The in-group comparisons for lactate levels showed no significant difference (p>0,01. The level of lactate on the 10min was found to be significantly lower than the 5min in the core exercise group (p0,01. These results show that the lactate level reaches to the maximum level after HIIT, and the level of lactate decreases between the 5th and the 10th minutes. Discussion and conclusion: These indicate that the active recovery methods are more effective than the passive. It was found that the active recovery methods accelerate the lactate removal from the metabolism and provide effective recovery in short time during the recovery period after exercise.

  20. Predictors of adherence to exercise interventions during and after cancer treatment : A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ormel, H L; van der Schoot, G G F; Sluiter, W J; Jalving, M; Gietema, J A; Walenkamp, A M E

    Objective: Exercise interventions benefit cancer patients. However, only low numbers of patients adhere to these interventions. This review aimed to identify predictors of exercise intervention adherence in patients with cancer, during and after multimodality cancer treatment. Methods: A literature

  1. Acute and Post-Exercise Physiological Responses to High-Intensity Interval Training in Endurance and Sprint Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipryan, Lukas; Tschakert, Gerhard; Hofmann, Peter

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of the presented study was to compare acute and post-exercise differences in cardiorespiratory, metabolic, cardiac autonomic, inflammatory and muscle damage responses to high-intensity interval exercise (HIIT) between endurance and sprint athletes. The study group consisted of sixteen highly-trained males (age 22.1 ± 2.5 years) participating in endurance (n = 8) or sprint (n = 8) sporting events. All the participants underwent three exercise sessions: short HIIT (work interval duration 30s), long HIIT (3min) and constant load exercise (CE). The exercise interventions were matched for mean power, total time and in case of HIIT interventions also for work-to-relief ratio. The acute cardiorespiratory (HR, V̇ O 2 , RER) and metabolic (lactate) variables as well as the post-exercise changes (up to 3 h) in the heart rate variability, inflammation (interleukin-6, leucocytes) and muscle damage (creatine kinase, myoglobin) were monitored. Endurance athletes performed exercise interventions with moderately (CE) or largely (both HIIT modes) higher mean V̇ O 2 . These differences were trivial/small when V̇ O 2 was expressed as a percentage of V̇ O 2max . Moderately to largely lower RER and lactate values were found in endurance athletes. Markers of cardiac autonomic regulation, inflammation and muscle damage did not reveal any considerable differences between endurance and sprint athletes. In conclusions, endurance athletes were able to perform both HIIT formats with increased reliance on aerobic metabolic pathways although exercise intensity was identical in relative terms for all the participants. However, other markers of the acute and early post-exercise physiological response to these HIIT interventions indicated similarities between endurance and sprint athletes.

  2. Acute and Post-Exercise Physiological Responses to High-Intensity Interval Training in Endurance and Sprint Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas Cipryan, Gerhard Tschakert, Peter Hofmann

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the presented study was to compare acute and post-exercise differences in cardiorespiratory, metabolic, cardiac autonomic, inflammatory and muscle damage responses to high-intensity interval exercise (HIIT between endurance and sprint athletes. The study group consisted of sixteen highly-trained males (age 22.1 ± 2.5 years participating in endurance (n = 8 or sprint (n = 8 sporting events. All the participants underwent three exercise sessions: short HIIT (work interval duration 30s, long HIIT (3min and constant load exercise (CE. The exercise interventions were matched for mean power, total time and in case of HIIT interventions also for work-to-relief ratio. The acute cardiorespiratory (HR, V̇O2, RER and metabolic (lactate variables as well as the post-exercise changes (up to 3 h in the heart rate variability, inflammation (interleukin-6, leucocytes and muscle damage (creatine kinase, myoglobin were monitored. Endurance athletes performed exercise interventions with moderately (CE or largely (both HIIT modes higher mean V̇O2. These differences were trivial/small when V̇O2 was expressed as a percentage of V̇O2max. Moderately to largely lower RER and lactate values were found in endurance athletes. Markers of cardiac autonomic regulation, inflammation and muscle damage did not reveal any considerable differences between endurance and sprint athletes. In conclusions, endurance athletes were able to perform both HIIT formats with increased reliance on aerobic metabolic pathways although exercise intensity was identical in relative terms for all the participants. However, other markers of the acute and early post-exercise physiological response to these HIIT interventions indicated similarities between endurance and sprint athletes.

  3. Intensity rankings of plyometric exercises using joint power absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Lieshout, Kathryn G; Anderson, Joy G; Shelburne, Kevin B; Davidson, Bradley S

    2014-09-01

    Athletic trainers and physical therapists often progress patients through rehabilitation by selecting plyometric exercises of increasing intensity in preparation for return to sport. The purpose of this study was to quantify the intensity of seven plyometric movements commonly used in lower-extremity rehabilitation by joint-specific peak power absorption and the sum of the peak power. Ten collegiate athletes performed submaximal plyometric exercises in a single test session: vertical jump, forward jump, backward jump, box drop, box jump up, tuck jump, and depth jump. Three-dimensional kinematics and force platform data were collected to generate joint kinetics. Peak power absorption normalized to body mass was calculated at the ankle, knee, and hip, and averaged across repetitions. Joint peak power data were pooled across athletes and summed to obtain the sum of peak power. Movements were ranked from 1 (low) to 7 (high) based on the sum of peak power and joint peak power (ankle, knee, hip). The sum of peak power did not correspond with standard low, medium, and high subjective intensity ratings or joint peak power in all joints. Mixed model analyses revealed significant variance between the sum of peak power and joint peak power ranks in the forward jump, backward jump, box drop, and depth jump (P<0.05), but not in the vertical jump, box jump up, and tuck jump. Results provide intensity rankings that can be used directly by athletic trainers and physical therapists in developing protocols for rehabilitation specific to the injured joint. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Intensive training and reduced volume increases muscle FXYD1 expression and phosphorylation at rest and during exercise in athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Martin; Gunnarsson, Thomas Gunnar Petursson; Christensen, Peter Møller

    2016-01-01

    and phosphorylation were determined by western blotting. Expression of FXYD1 (30%), actin (40%), mTOR (12%), PLN (16%) and CaMKII γ/δ (25%) was higher (P... and during exercise, mainly achieved by an increased FXYD1 ser68 phosphorylation, compared to before the intervention. CaMKII thr287 and eEF2 thr56 phosphorylation at rest and during exercise, overall PKCα/β thr638/641 and mTOR ser2448 phosphorylation during repeated intense exercise as well as resting PLN...

  5. Exercise and nutritional interventions for improving aging muscle health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Scott C; Little, Jonathan P; Candow, Darren G

    2012-08-01

    Skeletal muscle mass declines with age (i.e., sarcopenia) resulting in muscle weakness and functional limitations. Sarcopenia has been associated with physiological changes in muscle morphology, protein and hormonal kinetics, insulin resistance, inflammation, and oxidative stress. The purpose of this review is to highlight how exercise and nutritional intervention strategies may benefit aging muscle. It is well known that resistance exercise training increases muscle strength and size and evidence also suggests that resistance training can increase mitochondrial content and decrease oxidative stress in older adults. Recent findings suggest that fast-velocity resistance exercise may be an effective intervention for older adults to enhance muscle power and functional capacity. Aerobic exercise training may also benefit aging skeletal muscle by enhancing mitochondrial bioenergetics, improving insulin sensitivity, and/or decreasing oxidative stress. In addition to exercise, creatine monohydrate, milk-based proteins, and essential fatty acids all have biological effects which could enhance some of the physiological adaptations from exercise training in older adults. Additional research is needed to determine whether skeletal muscle adaptations to increased activity in older adults are further enhanced with effective nutritional interventions and whether this is due to enhanced muscle protein synthesis, improved mitochondrial function, and/or a reduced inflammatory response.

  6. Increased self-efficacy: the experience of high-intensity exercise of nursing home residents with dementia - a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Cecilie Fromholt; Telenius, Elisabeth Wiken; Engedal, Knut; Bergland, Astrid

    2015-09-14

    There has been increasing interest in the use of non-pharmacological interventions, such as physical exercise, to improve the well-being of nursing home residents with dementia. For reasons regarding disease symptoms, persons with dementia might find it difficult to participate in exercise programs. Therefore, it is important to find ways to successfully promote regular exercise for patients in residential care. Several quantitative studies have established the positive effects of exercise on biopsychosocial factors, such as self-efficacy in older people; however, little is known regarding the qualitative aspects of participating in an exercise program among older people with dementia. From the perspective of residents, we explored the experiences of participating in a high-intensity functional exercise program among nursing home residents with dementia. The participants were eight elderly people with mild-to-moderate dementia. We conducted semi-structured interviews one week after they had finished a 10-week supervised high-intensity exercise program. We analyzed the data using an inductive content analysis. Five overreaching and interrelated themes emerged from the interviews: "Pushing the limits," "Being invested in," "Relationships facilitate exercise participation," "Exercise revives the body, increases independence and improves self-esteem" and "Physical activity is a basic human necessity--use it or lose it!" The results were interpreted in light of Bandura's self-efficacy theory. The exercise program seemed to improve self-efficacy through several mechanisms. By being involved, "being invested in" and having something expected of them, the participants gained a sense of empowerment in their everyday lives. The importance of social influences related to the exercise instructor and the exercise group was accentuated by the participants. The nursing home residents had, for the most part, positive experiences with regard to participating in the exercise program

  7. Modified Active Videogame Play Results in Moderate-Intensity Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monedero, Javier; McDonnell, Adam C; Keoghan, Melissa; O'Gorman, Donal J

    2014-08-01

    Large proportions of the population do not meet current American College of Sports Medicine physical activity recommendations, and innovative approaches are required. Most active videogames do not require a significant amount of energy expenditure. The purpose of this study was to determine if modifying an active videogame increased exercise intensity to meet current physical activity recommendations. After completing a maximal oxygen uptake test, participants did a familiarization session on a separate day. Thirteen healthy participants 24.2±3.4 years of age played (1) a sedentary videogame, (2) an active videogame, and (3) a modified active videogame designed to increase physical activity for 46 minutes in a randomized order on separate days. Oxygen uptake, heart rate, heart rate reserve, percentage of maximal heart rate, metabolic equivalents of task, and energy expenditure were significantly higher during the modified active videogame trial than during the active videogame or sedentary videogame trials and also between the active videogame and sedentary videogame. A simple modification to an existing active videogame was sufficient to reach moderate exercise intensity. Active videogames could provide an important option for increasing daily physical activity and reducing sedentary time.

  8. Acute effects of high- and low-intensity exercise bouts on leukocyte counts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Rogério Da Silva Neves

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: When the same participants were submitted to different exercise intensities, the acute and short-term effects of exercise on white blood cells were intensity-dependent immediately after exercise (i.e., lymphocytosis and monocytosis and 2 hours after passive recovery (i.e., neutrophilia.

  9. Exercise Intensity Thresholds: Identifying the Boundaries of Sustainable Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keir, Daniel A; Fontana, Federico Y; Robertson, Taylor C; Murias, Juan M; Paterson, Donald H; Kowalchuk, John M; Pogliaghi, Silvia

    2015-09-01

    Critical power (CP), respiratory compensation point (RCP), maximal lactate steady state (MLSS), and deoxyhemoglobin breakpoint ([HHb]BP) are alternative functional indices that are thought to demarcate the highest exercise intensity that can be tolerated for long durations. We tested the hypothesis that CP, RCP, MLSS, and [HHb]BP occur at the same metabolic intensity by examining the pulmonary oxygen uptake (V˙)O2p and power output (PO) associated with each "threshold." Twelve healthy men (mean ± SD age, 27 ± 3 yr) performed the following tests on a cycle ergometer: i) four to five exhaustive tests for determination of CP, ii) two to three 30-min constant-power trials for MLSS determination, and iii) a ramp incremental exercise test from which the V˙O2p and PO at RCP and [HHb]BP were determined. During each trial, breath-by-breath V˙O2p and ventilatory variables were measured with a metabolic cart and flowmeter turbine; near-infrared spectroscopy-derived [HHb] was monitored using a frequency domain multidistance system, and arterialized capillary blood lactate was sampled at regular intervals. There were no differences (P > 0.05) among the V˙O2p values associated with CP, RCP, MLSS, and [HHb]BP (CP, 3.29 ± 0.48; RCP, 3.34 ± 0.45; MLSS, 3.27 ± 0.44; [HHb]BP, 3.41 ± 0.46 L·min(-1)); however, the PO associated with RCP (262 ± 48 W) and [HHb]BP (273 ± 41 W) were greater (P 0.05). Although the standard methods for determination of CP, RCP, MLSS, and [HHb]BP are different, these indices occur at the same V˙O2p, suggesting that i) they may manifest as a result of similar physiological phenomenon and ii) each provides a valid delineation between tolerable and intolerable constant-power exercise.

  10. Ergogenic effects of caffeine and sodium bicarbonate supplementation on intermittent exercise performance preceded by intense arm cranking exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marriott, Matthaus; Krustrup, Peter; Mohr, Magni

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Caffeine and sodium bicarbonate ingestion have been suggested to improve high-intensity intermittent exercise, but it is unclear if these ergogenic substances affect performance under provoked metabolic acidification. To study the effects of caffeine and sodium bicarbonate on intense...... to CAF and PLA, while no difference in heart rate was observed between trials. CONCLUSIONS: Caffeine and sodium bicarbonate administration improved Yo-Yo IR2 performance and lowered perceived exertion after intense arm cranking exercise, with greater overall effects of sodium bicarbonate intake....... intermittent exercise performance and metabolic markers under exercise-induced acidification, intense arm-cranking exercise was performed prior to intense intermittent running after intake of placebo, caffeine and sodium bicarbonate. METHODS: Male team-sports athletes (n = 12) ingested sodium bicarbonate (Na...

  11. Influence of Exercise Intensity for Improving Depressed Mood in Depression: A Dose-Response Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Jacob D; Koltyn, Kelli F; Stegner, Aaron J; Kim, Jee-Seon; Cook, Dane B

    2016-07-01

    Exercise effectively improves mood in major depressive disorder (MDD), but the optimal exercise stimulus to improve depressed mood is unknown. To determine the dose-response relationship of acute exercise intensity with depressed mood responses to exercise in MDD. We hypothesized that the acute response to exercise would differ between light, moderate, and hard intensity exercise with higher intensities yielding more beneficial responses. Once weekly, 24 women (age: 38.6±14.0) diagnosed with MDD underwent a 30-minute session at one of three steady-state exercise intensities (light, moderate, hard; rating of perceived exertion 11, 13 or 15) or quiet rest on a stationary bicycle. Depressed mood was evaluated with the Profile of Mood States before, 10 and 30 minutes post-exercise. Exercise reduced depressed mood 10 and 30 minutes following exercise, but this effect was not influenced by exercise intensity. Participants not currently taking antidepressants (n=10) had higher baseline depression scores, but did not demonstrate a different antidepressant response to exercise compared to those taking antidepressants. To acutely improve depressed mood, exercise of any intensity significantly improved feelings of depression with no differential effect following light, moderate, or hard exercise. Pharmacological antidepressant usage did not limit the mood-enhancing effect of acute exercise. Acute exercise should be used as a symptom management tool to improve mood in depression, with even light exercise an effective recommendation. These results need to be replicated and extended to other components of exercise prescription (e.g., duration, frequency, mode) to optimize exercise guidelines for improving depression. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Randomized controlled trial of the effects of high intensity and low-to-moderate intensity exercise on physical fitness and fatigue in cancer survivors: results of the Resistance and Endurance exercise After ChemoTherapy (REACT) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampshoff, Caroline S; Chinapaw, Mai J M; Brug, Johannes; Twisk, Jos W R; Schep, Goof; Nijziel, Marten R; van Mechelen, Willem; Buffart, Laurien M

    2015-10-29

    International evidence-based guidelines recommend physical exercise to form part of standard care for all cancer survivors. However, at present, the optimum exercise intensity is unclear. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a high intensity (HI) and low-to-moderate intensity (LMI) resistance and endurance exercise program compared with a wait list control (WLC) group on physical fitness and fatigue in a mixed group of cancer survivors who completed primary cancer treatment, including chemotherapy. Overall, 277 cancer survivors were randomized to 12 weeks of HI exercise (n = 91), LMI exercise (n = 95), or WLC (n = 91). Both interventions were identical with respect to exercise type, duration and frequency, and only differed in intensity. Measurements were performed at baseline (4-6 weeks after primary treatment) and post-intervention. The primary outcomes were cardiorespiratory fitness (peakVO2), muscle strength (grip strength and 30-second chair-stand test), and self-reported fatigue (Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory; MFI). Secondary outcomes included health-related quality of life, physical activity, daily functioning, body composition, mood, and sleep disturbances. Multilevel linear regression analyses were performed to estimate intervention effects using an intention-to-treat principle. In the HI and LMI groups, 74 % and 70 % of the participants attended more than 80 % of the prescribed exercise sessions, respectively (P = 0.53). HI (β = 2.2; 95 % CI, 1.2-3.1) and LMI (β = 1.3; 95 % CI, 0.3-2.3) exercise showed significantly larger improvements in peakVO2 compared to WLC. Improvements in peakVO2 were larger for HI than LMI exercise (β = 0.9; 95 % CI, -0.1 to 1.9), but the difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.08). No intervention effects were found for grip strength and the 30-second chair-stand test. HI and LMI exercise significantly reduced general and physical fatigue and reduced activity

  13. Intensity of swimming exercise influences aortic reactivity in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.F. Brito

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Exercise is known to cause a vasodilatory response; however, the correlation between the vasorelaxant response and different training intensities has not been investigated. Therefore, this study evaluated the vascular reactivity and lipid peroxidation after different intensities of swimming exercise in rats. Male Wistar rats (aged 8 weeks; 250-300 g underwent forced swimming for 1 h whilst tied to loads of 3, 4, 5, 6, and 8% of their body weight, respectively (groups G3, G4, G5, G6 and G8, respectively; n=5 each. Immediately after the test, the aorta was removed and suspended in an organ bath. Cumulative relaxation in response to acetylcholine (10−12-10−4 M and contraction in response to phenylephrine (10−12-10−5 M were measured. Oxidative stress was estimated by determining malondialdehyde concentration. The percentages of aorta relaxation were significantly higher in G3 (7.9±0.20, G4 (7.8±0.29, and G5 (7.9±0.21, compared to the control group (7.2±0.04, while relaxation in the G6 (7.4±0.25 and G8 (7.0±0.06 groups was similar to the control group. In contrast, the percentage of contraction was significantly higher in G6 (8.8 ±0.1 and G8 (9.7±0.29 compared to the control (7.1±0.1, G3 (7.3±0.2, G4 (7.2±0.1 and G5 (7.2±0.2% groups. Lipid peroxidation levels in the aorta were similar to control levels in G3, G4 and G5, but higher in G6 and G8, and significantly higher in G8 (one-way ANOVA. These results indicate a reduction in vasorelaxing activity and an increase in contractile activity in rat aortas after high-intensity exercise, followed by an increase in lipid peroxidation.

  14. The Effects of Exercise Education Intervention on the Exercise Behaviour, Depression, and Fatigue Status of Chronic Kidney Disease Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Yu-Hsiu; Huang, Yi-Ching; Chen, Pei-Ying; Wang, Kuo-Ming

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of an exercise education intervention on exercise behavior, depression and fatigue status of chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. Design/methodology/approach: This was a pilot study using an exercise education program as an intervention for CKD patients. The authors used the…

  15. Low- Versus High-Intensity Plyometric Exercise During Rehabilitation After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmielewski, Terese L; George, Steven Z; Tillman, Susan M; Moser, Michael W; Lentz, Trevor A; Indelicato, Peter A; Trumble, Troy N; Shuster, Jonathan J; Cicuttini, Flavia M; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan

    2016-03-01

    Plyometric exercise is used during rehabilitation after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction to facilitate the return to sports participation. However, clinical outcomes have not been examined, and high loads on the lower extremity could be detrimental to knee articular cartilage. To compare the immediate effect of low- and high-intensity plyometric exercise during rehabilitation after ACL reconstruction on knee function, articular cartilage metabolism, and other clinically relevant measures. Randomized controlled trial; Level of evidence, 2. Twenty-four patients who underwent unilateral ACL reconstruction (mean, 14.3 weeks after surgery; range, 12.1-17.7 weeks) were assigned to 8 weeks (16 visits) of low- or high-intensity plyometric exercise consisting of running, jumping, and agility activities. Groups were distinguished by the expected magnitude of vertical ground-reaction forces. Testing was conducted before and after the intervention. Primary outcomes were self-reported knee function (International Knee Documentation Committee [IKDC] subjective knee form) and a biomarker of articular cartilage degradation (urine concentrations of crosslinked C-telopeptide fragments of type II collagen [uCTX-II]). Secondary outcomes included additional biomarkers of articular cartilage metabolism (urinary concentrations of the neoepitope of type II collagen cleavage at the C-terminal three-quarter-length fragment [uC2C], serum concentrations of the C-terminal propeptide of newly formed type II collagen [sCPII]) and inflammation (tumor necrosis factor-α), functional performance (maximal vertical jump and single-legged hop), knee impairments (anterior knee laxity, average knee pain intensity, normalized quadriceps strength, quadriceps symmetry index), and psychosocial status (kinesiophobia, knee activity self-efficacy, pain catastrophizing). The change in each measure was compared between groups. Values before and after the intervention were compared with the groups

  16. Factors affecting pain relief in response to physical exercise interventions among healthcare workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsen, M D; Sundstrup, E; Brandt, M; Andersen, L L

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study is to identify factors associated with musculo-skeletal pain reduction during workplace-based or home-based physical exercise interventions among healthcare workers. Two hundred female healthcare workers (age: 42.0, BMI: 24.1, average pain intensity: 3.1 on a scale of 0-10) from three hospitals participated. Participants were randomly allocated at the cluster level (18 departments) to 10 weeks of (i) workplace physical exercise (WORK) performed in groups during working hours for 5 × 10 minutes per week and up to five group-based coaching sessions on motivation for regular physical exercise, or (ii) home-based physical exercise (HOME) performed alone during leisure-time for 5 × 10 minutes per week. Linear mixed models accounting for cluster identified factors affecting pain reduction. On average 2.2 (SD: 1.1) and 1.0 (SD: 1.2) training sessions were performed per week in WORK and HOME, respectively. The multi-adjusted analysis showed a significant effect on pain reduction of both training adherence (P=.04) and intervention group (P=.04) with participants in WORK experiencing greater reductions compared with HOME. Obesity at baseline was associated with better outcome. Leisure-time exercise, daily patient transfer, age, and chronic pain did not affect the changes in pain. In conclusion, even when adjusted for training adherence, performing physical exercise at the workplace is more effective than home-based exercise in reducing musculo-skeletal pain in healthcare workers. Noteworthy, obese individuals may especially benefit from physical exercise interventions targeting musculo-skeletal pain. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Exercise and relaxation intervention for patients with advanced lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adamsen, Lis; Stage, M; Laursen, J

    2012-01-01

    Lung cancer patients experience loss of physical capacity, dyspnea, pain, reduced energy and psychological distress. The aim of this study was to explore feasibility, health benefits and barriers of exercise in former sedentary patients with advanced stage lung cancer, non-small cell lung cancer...... (NSCLC) (III-IV) and small cell lung cancer (SCLC) (ED), undergoing chemotherapy. The intervention consisted of a hospital-based, supervised, group exercise and relaxation program comprising resistance-, cardiovascular- and relaxation training 4 h weekly, 6 weeks, and a concurrent unsupervised home......-based exercise program. An explorative study using individual semi-structured interviews (n=15) and one focus group interview (n=8) was conducted among the participants. Throughout the intervention the patients experienced increased muscle strength, improvement in wellbeing, breathlessness and energy. The group...

  18. Diet and exercise interventions for preventing gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bain, Emily; Crane, Morven; Tieu, Joanna; Han, Shanshan; Crowther, Caroline A; Middleton, Philippa

    2015-04-12

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is associated with a wide range of adverse health consequences for women and their babies in the short and long term. With an increasing prevalence of GDM worldwide, there is an urgent need to assess strategies for GDM prevention, such as combined diet and exercise interventions. To assess the effects of combined diet and exercise interventions for preventing GDM and associated adverse health consequences for women and their babies. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (11 February 2014) and reference lists of retrieved studies. We updated the search in February 2015 but these results have not yet been incorporated and are awaiting classification. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and cluster-RCTs assessing the effects of interventions that included diet and exercise components. We included studies where combined diet and exercise interventions were compared with no intervention (i.e. standard care).We planned to also compare diet and exercise interventions with alternative diet and/or exercise interventions but no trials were identified for this comparison. Two review authors independently assessed study eligibility, extracted data and assessed the risk of bias of the included studies. Data were checked for accuracy. We included 13 randomised controlled trials (involving 4983 women and their babies). We assessed the included trials as being of moderate risk of bias overall.When comparing women receiving a diet and exercise intervention with those receiving no intervention, there was no clear difference in the risk of developing GDM (average risk ratio (RR) 0.92, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.68 to 1.23; 11 trials, 3744 women), caesarean section (RR 0.92, 95% CI 0.83 to 1.01; seven trials, 3246 women), or large-for-gestational age (RR 0.90, 95% CI 0.77 to 1.05; 2950 infants). Only one trial reported on perinatal mortality, and found no clear difference in the risk of stillbirth (RR 0.99, 95

  19. Effects of Twice-Weekly Intense Aerobic Exercise in Early Subacute Stroke: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg, Klas; Kleist, Marie; Falk, Lars; Enthoven, Paul

    2016-08-01

    To examine the effects of 12 weeks of twice-weekly intensive aerobic exercise on physical function and quality of life after subacute stroke. Randomized controlled trial. Ambulatory care. Patients (N=56; 28 women) aged ≥50 years who had a mild stroke (98% ischemic) and were discharged to independent living and enrolled 20 days (median) after stroke onset. Sixty minutes of group aerobic exercise, including 2 sets of 8 minutes of exercise with intensity up to exertion level 14 or 15 of 20 on the Borg rating of perceived exertion scale, twice weekly for 12 weeks (n=29). The nonintervention group (n=27) received no organized rehabilitation or scheduled physical exercise. Primary outcome measures included aerobic capacity on the standard ergometer exercise stress test (peak work rate) and walking distance on the 6-minute walk test (6MWT). Secondary outcome measures included maximum walking speed for 10m, balance on the timed Up and Go (TUG) test and single leg stance (SLS), health-related quality of life on the European Quality of Life Scale (EQ-5D), and participation and recovery after stroke on the Stroke Impact Scale (SIS) version 2.0 domains 8 and 9. Participants were evaluated pre- and postintervention. Patient-reported measures were also evaluated at 6-month follow-up. The following improved significantly more in the intervention group (pre- to postintervention): peak work rate (group × time interaction, P=.006), 6MWT (P=.011), maximum walking speed for 10m (Pbalance, health-related quality of life, and patient-reported recovery. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Glucocorticoids improve high-intensity exercise performance in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casuso, Rafael A; Melskens, Lars; Bruhn, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    It was investigated whether oral dexamethasone (DEX) administration improves exercise performance by reducing the initial rate of muscle fatigue development during dynamic exercise.......It was investigated whether oral dexamethasone (DEX) administration improves exercise performance by reducing the initial rate of muscle fatigue development during dynamic exercise....

  1. Designing adaptive intensive interventions using methods from engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagoa, Constantino M; Bekiroglu, Korkut; Lanza, Stephanie T; Murphy, Susan A

    2014-10-01

    Adaptive intensive interventions are introduced, and new methods from the field of control engineering for use in their design are illustrated. A detailed step-by-step explanation of how control engineering methods can be used with intensive longitudinal data to design an adaptive intensive intervention is provided. The methods are evaluated via simulation. Simulation results illustrate how the designed adaptive intensive intervention can result in improved outcomes with less treatment by providing treatment only when it is needed. Furthermore, the methods are robust to model misspecification as well as the influence of unobserved causes. These new methods can be used to design adaptive interventions that are effective yet reduce participant burden. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  2. The Effects of Exercise Intensity vs. Metabolic State on the Variability and Magnitude of Left Ventricular Twist Mechanics during Exercise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig Armstrong

    Full Text Available Increased left ventricular (LV twist and untwisting rate (LV twist mechanics are essential responses of the heart to exercise. However, previously a large variability in LV twist mechanics during exercise has been observed, which complicates the interpretation of results. This study aimed to determine some of the physiological sources of variability in LV twist mechanics during exercise. Sixteen healthy males (age: 22 ± 4 years, [Formula: see text]O2peak: 45.5 ± 6.9 ml∙kg-1∙min-1, range of individual anaerobic threshold (IAT: 32-69% of [Formula: see text]O2peak were assessed at rest and during exercise at: i the same relative exercise intensity, 40%peak, ii at 2% above IAT, and, iii at 40%peak with hypoxia (40%peak+HYP. LV volumes were not significantly different between exercise conditions (P > 0.05. However, the mean margin of error of LV twist was significantly lower (F2,47 = 2.08, P 0.05. Overall, LV twist mechanics were linearly related to rate pressure product. During exercise, the intra-individual variability of LV twist mechanics is smaller at the same relative exercise intensity compared with IAT. However, the absolute magnitude (degrees of LV twist mechanics appears to be associated with the prevailing rate pressure product. Exercise tests that evaluate LV twist mechanics should be standardised by relative exercise intensity and rate pressure product be taken into account when interpreting results.

  3. The Effects of Exercise Intensity vs. Metabolic State on the Variability and Magnitude of Left Ventricular Twist Mechanics during Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Craig; Samuel, Jake; Yarlett, Andrew; Cooper, Stephen-Mark; Stembridge, Mike; Stöhr, Eric J.

    2016-01-01

    Increased left ventricular (LV) twist and untwisting rate (LV twist mechanics) are essential responses of the heart to exercise. However, previously a large variability in LV twist mechanics during exercise has been observed, which complicates the interpretation of results. This study aimed to determine some of the physiological sources of variability in LV twist mechanics during exercise. Sixteen healthy males (age: 22 ± 4 years, V˙O2peak: 45.5 ± 6.9 ml∙kg-1∙min-1, range of individual anaerobic threshold (IAT): 32–69% of V˙O2peak) were assessed at rest and during exercise at: i) the same relative exercise intensity, 40%peak, ii) at 2% above IAT, and, iii) at 40%peak with hypoxia (40%peak+HYP). LV volumes were not significantly different between exercise conditions (P > 0.05). However, the mean margin of error of LV twist was significantly lower (F2,47 = 2.08, P 0.05). Overall, LV twist mechanics were linearly related to rate pressure product. During exercise, the intra-individual variability of LV twist mechanics is smaller at the same relative exercise intensity compared with IAT. However, the absolute magnitude (degrees) of LV twist mechanics appears to be associated with the prevailing rate pressure product. Exercise tests that evaluate LV twist mechanics should be standardised by relative exercise intensity and rate pressure product be taken into account when interpreting results. PMID:27100099

  4. COMPARISON OF EFFECTS OF ABDOMINAL STRETCHING EXERCISE AND COLD COMPRESS THERAPY ON MENSTRUAL PAIN INTENSITY IN TEENAGE GIRLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desta Ayu Cahya Rosyida

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pain during menstruation is not uncommon, especially in young women, which has an impact on their life activities. Objective: To examine the effect of abdominal stretching exercise and cold compress therapy on decreasing intensity of menstrual pain in teenage girls at SMK Bakti Indonesia Medika. Design: A Quasy Experimental Study with two group comparison pretest-postest design. There were 46 respondents selected in this study by consecutive sampling that consisted of 23 samples in the abdominal stretching exercise group and 23 samples in the cold compress group. The menstrual pain was measured using VAS (visual analog scale. Data were analyzed using Mann-Whitney, Chi-Square, and Wilcoxon test. Results: Findings showed that the mean of menstrual pain before intervention in the abdominal stretching exercise was 7.04 and in the cold compress therapy was 6.74 with p-value 0.211 (<0.05, which indicated that there was no mean difference of pain between both groups. However, after intervention, the menstrual pain was reduced from 7.04 to 1.91 (5.09 difference in the abdominal stretching exercise group; and from 6.74 to 5.52 (1.22 difference in the cold compress group with p-value 0.000 (<0.05, which indicated that there was statistically significant difference of menstrual pain before and after intervention, both abdominal stretching exercise and cold compress therapy. Conclusion: There were statistically significant effects of abdominal stretching exercise and cold compress therapy on menstrual pain in teenage girls. The abdominal stretching exercise is more effective than cold compress therapy in reducing menstrual pain intensity. Thus, it is suggested that abdominal stretching exercise can be an alternative choice of management of dysmenorrhea in teenage girls, and can be a part of subject in the education as non-pharmacological medicine.

  5. Impact of an intensive multifactorial intervention in patients with type 2 diabetes at Primary Health Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mª Carmen Serrano Cepas

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes is one of the diseases with a higher social and sanitary impact and therefore, it is one of the priorities in the service we provide. The success of the interventions with people suffering from diabetes lies in the efficacy of the pharmacological treatments as well as in the change of lifestyles and the different confrontations how these patients face their process. Health workers feel quite frustrated as a result of the slight success of our actions to achieve them to follow an adequate diet, make physical exercise or improve their self-sufficiency and self control when dealing with the different situations that should be faced because of diabetes. For such reason, the primary care professionals from Guadalhorce valley Sanitary District applied several different interventions from those generally used for many years. These intensive interventions will consist on eight group sessions of diabetological education, planning and accompaniment at the physical exercises and patients will also receive personalized diet advice; the intervention will be developed during three months, and afterward the level of glycosylated haemoglobin will be measured in order to see if it has improved. Therefore, we are going to evaluate in an objective way the effectiveness of this intensive intervention comparing it to the habitual intervention followed in Primary Health Care.

  6. Does exercise motivation predict engagement in objectively assessed bouts of moderate-intensity exercise? A self-determination theory perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standage, Martyn; Sebire, Simon J; Loney, Tom

    2008-08-01

    This study examined the utility of motivation as advanced by self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 2000) in predicting objectively assessed bouts of moderate intensity exercise behavior. Participants provided data pertaining to their exercise motivation. One week later, participants wore a combined accelerometer and heart rate monitor (Actiheart; Cambridge Neurotechnology Ltd) and 24-hr energy expenditure was estimated for 7 days. After controlling for gender and a combined marker of BMI and waist circumference, results showed autonomous motivation to positively predict moderate-intensity exercise bouts of >or=10 min, or=20 min, and an accumulation needed to meet public health recommendations for moderate intensity activity (i.e., ACSM/AHA guidelines). The present findings add bouts of objectively assessed exercise behavior to the growing body of literature that documents the adaptive consequences of engaging in exercise for autonomous reasons. Implications for practice and future work are discussed.

  7. Exercise-training intervention studies in competitive swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspenes, Stian Thoresen; Karlsen, Trine

    2012-06-01

    Competitive swimming has a long history and is currently one of the largest Olympic sports, with 16 pool events. Several aspects separate swimming from most other sports such as (i) the prone position; (ii) simultaneous use of arms and legs for propulsion; (iii) water immersion (i.e. hydrostatic pressure on thorax and controlled respiration); (iv) propulsive forces that are applied against a fluctuant element; and (v) minimal influence of equipment on performance. Competitive swimmers are suggested to have specific anthropometrical features compared with other athletes, but are nevertheless dependent on physiological adaptations to enhance their performance. Swimmers thus engage in large volumes of training in the pool and on dry land. Strength training of various forms is widely used, and the energetic systems are addressed by aerobic and anaerobic swimming training. The aim of the current review was to report results from controlled exercise training trials within competitive swimming. From a structured literature search we found 17 controlled intervention studies that covered strength or resistance training, assisted sprint swimming, arms-only training, leg-kick training, respiratory muscle training, training the energy delivery systems and combined interventions across the aforementioned categories. Nine of the included studies were randomized controlled trials. Among the included studies we found indications that heavy strength training on dry land (one to five repetitions maximum with pull-downs for three sets with maximal effort in the concentric phase) or sprint swimming with resistance towards propulsion (maximal pushing with the arms against fixed points or pulling a perforated bowl) may be efficient for enhanced performance, and may also possibly have positive effects on stroke mechanics. The largest effect size (ES) on swimming performance was found in 50 m freestyle after a dry-land strength training regimen of maximum six repetitions across three

  8. Clinical exercise interventions in alcohol use disorders: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giesen, Esther S; Deimel, Hubertus; Bloch, Wilhelm

    2015-05-01

    The therapeutic impact of exercise interventions in psychiatric diseases such as depression, anxiety and schizophrenia has already been proven through several reviews whereas substance use disorders such as alcohol use disorders (AUD) have so far less frequently been a matter of investigation. Although several publications have summarized studies focusing on physical activities in substance use disorders, no systematic review exists summarizing the evidence of exercise interventions in AUD. A total of 14 studies using the Medline Database, CCMed, Cochrane Library and PsychINFO were identified and met the inclusion criteria. In order to evaluate the evidence, we used the evaluation system of the Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine (2011). Due to methodological flaws the overall evidence of the studies is rated level "3" but primarily findings confirm that exercise interventions as a complementary treatment component in AUD are feasible and safe. No adverse events were reported. This systematic review indicates that exercise may have beneficial effects on certain domains of physical functioning including VO2max, basal heart rate, physical activity level and strength. Inconsistent effects with a slight trend towards a positive effect on anxiety, mood management, craving, and drinking behavior have been shown and need to be verified. Results must be interpreted cautiously due to the numerous methodological flaws and the heterogeneity of the interventions and measures. However, according to preclinical studies several mechanisms of action are conceivable, especially as to alcohol-related outcomes and additionally seem to be promising. RCTs with high methodological quality are urgently needed in future research to establish evidence-based exercise recommendations for the treatment of AUD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Acute and Post-Exercise Physiological Responses to High-Intensity Interval Training in Endurance and Sprint Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipryan, Lukas; Tschakert, Gerhard; Hofmann, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the presented study was to compare acute and post-exercise differences in cardiorespiratory, metabolic, cardiac autonomic, inflammatory and muscle damage responses to high-intensity interval exercise (HIIT) between endurance and sprint athletes. The study group consisted of sixteen highly-trained males (age 22.1 ± 2.5 years) participating in endurance (n = 8) or sprint (n = 8) sporting events. All the participants underwent three exercise sessions: short HIIT (work interval duration 30s), long HIIT (3min) and constant load exercise (CE). The exercise interventions were matched for mean power, total time and in case of HIIT interventions also for work-to-relief ratio. The acute cardiorespiratory (HR, V̇O2, RER) and metabolic (lactate) variables as well as the post-exercise changes (up to 3 h) in the heart rate variability, inflammation (interleukin-6, leucocytes) and muscle damage (creatine kinase, myoglobin) were monitored. Endurance athletes performed exercise interventions with moderately (CE) or largely (both HIIT modes) higher mean V̇O2. These differences were trivial/small when V̇O2 was expressed as a percentage of V̇O2max. Moderately to largely lower RER and lactate values were found in endurance athletes. Markers of cardiac autonomic regulation, inflammation and muscle damage did not reveal any considerable differences between endurance and sprint athletes. In conclusions, endurance athletes were able to perform both HIIT formats with increased reliance on aerobic metabolic pathways although exercise intensity was identical in relative terms for all the participants. However, other markers of the acute and early post-exercise physiological response to these HIIT interventions indicated similarities between endurance and sprint athletes. Key points The manner in which each training background (endurance vs. sprint) influences the response to HIIT is not well known. Despite the identical exercise intensity in relative terms, endurance

  10. Effect of Exercise Intervention on Flow-Mediated Dilation in Overweight and Obese Adults: Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Younsun Son

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this meta-analysis is to summarize the effect of exercise intervention on flow-mediated dilatation (FMD in overweight and obese adults. We searched four electronic databases (PubMed/Medline, Scopus, and CINAHL through June 2016 for relevant studies pertaining to the effectiveness of exercise intervention on FMD. Seventeen of the 91 studies identified met the inclusion criteria. Comprehensive Meta-Analysis software (version 3 was used to compute the standardized mean difference effect size (ES and 95% CI using a random effects model. We calculated 34 ESs. We found that exercise intervention had medium and positive effects on FMD, with an overall ES of 0.522 (95% CI = 0.257, 0.786. Heterogeneity of ESs was observed (Qb=239, p≤0.001, I2 = 86.19, and the effect was moderated by comorbidity (Qb = 6.39, df = 1, p=0.011. A large ES for the combination exercise, low intensity exercise, and comorbidity subgroups (ES = 0.82~1.24 was found. We conclude that while exercise intervention significantly improves FMD in overweight and obese adults, the effect may depend on the different characteristics of exercise intervention and on participants’ demographics.

  11. Different Intensities of Treadmill Running Exercise do Not Alter Melatonin Levels in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionara Rodrigues Siqueira

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Regular and moderate exercise has been considered an interesting neuroprotective strategy. Our research group demonstrated that a protocol of moderate exercise on a treadmill reduced, while a protocol of high-intensity exercise increased in vitro ischemic cell damage in Wistar rats. The molecular mechanisms by which physical exercise exerts neuroprotective effects remain unclear. Accumulating evidence suggests that exercise may have short- and long-term effects on melatonin secretion in humans. Melatonin, the main product of the pineal gland, has been shown to have neuroprotective effects in models of brain and spinal cord injury and cerebral ischemia. A dual modulation of melatonin secretion by physical activity has also been demonstrated. This study aimed to investigate the effect of different exercise intensities, moderate- and high-intensity exercise, on serum melatonin levels in rats. Methods: Thirty-five adult male Wistar rats were divided into non-exercised (sedentary and exercised (20- or 60-min sessions groups. The exercise protocols consisted of two weeks of daily treadmill training. Blood samples were collected approximately 16 hours after the last training session (8:00-10:00 and melatonin levels were assayed by ELISA. Results: The exercise protocols, two weeks of 20 min/day or 60 min/day of treadmill running, did not affect serum melatonin levels. Conclusion: Our data demonstrated that melatonin levels may not be directly involved in the exercise-induced, intensity-dependent dual effect on in vitro ischemia.

  12. High-Intensity Interval or Continuous-Moderate Exercise: A 24-Week Pilot Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Sean R; Bourne, Jessica E; Beauchamp, Mark R; Little, Jonathan P; Barry, Julianne; Singer, Joel; Jung, Mary E

    2018-05-14

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) may lead to superior cardiometabolic improvements when compared to moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT). However, adherence to HIIT requires examination. The purpose of this pilot study was to examine moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) adherence 24 weeks following a brief counselling intervention combined with either HIIT or MICT. Individuals at high risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) were randomized to HIIT (n = 15) or MICT (n = 17) and completed 10 exercise sessions accompanied by a brief 10-minute counselling intervention over a 2-week period. Objectively measured purposeful MVPA (accelerometry) and cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2peak) were assessed at baseline and 24 weeks post-intervention. Self-regulatory efficacy and task self-efficacy were examined at baseline, post-intervention and 24 weeks post-intervention. Using an intention-to-treat analysis, change scores were calculated for HIIT and MICT and compared between groups. Individuals assigned to HIIT increased their MVPA by 53 minutes (Cohen's d=1.52) at 24 weeks compared to 19 minutes in MICT (tbetween=1.96, p=.06, d =.56). Both HIIT and MICT increased relative VO2peak by 2 and 1 ml/kg/min, respectively (tbetween=0.72, p=0.47). Participants in both groups increased in their self-regulatory and task self-efficacy post-intervention but both groups demonstrated similar decline at 24 weeks. This pilot intervention was successful in increasing, and maintaining, free-living MVPA over a 24-week period in individuals at high risk of T2D. Speculation that HIIT is inappropriate or unattainable for overweight individuals at high risk of T2D may be unfounded.

  13. Combined diet and exercise interventions for preventing gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Emily; Gomersall, Judith C; Tieu, Joanna; Han, Shanshan; Crowther, Caroline A; Middleton, Philippa

    2017-11-13

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is associated with a wide range of adverse health consequences for women and their infants in the short and long term. With an increasing prevalence of GDM worldwide, there is an urgent need to assess strategies for GDM prevention, such as combined diet and exercise interventions. This is an update of a Cochrane review that was first published in 2015. To assess the effects of diet interventions in combination with exercise interventions for pregnant women for preventing GDM, and associated adverse health consequences for the mother and her infant/child. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (27 November 2016) and reference lists of retrieved studies. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and cluster-RCTs, comparing combined diet and exercise interventions with no intervention (i.e. standard care), that reported on GDM diagnosis as an outcome. Quasi-RCTs were excluded. Cross-over trials were not eligible for inclusion. We planned to include RCTs comparing two or more different diet/exercise interventions, however none were identified. Two review authors independently assessed study eligibility, extracted data, assessed the risk of bias of the included trials and assessed quality of evidence for selected maternal and infant/child outcomes using the GRADE approach. We checked data for accuracy. In this update, we included 23 RCTs (involving 8918 women and 8709 infants) that compared combined diet and exercise interventions with no intervention (standard care). The studies varied in the diet and exercise programs evaluated and health outcomes reported. None reported receiving funding from a drug manufacturer or agency with interests in the results. Overall risk of bias was judged to be unclear due to the lack of methodological detail reported. Most studies were undertaken in high-income countries.For our primary review outcomes, there was a possible reduced risk of GDM in the diet and

  14. Plasma Irisin Modestly Increases during Moderate and High-Intensity Afternoon Exercise in Obese Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winn, Nathan C.; Grunewald, Zachary I.; Liu, Ying; Heden, Timothy D.; Nyhoff, Lauren M.; Kanaley, Jill A.

    2017-01-01

    Background and Purpose Irisin is an exercise-responsive myokine that has been proposed to exert anti-obesity benefits; yet its response during exercise in obese women is not described. This study characterized plasma irisin levels during a single bout of afternoon isocaloric-exercise of different intensities (moderate- vs high-intensity) in obese females. Methods Eleven obese females participated in 3 randomized study days beginning at 1600h: 1) no exercise (NoEx), 2) moderate exercise (ModEx; 55%VO2max) and 3) high intensity interval exercise (IntEx; 4 min (80%VO2max)/3 min (50% VO2max). Frequent blood samples were analyzed for glucose and lactate (whole-blood), and insulin, c-peptide, glucagon, and irisin (plasma) throughout 190 min of testing. Results Plasma irisin increased above baseline during ModEx and IntEx (P0.05). Peak irisin levels during ModEx and IntEx exercise were 11.9± 3.4% and 12.3 ± 4.1% relative to baseline (Pexercise intensities (P>0.05). Irisin levels remained elevated above resting for 125 minutes post-exercise during ModEx, whereas levels returned to baseline within 15 minutes post-exercise during IntEx. Similarly, no associations were found between plasma irisin levels and circulating lactate, glucose, insulin, c-peptide, or glucagon among study days (P>0.05). However, there was an inverse association between basal irisin and lean mass (r = -0.70, P = 0.01). Conclusion A single bout of moderate and high intensity afternoon exercise induces modest increases in circulating irisin concentrations during exercise; however the regulation post-exercise appears to be dimorphic between exercise intensity in obese females. Future studies are needed to compare morning and afternoon exercise on irisin secretion. PMID:28125733

  15. Differences in the Intensity and Duration of Adolescents' Sports and Exercise across Physical and Social Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunton, Genevieve Fridlund; Berrigan, David; Ballard-Barbash, Rachel; Perna, Frank; Graubard, Barry I.; Atienza, Audie A.

    2012-01-01

    We used data from the American Time Use Survey (years 2003-06) to analyze whether the intensity and duration of high school students' (ages 15-18 years) sports and exercise bouts differed across physical and social environments. Boys' sports and exercise bouts were more likely to reach a vigorous intensity when taking place at school and with…

  16. The Effect of Low and Moderate Intensity Aerobic Exercises on Sleep Quality in Older Adults

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    Ahmad Ali Akbari Kamrani

    2015-04-01

    Conclusion Generally, aerobic exercises with moderate intensity (60-70% max HR had a positive and significant effect on sleep quality and its components. We recommend the aerobic exercises with moderate intensity as a useful medical treatment for improving sleep quality and its components among community older adults

  17. The Effect of Low and Moderate Intensity Aerobic Exercises on Self-Concept in Older Adults

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    Ahmad Ali Akbari Kamrani

    2015-07-01

    Conclusion Aerobic exercises with moderate intensity (60-70% max HR have a positive and significant effect on self-concept. Based on these findings, aerobic exercises with moderate intensity is recommended as a useful method for improving this personality trait among older adults.

  18. Exercise countermeasures for long-duration spaceflight: muscle- and intensity-specific considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trappe, Todd

    2012-07-01

    On-orbit and ground-based microgravity simulation studies have provided a wealth of information regarding the efficacy of exercise countermeasures for protecting skeletal muscle and cardiovascular function during long-duration spaceflights. While it appears that exercise will be the central component to maintaining skeletal muscle and cardiovascular health of astronauts, the current exercise prescription is not completely effective and is time consuming. This lecture will focus on recent exercise physiology studies examining high intensity, low volume exercise in relation to muscle specific and cardiovascular health. These studies provide the basis of the next generation exercise prescription currently being implemented during long-duration space missions on the International Space Station.

  19. Moderating influence of dominant attentional style and exercise intensity on responses to asynchronous music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Jasmin C; Karageorghis, Costas I

    2013-12-01

    We examined independent and combined influences of asynchronous music and dominant attentional style (DAS) on psychological and psychophysical variables during exercise using mixed methods. Participants (N = 34) were grouped according to DAS and completed treadmill runs at three intensities (low, moderate, high) crossed with three music conditions (motivational, oudeterous, no-music control). State attentional focus shifted from dissociative to associative with increasing intensity and was most aligned with DAS during moderate-intensity exercise. Both music conditions facilitated dissociation at low-to-moderate intensities. At high exercise intensity, both music conditions were associated with reduced RPE among participants with an associative DAS. Dissociators reported higher RPE overall during moderate and high intensities. Psychological responses were most positive in the motivational condition, followed by oudeterous and control. Findings illustrate the relevance of individual differences in DAS as well as task intensity and duration when selecting music for exercise.

  20. Benefits of a low intensity exercise programme during haemodialysis sessions in elderly patients

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    Vicent Esteve Simo

    2015-07-01

    Conclusions: (1 An adapted low intensity exercise programme improved muscle strength, functional capacity and health-related quality of life in our elderly patients on HD. (2 Our results highlight the benefits from exercise in HD patients even in this elderly population. (3 In elderly patients on HD, it is worth considering an adapted low intensity intradialytic exercise programme as a part of a comprehensive care.

  1. High-intensity exercise training for the prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rynders, Corey A; Weltman, Arthur

    2014-02-01

    Aerobic exercise training and diet are recommended for the primary prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. The American Diabetes Association (ADA) recommends that adults with prediabetes engage in ≥ 150 minutes per week of moderate activity and target a 7% weight loss. However, traditional moderate-intensity (MI) exercise training programs are often difficult to sustain for prediabetic adults; a commonly cited barrier to physical activity in this population is the "lack of time" to exercise. When matched for total energy expenditure, high-intensity (HI) exercise training has a lower overall time commitment compared with traditional low-intensity (LI) or MI exercise training. Several recent studies comparing HI exercise training with LI and MI exercise training reported that HI exercise training improves skeletal muscle metabolic control and cardiovascular function in a comparable and/or superior way relative to LI and MI exercise training. Although patients can accrue all exercise benefits by performing LI or MI activities such as walking, HI activities represent a time-efficient alternative to meeting physical activity guidelines. High-intensity exercise training is a potent tool for improving cardiometabolic risk for prediabetic patients with limited time and may be prescribed when appropriate.

  2. Muscle and intensity based hamstring exercise classification in elite female track and field athletes: implications for exercise selection during rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsaklis, Panagiotis; Malliaropoulos, Nikos; Mendiguchia, Jurdan; Korakakis, Vasileios; Tsapralis, Kyriakos; Pyne, Debasish; Malliaras, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Background Hamstring injuries are common in many sports, including track and field. Strains occur in different parts of the hamstring muscle but very little is known about whether common hamstring loading exercises specifically load different hamstring components. The purpose of this study was to investigate muscle activation of different components of the hamstring muscle during common hamstring loading exercises. Methods Twenty elite female track and field athletes were recruited into this study, which had a single-sample, repeated-measures design. Each athlete performed ten hamstring loading exercises, and an electromyogram (EMG) was recorded from the biceps femoris and semitendinosus components of the hamstring. Hamstring EMG during maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) was used to normalize the mean data across ten repetitions of each exercise. An electrogoniometer synchronized to the EMG was used to determine whether peak EMG activity occurred during muscle-tendon unit lengthening, shortening, or no change in length. Mean EMG values were compared between the two recording sites for each exercise using the Student’s t-test. Results The lunge, dead lift, and kettle swings were low intensity (hamstring bridge, and hamstring curl were all medium intensity exercises (≥50% or hamstrings. Low, medium, and high intensity exercises were demonstrated. This information enables the clinician, strength and conditioning coach and physiotherapist to better understand intensity- and muscle-specific activation during hamstring muscle rehabilitation. Therefore, these results may help in designing progressive strengthening and rehabilitation and prevention programs. PMID:26170726

  3. Comparison of affective responses during and after low volume high-intensity interval exercise, continuous moderate- and continuous high-intensity exercise in active, untrained, healthy males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niven, Ailsa; Thow, Jacqueline; Holroyd, Jack; Turner, Anthony P; Phillips, Shaun M

    2018-09-01

    This study compared affective responses to low volume high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE), moderate-intensity continuous exercise (MICE) and high-intensity continuous exercise (HICE). Twelve untrained males ([Formula: see text] 48.2 ± 6.7 ml·kg -1 ·min -1 ) completed MICE (30 min cycle at 85% of ventilatory threshold (VT)), HICE (cycle at 105% of VT matched with MICE for total work), and HIIE (10 x 6 s cycle sprints with 60 s recovery). Affective valence and perceived activation were measured before exercise, post warm-up, every 20% of exercise time, and 1, 5, 10, and 15 min post-exercise. Affective valence during exercise declined by 1.75 ± 2.42, 1.17 ± 1.99, and 0.42 ± 1.38 units in HICE, HIIE, and MICE, respectively, but was not statistically influenced by trial (P = 0.35), time (P = 0.06), or interaction effect (P = 0.08). Affective valence during HICE and HIIE was consistently less positive than MICE. Affective valence post-exercise was not statistically influenced by trial (P = 0.10) and at 5 min post-exercise exceeded end-exercise values (P = 0.048). Circumplex profiles showed no negative affect in any trial. Affective responses to low volume HIIE are similar to HICE but remain positive and rebound rapidly, suggesting it may be a potential alternative exercise prescription.

  4. High Intensity Resistive and Rowing Exercise Countermeasures Do Not Prevent Orthostatic Intolerance Following 70 Days of Bed Rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Stuart M. C.; Stenger, Michael B.; Laurie, Steven S.; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori L.; Platts, Steven H.

