WorldWideScience

Sample records for intensified neuronal investment

  1. Intensified neuronal investment in the processing of chemosensory anxiety signals in non-socially anxious and socially anxious individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina M Pause

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The ability to communicate anxiety through chemosensory signals has been documented in humans by behavioral, perceptual and brain imaging studies. Here, we investigate in a time-sensitive manner how chemosensory anxiety signals, donated by humans awaiting an academic examination, are processed by the human brain, by analyzing chemosensory event-related potentials (CSERPs, 64-channel recording with current source density analysis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the first study cerebral stimulus processing was recorded from 28 non-socially anxious participants and in the second study from 16 socially anxious individuals. Each individual participated in two sessions, smelling sweat samples donated from either female or male donors (88 sessions; balanced session order. Most of the participants of both studies were unable to detect the stimuli olfactorily. In non-socially anxious females, CSERPs demonstrate an increased magnitude of the P3 component in response to chemosensory anxiety signals. The source of this P3 activity was allocated to medial frontal brain areas. In socially anxious females chemosensory anxiety signals require more neuronal resources during early pre-attentive stimulus processing (N1. The neocortical sources of this activity were located within medial and lateral frontal brain areas. In general, the event-related neuronal brain activity in males was much weaker than in females. However, socially anxious males processed chemosensory anxiety signals earlier (N1 latency than the control stimuli collected during an ergometer training. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: It is concluded that the processing of chemosensory anxiety signals requires enhanced neuronal energy. Socially anxious individuals show an early processing bias towards social fear signals, resulting in a repression of late attentional stimulus processing.

  2. Investments

    CERN Document Server

    Bodie, Zvi; Marcus, Alan J.

    2017-01-01

    The integrated solutions for Bodie, Kane, and Marcus' Investments set the standard for graduate/MBA investments textbooks. The unifying theme is that security markets are nearly efficient, meaning that most securities are priced appropriately given their risk and return attributes. The content places greater emphasis on asset allocation and offers a much broader and deeper treatment of futures, options, and other derivative security markets than most investment texts. Connect is the only integrated learning system that empowers students by continuously adapting to deliver precisely what they need, when they need it, and how they need it, so that your class time is more engaging and effective.

  3. Investments

    CERN Document Server

    Bodie, Zvi

    2013-01-01

    The integrated solutions for Bodie, Kane, and Marcus' Investments set the standard for graduate/MBA investments textbooks. The unifying theme is that security markets are nearly efficient, meaning that most securities are priced appropriately given their risk and return attributes. The content places greater emphasis on asset allocation and offers a much broader and deeper treatment of futures, options, and other derivative security markets than most investment texts. McGraw-Hill's adaptive learning component, LearnSmart, provides assignable modules that help students master chapter core concepts and come to class more prepared. Bodie Investments' blend of practical and theoretical coverage combines with a complete digital solution to help your students achieve higher outcomes in the course

  4. Value of intensified nursing

    OpenAIRE

    Raymann, Cornelia; Konta, Brigitte; Prusa, Nina; Frank, Wilhelm

    2006-01-01

    The concept "intensified nursing" is mentioned in differentiation to concepts of "nursing care" or "nursing" which intensifies resources or patient contact. Especially psychic and social needs of patients are very appreciated in nursing. A similar type of nursing is known under the concept "advanced nursing practice" (ANP) which means, that a specialised, academically trained nurse offers an extended nursing care in which a focus on the published knowledge of evidence based research is made. ...

  5. Fluoroscopy without image intensifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canevaro, L.; Drexler, G.

    2001-01-01

    The objective of the present work was to evaluate the doses received by patients during fluoroscopy procedures carried out with an equipment without image intensifier. This evaluation is providing dose levels that our patients are presently exposed, and gives the data for epidemiological studies on risk estimate of cancer induction in patients exposed earlier when no image intensifiers existed. Diamentor M4 and E meters were used to measure the product dose-area (DAP). The data were acquired during barium enema, barium meal, barium swallow and histerosalpingographies. The measured values of DAP are considered high. This work intends to call the attention toward the optimization of the radiological protection in facilities that still use equipment without image intensifiers. While this equipment cannot be disabled, the patient exposure monitoring should be an incentive, and the application of radiological protection practices and programs of quality assurance should be of priority. (author)

  6. Neutron image intensifier tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verat, M.; Rougeot, H.; Driard, B.

    1983-01-01

    The most frequently used techniques in neutron radiography employ a neutron converter consisting of either a scintillator or a thin metal sheet. The radiation created by the neutrons exposes a photographic film that is in contact with the converter: in the direct method, the film is exposed during the time that the object is irradiated with neutrons; in the transfer method, the film is exposed after the irradiation of the object with neutrons. In industrial non-destructive testing, when many identical objects have to be checked, these techniques have several disadvantages. Non-destructive testing systems without these disadvantages can be constructed around neutron-image intensifier tubes. A description and the operating characteristics of neutron-image intensifier tubes are given. (Auth.)

  7. Radiographic intensifying screens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Landeghem, W.K.; Suys, A.R.

    1979-01-01

    A fluorescent x-ray image intensifying screen is described which comprises discrete particles of fluorescent material dispersed in a binder layer. Intensifying screens are employed to increase the exposure of a photosensitive plate or film without increasing the x-ray exposure dose when struck by x-rays. The screen has an outermost layer containing solid particulate material protruding from a coherent film-forming organic binder medium and having a static friction coefficient at room temperature not higher than 0.50 on steel. The outermost layer may be characterized by micro-unevennesses of at least 3 μm and at least 9 protruding particles per 0.35 sq. cm. These particles have a static friction coefficient less than 0.3 and are made of a solid polystyrene, polyaklylene and/or a solid organic fluorinated polymer. (JTA)

  8. Photon attenuation by intensifying screens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holje, G.

    1983-01-01

    The photon attenuation by intensifying screens of different chemical composition has been determined. The attenuation of photons between 20 keV and 120 keV was measured by use of a multi-channel analyzer and a broad bremsstrahlung distribution. The attenuation by the intensifying screens was hereby determined simultaneously at many different monoenergetic photon energies. Experimentally determined attenuations were found to agree well with attenuation calculated from mass attenuation coefficients. The attenuation by the screens was also determined at various bremsstrahlung distributions, simulating those occurring behind the patient in various diagnostic X-ray examinations. The high attenuation in some of the intensifying screens form the basis for an analysis of the construction of asymmetric screen pairs. Single screen systems are suggested as a favourable alternative to thick screen pair systems. (Author)

  9. Intensified coastal development behind nourished beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Scott; Lazarus, Eli; Limber, Patrick; Goldstein, Evan; Thorpe, Curtis; Ballinger, Rhoda

    2016-04-01

    Population density, housing development, and property values in coastal counties along the U.S. Atlantic and Gulf Coasts continue to rise despite increasing hazard from storm impacts. Since the 1970s, beach nourishment, which involves importing sand to deliberately widen an eroding beach, has been the main strategy in the U.S. for protecting coastal properties from erosion and flooding hazards. Paradoxically, investment in hazard protection may intensify development. Here, we examine the housing stock of all existing shorefront single-family homes in Florida - a microcosm of U.S. coastal hazards and development - to quantitatively compare development in nourishing and non-nourishing towns. We find that nourishing towns now account for more than half of Florida's coastline, and that houses in nourishing towns are larger and more numerous. Even as the mean size of single-family homes nationwide has grown steadily since 1970, Florida's shorefront stock has exceeded the national average by 34%, and in nourishing towns by 45%. This emergent disparity between nourishing and non-nourishing towns in Florida demonstrates a pattern of intensifying coastal risk, and is likely representative of a dominant trend in coastal development more generally. These data lend empirical support to the hypothesis that US coastal development and hazard mitigation through beach nourishment have become dynamically coupled.

  10. Intensifying screens in transaxial tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debelder, M.H.; Bollen, R.H.

    1981-01-01

    This patent claim by Agfa-Gevaert relates to a method for the production of transaxial tomographs, a combination of materials therefor and X-ray intensifying screens incorporating at least one reflecting element for use in transaxial tomography, wherein the exposure of a photographic silver halide emulsion material proceeds at an angle within the range of 2 0 to 10 0 in conjunction with an X-ray fluorescent intensifying screen including an ultra-violet and/or visible radiation reflective coating or sheet to increase the radiation output of the screen and to reduce the exposure time and radiation dose e.g. in medical X-ray applications. (author)

  11. Investments secure supply security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Baarle, D.

    2006-01-01

    In order to guarantee the supply of energy considerable investment must be made to improve the infrastructure (e.g. capacity for LNG-transport and -storage) and ties with the natural gas supplier in the Russian Federation must be intensified [nl

  12. X-ray intensifying screens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossomaier, T.R.J.; Sangway, P.C.

    1979-01-01

    It is claimed that stabilization of X-ray intensifying screens against discolouration and hydrolysis of lanthanum or gadolinium oxyhalide phosphors can be achieved by incorporating into the phosphor/binder formulation a compound containing free epoxy groups. Suitable epoxy compounds include gamma glycidoxy trimethoxy silane and dimethyl di(m-glycidoxy methylphenyl) methane. The oxyhalide may be activated by Tb, Tm or Yb and may be mixed with other phosphors. Plasticisers and organo-tin stabilisers for the formulation are given. Many binders are specified, preferably these should not react with the free epoxy groups. (UK)

  13. X-ray intensifying screens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luckey, G.W.; DeBoer, C.D.

    1982-01-01

    An x-ray intensifying screen comprises a support which has a luminescent composition comprising an isotropic phosphor and a polymer having an index of refraction within 0.02 of that of the phosphor over at least 80 percent of its emission spectrum. The support has an index of refraction up to or equal to 0.05 units higher than that of the phosphor and has a reflection optical density of at least 1.7 to light emitted by the phosphor. A preferred luminescent composition comprises Kl:Tl, Rbl:Tl at BaSrFCl:Eu mixed with two monomers such as 1-naphthylmethylmethacrylate, S(1-naphthylmethyl) thioacrylate, 1-bromo-2-naphthylacrylate, and benzyl methacrylate, coated on black anodised Al and polymerised in situ. The ratio of monomers is adjusted to give the desired refractive index. Other phosphors, polymers and supports are specified together with the preparation of the monomers and polymers. (author)

  14. Operating radiographic image intensifier tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marche, E.; Girard, A.; Barjot, D.; Deon, J.M.; Lacoste, Y.

    1996-01-01

    The intensifier tube operation method involves a voltage supply (U) which is placed across two transistors (Q 1, Q 2) in series. The voltage driver to the photocathode (PC) is the centre point between the two transistors. A switching command is applied to a logic circuit (CL). The logic circuit drives two light emitting diodes (DEL1, DEL2) when a threshold light level is exceeded, each LED triggers an optical switch (TR1, TR2). The switches change the state of the transistors. Switching the upper transistor on and the lower transistor off applies a voltage to the photocathode. Switching off the upper transistor and on the lower transistor blocks the high voltage and sets the photocathode to zero. The advantage of this device is that it involves circuit regulator which is less complex, it has cheaper and more easily implemented transient protection and has reduced sizes. (authors). 10 figs

  15. Recent progress in color image intensifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nittoh, K.

    2010-01-01

    A multi-color scintillator based high-sensitive, wide dynamic range and long-life X-ray image intensifier (Ultimage TM ) has been developed. Europium activated Y 2 O 2 S scintillator, emitting red, green and blue wavelength photons of different intensities, is utilized as the output fluorescent screen of the intensifier. By combining this image intensifier with a suitably tuned high sensitive color CCD camera, the sensitivity of the red color component achieved six times higher than that of the conventional image intensifier. Simultaneous emission of a moderate green color and a weak blue color covers different sensitivity regions. This widens the dynamic range by nearly two orders of magnitude. With this image intensifier, it is possible to image complex objects containing various different X-ray transmissions from paper, water or plastic to heavy metals at a time. This color scintillator based image intensifier is widely used in X-ray inspections of various fields. (author)

  16. Lexicon and Description of Sui Adjective Intensifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James N. Stanford

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Sui, an indigenous minority language of southwest China, has an elaborate system of adjective intensification. Adjectives are intensified with word-specific, bound morphemes that usually either rhyme with the base or alliterate with the base. Stanford (2007 notes morpho-phonological patterns that suggest reduplication, rhyme, alliteration, The Emergence of the Unmarked (McCarthy & Prince 1994, Yip 2001, identity avoidance, and “Copy But Don’t Repeat” (Kennard 2004. However, the adjective intensifiers defy a simple, fully predictable explanation in such terms; the intensifier lexicon may be best described as “patterned variety,” a case of lexicalized poetry or a poeticized lexicon. Word formation is guided by general patterns, but each specific intensifier may vary within those overall guidelines. Many adjectives have multiple intensifiers that bear subtle semantic and pragmatic distinctions. The current paper serves as a complement to Stanford (2007 by providing a detailed lexicon of the Sui adjective intensifiers for future reference and further analysis. This lexicon is based on the author’s fieldwork and represents the first detailed account of Sui adjective intensifiers for the wider linguistic community.

  17. X-ray image intensifier photography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, K.; Angerstein, W.; Steinhardt, L.

    1980-01-01

    The present treatise on X-ray image intensifier photography starts with introductory remarks on the history of X-ray imaging and image intensifiers. In the physical-technological part especially the quality of image and the methods of its measurement are discussed in detail. The relevant equipment such as image intensifier cameras, X-ray television, video recorder and devices of display and evaluation of images are presented as well as problems of radiation doses and radiation protection. Based on 25,000 examinations of the digestive, the biliary and the urinary tract, resp., as well as of the blood vessels the applicability of the X-ray image intensifier photography and its diagnostic value are demonstrated in the medical part of the book

  18. Characteristics of image converters and image intensifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurvich, A.M.; Shamanov, A.A.; Rozenberg, A.M.; Fajnberg, V.S.; Kavtorova, V.P.; Salyuk, L.V.; Yakovleva, F.B.

    1978-01-01

    The characteristics of image converters and image intensifiers, which determine the range of the X-radiation dose rates used and the image quality, are considered. The equations for calculating the requirements to be imposed on the separate intensifier elements from known parameters of other elements with an allowance for the nonlinearity of the television system and the role of fluctuation in the space distribution of X-radiation quanta are given

  19. X-ray image intensifier tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    An improved real-time x-ray image intensifier tube of the proximity type used for medical x-ray fluoroscopy is described. It is claimed that this intensifier is of sufficient gain and resolution whilst remaining convenient to use and that the design is such that the patient dosage is minimized whilst the x-ray image information content at the scintillator-photocathode screen is maximized. (U.K.)

  20. A self triggered intensified Ccd (Stic)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charon, Y.; Laniece, P.; Bendali, M.

    1990-01-01

    We are developing a new device based on the results reported previously of the successfull coincidence detection of β- particles with a high spatial resolution [1]. The novelty of the device consists in triggering an intensified CCD, i.e. a CCD coupled to an image intensifier (II), by an electrical signal collected from the II itself. This is a suitable procedure for detecting with high efficiency and high resolution low light rare events. The trigger pulse is obtained from the secondary electrons produced by multiplication in a double microchannel plate (MCP) and collected on the aluminized layer protecting the phosphor screen in the II. Triggering efficiencies up to 80% has been already achieved

  1. Human water consumption intensifies hydrological drought worldwide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, Yoshihide; Van Beek, Ludovicus P H; Wanders, Niko; Bierkens, Marc F P

    2013-01-01

    Over the past 50 years, human water use has more than doubled and affected streamflow over various regions of the world. However, it remains unclear to what degree human water consumption intensifies hydrological drought (the occurrence of anomalously low streamflow). Here, we quantify over the period 1960–2010 the impact of human water consumption on the intensity and frequency of hydrological drought worldwide. The results show that human water consumption substantially reduced local and downstream streamflow over Europe, North America and Asia, and subsequently intensified the magnitude of hydrological droughts by 10–500%, occurring during nation- and continent-wide drought events. Also, human water consumption alone increased global drought frequency by 27 (±6)%. The intensification of drought frequency is most severe over Asia (35 ± 7%), but also substantial over North America (25 ± 6%) and Europe (20 ± 5%). Importantly, the severe drought conditions are driven primarily by human water consumption over many parts of these regions. Irrigation is responsible for the intensification of hydrological droughts over the western and central US, southern Europe and Asia, whereas the impact of industrial and households’ consumption on the intensification is considerably larger over the eastern US and western and central Europe. Our findings reveal that human water consumption is one of the more important mechanisms intensifying hydrological drought, and is likely to remain as a major factor affecting drought intensity and frequency in the coming decades. (letter)

  2. Restraint stress intensifies interstitial K+ accumulation during severe hypoxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian eSchnell

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Chronic stress affects neuronal networks by inducing dendritic retraction, modifying neuronal excitability and plasticity, and modulating glial cells. To elucidate the functional consequences of chronic stress for the hippocampal network, we submitted adult rats to daily restraint stress for three weeks (6 h/day. In acute hippocampal tissue slices of stressed rats, basal synaptic function and short-term plasticity at Schaffer collateral/CA1 neuron synapses were unchanged while long-term potentiation was markedly impaired. The spatiotemporal propagation pattern of hypoxia-induced spreading depression episodes was indistinguishable among control and stress slices. However, the duration of the extracellular direct current (DC potential shift was shortened after stress. Moreover, K+ fluxes early during hypoxia were more intense, and the postsynaptic recoveries of interstitial K+ levels and synaptic function were slower. Morphometric analysis of immunohistochemically stained sections suggested hippocampal shrinkage in stressed rats, and the number of cells that are immunoreactive for GFAP (glial fibrillary acidic protein was increased in the CA1 subfield indicating activation of astrocytes. Western blots showed a marked downregulation of the inwardly rectifying K+ channel Kir4.1 in stressed rats. Yet, resting membrane potentials, input resistance and K+-induced inward currents in CA1 astrocytes were indistinguishable from controls. These data indicate an intensified interstitial K+ accumulation during hypoxia in the hippocampus of chronically stressed rats which seems to arise from a reduced interstitial volume fraction rather than impaired glial K+ buffering. One may speculate that chronic stress aggravates hypoxia-induced pathophysiological processes in the hippocampal network and that this has implications for the ischemic brain.

  3. Investment Avenues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Priyanka

    2012-11-01

    Investors are a heterogeneous group, they may be large or small, rich or poor, expert or lay man and not all investors need equal degree of protection (Mayya, 1996). An investor has three objectives while investing his money, namely safety of invested money, liquidity position of invested money and return on investment. The return on investment may further be divided into capital gain and the rate of return on investment as interest or dividend. Among all investment options available, securities are considered the most challenging as well as rewarding. Securities include shares, debentures, derivatives, units of mutual funds, Government securities etc. An investor may be an individual or corporate legal entity investing funds with a view to derive maximum economic advantage from investment such as rate of return, capital appreciation, marketability, tax advantage and convenience of investment.The Capital market facilitates mobilization of savings of individuals and pools them into reservoir of capital which can be used for the economic development of a country. An efficient capital market is essential for raising capital by the corporate sector of the economy and for the protection of the interest of investors in corporate securities. There arises a need to strike a balance between raising of capital for economic development on one side and protection of investors on the other. Unless the interests of investors are protected, raising of capital, by corporates is not possible. Like, the primary objective of a senior citizenís asset allocation is the generation of regular income.

  4. Two micron pore size MCP-based image intensifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glesener, John; Estrera, Joseph

    2010-02-01

    Image intensifiers (I2) have many advantages as detectors. They offer single photon sensitivity in an imaging format, they're light in weight and analog I2 systems can operate for hours on a single AA battery. Their light output is such as to exploit the peak in color sensitivity of the human eye. Until recent developments in CMOS sensors, they also were one of the highest resolution sensors available. The closest all solid state solution, the Texas Instruments Impactron chip, comes in a 1 megapixel format. Depending on the level of integration, an Impactron based system can consume 20 to 40 watts in a system configuration. In further investing in I2 technology, L-3 EOS determined that increasing I2 resolution merited a high priority. Increased I2 resolution offers the system user two desirable options: 1) increased detection and identification ranges while maintaining field-of-view (FOV) or 2) increasing FOV while maintaining the original system resolution. One of the areas where an investment in resolution is being made is in the microchannel plate (MCP). Incorporation of a 2 micron MCP into an image tube has the potential of increasing the system resolution of currently fielded systems. Both inverting and non-inverting configurations are being evaluated. Inverting tubes are being characterized in night vision goggle (NVG) and sights. The non-inverting 2 micron tube is being characterized for high resolution I2CMOS camera applications. Preliminary measurements show an increase in the MTF over a standard 5 micron pore size, 6 micron pitch plate. Current results will be presented.

  5. Trade, investment and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, H.; Brack, D.

    2000-01-01

    As liberalisation of global trade and investment accelerates, what happens to the environment? As the world heads for confrontation in Seattle, the questions intensify. Does foreign direct investment mean forsaking environmental protection? Or do multinational corporations export higher standards when they invest abroad? Can a powerful trading nation ban imports of tropical timber produced unsustainably? Should the World Trade Organisation take the views of industry or environmental groups into account when deciding? Must world trade rules be changed to accommodate environmental concerns? This book analyzes key issues in this increasingly controversial arena and includes contributions from Renato Ruggiero, former Director General of the World Trade Organization; The Rt Hon Brian Wilson MP, former UK Minister of Trade; Dr Magda Shahin, Deputy Assistant Minister of Foreign Affairs at the Egyptian Ministry of Foreign Affairs; Pradeep Mehta, Secretary General, Consumer Unity and Trust Society, India; and Dr Michel Potier, Head of the Economics Division at the OECD's Environment Directorate. (Author)

  6. Federal Investment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Sheila; Tawil, Natalie

    2013-01-01

    The federal government pays for a wide range of goods and services that are expected to be useful some years in the future. Those purchases, called investment, fall into three categories: physical capital, research and development (R&D), and education and training. There are several economic rationales for federal investment. It can provide…

  7. Upwards Intensifiers in the English, German and Croatian Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Pavić Pintarić

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the upwards intensifiers (adverbs of intensifying in the English, German and Croatian language. Intensity as an important human cognitive category, and language expressivity is differently treated in grammars and dictionaries of all three languages, especially with respect to different degrees of intensity. In this paper we argue that it is possible to model a typology of upwards adverb intensifiers in the three languages, according to their morphosyntactic and semantic aspects. When it comes to intensifiers, it is necessary to describe which collocates are modified by intensifiers and which semantic fields the collocates belong to. The results of the corpus analysis based on Harry Potter novels show that all the three languages express the category of the upwards intensity in the same way: the number of intensifiers is similar, the collocates mostly belong to the same semantic fields and word classes, they have similar syntactic functions.

  8. Duodenal fat intensifies the perception of heartburn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, J; Lembo, A; Elashoff, J; Fass, R; Mayer, E

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Patients with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) frequently report that meals high in fat worsen heartburn. Nevertheless, studies to determine whether high fat meals promote gastro-oesophageal reflux have produced conflicting and equivocal conclusions.
PATIENTS AND METHODS—To determine, alternatively, whether fat in the small intestinal lumen intensifies the perception of heartburn, we studied 11 patients with typical heartburn from GORD. After being placed on omeprazole to suppress endogenous acid, these fasting subjects underwent oesophageal perfusions with graded doses of HCl at pH values of 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5. Oesophageal perfusions were conducted while the duodenum was perfused with saline (control) and again with fat at 8 g/h.
RESULTS—Time to onset, intensity, and severity of heartburn varied with dose of oesophageal acid (pheartburn significantly (pheartburn.


Keywords: gastro-oesophageal reflux disease; heartburn; perception; fat PMID:11600463

  9. New feature of the neutron color image intensifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nittoh, Koichi; Konagai, Chikara; Noji, Takashi; Miyabe, Keisuke

    2009-06-01

    We developed prototype neutron color image intensifiers with high-sensitivity, wide dynamic range and long-life characteristics. In the prototype intensifier (Gd-Type 1), a terbium-activated Gd 2O 2S is used as the input-screen phosphor. In the upgraded model (Gd-Type 2), Gd 2O 3 and CsI:Na are vacuum deposited to form the phosphor layer, which improved the sensitivity and the spatial uniformity. A europium-activated Y 2O 2S multi-color scintillator, emitting red, green and blue photons with different intensities, is utilized as the output screen of the intensifier. By combining this image intensifier with a suitably tuned high-sensitive color CCD camera, higher sensitivity and wider dynamic range could be simultaneously attained than that of the conventional P20-phosphor-type image intensifier. The results of experiments at the JRR-3M neutron radiography irradiation port (flux: 1.5×10 8 n/cm 2/s) showed that these neutron color image intensifiers can clearly image dynamic phenomena with a 30 frame/s video picture. It is expected that the color image intensifier will be used as a new two-dimensional neutron sensor in new application fields.

  10. New feature of the neutron color image intensifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nittoh, Koichi; Konagai, Chikara; Noji, Takashi; Miyabe, Keisuke

    2009-01-01

    We developed prototype neutron color image intensifiers with high-sensitivity, wide dynamic range and long-life characteristics. In the prototype intensifier (Gd-Type 1), a terbium-activated Gd 2 O 2 S is used as the input-screen phosphor. In the upgraded model (Gd-Type 2), Gd 2 O 3 and CsI:Na are vacuum deposited to form the phosphor layer, which improved the sensitivity and the spatial uniformity. A europium-activated Y 2 O 2 S multi-color scintillator, emitting red, green and blue photons with different intensities, is utilized as the output screen of the intensifier. By combining this image intensifier with a suitably tuned high-sensitive color CCD camera, higher sensitivity and wider dynamic range could be simultaneously attained than that of the conventional P20-phosphor-type image intensifier. The results of experiments at the JRR-3M neutron radiography irradiation port (flux: 1.5x10 8 n/cm 2 /s) showed that these neutron color image intensifiers can clearly image dynamic phenomena with a 30 frame/s video picture. It is expected that the color image intensifier will be used as a new two-dimensional neutron sensor in new application fields.

  11. Financing Investment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hirth, Stefan; Flor, Christian Riis

    Intuition suggests that corporate investment should be decreasing in financing constraints. We show that even when financing is obtained using a standard debt contract and there is symmetric information between the firm and outside investors, the relation is actually U-shaped. We thus provide a new...... theoretical explanation for the recent empirical findings of Cleary et al. (2007). We split up the endogenously implied financing costs and propose a trade-off between expected liquidation costs and second-best investment costs. For rather unconstrained firms, the risk of costly liquidation dominates the cost...

  12. New models intensify the purchase of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vesimaeki, P.; Lampinen, J.

    2001-01-01

    Models, designed for planning and optimisation of the purchase of energy, combined with high-quality expertise have an impact on the costs of energy companies. Optimisation has a significant role in power plant investments and in planning the power distribution of wholesale electric power. After the liberation of the electricity markets, the planning of the electricity purchase and the optimisation have obtained totally new roles in estimating the cost effects of present and new customers. Electrowatt-Ekono has developed a windows-based COPSIM software for planning of electric power purchase. The software is in active use in Electrowatt-Ekono. The energy purchase is optimised on yearly basis or on a shorter period by one hour steps based on hourly variation of energy purchase, power plant characteristics, power consumption rates and the prices of the fuels, power and heat. COPSIM takes the effect of external temperature on the power generation of backpressure and gas turbine plants into account. The software optimises also the power distribution of wholesale power. By the software it is possible to model different types of power plants, purchase of power, power sales, different power plant shares, thermal power stations, purchase and sales of heat, heat storage and heat transfer between different heating networks

  13. Fluorescent intensifying screens: contribution of secondary X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barroso, R.C.; Goncalves, O.D.; Eichler, J.; Lopes, R.T.; Cardoso, S.C.

    1996-01-01

    The counting rate and angular distribution of secondary X-rays produced by fluorescent intensifying screens are studied. A source of 241 Am - gamma radiation of 59.54 keV - is used. Fluorescent intensifying screens reduce the radiation dose in radiology since they produce visible light which increases the efficiency of the film. In addition, secondary X-rays arise due to the photoelectric effect, elastic (Rayleigh) and inelastic (Compton) scattering

  14. Pengaruh Jenis Lembar Penguat (Intensifying Screen) Terhadap Densitas Radiografi

    OpenAIRE

    Nasrullah

    2007-01-01

    good ABSTRACT As done research on the influence of type to the density radiography with the objective to define radiography value third-density intensifying screen brand green emitting variation factors exposure and Focus Film Distance is different. Influence of type of intensifying screen to the density radiography is obtained through measurements of the value of radiography density using the densitometer with object stepwedge. The results of this research show that the average dens...

  15. The politics of large infrastructure investment decision-making : the case of the second avenue subway case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Over the past few decades, urbanization and economic growth have intensified the need for more efficient urban and : regional transportation, including the expansion and reorganization of existing transportation networks. Given such : huge investment...

  16. Matrix based method for synthesis of main intensified and integrated distillation sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalili-Garakani, Amirhossein; Kasiri, Norollah; Ivakpour, Javad

    2016-01-01

    The objective of many studies in this area has involved access to a column-sequencing algorithm enabling designers and researchers alike to generate a wide range of sequences in a broad search space, and be as mathematically and as automated as possible for programing purposes and with good generality. In the present work an algorithm previously developed by the authors, called the matrix method, has been developed much further. The new version of the algorithm includes thermally coupled, thermodynamically equivalent, intensified, simultaneous heat and mass integrated and divided-wall column sequences which are of gross application and provide vast saving potential both on capital investment, operating costs and energy usage in industrial applications. To demonstrate the much wider searchable space now accessible, a three component separation has been thoroughly examined as a case study, always resulting in an integrated sequence being proposed as the optimum.

  17. Panel type X-ray image intensifier tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, S.P.

    1977-01-01

    A panel shaped, proximity type, X-ray image intensifier tube for medical X-ray diagnostic is disclosed. It has all linear components and yet a high brightness gain, in the range of 500 to 20,000 cd-sec/m 2 -R, the tube being comprised of a rugged metallic tube envelope, an inwardly concave metallic input window of full size output display screen, an alkaline-halide scintillator photocathode screen suspended on insulators within the envelope and in between the input window and the output screen, and a high Z glass output window to reduce X-ray backscatter inside and outside of the tube. An X-ray sensitive photographic camera for medical diagnostic use is also disclosed which includes an X-ray sensitive image intensifier means of the proximity type and a reduction type optical system having an effective foral length in excess of 100mm for focusing the emage generated on the output display screen of the image intensifier tube onto a small size but directly viewable photographic film. The parameters of the image intensifier, the optics and the film are specified and linked to each other in a manner which maximizes the image quality for a camera system of this type and at the same time restricts the system speed of the camera to a range of 500 to 5,000 R -1 for the film to achieve a net density of 1.0. (Auth.)

  18. Dysphagia screening and intensified oral hygiene reduce pneumonia after stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Rikke Terp; Rasmussen, Rune Skovgaard; Overgaard, Karsten

    2013-01-01

    Dysphagia occurs in approximately 51%-78% of patients with acute stroke. The incidence of pneumonia caused by aspiration in dysphagic patients increases both mortality and the need for hospitalization. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the incidence of aspiration pneumonia could...... be reduced in such patients by an early screening for dysphagia and intensified oral hygiene....

  19. The image intensifier in oral and maxillofacial surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gans, B.J.; Kallal, R.H.; Helgerson, A.C.; Verona, S.R.

    1982-01-01

    The mobile image intensifier has been found useful in the removal of foreign bodies from both intraoral and extraoral sites. The safety of the machine has been verified, and a technique for its application is described. Additional uses for the machine are stated

  20. Intensified multifactorial intervention and cardiovascular outcome in type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Oluf; Gaede, Peter

    2003-01-01

    We recently published the results of the Steno-2 study, which evaluated the benefits of intensified integrated behavior modification and targeted polypharmacy. The results provide abundant evidence that an ambitious treatment strategy is superior to a conventional one. The study involved 160 high...