    2015-01-01

    More than 60% of US astronauts participating in Mir and early International Space Station missions (greater than 5 months) were unable to complete a 10-min 80 deg head-up tilt test on landing day. This high incidence of post-spaceflight orthostatic intolerance may be related to limitations of the inflight exercise hardware that prevented high intensity training. PURPOSE: This study sought to determine if a countermeasure program that included intense lower-body resistive and rowing exercises designed to prevent cardiovascular and musculoskeletal deconditioning during 70 days of 6 deg head-down tilt bed rest (BR), a spaceflight analog, also would protect against post- BR orthostatic intolerance. METHODS: Sixteen males participated in this study and performed no exercise (Control, n=10) or performed an intense supine exercise protocol with resistive and aerobic components (Exercise, n=6). On 3 days/week, exercise subjects performed lower body resistive exercise and a 30-min continuous bout of rowing (greater than or equal to 75% max heart rate). On 3 other days/week, subjects performed only high-intensity, interval-style rowing. Orthostatic intolerance was assessed using a 15-min 80 deg head-up tilt test performed 2 days (BR-2) before and on the last day of BR (BR70). Plasma volume was measured using a carbon monoxide rebreathing technique on BR-3 and before rising on the first recovery day (BR+0). RESULTS: Following 70 days of BR, tilt tolerance time decreased significantly in both the Control (BR-2: 15.0 +/- 0.0, BR70: 9.9 +/- 4.6 min, mean +/- SD) and Exercise (BR-2: 12.2 +/- 4.7, BR70: 4.9 +/- 1.9 min) subjects, but the decreased tilt tolerance time was not different between groups (Control: -34 +/- 31, Exercise: -56 +/- 16%). Plasma volume also decreased (Control: -0.56 +/- 0.40, Exercise: -0.48 +/- 0.33 L) from pre to post-BR, with no differences between groups (Control: -18 +/- 11%, Exerciser: -15 +/-1 0%). CONCLUSIONS: These findings confirm previous reports

  5. The Influence of Creatine Monohydrate on Strength and Endurance After Doing Physical Exercise With Maximum Intensity

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    Asrofi Shicas Nabawi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was: (1 to analyze the effect of creatine monohydrate to give strength after doing physical exercise with maximum intensity, towards endurance after doing physical exercise with maximum intensity, (2 to analyze the effect of non creatine monohydrate to give strength after doing physical exercise with maximum intensity, towards endurance after doing physical exercise with maximum intensity, (3 to analyze the results of the difference by administering creatine and non creatine on strength and endurance after exercise with maximum intensity. This type of research used in this research was quantitative with quasi experimental research methods. The design of this study was using pretest and posttest control group design, and data analysis was using a paired sample t-test. The process of data collection was done with the test leg muscle strength using a strength test with back and leg dynamometer, sit ups test with 1 minute sit ups, push ups test with push ups and 30 seconds with a VO2max test cosmed quart CPET during the pretest and posttest. Furthermore, the data were analyzed using SPSS 22.0 series. The results showed: (1 There was the influence of creatine administration against the strength after doing exercise with maximum intensity; (2 There was the influence of creatine administration against the group endurance after doing exercise with maximum intensity; (3 There was the influence of non creatine against the force after exercise maximum intensity; (4 There was the influence of non creatine against the group after endurance exercise maximum intensity; (5 The significant difference with the provision of non creatine and creatine from creatine group difference delta at higher against the increased strength and endurance after exercise maximum intensity. Based on the above analysis, it can be concluded that the increased strength and durability for each of the groups after being given a workout.

  6. Moderate-intensity exercise reduces fatigue and improves mobility in cancer survivors: a systematic review and meta-regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy M Dennett

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Question: Is there a dose-response effect of exercise on inflammation, fatigue and activity in cancer survivors? Design: Systematic review with meta-regression analysis of randomised trials. Participants: Adults diagnosed with cancer, regardless of specific diagnosis or treatment. Intervention: Exercise interventions including aerobic and/or resistance as a key component. Outcome measures: The primary outcome measures were markers of inflammation (including C-reactive protein and interleukins and various measures of fatigue. The secondary outcomes were: measures of activity, as defined by the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health, including activities of daily living and measures of functional mobility (eg, 6-minute walk test, timed sit-to-stand and stair-climb tests. Risk of bias was evaluated using the PEDro scale, and overall quality of evidence was assessed using the Grades of Research, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE approach. Results: Forty-two trials involving 3816 participants were included. There was very low-quality to moderate-quality evidence that exercise results in significant reductions in fatigue (SMD 0.32, 95% CI 0.13 to 0.52 and increased walking endurance (SMD 0.77, 95% CI 0.26 to 1.28. A significant negative association was found between aerobic exercise intensity and fatigue reduction. A peak effect was found for moderate-intensity aerobic exercise for improving walking endurance. No dose-response relationship was found between exercise and markers of inflammation or exercise duration and outcomes. Rates of adherence were typically high and few adverse events were reported. Conclusions: Exercise is safe, reduces fatigue and increases endurance in cancer survivors. The results support the recommendation of prescribing moderate-intensity aerobic exercise to reduce fatigue and improve activity in people with cancer. Review registration: PROSPERO CRD

  7. Effects of a 7-Month Exercise Intervention Programme on the Psychosocial Adjustment and Decrease of Anxiety among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliziene, Irina; Klizas, Sarunas; Cizauskas, Ginas; Sipaviciene, Saule

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated the psychosocial adjustment and anxiety of adolescents during a 7-month exercise intervention programme. In addition, extensive research on the psychosocial adjustment of adolescents during intense physical activity was performed. The experimental group included adolescent girls (n = 110) and boys (n = 107) aged between 14…

  8. Effect of exercise intensity on circulating microparticles in men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shill, Daniel D; Lansford, Kasey A; Hempel, Hannah K; Call, Jarrod A; Murrow, Jonathan R; Jenkins, Nathan T

    2018-05-01

    What is the central question of this study? What is the effect of exercise intensity on circulating microparticle populations in young, healthy men and women? What is the main finding and its importance? Acute, moderate-intensity continuous exercise and high-intensity interval exercise altered distinct microparticle populations during and after exercise in addition to a sex-specific response in CD62E + microparticles. The microparticles studied contribute to cardiovascular disease progression, regulate vascular function and facilitate new blood vessel formation. Thus, characterizing the impact of intensity on exercise-induced microparticle responses advances our understanding of potential mechanisms underlying the beneficial vascular adaptations to exercise. Circulating microparticles (MPs) are biological vectors of information within the cardiovascular system that elicit both deleterious and beneficial effects on the vasculature. Acute exercise has been shown to alter MP concentrations, probably through a shear stress-dependent mechanism, but evidence is limited. Therefore, we investigated the effect of exercise intensity on plasma levels of CD34 + and CD62E + MPs in young, healthy men and women. Blood samples were collected before, during and after two energy-matched bouts of acute treadmill exercise: interval exercise (10 × 1 min intervals at ∼95% of maximal oxygen uptake V̇O2max) and continuous exercise (65% V̇O2max). Continuous exercise, but not interval exercise, reduced CD62E + MP concentrations in men and women by 18% immediately after exercise (from 914.5 ± 589.6 to 754.4 ± 390.5 MPs μl -1 ; P interval exercise did not alter CD62E + MPs per se, the concentrations after interval exercise were higher than those observed after continuous exercise (P interval exercise in men or women. Our results suggest that exercise-induced MP alterations are intensity dependent and sex specific and impact MP populations differentially. © 2018 The Authors

  9. Impact of aerobic exercise intensity on craving and reactivity to smoking cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janse Van Rensburg, Kate; Elibero, Andrea; Kilpatrick, Marcus; Drobes, David J

    2013-06-01

    Aerobic exercise can acutely reduce cigarette cravings during periods of nicotine deprivation. The primary aim of this study was to assess the differential effects of light and vigorous intensity aerobic exercise on cigarette cravings, subjective and physiological reactivity to smoking cues, and affect after overnight nicotine deprivation. A secondary aim was to examine cortisol change as a mediator of the effects of exercise on smoking motivation. 162 (55 female, 107 male) overnight nicotine-deprived smokers were randomized to one of three exercise conditions: light intensity, vigorous intensity, or a passive control condition. After each condition, participants engaged in a standardized cue reactivity assessment. Self-reported urges to smoke, affect, and salivary cortisol were assessed at baseline (i.e., before each condition), immediately after each condition, and after the cue reactivity assessment. Light and vigorous exercise significantly decreased urges to smoke and increased positive affect, relative to the control condition. In addition, those in the vigorous exercise condition demonstrated suppressed appetitive reactivity to smoking cues, as indexed by the startle eyeblink reflex. Although exercise intensity was associated with expected changes in cortisol concentration, these effects were not related to changes in craving or cue reactivity. Both light and vigorous exercise can reduce general cravings to smoke, whereas vigorous exercise appears especially well-suited for reducing appetitive reactions to cues that may precede smoking. Results did not support exercise-induced cortisol release as a mechanism for these effects. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  10. Effect of Low-intensity Exercise on Physical and Cognitive Health in Older Adults: a Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Andy C Y; Wong, Thomson W L; Lee, Paul H

    It is well known that physical exercise is important to promote physical and cognitive health in older population. However, inconsistent research findings were shown regarding exercise intensity, particularly on whether low-intensity exercise (1.5 metabolic equivalent tasks (METs) to 3.0 METs) can improve physical and cognitive health of older adults. This systematic review aimed to fill this research gap. The objective of this study is to conduct a systematic review of the effectiveness of low-intensity exercise interventions on physical and cognitive health of older adults. Published research was identified in various databases including CINAHL, MEDLINE, PEDro, PubMed, Science Direct, SPORTDiscus, and Web of Science. Research studies published from January 01, 1994 to February 01, 2015 were selected for examination. Studies were included if they were published in an academic peer-reviewed journal, published in English, conducted as randomized controlled trial (RCT) or quasi-experimental studies with appropriate comparison groups, targeted participants aged 65 or above, and prescribed with low-intensity exercise in at least one study arm. Two reviewers independently extracted the data (study, design, participants, intervention, and results) and assessed the quality of the selected studies. Fifteen studies met the inclusion criteria. Quality index ranged from 15 to 18 mean = 18.3 with a full score of 28, indicating a moderate quality. Most of the outcomes reported in these studied were lower limb muscle strength ( n  = 9), balancing ( n  = 7), flexibility ( n  = 4), and depressive symptoms ( n  = 3). Out of the 15 selected studies, 11 reported improvement in flexibility, balancing, lower limb muscle strength, or depressive symptoms by low-intensity exercises. The current literature suggests the effectiveness of low-intensity exercise on improved physical and cognitive health for older adults. It may be a desired intensity level in promoting

  11. Aerobic Games and Playful exercises in 9-YearOld Boys: Intensity and Fitness Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnar E Mathisen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Previous research on exercise for pre-adolescents with the purpose of improving aerobic fitness levels has yielded contradictory results. Sufficient training intensity, frequency and duration are the crucial factors in achieving this goal; the question, however, is whether it is possible to reach sufficient intensity levels using aerobic games and playful exercises. Variety and fun are the important factors in motivating children to participate in physical exercises and sports. Therefore, the aim of the study was to investigate the effect of high intensity exercises in pre-adolescent boys, using programs consisting of fun activities and aerobic games. The findings show that the participants achieved intensity levels above 80 % of HRpeak on average in about 60 % of the total exercise time, resulting in significantly improved aerobic fitness.

  12. Exercise intensity, redox homeostasis and inflammation in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallard, Alistair R; Hollekim-Strand, Siri Marte; Coombes, Jeff S; Ingul, Charlotte B

    2017-10-01

    To compare 12 weeks of exercise training at two intensities on oxidative stress, antioxidants and inflammatory biomarkers in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Randomized trial. Thirty-six participants with T2D were randomized to complete either 12 weeks of treadmill based high-intensity interval training (HIIT) or moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT), followed by 40 weeks of home-based training at the same intensities. Plasma inflammation, oxidative stress and antioxidant biomarkers (total F2-isoprostanes, protein carbonyls, total antioxidant capacity, glutathione peroxidase activity, interleukin-10, interleukin-6, interleukin-8 and TNF-α) were measured at baseline, 12-weeks and 1-year. There were no significant changes (p>0.05) in oxidative stress and inflammation biomarkers from baseline to 12-weeks in either intervention. A decrease in total antioxidant capacity in the MICT group from baseline to 1-year by 0.05mmol/L (p=0.05) was observed. There was a significant difference (p<0.05) when groups were separated by sex with females in the MICT group having a 22.1% (p<0.05) decrease in protein carbonyls from baseline to 1-year. HIIT and MICT had no acute effect on oxidative stress and inflammatory biomarkers in patients with T2D. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Stimulant Reduction Intervention using Dosed Exercise (STRIDE - CTN 0037: Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

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    Morris David W

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a need for novel approaches to the treatment of stimulant abuse and dependence. Clinical data examining the use of exercise as a treatment for the abuse of nicotine, alcohol, and other substances suggest that exercise may be a beneficial treatment for stimulant abuse, with direct effects on decreased use and craving. In addition, exercise has the potential to improve other health domains that may be adversely affected by stimulant use or its treatment, such as sleep disturbance, cognitive function, mood, weight gain, quality of life, and anhedonia, since it has been shown to improve many of these domains in a number of other clinical disorders. Furthermore, neurobiological evidence provides plausible mechanisms by which exercise could positively affect treatment outcomes. The current manuscript presents the rationale, design considerations, and study design of the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA Clinical Trials Network (CTN CTN-0037 Stimulant Reduction Intervention using Dosed Exercise (STRIDE study. Methods/Design STRIDE is a multisite randomized clinical trial that compares exercise to health education as potential treatments for stimulant abuse or dependence. This study will evaluate individuals diagnosed with stimulant abuse or dependence who are receiving treatment in a residential setting. Three hundred and thirty eligible and interested participants who provide informed consent will be randomized to one of two treatment arms: Vigorous Intensity High Dose Exercise Augmentation (DEI or Health Education Intervention Augmentation (HEI. Both groups will receive TAU (i.e., usual care. The treatment arms are structured such that the quantity of visits is similar to allow for equivalent contact between groups. In both arms, participants will begin with supervised sessions 3 times per week during the 12-week acute phase of the study. Supervised sessions will be conducted as one-on-one (i.e., individual sessions

  14. Ammonia metabolism during intense dynamic exercise and recovery in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graham, T; Bangsbo, Jens; Gollnick, PD

    1990-01-01

     declined immediately on cessation of exercise. Recovery was complete in approximately 20 min. Arterial [NH3] increased less rapidly and reached itsmaximum 2-3 min into recovery. These data demonstrate that NH3 clearance is more sensitive to the cessation of exercise than is NH3 release from skeletal muscle. Muscle [NH...

  15. Effect of exercise intensity on lipid profile in sedentary obese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, Umamaheswari; Vasudevan, Kavita; Balasubramaniam, Kavita; Yerrabelli, Dhanalakshmi; Shanmugavel, Karthik; John, Nitin Ashok

    2014-07-01

    Exercise is a lifestyle change that has been recommended for lowering atherogenic index in adults. The intensity and duration of exercise to bring about a change in the lipid parameters are yet to be determined. Previous studies examining the effects of exercise intensity on lipid and lipoprotein levels have reported conflicting findings. Thus we aimed at determining the changes in lipid profile in sedentary obese adults influenced by different intensity of exercise. Study included 51 obese adults with sedentary lifestyle. Participants performed exercise of moderate intensity (n=22) and high intermittent intensity (n=29) for a duration of 40min/day for 5 days/week and 20 min/day for 3 days/week respectively on bicycle ergometer for a period of 15 weeks. Pretesting and post testing included measurement of height, weight, blood pressure and lipid profile. RESULTS were analysed using the Paired and Unpaired samples t-test. Postexercise revealed significant reduction in the LDL-C and diastolic blood pressure (plife. High intermittent intensity can be considered for individuals who have time constraints and lead a sedentary life style and moderate intensity exercise advised for individuals who are willing to create time for their health benefits. A programmed protocol of exercise will help in reduction of lipid parameters.

  16. Psychobiological Responses to Preferred and Prescribed Intensity Exercise in Major Depressive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Jacob D; Ellingson, Laura D; Koltyn, Kelli F; Stegner, Aaron J; Kim, Jee-Seon; Cook, Dane B

    2016-11-01

    Exercise acutely improves mood in major depressive disorder (MDD). However, it is unknown whether benefits differ depending on whether exercise intensity is self-selected or prescribed. This study aimed to compare psychological and biological responses to preferred and prescribed steady-state exercise intensities to a patient-selected preferred intensity. Female adults (N = 24, age = 38.6 ± 14.0 yr) diagnosed with MDD completed four 30-min sessions of cycling exercise at three prescribed intensities (RPE of 11, 13, and 15) and one session with a self-selected intensity (preferred). Order was randomized and counterbalanced. Depressed mood (DM) was evaluated before, 10 min, and 30 min postexercise using the Profile of Mood States. Serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) was measured before and within 10 min postexercise. Changes in BDNF and DM for the preferred session were compared with the following prescribed sessions: 1) performed at the most similar intensity (matched on RPE; closest) and 2) with the greatest improvement in DM (greatest). Compared with the preferred session, improvement in DM was significantly larger after the greatest session (30 min postexercise: -11.8 ± 7.4 vs -3.4 ± 4.8), and the BDNF response was significantly greater after the closest session (5.4 ± 6.9 vs -1.4 ± 9.8 ng·mL). Permitting patients to select their own exercise intensity did not maximize improvements in mood. Further, preferred intensity exercise was also associated with a smaller BDNF response. Overall, the results suggest that exercise undertaken to improve mood should be prescribed on an individual basis in MDD and not necessarily based on the patient's preferred intensity. Clinicians, psychologists, and other practitioners should consider providing clear exercise intensity recommendations for symptom management in depression rather than allowing patients to self-select their intensity.

  17. Arthritis patients show long-term benefits from 3 weeks intensive exercise training directly following hospital discharge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulthuis, Y.; Drossaers-Bakker, K.W.; Drossaers-Bakker, K.W.; Taal, Erik; Rasker, Johannes J.; Oostveen, J.; van 't Pad Bosch, P.; Oosterveld, F.; van de Laar, Mart A F J

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To examine the efficacy of short-term intensive exercise training (IET) directly following hospital discharge. - Methods: In the Disabled Arthritis Patients Post-hospitalization Intensive Exercise Rehabilitation (DAPPER) study, patients with rheumatoid arthritis or osteoarthritis were

  18. Effects of treadmill exercise intensity on spatial working memory and long-term memory in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Qin; Wang, Gong-Wu

    2016-03-15

    Moderate exercise promotes learning and memory. Most studies mainly focused on memory exercise effects of in the ageing and patients. There is lack of quantitative research about effect of regular exercise intensity on different memory types in normal subjects. Present study investigated the effects of different intensities of treadmill exercise on working memory and long-term memory. Fifty female Wistar rats were trained by T-maze delayed spatial alternation (DSA) task with 3 delays (10s, 60s and 300s). Then they got a 30min treadmill exercise for 30days in 4 intensities (control, 0m/min; lower, 15m/min; middle, 20m/min, and higher, 30m/min). Then animals were tested in DSA, passive avoidance and Morris water maze tasks. 1. Exercise increased the neuronal density of hippocampal subregions (CA1, CA3 and dentate gyrus) vs. naïve/control. 2. In DSA task, all groups have similar baseline, lower intensity improved 10s delay accuracy vs. baseline/control; middle and higher intensities improved 300s delay accuracy vs. baseline/control. 3. In water maze learning, all groups successfully found the platform, but middle intensity improved platform field crossing times vs. control in test phase. Present results suggested that treadmill exercise can improve long-term spatial memory and working memory; lower intensity benefits to short-term delayed working memory, and middle or higher intensity benefits to long-term delayed working memory. There was an inverted U dose-effect relationship between exercise intensity and memory performance, but exercise -working memory effect was impacted by delay duration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Mothers' Reports of Their Involvement in Early Intensive Behavioral Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granger, Stephanie; des Rivieres-Pigeon, Catherine; Sabourin, Gabrielle; Forget, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    Although numerous studies examine the effectiveness of intensive behavioral intervention programs (EIBI) for young children with autism, few focus on the family aspect of the program. In particular, involvement of mothers in the program, which is strongly recommended, is the subject of only a small number of studies. The goal of this research is…

  20. Is Moderate Intensity Exercise Training Combined with High Intensity Interval Training More Effective at Improving Cardiorespiratory Fitness than Moderate Intensity Exercise Training Alone?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendon H. Roxburgh, Paul B. Nolan, Ryan M. Weatherwax, Lance C. Dalleck

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of either continuous moderate intensity exercise training (CMIET alone vs. CMIET combined with a single weekly bout of high intensity interval training (HIIT on cardiorespiratory fitness. Twenty nine sedentary participants (36.3 ± 6.9 yrs at moderate risk of cardiovascular disease were recruited for 12 weeks of exercise training on a treadmill and cycle ergometer. Participants were randomised into three groups: CMIET + HIIT (n = 7; 8-12 x 60 sec at 100% VO2max, 150 sec active recovery, CMIET (n = 6; 30 min at 45-60% oxygen consumption reserve (VO2R and a sedentary control group (n = 7. Participants in the CMIET + HIIT group performed a single weekly bout of HIIT and four weekly sessions of CMIET, whilst the CMIET group performed five weekly CMIET sessions. Probabilistic magnitude-based inferences were determined to assess the likelihood that the true value of the effect represents substantial change. Relative VO2max increased by 10.1% (benefit possible relative to control in in the CMIET + HIIT group (32.7 ± 9.2 to 36.0 ± 11.5 mL·kg-1·min-1 and 3.9% (benefit possible relative to control in the CMIET group (33.2 ± 4.0 to 34.5 ± 6.1 mL·kg-1·min-1, whilst there was a 5.7% decrease in the control group (30.0 ± 4.6 to 28.3 ± 6.5 mL·kg-1·min-1. It was ‘unclear’ if a clinically significant difference existed between the effect of CMIET + HIIT and CMIET on the change in VO2max. Both exercising groups showed clinically meaningful improvements in VO2max. Nevertheless, it remains ‘unclear’ whether one type of exercise training regimen elicits a superior improvement in cardiorespiratory fitness relative to its counterpart.

  1. Intervention efficacy and intensity for children with speech sound disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Melissa M

    2013-06-01

    Clinicians do not have an evidence base they can use to recommend optimum intervention intensity for preschool children who present with speech sound disorder (SSD). This study examined the effect of dose frequency on phonological performance and the efficacy of the multiple oppositions approach. Fifty-four preschool children with SSD were randomly assigned to one of three intervention conditions. Two intervention conditions received the multiple oppositions approach either 3 times per week for 8 weeks (P3) or once weekly for 24 weeks (P1). A control (C) condition received a storybook intervention. Percentage of consonants correct (PCC) was evaluated at 8 weeks and after 24 sessions. PCC gain was examined after a 6-week maintenance period. The P3 condition had a significantly better phonological outcome than the P1 and C conditions at 8 weeks and than the P1 condition after 24 weeks. There were no significant differences between the P1 and C conditions. There was no significant difference between the P1 and P3 conditions in PCC gain during the maintenance period. Preschool children with SSD who received the multiple oppositions approach made significantly greater gains when they were provided with a more intensive dose frequency and when cumulative intervention intensity was held constant.

  2. Attentional bias to emotional stimuli is altered during moderate- but not high-intensity exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Qu; Smith, J Carson

    2011-12-01

    Little is known regarding how attention to emotional stimuli is affected during simultaneously performed exercise. Attentional biases to emotional face stimuli were assessed in 34 college students (17 women) using the dot-probe task during counterbalanced conditions of moderate- (heart rate at 45% peak oxygen consumption) and high-intensity exercise (heart rate at 80% peak oxygen consumption) compared with seated rest. The dot-probe task consisted of 1 emotional face (pleasant or unpleasant) paired with a neutral face for 1,000 ms; 256 trials (128 trials for each valence) were presented during each condition. Each condition lasted approximately 10 min. Participants were instructed to perform each trial of the dot-probe task as quickly and accurately as possible during the exercise and rest conditions. During moderate-intensity exercise, participants exhibited significantly greater attentional bias scores to pleasant compared with unpleasant faces (p bias scores to emotional faces did not differ at rest or during high-intensity exercise (p > .05). In addition, the attentional bias to unpleasant faces was significantly reduced during moderate-intensity exercise compared with that during rest (p emotional stimuli and away from unpleasant emotional stimuli. Future work is needed to determine whether acute exercise may be an effective treatment approach to reduce negative bias or enhance positive bias in individuals diagnosed with mood or anxiety disorders, or whether attentional bias during exercise predicts adherence to exercise. (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved.

  3. The Effect of Music on Exercise Intensity among Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley C. Woodman

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD are at risk for obesity, commonly have sleep disorders, and exhibit stereotypic behaviors that disrupt their learning. Vigorous levels of exercise have been shown to ameliorate these issues in children with ASD, but little research exists to provide techniques for motivating children with ASD to engage in exercise. The present study examined the effect of music on exercise intensity in a group of 13 elementary school students with ASD. Data were collected across six days during structured (e.g., verbal and physical prompts and unstructured (e.g., minimal prompting exercise periods. During these exercise periods, three music conditions were randomized: no music, slow-tempo music, and fast-tempo music. Exercise intensity, measured in Metabolic Equivalent of Tasks by triaxial accelerometers, was greatest during the structured exercise periods and during the slow music condition. Student characteristics moderated the impact of music condition on exercise intensity, such that students with high levels of adaptive behavior or lower levels of maladaptive behavior displayed greater exercise intensity during the fast music condition.

  4. The Effect of Music on Exercise Intensity among Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodman, Ashley C; Breviglia, Emily; Mori, Yumiko; Golden, Rebecca; Maina, John; Wisniewski, Hannah

    2018-02-26

    Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are at risk for obesity, commonly have sleep disorders, and exhibit stereotypic behaviors that disrupt their learning. Vigorous levels of exercise have been shown to ameliorate these issues in children with ASD, but little research exists to provide techniques for motivating children with ASD to engage in exercise. The present study examined the effect of music on exercise intensity in a group of 13 elementary school students with ASD. Data were collected across six days during structured (e.g., verbal and physical prompts) and unstructured (e.g., minimal prompting) exercise periods. During these exercise periods, three music conditions were randomized: no music, slow-tempo music, and fast-tempo music. Exercise intensity, measured in Metabolic Equivalent of Tasks by triaxial accelerometers, was greatest during the structured exercise periods and during the slow music condition. Student characteristics moderated the impact of music condition on exercise intensity, such that students with high levels of adaptive behavior or lower levels of maladaptive behavior displayed greater exercise intensity during the fast music condition.

  5. Appetite and gut hormone responses to moderate-intensity continuous exercise versus high-intensity interval exercise, in normoxic and hypoxic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Daniel P; Smith, Lindsey R; Chrismas, Bryna C; Taylor, Lee; Stensel, David J; Deighton, Kevin; Douglas, Jessica A; Kerr, Catherine J

    2015-06-01

    This study investigated the effects of continuous moderate-intensity exercise (MIE) and high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE) in combination with short exposure to hypoxia on appetite and plasma concentrations of acylated ghrelin, peptide YY (PYY), and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). Twelve healthy males completed four, 2.6 h trials in a random order: (1) MIE-normoxia, (2) MIE-hypoxia, (3) HIIE-normoxia, and (4) HIIE-hypoxia. Exercise took place in an environmental chamber. During MIE, participants ran for 50 min at 70% of altitude-specific maximal oxygen uptake (V˙O2max) and during HIIE performed 6 × 3 min running at 90% V˙O2max interspersed with 6 × 3 min active recovery at 50% V˙O2max with a 7 min warm-up and cool-down at 70% V˙O2max (50 min total). In hypoxic trials, exercise was performed at a simulated altitude of 2980 m (14.5% O2). Exercise was completed after a standardised breakfast. A second meal standardised to 30% of participants' daily energy requirements was provided 45 min after exercise. Appetite was suppressed more in hypoxia than normoxia during exercise, post-exercise, and for the full 2.6 h trial period (linear mixed modelling, p  0.05). These findings demonstrate that short exposure to hypoxia causes suppressions in appetite and plasma acylated ghrelin concentrations. Furthermore, appetite responses to exercise do not appear to be influenced by exercise modality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of moderate- and high-intensity acute exercise on appetite in obese individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Catia; Stensvold, Dorthe; Finlayson, Graham

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: The effect of acute exercise, and exercise intensity, on appetite control in obese individuals requires further study. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of acute isocaloric bouts (250 kcal) of high-intensity intermittent cycling (HIIC) and moderate-intensity continuous....../obese volunteers. Participants were assigned to the control, MICC, HIIC, and S-HIIC conditions, 1 wk apart, in a counterbalanced order. Exercise was performed 1 h after a standard breakfast. An ad libitum test lunch was served 3 h after breakfast. Fasting/postprandial plasma samples of insulin, acylated ghrelin...

  7. Influence of prior intense exercise and cold water immersion in recovery for performance and physiological response during subsequent exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Peter Møller; Bangsbo, Jens

    2016-01-01

    ) and the influence from prior intense exercise on subsequent performance and physiological response to moderate and maximal exercise with and without the use of cold water immersion (CWI) in recovery (part B). In part A, performance times during eight World championships for male track cyclists were extracted from...... min preceded by an identical warm-up period in both a control setting (CON) and using cold water immersion in recovery (CWI; 15 min at 15°C). Performance was lowered (P

  8. High Intensity Exercise: Can It Protect You from A Fast Food Diet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duval, Christian; Rouillier, Marc-Antoine; Rabasa-Lhoret, Rémi; Karelis, Antony D

    2017-08-26

    The purpose of this study was to assess the ability of high intensity exercise to counteract the deleterious effects of a fast food diet on the cardiometabolic profile of young healthy men. Fifteen men were subjected to an exclusive fast food diet from a popular fast food restaurant chain (three extra value meals/day + optional snack) for 14 consecutive days. Simultaneously, participants were asked to perform each day high intensity interval training (HIIT) (15 × 60 sec sprint intervals (~90% of maximal heart rate)) on a treadmill. Fast food diet and energy expenditure profiles of the participants during the intervention were assessed as well as body composition (DXA), cardiometabolic profile (lipid, hepatic enzymes, glycated hemoglobin, glucose, insulin, hsC-reactive protein (hsCRP) and blood pressure) and estimated maximal oxygen consumption (VO2 max) pre- and post-experiment. We found significant improvements for fat mass, lean body mass, estimated VO₂ max, fasting glucose, serum lipoprotein(a) and hsCRP after the intervention ( p fast food diet.

  9. Effect of an aerobic exercise intervention on cardiac autonomic regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallman, David M; Holtermann, Andreas; Søgaard, Karen

    2017-01-01

    obtained at baseline and at 4-month follow-up. Time and frequency domain indices of HRV were derived during work, leisure time and sleep to evaluate cardiac autonomic regulation. Linear mixed models were used to determine the effect of the intervention on HRV indices, with adjustment for age, gender...... and daily use of antihypertensive and/or heart medication. RESULTS: Compared with the reference group, the exercise group increased all HRV indices apart from a reduction in LF/HF ratio from baseline to follow-up both during work (psleep, the HRV indices......, but not during sleep. The health effect of this contrasting change in autonomic regulation needs further investigation....

  10. Exercising for Life? Energy Metabolism, Body Composition, and Longevity in Mice Exercising at Different Intensities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaanholt, Lobke M.; Daan, Serge; Garland, Theodore; Visser, G. Henk; Garland Jr., Theodore

    2010-01-01

    Studies that have found a positive influence of moderate, non-exhaustive exercise on life expectancy contradict the rate-of-living theory, which predicts that high energy expenditure in exercising animals should shorten life. We investigated effects of exercise on energy metabolism and life span in

  11. Electromyogram median power frequency in dynamic exercise at medium exercise intensities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ament, W; Bonga, GJJ; Hof, AL; Verkerke, GJ

    The electromyogram (EMG) median power Frequency of the calf muscles was investigated during an exhausting treadmill exercise and a 20-min recovery period. The exercise was an uphill run at a speed of 5 km . h(-1) and a gradient of 20%. During exercise there was no decrease of EMG median power

  12. Low intensity exercise training improves skeletal muscle regeneration potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziana ePietrangelo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine whether 12 days of low-to-moderate exercise training at low altitude (598 m a.s.l. improves skeletal muscle regeneration in sedentary adult women.Methods: Satellite cells were obtained from the vastus lateralis skeletal muscle of seven women before and after this exercise training at low altitude. They were investigated for differentiation aspects, superoxide anion production, antioxidant enzymes, mitochondrial potential variation after a depolarizing insult, intracellular Ca2+ concentrations, and micro (miRNA expression (miR-1, miR-133, miR-206.Results: In these myogenic populations of adult stem cells, those obtained after exercise training, showed increased Fusion Index and intracellular Ca2+ concentrations. This exercise training also generally reduced superoxide anion production in cells (by 12% to 67%, although not in two women, where there was an increase of ~15% along with a reduced superoxide dismutase activity. miRNA expression showed an exercise-induced epigenetic transcription profile that was specific according to the reduced or increased superoxide anion production of the cells. Conclusions: The present study shows that low-to-moderate exercise training at low altitude improves the regenerative capacity of skeletal muscle in adult women. The differentiation of cells was favored by increased intracellular calcium concentration and increased the fusion index. This low-to-moderate training at low altitude also depicted the epigenetic signature of cells.

  13. Sustained, Low?Intensity Exercise Achieved by a Dynamic Feeding System Decreases Body Fat in Ponies

    OpenAIRE

    de Laat, M.A.; Hampson, B.A.; Sillence, M.N.; Pollitt, C.C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Obesity in horses is increasing in prevalence and can be associated with insulin insensitivity and laminitis. Current treatment strategies for obesity include dietary restriction and exercise. However, whether exercise alone is effective for decreasing body fat is uncertain. Hypothesis Our hypothesis was that twice daily use of a dynamic feeding system for 3 months would induce sustained, low?intensity exercise thereby decreasing adiposity and improving insulin sensitivity (SI). An...

  14. High- and moderate-intensity aerobic exercise and excess post-exercise oxygen consumption in men with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, I; Welde, B; Martins, C; Tjønna, A E

    2014-06-01

    Physical activity is central in prevention and treatment of metabolic syndrome. High-intensity aerobic exercise can induce larger energy expenditure per unit of time compared with moderate-intensity exercise. Furthermore, it may induce larger energy expenditure at post-exercise recovery. The aim of this study is to compare the excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) in three different aerobic exercise sessions in men with metabolic syndrome. Seven men (age: 56.7 ± 10.8) with metabolic syndrome participated in this crossover study. The sessions consisted of one aerobic interval (1-AIT), four aerobic intervals (4-AIT), and 47-min continuous moderate exercise (CME) on separate days, with at least 48 h between each test day. Resting metabolic rate (RMR) was measured pre-exercise and used as baseline value. EPOC was measured until baseline metabolic rate was re-established. An increase in O2 uptake lasting for 70.4 ± 24.8 min (4-AIT), 35.9 ± 17.3 min (1-AIT), and 45.6 ± 17.3 min (CME) was observed. EPOC were 2.9 ± 1.7 L O2 (4-AIT), 1.3 ±  .1 L O2 (1-AIT), and 1.4 ± 1.1 L O2 (CME). There were significant differences (P exercise intensity has a significant positive effect on EPOC in men with metabolic syndrome. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Moderate intensity exercise as an adjunct to standard smoking cessation treatment for women: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David M; Whiteley, Jessica A; Dunsiger, Shira; Jennings, Ernestine G; Albrecht, Anna E; Ussher, Michael H; Ciccolo, Joseph T; Parisi, Alfred F; Marcus, Bess H

    2010-06-01

    Previous randomized controlled trials have not supported moderate intensity exercise as an efficacious adjunct to smoking cessation treatments for women; however, compliance with exercise programs in these studies has been poor. The purpose of this pilot study was to estimate the effects of moderate intensity exercise on smoking cessation outcomes under optimal conditions for exercise program compliance. Sixty previously sedentary, healthy, female smokers were randomized to an 8-week program consisting of brief baseline smoking cessation counseling and the nicotine patch plus either 150 min/week of moderate intensity exercise or contact control. Participants attended a median of 86.4% and 95.5% of prescribed exercise/control sessions, respectively. There was a moderate, though statistically nonsignificant, effect of exercise at post-treatment for objectively verified 7-day point prevalence abstinence (48.3% vs. 23.3%; OR = 3.07, 95% CI: 0.89-11.07) and prolonged abstinence (34.5% vs. 20.0%; OR = 2.11, 95% CI: 0.56-8.32). Effects were attenuated when controlling for potential confounders, and after a 1-month, no-treatment period. The findings provide a preliminary indication that, given adequate compliance, moderate intensity exercise may enhance short-term smoking cessation outcomes for women; however, a larger trial is warranted. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Benefits of Moderate-Intensity Exercise during a Calorie-Restricted Low-Fat Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apekey, Tanefa A.; Morris, A. E. J.; Fagbemi, S.; Griffiths, G. J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Despite the health benefits, many people do not undertake regular exercise. This study investigated the effects of moderate-intensity exercise on cardiorespiratory fitness (lung age, blood pressure and maximal aerobic power, VO[subscript 2]max), serum lipids concentration and body mass index (BMI) in sedentary overweight/obese adults…

  17. Loading intensity of jumping exercises in post-menopausal women: Implications for osteogenic training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smale, K B; Hansen, L H; Kristensen, J K

    2018-01-01

    Post‐menopausal women frequently exhibit low bone mineral density, and therefore, evidence‐based exercises that induce osteogenic loading and prevent osteoporosis are often essential. The purpose of this study was to investigate the loading intensity of 3 different jumping exercises in post‐menop...

  18. Moderate-to-high intensity physical exercise in patients with Alzheimer’s disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Kristine; Sobol, Nanna A.; Frederiksen, Kristian S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Studies of physical exercise in patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) are few and results have been inconsistent. Objective: To assess the effects of a moderate-to-high intensity aerobic exercise program in patients with mild AD. Methods: In a randomized controlled trial, we recruited...

  19. Kinesiophobia is associated with pain intensity but not pain sensitivity before and after exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vægter, Henrik Bjarke; Madsen, Anders Bjarke; Handberg, Gitte

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare clinical pain intensity, exercise performance, pain sensitivity and the effect of aerobic and isometric exercise on local and remote pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) in patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain with high and low levels of kinesiophobia. DESIGN: An experiment...

  20. Arterialized and venous blood lactate concentration difference during different exercise intensities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro C. Felippe

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion: These results suggest a delayed lactate appearance in the venous blood, which is accentuated at higher exercise intensities. The lactate measured in arterialized and venous blood is interchangeable only when blood samples are collected at least 10 minutes after the exercise starts.

  1. Effects of cluster vs. traditional plyometric training sets on maximal-intensity exercise performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Asadi

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Although both plyometric training methods improved lower body maximal-intensity exercise performance, the traditional sets methods resulted in greater adaptations in sprint performance, while the cluster sets method resulted in greater jump and agility adaptations.

  2. Virtual and live social facilitation while exergaming: competitiveness moderates exercise intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Amanda L; Anderson-Hanley, Cay; Arciero, Paul J

    2012-04-01

    Grounded in social facilitation theory, this study compared the impact on exercise intensity of a virtual versus a live competitor, when riding a virtual reality-enhanced stationary bike ("cybercycle"). It was hypothesized that competitiveness would moderate effects. Twenty-three female college students were exposed to three conditions on a cybercycle: solo training, virtual competitor, and live competitor. After training without a competitor (solo condition for familiarization with equipment), participants competed against a virtual avatar or live rider (random order of presentation). A repeated-measures analysis revealed a significant condition (virtual/live) by competitiveness (high/low) interaction for exercise intensity (watts). More competitive participants exhibited significantly greater exercise intensity when competing against a live versus virtual competitor. The implication is that live competitors can have an added social facilitation effect and influence exercise intensity, although competitiveness moderates this effect.

  3. Effect of a high-intensity exercise program on physical function and mental health in nursing home residents with dementia: an assessor blinded randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Wiken Telenius

    Full Text Available Dementia is among the leading causes of functional loss and disability in older adults. Research has demonstrated that nursing home patients without dementia can improve their function in activities of daily living, strength, balance and mental well being by physical exercise. The evidence on effect of physical exercise among nursing home patients with dementia is scarce and ambiguous. Thus, the primary objective of this study was to investigate the effect of a high intensity functional exercise program on the performance of balance in nursing home residents with dementia. The secondary objective was to examine the effect of this exercise on muscle strength, mobility, activities of daily living, quality of life and neuropsychiatric symptoms.This single blinded randomized controlled trial was conducted among 170 persons with dementia living in nursing homes. Mean age was 86.7 years (SD = 7.4 and 74% were women. The participants were randomly allocated to an intervention (n = 87 or a control group (n = 83. The intervention consisted of intensive strengthening and balance exercises in small groups twice a week for 12 weeks. The control condition was leisure activities.The intervention group improved the score on Bergs Balance Scale by 2.9 points, which was significantly more than the control group who improved by 1.2 points (p = 0.02. Having exercised 12 times or more was significantly associated with improved strength after intervention (p<0.05. The level of apathy was lower in the exercise group after the intervention, compared to the control group (p = 0.048.The results from our study indicate that a high intensity functional exercise program improved balance and muscle strength as well as reduced apathy in nursing home patients with dementia.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02262104.

  4. Effect of physical exercise interventions on musculoskeletal pain in all body regions among office workers: A one-year randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars L.; Christensen, Karl Bang; Holtermann, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    office workers; specific neck/shoulder resistance training, all-round physical exercise, or a reference intervention. Pain symptoms were determined by questionnaire screening of twelve selected body regions. Case individuals were identified for each body region as those reporting pain intensities...... group (Ptraining and all-round physical...... exercise for office workers caused better effects than a reference intervention in relieving musculoskeletal pain symptoms in exposed regions of the upper body....

  5. Effect of exercise intensity on albuminuria in adolescents with Type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornhauser, C; Malacara, J-M; Macías-Cervantes, M-H; Rivera-Cisneros, A-E

    2012-01-01

    Exercise may be useful to detect patients with diabetes prone to develop persistent microalbuminuria. We studied the relationship between exercise intensity, measured as maximal oxygen consumption (VO(2)max), and microalbuminuria in patients with Type 1 diabetes mellitus patients. We studied 10 patients, age range 10-18 years, with Type 1 diabetes who were normotensive and normoalbuminuric, with less than 10 years since diagnosis. Patients had normal renal function, without infections or clinical evidence of complications. Metabolic control was intensively adjusted in all patients. They underwent three consecutive physical exercise tests, reaching 100, 80 and 60% of the maximal cardiac frequency response. Eight patients had adequate to regular metabolic control. All patients had lower than predicted VO(2)max values. At 60%, only three patients showed microalbuminuria in excess of 20 μg/min, two of them had inadequate metabolic control. Post-exercise microalbuminuria exceeded normal values in nine, seven and three patients when submitted to 100, 80 and 60% of exercise intensity, respectively. Microalbuminuria increased with exercise intensity. Sex, body composition and VO(2)max were the main factors associated with microalbuminuria. The prognostic significance of albuminuria induced by intense exercise in these subjects with Type 1 diabetes is not yet known. © 2011 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2011 Diabetes UK.

  6. High-intensity interval exercise training for public health: a big HIT or shall we HIT it on the head?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biddle, Stuart J H; Batterham, Alan M

    2015-07-18

    The efficacy of high-intensity interval training for a broad spectrum of cardio-metabolic health outcomes is not in question. Rather, the effectiveness of this form of exercise is at stake. In this paper we debate the issues concerning the likely success or failure of high-intensity interval training interventions for population-level health promotion. Biddle maintains that high-intensity interval training cannot be a viable public health strategy as it will not be adopted or maintained by many people. This conclusion is based on an analysis of perceptions of competence, the psychologically aversive nature of high-intensity exercise, the affective component of attitudes, the less conscious elements of motivated behaviour that reflect our likes and dislikes, and analysis using the RE-AIM framework. Batterham argues that this appraisal is based on a constrained and outmoded definition of high-intensity interval training and that truly practical and scalable protocols have been - and continue to be - developed. He contends that the purported displeasure associated with this type of exercise has been overstated. Biddle suggests that the way forward is to help the least active become more active rather than the already active to do more. Batterham claims that traditional physical activity promotion has been a spectacular failure. He proposes that, within an evolutionary health promotion framework, high-intensity interval training could be a successful population strategy for producing rapid physiological adaptations benefiting public health, independent of changes in total physical activity energy expenditure. Biddle recommends that we focus our attention elsewhere if we want population-level gains in physical activity impacting public health. His conclusion is based on his belief that high-intensity interval training interventions will have limited reach, effectiveness, and adoption, and poor implementation and maintenance. In contrast, Batterham maintains that there

  7. Higher exercise intensity delays postexercise recovery of impedance-derived cardiac sympathetic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Scott; Jay, Ollie; Graham, Kenneth S; Davis, Glen M

    2017-08-01

    Systolic time intervals (STIs) provide noninvasive insights into cardiac sympathetic neural activity (cSNA). As the effect of exercise intensity on postexercise STI recovery is unclear, this study investigated the STI recovery profile after different exercise intensities. Eleven healthy males cycled for 8 min at 3 separate intensities: LOW (40%-45%), MOD (75%-80%), and HIGH (90%-95%) of heart-rate (HR) reserve. Bio-impedance cardiography was used to assess STIs - primarily pre-ejection period (PEP; inversely correlated with cSNA), as well as left ventricular ejection time (LVET) and PEP:LVET - during 10 min seated recovery immediately postexercise. Heart-rate variability (HRV), i.e., natural-logarithm of root mean square of successive differences (Ln-RMSSD), was calculated as an index of cardiac parasympathetic neural activity (cPNA). Higher preceding exercise intensity elicited a slower recovery of HR and Ln-RMSSD (p return to baseline by 10 min following any intensity (p ≤ 0.009). Recovery of STIs was also slower following higher intensity exercise (p ≤ 0.002). By 30 s postexercise, higher preceding intensity resulted in a lower PEP (98 ± 14 ms, 75 ± 6 ms, 66 ± 5 ms for LOW, MOD, and HIGH, respectively, p fashion. While exercise intensity must be considered, acute recovery may be a valuable period during which to concurrently monitor these noninvasive indices, to identify potentially abnormal cardiac autonomic responses.

  8. Attitudes of older adults in a group-based exercise program towards a blended intervention; a focus-group study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Mehra

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Ageing is associated with a decline in daily functioning and mobility. A physically active life and physical exercise can minimize the decline of daily functioning and improve the physical-, psychological- and social functioning of older adults. Despite several advantages of group-based exercise programs, older adults participating in such interventions often do not meet the frequency, intensity or duration of exercises needed to gain health benefits. An exercise program that combines the advantages of group-based exercises led by an instructor with tailored home-based exercises can increase the effectiveness. Technology can assist in delivering a personalized program. The aim of the study was to determine the susceptibility of older adults currently participating in a nationwide group-based exercise program to such a blended exercise program. Eight focus-groups were held with adults of 55 years of age or older. Two researchers coded independently the remarks of the 30 participants that were included in the analysis according to the three key concepts of the Self Determination Theory: autonomy, competence and relatedness. The results show that maintaining self-reliance and keeping in touch with others were the main motives to participate in the weekly group-based exercises. Participants recognized benefits of doing additional home-based exercises, but had concerns regarding guidance, safety and motivation. Furthermore, some participants strongly rejected the idea to use technology to support them in doing exercises at home, but the majority was open to it. Insights are discussed how these findings can help design novel interventions that can increase the wellbeing of older adults and preserve an independent living.

  9. No Effect of Exercise Intensity on Appetite in Highly-Trained Endurance Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Stephanie M; Hand, Taryn M; Larson-Meyer, D Enette; Austin, Kathleen J; Alexander, Brenda M; Manore, Melinda M

    2016-04-18

    In endurance-trained men, an acute bout of exercise is shown to suppress post-exercise appetite, yet limited research has examined this response in women. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of exercise intensity on appetite and gut hormone responses in endurance-trained women. Highly-trained women (n = 15, 18-40 years, 58.4 ± 6.4 kg, VO2MAX = 55.2 ± 4.3 mL/kg/min) completed isocaloric bouts (500 kcals or 2093 kJ) of moderate-intensity (MIE, 60% VO2MAX) and high-intensity (HIE, 85% VO2MAX) treadmill running at the same time of day, following a similar 48-h diet/exercise period, and at least 1-week apart. Blood was drawn pre-exercise (baseline), immediately post-exercise and every 20-min for the next 60-min. Plasma concentrations of acylated ghrelin, PYY3-36, GLP-1 and subjective appetite ratings via visual analog scale (VAS) were assessed at each time point. Acylated ghrelin decreased (p = 0.014) and PYY3-36 and GLP-1 increased (p = 0.036, p exercise, indicating appetite suppression. VAS ratings of hunger and desire to eat decreased immediately post-exercise (p = 0.0012, p = 0.0031, respectively), also indicating appetite suppression. There were no differences between exercise intensities for appetite hormones or VAS. Similar to males, post-exercise appetite regulatory hormones were altered toward suppression in highly-trained women and independent of energy cost of exercise. Results are important for female athletes striving to optimize nutrition for endurance performance.

  10. Transient increase in homocysteine but not hyperhomocysteinemia during acute exercise at different intensities in sedentary individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Iglesias-Gutiérrez

    Full Text Available Considering that hyperhomocysteinemia is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease, the purpose of this study was to determine the kinetics of serum homocysteine (tHcy and the vitamins involved in its metabolism (folates, B(12, and B(6 in response to acute exercise at different intensities. Eight sedentary males (18-27 yr took part in the study. Subjects were required to complete two isocaloric (400 kcal acute exercise trials on separate occasions at 40% (low intensity, LI and 80% VO(2peak (high intensity, HI. Blood samples were drawn at different points before (pre4 and pre0 h, during (exer10, exer20, exer30, exer45, and exer60 min, and after exercise (post0, post3, and post19 h. Dietary, genetic, and lifestyle factors were controlled. Maximum tHcy occurred during exercise, both at LI (8.6 (8.0-10.1 µmol/L, 9.3% increase from pre0 and HI (9.4 (8.2-10.6 µmol/L, 25.7% increase from pre0, coinciding with an accumulated energy expenditure independent of the exercise intensity. From this point onwards tHcy declined until the cessation of exercise and continued descending. At post19, tHcy was not different from pre-exercise values. No values of hyperhomocysteinemia were observed at any sampling point and intensity. In conclusion, acute exercise in sedentary individuals, even at HI, shows no negative effect on tHcy when at least 400 kcal are spent during exercise and the nutritional status for folate, B(12, and B(6 is adequate, since no hyperhomocysteinemia has been observed and basal concentrations were recovered in less than 24 h. This could be relevant for further informing healthy exercise recommendations.

  11. Objective and subjective measures of exercise intensity during thermo-neutral and hot yoga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Corinne N; Lannan, Stephanie M; Zuhl, Micah N; Mora-Rodriguez, Ricardo; Nelson, Rachael K

    2018-04-01

    While hot yoga has gained enormous popularity in recent years, owing in part to increased environmental challenge associated with exercise in the heat, it is not clear whether hot yoga is more vigorous than thermo-neutral yoga. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine objective and subjective measures of exercise intensity during constant intensity yoga in a hot and thermo-neutral environment. Using a randomized, crossover design, 14 participants completed 2 identical ∼20-min yoga sessions in a hot (35.3 ± 0.8 °C; humidity: 20.5% ± 1.4%) and thermo-neutral (22.1 ± 0.2 °C; humidity: 27.8% ± 1.6%) environment. Oxygen consumption and heart rate (HR) were recorded as objective measures (percentage of maximal oxygen consumption and percentage of maximal HR (%HRmax)) and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) was recorded as a subjective measure of exercise intensity. There was no difference in exercise intensity based on percentage of maximal oxygen consumption during hot versus thermo-neutral yoga (30.9% ± 2.3% vs. 30.5% ± 1.8%, p = 0.68). However, exercise intensity was significantly higher during hot versus thermo-neutral yoga based on %HRmax (67.0% ± 2.3% vs. 60.8% ± 1.9%, p = 0.01) and RPE (12 ± 1 vs. 11 ± 1, p = 0.04). According to established exercise intensities, hot yoga was classified as light-intensity exercise based on percentage of maximal oxygen consumption but moderate-intensity exercise based on %HRmax and RPE while thermo-neutral yoga was classified as light-intensity exercise based on percentage of maximal oxygen uptake, %HRmax, and RPE. Despite the added hemodynamic stress and perception that yoga is more strenuous in a hot environment, we observed similar oxygen consumption during hot versus thermo-neutral yoga, classifying both exercise modalities as light-intensity exercise.

  12. High Intensity Exercise in Multiple Sclerosis: Effects on Muscle Contractile Characteristics and Exercise Capacity, a Randomised Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inez Wens

    Full Text Available Low-to-moderate intensity exercise improves muscle contractile properties and endurance capacity in multiple sclerosis (MS. The impact of high intensity exercise remains unknown.Thirty-four MS patients were randomized into a sedentary control group (SED, n = 11 and 2 exercise groups that performed 12 weeks of a high intensity interval (HITR, n = 12 or high intensity continuous cardiovascular training (HCTR, n = 11, both in combination with resistance training. M.vastus lateralis fiber cross sectional area (CSA and proportion, knee-flexor/extensor strength, body composition, maximal endurance capacity and self-reported physical activity levels were assessed before and after 12 weeks.Compared to SED, 12 weeks of high intensity exercise increased mean fiber CSA (HITR: +21 ± 7%, HCTR: +23 ± 5%. Furthermore, fiber type I CSA increased in HCTR (+29 ± 6%, whereas type II (+23 ± 7% and IIa (+23 ± 6%, CSA increased in HITR. Muscle strength improved in HITR and HCTR (between +13 ± 7% and +45 ± 20% and body fat percentage tended to decrease (HITR: -3.9 ± 2.0% and HCTR: -2.5 ± 1.2%. Furthermore, endurance capacity (Wmax +21 ± 4%, time to exhaustion +24 ± 5%, VO2max +17 ± 5% and lean tissue mass (+1.4 ± 0.5% only increased in HITR. Finally self-reported physical activity levels increased 73 ± 19% and 86 ± 27% in HCTR and HITR, respectively.High intensity cardiovascular exercise combined with resistance training was safe, well tolerated and improved muscle contractile characteristics and endurance capacity in MS.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01845896.

  13. Muscle and intensity based hamstring exercise classification in elite female track and field athletes: implications for exercise selection during rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsaklis P

    2015-06-01

    exercise. An electrogoniometer synchronized to the EMG was used to determine whether peak EMG activity occurred during muscle-tendon unit lengthening, shortening, or no change in length. Mean EMG values were compared between the two recording sites for each exercise using the Student's t-test.Results: The lunge, dead lift, and kettle swings were low intensity (<50% MVIC and all showed higher EMG activity for semitendinosus than for biceps femoris. Bridge was low but approaching medium intensity, and the TRX, hamstring bridge, and hamstring curl were all medium intensity exercises (≥50% or <80% MVIC. The Nordic, fitball, and slide leg exercises were all high intensity exercises. Only the fitball exercise showed higher EMG activity in the biceps femoris compared with the semitendinosus. Only lunge and kettle swings showed peak EMG in the muscle-tendon unit lengthening phase and both these exercises involved faster speed.Conclusion: Some exercises selectively activated the lateral and medial distal hamstrings. Low, medium, and high intensity exercises were demonstrated. This information enables the clinician, strength and conditioning coach and physiotherapist to better understand intensity- and muscle-specific activation during hamstring muscle rehabilitation. Therefore, these results may help in designing progressive strengthening and rehabilitation and prevention programs.Keywords: hamstring injuries, exercise, rehabilitation

  14. Exercise interventions for cognitive function in adults older than 50: a systematic review with meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northey, Joseph Michael; Cherbuin, Nicolas; Pumpa, Kate Louise; Smee, Disa Jane; Rattray, Ben

    2018-02-01

    Physical exercise is seen as a promising intervention to prevent or delay cognitive decline in individuals aged 50 years and older, yet the evidence from reviews is not conclusive. To determine if physical exercise is effective in improving cognitive function in this population. Systematic review with multilevel meta-analysis. Electronic databases Medline (PubMed), EMBASE (Scopus), PsychINFO and CENTRAL (Cochrane) from inception to November 2016. Randomised controlled trials of physical exercise interventions in community-dwelling adults older than 50 years, with an outcome measure of cognitive function. The search returned 12 820 records, of which 39 studies were included in the systematic review. Analysis of 333 dependent effect sizes from 36 studies showed that physical exercise improved cognitive function (0.29; 95% CI 0.17 to 0.41; pcognition. The results of the meta-analysis were consistent and independent of the cognitive domain tested or the cognitive status of the participants. Physical exercise improved cognitive function in the over 50s, regardless of the cognitive status of participants. To improve cognitive function, this meta-analysis provides clinicians with evidence to recommend that patients obtain both aerobic and resistance exercise of at least moderate intensity on as many days of the week as feasible, in line with current exercise guidelines. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  15. Counseling and exercise intervention for smoking reduction in patients with schizophrenia: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Paquito Philippe Noel; Esseul, Elodie Christine; Raymond, Laurent; Dandonneau, Loic; Xambo, Jean-Jacques; Carayol, Marion Sara; Ninot, Gregory Jean-Marie Guilyn

    2013-02-01

    Smoking cessation is possible for individuals with schizophrenia but the relapse rate is high. It is necessary to develop more flexible approaches to help these patients. The aim of this study was to examine the feasibility of an intervention approach that integrates counseling and exercise for participants with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. A single group prospective design was used in this study. A sample of inpatients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder participated in a program called "oxygen group", a program combining five sessions of smoking reduction counseling and three sessions of moderate intensity exercise over an 8-week period. Tobacco consumption, motivation, carbon monoxide level, anxiety and depression, smoking self-efficacy, nicotine dependence and waist circumference were measured pre- and post-intervention. Participants reported their satisfaction with the study characteristics after completion of the intervention. Smoking consumption and CO level were assessed at 6-week post-intervention follow-up. Twelve individuals (mean age 45.7±10.8years) were recruited. Participant attendance was 81.3%. There were no dropouts. Significant decreases were found for tobacco consumption (P=.04) and CO rate (P=.003) at the end of the intervention and were maintained at 6-week follow-up. Compared to baseline levels, there were no changes in depression and anxiety. Smoking cessation motivation increased significantly. This intervention appears feasible and acceptable to patients with schizophrenia and there were promising findings regarding smoking reduction. Larger trials to test the intervention are warranted. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. No effect of glycogen level on glycogen metabolism during high intensity exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vandenberghe, Katleen; Hespel, P.; Eynde, Bart Vanden

    1995-01-01

    , either for 1 min 45 s (protocol 1; N = 18) or to exhaustion (protocol 2; N = 14). The exercise tests were preceded by either 5 d on a controlled normal (N) diet, or by 2 d of glycogen-depleting exercise accompanied by the normal diet followed by 3 d on a carbohydrate-rich (CHR) diet. In protocol 1......This study examined the effect of glycogen supercompensation on glycogen breakdown, muscle and blood lactate accumulation, blood-pH, and performance during short-term high-intensity exercise. Young healthy volunteers performed two supramaximal (125% of VO2max) exercise tests on a bicycle ergometer...

  17. Low intensity aerobic exercise and oxidative stress markers in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouzid, Mohamed A; Hammouda, Omar; Matran, Régis; Robin, Sophie; Fabre, Claudine

    2014-10-01

    This comparative study examined the effects of regular low intensity aerobic exercise on oxidative stress markers in older adults. The study was carried out on 15 sedentary subjects (age: 65.1 ± 3.5 years) versus 18 subjects performing fitness exercises (age: 65.8 ± 3.3 years). Before and after an incremental exercise test, oxidative stress markers were assessed. Superoxide dismutase was higher at rest and at the recovery for the physically active subjects compared with sedentary subjects (p aerobic exercise may be useful to prevent the decline of antioxidants linked with aging.

  18. Continuous Exercise but Not High Intensity Interval Training Improves Fat Distribution in Overweight Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelley E. Keating

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of high intensity interval training (HIIT versus continuous aerobic exercise training (CONT or placebo (PLA on body composition by randomized controlled design. Methods. Work capacity and body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry were measured before and after 12 weeks of intervention in 38 previously inactive overweight adults. Results. There was a significant group × time interaction for change in work capacity (P<0.001, which increased significantly in CONT (23.8±3.0% and HIIT (22.3±3.5% but not PLA (3.1±5.0%. There was a near-significant main effect for percentage trunk fat, with trunk fat reducing in CONT by 3.1±1.6% and in PLA by 1.1±0.4%, but not in HIIT (increase of 0.7±1.0% (P=0.07. There was a significant reduction in android fat percentage in CONT (2.7±1.3% and PLA (1.4±0.8% but not HIIT (increase of 0.8±0.7% (P=0.04. Conclusion. These data suggest that HIIT may be advocated as a time-efficient strategy for eliciting comparable fitness benefits to traditional continuous exercise in inactive, overweight adults. However, in this population HIIT does not confer the same benefit to body fat levels as continuous exercise training.

  19. Evaluation of an intervention to increase self-efficacy for independent exercise in cardiac rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkley, Sherry A; Fahrenwald, Nancy L

    2013-01-01

    Adherence to independent exercise is an essential outcome of cardiac rehabilitation (CR), yet limited theory-based interventions to improve adherence exist. This study tested the effects of an intervention based on Bandura's conceptualization of self-efficacy. The self-efficacy coaching intervention (SCI), a supplement to standard care, was designed to increase self-efficacy for independent exercise and independent exercise behavior in CR. We examined whether the SCI vs. attention control (AC) resulted in improved exercise self-efficacy (ESE), barriers self-efficacy (BARSE), and minutes of independent exercise for CR participants (n = 65). While between-group differences did not reach significance (p > .10) for any of the outcome measures, significant within-group changes were noted in BARSE scores and independent exercise (p exercise for the AC group was also significant (p =. 006). Further study is needed to explore whether short-term changes translate into maintenance of independent exercise participation after program completion.

  20. The Effects of Maximal Intensity Exercise on Cognitive Performance in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Roy David

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available High intensity physical exercise has previously been found to lead to a decline in cognitive performance of adults. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of maximal intensity exercise on cognitive performance of children. Using a repeated-measures design, 20 children and adolescents aged 8-17 years completed a battery of tests measuring memory and attention. Forward and Backward Digit Span tests, the Rey Auditory-Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT and the Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST were performed at baseline, immediately after, and one hour after a maximal cardiopulmonary exercise test. Forward and Backward Digit Span scores significantly improved post-recovery compared with baseline measurements. There was a significant decrease in RAVLT scores post-exercise, which returned to baseline values after recovery. The DSST test scores were mildly elevated from post-exercise to after recovery. Maximal intensity exercise in children and adolescents may result in both beneficial and detrimental cognitive effects, including transient impairment in verbal learning. Cognitive functions applying short term memory improve following a recovery period. Parents, educators and coaches should consider these changes in memory and attention following high-intensity exercise activities in children.

  1. Effect of Moderate-Intensity Exercise on Inflammatory Markers Among Postmenopausal Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagas, Eduardo Federighi Baisi; Bonfim, Mariana Rotta; Turi, Bruna Camilo; Brondino, Nair Cristina Margarida; Monteiro, Henrique Luiz

    2017-06-01

    Declines in ovarian function in postmenopausal women may contribute to increase inflammatory cytokines, which can lead to chronic diseases. However, studies have shown that exercise interventions are important to manage inflammatory conditions. Thus, the objective of this study was to analyze the effect of exercise intervention on inflammatory markers among obese and postmenopausal women. 70 women composed the sample (Exercise group [EG; n = 35] and nonexercise group [nEG; n = 35]). IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-10 were the inflammatory markers analyzed. Exercise program was 20 weeks long and consisted of aerobic and neuromuscular training. Data about chronic diseases, medication use, dietary intake, body composition and biochemical variables were collected. EG showed significant reductions in body mass index, waist circumference and body fat percentage, as well as increased lean body mass. EG showed significant reductions in TNF-α and significant interaction between group and intervention time. Reductions in IL-10 were identified only in nEG. Substantial effect of exercise intervention was observed with increased ratio of IL-10/IL-6 and IL-10/TNF-α. Combination of aerobic exercise and resistance training was effective in reducing inflammation. Thus, implementation and maintenance of similar exercise programs can contribute to reduce chronic inflammation among obese postmenopausal women.

  2. Self-selected music-induced reduction of perceived exertion during moderate-intensity exercise does not interfere with post-exercise improvements in inhibitory control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Daichi; Tsukamoto, Hayato; Suga, Tadashi; Takenaka, Saki; Hamaoka, Takafumi; Hashimoto, Takeshi; Isaka, Tadao

    2018-05-26

    Acute aerobic exercise improves inhibitory control (IC). This improvement is often associated with increases in perceived exertion during exercise. However, listening to music during aerobic exercise mitigates an exercise-induced increase in perceived exertion. Thus, it is hypothesized that such effects of music may interfere with exercise-induced improvements in IC. To test this hypothesis, we examined the effect of music on post-exercise IC improvements that were induced by moderate-intensity exercise. Fifteen healthy young men performed cycle ergometer exercise with music or non-music. The exercise was performed using a moderate-intensity of 60% of VO 2 peak for 30 min. The music condition was performed while listening to self-selected music. The non-music condition involved no music. To evaluate IC, the Stroop task was administered before exercise, immediately after exercise, and during the 30-min post-exercise recovery period. The rate of perceived exertion immediately before moderate-intensity exercise completed was significantly lower in music condition than in non-music condition. The IC significantly improved immediately after exercise and during the post-exercise recovery period compared to before exercise in both music and non-music conditions. The post-exercise IC improvements did not significantly differ between the two conditions. These findings indicate that self-selected music-induced mitigation of the increase in perceived exertion during moderate-intensity exercise dose not interfere with exercise-induced improvements in IC. Therefore, we suggest that listening to music may be a beneficial strategy in mitigating the increase in perceived exertion during aerobic exercise without decreasing the positive effects on IC. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Moderate-intensity aerobic exercise improves sleep quality in men older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shams Amir

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of present research was to investigate the effect of low and moderate intensity aerobic exercises on sleep quality in older adults. The statistical sample included 45 volunteer elderly men with age range of 60-70 years old that divided randomly in two experimental groups (aerobic exercise with low and moderate intensity and one control group. The maximum heart rate (MaxHR of subjects was obtained by subtracting one's age from 220. Furthermore, based on aerobic exercise type (40-50% MaxHR for low intensity group and 60-70% MaxHR for moderate intensity group the target MaxHR was calculated for each subject. The exercise protocol consisted of 8 weeks aerobic exercises (2 sessions in per-week based on Rockport one-mile walking/running test and the control group continued their daily activities. All subjects in per-test and post-test stages were completed the Petersburg Sleep Quality Index (PSQI. Results in post-test stage showed that there were significant differences between control and experimental groups in sleep quality and its components (P<0.05. Also, the Tukey Post Hoc showed that the moderate intensity group scores in sleep quality and its components were better than other groups (P<0.05. Finally, the low intensity group scores were better than control group (P<0.05. Generally, the present research showed that the aerobic exercises with moderate intensity have a positive and significant effect on sleep quality and its components. Thus, based on these findings, the moderate intensity aerobic exercises as a useful and medical method for improve the sleep quality among community older adults was recommended.

  4. Effects of high-intensity exercise and protein supplement on muscle mass in ADL dependent older people with and without malnutrition: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, M; Littbrand, H; Gustafson, Y; Lundin-Olsson, L; Lindelöf, N; Rosendahl, E; Håglin, L

    2011-08-01

    Loss of muscle mass is common among old people living in institutions but trials that evaluate interventions aimed at increasing the muscle mass are lacking. Objective, participants and intervention: This randomized controlled trial was performed to evaluate the effect of a high-intensity functional exercise program and a timed protein-enriched drink on muscle mass in 177 people aged 65 to 99 with severe physical or cognitive impairments, and living in residential care facilities. Three-month high-intensity exercise was compared with a control activity and a protein-enriched drink was compared with a placebo drink. A bioelectrical impedance spectrometer (BIS) was used in the evaluation. The amount of muscle mass and body weight (BW) were followed-up at three and six months and analyzed in a 2 x 2 factorial ANCOVA, using the intention to treat principle, and controlling for baseline values. At 3-month follow-up there were no differences in muscle mass and BW between the exercise and the control group or between the protein and the placebo group. No interaction effects were seen between the exercise and nutritional intervention. Long-term negative effects on muscle mass and BW was seen in the exercise group at the 6-month follow-up. A three month high-intensity functional exercise program did not increase the amount of muscle mass and an intake of a protein-enriched drink immediately after the exercise did not induce any additional effect on muscle mass. There were negative long-term effects on muscle mass and BW, indicating that it is probably necessary to compensate for an increased energy demand when offering a high-intensity exercise program.

  5. No Effect of Exercise Intensity on Appetite in Highly-Trained Endurance Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Stephanie M.; Hand, Taryn M.; Larson-Meyer, D. Enette; Austin, Kathleen J.; Alexander, Brenda M.; Manore, Melinda M.

    2016-01-01

    In endurance-trained men, an acute bout of exercise is shown to suppress post-exercise appetite, yet limited research has examined this response in women. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of exercise intensity on appetite and gut hormone responses in endurance-trained women. Highly-trained women (n = 15, 18–40 years, 58.4 ± 6.4 kg, VO2MAX = 55.2 ± 4.3 mL/kg/min) completed isocaloric bouts (500 kcals or 2093 kJ) of moderate-intensity (MIE, 60% VO2MAX) and high-intensity (HIE, 85% VO2MAX) treadmill running at the same time of day, following a similar 48-h diet/exercise period, and at least 1-week apart. Blood was drawn pre-exercise (baseline), immediately post-exercise and every 20-min for the next 60-min. Plasma concentrations of acylated ghrelin, PYY3–36, GLP-1 and subjective appetite ratings via visual analog scale (VAS) were assessed at each time point. Acylated ghrelin decreased (p = 0.014) and PYY3–36 and GLP-1 increased (p = 0.036, p appetite suppression. VAS ratings of hunger and desire to eat decreased immediately post-exercise (p = 0.0012, p = 0.0031, respectively), also indicating appetite suppression. There were no differences between exercise intensities for appetite hormones or VAS. Similar to males, post-exercise appetite regulatory hormones were altered toward suppression in highly-trained women and independent of energy cost of exercise. Results are important for female athletes striving to optimize nutrition for endurance performance. PMID:27096869

  6. Effect of previous exhaustive exercise on metabolism and fatigue development during intense exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iaia, F. M.; Perez-Gomez, J.; Nordsborg, Nikolai

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined how metabolic response and work capacity are affected by previous exhaustive exercise. Seven subjects performed an exhaustive cycle exercise ( approximately 130%-max; EX2) after warm-up (CON) and 2 min after an exhaustive bout at a very high (VH; approximately 30 s), high...

  7. Effects of music and video on perceived exertion during high-intensity exercise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Enoch C.Chow; Jennifer L.Etnier

    2017-01-01

    Background:Dissociative attentional stimuli (e.g.,music,video) are effective in decreasing ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) during low-to-moderate intensity exercise,but have inconsistent results during exercise at higher intensity.The purpose of this study was to assess attentional focus and RPE during high-intensity exercise as a function of being exposed to music,video,both (music and video),or a no-treatment control condition.Methods:During the first session,healthy men (n =15) completed a maximal fitness test to determine the workload necessary for high-intensity exercise (operationalized as 125% ventilatory threshold) to be performed during subsequent sessions.On 4 subsequent days,they completed 20 min of high-intensity exercise in a no-treatment control condition or while listening to music,watching a video,or both.Attentional focus,RPE,heart rate,and distance covered were measured every 4 min during the exercise.Results:Music and video in combination resulted in significantly lower RPE across time (partial η2 =0.36) and the size of the effect increased over time (partial η2 =0.14).Additionally,music and video in combination resulted in a significantly more dissociative focus than the other conditions (partial η2 =0.29).Conclusion:Music and video in combination may result in lower perceived exertion during high-intensity exercise when compared to music or video in isolation.Future research will be necessary to test if reductions in perceived exertion in response to dissociative attentional stimuli have implications for exercise adherence.

  8. Exercise despite pain – breast cancer patient experiences of muscle and joint pain during adjuvant chemotherapy and concurrent participation in an exercise intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Christina; Rørth, M; Ejlertsen, B

    2014-01-01

    Chemotherapy-related pain is a well-known side effect in cancer patient receiving chemotherapy. However, limited knowledge exists describing whether exercise exacerbates existing pain. Aim of the research was to explore muscle and joint pain experienced by women with breast cancer receiving...... intervention comprised supervised training: high-intensity cardiovascular, heavy resistance and relaxation, massage and body-awareness (9 h weekly, 6 weeks). The analysis revealed five categories: Abrupt pain - a predominant side effect, cogitated pain management, the adapted training, non......-immediate exacerbation of pain and summarised into the essence of chemotherapy related muscle and joint pain in exercise breast cancer patients; exercise despite pain. Findings indicate that the patients' perception of sudden onset of chemotherapy-related muscle and joint pain was not aggravated by training. Pain...

  9. Physiological adaptations to interval training and the role of exercise intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacInnis, Martin J; Gibala, Martin J

    2017-05-01

    Interval exercise typically involves repeated bouts of relatively intense exercise interspersed by short periods of recovery. A common classification scheme subdivides this method into high-intensity interval training (HIIT; 'near maximal' efforts) and sprint interval training (SIT; 'supramaximal' efforts). Both forms of interval training induce the classic physiological adaptations characteristic of moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) such as increased aerobic capacity (V̇O2 max ) and mitochondrial content. This brief review considers the role of exercise intensity in mediating physiological adaptations to training, with a focus on the capacity for aerobic energy metabolism. With respect to skeletal muscle adaptations, cellular stress and the resultant metabolic signals for mitochondrial biogenesis depend largely on exercise intensity, with limited work suggesting that increases in mitochondrial content are superior after HIIT compared to MICT, at least when matched-work comparisons are made within the same individual. It is well established that SIT increases mitochondrial content to a similar extent to MICT despite a reduced exercise volume. At the whole-body level, V̇O2 max is generally increased more by HIIT than MICT for a given training volume, whereas SIT and MICT similarly improve V̇O2 max despite differences in training volume. There is less evidence available regarding the role of exercise intensity in mediating changes in skeletal muscle capillary density, maximum stroke volume and cardiac output, and blood volume. Furthermore, the interactions between intensity and duration and frequency have not been thoroughly explored. While interval training is clearly a potent stimulus for physiological remodelling in humans, the integrative response to this type of exercise warrants further attention, especially in comparison to traditional endurance training. © 2016 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2016 The Physiological Society.

  10. Caffeine intake improves intense intermittent exercise performance and reduces muscle interstitial potassium accumulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohr, Magni; Nielsen, Jens Jung; Bangsbo, Jens

    2011-01-01

    The effect of oral caffeine ingestion on intense intermittent exercise performance and muscle interstitial ion concentrations was examined. The study consists of two studies (S1 and S2). In S1 twelve subjects completed the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 2 (Yo-Yo IR2) test with prior caffeine (6...... mg/kg b.w.; CAF) or placebo (PLA) intake. In S2 six subjects performed one low intense (20 W) and three intense (50 W) 3-min (separated by 5 min) one-legged knee-extension exercise bouts with (CAF) and without (CON) prior caffeine supplementation for determination of muscle interstitial K(+) and Na...

  11. The feasibility of an exercise intervention in males at risk of oesophageal adenocarcinoma: a randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brooke M Winzer

    Full Text Available To investigate the feasibility and safety of a 24-week exercise intervention, compared to control, in males with Barrett's oesophagus, and to estimate the effect of the intervention, compared to control, on risk factors associated with oesophageal adenocarcinoma development.A randomized controlled trial of an exercise intervention (60 minutes moderate-intensity aerobic and resistance exercise five days/week over 24 weeks; one supervised and four unsupervised sessions versus attention control (45 minutes stretching five days/week over 24 weeks; one supervised and four unsupervised sessions in inactive, overweight/obese (25.0-34.9 kg/m2 males with Barrett's oesophagus, aged 18-70 years. Primary outcomes were obesity-associated hormones relevant to oesophageal adenocarcinoma risk (circulating concentrations of leptin, adiponectin, interleukin-6, tumour necrosis factor-alpha, C-reactive protein, and insulin resistance [HOMA]. Secondary outcomes included waist circumference, body composition, fitness, strength and gastro-oesophageal reflux symptoms. Outcomes were measured at baseline and 24-weeks. Intervention effects were analysed using generalised linear models, adjusting for baseline value.Recruitment was difficult in this population with a total of 33 participants recruited (target sample size: n = 80; 97% retention at 24-weeks. Adherence to the exercise protocol was moderate. No serious adverse events were reported. A statistically significant intervention effect (exercise minus control was observed for waist circumference (-4.5 [95% CI -7.5, -1.4] cm; p < 0.01. Effects on primary outcomes were not statistically significant.This small, exploratory trial provides important information to inform future trial development including recruitment rates and estimates of effect sizes on outcomes related to oesophageal adenocarcinoma risk. Future trials should investigate a combined dietary and exercise intervention to achieve greater weight loss in this

  12. Effect of muscle acidity on muscle metabolism and fatigue during intense exercise in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangsbo, Jens; Madsen, K.; Kiens, Bente

    1996-01-01

    1. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of muscle pH on muscle metabolism and development of fatigue during intense exercise. 2. Seven subjects performed intense exhaustive leg exercise on two occasions: with and without preceding intense intermittent arm exercise leading to high...... or moderate (control) blood lactate concentrations (HL and C, respectively). Prior to and immediately after each exercise bout, a muscle biopsy was taken from m. vastus lateralis of the active leg. Leg blood flow was measured and femoral arterial and venous blood samples were collected before and frequently...... during the exhaustive exercises. 3. The duration of the exercise was shorter in HL than in C (3.46 +/- 0.28 vs. 4.67 +/- 0.55 min; means +/- S.E.M.; P muscle pH was the same in C and HL (7.17 vs. 7.10), but at the end of exercise muscle pH was lower in HL than in C (6.82 vs. 6...

  13. High-intensity interval training using whole-body exercises: training recommendations and methodological overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Alexandre F; Baker, Julien S; Figueira Junior, Aylton J; Bocalini, Danilo S

    2017-05-04

    HIIT whole body (HWB)-based exercise is a new calisthenics exercise programme approach that can be considered an effective and safe method to improve physical fitness and body composition. HWB is a method that can be applied to different populations and ages. The purpose of this study was to describe possible methodologies for performing physical training based on whole-body exercise in healthy subjects. The HWB sessions consist of a repeated stimulus based on high-intensity exercise that also include monitoring time to effort, time to recuperation and session time. The exercise intensity is related to the maximal number of movements possible in a given time; therefore, the exercise sessions can be characterized as maximal. The intensity can be recorded using ratings of perceived exertion. Weekly training frequency and exercise selection should be structured according to individual subject functional fitness. Using this simple method, there is potential for greater adherence to physical activity which can promote health benefits to all members of society. © 2017 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Fatiguing exercise intensity influences the relationship between parameters reflecting neuromuscular function and postural control variables.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Boyas

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of fatiguing exercise intensity on the nature and extent of fatigue-induced changes in neuromuscular function and postural stability in quiet standing. We also explored the contribution of selected neuromuscular mechanisms involved in force production to postural stability impairment observed following fatigue using an approach based on multivariate regressions. Eighteen young subjects performed 30-s postural trials on one leg with their eyes closed. Postural trials were performed before and after fatiguing exercises of different intensities: 25, 50 and 75% of maximal isometric plantarflexor torque. Fatiguing exercises consisted of sustaining a plantarflexor isometric contraction at the target intensity until task failure. Maximal isometric plantarflexor torque, electromyographic activity of plantarflexor and dorsiflexor muscles, activation level (twitch interpolation technique and twitch contractile properties of plantarflexors were used to characterize neuromuscular function. The 25% exercise was associated with greater central fatigue whereas the 50 and 75% exercises involved mostly peripheral fatigue. However, all fatiguing exercises induced similar alterations in postural stability, which was unexpected considering previous literature. Stepwise multiple regression analyses showed that fatigue-related changes in selected parameters related to neuromuscular function could explain more than half (0.51≤R(2≤0.82 of the changes in postural variables for the 25% exercise. On the other hand, regression models were less predictive (0.17≤R(2≤0.73 for the 50 and 75% exercises. This study suggests that fatiguing exercise intensity does not influence the extent of postural stability impairment, but does influence the type of fatigue induced and the neuromuscular function predictors explaining changes in postural variables.

  15. Blood lactate clearance after maximal exercise depends on active recovery intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devlin, J; Paton, B; Poole, L; Sun, W; Ferguson, C; Wilson, J; Kemi, O J

    2014-06-01

    High-intensity exercise is time-limited by onset of fatigue, marked by accumulation of blood lactate. This is accentuated at maximal, all-out exercise that rapidly accumulates high blood lactate. The optimal active recovery intensity for clearing lactate after such maximal, all-out exercise remains unknown. Thus, we studied the intensity-dependence of lactate clearance during active recovery after maximal exercise. We constructed a standardized maximal, all-out treadmill exercise protocol that predictably lead to voluntary exhaustion and blood lactate concentration>10 mM. Next, subjects ran series of all-out bouts that increased blood lactate concentration to 11.5±0.2 mM, followed by recovery exercises ranging 0% (passive)-100% of the lactate threshold. Repeated measurements showed faster lactate clearance during active versus passive recovery (P40%>passive recovery, Pexercise clears accumulated blood lactate faster than passive recovery in an intensity-dependent manner, with maximum clearance occurring at active recovery of 80% of lactate threshold.

  16. Exercise Guidelines to Promote Cardiometabolic Health in Spinal Cord Injured Humans: Time to Raise the Intensity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nightingale, Tom E; Metcalfe, Richard S; Vollaard, Niels B; Bilzon, James L

    2017-08-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a life-changing event that, as a result of paralysis, negatively influences habitual levels of physical activity and hence cardiometabolic health. Performing regular structured exercise therefore appears extremely important in persons with SCI. However, exercise options are mainly limited to the upper body, which involves a smaller activated muscle mass compared with the mainly leg-based activities commonly performed by nondisabled individuals. Current exercise guidelines for SCI focus predominantly on relative short durations of moderate-intensity aerobic upper-body exercise, yet contemporary evidence suggests this is not sufficient to induce meaningful improvements in risk factors for the prevention of cardiometabolic disease in this population. As such, these guidelines and their physiological basis require reappraisal. In this special communication, we propose that high-intensity interval training (HIIT) may be a viable alternative exercise strategy to promote vigorous-intensity exercise and prevent cardiometabolic disease in persons with SCI. Supplementing the limited data from SCI cohorts with consistent findings from studies in nondisabled populations, we present strong evidence to suggest that HIIT is superior to moderate-intensity aerobic exercise for improving cardiorespiratory fitness, insulin sensitivity, and vascular function. The potential application and safety of HIIT in this population is also discussed. We conclude that increasing exercise intensity could offer a simple, readily available, time-efficient solution to improve cardiometabolic health in persons with SCI. We call for high-quality randomized controlled trials to examine the efficacy and safety of HIIT in this population. Copyright © 2017 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. A standardised individual unsupervised water exercise intervention for healthy pregnant women. A qualitative feasibility study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Backhausen, Mette G; Katballe, Malene; Hansson, Helena

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Low back pain during pregnancy is common and associated with sick leave. Studies suggest that exercise may reduce low back pain during pregnancy. Before carrying out a randomised controlled trail with individual water exercise as intervention a qualitative feasibility study was done....... OBJECTIVE: To explore women's views and experiences of the acceptability and benefits of and possible barriers to the standardised individual unsupervised water exercise intervention. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eleven women were interviewed after participating in a water exercise intervention. Content analysis...... was used. RESULTS: Four main categories emerged: motivation to participate, attitudes towards the exercise programme, perception of benefits, and acceptability of supportive components. The women had a desire to stay physically active during pregnancy and found water exercise a suitable, type of exercise...

  18. Oxidative stress and antioxidant responses to progressive resistance exercise intensity in trained and untrained males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Çakır-Atabek

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between oxidative stress and some exercise components of resistance exercise (e.g. intensity, exercise volume has not been clearly defined. Additionally, the oxidative stress markers may respond differently in various conditions. This study aims to determine the effects of progressive intensity of resistance exercise (RE on oxidative stress and antioxidants in trained and untrained men, and also to investigate the possible threshold intensity required to evoke oxidative stress. RE trained (N=8 and untrained (N=8 men performed the leg extension RE at progressive intensities standardized for total volume: 1x17 reps at 50% of one-repetition maximum (1RM; 1x14 reps at 60% of 1RM; 1x12 reps at 70% of 1RM; 2x5 reps at 80% of 1RM; and 3x3 reps at 90% of 1RM. Blood samples were drawn before (PRE and immediately after each intensity, and after 30 minutes, 60 minutes and 24 hours following the RE. Lipid-hydroperoxide (LHP significantly increased during the test and then decreased during the recovery in both groups (p0.05. Standardized volume of RE increased oxidative stress responses. Our study suggests that lower intensity (50% is enough to increase LHP, whereas higher intensity (more than 80% is required to evoke protein oxidation.

  19. Effect of interventions with ingestion of legumes and/or supervised exercise on the lipid profile of young, healthy sedentary women

    OpenAIRE

    Luis F. Fajardo; Dora G. Castellanos; Myriam Chinchilla; Luz N. Vargas; Martha Guerra; Leonardo Quintana; Johnson Niño

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To contribute to the knowledge of some aspects of the Healthy Life Style by studying the effects of including legumes in the diet and exercise at two intensity levels, along with the lipid profile of young sedentary women living at 2640 meters above sea level. Materials and methods: The study included a non-randomized clinical trial with four intervention groups: exercise at 45% VO2 peak plus legumes in diet, exercise at 65% VO2 peak plus legumes in diet, only exercise at 65% VO...

  20. Exercise habituation is effective for improvement of periodontal disease status: a prospective intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omori, Shoei; Uchida, Fumihiko; Oh, Sechang; So, Rina; Tsujimoto, Takehiko; Yanagawa, Toru; Sakai, Satoshi; Shoda, Junichi; Tanaka, Kiyoji; Bukawa, Hiroki

    2018-01-01

    Periodontal disease is closely related to lifestyle-related diseases and obesity. It is widely known that moderate exercise habits lead to improvement in lifestyle-related diseases and obesity. However, little research has been undertaken into how exercise habits affect periodontal disease. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of exercise habits on periodontal diseases and metabolic pathology. We conducted a prospective intervention research for 12 weeks. The subjects were 71 obese men who participated in an exercise and/or dietary intervention program. Fifty subjects were assigned to exercise interventions (exercise intervention group) and 21 subjects were assigned to dietary interventions (dietary intervention group). This research was conducted before and after each intervention program. In the exercise intervention group, the number of teeth with a probing pocket depth (PPD) ≥4 mm significantly decreased from 14.4% to 5.6% ( P periodontal disease-causing bacteria and PPD and BOP. Our results are the first to show that exercise might contribute to improvements in periodontal disease.

  1. Does Aerobic Exercise Influence Intrinsic Brain Activity? An Aerobic Exercise Intervention among Healthy Old Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pär Flodin

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have indicated that aerobic exercise could reduce age related decline in cognition and brain functioning. Here we investigated the effects of aerobic exercise on intrinsic brain activity. Sixty sedentary healthy males and females (64–78 years were randomized into either an aerobic exercise group or an active control group. Both groups recieved supervised training, 3 days a week for 6 months. Multimodal brain imaging data was acquired before and after the intervention, including 10 min of resting state brain functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI and arterial spin labeling (ASL. Additionally, a comprehensive battery of cognitive tasks assessing, e.g., executive function and episodic memory was administered. Both the aerobic and the control group improved in aerobic capacity (VO2-peak over 6 months, but a significant group by time interaction confirmed that the aerobic group improved more. Contrary to our hypothesis, we did not observe any significant group by time interactions with regard to any measure of intrinsic activity. To further probe putative relationships between fitness and brain activity, we performed post hoc analyses disregarding group belongings. At baseline, VO2-peak was negativly related to BOLD-signal fluctuations (BOLDSTD in mid temporal areas. Over 6 months, improvements in aerobic capacity were associated with decreased connectivity between left hippocampus and contralateral precentral gyrus, and positively to connectivity between right mid-temporal areas and frontal and parietal regions. Independent component analysis identified a VO2-related increase in coupling between the default mode network and left orbitofrontal cortex, as well as a decreased connectivity between the sensorimotor network and thalamus. Extensive exploratory data analyses of global efficiency, connectome wide multivariate pattern analysis (connectome-MVPA, as well as ASL, did not reveal any relationships between aerobic fitness

  2. High intensity interval exercise is an effective alternative to moderate intensity exercise for improving glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in adolescent boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockcroft, Emma J; Williams, Craig A; Tomlinson, Owen W; Vlachopoulos, Dimitris; Jackman, Sarah R; Armstrong, Neil; Barker, Alan R

    2015-11-01

    High-intensity interval exercise (HIIE) may offer a time efficient means to improve health outcomes compared to moderate-intensity exercise (MIE). This study examined the acute effect of HIIE compared to a work-matched bout of MIE on glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity (IS), resting fat oxidation and exercise enjoyment in adolescent boys. Within-measures design with counterbalanced experimental conditions. Nine boys (14.2 ± 0.4 years) completed three conditions on separate days in a counterbalanced order: (1) HIIE; (2) work matched MIE, both on a cycle ergometer; and (3) rest (CON). An oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed after exercise or rest and the area under curve (AUC) responses for plasma [glucose] and [insulin] were calculated, and IS estimated (Cederholm index). Energy expenditure and fat oxidation were measured following the OGTT using indirect calorimetry. Exercise enjoyment was assessed using the Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale. The incremental AUC (iAUC) for plasma [glucose] was reduced following both MIE (-23.9%, P = 0.013, effect size [ES] = -0.64) and HIIE (-28.9%, P=0.008, ES = -0.84) compared to CON. The iAUC for plasma [insulin] was lower for HIIE (-24.2%, P = 0.021, ES = -0.71) and MIE (-29.1%, P = 0.012, ES = -0.79) compared to CON. IS increased by 11.2% after HIIE (P = 0.03, ES = 0.76) and 8.4% after MIE (P = 0.10, ES = 0.58). There was a trend for an increase in fat oxidation following HIIE (P = 0.097, ES = 0.70). Both HIIE and MIE were rated as equally enjoyable (P > 0.05, ES effective alternative to MIE for improving glucose tolerance and IS in adolescent boys immediately after exercise. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Oxidative stress does not influence local sweat rate during high-intensity exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meade, Robert D; Fujii, Naoto; Poirier, Martin P; Boulay, Pierre; Sigal, Ronald J; Kenny, Glen P

    2018-02-01

    What is the central question of this study? We evaluated whether oxidative stress attenuates the contribution of nitric oxide to sweating during high-intensity exercise. What is the main finding and its importance? In contrast to our previous report of an oxidative stress-mediated reduction in nitric oxide-dependent cutaneous vasodilatation in this cohort during intense exercise, we demonstrated no influence of local ascorbate administration on the sweating response during moderate- (∼51% peak oxygen uptake) or high-intensity exercise (∼72% peak oxygen uptake). These new findings provide important mechanistic insight into how exercise-induced oxidative stress impacts sudomotor activity. Nitric oxide (NO)-dependent sweating is diminished during high- but not moderate-intensity exercise. We evaluated whether this impairment stems from increased oxidative stress during high-intensity exercise. On two separate days, 11 young (24 ± 4 years) men cycled in the heat (35°C) at a moderate [500 W; 52 ± 6% peak oxygen uptake (V̇O2 peak )] or high (700 W; 71 ± 5% V̇O2 peak ) rate of metabolic heat production. Each session included two 30 min exercise bouts separated by a 20 min recovery period. Local sweat rate was monitored at four forearm skin sites continuously perfused via intradermal microdialysis with the following: (i) lactated Ringer solution (Control); (ii) 10 mm ascorbate (Ascorbate; non-selective antioxidant); (iii) 10 mm N G -nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME; NO synthase inhibitor); or (iv) 10 mm ascorbate plus 10 mm l-NAME (Ascorbate + l-NAME). During moderate exercise, sweat rate was attenuated at the l-NAME and Ascorbate + l-NAME sites (both ∼1.0 mg min -1  cm -2 ; all P < 0.05) but not at the Ascorbate site (∼1.1 mg min -1  cm -2 ; both P ≥ 0.28) in comparison to the Control site (∼1.1 mg min -1  cm -2 ). However, no differences were observed between treatment sites (∼1.4 mg min -1  cm -2 ; P = 0

  4. Exercise effects on bone mineral density in older men: a systematic review with special emphasis on study interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemmler, W; Shojaa, M; Kohl, M; von Stengel, S

    2018-04-05

    This systematic review detected only limited positive effects of exercise on bone mineral density in older men. Further, based on the present literature, we were unable to suggest dedicated exercise prescriptions for this male cohort that might differ from recommendations based on studies with postmenopausal women. The primary aim of this systematic review was to determine the effect of exercise on bone mineral density (BMD) in healthy older men. A systematic review of the literature according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement included only randomized or non-randomized controlled trials of exercise training ≥ 6 months with study groups of ≥ eight healthy men aged 50 years or older, not using bone-relevant pharmacological therapy, that determined BMD by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. We searched PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, Cochrane, Science Direct, and Eric up to November 2016. Risk of bias was assessed using the PEDro scale. We identified eight trials with 789 participants (PEDro-score, mean value 6 of 10) which satisfied our eligibility criteria. Studies vary considerably with respect to type and composition of exercise. Study interventions of six trials were considered to be appropriate for successfully addressing BMD in this cohort. Between-group differences were not or not consistently reported by three studies. Three studies reported significant exercise effects on BMD for proximal femur; one of them determined significant differences between the exercise groups. None of the exercise trials determined significant BMD effects at the lumbar spine. Based on the present studies, there is only limited evidence for a favorable effect of exercise on BMD in men. More well-designed and sophisticated studies on BMD in healthy older men have to address this topic. Further, there is a need to define intervention quality standards and implement a universal scoring system that allows this pivotal determinant

  5. Effects of Resistance Exercise Intensity on Cytokine and Chemokine Gene Expression in Atopic Dermatitis Mouse Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Ju Choi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Although the evidence is unclear, literature indicates that resistance exercise reduces inflammation in colorectal disease. The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of colon tissue on cytokine and chemokine gene expression with changes in resistance exercise intensity. Material and Methods: We divided male BABL/c mice into 6 groups (each group n=10, total=60 (control group: CON, low resistance exercise group: EX_L, high resistance exercise group: EX_H, atopic dermatitis group: AD, atopic dermatitis+low resistance exercise group: AD+EX_L, atopic dermatitis+high resistance exercise group: AD+EX_H and subjected them to ladder climbing resistance exercise for 4 weeks. After 24 h of each exercise schedule, a real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed to determine mRNA expression of interleukin-6 (IL-6 and chemokine ligand 20 (CCL20. Results: The AD group showed significantly higher mRNA expression of IL-6 and CCL20 compared with the CON, EX_L, EX_H, AD+EX_L, and AD+EX_H groups (p<0.05. Conclusion: In conclusion, both high and low resistance exercise effectively decreases the concentration of IL-6 and CCL20 in mice with and without AD.

  6. Influence of acute exercise of varying intensity and duration on postprandial oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canale, Robert E; Farney, Tyler M; McCarthy, Cameron G; Bloomer, Richard J

    2014-09-01

    Aerobic exercise can reduce postprandial lipemia, and possibly oxidative stress, when performed prior to a lipid-rich meal. To compare the impact of acute exercise on postprandial oxidative stress. We compared aerobic and anaerobic exercise bouts of different intensities and durations on postprandial blood triglycerides (TAG), oxidative stress biomarkers (malondialdehyde, hydrogen peroxide, advanced oxidation protein products), and antioxidant status (trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase). Twelve trained men (21-35 years) underwent four conditions: (1) No exercise rest; (2) 60-min aerobic exercise at 70% heart rate reserve; (3) five 60-s sprints at 100% max capacity; and (4) ten 15-s sprints at 200% max capacity. All exercise bouts were performed on a cycle ergometer. A high-fat meal was consumed 1 h after exercise cessation. Blood samples were collected pre-meal and 2 and 4 h post-meal and analyzed for TAG, oxidative stress biomarkers, and antioxidant status. No significant interaction or condition effects were noted for any variable (p > 0.05), with acute exercise having little to no effect on the magnitude of postprandial oxidative stress. In a sample of healthy, well-trained men, neither aerobic nor anaerobic exercise attenuates postprandial oxidative stress in response to a high-fat meal.

  7. The effects of creatine pyruvate and creatine citrate on performance during high intensity exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purpura Martin

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized study was performed to evaluate the effect of oral creatine pyruvate (Cr-Pyr and creatine citrate (Cr-Cit supplementation on exercise performance in healthy young athletes. Methods Performance during intermittent handgrip exercise of maximal intensity was evaluated before (pretest and after (posttest 28 days of Cr-Pyr (5 g/d, n = 16, Cr-Cit (5 g/d, n = 16 or placebo (pla, 5 g/d, n = 17 intake. Subjects performed ten 15-sec exercise intervals, each followed by 45 sec rest periods. Results Cr-Pyr (p Conclusion It is concluded that four weeks of Cr-Pyr and Cr-Cit intake significantly improves performance during intermittent handgrip exercise of maximal intensity and that Cr-Pyr might benefit endurance, due to enhanced activity of the aerobic metabolism.

  8. Low blood flow at onset of moderate-intensity exercise does not limit muscle oxygen uptake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyberg, Michael Permin; Mortensen, Stefan P; Saltin, Bengt

    2010-01-01

    The effect of low blood flow at onset of moderate-intensity exercise on the rate of rise in muscle oxygen uptake was examined. Seven male subjects performed a 3.5-min one-legged knee-extensor exercise bout (24 +/- 1 W, mean +/- SD) without (Con) and with (double blockade; DB) arterial infusion...... of inhibitors of nitric oxide synthase (N(G)-monomethyl-l-arginine) and cyclooxygenase (indomethacin) to inhibit the synthesis of nitric oxide and prostanoids, respectively. Leg blood flow and leg oxygen delivery throughout exercise was 25-50% lower (P ... +/- 12 vs. 262 +/- 39 ml/min). The present data demonstrate that muscle blood flow and oxygen delivery can be markedly reduced without affecting muscle oxygen uptake in the initial phase of moderate-intensity exercise, suggesting that blood flow does not limit muscle oxygen uptake at the onset...

  9. Effects of Exercise Intensity on Postexercise Endothelial Function and Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conor McClean

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To measure endothelial function and oxidative stress immediately, 90 minutes, and three hours after exercise of varying intensities. Methods. Sixteen apparently healthy men completed three exercise bouts of treadmill running for 30 minutes at 55% V˙O2max (mild; 20 minutes at 75% V˙O2max (moderate; or 5 minutes at 100% V˙O2max (maximal in random order. Brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD was assessed with venous blood samples drawn for measurement of endothelin-1 (ET-1, lipid hydroperoxides (LOOHs, and lipid soluble antioxidants. Results. LOOH increased immediately following moderate exercise (P0.05. Conclusions. Acute exercise at different intensities elicits varied effects on oxidative stress, shear rate, and ET-1 that do not appear to mediate changes in endothelial function measured by FMD.

  10. Effects of aerobic training intensity on resting, exercise and post-exercise blood pressure, heart rate and heart-rate variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelissen, V A; Verheyden, B; Aubert, A E; Fagard, R H

    2010-03-01

    We aimed to investigate the effects of endurance training intensity (1) on systolic blood pressure (SBP) and heart rate (HR) at rest before exercise, and during and after a maximal exercise test; and (2) on measures of HR variability at rest before exercise and during recovery from the exercise test, in at least 55-year-old healthy sedentary men and women. A randomized crossover study comprising three 10-week periods was performed. In the first and third period, participants exercised at lower or higher intensity (33% or 66% of HR reserve) in random order, with a sedentary period in between. Training programmes were identical except for intensity, and were performed under supervision thrice for 1 h per week. The results show that in the three conditions, that is, at rest before exercise, during exercise and during recovery, we found endurance training at lower and higher intensity to reduce SBP significantly (Pendurance training did not affect the response of SBP after an acute bout of exercise. The effect of training on HR at rest, during exercise and recovery was more pronounced (Pendurance training had no significant effect on sympathovagal balance. In conclusion, in participants at higher age, both training programmes exert similar effects on SBP at rest, during exercise and during post-exercise recovery, whereas the effects on HR are more pronounced after higher intensity training.

  11. Multilevel Approach of a 1-Year Program of Dietary and Exercise Interventions on Bone Mineral Content and Density in Metabolic Syndrome--the RESOLVE Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courteix, Daniel; Valente-dos-Santos, João; Ferry, Béatrice; Lac, Gérard; Lesourd, Bruno; Chapier, Robert; Naughton, Geraldine; Marceau, Geoffroy; João Coelho-e-Silva, Manuel; Vinet, Agnès; Walther, Guillaume; Obert, Philippe; Dutheil, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    Weight loss is a public health concern in obesity-related diseases such as metabolic syndrome (MetS). However, restrictive diets might induce bone loss. The nature of exercise and whether exercise with weight loss programs can protect against potential bone mass deficits remains unclear. Moreover, compliance is essential in intervention programs. Thus, we aimed to investigate the effects that modality and exercise compliance have on bone mineral content (BMC) and density (BMD). We investigated 90 individuals with MetS who were recruited for the 1-year RESOLVE trial. Community-dwelling seniors with MetS were randomly assigned into three different modalities of exercise (intensive resistance, intensive endurance, moderate mixed) combined with a restrictive diet. They were compared to 44 healthy controls who did not undergo the intervention. This intensive lifestyle intervention (15-20 hours of training/week + restrictive diet) resulted in weight loss, body composition changes and health improvements. Baseline BMC and BMD for total body, lumbar spine and femoral neck did not differ between MetS groups and between MetS and controls. Despite changes over time, BMC or BMD did not differ between the three modalities of exercise and when compared with the controls. However, independent of exercise modality, compliant participants increased their BMC and BMD compared with their less compliant peers. Decreases in total body lean mass and negative energy balance significantly and independently contributed to decreases in lumbar spine BMC. After the one year intervention, differences relating to exercise modalities were not evident. However, compliance with an intensive exercise program resulted in a significantly higher bone mass during energy restriction than non-compliance. Exercise is therefore beneficial to bone in the context of a weight loss program. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00917917.

  12. Multilevel Approach of a 1-Year Program of Dietary and Exercise Interventions on Bone Mineral Content and Density in Metabolic Syndrome – the RESOLVE Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courteix, Daniel; Valente-dos-Santos, João; Ferry, Béatrice; Lac, Gérard; Lesourd, Bruno; Chapier, Robert; Naughton, Geraldine; Marceau, Geoffroy; João Coelho-e-Silva, Manuel; Vinet, Agnès; Walther, Guillaume; Obert, Philippe; Dutheil, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    Background Weight loss is a public health concern in obesity-related diseases such as metabolic syndrome (MetS). However, restrictive diets might induce bone loss. The nature of exercise and whether exercise with weight loss programs can protect against potential bone mass deficits remains unclear. Moreover, compliance is essential in intervention programs. Thus, we aimed to investigate the effects that modality and exercise compliance have on bone mineral content (BMC) and density (BMD). Methods We investigated 90 individuals with MetS who were recruited for the 1-year RESOLVE trial. Community-dwelling seniors with MetS were randomly assigned into three different modalities of exercise (intensive resistance, intensive endurance, moderate mixed) combined with a restrictive diet. They were compared to 44 healthy controls who did not undergo the intervention. Results This intensive lifestyle intervention (15–20 hours of training/week + restrictive diet) resulted in weight loss, body composition changes and health improvements. Baseline BMC and BMD for total body, lumbar spine and femoral neck did not differ between MetS groups and between MetS and controls. Despite changes over time, BMC or BMD did not differ between the three modalities of exercise and when compared with the controls. However, independent of exercise modality, compliant participants increased their BMC and BMD compared with their less compliant peers. Decreases in total body lean mass and negative energy balance significantly and independently contributed to decreases in lumbar spine BMC. Conclusion After the one year intervention, differences relating to exercise modalities were not evident. However, compliance with an intensive exercise program resulted in a significantly higher bone mass during energy restriction than non-compliance. Exercise is therefore beneficial to bone in the context of a weight loss program. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00917917 PMID:26376093

  13. V02 'overshoot' during moderate-intensity exercise in endurance-trained athletes: the influence of exercise modality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilding, Andrew E; Jones, Andrew M

    2008-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of exercise modality on the 'overshoot' in V(O2) that has been reported following the onset of moderate-intensity (below the gas exchange threshold, GET) exercise in endurance athletes. Seven trained endurance cyclists and seven trained endurance runners completed six square-wave transitions to a work-rate or running speed requiring 80% of mode-specific GET during both cycle and treadmill running exercise. The kinetics of V(O2) was assessed using non-linear regression and any overshoot in V(O2) was quantified as the integrated volume (IV) of O(2) consumed above the steady-state requirement. During cycling, an overshoot in V(O2) was evident in all seven cyclists (IV = 136 +/- 41 ml) and in four runners (IV = 81 +/- 94 ml). During running, an overshoot in V(O2) was evident in four runners (IV = 72 +/- 61 ml) but no cyclists. These data challenge the notion that V(O2) always rises towards a steady-state with near-exponential kinetics in this exercise intensity domain. The greater incidence of the V(O2) overshoot during cycling (11/14 subjects) compared to running (4/14 subjects) indicates that the overshoot phenomenon is related to an interaction between high levels of aerobic fitness and exercise modality. We speculate that a transient loss in muscle efficiency as a consequence of a non-constant ATP requirement following the onset of constant-work-rate exercise or an initially excessive recruitment of motor units (relative to the work-rate) might contribute to the overshoot phenomenon.

  14. High-intensity exercise and recovery during short-term ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to power athletes and other individuals wishing to improve performance in ... effect of creatine supplementation on physical performance. It has been reported that ... high-intensity work performance.1,2,5,16,31,36 Such activities as resistance ...

  15. Design of the Resistance and Endurance exercise After ChemoTherapy (REACT study: A randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of exercise interventions after chemotherapy on physical fitness and fatigue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Mechelen Willem

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Preliminary studies suggest that physical exercise interventions can improve physical fitness, fatigue and quality of life in cancer patients after completion of chemotherapy. Additional research is needed to rigorously test the effects of exercise programmes among cancer patients and to determine optimal training intensity accordingly. The present paper presents the design of a randomized controlled trial evaluating the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a high intensity exercise programme compared to a low-to-moderate intensity exercise programme and a waiting list control group on physical fitness and fatigue as primary outcomes. Methods After baseline measurements, cancer patients who completed chemotherapy are randomly assigned to either a 12-week high intensity exercise programme or a low-to-moderate intensity exercise programme. Next, patients from both groups are randomly assigned to immediate training or a waiting list (i.e. waiting list control group. After 12 weeks, patients of the waiting list control group start with the exercise programme they have been allocated to. Both interventions consist of equal bouts of resistance and endurance interval exercises with the same frequency and duration, but differ in training intensity. Additionally, patients of both exercise programmes are counselled to improve compliance and achieve and maintain an active lifestyle, tailored to their individual preferences and capabilities. Measurements will be performed at baseline (t = 0, 12 weeks after randomization (t = 1, and 64 weeks after randomization (t = 2. The primary outcome measures are cardiorespiratory fitness and muscle strength assessed by means of objective performance indicators, and self-reported fatigue. Secondary outcome measures include health-related quality of life, self-reported physical activity, daily functioning, body composition, mood and sleep disturbances, and return to work. In addition, compliance

  16. Association between exercise intensity and renal blood flow evaluated using ultrasound echo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Shotaro; Yasuno, Tetsuhiko; Matsuda, Takuro; Fujimi, Kanta; Ito, Ai; Yoshimura, Saki; Uehara, Yoshinari; Tanaka, Hiroaki; Saito, Takao; Higaki, Yasuki

    2018-03-10

    High-intensity exercise reduces renal blood flow (RBF) and may transiently exacerbate renal dysfunction. RBF has previously been measured invasively by administration of an indicator material; however, non-invasive measurement is now possible with technological innovations. This study examined variations in RBF at different exercise intensities using ultrasound echo. Eight healthy men with normal renal function (eGFR cys 114 ± 19 mL/min/1.73 m 2 ) participated in this study. Using a bicycle ergometer, participants underwent an incremental exercise test using a ramp protocol (20 W/min) until exhaustion in Study 1 and the lactate acid breaking point (LaBP) was calculated. Participants underwent a multi-stage test at exercise intensities of 60, 80, 100, 120, and 140% LaBP in Study 2. RBF was measured by ultrasound echo at rest and 5 min after exercise in Study 1 and at rest and immediately after each exercise in Study 2. To determine the mechanisms behind RBF decline, a catheter was placed into the antecubital vein to study vasoconstriction dynamics. RBF after maximum exercise decreased by 51% in Study 1. In Study 2, RBF showed no significant decrease until 80% LaBP, and showed a significant decrease (31%) at 100% LaBP compared with at rest (p blood lactate. Reduction in RBF with exercise above the intensity at LaBP was due to decreased cross-sectional area rather than time-averaged flow velocity.