  1. Emulsification in novel ultrasonic cavitation intensifying bag reactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwieten, van Ralph; Verhaagen, Bram; Schroën, Karin; Fernández Rivas, David

    2017-01-01

    Cavitation Intensifying Bags (CIBs), a novel reactor type for use with ultrasound, have been recently proposed as a scaled-up microreactor with increased energy efficiencies. We now report on the use of the CIBs for the preparation of emulsions out of hexadecane and an SDS aqueous solution. The

  2. Using Brief Experimental Analysis to Intensify Tier 3 Reading Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coolong-Chaffin, Melissa; Wagner, Dana

    2015-01-01

    As implementation of multi-tiered systems of support becomes common practice across the nation, practitioners continue to need strategies for intensifying interventions and supports for the subset of students who fail to make adequate progress despite strong programs at Tiers 1 and 2. Experts recommend making several changes to the structure and…

  3. Trends in Business Investment

    OpenAIRE

    Lydon, Reamonn; Scally, John

    2014-01-01

    This article examines trends in business investment in Ireland. Consistent with the international evidence on investment cycles, we show that business investment in Ireland exhibits large cyclical movements around a long-run trend relative to GDP. Changes in business investment broadly coincide with the overall business cycle, although swings in investment tend to be far greater, with extended periods of both over- and under-investment relative to GDP. The sharp fall in business investment si...

  4. Geopolitics and the corporate investment decision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulos, A.J.

    1996-01-01

    The impact of geopolitics in any international oil company's investment decisions, was discussed. Geopolitics in this context was defined as all government policies, be they economic, political strategic or military, that determine national interests, which a company has to take into account in making an investment decision. Geopolitical considerations have taken on added importance with the arrival of the Cold War and its aftermath, to the point where investment decisions based on traditional parameters such as geological productivity, rates of return, net present values, fiscal and contractual provisions frequently take a back seat to investment decisions that were taken with geopolitical impacts foremost in mind. From time to time, geopolitical factors can even pre-empt corporate investment decisions. The nature of geopolitics, its historical antecedents, the emergence of international rivalries following World War I, intensified after World War II, particularly after the formation of OPEC in 1973, the changing forms of resource ownership, and the general impact of geopolitical factors on corporate investment decisions were reviewed

  5. Sustainable Markets Investment Briefings: Investment Treaties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotula, Lorenzo

    2007-08-15

    This is the second of a series of briefings which discuss the sustainable development issues raised by legal arrangements for the protection of foreign investment. The briefings are based on legal research by IIED and its partners. The goal is to provide accessible but accurate information for human rights, development and environmental organisations working on issues raised by foreign investment in low- and middle-income countries. Briefing 2 explains how investment treaties between states work to protect and promote foreign investment.

  6. Dynamics analysis of extraction of manganese intensified by electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wenrui; Tao, Changyuan; Li, Huizhan; Liu, Zuohua; Liu, Renlong

    2018-06-01

    In this study, a process reinforcement technology for leaching process of pyrolusite was developed. The electric field was introduced to decrease reaction temperature and improve the leaching rate of pyrolusite. The mechanisms of electric field intensifying leaching process of pyrolusite were investigated through X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Brunauer Emmett Teller (BET) in detail. The results showed that the electric field could decrease obviously the apparent activation energy of leaching process of pyrolusite. The apparent activation energy of the leaching of pyrolusite intensified by electric field was calculated to be 53.76 kJ.mol-1. In addition, the leaching efficiency of manganese was effectively increased by 10% to 20% than that without electric field under the same conditions. This was because that the electron conduit between Fe (II)/Fe (III) and pyrite was dredged effectively by electric field.

  7. Digital image intensifier radiography: A new diagnostic procedure in traumatology?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, C.; Deininger, H.K.; Staedtische Kliniken Darmstadt

    1990-01-01

    Digital image intensifier radiography visualises all traumatological changes of clinical relevance and can therefore be used in traumatology. However, the quality of conventional radiographs cannot be attained as yet. Radiation exposure is markedly reduced, and radiographs are obtained directly after exposure, so that this is an extremely rapid radiographic procedure. Images can be quickly transmitted by video cable to the relevant departments and working places. (orig.) [de

  8. The role of heat pipes in intensified unit operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reay, David; Harvey, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Heat pipes are heat transfer devices that rely, most commonly, on the evaporation and condensation of a working fluid contained within them, with passive pumping of the condensate back to the evaporator. They are sometimes referred to as ‘thermal superconductors’ because of their exceptionally high effective thermal conductivity (substantially higher than any metal). This, together with several other characteristics make them attractive to a range of intensified unit operations, particularly reactors. The majority of modern computers deploy heat pipes for cooling of the CPU. The application areas of heat pipes come within a number of broad groups, each of which describes a property of the heat pipe. The ones particularly relevant to chemical reactors are: i. Separation of heat source and sink. ii. Temperature flattening, or isothermalisation. iii. Temperature control. Chemical reactors, as a heat pipe application area, highlight the benefits of the heat pipe based on isothermalisation/temperature flattening device and on being a highly effective heat transfer unit. Temperature control, done passively, is also of relevance. Heat pipe technology offers a number of potential benefits to reactor performance and operation. The aim of increased yield of high purity, high added value chemicals means less waste and higher profitability. Other intensified unit operations, such as those employing sorption processes, can also profit from heat pipe technology. This paper describes several variants of heat pipe and the opportunities for their use in intensified plant, and will give some current examples. -- Highlights: ► Heat pipes – thermal superconductors – can lead to improved chemical reactor performance. ► Isothermalisation within a reactor vessel is an ideal application. ► The variable conductance heat pipe can control reaction temperatures within close limits. ► Heat pipes can be beneficial in intensified reactors

  9. Multiple event 2D image intensifier scintillation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thieberger, P.; Wegner, H.E.; Lee, R.C.

    1981-01-01

    An image intensifier scintillation detector has been developed for the simultaneous detection of multiple light or heavy ions down to very low energies. The relative X-Y positions of each ion are read out by digitization of a television image of the light amplified scintillations. The maximum data rate is limited by the present television scan speed to 15 multiple events per second and to about one event second by the microcomputer presently used to store and process the data. (orig.)

  10. Achieving interlocking nails without using an image intensifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikem, Innocent C; Ogunlusi, Johnson D; Ine, Henry R

    2007-08-01

    Interlocking nails are commonly performed using an image intensifier. These are expensive and are not readily available in most resource-poor countries of the world. The aim of this study was to achieve interlocking nailing without the use of an image intensifier. This is a prospective descriptive analysis of 40 consecutive cases seen with shaft fractures of the humerus, femur, and tibia. Fracture fixation was done using Surgical Implant Generation Network (SIGN) nails. Forty limbs in 34 patients were studied. There were 12 females and 22 males, giving a ratio of 1:2. The mean age (years) was 35.75+/-13.16 and the range was 17-70 years. The studied bones were: humerus 10%, femur 65%, and tibia 25%. The fracture lines were: transverse 40%, oblique 15%, and communited 45%. Fracture grades were: closed 90%, grade I, 5%, grade II, 2.5%, and grade IIIA, 2.5%. Surgical approaches were: antegrade 62.5% and retrograde 37.5%. Indications for fixation were: recent fracture 92.5%, non-union 5%, and malunion 3%. Methods of reductions were: open 85% and closed 15%. The mean follow-up period (years) was 1.50+/-0.78. The union time averaged 3 months. Complication was mainly screw loosening due to severe osteoporoses in one case. It is, therefore, concluded that, with the aid of external jigs and slot finders, interlocking can be achieved without an image intensifier.

  11. Improved fluorescent X-ray image intensifying screen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landeghem, W.K. van; Suys, A.R.

    1981-01-01

    An X-ray image intensifying screen is described, which includes at least one fluorescent layer comprising phosphor particles dispersed in a binder and on top of such layer a protective layer containing a crosslinked polymer mass obtained by an acid-catalyzed reaction of a polymer or mixture of polymers containing reactive hydrogen atoms and a cross-linking agent, the cross-linking agent being an organic compound containing a plurality of etherified N-methylol groups. Examples are given of appropriate polymers and cross-linking agents. (author)

  12. Integrated Process Design, Control and Analysis of Intensified Chemical Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mansouri, Seyed Soheil

    chemical processes; for example, intensified processes such as reactive distillation. Most importantly, it identifies and eliminates potentially promising design alternatives that may have controllability problems later. To date, a number of methodologies have been proposed and applied on various problems......, that the same principles that apply to a binary non-reactive compound system are valid also for a binary-element or a multi-element system. Therefore, it is advantageous to employ the element based method for multicomponent reaction-separation systems. It is shown that the same design-control principles...

  13. Study of secondary X-rays from radiographic intensifying screens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barroso, R.C.; Eichler, J.; Lopes, R.T.; Cardoso, S.C.

    1998-01-01

    To reduce the radiation dose in radiology, fluorescent intensifying screens for X-ray films are used. They produce visible light which increases the efficiency of the film. In addition, there are two other effects that will degrade the image resolution. First, the gadolinium present in the screens produces X-rays isotropically. Second, the primary radiation can be scattered elastically (Rayleigh scattering) and inelastically (Compton scattering). The intensity and angular distribution of these secondary radiation were measured, showing that the ratio of secondary-to-primary radiation incident on the X-ray film is about 16%. (orig.)

  14. Selection of Rational Heat Transfer Intensifiers in the Heat Exchanger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Burtsev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the applicability of different types of heat transfer intensifiers in the heat exchange equipment. A review of the experimental and numerical works devoted to the intensification of the dimpled surface, surfaces with pins and internally ribbed surface were presented and data on the thermal-hydraulic characteristics of these surfaces were given. We obtained variation of thermal-hydraulic efficiency criteria for 4 different objective functions and 15 options for the intensification of heat transfer. This makes it possible to evaluate the advantages of the various heat transfer intensifiers. These equations show influence of thermal and hydraulic characteristics of the heat transfer intensifiers (the values of the relative heat transfer and drag coefficients on the basic parameters of the shell-and-tube heat exchanger: the number and length of the tubes, the volume of the heat exchanger matrix, the coolant velocity in the heat exchanger matrix, coolant flow rate, power to pump coolant (or pressure drop, the amount of heat transferred, as well as the average logarithmic temperature difference. The paper gives an example to compare two promising heat transfer intensifiers in the tubes and shows that choosing the required efficiency criterion to search for optimal heat exchanger geometry is of importance. Analysis is performed to show that a dimpled surface will improve the effectiveness of the heat exchanger despite the relatively small value of the heat transfer intensification, while a significant increase in drag of other heat transfer enhancers negatively affects their thermalhydraulic efficiency. For example, when comparing the target functions of reducing the heat exchanger volume, the data suggest that application of dimpled surfaces in various fields of technology is possible. But there are also certain surfaces that can reduce the parameters of a heat exchanger. It is shown that further work development should be aimed at

  15. Development of a 3-dimensional CT using an image intensifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyofuku, Fukai

    1992-01-01

    A prototype of three-dimensional CT (Fluoroscopic CT) has been developed using an image intensifier as a two-dimensional X-ray detector. A patient on a rotating table is projected onto an image intensifier by a cone beam of X-ray from the X-ray tube. A total of 390 projection images covering 180 degrees are acquired in a single scan (13 sec) and stored on a digital frame recorder (512 x 256 x 8-bit x 480). The transverse axial images are reconstructed by using the usual CT reconstruction algorithm, while longitudinal section images such as sagittal, coronal, oblique, and panoramic images are obtained by directly back-projecting the filtered projection image onto the sections. The radiation exposure was measured with an ionization chamber, and the exposure of the present fluoroscopic CT is about 10 to 20 times less than that of conventional X-ray CT. A similar monochromatic X-ray CT system has also been developed using synchrotron radiation. Large area parallel X-rays are obtained from a wiggler beam using a silicon crystal with [311] asymmetric reflection. By taking two images above and below iodine K-absorption edge (33.17 keV), iodine image is obtained. (author)

  16. Investment innovation trends: Factor-based investing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Centineo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This article shows that it can take a long period of time until research knowledge finds its application in practice and get disseminated as innovation trend. Factor-based investing is such an example. Having its developing roots in the nineties, it took more than two decades until this approach was detected by the by investment community. The goal of this article is to recall the definition of factor investing, present its historical evolvement and motivate its recent break-through and current trend among investment practitioners (known also under the notion smart beta. It aims at familiarizing with this investment approach from a practical perspective and highlighting its diversifying benefits in a portfolio context with the potential to outperform the market on risk-adjusted basis.

  17. Investment in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motooka, Takeshi

    1973-01-01

    The fundamental problems of investment in rural education in the present developing countries are analyzed. Needs of rural education are outlined and financial considerations related to investment in the improvement of rural educational programs are discussed. (SM)

  18. Quantitative investment analysis

    CERN Document Server

    DeFusco, Richard

    2007-01-01

    In the "Second Edition" of "Quantitative Investment Analysis," financial experts Richard DeFusco, Dennis McLeavey, Jerald Pinto, and David Runkle outline the tools and techniques needed to understand and apply quantitative methods to today's investment process.

  19. intensifying and reorienting transfer of low carbon technologies for climate change prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pisani-Ferry, Jean; Monange, Herve; Gorges, Delphine; Senne, Valerie; Roulle, Jean-Michel

    2013-10-01

    The transfer of 'low carbon' technologies is crucial in order to moderate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by developing countries, which are set to rise significantly. Their implementation will determine the success of a global agreement on climate change in 2015, and this is the task of the Technology Mechanism, created in 2010. This policy brief sets out the principal results of a study commissioned from the Mines ParisTech Industrial Economics Centre (CERNA). The study shows that, unlike China, Mexico, South Africa and, to a lesser extent, Brazil, India is currently left out of international flows of low carbon technologies transfer - it is therefore a top priority, as is the rest of developing Asia, Africa and Eastern Europe. To intensify these transfers, ambitious greenhouse gas emissions reduction policies need to be implemented and absorptive capacities need to be created in countries that receive such technologies. In emerging countries, which possess a genuine capacity for innovation, and which are involved in international trade, the strengthening of intellectual property rights and the lowering of barriers to trade and investment are to be recommended. However, in the least developed countries, emphasis must be placed on technology absorptive capacities and in particular on the development of a qualified labour force

  20. Optimal Responsible Investment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Pernille

    The paper studies retail Socially Responsible Investment and portfolio allocation. It extends conventional portfolio theory by allowing for a personal value based investment decision. When preferences for responsibility enter the framework for mean-variance analysis, it yields an optimal...... responsible investment model. An example of index investing illustrates the theory. Results show that it is crucial for the responsible investor to consider portfolio risk, expected return, and responsibility simultaneously in order to obtain an optimal portfolio. The model enables responsible investors...

  1. Investment in capital markets

    OpenAIRE

    Ledenyov, Dimitri O.; Ledenyov, Viktor O.

    2017-01-01

    Investment in Capital Markets creates a strategic vision on the financial capital investment in the capital markets with the aim to get an increased return premium in the short and long time periods. The book is written with a main goal to explain the pros and cons of the financial capital investment in the capital markets, discussing the sophisticated investment concepts and techniques in the simple understandable readable general format language. We would like to highlight the three interes...

  2. Pension Fund Investment Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Zvi Bodie

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to survey what is known about the investment policy of pension funds. Pension fund investment policy depends critically on the type of plan: defined contribution versus defined benefit. For defined contribution plans investment policy is not much different than it is for an individual deciding how to invest the money in an Individual Retirement Account (IRA). The guiding principle is efficient diversification, that is, achieving the maximum expected return for any...

  3. Corporate Governance and Its Impact on R&D Investment in Emerging Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rapp, Marc Steffen; A. Udoieva, Iuliia

    2017-01-01

    Corporate R&D activities are inherently risky but also difficult to monitor. Against this background, we examine the impact of ownership concentration and legal shareholder rights protection on corporate R&D investments in emerging markets. Based on a comprehensive sample of publicly listed firms...... shareholders to diversify their investment risks, is beneficial for corporate R&D and that this effect is intensified by more developed institutions....

  4. Sustainable Markets Investment Briefings: Foreign investment contracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotula, Lorenzo

    2007-08-15

    This is the fourth of a series of briefings which discuss the sustainable development issues raised by legal arrangements for the protection of foreign investment. The briefings are based on legal research by IIED and its partners. The goal is to provide accessible but accurate information for human rights, development and environmental organisations working on issues raised by foreign investment in low- and middle-income countries. Briefing 4 sets out some of the ways in which foreign investment contracts can impact on sustainable development.

  5. Quality control of image-intensifier television chains in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirinen, M.

    1989-01-01

    There are some 500 image-intensifier television (TV) chains connected to fluoroscopic units in Finland, most installed in the 1970s, although the oldest still in use date back to the late 1960s. To establish performance levels of the chains, 300 of them were assessed in 1982 by the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK). Results showed great diversity in the condition of the chains. The main reason was lack of periodical quality assurance of the chains. Recommendations for limits were established from results of assessing three parameters describing the condition of the chains: spatial resolution, automatically controlled dose-rate and contrast sensitivity. Recommendations also advise hospitals on how to arrange alternative quality assurance measurements and observations, either by hospital's maintenance staff, the manufacturer, or the supervising authority (STUK). Results following adoption of the recommendations by hospitals are presented. (author)

  6. Marfan syndrome gene search intensifies following identification of basic defect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randall, T.

    1990-10-03

    Somewhere, quite possible along chromosomes 8 and/or 15, the gene(s) for Marfan syndrome will be found. The search is intensifying following a report that faulty scaffolding in the body's connective tissue appears to be the long sought after defect behind the syndrome, and inherited disorder that has caused the premature death of young, healthy-looking individuals. Finding that something in the living masonry of the human body has proven to be a 30-year inquisition of nearly two dozen molecules that has engaged investigators worldwide. Historically, researchers have searched for a structural flaw in one of the collagen molecules to explain the cause of Marfan Syndrome. Using monoclonal antibodies, researchers have implicated microfibrils, the extracellular filaments that provide a matrix for the deposit of elastin during embryonic development.

  7. Sustainable and Intensified Design of a Biodiesel Production Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mansouri, Seyed Soheil; Ismail, Muhammad I.; Babi, Deenesh Kavi

    impact and maximum profitability is needed. In this work a computer-aided framework for process synthesis and process intensification is applied for sustainable production of biodiesel from pure/waste palm oil as the feedstock. This approach examines several biodiesel processing routes that were...... collected through available data and current technologies reported in the literature. Using this information, a generic superstructure of processing routes was created that described a network of configurations representing multiple designs for the production of biodiesel. Therefore, based on the currently...... of economic and environmental sustainability was identified. For the case of biodiesel production, the intensified process alternative turned out to be the most economical and more sustainable than other alternatives. The computer-aided methods and tools used in this work are: SustainPro (method and tool...

  8. Dynamic behavior of the intensified alternative configurations for quaternary distillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramirez-Marquez, Cesar; Cabrera-Ruiz, Julián; Juan Gabriel Segovia-Hernandez, Juan Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    Process intensification emerges as an important tool in the synthesis of multicomponent distillation configurations aimed at the reduction of the energy use and capital costs. Operational and fixed costs savings coupled with simplicity and controllability design configurations appear as an essent......Process intensification emerges as an important tool in the synthesis of multicomponent distillation configurations aimed at the reduction of the energy use and capital costs. Operational and fixed costs savings coupled with simplicity and controllability design configurations appear...... value decomposition technique in all frequency domain. In order to complete the control study, the distillation schemes were subjected to closed-loop dynamic simulations. The results show that there are cases in which the intensified sequences do not only provide energy savings, but also may offer...

  9. System Design and Performance Test of Hydraulic Intensifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyoung Eui; Lee, Gi Chun [Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jae Hoon [Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-07-15

    Components such as pressure vessel, hydraulic hose assembly, accumulator, hydraulic cylinder, hydraulic valve, pipe, etc., are tested under the impulse-pressure conditions prescribed in ISO and SAE standards. The impulse pressure test machine needs to have a high pressure, a precise control system and a long life. It should satisfy the requirements for fabrication of the impulse tester to generate ultra high pressure in the hydraulic system. In the impulse tester, a servo-valve control system is adopted; although the control application is convenient, it is expensive owing to the cost of developing the system. The type of the control system determines the pressure wave, which affects the components that are tested. In this study, the manufacturing process and the intensifier system design related to the flow, pressure, and the increasing rate of pressure are investigated. The results indicate the ultra high pressure waves in the system.

  10. New intensifying screens in clinical radiology. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freyschmidt, J.; Saure, D.; Hagemann, G.

    1976-01-01

    A clinically applicable procedure for testing new intensifying rare earth screens, as well as the special Siemens' screen is described. The results are related to universal screeens. The film-screen combination α 4XD (gadolinium oxysulphide with normal, green sensitive film) results in a reduction of radiation dose to half with detail comparable with universal screens. The Siemens' special screen has similar advantages. Screens with a higher intensification factor and reduction of the mAs to one sixth results in loss of detail. This does not necessarily reduce their clinical use if they are used for appropriate purposes. The results of this clinically orientated technique agreed well with physically objective methods using lead grids. The advantages of the new screens are discussed in terms of their practical application. (orig.) [de

  11. Ways of intensifying the conventional chamber carbonization of hard coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelagalli, M.

    1986-12-01

    The intensification measures are intended to reduce both the investment cost and the operating cost via an increased performance factor. Automation had good results both in coal blending and in process monitoring and control. Coal blending, compression, and partial briquetting extend the range of coking coals.

  12. Action Investment Energy Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Laursen, Simon; Srba, Jiri

    2012-01-01

    We introduce the formalism of action investment energy games where we study the trade-off between investments limited by given budgets and resource constrained (energy) behavior of the underlying system. More specifically, we consider energy games extended with costs of enabling actions and fixed...... budgets for each player. We ask the question whether for any Player 2 investment there exists a Player 1 investment such that Player 1 wins the resulting energy game. We study the action investment energy game for energy intervals with both upper and lower bounds, and with a lower bound only, and give...

  13. Optimal Responsible Investment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Pernille

    Numerous institutions are now engaged in Socially Responsible Investment or have signed the "UN Principles for Responsible Investment". Retail investors, however, are still lacking behind. This is peculiar since the sector constitutes key stakeholders in environmental, social and governmental...... standards. This paper considers optimal responsible investment for a small retail investor. It extends conventional portfolio theory by allowing for a personal-value based investment decision. Preferences for responsibility are defined in the framework of mean-variance analysis and an optimal responsible...... investment model identified. Implications of the altered investment problem are investigated when the dynamics between portfolio risk, expected return and responsibility is considered. Relying on the definition of a responsible investor, it is shown how superior investment opportunities can emerge when...

  14. Motor Neurons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hounsgaard, Jorn

    2017-01-01

    Motor neurons translate synaptic input from widely distributed premotor networks into patterns of action potentials that orchestrate motor unit force and motor behavior. Intercalated between the CNS and muscles, motor neurons add to and adjust the final motor command. The identity and functional...... in in vitro preparations is far from complete. Nevertheless, a foundation has been provided for pursuing functional significance of intrinsic response properties in motoneurons in vivo during motor behavior at levels from molecules to systems....

  15. Impacts of Intensified Agriculture Developments on Marsh Wetlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaoqing Luan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A spatiotemporal analysis on the changes in the marsh landscape in the Honghe National Nature Reserve, a Ramsar reserve, and the surrounding farms in the core area of the Sanjiang Plain during the past 30 years was conducted by integrating field survey work with remote sensing techniques. The results indicated that intensified agricultural development had transformed a unique natural marsh landscape into an agricultural landscape during the past 30 years. Ninety percent of the natural marsh wetlands have been lost, and the areas of the other natural landscapes have decreased very rapidly. Most dry farmland had been replaced by paddy fields during the progressive change of the natural landscape to a farm landscape. Attempts of current Chinese institutions in preserving natural wetlands have achieved limited success. Few marsh wetlands have remained healthy, even after the establishment of the nature reserve. Their ecological qualities have been declining in response to the increasing threats to the remaining wetland habitats. Irrigation projects play a key role in such threats. Therefore, the sustainability of the natural wetland ecosystems is being threatened by increased regional agricultural development which reduced the number of wetland ecotypes and damaged the ecological quality.

  16. Direct view panel type X-ray image intensifier tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, S.-P.; Robbins, C.D.; Merrit, E.

    1977-01-01

    A panel shaped, proximity type, X-ray image intensifier tube for medical X-ray fluoroscopy use is described. It has all linear components and yet a high brightness gain, in excess of 4,000 cd-sec/m 2 -R, the tube being comprised of a rugged metallic tube envelope, an inwardly concave metallic input window, a directly viewable full size output display screen, and a scintillator-photocathode screen having a thickness of at least 200 microns for a high X-ray photon utilization ability as well as X-ray stopping power, the scintillator-photocathode screen being suspended on insulators within the envelope and in between the input window and the output screen. The scintillator-photocathode screen is spaced from the output screen by at least 8mm to allow the application of a high negative potential at the scintillator-photocathode screen with respect to the output screen for high gain with low field emission, since all of the remaining components within the tube envelope are at neutral potential with respect to the output display screen. (Auth.)

  17. Social exclusion intensifies anxiety-like behavior in adolescent rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyunchan; Noh, Jihyun

    2015-05-01

    Social connection reduces the physiological reactivity to stressors, while social exclusion causes emotional distress. Stressful experiences in rats result in the facilitation of aversive memory and induction of anxiety. To determine the effect of social interaction, such as social connection, social exclusion and equality or inequality, on emotional change in adolescent distressed rats, the emotional alteration induced by restraint stress in individual rats following exposure to various social interaction circumstances was examined. Rats were assigned to one of the following groups: all freely moving rats, all rats restrained, rats restrained in the presence of freely moving rats and freely moving rats with a restrained rat. No significant difference in fear-memory and sucrose consumption between all groups was found. Change in body weight significantly increased in freely moving rats with a restrained rat, suggesting that those rats seems to share the stressful experience of the restrained rat. Interestingly, examination of the anxiety-like behavior revealed only rats restrained in the presence of freely moving rats to have a significant increase, suggesting that emotional distress intensifies in positions of social exclusion. These results demonstrate that unequally excluded social interaction circumstances could cause the amplification of distressed status and anxiety-related emotional alteration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Elite synchronized swimmers display decreased energy availability during intensified training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaal, K; Tiollier, E; Le Meur, Y; Casazza, G; Hausswirth, C

    2017-09-01

    Elite synchronized swimmers follow high-volume training regimen that result in elevated rates of exercise energy expenditure (ExEE). While adequate energy intake (EI) is important to optimize recovery, a number of sport-specific constraints may lead to chronically low energy availability (EA = EI-ExEE). This study aimed to quantify changes in EA, endocrine markers of energy conservation, and perceived fatigue in synchronized swimmers, during a week of baseline training followed by 4 weeks of intensified training (IT). EI, ExEE, and body composition were measured in nine swimmers at Baseline, midpoint (IT WK 2 ), and end of IT (IT WK 4 ). Waking saliva samples were obtained to measure [leptin] s , [ghrelin] s , and [cortisol] s . Fatigue ratings were provided daily. ExEE increased by 27% during IT. Swimmers increased EI from Baseline to IT WK 2 , but decreased it significantly from IT WK 2 to IT WK 4 . EA, fat mass, and [leptin] s decreased from Baseline to IT WK 4 , while [ghrelin] s increased significantly. Fatigue at IT WK 4 was inversely correlated with Baseline EI and EA. The significant decrease in EA was accompanied by endocrine signs of energy conservation in elite swimmers. As perceived fatigue was associated with low EA, particular attention should be paid to these athletes' energy intake during phases of heavy training. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Tide-surge Interaction Intensified by the Taiwan Strait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wen-Zhou; Shi, Fengyan; Hong, Hua-Sheng; Shang, Shao-Ping; Kirby, James T.

    2010-06-01

    The Taiwan Strait is a long and wide shelf-channel where the hydrodynamics is extremely complex, being characterized by strong tides, and where storm surges frequently occur during the typhoon season. Obvious oscillations due to tide-surge interaction were observed by tide gauges along the northern Fujian coast, the west bank of the Taiwan Strait, during Typhoon Dan (1999). Numerical experiments indicate that nonlinear bottom friction (described by the quadratic formula) is a major factor to predict these oscillations while the nonlinear advective terms and the shallow water effect have little contribution. It is found that the tide-surge interaction in the northern portion of the Taiwan Strait is intensified by the strait. Simulations based on simplified topographies with and without the island of Taiwan show that, in the presence of the island, the channel effect strengthens tidal currents and tends to align the major axes of tidal ellipses along the channel direction. Storm-induced currents are also strengthened by the channel. The pattern of strong tidal currents and storm-induced currents along the channel direction enhances tide-surge interaction via the nonlinear bottom friction, resulting in the obvious oscillations along the northern Fujian coast.

  20. 40° image intensifier tubes in an integrated helmet system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreyer, Herbert; Boehm, Hans-Dieter V.; Svedevall, B.

    1993-12-01

    EUROCOPTER has been under contract to the French and German ministries of defence for five years to develop the TIGER, a second generation anti-tank helicopter. A piloting thermal imager has been installed on a steerable platform in the helicopter nose in order to achieve the possibility of flying round the clock. In addition to this sensor, which is sensitive at a wavelength of 10 micrometers , the German side has proposed using an Integrated Helmet System in the PAH 2. This helmet, manufactured by GEC-Marconi Avionics, incorporates two cathode ray tubes (CRT) and two image intensifier tubes which allow the pilot to use an additional sensor in the visible and near infrared spectrum. The electronic part will be built by Teldix. EUROCOPTER DEUTSCHLAND has received the first demonstrator of this helmet for testing in the EUROCOPTER Visionics Laboratory. Later, the C-prototype will be integrated into a BK 117 helicopter (AVT Avionik Versuchstrager). This new helmet has a field of view of 40 degree(s), and exit pupil of 15 mm and improved possibilities of adjusting the optical part. Laboratory tests have been carried out to test important parameters like optical resolution under low light level conditions, field of view, eye relief or exit pupil. The CRT channels have been tested for resolution, distortion, vignetting and homogeneity. The requirements and the properties of the helmet, test procedures and the results of these tests are presented in the paper.

  1. X-ray image intensifier camera tubes and semiconductor targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    A semiconductor target for use in an image intensifier camera tube and a camera using the target are described. The semiconductor wafer for converting an electron image onto electrical signal consists mainly of a collector region, preferably n-type silicon. It has one side for receiving the electron image and an opposite side for storing charge carriers generated in the collector region by high energy electrons forming a charge image. The first side comprises a highly doped surface layer covered with a metal buffer layer permeable to the incident electrons and thick enough to dissipate some of the incident electron energy thereby improving the signal-to-noise ratio. This layer comprises beryllium on niobium on the highly doped silicon surface zone. Low energy Kα X-ray radiation is generated in the first layer, the radiation generated in the second layer (mainly Lα radiation) is strongly absorbed in the silicon layer. A camera tube using such a target with a photocathode for converting an X-ray image into an electron image, means to project this image onto the first side of the semiconductor wafer and means to read out the charge pattern on the second side are also described. (U.K.)

  2. Determinants of Discretionary Investments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. Sujit

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical and empirical studies have focused on discretionary investments such as research and development (R&D and advertisement as value-creating activities. This empirical research article examines the determinants of the discretionary investment policy of food sector firms in India. The study aims to analyze the impact of financial policies and firm characteristics on the discretionary investment strategy of the food industry firms. The article uses the partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM to understand the drivers of discretionary investment policy of food sector firms. The study finds that investment policy of firms is a major determinant of profitability of food sector firms. Higher investments in capital expenditures and working capital result in higher profitability. Management efficiency significantly influences firm profitability. The results suggest that riskier firms in food sector might focus on R&D investments as a strategy to generate more cash flows. Size of firm is negatively related to R&D intensity. Smaller firms in food sector tend to invest more in R&D. The study does not provide evidence to suggest that profitable firms invest more in R&D activities.

  3. Investment and uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greasley, David; Madsen, Jakob B.

    2006-01-01

    A severe collapse of fixed capital formation distinguished the onset of the Great Depression from other investment downturns between the world wars. Using a model estimated for the years 1890-2000, we show that the expected profitability of capital measured by Tobin's q, and the uncertainty...... surrounding expected profits indicated by share price volatility, were the chief influences on investment levels, and that heightened share price volatility played the dominant role in the crucial investment collapse in 1930. Investment did not simply follow the downward course of income at the onset...