  17. Effects of exercise intensity on hypertension prevalence in Korean men with high sodium intake

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Min Hee; Lee, Hae-Jeung

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of present study was to investigate the effects of exercise intensity on hypertension prevalence in Korean men with high sodium intake. [Subjects and Methods] This study was based on the data collected from 2007 to 2013 in the Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey. A total of 8853 male adults were included in the analysis. The odds ratios for hypertension according to exercise groups were assessed by using logistic regression of each sodium intake gro...

  18. Does high intensity exercise affects irisin plasma levels in hemodialysis patients? A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Gormicho Boavida Marques Esgalhado

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background: Irisin is a recently identified exercise-induced hormone that stimulates the "browning" of the white adipose tissue, at least in mice. In chronic kidney disease (CKD patients, irisin regulation is not fully understood, and little attention has been given to the effects of exercise on irisin levels in these patients. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of high intensity exercise on irisin plasma levels in CKD patients under hemodialysis (HD. Methods: Fifteen HD patients (5 men, 44.4 ± 15.1 years old were studied and served as their own controls. High intensity (single session intradialytic strength exercises consisted of three sets of ten repetitions with four different movements in both lower limbs during 30 minutes. Blood samples were collected on different days (exercise and non-exercise day at exactly the same time (30 and 60 minutes after the start of dialysis session. Plasma irisin levels were measured by ELISA assay and anthropometric and biochemical parameters were evaluated. Results: Irisin plasma levels were significantly reduced in both exercise day (125.0 ± 18.5 to 117.4 ± 15.0 ng/mL, p=0.02 and non-exercise day (121.5 ± 13.7 to 115.4 ± 17.2 ng/mL, p=0.02 after 60 minutes of dialysis. Conclusion: These data suggest that intense intradialytic strength exercise was unable to increase the circulating concentration of irisin in HD patients. Moreover, our data show that after one hour of dialysis session, irisin plasma levels may be reduced.

  19. High intensity physical exercise and pain in the neck and upper limb among slaughterhouse workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundstrup, Emil; Jakobsen, Markus D.; Andersen, Kenneth Jay

    2014-01-01

    and pain among 595 slaughterhouse workers in Denmark, Europe. Using logistic regression analyses, odds ratios for pain and work disability as a function of physical exercise, gender, age, BMI, smoking, and job position were estimated. The prevalence of pain in the neck, shoulder, elbow, and hand...... about the effect among workers with repetitive and forceful work demands. Before performing randomized controlled trials it may be beneficial to assess the cross-sectional connection between exercise and musculoskeletal pain. We investigated the association between high intensity physical exercise....../wrist was 48%, 60%, 40%, and 52%, respectively. The odds for experiencing neck pain were significantly lower among slaughterhouse workers performing physical exercise (OR = 0.70, CI: 0.49-0.997), whereas the odds for pain in the shoulders, elbow, or hand/wrist were not associated with exercise. The present...

  20. The efficacy of vigorous-intensity exercise as an aid to smoking cessation in adults with elevated anxiety sensitivity: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smits, Jasper A J; Zvolensky, Michael J; Rosenfield, David; Marcus, Bess H; Church, Timothy S; Frierson, Georita M; Powers, Mark B; Otto, Michael W; Davis, Michelle L; DeBoer, Lindsey B; Briceno, Nicole F

    2012-11-13

    Although cigarette smoking is a leading cause of death and disability in the United States (US), over 40 million adults in the US currently smoke. Quitting smoking is particularly difficult for smokers with certain types of psychological vulnerability. Researchers have frequently called attention to the relation between smoking and anxiety-related states and disorders, and evidence suggests that panic and related anxiety vulnerability factors, specifically anxiety sensitivity (AS or fear of somatic arousal), negatively impact cessation. Accordingly, there is merit to targeting AS among smokers to improve cessation outcome. Aerobic exercise has emerged as a promising aid for smoking cessation for this high-risk (for relapse) group because exercise can effectively reduce AS and other factors predicting smoking relapse (for example, withdrawal, depressed mood, anxiety), and it has shown initial efficacy for smoking cessation. The current manuscript presents the rationale, study design and procedures, and design considerations of the Smoking Termination Enhancement Project (STEP). STEP is a randomized clinical trial that compares a vigorous-intensity exercise intervention to a health and wellness education intervention as an aid for smoking cessation in adults with elevated AS. One hundred and fifty eligible participants will receive standard treatment (ST) for smoking cessation that includes cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and nicotine replacement therapy (NRT). In addition, participants will be randomly assigned to either an exercise intervention (ST+EX) or a health and wellness education intervention (ST+CTRL). Participants in both arms will meet 3 times a week for 15 weeks, receiving CBT once a week for the first 7 weeks, and 3 supervised exercise or health and wellness education sessions (depending on randomization) per week for the full 15-week intervention. Participants will be asked to set a quit date for 6 weeks after the baseline visit, and smoking

  1. The efficacy of vigorous-intensity exercise as an aid to smoking cessation in adults with elevated anxiety sensitivity: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smits Jasper A J

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although cigarette smoking is a leading cause of death and disability in the United States (US, over 40 million adults in the US currently smoke. Quitting smoking is particularly difficult for smokers with certain types of psychological vulnerability. Researchers have frequently called attention to the relation between smoking and anxiety-related states and disorders, and evidence suggests that panic and related anxiety vulnerability factors, specifically anxiety sensitivity (AS or fear of somatic arousal, negatively impact cessation. Accordingly, there is merit to targeting AS among smokers to improve cessation outcome. Aerobic exercise has emerged as a promising aid for smoking cessation for this high-risk (for relapse group because exercise can effectively reduce AS and other factors predicting smoking relapse (for example, withdrawal, depressed mood, anxiety, and it has shown initial efficacy for smoking cessation. The current manuscript presents the rationale, study design and procedures, and design considerations of the Smoking Termination Enhancement Project (STEP. Methods STEP is a randomized clinical trial that compares a vigorous-intensity exercise intervention to a health and wellness education intervention as an aid for smoking cessation in adults with elevated AS. One hundred and fifty eligible participants will receive standard treatment (ST for smoking cessation that includes cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT and nicotine replacement therapy (NRT. In addition, participants will be randomly assigned to either an exercise intervention (ST+EX or a health and wellness education intervention (ST+CTRL. Participants in both arms will meet 3 times a week for 15 weeks, receiving CBT once a week for the first 7 weeks, and 3 supervised exercise or health and wellness education sessions (depending on randomization per week for the full 15-week intervention. Participants will be asked to set a quit date for 6 weeks after

  2. A database for analysis of speech under physical stress: detection of exercise intensity while running and talking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Truong, Khiet Phuong; Nieuwenhuys, Arne; Beek, Peter; Evers, Vanessa

    One of the ways to gauge your own exercise intensity while running, is to assess your capability of talking while running: if you can still speak comfortably, you are running within the recommended intensity guidelines. This subjective way of estimating one's exercise intensity by talking (i.e. the

  3. Analog Exercise Hardware to Implement a High Intensity Exercise Program During Bed Rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loerch, Linda; Newby, Nate; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori

    2012-01-01

    Background: In order to evaluate novel countermeasure protocols in a space flight analog prior to validation on the International Space Station (ISS), NASA's Human Research Program (HRP) is sponsoring a multi-investigator bedrest campaign that utilizes a combination of commercial and custom-made exercise training hardware to conduct daily resistive and aerobic exercise protocols. This paper will describe these pieces of hardware and how they are used to support current bedrest studies at NASA's Flight Analog Research Unit in Galveston, TX. Discussion: To implement candidate exercise countermeasure studies during extended bed rest studies the following analog hardware are being utilized: Stand alone Zero-Gravity Locomotion Simulator (sZLS) -- a custom built device by NASA, the sZLS allows bedrest subjects to remain supine as they run on a vertically-oriented treadmill (0-15 miles/hour). The treadmill includes a pneumatic subject loading device to provide variable body loading (0-100%) and a harness to keep the subject in contact with the motorized treadmill to provide a ground reaction force at their feet that is quantified by a Kistler Force Plate. Supine Cycle Ergometer -- a commercially available supine cycle ergometer (Lode, Groningen, Netherlands) is used for all cycle ergometer sessions. The ergometer has adjustable shoulder supports and handgrips to help stabilize the subject during exercise. Horizontal Squat Device (HSD) -- a custom built device by Quantum Fitness Corp (Stafford, TX), the HSD allows for squat exercises to be performed while lying in a supine position. The HSD can provide 0 to 600 pounds of force in selectable 5 lb increments, and allows hip translation in both the vertical and horizontal planes. Prone Leg Curl -- a commercially available prone leg curl machine (Cybex International Inc., Medway, MA) is used to complete leg curl exercises. Horizontal Leg Press -- a commercially available horizontal leg press (Quantum Fitness Corporation) is

  4. Translation of incremental talk test responses to steady-state exercise training intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Ellen; Menke, Miranda; Foster, Carl; Porcari, John P; Gibson, Mark; Bubbers, Terresa

    2014-01-01

    The Talk Test (TT) is a submaximal, incremental exercise test that has been shown to be useful in prescribing exercise training intensity. It is based on a subject's ability to speak comfortably during exercise. This study defined the amount of reduction in absolute workload intensity from an incremental exercise test using the TT to give appropriate absolute training intensity for cardiac rehabilitation patients. Patients in an outpatient rehabilitation program (N = 30) performed an incremental exercise test with the TT given every 2-minute stage. Patients rated their speech comfort after reciting a standardized paragraph. Anything other than a "yes" response was considered the "equivocal" stage, while all preceding stages were "positive" stages. The last stage with the unequivocally positive ability to speak was the Last Positive (LP), and the preceding stages were (LP-1 and LP-2). Subsequently, three 20-minute steady-state training bouts were performed in random order at the absolute workload at the LP, LP-1, and LP-2 stages of the incremental test. Speech comfort, heart rate (HR), and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were recorded every 5 minutes. The 20-minute exercise training bout was completed fully by LP (n = 19), LP-1 (n = 28), and LP-2 (n = 30). Heart rate, RPE, and speech comfort were similar through the LP-1 and LP-2 tests, but the LP stage was markedly more difficult. Steady-state exercise training intensity was easily and appropriately prescribed at intensity associated with the LP-1 and LP-2 stages of the TT. The LP stage may be too difficult for patients in a cardiac rehabilitation program.

  5. Moderate-to-High Intensity Physical Exercise in Patients with Alzheimer's Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Kristine; Sobol, Nanna A; Frederiksen, Kristian S

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies of physical exercise in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) are few and results have been inconsistent. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of a moderate-to-high intensity aerobic exercise program in patients with mild AD. METHODS: In a randomized controlled trial, we recruite...... reduced neuropsychiatric symptoms in patients with mild AD, with possible additional benefits of preserved cognition in a subgroup of patients exercising with high attendance and intensity.......BACKGROUND: Studies of physical exercise in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) are few and results have been inconsistent. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of a moderate-to-high intensity aerobic exercise program in patients with mild AD. METHODS: In a randomized controlled trial, we recruited...... 200 patients with mild AD to a supervised exercise group (60-min sessions three times a week for 16 weeks) or to a control group. Primary outcome was change from baseline in cognitive performance estimated by Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT) in the intention-to-treat (ITT) group. Secondary outcomes...

  6. Moderate intensity sports and exercise is associated with glycaemic control in women with gestational diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrlich, S F; Hedderson, M M; Brown, S D; Sternfeld, B; Chasan-Taber, L; Feng, J; Adams, J; Ching, J; Crites, Y; Quesenberry, C P; Ferrara, A

    2017-10-01

    To assess the association of regular, unsupervised sports and exercise during pregnancy, by intensity level, with glycaemic control in women with gestational diabetes (GDM). Prospective cohort study of 971 women who, shortly after being diagnosed with GDM, completed a Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire assessing moderate and vigorous intensity sports and exercise in the past 3 months. Self-monitored capillary glucose values were obtained for the 6-week period following the questionnaire, with optimal glycaemic control defined≥80% values meeting the targetssports and exercise ([MET×hours]/week), the highest quartile, compared to the lowest, had significantly increased odds of optimal control (OR=1.82 [95% CI: 1.06-3.14] P=0.03). There were significant trends for decreasing mean 1-hour post breakfast, lunch and dinner glycaemia with increasing quartile of moderate activity (all Psports and exercise was associated with decreased mean 1-hour post breakfast and lunch glycaemia (both Psports and exercise, reported shortly after GDM diagnosis, were significantly associated with increased odds of achieving glycaemic control. Clinicians should be aware that unsupervised moderate intensity sports and exercise performed in mid-pregnancy aids in subsequent glycaemic control among women with GDM. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Physical Exercise and Cancer-Related Fatigue in Hospitalized Patients: Role of the Clinical Nurse Leader in Implementation of Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Katrina

    2016-02-01

    Guidelines suggest that aerobic endurance training and moderate resistance training lessen the effects of cancer-related fatigue (CRF). However, specifics regarding frequency, intensity, and type of physical activity required to alleviate fatigue are less specific. In addition, outcomes of these interventions during the initial stages of active treatment are not well documented. The purpose of this article is to review the current evidence-based literature regarding the effects of physical exercise on CRF and the role that the clinical nurse leader (CNL) can play in implementing interventions to address CRF and promote physical exercise to improve patient outcomes. A literature review of the effect of physical exercise on CRF was conducted using the CINAHL®, PubMed, and Google Scholar databases. As leaders in health care, CNLs have the knowledge and skill to take an active role in managing CRF and to develop evidence-based interventions to address fatigue in this patient population. Interventions may include creating and evaluating individualized exercise plans for inpatients with cancer and/or developing educational programs for the inpatient setting that may be continued after discharge and during outpatient treatment.

  8. Exercise intensities of gardening tasks within older adult allotment gardeners in Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Jemma L; Smith, Alexander; Backx, Karianne; Clayton, Deborah A

    2015-04-01

    Previous research has suggested that gardening activity could be an effective form of regular exercise for improving physical and psychological health in later life. However, there is a lack of data regarding the exercise intensities of various gardening tasks across different types of gardening and different populations. The purpose of this study was to examine the exercise intensity of gardening activity for older adult allotment gardeners in Wales, United Kingdom following a similar procedure used in previous studies conducted in the United States and South Korea by Park and colleagues (2008a; 2011). Oxygen consumption (VO2) and energy expenditure for six gardening tasks were measured via indirect calorimetery using the portable Oxycon mobile device. From these measures, estimated metabolic equivalent units (METs) were calculated. Consistent with Park et al. (2008a; 2011) the six gardening tasks were classified as low to moderate-high intensity physical activities based on their metabolic values (1.9-5.7 METs).

  9. Acute Hypotension after High-Intensity Interval Exercise in Metabolic Syndrome Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Palomo, Felix; Ramirez-Jimenez, Miguel; Ortega, Juan Fernando; Pallarés, Jesús G; Mora-Rodriguez, Ricardo

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the magnitude of post-exercise hypotension (PEH) after a bout of cycling exercise using high-intensity interval training (HIIT) in comparison to a bout of traditional moderate-intensity continuous exercise (CE). After supine rest 14 obese (31±1 kg·m -2 ) middle-age (57±2 y) metabolic syndrome patients (50% hypertensive) underwent a bout of HIIT or a bout of CE in a random order and then returned to supine recovery for another 45 min. Exercise trials were isocaloric and compared to a no-exercise trial (CONT) of supine rest for a total of 160 min. Before and after exercise we assessed blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), cardiac output (Q), systemic vascular resistance (SVR), intestinal temperature (T INT ), forearm skin blood flow (S K BF) and percent dehydration. HIIT produced a larger post-exercise reduction in systolic blood pressure than CE in the hypertensive group (-20±6 vs. -5±3 mmHg) and in the normotensive group (-8±3 vs. -3±2 mmHg) while HIIT reduced SVR below CE (Pexercise T INT and S K BF increased only after HIIT (all Pexercise method to CE to acutely reduce blood pressure in MSyn subjects. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. Estimating Accuracy at Exercise Intensities: A Comparative Study of Self-Monitoring Heart Rate and Physical Activity Wearable Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooley, Erin E; Golaszewski, Natalie M; Bartholomew, John B

    2017-03-16

    Physical activity tracking wearable devices have emerged as an increasingly popular method for consumers to assess their daily activity and calories expended. However, whether these wearable devices are valid at different levels of exercise intensity is unknown. The objective of this study was to examine heart rate (HR) and energy expenditure (EE) validity of 3 popular wrist-worn activity monitors at different exercise intensities. A total of 62 participants (females: 58%, 36/62; nonwhite: 47% [13/62 Hispanic, 8/62 Asian, 7/62 black/ African American, 1/62 other]) wore the Apple Watch, Fitbit Charge HR, and Garmin Forerunner 225. Validity was assessed using 2 criterion devices: HR chest strap and a metabolic cart. Participants completed a 10-minute seated baseline assessment; separate 4-minute stages of light-, moderate-, and vigorous-intensity treadmill exercises; and a 10-minute seated recovery period. Data from devices were compared with each criterion via two-way repeated-measures analysis of variance and Bland-Altman analysis. Differences are expressed in mean absolute percentage error (MAPE). For the Apple Watch, HR MAPE was between 1.14% and 6.70%. HR was not significantly different at the start (P=.78), during baseline (P=.76), or vigorous intensity (P=.84); lower HR readings were measured during light intensity (P=.03), moderate intensity (P=.001), and recovery (P=.004). EE MAPE was between 14.07% and 210.84%. The device measured higher EE at all stages (PApple Watch, and Garmin Forerunner 225. An advantage and novel approach of the study is the examination of HR and EE at specific physical activity intensities. Establishing validity of wearable devices is of particular interest as these devices are being used in weight loss interventions and could impact findings. Future research should investigate why differences between exercise intensities and the devices exist. ©Erin E Dooley, Natalie M Golaszewski, John B Bartholomew. Originally published in JMIR

  11. Effect of the exercise of walkers performed in public squares with spontaneous or prescribed intensity on post-exercise hypotension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Taís Feitosa da; Souza, Alesandra Araújo de; Lima, Fabiano Ferreira de; Suassuna, Jennifer Ariely Sales; Couto, Henrique Eduardo Paiva Lira do; Tenório, Gustavo Roque; Silva, Maria Irene de Andrade Gomes; Dias, Guilherme Leandebal Bonifácio; Silva, Alexandre Sérgio

    2017-07-20

    To quantify the intensity adopted by walkers in public squares and check the occurrence and magnitude of post-exercise hypotension in the spontaneously adopted intensity and in a prescribed intensity. In 98 volunteers (38 of them being hypertensive), walkers in public squares of the city of João Pessoa, State of Paraíba, Brazil, we have identified the intensity of a usual training monitored by heart rate and we have investigated the occurrence and magnitude of post-exercise hypotension. Subsequently, participants were instructed to walk with moderate intensity. Blood pressure was measured after rest and during post-exercise recovery. Of the total participants, 41% of the hypertensive and 36% of the normotensive individuals walked with light intensity. With the prescription, intensity increased to 55% and 52%, for the hypertensive and normotensive individuals, respectively. In the usual and prescribed intensity, the hypertensive individuals had post-exercise hypotension of -3.7±11.6 mmHg and -4.72±12.8 mmHg, respectively. There was no correlation between post-exercise hypotension and the initial systolic component of the hypertensive individuals (r2 = 0.2; p < 0.002). Walkers in public squares choose light intensity for walking. When they exercise with the prescribed intensity, they increase the intensity, but the magnitude of the PEH is not increase with this guidance. Quantificar a intensidade adotada por caminhantes em praças públicas e verificar a ocorrência e a magnitude da hipotensão pós-exercício na intensidade espontaneamente adotada e em uma intensidade prescrita. Em 98 voluntários (38 hipertensos), caminhantes em praças públicas da cidade de João Pessoa, PB, identificamos a intensidade de um treino habitual monitorada por meio da frequência cardíaca e averiguamos a ocorrência e magnitude de hipotensão pós-exercício. Posteriormente, os participantes foram instruídos a caminhar com intensidade moderada. A pressão arterial foi aferida ap

  12. Effects of physical exercise interventions in frail older adults: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Labra, Carmen; Guimaraes-Pinheiro, Christyanne; Maseda, Ana; Lorenzo, Trinidad; Millán-Calenti, José C

    2015-12-02

    Low physical activity has been shown to be one of the most common components of frailty, and interventions have been considered to prevent or reverse this syndrome. The purpose of this systematic review of randomized, controlled trials is to examine the exercise interventions to manage frailty in older people. The PubMed, Web of Science, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases were searched using specific keywords and Medical Subject Headings for randomized, controlled trials published during the period of 2003-2015, which enrolled frail older adults in an exercise intervention program. Studies where frailty had been defined were included in the review. A narrative synthesis approach was performed to examine the results. The Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro scale) was used to assess the methodological quality of the selected studies. Of 507 articles, nine papers met the inclusion criteria. Of these, six included multi-component exercise interventions (aerobic and resistance training not coexisting in the intervention), one included physical comprehensive training, and two included exercises based on strength training. All nine of these trials included a control group receiving no treatment, maintaining their habitual lifestyle or using a home-based low level exercise program. Five investigated the effects of exercise on falls, and among them, three found a positive impact of exercise interventions on this parameter. Six trials reported the effects of exercise training on several aspects of mobility, and among them, four showed enhancements in several measurements of this outcome. Three trials focused on the effects of exercise intervention on balance performance, and one demonstrated enhanced balance. Four trials investigated functional ability, and two showed positive results after the intervention. Seven trials investigated the effects of exercise intervention on muscle strength, and five of them reported increases; three trials

  13. Exercise Intensity and Incidence of Metabolic Syndrome: The SUN Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo-Santamaria, María; Fernandez-Montero, Alejandro; Martinez-Gonzalez, Miguel A; Moreno-Galarraga, Laura; Sanchez-Villegas, Almudena; Barrio-Lopez, María T; Bes-Rastrollo, Maira

    2017-04-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that vigorous physical activity may be associated with higher cardioprotective benefits than moderate physical activity. This study aimed to assess the long-term relationship between the intensity of leisure time physical activity (LTPA) and the risk of developing metabolic syndrome (MS) in a prospective cohort study. The Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra (SUN) Project comprises Spanish university graduates. Participants (n=10,145) initially free of MS were followed for a minimum of 6 years (2008-2014). Analysis was conducted in 2015. Physical activity was assessed though a validated questionnaire. The intensity of each physical activity was measured in METs. The intensity of LTPA was estimated by the ratio between total METs/week and total hours of LTPA/week, obtaining the mean METs/hour of LTPA. MS was defined according to the harmonizing definition. The association between the intensity of LTPA (METs/hour) and MS was assessed with logistic regression models adjusting for potential confounders. Among 10,145 participants initially free of any MS criteria, 412 new MS cases were observed. Vigorous LTPA was associated with a 37% relatively lower risk (AOR=0.63, 95% CI=0.44, 0.89) compared with light LTPA. For a given total energy expenditure, independent of the time spent on it, participants who performed vigorous LTPA exhibited a higher reduction in the risk of MS than those who performed light to moderate LTPA. Vigorous LTPA was significantly associated with lower risk of developing MS after a 6-year follow-up period. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Auditory feedback improves heart rate moderation during moderate-intensity exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaykevich, Alex; Grove, J Robert; Jackson, Ben; Landers, Grant J; Dimmock, James

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study is to determine whether exposure to automated HR feedback can produce improvements in the ability to regulate HR during moderate-intensity exercise and to evaluate the persistence of these improvements after feedback is removed. Twenty healthy adults performed 10 indoor exercise sessions on cycle ergometers over 5 wk after a twice-weekly schedule. During these sessions (FB), participants received auditory feedback designed to maintain HR within a personalized, moderate-intensity training zone between 70% and 80% of estimated maximum HR. All feedback was delivered via a custom mobile software application. Participants underwent an initial assessment (PREFB) to measure their ability to maintain exercise intensity defined by the training zone without use of feedback. After completing the feedback training, participants performed three additional assessments identical to PREFB at 1 wk (POST1), 2 wk (POST2), and 4 wk (POST3) after their last feedback session. Time in zone (TIZ), defined as the ratio of the time spent within the training zone divided by the overall time of exercise, rate of perceived exertion, instrumental attitudes, and affective attitudes were then evaluated to assess results using two-way, mixed-model ANOVA with sessions and gender as factors. Training with feedback significantly improved TIZ (P moderate-intensity exercise in healthy adults.

  15. Short-term intense exercise training reduces stress markers and alters the transcriptional response to exercise in skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinkley, J Matthew; Konopka, Adam R; Suer, Miranda K; Harber, Matthew P

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine the influence of short-term intense endurance training on cycling performance, along with the acute and chronic signaling responses of skeletal muscle stress and stability markers. Ten recreationally active subjects (25 ± 2 yr, 79 ± 3 kg, 47 ± 2 ml·kg -1 ·min -1 ) were studied before and after a 12-day cycling protocol to examine the effects of short-term intense (70-100% V̇o 2max ) exercise training on resting and exercise-induced regulation of molecular factors related to skeletal muscle cellular stress and protein stability. Skeletal muscle biopsies were taken at rest and 3 h following a 20-km cycle time trial on days 1 and 12 to measure mRNA expression and protein content. Training improved ( P stress. The maintenance in the myocellular environment may be due to synthesis of cytoprotective markers, along with enhanced degradation of damage proteins, as training tended ( P short-term intense training enhances protein stability, creating a cellular environment capable of resistance to exercise-induced stress, which may be favorable for adaptation. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  16. Time perception, pacing and exercise intensity: maximal exercise distorts the perception of time

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, A. M.; McCormick, A.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction\\ud \\ud Currently there are no data examining the impact of exercise on the perception of time, which is surprising as optimal competitive performance is dependent on accurate pacing using knowledge of time elapsed.\\ud \\ud \\ud Methods\\ud \\ud With institutional ethics approval, 12 recreationally active adult participants (f = 7, m = 5) undertook both 30 s Wingate cycles and 20 min (1200 s) rowing ergometer bouts as short and long duration self-paced exercise trials, in each of thre...

  17. Physical activity interventions differentially affect exercise task and barrier self-efficacy: A meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Torrance J.; Middleton, Kathryn R.; Winner, Larry; Janelle, Christopher M.; Middleton, Kathryn R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Researchers have yet to establish how interventions to increase physical activity influence specific self-efficacy beliefs. The current study sought to quantify the effect of interventions to increase physical activity among healthy adults on exercise task (EXSE) and barrier self-efficacy (BSE) via meta-analysis. Intervention characteristics associated with self-efficacy and physical activity changes were also identified. Methods A systematic database search and manual searches through reference lists of related publications were conducted for articles on randomized, controlled physical activity interventions. Published intervention studies reporting changes in physical activity behavior and either EXSE or BSE in healthy adults were eligible for inclusion. Results Of the 1,080 studies identified, 20 were included in the meta-analyses. Interventions had a significant effect of g = 0.208, 95% confidence interval (CI) [0.027, 0.388], p physical activity. Moderator analyses indicated shorter interventions that did not include structured exercise sessions effectively increased EXSE and physical activity, whereas long interventions improved BSE. Interventions that did not provide support increased BSE and physical activity levels. Further, interventions that did not require the use of daily exercise logs improved EXSE and physical activity behavior. Conclusion Interventions designed to increase physical activity differentially influenced EXSE and BSE. EXSE appeared to play a more significant role during exercise adoption, whereas BSE was involved in the maintenance of exercise behavior. Recommendations are offered for the design of future interventions. PMID:23957904

  18. Dose-response relationships between exercise intensity, cravings, and inhibitory control in methamphetamine dependence: An ERPs study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dongshi; Zhou, Chenglin; Zhao, Min; Wu, Xueping; Chang, Yu-Kai

    2016-04-01

    The present study integrated behavioral and neuroelectric approaches for determining the dose-response relationships between exercise intensity and methamphetamine (MA) craving and between exercise intensity and inhibitory control in individuals with MA dependence. Ninety-two individuals with MA dependence were randomly assigned to an exercise group (light, moderate, or vigorous intensity) or to a reading control group. The participants then completed a craving self-report at four time points: before exercise, during exercise, immediately after exercise, and 50 min after exercise. Event-related potentials were also recorded while the participants completed a standard Go/NoGo task and an MA-related Go/NoGo task approximately 20 min after exercise cessation. The reduction in self-reported MA craving scores of the moderate and vigorous intensity groups was greater than that of the light intensity and control groups during acute exercise as well as immediately and 50 min following exercise termination. Additionally, an inverted-U-shaped relationship between exercise intensity and inhibitory control was generally observed for the behavioral and neuroelectric indices, with the moderate intensity group exhibiting shorter Go reaction times, increased NoGo accuracy, and larger NoGo-N2 amplitudes. Acute exercise may provide benefits for MA-associated craving and inhibitory control in MA-dependent individuals, as revealed by behavioral and neuroelectric measures. Moderate-intensity exercise may be associated with more positive effects, providing preliminary evidence for the establishment of an exercise prescription regarding intensity for MA dependence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Exercise Interventions for Preventing Falls Among Older People in Care Facilities: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seon Heui; Kim, Hee Sun

    2017-02-01

    Falls in older people are a common problem, often leading to considerable morbidity. However, the overall effect of exercise interventions on fall prevention in care facilities remains controversial. To evaluate the effectiveness of exercise interventions on the rate of falls and number of fallers in care facilities. A meta-analysis was conducted of randomized controlled trials published up to December 2014. Eight databases were searched including Ovid-Medline, Embase, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, KoreaMed, KMbase, KISS, and KisTi. Two investigators independently extracted data and assessed study quality. Twenty-one studies were selected, that included 5,540 participants. Fifteen studies included exercise as a single intervention, whereas the remaining six included exercise combined with two or more fall interventions tailored to each resident's fall risk (i.e., medication review, environmental modification or staff education). Meta-analysis showed that exercise had a preventive effect on the rate of falls (risk ratio [RR] 0.81, 95% CI 0.68-0.97). This effect was stronger when exercise combined with other fall interventions on the rate of falls (RR 0.61, 95% CI 0.52-0.72) and on the number of fallers (RR 0.85, 95% CI 0.77-0.95). Exercise interventions including balance training (i.e., gait, balance, and functional training; or balance and strength) resulted in reduced the rate of falls. Sensitivity analyses indicated that exercise interventions resulted in reduced numbers of recurrent fallers (RR 0.71, 95% CI 0.53-0.97). This review provides an important basis for developing evidence-based exercise intervention protocols for older people living in care facilities. Exercise programs, which are combined with tailored other fall interventions and challenge balance training to improve balance skills, should be applied to frail older people with functional limitations in institutional settings. © 2016 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  20. The Metabolic Cost of a High Intensity Exercise Program During Bed Rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackney, Kyle; Everett, Meghan; Guined, Jamie; Cunningham, Daid

    2012-01-01

    Background: Given that disuse-related skeletal muscle atrophy may be exacerbated by an imbalance between energy intake and output, the amount of energy required to complete exercise countermeasures is an important consideration in the well being of subject health during bed rest and spaceflight. Objective: To evaluate the energy cost of a high intensity exercise program performed during short duration bed rest. Methods: 9 subjects (8 male and 1 female; 34.5 +/- 8.2 years) underwent 14 days of bed rest and exercise countermeasures. Exercise energy expenditure and excess post exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) were collected once in each of 5 different exercise protocols (30 second, 2 minute and 4 minute intervals, continuous aerobic and a variety of resistance exercises) during bed rest. Body mass, basal metabolic rate (BMR), upper and lower leg muscle, subcutaneous, and intramuscular adipose tissue (IMAT) volumes were assessed before and at the end of bed rest. Results: There were no significant differences in body mass (pre: 75.1 +/- 10.5 kg; post: 75.2 +/- 10.1 kg), BMR (pre: 1649 +/- 216 kcal; post: 1657 +/- 177 kcal), muscle subcutaneous, or IMAT volumes (Table 2) after 14 days of bed rest and exercise. Body mass was maintained with an average daily intake of 2710 +/- 262 kcal (36.2 +/- 2.1 kcal/kg/day), while average daily energy expenditure was 2579 +/-311 kcal (34.5 +/- 3.6 kcal/kg/day). Exercise energy expenditure was significantly greater as a result of continuous aerobic exercise than all other exercise protocols.

  1. Effect of ubiquinol supplementation on biochemical and oxidative stress indexes after intense exercise in young athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlando, Patrick; Silvestri, Sonia; Galeazzi, Roberta; Antonicelli, Roberto; Marcheggiani, Fabio; Cirilli, Ilenia; Bacchetti, Tiziana; Tiano, Luca

    2018-12-01

    Physical exercise significantly impacts the biochemistry of the organism. Ubiquinone is a key component of the mitochondrial respiratory chain and ubiquinol, its reduced and active form, is an emerging molecule in sport nutrition. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of ubiquinol supplementation on biochemical and oxidative stress indexes after an intense bout of exercise. 21 male young athletes (26 + 5 years of age) were randomized in two groups according to a double blind cross-over study, either supplemented with ubiquinol (200 mg/day) or placebo for 1 month. Blood was withdrawn before and after a single bout of intense exercise (40 min run at 85% maxHR). Physical performance, hematochemical parameters, ubiquinone/ubiquinol plasma content, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level, mitochondrial membrane depolarization, paraoxonase activity and oxidative DNA damage were analyzed. A single bout of intense exercise produced a significant increase in most hematochemical indexes, in particular CK and Mb while, on the contrary, normalized coenzyme Q 10 plasma content decreased significantly in all subjects. Ubiquinol supplementation prevented exercise-induced CoQ deprivation and decrease in paraoxonase activity. Moreover at a cellular level, in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, ubiquinol supplementation was associated with a significant decrease in cytosolic ROS while mitochondrial membrane potential and oxidative DNA damage remained unchanged. Data highlights a very rapid dynamic of CoQ depletion following intense exercise underlying an increased demand by the organism. Ubiquinol supplementation minimized exercise-induced depletion and enhanced plasma and cellular antioxidant levels but it was not able to improve physical performance indexes or markers of muscular damage.

  2. Determination of the exercise intensity that elicits maximal fat oxidation in individuals with obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dandanell, Sune; Præst, Charlotte Boslev; Søndergård, Stine Dam; Skovborg, Camilla; Dela, Flemming; Larsen, Steen; Helge, Jørn Wulff

    2017-04-01

    Maximal fat oxidation (MFO) and the exercise intensity that elicits MFO (Fat Max ) are commonly determined by indirect calorimetry during graded exercise tests in both obese and normal-weight individuals. However, no protocol has been validated in individuals with obesity. Thus, the aims were to develop a graded exercise protocol for determination of Fat Max in individuals with obesity, and to test validity and inter-method reliability. Fat oxidation was assessed over a range of exercise intensities in 16 individuals (age: 28 (26-29) years; body mass index: 36 (35-38) kg·m -2 ; 95% confidence interval) on a cycle ergometer. The graded exercise protocol was validated against a short continuous exercise (SCE) protocol, in which Fat Max was determined from fat oxidation at rest and during 10 min of continuous exercise at 35%, 50%, and 65% of maximal oxygen uptake. Intraclass and Pearson correlation coefficients between the protocols were 0.75 and 0.72 and within-subject coefficient of variation (CV) was 5 (3-7)%. A Bland-Altman plot revealed a bias of -3% points of maximal oxygen uptake (limits of agreement: -12 to 7). A tendency towards a systematic difference (p = 0.06) was observed, where Fat Max occurred at 42 (40-44)% and 45 (43-47)% of maximal oxygen uptake with the graded and the SCE protocol, respectively. In conclusion, there was a high-excellent correlation and a low CV between the 2 protocols, suggesting that the graded exercise protocol has a high inter-method reliability. However, considerable intra-individual variation and a trend towards systematic difference between the protocols reveal that further optimization of the graded exercise protocol is needed to improve validity.

  3. Decrease in musculoskeletal pain after 4 and 12 months of an aerobic exercise intervention: a worksite RCT among cleaners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korshøj, Mette; Birk Jørgensen, Marie; Lidegaard, Mark; Mortensen, Ole Steen; Krustrup, Peter; Holtermann, Andreas; Søgaard, Karen

    2017-07-01

    Prevalence of musculoskeletal pain is high in jobs with high physical work demands. An aerobic exercise intervention targeting cardiovascular health was evaluated for its long term side effects on musculoskeletal pain. The objective was to investigate if aerobic exercise affects level of musculoskeletal pain from baseline to 4- and 12-months follow-up. One-hundred-and-sixteen cleaners aged 18-65 years were cluster-randomized. The aerobic exercise group ( n = 57) received worksite aerobic exercise (30 min twice a week) and the reference group ( n = 59) lectures in health promotion. Strata were formed according to closest manager (total 11 strata); clusters were set within strata (total 40 clusters, 20 in each group). Musculoskeletal pain data from eight body regions was collected at baseline and after 4- and 12-months follow-up. The participants stated highest pain in the last month on a scale from 0, stating no pain, up to 10, stating worst possible pain. A repeated-measure 2 × 2 multi-adjusted mixed-models design was applied to compare the between-groups differences in an intention to treat analysis. Participants were entered as a random effect nested in clusters to account for the cluster-based randomization. Clinically significant reductions (>30%, f  2 > 0.25) in the aerobic exercise group, compared to the reference group, in pain intensity in neck, shoulders, arms/wrists were found at 12-months follow-up, and a tendency ( p = 0.07, f  2 = 0.18) to an increase for the knees. At 4-months follow-up the only significant between-group change was an increase in hip pain. This study indicates that aerobic exercise reduces musculoskeletal pain in the upper extremities, but as an unintended side effect may increase pain in the lower extremities. Aerobic exercise interventions among workers standing or walking in the majority of the working hours should tailor exercise to only maintain the positive effect on musculoskeletal pain.

  4. Effect of moderate- and high-intensity acute exercise on appetite in obese individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Catia; Stensvold, Dorthe; Finlayson, Graham; Holst, Jens; Wisloff, Ulrik; Kulseng, Bård; Morgan, Linda; King, Neil A

    2015-01-01

    The effect of acute exercise, and exercise intensity, on appetite control in obese individuals requires further study. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of acute isocaloric bouts (250 kcal) of high-intensity intermittent cycling (HIIC) and moderate-intensity continuous cycling (MICC) or short-duration HIIC (S-HIIC) (125 kcal) and a resting control condition on the appetite hormone responses, subjective feelings of appetite, energy intake (EI), and food reward in overweight/obese individuals. This study is a randomized crossover study on 12 overweight/obese volunteers. Participants were assigned to the control, MICC, HIIC, and S-HIIC conditions, 1 wk apart, in a counterbalanced order. Exercise was performed 1 h after a standard breakfast. An ad libitum test lunch was served 3 h after breakfast. Fasting/postprandial plasma samples of insulin, acylated ghrelin, polypeptide YY3-36, and glucagon-like peptide 1 and subjective feelings of appetite were measured every 30 min for 3 h. Nutrient and taste preferences were measured at the beginning and end of each condition using the Leeds Food Preference Questionnaire. Insulin levels were significantly reduced, and glucagon-like peptide 1 levels significantly increased during all exercise bouts compared with those during rest. Acylated ghrelin plasma levels were lower in the MICC and HIIC, but not in S-HIIC, compared with those in control. There were no significant differences for polypeptide YY3-36 plasma levels, hunger or fullness ratings, EI, or food reward. Our findings suggest that, in overweight/obese individuals, isocaloric bouts of moderate- or high-intensity exercise lead to a similar appetite response. This strengthens previous findings in normal-weight individuals that acute exercise, even at high intensity, does not induce any known physiological adaptation that would lead to increased EI.

  5. Acute effect of exercise intensity and duration on acylated ghrelin and hunger in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broom, David R; Miyashita, Masashi; Wasse, Lucy K; Pulsford, Richard; King, James A; Thackray, Alice E; Stensel, David J

    2017-03-01

    Acute exercise transiently suppresses the orexigenic gut hormone acylated ghrelin, but the extent to which exercise intensity and duration determine this response is not fully understood. The effects of manipulating exercise intensity and duration on acylated ghrelin concentrations and hunger were examined in two experiments. In experiment one, nine healthy males completed three, 4-h conditions (control, moderate-intensity running (MOD) and vigorous-intensity running (VIG)), with an energy expenditure of ~2.5 MJ induced in both MOD (55-min running at 52% peak oxygen uptake (V.O 2peak )) and VIG (36-min running at 75% V.O 2peak ). In experiment two, nine healthy males completed three, 9-h conditions (control, 45-min running (EX45) and 90-min running (EX90)). Exercise was performed at 70% V.O 2peak In both experiments, participants consumed standardised meals, and acylated ghrelin concentrations and hunger were quantified at predetermined intervals. In experiment one, delta acylated ghrelin concentrations were lower than control in MOD (ES = 0.44, P = 0.01) and VIG (ES = 0.98, P Hunger ratings were similar across the conditions (P = 0.35). In experiment two, delta acylated ghrelin concentrations were lower than control in EX45 (ES = 0.77, P Hunger ratings were lower than control in EX45 (ES = 0.20, P = 0.01) and EX90 (ES = 0.27, P = 0.001); EX45 and EX90 were similar (ES = 0.07, P = 0.34). Hunger and delta acylated ghrelin concentrations remained suppressed at 1.5 h in EX90 but not EX45. In conclusion, exercise intensity, and to a lesser extent duration, are determinants of the acylated ghrelin response to acute exercise. © 2017 Society for Endocrinology.

  6. Physical activity interventions differentially affect exercise task and barrier self-efficacy: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Torrance J; Middleton, Kathryn R; Winner, Larry; Janelle, Christopher M

    2014-08-01

    Researchers have yet to establish how interventions to increase physical activity influence specific self-efficacy beliefs. The current study sought to quantify the effect of interventions to increase physical activity among healthy adults on exercise task (EXSE) and barrier self-efficacy (BSE) via meta-analysis. Intervention characteristics associated with self-efficacy and physical activity changes were also identified. A systematic database search and manual searches through reference lists of related publications were conducted for articles on randomized, controlled physical activity interventions. Published intervention studies reporting changes in physical activity behavior and either EXSE or BSE in healthy adults were eligible for inclusion. Of the 1,080 studies identified, 20 were included in the meta-analyses. Interventions had a significant effect of g = 0.208, 95% confidence interval (CI) [0.027, 0.388], p exercise sessions effectively increased EXSE and physical activity, whereas long interventions improved BSE. Interventions that did not provide support increased BSE and physical activity levels. Further, interventions that did not require the use of daily exercise logs improved EXSE and physical activity behavior. Interventions designed to increase physical activity differentially influenced EXSE and BSE. EXSE appeared to play a more significant role during exercise adoption, whereas BSE was involved in the maintenance of exercise behavior. Recommendations are offered for the design of future interventions.

  7. Similar Anti-Inflammatory Acute Responses from Moderate-Intensity Continuous and High-Intensity Intermittent Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Cabral-Santos, José Gerosa-Neto, Daniela Sayuri Inoue, Valéria Leme Gonçalves Panissa, Luís Alberto Gobbo, Alessandro Moura Zagatto, Eduardo Zapaterra Campos, Fábio Santos Lira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of high-intensity intermittent exercise (HIIE versus volume matched steady state exercise (SSE on inflammatory and metabolic responses. Eight physically active male subjects completed two experimental sessions, a 5-km run on a treadmill either continuously (70% vVO2max or intermittently (1:1 min at vVO2max. Blood samples were collected at rest, immediately, 30 and 60 minutes after the exercise session. Blood was analyzed for glucose, non-ester fatty acid (NEFA, uric acid, lactate, cortisol, and cytokines (IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-α levels. The lactate levels exhibited higher values immediately post-exercise than at rest (HIIE 1.34 ± 0.24 to 7.11 ± 2.85, and SSE 1.35 ± 0.14 to 4.06±1.60 mmol·L-1, p 0.05. Cortisol, IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-α levels showed time-dependent changes under the different conditions (p < 0.05, however, the area under the curve of TNF-α in the SSE were higher than HIIE (p < 0.05, and the area under the curve of IL-6 in the HIIE showed higher values than SSE (p < 0.05. In addition, both exercise conditions promote increased IL-10 levels and IL-10/TNF-α ratio (p < 0.05. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that both exercise protocols, when volume is matched, promote similar inflammatory responses, leading to an anti-inflammatory status; however, the metabolic responses are different.

  8. The physiological stress response to high-intensity sprint exercise following the ingestion of sodium bicarbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peart, Daniel J; Kirk, Richard J; Hillman, Angela R; Madden, Leigh A; Siegler, Jason C; Vince, Rebecca V

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of pre-exercise alkalosis on the physiological stress response to high-intensity exercise. Seven physically active males (age 22 ± 3 years, height 1.82 ± 0.06 m, mass 81.3 ± 8.4 kg and peak power output 300 ± 22 W) performed a repeated sprint cycle exercise following a dose of 0.3 g kg(-1) body mass of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO(3)) (BICARB), or a placebo of 0.045 g kg(-1) body mass of sodium chloride (PLAC). Monocyte-expressed heat shock protein 72 (HSP72) and plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were significantly attenuated in BICARB compared to PLAC (p = 0.04 and p = 0.039, respectively), however total anti-oxidant capacity, the ratio of oxidised to total glutathione, cortisol, interleukin 6 and interleukin 8 were not significantly induced by the exercise. In conclusion, monocyte-expressed HSP72 is significantly increased following high-intensity anaerobic exercise, and its attenuation following such exercise with the ingestion of NaHCO(3) is unlikely to be due to a decreased oxidative stress.

  9. Low blood flow at onset of moderate intensity exercise does not limit muscle oxygen uptake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyberg, Michael Permin; Mortensen, Stefan Peter; Saltin, Bengt

    2010-01-01

    The effect of low blood flow at onset of moderate intensity exercise on the rate of rise in muscle oxygen uptake was examined. Seven male subjects performed a 3.5 minute one-legged knee-extensor exercise bout (24+/-1 (+/-S.D.) W) without (CON) and with (double blockade; DB) arterial infusion of i....... Additionally, prostanoids and/or NO appear to play important roles in elevating skeletal muscle blood flow in the initial phase of exercise. Key words: Oxygen delivery, oxygen extraction, nitric oxide, prostanoids.......The effect of low blood flow at onset of moderate intensity exercise on the rate of rise in muscle oxygen uptake was examined. Seven male subjects performed a 3.5 minute one-legged knee-extensor exercise bout (24+/-1 (+/-S.D.) W) without (CON) and with (double blockade; DB) arterial infusion...... of inhibitors of nitric oxide synthase (NOS; L-NMMA) and cyclooxygenase (COX; indomethacin) in order to inhibit the synthesis of nitric oxide (NO) and prostanoids, respectively.. Leg blood flow and leg oxygen delivery throughout exercise was 25-50 % lower (P

  10. Effects of exercise intensity on food intake and appetite in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomerleau, Marjorie; Imbeault, Pascal; Parker, Torrey; Doucet, Eric

    2004-11-01

    Increasing exercise intensity has been shown to reduce energy intake in men. The main objective of this study was to investigate the effects of exercise intensity on energy intake in women. Thirteen moderately active (peak oxygen uptake: 44.0 +/- 4.7 mL . kg(-1) . min(-1)) women [body mass index (in kg/m(2)): 22.2 +/- 2.4; age: 22.2 +/- 2.0 y] were subjected to 3 experimental conditions: control with no exercise and 2 equicaloric (350 kcal) low- (LIE) and high- (HIE) intensity exercise sessions at 40% and 70% of peak oxygen uptake, respectively. After each session, the participants ate ad libitum from buffet-type meals at lunch and dinner and ate snacks during the afternoon and evening. Visual analogue scales were used to rate appetite. More energy was ingested at lunchtime after the HIE session than after the control session (878 +/- 309 and 751 +/- 230 kcal, respectively; P = 0.02). Relative energy intake (postexercise energy intake corrected for the energy cost of exercise above the resting level) at lunch was lower after the LIE session than after the control session (530 +/- 233 and 751 +/- 230 kcal, respectively; P kcal, respectively; P daily energy intake tended to increase during the HIE session relative to that during the control session. No treatment effect was found for appetite scores throughout the experiment. The results suggest that HIE increases energy intake in women.

  11. Exercise interventions on health-related quality of life for cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Shiraz I; Scherer, Roberta W; Geigle, Paula M; Berlanstein, Debra R; Topaloglu, Ozlem; Gotay, Carolyn C; Snyder, Claire

    2012-08-15

    -1.50 to -0.14) and between 12 weeks' and 6 months' (SMD -0.42; 95% CI -0.02 to -0.83) follow-up, and pain at 12 weeks' follow-up (SMD -0.29; 95% CI -0.55 to -0.04) when comparing follow-up values by comparison group.Positive trends and impact of exercise intervention existed for depression and body image (when analyzing combined instruments); however, because few studies measured these outcomes the robustness of findings is uncertain.No conclusions can be drawn regarding the effects of exercise interventions on HRQoL domains of cognitive function, physical functioning, general health perspective, role function, and spirituality.Results of the review need to be interpreted cautiously owing to the risk of bias. All the trials reviewed were at high risk for performance bias. In addition, the majority of trials were at high risk for detection, attrition, and selection bias. This systematic review indicates that exercise may have beneficial effects on HRQoL and certain HRQoL domains including cancer-specific concerns (e.g. breast cancer), body image/self-esteem, emotional well-being, sexuality, sleep disturbance, social functioning, anxiety, fatigue, and pain at varying follow-up periods. The positive results must be interpreted cautiously due to the heterogeneity of exercise programs tested and measures used to assess HRQoL and HRQoL domains, and the risk of bias in many trials. Further research is required to investigate how to sustain positive effects of exercise over time and to determine essential attributes of exercise (mode, intensity, frequency, duration, timing) by cancer type and cancer treatment for optimal effects on HRQoL and its domains.

  12. The impact of brief high-intensity exercise on blood glucose levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adams OP

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available O Peter AdamsFaculty of Medical Sciences, the University of the West Indies, Cave Hill Campus, St Michael, BarbadosBackground: Moderate-intensity exercise improves blood glucose (BG, but most people fail to achieve the required exercise volume. High-intensity exercise (HIE protocols vary. Maximal cycle ergometer sprint interval training typically requires only 2.5 minutes of HIE and a total training time commitment (including rest and warm up of 25 minutes per session. The effect of brief high-intensity exercise on blood glucose levels of people with and without diabetes is reviewed.Methods: HIE (≥80% maximal oxygen uptake, VO2max studies with ≤15 minutes HIE per session were reviewed.Results: Six studies of nondiabetics (51 males, 14 females requiring 7.5 to 20 minutes/week of HIE are reviewed. Two weeks of sprint interval training increased insulin sensitivity up to 3 days postintervention. Twelve weeks near maximal interval running (total exercise time 40 minutes/week improved BG to a similar extent as running at 65% VO2max for 150 minutes/week. Eight studies of diabetics (41 type 1 and 22 type 2 subjects were reviewed. Six were of a single exercise session with 44 seconds to 13 minutes of HIE, and the others were 2 and 7 weeks duration with 20 and 2 minutes/week HIE, respectively. With type 1 and 2 diabetes, BG was generally higher during and up to 2 hours after HIE compared to controls. With type 1 diabetics, BG decreased from midnight to 6 AM following HIE the previous morning. With type 2 diabetes, a single session improved postprandial BG for 24 hours, while a 2-week program reduced the average BG by 13% at 48 to 72 hours after exercise and also increased GLUT4 by 369%.Conclusion: Very brief HIE improves BG 1 to 3 days postexercise in both diabetics and nondiabetics. HIE is unlikely to cause hypoglycemia during and immediately after exercise. Larger and longer randomized studies are needed to determine the safety, acceptability, long

  13. Acute molecular responses to concurrent resistance and high-intensity interval exercise in untrained skeletal muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, Jamie K; Faulkner, Steve H; Jackson, Andrew P; King, James A; Nimmo, Myra A

    2015-01-01

    Concurrent training involving resistance and endurance exercise may augment the benefits of single-mode training for the purpose of improving health. However, muscle adaptations, associated with resistance exercise, may be blunted by a subsequent bout of endurance exercise, via molecular interference. High-intensity interval training (HIIT), generating similar adaptations to endurance exercise, may offer an alternative exercise mode to traditional endurance exercise. This study examined the influence of an acute HIIT session on the molecular responses following resistance exercise in untrained skeletal muscle. Ten male participants performed resistance exercise (4 × 8 leg extensions, 70% 1RM, (RE)) or RE followed by HIIT (10 × 1 min at 90% HRmax, (RE+HIIT)). Muscle biopsies were collected from the vastus lateralis before, 2 and 6 h post-RE to determine intramuscular protein phosphorylation and mRNA responses. Phosphorylation of Akt (Ser473) decreased at 6 h in both trials (P HIIT (P HIIT with PGC-1α and PGC-1α-ex1b remaining elevated at 6 h, whereas RE-induced increases at 2 and 6 h for PGC-1α-ex1b only (P HIIT versus RE at 2 and 6 h (P effect on protein signaling and mRNA expression, and suggest that HIIT may be an alternative to endurance exercise when performed after resistance exercise in the same training session to optimize adaptations. PMID:25902785

  14. Intervention-engagement and its role in the effectiveness of stage-matched interventions promoting physical exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richert, Jana; Lippke, Sonia; Ziegelmann, Jochen P

    2011-01-01

    Intervention-engagement has received little attention in sports medicine as well as research and promotion of physical exercise. The construct is important, however, in the understanding of why interventions work. This study aimed at shedding more light on the interplay of engagement and the subsequent effectiveness of physical exercise interventions. A three-stage model differentiating among nonintenders, intenders, and actors informed the intervention design in this study. In an Internet-based randomized controlled trial (RCT) with two measurement points, N = 326 participants received a stage-matched, stage-mismatched, or control treatment. Assessed variables were goal setting, planning, behavior, and intervention-engagement. It was found that regarding goal setting, nonintenders in the stage-matched intervention and those who engaged highly in the stage-matched intervention improved significantly over time. Regarding planning, intenders in the matched condition as well as all actors increased their levels over time. Regarding behavior, nonintenders and intenders having engaged highly in the intervention improved more than those having engaged little. In order to help nonintenders progress on their way toward goal behavior, it is necessary that they engage highly in a stage-matched intervention. Implications for exercise promotion are that interventions should also aim at increasing participants' intervention-engagement.