  4. INVESTMENT FUNDS IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    COPIL CRINA ANGELA

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available I chose this topic because my goal was to capture in detail all aspects of the evolution of investment funds under the influence of factors leading to globalization of the banking financial market. Main motivation was that I proposed to present in an original manner the concept of investment in mutual funds by the thoroughness of the following points: the different types of investment funds from Romania, the advantages, the risks and the specific costs of the investment in mutual funds and the effects of the financial crisis on the industry of the investment funds on the national level. The financial crisis and the risk of infecting the global economy affected the taste of risk of the investors and their request for the investment fund, determining the orientation of the investors to the funds with a lower risk – the diversified funds, the funds of bonds and the monetary funds. I considered important the theoretical approach of the concept of investments in investment funds because they are a barometer of the macro economical stability, in case the economical increase is positive on the macro economical level the investments in investments funds are increasing too. In Romania the market of the mutual funds is at an incipient level, but with potential and perspectives of development. Due to the bankruptcy of FNI in the beginning of the years 2000 and due to the absence of a clear legislation regarding the calculation of the unitary value of the net asset and the control of the activity developed by the investment funds, the development of the industry of the investment funds had to fight against the crisis of credibility generated by these events. The convergence of the Romanian economy to the European standards will attract also a modification of the structure of the financial investments of the individuals, by an increase of the investments in funds. In the world the investment funds are preferred by the investors for their advantages

  5. 21 CFR 892.1650 - Image-intensified fluoroscopic x-ray system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... fluoroscopic x-ray system. (a) Identification. An image-intensified fluoroscopic x-ray system is a device... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Image-intensified fluoroscopic x-ray system. 892... equipment, patient and equipment supports, component parts, and accessories. (b) Classification. Class II...

  6. 21 CFR 892.1660 - Non-image-intensified fluoroscopic x-ray system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... fluoroscopic x-ray system. (a) Identification. A non-image-intensified fluoroscopic x-ray system is a device... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Non-image-intensified fluoroscopic x-ray system... display equipment, patient and equipment supports, component parts, and accessories. (b) Classification...

  7. [Mirror neurons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubia Vila, Francisco José

    2011-01-01

    Mirror neurons were recently discovered in frontal brain areas of the monkey. They are activated when the animal makes a specific movement, but also when the animal observes the same movement in another animal. Some of them also respond to the emotional expression of other animals of the same species. These mirror neurons have also been found in humans. They respond to or "reflect" actions of other individuals in the brain and are thought to represent the basis for imitation and empathy and hence the neurobiological substrate for "theory of mind", the potential origin of language and the so-called moral instinct.

  8. Indicators of responsible investing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens, Bert

    Responsible investment has witnessed significant changes in the past decade. It is estimated that about one fifth of assets under management in the US and about half of all assets under management in the EU are done on the basis of one of the seven responsible investment strategies. This paper

  9. Missouri airport investment study

    Science.gov (United States)

    The studys purpose is to provide MoDOT with insight to the potential ROI for airport : investments in terms of economic development. To do so, this study addresses two central : objectives: first, an approach to evaluate airport investments; and s...

  10. RUSSIAN INDUSTRY INVESTMENT SITUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Pochukaeva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The actual deficiency of investment into Russian industry innovative development increases its technological drag from industries of countries with developed markets. Although the rate of investment into real sectors of Russian economics mid 2000 was higher compared to the previous period, annual investment amounts were much lower than in 1990. At present, highest investment amounts are directed to industry extractive branches and to the commerce. Amounts invested to various economy branches do not correspond to their contribution to the country’sGross Added Product; particularly underinvested are manufacturing industry branches. At present, foreign share in the country economy total investment makes 15–18%. Recently, most interesting for foreigners was investment to machine-building branches with overwhelming part (for example, 90% in 2007–2008 of foreign investment into the machine-building industry being directed to creation of new automobile plants. Today, first place in the list of foreign investors’ preferences in Russia is taken by the machine-tool construction sector.

  11. Investment for food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenveld, D.

    1961-01-01

    Groenveld attempted to show the magnitude of investments in agriculture, which were necessary to meet the increasing world demand for food. The formula S = K/Y (ΔN +ΔH) was assumed as a description that for a community the proportion of national income saved and invested must equal the product of

  12. Considerations in Duplex Investment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Arthur; Goen, Tom

    Problems of duplex investment are noted in the introduction to this booklet designed to provide a technique by which the investment decision can be approached, develop estimates of typical costs and returns under differing conditions, and encourage investors to analyze objectives and conditions before the decision to buy or build is made. A…

  13. The Investment Policy Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griswold, John S.; Jarvis, William F.

    2011-01-01

    Successful investing for long-term funds requires a strategic plan. This is true despite--indeed, because of--the fact that the future is unknowable. The plan must be specific, embodying in concrete terms the best thinking of the board of trustees about the investment pool, its goals and purposes; but it also needs to be sufficiently flexible to…

  14. Predator cannibalism can intensify negative impacts on heterospecific prey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takatsu, Kunio; Kishida, Osamu

    2015-07-01

    Although natural populations consist of individuals with different traits, and the degree of phenotypic variation varies among populations, the impact of phenotypic variation on ecological interactions has received little attention, because traditional approaches to community ecology assume homogeneity of individuals within a population. Stage structure, which is a common way of generating size and developmental variation within predator populations, can drive cannibalistic interactions, which can affect the strength of predatory effects on the predator's heterospecific prey. Studies have shown that predator cannibalism weakens predatory effects on heterospecific prey by reducing the size of the predator population and by inducing less feeding activity of noncannibal predators. We predict, however, that predator cannibalism, by promoting rapid growth of the cannibals, can also intensify predation pressure on heterospecific prey, because large predators have large resource requirements and may utilize a wider variety of prey species. To test this hypothesis, we conducted an experiment in which we created carnivorous salamander (Hynobius retardatus) populations with different stage structures by manipulating the salamander's hatch timing (i.e., populations with large or small variation in the timing of hatching), and explored the resultant impacts on the abundance, behavior, morphology, and life history of the salamander's large heterospecific prey, Rana pirica frog tadpoles. Cannibalism was rare in salamander populations having small hatch-timing variation, but was frequent in those having large hatch-timing variation. Thus, giant salamander cannibals occurred only in the latter. We clearly showed that salamander giants exerted strong predation pressure on frog tadpoles, which induced large behavioral and morphological defenses in the tadpoles and caused them to metamorphose late at large size. Hence, predator cannibalism arising from large variation in the timing

  15. Competition in investment banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrina Ellis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We construct a comprehensive measure of overall investment banking competitiveness for follow-on offerings that aggregates the various dimensions of competition such as fees, pricing accuracy, analyst recommendations, distributional abilities, market making prowess, debt offering capabilities, and overall reputation. The measure allows us to incorporate trade-offs that investment banks may use in competing for new or established clients. We find that firms who switch to similar-quality underwriters enjoy more intense competition among investment banks which manifests in lower fees and more optimistic recommendations. Investment banks do compete vigorously for some clients, with the level of competition related to the likelihood of gaining or losing clients. Finally, investment banks not performing up to market norms are more likely to be dropped in the follow-on offering. In contrast, firms who seek a higher reputation underwriter face relatively non-competitive markets.

  16. Marginal costs for intensified energy-efficiency measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakob, J.; Jochem, E.; Christen, K.

    2002-01-01

    The costs and benefits of investments in measures designed to improve the energy efficiency of residential buildings (in particular investments in heat insulation) were calculated as a function of increasing energy efficiency for new and renovated buildings and for single-family homes and apartment buildings. These investments in measures to improve efficiency mostly involve with the building envelope and ventilation systems and aim to successively reduce the space-heating needs of the buildings. The measures range from present-day building and renovation methods through to the 'Minergie' and 'Passive House' ('Minergie-P' in Switzerland) standards for low and very-low energy consumption buildings. Cost-benefit ratios were determined for individual building components, individual building concepts and for the whole of Switzerland, using both the average-cost as well as the pure marginal-cost methods (energy-economics level). The collection of empirical data (especially on costs) was an integral and important part of the project. The marginal costs were then compared with the benefits arising from the costs for space heating that were avoided, and, using a few typical cases as examples, with the so-called co-benefits, which are to be implemented in part by private persons and companies. For their quantification, methods were developed and used in case studies; in addition, avoided external costs are also considered. The marginal costs were also calculated for periods of time in the future, whereby they were made dynamic, according to their share of innovation, using the learning-curve method (learning and scaling effects). As far as the findings are concerned, there can be no doubt that the potential to be opened up for increasing energy efficiency using heat insulation measures is high, both for renovations and new construction work. A large portion of this potential is already economically viable and even more so when the possible risks of energy price increases

  17. The mirror neuron system : New frontiers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keysers, Christian; Fadiga, Luciano

    2008-01-01

    Since the discovery of mirror neurons, much effort has been invested into Studying their location and properties in the human brain. Here we review these original findings and introduce the Main topics of this special issue of Social Neuroscience. What does the mirror system code? How is the mirror

  18. Energy investments and employment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-08-01

    A study was conducted to assess the effect that different energy options would have on provincial and regional employment prospects in British Columbia. Current and future economic and employment patterns were examined to develop a more detailed understanding of the skills, age, gender, location, and other characteristics of British Columbia workers. Over 40 previous studies examining the energy/employment relationship were also reviewed. Based on this review and an analysis of the province's economic and labor conditions, the following conclusions are drawn. Investment in non-energy sectors offers better prospects for reducing unemployment than investment in the energy sector, whether for new supply or improving efficiency. Investments in the energy sector provide fewer jobs than investments in most other sectors of the economy. Among the available electricity supply options, large hydroelectric projects tend to produce the fewest jobs per investment dollar. Smaller thermal projects such as wood residue plants produce the most jobs. If and when more energy is needed in British Columbia, the most cost-effective combination of energy supply and efficiency options will also create the most jobs. Compared to traditional energy supply options, investments in energy efficiency would create about twice as many total jobs, create jobs that better match the skills of the province's unemployed and its population distribution, and create jobs that last longer on the average. Construction-related measures such as improved insulation tend to produce more jobs per investment dollar than the substitution of more energy-efficient equipment. 69 refs., 9 tabs

  19. INVESTMENT ATTRACTIVENESS OF ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadiia Davydenko

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the article the approaches to defining the essence of the concept of “investment attractiveness of enterprises” were analyzed. On the example of "Agrofirm Brusilov" depth analysis of the agricultural enterprises to evaluate of profitability, liquidity, solvency, financial stability, the timing of the return of invested funds and minimizing investment risks was conducted. To study methods of rating and system analysis were used. To justify the conditions of  increasing investment attractiveness farms method of scoring was used. It was established as a result of the use of integrated evaluation of the financial position one can see problem aspects of financial position of the company and develop measures to enhance liquidity, solvency, identify potential for raising the efficiency of company and prevention of financial crisis. The analysis of financial position showed that the management of the enterprise doesn’t  think  about  financial stability and solvency, does not understand the benefit of borrowed capital. Using research results in practice of agricultural enterprises allows us to give a real evaluation of investment attractiveness and justify ways to improve it. Key words: investments, investment attractiveness, potential business, financial position.

  20. Irreversible investments revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandal, Leif K.; Steinshamn, Stein I.; Hoff, Ayoe

    2007-01-01

    A multi-dimensional, non-linear dynamic model in continuous time is presented for the purpose of finding the optimal combination of exploitation and capital investment in optimal renewable resource management. Non-malleability of capital is incorporated in the model through an asymmetric cost......-function of investment, and investments can be both positive and negative. Exploitation is controlled through the utilisation rate of available capital. A novel feature in this model is that there are costs associated with the available capital whether it is utilised or not. And, in contrast to most of the previous...

  1. [Influence of human body target's spectral characteristics on visual range of low light level image intensifiers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun-Ju; Yang, Wen-Bin; Xu, Hui; Liu, Lei; Tao, Yuan-Yaun

    2013-11-01

    To study the effect of different human target's spectral reflective characteristic on low light level (LLL) image intensifier's distance, based on the spectral characteristics of the night-sky radiation and the spectral reflective coefficients of common clothes, we established a equation of human body target's spectral reflective distribution, and analyzed the spectral reflective characteristics of different human targets wearing the clothes of different color and different material, and from the actual detection equation of LLL image intensifier distance, discussed the detection capability of LLL image intensifier for different human target. The study shows that the effect of different human target's spectral reflective characteristic on LLL image intensifier distance is mainly reflected in the average reflectivity rho(-) and the initial contrast of the target and the background C0. Reflective coefficient and spectral reflection intensity of cotton clothes are higher than polyester clothes, and detection capability of LLL image intensifier is stronger for the human target wearing cotton clothes. Experimental results show that the LLL image intensifiers have longer visual ranges for targets who wear cotton clothes than targets who wear same color but polyester clothes, and have longer visual ranges for targets who wear light-colored clothes than targets who wear dark-colored clothes. And in the full moon illumination conditions, LLL image intensifiers are more sensitive to the clothes' material.

  2. Development of multi-color scintillator based X-ray image intensifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nittoh, Koichi; Konagai, Chikara; Noji, Takashi

    2004-01-01

    A multi-color scintillator based high-sensitive, wide dynamic range and long-life X-ray image intensifier has been developed. An europium activated Y 2 O 2 S scintillator, emitting red, green and blue photons of different intensities, is utilized as the output fluorescent screen of the intensifier. By combining this image intensifier with a suitably tuned high sensitive color CCD camera, it is possible for a sensitivity of the red color component to become six times higher than that of the conventional image intensifier. Simultaneous emission of a moderate green color and a weak blue color covers different sensitivity regions. This widens the dynamic range, by nearly two orders of ten. With this image intensifier, it is possible to image simultaneously complex objects containing various different X-ray transmission from paper, water or plastic to heavy metals. This high sensitivity intensifier, operated at lower X-ray exposure, causes less degradation of scintillator materials and less colorization of output screen glass, and thus helps achieve a longer lifetime. This color scintillator based image intensifier is being introduced for X-ray inspection in various fields

  3. Characterization study of an intensified complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor active pixel sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, J. A.; Chen, D.; Turchetta, R.; Royle, G. J.

    2011-03-01

    An intensified CMOS active pixel sensor (APS) has been constructed for operation in low-light-level applications: a high-gain, fast-light decay image intensifier has been coupled via a fiber optic stud to a prototype "VANILLA" APS, developed by the UK based MI3 consortium. The sensor is capable of high frame rates and sparse readout. This paper presents a study of the performance parameters of the intensified VANILLA APS system over a range of image intensifier gain levels when uniformly illuminated with 520 nm green light. Mean-variance analysis shows the APS saturating around 3050 Digital Units (DU), with the maximum variance increasing with increasing image intensifier gain. The system's quantum efficiency varies in an exponential manner from 260 at an intensifier gain of 7.45 × 103 to 1.6 at a gain of 3.93 × 101. The usable dynamic range of the system is 60 dB for intensifier gains below 1.8 × 103, dropping to around 40 dB at high gains. The conclusion is that the system shows suitability for the desired application.

  4. Petroleum investment conditions in Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Schreck, M.

    1996-01-01

    This report focuses on the current petroleum investment conditions in Peru, and Peru's hydrocarbon potential. Investment conditions are examined, and political risk, internal security, the economic environment, and the legal framework for investment are considered. (UK)

  5. Environment, Trade, and Investment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environment, trade, and investment are fundamentally linked as the environment provides many basic inputs of economic activity – forests, fisheries, metals, minerals – as well as the energy used to process those materials.

  6. Socially responsible investment engagement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goessling, T.; Buijter, Bas; Freeman, R.E.; Kujala, J.; Sachs, S.

    2017-01-01

    This study explores engagement in socially responsible investment (SRI) processes. More specifically, it researches the impact of shareholder salience on the success of engagement activities. The research question asks: What is the relationship between shareholder salience and engagement effort

  7. Multimodal freight investment criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Literature was reviewed on multi-modal investment criteria for freight projects, examining measures and techniques for quantifying project benefits and costs, as well as ways to describe the economic importance of freight transportation. : A limited ...

  8. Sanitation investments in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Awunyo-Akaba, Y.; Awunyo-Akaba, J.; Gyapong, M.

    2016-01-01

    with people’s willingness and ability to invest in household sanitation across all communities. The status of being a stranger i.e. migrant in the area left some populations without rights over the land they occupied and with low incentives to invest in sanitation, while indigenous communities were challenged......Background: Ghana’s low investment in household sanitation is evident from the low rates of improved sanitation. This study analysed how land ownership, tenancy security and livelihood patterns are related to sanitation investments in three adjacent rural and peri-urban communities in a district...... communities were triangulated with multiple interview material and contextual knowledge on social structures, history of settlement, land use, livelihoods, and access to and perceptions about sanitation. Results: This study shows that the history of settlement and land ownership issues are highly correlated...

  9. Parental Investments in Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonke, Jens; Esping-Andersen, Gösta

    This study examines parental time investment in their children, distinguishing between developmental and non-developmental care. Our analyses centre on three influential determinants: educational background, marital homogamy, and spouses’ relative bargaining power. We find that the emphasis...

  10. Investment, regulation, and uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Stuart J; McDonald, Jillian; Falck-Zepeda, Jose

    2014-01-01

    As with any technological innovation, time refines the technology, improving upon the original version of the innovative product. The initial GM crops had single traits for either herbicide tolerance or insect resistance. Current varieties have both of these traits stacked together and in many cases other abiotic and biotic traits have also been stacked. This innovation requires investment. While this is relatively straight forward, certain conditions need to exist such that investments can be facilitated. The principle requirement for investment is that regulatory frameworks render consistent and timely decisions. If the certainty of regulatory outcomes weakens, the potential for changes in investment patterns increases.   This article provides a summary background to the leading plant breeding technologies that are either currently being used to develop new crop varieties or are in the pipeline to be applied to plant breeding within the next few years. Challenges for existing regulatory systems are highlighted. Utilizing an option value approach from investment literature, an assessment of uncertainty regarding the regulatory approval for these varying techniques is undertaken. This research highlights which technology development options have the greatest degree of uncertainty and hence, which ones might be expected to see an investment decline. PMID:24499745

  11. Intensified coastal development in beach-nourishment zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, E.; Armstrong, S.; Limber, P. W.; Goldstein, E. B.; Ballinger, R.

    2016-12-01

    Population density, housing development, and property values in coastal counties along the U.S. Atlantic and Gulf Coasts continue to rise despite increasing hazard from storm impacts. Beach nourishment, a method for mitigating coastal storm damage or chronic erosion by deliberately replacing sand on an eroded beach, has been the leading form of coastal protection in the U.S. since the 1970s. However, investment in hazard protection can have the unintended consequence of encouraging development in places especially vulnerable to damage. To quantitatively compare development in nourishing and non-nourishing zones, we examine the parcel-scale housing stock of all shorefront single-family homes in the state of Florida. We find that houses in nourishing zones are significantly larger and more numerous than in non-nourishing zones. Florida represents both an advanced case of coastal risk and an exemplar of ubiquitous, fundamental challenges in coastal management. The predominance of larger homes in nourishing zones indicates a positive feedback between nourishment and development that is compounding coastal risk in zones already characterized by high vulnerability. We offer that this phenomenon represents a variant of Jevons' paradox, a theoretical argument from environmental economics in which more efficient use of a resource spurs an increase in its consumption. Here, we suggest reductions in coastal risk through hazard protection are ultimately offset or reversed by increased coastal development.

  12. Neurons other than motor neurons in motor neuron disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffoli, Riccardo; Biagioni, Francesca; Busceti, Carla L; Gaglione, Anderson; Ryskalin, Larisa; Gambardella, Stefano; Frati, Alessandro; Fornai, Francesco

    2017-11-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is typically defined by a loss of motor neurons in the central nervous system. Accordingly, morphological analysis for decades considered motor neurons (in the cortex, brainstem and spinal cord) as the neuronal population selectively involved in ALS. Similarly, this was considered the pathological marker to score disease severity ex vivo both in patients and experimental models. However, the concept of non-autonomous motor neuron death was used recently to indicate the need for additional cell types to produce motor neuron death in ALS. This means that motor neuron loss occurs only when they are connected with other cell types. This concept originally emphasized the need for resident glia as well as non-resident inflammatory cells. Nowadays, the additional role of neurons other than motor neurons emerged in the scenario to induce non-autonomous motor neuron death. In fact, in ALS neurons diverse from motor neurons are involved. These cells play multiple roles in ALS: (i) they participate in the chain of events to produce motor neuron loss; (ii) they may even degenerate more than and before motor neurons. In the present manuscript evidence about multi-neuronal involvement in ALS patients and experimental models is discussed. Specific sub-classes of neurons in the whole spinal cord are reported either to degenerate or to trigger neuronal degeneration, thus portraying ALS as a whole spinal cord disorder rather than a disease affecting motor neurons solely. This is associated with a novel concept in motor neuron disease which recruits abnormal mechanisms of cell to cell communication.

  13. Investing in river health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, J

    2002-01-01

    Rivers provide society with numerous returns. These relate to both the passive and extractive uses of the resources embodied in river environments. Some returns are manifest in the form of financial gains whilst others are non-monetary. For instance, rivers are a source of monetary income for those who harvest their fish. The water flowing in rivers is extracted for drinking and to water crops and livestock that in turn yield monetary profits. However, rivers are also the source of non-monetary values arising from biological diversity. People who use them for recreation (picnicking, swimming, boating) also receive non-monetary returns. The use of rivers to yield these returns has had negative consequences. With extraction for financial return has come diminished water quantity and quality. The result has been a diminished capacity of rivers to yield (non-extractive) environmental returns and to continue to provide extractive values. A river is like any other asset. With use, the value of an asset depreciates because its productivity declines. In order to maintain the productive capacity of their assets, managers put aside from their profits depreciation reserves that can be invested in the repair or replacement of those assets. Society now faces a situation in which its river assets have depreciated in terms of their capacity to provide monetary and non-monetary returns. An investment in river "repair" is required. But, investment means that society gives up something now in order to achieve some benefit in the future. Society thus has to grapple wih the choice between investing in river health and other investments--such as in hospitals, schools, defence etc. - as well as between investing in river health and current consumption--such as on clothes, food, cars etc. A commonly used aid for investment decision making in the public sector is benefit cost analysis. However, its usefulness in tackling the river investment problem is restricted because it requires all

  14. Japanese investment in Peru: limits of developmental investment

    OpenAIRE

    Kamiya, Marco

    2004-01-01

    Japanese Investment in Latin America was considerable in the 1960s and 1970s, but the investment never took off in the developmental style as in East Asia. The author examines why Japanese Foreign Direct Investment in Peru did not follow the pattern of developmental investment, analyzing the elements involved regarding policies in Peru and particular circumstances in Japan in the 1990 decade.

  15. Examination of the lumbar vertebral column using large-screen image intensifier photofluorography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soimakallio, S.; Manninen, H.; Mahlamaeki, S.; Kuopio Central Hospital

    1985-01-01

    The OPTILUX 57 device with its large image intensifying screen is very efficient in visualizing the lumbar vertebrae. The article explains the techniques and summarizes results obtained in the examination of young sportsmen. (orig.) [de

  16. An alternative approach to contrast-detail testing of X-ray image intensifier systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotre, C.J.; Marshall, N.W.; Faulkner, K.

    1992-01-01

    The difficulties of making the results of threshold contrast-detail diameter tests on X-ray image intensifier systems consistent with published performance standards are discussed. The current approach to contrast-detail testing is described and an alternative method intended to give greater consistency for all image intensifier input field diameters proposed. The current and alternative test conditions are compared on two image intensifier systems. The results obtained show that the contrast-detail curves for image intensifier systems with a wide range of input field diameters can be effectively normalized to be directly comparable to a common reference standard by applying the proposed alternative test conditions. The implications of this result on the interpretation of the contrast-detail test are discussed. (author)

  17. Digital image intensifier radiography. One year's experience with a Polytron system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busch, H.P.; Lehmann, K.J.; Georgi, M.

    1989-01-01

    Since January 1988, digital image intensifier radiography has been used in the Clinic in Mannheim for DSA examinations and also in place of conventional screen/film examinations. Measurements have shown that compared with 100 mm and film/screen formats, digital radiography has poorer spatial resolution, but improved contrast resolution. The most common use of digital radiography was for examinations of the gastrointestinal tract. Using the demonstration of the mucosal fine relief pattern as a criterion of image quality, digital image intensifier radiography was able to achieve this satisfactorily. Comparison with film/screen examinations showed no loss of diagnostic information. Advantages of image intensifier radiography are reduced radiation dose, the possibility of postprocessing and economy. On the basis of 399 examinations, digital image intensifier radiography is now firmly established as part of the daily routine of the Mannheim Clinic. (orig.) [de

  18. A year's experience with a 57 cm image intensifier in a general X-ray room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgi, M.; Prager, P.; Busch, H.P.; Strauss, L.; Wetzel, E.; Neumann, D.; Weiher, M.; Regenfuss, W.

    1985-01-01

    3342 patients were examined by means of a 57 cm image intensifier during one year. The installation permits examination with the patient standing or lying. The resolution was measured with a lead grid under conditions resembling actual practice and were found to be similar to those obtained with angiographic equipment. Using a medium format technique for examining the gut and vascular system resulted in radiographic quality which was not significantly different from the use of a large format technique. For examination of the skeleton, radiographic quality, using the intensifier, was markedly poorer than that resulting from Bucky examinations. There was no diagnostic difference when carrying out lymphograms. The large intensifier window of 53 cm was particularly advantageous for DSA of the pelvic and lower limb vessels when compared with smaller intensifiers. Possible savings of film and contrast medium costs are discussed. (orig.) [de

  19. Examination of the lumbar vertebral column using large-screen image intensifier photofluorography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soimakallio, S.; Manninen, H.; Mahlamaeki, S.

    1985-01-01

    The OPTILUX 57 device with its large image intensifying screen is very efficient in visualizing the lumbar vertebrae. The article explains the techniques and summarizes results obtained in the examination of young sportsmen.

  20. Pick up screens for x-ray image intensifier tubes employing evaporated activated scintillator layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spicer, W.E.

    1976-01-01

    The present invention relates in general to methods for making pick-up screens for x-ray image intensifier tubes and, more particularly, to an improved method wherein the x-ray fluorescent phosphor screen element is formed by evaporation of an alkali metal halide material in vacuum and condensing the evaporated material on an x-ray transparent portion of the x-ray intensifier tube, whereby a curved x-ray image pick-up screen is formed which has improved quantum efficiency and resolution. Such improved x-ray image intensifier tubes are especially useful for, but not limited in use to x-ray systems and for intensifying gamma ray images obtained in applications of nuclear medicine. 7 claims, 5 drawing figures

  1. Essays in Investment Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobtcheff, C.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis analyzes different aspects of the investment decision. In the first chapter, we consider an economy in which different energy sources may produce electricity. The model focuses first on the optimal use of a hydroelectric dam from which water can be extracted and which is supplied with a random water flow. The presence of constraints on a minimal and on a maximal storage capacity makes electricity consumption smoothing possible only when the quantity of water available to the agent lies in a certain range that we determine. In a second stage, we introduce a second energy source with unlimited supply at some exogenous cost. The marginal propensity to produce hydroelectricity is an increasing function of the second technology cost. The availability at a low cost of the alternative source improves thus time diversification. Finally, the optimal electric park is composed of a number of dams that is increasing with the cost of the second technology. Chapter 2 studies the decision of an investor who wants to undertake an irreversible investment when he has the choice between two mutually exclusive projects that present input price and/or output price uncertainty. We prove that the investor decides not to invest in any project when each investment generates the same payoff independently of its size. Therefore, some inaction region appears in which the investor prefers not to invest whereas an immediate investment would have been optimal if no choice had been available: a 'choice value' is thus created. A key feature of this bidimensional degree of uncertainty is thus that the payoff generated by each project is not a sufficient statistic to make a rational investment. In this context, our analysis provides a new motive for waiting to invest: the benefits associated with the dominance of one project over the other. In chapter 3, we study the investment decision problem of a duo-poly with price competition on a market of finite size driven by stochastic taste

  2. Foreign Direct Investment versus Portfolio Investment : A Global Games Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Yamin Ahmad; Pietro Cova; Rodrigo Harrison

    2004-01-01

    We present a model of investment under uncertainty about fundamentals, using a global games approach. Goldstein & Razin (2003) show that there is an information based trade-off between foreign direct investment (FDI) and portfolio investment (PI) which rationalizes some well known stylised facts in the literature - the relative volatility and reversibility of foreign direct investment versus portfolio investment. We extend their result and show that uncertainty about fundamentals does not imp...

  3. Investment shocks and the relative price of investment

    OpenAIRE

    Justiniano, Alejandro; Primiceri, Giorgio E.; Tambalotti, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    We estimate a New-Neoclassical Synthesis model of the business cycle with two investment shocks. The first, an investment-specific technology shock, affects the transformation of consumption into investment goods and is identified with the relative price of investment. The second shock affects the production of installed capital from investment goods or, more broadly, the transformation of savings into future capital input. We find that this shock is the most important driver of U.S. business...

  4. Are Foreign Investments Replacing Domestic Investments? - Evidence from Finnish Manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Oksanen, Olli-Pekka

    2006-01-01

    This study analyses the relationship between firms’ foreign and domestic investments using a panel dataset containing 218 Finnish manufacturing firms during the years 1998-2002. The study examines whether foreign investments increase or decrease domestic investments and whether the effect varies between investments directed to developed markets or emerging markets. Financial constraints’ effect on the relationship is also investigated. The empirical part estimates an empirical investment equa...

  5. Effects of intensified training and taper on immune function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Papacosta

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Although resting immune function is not very different in athletes compared with non-athletes periods of intensified training (overreaching in already well trained athletes can result in a depression of immunity in the resting state. Illness-prone athletes appear to have an altered cytokine response to antigen stimulation and exercise. Having low levels of salivary IgA secretion also makes athletes more susceptible to upper respiratory tract infections. Overtraining is associated with recurrent infections and immunodepression is common, but immune functions do not seem to be reliable markers of impending overtraining. There are several possible causes of the diminution of immune function associated with periods of heavy training. One mechanism may simply be the cumulative effects of repeated bouts of intense exercise (with or without tissue damage with the consequent elevation of stress hormones, particularly glucocorticoids such as cortisol, causing temporary inhibition of TH-1 cytokines with a relative dampening of the cell-mediated response. When exercise is repeated frequently there may not be sufficient time for the immune system to recover fully. Tapering has been described as a gradual reduction in the training load which allows the recovery of physiological capacities that were impaired by previous intensive training and permits further training-induced adaptations to occur accompanied by competition performance enhancements. The majority of the studies that have examined the recovery of immunoendocrine responses during 1-3 week tapers in trained athletes have mainly reported enhanced performance, often accompanied by increased anabolic activity, reduced physiological stress and restoration of mucosal immunity and immune function.Quando se compara a função imune, em repouso, de atletas e não atletas, não se verificam grandes diferenças. Porém, períodos de treinamento intensificado ("overreaching" em atletas bem treinados podem

  6. Optimal Regulation of Lumpy Investments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwart, G.; Broer, D.P.

    2012-01-01

    When a monopolist has discretion over the timing of infrastructure investments, regulation of post-investment prices interferes with incentivizing socially optimal investment timing. In a model of regulated lumpy investment under uncertainty, we study regulation when the regulator can condition

  7. Irreversible investments revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandal, Leif K.; Steinshamn, Stein I.; Hoff, Ayoe

    2007-01-01

    A multi-dimensional, non-linear dynamic model in continuous time is presented for the purpose of finding the optimal combination of exploitation and capital investment in optimal renewable resource management. Non-malleability of capital is incorporated in the model through an asymmetric cost......-function of investment, and investments can be both positive and negative. Exploitation is controlled through the utilisation rate of available capital. A novel feature in this model is that there are costs associated with the available capital whether it is utilised or not. And, in contrast to most of the previous...... literature, the state variables, namely the physical capital and the biological resource, enter the objective function. Due to the nonlinearities in this model some of the results are in sharp contrast to previous literature....

  8. Finans/Invest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bechmann, Ken L.

    2014-01-01

    Som det vil være velkendt for de fleste læsere, så er der skiftedag på Finans/Invest. Således var Finans/Invest 8/13 det sidste nummer med Anders Grosen som redaktør, og nærværende nummer er det første med professor Ken L. Bechmann som redaktør. I denne første leder beskriver den nye redaktør lidt...... om hans syn på Finans/Invest og tidsskriftets store betydning for formidling af faglig viden inden for finansiering. Yderligere beskrives nogle af de mindre redaktionelle ændringer, som den nye redaktør har planlagt. Endelig indeholder lederen traditionen tro redaktørens refleksioner over og...

  9. Stock prices and business investment

    OpenAIRE

    Yaron Leitner

    2007-01-01

    Is there a link between the stock market and business investment? Empirical evidence indicates that there is. A firm tends to invest more when its stock price increases, and it tends to invest less when the price falls. In “Stock Prices and Business Investment,” Yaron Leitner discusses existing research that explains this relationship. One question under consideration is whether the stock market actually improves investment decisions.

  10. Firm Decisions: Determinants of Investments

    OpenAIRE

    Ionescu Alexandra

    2011-01-01

    The investment decision is part of a companies’ investment strategy. Defined as a logical set of technical and economic information, the investment strategy determines the main objectives of the firm regarding its investments, based on studies, analysis and simulations. It also establishes the actions to be undertaken in order to achieve the objectives, methods of achieving them, sources of funding and resource allocation methods. Still, all these are influenced by several factors. The invest...

  11. African Farmer-led Irrigation Development: re-framing agricultural policy and investment?

    OpenAIRE

    Woodhouse, Philip; Veldwisch, Gert Jan; Venot , Jean-Philippe; Brockington, Daniel; Komakech, Hans; Manjichi , Ângela

    2017-01-01

    The past decade has witnessed an intensifying focus on the development of irrigation in sub-Saharan Africa. It follows a 20-year hiatus in the wake of disappointing irrigation performance during the 1970s and 1980s. Persistent low productivity in African agriculture and vulnerability of African food supplies to increasing instability in international commodity markets are driving pan-African agricultural investment initiatives, such as the Comprehensive Africa Agricultural Development Program...

  12. Optimal investment horizons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonsen, I.; Jensen, M. H.; Johansen, A.

    2002-06-01

    In stochastic finance, one traditionally considers the return as a competitive measure of an asset, i.e., the profit generated by that asset after some fixed time span Δt, say one week or one year. This measures how well (or how bad) the asset performs over that given period of time. It has been established that the distribution of returns exhibits ``fat tails'' indicating that large returns occur more frequently than what is expected from standard Gaussian stochastic processes [1-3]. Instead of estimating this ``fat tail'' distribution of returns, we propose here an alternative approach, which is outlined by addressing the following question: What is the smallest time interval needed for an asset to cross a fixed return level of say 10%? For a particular asset, we refer to this time as the investment horizon and the corresponding distribution as the investment horizon distribution. This latter distribution complements that of returns and provides new and possibly crucial information for portfolio design and risk-management, as well as for pricing of more exotic options. By considering historical financial data, exemplified by the Dow Jones Industrial Average, we obtain a novel set of probability distributions for the investment horizons which can be used to estimate the optimal investment horizon for a stock or a future contract.

  13. Beyond the Investment Narrative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The current policy interest in early childhood education and care is driven by an investment narrative, a story of quality and high returns emerging from a dominant neoliberal political economy. This short note expresses deep reservations about this narrative, and hints at another narrative that foregrounds democracy, experimentation and…

  14. Sudan Investment Climate Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2009-01-01

    This report on Sudan's Investment Climate Assessment (ICA) provides a baseline assessment of challenges to productivity, diversification and inclusion. Chapter 1 describes some of the questions underlying the three issues of competitiveness, diversification and broad-based growth. Chapter 2 analyzes firm performance and competitiveness. Chapter 3 discusses markets and trust. Chapter 4 des...

  15. Investing in Youth: Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    OECD Publishing, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The series Investing in Youth builds on the expertise of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) on youth employment, social support and skills. It covers both OECD countries and countries in the process of accession to the OECD, as well as some emerging economies. This report provides a detailed diagnosis of the youth…

  16. Energy Investment: Beyond Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosti, Donald T.; Amarant, John

    2005-01-01

    People vary considerably in their work performance as well as their overall approach to work. At one extreme are the outstanding performers, who approach work with enthusiasm and energy, and, at the other extreme, are those who seem to do only what is necessary to get by. Organizatins often invest a good deal of energy in trying to improve the…

  17. Inflation Protected Investment Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirco Mahlstedt

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a dynamic inflation-protected investment strategy is presented, which is based on traditional asset classes and Markov-switching models. Different stock market, as well as inflation regimes are identified, and within those regimes, the inflation hedging potential of stocks, bonds, real estate, commodities and gold are investigated. Within each regime, we determine optimal investment portfolios driven by the investment idea of protection from losses due to changing inflation if inflation is rising or high, but decoupling the performance from inflation if inflation is low. The results clearly indicate that these asset classes behave differently in different stock market and inflation regimes. Whereas in the long-run, we agree with the general opinion in the literature that stocks and bonds are a suitable hedge against inflation, we observe for short time horizons that the hedging potential of each asset class, especially of real estate and commodities, depend strongly on the state of the current market environment. Thus, our approach provides a possible explanation for different statements in the literature regarding the inflation hedging properties of these asset classes. A dynamic inflation-protected investment strategy is developed, which combines inflation protection and upside potential. This strategy outperforms standard buy-and-hold strategies, as well as the well-known 1 N -portfolio.

  18. Investing in Youth: Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    OECD Publishing, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The series Investing in Youth builds on the expertise of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) on youth employment, social support and skills. It covers both OECD countries and countries in the process of accession to the OECD, as well as some emerging economies. This report provides a detailed diagnosis of the youth…

  19. Investing in Youth: Lithuania

    Science.gov (United States)

    OECD Publishing, 2016

    2016-01-01

    The series Investing in Youth builds on the expertise of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) on youth employment, social support and skills. It covers both OECD countries and countries in the process of accession to the OECD, as well as some emerging economies. The present report on Lithuania is the fourth of a new…

  20. Investing in Diamonds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renneboog, Luc

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the risk-return characteristics of investment grade gems (white diamonds, colored diamonds and other types of gems including sapphires, rubies, and emeralds). The transactions are coming from gem auctions and span the period 1999-2012. Over our time frame, the annual nominal USD

  1. Assystem valorizes the investments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    Assystem is a group of 60 contractor societies which ensures conception and dismantling of plants as well as a more complete valorization of industrial investment as controlling the production and information systems of the industries. Different examples of prestations proposed by Assystem are given. (O.L.). 3 figs

  2. Investments into education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirchsteiger, Georg; Sebald, Alexander Christopher

    2006-01-01

    groups with differing human capital and welfare levels. Depending on the parameters of the model, a temporary or permanent public investment into human capital formation is needed to overcome steady states with low human capital and welfare levels. Furthermore, even the best steady state is suboptimal...

  3. Adaptation investments and homeownership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jørgen Drud; Skak, Morten

    2008-01-01

    the home through a supplementary investment. Ownership offers low costs of adaptation, but has high contract costs compared with renting. Consumers simultaneously decide housing demand and tenure, and because of the different cost structure only consumers with strong preferences for individual adaptation...

  4. Adaptation investments and homeownership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jørgen Drud; Skak, Morten

    2008-01-01

    by adapting the home through a supplementary investment. Ownership offers low costs of adaptation, but has high contract costs compared with renting. Consumers simultaneously choose housing demand and tenure, and because of the different cost structure only consumers with strong preferences for individual...

  5. Investment Strategy and Efficiency of Investment Activity of European Insurers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhabynets Olga Yo.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The article studies investment strategy and efficiency of investment activity of European insurance companies. In particular, it analyses the share of investments of insurance companies of Europe in GDP, investment portfolio of European insurers and its structure, contribution of insurance companies – leaders of investment activity – into the European investment portfolio. It studies influence of the financial crisis upon investment strategy of European insurers and analyses efficiency of investment activity of European insurers in risk insurance and life insurance. The article proves that investment business models of insurance companies are capable of resisting crisis phenomena more efficiently than other financial institutions. It marks out that measures of insurance companies that are directed at increase of profitability of investments require from them both significant expenditures on creation of the system of investment risk management and open access to different categories of financial assets and markets, which influences the general risk level, taken upon by an insurance company. The author draws a conclusion that, taking into account recent developments, European insurers should focus on equity and investment risk management, finding new possibilities for their (investments growth and also adaptation of new systems and operations for solution of these important tasks.

  6. The use of conjoint method for assessing the relevance of railway investments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominika WOJTOWICZ

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with designing and testing the use of conjoint analysis method, as one of the tool that provides information gathered within carrying out the ex-ante evaluation of railway infrastructure investments. The authors point to a possible area of application of the method and its usefulness for policy-makers. The proposed method has been tested in empirical research, and the results confirmed the usefulness of the data that can be obtained through its use. Originality of undertaken subject arises from the fact that conjoint method has not been used as a component of ex ante evaluations of EU co-funded programmes, which focus on the railway sector investments. The use of the method may help to strengthen the synergy effects between planned to realize within broader programmes investments. The issue has important practical dimension resulting from intensified investments in the railway sector in the countries which benefit from EU cohesion policy’s funds.

  7. GLOBAL TRENDS OF ALTERNATIVE INVESTMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan LUCHIAN

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available An alternative investment is an investment product other than the traditional investments of stocks, bonds, cash, or property. The term is a relatively loose one and includes tangible assets such as art, wine, antiques, coins, or stamps and some financial assets such as commodities, hedge funds, venture capital,and others. At the moment it was created a global industry opportunities for making investments in nontraditional form. The aim of this paper consists in demonstrating the possibilities of these investments. For this have been studied related main international markets, a fter then deducted world dominant trends. This article is concerned to present some details of alternative investments global market.

  8. Social Impact Investment: Increasing Private Sector Investment to ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The social impact investment market is now global in scope and it is rapidly expanding in some ... of social impact investing to address environmental, social, and economic challenges. ... New project to improve water management in the Sahel.

  9. ESG Integration and the Investment Management Process : Fundamental Investing Reinvented

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Duuren, Emiel; Plantinga, Auke; Scholtens, Bert

    2016-01-01

    We investigate how conventional asset managers account for environmental, social and governance factors (ESG) in their investment process. We do so on the basis of an international survey among fund managers. We find that many conventional managers integrate responsible investing in their investment

  10. Experimental and computational investigations of heat and mass transfer of intensifier grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobzar, Leonid; Oleksyuk, Dmitry; Semchenkov, Yuriy

    2015-01-01

    The paper discusses experimental and numerical investigations on intensification of thermal and mass exchange which were performed by National Research Centre ''Kurchatov Institute'' over the past years. Recently, many designs of heat mass transfer intensifier grids have been proposed. NRC ''Kurchatov Institute'' has accomplished a large scope of experimental investigations to study efficiency of intensifier grids of various types. The outcomes of experimental investigations can be used in verification of computational models and codes. On the basis of experimental data, we derived correlations to calculate coolant mixing and critical heat flux mixing in rod bundles equipped with intensifier grids. The acquired correlations were integrated in subchannel code SC-INT.

  11. Fabry-Perot interferometry using an image-intensified rotating-mirror streak camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seitz, W.L.; Stacy, H.L.

    1983-01-01

    A Fabry-Perot velocity interferometer system is described that uses a modified rotating mirror streak camera to recrod the dynamic fringe positions. A Los Alamos Model 72B rotating-mirror streak camera, equipped with a beryllium mirror, was modified to include a high aperture (f/2.5) relay lens and a 40-mm image-intensifier tube such that the image normally formed at the film plane of the streak camera is projected onto the intensifier tube. Fringe records for thin (0.13 mm) flyers driven by a small bridgewire detonator obtained with a Model C1155-01 Hamamatsu and Model 790 Imacon electronic streak cameras are compared with those obtained with the image-intensified rotating-mirror streak camera (I 2 RMC). Resolution comparisons indicate that the I 2 RMC gives better time resolution than either the Hamamatsu or the Imacon for total writing times of a few microseconds or longer

  12. State of development and development trends of X-ray image intensifier television systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfeiler, M.; Haendle, J.

    1975-01-01

    Following a survey on the development of X-ray image intensifier television systems up to now, their further development is critically discussed with regard to the better image quality to be expected. The introduction of the high-resolving X-ray image intensifier already meant an improvement in image quality even though the television system remained the same. In the image intensifier television system, the distinguishability of small details suffers from noise effects. Therefore, a better image quality is especially advantageous in those ranges of application which allow a higher picture dose. 'Electronic' radiography, intermittent screening, co-storage of the spotfilm radiographs, videometry, video area kymography, and cardiac stroboscopy are examples some of which have already been tested in clinical practice. (orig./AK) [de

  13. Change of characteristic curves using light emission spectrum of the intensifying screens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Chul Ho; Kang, Hong Seok; Lee, In Ja; Huh, Joon

    1990-01-01

    This report is study about difference of H-D curve in regular film and ortho type film, and obtained results as follows: 1. In the blue-color emission intensifying screen, ortho type films and in the green-color emission intensifying screens, regular type are decreased in their gradient. 2. When joint use of regular type film and ortho type film, the gradient difference not seen in blue color screen. 3. The gradient difference seen clearly in G4, KM screens (green color emission intensifying). Especially, in part of high film density, the gradient difference are great. So we have to right use of screen and film because not matched used of there the sensitivity and gradient are decrease

  14. Socially Responsible Investing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parisi, Cristiana; Stang, Andreas

    This paper analyzes the Scandinavian market for Socially Responsible Investing (SRI) mutual funds in order to determine the returns from discriminatory investment decision compared to the return from conventional portfolios. The analysis is conducted on 642 Scandinavian equity mutual funds...... counterparts. In the case of Norway no statistical difference in return is found when conducting the three factor regression. The Scandinavian market is considered particularly relevant for the interest of the investors in SRI mutual funds. However, to the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study to present....... The methodology adopts the Sharpe ratio to establish the risk return relationship. Moreover, the Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) and the Fama and French Three Factor model are used to test the hypotheses. The results indicate the underperformance of Swedish and Danish SRI funds relative to their conventional...

  15. Evaluation of investment processes in agriculture in Poland in 2000-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksander Grzelak

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the article is evaluation of investment processes in agriculture in Poland in 2000-2011. Tendencies in range of investment activity after 2000 should by favourably estimate. Essential improvement in this area has happened especially after integration with the EU, in relationship to possibilities of funding investments by union funds. Also the enlargement of integration investment activity in agriculture has been noticed on background of tendency in total economy. In spite an increasing tendency in case of ability to invest in agriculture, its level was insufficient to set – back decapitalization of fixed assets in the whole agriculture. The situation would be positive if the tendency of growth degree of consumption of assets was stopped. On the other hand, awareness is necessary of the considerable differentiation in relation to investment activity with regard to the scale of production. It can be supposed, that started investment processes will bring to a part of agricultural farms multiplied effects which will actively use the investment support under the CAP instruments and preferential credits. It will intensify the processes of polarization in agriculture.

  16. Investment Opportunities & Job Information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Shanghai Vacancies from Chinajob.com China Pacific Insurance (Group) Co. Ltd. Senior Investment Manager and Senior Accounting Analyst are needed, full time; annual salary: $50,000-100,000. China Europe International Business School wants professors or people with doctoral degrees to teach Accounting, Finance, Human Resources and Management, Strategic and General Management, Carving out Management, Production and Transportation Management, and Information Management Systems, full time. Salary starts at $1...

  17. BUSINESS ANGELS AND INVESTMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLAUDIA ISAC

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we have synthesized a part of legislative and conceptual elements linked to a new model of investors which is increasingly publicized in Romania, business angels. In the first part of the paper we have presented theoretical notions related to the concept of investments and to the importance of the investment decision at managerial level. Modern investments regarding, in particular, the launch of some products and services as well as the start-up of companies are dependent on the source of funding that can take many forms, one of them being that of business angels. Thus, the legislative framework in Romania represents an opportunity not only for those looking for sources of financing but also for investors seeking more flexible and more advantageous ways to place capital. Thus, at the end of the paper we have tried to reveal the main fiscal facilities from EU member countries in order to be studied by any business angel and the most important organizations offering information on the business angels’ portfolio.

  18. RISKS IN INVESTMENT AND MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ms. Tatiana A. Ykovleva

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the features of investment risks and their causes, as well as provides a detailed classification of investment risks. The authors reveal the essence and content of the investment process, risk management, providing material for presentation in the form of a diagram. In conclusion, the article explains the use of the system of specialized institutions as a way to exclude the basic, or primary investment risk.

  19. A basic guide to investing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael C

    2006-03-01

    Today's investors have many choices. From seemingly simple investments, such as stocks, bonds and cash, to more complicated option strategies, there is a dizzying array of investment vehicles that can leave even the most seasoned investor a bit confused. In discussions with our clients, one common thread is the desire to learn more about the various types of investments available. Following is a basic guide to the most common investments and the risks inherent in those choices.

  20. High-speed videography combined with an x-ray image intensifier for dynamic radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryant, L.E. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    The Spin Physics SP-2000 high-speed video system can be combined with an x-ray source, a dynamic event having internal (not directly visible) movement and an x-ray image intensifier to perform dynamic radiography. The cesium iodide input fluor and P-20 output fluor of the image intensifier have rapid decay to allow x-ray imaging up to 12,000 pictures per second. Applications of this technique include internal functioning of a compressor, turbulent-water action, and other mechanical actions

  1. Large-field image intensifiers versus conventional chest radiography: ROC study with simulated interstitial disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winter, L.H.L.; Chakraborty, D.P.; Waes, P.F.G.M.

    1988-01-01

    Two image intensifier tubes have recently been introduced whose large imaging area makes them suitable for chest imaging (Phillips Pulmodiagnost TLX slit II and Siemens TX 57 large entrance field II). Both modalities present a 10 x 10-cm hard copy image to the radiologist. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve study with simulated interstitial disease was performed to compare the image quality of these image intensifiers with conventional chest images. The relative ranking in terms of decreasing ROC areas was Siemens, conventional, and Philips. Compared with conventional imaging, none of the differences in ROC curve area were statistically significant at the 5% level

  2. An intensified esterification process of palm oil fatty acid distillate catalyzed by delipidated rice bran lipase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Fui Chin; Tey, Beng Ti; Dom, Zanariah Mohd; Ibrahim, Nordin; Rahman, Russly Abd; Ling, Tau Chuan

    2006-09-07

    An intensified esterification process was operated by circulating 10 l of reaction mixtures, consisting of palm oil fatty acid distillate (PFAD) and glycerol in hexane, through a packed-bed reactor (PBR) filled with 10 kg of delipidated rice bran lipase (RBL). The influence of the process parameters, such as reaction temperature and type of water-removal agent, on the performance of this intensified esterification process were investigated. The highest degree of esterification (61%) was achieved at a reaction temperature of 65 masculineC, using silica gels as the water-removal agent. Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) analysis showed that the major composition of the esterified product was diacylglycerol.

  3. From green investments to ecotax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stam, B.

    1996-01-01

    Since 1991 several fiscal regulations are in effect for businesses, energy companies and civilians to invest in environmental and renewable projects. Although those so-called 'green investment' options are a great success, there is another, less positive, side to that success. Characteristics, advantages and disadvantages of several fiscal tools to invest in renewable energy are briefly discussed

  4. Chinese investments in the EU

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ebbers, H.A.; Zhang, J.

    2010-01-01

    China’s investments in the European Union are much lower than what you may expect given the economic size of both entities. These relatively low investments in Europe are a combination of priority and obstacles. The priority for investments is clearly in Asia, Africa and Latin America. This regional

  5. Crisis will impact investments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2008-01-01

    This paper summarizes the content of Capgemini's 10. European Energy Markets Observatory (EEMO) report. The EEMO is an annual report that tracks the progress in establishing an open and competitive electricity and gas market in the 27 European countries, including Norway and Switzerland. This tenth edition is based on 2007 and winter 2007-2008 data sets. A 1 trillion euros infrastructure investment is required to build the plants, electrical lines and gas pipelines needed in Europe over the next 25 years. Although today's credit crunch could severely hurt the investment cycle, analysts also anticipate a difficult period for the European energy markets once the recession is over. The report said that Europe has yet to solve the related issues of responding to its energy demand, while curbing its carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions. In 2007, even at a slower pace than previous years, analysts said European electricity consumption still increased by 0.9% and CO 2 emissions stabilized, instead of decreasing. Despite the mild weather, the electricity security of supply deteriorated, analysts said. The Union for the Coordination of Transmission of Electricity (UCTE) real margin - which takes into account non-usable and unavailable generation capacities - dropped from 7.6% in 2006 to 5.3% in 2007. Analysts said without a significant and vigorous investment program in electricity and gas infrastructures, Europe's energy supply security will be threatened. Since the low point in 2005, utilities started to invest again, but have made energy mix choices that are not moving toward a reduction in CO 2 emissions as the majority (58%) of the planned generation capacities will be fossil-fueled. In 2007, investments in renewable capacities grew fast, wind being the industry's preference, with an addition of 8.3 gigawatt (GW) renewables in Europe. However, analysts said this type of 'non-scheduable' source is not always available during peak hours. This partially explains the security

  6. Greenland and Chinese outbound investments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouyal, Lone Wandahl; Mortensen, Bent Ole Gram; Su, Jingjing

    2017-01-01

    -Government seeks to develop new business sectors and to attract foreign investment, including investments from China, to develop especially its mineral resources. China now is the second largest economy in the world and the outbound investments by Chinese companies presents unprecedented opportunities for both...... Chinese companies and their global partners. However, Chinese outbound investment faces many hurdles both at home and outside. This article analyzes some of the main aspects in relation to regulatory hurdles, political obstacles as well as environmental, labor and financial challenges primarily focusing...... on investments in the mining industry....

  7. [Several problems concerning population investment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z

    1982-07-29

    Population investment is a major topic in the studies of population and economic relations. In this particular area, numerous theoretical and practical problems are still in need of solution. Concerning the problem of population concept, there are three different approaches: (1) to determine the definition of population investment from the relationship between the population growth and the capital from national income used for investment, including investment in the newly increased population and investment in the entire population; (2) to explain population investment from the economic viewpoint that people are producers; and (3) to explain population investment from the expense needed to change a simple labor force to a skillful labor force. The expenses include educational costs, maintanance spending, wages needed to compensate workers in labor, costs for workers to master and learn modern scientific techniques to be used for production, and the costs of keeping a young labor force in the next generation.

  8. Pseudo real-time coded aperture imaging system with intensified vidicon cameras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, K.S.; Berzins, G.J.

    1977-01-01

    A coded image displayed on a TV monitor was used to directly reconstruct a decoded image. Both the coded and the decoded images were viewed with intensified vidicon cameras. The coded aperture was a 15-element nonredundant pinhole array. The coding and decoding were accomplished simultaneously during the scanning of a single 16-msec TV frame

  9. Monte-Carlo simulation of spatial resolution of an image intensifier in a saturation mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yuntao; Wang, Xi; Zhang, Yujun; Sun, Xiaoquan

    2018-04-01

    In order to investigate the spatial resolution of an image intensifier which is irradiated by high-energy pulsed laser, a three-dimensional electron avalanche model was built and the cascade process of the electrons was numerically simulated. The influence of positive wall charges, due to the failure of replenishing charges extracted from the channel during the avalanche, was considered by calculating its static electric field through particle-in-cell (PIC) method. By tracing the trajectory of electrons throughout the image intensifier, the energy of the electrons at the output of the micro channel plate and the electron distribution at the phosphor screen are numerically calculated. The simulated energy distribution of output electrons are in good agreement with experimental data of previous studies. In addition, the FWHM extensions of the electron spot at phosphor screen as a function of the number of incident electrons are calculated. The results demonstrate that the spot size increases significantly with the increase in the number of incident electrons. Furthermore, we got the MTFs of the image intensifier by Fourier transform of a point spread function at phosphor screen. Comparison between the MTFs in our model and the MTFs by analytic method shows that spatial resolution of the image intensifier decreases significantly as the number of incident electrons increases, and it is particularly obvious when incident electron number greater than 100.

  10. Assessing impacts of intensified biomass production and biodiversity protection on ecosystem services provided by European forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkerk, P.J.; Mavsar, R.; Giergiczny, M.; Lindner, M.; Edwards, D.; Schelhaas, M.J.

    2014-01-01

    To develop viable strategies for intensifying the use of forest biomass and for increasing forest protection, impacts on ecosystem services need to be assessed. We investigated the biophysical and economic impacts of increased forest biomass production and biodiversity protection on forest ecosystem

  11. Assessment of uniformity and signal-to-noise ratio in radiological image intensifier TV systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malone, J.F.; O'Connor, M.K.; Maher, K.P.

    1985-01-01

    A method of measuring the uniformity of radiological Image Intensifier-TV systems is described. Large non-uniformities were observed in the systems tested. A method of estimating the Signal-to-Noise Ratio in such systems is also presented and applied to characterise the effectiveness of the noise reduction techniques used in digital fluoroscopy. (author)

  12. Dust visualisation in TJ-II with intensified visible fast cameras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cal, E. de la; Pablos, J. L. de; Carralero, D.; Hidalgo, C.

    2010-01-01

    A visible fast camera equipped with an image Intensifier and atomic line filters is used in TJ-II for spectroscopic dust observation. First results show characteristic features depending on filter and clearly differing from those without the filters as is usually done in existing experiments. Preliminary discussions of the observed results are presented. (Author) 5 refs.

  13. Reemergence of Mycobacterium chimaera in Heater–Cooler Units despite Intensified Cleaning and Disinfection Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Peter W.; Kuster, Stefan P.; Hasse, Barbara; Bayard, Cornelia; Rüegg, Christian; Kohler, Philipp; Keller, Peter M.; Bloemberg, Guido V.; Maisano, Francesco; Bettex, Dominique; Halbe, Maximilian; Sommerstein, Rami

    2016-01-01

    Invasive Mycobacterium chimaera infections after open-heart surgery have been reported internationally. These devastating infections result from aerosols generated by contaminated heater–cooler units used with extracorporeal circulation during surgery. Despite intensified cleaning and disinfection, surveillance samples from factory-new units acquired during 2014 grew nontuberculous mycobacteria after a median of 174 days. PMID:27649345

  14. Control of a Biological Nitrogen Removal Process in an Intensified Single Reactor Configuration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vangsgaard, Anna Katrine; Mauricio Iglesias, Miguel; Gernaey, Krist

    2013-01-01

    The nitrogen removing granular sludge process is a novel and intensified process. However, its stable operation and control remains a challenging problem. In this contribution, a new process oriented approach is used to develop, evaluate and benchmark control strategies to ensure stable operation...

  15. Intensified Voice Therapy: A New Model for the Rehabilitation of Patients Suffering from Functional Dysphonias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Michael J.; Gutenbrunner, Christoph; Ptok, Martin

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate a new intervention for chronic dysphonias, consisting of a 2-week outpatient treatment period using intensified voice therapy combined with elements of physical medicine, including physiotherapy (orthotherapy, detonisation and training of the trunk muscles, respiratory therapy and others), manual therapy…

  16. Dust visualisation in TJ-II with intensified visible Fast Cameras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cal, E. de la; Pablos, J. L. de; Carralero, D.; Hidalgo, C.

    2010-10-21

    A visible fast camera equipped with an image Intensifier and atomic line filters is used in TJ-II for spectroscopic dust observation. First results show characteristic features depending on filter and clearly differing from those without the filters as is usually done in existing experiments. Preliminary discussions of the observed results are presented. (Author) 5 refs.

  17. Investigating the Effectiveness of Audio Input Enhancement on EFL Learners' Retention of Intensifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negari, Giti Mousapour; Azizi, Aliye; Arani, Davood Khedmatkar

    2018-01-01

    The present study attempted to investigate the effects of audio input enhancement on EFL learners' retention of intensifiers. To this end, two research questions were formulated. In order to address these research questions, this study attempted to reject two null hypotheses. Pretest-posttest control group quasi-experimental design was employed to…

  18. Public Narratives under Intensified Market Conditions: Chile as a Critical Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santori, Diego

    2018-01-01

    This paper aims to extend existing theorisations around the notion of public narratives by analysing their regulatory effects under intensified market conditions. My analysis suggests that public narratives constitute a liminal space, one that it is not exclusively real or imaginary, factual or normative, but that simultaneously affects and is…

  19. Simulation of dental intensifying screen for intraoral radiographic using MCNP5 code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Vanessa M.; Oliveira, Renato C.M.; Barros, Graiciany P.; Oliveira, Arno H.; Veloso, M. Auxiliadora F.

    2011-01-01

    One of basic principles for radiological protection is the optimization of techniques for obtain radiographic images, in way that the dose in the patient is kept as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). Intensifying screens are used in medical radiology, which reduce considerably the dose rates in the production of radiographic images, maintaining the quality of these, while in dental radiology, there is no a intensifying screen available for intraoral examinations. From this technological requirement, this paper evaluates a computational modeling of an intensifying screen for use in intraoral radiography. For this, it was used the Monte Carlo code MCNP5 that allows the radiography simulation through the transport of electrons and photons in the different materials present in this examination. The goal of an intensifying screen is the conversion of X-ray photons to photons in the visible spectrum, knowing that radiographic films are more sensitive to light photons than to X-ray photons. So the screen should be composed of an efficient material for converting x-rays photons in light photons, therefore was made simulations using different materials, thicknesses and positions possible for placing screen in radiographic film in order to find the way more technically feasible. (author)

  20. Colour-the-INSight : Combining a direct view rifle sight with fused intensified and thermal imagery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogervorst, M.A.; Jansen, C.; Toet, A.; Bijl, P.; Bakker, P.J.; Hiddema, A.C.; Vliet, S.F. van

    2012-01-01

    We present the design and evaluation of a new demonstrator rifle sight viewing system containing direct view, red aim point and fusion of an (uncooled, LWIR) thermal sensor with a digital image intensifier. Our goal is to create a system that performs well under a wide variety of (weather)

  1. Reemergence of Mycobacterium chimaera in Heater-Cooler Units despite Intensified Cleaning and Disinfection Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Peter W; Kuster, Stefan P; Hasse, Barbara; Bayard, Cornelia; Rüegg, Christian; Kohler, Philipp; Keller, Peter M; Bloemberg, Guido V; Maisano, Francesco; Bettex, Dominique; Halbe, Maximilian; Sommerstein, Rami; Sax, Hugo

    2016-10-01

    Invasive Mycobacterium chimaera infections after open-heart surgery have been reported internationally. These devastating infections result from aerosols generated by contaminated heater-cooler units used with extracorporeal circulation during surgery. Despite intensified cleaning and disinfection, surveillance samples from factory-new units acquired during 2014 grew nontuberculous mycobacteria after a median of 174 days.

  2. Investment for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprigarde, G.

    1994-01-01

    In view of the increasing requirements concerning availability and safety of power plants, their economical operation and the environmental protection and safeguarding of resources, the new process control system ''Teleperm XP'' for power plants has been developed. A modern and purposeful system architecture, together with the use of the most innovative standards of hardware and software, makes it possible to maintain the short innovation cycles in microelectronics, and thus to secure investments for the future during the entire lifetime of a power station. (orig.) [de

  3. Gas trade and investments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chabrelie, M.F.

    2000-01-01

    The WOC 9 workshop of the CMG 2000 world gas congress was devoted to gas projects and economics. One round table chaired by G. Bouchard (Gaz de France) and T.H. Thorn (Enron) was devoted to the commercial and financial challenges the gas industry will have to face in the context of inter-region markets and investments. This article summarizes the discussion that took place during this round table: towards a progressive un-partitioning of regional markets, the strategic changes in the European gas market, the LNG industry: new actors and new markets, the gas producers at the crossroads. (J.S.)

  4. VALUATION AND INVESTMENT PROFESSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidija Dedi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Investment professionals, particularly financial analysts or security analysts evaluate securities and try to determine characteristics of securities and to identify mispriced securities. For that purpose they use different models to estimate the intrinsic value of the common stocks. Traditional valuation models based on the present value of future cash flows are affected by estimated growth rate of the variable used and by the investor’s required rate of return. These models can be used for valuing fixed income securities, such as bonds and preferred stocks. However, in valuing companies with significant growth opportunities they have to expand traditional analysis with option valuation.