  15. Exercise intervention for patients diagnosed with operable non-small cell lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Missel, Malene; Pedersen, Jesper Holst; Hendriksen, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose was to explore operable lung cancer patient experiences with an exercise intervention from a longitudinal perspective according to patient motivation and patient perceived benefits and barriers of exercise. METHODS: Nineteen patients enrolled in an exercise intervention 2 weeks...... study dropped out of the intervention due to side effects of chemotherapy (n = 3) and external circumstances (n = 5). The mean attendance rate for the eleven participants who completed the intervention was 82 %. No patients experienced severe adverse events. Motivation for participation included...... patients' expectations of physical benefits and the security of having professionals present. Patients experienced physical and emotional benefits and affirmed their social identity. Barriers were primarily related to side effects of chemotherapy. CONCLUSION: The exercise intervention was undertaken safely...

  16. Virtual reality bringing a new reality to postthoracotomy lung cancer patients via a home-based exercise intervention targeting fatigue while undergoing adjuvant treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Amy J; Brintnall, Ruth Ann; Brown, Jean K; von Eye, Alexander; Jones, Lee W; Alderink, Gordon; Ritz-Holland, Deborah; Enter, Mark; Patzelt, Lawrence H; VanOtteren, Glenn M

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about rehabilitation for postthoracotomy non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. This research uses a perceived self-efficacy-enhancing light-intensity exercise intervention targeting a priority symptom, cancer-related fatigue (CRF), for postthoracotomy NSCLC patients. This article reports on phase II of a 2-phase study. Phase I focused on initiation and tolerance of exercise during the 6 weeks immediately after thoracotomy, whereas phase II addressed maintenance of exercise for an additional 10 weeks including participants initiating and completing chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy. The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary efficacy of an exercise intervention for postthoracotomy NSCLC patients to include those initiating and completing adjuvant therapy. A single-arm design composed of 7 participants postthoracotomy for NSCLC performed light-intensity exercises using an efficacy-enhancing virtual-reality approach using the Nintendo Wii Fit Plus. Despite most participants undergoing chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy, participants adhered to the intervention at a rate of 88% with no adverse events while giving the intervention high acceptability scores on conclusion. Likewise, participants' CRF scores improved from initiation through the conclusion of the intervention with perceived self-efficacy for walking at a light intensity continuously for 60 minutes, improving significantly upon conclusion over presurgery values. Postthoracotomy NSCLC patients maintained exercise for an additional 10 weeks while undergoing adjuvant therapy showing rehabilitation potential because the exercise intervention was feasible, safe, well tolerated, and highly acceptable showing positive changes in CRF self-management. A randomized controlled trial is needed to further investigate these relationships.

  17. Pacing and decision making in sport and exercise: the roles of perception and action in the regulation of exercise intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smits, Benjamin L M; Pepping, Gert-Jan; Hettinga, Florentina J

    2014-06-01

    In pursuit of optimal performance, athletes and physical exercisers alike have to make decisions about how and when to invest their energy. The process of pacing has been associated with the goal-directed regulation of exercise intensity across an exercise bout. The current review explores divergent views on understanding underlying mechanisms of decision making in pacing. Current pacing literature provides a wide range of aspects that might be involved in the determination of an athlete's pacing strategy, but lacks in explaining how perception and action are coupled in establishing behaviour. In contrast, decision-making literature rooted in the understanding that perception and action are coupled provides refreshing perspectives on explaining the mechanisms that underlie natural interactive behaviour. Contrary to the assumption of behaviour that is managed by a higher-order governor that passively constructs internal representations of the world, an ecological approach is considered. According to this approach, knowledge is rooted in the direct experience of meaningful environmental objects and events in individual environmental processes. To assist a neuropsychological explanation of decision making in exercise regulation, the relevance of the affordance competition hypothesis is explored. By considering pacing as a behavioural expression of continuous decision making, new insights on underlying mechanisms in pacing and optimal performance can be developed.

  18. Sodium bicarbonate intake improves high-intensity intermittent exercise performance in trained young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krustrup, Peter; Ermidis, Georgios; Mohr, Magni

    2015-01-01

    Background Sodium bicarbonate intake has been shown to improve exercise tolerance, but the effects on high-intensity intermittent exercise are less clear. Thus, the aim of the present study was to determine the effect of sodium bicarbonate intake on Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 2 test......) prior intake of sodium bicarbonate (0.4 g · kg−1 body weight). Heart rate and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured during the test and venous blood samples were taken frequently. Results Yo-Yo IR2 performance was 14 % higher (P = 0.04) in SBC than in CON (735 ± 61 vs 646 ± 46 m, respectively......-intensity intermittent exercise performance is improved by prior intake of sodium bicarbonate in trained young men, with concomitant elevations in blood alkalosis and peak blood lactate levels, as well as lowered rating of perceived exertion....

  19. Scapular muscle activity from selected strengthening exercises performed at low and high intensity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Christoffer H; Zebis, Mette K; Saervoll, Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    A balanced level of muscle strength between the different parts of the scapular muscles is important to optimize performance and prevent injuries in athletes. Emerging evidence suggests that many athletes lack balanced strength in the scapular muscles. Evidence based recommendations are important...... for proper exercise prescription. This study determines scapular muscle activity during strengthening exercises for scapular muscles performed at low and high intensities (Borg-CR10 level 3 and 8). Surface electromyography (EMG) from selected scapular muscles was recorded during seven strengthening exercises...... and expressed as a percentage of the maximal EMG. Seventeen women (aged 24-55 years) without serious disorders participated. Several of the investigated exercises - press-up, prone flexion, one-arm row and prone abduction at Borg 3 and press-up, push-up plus and one-arm row at Borg 8 - predominantly activated...

  20. Impact of high intensity exercise on muscle morphology in EAE rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wens, I; Dalgas, U; Verboven, K

    2015-01-01

    paralysis (experiment 2, n=40), isokinetic foot extensor strength, cross sectional area (CSA) of tibialis anterior (TA), extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and soleus (SOL) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels were assessed. EAE reduced muscle fiber CSA of TA, EDL and SOL. In general, exercise......The impact of high-intensity exercise on disease progression and muscle contractile properties in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) remains unclear. Control (CON) and EAE rats were divided into sedentary and exercise groups. Before onset (experiment 1, n=40) and after hindquarter...... was not able to affect CSA, whereas it delayed hindquarter paralysis peak. CON muscle work peaked and declined, while it remained stable in EAE. BDNF-responses were not affected by EAE or exercise. In conclusion, EAE affected CSA-properties of TA, EDL and SOL, which could, partly, explain the absence of peak...

  1. Negative affect as a mediator of the relationship between vigorous-intensity exercise and smoking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tart, C.D.; Leyro, T.M.; Richter, A.; Zvolensky, M.J.; Smits, J.A.J.

    2010-01-01

    The present cross-sectional study evaluated whether people who engage in vigorous-intensity exercise are better able to regulate negative affective states, thereby changing core maintenance factors of smoking. Participants were a community sample of adults (n = 270) who completed self-report

  2. Influence of exercise intensity on skeletal muscle blood flow, O2 extraction and O2 uptake on-kinetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Andrew M; Krustrup, Peter; Wilkerson, Daryl P

    2012-01-01

    Key points Following the start of low-intensity exercise in healthy humans, it has been established that the kinetics of muscle O(2) delivery is faster than, and does not limit, the kinetics of muscle O(2) uptake. Direct data are lacking, however, on the question of whether O(2) delivery might...... limit O(2) uptake kinetics during high-intensity exercise. In this study, we made frequent measurements of muscle blood flow, arterial-to-venous O(2) difference (a- difference) and O(2) uptake following the onset of multiple transitions of both low-intensity and high-intensity knee-extension exercise...... in the same subjects. We show that although blood flow kinetics is slower for high-intensity compared with low-intensity exercise, this does not result in slower O(2) uptake kinetics. These results indicate that muscle O(2) delivery does not limit O(2) uptake during knee-extension exercise in healthy humans....

  3. Exercise as an Intervention to Reduce Study-Related Fatigue among University Students: A Two-Arm Parallel Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juriena D de Vries

    Full Text Available Many university students experience high levels of study-related fatigue. This high prevalence, and the negative impact of fatigue on health and academic performance, call for prevention and reduction of these symptoms. The primary aim of the current study was to investigate to what extent an exercise intervention is effective in reducing three indicators of study-related fatigue (emotional exhaustion, overall fatigue, and need for recovery. Effects of exercise on secondary outcomes (sleep quality, self-efficacy, physical fitness, and cognitive functioning were also investigated.Participants were students with high levels of study-related fatigue, currently not exercising or receiving other psychological or pharmacological treatments, and with no medical cause of fatigue. They were randomly assigned to either a six-week exercise intervention (low-intensity running three times a week, n = 49 or wait list (no intervention, n = 48. All participants were measured before the intervention (T0, and immediately after the intervention (T1. Exercisers were also investigated 4 weeks (T2 and 12 weeks (T3 after the intervention.Participants in the exercise condition showed a larger decrease in two of the three indicators of study-related fatigue (i.e., overall fatigue and need for recovery as compared to controls. Additionally, sleep quality and some indicators of cognitive functioning improved more among exercisers than among controls. No effects were found for self-efficacy, and physical fitness. The initial effects of the exercise intervention lasted at follow-up (T2 and T3. At 12-week follow up (T3, 80% of participants in the exercise condition still engaged in regular exercise, and further enhancements were seen for emotional exhaustion, overall fatigue, and sleep quality.These results underline the value of low-intensity exercise for university students with high levels of study-related fatigue. The follow-up effects that were found in this study imply

  4. Effects of Different Exercise Intensities with Isoenergetic Expenditures on C-Reactive Protein and Blood Lipid Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsao, Te Hung; Yang, Chang Bin; Hsu, Chin Hsing

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the effects of different exercise intensities on C-reactive protein (CRP), and whether changes in CRP levels correlated with blood lipid levels. Ten men exercised at 25%, 65%, and 85% of their maximum oxygen consumption rates. Participants' blood was analyzed for CRP and blood lipid levels before and after the exercise sessions.…

  5. The effects of high intensity exercise during pulmonary rehabilitation on ventilatory parameters in people with moderate to severe stable COPD: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osterling K

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Kristin Osterling,1 Kimbly MacFadyen,1 Robert Gilbert,2 Gail Dechman1 1School of Physiotherapy, 2School of Health Sciences, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, Canada Objective: The objective of this systematic review was to determine whether people with moderate to severe COPD who are participating in pulmonary rehabilitation and exercising at high intensity demonstrate the changes in ventilatory parameters that are associated with decreased dyspnea. Data sources: The authors searched EMBASE, The Cochrane Library, and CINAHL databases up to December 2013 for relevant randomized control trials, systematic reviews, and observational studies. References of identified studies were also screened. Study selection: Studies conducted in a pulmonary rehabilitation setting that included education and exercise were included. Symptom-limited, graded exercise testing that measured tidal volume, respiratory rate, minute ventilation, and inspiratory capacity was required. The studies that contained these keywords in the title or the abstract were selected for further evaluation of the text. Disagreements between reviewers were resolved by consensus. Four studies met these inclusion criteria. Data extraction: Quality assessment and data extraction were performed independently by two reviewers. Risk of bias and quality was assessed according to the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. Data synthesis: Participants in three studies trained at high intensity (70%–80% maximum workload, demonstrating statistically significant changes in tidal volume and respiratory rate. One study did not demonstrate positive ventilatory benefits; however, participants may not have met the desired training intensity. Two studies reported improvement in dyspnea at submaximal exercise intensities. One study noted an increased maximum workload with no significant change in dyspnea at peak exercise. Conclusion: People with moderate to severe, stable COPD were able

  6. A standardised individual unsupervised water exercise intervention for healthy pregnant women. A qualitative feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backhausen, Mette G; Katballe, Malene; Hansson, Helena; Tabor, Ann; Damm, Peter; Hegaard, Hanne K

    2014-12-01

    Low back pain during pregnancy is common and associated with sick leave. Studies suggest that exercise may reduce low back pain during pregnancy. Before carrying out a randomised controlled trail with individual water exercise as intervention a qualitative feasibility study was done. To explore women's views and experiences of the acceptability and benefits of and possible barriers to the standardised individual unsupervised water exercise intervention. Eleven women were interviewed after participating in a water exercise intervention. Content analysis was used. Four main categories emerged: motivation to participate, attitudes towards the exercise programme, perception of benefits, and acceptability of supportive components. The women had a desire to stay physically active during pregnancy and found water exercise a suitable, type of exercise to perform during pregnancy. The intervention was experienced to have benefits on both their physical health and their mental well-being. Crowded swimming pools were perceived as the greatest barrier. It is feasible to perform a RCT using the described intervention. The intervention was accepted by the participants because it supported their desire to be physically active during pregnancy. The main barrier was crowded swimming pools and this issue must be addressed in a future RCT. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Decrease in musculoskeletal pain after 4 and 12 months of an aerobic exercise intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korshøj, Mette; Birk Jørgensen, Marie; Lidegaard, Mark

    2018-01-01

    affects level of musculoskeletal pain from baseline to 4- and 12-months follow-up. METHODS: One-hundred-and-sixteen cleaners aged 18-65 years were cluster-randomized. The aerobic exercise group ( n = 57) received worksite aerobic exercise (30 min twice a week) and the reference group ( n = 59) lectures....... Aerobic exercise interventions among workers standing or walking in the majority of the working hours should tailor exercise to only maintain the positive effect on musculoskeletal pain.......BACKGROUND: Prevalence of musculoskeletal pain is high in jobs with high physical work demands. An aerobic exercise intervention targeting cardiovascular health was evaluated for its long term side effects on musculoskeletal pain. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to investigate if aerobic exercise...

  8. Exercise volume and intensity: a dose-response relationship with health benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulds, Heather J A; Bredin, Shannon S D; Charlesworth, Sarah A; Ivey, Adam C; Warburton, Darren E R

    2014-08-01

    The health benefits of exercise are well established. However, the relationship between exercise volume and intensity and health benefits remains unclear, particularly the benefits of low-volume and intensity exercise. The primary purpose of this investigation was, therefore, to examine the dose-response relationship between exercise volume and intensity with derived health benefits including volumes and intensity of activity well below international recommendations. Generally healthy, active participants (n = 72; age = 44 ± 13 years) were assigned randomly to control (n = 10) or one of five 13-week exercise programs: (1) 10-min brisk walking 1×/week (n = 10), (2) 10-min brisk walking 3×/week (n = 10), (3) 30-min brisk walking 3×/week (n = 18), (4) 60-min brisk walking 3×/week (n = 10), and (5) 30-min running 3×/week (n = 14), in addition to their regular physical activity. Health measures evaluated pre- and post-training including blood pressure, body composition, fasting lipids and glucose, and maximal aerobic power (VO2max). Health improvements were observed among programs at least 30 min in duration, including body composition and VO2max: 30-min walking 28.8-34.5 mL kg(-1) min(-1), 60-min walking 25.1-28.9 mL kg(-1) min(-1), and 30-min running 32.4-36.4 mL kg(-1) min(-1). The greater intensity running program also demonstrated improvements in triglycerides. In healthy active individuals, a physical activity program of at least 30 min in duration for three sessions/per week is associated with consistent improvements in health status.

  9. Appetite, food intake and gut hormone responses to intense aerobic exercise of different duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holliday, Adrian; Blannin, Andrew

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of the study is to investigate the effect of acute bouts of high-intensity aerobic exercise of differing durations on subjective appetite, food intake and appetite-associated hormones in endurance-trained males. Twelve endurance-trained males (age = 21 ± 2 years; BMI = 21.0 ± 1.6 kg/m 2 ; VO 2max  = 61.6 ± 6.0 mL/kg/min) completed four trials, within a maximum 28 day period, in a counterbalanced order: resting (REST); 15 min exercise bout (15-min); 30 min exercise bout (30-min) and 45 min exercise bout (45-min). All exercise was completed on a cycle ergometer at an intensity of ~76% VO 2max Sixty minutes post exercise, participants consumed an ad libitum meal. Measures of subjective appetite and blood samples were obtained throughout the morning, with plasma analyzed for acylated ghrelin, total polypeptide tyrosine-tyrosine (PYY) and total glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) concentrations. The following results were obtained: Neither subjective appetite nor absolute food intake differed between trials. Relative energy intake (intake - expenditure) was significantly greater after REST (2641 ± 1616 kJ) compared with both 30-min (1039 ± 1520 kJ) and 45-min (260 ± 1731 kJ), and significantly greater after 15-min (2699 ± 1239 kJ) compared with 45-min (condition main effect, P  exercise in 30-min and 45-min, respectively (condition × time interaction, P  exercise trials (condition × time interaction, P  = 0.011); the greatest, most enduring suppression, was observed in 45-min. PYY concentration was unchanged with exercise. In conclusion, high-intensity aerobic cycling lasting up to 45 min did not suppress subjective appetite or affect absolute food intake, but did reduce relative energy intake, in well-trained endurance athletes. Findings question the role of appetite hormones in regulating subjective appetite in the acute post-exercise period. © 2017 Society for Endocrinology.

  10. A Web-based self-management exercise and diet intervention for breast cancer survivors: pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Myung Kyung; Yun, Young Ho; Park, Hyeoun-Ae; Lee, Eun Sook; Jung, Kyung Hae; Noh, Dong-Young

    2014-12-01

    Regular exercise and dietary practices have been shown to affect the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and survival of breast cancer patients. The current study aimed to investigate whether the WSEDI was a feasible and primarily effective method for promoting exercise and dietary behaviours for breast cancer patients. A 12-week randomized, controlled trial. Oncology outpatient treatment clinics at 3 university hospitals and 1 National Cancer Center in South Korea. Fifty-nine breast cancer patients who had received curative surgery and completed primary cancer treatment within 12 months prior to the study and who had been diagnosed with stage 0-III cancers within 2 years prior to the study were recruited. Participants were randomly assigned to either the intervention group, which used a Web-based self-management exercise and diet intervention program incorporating transtheoretical model (TTM)-based strategies (n=29), or to the control group, which used a 50-page educational booklet on exercise and diet (n=28). The intervention efficacy was measured at the baseline and 12 weeks via a Web-based survey that addressed the promotion of exercise and consumption of 5 servings of fruits and vegetables (F&V) per day, dietary quality, HRQOL, anxiety, depression, fatigue, motivational readiness, and self-efficacy. The proportion of subjects who performed at least moderate-intensity aerobic exercise for at least 150 min per week; ate 5 servings of F&V per day; and had overall improvements in dietary quality, physical functioning and appetite loss (HRQOL), fatigue, and motivational readiness was greater in the intervention group than in the control group. The self-efficacy with respect to exercise and F&V consumption was greater in the intervention group than in the control group. A Web-based program that targets changes in exercise and dietary behaviours might be effective for breast cancer survivors if the TTM theory has been used to inform the program strategy, although

  11. Improving the health of mental health staff through exercise interventions: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fibbins, Hamish; Ward, Philip B; Watkins, Andrew; Curtis, Jackie; Rosenbaum, Simon

    2018-04-01

    Exercise interventions are efficacious in reducing cardiometabolic risk and improving symptoms in people with severe mental illness, yet evidence guiding the implementation and scalability of such efforts is lacking. Given increasing efforts to address the disparity in physical health outcomes facing people with a mental illness, novel approaches to increasing adoption of effective interventions are required. Exercise interventions targeting mental health staff may improve staff health while also creating more positive attitudes towards the role of lifestyle interventions for people experiencing mental illness. We aimed to determine the feasibility, acceptability and effectiveness of exercise interventions delivered to staff working in mental health services. A systematic review was conducted from database inception, until November 2017. Studies recruiting staff participants to receive an exercise intervention were eligible for inclusion. Five studies met the inclusion criteria. Physical health interventions for mental health staff were feasible and acceptable with low dropout rates. Reductions in anthropometric measures and work-related stress were reported. Limited evidence suggests that exercise interventions targeting mental health staff are feasible and acceptable. Further research is required to determine the efficacy of such interventions and the impact such strategies may have on staff culture and patient outcomes.

  12. A preliminary investigation on exercise intensities of gardening tasks in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sin-Ae; Shoemaker, Candice A; Haub, Mark D

    2008-12-01

    Heart rate (HR) was measured continuously while men (n=6) and women (n=2) ages 71 to 85 years (M=77.4, SD=4.1) completed nine gardening tasks. HR and VO2 from a submaximal graded exercise test were used to estimate gardening VO2, energy expenditure, % HRmax, and metabolic equivalents (METs). Tasks were low to moderate intensity physical activity (1.6-3.6 METs); those which worked the upper and lower body were moderate intensity physical activity while those that worked primarily the upper body were low intensity physical activity.

  13. Limitations in intense exercise performance of athletes - effect of speed endurance training on ion handling and fatigue development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hostrup, Morten; Bangsbo, Jens

    2017-01-01

    Mechanisms underlying fatigue development and limitations for performance during intense exercise have been intensively studied during the past couple of decades. Fatigue development may involve several interacting factors and depends on type of exercise undertaken and training level of the indiv...

  14. A preliminary randomized controlled trial of a behavioral exercise intervention for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrantes, Ana M; Bloom, Erika Litvin; Strong, David R; Riebe, Deborah; Marcus, Bess H; Desaulniers, Julie; Fokas, Kathryn; Brown, Richard A

    2014-08-01

    Previous exercise intervention studies for smoking cessation have been challenged by a number of methodological limitations that confound the potential efficacy of aerobic exercise for smoking cessation. The preliminary efficacy of a behavioral exercise intervention that incorporated features designed to address prior limitations was tested in a randomized controlled trial (RCT). Sixty-one smokers (65.6% female, mean age = 47.3 years, smoked a mean of 19.7 cigarettes/day) were randomized to receive either a 12-week exercise intervention or a 12-week health education contact control. Participants in both conditions received an 8-week telephone-delivered, standard smoking cessation protocol (with the transdermal nicotine patch). Follow-ups were conducted at the end of treatment (EOT), 6- and 12-month timepoints. There were no differences between conditions with respect to the number of weekly exercise or health education sessions attended (9.3±2.8 vs. 9.3±3.0, respectively). While not statistically significant, participants in the exercise condition demonstrated higher verified abstinence rates (EOT: 40% vs. 22.6%, odds ratio [OR] = 2.28; 6- and 12-month follow-ups: 26.7% vs. 12.9%, OR = 2.46). Irrespective of treatment condition, higher levels of moderate-to-vigorous exercise were associated with lower levels of depressive symptoms during the intervention. The results of this small RCT point toward the benefit of a behavioral exercise intervention designed to address previous methodological limitations for smoking cessation. Given the potential public health impact of the demonstrated efficacy of exercise for smoking cessation, the continued development and optimization of exercise interventions for smokers through larger RCTs merits pursuit. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. High Intensity Exercise Countermeasures does not Prevent Orthostatic Intolerance Following Prolonged Bed Rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platts, Steven H.; Stenger, Michael B.; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori L.; Lee, Stuart M. C.

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 20% of Space Shuttle astronauts became presyncopal during operational stand and 80deg head-up tilt tests, and the prevalence of orthostatic intolerance increases after longer missions. Greater than 60% of the US astronauts participating in Mir and early International Space Station missions experienced presyncope during post-flight tilt tests, perhaps related to limitations of the exercise hardware that prevented high intensity exercise training until later ISS missions. The objective of this study was to determine whether an intense resistive and aerobic exercise countermeasure program designed to prevent cardiovascular and musculoskeletal deconditioning during 70 d of bed rest (BR), a space flight analog, would protect against post-BR orthostatic intolerance. METHODS Twenty-six subjects were randomly assigned to one of three groups: non-exercise controls (n=11) or one of two exercise groups (ExA, n=8; ExB, n=7). Both ExA and ExB groups performed the same resistive and aerobic exercise countermeasures during BR, but one exercise group received testosterone supplementation while the other received a placebo during BR in a double-blinded fashion. On 3 d/wk, subjects performed lower body resistive exercise and 30 min of continuous aerobic exercise (=75% max heart rate). On the other 3 d/wk, subjects performed only highintensity, interval-style aerobic exercise. Orthostatic intolerance was assessed using a 15-min 80? head-up tilt test performed 2 d (BR-2) before and on the last day of BR (BR70). Plasma volume was measured using carbon monoxide rebreathing on BR-3 and before rising on the first recovery day (BR+0). The code for the exercise groups has not been broken, and results are reported here without group identification. RESULTS Only one subject became presyncopal during tilt testing on BR-2, but 7 of 11 (63%) controls, 3 of 8 (38%) ExA, and 4 of 7 (57%) ExB subjects were presyncopal on BR70. Survival analysis of post-BR tilt tests revealed no

  16. High prevalence of sedentary risk factors amongst university employees and potential health benefits of campus workplace exercise intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhatib, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Sedentariness and physical inactivity are often reported within white-collar workers, including university campus employees. However, the prevalence of the associated sedentary risk factors and risk reduction intervention strategies within a university campus workplace are less known. This study investigates whether the prevalence of sedentary risk factors within university campus employees could be reduced with a campus based exercise intervention. 56 UK university employees (age = 50.7 ± 10.2, stature = 1.68.8 ± 8.6, body mass = 73.9 ± 15.1) were tested for body mass index (BMI), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and maximal cardiorespiratory capacity (V̇O2max). The prevalence was analyzed across genders and job roles. An exercise intervention followed for the sedentary employees involving walking and running for 25 min twice/week for 10 weeks at an intensity corresponding to individual's ventilatory threshold (VT). The university workplace demonstrated a prevalence of higher BMI, SBP and DBP than the recommended healthy thresholds, with gender having a significant effect. Males' BMI, SBP and DBP were higher than in females (p employees have a high prevalence of sedentary risk factors across different genders and job roles. These risks can be reduced by an exercise-based intervention administered within the campus workplace, which should be considered in university workplace policies.

  17. The effects of phosphatidylserine on endocrine response to moderate intensity exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purpura Martin

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous research has indicated that phosphatidylserine (PS supplementation has the potential to attenuate the serum cortisol response to acute exercise stress. Equivocal findings suggest that this effect might be dose dependent. This study aimed to examine the influence of short-term supplementation with a moderate dose of PS (600 mg per day on plasma concentrations of cortisol, lactate, growth hormone and testosterone before, during, and following moderate intensity exercise in healthy males. Methods 10 healthy male subjects participated in the study. Each subject was assigned to ingest 600 mg PS or placebo per day for 10 days using a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover design. Serial venous blood samples were taken at rest, after a 15 minute moderate intensity exercise protocol on a cycle ergometer that consisted of five 3-minute incremental stages beginning at 65% and ending at 85% VO2 max, and during a 65 minute passive recovery. Plasma samples were assessed for cortisol, growth hormone, testosterone, lactate and testosterone to cortisol ratio for treatment (PS or placebo. Results Mean peak cortisol concentrations and area under the curve (AUC were lower following PS (39 ± 1% and 35 ± 0%, respectively when compared to placebo (p Conclusion The findings suggest that PS is an effective supplement for combating exercise-induced stress and preventing the physiological deterioration that can accompany too much exercise. PS supplementation promotes a desired hormonal status for athletes by blunting increases in cortisol levels.

  18. Effects of fat adaptation on glucose kinetics and substrate oxidation during low-intensity exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagan, J D; Geor, R J; Harris, P A; Hoekstra, K; Gardner, S; Hudson, C; Prince, A

    2002-09-01

    This study was designed to determine the effects of fat adaptation on carbohydrate and fat oxidation in conditioned horses during low-intensity exercise. Five mature Arabians were studied. The study was conducted as a crossover design with 2 dietary periods, each of 10 week's duration: a) a control (CON) diet, and b) a fat-supplemented (FAT) diet. The total amount of digestible energy (DE) supplied by the fat in the CON and FAT diets was 7% and 29%, respectively. During each period, the horses completed exercise tests at the beginning of the period (Week 0) and after 5 and 10 weeks on the diet. Tests consisted of 90 min of exercise at a speed calculated to elicit 35% VO2max on a treadmill inclined to 3 degrees. Oxygen consumption (VO2), carbon dioxide production (VCO2), and respiratory exchange ratio (RER) were measured at 15-min intervals. For determination of glucose kinetics, a stable isotope ([6-6-d2] glucose) technique was used. Compared to the CON diet, FAT diet consumption for 5-10 weeks was associated with an altered metabolic response to low-intensity exercise, as evidenced by a more than 30% reduction in the production and utilisation of glucose; a decrease in RER; a decrease in the estimated rate of whole-body carbohydrate utilisation; and an increase in the whole-body rate of lipid oxidation during exercise.

  19. Effects of intensive therapy using gait trainer or floor walking exercises early after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peurala, Sinikka H; Airaksinen, Olavi; Huuskonen, Pirjo; Jäkälä, Pekka; Juhakoski, Mika; Sandell, Kaisa; Tarkka, Ina M; Sivenius, Juhani

    2009-02-01

    To analyse the effects of gait therapy for patients after acute stroke in a randomized controlled trial. Fifty-six patients with a mean of 8 days post-stroke participated in: (i) gait trainer exercise; (ii) walking training over ground; or (iii) conventional treatment. Patients in the gait trainer exercise and walking groups practiced gait for 15 sessions over 3 weeks and received additional physiotherapy. Functional Ambulatory Category and several secondary outcome measures assessing gait and mobility were administered before and after rehabilitation and at 6-month follow-up. Patients also evaluated their own effort. Walking ability improved more with intensive walk training compared with conventional treatment; median Functional Ambulatory Category was zero in all patients at the start of the study, but it was 3 in both walk-training groups and 0.5 in the conventional treatment group at the end of the therapy. Median Functional Ambulatory Category was 4 in both walk-training groups and 2.5 in conventional treatment group at 6-month follow-up. Mean accomplished walking distance was not different between the gait trainer exercise and over ground walking groups. Borg scale indicated more effort in over ground walking. Secondary outcomes also indicated improvements. Exercise therapy with walking training improved gait function irrespective of the method used, but the time and effort required to achieve the results favour the gait trainer exercise. Early intensive gait training resulted in better walking ability than did conventional treatment.

  20. Testing the effectiveness of a self-efficacy based exercise intervention for inactive people with type 2 diabetes mellitus: design of a controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Heijden, Marion M P; Pouwer, François; Romeijnders, Arnold C; Pop, Victor J M

    2012-07-04

    Sufficient exercise is important for people with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM), as it can prevent future health problems. Despite, it is estimated that only 30-40% of people with T2DM are sufficiently active. One of the psychosocial constructs that is believed to influence physical activity behaviour, is exercise self-efficacy. The goal of this study is to evaluate a patient-tailored exercise intervention for people with T2DM that takes exercise self-efficacy into account. This study is conducted as a non-randomized controlled clinical trial. Patients are eligible when they are diagnosed with T2DM, exercise less than advised in the ADA guideline of 150 min/week of moderate-intensity aerobic physical activity, have an BMI >25 and are between 18 and 80 years old. Recruitment takes place at a Primary care organization of general practitioners and practice nurses in the south of the Netherlands.Participants are allocated to three groups: An advice intervention -for participants with a high exercise self-efficacy score- in which participants receive a patient-tailored exercise intervention, an intensive intervention -for participants with a low exercise self-efficacy score- in which participants receive a patient-tailored exercise intervention accomplished by a group based intervention, and a control group in which participants receive regular Dutch diabetes care. The primary outcome measure of this study is physical activity. Secondary outcome measures are health status, (symptoms of) depression, exercise self-efficacy, Body Mass Index (BMI), blood pressure and glycemic control. We aimed to design an intervention that can be implemented in Primary care, but also to design an easy accessible program. This study is innovative as it is -to our best knowledge- the first study that takes level of exercise self-efficacy of people with T2DM into account by means of giving extra support to those with the lowest exercise self-efficacy. If the program succeeds in increasing

  1. Testing the effectiveness of a self-efficacy based exercise intervention for inactive people with type 2 diabetes mellitus: design of a controlled clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Heijden Marion MP

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sufficient exercise is important for people with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM, as it can prevent future health problems. Despite, it is estimated that only 30-40% of people with T2DM are sufficiently active. One of the psychosocial constructs that is believed to influence physical activity behaviour, is exercise self-efficacy. The goal of this study is to evaluate a patient-tailored exercise intervention for people with T2DM that takes exercise self-efficacy into account. Methods/Design This study is conducted as a non-randomized controlled clinical trial. Patients are eligible when they are diagnosed with T2DM, exercise less than advised in the ADA guideline of 150 min/week of moderate-intensity aerobic physical activity, have an BMI >25 and are between 18 and 80 years old. Recruitment takes place at a Primary care organization of general practitioners and practice nurses in the south of the Netherlands. Participants are allocated to three groups: An advice intervention -for participants with a high exercise self-efficacy score- in which participants receive a patient-tailored exercise intervention, an intensive intervention -for participants with a low exercise self-efficacy score- in which participants receive a patient-tailored exercise intervention accomplished by a group based intervention, and a control group in which participants receive regular Dutch diabetes care. The primary outcome measure of this study is physical activity. Secondary outcome measures are health status, (symptoms of depression, exercise self-efficacy, Body Mass Index (BMI, blood pressure and glycemic control. Discussion We aimed to design an intervention that can be implemented in Primary care, but also to design an easy accessible program. This study is innovative as it is -to our best knowledge- the first study that takes level of exercise self-efficacy of people with T2DM into account by means of giving extra support to those with the

  2. Psychological Need Fulfillment among Workers in an Exercise Intervention: A Qualitative Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podlog, Leslie; Dionigi, Rylee A.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the perceived factors affecting workers' participation in an exercise intervention and interpret the findings within self-determination theory (Ryan & Deci, 2000a; 2007). Research examining the impact of psychological need satisfaction on exercise outcomes is not well established (McDonough &…

  3. the Importance of an early exercise and nutrition intervention among RENAL TRANSPLANT RECIPIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Mahrova

    2012-06-01

    In conclusion, the combination of an exercise and nutrition intervention was the most effective and could give each patient an opportunity to achieve an optimal physical and psychological level almost equal to their original condition.

  4. Locomotor muscle fatigue does not alter oxygen uptake kinetics during high-intensity exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Hopker

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The slow component (VO2sc that develops during high-intensity aerobic exercise is thought to be strongly associated with locomotor muscle fatigue. We sought to experimentally test this hypothesis by pre-fatiguing the locomotor muscles used during subsequent high-intensity cycling exercise. Over two separate visits, eight healthy male participants were asked to either perform a non-metabolically stressful 100 intermittent drop-jumps protocol (pre fatigue condition or rest for 33 minutes (control condition according to a random and counterbalanced order. Locomotor muscle fatigue was quantified with 6-second maximal sprints at a fixed pedaling cadence of 90 rev·min-1. Oxygen kinetics and other responses (heart rate, capillary blood lactate concentration and rating of perceived exertion, RPE were measured during two subsequent bouts of 6 min cycling exercise at 50% of the delta between the lactate threshold and VO2max determined during a preliminary incremental exercise test. All tests were performed on the same cycle ergometer. Despite significant locomotor muscle fatigue (P = 0.03, the VO2sc was not significantly different between the pre fatigue (464 ± 301 mL·min-1 and the control (556 ± 223 mL·min-1 condition (P = 0.50. Blood lactate response was not significantly different between conditions (P = 0.48 but RPE was significantly higher following the pre-fatiguing exercise protocol compared with the control condition (P < 0.01 suggesting higher muscle recruitment. These results demonstrate experimentally that locomotor muscle fatigue does not significantly alter the VO2 kinetic response to high intensity aerobic exercise, and challenge the hypothesis that the VO2sc is strongly associated with locomotor muscle fatigue.

  5. Locomotor Muscle Fatigue Does Not Alter Oxygen Uptake Kinetics during High-Intensity Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopker, James G; Caporaso, Giuseppe; Azzalin, Andrea; Carpenter, Roger; Marcora, Samuele M

    2016-01-01

    The [Formula: see text] slow component ([Formula: see text]) that develops during high-intensity aerobic exercise is thought to be strongly associated with locomotor muscle fatigue. We sought to experimentally test this hypothesis by pre-fatiguing the locomotor muscles used during subsequent high-intensity cycling exercise. Over two separate visits, eight healthy male participants were asked to either perform a non-metabolically stressful 100 intermittent drop-jumps protocol (pre-fatigue condition) or rest for 33 min (control condition) according to a random and counterbalanced order. Locomotor muscle fatigue was quantified with 6-s maximal sprints at a fixed pedaling cadence of 90 rev·min -1 . Oxygen kinetics and other responses (heart rate, capillary blood lactate concentration and rating of perceived exertion, RPE) were measured during two subsequent bouts of 6 min cycling exercise at 50% of the delta between the lactate threshold and [Formula: see text] determined during a preliminary incremental exercise test. All tests were performed on the same cycle ergometer. Despite significant locomotor muscle fatigue ( P = 0.03), the [Formula: see text] was not significantly different between the pre-fatigue (464 ± 301 mL·min -1 ) and the control (556 ± 223 mL·min -1 ) condition ( P = 0.50). Blood lactate response was not significantly different between conditions ( P = 0.48) but RPE was significantly higher following the pre-fatiguing exercise protocol compared with the control condition ( P locomotor muscle fatigue does not significantly alter the [Formula: see text] kinetic response to high intensity aerobic exercise, and challenge the hypothesis that the [Formula: see text] is strongly associated with locomotor muscle fatigue.

  6. Effects of a new sports companion on received social support and physical exercise: an intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rackow, Pamela; Scholz, Urte; Hornung, Rainer

    2014-11-01

    The role of social support in physical exercise is well documented. However, the majority of studies that investigate the associations between social support and physical exercise target perceived instead of received social support. Moreover, most studies investigate the effects of received social support using a descriptive correlational design. Thus, our study aimed at investigating the effects of received social support by conducting an intervention study. Participants were randomly assigned to an intervention (n = 118) or control group (n = 102). The intervention comprised regularly exercising with a new sports companion for eight weeks. To investigate the time course of physical exercise and received social support, growth curve modelling was employed. Generally, both groups were able to improve their physical exercise. However, the control group tended to decrease again during the final point of measurement. Received social support, however, decreased slightly in the control group, but remained stable in the intervention group. The intervention was suitable to sustain received social support for physical exercise across a two-month interval. Overall, these findings highlight the importance of further investigating social support for physical exercise applying an experimental approach. © 2014 The International Association of Applied Psychology.

  7. Cardiorespiratory responses and reduced apneic time to cold-water face immersion after high intensity exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinidou, Sylvia; Soultanakis, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Apnea after exercise may evoke a neurally mediated conflict that may affect apneic time and create a cardiovascular strain. The physiological responses, induced by apnea with face immersion in cold water (10 °C), after a 3-min exercise bout, at 85% of VO2max,were examined in 10 swimmers. A pre-selected 40-s apnea, completed after rest (AAR), could not be met after exercise (AAE), and was terminated with an agonal gasp reflex, and a reduction of apneic time, by 75%. Bradycardia was evident with immersion after both, 40-s of AAR and after AAE (P<0.05). The dramatic elevation of, systolic pressure and pulse pressure, after AAE, were indicative of cardiovascular stress. Blood pressure after exercise without apnea was not equally elevated. The activation of neurally opposing functions as those elicited by the diving reflex after high intensity exercise may create an autonomic conflict possibly related to oxygen-conserving reflexes stimulated by the trigeminal nerve, and those elicited by exercise. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Where does HIT fit? An examination of the affective response to high-intensity intervals in comparison to continuous moderate- and continuous vigorous-intensity exercise in the exercise intensity-affect continuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Mary E; Bourne, Jessica E; Little, Jonathan P

    2014-01-01

    Affect experienced during an exercise session is purported to predict future exercise behaviour. Compared to continuous moderate-intensity exercise (CMI), the affective response to continuous vigorous-intensity exercise (CVI) has consistently been shown to be more aversive. The affective response, and overall tolerability to high-intensity interval training (HIT), is less studied. To date, there has yet to be a comparison between HIT, CVI, and CMI. The purpose of this study was to compare the tolerability and affective responses during HIT to CVI and CMI. This study utilized a repeated measures, randomized, counter-balanced design. Forty-four participants visited the laboratory on four occasions. Baseline fitness testing was conducted to establish peak power output in Watts (W peak). Three subsequent visits involved a single bout of a) HIT, corresponding to 1-minute at ∼ 100% W peak and 1-minute at ∼ 20% W peak for 20 minutes, b) CMI, corresponding to ∼ 40% W peak for 40 minutes, and c) CVI, corresponding to ∼ 80% W peak for 20 minutes. The order of the sessions was randomized. Affective responses were measured before, during and after each session. Task self-efficacy, intentions, enjoyment and preference were measured after sessions. Participants reported greater enjoyment of HIT as compared to CMI and CVI, with over 50% of participants reporting a preference to engage in HIT as opposed to either CMI or CVI. HIT was considered more pleasurable than CVI after exercise, but less pleasurable than CMI at these times. Despite this participants reported being just as confident to engage in HIT as they were CMI, but less confident to engage in CVI. This study highlights the utility of HIT in inactive individuals, and suggests that it may be a viable alternative to traditionally prescribed continuous modalities of exercise for promoting self-efficacy and enjoyment of exercise.

  9. Where does HIT fit? An examination of the affective response to high-intensity intervals in comparison to continuous moderate- and continuous vigorous-intensity exercise in the exercise intensity-affect continuum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary E Jung

    Full Text Available Affect experienced during an exercise session is purported to predict future exercise behaviour. Compared to continuous moderate-intensity exercise (CMI, the affective response to continuous vigorous-intensity exercise (CVI has consistently been shown to be more aversive. The affective response, and overall tolerability to high-intensity interval training (HIT, is less studied. To date, there has yet to be a comparison between HIT, CVI, and CMI. The purpose of this study was to compare the tolerability and affective responses during HIT to CVI and CMI. This study utilized a repeated measures, randomized, counter-balanced design. Forty-four participants visited the laboratory on four occasions. Baseline fitness testing was conducted to establish peak power output in Watts (W peak. Three subsequent visits involved a single bout of a HIT, corresponding to 1-minute at ∼ 100% W peak and 1-minute at ∼ 20% W peak for 20 minutes, b CMI, corresponding to ∼ 40% W peak for 40 minutes, and c CVI, corresponding to ∼ 80% W peak for 20 minutes. The order of the sessions was randomized. Affective responses were measured before, during and after each session. Task self-efficacy, intentions, enjoyment and preference were measured after sessions. Participants reported greater enjoyment of HIT as compared to CMI and CVI, with over 50% of participants reporting a preference to engage in HIT as opposed to either CMI or CVI. HIT was considered more pleasurable than CVI after exercise, but less pleasurable than CMI at these times. Despite this participants reported being just as confident to engage in HIT as they were CMI, but less confident to engage in CVI. This study highlights the utility of HIT in inactive individuals, and suggests that it may be a viable alternative to traditionally prescribed continuous modalities of exercise for promoting self-efficacy and enjoyment of exercise.

  10. The Physiological Regulation of Skeletal Muscle Fatty Acid Supply and Oxidation During Moderate-Intensity Exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Hall, Gerrit

    2015-01-01

    ) in the muscle of the very-low-density lipoproteins and in the (semi) post-prandial state chylomicrons may also contribute. In this review, the NEFA fluxes and oxidation by skeletal muscle during prolonged moderate-intensity exercise are described in terms of the integration of physiological systems. Steps...... demand of the exercising muscle is the main driving force for all physiological regulatory processes. It elicits functional hyperemia, increasing the recruitment of capillaries and muscle blood flow resulting in increased NEFA delivery and accessibility to NEFA transporters and LPL. It also releases...

  11. Postexercise cold-water immersion improves intermittent high-intensity exercise performance in normothermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Avina; Mulligan, James; Egaña, Mikel

    2016-11-01

    A brief cold water immersion between 2 continuous high-intensity exercise bouts improves the performance of the latter compared with passive recovery in the heat. We investigated if this effect is apparent in normothermic conditions (∼19 °C), employing an intermittent high-intensity exercise designed to reflect the work performed at the high-intensity domain in team sports. Fifteen young active men completed 2 exhaustive cycling protocols (Ex1 and Ex2: 12 min at 85% ventilatory threshold (VT) and then an intermittent exercise alternating 30-s at 40% peak power (P peak ) and 30 s at 90% P peak to exhaustion) separated by 15 min of (i) passive rest, (ii) 5-min cold-water immersion at 8 °C, and (iii) 10-min cold-water immersion at 8 °C. Core temperature, heart rate, rates of perceived exertion, and oxygen uptake kinetics were not different during Ex1 among conditions. Time to failure during the intermittent exercise was significantly (P immersions (7.2 ± 3.5 min and 7.3 ± 3.3 min, respectively) compared with passive rest (5.8 ± 3.1 min). Core temperature, heart rate, and rates of perceived exertion were significantly (P immersions compared with passive rest. The time constant of phase II oxygen uptake response during the 85% VT bout of Ex2 was not different among the 3 conditions. A postexercise, 5- to 10-min cold-water immersion increases subsequent intermittent high-intensity exercise compared with passive rest in normothermia due, at least in part, to reductions in core temperature, circulatory strain, and effort perception.

  12. Comparison of oxygen uptake during and after the execution of resistance exercises and exercises performed on ergometers, matched for intensity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilaça-Alves José

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the values of oxygen uptake (VO2 during and after strength training exercises (STe and ergometer exercises (Ee, matched for intensity and exercise time. Eight men (24 ± 2.33 years performed upper and lower body cycling Ee at the individual’s ventilatory threshold (VE/VCO2. The STe session included half squats and the bench press which were performed with a load at the individual blood lactate concentration of 4 mmol/l. Both sessions lasted 30 minutes, alternating 50 seconds of effort with a 10 second transition time between upper and lower body work. The averaged overall VO2 between sessions was significantly higher for Ee (24.96 ± 3.6 ml·kg·min-1 compared to STe (21.66 ± 1.77 ml·kg·min-1 (p = 0.035, but this difference was only seen for the first 20 minutes of exercise. Absolute VO2 values between sessions did not reveal differences. There were more statistically greater values in Ee compared to STe, regarding VO2 of lower limbs (25.44 ± 3.84 ml·kg·min-1 versus 21.83 ± 2·24 ml·kg·min-1; p = 0.038 and upper limbs (24.49 ± 3.84 ml·kg·min-1 versus 21.54 ± 1.77 ml·kg·min-1; p = 0.047. There were further significant differences regarding the moment effect (p<0.0001 of both STe and Ee sessions. With respect to the moment × session effect, only VO2 5 minutes into recovery showed significant differences (p = 0.017. In conclusion, although significant increases in VO2 were seen following Ee compared to STe, it appears that the load/intensity, and not the material/equipment used for the execution of an exercise, are variables that best influence oxygen uptake.

  13. Negative affect as a mediator of the relationship between vigorous-intensity exercise and smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tart, Candyce D; Leyro, Teresa M; Richter, Ashley; Zvolensky, Michael J; Rosenfield, David; Smits, Jasper A J

    2010-06-01

    The present cross-sectional study evaluated whether people who engage in vigorous-intensity exercise are better able to regulate negative affective states, thereby changing core maintenance factors of smoking. Participants were a community sample of adults (n = 270) who completed self-report measures of physical activity, cigarette smoking, anxiety sensitivity, and negative affect. Consistent with hypothesis, vigorous-intensity exercise was related to lower levels of cigarette smoking, accounting for 10% of the variance in smoking. Additionally, negative affect mediated the relationship between vigorous-intensity physical activity and cigarette smoking, accounting for about 12% of this relation. Furthermore, these relationships were stronger for individuals with high anxiety sensitivity than for those with low anxiety sensitivity; including anxiety sensitivity as a moderator of the mediated relationship increased the amount of variance accounted for by negative affect to 17%. The findings are discussed in relation to developing further scientific insight into the mechanisms and pathways relevant to understanding the association among vigorous-intensity exercise, smoking, and emotional vulnerability. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. High-Intensity Exercise as a Dishabituating Stimulus Restores Counterregulatory Responses in Recurrently Hypoglycemic Rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeilly, Alison D; Gallagher, Jennifer R; Huang, Jeffrey T-J; Ashford, Michael L J; McCrimmon, Rory J

    2017-06-01

    Hypoglycemia is a major adverse effect of insulin therapy for people with type 1 diabetes (T1D). Profound defects in the normal counterregulatory response to hypoglycemia explain the frequency of hypoglycemia occurrence in T1D. Defective counterregulation results to a large extent from prior exposure to hypoglycemia per se, leading to a condition called impaired awareness of hypoglycemia (IAH), the cause of which is unknown. In the current study, we investigate the hypothesis that IAH develops through a special type of adaptive memory referred to as habituation. To test this hypothesis, we used a novel intense stimulus (high-intensity exercise) to demonstrate two classic features of a habituated response, namely dishabituation and response recovery. We demonstrate that after recurrent hypoglycemia the introduction of a novel dishabituating stimulus (a single burst of high-intensity exercise) in male Sprague-Dawley rats restores the defective hypoglycemia counterregulatory response. In addition, the rats showed an enhanced response to the novel stimulus (response recovery). We make the further observation using proteomic analysis of hypothalamic extracts that high-intensity exercise in recurrently hypoglycemic rats increases levels of a number of proteins linked with brain-derived neurotrophic factor signaling. These findings may lead to novel therapeutic approaches for individuals with T1D and IAH. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  15. Effect of a 1-hour single bout of moderate-intensity exercise on fat oxidation kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenevière, Xavier; Borrani, Fabio; Ebenegger, Vincent; Gojanovic, Boris; Malatesta, Davide

    2009-12-01

    The present study aimed to examine the effects of a prior 1-hour continuous exercise bout (CONT) at an intensity (Fat(max)) that elicits the maximal fat oxidation (MFO) on the fat oxidation kinetics during a subsequent submaximal incremental test (IncrC). Twenty moderately trained subjects (9 men and 11 women) performed a graded test on a treadmill (Incr), with 3-minute stages and 1-km.h(-1) increments. Fat oxidation was measured using indirect calorimetry and plotted as a function of exercise intensity. A mathematical model (SIN) including 3 independent variables (dilatation, symmetry, and translation) was used to characterize the shape of fat oxidation kinetics and to determine Fat(max) and MFO. On a second visit, the subjects performed CONT at Fat(max) followed by IncrC. After CONT performed at 57% +/- 3% (means +/- SE) maximal oxygen uptake (Vo(2max)), the respiratory exchange ratio during IncrC was lower at every stage compared with Incr (P rates from 35% to 70% Vo(2max) (P .05), whereas symmetry tended to be greater in IncrC (P = .096). This study showed that the prior 1-hour continuous moderate-intensity exercise bout increased Fat(max), MFO, and fat oxidation rates over a wide range of intensities during the postexercise incremental test. Moreover, the shape of the postexercise fat oxidation kinetics tended to have a rightward asymmetry.

  16. Tolerance to exercise intensity modulates pleasure when exercising in music: The upsides of acoustic energy for High Tolerant individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauraine Carlier

    Full Text Available Moderate physical activity can be experienced by some as pleasurable and by others as discouraging. This may be why many people lack sufficient motivation to participate in the recommended 150 minutes of moderately intense exercise per week. In the present study, we assessed how pleasure and enjoyment were modulated differently by one's tolerance to self-paced physical activity. Sixty-three healthy individuals were allocated to three independent experimental conditions: a resting condition (watching TV, a cycling in silence condition, and a cycling in music condition. The tolerance threshold was assessed using the PRETIE-Questionnaire. Physical activity consisted in cycling during 30 minutes, at an intensity perceived as "somewhat difficult" on the Ratings of Perceived Exertion Scale. While controlling for self-reported physical activity level, results revealed that for the same perception of exertion and a similar level of enjoyment, the High Tolerance group produced more power output than the Low Tolerance group. There was a positive effect of music for High Tolerant individuals only, with music inducing greater power output and more pleasure. There was an effect of music on heart rate frequency in the Low Tolerant individuals without benefits in power output or pleasure. Our results suggest that for Low Tolerant individuals, energizing environments can interfere with the promised (positive distracting effects of music. Hence, tolerance to physical effort must be taken into account to conceive training sessions that seek to use distracting methods as means to sustain pleasurable exercising over time.

  17. Tolerance to exercise intensity modulates pleasure when exercising in music: The upsides of acoustic energy for High Tolerant individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlier, Mauraine; Delevoye-Turrell, Yvonne

    2017-01-01

    Moderate physical activity can be experienced by some as pleasurable and by others as discouraging. This may be why many people lack sufficient motivation to participate in the recommended 150 minutes of moderately intense exercise per week. In the present study, we assessed how pleasure and enjoyment were modulated differently by one's tolerance to self-paced physical activity. Sixty-three healthy individuals were allocated to three independent experimental conditions: a resting condition (watching TV), a cycling in silence condition, and a cycling in music condition. The tolerance threshold was assessed using the PRETIE-Questionnaire. Physical activity consisted in cycling during 30 minutes, at an intensity perceived as "somewhat difficult" on the Ratings of Perceived Exertion Scale. While controlling for self-reported physical activity level, results revealed that for the same perception of exertion and a similar level of enjoyment, the High Tolerance group produced more power output than the Low Tolerance group. There was a positive effect of music for High Tolerant individuals only, with music inducing greater power output and more pleasure. There was an effect of music on heart rate frequency in the Low Tolerant individuals without benefits in power output or pleasure. Our results suggest that for Low Tolerant individuals, energizing environments can interfere with the promised (positive) distracting effects of music. Hence, tolerance to physical effort must be taken into account to conceive training sessions that seek to use distracting methods as means to sustain pleasurable exercising over time.

  18. Clinically Relevant Physical Benefits of Exercise Interventions in Breast Cancer Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkham, Amy A; Bland, Kelcey A; Sayyari, Sarah; Campbell, Kristin L; Davis, Margot K

    2016-02-01

    Evidence is currently limited for the effect of exercise on breast cancer clinical outcomes. However, several of the reported physical benefits of exercise, including peak oxygen consumption, functional capacity, muscle strength and lean mass, cardiovascular risk factors, and bone health, have established associations with disability, cardiovascular disease risk, morbidity, and mortality. This review will summarize the clinically relevant physical benefits of exercise interventions in breast cancer survivors and discuss recommendations for achieving these benefits. It will also describe potential differences in intervention delivery that may impact outcomes and, lastly, describe current physical activity guidelines for cancer survivors.

  19. Effects of plyometric training on maximal-intensity exercise and endurance in male and female soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Campillo, Rodrigo; Vergara-Pedreros, Marcelo; Henríquez-Olguín, Carlos; Martínez-Salazar, Cristian; Alvarez, Cristian; Nakamura, Fábio Yuzo; De La Fuente, Carlos I; Caniuqueo, Alexis; Alonso-Martinez, Alicia M; Izquierdo, Mikel

    2016-01-01

    In a randomised controlled trial design, effects of 6 weeks of plyometric training on maximal-intensity exercise and endurance performance were compared in male and female soccer players. Young (age 21.1 ± 2.7 years) players with similar training load and competitive background were assigned to training (women, n = 19; men, n = 21) and control (women, n = 19; men, n = 21) groups. Players were evaluated for lower- and upper-body maximal-intensity exercise, 30 m sprint, change of direction speed and endurance performance before and after 6 weeks of training. After intervention, the control groups did not change, whereas both training groups improved jumps (effect size (ES) = 0.35-1.76), throwing (ES = 0.62-0.78), sprint (ES = 0.86-1.44), change of direction speed (ES = 0.46-0.85) and endurance performance (ES = 0.42-0.62). There were no differences in performance improvements between the plyometric training groups. Both plyometric groups improved more in all performance tests than the controls. The results suggest that adaptations to plyometric training do not differ between men and women.