  5. Investment Strategy in a Closed Loop Supply Chain: The Case of a Market with Competition between Two Retailers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungwook Yoon

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available To survive in the ceaseless cycle of competition, businesses have developed strategies to become sustainable. These strategies include reusing products, which can lead not only to the creation of economic benefits but also to improvements in a corporation’s social and environmental responsibility. Product reuse can also increase the profit earned on new products by compensating customers who bring in old products to buy new ones, as the ensuing remanufacturing process allows for the reuse of materials and thus drives down costs. As businesses have come to recognize these values, the marketing competition to retrieve used products from customers has intensified. This research focuses on identifying effective compensation strategies to determine the appropriate advertising investment and trade-in value in a market where two homogeneous retailers compete. Retailers advertise to secure more customers to trade in their used products and to generate more trade-in sales than competitors do. A retailer’s results may vary according to its competitor’s investment strategy, which makes it useful to employ information on past competitor investment patterns to plan future investment strategies. However, as competitors using one another’s information may intensify the competition, better investment results could be obtained by ignoring competitor investment information. Therefore, this study suggests four competition strategies that determine the advertisement costs and trade-in allowance spent by retailers and discusses the difference in the profits obtained by the retailers under each of the four strategies.

  6. Influence of range-gated intensifiers on underwater imaging system SNR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xia; Hu, Ling; Zhi, Qiang; Chen, Zhen-yue; Jin, Wei-qi

    2013-08-01

    Range-gated technology has been a hot research field in recent years due to its high effective back scattering eliminating. As a result, it can enhance the contrast between a target and its background and extent the working distance of the imaging system. The underwater imaging system is required to have the ability to image in low light level conditions, as well as the ability to eliminate the back scattering effect, which means that the receiver has to be high-speed external trigger function, high resolution, high sensitivity, low noise, higher gain dynamic range. When it comes to an intensifier, the noise characteristics directly restrict the observation effect and range of the imaging system. The background noise may decrease the image contrast and sharpness, even covering the signal making it impossible to recognize the target. So it is quite important to investigate the noise characteristics of intensifiers. SNR is an important parameter reflecting the noise features of a system. Through the use of underwater laser range-gated imaging prediction model, and according to the linear SNR system theory, the gated imaging noise performance of the present market adopted super second generation and generation Ⅲ intensifiers were theoretically analyzed. Based on the active laser underwater range-gated imaging model, the effect to the system by gated intensifiers and the relationship between the system SNR and MTF were studied. Through theoretical and simulation analysis to the image intensifier background noise and SNR, the different influence on system SNR by super second generation and generation Ⅲ ICCD was obtained. Range-gated system SNR formula was put forward, and compared the different effect influence on the system by using two kind of ICCDs was compared. According to the matlab simulation, a detailed analysis was carried out theoretically. All the work in this paper lays a theoretical foundation to further eliminating back scattering effect, improving

  7. The Good Investment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, John E; Fresne, Julie A; Youngclaus, James A

    2017-07-01

    The authors reflect on the article in this issue entitled "Borrow or Serve? An Economic Analysis of Options for Financing a Medical School Education" by Marcu and colleagues, which makes a compelling case that a medical school education is a good investment, no matter what financing option students use, from federal service programs to federal loans. The lead author of this Commentary shares lessons learned from his own medical school education, which was funded by an Armed Forces Health Professions Scholarship, and from his current position interacting with medical students across the United States.Regardless of the financing path they choose, all students should understand basic financial concepts and the details of the various pathways that are available to pay for their medical school education, as well as how each could potentially impact their own future and that of their families. One underappreciated aspect of financing a medical school education is that federal repayment scenarios can link loan payments to income, rather than debt levels, which means that all physicians are able to afford their loan payments no matter what specialty they practice, what they are paid, or where they live.Medical education, while expensive, remains the good investment. An MD degree can lead to a lifetime of personal fulfillment and societal contributions. Everyone, with rare exceptions, accepted to a U.S. medical school will be able to finance their medical education via a path that aligns with their personal values and priorities.

  8. Offshore Investment Funds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shang-Jin Wei

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Offshore investment funds are alleged to have engaged in trading behavior that is different from their onshore counterparts because they may be subject to less supervision and regulation. In particular, they may trade more intensely. They could also pursue more aggressively certain trading strategies such as positive feedback trading or herding that could contribute to a greater volatility in the market. Using a unique data set, this chapter compares the trading behavior in the Korean stock market between offshore investment funds with their onshore counterparts registered in the US and UK. There are a number of interesting findings. First, there is indeed evidence suggesting that the offshore funds trade more intensely than their onshore counterparts. Second, however, there is no evidence that the offshore funds engage in positive feedback trading. In contrast, there is strong evidence that the funds from the U.S. and U.K. do. Third, while offshore funds do herd, they do so far less than onshore funds in the U.S. or UK. Fourth, offshore funds hold less glamour stocks (e.g. stocks with high P/E in their portfolio than funds in the U.S. or U.K. do. Moreover, flight to glamour stocks during the in-crisis period is less evident in the case of offshore funds. In sum, offshore funds are no especially worrisome monsters.

  9. Commodities and Stock Investment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Jawad Hussain Shahzad

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study is a multivariate analysis of commodities and stock investment in a newly established market scenario. Return distribution asymmetry is examined with higher order movements. Skewness in commodity future’s return is largely insignificant, whereas kurtosis is highly significant for both stock and commodity future contracts. Correlation analysis is done with Pearson’s and Kendall’s tau measures. Commodities provide significant diversification benefits when added in a portfolio of stocks. Compared with stocks, commodity future’s returns show stronger correlation with unexpected inflation. The volatility is measured through Glosten-Jagannathan-Runkle - Generalized Autoregressive Conditional Heteroskedasticity (GJR-GARCH model and reflects that commodities have inverted asymmetric behavior, that is, more impact from the upward shocks compared with downward. Stocks have asymmetric volatility, that is, more impact from negative shocks compared with positive. Gold has highest inverted asymmetric volatility. Tail dependence, measured through Student’s t copula, shows no combined downside movement. In conclusion, commodity investments provide diversification and inflation protection.

  10. GREEN INVESTMENT: A STRATEGY FOR SUSTAINABLE ECONOMIC GROWTH AND INVESTMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaya Shukla

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable economic development has become an important area of concern due to climatic change with its long term effects. Climatic change has posed several challenges for economic sustainability of economies. Now major development projects have to comply with international environmental norms. Failure to do so may result in the delay of a project, fines including penalties for environmental damage or charges for remedial action, that affect the viability of a project or the value of any security taken. This paper investigates with help of secondary date using descriptive statistical technique opportunities and challenges of green investment. Here it is developed into suitable model for developing economies for successfully adopting green investment without much cost to their economies. The paper concludes that green investment involving direct investment and portfolio investment in firms adopting and following environmental protection norms will lead to sustainable growth and investment for economy.

  11. Multilateral negotiations in foreign investment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Orlando Ruiz Castro

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Direct foreign investment is one of the most important economic variables in the world. Aspects related to international investment agreements are reaching an outstanding place in economic international diplomacy. Nowadays, in the multilateral level there is not an agreement regarding investment and therefore this study is focused on this particular type of agreement. In order to reach this objective this study shows, first of all, how different attempts have been developed to get a multicultural a agreement regarding investment, and to refuse the general opinion that says that exponential growth of foreign investment flows in recent years has given impulse to launch a multilateral investment agreement. Secondly, this study discusses about regulations related to foreign investment under current WTO regulations, such as investment, measure agreements, and service agreement. Then, it analyzes what has happened inside the WTO from the creation of the investment team at the Singapore Conference to the failed Conference in Cancun. Finally, it analyzes the main arguments against the multilateral agreement and the effects of future possible multilateral negotiations in investment and it ends with some recommendations and conclusions.

  12. Ranking independent timber investments by alternative investment criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas J. Mills; Gary E. Dixon

    1982-01-01

    A sample of 231 independent timber investments were ranked by internal rate of return, present net worth per acre and the benefit cost ratio—the last two discounted by 3, 6.4. 7.5. and 10 percent—to determine if the different criteria had a practical influence on timber investment ranking. The samples in this study were drawn from a group of timber investments...

  13. 13 CFR 301.4 - Investment rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Investment rates. 301.4 Section... ELIGIBILITY, INVESTMENT RATE AND PROPOSAL AND APPLICATION REQUIREMENTS Investment Rates and Matching Share Requirements § 301.4 Investment rates. (a) Minimum Investment Rate. There is no minimum Investment Rate for a...

  14. Improved pregnancy outcome in type 1 diabetic women with microalbuminuria or diabetic nephropathy: effect of intensified antihypertensive therapy?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lene Ringholm; Damm, Peter; Mathiesen, Elisabeth R

    2009-01-01

    To describe pregnancy outcome in type 1 diabetic women with normoalbuminuria, microalbuminuria, or diabetic nephropathy after implementation of an intensified antihypertensive therapeutic strategy.......To describe pregnancy outcome in type 1 diabetic women with normoalbuminuria, microalbuminuria, or diabetic nephropathy after implementation of an intensified antihypertensive therapeutic strategy....

  15. Total and EDF invest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Signoret, St.

    2008-01-01

    So as to prepare the future of their industrial sector,the Total company plans to invest (14 billion Euros in 2008) to increase its production capacities and strengthen in of other activities as the liquefied natural gas and the renewable energies; EDF plans to inject 35 billion Euros over three years to multiply the new projects of power plants (wind turbines, coal in Germany, gas in Great Britain and nuclear power in Flamanville). EDF wants to exploit its knowledge of leader to run more than ten E.P.R.(European pressurized water reactor) in the world before 2020, projects are in examination with China, Great Britain, South Africa and United States. (N.C.)

  16. Investments in power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The power consumption in the common Nordic power market continues to grow. All potential production technologies entail more or less reduction in quality of the environment. This gives each of the Nordic countries incentives to limit the development of capacity and base themselves increasingly on import, which means that other countries take the political burden with the environmental issues (''free rider problem''). The uncertainty about the climate problem may make it rational to postpone investments which are expensive to reverse, like gas power. If the decisions are delayed too long, however, considerable socio-economic costs may accumulate because the price of electricity becomes too high. The present regulations of the environmental concerns in connection with the granting of concession are expensive and unpredictable and put society unnecessarily to expense

  17. Socially responsible investments

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2012-01-01

    In addition to well-established working principles based on conservative and capital preservation oriented investments that ensure it a sustainable future, the CERN Pension Fund recently introduced a new criterion for selecting the numerous opportunities that the market offers: philanthropy. Its first initiative, which also involves the Staff Association’s Long-Term Collection, will help support two orphanages in China.   The two charities are located near Beijing. Beijing’s “China Children Charity and Foundation” is an orphanage that cares for up to 80 babies who need surgery to correct birth defects. The other, “Hope Healing Home”, is an organization that deals with 300 babies and cares for sick and physically disabled babies who have been abandoned. All these babies are awaiting treatment and a medical solution. The CERN Pension Fund has over 6700 members. To ensure the greatest efficiency and profitability, the Fund’s por...

  18. Greater oil investment opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arenas, Ismael Enrique

    1997-01-01

    Geologically speaking, Colombia is a very attractive country for the world oil community. According to this philosophy new and important steps are being taken to reinforce the oil sector: Expansion of the exploratory frontier by including a larger number of sedimentary areas, and the adoption of innovative contracting instruments. Colombia has to offer, Greater economic incentives for the exploration of new areas to expand the exploratory frontier, stimulation of exploration in areas with prospectivity for small fields. Companies may offer Ecopetrol a participation in production over and above royalties, without it's participating in the investments and costs of these fields, more favorable conditions for natural gas seeking projects, in comparison with those governing the terms for oil

  19. Keynes, investment, unemployment and expectations

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Ron P.; Zoega, Gylfi

    2009-01-01

    In Keynes' General Theory, investment determines effective demand, which determines unemployment and the labour market plays a negligible role. In New Keynesian models, labour market institutions determine the natural rate of unemployment and the speed at which unemployment adjusts to it. Investment is mostly ignored as a key variable behind the problem of high unemployment, despite a strong empirical association between investment and unemployment. We discuss the evolution of the 'Keynesian'...

  20. Neuronal Migration Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Understanding Sleep The Life and Death of a Neuron Genes At Work In The Brain Order Publications ... birth defects caused by the abnormal migration of neurons in the developing brain and nervous system. In ...

  1. Motor Neuron Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and other neurodegenerative diseases to better understand the function of neurons and other support cells and identify candidate therapeutic ... and other neurodegenerative diseases to better understand the function of neurons and other support cells and identify candidate therapeutic ...

  2. Green investment: Trends and determinants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eyraud, Luc; Clements, Benedict; Wane, Abdoul

    2013-01-01

    This paper fills a gap in the macroeconomic literature on renewable sources of energy. It offers a definition of green investment and analyzes the trends and determinants of this investment over the last decade for 35 advanced and emerging countries. We use a new multi-country historical dataset and find that green investment has become a key driver of the energy sector and that its rapid growth is now mostly driven by China. Our econometric results suggest that green investment is boosted by economic growth, a sound financial system conducive to low interest rates, and high fuel prices. We also find that some policy interventions, such as the introduction of carbon pricing schemes or “feed-in-tariffs,” which require use of “green” energy, have a positive and significant impact on green investment. Other interventions, such as biofuel support, do not appear to be associated with higher green investment. - Highlights: • We offer a definition of green investment and review its trend since 2000. • We analyze its determinants from both theoretical and empirical perspectives. • Green investment is boosted by economic growth, interest rates, and fuel prices. • Feed-in-tariffs and carbon pricing schemes impact positively green investment

  3. Guidelines for integrating socially responsible investment in the investment process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graaf, F.J.; Slager, A.

    2009-01-01

    Socially Responsible Investment (SRI) is of growing importance for institutional investors. Our analysis shows that SRI strategies can be grouped in ethically-based, investment-driven and value-ensuring objectives. We demonstrate that this categorization strengthens decisionmaking in SRI. Based on

  4. Application of ultra-fast high-resolution gated-image intensifiers to laser fusion studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lieber, A.J.; Benjamin, R.F.; Sutphin, H.D.; McCall, G.H.

    1975-01-01

    Gated-image intensifiers for fast framing have found high utility in laser-target interaction studies. X-ray pinhole camera photographs which can record asymmetries of laser-target interactions have been instrumental in further system design. High-resolution high-speed x-ray images of laser irradiated targets are formed using pinhole optics and electronically amplified by proximity focused channelplate intensifiers before being recorded on film. Spectral resolution is obtained by filtering. In these applications shutter duration is determined by source duration. Electronic gating serves to reduce background thereby enhancing signal-to-noise ratio. Cameras are used to view the self light of the interaction but may also be used for shadowgraphs. Sources for shadowgraphs may be sequenced to obtain a series of pictures with effective rates of 10 10 frame/s. Multiple aperatures have been used to obtain stereo x-ray views, yielding three dimensional information about the interactions. (author)

  5. 12-inch x-ray image intensifier with thin metal input window

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obata, Yoshiharu; Anno, Hidero; Harao, Norio [Toshiba Corp., Kawasaki, Kanagawa (Japan)

    1982-08-01

    Borosilicate glass has been used for X-ray input window of image intensifiers (I.I.) up to now. Now two new types of 12-inch metal I.I., RT12301C and RT12302C, have been developed. They use convex 1-mm aluminum (instead of 5-mm borosilicate glass) for the input window. Adopting a high-performance penta-electronic lens and a new type of light guide CsI film, these intensifiers have greatly improved contrast, quantum detection efficiency (QDE) and resolution capability. In spite of low dosage, image quality equivalent to that in the conventional direct radiograph is obtained through combined use of the new-type 12-inch metal I.I. with 0.3-mm small-focal-spot X-ray tube. Great contribution to digital radiography is expected of this I.I.

  6. Avalanche transistor pulser for fast-gated operation of micro-channel plate image-intensifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundy, A.; Parker, J.R.; Lunsford, J.S.; Martin, A.D.

    1977-01-01

    Transistors operated in the avalanche mode are employed to generate a 1000 volt 10 to 30 nsec wide pulse with less than 4 nsec rise and fall times. This pulse is resistively attenuated to approximately equal to 270 volts and drives the image intensifier tube which is a load of approximately equal to 200 pf. To reduce stray inductance and capacitance, transistor chips were assembled on a thick-film hybrid substrate. Circuit parameters, operating conditions, and coupling to the microchannel plate image-intensifier (MCPI 2 ) tube are described. To provide dc operating voltages and control of transient voltages on the MCPI 2 tube a resistance-capacitance network has been developed which (a) places the MCPI 2 output phosphor at ground, (b) provides programmable gains in ''f-stop'' steps, and (c) minimizes voltage transients on the MCPI 2 tube

  7. Weakened cyclones, intensified anticyclones and recent extreme cold winter weather events in Eurasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xiangdong; Lu Chuhan; Guan Zhaoyong

    2012-01-01

    Extreme cold winter weather events over Eurasia have occurred more frequently in recent years in spite of a warming global climate. To gain further insight into this regional mismatch with the global mean warming trend, we analyzed winter cyclone and anticyclone activities, and their interplay with the regional atmospheric circulation pattern characterized by the semi-permanent Siberian high. We found a persistent weakening of both cyclones and anticyclones between the 1990s and early 2000s, and a pronounced intensification of anticyclone activity afterwards. It is suggested that this intensified anticyclone activity drives the substantially strengthening and northwestward shifting/expanding Siberian high, and explains the decreased midlatitude Eurasian surface air temperature and the increased frequency of cold weather events. The weakened tropospheric midlatitude westerlies in the context of the intensified anticyclones would reduce the eastward propagation speed of Rossby waves, favoring persistence and further intensification of surface anticyclone systems. (letter)

  8. An Intensified Esterification Process of Palm Oil Fatty Acid Distillate Catalyzed by Delipidated Rice Bran Lipase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fui Chin Chong

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available An intensified esterification process was operated by circulating 10 l of reaction mixtures, consisting of palm oil fatty acid distillate (PFAD and glycerol in hexane, through a packed-bed reactor (PBR filled with 10 kg of delipidated rice bran lipase (RBL. The influence of the process parameters, such as reaction temperature and type of water-removal agent, on the performance of this intensified esterification process were investigated. The highest degree of esterification (61% was achieved at a reaction temperature of 65°C, using silica gels as the water-removal agent. Thin-layer chromatography (TLC analysis showed that the major composition of the esterified product was diacylglycerol.

  9. X-ray image intensifier/television systems for digital skeletal radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowlands, J.A.; Hynes, D.M.; Edmonds, E.W.; Porter, A.J.; Toth, B.J.

    1987-01-01

    The imaging criteria for skeletal radiography (high resolution and low noise) relevant to the use of x-ray image intensifier/TV digital systems are discussed. It is shown from the modulation transfer function (MTF), noise, and phantom evaluations that conventional x-ray image intensifiers in conjunction with a 1,000-line Plumbicon or Saticon TV camera are in most respects suitable for skeletal radiography. The optimum focal spot size depends on a trade-off with motion blurring through the x-ray exposure time and so is a function of the clinical problem. Since the skeletal system is readily immobilized, a 0.3-mm focal spot size is nearly optimum

  10. Improving lactate metabolism in an intensified CHO culture process: productivity and product quality considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Sen; Hoshan, Linda; Chen, Hao

    2016-11-01

    In this study, we discussed the development and optimization of an intensified CHO culture process, highlighting medium and control strategies to improve lactate metabolism. A few strategies, including supplementing glucose with other sugars (fructose, maltose, and galactose), controlling glucose level at Productivity and product quality attributes differences between batch, fed-batch, and concentrated fed-batch cultures were discussed. The importance of process and cell metabolism understanding when adapting the existing process to a new operational mode was demonstrated in the study.

  11. Quality control measurements of X-ray image-intensifier television chain systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henshaw, E.T.

    1989-01-01

    The test methods and limiting values for the following basic parameters of an image intensifier TV system are presented in relation to (a) acceptance tests and (b) constancy tests: automatic gain and brightness control, video voltage output, monitor check (grey scale), geometric distortion, noise (low-contrast detectability), overall imaging ability, limiting resolution, uniformity of resolution, conversion factor, contrast ratio and measurement of field size. Several of these tests make use of the Leeds Test Objects. (author)

  12. Relationship between fatigue of generation II image intensifier and input illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qingyou

    1995-09-01

    If there is fatigue for an image intesifier, then it has an effect on the imaging property of the night vision system. In this paper, using the principle of Joule Heat, we derive a mathematical formula for the generated heat of semiconductor photocathode. We describe the relationship among the various parameters in the formula. We also discuss reasons for the fatigue of Generation II image intensifier caused by bigger input illumination.

  13. A directional fast neutron detector using scintillating fibers and an intensified CCD camera system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holslin, Daniel; Armstrong, A.W.; Hagan, William; Shreve, David; Smith, Scott

    1994-01-01

    We have been developing and testing a scintillating fiber detector (SFD) for use as a fast neutron sensor which can discriminate against neutrons entering at angles non-parallel to the fiber axis (''directionality''). The detector/convertor component is a fiber bundle constructed of plastic scintillating fibers each measuring 10 cm long and either 0.3 mm or 0.5 mm in diameter. Extensive Monte Carlo simulations were made to optimize the bundle response to a range of fast neutron energies and to intense fluxes of high energy gamma-rays. The bundle is coupled to a set of gamma-ray insenitive electro-optic intensifiers whose output is viewed by a CCD camera directly coupled to the intensifiers. Two types of CCD cameras were utilized: 1) a standard, interline RS-170 camera with electronic shuttering and 2) a high-speed (up to 850 frame/s) field-transfer camera. Measurements of the neutron detection efficiency and directionality were made using 14 MeV neutrons, and the response to gamma-rays was performed using intense fluxes from radioisotopic sources (up to 20 R/h). Recently, the detector was constructed and tested using a large 10 cm by 10 cm square fiber bundle coupled to a 10 cm diameter GEN I intensifier tube. We present a description of the various detector systems and report the results of experimental tests. ((orig.))

  14. Competitive Capacity Investment under Uncertainty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    X. Li (Xishu); R.A. Zuidwijk (Rob); M.B.M. de Koster (René); R. Dekker (Rommert)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractWe consider a long-term capacity investment problem in a competitive market under demand uncertainty. Two firms move sequentially in the competition and a firm’s capacity decision interacts with the other firm’s current and future capacity. Throughout the investment race, a firm can

  15. Foreign Investment Boosts Rural Economies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasmeier, Amy; Glickman, Norman

    1990-01-01

    Through 1987, 10 percent of foreign investment was in nonmetro counties; 44 percent of this was in the South; and 38 percent of nonmetro foreign investment created new jobs (versus 17 percent in metro areas). Foreign investors chose nonmetro areas with low wages, lack of unionization history, good transportation access, and government incentives.…

  16. Private investments in new infrastructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baarsma, B.; Poort, J.P.; Teulings, C.N.; de Nooij, M.

    2004-01-01

    The Lisbon Strategy demands large investments in transport projects, broadband networks and energy infrastructure. Despite the widely-acknowledged need for investments in new infrastructures, European and national public funds are scarce in the current economic climate. Moreover, both policy-makers

  17. Optimal Investment in Structured Bonds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Pernille; Jørgensen, Peter Løchte

    The paper examines the role of structured bonds in the optimal portfolio of a small retail investor. We consider the typical structured bond essentially repacking an exotic option and a zero coupon bond, i.e. an investment with portfolio insurance. The optimal portfolio is found when the investment...

  18. Investment opportunities with YPFB capitalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escobar, F.

    1996-01-01

    Investment opportunities with Yacimientos Petroliferos Fiscales Bolivianos (LPFB) in La Paz, Bolivia, were discussed, especially as they may be affected by the new Hydrocarbon Law No. 1689, whose main objective is to encourage investments in Bolivia and to increase production capacity through investors' incorporation. Some of the areas of potential importance examined included reserve development, transportation, upstream consulting, and hydrocarbon development

  19. Overseas Investment, Encouraging Long Journey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Janet Tang

    2010-01-01

    @@ In the context of the financial crisis,international capital flows,cross-border investment,as well as the mergers and acquisitions generally continues shrinking at a large range in 2009,while China's foreign investment and overseas cooperation still maintains a good momentum of development.

  20. Alternative approaches to transmission investment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welch, J.L. [International Transmission Co., Detroit, MI (United States)

    2004-07-01

    The International Transmission Company (ITC) is an independent power transmission company that owns, operates and maintains the high voltage transmission system in southeastern Michigan. The company's current focus is on investing in the transmission infrastructure to improve reliability, relieve congestion, improve access to generation and reduce energy costs for consumers. There is a need for investment in power transmission. Trends indicate that power transactions are on the rise while transmission investment is lagging because pricing protocols are inadequate and there is no regional tariff mechanism to allocate the benefits of new investment. The presentation reviewed the applicability of FTRs to transmission owners and the pitfalls of participant funding pricing. It also outlined the regional benefit allocation mechanism (RBAM) with an illustrative example. It was concluded that existing pricing policies must be improved to address the growing need for transmission investment. RBAM is needed to help investors recover costs from project beneficiaries. figs.

  1. PV investment in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hueser, Pius [Nova Energy GmbH, (Switzerland)

    2007-06-15

    This presentation is mainly about how the PV market in Europe has been growing, and which elements are going to determine if this market succeed or failed not only in Europe but also in the rest of the world. In the first part of this presentation, it is mentioned how in 2005 the development of some PV technologies triggered the PV market growth without any marketing control. Then, there are explained the aspects that changed such situation out of control, therefore, it emerged the beginning of the consolidation of this market. There are briefly explained those factors that are going to determine if this market succeed or failed in the future. Finally, there are given examples of some the PV investments. [Spanish] Esta presentacion habla principalmente de la manera en como ha crecido el Mercado de sistemas fotovoltaicos en Europa, asi tambien se mencionan los elementos fundamentales que determinaran el exito o fracaso de este mercado, no solamente en Europa sino tambien en el resto del mundo, en un futuro. En la primera parte de esta presentacion, se describe como en el 2005, debido al desarrollo de algunas tecnologias fotovoltaicas se desencadeno el crecimiento desenfrenado del mercado fotovoltaico. Despues, se explican los aspectos que hicieron que dicho crecimiento tomara su curso, teniendo como resultado el inicio de un mercado mas consolidado. Se explican brevemente los factores que determinaran si este mercado encuentra el exito o el fracaso en un futuro. Finalmente, se dan ejemplos de algunas adquisiciones fotovoltaicas.

  2. Chinese investments in the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haico EBBERS

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available China’s investments in the European Union are much lower than what you may expect given the economic size of both entities. These relatively low investments in Europe are a combination of priority and obstacles. The priority for investments is clearly in Asia, Africa and Latin America. This regional pattern is heavily influenced by the need to solve the resource shortage in the medium and long term. The investments in Europe and the United States are mostly market seeking investments. Research specifically focused on Chinese M&A abroad comes to the same conclusion. The success rate of Chinese M&A abroad is much lower than what we see with respect to American or European investments abroad. In this paper, we examine why Chinese firms are facing more difficulties in the European Union than in other regions. The paper focuses on Chinese M&A as proxy for total foreign direct investments abroad. By looking at the factors that have been documented as influencing the level of M&A abroad, it becomes clear that Chinese firms in Europe are hindered by many factors. For example, the trade between China and the EU is relatively low, the institutional quality is lower compared to the United States, there is less experience with respect to Europe and relatively many deals relate to State Owned Enterprises (SOE which makes the deal sensitive. So it is logical that Chinese investments are not very high in Europe. However, the research makes clear that the obstacles for Chinese investments in Europe are disappearing step by step. In that sense, we expect a strong increase of Chinese investments in Europe in the future.

  3. Considering barriers to investment in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KB Afful

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the effect of South Africa’s economic fundamentals on net direct investment and net portfolio investment. The results suggest that the main determinants of investment in South Africa are resource prices, input productivity and the economic performance of the domestic economy. The results illustrate that net direct investment and net portfolio investment are close but not perfect substitutes. In addition, we find that an increase in labour input costs reduces both net direct investment and net portfolio investment. Further, an increase in fixed capital productivity increases net direct investment. Further, also the results illustrate that subsidies increase both net direct investment and net portfolio investment. Moreover, an increase in exports increases both net direct investment and net portfolio investment. Policy recommendations are thus proposed that may increase foreign direct investment in South Africa.

  4. Signal-to-noise characterization of time-gated intensifiers used for wide-field time-domain FLIM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGinty, J; Requejo-Isidro, J; Munro, I; Talbot, C B; Dunsby, C; Neil, M A A; French, P M W [Photonics Group, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London, SW7 2BW (United Kingdom); Kellett, P A; Hares, J D, E-mail: james.mcginty@imperial.ac.u [Kentech Instruments Ltd, Isis Building, Howbery Park, Wallingford, OX10 8BA (United Kingdom)

    2009-07-07

    Time-gated imaging using gated optical intensifiers provides a means to realize high speed fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) for the study of fast events and for high throughput imaging. We present a signal-to-noise characterization of CCD-coupled micro-channel plate gated intensifiers used with this technique and determine the optimal acquisition parameters (intensifier gain voltage, CCD integration time and frame averaging) for measuring mono-exponential fluorescence lifetimes in the shortest image acquisition time for a given signal flux. We explore the use of unequal CCD integration times for different gate delays and show that this can improve the lifetime accuracy for a given total acquisition time.

  5. 12 CFR 24.4 - Investment limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Investment limits. 24.4 Section 24.4 Banks and... ENTITIES, COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS, AND OTHER PUBLIC WELFARE INVESTMENTS § 24.4 Investment limits. (a) Limits on aggregate outstanding investments. A national bank's aggregate outstanding investments under...

  6. 47 CFR 69.309 - Other investment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Other investment. 69.309 Section 69.309... Apportionment of Net Investment § 69.309 Other investment. Investment that is not apportioned pursuant to §§ 69... category and access elements in the same proportions as the combined investment that is apportioned...

  7. 12 CFR 615.5140 - Eligible investments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eligible investments. 615.5140 Section 615.5140... POLICIES AND OPERATIONS, AND FUNDING OPERATIONS Investment Management § 615.5140 Eligible investments. (a) You may hold only the following types of investments listed in the Investment Eligibility Criteria...

  8. Debt Covenant Renegotiation and Investment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnold, Marc; Westermann, Ramona

    This paper analyzes the impact of debt covenant renegotiation outside corporate distress on firms. We study a structural model of a levered firm that can renegotiate debt both at investment and in corporate distress. Covenant renegotiation at investment reduces the agency cost of debt because...... it induces a firm value maximizing investment financing policy and mitigates the overinvestment problem. Incorporating renegotiation outside corporate distress is crucial to explain empirical occurrence patterns of debt renegotiation, the impact of debt renegotiation on corporate securities, and the relation...

  9. Whose crazy investment in sex?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandlis, Lane R

    2011-01-01

    By probing the processes of exclusion of transsexuals from the political sphere, this article offers contributions to social and political theory through an examination of the processes of exclusion from the category "human." This article considers how the erasure of investment in their own embodied sex constructs a platform from which to blame others for sex/gender variance, as well as to justify that blaming. Bringing together Giorgio Agamben, Georges Bataille, Judith Butler, and Nikolas Rose with transphobia, medicalization in psychiatry, law, and ethopolitics, this article questions whose investment in sexed embodiment counts and why that investment might be seen as "crazy."

  10. Capital Investment Procedures for FEMYSO

    OpenAIRE

    Oluduro, Francis Oladele; Duru, Longinus; Al Jaafar, Mofid

    2008-01-01

    Date: 2008-06-05 Level: Bachelor Thesis in Business Administration EF0703, 15 ECTS Credits. Authors: Longinus Duru (Stockholm), Francis O.Oluduro (Västerås) and Mofid Al Jaafar (Västerås) Title: Capital Investment Procedures for FEMYSO Problem Area: Undertaking an investment by FEMYSO involves weighing up the risk against the returns but still capital investment decision are still one of the most undertaken decisions by organization managers because it involves commitment of huge amount of mo...

  11. Investing in the Long Term

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Valerie; Sartor

    2007-01-01

    Janice Dai is a senior executive at Harvest Fund Management Co.Ltd.,one of China’s top fund management compa- nies,managing fixed income market investments across the country.She also leads her company’s overall institutional investments.Recently she agreed to talk about her company as well as comment on China’s booming financial indus- try,in the wake of overseas invest- ment bankers predicting tremen- dous returns on the Chinese main- land over the next few years.

  12. Investment patterns in Dutch glasshouse horticulture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goncharova, N.

    2007-01-01

    Keywords: investment, uncertainty, investment spikes, entry, exit, duration model, GMM dynamic panel data estimator, Negative Binomial model, Heckman selection model, moving window ARIMA, Principal Component analysis, horticulture

    This thesis focuses on the analysis of investment

  13. Novel heat–integrated and intensified biorefinery process for cellulosic ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nhien, Le Cao; Long, Nguyen Van Duc; Lee, Moonyong

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A compact biorefinery design was proposed for cellulosic ethanol purification. • Actual fermentation broth from lignocellulosic biomass was considered. • Process integration and intensification achieves competitive biorefinery context. • The response surface method optimizes the complex column structure effectively. • The proposed process could save up to 47.6% of total annual cost. - Abstract: Biofuels have the most potential as an alternative to fossil fuels and overcoming global warming, which has become one of the most serious environmental issues over the past few decades. As the world confronts food shortages due to an increase in world population, the development of biofuels from inedible lignocellulosic feedstock may be more sustainable in the long term. Inspired by the NREL conventional process, this paper proposes a novel heat–integrated and intensified biorefinery design for cellulosic ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass. For the preconcentration section, heat pump assisted distillation and double–effect heat integration were evaluated, while a combination of heat–integrated technique and intensified technique, extractive dividing wall column (EDWC), was applied to enhance the process energy and cost efficiency for the purification section. A biosolvent, glycerol, which can be produced from biodiesel production, was used as the extracting solvent in an EDWC to obtain a high degree of integration in a biorefinery context. All configuration alternatives were simulated rigorously using Aspen Plus were based on the energy requirements, total annual costs (TAC), and total carbon dioxide emissions (TCE). In addition, the structure of the EDWC was optimized using the reliable response surface method, which was carried out using Minitab statistical software. The simulation results showed that the proposed heat–integrated and intensified process can save up to 47.6% and 56.9% of the TAC and TCE for the purification

  14. Dispersal limitation drives successional pathways in Central Siberian forests under current and intensified fire regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tautenhahn, Susanne; Lichstein, Jeremy W; Jung, Martin; Kattge, Jens; Bohlman, Stephanie A; Heilmeier, Hermann; Prokushkin, Anatoly; Kahl, Anja; Wirth, Christian

    2016-06-01

    Fire is a primary driver of boreal forest dynamics. Intensifying fire regimes due to climate change may cause a shift in boreal forest composition toward reduced dominance of conifers and greater abundance of deciduous hardwoods, with potential biogeochemical and biophysical feedbacks to regional and global climate. This shift has already been observed in some North American boreal forests and has been attributed to changes in site conditions. However, it is unknown if the mechanisms controlling fire-induced changes in deciduous hardwood cover are similar among different boreal forests, which differ in the ecological traits of the dominant tree species. To better understand the consequences of intensifying fire regimes in boreal forests, we studied postfire regeneration in five burns in the Central Siberian dark taiga, a vast but poorly studied boreal region. We combined field measurements, dendrochronological analysis, and seed-source maps derived from high-resolution satellite images to quantify the importance of site conditions (e.g., organic layer depth) vs. seed availability in shaping postfire regeneration. We show that dispersal limitation of evergreen conifers was the main factor determining postfire regeneration composition and density. Site conditions had significant but weaker effects. We used information on postfire regeneration to develop a classification scheme for successional pathways, representing the dominance of deciduous hardwoods vs. evergreen conifers at different successional stages. We estimated the spatial distribution of different successional pathways under alternative fire regime scenarios. Under intensified fire regimes, dispersal limitation of evergreen conifers is predicted to become more severe, primarily due to reduced abundance of surviving seed sources within burned areas. Increased dispersal limitation of evergreen conifers, in turn, is predicted to increase the prevalence of successional pathways dominated by deciduous hardwoods

  15. The mirror neuron system: new frontiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keysers, Christian; Fadiga, Luciano

    2008-01-01

    Since the discovery of mirror neurons, much effort has been invested into studying their location and properties in the human brain. Here we review these original findings and introduce the main topics of this special issue of Social Neuroscience. What does the mirror system code? How is the mirror system embedded into the mosaic of circuits that compose our brain? How does the mirror system contribute to communication, language and social interaction? Can the principle of mirror neurons be extended to emotions, sensations and thoughts? Papers using a wide range of methods, including single cell recordings, fMRI, TMS, EEG and psychophysics, collected in this special issue, start to give us some impressive answers.

  16. Inconsistent Investment and Consumption Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronborg, Morten Tolver; Steffensen, Mogens

    2015-01-01

    In a traditional Black–Scholes market we develop a verification theorem for a general class of investment and consumption problems where the standard dynamic programming principle does not hold. The theorem is an extension of the standard Hamilton–Jacobi–Bellman equation in the form of a system...... of non-linear differential equations. We derive the optimal investment and consumption strategy for a mean-variance investor without pre-commitment endowed with labor income. In the case of constant risk aversion it turns out that the optimal amount of money to invest in stocks is independent of wealth...... of future labor income net of consumption. Using the verification theorem we give a detailed analysis of this problem. It turns out that the optimal amount of money to invest in stocks is given by a linear function of wealth plus the financial value of future labor income net of consumption. The optimal...

  17. Mudaravila kinnistu arendajaks Alvarelli Invest

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Pärnu mudaravila kinnistu 50-aastasest hoonestusõigusest oli huvitatud Andres Tiigi firma Alvarelli Invest. Firma peab 2009. a. suveks vana mudaravila restaureerima ja rajama sellele mere poole juurdeehitise

  18. Quality of investments in logistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borut Jereb

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The issue problem of paper is that base on researches connected with analysis of investments in logistics based on the review of 100 pooled manuscripts from different sources (scientific journals and online magazines from 1996 to 2012 it was showed that there don't exist quality as well as leadership has no a good overview of the investment in logistics. It was claimed that the quality point of view should be demanding part of investments in logistics. Val Log was proposed as an answer to the issues of managing quality of investments in logistics at the tactical level in organizations. By Val Log it is possible to overcome the myth that logistics projects cost money while business projects bring money. Val Log also provides detailed instructions for goals and metrics for each process. By doing changes the quality should be the obvious pillar of our affords doing it.

  19. Foreign direct investment in China

    OpenAIRE

    Bredero, Q.S.

    2007-01-01

    Foreign Direct Investment in China is one of the most comprehensive studies of FDI in China and provides a remarkable background of information on the evolution of China’s FDI policies over the last 30 years.

  20. (MFN) CLAUSE IN INVESTMENT TREATIES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fr. Ikenga

    favoured-nation' treatment (MFN) clause which seeks to grant to an investor from ... designed to take account of the special characteristics of international investment disputes ... it regularly publishes information about its activities and cases.

  1. Investing: reducing risks to enhance returns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, J; Glickman, S; Seidner, A G

    1996-09-01

    The financial assets of a healthcare organization can present many opportunities for investment. In order to develop a profitable investment program that avoids risky speculation, however, healthcare financial managers must fully understand the nature and risks of their organizations' investments. They must define and monitor their investment objectives, limitations, levels of acceptable risk and policies and conditions through a statement of investment policy and comprehensive investment guidelines.

  2. Research of relationship between uncertainty and investment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Li; WANG Ding-wei

    2005-01-01

    This study focuses on revealing the relationship between uncertainty and investment probability through real option model involving investment critical trigger and project earning. Use of Matlab software on the experimental results showing that project earning volatility influences investment probability, led the authors to conclude that this notion is not always correct, as increasing uncertainty should have an inhibiting effect on investment, and that in certain situation, increasing uncertainty actually increases the investment probability and so, should have positive impact on investment.

  3. Intensified Multifactorial Intervention in Type 2 Diabetes and Microalbuminuria Reduces End Stage Renal Disease and Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oellgaard, Jens; Gæde, Peter; Rossing, Peter

    2016-01-01

    -label trial. Duration of the intervention was 8 years, where after all patients were recommended intensified treatment. Total follow-up of up to 21 years of 24 hour urinary albumin excretion rate and GFR (51Cr-EDTA-clearance) assessed at 6 study visits. Information on end stage renal disease (ESRD......) and mortality was obtained from national registries. Outcome measures were progression to macroalbuminuria (>300 mg/24h), decline-rates of GFR and progression to end stage renal disease (ESRD) or death. Results: Progression to macroalbuminuria was reduced in the original intensive-therapy group with a hazard...

  4. A comparative study of CaWO4 and rare earth intensifying screens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambiger, T.Y.; Ayappan, P.

    1978-01-01

    Three brands of commercially available calcium tungstate intensifying screens and a brand of rare earth screen emitting blue light have been used with two types of fast medical x-ray films, one imported and the other indigenous in various film-screen combinations and their sensitometric properties have been determined and compared. The rare earth screen has been found to be about 3 to 4 times faster than the tungstate screens without reduction in contrast. This indicates that the use of rare earth screen in medical radiography will help to reduce the patient dose by the same factor. (M.G.B.)

  5. Diels–Alder reactions of myrcene using intensified continuous-flow reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian H. Hornung

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the Diels–Alder reaction of the naturally occurring substituted butadiene, myrcene, with a range of different naturally occurring and synthetic dienophiles. The synthesis of the Diels–Alder adduct from myrcene and acrylic acid, containing surfactant properties, was scaled-up in a plate-type continuous-flow reactor with a volume of 105 mL to a throughput of 2.79 kg of the final product per day. This continuous-flow approach provides a facile alternative scale-up route to conventional batch processing, and it helps to intensify the synthesis protocol by applying higher reaction temperatures and shorter reaction times.

  6. Effects of Intensifying Labor Market Programs on Post-Unemployment Wages: Evidence From a Controlled Experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kenneth Lykke

    This paper investigates effects on wages of a Danish field experiment intensifying Active Labor Market Policies (ALMP).We link unemployed workers who participated in an ALMP experiment called “Quickly Back” carried out by the Danish Ministry of Employment 2005-2006 in two counties to matched...... employer-employee and public transfer register data up to 2008 enabling us to analyze exact labor market transitions and jobs of the participants. Men in one of the counties experienced significant higher probability of earning higher short and long term wages after treatment. Treated men in the other...

  7. Detection matrix of an electromagnetic radiation and radiological image intensifier comprising such a matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraleux, Jean.

    1982-01-01

    This invention concerns a detection matrix comprising, in an electrode lattice of lines and columns, addressing means constituted of thin film technology MOS transistors and photoconductances which enable the number of unit module crossings to be halved and to bring about an increase in the effective detection area. This detection matrix is employed in radiological image intensifiers where it ensures the conversion of incident X photons into reading electric signals or only the detection of a visible radiation in the case where the incident X photons are converted into lesser energy photons by a scintillator. The scintillator is then formed of a panel brought into contact with the detector mosaic [fr

  8. Corruption, public investment and growth

    OpenAIRE

    Tanzi, Vito; 中村, まづる

    1998-01-01

    Corruption, particularly political or “grand” corruption, distorts the entire decision-making process connected with public investment projects. The degree of distortions is higher with weaker auditing institutions. The evidence presented shows that higher corruption is associated with (i) higher public investment; (ii) lower government revenues; (iii) lower expenditures on operations and maintenance; and (iv) lower quality of public infrastructure. The evidence also shows that corruption inc...

  9. Sustainable Markets Investment Briefings: Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotula, Lorenzo

    2007-08-15

    This is the first of a series of briefings which discuss the sustainable development issues raised by legal arrangements for the protection of foreign investment. The briefings are based on legal research by IIED and its partners. The goal is to provide accessible but accurate information for human rights, development and environmental organisations working on issues raised by foreign investment in low- and middle-income countries. Briefing 1 provides a general overview of key issues.

  10. Investment in new product reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murthy, D.N.P.; Rausand, M.; Virtanen, S.

    2009-01-01

    Product reliability is of great importance to both manufacturers and customers. Building reliability into a new product is costly, but the consequences of inadequate product reliability can be costlier. This implies that manufacturers need to decide on the optimal investment in new product reliability by achieving a suitable trade-off between the two costs. This paper develops a framework and proposes an approach to help manufacturers decide on the investment in new product reliability.

  11. Spillovers from Foreign Direct Investment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Klaus E.; Sinani, Evis

    2005-01-01

    The extensive empirical literature analyzing productivity spillovers from foreign direct investment to local firms provides inconclusive results. Some studies find that foreign presence has a positive impact on the productivity of domestic firms, while others find no evidence or a negative effect...... for industrialized countries in the 1990s. Transition economies may experience spillovers, but these have been declining in recent years. Keywords: developing countries, transition economies, spillovers, foreign direct investment, technology transfer, meta-analysis...

  12. Law and Investment in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Simplice A., Asongu

    2011-01-01

    Contrary to mainstream consensus on the dominance of English common law countries in investment prospects, this paper sets a new tone in the legal origins debate by providing empirical validity on the dominance of French civil-law countries in private investment. The assessment is based on 38 African countries for the period 1996-2007. The law mechanisms of regulation quality and rule of law are used to investigate how legal origins (French, English, French sub-Saharan, Portuguese and North A...

  13. China's Investment Leade Dr, Alyce Su

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ I. Professional Background Dr. Alyce Su specializes in investment managemeng, managing portfolios consisted of investment opportunities originated from China's growth and internationalization, both'outbound and inbound.

  14. Investments in liberalised power markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grenaa Jensen, S.; Meibom, P.

    2005-01-01

    There is considerable uncertainty in the Nordic electricity system with respect to the long-term development in production capacity. The process towards liberalisation of the electricity sector started with a situation of a large capacity margin, but this margin is gradually vanishing. Since the potential investors in new production capacity are unaccustomed with investments under the new regime, it is unknown if and when investments will take place. The purpose of the present study is to analyze if and when investors choose to invest in new electricity production capacity depending on their existing portfolio of power producing units. Electricity price scenarios generated with a partial equilibrium model (Balmorel) are combined with a model of investment decisions. In this, various scenarios concerning the development in the Nordic power market, such as new transmission lines between neighbouring countries, more installed wind power, and changes in CO 2 emission trading costs, are used to investigate the consequences for investments in a natural gas fired, combined cycle power plant. The main result of the analysis is that new investments are highly sensitive to investors existing power production portfolio, as new production units affect the merit order in the power market, i.e. compete with the existing power plants. (au)

  15. Kappe neurons, a novel population of olfactory sensory neurons

    OpenAIRE

    Ahuja, Gaurav; Nia, Shahrzad Bozorg; Zapilko, Veronika; Shiriagin, Vladimir; Kowatschew, Daniel; Oka, Yuichiro; Korsching, Sigrun I.

    2014-01-01

    Perception of olfactory stimuli is mediated by distinct populations of olfactory sensory neurons, each with a characteristic set of morphological as well as functional parameters. Beyond two large populations of ciliated and microvillous neurons, a third population, crypt neurons, has been identified in teleost and cartilaginous fishes. We report here a novel, fourth olfactory sensory neuron population in zebrafish, which we named kappe neurons for their characteristic shape. Kappe neurons ar...

  16. Design and analysis of a flux intensifying permanent magnet embedded salient pole wind generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yujing; Jin, Ping; Lin, Heyun; Yang, Hui; Lyu, Shukang

    2018-05-01

    This paper presents an improved flux intensifying permanent magnet embedded salient pole wind generator (FI-PMESPWG) with mirror symmetrical magnetizing directions permanent magnet (PM) for improving generator's performances. The air-gap flux densities, the output voltage, the cogging torque and the d- and q-axis inductances of FI-PMESPWG are all calculated and analyzed by using the finite element method (FEM). To highlight the advantages of the proposed FI-PMESPWG, an original permanent magnet embedded salient pole wind generator (PMESPWG) model is adopted for comparison under the same operating conditions. The calculating results show that the air-gap flux densities of FI-PMESPWG are intensified with the same magnet amounts because the PMs are set in a form of V shape in each pole. The difference between d-axis inductance and q-axis inductance of the proposed FI-PMESPWG is reduced. Thus, the output power of the proposed FI-PMESPWG reaches a higher value than that of the original PMESPWG at the same current phase angle. The cogging torque is diminished because the flux path is changed. All the analysis results indicate that the electromagnetic characteristics of the proposed FI-PMESPWG are significantly better than that of the original PMESPWG.

  17. Self-triggered image intensifier tube for high-resolution UHECR imaging detector

    CERN Document Server

    Sasaki, M; Jobashi, M

    2003-01-01

    The authors have developed a self-triggered image intensifier tube with high-resolution imaging capability. An image detected by a first image intensifier tube as an electrostatic lens with a photocathode diameter of 100 mm is separated by a half-mirror into a path for CCD readout (768x494 pixels) and a fast control to recognize and trigger the image. The proposed system provides both a high signal-to-noise ratio to improve single photoelectron detection and excellent spatial resolution between 207 and 240 mu m rendering this device a potentially essential tool for high-energy physics and astrophysics experiments, as well as high-speed photography. When combined with a 1-arcmin resolution optical system with 50 deg. field-of-view proposed by the present authors, the observation of ultra high-energy cosmic rays and high-energy neutrinos using this device is expected, leading to revolutionary progress in particle astrophysics as a complementary technique to traditional astronomical observations at multiple wave...

  18. Intensified Vegetation Water Use due to Soil Calcium Leaching under Acid Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanning, M.; Wang, L.; Scanlon, T. M.; Vadeboncoeur, M. A.; Adams, M. B.; Epstein, H. E.; Druckenbrod, D.

    2017-12-01

    Despite the important role vegetation plays in the global water cycle, the exact controls of vegetation water use, especially the role of soil biogeochemistry, remain elusive. Nitrate and sulfate deposition from fossil fuel burning has caused significant soil acidification, leading to the leaching of soil base cations. From a physiological perspective, plants require various soil cations as signaling and regulatory ions as well as integral parts of structural molecules; a depletion of soil cations can cause reduced productivity and abnormal responses to environmental change. A deficiency in calcium could also potentially prolong stomatal opening, leading to increased transpiration until enough calcium had been acquired to stimulate stomatal closure. Based on the plant physiology and the nature of acidic deposition, we hypothesize that depletion of the soil calcium supply, induced by acid deposition, would intensify vegetation water use at the watershed scale. We tested this hypothesis by analyzing a long-term and unique data set (1989-2012) of soil lysimeter data along with stream flow and evapotranspiration data at the Fernow Experimental Forest. We show that depletion of soil calcium by acid deposition can intensify vegetation water use ( 10% increase in evapotranspiration and depletion in soil water) for the first time. These results are critical to understanding future water availability, biogeochemical cycles, and surficial energy flux and may help reduce uncertainties in terrestrial biosphere models.

  19. Design and test of a high resolution plastic scintillating fiber detector with intensified CCD readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebourgeard, P.

    1991-01-01

    We present the design of a particle detector involving a coherent array of 100 000 plastic scintillating microfibers, with an individual core diameter around 50 micrometers, and an intensified bidimensional CCD array. We investigate both theoretically and experimentally the use of polystyrene based scintillators in optical multimodal fibers. The isotropic excitation of modes and the characteristics of energy transfers between the polystyrene matrix and the added fluorescent dyes are of particular interest. An experimental approach is proposed and applied to the development of a new binary scintillator. In order to study the transmission of the signal from the interaction area to the output face, we specify the loss factors, the resolution and the signal to noise ratio within the fiber array. The low light level at the output face of the detector leads us to use image intensifiers in photon counting mode. This requires a detailed analysis of resolutions, gain, noise and detectivity concepts. We propose to describe these strongly correlated notions by the moment generation formalism. Thus, a previous modelisation of the photoelectronic devices allows us to evaluate the performance of the readout chain. A complete detector has been assembled and tested on a high energy hadron beam; the measurements are in good agreement with the modelisation [fr

  20. How do Rumination and Social Problem Solving Intensify Depression? A Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Akira; Kunisato, Yoshihiko; Morimoto, Hiroshi; Nishimura, Haruki; Matsuda, Yuko

    2018-01-01

    In order to examine how rumination and social problem solving intensify depression, the present study investigated longitudinal associations among each dimension of rumination and social problem solving and evaluated aspects of these constructs that predicted subsequent depression. A three-wave longitudinal study, with an interval of 4 weeks between waves, was conducted. Japanese university students completed the Beck Depression Inventory-Second Edition, Ruminative Responses Scale, Social Problem-Solving Inventory-Revised Short Version, and Interpersonal Stress Event Scale on three occasions 4 weeks apart ( n  = 284 at Time 1, 198 at Time 2, 165 at Time 3). Linear mixed models were analyzed to test whether each variable predicted subsequent depression, rumination, and each dimension of social problem solving. Rumination and negative problem orientation demonstrated a mutually enhancing relationship. Because these two variables were not associated with interpersonal conflict during the subsequent 4 weeks, rumination and negative problem orientation appear to strengthen each other without environmental change. Rumination and impulsivity/carelessness style were associated with subsequent depressive symptoms, after controlling for the effect of initial depression. Because rumination and impulsivity/carelessness style were not concurrently and longitudinally associated with each other, rumination and impulsive/careless problem solving style appear to be independent processes that serve to intensify depression.

  1. Performance in sports--With specific emphasis on the effect of intensified training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangsbo, J

    2015-12-01

    Performance in most sports is determined by the athlete's technical, tactical, physiological and psychological/social characteristics. In the present article, the physical aspect will be evaluated with a focus on what limits performance, and how training can be conducted to improve performance. Specifically how intensified training, i.e., increasing the amount of aerobic high-intensity and speed endurance training, affects physiological adaptations and performance of trained subjects. Periods of speed endurance training do improve performance in events lasting 30 s-4 min, and when combined with aerobic high-intensity sessions, also performance during longer events. Athletes in team sports involving intense exercise actions and endurance aspects, such as soccer and basketball, can also benefit from intensified training. Speed endurance training does reduce energy expenditure and increase expression of muscle Na(+), K(+) pump α subunits, which may preserve muscle cell excitability and delay fatigue development during intense exercise. When various types of training are conducted in the same period (concurrent training), as done in a number of sports, one type of training may blunt the effect of other types of training. It is not, however, clear how various training modalities are affecting each other, and this issue should be addressed in future studies. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. X-ray image intensifier tube and radiographic camera incorporating same

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    An X-ray sensitive image intensifier tube is described. It has an input window comprising at least one of iron, chromium and nickel for receiving an X-ray image. There is a flat scintillator screen adjacent for converting the X-ray image into a light pattern image. Adjacent to this is a flat photocathode layer for emitting photoelectrons in a pattern corresponding to the light pattern image. Parallel to this and spaced from it is a flat phosphor display screen. Electrostatic voltage is applied to the display screen and the photocathode layer to create an electric field between them to accelerate the photoelectrons towards the display screen. The paths of such parallel straight trajectories are governed solely by the electrostatic voltage applied, the image at the display screen being substantially equal in size to that of the X-ray image received at the input window. The tube envelope is preferably metallic to enable the basic components to be kept at a neutral potential and avoid spurious emissions. A radiographic camera with such an intensifier tube is also described. (U.K.)

  3. X-ray topography with scintillators coupled to image intensifiers or camera tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beauvais, Yves; Mathiot, Alain.

    1978-01-01

    The possibility of imaging topographic figures in real time by using a thin scintillator coupled to either a high-gain image intensifier or a camera tube is investigated. The camera tube must have a high gain because of the low photon fluxes that are encountered in practice, and because of the relatively low quantum yield of thin phosphors. With conventional X-ray generators, the resolution is photon-noise limited. With more powerful generators like synchrotrons, real-time imaging appears possible, and the resolution is limited by the modulation transfer function of the image tube. Higher resolution can be reached by increasing the magnification between the screen and the image tube. When doing so, the input field is reduced and thinner phosphor screens must be used, resulting in a lower yield. Each time the magnification is doubled, the minimum required photon flux is multiplier by about 8, so that the advantages of increasing the magnification are rapidly limited, so far as real-time imaging is concerned. Because image tube resolution is mainly limited by the modulation transfer function of the phosphor for image intensifiers, and by that of the target for camera tubes, improvement of photocathode resolution can be obtained by magnifying electron optics. A zooming electron optic would permit the field and the resolution of the tube to be adapted to the observed subject. Unfortunately such tubes do not exist at present for this type of application, and in the required size

  4. Cheap streak camera based on the LD-S-10 intensifier tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dashevsky, Boris E.; Krutik, Mikhail I.; Surovegin, Alexander L.

    1992-01-01

    Basic properties of a new streak camera and its test results are reported. To intensify images on its screen, we employed modular G1 tubes, the LD-A-1.0 and LD-A-0.33, enabling magnification of 1.0 and 0.33, respectively. If necessary, the LD-A-0.33 tube may be substituted by any other image intensifier of the LDA series, the choice to be determined by the size of the CCD matrix with fiber-optical windows. The reported camera employs a 12.5- mm-long CCD strip consisting of 1024 pixels, each 12 X 500 micrometers in size. Registered radiation was imaged on a 5 X 0.04 mm slit diaphragm tightly connected with the LD-S- 10 fiber-optical input window. Electrons escaping the cathode are accelerated in a 5 kV electric field and focused onto a phosphor screen covering a fiber-optical plate as they travel between deflection plates. Sensitivity of the latter was 18 V/mm, which implies that the total deflecting voltage was 720 V per 40 mm of the screen surface, since reversed-polarity scan pulses +360 V and -360 V were applied across the deflection plate. The streak camera provides full scan times over the screen of 15, 30, 50, 100, 250, and 500 ns. Timing of the electrically or optically driven camera was done using a 10 ns step-controlled-delay (0 - 500 ns) circuit.

  5. NEURON and Python.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Michael L; Davison, Andrew P; Muller, Eilif

    2009-01-01

    The NEURON simulation program now allows Python to be used, alone or in combination with NEURON's traditional Hoc interpreter. Adding Python to NEURON has the immediate benefit of making available a very extensive suite of analysis tools written for engineering and science. It also catalyzes NEURON software development by offering users a modern programming tool that is recognized for its flexibility and power to create and maintain complex programs. At the same time, nothing is lost because all existing models written in Hoc, including graphical user interface tools, continue to work without change and are also available within the Python context. An example of the benefits of Python availability is the use of the xml module in implementing NEURON's Import3D and CellBuild tools to read MorphML and NeuroML model specifications.

  6. Spinal cord: motor neuron diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezania, Kourosh; Roos, Raymond P

    2013-02-01

    Spinal cord motor neuron diseases affect lower motor neurons in the ventral horn. This article focuses on the most common spinal cord motor neuron disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, which also affects upper motor neurons. Also discussed are other motor neuron diseases that only affect the lower motor neurons. Despite the identification of several genes associated with familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, the pathogenesis of this complex disease remains elusive. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Security Investment in Contagious Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasheminasab, Seyed Alireza; Tork Ladani, Behrouz

    2018-01-16

    Security of the systems is normally interdependent in such a way that security risks of one part affect other parts and threats spread through the vulnerable links in the network. So, the risks of the systems can be mitigated through investments in the security of interconnecting links. This article takes an innovative look at the problem of security investment of nodes on their vulnerable links in a given contagious network as a game-theoretic model that can be applied to a variety of applications including information systems. In the proposed game model, each node computes its corresponding risk based on the value of its assets, vulnerabilities, and threats to determine the optimum level of security investments on its external links respecting its limited budget. Furthermore, direct and indirect nonlinear influences of a node's security investment on the risks of other nodes are considered. The existence and uniqueness of the game's Nash equilibrium in the proposed game are also proved. Further analysis of the model in a practical case revealed that taking advantage of the investment effects of other players, perfectly rational players (i.e., those who use the utility function of the proposed game model) make more cost-effective decisions than selfish nonrational or semirational players. © 2018 Society for Risk Analysis.

  8. Government Strategic Support for Investment Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turekulova, Assiya N.; Mukhambetova, Lyazzat K.; Doshan, Almagul S.; Issabekov, Baurzhan N.; Chimgentbayeva, Gulbakyt K.; Turegeldinova, Aliya Zh.

    2016-01-01

    When system risks are high most investors choose to exit the market; however, there are some contrarian investors who opt to make investments. The authors analyzed the main goals of the investment process and measures that should be provided by the government to stimulate investments and innovation especially by means of investment banking. The…

  9. 12 CFR 615.5133 - Investment management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Investment management. 615.5133 Section 615... POLICIES AND OPERATIONS, AND FUNDING OPERATIONS Investment Management § 615.5133 Investment management. (a... management information systems that are appropriate for the level and complexity of your investment...

  10. 31 CFR 537.311 - New investment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false New investment. 537.311 Section 537....311 New investment. (a) The term new investment means any of the following activities if such activity... located in Burma, without regard to the form of the participation. (b) The term new investment shall not...

  11. 43 CFR 29.11 - Investment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Investment. 29.11 Section 29.11 Public... Investment. (a) The monies accumulated in the Fund shall be prudently invested in the following types of... investment advisor or custodian to the Fund, or their affiliates may be purchased or held by the Fund. (3...

  12. Investment under uncertainty : Timing and capacity optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wen, Xingang

    2017-01-01

    This thesis consists of three chapters on analyzing the optimal investment timing and investment capacity for the firm(s) undertaking irreversible investment in an uncertain environment. Chapter 2 studies the investment decision of a monopoly firm when it can adjust output quantity in a market with

  13. 47 CFR 69.302 - Net investment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) Investment in Accounts 2002, 2003 and to the extent such inclusions are allowed by this Commission, Account... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) ACCESS CHARGES Apportionment of Net Investment § 69.302 Net investment. (a) Investment in Accounts 2001, 1220 and Class B Rural...

  14. Bandwagon investment equilibrium of a preemption game

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, KiHyung; Deshmukh, Abhijit

    2018-01-01

    In stochastic and competitive environments, investors face an investment dilemma because the environments provide conflicting incentives. Empirical research reports various behaviors exhibited by investors, including voluntary concurrent investments, which are called bandwagon investments. However, the current theoretical understanding is still limited in explaining under which condition the investment bandwagon effect occurs. The authors investigated the closed-loop subgame perfect equilibri...

  15. The Investment Committee. Effective Committees. Board Basics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggs, John H.

    1997-01-01

    The investment committee of the college or university governing board is charged with determining, overseeing, and assessing the policies and processes by which institutional funds are invested. The committee has fiduciary duty to ensure that the terms of investment of donors' gifts are met and to maximize investment returns within an appropriate…

  16. 12 CFR 211.9 - Investment procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Investment procedures. (a) General provisions. 5 Direct and indirect investments shall be made in accordance... for general consent. An investment in a foreign bank may not be made under authority of paragraphs (b) or (c) of this section if: (1) After the investment, the foreign bank would be an affiliate of a...

  17. Foreign investments in modern economic activities

    OpenAIRE

    Emil Biber

    2004-01-01

    Worldwide economies are more and more linked by international economic and financial flows to globalization and economic integration phenomena that is effect and cause for them. External investments represent for investors a long-term investment abroad meanwhile for users these could be direct investments or portfolio investments

  18. 12 CFR 1.8 - Nonconforming investments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nonconforming investments. 1.8 Section 1.8 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY INVESTMENT SECURITIES § 1.8 Nonconforming investments. (a) A national bank's investment in securities that no longer conform to this part...

  19. 17 CFR 256.124 - Other investments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Other investments. 256.124... COMPANY ACT OF 1935 2. Investments § 256.124 Other investments. This account shall include the cost or current value of investments, whichever is less, in securities, club memberships, associations, life...

  20. 12 CFR 704.5 - Investments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Investments. 704.5 Section 704.5 Banks and... § 704.5 Investments. (a) Policies. A corporate credit union must operate according to an investment... must address, at a minimum: (1) Appropriate tests and criteria for evaluating investments and...

  1. 12 CFR 703.18 - Grandfathered investments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grandfathered investments. 703.18 Section 703... INVESTMENT AND DEPOSIT ACTIVITIES § 703.18 Grandfathered investments. (a) Subject to safety and soundness... zero coupon security with a maturity greater than 10 years, if it purchased the investment: (1) Before...

  2. 12 CFR 615.5142 - Association investments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Association investments. 615.5142 Section 615... POLICIES AND OPERATIONS, AND FUNDING OPERATIONS Investment Management § 615.5142 Association investments. An association may hold eligible investments listed in § 615.5140, with the approval of its funding...

  3. 12 CFR 347.108 - Portfolio investments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Portfolio investments. 347.108 Section 347.108... INTERNATIONAL BANKING § 347.108 Portfolio investments. (a) Portfolio investments. If a bank, directly or indirectly, acquires or holds an equity interest in a foreign organization as a portfolio investment and the...