  20. Effects of volume-based overload plyometric training on maximal-intensity exercise adaptations in young basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadi, Abbas; Ramirez-Campillo, Rodrigo; Meylan, Cesar; Nakamura, Fabio Y; Cañas-Jamett, Rodrigo; Izquierdo, Mikel

    2017-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare maximal-intensity exercise adaptations in young basketball players (who were strong individuals at baseline) participating in regular basketball training versus regular plus a volume-based plyometric training program in the pre-season period. Young basketball players were recruited and assigned either to a plyometric with regular basketball training group (experimental group [EG]; N.=8), or a basketball training only group (control group [CG]; N.=8). The athletes in EG performed periodized (i.e., from 117 to 183 jumps per session) plyometric training for eight weeks. Before and after the intervention, players were assessed in vertical and broad jump, change of direction, maximal strength and a 60-meter sprint test. No significant improvements were found in the CG, while the EG improved vertical jump (effect size [ES] 2.8), broad jump (ES=2.4), agility T test (ES=2.2), Illinois agility test (ES=1.4), maximal strength (ES=1.8), and 60-m sprint (ES=1.6) (Ptraining in addition to regular basketball practice can lead to meaningful improvements in maximal-intensity exercise adaptations among young basketball players during the pre-season.

  1. Neuromuscular fatigue during high-intensity intermittent exercise in individuals with intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borji, Rihab; Sahli, Sonia; Zarrouk, Nidhal; Zghal, Firas; Rebai, Haithem

    2013-12-01

    This study examined neuromuscular fatigue after high-intensity intermittent exercise in 10 men with mild intellectual disability (ID) in comparison with 10 controls. Both groups performed three maximal voluntary contractions (MVC) of knee extension with 5 min in-between. The highest level achieved was selected as reference MVC. The fatiguing exercise consists of five sets with a maximal number of flexion-extension cycles at 80% of the one maximal repetition (1RM) for the right leg at 90° with 90 s rest interval between sets. The MVC was tested again after the last set. Peak force and electromyography (EMG) signals were measured during the MVC tests. Root Mean Square (RMS) and Median Frequency (MF) were calculated. Neuromuscular efficiency (NME) was calculated as the ratio of peak force to the RMS. Before exercise, individuals with ID had a lower MVC (psport train ID individuals, they should consider this nervous system weakness. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Regulation of PDH in human arm and leg muscles at rest and during intense exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiilerich, Kristian; Birk, Jesper Bratz; Damsgaard, Rasmus

    2008-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) is differentially regulated in specific human muscles, regulation of PDH was examined in triceps, deltoid, and vastus lateralis at rest and during intense exercise. To elicit considerable glycogen use, subjects performed 30 min of exhaustive...... arm cycling on two occasions and leg cycling exercise on a third day. Muscle biopsies were obtained from deltoid or triceps on the arm exercise days and from vastus lateralis on the leg cycling day. Resting PDH protein content and phosphorylation on PDH-E1 alpha sites 1 and 2 were higher (P ....05) in vastus lateralis than in triceps and deltoid as was the activity of oxidative enzymes. Net muscle glycogen utilization was similar in vastus lateralis and triceps ( approximately 50%) but less in deltoid (likely reflecting less recruitment of deltoid), while muscle lactate accumulation was approximately...

  3. Exploring Outcome Measures for Exercise Intervention in People with Parkinson’s Disease

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    L. A. King

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. It is widely believed that exercise improves mobility in people with Parkinson’s disease (PD. However, it is difficult to determine whether a specific type of exercise is the most effective. The purpose of this study was to determine which outcome measures were sensitive to exercise intervention and to explore the effects of two different exercise programs for improving mobility in patients with PD. Methods. Participants were randomized into either the Agility Boot Camp (ABC or treadmill training; 4x/week for 4 weeks. Outcome measures were grouped by the International Classification of Function/Disability (ICF. To determine the responsiveness to exercise, we calculated the standardized response means. t-tests were used to compare the relative benefits of each exercise program. Results. Four of five variables at the structure/function level changed after exercise: turn duration (P=0.03, stride velocity (P=0.001, peak arm speed (P=0.001, and horizontal trunk ROM during gait (P=0.02. Most measures improved similarly for both interventions. The only variable that detected a difference between groups was postural sway in ABC group (F=4.95; P=0.03. Conclusion. Outcome measures at ICF body structure/function level were most effective at detecting change after exercise and revealing differences in improvement between interventions.

  4. Influence of exercise intensity on skeletal muscle blood flow, O2 extraction and O2 uptake on-kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Andrew M; Krustrup, Peter; Wilkerson, Daryl P; Berger, Nicolas J; Calbet, José A; Bangsbo, Jens

    2012-01-01

    Following the start of low-intensity exercise in healthy humans, it has been established that the kinetics of skeletal muscle O2 delivery is faster than, and does not limit, the kinetics of muscle O2 uptake (). Direct data are lacking, however, on the question of whether O2 delivery might limit kinetics during high-intensity exercise. Using multiple exercise transitions to enhance confidence in parameter estimation, we therefore investigated the kinetics of, and inter-relationships between, muscle blood flow (), a– difference and following the onset of low-intensity (LI) and high-intensity (HI) exercise. Seven healthy males completed four 6 min bouts of LI and four 6 min bouts of HI single-legged knee-extension exercise. Blood was frequently drawn from the femoral artery and vein during exercise and , a– difference and were calculated and subsequently modelled using non-linear regression techniques. For LI, the fundamental component mean response time (MRTp) for kinetics was significantly shorter than kinetics (mean ± SEM, 18 ± 4 vs. 30 ± 4 s; P exercise intensities; however, the MRTp for a– difference was significantly shorter for HI compared with LI (17 ± 3 vs. 28 ± 4 s; P exercise and remained unaltered thereafter, with no differences between LI and HI. These results indicate that bulk O2 delivery does not limit kinetics following the onset of LI or HI knee-extension exercise. PMID:22711961

  5. Sodium bicarbonate supplementation improves severe-intensity intermittent exercise under moderate acute hypoxic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deb, Sanjoy K; Gough, Lewis A; Sparks, S Andy; McNaughton, Lars R

    2018-03-01

    Acute moderate hypoxic exposure can substantially impair exercise performance, which occurs with a concurrent exacerbated rise in hydrogen cation (H + ) production. The purpose of this study was therefore, to alleviate this acidic stress through sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO 3 ) supplementation and determine the corresponding effects on severe-intensity intermittent exercise performance. Eleven recreationally active individuals participated in this randomised, double-blind, crossover study performed under acute normobaric hypoxic conditions (FiO 2 % = 14.5%). Pre-experimental trials involved the determination of time to attain peak bicarbonate anion concentrations ([HCO 3 - ]) following NaHCO 3 ingestion. The intermittent exercise tests involved repeated 60-s work in their severe-intensity domain and 30-s recovery at 20 W to exhaustion. Participants ingested either 0.3 g kg bm -1 of NaHCO 3 or a matched placebo of 0.21 g kg bm -1 of sodium chloride prior to exercise. Exercise tolerance (+ 110.9 ± 100.6 s; 95% CI 43.3-178 s; g = 1.0) and work performed in the severe-intensity domain (+ 5.8 ± 6.6 kJ; 95% CI 1.3-9.9 kJ; g = 0.8) were enhanced with NaHCO 3 supplementation. Furthermore, a larger post-exercise blood lactate concentration was reported in the experimental group (+ 4 ± 2.4 mmol l -1 ; 95% CI 2.2-5.9; g = 1.8), while blood [HCO 3 - ] and pH remained elevated in the NaHCO 3 condition throughout experimentation. In conclusion, this study reported a positive effect of NaHCO 3 under acute moderate hypoxic conditions during intermittent exercise and therefore, may offer an ergogenic strategy to mitigate hypoxic induced declines in exercise performance.

  6. Structured exercise interventions for type 2 diabetes mellitus: Strength of current evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Ejas Hussain

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Exercise, along with medical nutrition therapy and pharmacological interventions, is an important component in the clinical management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D. Current clinical guidelines on type 2 diabetes provide no detailed information on the modalities of effective exercise intervention in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Both endurance and resistance types of exercise seem to be equally effective in improving metabolic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. Determining the best method of providing exercise is clinically relevant to this population. This paper reviews the epidemiology of diabetes and problems of physical function associated with type 2 diabetes and discuss the benefits of exercise therapy on the parameters of glycemic control and function in type 2 diabetes patients, with special reference to Asian Indians. Based on the currently available literature, it is concluded that type 2 diabetes patients should be encouraged to participate in specifically designed exercise intervention programs. Attention should be paid to the avoidance of cardiovascular and musculoskeletal deconditioning. More clinical research is warranted to establish the efficacy of different dosages of exercise intervention in a holistic approach for type 2 diabetes subpopulations within different stages of the disease and various levels of co-morbidity.

  7. Sex differences in drug addiction and response to exercise intervention: From human to animal studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuehui; Zhao, Min; Zhou, Chenglin; Li, Rena

    2016-01-01

    Accumulated research supports the idea that exercise could be an option of potential prevention and treatment for drug addiction. During the past few years, there has been increased interest in investigating of sex differences in exercise and drug addiction. This demonstrates that sex-specific exercise intervention strategies may be important for preventing and treating drug addiction in men and women. However, little is known about how and why sex differences are found when doing exercise-induced interventions for drug addiction. In this review, we included both animal and human that pulled subjects from a varied age demographic, as well as neurobiological mechanisms that may highlight the sex-related differences in these potential to assess the impact of sex-specific roles in drug addiction and exercise therapies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Sex differences in drug addiction and response to exercise intervention: from human to animal studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuehui; Zhao, Min; Zhou, Chenglin; Li, Rena

    2015-01-01

    Accumulated research supports the idea that exercise could be an option of potential prevention and treatment for drug addiction. During the past few years, there has been increased interest in investigating of sex differences in exercise and drug addiction. This demonstrates that sex-specific exercise intervention strategies may be important for preventing and treating drug addiction in men and women. However, little is known about how and why sex differences are found when doing exercise-induced interventions for drug addiction. In this review, we included both animal and human that pulled subjects from a varied age demographic, as well as neurobiological mechanisms that may highlight the sex-related differences in these potential to assess the impact of sex-specific roles in drug addiction and exercise therapies. PMID:26182835

  9. Cardiorespiratory fitness modulates the acute flow-mediated dilation response following high-intensity but not moderate-intensity exercise in elderly men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Tom G; Perissiou, Maria; Windsor, Mark; Russell, Fraser; Golledge, Jonathan; Green, Daniel J; Askew, Christopher D

    2017-05-01

    Impaired endothelial function is observed with aging and in those with low cardiorespiratory fitness (V̇o 2peak ). Improvements in endothelial function with exercise training are somewhat dependent on the intensity of exercise. While the acute stimulus for this improvement is not completely understood, it may, in part, be due to the flow-mediated dilation (FMD) response to acute exercise. We examined the hypothesis that exercise intensity alters the brachial (systemic) FMD response in elderly men and is modulated by V̇o 2peak Forty-seven elderly men were stratified into lower (V̇o 2peak = 24.3 ± 2.9 ml·kg -1 ·min -1 ; n = 27) and higher fit groups (V̇o 2peak = 35.4 ± 5.5 ml·kg -1 ·min -1 ; n = 20) after a test of cycling peak power output (PPO). In randomized order, participants undertook moderate-intensity continuous exercise (MICE; 40% PPO) or high-intensity interval cycling exercise (HIIE; 70% PPO) or no-exercise control. Brachial FMD was assessed at rest and 10 and 60 min after exercise. FMD increased after MICE in both groups {increase of 0.86% [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.17-1.56], P = 0.01} and normalized after 60 min. In the lower fit group, FMD was reduced after HIIE [reduction of 0.85% (95% CI, 0.12-1.58), P = 0.02] and remained decreased at 60 min. In the higher fit group, FMD was unchanged immediately after HIIE and increased after 60 min [increase of 1.52% (95% CI, 0.41-2.62), P exercise control, FMD was reduced in both groups after 60 min ( P = 0.05). Exercise intensity alters the acute FMD response in elderly men and V̇o 2peak modulates the FMD response following HIIE but not MICE. The sustained decrease in FMD in the lower fit group following HIIE may represent a signal for vascular adaptation or endothelial fatigue. NEW & NOTEWORTHY This study is the first to show that moderate-intensity continuous cycling exercise increased flow-mediated dilation (FMD) transiently before normalization of FMD after 1 h, irrespective of

  10. Low Intensity Physical Exercise Attenuates Cardiac Remodeling and Myocardial Oxidative Stress and Dysfunction in Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Gimenes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the effects of a low intensity aerobic exercise protocol on cardiac remodeling and myocardial function in diabetic rats. Wistar rats were assigned into four groups: sedentary control (C-Sed, exercised control (C-Ex, sedentary diabetes (DM-Sed, and exercised diabetes (DM-Ex. Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin. Rats exercised for 9 weeks in treadmill at 11 m/min, 18 min/day. Myocardial function was evaluated in left ventricular (LV papillary muscles and oxidative stress in LV tissue. Statistical analysis was given by ANOVA or Kruskal-Wallis. Echocardiogram showed diabetic groups with higher LV diastolic diameter-to-body weight ratio and lower posterior wall shortening velocity than controls. Left atrium diameter was lower in DM-Ex than DM-Sed (C-Sed: 5.73±0.49; C-Ex: 5.67±0.53; DM-Sed: 6.41±0.54; DM-Ex: 5.81±0.50 mm; P<0.05 DM-Sed vs C-Sed and DM-Ex. Papillary muscle function was depressed in DM-Sed compared to C-Sed. Exercise attenuated this change in DM-Ex. Lipid hydroperoxide concentration was higher in DM-Sed than C-Sed and DM-Ex. Catalase and superoxide dismutase activities were lower in diabetics than controls and higher in DM-Ex than DM-Sed. Glutathione peroxidase activity was lower in DM-Sed than C-Sed and DM-Ex. Conclusion. Low intensity exercise attenuates left atrium dilation and myocardial oxidative stress and dysfunction in type 1 diabetic rats.

  11. Proteomics-Based Identification of the Molecular Signatures of Liver Tissues from Aged Rats following Eight Weeks of Medium-Intensity Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanghui Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity has emerged as a powerful intervention that promotes healthy aging by maintaining the functional capacity of critical organ systems. Here, by combining functional and proteomics analyses, we examined how hepatic phenotypes might respond to exercise treatment in aged rats. 16 male aged (20 months old SD rats were divided into exercise and parallel control groups at random; the exercise group had 8 weeks of treadmill training with medium intensity. Whole protein samples of the liver were extracted from both groups and separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Alternatively objective protein spots with >2-fold difference in expression were selected for enzymological extraction and MS/MS identification. Results show increased activity of the manganese superoxide dismutase and elevated glutathione levels in the livers of exercise-treated animals, but malondialdehyde contents obviously decreased in the liver of the exercise group. Proteomics-based identification of differentially expressed proteins provided an integrated view of the metabolic adaptations occurring in the liver proteome during exercise, which significantly altered the expression of several proteins involved in key liver metabolic pathways including mitochondrial sulfur, glycolysis, methionine, and protein metabolism. These findings indicate that exercise may be beneficial to aged rats through modulation of hepatic protein expression profiles.

  12. Effects of intense aerobic exercise and/or antihypertensive medication in individuals with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Jimenez, M; Morales-Palomo, F; Ortega, J F; Mora-Rodriguez, R

    2018-05-17

    We studied the blood pressure lowering effects of a bout of exercise and/or antihypertensive medicine with the goal of studying if exercise could substitute or enhance pharmacologic hypertension treatment. Twenty-three hypertensive metabolic syndrome patients chronically medicated with angiotensin II receptor 1 blockade antihypertensive medicine underwent 24-hr monitoring in four separated days in a randomized order; a) after taking their habitual dose of antihypertensive medicine (AHM trial), b) substituting their medicine by placebo medicine (PLAC trial), c) placebo medicine with a morning bout of intense aerobic exercise (PLAC+EXER trial) and d) combining the exercise and antihypertensive medicine (AHM+EXER trial). We found that in trials with AHM subjects had lower plasma aldosterone/renin activity ratio evidencing treatment compliance. Before exercise, the trials with AHM displayed lower systolic (130±16 vs 133±15 mmHg; P=0.018) and mean blood pressures (94±11 vs 96±10 mmHg; P=0.036) than trials with placebo medication. Acutely (i.e., 30 min after treatments) combining AHM+EXER lowered systolic blood pressure (SBP) below the effects of PLAC+EXER (-8.1±1.6 vs -4.9±1.5 mmHg; P=0.015). Twenty-four hour monitoring revealed no differences among trials in body motion. However, PLAC+EXER and AHM lowered SBP below PLAC during the first 10 hours, time at which PLAC+EXER effects faded out (i.e., at 19 PM). Adding exercise to medication (i.e., AHM+EXER) resulted in longer reductions in SBP than with exercise alone (PLAC+EXER). In summary, one bout of intense aerobic exercise in the morning cannot substitute the long-lasting effects of antihypertensive medicine in lowering blood pressure, but their combination is superior to exercise alone. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  13. Application of the Non-Intervention Principle to Low-Intensity Cyber Operations

    OpenAIRE

    Adamson, Liisi

    2015-01-01

    Present work focuses on the non-intervention principle and low-intensity cyber operations. More specifically, its main question is, whether the principle of non-intervention applies to low-intensity cyber operations and if it does, is the legal framework of non-intervention principle an effective way to regulate peacetime low-intensity cyber operations. Information Age and the rapid development of ICTs have provided hostile actors the opportunity to exploit the advantages cyberspace offe...

  14. Effects of Long-Term Exercise Interventions on Glycaemic Control in Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes: a Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röhling, M; Herder, C; Roden, M; Stemper, T; Müssig, K

    2016-09-01

    Aim: Physical activity is one of the cornerstones in the prevention and management of diabetes mellitus, but the effects of different training forms on metabolic control still remain unclear. The aims of this review are to summarize the recommendations of 5 selected diabetes associations and to systematically review the effects of long-term supervised exercise interventions without calorie-restriction on glycemic control in people with type 1 and 2 diabetes focusing on resistance, endurance and combined training consisting of both endurance and resistance training. Methods: Literature searches were performed using MEDLINE for articles published between January 1, 2000 and March 17, 2015. Of 76 articles retrieved, 15 randomized and controlled studies met the inclusion criteria and allowed for examining the effect of exercise training in type 1 and 2 diabetes. Results: Diabetes associations recommend volume-focused exercise in their guidelines. In our analysis, all 3 training forms have the potential to improve the glycemic control, as assessed by HbA 1c (absolute changes in HbA 1c ranging from -0.1% to -1.1% (-1.1 to -12 mmol/mol) in resistance training, from -0.2% to -1.6% (-2.2 to -17.5 mmol/mol) in endurance training and from +0.1% to -1.5% (+1.1 to -16.4 mmol/mol) in combined training, respectively). Conclusions: There is evidence that combined exercise training may improve glycemic control to a greater extent than single forms of exercise, especially under moderate-intensive training conditions with equal training durations. In addition, intensity of training appears to be an important determinant of the degree of metabolic improvement. Nonetheless, it is still unknown to what extent exercise effects glycemic homeostasis. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Exercise Intervention: Attrition, Compliance, Adherence, and Progression Following Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation
.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Tara; Erdmann, Ruby; Hacker, Eileen Danaher

    2018-02-01

    Exercise is widely touted as an effective intervention to optimize health and well-being after high-dose chemotherapy and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. 
. This article reports attrition, compliance, adherence, and progression from the strength training arm of the single-blind randomized, controlled trial Strength Training to Enhance Early Recovery (STEER). 
. 37 patients were randomized to the intervention and participated in a structured strength training program introduced during hospitalization and continued for six weeks after release. Research staff and patients maintained exercise logs to document compliance, adherence, and progression. 
. No patients left the study because of burden. Patients were compliant with completion of exercise sessions, and their adherence was high; they also progressed on their exercise prescription. Because STEER balances intervention effectiveness with patient burden, the findings support the likelihood of successful translation into clinical practice.

  16. Feasibility and Impact of a Combined Supervised Exercise and Nutritional-Behavioral Intervention following Bariatric Surgery: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friedrich C. Jassil

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Lifestyle intervention programs after bariatric surgery have been suggested to maximise health outcomes. This pilot study aimed to investigate the feasibility and impact of an 8-week combined supervised exercise with nutritional-behavioral intervention following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and sleeve gastrectomy. Methods. Eight female patients (44 ± 8 years old, BMI = 38.5 ± 7.2 kgm−2 completed the program. Before and after intervention, anthropometric measures, six-minute walk test (6MWT, physical activity level, eating behavior, and quality of life (QoL were assessed. Percentage weight loss (%WL outcomes were compared with a historical matched control group. Results. The program significantly improved functional capacity (mean increment in 6MWT was 127 ± 107 meters, p=0.043, increased strenuous intensity exercise (44 ± 49 min/week, p=0.043, increased consumption of fruits and vegetables (p=0.034, reduced consumption of ready meals (p=0.034, and improved “Change in Health” in QoL domain (p=0.039. The intervention group exhibited greater %WL in the 3–12-month postsurgery period compared to historical controls, 12.2 ± 7.5% versus 5.1 ± 5.4%, respectively (p=0.027. Conclusions. Lifestyle intervention program following bariatric surgery is feasible and resulted in several beneficial outcomes. A large randomised control trial is now warranted.

  17. Effects of creatine supplementation on high-intensity intermittent exercise: discrepancies and methodological appraisals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Gualano

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2008v10n2p189 After a brief review of the literature on the effects of creatine supplementation on high-intensity intermittent exercise performance, the main aim of this study was to discuss methodological differences between studies which could explain the discrepancies observed in the literature. The effects of creatine supplementation on high-intensity intermittent exercise performance have been investigated in depth. Although the results of much research demonstrates the effi cacy of this supplement, there is just as much evidence that does not support this ergogenic effect. The explanation for this divergence appears to be multifactorial, although it is always linked to methodological characteristics. Study design (crossover or parallel groups, individual variability of muscular creatine content, chronic high meat intake, sample size, exercise protocol characteristics (body weight dependence and time between series, and gender and age all differ between studies and are potentially the variables responsible, to differing extents, for the discrepancies observed in the literature. Studies involving young males, with parallel group design, adequate statistical power, control of the incorporation of creatine into muscles, food intake assessment and intermittent exercise protocols in which performance is independent of body weight and with rest-recovery intervals of 1 to 6 minutes, usually produce positive results. The many methodological factors which can contribute to divergence on the ergogenic effects of creatine should be considered in futures studies, as well as when prescribing creatine supplementation.

  18. Social cognitive theory correlates of moderate-intensity exercise among adults with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiss, Valerie J; Petosa, R L

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify social cognitive theory (SCT) correlates of moderate- to vigorous-intensity exercise (MVPA) among adults with type 2 diabetes. Adults with type 2 diabetes (N = 181) participated in the study. Participants were recruited through ResearchMatch.org to complete an online survey. The survey used previously validated instruments to measure dimensions of self-efficacy, self-regulation, social support, outcome expectations, the physical environment, and minutes of MVPA per week. Spearman Rank Correlations were used to determine the relationship between SCT variables and MVPA. Classification and Regression Analysis using a decision tree model was used to determine the amount of variance in MVPA explained by SCT variables. Due to low levels of vigorous activity, only moderate-intensity exercise (MIE) was analyzed. SCT variables explained 42.4% of the variance in MIE. Self-monitoring, social support from family, social support from friends, and self-evaluative outcome expectations all contributed to the variability in MIE. Other contributing variables included self-reward, task self-efficacy, social outcome expectations, overcoming barriers, and self-efficacy for making time for exercise. SCT is a useful theory for identifying correlates of MIE among adults with type 2 diabetes. The SCT correlates can be used to refine diabetes education programs to target the adoption and maintenance of regular exercise.

  19. The association between pregame snacks and exercise intensity, stress, and fatigue in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacheck, Jennifer M; Rasmussen, Helen M; Hall, Meghan M; Kafka, Tamar; Blumberg, Jeffrey B; Economos, Christina D

    2014-05-01

    To investigate the association between pregame snacks varying in macronutrient content and exercise intensity, physiological stress, and fatigue in young soccer players. One hour before a 50-min soccer game, children (n = 79; 9.1 ± 0.8 y) were randomly assigned to consume a raisin-, peanut-butter-, or cereal-based snack. Body mass index, blood glucose, and salivary measures of stress (cortisol and immunoglobulin A-IgA) were measured pre- and post-game. Exercise intensity was measured by accelerometry. Self-administered questionnaires were used to assess diet quality and fatigue. Analysis of covariance was used to examine the relationship between pregame snacks and biochemical outcomes. Postgame glucose and cortisol increased [12.9 ± 21.3 mg/dL (p fatigue (p fatigue but not changes in blood sugar or stress biomarkers following a soccer game in children.

  20. Influence of music on performance and psychophysiological responses during moderate-intensity exercise preceded by fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes-Silva, Joao P; Lima-Silva, Adriano E; Bertuzzi, Romulo; Silva-Cavalcante, Marcos D

    2015-02-01

    We examined the effects of listening to music on time to exhaustion and psychophysiological responses during moderate-intensity exercise performed in fatigued and non-fatigued conditions. Fourteen healthy men performed moderate-intensity exercise (60% Wmax) until exhaustion under four different conditions: with and without pre-fatigue (induced by 100 drop jumps) and listening and not listening to music. Time to exhaustion was lower in the fatigued than the non-fatigued condition regardless listening to music. Similarly, RPE was higher in the fatigued than the non-fatigued condition, but music had no effect. On the other hand, listening to music decreased the associative thoughts regardless of fatigue status. Heart rate was not influenced by any treatment. These results suggest that listening to music changes attentional focus but is not able to reverse fatigue-derived alteration of performance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Exercise intervention in a family with exercise intolerance and a novel mutation in the mitochondrial POLG gene

    OpenAIRE

    Morán, María; Blázquez, A.; Fiuza Luces, María del Carmen; Díez Bermejo, Jorge; Delmiro, Aitor; Docampo, J.; Serrano Lorenzo, Pablo; González Quintana, Adrián; Arenas, Joaquín; Laín Hernández, A.; Lucía Mulas, Alejandro; Domínguez González, C.; Martín, M.

    2016-01-01

    Mutations in the POLG gene, encoding the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) polymerase subunit gamma-1, have been identified in severe mtDNA depletion syndromes and mtDNA deletion disorders which include ataxia neuropathy spectrum disorders and AR and AD forms of progressive external ophthalmoplegia (PEO) and PEO-plus disorders. We report on a family with exercise intolerance. The proband was a 50-year-old man with severe muscle pain and premature fatigue after exercise of mild to moderate intensity. ...

  2. A DIGE proteomic analysis for high-intensity exercise-trained rat skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Wataru; Fujimoto, Eri; Higuchi, Mitsuru; Tabata, Izumi

    2010-09-01

    Exercise training induces various adaptations in skeletal muscles. However, the mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we conducted 2D-DIGE proteomic analysis, which has not yet been used for elucidating adaptations of skeletal muscle after high-intensity exercise training (HIT). For 5 days, rats performed HIT, which consisted of 14 20-s swimming exercise bouts carrying a weight (14% of the body weight), and 10-s pause between bouts. The 2D-DIGE analysis was conducted on epitrochlearis muscles excised 18 h after the final training exercise. Proteomic profiling revealed that out of 800 detected and matched spots, 13 proteins exhibited changed expression by HIT compared with sedentary rats. All proteins were identified by MALDI-TOF/MS. Furthermore, using western immunoblot analyses, significantly changed expressions of NDUFS1 and parvalbumin (PV) were validated in relation to HIT. In conclusion, the proteomic 2D-DIGE analysis following HIT-identified expressions of NDUFS1 and PV, previously unknown to have functions related to exercise-training adaptations.

  3. Urine concentrations of oral salbutamol in samples collected after intense exercise in endurance athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hostrup, Morten; Kalsen, Anders; Auchenberg, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Our objective was to investigate urine concentrations of 8 mg oral salbutamol in samples collected after intense exercise in endurance athletes. Nine male endurance athletes with a VO2max of 70.2 ± 5.9 mL/min/kg (mean ± SD) took part in the study. Two hours after administration of 8 mg oral...

  4. Plasma volume shifts with immersion at rest and two exercise intensities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertl, A C; Bernauer, E M; Hom, C A

    1991-04-01

    Eight men were studied to determine the effect of cycling exercise on plasma volume (PV) during water immersion to the xiphoid process (WIX). In all protocols the subjects were seated upright. After 30 min of rest, subjects were immersed in 34.5 degrees C water and seated on a cycling ergometer. During three 1 h WIX protocols, subjects either remained at rest (No Ex) or pedaled from minutes 20 to 30 at 38% (Ex1) or 62% (Ex2) of peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak). Hematocrit (Hct) and hemoglobin concentration [( Hb]) from venous blood samples were compared pre-WIX and at minutes 20, 30, 40, and 60. Percent change in PV (delta PV) was calculated from pre-WIX Hct and [Hb] within each protocol. Hct and [Hb] decreased after 20 min of resting WIX (P less than 0.017). In the No Ex protocol, there were no further significant changes in these variables, with delta PV values of +10.4% at minute 20 and at a peak of +13.5% at minute 40. In Ex1 and Ex2, cycling increased Hct and [Hb] (P less than 0.01, minute 30 vs No Ex), with delta PV values at minute 30 of +3.7% and -0.9%, respectively, vs +12.8% in No Ex. Minute 60 values between protocols were not significantly different (mean delta PV of +10.8 +/- 0.6% SD). The hemodilution associated with WIX was either partially or completely attenuated by cycling exercise; the degree of hemoconcentration was related to exercise intensity. The exercise-induced hemoconcentration was reversed by 30 min of resting WIX. Exercise during WIX appears to cause similar decreases in PV, as does exercise in air provided that postural hemoconcentration prior to exercise is not already maximal.

  5. EVALUATION OF WORK PLACE GROUP AND INTERNET BASED PHYSICAL ACTIVITY INTERVENTIONS ON PSYCHOLOGICAL VARIABLES ASSOCIATED WITH EXERCISE BEHAVIOR CHANGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberley A. Dawson

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to compare group-based and internet-based physical activity interventions in terms of desirability, participant characteristics, exercise self-efficacy, and barrier self-efficacy. Pretest questionnaires were completed prior to voluntary enrollment into either of the ten-week physical activity interventions. Both interventions were based on Social Cognitive Theory and the Transtheoretical Model. Interventions were followed with posttest questionnaires. Results demonstrated that the internet intervention attracted more participants, but only the group-based participants showed significant increases in exercise and barrier self-efficacy. At pretest, participants who selected the internet intervention were significantly lower in life and job satisfaction than those who selected the group intervention. Results suggest that traditional group-based exercise interventions are helpful for improving cognitions associated with exercise behavior change (e.g., exercise self-efficacy and that the internet intervention may help employees who fall into an "unhappy employee" typology

  6. Exercise intensity levels in children with cerebral palsy while playing with an active video game console.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Maxime; Ballaz, Laurent; Hart, Raphael; Lemay, Martin

    2013-08-01

    Children with cerebral palsy (CP) are prone to secondary complications related to physical inactivity and poor cardiorespiratory capacity. This problem could be greatly attenuated through the use of video games that incorporate physical activity for 2 reasons: Video games already represent an important component of leisure time in younger people, and such games can lead to a high level of exercise intensity in people who are healthy. The study objective was to evaluate exercise intensity in children with spastic diplegic CP and children who were typically developing while playing with an active video game console. This was a cross-sectional study. Ten children (7-12 years old) with spastic diplegic CP (Gross Motor Function Classification System level I or II) and 10 children who were age matched and typically developing were evaluated in a movement analysis laboratory. Four games were played with the active video game console (jogging, bicycling, snowboarding, and skiing) for 40 minutes. Heart rate was recorded during the entire playing period with a heart rate belt monitor. Exercise intensity was defined as the percentage of heart rate reserve (HRR). In addition, lower extremity motion analysis was carried out during the final minute of the playing period for the jogging and bicycling games. No difference between groups was observed for any variables. A main effect of games was observed for the amount of time spent at an intensity greater than 40% of HRR. Specifically, more than 50% of the playing time for the jogging game and more than 30% of the playing time for the bicycling game were spent at an intensity greater than 40% of HRR. In addition, the jogging game produced a larger range of motion than the bicycling game. A limitation of this study was the relatively small and heterogeneous sample. For all 4 games, similar exercise intensity levels were observed for children who were typically developing and children with CP, suggesting that children with CP could

  7. Protection against severe hypokalemia but impaired cardiac repolarization after intense rowing exercise in healthy humans receiving salbutamol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Atanasovska, Tania; Smith, Robert; Graff, Claus

    2018-01-01

    repolarization (QT hysteresis). Eleven healthy adults participated in a randomized, counterbalanced, double-blind trial receiving either 1000 µg salbutamol (SAL) or placebo (PLAC) by inhalation. Arterial plasma potassium concentration ([K+]a) was measured at rest, during 3 min intense rowing exercise and 60 min......-exercise (Peffect). [K+]a was lower after SAL than PLAC, from 2 min pre-exercise until 2.5 min during exercise, and at 50 and 60 min post-exercise (P...-exercise decline in [K+]a was correlated with QT hysteresis (r=0.343, n=112, pooled data, P=0.001). Thus the decrease in [K+]a from end-exercise by ~4 mM was associated with reduced QT hysteresis by ~75 ms. Whilst salbutamol lowered [K+]a during exercise, no additive hypokalemic effects occurred in early recovery...

  8. A systematic review found no consistent difference in effect between more and less intensive placebo interventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fässler, Margrit; Meissner, Karin; Kleijnen, Jos

    2015-01-01

    this hypothesis. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: Eligible trials were identified through electronic database searches and citation tracking up to February 2013. Placebo interventions in a trial were categorized into a more intense and a less intense intervention based on complexity, invasiveness, or route...... intense and the less intense placebo intervention, four studies found differences for single outcomes, and one study consistently reported significantly larger effects of the more intense placebo. An explorative meta-analysis yielded a standardized mean difference -0.22 (95% confidence interval: -0.46, 0...

  9. Free testosterone as marker of adaptation to medium-intensive exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shkurnikov, M U; Donnikov, A E; Akimov, E B; Sakharov, D A; Tonevitsky, A G

    2008-09-01

    A 4-week study of adaptation reserves of the body was carried out during medium intensive exercise (medium intensive training: 60-80% threshold anaerobic metabolism). Two groups of athletes were singled out by the results of pulsometry analysis: with less than 20% work duration at the level above the 80% threshold anaerobic metabolism and with more than 20% work duration at the level above 80% threshold anaerobic metabolism. No appreciable differences between the concentrations of total testosterone, growth hormone, and cortisol before and after exercise in the groups with different percentage of anaerobic work duration were detected. In group 1 the concentrations of free testosterone did not change throughout the period of observation in comparison with the levels before training. In group 2, the level of free testosterone increased in comparison with the basal level: from 0.61+/-0.12 nmol/liter at the end of week 1 to 0.98+/-0.11 nmol/liter at the end of week 4 (p<0.01). The results indicate that the level of free testosterone can be used for evaluating the degree of athlete's adaptation to medium intensive exercise.

  10. Combining motivational and volitional interventions to promote exercise participation: protection motivation theory and implementation intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milne, Sarah; Orbell, Sheina; Sheeran, Paschal

    2002-05-01

    This study compared a motivational intervention based on protection motivation theory (PMT, Rogers, 1975, 1983) with the same motivational intervention augmented by a volitional intervention based on implementation intentions (Gollwitzer, 1993). The study had a longitudinal design, involving three waves of data collection over a 2-week period, incorporating an experimental manipulation of PMT variables at Time 1 and a volitional, implementation intention intervention at Time 2. Participants (N=248) were randomly allocated to a control group or one of two intervention groups. Cognitions and exercise behaviour were measured at three time-points over a 2-week period. The motivational intervention significantly increased threat and coping appraisal and intentions to engage in exercise but did not bring about a significant increase in subsequent exercise behaviour. In contrast, the combined protection motivation theory/implementation intention intervention had a dramatic effect on subsequent exercise behaviour. This volitional intervention did not influence behavioural intention or any other motivational variables. It is concluded that supplementing PMT with implementation intentions strengthens the ability of the model to explain behaviour. This has implications for health education programmes, which should aim to increase both participants' motivation and their volition.

  11. Intensity of Leisure-Time Exercise and Risk of Depressive Symptoms Among Japanese Workers: A Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwahara, Keisuke; Honda, Toru; Nakagawa, Tohru; Yamamoto, Shuichiro; Hayashi, Takeshi; Mizoue, Tetsuya

    2018-02-05

    Data on the effect of physical activity intensity on depression is scarce. We investigated the prospective association between intensity of leisure-time exercise and risk of depressive symptoms among Japanese workers. The participants were 29,052 employees (24,653 men and 4,399 women) aged 20 to 64 years without psychiatric disease including depressive symptoms at health checkup in 2006-2007 and were followed up until 2014-2015. Details of leisure-time exercise were ascertained via a questionnaire. Depressive states were assessed using a 13-item questionnaire. Multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio of depressive symptoms was estimated using Cox regression analysis. During a mean follow-up of 5.8 years with 168,203 person-years, 6,847 workers developed depressive symptoms. Compared with workers who engaged in no exercise during leisure-time (0 MET-hours per week), hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) associated with >0 to workers who engaged in moderate-intensity exercise alone; 0.93 (0.82-1.06), 0.82 (0.68-0.98), and 0.83 (0.71-0.98) among workers who engaged in vigorous-intensity exercise alone; and 0.96 (0.80-1.15), 0.80 (0.67-0.95), and 0.76 (0.66-0.87) among workers who engaged in both moderate- and vigorous-intensity exercise with adjustment for age, sex, lifestyles, work-related and socioeconomic factors, and body mass index. Additional adjustment for baseline depression score attenuated the inverse association, especially among those who engaged in moderate-intensity exercise alone. The results suggest that vigorous-intensity exercise alone or vigorous-intensity combined with moderate-intensity exercise would prevent depressive symptoms among Japanese workers.

  12. Received social support and exercising: An intervention study to test the enabling hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rackow, Pamela; Scholz, Urte; Hornung, Rainer

    2015-11-01

    Received social support is considered important for health-enhancing exercise participation. The enabling hypothesis of social support suggests an indirect association of social support and exercising via constructs of self-regulation, such as self-efficacy. This study aimed at examining an expanded enabling hypothesis by examining effects of different kinds of social support (i.e., emotional and instrumental) on exercising not only via self-efficacy but also via self-monitoring and action planning. An 8-week online study was conducted. Participants were randomly assigned to an intervention or a control group. The intervention comprised finding and then exercising regularly with a new exercise companion. Intervention and control group effects were compared by a manifest multigroup model. Received emotional social support predicted self-efficacy, self-monitoring, and action planning in the intervention group. Moreover, received emotional social support was indirectly connected with exercise via the examined mediators. The indirect effect from received emotional social support via self-efficacy mainly contributed to the total effect. No direct or indirect effect of received instrumental social support on exercise emerged. In the control group, neither emotional nor instrumental social support was associated with any of the self-regulation constructs nor with exercise. Actively looking for a new exercise companion and exercising together seems to be beneficial for the promotion of received emotional and instrumental social support. Emotional support in turn promotes exercise by enabling better self-regulation, in particular self-efficacy. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? With the 'enabling hypothesis', Benight and Bandura (2004, Behav. Res. Ther., 42, 1129) claimed that social support indirectly affects behaviour via self-efficacy. Research in the domain of physical exercise has provided evidence for this enabling hypothesis on a

  13. [High versus moderate intense running exercise - effects on cardiometabolic risk-factors in untrained males].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemmler, Wolfgang; Lell, M; Scharf, M; Fraunberger, L; von Stengel, S

    2015-01-01

    Introduction | The philosophy on how to improve cardiometabolic risk factors most efficiently by endurance exercise is still controversial. To determine the effect of high-intensity (interval) training (HI[I]T) vs. moderate-intensity continuous exercise (MICE) training on cardiometabolic risk factors we conducted a 16-week crossover randomized controlled trial. Methods | 81 healthy untrained middle aged men were randomly assigned to a HI(I)T-group and a control-group that started the MICE running program after their control status. HI(I)T consisted of running exercise around or above the individual anaerobic threshold (≈ 80- 100 % HRmax); MICE focused on continuous running exercise at ≈ 65-77.5 % HRmax. Both protocols were comparable with respect to energy consumption. Study endpoints were cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2max), left ventricular mass index (LVMI), metabolic syndrome Z-score (MetS-Z-score), intima-media-thickness (IMT) and body composition. Results | VO2max-changes in this overweighed male cohort significantly (p=0.002) differ between HIIT (14.7 ± 9.3 %, p=0.001) and MICE (7.9 ± 7.4 %,p=0.001). LVMI, as determined via magnetic resonance imaging, significantly increased in both exercise groups (HIIT: 8.5 ± 5.4 %, p=0.001 vs. MICE: 5.3 ± 4.0 %, p=0.001), however the change was significantly more pronounced (p=0.005) in the HIIT-group. MetS-Z-score (HIIT: -2.06 ± 1.31, p=0.001 vs. MICE: -1.60 ± 1.77, p=0.001) and IMT (4.6 ± 5.9 % p=0.011 vs. 4.4 ± 8.1 %, p=0.019) did not show significant group-differences. Reductions of fat mass (-4.9 ± 9.0 %, p=0.010 vs. -9.5 ± 9.4, p=0.001) were significantly higher among the MICE-participants (p=0.034), however, the same was true (p=0.008) for lean body mass (0.5 ± 2.3 %, p=0.381 vs. -1.3 ± 2.0 %, p=0.003). Conclusion | In summary high-intensity interval training tends to impact cardiometabolic health more favorable compared with a moderate-intensity continuous endurance exercise protocol.

  14. Energy-matched moderate and high intensity exercise training improves nonalcoholic fatty liver disease risk independent of changes in body mass or abdominal adiposity - A randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winn, Nathan C; Liu, Ying; Rector, R Scott; Parks, Elizabeth J; Ibdah, Jamal A; Kanaley, Jill A

    2018-01-01

    Exercise training is commonly prescribed for individuals diagnosed with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD); however, consensus regarding the volume and intensity of exercise for optimal benefits is lacking. Thus, we determined whether high intensity interval exercise training (HIIT) produced greater reductions in intrahepatic lipid (IHL) content and NAFLD risk factors compared with energy-matched moderate intensity continuous exercise training (MICT) in obese adults with liver steatosis. Eighteen obese adults were randomized to either 4weeks of HIIT (4min 80% VO 2 peak/3min, 50% VO 2 peak) or MICT (55% VO 2 peak, ~60min), matched for energy expenditure (~400kcal/session) and compared to five non-exercising age-matched control subjects. IHL was measured by 1 H-MRS and frequent blood samples were analyzed for glucose, insulin, c-peptide, and NEFA levels during a liquid meal test (180min) to characterize metabolic phenotype. Baseline body weight, visceral abdominal adiposity, and fasting insulin concentrations were greater in the MICT vs HIIT group (P0.05), albeit higher than control subjects (Pexercise training intervention (P>0.05). Both HIIT and MICT lowered IHL (HIIT, -37.0±12.4%; MICT, -20.1±6.6%, Pexercise intensities (P=0.25). Furthermore, exercise training decreased postprandial insulin, c-peptide, and lipid peroxidation levels (iAUC, Pexercise are effective at decreasing IHL and NAFLD risk that is not contingent upon reductions in abdominal adiposity or body mass. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect on 12-week Intensive Dietary and Exercise Program on Weight Reduction and Maintenance in Obese Women with Weight Cycling History

    OpenAIRE

    Kwon, Ha Nui; Nam, Sang-Seok; Park, Yoo Kyoung

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the effect of 12-week intensive dietary and exercise intervention program on body composition and stress-related hormones in obese women and to examine the residual effect after the intervention. The participants of this study were 30 obese women who had a body mass index of over 25 kg/m2 and over 30% in body fat. They were classified into 2 groups depending on the history of weight cycling (WC); the WC group (? ?5% of the original body weight) and the non-weight cycling (...

  16. Sustained, Low-Intensity Exercise Achieved by a Dynamic Feeding System Decreases Body Fat in Ponies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Laat, M A; Hampson, B A; Sillence, M N; Pollitt, C C

    2016-09-01

    Obesity in horses is increasing in prevalence and can be associated with insulin insensitivity and laminitis. Current treatment strategies for obesity include dietary restriction and exercise. However, whether exercise alone is effective for decreasing body fat is uncertain. Our hypothesis was that twice daily use of a dynamic feeding system for 3 months would induce sustained, low-intensity exercise thereby decreasing adiposity and improving insulin sensitivity (SI). Eight, university-owned, mixed-breed, adult ponies with body condition scores (BCS) ≥5/9 were used. Two treatments ("feeder on" or "feeder off") were administered for a 3-month period by a randomized, crossover design (n = 4/treatment). An interim equilibration period of 6 weeks at pasture separated the 2 study phases. Measurements of body mass (body weight, BCS, cresty neck score [CrNS], and morphometry), body fat (determined before and after the "feeder on" treatment only), triglycerides, and insulin sensitivity (SI; combined glucose-insulin test) were undertaken before and after treatments. The dynamic feeding system induced a 3.7-fold increase in the daily distance travelled (n = 6), compared to with a stationary feeder, which significantly decreased mean BCS (6.53 ± 0.94 to 5.38 ± 1.71), CrNS (2.56 ± 1.12 to 1.63 ± 1.06) and body fat (by 4.95%). An improvement in SI did not occur in all ponies. A dynamic feeding system can be used to induce sustained (daily), low-intensity exercise that promotes weight loss in ponies. However, this exercise may not be sufficient to substantially improve SI. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  17. The diurnal patterns of cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone in relation to intense aerobic exercise in recreationally trained soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labsy, Z; Prieur, F; Le Panse, B; Do, M C; Gagey, O; Lasne, F; Collomp, K

    2013-03-01

    Diurnal patterns of cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) secretion, the two main peripheral secretory products of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal neuroendocrine stress axis, have been well characterized in rest conditions but not in relation to physical exercise. The purpose of this investigation was therefore to determine the effects of an intense 90-min aerobic exercise on the waking diurnal cortisol and DHEA cycles on three separate days [without exercise, with morning exercise (10:00-11:30 h), and with afternoon exercise (14:00-15:30 h)] in nine recreationally trained soccer players. Saliva samples were collected at awakening, 30 min after awakening, and then every 2 h from 08:00 to 22:00 h. A burst of secretory activity was found for cortisol (p exercise days under all conditions. However, there was a significant increase in salivary cortisol concentrations on the morning-exercise and afternoon-exercise days at, respectively, 12:00 h (p exercise was not evident for DHEA. The results of this investigation indicate that 90 min of intense aerobic exercise does not affect the circadian pattern of salivary adrenal steroids in recreationally trained athletes over a 16-h waking period, despite a transitory increase in post-exercise cortisol concentration. Further studies are necessary to determine whether these results are applicable to elite athletes or patients with cortisol or DHEA deficiency.

  18. Aerobic Exercise Intervention, Cognitive Performance, and Brain Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonasson, Lars S; Nyberg, Lars; Kramer, Arthur F

    2017-01-01

    . Freesurfer was used to estimate cortical thickness in frontal regions and hippocampus volume. Results showed that aerobic exercisers, compared to controls, exhibited a broad, rather than specific, improvement in cognition as indexed by a higher "Cognitive score," a composite including episodic memory...

  19. Motives for physical exercise participation as a basis for the development of patient-oriented exercise interventions in osteoarthritis: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, Inga; Katzmarek, Uwe; Rieger, Monika A; Sudeck, Gorden

    2017-08-01

    Physical exercises are effective in the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA). There is consensus that exercise interventions should take into account the patient's preferences and needs in order to improve compliance to exercise regimes. One important personal factor is the patient's motivation for physical exercise. Health improvement is a relevant motive for exercise participation. Accordingly, exercise interventions primarily focus on health related needs such as strengthening and pain reduction. However exercising provides further many-faceted incentives that may foster exercise adherence. The present study aimed to characterize target groups for person-tailored exercise interventions in OA according to the International Classification of Functioning and Disability and Health (ICF). Target groups should be classified by similar individual exercise participation motive profiles and further described by their disease-related symptoms, limitations and psychological determinants of exercise behavior. Observational study via self-administered questionnaires. Community. We enrolled 292 adults with hip/knee OA living independently of assistance. Participants completed the Bernese Motive and Goal Inventory in Leisure and Health Sports (BMZI), the Hannover Functional Ability Questionnaire for Osteoarthritis, the WOMAC-Index (pain/stiffness), the General Self-efficacy Scale and a questionnaire on perceived barriers to exercise participation. The BMZI-scales served as active variables for cluster analysis (Ward's method), other scales were used as passive variables to further describe the identified clusters. Four clusters were defined using five exercise participation motives: health, body/appearance, esthetics, nature, and contact. Based on the identified motive profiles the target groups are labelled health-focused sports people; sporty, nature-oriented individualists; functionalists primarily motivated by maintaining or improving health through exercise; and nature

  20. Contraction-induced changes in skeletal muscle Na(+), K(+) pump mRNA expression - importance of exercise intensity and Ca(2+)-mediated signalling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordsborg, Nikolai Baastrup; Kusuhara, K; Hellsten, Ylva

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Aim: To investigate if exercise intensity and Ca(2+) signalling regulate Na(+), K(+) pump mRNA expression in skeletal muscle. Methods: The importance of exercise intensity was evaluated by having trained and untrained humans perform intense intermittent and prolonged exercise. The import...

  1. Beetroot Juice Supplementation Improves High-Intensity Intermittent Type Exercise Performance in Trained Soccer Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Nyakayiru

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available It has been shown that nitrate supplementation can enhance endurance exercise performance. Recent work suggests that nitrate ingestion can also increase intermittent type exercise performance in recreational athletes. We hypothesized that six days of nitrate supplementation can improve high-intensity intermittent type exercise performance in trained soccer players. Thirty-two male soccer players (age: 23 ± 1 years, height: 181 ± 1 m, weight: 77 ± 1 kg, playing experience: 15.2 ± 0.5 years, playing in the first team of a 2nd or 3rd Dutch amateur league club participated in this randomized, double-blind cross-over study. All subjects participated in two test days in which high-intensity intermittent running performance was assessed using the Yo-Yo IR1 test. Subjects ingested nitrate-rich (140 mL; ~800 mg nitrate/day; BR or a nitrate-depleted beetroot juice (PLA for six subsequent days, with at least eight days of wash-out between trials. The distance covered during the Yo-Yo IR1 was the primary outcome measure, while heart rate (HR was measured continuously throughout the test, and a single blood and saliva sample were collected just prior to the test. Six days of BR ingestion increased plasma and salivary nitrate and nitrite concentrations in comparison to PLA (p < 0.001, and enhanced Yo-Yo IR1 test performance by 3.4 ± 1.3% (from 1574 ± 47 to 1623 ± 48 m; p = 0.027. Mean HR was lower in the BR (172 ± 2 vs. PLA trial (175 ± 2; p = 0.014. Six days of BR ingestion effectively improves high-intensity intermittent type exercise performance in trained soccer players.

  2. Long-Term Low Intensity Physical Exercise Attenuates Heart Failure Development in Aging Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana U. Pagan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Physical exercise is a strategy to control hypertension and attenuate pressure overload-induced cardiac remodeling. The influence of exercise on cardiac remodeling during uncontrolled hypertension is not established. We evaluated the effects of a long-term low intensity aerobic exercise protocol on heart failure (HF development and cardiac remodeling in aging spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR. Methods: Sixteen month old SHR (n=50 and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY, n=35 rats were divided into sedentary (SED and exercised (EX groups. Rats exercised in treadmill at 12 m/min, 30 min/day, 5 days/week, for four months. The frequency of HF features was evaluated at euthanasia. Statistical analyses: ANOVA and Tukey or Mann-Whitney, and Goodman test. Results: Despite slightly higher systolic blood pressure, SHR-EX had better functional capacity and lower HF frequency than SHR-SED. Echocardiography and tissue Doppler imaging showed no differences between SHR groups. In SHR-EX, however, left ventricular (LV systolic diameter, larger in SHR-SED than WKY-SED, and endocardial fractional shortening, lower in SHR-SED than WKY-SED, had values between those in WKY-EX and SHR-SED not differing from either group. Myocardial function, assessed in LV papillary muscles, showed improvement in SHR-EX over SHR-SED and WKY-EX. LV myocardial collagen fraction and type I and III collagen gene expression were increased in SHR groups. Myocardial hydroxyproline concentration was lower in SHR-EX than SHR-SED. Lysyl oxidase gene expression was higher in SHR-SED than WKY-SED. Conclusion: Exercise improves functional capacity and reduces decompensated HF in aging SHR independent of elevated arterial pressure. Improvement in functional status is combined with attenuation of LV and myocardial dysfunction and fibrosis.

  3. When Intervention Meets Organisation, a Qualitative Study of Motivation and Barriers to Physical Exercise at the Workplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Særvoll, Charlotte Ahlgren; Sjøgaard, Gisela; Andersen, Lars Louis

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To provide a comprehensive understanding of the motivational factors and barriers that are important for compliance with high-intensity workplace physical exercise that is aimed at reducing musculoskeletal disorders. Method. The present study, which used semideductive, thematic, and structured in-depth interviews, was nested in a 20-week cluster randomised controlled trial among office workers. Interviews were conducted with 18 informants with diverse fields of sedentary office work who participated in strength training at the workplace for 20 minutes, three times per week. Organisational, implementational, and individual motives and barriers were explored. Results & Discussion. The results show that attention should be given to the interaction between the management, the employees, and the intervention, as the main barrier to compliance was the internal working culture. The results emphasised the need for a clear connection between the management's implementational intentions and the actual implementation. The results emphasise the importance of ensuring the legitimacy of the intervention among managers, participants, and colleagues. Moreover, it is important to centrally organise, structure, and ensure flexibility in the working day to free time for participants to attend the intervention. Recommendations from this study suggest that a thorough intervention mapping process should be performed to analyse organisational and implementational factors before initiating workplace physical exercise training. PMID:26380361

  4. When Intervention Meets Organisation, a Qualitative Study of Motivation and Barriers to Physical Exercise at the Workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredahl, Thomas Viskum Gjelstrup; Særvoll, Charlotte Ahlgren; Kirkelund, Lasse; Sjøgaard, Gisela; Andersen, Lars Louis

    2015-01-01

    To provide a comprehensive understanding of the motivational factors and barriers that are important for compliance with high-intensity workplace physical exercise that is aimed at reducing musculoskeletal disorders. The present study, which used semideductive, thematic, and structured in-depth interviews, was nested in a 20-week cluster randomised controlled trial among office workers. Interviews were conducted with 18 informants with diverse fields of sedentary office work who participated in strength training at the workplace for 20 minutes, three times per week. Organisational, implementational, and individual motives and barriers were explored. The results show that attention should be given to the interaction between the management, the employees, and the intervention, as the main barrier to compliance was the internal working culture. The results emphasised the need for a clear connection between the management's implementational intentions and the actual implementation. The results emphasise the importance of ensuring the legitimacy of the intervention among managers, participants, and colleagues. Moreover, it is important to centrally organise, structure, and ensure flexibility in the working day to free time for participants to attend the intervention. Recommendations from this study suggest that a thorough intervention mapping process should be performed to analyse organisational and implementational factors before initiating workplace physical exercise training.