  4. 12 CFR 956.2 - Authorized investments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Authorized investments. 956.2 Section 956.2... ITEMS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK INVESTMENTS § 956.2 Authorized investments. In addition to assets... securities of any small business investment company formed pursuant to 15 U.S.C. 681(d), to the extent such...

  5. 12 CFR 703.14 - Permissible investments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Permissible investments. 703.14 Section 703.14 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS INVESTMENT AND DEPOSIT ACTIVITIES § 703.14 Permissible investments. (a) Variable rate investment. A Federal...

  6. 47 CFR 32.102 - Nonregulated investments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nonregulated investments. 32.102 Section 32.102 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS... investments. Nonregulated investments shall include the investment in nonregulated activities that are...

  7. Neuronal-glial trafficking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachelard, H.S.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The name 'glia' originates from the Greek word for glue, because astro glia (or astrocytes) were thought only to provide an anatomical framework for the electrically-excitable neurones. However, awareness that astrocytes perform vital roles in protecting the neurones, which they surround, emerged from evidence that they act as neuroprotective K + -sinks, and that they remove potentially toxic extracellular glutamate from the vicinity of the neurones. The astrocytes convert the glutamate to non-toxic glutamine which is returned to the neurones and used to replenish transmitter glutamate. This 'glutamate-glutamine cycle' (established in the 1960s by Berl and his colleagues) also contributes to protecting the neurones against a build-up of toxic ammonia. Glial cells also supply the neurones with components for free-radical scavenging glutathione. Recent studies have revealed that glial cells play a more positive interactive role in furnishing the neurones with fuels. Studies using radioactive 14 C, 13 C-MRS and 15 N-GCMS have revealed that glia produce alanine, lactate and proline for consumption by neurones, with increased formation of neurotransmitter glutamate. On neuronal activation the release of NH 4 + and glutamate from the neurones stimulates glucose uptake and glycolysis in the glia to produce more alanine, which can be regarded as an 'alanine-glutamate cycle' Use of 14 C-labelled precursors provided early evidence that neurotransmitter GABA may be partly derived from glial glutamine, and this has been confirmed recently in vivo by MRS isotopomer analysis of the GABA and glutamine labelled from 13 C-acetate. Relative rates of intermediary metabolism in glia and neurones can be calculated using a combination of [1- 13 C] glucose and [1,2- 13 C] acetate. When glutamate is released by neurones there is a net neuronal loss of TCA intermediates which have to be replenished. Part of this is derived from carboxylation of pyruvate, (pyruvate carboxylase

  8. Investment under Uncertain Climate Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barradale, Merrill Jones

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces the concept of payment probability as an important component of carbon risk (the financial risk associated with CO2 emissions under uncertain climate policy). In modeling power plant investment decisions, most existing literature uses the expected carbon price (e.g., the price...... actually be faced in the case of a particular investment. This concept helps explain both the surge of activity in 2005–2006 and the subsequent decline in interest in coal-fired power plant development in the U.S. The data for this case study comes from an extensive online survey of 700 U.S. energy...... design better incentives for investing in low-carbon technologies...

  9. Investment accounting in building industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuesgen, H.

    1982-09-01

    The methods of investment accounting are always required if, as it is usual for buildings, payments are not due once but repeatedly within a period of several years. These payments are presented in a payment model from which an informative and reliable total value of all costs and yields can be derived. The report deals nearly exclusively with the so-called dynamic investment accounting method as it records the payment procedures as to time much more exactly than the static investment accounting method. The problem of continually rising amounts of regular payments as e.g. energy prices can be better represented by the dynamic method. Therefore, the static methods have been dealt with only globally.

  10. Transnational Investments in Informational Capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D. Munk, Martin

    This paper analyses the acquisition of informational capital, e.g. academic capital, measured as student mobility, and understood as transnational investments in prestigious foreign educational institutions. In the 1990s, educational “zones of prestige” have especially been the United States......) are more likely than students from other social classes to pursue transnational investments, even though students from the middle and working classes have now entered the competition. This result is also recently found in an analysis of Danish academic emigrants. All in all, the studies confirm...... the hypothesis that students from upper classes are more likely than others to invest in specific informational capital in the field of education, in national environments but also in international settings....

  11. The weighted average cost of capital over the lifecycle of the firm: Is the overinvestment problem of mature firms intensified by a higher WACC?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos S. Garcia

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Firm lifecycle theory predicts that the Weighted Average Cost of Capital (WACC will tend to fall over the lifecycle of the firm (Mueller, 2003, p. 80-81. However, given that previous research finds that corporate governance deteriorates as firms get older (Mueller and Yun, 1998; Saravia, 2014 there is good reason to suspect that the opposite could be the case, that is, that the WACC is higher for older firms. Since our literature review indicates that no direct tests to clarify this question have been carried out up till now, this paper aims to fill the gap by testing this prediction empirically. Our findings support the proposition that the WACC of younger firms is higher than that of mature firms. Thus, we find that the mature firm overinvestment problem is not intensified by a higher cost of capital, on the contrary, our results suggest that mature firms manage to invest in negative net present value projects even though they have access to cheaper capital. This finding sheds new light on the magnitude of the corporate governance problems found in mature firms.

  12. Low-beta investment strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Korn, Olaf; Kuntz, Laura-Chloé

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates investment strategies that exploit the low-beta anomaly. Although the notion of buying low-beta stocks and selling high-beta stocks is natural, a choice is necessary with respect to the relative weighting of high-beta stocks and low-beta stocks in the investment portfolio. Our empirical results for US large-cap stocks show that this choice is very important for the risk-return characteristics of the resulting portfolios and their sensitivities to common risk factors. W...

  13. Investing for a better environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    To address the broad range of environmental issues in central and eastern Europe, including the former Soviet Union, the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development has adopted a twofold operational strategy: a regional programme approach and a project-based approach. The Bank is undertaking studies of environmental legislation and standards, and of training, liability and public participation requirements in the countries where it operates. It has also initiated environmental assessments in sectors where future investment projects are anticipated. The principal objectives of this work are to assist the countries of central and eastern Europe, those who wish to invest in these countries and Bank staff in their environmental appraisal work

  14. Financialisation in health care: An analysis of private equity fund investments in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eren Vural, Ipek

    2017-08-01

    The 2007-2008 global financial crisis revived interest in the impacts of financial markets and actors on our social and economic life. Nevertheless, research on health care financialisation remains scant. This article presents findings from research on one modality of financial investments in health care: global private equity funds' investments in private hospitals. Adopting a political economy approach, it analyses the drivers and impacts of the upsurge of global private equity investments in the Turkish private hospital sector amid the global financial crisis. The analysis derives from review of research and archival literature, as well as six in-depth interviews held with owners/executive board directors/general managers of the largest private hospital chains in Turkey and the general partners of their PE investors. The interviewing process took place between January and November 2016. All interviews were conducted by the author in Istanbul. The findings point to a mutually reinforcing relationship between neoliberal policies and financialisation processes in health care. The article shows that neoliberal healthcare reforms, introduced under consecutive Justice and Development Party (JDP) governments in Turkey, have been important precursors of private equity investments in healthcare services. These private equity investments, in turn, intensified and broadened the process of marketisation in health care services. Four impacts are identified, through which private equity investments hasten the marketisation of health care services. These relate to the impacts of private equity investments on a) advancing the process of chain formation by large hospital groups, b) spreading financial imperatives into the operations of private hospitals c) fostering internationalisation of capital, and d) augmenting inequities in access to health care services and standards. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Single neuron computation

    CERN Document Server

    McKenna, Thomas M; Zornetzer, Steven F

    1992-01-01

    This book contains twenty-two original contributions that provide a comprehensive overview of computational approaches to understanding a single neuron structure. The focus on cellular-level processes is twofold. From a computational neuroscience perspective, a thorough understanding of the information processing performed by single neurons leads to an understanding of circuit- and systems-level activity. From the standpoint of artificial neural networks (ANNs), a single real neuron is as complex an operational unit as an entire ANN, and formalizing the complex computations performed by real n

  16. Mesmerising mirror neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyes, Cecilia

    2010-06-01

    Mirror neurons have been hailed as the key to understanding social cognition. I argue that three currents of thought-relating to evolution, atomism and telepathy-have magnified the perceived importance of mirror neurons. When they are understood to be a product of associative learning, rather than an adaptation for social cognition, mirror neurons are no longer mesmerising, but they continue to raise important questions about both the psychology of science and the neural bases of social cognition. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The mirror neuron system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattaneo, Luigi; Rizzolatti, Giacomo

    2009-05-01

    Mirror neurons are a class of neurons, originally discovered in the premotor cortex of monkeys, that discharge both when individuals perform a given motor act and when they observe others perform that same motor act. Ample evidence demonstrates the existence of a cortical network with the properties of mirror neurons (mirror system) in humans. The human mirror system is involved in understanding others' actions and their intentions behind them, and it underlies mechanisms of observational learning. Herein, we will discuss the clinical implications of the mirror system.

  18. Large-image intensifier photofluorography and conventional radiography in pulmonary emphysema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manninen, H.; Partanen, K.; Soimakallio, S.; Rytkoenen, H.

    1988-01-01

    Large-screen image intensifier (II) photofluorography was compared with full-size screen-film chest radiography in the diagnosis of pulmonary emphysema in 84 patients. Photospot films and conventional radiographs were interpreted independently by three radiologists. Computed tomography (CT) was used as an independent reference technique, and diagnostic performance of chest radiography in various CT patterns of emphysema was evaluated. The difference in diagnostic sensitivity for emphysema in favor of conventional chest radiography over photofluorography (0.65 versus 0.56) was statistically significant (p < 0.05). Specificity of the imaging modalities was equal: 0.78 in full-size films and 0.77 in photospot films. All CT patterns of emphysema had great false negative response rates in chest radiography, which is an inaccurate technique for the diagnosis of emphysema. CT is required for reliable radiologic evaluation of emphysema. (orig.)

  19. Radial-pulse propagation and impedance characteristics of optically shuttered channel intensifier tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detch, J.L. Jr.; Noel, B.W.

    1981-01-01

    Electrically gated proximity-focused channel intensifier tubes are often used as optical shutters. Optimum nanosecond shuttering requires both understanding the electrical pulse propagation across the device structure and proper impedance matching. A distributed-transmission-line model is developed that describes analytically the voltage- and current-wave propagation characteristics as functions of time for any point on the surface. The optical gain's spatial uniformity and shutter-open times are shown to depend on the electrical pulse width and amplitude, and on the applied bias. The driving-point impedance is derived from the model and is expressed as a function of an infinite sum of terms in the complex frequency. The synthesis in terms of lumped-constant network elements is realized in first- and second-Foster equivalent circuits. Experimental impedance data are compared with the model's predictions and deviations from the ideal model are discussed

  20. Nanoparticles generated by laser in liquids as contrast medium and radiotherapy intensifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restuccia, Nancy; Torrisi, Lorenzo

    2018-01-01

    The synthesis of Au and Ag nanoparticles (NP) though laser ablation in liquids as a function the laser parameters is presented. Spherical NPs with diameter distribution within 1 and 100 nm were prepared by laser ablation in water. The nanoparticles characterization was performed using optical spectroscopy and electronic microscopy (SEM and TEM) measurements. Studies of the possible use of metallic nanoparticles as intensifier of diagnostics imaging contrast medium and absorbing dose from ionizing radiations in traditional radiotherapy and protontherapy are presented. Examples of in vitro (in tissue equivalent materials) and in vivo (in mice), were conducted thank to simulation programs permitting to evaluate the enhancement of efficiency in imaging and therapy as a function of the NPs concentrations and irradiation conditions.

  1. Nanoparticles generated by laser in liquids as contrast medium and radiotherapy intensifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Restuccia Nancy

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of Au and Ag nanoparticles (NP though laser ablation in liquids as a function the laser parameters is presented. Spherical NPs with diameter distribution within 1 and 100 nm were prepared by laser ablation in water. The nanoparticles characterization was performed using optical spectroscopy and electronic microscopy (SEM and TEM measurements. Studies of the possible use of metallic nanoparticles as intensifier of diagnostics imaging contrast medium and absorbing dose from ionizing radiations in traditional radiotherapy and protontherapy are presented. Examples of in vitro (in tissue equivalent materials and in vivo (in mice, were conducted thank to simulation programs permitting to evaluate the enhancement of efficiency in imaging and therapy as a function of the NPs concentrations and irradiation conditions.

  2. Lead foil in dental X-ray film: Backscattering rejection or image intensifier?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hönnicke, M.G.; Delben, G.J.; Godoi, W.C.; Swinka-Filho, V.

    2014-01-01

    Dental X-ray films are still largely used due to sterilization issues, simplicity and, mainly, economic reasons. These films almost always are double coated (double emulsion) and have a lead foil in contact with the film for X-ray backscattering rejection. Herein we explore the use of the lead foil as an image intensifier. In these studies, spatial resolution was investigated when images were acquired on the dental X-ray films with and without the lead foil. Also, the lead foil was subjected to atomic analysis (fluorescent measurements) and structure analysis (X-ray diffraction). We determined that the use of the lead foil reduces the exposure time, however, does not affect the spatial resolution on the acquired images. This suggests that the fluorescent radiation spread is smaller than the grain sizes of the dental X-ray films

  3. Lead foil in dental X-ray film: Backscattering rejection or image intensifier?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hönnicke, M. G.; Delben, G. J.; Godoi, W. C.; Swinka-Filho, V.

    2014-11-01

    Dental X-ray films are still largely used due to sterilization issues, simplicity and, mainly, economic reasons. These films almost always are double coated (double emulsion) and have a lead foil in contact with the film for X-ray backscattering rejection. Herein we explore the use of the lead foil as an image intensifier. In these studies, spatial resolution was investigated when images were acquired on the dental X-ray films with and without the lead foil. Also, the lead foil was subjected to atomic analysis (fluorescent measurements) and structure analysis (X-ray diffraction). We determined that the use of the lead foil reduces the exposure time, however, does not affect the spatial resolution on the acquired images. This suggests that the fluorescent radiation spread is smaller than the grain sizes of the dental X-ray films.

  4. Stepping back to advance: Why IGD needs an intensified debate instead of a consensus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quandt, Thorsten

    2017-06-01

    Based on their analysis of Internet gaming disorder (IGD) criteria, Kuss, Griffiths, and Pontes (2017) come to the conclusion that the current situation can be described as "chaos and confusion." Their assessment is not an exaggeration. It can be argued that there are even more issues, on logical/definitional and political/social levels: (a) the IGD diagnosis is lacking a well-defined object, (b) the cause and effect cannot be differentiated outside lab conditions, (c) the social and political effects of declaring a social behavior as a disease are worrying, and (d) a rushed diagnosis may construct an addiction with potentially harmful effects on (formerly) healthy populations. Instead of closing the debate by declaring a consensus and codifying IGD in the DSM, an undogmatic, intensified, and broader discussion is needed.

  5. Are the Satellite-Observed Narrow, Streaky Chlorophyll Filaments Locally Intensified by the Submesoscale Processes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-05

    HIS I’OR’A CANCELS AND SUPERSEOFS Al l PRFV•OUS VERSIONS ARE THE SATELLITE-OBSERVED NARROW, STREAKY CHLOROPHYLL FILAMENTS LOCALLY INTENSIFIED BY...AUGUST 2003 cold, dense jeto C 17 16 15 14 13 122.4W 122W 122.4W 122W warm, anticyclonic eddy CHLOROPHYLL 122.4W 122W 122.4W 122W 122.4W 122W filament...122.4W 122W mg/m 3 10 4 2 1 0.4 0.2 Figure 1. MODIS-Aqua SST and Chlorophyll a images for August 2003. Black lines on MODIS SST and Chlorophyll a

  6. Correlated observations of intensified whistler waves and electron acceleration around the geostationary orbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Fuliang; He Zhaoguo; Tang Lijun; Zong Qiugang; Wang Chengrui; Su Zhenpeng

    2012-01-01

    We report correlated observations of enhanced whistler waves and energetic electron acceleration collected by multiple satellites specifically near the geostationary orbit during the 7–10 November 2004 superstorms, together with multi-site observations of ULF wave power measured on the ground. Energetic (>0.6 MeV) electron fluxes are found to increase significantly during the recovery phase, reaching a peak value by ∼100 higher than the prestorm level. In particular, such high electron flux corresponds to intensified whistler wave activities but to the weak ULF wave power. This result suggests that wave–particle interaction appears to be more important than inward radial diffusion in acceleration of outer radiation belt energetic electrons in this event, assisting to better understand the acceleration mechanism. (paper)

  7. Has the Competition among Professions in the Nordic Welfare States Intensified? A Danish Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Storm Pedersen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Has the competition among professions in the Nordic welfare states intensified in recent decades? Yes, and in a manner that has resulted in predictable classic struggles and conflicts among professions. We argue that the struggles and conflicts that arise translate into insufficient provision of welfare services for taxpayers’ money. To avoid this predicament, further developing co-operation among professions is important. Public managers, as argued in this article using a Danish case, play a significant role in achieving this. The Danish case studied shows how some public managers, in their efforts to create co-operation among professions, have developed a modern, dialogue-based management technique built on dialectical refutation, similar to Socratic elenchus.

  8. A model-based framework for design of intensified enzyme-based processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Román-Martinez, Alicia

    This thesis presents a generic and systematic model-based framework to design intensified enzyme-based processes. The development of the presented methodology was motivated by the needs of the bio-based industry for a more systematic approach to achieve intensification in its production plants...... in enzyme-based processes which have found significant application in the pharmaceutical, food, and renewable fuels sector. The framework uses model-based strategies for (bio)-chemical process design and optimization, including the use of a superstructure to generate all potential reaction......(s)-separation(s) options according to a desired performance criteria and a generic mathematical model represented by the superstructure to derive the specific models corresponding to a specific process option. In principle, three methods of intensification of bioprocess are considered in this thesis: 1. enzymatic one...

  9. [New intensifying screens in clinical radiology. II. Examinations in clinical practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freyschmidt, J; Saure, D; Hagemann, G

    1976-09-01

    A clinically applicable procedure for testing new intensifying rare earth screens, as well as the special Siemens' screen is described. The results are related to universal screens. The film-screen combination alpha 4XD (gadolinium oxysulphide with normal, green sensitive film) results in a reduction of radiation dose to half with detail comparable with universal screens. The Siemens' special screen has similar advantages. Screens with a higher intensification factor and reduction of the mAs to one sixth results in loss of detail. This does not necessarily reduce their clinical use if they are used for appropriate purposes. The results of this clinically orientated technique agreed well with physically objective methods using lead grids. The advantages of the new screens are discussed in terms of their practical application.

  10. Performance in sports - with specific emphasis on the effect of intensified training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangsbo, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Performance in most sports is determined by the athlete's technical, tactical, physiological and psychological/social characteristics. In the present article, the physical aspect will be evaluated with a focus on what limits performance, and how training can be conducted to improve performance...... with aerobic high-intensity sessions, also performance during longer events. Athletes in team sports involving intense exercise actions and endurance aspects, such as soccer and basketball, can also benefit from intensified training. Speed endurance training does reduce energy expenditure and increase...... expression of muscle Na(+) , K(+) pump α subunits, which may preserve muscle cell excitability and delay fatigue development during intense exercise. When various types of training are conducted in the same period (concurrent training), as done in a number of sports, one type of training may blunt the effect...

  11. Influence of veiling glare in the image intensifier on cinefluorographic sensitometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Eiji; Sanada, Taizo; Hitomi, Go; Ishii, Koushi; Yoshida, Akira

    1998-01-01

    We have experienced variations in the shape of the cinesensitometric curve when the exposure field is greatly altered. The veiling glare that arises from the scattering of x-ray photons, electrons, and light in the x-ray image intensifier (X-I.I.) depends on the size of the exposure field. Also, the effect of adjacent chemicals that occurs during the development process depends on the size of the exposed area on film. The veiling glare in the X-I.I. and the adjacent chemical effect on cine film processing may be responsible for these phenomena. This study investigated the influences of veiling glare on the shape of the cinesensitometric curve. Results showed that the veiling glare of the X-I.I. acts to increase the sensitivity of the cinesensitometric curve on the X-I.I. when the exposed area on the X-I.I. is larger. (author)

  12. Influence of veiling glare in the image intensifier on cinefluorographic sensitometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, Eiji; Sanada, Taizo; Hitomi, Go; Ishii, Koushi [Kawasaki Medical School, Kurashiki, Okayama (Japan). Hospital; Yoshida, Akira

    1998-08-01

    We have experienced variations in the shape of the cinesensitometric curve when the exposure field is greatly altered. The veiling glare that arises from the scattering of x-ray photons, electrons, and light in the x-ray image intensifier (X-I.I.) depends on the size of the exposure field. Also, the effect of adjacent chemicals that occurs during the development process depends on the size of the exposed area on film. The veiling glare in the X-I.I. and the adjacent chemical effect on cine film processing may be responsible for these phenomena. This study investigated the influences of veiling glare on the shape of the cinesensitometric curve. Results showed that the veiling glare of the X-I.I. acts to increase the sensitivity of the cinesensitometric curve on the X-I.I. when the exposed area on the X-I.I. is larger. (author)

  13. 17 CFR 270.17f-2 - Custody of investments by registered management investment company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... registered management investment company. 270.17f-2 Section 270.17f-2 Commodity and Securities Exchanges....17f-2 Custody of investments by registered management investment company. (a) The securities and similar investments of a registered management investment company may be maintained in the custody of such...

  14. A distortion correction method for image intensifier and electronic portal images used in radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ioannidis, G T; Geramani, K N; Zamboglou, N [Strahlenklinik, Stadtische Kliniken Offenbach, Offenbach (Germany); Uzunoglu, N [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, Athens (Greece)

    1999-12-31

    At the most of radiation departments a simulator and an `on line` verification system of the treated volume, in form of an electronic portal imaging device (EPID), are available. Networking and digital handling (saving, archiving etc.) of the image information is a necessity in the image processing procedures in order to evaluate verification and simulation recordings at the computer screen. Distortion is on the other hand prerequisite for quantitative comparison of both image modalities. Another limitation factor, in order to make quantitative assertions, is the fact that the irradiation fields in radiotherapy are usually bigger than the field of view of an image intensifier. Several segments of the irradiation field must therefore be acquired. Using pattern recognition techniques these segments can be composed into a single image. In this paper a distortion correction method will be presented. The method is based upon a well defined Grid which is embedded during the registration process on the image. The video signal from the image intensifier is acquired and processed. The grid is then recognised using image processing techniques. Ideally if all grid points are recognised, various methods can be applied in order to correct the distortion. But in practice this is not the case. Overlapping structures (bones etc.) have as a consequence that not all of the grid points can be recognised. Mathematical models from the Graph theory are applied in order to reconstruct the whole grid. The deviation of the grid points positions from the rated value is then used to calculate correction coefficients. This method (well defined grid, grid recognition, correction factors) can also be applied in verification images from the EPID or in other image modalities, and therefore a quantitative comparison in radiation treatment is possible. The distortion correction method and the application on simulator images will be presented. (authors)

  15. The visible intensified cameras for plasma imaging in the TJ-II stellarator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cal, E. de la; Carralero, D.; Pablos, J.L. de; Alonso, A.; Rios, L.; Garcia Sanchez, P.; Hidalgo, C.

    2011-01-01

    Visible cameras are widely used in fusion experiments for diagnosis and for machine safety issues. They are generally used to monitor the plasma emission, but are also sensible to surface Blackbody radiation and Bremsstrahlung. Fast or high speed cameras capable of operating in the 10 5 frames per second speed range are today commercially available and offer the opportunity to plasma fusion researchers of two-dimensional (2D) imaging of fast phenomena such as turbulence, ELMs, disruptions, dust, etc. The tracking of these fast phenomena requires short exposure times down to the μ s range and the light intensity can be often near the signal to noise ratio limit especially in low plasma emission regions such as the far SOL Additionally, when using interference filters to monitor, e.g. impurity line emission, the photon flux is strongly reduced and the emission cannot be imaged at high speed. Therefore, the use of image intensifiers that amplify the light intensity onto the camera sensor can be of great help. The present work describes the use of intensifiers in the visible fast cameras of TJ-II stellarator. We have achieved spectroscopic plasma imaging of filtered impurity atomic line emission at short exposure times down to the 10 μ s range depending on atomic line and concentration. Additionally, plasma movies at velocities of 2x10 5 frames per second near the camera operation limit can be recorded with exposure times well below 1 μ s with sufficient signal to noise ratio. Although an increasing degradation of the image quality appears when raising the light amplification, an effective gain of up to two orders of magnitude of the light intensity is feasible for many applications (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  16. The visible intensified cameras for plasma imaging in the TJ-II stellarator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cal, E. de la; Carralero, D.; Pablos, J.L. de; Alonso, A.; Rios, L.; Garcia Sanchez, P.; Hidalgo, C. (Laboratorio Nacional de Fusion, Asociacion Euratom-Ciemat, Av. Complutense 22, E-28040 Madrid)

    2011-09-15

    Visible cameras are widely used in fusion experiments for diagnosis and for machine safety issues. They are generally used to monitor the plasma emission, but are also sensible to surface Blackbody radiation and Bremsstrahlung. Fast or high speed cameras capable of operating in the 10{sup 5} frames per second speed range are today commercially available and offer the opportunity to plasma fusion researchers of two-dimensional (2D) imaging of fast phenomena such as turbulence, ELMs, disruptions, dust, etc. The tracking of these fast phenomena requires short exposure times down to the {mu} s range and the light intensity can be often near the signal to noise ratio limit especially in low plasma emission regions such as the far SOL Additionally, when using interference filters to monitor, e.g. impurity line emission, the photon flux is strongly reduced and the emission cannot be imaged at high speed. Therefore, the use of image intensifiers that amplify the light intensity onto the camera sensor can be of great help. The present work describes the use of intensifiers in the visible fast cameras of TJ-II stellarator. We have achieved spectroscopic plasma imaging of filtered impurity atomic line emission at short exposure times down to the 10 {mu} s range depending on atomic line and concentration. Additionally, plasma movies at velocities of 2x10{sup 5} frames per second near the camera operation limit can be recorded with exposure times well below 1 {mu} s with sufficient signal to noise ratio. Although an increasing degradation of the image quality appears when raising the light amplification, an effective gain of up to two orders of magnitude of the light intensity is feasible for many applications (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  17. Product Innovation with Lumpy Investment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chahim, M.; Grass, D.; Hartl, R.F.; Kort, P.M.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: This paper considers a firm that has the option to undertake product innovations. For each product innovation the firm has to install a new production plant. We find that investments are larger and occur in a later stadium when more of the old capital stock needs to be scrapped. Moreover,

  18. Product innovation with lumpy investment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chahim, M.; Grass, D.; Hartl, R.F.; Kort, Peter

    The paper provides a framework that enables us to analyze the important topic of capital accumulation under technological progress. We describe an algorithm to solve Impulse Control problems, based on a (multipoint) boundary value problem approach. Investment takes place in lumps and we determine

  19. Nuclear energy and investment requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voeltzel, D.

    1978-01-01

    The author assesses the investment requirements of the French nuclear programme within the framework of the national economy. He then evokes the means of financing these requirements as well as drawing attention to certain constraints which must be taken into account [fr

  20. Qatar - large capital investment planned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, J.

    1996-01-01

    Large capital investments are planned throughout Qatar's energy industry over the next five years totalling $25 billion. This article describes the successful commissioning of Qatar's first liquefied natural gas (LNG) project on time and within budget. The second LNG plant is well underway and plans for a third are under negotiation. (UK)

  1. Property rights institutions and investment

    OpenAIRE

    Saleh, Jahangir

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the channels through which alternative property rights institutions affect investment. These institutions are defined by a society's enforced laws, regulations, governance mechanisms and norms concerning the use of resources. A transaction cost framework is used to analyze the incentive impact of various types of property rights, liability rules, and rules regarding con...

  2. Optimal Investment in Structured Bonds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Pernille; Jørgensen, Peter Løchte

    2012-01-01

    of the article is to provide possible explanations for the puzzle of why small retail investors hold structured bonds. The investment universe consists of a stock index, a risk-free bank account, and a structured bond containing an option written on another index. We apply expected utility maximization...

  3. The Glocalization of Responsible Investment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gond, Jean-Pascal; Boxenbaum, Eva

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the institutional work that underlies the diffusion of responsible investment (RI) and enhances its adaptation to local settings. Building on institutional theory and actor–network theory, we advance the concept of contextualization work to describe the institutional work...

  4. Investing in systematic factor premiums

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koedijk, Kees G.; Slager, Alfred M. H.; Stork, P.A.

    In this paper we investigate and evaluate factor investing in the US and Europe for equities and bonds. We show that factor-based portfolios generally produce comparable or better portfolios than market indices. We expand the analysis to other asset classes and factors, work with other optimisation

  5. Dispositional optimism and stock investments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Angelini, Viola; Cavapozzi, D.

    This paper analyzes the relationship between dispositional optimism and stock investments, controlling for cognitive skills and personality traits such as trust, social interactions and risk aversion. We use data from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) on investors aged

  6. Resemblance and investment in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolinska, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    According to evolutionary explanations men hardly ever are absolutely certain about their biological fatherhood therefore they must seek various sources of information to subjectively establish whether they are the genetic fathers of the children they raise. Apicella and Marlowe (2004) showed that fathers who perceived greater similarity between their children and themselves were willing to invest more resources (e.g., time, money, care) in their offspring presumably because the perceived resemblance indicated to the fathers their genetic relatedness with their children. The present study extended the design of Apicella and Marlowe's original study and included both fathers and mothers as participants. Parents were recruited by a female confederate at the airport and at the railway station in Wroclaw (Poland). Multiple regression analyses showed that perceived resemblance predicted parental investment in the child for both men and women. The fact that mothers' declarations of investment in their children also depended on the perceived resemblance factor is not consistent with evolutionary formulations delineated by Apicella and Marlowe (2004; 2007). Future studies must resolve the issue of whether the resemblance-investment relation in fathers results from men relaying on child's resemblance to themselves as an indicator of their own biological paternity, or whether it results from the more parsimonious phenomenon that people in general are attracted more to other people who are similar to them.

  7. Personal Investment in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parzen, Maurine

    2010-01-01

    Since 2005, in Ontario, RPN's have had the option to return to school to obtain their BScN degree in three years of full time study instead of four years. Many of these students are mature and come with prior family and financial responsibilities that add extra challenges to their learning experience. Questioning their choice of investment in…

  8. Investing in Iranian oil production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barraclough, Colin.

    1997-01-01

    The decision by a French-led consortium to sign a 2bn oil development deal with Iran represents the largest single investment in the Islamic Republic since its revolution of 1978/79. Despite the threat of US sanctions on investors, Iran is on the threshold of a major revitalization of its hydrocarbon industries. (UK)

  9. Benin - Transport Sector Investment Program

    OpenAIRE

    Mohan, P.C.

    2003-01-01

    The objectives of this project (1997-2001) using $40 million of IDA funds were to: (i) safeguard the competitiveness of Benin's transport sector and of its transit corridor through open modal competition; (ii) improve government's capacity for planning, programming and managing transport sector investments; (iii) boost the allocation of resources to infrastructure maintenance; (iv) boost t...

  10. (MFN) CLAUSE IN INVESTMENT TREATIES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fr. Ikenga

    of inequalities and disparities in treatment in investment law, they carry a significant risk of over interpretation by .... The last question to be answered in relation to the meaning and ambit of the MFN clause is whether .... for domestic remedies as antecedents to international arbitral jurisdiction 'unduly add to the costs of a.

  11. Reduced risk of heart failure with intensified multifactorial intervention in individuals with type 2 diabetes and microalbuminuria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oellgaard, Jens; Gæde, Peter; Rossing, Peter

    2018-01-01

    of hospitalisation for heart failure. METHODS: One hundred and sixty individuals were randomised to conventional or intensified multifactorial intervention, using sealed envelopes. The trial was conducted using the Prospective, Randomised, Open, Blinded Endpoints (PROBE) design. After 7.8 years, all individuals were......AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: In type 2 diabetes mellitus, heart failure is a frequent, potentially fatal and often forgotten complication. Glucose-lowering agents and adjuvant therapies modify the risk of heart failure. We recently reported that 7.8 years of intensified compared with conventional...... offered intensified therapy and the study continued as an observational follow-up study for an additional 13.4 years. Heart-failure hospitalisations were adjudicated from patient records by an external expert committee blinded for treatment allocation. Event rates were compared using a Cox regression...