  5. When Intervention Meets Organisation, a Qualitative Study of Motivation and Barriers to Physical Exercise at the Workplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Viskum Gjelstrup Bredahl

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To provide a comprehensive understanding of the motivational factors and barriers that are important for compliance with high-intensity workplace physical exercise that is aimed at reducing musculoskeletal disorders. Method. The present study, which used semideductive, thematic, and structured in-depth interviews, was nested in a 20-week cluster randomised controlled trial among office workers. Interviews were conducted with 18 informants with diverse fields of sedentary office work who participated in strength training at the workplace for 20 minutes, three times per week. Organisational, implementational, and individual motives and barriers were explored. Results & Discussion. The results show that attention should be given to the interaction between the management, the employees, and the intervention, as the main barrier to compliance was the internal working culture. The results emphasised the need for a clear connection between the management’s implementational intentions and the actual implementation. The results emphasise the importance of ensuring the legitimacy of the intervention among managers, participants, and colleagues. Moreover, it is important to centrally organise, structure, and ensure flexibility in the working day to free time for participants to attend the intervention. Recommendations from this study suggest that a thorough intervention mapping process should be performed to analyse organisational and implementational factors before initiating workplace physical exercise training.

  6. Acute effects of resistance exercise and intermittent intense aerobic exercise on blood cell count and oxidative stress in trained middle-aged women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, A M; Bagatini, M D; Roth, M A; Martins, C C; Rezer, J F P; Mello, F F; Lopes, L F D; Morsch, V M; Schetinger, M R C

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of an intermittent intense aerobic exercise session and a resistance exercise session on blood cell counts and oxidative stress parameters in middle-aged women. Thirty-four women were selected and divided into three groups: RE group (performing 60 min of resistance exercises, N = 12), spinning group (performing 60 min of spinning, N = 12), and control group (not exercising regularly, N = 10). In both exercise groups, lymphocytes and monocytes decreased after 1-h recuperation (post-exercise) compared to immediately after exercise (P exercise, in both exercised groups, a significant increase in TBARS (from 16.5 ± 2 to 25 ± 2 for the spinning group and from 18.6 ± 1 to 28.2 ± 3 nmol MDA/mL serum for the RE group) and protein carbonyl (from 1.0 ± 0.3 to 1.6 ± 0.2 for the spinning group and from 0.9 ± 0.2 to 1.5 ± 0.2 nmol/mg protein for the RE group) was observed (P exercise induces immune suppression and increases the production of reactive oxygen species, causing oxidative stress in middle-aged and trained women. Furthermore, we demonstrated that trained women show improved antioxidant capacity and lower oxidative damage than sedentary ones, demonstrating the benefits of chronic regular physical activity.

  7. Increased Interstitial Concentrations of Glutamate and Pyruvate in Vastus Lateralis of Women with Fibromyalgia Syndrome Are Normalized after an Exercise Intervention - A Case-Control Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björn Gerdle

    Full Text Available Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS is associated with central alterations, but controversies exist regarding the presence and role of peripheral factors. Microdialysis (MD can be used in vivo to study muscle alterations in FMS. Furthermore for chronic pain conditions such as FMS, the mechanisms for the positive effects of exercise are unclear. This study investigates the interstitial concentrations of algesics and metabolites in the vastus lateralis muscle of 29 women with FMS and 28 healthy women before and after an exercise intervention.All the participants went through a clinical examination and completed a questionnaire. In addition, their pressure pain thresholds (PPTs in their upper and lower extremities were determined. For both groups, MD was conducted in the vastus lateralis muscle before and after a 15-week exercise intervention of mainly resistance training of the lower limbs. Muscle blood flow and interstitial muscle concentrations of lactate, pyruvate, glutamate, glucose, and glycerol were determined.FMS was associated with significantly increased interstitial concentrations of glutamate, pyruvate, and lactate. After the exercise intervention, the FMS group exhibited significant decreases in pain intensity and in mean interstitial concentrations of glutamate, pyruvate, and glucose. The decrease in pain intensity in FMS correlated significantly with the decreases in pyruvate and glucose. In addition, the FMS group increased their strength and endurance.This study supports the suggestion that peripheral metabolic and algesic muscle alterations are present in FMS patients and that these alterations contribute to pain. After an exercise intervention, alterations normalized, pain intensity decreased (but not abolished, and strength and endurance improved, all findings that suggest the effects of exercise are partially peripheral.

  8. Acute and Post-Exercise Physiological Responses to High-Intensity Interval Training in Endurance and Sprint Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Cipryan, Lukas; Tschakert, Gerhard; Hofmann, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the presented study was to compare acute and post-exercise differences in cardiorespiratory, metabolic, cardiac autonomic, inflammatory and muscle damage responses to high-intensity interval exercise (HIIT) between endurance and sprint athletes. The study group consisted of sixteen highly-trained males (age 22.1 �� 2.5 years) participating in endurance (n = 8) or sprint (n = 8) sporting events. All the participants underwent three exercise sessions: short HIIT (work interval du...

  9. Acute and Post-Exercise Physiological Responses to High-Intensity Interval Training in Endurance and Sprint Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Lukas Cipryan, Gerhard Tschakert, Peter Hofmann

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the presented study was to compare acute and post-exercise differences in cardiorespiratory, metabolic, cardiac autonomic, inflammatory and muscle damage responses to high-intensity interval exercise (HIIT) between endurance and sprint athletes. The study group consisted of sixteen highly-trained males (age 22.1 ± 2.5 years) participating in endurance (n = 8) or sprint (n = 8) sporting events. All the participants underwent three exercise sessions: short HIIT (work interval dur...

  10. The heart rate increase at the onset of high-work intensity exercise is accelerated by central blood volume loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Tadayoshi; Oshima, Yoshitake; Ikuta, Komei; Kinoshita, Hiroshi

    2006-01-01

    Using a water immersion (WI) method, the combined effect of central blood volume (CBV) loading and work intensity on the time course of heart rate (HR) at the onset of upright dynamic exercise was investigated. Seven males cranked a cycle ergometer for 12 min using their un-immersed arms at low-, moderate- and high-work intensities, followed by a 12-min rest. For WI, the pre-exercise resting cardiac output increased by 36%, while HR decreased by 22% [from 76.8 (10.4) to 59.6 (9.8) beats/min]. WI also increased the high-frequency (HF, 0.15-0.40 Hz) component of the HR variability, suggesting an increased vagal activity. During the initial 2 min of the exercise period at low-work intensity, HR increased by 34.9 and 25.8% in the WI and control conditions, respectively. These were 117 and 73% at high-work intensity, indicating more accelerated HR with WI than the control. The plasma norepinephrine concentration increased less during high-work intensity exercise during WI, as compared to exercise during control conditions. In conclusion, the HR increase at the onset of high-work intensity exercise is accelerated by CBV loading but not at low intensity, possibly reflecting vago-sympathetic interaction and reduced baroreflex sensitivity.

  11. Effects of a 12-week aerobic exercise intervention on eating behaviour, food cravings, and 7-day energy intake and energy expenditure in inactive men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Joel; Paxman, Jenny; Dalton, Caroline; Winter, Edward; Broom, David R

    2016-11-01

    This study examined effects of 12 weeks of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise on eating behaviour, food cravings, and weekly energy intake and expenditure in inactive men. Eleven healthy men (mean ± SD: age, 26 ± 5 years; body mass index, 24.6 ± 3.8 kg·m -2 ; maximum oxygen uptake, 43.1 ± 7.4 mL·kg -1 ·min -1 ) completed the 12-week supervised exercise programme. Body composition, health markers (e.g., blood pressure), eating behaviour, food cravings, and weekly energy intake and expenditure were assessed before and after the exercise intervention. There were no intervention effects on weekly free-living energy intake (p = 0.326, d = -0.12) and expenditure (p = 0.799, d = 0.04) or uncontrolled eating and emotional eating scores (p > 0.05). However, there was a trend with a medium effect size (p = 0.058, d = 0.68) for cognitive restraint to be greater after the exercise intervention. Total food cravings (p = 0.009, d = -1.19) and specific cravings of high-fat foods (p = 0.023, d = -0.90), fast-food fats (p = 0.009, d = -0.71), and carbohydrates/starches (p = 0.009, d = -0.56) decreased from baseline to 12 weeks. Moreover, there was a trend with a large effect size for cravings of sweets (p = 0.052, d = -0.86) to be lower after the exercise intervention. In summary, 12 weeks of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise reduced food cravings and increased cognitive restraint, but these changes were not accompanied by changes in other eating behaviours or weekly energy intake and expenditure. The results indicate the importance of exercising for health improvements even when reductions in body mass are modest.

  12. Intensive Intervention Practice Guide: Explicit Instruction in Reading Comprehension for Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Gina; Austin, Christy; Ledbetter-Cho, Katherine

    2017-01-01

    The National Center for Leadership in Intensive Intervention (NCLII), a consortium funded by the Office of Special Education Programs (OSEP), prepares special education leaders to become experts in research on intensive intervention for students with disabilities who have persistent and severe academic (e.g., reading and math) and behavioral…

  13. Energetics of high-intensity exercise (soccer) with particular reference to fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, T

    1997-06-01

    Soccer entails intermittent exercise with bouts of short, intense activity punctuating longer periods of low-level, moderate-intensity exercise. High levels of blood lactate may sometimes be observed during a match but the active recovery periods at submaximal exercise levels allow for its removal on a continual basis. While anaerobic efforts are evident in activity with the ball and shadowing fast-moving opponents, the largest strain is placed on aerobic metabolism. On average, competitive soccer corresponds to an energy expenditure of about 75% maximal aerobic power. The energy expenditure varies with playing position, being highest among midfield players. Muscle glycogen levels can be reduced towards the end of a game, the level of reduction being reflected in a decrease in work rate. Blood glucose levels are generally well-maintained, although body temperature may rise by 2 degrees C even in temperate conditions. The distance covered by players tends to under-reflect the energy expended. Unorthodox modes of motion-running backwards and sideways, accelerating, decelerating and changing direction-accentuate the metabolic loading. These are compounded by the extra requirements for energy associated with dribbling the ball and contesting possession. The overall energy expended is extreme when players are required to play extra-time in tournaments. Training, nutritional and tactical strategies may be used to reduce the effects of fatigue that may occur late in the game.

  14. Identification of cardiac repercussions after intense and prolonged concentric isokinetic exercise in young sedentary people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Goff, Caroline; Kaux, Jean-François; Couffignal, Vincent; Coubard, Romain; Mélon, Pierre; Cavalier, Etienne; Croisier, Jean-Louis

    2015-09-01

    Cardiopathies are the world's leading cause of mortality and morbidity. Although rare, cardiovascular accidents can occur during intense and infrequent sporting activity, particularly among those who are unaware of their heart condition. The development of cardiospecific biochemical markers has led to a reconsideration of the role of biology in the diagnosis of cardiovascular illnesses. The aim of this study therefore was, through the use of cardiac biomarker assays, to highlight the impact of sustained physical effort in the form of intense and prolonged concentric isokinetic exercise and to research potential cardiovascular risks. Eighteen subjects participated in a maximal concentric isokinetic exercise involving 30 knee flexion-extensions for each leg. Five blood tests were taken to study the kinetics of the cardiac biomarkers. Haemodynamic parameters were measured continuously using a Portapres, and respiratory parameters were measured using a Sensormedics Vmax 29C. The results showed significant increases in the creatine kinase, myoglobin, homocysteine and haemoglobin cardiac markers. Evolutionary trends were also observed for the following biomarkers: NT-proBNP, myeloperoxydase and C-reactive protein. All the physiological parameters measured presented statistically significant changes. Isokinetic effort leads to the release of cardiac markers in the blood, but these do not exceed the reference values in healthy subjects. Maximal concentric isokinetic exercise does not, therefore, lead to an increased risk of cardiovascular pathologies. © 2014 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Pacing Profiles in Competitive Track Races: Regulation of Exercise Intensity Is Related to Cognitive Ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Biesen, Debbie; Hettinga, Florentina J; McCulloch, Katina; Vanlandewijck, Yves

    2016-01-01

    Pacing has been defined as the goal-directed regulation of exercise intensity over an exercise bout, in which athletes need to decide how and when to invest their energy. The purpose of this study was to explore if the regulation of exercise intensity during competitive track races is different between runners with and without intellectual impairment, which is characterized by significant limitations in intellectual functioning (IQ ≤ 75) and adaptive behavioral deficits, diagnosed before the age of 18. The samples included elite runners with intellectual impairment ( N = 36) and a comparison group of world class runners without impairment ( N = 39), of which 47 were 400 m runners (all male) and 28 were 1500 m-runners (15 male and 13 female). Pacing was analyzed by means of 100 m split times (for 400 m races) and 200 m split times (for 1500 m races). Based on the split times, the average velocity was calculated for four segments of the races. Velocity fluctuations were defined as the differences in velocity between consecutive race segments. A mixed model ANOVA revealed significant differences in pacing profiles between runners with and without intellectual impairment ( p competitive races.

  16. Cellular Stress Response Gene Expression During Upper and Lower Body High Intensity Exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochanowicz, Andrzej; Sawczyn, Stanisław; Niespodziński, Bartłomiej; Mieszkowski, Jan; Kochanowicz, Kazimierz; Żychowska, Małgorzata

    2017-01-01

    The aim was to compare the effect of upper and lower body high-intensity exercise on chosen genes expression in athletes and non-athletes. Fourteen elite male artistic gymnasts (EAG) aged 20.6 ± 3.3 years and 14 physically active men (PAM) aged 19.9 ± 1.0 years performed lower and upper body 30 s Wingate Tests. Blood samples were collected before, 5 and 30 minutes after each effort to assess gene expression via PCR. Significantly higher mechanical parameters after lower body exercise was observed in both groups, for relative power (8.7 ± 1.2 W/kg in gymnasts, 7.2 ± 1.2 W/kg in controls, p = 0.01) and mean power (6.7 ± 0.7 W/kg in gymnasts, 5.4 ± 0.8 W/kg in controls, p = 0.01). No differences in lower versus upper body gene expression were detected for all tested genes as well as between gymnasts and physical active man. For IL-6 m-RNA time-dependent effect was observed. Because of no significant differences in expression of genes associated with cellular stress response the similar adaptive effect to exercise may be obtained so by lower and upper body exercise.

  17. Estimation of coronary wave intensity analysis using noninvasive techniques and its application to exercise physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broyd, Christopher J; Nijjer, Sukhjinder; Sen, Sayan; Petraco, Ricardo; Jones, Siana; Al-Lamee, Rasha; Foin, Nicolas; Al-Bustami, Mahmud; Sethi, Amarjit; Kaprielian, Raffi; Ramrakha, Punit; Khan, Masood; Malik, Iqbal S; Francis, Darrel P; Parker, Kim; Hughes, Alun D; Mikhail, Ghada W; Mayet, Jamil; Davies, Justin E

    2016-03-01

    Wave intensity analysis (WIA) has found particular applicability in the coronary circulation where it can quantify traveling waves that accelerate and decelerate blood flow. The most important wave for the regulation of flow is the backward-traveling decompression wave (BDW). Coronary WIA has hitherto always been calculated from invasive measures of pressure and flow. However, recently it has become feasible to obtain estimates of these waveforms noninvasively. In this study we set out to assess the agreement between invasive and noninvasive coronary WIA at rest and measure the effect of exercise. Twenty-two patients (mean age 60) with unobstructed coronaries underwent invasive WIA in the left anterior descending artery (LAD). Immediately afterwards, noninvasive LAD flow and pressure were recorded and WIA calculated from pulsed-wave Doppler coronary flow velocity and central blood pressure waveforms measured using a cuff-based technique. Nine of these patients underwent noninvasive coronary WIA assessment during exercise. A pattern of six waves were observed in both modalities. The BDW was similar between invasive and noninvasive measures [peak: 14.9 ± 7.8 vs. -13.8 ± 7.1 × 10(4) W·m(-2)·s(-2), concordance correlation coefficient (CCC): 0.73, P Exercise increased the BDW: at maximum exercise peak BDW was -47.0 ± 29.5 × 10(4) W·m(-2)·s(-2) (P Physiological Society.

  18. What influences acceptability and engagement with a high intensity exercise programme for people with stroke? A qualitative descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signal, Nada; McPherson, Kathryn; Lewis, Gwyn; Kayes, Nicola; Saywell, Nicola; Mudge, Suzie; Taylor, Denise

    2016-10-14

    Intensity refers to the amount of effort or rate of work undertaken during exercise. People receiving rehabilitation after stroke frequently do not reach the moderate to high intensity exercise recommended to maximise gains. To explore the factors that influence the acceptability of, and engagement with, a high intensity group-based exercise programme for people with stroke. This qualitative descriptive study included 14 people with stroke who had completed a 12-week, high intensity group-based exercise rehabilitation programme. Semi-structured interviews were used to explore the acceptability of high intensity exercise and the barriers and facilitators to engagement. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and analysed using qualitative content analysis. The participants found high intensity exercise rehabilitation acceptable despite describing the exercise intensity as hard and reporting post-exercise fatigue. Participants accepted the fatigue as a normal response to exercise, and it did not appear to negatively influence engagement. The ease with which an individual engaged in high intensity exercise rehabilitation appeared to be mediated by inter-related factors, including: seeing progress, sourcing motivation, working hard, the people involved and the fit with the person and their life. Participants directly related the intensity of their effort to the gains that they made. In this study, people with stroke viewed training at higher intensities as a facilitator, not a barrier, to engagement in exercise rehabilitation. The findings may challenge assumptions about the influence of exercise intensity on engagement.

  19. Comparison of the effect of different intensity exercise on a bicycle ergometer on postprandial lipidemia in type II diabetic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narges Argani

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Postprandial lipid clearance failure and lipoprotein disorders, which are independent risk factors for cardiovascular diseases are well-recognized in type II diabetes. Reduction of fats through exercise has been proved, though the mechanism is not well-defined, and the effects of different intensity exercise on postprandial lipidemia in diabetes type II is unknown. This study aims to find these effects using a cycle ergometer. METHODS: On three different days, 15 type II diabetics (10 women and 5 men, with a mean age 42.07 ± 6.05 years, weight 94.64 ± 4.37 kg, height 159.78 ± 9.09 cm, and body mass index 29.83 ± 3.93 kg/m2, consumed a full fat breakfast (750-800 kcal, 85% fat, and 150 min later, blood samples were taken from them to measure their lipid profile. The 1st day was the control day, without any exercises. Seven days later, 90 min after enriched breakfast, they did 30 min of exercise on the cycle ergometer with intensity of 55-70% of maximum heart rate (HRmax, and 14 days later, 90 min after enriched breakfast, they did 30 min of exercise with intensity of 70-85% of HRmax. RESULTS: According to Friedman non-parametric test, high-density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol serum level significantly increased after 30 min of moderate intensity exercise (P > 0.05, from 39.4 ± 5.2 to 48.6 ± 9.3, while this increase was insignificant after a higher intensity exercise. Neither intensity levels had any significant effects on triglyceride or on low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. CONCLUSION: Results showed that moderate intensity exercise was more effective in increasing HDL cholesterol level in type II diabetics.   Keywords: Postprandial Lipidemia, Resistance Exercise, Bicycle Ergometer, Type II Diabetes 

  20. Individual assessment of intensity-level for exercise training in patients with coronary artery disease is necessary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwland, W; Berkhuysen, MA; Van Veldhuisen, DJ; Rispens, P

    Background: Target intensity-level of exercise training in patients with coronary artery disease is adjusted usually by a target heart rate (THR). This THR is aimed to be at or nearby the anaerobic threshold (AT) and is calculated commonly from parameters of regular exercise training, instead of an

  1. Impact of an intensive dynamic exercise program on oxidative stress and on the outcome in patients with fibromyalgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal F Soliman

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion Twelve weeks of intensive dynamic exercise program should be recommended to patients with FM as it was effective in decreasing the oxidative stress parameters, increasing the antioxidant parameters, and improving the clinical outcome of this disease.

  2. The effects of an individualized exercise intervention on body composition in breast cancer patients undergoing treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Battaglini,Claudio; Bottaro,Martim; Dennehy,Carolyn; Rae,Logan; Shields,Edgar; Kirk,David; Hackney,Anthony

    2007-01-01

    CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Changes in metabolism have been reported in the majority of patients undergoing cancer treatment, and these are usually characterized by progressive change in body composition. The effects of aerobic exercise programs to combat the cancer and cancer treatment-related side effects, which include the negative changes in body composition, have been extensively reported in the literature. However, few resistance exercise intervention studies have hypothesized that breast ca...

  3. Influence of Disease Severity and Exercise Limitation on Exercise Training Intensity and Load and Health Benefits From Pulmonary Rehabilitation in Patients with COPD: AN EXPLORATORY STUDY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Virginia C; Fuhr, Desi P; Byers, Bradley W; Selzler, Anne-Marie; Moore, Linn E; Stickland, Michael K

    2018-04-11

    Some patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) fail to achieve health benefits with pulmonary rehabilitation (PR). Exercise intensity and load represent stimulus for adaptation but it is unclear whether inappropriate exercise intensity and/or load are affected by severity of COPD, which may affect health benefits. The purpose was to determine whether COPD severity and/or the severity of pulmonary limitation to exercise (PLE) impacted exercising intensity or load and whether resultant intensity/load affected health outcomes derived from PR. Patients with COPD (n = 58, age = 67 ± 7 y, forced expiratory volume in the first second of expiration [FEV1] % predicted = 52 ± 21%) were recruited upon referral to PR. Primary health outcomes evaluated were 6-min walk distance and St George's Respiratory Questionnaire. Patients were stratified for disease severity using Global Initiative for Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) staging and PLE severity by change in inspiratory capacity during exercise. Exercise intensity and load were calculated from daily exercise records. Participants achieved comparable training duration and load regardless of GOLD severity. Patients with more severe PLE achieved greater training duration (more severe: 546 ± 143 min., less severe: 451 ± 109 min., P = .036), and relative training load (more severe: 2200.8 ± 595.3 kcal, less severe: 1648.3 ± 597.8 kcal, P = .007). Greater overall training load was associated with greater improvements in 6-min walk distance (r = 0.24, P = .035). No significant relationships were observed between PLE, GOLD severity, training parameters, and St George's Respiratory Questionnaire response. Improvements in exercise tolerance can be explained by achieving greater training loads, demonstrating the importance of appropriate training load to maximize health outcomes in PR.

  4. The Effect of Different Intensities of Treadmill Exercise on Cognitive Function Deficit Following a Severe Controlled Cortical Impact in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiafeng Shen

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Exercise has been proposed for the treatment of traumatic brain injury (TBI. However, the proper intensity of exercise in the early phase following a severe TBI is largely unknown. To compare two different treadmill exercise intensities on the cognitive function following a severe TBI in its early phase, rats experienced a controlled cortical impact (CCI and were forced to treadmill exercise for 14 days. The results revealed that the rats in the low intensity exercise group had a shorter latency to locate a platform and a significantly better improvement in spatial memory in the Morris water maze (MWM compared to the control group (p 0.05. The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and p-CREB protein levels in the contralateral hippocampus were increased significantly in the low intensity exercise group. Our results suggest that 2 weeks of low intensity of treadmill exercise is beneficial for improving cognitive function and increasing hippocampal BDNF expression after a severe TBI in its early phase.

  5. Exercise as an intervention for the age-related decline in brain metabolic support

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    Brenda J Anderson

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available To identify interventions for brain aging, we must first identify the processes in which we hope to intervene. Brain aging is a period of decreasing functional capacity and increasing vulnerability, which reflect a reduction in morphological organization and perhaps degeneration. Since life is ultimately dependent upon the ability to maintain cellular organization through metabolism, this review explores evidence for a decline in neural metabolic support during aging, which includes a reduction in whole brain cerebral blood flow, and cellular metabolic capacity. Capillary density may also decrease with age, although the results are less clear. Exercise may be a highly effective intervention for brain aging, because it improves the cardiovascular system as a whole, and increases regional capillary density and neuronal metabolic capacity. Although the evidence is strongest for motor regions, more work may yield additional evidence for exercise-related improvement in metabolic support in non-motor regions. The protective effects of exercise may be specific to brain region and the type of insult. For example, exercise protects striatal cells from ischemia, but it produces mixed results after hippocampal seizures. Exercise can improve metabolic support and bioenergetic capacity in adult animals, but it remains to be determined whether it has similar effects in aging animals. What is clear is that exercise can influence the multiple levels of support necessary for maintaining optimal neuronal function, which is unique among proposed interventions for aging.

  6. Association Between Extraversion and Exercise Performance Among Elderly Persons Receiving a Videogame Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaitsu, Kosuke; Nishimura, Yuki; Matsuguma, Hiroyuki; Higuchi, Shigekazu

    2015-10-01

    We examined the effects of an exergame intervention on exercise performance, as well as the influence of players' personality traits on the effects of the intervention. In total, 16 elderly persons (>65 years old) participated in the study for 12 weeks. Participants were required to complete the Big Five Scale. We measured the number of times that the sit-to-stand exercise was performed during the interventions with and without exergames. We compared the average number of times that the sit-to-stand exercise was performed per day in each of the two conditions. The average number of times that exercise was undertaken with exergame use was greater than that without exergame use; however, no significant difference was found. The difference between the average number of times that exercise occurred with and without exergame use was positively correlated with neuroticism, negatively correlated with extraversion, and not associated with conscientiousness. The intervention comprising the use of exergames has a positive motivational influence among less extraverted elderly persons.

  7. Versatility of `hemorheologic fitness' according to exercise intensity: emphasis on the "healthy primitive lifestyle"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brun, Jean-Frédéric; Varlet-Marie, Emmanuelle; Chevance, Guillaume; Pollatz, Marion; Fedou, Christine; de Mauverger, Eric Raynaud

    2014-05-01

    We recently proposed a unifying hypothesis to reconcile unexpected findings in exercise hemorheology and the classical concepts of "hemorheologic fitness" and the "triphasic effects of exercise", based on the "healthy primitive lifestyle" paradigm. This paradigm assumes that evolution has selected genetic polymorphisms leading to insulin resistance as an adaptative strategy to cope with continuous low intensity physical activity and a special alimentation moderately high in protein, rich in low glycemic index carbohydrates, and poor in saturated fat. According to this protocol the true physiological picture would be that of an individual whose exercise and nutritional habits are close from this lifestyle, both sedentary subjects and trained athletes representing situations on the edge of this model. Unfortunately samples of people truly adhering to this ancestral lifestyle are hard to obtain. In order to address this picture we tried to compare databases obtained with our preceding published studies. As a model of the "healthy primitive lifestyle" we selected patients trained at low intensity (LI) and given an advice of protein intake around 1.2 g/kg/day. Results show a continuum for plasma viscosity which seems to be lower in athletes than LI-trained and even more sedentaries. When sedentary subjects become obese the most obvious characteristic is an increase in red blood cell (RBC) aggregation correlated to the size of fat stores. It is clear that 3 months of LI are not a perfect model of "healthy primitive lifestyle", but these data suggest that the most important effect of LI regular exercise is to decrease plasma viscosity and that sedentarity increases RBC aggregation mostly when it results in increased fat storage.

  8. Effect of different exercise intensities on the pancreas of animals with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Fernanda; Lima, Nathalia Ea; Ornelas, Elisabete; Simardi, Lucila; Fonseca, Fernando Luiz Affonso; Maifrino, Laura Beatriz Mesiano

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MS) comprises several metabolic disorders that are risk factors for cardiovascular disease and has its source connected to the accumulation of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and development of insulin resistance. Despite studies showing beneficial results of exercise on several risk factors for cardiovascular disease, studies evaluating the effects of different intensities of exercise training on the pancreas with experimental models are scarce. In total, 20 Wistar rats were used, divided into four groups: control (C), metabolic syndrome (MS and without exercise), metabolic syndrome and practice of walking (MSWalk), and metabolic syndrome and practice of running (MSRun). The applied procedures were induction of MS by fructose in drinking water; experimental protocol of walking and running; weighing of body mass and VAT; sacrifice of animals with blood collection and removal of organs and processing of samples for light microscopy using the analysis of volume densities (Vv) of the studied structures. Running showed a reduction of VAT weight (-54%), triglyceride levels (-40%), Vv[islet] (-62%), Vv[islet.cells] (-22%), Vv[islet.insterstitial] (-44%), and Vv[acinar.insterstitial] (-24%) and an increase of Vv[acini] (+21%) and Vv[acinar.cells] (+22%). Regarding walking, we observed a decrease of VAT weight (-34%) and triglyceride levels (-27%), an increase of Vv[islet.cells] (+72%) and Vv[acinar.cells] (+7%), and a decrease of Vv[acini] (-4%) and Vv[acinar.insterstitial] (-16%) when compared with those in the MS group. Our results suggest that the experimental model with low-intensity exercise (walking) seems to be more particularly recommended for preventing morphological and metabolic disorders occurring in the MS.

  9. Motor effort training with low exercise intensity improves muscle strength and descending command in aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Changhao; Ranganathan, Vinoth K; Zhang, Junmei; Siemionow, Vlodek; Yue, Guang H

    2016-06-01

    This study explored the effect of high mental effort training (MET) and conventional strength training (CST) on increasing voluntary muscle strength and brain signal associated with producing maximal muscle force in healthy aging. Twenty-seven older adults (age: 75 ± 7.9 yr, 8 women) were assigned into 1 of 3 groups: MET group-trained with low-intensity (30% maximal voluntary contraction [MVC]) physical exercise combined with MET, CST group-trained with high-intensity muscle contractions, or control (CTRL) group-no training of any kind. MET and CST lasted for 12 weeks (5 sessions/week). The participants' elbow flexion strength of the right arm, electromyography (EMG), and motor activity-related cortical potential (MRCP) directly related to the strength production were measured before and after training. The CST group had the highest strength gain (17.6%, P boarder-line significance level (12.11%, P = 0.061) and that for CTRL group was only 4.9% (P = 0.539). These results suggest that high mental effort training combined with low-intensity physical exercise is an effective method for voluntary muscle strengthening and this approach is especially beneficial for those who are physically weak and have difficulty undergoing conventional strength training.

  10. Supplemental Oxygen During High-Intensity Exercise Training in Nonhypoxemic Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neunhäuserer, Daniel; Steidle-Kloc, Eva; Weiss, Gertraud; Kaiser, Bernhard; Niederseer, David; Hartl, Sylvia; Tschentscher, Marcus; Egger, Andreas; Schönfelder, Martin; Lamprecht, Bernd; Studnicka, Michael; Niebauer, Josef

    2016-11-01

    Physical exercise training is an evidence-based treatment in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and patients' peak work rate is associated with reduced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease mortality. We assessed whether supplemental oxygen during exercise training in nonhypoxemic patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease might lead to superior training outcomes, including improved peak work rate. This was a randomized, double-blind, controlled, crossover trial. Twenty-nine patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (aged 63.5 ± 5.9 years; forced expiratory volume in 1 second percent predicted, 46.4 ± 8.6) completed 2 consecutive 6-week periods of endurance and strength training with progressive intensity, which was performed 3 times per week with supplemental oxygen or compressed medical air (flow via nasal cannula: 10 L/min). Each session of electrocardiography-controlled interval cycling lasted 31 minutes and consisted of a warm-up, 7 cycles of 1-minute intervals at 70% to 80% of peak work rate alternating with 2 minutes of active recovery, and final cooldown. Thereafter, patients completed 8 strength-training exercises of 1 set each with 8 to 15 repetitions to failure. Change in peak work rate was the primary study end point. The increase in peak work rate was more than twice as high when patients exercised with supplemental oxygen compared with medical air (0.16 ± 0.02 W/kg vs 0.07 ± 0.02 W/kg; P work rate was 39.1% of the overall training effect, whereas it had no influence on strength gain (P > .1 for all exercises). We report that supplemental oxygen in nonhypoxemic chronic obstructive pulmonary disease doubled the effect of endurance training but had no effect on strength gain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Changes of Physiological Tremor Following Maximum Intensity Exercise in Male and Female Young Swimmers

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    Gajewski Jan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of this study was to determine the changes in postural physiological tremor following maximum intensity effort performed on arm ergometer by young male and female swimmers. Methods. Ten female and nine male young swimmers served as subjects in the study. Forearm tremor was measured accelerometrically in the sitting position before the 30-second Wingate Anaerobic Test on arm ergometer and then 5, 15 and 30 minutes post-test. Results. Low-frequency tremor log-amplitude (L1−5 increased (repeated factor: p < 0.05 from −7.92 ± 0.45 to −7.44 ± 0.45 and from −6.81 ± 0.52 to −6.35 ± 0.58 in women and men, respectively (gender: p < 0.05 5 minute post-test. Tremor log-amplitude (L15−20 increased (repeated factor: p < 0.001 from −9.26 ± 0.70 to −8.59 ± 0.61 and from −8.79 ± 0.65 to −8.39 ± 0.79 in women and men, respectively 5 minute post-test. No effect of gender was found for high frequency range.The increased tremor amplitude was observed even 30 minute post-exercise. Mean frequency of tremor spectra gradually decreased post-exercises (p < 0.001. Conclusions. Exercise-induced changes in tremor were similar in males and females. A fatigue produced a decrement in the mean frequency of tremor what suggested decreased muscle stiffness post-exercise. Such changes intremorafter exercise may be used as the indicator of fatigue in the nervous system.

  12. Increased Protein Requirements in Female Athletes after Variable-Intensity Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooding, Denise J; Packer, Jeff E; Kato, Hiroyuki; West, Daniel W D; Courtney-Martin, Glenda; Pencharz, Paul B; Moore, Daniel R

    2017-11-01

    Protein requirements are primarily studied in the context of resistance or endurance exercise with little research devoted to variable-intensity intermittent exercise characteristic of many team sports. Further, female populations are underrepresented in dietary sports science studies. We aimed to determine a dietary protein requirement in active females performing variable-intensity intermittent exercise using the indicator amino acid oxidation (IAAO) method. We hypothesized that these requirements would be greater than current IAAO-derived estimates in nonactive adult males. Six females (21.2 ± 0.8 yr, 68.8 ± 4.1 kg, 47.1 ± 1.2 mL O2·kg·min; mean ± SE) completed five to seven metabolic trials during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. Participants performed a modified Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test before consuming eight hourly mixed meals providing the test protein intake (0.2-2.66 g·kg·d), 6 g·kg·d CHO and sufficient energy for resting and exercise-induced energy expenditure. Protein was provided as crystalline amino acid modeling egg protein with [C]phenylalanine as the indicator amino acid. Phenylalanine turnover (Q) was determined from urinary [C]phenylalanine enrichment. Breath CO2 excretion (FCO2) was analyzed using mixed effects biphase linear regression with the breakpoint and upper 95% confidence interval approximating the estimated average requirement and recommended dietary allowance, respectively. Protein intake had no effect on Q (68.7 ± 7.3 μmol·kg·h; mean ± SE). FCO2 displayed a robust biphase response (R = 0.66) with an estimated average requirement of 1.41 g·kg·d and recommended dietary allowance of 1.71 g·kg·d. The protein requirement estimate of 1.41 and 1.71 g·kg·d for females performing variable-intensity intermittent exercise is greater than the IAAO-derived estimates of adult males (0.93 and 1.2 g·kg·d) and at the upper range of the American College of Sports Medicine athlete recommendations (1.2-2.0 g·kg·d).

  13. Exercise interventions for patients with pediatric cancer during inpatient acute care: A systematic review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustler, Vanessa; Hagerty, Meaghan; Daeggelmann, Julia; Marjerrison, Stacey; Bloch, Wilhelm; Baumann, Freerk T

    2017-11-01

    Physical inactivity has been shown to exacerbate negative side effects experienced by pediatric patients undergoing cancer therapy. Exercise interventions are being created in response. This review summarizes current exercise intervention data in the inpatient pediatric oncology setting. Two independent reviewers collected literature from three databases, and analyzed data following the PRISMA statement for systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Ten studies were included, representing 204 patients. Good adherence, positive trends in health status, and no adverse events were noted. Common strategies included individual, supervised, combination training with adaptability to meet fluctuating patient abilities. We recommend that general physical activity programming be offered to pediatric oncology inpatients. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Effect of exercise training intensity on mitochondrial dynamics and mitophagy in post myocardial infarction rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babak Ebadi

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Myocardial infarction (MI is the most common type of heart disease. According to recent studies, mitochondrial dysfunction has been suggested as a central player in cardiac disease and evidences point out the association of mitochondrial morphology with development of heart diseases. Exercise training plays a protective role against cardiovascular disease. However, the role of exercise training on proteins involved in mitochondrial dynamics and mitophagy system are not well understood. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate these on cardiac mitochondrial dynamic and mitophagy proteins in rats with myocardial infarction. The present study was post-test design experiment with the control group. after MI with ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD and ensuring the creation of MI by echocardiography, male rats were subjected to high intensity interval training (HIIT, moderate (MIIT, low (LIIT, sedentary myocardial infarction (SED-MI and healthy control groups. After six weeks exercise, the levels of MFN2, DRP1, Parkin, P62 and PGC-1α proteins were measured by ELISA method. Data analysis showed that proteins levels of MFN2, PGC-1α, Parkin and P62 decreased significantly in SED-MI group compared to healthy control while DRP1 protein levels increased significantly (P≤0.05. Also, MFN2 and PGC-1α proteins increased in MIIT group compared with SED-MI group and DRP1 protein levels were significantly decreased (P≤0.05. Moderate-intensity interval training (MIIT resulted to improve mitochondrial fusion and fusion proteins in rats with myocardial infarction. While high and low intensity interval training (HIIT, LIIT, despite increasing MFN2 and PGC-1α and reducing DRP1, failed to improve fusion and mitochondrial fission

  15. A Complier Average Causal Effect Analysis of the Stimulant Reduction Intervention using Dosed Exercise Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmody, Thomas; Greer, Tracy L; Walker, Robrina; Rethorst, Chad D; Trivedi, Madhukar H

    2018-06-01

    Exercise is a promising treatment for substance use disorders, yet an intention-to-treat analysis of a large, multi-site study found no reduction in stimulant use for exercise versus health education. Exercise adherence was sub-optimal; therefore, secondary post-hoc complier average causal effects (CACE) analysis was conducted to determine the potential effectiveness of adequately dosed exercise. The STimulant use Reduction Intervention using Dosed Exercise study was a randomized controlled trial comparing a 12 kcal/kg/week (KKW) exercise dose versus a health education control conducted at nine residential substance use treatment settings across the U.S. that are affiliated with the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network. Participants were sedentary but medically approved for exercise, used stimulants within 30 days prior to study entry, and received a DSM-IV stimulant abuse or dependence diagnosis within the past year. A CACE analysis adjusted to include only participants with a minimum threshold of adherence (at least 8.3 KKW) and using a negative-binomial hurdle model focused on 218 participants who were 36.2% female, mean age 39.4 years ( SD =11.1), and averaged 13.0 ( SD =9.2) stimulant use days in the 30 days before residential treatment. The outcome was days of stimulant use as assessed by the self-reported TimeLine Follow Back and urine drug screen results. The CACE-adjusted analysis found a significantly lower probability of relapse to stimulant use in the exercise group versus the health education group (41.0% vs. 55.7%, p <.01) and significantly lower days of stimulant use among those who relapsed (5.0 days vs. 9.9 days, p <.01). The CACE adjustment revealed significant, positive effects for exercise. Further research is warranted to develop strategies for exercise adherence that can ensure achievement of an exercise dose sufficient to produce a significant treatment effect.

  16. [Rhabdomyolysis in a well-trained woman after unusually intense exercise].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Christian; Jensen, Mogens Pfeiffer

    2014-06-16

    A 35-year-old woman was acutely hospitalized with oedema of the upper limbs, reduced force, severe movement reduction and muscle pain in both upper extremities. Her symptoms started after three days of intense exercise doing kayaking and a lot of pull-ups in crossfit. Rhabdomyolysis is a syndrome, characterized by muscle necrosis. Usually there is a marked elevation of creatine kinase (CK) concentration with symptoms as described and myoglobinuria (dark coloured urine). After hard muscular work there will often be asymptomatic, but significant elevations in CK concentration, and in rare cases life-threatening rhabdomyolysis with electrolyte imbalances and acute kidney failure.

  17. Hatha Yoga Practices: Energy Expenditure, Respiratory Changes and Intensity of Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Uday Sankar; Pathak, Anjana; Tomer, Omveer Singh

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to critically observe the energy expenditure, exercise intensity and respiratory changes during a full yoga practice session. Oxygen consumption (V˙O2), carbon dioxide output (V˙CO2), pulmonary ventilation (V˙E), respiratory rate (Fr) and tidal volume (VT), were measured in 16 physical posture (asanas), five yoga breathing maneuvers (BM) and two types of meditation. Twenty male (age 27.3 ± 3.5 years, height 166.6 ± 5.4 cm and body weight 58.8 ± 9.6 kg) yoga instructors were studied. Their maximal oxygen consumption (V˙O2max) was recorded. The exercise intensity in asanas was expressed in percentage V˙O2max . In asanas, exercise intensity varied from 9.9 to 26.5% of V˙O2max . Highest energy cost was 3.02 kcal min−1. In BM highest V˙E was 53.7 ± 15.5 l min−1. VT was 0.97 ± 0.59, 1.41 ± 1.27 and 1.28 ± l/breath with corresponding Fr of 14.0 ± 5.3, 10.0 ± 6.35, 10.0 ± 5.8 breaths/min. Average energy expenditure in asanas, BM and meditation were 2.29, 1.91 and 1.37 kcal min−1, respectively. Metabolic rate was generally in the range of 1-2 metabolic equivalents (MET) except in three asanas where it was >2 MET. V˙O2 was 0.27 ± 0.05 and 0.24 ± 0.04 l min−1 in meditation and Shavasana, respectively. Although yogic practices are low intensity exercises within lactate threshold, physical performance improvement is possible owing to both better economy of breathing by BM and also by improvement in cardiovascular reserve. Other factors such as psycho-physiological and better relaxation may contribute to it. PMID:21799675

  18. Muscle performance following an acute bout of plyometric training combined with low or high intensity weight exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beneka, Anastasia G; Malliou, Paraskevi K; Missailidou, Victoria; Chatzinikolaou, Athanasios; Fatouros, Ioannis; Gourgoulis, Vassilios; Georgiadis, Elias

    2013-01-01

    To determine the time course of performance responses after an acute bout of plyometric exercise combined with high and low intensity weight training, a 3-group (including a control group), repeated-measures design was employed. Changes in performance were monitored through jumping ability by measuring countermovement and squat jumping, and strength performance assessment through isometric and isokinetic testing of knee extensors (at two different velocities). Participants in both experimental groups performed a plyometric protocol consisting of 50 jumps over 50 cm hurdles and 50 drop jumps from a 50 cm plyometric box. Additionally, each group performed two basic weight exercises consisting of leg presses and leg extensions at 90-95% of maximum muscle strength for the high intensity group and 60% of maximum muscle strength for the low intensity group. The results of the study suggest that an acute bout of intense plyometric exercise combined with weight exercise induces time-dependent changes in performance, which are also dependent on the nature of exercise protocol and testing procedures. In conclusion, acute plyometric exercise with weight exercise may induce a substantial decline in jumping performance for as long as 72 hours but not in other forms of muscle strength.

  19. Influence of priming exercise on pulmonary O2 uptake kinetics during transitions to high-intensity exercise from an elevated baseline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiMenna, Fred J; Wilkerson, Daryl P; Burnley, Mark; Jones, Andrew M

    2008-08-01

    It has been suggested that the slower O2 uptake (VO2) kinetics observed when exercise is initiated from an elevated baseline metabolic rate are linked to an impairment of muscle O2 delivery. We hypothesized that "priming" exercise would significantly reduce the phase II time constant (tau) during subsequent severe-intensity cycle exercise initiated from an elevated baseline metabolic rate. Seven healthy men completed exercise transitions to 70% of the difference between gas exchange threshold (GET) and peak VO2 from a moderate-intensity baseline (90% GET) on three occasions in each of the "unprimed" and "primed" conditions. Pulmonary gas exchange, heart rate, and the electromyogram of m. vastus lateralis were measured during all tests. The phase II VO2 kinetics were slower when severe exercise was initiated from a baseline of moderate exercise compared with unloaded pedaling (mean+/-SD tau, 42+/-15 vs. 33+/-8 s; P0.05). The amplitude of the VO2 slow component and the change in electromyogram from minutes 2 to 6 were both significantly reduced following priming exercise (VO2 slow component: from 0.47+/-0.09 to 0.27+/-0.13 l/min; change in integrated electromyogram between 2 and 6 min: from 51+/-35 to 26+/-43% of baseline; Pchanges in muscle fiber activation.

  20. Global Metabolic Stress of Isoeffort Continuous and High Intensity Interval Aerobic Exercise: A Comparative 1H NMR Metabonomic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafeiridis, Andreas; Chatziioannou, Anastasia Chrysovalantou; Sarivasiliou, Haralambos; Kyparos, Antonios; Nikolaidis, Michalis G; Vrabas, Ioannis S; Pechlivanis, Alexandros; Zoumpoulakis, Panagiotis; Baskakis, Constantinos; Dipla, Konstantina; Theodoridis, Georgios A

    2016-12-02

    The overall metabolic/energetic stress that occurs during an acute bout of exercise is proposed to be the main driving force for long-term training adaptations. Continuous and high-intensity interval exercise protocols (HIIE) are currently prescribed to acquire the muscular and metabolic benefits of aerobic training. We applied 1 H NMR-based metabonomics to compare the overall metabolic perturbation and activation of individual bioenergetic pathways of three popular aerobic exercises matched for effort/strain. Nine men performed continuous, long-interval (3 min), and short-interval (30 s) bouts of exercise under isoeffort conditions. Blood was collected before and after exercise. The multivariate PCA and OPLS-DA models showed a distinct separation of pre- and postexercise samples in three protocols. The two models did not discriminate the postexercise overall metabolic profiles of the three exercise types. Analysis focused on muscle bioenergetic pathways revealed an extensive upregulation of carbohydrate-lipid metabolism and the TCA cycle in all three protocols; there were only a few differences among protocols in the postexercise abundance of molecules when long-interval bouts were performed. In conclusion, continuous and HIIE exercise protocols, when performed with similar effort/strain, induce comparable global metabolic response/stress despite their marked differences in work-bout intensities. This study highlights the importance of NMR metabonomics in comprehensive monitoring of metabolic consequences of exercise training in the blood of athletes and exercising individuals.

  1. Exercise-Based Interventions for Injury Prevention in Tackle Collision Ball Sports: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewry, Nicola; Verhagen, Evert; Lambert, Mike; van Mechelen, Willem; Viljoen, Wayne; Readhead, Clint; Brown, James

    2017-09-01

    The injury burden in collision sports is relatively high compared to other team sports. Therefore, participants in these sports would benefit by having effective injury prevention programs. Exercise-based interventions have successfully reduced injuries in soccer, but evidence on exercise-based interventions in tackle collision sports is limited. The objective of this review is to systematically examine the evidence of exercise-based intervention programs reducing injuries in tackle collision sports. PubMed, EBSCOHost, and Web of Science were searched for articles published between January 1995 and December 2015. The methodological quality was assessed using an adapted Cochrane Bone Joint and Muscle Trauma Group quality assessment tool. The inclusion criteria were (1) (randomized) control trials and observational studies; (2) sporting codes: American, Australian and Gaelic Football, rugby union, and rugby league; (3) participants of any age or sex; (4) exercise-based, prehabilitative intervention; and (5) primary outcome was injury rate or incidence (injury risk). The exclusion criteria were (1) unavailability of full-text; and (2) article unavailable in English. Nine studies with a total of 3517 participants were included in this review. Seven of these studies showed a significant decrease in injury risk. These studies included three sporting codes and various age groups, making it difficult to make inferences. The two highest methodological quality studies found no effect of an exercise-based intervention on injury risk. There is evidence that exercise-based injury preventions can be beneficial in reducing injury risk in collision sports, but more studies of high methodological quality are required.

  2. The effect of exercise intensity and excess postexercise oxygen consumption on postprandial blood lipids in physically inactive men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littlefield, Laurel A; Papadakis, Zacharias; Rogers, Katie M; Moncada-Jiménez, José; Taylor, J Kyle; Grandjean, Peter W

    2017-09-01

    Reductions in postprandial lipemia have been observed following aerobic exercise of sufficient energy expenditure. Increased excess postexercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) has been documented when comparing high- versus low-intensity exercise. The contribution of EPOC energy expenditure to alterations in postprandial lipemia has not been determined. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of low- and high-intensity exercise on postprandial lipemia in healthy, sedentary, overweight and obese men (age, 43 ± 10 years; peak oxygen consumption, 31.1 ± 7.5 mL·kg -1 ·min -1 ; body mass index, 31.8 ± 4.5 kg/m 2 ) and to determine the contribution of EPOC to reductions in postprandial lipemia. Participants completed 4 conditions: nonexercise control, low-intensity exercise at 40%-50% oxygen uptake reserve (LI), high-intensity exercise at 70%-80% oxygen uptake reserve (HI), and HI plus EPOC re-feeding (HI+EERM), where the difference in EPOC energy expenditure between LI and HI was re-fed in the form of a sports nutrition bar (Premier Nutrition Corp., Emeryville, Calif., USA). Two hours following exercise participants ingested a high-fat (1010 kcals, 99 g sat fat) test meal. Blood samples were obtained before exercise, before the test meal, and at 2, 4, and 6 h postprandially. Triglyceride incremental area under the curve was significantly reduced following LI, HI, and HI+EERM when compared with nonexercise control (p exercise conditions (p > 0.05). In conclusions, prior LI and HI exercise equally attenuated postprandial triglyceride responses to the test meal. The extra energy expended during EPOC does not contribute significantly to exercise energy expenditure or to reductions in postprandial lipemia in overweight men.

  3. Effects of a High-Intensity Functional Exercise Program on Dependence in Activities of Daily Living and Balance in Older Adults with Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toots, Annika; Littbrand, Håkan; Lindelöf, Nina; Wiklund, Robert; Holmberg, Henrik; Nordström, Peter; Lundin-Olsson, Lillemor; Gustafson, Yngve; Rosendahl, Erik

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the effects of a high-intensity functional exercise program on independence in activities of daily living (ADLs) and balance in older people with dementia and whether exercise effects differed between dementia types. Cluster-randomized controlled trial: Umeå Dementia and Exercise (UMDEX) study. Residential care facilities, Umeå, Sweden. Individuals aged 65 and older with a dementia diagnosis, a Mini-Mental State Examination score of 10 or greater, and dependence in ADLs (N=186). Ninety-three participants each were allocated to the high-intensity functional exercise program, comprising lower limb strength and balance exercises, and 93 to a seated control activity. Blinded assessors measured ADL independence using the Functional Independence Measure (FIM) and Barthel Index (BI) and balance using the Berg Balance Scale (BBS) at baseline and 4 (directly after intervention completion) and 7 months. Linear mixed models showed no between-group effect on ADL independence at 4 (FIM=1.3, 95% confidence interval (CI)=-1.6-4.3; BI=0.6, 95% CI=-0.2-1.4) or 7 (FIM=0.8, 95% CI=-2.2-3.8; BI=0.6, 95% CI=-0.3-1.4) months. A significant between-group effect on balance favoring exercise was observed at 4 months (BBS=4.2, 95% CI=1.8-6.6). In interaction analyses, exercise effects differed significantly between dementia types. Positive between-group exercise effects were found in participants with non-Alzheimer's dementia according to the FIM at 7 months and BI and BBS at 4 and 7 months. In older people with mild to moderate dementia living in residential care facilities, a 4-month high-intensity functional exercise program appears to slow decline in ADL independence and improve balance, albeit only in participants with non-Alzheimer's dementia. © 2016 The Authors. The Journal of the American Geriatrics Society published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The American Geriatrics Society.

  4. Effects of High-Intensity Blood Flow Restriction Exercise on Muscle Fatigue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neto Gabriel R.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Strength training combined with blood flow restriction (BFR have been used to improve the levels of muscle adaptation. The aim of this paper was to investigate the acute effect of high intensity squats with and without blood flow restriction on muscular fatigue levels. Twelve athletes (aged 25.95 ± 0.84 years were randomized into two groups: without Blood Flow Restriction (NFR, n = 6 and With Blood Flow Restriction (WFR, n = 6 that performed a series of free weight squats with 80% 1-RM until concentric failure. The strength of the quadriceps extensors was assessed in a maximum voluntary isometric contraction integrated to signals from the surface electromyogram. The average frequency showed significant reductions in the WFR group for the vastus lateralis and vastus medialis muscles, and intergroup only for the vastus medialis. In conclusion, a set of squats at high intensity with BFR could compromise muscle strength immediately after exercise, however, differences were not significant between groups.

  5. The effect of exercise and lifestyle interventions on heart rate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to determine if indicators of HRV can be used to identify moderate risk of cardiovascular disease and to compare the influence of different lifestyle interventions in a student population. This was a double blind, randomised, prospective, pre-test, post-test group comparison. Thirty-seven university ...

  6. Intensive lifestyle intervention including high-intensity interval training program improves insulin resistance and fasting plasma glucose in obese patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Marquis-Gravel

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Following a 9-month intensive lifestyle intervention combining HIIT and MedD counseling, obese subjects experienced significant improvements of FPG and insulin resistance. This is the first study to expose the effects of a long-term program combining HIIT and MedD on glycemic control parameters among obese subjects.

  7. Very Low Volume High-Intensity Interval Exercise Is More Effective in Young Than Old Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raulas Krusnauskas

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the acute neuromuscular and stress responses to three different high-intensity interval training sessions in young (age 19.5±1.3 years and older (age 65.7±2.8 years women. Cycling exercise comprised either 6 × 5 s or 3 × 30 s all-out, or 3 × 60 s submaximal, efforts each performed 5 weeks apart in randomized order. Peak and average power was higher in young than in older women and was largest during the 6 × 5 s strategy in both groups (p<0.05. The decrease in the ratio of torques evoked by 20 and 100 Hz electrical stimulation, representing low-frequency fatigue, was more evident after the 3 × 30 and 3 × 60 s than the 6 × 5 s bout in both groups and was larger in young than in older women (p<0.05. Both groups preferred 6 × 5 s cycling for further training. In conclusion, in young women, very low volume (6 × 5 s all-out exercise induces significant physiological stress and seems to be an effective means of training. For older women, longer exercise sessions (3 × 60 s are more stressful than shorter ones but are still tolerable psychologically.

  8. Exercise intensities during a ballet lesson in female adolescents with different technical ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidetti, L; Gallotta, M C; Emerenziani, G P; Baldari, C

    2007-09-01

    To investigate the exercise intensity during a typical grade five ballet lesson, thirty-nine dancers (13 - 16 yrs) were divided into three different technical proficiency groups: low level (n = 13), intermediate level (n = 14), and high level (n = 12). A progressively incremented treadmill test was administered to determine VO(2max), individual ventilatory threshold (IVT), and the individual anaerobic threshold (IAT). Oxygen uptake (VO(2)), heart rate (HR) and blood lactate (La) were then evaluated during a grade five ballet lesson. Oxygen uptake at IVT, IAT and maximal oxygen uptake were greater (p ballet lesson were similar among groups. During the ballet lesson, low technical level dancers had more V.O (2) and La values above (p < 0.05) the IAT than the other groups. Correlation analysis revealed that the number of exercises performed above IAT was positively related to anthropometric characteristics (BMI, %FM; r = 0.36, p < 0.05; r = 0.46, p < 0.01), negatively related to fitness parameters (VO(2IVT), VO(2IAT), VO(2max); r between - 0.43 and - 0.69; p < 0.001) and to technical level (r = - 0.70; p < 0.001). The subjects classified as having low technical abilities had lower fitness levels and performed more exercises above IAT than the more skilled dancers.

  9. Pharmacological interventions for delirium in intensive care patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barbateskovic, Marija; Larsen, Laura Krone; Oxenbøll-Collet, Marie

    2016-01-01

    for the management and prevention of delirium in ICU patients. The conclusions of the reviews showed conflicting results. Despite this unclear evidence, antipsychotics, in particular, haloperidol is often the recommended pharmacological intervention for delirium in ICU patients. The objective of this overview...

  10. The Experience of Intense Pain: Nursing Management and Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiser-Larson, Norma

    Personal stories of illness give depth to otherwise clinical descriptions of diagnoses. This article offers an autobiographical narrative of complications after total knee replacement surgery. Diagnosis and nursing management of acute compartment syndrome, nociceptive and neuropathic origins of pain, pharmacologic and nursing interventions for pain, the use of prayer in illness, and compassionate caring from a Christian perspective are discussed.

  11. Effects of physical exercise interventions in frail older adults: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials

    OpenAIRE

    de Labra, Carmen; Guimaraes-Pinheiro, Christyanne; Maseda, Ana; Lorenzo, Trinidad; Mill?n-Calenti, Jos? C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Low physical activity has been shown to be one of the most common components of frailty, and interventions have been considered to prevent or reverse this syndrome. The purpose of this systematic review of randomized, controlled trials is to examine the exercise interventions to manage frailty in older people. Methods The PubMed, Web of Science, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases were searched using specific keywords and Medical Subject Headings for random...

  12. Effect of different exercise intensities on the pancreas of animals with metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amaral F

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Fernanda Amaral,1 Nathalia EA Lima,1 Elisabete Ornelas,1 Lucila Simardi,2 Fernando Luiz Affonso Fonseca,2,3 Laura Beatriz Mesiano Maifrino1,4 1Laboratório de Estudos Morfoquantitativo e Imunohistoquímico, Universidade São Judas Tadeu, São Paulo, Brazil; 2Faculdade de Medicina do ABC, Santo André, São Paulo, Brazil; 3Departamento de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; 4Instituto Dante Pazzanese de Cardiologia, São Paulo, Brazil Introduction: Metabolic syndrome (MS comprises several metabolic disorders that are risk factors for cardiovascular disease and has its source connected to the accumulation of visceral adipose tissue (VAT and development of insulin resistance. Despite studies showing beneficial results of exercise on several risk factors for cardiovascular disease, studies evaluating the effects of different intensities of exercise training on the pancreas with experimental models are scarce. Methods: In total, 20 Wistar rats were used, divided into four groups: control (C, metabolic syndrome (MS and without exercise, metabolic syndrome and practice of walking (MSWalk, and metabolic syndrome and practice of running (MSRun. The applied procedures were induction of MS by fructose in drinking water; experimental protocol of walking and running; weighing of body mass and VAT; sacrifice of animals with blood collection and removal of organs and processing of samples for light microscopy using the analysis of volume densities (Vv of the studied structures. Results: Running showed a reduction of VAT weight (–54%, triglyceride levels (–40%, Vv[islet] (–62%, Vv[islet.cells] (–22%, Vv[islet.insterstitial] (–44%, and Vv[acinar.insterstitial] (–24% and an increase of Vv[acini] (+21% and Vv[acinar.cells] (+22%. Regarding walking, we observed a decrease of VAT weight (–34% and triglyceride levels (–27%, an increase of Vv[islet.cells] (+72% and Vv[acinar.cells] (+7%, and a decrease of Vv

  13. Low-intensity aerobic exercise training: inhibition of skeletal muscle atrophy in high-fat-diet-induced ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye Jin; Lee, Won Jun

    2017-09-30

    Postmenopausal women are highly susceptible to diseases, such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, osteoporosis, or skeletal muscle atrophy and many people recognize the need for regular physical activity. Aerobic exercise training is known to improve the oxidative capacity and insulin sensitivity of skeletal muscles. This study aimed to investigate the role of low-intensity aerobic exercise training on skeletal muscle protein degradation or synthesis in the plantaris muscles of high-fat-fed ovariectomized rats. Ovariectomized female rats were divided into two groups: a high-fat diet-sedentary group (HFD), and a high-fat diet-aerobic exercise group (HFD+EX). The exercise group exercised aerobically on a treadmill 5 days/week for 8 weeks. The rats progressively ran 30 min/day at 15 m/min, up to 40 min/day at 18 m/min, 0% slope, in the last 4 weeks. Although aerobic exercise led to significantly increased AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation at Thr172, phosphorylation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) substrate Thr389 S6K1 level did not decrease. Additionally, even though Akt activity did not increase at Ser473, the atrogin-1 level significantly decreased in the exercise group compared to the non-exercise group. Immunohistochemical staining revealed that high-fat-induced TSC2 protein expression was eliminated in response to aerobic exercise. These results suggest that aerobic exercise can inhibit skeletal muscle protein degradation, but it cannot increase protein synthesis in the plantaris muscle of high-fat-fed ovariectomized rats. Our findings have implications in understanding skeletal muscle mass maintenance with low intensity aerobic exercise in post-menopausal women. ©2017 The Korean Society for Exercise Nutrition

  14. Pacing Profiles in Competitive Track Races: Regulation of Exercise Intensity is related to Cognitive Ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debbie Van Biesen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Pacing has been defined as the goal-directed regulation of exercise intensity over an exercise bout, in which athletes need to decide how and when to invest their energy. The purpose of this study was to explore if the regulation of exercise intensity during competitive track races is different between runners with and without intellectual impairment, which is characterized by significant limitations in intellectual functioning (IQ≤75 and adaptive behavioral deficits, diagnosed before the age of 18. The samples included elite runners with intellectual impairment (N= 36 and a comparison group of world class runners without impairment (N= 39, of which 47 were 400m runners (all male and 28 were 1500m-runners (15 male and 13 female. Pacing was analysed by means of 100m split times (for 400m races and 200m split times (for 1500m races. Based on the split times, the average velocity was calculated for four segments of the races. Velocity fluctuations were defined as the differences in velocity between consecutive race segments. A mixed model ANOVA revealed significant differences in pacing profiles between runners with and without intellectual impairment (p<.05. Maximal velocity of elite 400m runners with intellectual impairment in the first race segment (7.9 ± 0.3 m/s was well below the top-velocity reached by world level 400m runners without intellectual impairment (8.9 ±0.2 m/s, and their overall pace was slower (F=120.7, p<.05. In addition, both groups followed a different pacing profile and inter-individual differences in pacing profiles were larger, with differences most pronounced for 1500m races. Whereas male 1500m-runners without intellectual impairment reached a high velocity in the first 100m (7.2±0.1 m/s, slowly decelerated in the second race segment (-0.6±0.1 m/s, and finished with an end sprint (+0.9±0.1 m/s; the 1500m runners with intellectual impairment started slower (6.1±0.3 m/s, accelerated in the second segment (+ 0.2±0

  15. Metabolic responses to high protein diet in Korean elite bodybuilders with high-intensity resistance exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choue Ryowon

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High protein diet has been known to cause metabolic acidosis, which is manifested by increased urinary excretion of nitrogen and calcium. Bodybuilders habitually consumed excessive dietary protein over the amounts recommended for them to promote muscle mass accretion. This study investigated the metabolic response to high protein consumption in the elite bodybuilders. Methods Eight elite Korean bodybuilders within the age from 18 to 25, mean age 21.5 ± 2.6. For data collection, anthropometry, blood and urinary analysis, and dietary assessment were conducted. Results They consumed large amounts of protein (4.3 ± 1.2 g/kg BW/day and calories (5,621.7 ± 1,354.7 kcal/day, as well as more than the recommended amounts of vitamins and minerals, including potassium and calcium. Serum creatinine (1.3 ± 0.1 mg/dl and potassium (5.9 ± 0.8 mmol/L, and urinary urea nitrogen (24.7 ± 9.5 mg/dl and creatinine (2.3 ± 0.7 mg/dl were observed to be higher than the normal reference ranges. Urinary calcium (0.3 ± 0.1 mg/dl, and phosphorus (1.3 ± 0.4 mg/dl were on the border of upper limit of the reference range and the urine pH was in normal range. Conclusions Increased urinary excretion of urea nitrogen and creatinine might be due to the high rates of protein metabolism that follow high protein intake and muscle turnover. The obvious evidence of metabolic acidosis in response to high protein diet in the subjects with high potassium intake and intensive resistance exercise were not shown in this study results. However, this study implied that resistance exercise with adequate mineral supplementation, such as potassium and calcium, could reduce or offset the negative effects of protein-generated metabolic changes. This study provides preliminary information of metabolic response to high protein intake in bodybuilders who engaged in high-intensity resistance exercise. Further studies will be needed to determine the effects of the intensity

  16. Group cohesion and social support in exercise classes: results from a danish intervention study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ulla; Schmidt, Lone; Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the formation of group cohesion and social support in exercise classes among former sedentary adults, participating in a Danish community-based intervention. Furthermore, the aim is to analyze the impact of this process on exercise activity among the participants. A multimethod...... approach was used, analyzing both survey data and 18 personal interviews collected among 87 participants who completed the intervention project. Analysis was performed according to the grounded theory method. The formation of group cohesion was conditioned by the social composition of the group......, the teaching ability by the instructors, and the activity by itself. The cohesive group was characterized by an attitude of mutual support toward exercise activities. This mutual support facilitated development of self-efficacy beliefs among the participants improving their mastery expectation regarding...

  17. Isometric strength training lowers the O2 cost of cycling during moderate-intensity exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoladz, Jerzy A; Szkutnik, Zbigniew; Majerczak, Joanna; Grandys, Marcin; Duda, Krzysztof; Grassi, Bruno

    2012-12-01

    The effect of maximal voluntary isometric strength training of knee extensor muscles on pulmonary V'O(2) on-kinetics, the O(2) cost of cycling and peak oxygen uptake (V'O(2peak)) in humans was studied. Seven healthy males (mean ± SD, age 22.3 ± 2.0 years, body weight 75.0 ± 9.2 kg, V'O(2peak) 49.5 ± 3.8 ml kg(-1) min(-1)) performed maximal isometric strength training lasting 7 weeks (4 sessions per week). Force during maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) increased by 15 % (P Strength training resulted in a significant decrease (by ~7 %; P Isometric strength training rapidly (i.e., after 1 week) decreases the O(2) cost of cycling during moderate-intensity exercise, whereas it does not affect the amplitude of the slow component of the V'O(2) on-kinetics during heavy-intensity exercise. Isometric strength training can have beneficial effects on performance during endurance events.

  18. Adherence to yoga and exercise interventions in a 6-month clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haas M

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine factors that predict adherence to a mind-body intervention in a randomized trial. Design We analyzed adherence data from a 3-arm trial involving 135 generally healthy seniors 65–85 years of age randomized to a 6-month intervention consisting of: an Iyengar yoga class with home practice, an exercise class with home practice, or a wait-list control group. Outcome measures included cognitive function, mood, fatigue, anxiety, health-related quality of life, and physical measures. Adherence to the intervention was obtained by class attendance and biweekly home practice logs. Results The drop-out rate was 13%. Among the completers of the two active interventions, average yoga class attendance was 77% and home practice occurred 64% of all days. Average exercise class attendance was 69% and home exercise occurred 54% of all days. There were no clear effects of adherence on the significant study outcomes (quality of life and physical measures. Class attendance was significantly correlated with baseline measures of depression, fatigue, and physical components of health-related quality of life. Significant differences in baseline measures were also found between study completers and drop-outs in the active interventions. Adherence was not related to age, gender, or education level. Conclusion Healthy seniors have good attendance at classes with a physically active intervention. Home practice takes place over half of the time. Decreased adherence to a potentially beneficial intervention has the potential to decrease the effect of the intervention in a clinical trial because subjects who might sustain the greatest benefit will receive a lower dose of the intervention and subjects with higher adherence rates may be functioning closer to maximum ability before the intervention. Strategies to maximize adherence among subjects at greater risk for low adherence will be important for future trials, especially complementary

  19. Long-term effects of a weight loss intervention with or without exercise component in postmenopausal women : A randomized trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Roon, Martijn; van Gemert, Willemijn A; Peeters, Petra H; Schuit, A.J.; Monninkhof, Evelyn M

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the long-term effects of a weight loss intervention with or without an exercise component on body weight and physical activity. Women were randomized to diet (n = 97) or exercise (N = 98) for 16 weeks. During the intervention, both groups had achieved the set

  20. Determination of strength exercise intensities based on the load-power-velocity relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandačka, Daniel; Beremlijski, Petr

    2011-06-01

    The velocity of movement and applied load affect the production of mechanical power output and subsequently the extent of the adaptation stimulus in strength exercises. We do not know of any known function describing the relationship of power and velocity and load in the bench press exercise. The objective of the study is to find a function modeling of the relationship of relative velocity, relative load and mechanical power output for the bench press exercise and to determine the intensity zones of the exercise for specifically focused strength training of soccer players. Fifteen highly trained soccer players at the start of a competition period were studied. The subjects of study performed bench presses with the load of 0, 10, 30, 50, 70 and 90% of the predetermined one repetition maximum with maximum possible speed of movement. The mean measured power and velocity for each load (kg) were used to develop a multiple linear regression function which describes the quadratic relationship between the ratio of power (W) to maximum power (W) and the ratios of the load (kg) to one repetition maximum (kg) and the velocity (m•s(-1)) to maximal velocity (m•s(-1)). The quadratic function of two variables that modeled the searched relationship explained 74% of measured values in the acceleration phase and 75% of measured values from the entire extent of the positive power movement in the lift. The optimal load for reaching maximum power output suitable for the dynamics effort strength training was 40% of one repetition maximum, while the optimal mean velocity would be 75% of maximal velocity. Moreover, four zones: maximum power, maximum velocity, velocity-power and strength-power were determined on the basis of the regression function.

  1. High-intensity intermittent exercise and its effects on heart rate variability and subsequent strength performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Leme Gonçalves Panissa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available PRUPOSE: To investigate the effects of a 5-km high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE on heart rate variability (HRV and subsequent strength performance. METHODS: nine trained males performed a control session composed of a half-squat strength exercise (4 x 80% of one repetition maximum – 1RM in isolation and 30-min, 1-, 4-, 8- and 24-h after an HIIE (1-min at the velocity peak:1-min passive recovery. All experimental sessions were performed on different days. The maximum number of repetitions and total weight lifted during the strength exercise were registered in all conditions; in addition, prior to each session, HRV were assessed [beat-to-beat intervals (RR and log-transformed of root means square of successive differences in the normal-to-normal intervals (lnRMSSD]. RESULTS: Performance in the strength exercise dropped at 30-min (31% and 1-h (19% post-HIIE concomitantly with lower values of RR (781±79 ms; 799±134 ms, respectively in the same recovery intervals compared to the control (1015±197 ms. Inferential analysis did not detect any effect of condition on lnRMSSD, however, values were lower after 30-min (3.5±0.4 ms and 1-h (3.3±0.5 ms with moderate and large effect sizes (0.9 and 1.2, respectively compared with the control condition (3.9±0.4 ms. CONCLUSION: Both RR and lnRMSSD seem to be associated with deleterious effects on strength performance, although further studies should be conducted to clarify this association.

  2. Feasibility of an inpatient exercise intervention for children undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogg, Tina Fung Ting; Broderick, Carolyn; Shaw, Peter; Cohn, Richard; Naumann, Fiona Leigh

    2015-12-01

    With improving survival rates following HSCT in children, QOL and management of short- and long-term effects need to be considered. Exercise may help mitigate fatigue and declines in fitness and strength. The aims of this study were to assess the feasibility of an inpatient exercise intervention for children undergoing HSCT and observe the changes in physical and psychological health. Fourteen patients were recruited, mean age 10 yr. A 6MWT, isometric upper and lower body strength, balance, fatigue, and QOL were assessed prior to Tx and six wk post-Tx. A supervised exercise program was offered five days per week during the inpatient period and feasibility assessed through uptake rate. The study had 100% program completion and 60% uptake rate of exercise sessions. The mean (± s.d.) weekly activity was 117.5 (± 79.3) minutes. Younger children performed significantly more minutes of exercise than adolescents. At reassessment, strength and fatigue were stabilized while aerobic fitness and balance decreased. QOL revealed a non-statistical trend towards improvement. No exercise-related adverse events were reported. A supervised inpatient exercise program is safe and feasible, with potential physiological and psychosocial benefits. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. The 'Critical Power' Concept: Applications to Sports Performance with a Focus on Intermittent High-Intensity Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Andrew M; Vanhatalo, Anni

    2017-03-01

    The curvilinear relationship between power output and the time for which it can be sustained is a fundamental and well-known feature of high-intensity exercise performance. This relationship 'levels off' at a 'critical power' (CP) that separates power outputs that can be sustained with stable values of, for example, muscle phosphocreatine, blood lactate, and pulmonary oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]), from power outputs where these variables change continuously with time until their respective minimum and maximum values are reached and exercise intolerance occurs. The amount of work that can be done during exercise above CP (the so-called W') is constant but may be utilized at different rates depending on the proximity of the exercise power output to CP. Traditionally, this two-parameter CP model has been employed to provide insights into physiological responses, fatigue mechanisms, and performance capacity during continuous constant power output exercise in discrete exercise intensity domains. However, many team sports (e.g., basketball, football, hockey, rugby) involve frequent changes in exercise intensity and, even in endurance sports (e.g., cycling, running), intensity may vary considerably with environmental/course conditions and pacing strategy. In recent years, the appeal of the CP concept has been broadened through its application to intermittent high-intensity exercise. With the assumptions that W' is utilized during work intervals above CP and reconstituted during recovery intervals below CP, it can be shown that performance during intermittent exercise is related to four factors: the intensity and duration of the work intervals and the intensity and duration of the recovery intervals. However, while the utilization of W' may be assumed to be linear, studies indicate that the reconstitution of W' may be curvilinear with kinetics that are highly variable between individuals. This has led to the development of a new CP model for intermittent exercise in

  4. The effect of an intensive exercise programme on leg function in chronic stroke patients: a pilot study with one-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Roland; Mork, Paul Jarle

    2009-09-01

    To investigate the effect of two weeks of intensive exercise on leg function in chronic stroke patients and to evaluate the feasibility of an intensive exercise programme in a group setting. Pilot study with one-group pre-test post-test design with two pre-tests and one-year follow-up. Inpatient rehabilitation hospital. Twelve hemiparetic patients completed the intervention. Ten patients participated at one-year follow-up. Six hours of daily intensive exercise for two weeks with focus on weight-shifting towards the affected side and increased use of the affected extremity during functional activities. An insole with nubs in the shoe of the non-paretic limb was used to reinforce weight-shift toward the affected side. Timed Up and Go, Four Square Step Test, gait velocity, gait symmetry and muscle strength in knee and ankle muscles. Maximal gait velocity (P = 0.002) and performance time (seconds) on Timed Up and Go (mean, SD; 12.2, 3.8 vs. 9.4, 3.2) and Four Square Step Test improved from pre- to post-test (P = 0.005). Improvements remained significant at follow-up. Preferred gait velocity and gait symmetry remained unchanged. Knee extensor (Pstroke patients. Most improvements persisted at the one-year follow-up.

  5. Biochemical changes in response to intensive resistance exercise training in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautmans, Ivan; Njemini, Rose; Vasseur, Sabine; Chabert, Hans; Moens, Lisa; Demanet, Christian; Mets, Tony

    2005-01-01

    It is assumed that low-grade inflammation, characterized by increased circulating IL-6 and TNF-alpha, is related to the development of sarcopenia. Physical exercise, especially high intensity resistance training, has been shown to be effective in restoring the strength deficit in the elderly. Intensive exercise is accompanied by significant release of IL-6 and TNF-alpha into the blood circulation, but does not result in muscle wasting. Exercise-induced changes in heat-shock protein (Hsp), responsible for cellular protection during stressful situations, might interfere with the acute phase reaction and muscle adaptation. To investigate if intensive strength training in elderly persons induces changes in Hsp70 expression, and if these changes are related to changes in the acute phase reaction or muscle adaptation. 31 elderly persons (aged 68.4+/-5.4 years) performed 6 weeks' intensive strength training. At baseline and after 6 weeks, muscle strength, functional performance (physical activity profile, 6-min walk, 30- second chair stand, grip strength, chair sit & reach and back scratch), linear isokinetic leg extension, circulating IL-6, TNF-alpha, IL-10 and TGF-beta, and Hsp70 in monocytes (M) and lymphocytes (L) immediately after sampling (IAS), after incubation at 37 and 42 degrees C were determined. In 12 participants, cytokines were determined in untrained and trained conditions before and after a single training session. After 6 weeks' training, muscle strength and functional performance improved significantly, together with decreased Hsp70 IAS and Hsp70 37 degrees C and increased Hsp70 42 degrees C (all p42 degrees C in M and L. In an untrained condition, training induced an increase of IL-6 (p<0.05) and a tendency of IL-10 to decrease (p=0.06). In a trained condition the decrease of IL-10 disappeared. Baseline physical activity and 6-min walk distance correlated negatively with circulating IL-6 (p<0.05); except for a negative correlation between TGF-beta and

  6. The influence of high intensity exercise and the Val66Met polymorphism on circulating BDNF and locomotor learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helm, Erin E; Matt, Kathleen S; Kirschner, Kenneth F; Pohlig, Ryan T; Kohl, Dave; Reisman, Darcy S

    2017-10-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been directly related to exercise-enhanced motor performance in the neurologically injured animal model; however literature concerning the role of BDNF in the enhancement of motor learning in the human population is limited. Previous studies in healthy subjects have examined the relationship between intensity of an acute bout of exercise, increases in peripheral BDNF and motor learning of a simple isometric upper extremity task. The current study examined the role of high intensity exercise on upregulation of peripheral BDNF levels as well as the role of high intensity exercise in mediation of motor learning and retention of a novel locomotor task in neurologically intact adults. In addition, the impact of a single nucleotide polymorphism in the BDNF gene (Val66Met) in moderating the relationship between exercise and motor learning was explored. It was hypothesized that participation in high intensity exercise prior to practicing a novel walking task (split-belt treadmill walking) would elicit increases in peripheral BDNF as well as promote an increased rate and magnitude of within session learning and retention on a second day of exposure to the walking task. Within session learning and retention would be moderated by the presence or absence of Val66Met polymorphism. Fifty-four neurologically intact participants participated in two sessions of split-belt treadmill walking. Step length and limb phase were measured to assess learning of spatial and temporal parameters of walking. Serum BDNF was collected prior to and immediately following either high intensity exercise or 5min of quiet rest. The results demonstrated that high intensity exercise provides limited additional benefit to learning of a novel locomotor pattern in neurologically intact adults, despite increases in circulating BDNF. In addition, presence of a single nucleotide polymorphism on the BDNF gene did not moderate the magnitude of serum BDNF increases

  7. Physical Activity, Exercise, And Nutrition Interventions For Weight Control In African American Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Asare

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper was to review the physical activity, exercise, and nutritionrelated weight control interventions done with African American women that were publishedbetween 2006 and 2010 and suggest ways of enhancing these interventions. A total of 13 studiesmet the inclusion criteria. The review found significant results with regard to impact ofintervention. Twelve of those studies revealed significant increase in physical activity and weightreduction behavior. In terms of use of theory in designing the interventions only five interventionsused a theory. In three of those cases social cognitive theory was used. Appropriate sample sizewas found to be the major strength of most of the interventions. Six interventions usedrandomized controlled design. Recommendations for enhancing the effectiveness of physicalactivity interventions in African American women are presented.

  8. Pharmacologic intervention as an alternative to exercise stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gould, K.L.

    1987-01-01

    Although thallium exercise imaging has served an important role in clinical cardiology, it is significantly limited by suboptimal sensitivity and specificity, particularly in asymptomatic man. The increasing recognition of silent myocardial ischemia, the significant prevalence of coronary artery disease in asymptomatic middle age men, and the frequent occurrence of myocardial infarction without preceding symptoms in 60% of cases emphasizes the need for a more definitive, noninvasive diagnostic test for the presence of coronary artery disease suitable for screening in asymptomatic or symptomatic patients. Intravenous dipyridamole combined with handgrip stress provides a potent stimulus for purposes of diagnostic perfusion imaging. Although planar and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging also have played an important role, these techniques are seriously hindered by their inability to quantitate radiotracer uptake or image modest differences in maximum relative flow caused by coronary artery stenosis. Accordingly, the combination of dipyridamole-handgrip stress with positron imaging of myocardial perfusion has become a powerful diagnostic tool suitable for routine clinical use. With the availability of generator-produced rubidium-82, dedicated clinically oriented positron cameras, the routine application of positron imaging to clinical cardiology has become feasible. 75 references

  9. Effect on 12-week Intensive Dietary and Exercise Program on Weight Reduction and Maintenance in Obese Women with Weight Cycling History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Ha Nui; Nam, Sang-Seok; Park, Yoo Kyoung

    2017-07-01

    This study examined the effect of 12-week intensive dietary and exercise intervention program on body composition and stress-related hormones in obese women and to examine the residual effect after the intervention. The participants of this study were 30 obese women who had a body mass index of over 25 kg/m 2 and over 30% in body fat. They were classified into 2 groups depending on the history of weight cycling (WC); the WC group (≥ ±5% of the original body weight) and the non-weight cycling (NWC) group. Both groups were subject to a nutritional intervention program every 2 weeks with a mandatory exercise intervention for 12 weeks. Thereafter, the nutrition/exercise interventions were ceased for 12 weeks, after which the participants' levels of the hormones relating to energy metabolism and stress, meal intakes, dietary habits, level of knowledge on sodium intake, frequency of sodium intake, and quality of life (QOL) were checked. The changes of body weight were 71.3 ± 5.5 kg (week 0) vs. 65.0 ± 6.6 kg (week 12) vs. 65.6 ± 7.1 kg (week 24) in WC group and 71.6 ± 8.6 kg (week 0) vs. 68.8 ± 9.7 kg (week 12) vs. 70.3 ± 9.4 kg (week 24) in the NWC group. The levels of hormones, meal intakes, and QOL scores were better in the WC group, as adherence to the nutritional intervention was higher. We suggest that that adherence to dietary habits heavily influences weight loss and maintenance in individuals who frequently attempt to lose weight and consequently go through a vicious cycle of weight recycling.

  10. Baker's yeast beta glucan supplementation increases salivary IgA and decreases cold/flu symptomatic days after intense exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarlin, Brian K; Carpenter, Katie C; Davidson, Tiffany; McFarlin, Meredith A

    2013-09-01

    Strenuous exercise, such as running a marathon, is known to suppress mucosal immunity for up to 24 hr, which can increase the risk of developing an upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) and reduced performance capacity (Allgrove JE, Geneen L, Latif S, Gleeson M. Influence of a fed or fasted state on the s-IgA response to prolonged cycling in active men and women. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2009;19(3):209-221; Barrett B, Locken K, Maberry R, Schwamman J, Brown R, Bobula J, Stauffacher EA. The Wisconsin Upper Respiratory Symptom Survey (WURSS): a new research instrument for assessing the common cold. J Fam Pract. 2002;51(3):265; Carpenter KC, Breslin WL, Davidson T, Adams A, McFarlin BK. Baker's yeast beta glucan supplementation increases monocytes and cytokines post-exercise: implications for infection risk? Br J Nutr. 2012;1-9). While many dietary interventions have been used to combat postexercise immune suppression, most have been ineffective. The key purpose of this study was to determine if baker's yeast β-glucan (BG) could positively affect the immune system of individuals undergoing intense exercise stress using two experiments. In the first (E1; N = 182 men and women), BG was compared to placebo supplementation for the incidence of URTI symptoms for 28 days postmarathon. In the second (E2; N = 60 men and women) changes in salivary immunoglobulin A (IgA) were evaluated after 50-min of strenuous cycling when participants had been supplemented for 10 days with either BG (250 mg/day) or placebo (rice flour). For E1, subjects reported URTI symptoms using a daily health log. For E2, saliva was collected prior to, immediately, and 2-hr postexercise using a salivette. Data for E1 and E2 were analyzed using separate analyses of variance (ANOVAs) with repeated measures (p flu symptom days postmarathon compared to placebo (p = .026). In E2, BG was associated with a 32% increase in salivary IgA (p = .048) at 2 hr after exercise compared to placebo. In summary

  11. Acute effects of resistance exercise and intermittent intense aerobic exercise on blood cell count and oxidative stress in trained middle-aged women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, A.M. [Departamento de Química, Centro de Ciências Naturais e Exatas, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Bagatini, M.D. [Curso de Enfermagem, Campus Chapecó, Universidade Federal da Fronteira Sul, Chapecó, SC (Brazil); Roth, M.A. [Departamento de Desportos Individuais, Centro de Educação Física e Desportos, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Martins, C.C.; Rezer, J.F.P. [Departamento de Química, Centro de Ciências Naturais e Exatas, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Mello, F.F. [Departamento de Desportos Individuais, Centro de Educação Física e Desportos, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Lopes, L.F.D. [Departamento de Administração, Centro de Ciências Sociais e Humanas, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Morsch, V.M.; Schetinger, M.R.C. [Departamento de Química, Centro de Ciências Naturais e Exatas, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil)

    2012-10-26

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of an intermittent intense aerobic exercise session and a resistance exercise session on blood cell counts and oxidative stress parameters in middle-aged women. Thirty-four women were selected and divided into three groups: RE group (performing 60 min of resistance exercises, N = 12), spinning group (performing 60 min of spinning, N = 12), and control group (not exercising regularly, N = 10). In both exercise groups, lymphocytes and monocytes decreased after 1-h recuperation (post-exercise) compared to immediately after exercise (P < 0.05). Immediately after exercise, in both exercised groups, a significant increase in TBARS (from 16.5 ± 2 to 25 ± 2 for the spinning group and from 18.6 ± 1 to 28.2 ± 3 nmol MDA/mL serum for the RE group) and protein carbonyl (from 1.0 ± 0.3 to 1.6 ± 0.2 for the spinning group and from 0.9 ± 0.2 to 1.5 ± 0.2 nmol/mg protein for the RE group) was observed (P < 0.05). A decrease in antioxidant activities (non-protein sulfhydryl, superoxide dismutase, catalase) was also demonstrated with a negative correlation between damage markers and antioxidant body defenses (P < 0.05). These results indicate that an acute bout of intermittent or anaerobic exercise induces immune suppression and increases the production of reactive oxygen species, causing oxidative stress in middle-aged and trained women. Furthermore, we demonstrated that trained women show improved antioxidant capacity and lower oxidative damage than sedentary ones, demonstrating the benefits of chronic regular physical activity.

  12. Acute effects of resistance exercise and intermittent intense aerobic exercise on blood cell count and oxidative stress in trained middle-aged women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Cardoso

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the effect of an intermittent intense aerobic exercise session and a resistance exercise session on blood cell counts and oxidative stress parameters in middle-aged women. Thirty-four women were selected and divided into three groups: RE group (performing 60 min of resistance exercises, N = 12, spinning group (performing 60 min of spinning, N = 12, and control group (not exercising regularly, N = 10. In both exercise groups, lymphocytes and monocytes decreased after 1-h recuperation (post-exercise compared to immediately after exercise (P < 0.05. Immediately after exercise, in both exercised groups, a significant increase in TBARS (from 16.5 ± 2 to 25 ± 2 for the spinning group and from 18.6 ± 1 to 28.2 ± 3 nmol MDA/mL serum for the RE group and protein carbonyl (from 1.0 ± 0.3 to 1.6 ± 0.2 for the spinning group and from 0.9 ± 0.2 to 1.5 ± 0.2 nmol/mg protein for the RE group was observed (P < 0.05. A decrease in antioxidant activities (non-protein sulfhydryl, superoxide dismutase, catalase was also demonstrated with a negative correlation between damage markers and antioxidant body defenses (P < 0.05. These results indicate that an acute bout of intermittent or anaerobic exercise induces immune suppression and increases the production of reactive oxygen species, causing oxidative stress in middle-aged and trained women. Furthermore, we demonstrated that trained women show improved antioxidant capacity and lower oxidative damage than sedentary ones, demonstrating the benefits of chronic regular physical activity.

  13. Acute effects of resistance exercise and intermittent intense aerobic exercise on blood cell count and oxidative stress in trained middle-aged women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso, A.M.; Bagatini, M.D.; Roth, M.A.; Martins, C.C.; Rezer, J.F.P.; Mello, F.F.; Lopes, L.F.D.; Morsch, V.M.; Schetinger, M.R.C.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of an intermittent intense aerobic exercise session and a resistance exercise session on blood cell counts and oxidative stress parameters in middle-aged women. Thirty-four women were selected and divided into three groups: RE group (performing 60 min of resistance exercises, N = 12), spinning group (performing 60 min of spinning, N = 12), and control group (not exercising regularly, N = 10). In both exercise groups, lymphocytes and monocytes decreased after 1-h recuperation (post-exercise) compared to immediately after exercise (P < 0.05). Immediately after exercise, in both exercised groups, a significant increase in TBARS (from 16.5 ± 2 to 25 ± 2 for the spinning group and from 18.6 ± 1 to 28.2 ± 3 nmol MDA/mL serum for the RE group) and protein carbonyl (from 1.0 ± 0.3 to 1.6 ± 0.2 for the spinning group and from 0.9 ± 0.2 to 1.5 ± 0.2 nmol/mg protein for the RE group) was observed (P < 0.05). A decrease in antioxidant activities (non-protein sulfhydryl, superoxide dismutase, catalase) was also demonstrated with a negative correlation between damage markers and antioxidant body defenses (P < 0.05). These results indicate that an acute bout of intermittent or anaerobic exercise induces immune suppression and increases the production of reactive oxygen species, causing oxidative stress in middle-aged and trained women. Furthermore, we demonstrated that trained women show improved antioxidant capacity and lower oxidative damage than sedentary ones, demonstrating the benefits of chronic regular physical activity

  14. Introducing a multifaceted exercise intervention particular to older adults diagnosed with Parkinson's disease: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, Corey A; Sanders, Gabriel J; Wilson, Kayla A; Fickes-Ryan, Emily J; Corbett, Duane B; von Carlowitz, Kyle-Patrick A; Ridgel, Angela L

    2014-08-01

    With a substantial increase in diagnosed Parkinson's disease, it is of great importance to examine tolerance and physical measures of evolving exercise interventions. Of particular importance, a multifaceted exercise intervention combining active-assisted cycling and resistance training to older adults diagnosed with Parkinson's disease is being assessed. Fourteen older adults diagnosed with Parkinson's disease and ten healthy older adults (67.5 ± 7.9 years of age) engaged in an 8-week, 24-session, multifaceted exercise protocol. The protocol consisted of both active-assisted cycling and resistance training. Tolerance was measured, as well as multiple indicators of health-related physical fitness. These indicators examined improvements in cardiovascular performance, muscular strength, muscular endurance, and flexibility. Twenty-two older adults and older adults diagnosed with Parkinson's disease tolerated the intervention by completing all 24 sessions. Repeated-measures analysis of variance demonstrated significant (P ≤ 0.003) improvements in cardiovascular performance, muscular strength, muscular endurance, and flexibility for both groups of individuals. The multifaceted intervention is the first to combine both active-assisted cycling and resistance training. The older adult and the older adult diagnosed with Parkinson's disease exhibited both tolerance and health-related improvements in physical fitness following the intervention.

  15. The impact of an exercise intervention on C - reactive protein during pregnancy: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Marquis; Braun, Barry; Marcus, Bess H; Stanek, Edward; Markenson, Glenn; Chasan-Taber, Lisa

    2015-06-24

    C-reactive protein (CRP) during pregnancy has been associated with adverse maternal outcomes such as preeclampsia and gestational diabetes mellitus. Randomized trials suggest that exercise programs may be associated with reductions in CRP in non-pregnant populations; however, such studies have not been conducted among pregnant women. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of an individually-tailored motivationally-matched exercise intervention on CRP in pregnant women. The Behaviors Affecting Baby and You study was a randomized controlled trial of prenatal physical activity to prevent the development of gestational diabetes mellitus in women at increased risk. Women were randomized to either a 12-week exercise intervention (n = 84) or a comparison health and wellness intervention (n = 87). High sensitivity CRP (mg/dL) was measured using a commercial immunoassay kit. Physical activity was measured using the Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire. Mixed model analyses were used to evaluate the impact of the intervention on change in CRP using an intent-to-treat approach. CRP decreased (-0.09 mg/dL, 95 % CI: -0.25, 0.07) from pre- to post-intervention in the exercise arm (p = 0.14) and increased (0.08 mg/dL, 95 % CI: -0.07, 0.24) (p = 0.64) in the health and wellness arm; however the between group difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.14). Findings did not differ according to ethnic group or pre-pregnancy body mass index. In a secondary analysis based on self-reported physical activity, women who decreased their time spent in sports/exercise experienced a mean increase in CRP (0.09 mg/dL, 95 % CI: -0.14, 0.33), whereas women who maintained or increased their sports/ exercise experienced a mean decrease in CRP (-0.08 mg/dL, 95 % CI: -0.23, 0.08) (p = 0.046). Findings from this randomized trial in an ethnically and socio-economically diverse population of pregnant women were consistent with a positive impact

  16. Acute Low-Volume High-Intensity Interval Exercise and Continuous Moderate-Intensity Exercise Elicit a Similar Improvement in 24-h Glycemic Control in Overweight and Obese Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Lewan; Shaw, Christopher S; Banting, Lauren; Levinger, Itamar; Hill, Karen M; McAinch, Andrew J; Stepto, Nigel K

    2016-01-01

    Background: Acute exercise reduces postprandial oxidative stress and glycemia; however, the effects of exercise intensity are unclear. We investigated the effect of acute low-volume high-intensity interval-exercise (LV-HIIE) and continuous moderate-intensity exercise (CMIE) on glycemic control and oxidative stress in overweight and obese, inactive adults. Methods: Twenty-seven adults were randomly allocated to perform a single session of LV-HIIE (9 females, 5 males; age: 30 ± 1 years; BMI: 29 ± 1 kg·m -2 ; mean ± SEM) or CMIE (8 females, 5 males; age: 30 ± 2.0; BMI: 30 ± 2.0) 1 h after consumption of a standard breakfast. Plasma redox status, glucose and insulin were measured. Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) was conducted during the 24-h period before (rest day) and after exercise (exercise day). Results: Plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS; 29 ±13%, p improvement in 24-h average glucose levels (-5 ± 2%, p improving 24-h glycemic control in overweight and obese adults.

  17. Effects of an exercise program during three years in obese boys: an intervention study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Escalante

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of a long-term exercise program (3 years on kinanthopometric and metabolic in obese children. The sample consisted of eight boys between 8 and 11 years, who conducted a aerobic multi-sport exercise program (three sessions, 90 minutes per week. Carried out an assessment kinanthropometric assessing the following parameters: height, weight, body mass index (BMI, zBMI, fat mass and fat free mass, and a metabolic assessing: total cholesterol (TC, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, triglycerides (TG, insuline, glucose, Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA-IR, ratio LDL/HDL and TC/HDL. Following the intervention, changes were observed on zBMI (ceasing to be obese after the intervention, total cholesterol, LDL, and ratio total cholesterol/HDL and glucose levels at the long term, showing that longitudinal interventions generate positive benefits on obese children mainly in the lipid profile.

  18. The Accumulative Effect of Concentric‐Biased and Eccentric‐ Biased Exercise on Cardiorespiratory and Metabolic Responses to Subsequent Low‐Intensity Exercise: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavin James Peter

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated the accumulative effect of concentric-biased and eccentric-biased exercise on cardiorespiratory, metabolic and neuromuscular responses to low-intensity exercise performed hours later. Fourteen young men cycled at low-intensity (~60 rpm at 50% maximal oxygen uptake for 10 min before, and 12 h after: concentric-biased, single-leg cycling exercise (CON (performed ~19:30 h and eccentric-biased, double-leg knee extension exercise (ECC (~06:30 h the following morning. Respiratory measures were sampled breath-by-breath, with oxidation values derived from stoichiometry equations. Knee extensor neuromuscular function was assessed before and after CON and ECC. Cardiorespiratory responses during low-intensity cycling were unchanged by accumulative CON and ECC. The RER was lower during low-intensity exercise 12 h after CON and ECC (0.88 ± 0.08, when compared to baseline (0.92 ± 0.09; p = 0.02. Fat oxidation increased from baseline (0.24 ± 0.2 g·min1 to 12 h after CON and ECC (0.39 ± 0.2 g·min1; p = 0.01. Carbohydrate oxidation decreased from baseline (1.59 ± 0.4 g·min-1 to 12 h after CON and ECC (1.36 ± 0.4 g·min1; p = 0.03. These were accompanied by knee extensor force loss (right leg: -11.6%, p < 0.001; left leg: -10.6%, p = 0.02 and muscle soreness (right leg: 2.5 ± 0.9, p < 0.0001; left leg: 2.3 ± 1.2, p < 0.01. Subsequent concentric-biased and eccentric-biased exercise led to increased fat oxidation and decreased carbohydrate oxidation, without impairing cardiorespiration, during low-intensity cycling. An accumulation of fatiguing and damaging exercise increases fat utilisation during low intensity exercise performed as little as 12 h later.

  19. Cordyceps militaris improves tolerance to high intensity exercise after acute and chronic supplementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Katie R.; Smith-Ryan, Abbie E.; Roelofs, Erica J.; Trexler, Eric T.; Mock, Meredith G.

    2016-01-01

    To determine the effects of a mushroom blend containing cordyceps militaris on high intensity exercise after 1- and 3-weeks of supplementation. Twenty-eight individuals (Mean ± SD; Age=22.7 ± 4.1 yrs; Height=175.4 ± 8.7 cm; Weight=71.6 ± 12.0 kg) participated in this randomized, repeated measures, double-blind, placebo-controlled design. Maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max), time to exhaustion (TTE), and ventilatory threshold (VT) were measured during a maximal graded exercise test on a cycle ergometer. Relative peak power output (RPP), average power output (AvgP), and percent drop (%drop) were recorded during a 3-minute maximal cycle test with resistance at 4.5% body weight. Subjects consumed 4 g·d−1 mushroom blend (MR) or maltodextrin (PL) for 1 week. Ten volunteers supplemented for an additional 2 weeks. Exercise tests were separated by at least 48-hours and repeated following supplementation periods. One week of supplementation elicited no significant time × treatment interaction for VO2max (p=0.364), VT (p=0.514), TTE (p=0.540), RPP (p=0.134), AvgP (p=0.398), or %drop (p=0.823). After 3-weeks, VO2max significantly improved (p=0.042) in MR (+4.8 ml·kg−1·min−1), but not PL (+0.9 ml·kg−1·min−1). Analysis of 95% confidence intervals revealed significant improvements in TTE after 1- (+28.1 s) and 3-weeks (+69.8 s) in MR, but not PL, with additional improvements in VO2max (+4.8 ml·kg−1·min−1) and VT (+0.7 l·min−1) after 3-weeks. Acute supplementation with a cordyceps militaris containing mushroom blend may improve tolerance to high intensity exercise; greater benefits may be elicited with consistent chronic supplementation. PMID:27408987

  20. Skeletal muscle eEF2 and 4EBP1 phosphorylation during endurance exercise is dependent on intensity and muscle fiber type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Adam John; Bisiani, Bruno; Vistisen, Bodil

    2009-01-01

    that the increase in skeletal muscle eEF2 Thr(56) phosphorylation was restricted to type I myofibers. Taken together, these data suggest that the depression of skeletal muscle protein synthesis with endurance-type exercise may be regulated at both initiation (i.e. 4EBP1) and elongation (i.e. eEF2) steps, with eEF2......Protein synthesis in skeletal muscle is known to decrease during exercise and it has been suggested that this may depend on the magnitude of the relative metabolic stress within the contracting muscle. To examine the mechanisms behind this, the effect of exercise intensity on skeletal muscle......) increased during exercise but was not influenced by exercise intensity, and was lower than rest 30min after exercise. On the other hand, 4EBP1 phosphorylation at Thr(37/46) decreased during exercise and this decrease was greater at higher exercise intensities, and was similar to rest 30min after exercise...

  1. Randomized Controlled Trial Comparing Exercise to Health Education for Stimulant Use Disorder: Results From the CTN-0037 STimulant Reduction Intervention Using Dosed Exercise (STRIDE) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, Madhukar H; Greer, Tracy L; Rethorst, Chad D; Carmody, Thomas; Grannemann, Bruce D; Walker, Robrina; Warden, Diane; Shores-Wilson, Kathy; Stoutenberg, Mark; Oden, Neal; Silverstein, Meredith; Hodgkins, Candace; Love, Lee; Seamans, Cindy; Stotts, Angela; Causey, Trey; Szucs-Reed, Regina P; Rinaldi, Paul; Myrick, Hugh; Straus, Michele; Liu, David; Lindblad, Robert; Church, Timothy; Blair, Steven N; Nunes, Edward V

    To evaluate exercise as a treatment for stimulant use disorders. The STimulant Reduction Intervention using Dosed Exercise (STRIDE) study was a randomized clinical trial conducted in 9 residential addiction treatment programs across the United States from July 2010 to February 2013. Of 497 adults referred to the study, 302 met all eligibility criteria, including DSM-IV criteria for stimulant abuse and/or dependence, and were randomized to either a dosed exercise intervention (Exercise) or a health education intervention (Health Education) control, both augmenting treatment as usual and conducted thrice weekly for 12 weeks. The primary outcome of percent stimulant abstinent days during study weeks 4 to 12 was estimated using a novel algorithm adjustment incorporating self-reported Timeline Followback (TLFB) stimulant use and urine drug screen (UDS) data. Mean percent of abstinent days based on TLFB was 90.8% (SD = 16.4%) for Exercise and 91.6% (SD = 14.7%) for Health Education participants. Percent of abstinent days using the eliminate contradiction (ELCON) algorithm was 75.6% (SD = 27.4%) for Exercise and 77.3% (SD = 25.1%) for Health Education. The primary intent-to-treat analysis, using a mixed model controlling for site and the ELCON algorithm, produced no treatment effect (P = .60). In post hoc analyses controlling for treatment adherence and baseline stimulant use, Exercise participants had a 4.8% higher abstinence rate (78.7%) compared to Health Education participants (73.9%) (P = .03, number needed to treat = 7.2). The primary analysis indicated no significant difference between exercise and health education. Adjustment for intervention adherence showed modestly but significantly higher percent of abstinent days in the exercise group, suggesting that exercise may improve outcomes for stimulant users who have better adherence to an exercise dose. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01141608. © Copyright 2017 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  2. Adaptation and Retention of a Perceptual-Motor Task in Children: Effects of a Single Bout of Intense Endurance Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer-Uris, Blai; Busquets, Albert; Angulo-Barroso, Rosa

    2018-02-01

    We assessed the effect of an acute intense exercise bout on the adaptation and consolidation of a visuomotor adaptation task in children. We also sought to assess if exercise and learning task presentation order could affect task consolidation. Thirty-three children were randomly assigned to one of three groups: (a) exercise before the learning task, (b) exercise after the learning task, and (c) only learning task. Baseline performance was assessed by practicing the learning task in a 0° rotation condition. Afterward, a 60° rotation-adaptation set was applied followed by three rotated retention sets after 1 hr, 24 hr, and 7 days. For the exercise groups, exercise was presented before or after the motor adaptation. Results showed no group differences during the motor adaptation while exercise seemed to enhance motor consolidation. Greater consolidation enhancement was found in participants who exercised before the learning task. Our data support the importance of exercise to improve motor-memory consolidation in children.

  3. Changes in lower limb muscle function and muscle mass following exercise-based interventions in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: A review of the English-language literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Brandt, Jana; Spruit, Martijn A; Hansen, Dominique; Franssen, Frits Me; Derave, Wim; Sillen, Maurice Jh; Burtin, Chris

    2018-05-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients often experience lower limb muscle dysfunction and wasting. Exercise-based training has potential to improve muscle function and mass, but literature on this topic is extensive and heterogeneous including numerous interventions and outcome measures. This review uses a detailed systematic approach to investigate the effect of this wide range of exercise-based interventions on muscle function and mass. PUBMED and PEDro databases were searched. In all, 70 studies ( n = 2504 COPD patients) that implemented an exercise-based intervention and reported muscle strength, endurance, or mass in clinically stable COPD patients were critically appraised. Aerobic and/or resistance training, high-intensity interval training, electrical or magnetic muscle stimulation, whole-body vibration, and water-based training were investigated. Muscle strength increased in 78%, muscle endurance in 92%, and muscle mass in 88% of the cases where that specific outcome was measured. Despite large heterogeneity in exercise-based interventions and outcome measures used, most exercise-based trials showed improvements in muscle strength, endurance, and mass in COPD patients. Which intervention(s) is (are) best for which subgroup of patients remains currently unknown. Furthermore, this literature review identifies gaps in the current knowledge and generates recommendations for future research to enhance our knowledge on exercise-based interventions in COPD patients.

  4. Effects of a long-term aerobic exercise intervention on institutionalized patients with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancela, José M; Ayán, Carlos; Varela, Silvia; Seijo, Manuel

    2016-04-01

    Long-term interventions aimed at analyzing the impact of physical exercise on important health markers in institutionalized individuals with dementia are relatively scarce. This longitudinal study intends to identify the effects of a physical exercise program on cognitive decline, memory, depression, functional dependence and neuropsychiatric disturbances in institutionalized individuals with dementia. Randomized controlled trial. Homecare residents with dementia were assigned to an exercise (EG) or to a control group (CG). Participants in the EG cycled for at least 15min daily during 15 months, while those in the CG performed alternative sedentary recreational activities. The Mini-Mental State Examination (MEC), the Timed "Up & Go" Test, the Neuropsychiatric Inventory, the Katz Index, the Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia and the Fuld Object Memory Evaluation were administered before and after the intervention. Sixty-three individuals in the CG and 51 individuals in the EG completed the intervention. A statistically significant decline in cognitive function was observed in individuals included in the CG (p=0.015), while a slight improvement was observed in those included in the EG. Significant improvement was observed in the neuropsychiatric symptoms (p=0.020), memory function (p=0.028) and functional mobility (p=0.043) among those who exercised. Exercise seemed to have a greater effect in those suffering from severe cognitive impairment. This study provides evidence that aerobic physical exercise has a significant impact on improving cognitive functioning, behavior, and functional mobility in institutionalized individuals with dementia. Copyright © 2015 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Motivation for physical activity and exercise in severe mental illness: A systematic review of intervention studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farholm, Anders; Sørensen, Marit

    2016-06-01

    There has been increasing interest for research on motivation for physical activity (PA) and exercise among individuals with severe mental illness (SMI). The aim of this systematic review is to summarize findings from all intervention studies on PA or exercise that either include empirical data on motivational constructs or apply motivational techniques/theories in their intervention. Systematic searches of seven databases were conducted from database inception to February 2015. Studies were eligible if they: (i) included participants with SMI, (ii) had PA as part of the intervention, and (iii) reported empirical data on motivational constructs related to PA or incorporated motivational techniques/theory in their intervention. Of the 79 studies that met the inclusion criteria only one had motivation for PA as its main outcome. Nine additional interventions reported empirical data on motivational constructs. Altogether these studies yielded mixed results with respect to change in motivational constructs. Only one of those examined the association between motivation and PA, but found none. Sixty-four studies reported using motivational techniques/theory in their intervention. Motivational interviewing and goal-setting were the most popular techniques. Due to the exploratory nature of most of these studies, findings from intervention studies do not so far give very clear directions for motivational work with the patients. There is an urgent need for a more systematic theory based approach when developing strategies that target to increase engagement in PA among people with SMI. © 2016 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  6. INFLUENCE OF RAMADAN FASTING ON ANAEROBIC PERFORMANCE AND RECOVERY FOLLOWING SHORT TIME HIGH INTENSITY EXERCISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umid Karli

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Ramadan fasting on anaerobic power and capacity and the removal rate of lactate after short time high intensity exercise in power athletes. Ten male elite power athletes (2 wrestlers, 7 sprinters and 1 thrower, aged 20-24 yr, mean age 22.30 ± 1.25 yr participated in this study. The subjects were tested three times [3 days before the beginning of Ramadan (Pre-RF, the last 3 days of Ramadan (End-RF and the last 3 days of the 4th week after the end of Ramadan (After-RF]. Anaerobic power and capacity were measured by using the Wingate Anaerobic Test (WAnT at Pre-RF, End-RF and After- RF. Capillary blood samples for lactate analyses and heart rate recordings were taken at rest, immediately after WAnT and throughout the recovery period. Repeated measures of ANOVA indicated that there were no significant changes in body weight, body mass index, fat free mass, percentage of body fat, daily sleeping