  12. SIgA response and incidence of upper respiratory tract infections during intensified training in youth basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, H; Aoki, M S; Freitas, C G; Arruda, Afs; Drago, G; Moreira, A

    2017-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of an intensified training phase followed by a tapering phase on the salivary immunoglobulin A concentration and on the upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) symptoms in young male basketball players. The session rating of perceived exertion method was used to quantify the internal training load, and the Wisconsin Upper Respiratory Symptom Survey-21 questionnaire was used to assess URTI symptoms. The Yo-Yo IR1 test and saliva collection were carried out at the beginning of the study (T1), after the intensified phase (T2), and after tapering (T3). A higher internal training load was observed for the intensified phase compared with the tapering phase (t=19.10; ptraining load followed by a tapering period negatively affects the mucosal immune function with no significant change in severity of URTI in young basketball players.

  13. Neuromorphic Silicon Neuron Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indiveri, Giacomo; Linares-Barranco, Bernabé; Hamilton, Tara Julia; van Schaik, André; Etienne-Cummings, Ralph; Delbruck, Tobi; Liu, Shih-Chii; Dudek, Piotr; Häfliger, Philipp; Renaud, Sylvie; Schemmel, Johannes; Cauwenberghs, Gert; Arthur, John; Hynna, Kai; Folowosele, Fopefolu; Saighi, Sylvain; Serrano-Gotarredona, Teresa; Wijekoon, Jayawan; Wang, Yingxue; Boahen, Kwabena

    2011-01-01

    Hardware implementations of spiking neurons can be extremely useful for a large variety of applications, ranging from high-speed modeling of large-scale neural systems to real-time behaving systems, to bidirectional brain–machine interfaces. The specific circuit solutions used to implement silicon neurons depend on the application requirements. In this paper we describe the most common building blocks and techniques used to implement these circuits, and present an overview of a wide range of neuromorphic silicon neurons, which implement different computational models, ranging from biophysically realistic and conductance-based Hodgkin–Huxley models to bi-dimensional generalized adaptive integrate and fire models. We compare the different design methodologies used for each silicon neuron design described, and demonstrate their features with experimental results, measured from a wide range of fabricated VLSI chips. PMID:21747754

  14. Neuromorphic silicon neuron circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo eIndiveri

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Hardware implementations of spiking neurons can be extremely useful for a large variety of applications, ranging from high-speed modeling of large-scale neural systems to real-time behaving systems, to bidirectional brain-machine interfaces. The specific circuit solutions used to implement silicon neurons depend on the application requirements. In this paper we describe the most common building blocks and techniques used to implement these circuits, and present an overview of a wide range of neuromorphic silicon neurons, which implement different computational models, ranging from biophysically realistic and conductance based Hodgkin-Huxley models to bi-dimensional generalized adaptive Integrate and Fire models. We compare the different design methodologies used for each silicon neuron design described, and demonstrate their features with experimental results, measured from a wide range of fabricated VLSI chips.

  15. Investment Timing When External Financing Is Costly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hirth, Stefan; Uhrig-Homburg, Marliese

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzes the investment timing of firms facing two dimensions of financing constraints: Liquidity constraints and capital market frictions inducing financing costs. We show that liquidity constraints are not sufficient to explain voluntary investment delay. However, when additionally...... considering financing costs, we can explain both voluntary delay and acceleration of investment. More precisely, we find that investment thresholds are U-shaped in liquid funds. For high-liquidity firms, investment thresholds are decreasing (i.e. accelerated investment takes place) in either dimension...... of financing constraint. In contrast, investment thresholds are increasing (i.e. investment is further delayed) in either form of financing constraint for low-liquidity firms. For intermediate levels of liquidity, investment thresholds are U-shaped in market frictions....

  16. Inconsistent Investment and Consumption Problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kronborg, Morten Tolver, E-mail: mtk@atp.dk [ATP (Danish Labour Market Supplementary Pension Scheme) (Denmark); Steffensen, Mogens, E-mail: mogens@math.ku.dk [University of Copenhagen, Department of Mathematical Sciences (Denmark)

    2015-06-15

    In a traditional Black–Scholes market we develop a verification theorem for a general class of investment and consumption problems where the standard dynamic programming principle does not hold. The theorem is an extension of the standard Hamilton–Jacobi–Bellman equation in the form of a system of non-linear differential equations. We derive the optimal investment and consumption strategy for a mean-variance investor without pre-commitment endowed with labor income. In the case of constant risk aversion it turns out that the optimal amount of money to invest in stocks is independent of wealth. The optimal consumption strategy is given as a deterministic bang-bang strategy. In order to have a more realistic model we allow the risk aversion to be time and state dependent. Of special interest is the case were the risk aversion is inversely proportional to present wealth plus the financial value of future labor income net of consumption. Using the verification theorem we give a detailed analysis of this problem. It turns out that the optimal amount of money to invest in stocks is given by a linear function of wealth plus the financial value of future labor income net of consumption. The optimal consumption strategy is again given as a deterministic bang-bang strategy. We also calculate, for a general time and state dependent risk aversion function, the optimal investment and consumption strategy for a mean-standard deviation investor without pre-commitment. In that case, it turns out that it is optimal to take no risk at all.

  17. Inconsistent Investment and Consumption Problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kronborg, Morten Tolver; Steffensen, Mogens

    2015-01-01

    In a traditional Black–Scholes market we develop a verification theorem for a general class of investment and consumption problems where the standard dynamic programming principle does not hold. The theorem is an extension of the standard Hamilton–Jacobi–Bellman equation in the form of a system of non-linear differential equations. We derive the optimal investment and consumption strategy for a mean-variance investor without pre-commitment endowed with labor income. In the case of constant risk aversion it turns out that the optimal amount of money to invest in stocks is independent of wealth. The optimal consumption strategy is given as a deterministic bang-bang strategy. In order to have a more realistic model we allow the risk aversion to be time and state dependent. Of special interest is the case were the risk aversion is inversely proportional to present wealth plus the financial value of future labor income net of consumption. Using the verification theorem we give a detailed analysis of this problem. It turns out that the optimal amount of money to invest in stocks is given by a linear function of wealth plus the financial value of future labor income net of consumption. The optimal consumption strategy is again given as a deterministic bang-bang strategy. We also calculate, for a general time and state dependent risk aversion function, the optimal investment and consumption strategy for a mean-standard deviation investor without pre-commitment. In that case, it turns out that it is optimal to take no risk at all

  18. NeuronBank: a tool for cataloging neuronal circuitry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul S Katz

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The basic unit of any nervous system is the neuron. Therefore, understanding the operation of nervous systems ultimately requires an inventory of their constituent neurons and synaptic connectivity, which form neural circuits. The presence of uniquely identifiable neurons or classes of neurons in many invertebrates has facilitated the construction of cellular-level connectivity diagrams that can be generalized across individuals within a species. Homologous neurons can also be recognized across species. Here we describe NeuronBank.org, a web-based tool that we are developing for cataloging, searching, and analyzing neuronal circuitry within and across species. Information from a single species is represented in an individual branch of NeuronBank. Users can search within a branch or perform queries across branches to look for similarities in neuronal circuits across species. The branches allow for an extensible ontology so that additional characteristics can be added as knowledge grows. Each entry in NeuronBank generates a unique accession ID, allowing it to be easily cited. There is also an automatic link to a Wiki page allowing an encyclopedic explanation of the entry. All of the 44 previously published neurons plus one previously unpublished neuron from the mollusc, Tritonia diomedea, have been entered into a branch of NeuronBank as have 4 previously published neurons from the mollusc, Melibe leonina. The ability to organize information about neuronal circuits will make this information more accessible, ultimately aiding research on these important models.

  19. Possibilities of reducing radiation doses in spinograms of adolescents by means of most intensifying screens and compensating screens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pollaehne, W; Brandt, G A [Staedtisches Klinikum Berlin-Buch (German Democratic Republic)

    1980-01-01

    Most intensifying screens based on CaWO/sub 4/ and LaOBr/sub 2/ or combinations of them were used in radiography of both the thoracic and the lumbar parts of the spines of adolescents. The results obtained were compared with those achieved by means of screens usually used for spinograms. Radiation exposure was reduced, on an average by 30-40%, when most intensifying screens were used, the image quality being the same. The introduction of high-speed superscreens is pressingly recommended.

  20. Rating in the Assessment of Investment Property

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Śmietana Katarzyna

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of rating procedures is associated with searching for tools that provide an objective and standardized assessment of investment risk. For this reason, rating is an important and often essential element of investment decision-making processes which determines the development of the capital market, including the real estate investment market. In the investment property market, not only does rating provide transparency of property risk, but it can also be used for real estate portfolio analysis, investment controlling, and the analysis of factors determining investment decisions (ESV 2012.

  1. Czech OFDI: investment strategies and motivation to invest abroad

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zemplinerová, Alena

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 2 (2012), s. 22-40 ISSN 0012-8775 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) OC10062; GA ČR(CZ) GAP402/11/2362 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : outward foreign direct investment * geographical and sectoral structures * company case studies Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.211, year: 2012

  2. Neuronal avalanches and learning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arcangelis, Lucilla de, E-mail: dearcangelis@na.infn.it [Department of Information Engineering and CNISM, Second University of Naples, 81031 Aversa (Italy)

    2011-05-01

    Networks of living neurons represent one of the most fascinating systems of biology. If the physical and chemical mechanisms at the basis of the functioning of a single neuron are quite well understood, the collective behaviour of a system of many neurons is an extremely intriguing subject. Crucial ingredient of this complex behaviour is the plasticity property of the network, namely the capacity to adapt and evolve depending on the level of activity. This plastic ability is believed, nowadays, to be at the basis of learning and memory in real brains. Spontaneous neuronal activity has recently shown features in common to other complex systems. Experimental data have, in fact, shown that electrical information propagates in a cortex slice via an avalanche mode. These avalanches are characterized by a power law distribution for the size and duration, features found in other problems in the context of the physics of complex systems and successful models have been developed to describe their behaviour. In this contribution we discuss a statistical mechanical model for the complex activity in a neuronal network. The model implements the main physiological properties of living neurons and is able to reproduce recent experimental results. Then, we discuss the learning abilities of this neuronal network. Learning occurs via plastic adaptation of synaptic strengths by a non-uniform negative feedback mechanism. The system is able to learn all the tested rules, in particular the exclusive OR (XOR) and a random rule with three inputs. The learning dynamics exhibits universal features as function of the strength of plastic adaptation. Any rule could be learned provided that the plastic adaptation is sufficiently slow.

  3. Neuronal avalanches and learning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arcangelis, Lucilla de

    2011-01-01

    Networks of living neurons represent one of the most fascinating systems of biology. If the physical and chemical mechanisms at the basis of the functioning of a single neuron are quite well understood, the collective behaviour of a system of many neurons is an extremely intriguing subject. Crucial ingredient of this complex behaviour is the plasticity property of the network, namely the capacity to adapt and evolve depending on the level of activity. This plastic ability is believed, nowadays, to be at the basis of learning and memory in real brains. Spontaneous neuronal activity has recently shown features in common to other complex systems. Experimental data have, in fact, shown that electrical information propagates in a cortex slice via an avalanche mode. These avalanches are characterized by a power law distribution for the size and duration, features found in other problems in the context of the physics of complex systems and successful models have been developed to describe their behaviour. In this contribution we discuss a statistical mechanical model for the complex activity in a neuronal network. The model implements the main physiological properties of living neurons and is able to reproduce recent experimental results. Then, we discuss the learning abilities of this neuronal network. Learning occurs via plastic adaptation of synaptic strengths by a non-uniform negative feedback mechanism. The system is able to learn all the tested rules, in particular the exclusive OR (XOR) and a random rule with three inputs. The learning dynamics exhibits universal features as function of the strength of plastic adaptation. Any rule could be learned provided that the plastic adaptation is sufficiently slow.

  4. Investments

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-04-01

    CCAA Financial summary for 2010–11. Budget vs. actual allocations. April 1, 2010 to March 31, 2011. 2010–11. 2006–10. Actuals. Budget. Actual. Allocations. Variance. 2011–12. Budget. 2012–13. Budget. TOTAL. Operations: PMU staff. 4,102,331. $1,376,281. 1,242,281. $134,000. Technical support. 691,122. 138,106.

  5. Investments

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Technical Support. 160,675. 171,256. 207,675. 207,675. 141,535. 66,140. A dvisory Board. 57,072. 57,734. 70,000. 70,000. 55,325. 14,675. O ther. 734,691. 811,433. 933,149. 933,149. 830,396. 102,753. Dissemination/ C ommunications. 0 1. 90,835. 130,000. 130,000. 83,250. 46,750. 1,579,479. 2,144,928. 2,591,259.

  6. Advances in Gamma-Ray Imaging with Intensified Quantum-Imaging Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ling

    Nuclear medicine, an important branch of modern medical imaging, is an essential tool for both diagnosis and treatment of disease. As the fundamental element of nuclear medicine imaging, the gamma camera is able to detect gamma-ray photons emitted by radiotracers injected into a patient and form an image of the radiotracer distribution, reflecting biological functions of organs or tissues. Recently, an intensified CCD/CMOS-based quantum detector, called iQID, was developed in the Center for Gamma-Ray Imaging. Originally designed as a novel type of gamma camera, iQID demonstrated ultra-high spatial resolution (advancing this conceptually-proven gamma-ray imaging technology to make it ready for both preclinical and clinical applications. To start with, a Monte Carlo simulation of the key light-intensification device, i.e. the image intensifier, was developed, which revealed the dominating factor(s) that limit energy resolution performance of the iQID cameras. For preclinical imaging applications, a previously-developed iQID-based single-photon-emission computed-tomography (SPECT) system, called FastSPECT III, was fully advanced in terms of data acquisition software, system sensitivity and effective FOV by developing and adopting a new photon-counting algorithm, thicker columnar scintillation detectors, and system calibration method. Originally designed for mouse brain imaging, the system is now able to provide full-body mouse imaging with sub-350-micron spatial resolution. To further advance the iQID technology to include clinical imaging applications, a novel large-area iQID gamma camera, called LA-iQID, was developed from concept to prototype. Sub-mm system resolution in an effective FOV of 188 mm x 188 mm has been achieved. The camera architecture, system components, design and integration, data acquisition, camera calibration, and performance evaluation are presented in this work. Mounted on a castered counter-weighted clinical cart, the camera also features

  7. Influence of an intensified competition on fatigue and match performance in junior rugby league players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Rich D; Gabbett, Tim J; Jenkins, David G

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the physiological responses to an intensified rugby league competition and explore the relationships between fatigue and match performance. Prospective cohort study. Fifteen junior rugby league players (n=8 forwards, 7 backs; mean±SE, age 16.6±0.2 years; body mass 81.6±3.0kg; and height 178.9±1.8cm) competed in five 40min games over 5 days (two games each on days 1 and 2, one game on day 4, and no games on days 3 and 5). Over the competition, players performed a countermovement jump to assess neuromuscular fatigue, provided a fingertip blood sample to measure blood creatine kinase, and completed a questionnaire to monitor perceived wellbeing; ratings of perceived effort were recorded following each game. Global positioning system and video analysis of each game were used to assess match performance. Over the first 3 days, there were progressive and large increases in neuromuscular fatigue which peaked 12h after game 4 (forwards ES=4.45, p=0.014; backs ES=3.62, p=0.029), and muscle damage which peaked 1h post game 4 (forwards ES=4.45, p=0.004; backs ES=3.94 p=0.012), as well as reductions in perceived wellbeing. These measures gradually recovered over the final 2 days of the competition. Compared to the backs, the forwards experienced greater increases in creatine kinase following game 2 (ES=1.30) and game 4 (ES=1.24) and reductions in perceived wellbeing (ES=0.25-0.46). Match intensity, high-speed running, and repeated-high intensity effort bouts decreased in games 4 and 5 of the competition. Small to large associations were observed between the changes in fatigue, muscle damage and match performance, with significant correlations between creatine kinase and repeated high-intensity effort bout number (r=-0.70, p=0.031) and frequency (r=0.74, p=0.002) and low-speed activity (r=-0.56, p=0.029). Fatigue and muscle damage accumulate over an intensified competition, which is likely to contribute to reductions in high

  8. Investment climate in the GCC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luciani, Giacomo

    1999-01-01

    The future for oil producers in the Gulf is discussed and the emphasis is very much on Saudi Arabia. The net source flow to developing countries is illustrated but substantial changes are expected soon due to a combination of crises in the Far East and in Russia. Foreign investment in Saudi increased dramatically in 1997 and Saudi has great potential for maximising inward flows and minimising outward flows for the benefit of the national economy. It was stressed that at present, international factors are largely negative but domestic factors are very positive and will prevail in determining investments. The paper was presented under the sub-headings of (i) oil prices, (ii) the Asian crisis, (iii) stability in the Middle East, (iv) population growth (v) private sector viability, (vi) redefining the role of the state and (vii) long-term oil revenue prospects. Saudi Arabia is expected to continue to be a major player in the petroleum business

  9. Investment Dynamics with Natural Expectations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuster, Andreas; Hebert, Benjamin; Laibson, David

    2010-01-01

    We study an investment model in which agents have the wrong beliefs about the dynamic properties of fundamentals. Specifically, we assume that agents underestimate the rate of mean reversion. The model exhibits the following six properties: (i) Beliefs are excessively optimistic in good times and excessively pessimistic in bad times. (ii) Asset prices are too volatile. (iii) Excess returns are negatively autocorrelated. (iv) High levels of corporate profits predict negative future excess returns. (v) Real economic activity is excessively volatile; the economy experiences amplified investment cycles. (vi) Corporate profits are positively autocorrelated in the short run and negatively autocorrelated in the medium run. The paper provides an illustrative model of animal spirits, amplified business cycles, and excess volatility.

  10. Investment Dynamics with Natural Expectations*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuster, Andreas; Hebert, Benjamin; Laibson, David

    2012-01-01

    We study an investment model in which agents have the wrong beliefs about the dynamic properties of fundamentals. Specifically, we assume that agents underestimate the rate of mean reversion. The model exhibits the following six properties: (i) Beliefs are excessively optimistic in good times and excessively pessimistic in bad times. (ii) Asset prices are too volatile. (iii) Excess returns are negatively autocorrelated. (iv) High levels of corporate profits predict negative future excess returns. (v) Real economic activity is excessively volatile; the economy experiences amplified investment cycles. (vi) Corporate profits are positively autocorrelated in the short run and negatively autocorrelated in the medium run. The paper provides an illustrative model of animal spirits, amplified business cycles, and excess volatility. PMID:23243469

  11. GLOBALIZATION AND FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Chirilă – Donciu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Mobilizing financial resources to cover investment needs is a concern of all countries, developed or developing ones, of consolidated market economies or emerging ones. A distinctive characteristic of Global Economy over the last few decades has been the rising rate and impressive increase in Foreign Direct Investment (FDI. The purpose of this research is to analyse global FDI inflows in Europe and in Romania. The results of the research support the idea that the balance of economic power is changing in the world economy and the countries that own a stable and solid industrial base are at an advantage. The new trends determined by the economic crisis in the field of FDI refer to the growing percentage of developing and emerging countries in the global flows of FDI.

  12. Cost Estimates and Investment Decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emhjellen, Kjetil; Emhjellen Magne; Osmundsen, Petter

    2001-08-01

    When evaluating new investment projects, oil companies traditionally use the discounted cashflow method. This method requires expected cashflows in the numerator and a risk adjusted required rate of return in the denominator in order to calculate net present value. The capital expenditure (CAPEX) of a project is one of the major cashflows used to calculate net present value. Usually the CAPEX is given by a single cost figure, with some indication of its probability distribution. In the oil industry and many other industries, it is common practice to report a CAPEX that is the estimated 50/50 (median) CAPEX instead of the estimated expected (expected value) CAPEX. In this article we demonstrate how the practice of using a 50/50 (median) CAPEX, when the cost distributions are asymmetric, causes project valuation errors and therefore may lead to wrong investment decisions with acceptance of projects that have negative net present values. (author)

  13. Features of Investment Activity in Agriculture in the South of Russia and Ways of its Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Ivanovich Trukhachev

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of this article on the topic: “Features of Investment Activity in Agriculture in the South of Russia and Ways of its Activation” is that at the present time, as a result of the systemic crisis of the Russian economy, a set of objective prerequisites for improving the financial and credit mechanisms in the agro industrial complex has been formed. The fall in the rouble exchange rate to foreign currencies made foreign agricultural products and food too expensive on the Russian market and sales fell sharply in Russia. This led to the emergence of free niches in the domestic agrarian market and increased the competitiveness of domestic agricultural products and food. In these conditions, an important task for Russian agricultural producers is to increase the volume of production and sales of agricultural products, and this requires an increase in production capacity, modernization of the material and technical base. To solve these problems, it is necessary to increase investment in the agricul-tural sector of the economy, which without improving the existing credit and financial system in the Russian agribusiness sector cannot be done. Based on the goal set by the authors, the subject of the study are factors and patterns that affect investment in agriculture. To write the article, dialectical methods of cognition of socioeconomic, natural-biological processes and phenomena were used as well as the systemic approach: analytical, economic-statistical, monographic, calculating and constructive and expert evaluations. This allowed working out effective measures to intensify investment activity by improving the lending process as the main source of external investment, and solving the problems of financing agricultural organizations, using non-traditional external sources of investment for agriculture in Stavropol Krai.

  14. Information Aggregation and Investment Decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Hellwig; Aleh Tsyvinski; Elias Albagli

    2010-01-01

    This paper studies an environment in which information aggregation interacts with investment decisions. The first contribution of the paper is to develop a tractable model of such interactions. The second contribution is to solve the model in closed form and derive a series of implications that result from the interplay between information aggregation and the value of market information for the firms' decision problem. We show that the model generates an information aggregation wedge between ...

  15. Investible benchmarks & hedge fund liquidity

    OpenAIRE

    Freed, Marc S; McMillan, Ben

    2011-01-01

    A lack of commonly accepted benchmarks for hedge fund performance has permitted hedge fund managers to attribute to skill returns that may actually accrue from market risk factors and illiquidity. Recent innovations in hedge fund replication permits us to estimate the extent of this misattribution. Using an option-based model, we find evidence that the value of liquidity options that investors implicitly grant managers when they invest may account for part or even all hedge fund returns. C...

  16. Local investment in renewable energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-11-01

    Although the vast majority of renewable energies projects are established by commercial developers, some of them are financed by ''ordinary citizens'' pooling together through different schemes. This is particularly frequent in Denmark and Germany, possibly a key reason for the continuous and so successful growth of various renewable energies sources in these countries. This guideline aims to define the term of local investment and provides examples of development and recommendations. (A.L.B.)

  17. Asset pricing with index investing

    OpenAIRE

    Georgy Chabakauri; Oleg Rytchkov

    2014-01-01

    We provide a novel theoretical analysis of how index investing affects capital market equilibrium. We consider a dynamic exchange economy with heterogeneous investors and two Lucas trees and find that indexing can either increase or decrease the correlation between stock returns and in general increases (decreases) volatilities and betas of stocks with larger (smaller) market capitalizations. Indexing also decreases market volatility and interest rates, although those effects are weak. The im...

  18. Local investment in renewable energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grepmeier, K.; Larsen, J.; Manolakaki, E.; Quantin, J.; Twele, J.

    2003-01-01

    This document presents european examples on the interest of the local investment, illustrated by cases studies in Germany, Denmark and Switzerland. Two main points were discussed: the financial tools and the french strategy. The colloquium provided many discussions and analyzes on the possibility of significant contribution to the collective efforts in favor of the public involvement in the renewable energies development in Europe. (A.L.B.)

  19. Hospital Capital Investment During the Great Recession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sung

    2017-01-01

    Hospital capital investment is important for acquiring and maintaining technology and equipment needed to provide health care. Reduction in capital investment by a hospital has negative implications for patient outcomes. Most hospitals rely on debt and internal cash flow to fund capital investment. The great recession may have made it difficult for hospitals to borrow, thus reducing their capital investment. I investigated the impact of the great recession on capital investment made by California hospitals. Modeling how hospital capital investment may have been liquidity constrained during the recession is a novel contribution to the literature. I estimated the model with California Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development data and system generalized method of moments. Findings suggest that not-for-profit and public hospitals were liquidity constrained during the recession. Comparing the changes in hospital capital investment between 2006 and 2009 showed that hospitals used cash flow to increase capital investment by $2.45 million, other things equal.

  20. LEGISLATIVE REGULATION OF FOREIGN INVESTMENT IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. V. Zhyzhko

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article the basic regulatory documents controlling the foreign investments in Ukraine are considered and the recommendations for their improvement are proposed. Main disadvantages of present situation retarding the investing in Ukraine are analyzed.

  1. STUDY OF INVESTMENT AND ECONOMIC RELAUNCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VĂDUVA MARIA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Investment is the main route of economic growth, and for carrying out a modern structures branches of production. By investments to ensure economic and social development of our country,

  2. Investment banks in AIC – alternative loan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.V. Lysenok

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Determining the status and problems of modern investment in agricultural enterprises, as well as ways to improve their financial security. The article deals with the essence of investments and their varieties. The dynamics of the securities portfolio of domestic banks and investments in agriculture. According to a study submitted proposals to increase investment banking businesses in the agricultural sector, which is necessary to create such conditions are not included in the calculation of the volume of investment regulations investment banking provided by agribusiness companies; availability of specialized banks, which will focus its resources on the development of agricultural enterprises; give banks the opportunity to issue special investment certificates, which received funds will be channeled exclusively on investing in the development of agricultural enterprises; for the above to create an appropriate legal framework.

  3. Hospital Capital Investment During the Great Recession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sung

    2017-01-01

    Hospital capital investment is important for acquiring and maintaining technology and equipment needed to provide health care. Reduction in capital investment by a hospital has negative implications for patient outcomes. Most hospitals rely on debt and internal cash flow to fund capital investment. The great recession may have made it difficult for hospitals to borrow, thus reducing their capital investment. I investigated the impact of the great recession on capital investment made by California hospitals. Modeling how hospital capital investment may have been liquidity constrained during the recession is a novel contribution to the literature. I estimated the model with California Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development data and system generalized method of moments. Findings suggest that not-for-profit and public hospitals were liquidity constrained during the recession. Comparing the changes in hospital capital investment between 2006 and 2009 showed that hospitals used cash flow to increase capital investment by $2.45 million, other things equal. PMID:28617202

  4. APPROACHES FOR EVALUATING AND FINANCING INVESTMENT PROJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA-LOREDANA POPESCU

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the financial investment approach and the investment evaluation methods, which are criteria for assessing both investment projects and their funding sources. An important role in the analysis carried out is played by the investment decision and financing decision quality. Making an investment decision implies computing the related investment efficiency indicators. They allow the comparison of several variants of the same investment project as well as their comparison with other projects in the same industry or in other industries. The financing decision concerns the selection between their own sources (share capital, depreciation fund, profits, reserve funds, additional capital, revenues from investments, attracted sources (domestic resource mobilization and borrowed sources (credits.

  5. Interaction between Dynamic Financing and Investments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dockner, Engelbert J.; Mæland, Jøril; Miltersen, Kristian R.

    Debt priority rules, i.e., the rules determining how different classes of debt split the firm's assets after bankruptcy, influence the firm's investment decisions. Existing debt benefits from an investment either because the investment is equity financed or because new debt issued to (partly......) finance the investment has lower priority in the event of bankruptcy as is the case for the commonly used absolute priority rule (APR). This incentivizes equity holders to under invest. If debt priority rules are specified in such a way that existing debt can be exploited by issuing new debt, do equity...... holders have the incentive to over invest. We formulate a dynamic structural model to study the interaction of initial capital structure choice, investment policy, subsequent debt issues, and debt priority rules. We find that priority rules have a substantial impact on investment timing as well...

  6. DIRECT INVESTMENT ON REGIONAL MARKETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIVIU NEAMŢU

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Foreign direct investment are that category of investments that allow participation in leadership andeffective control of the companies in which it invests. It's so new firms, as well as the establishment ofinternational operations of the company through expansion of existing operations. Typically, the companyincurred in a market that is confined to a distinct geographical area, but the limits of market changes. Thechange can be the result of higher management decisions on market opening and development of a newtechnology or product. Markets with a lower level of development are likely to attract a higher level of directinvestments than those in more developed countries. The specific reasons behind the decision of a company toinvest abroad are operating efficiency, reduce risk, market development and Government policy in the hostcountry. Transnational corporations are large conglomerates which consists of the parent company and itssubsidiaries/branches, both in the country of residence and abroad. Transnational corporations affect stronglyboth the production and the world of international economic relations. This influence is determined by themotivations of expansion that they promote. The expansion of transnational corporations has as satisfying"ambitions" of global expansion, and impulsionate getting supraprofiturilor. The strength of these structures isbased on maximizing profits.

  7. Healthcare investment and income inequality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Ayona; Shin, Jong Kook; Subramanian, Chetan; Swaminathan, Shailender

    2017-12-01

    This paper examines how the relative shares of public and private health expenditures impact income inequality. We study a two period overlapping generation's growth model in which longevity is determined by both private and public health expenditure and human capital is the engine of growth. Increased investment in health, reduces mortality, raises return to education and affects income inequality. In such a framework we show that the cross-section earnings inequality is non-decreasing in the private share of health expenditure. We test this prediction empirically using a variable that proxies for the relative intensity of investments (private versus public) using vaccination data from the National Sample Survey Organization for 76 regions in India in the year 1986-87. We link this with region-specific expenditure inequality data for the period 1987-2012. Our empirical findings, though focused on a specific health investment (vaccines), suggest that an increase in the share of the privately provided health care results in higher inequality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Psychological effects of the intensified follow-up of the CEAwatch trial after treatment for colorectal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhan, Zhuozhao; Verberne, Charlotte J.; van den Heuvel, Edwin R.; Grossmann, Irene; Ranchor, Adelita V.; Wiggers, Theo; de Bock, Geertruida H.

    2017-01-01

    Background: The aim of the study was to evaluate psychological effects of the state-of-art intensified follow-up protocol for colorectal cancer patients in the CEAwatch trial. Method: At two time points during the CEAwatch trial questionnaires regarding patients' attitude towards follow-up,

  9. Effect of intensified training on muscle ion kinetics, fatigue development and repeated short term performance in endurance trained cyclists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnarsson, Thomas Gunnar Petursson; Christensen, Peter Møller; Thomassen, Martin

    2013-01-01

    The effects of intensified training in combination with a reduced training volume on muscle ion kinetics, transporters and work capacity were examined. Eight well-trained cyclists replaced their regular training with speed-endurance training (12x30-s sprints) 2-3 times per wk and aerobic high...

  10. High incidence of pseudotumours after hip resurfacing even in low risk patients; results from an intensified MRI screening protocol.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weegen, W. van der; Smolders, J.M.; Sijbesma, T.; Hoekstra, H.J.; Brakel, K.; Susante, J.L.C. van

    2013-01-01

    We intensified our screening protocol for the presence of pseudotumours in a consecutive series of patients with a hip resurfacing arthroplasty (HRA), to establish whether we should be alert to the presence of 'silent' pseudotumours. Patients categorised with high risk (11 hips) and low risk (10

  11. A randomized trial of insulin aspart with intensified basal NPH insulin supplementation in people with Type 1 diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DeVries, J. H.; Lindholm, A.; Jacobsen, J. L.; Heine, R. J.; Home, P. D.

    2003-01-01

    Aims Insulin aspart has been shown to improve post-prandial and overall glycaemic control in people with Type 1 diabetes. We hypothesized that insulin aspart with intensified basal NPH insulin supplementation would result in better overall glycaemic control than human regular insulin with standard

  12. Investment Attractiveness of Food Industries in Ukraine

    OpenAIRE

    L. О.

    2017-01-01

    Effective investment is a factor for long-term company development. As enhancement of investment attractiveness is a required condition for economic growth and improvement of living standards, it needs to be on the agenda at government and company level. The article’s objective is to study investment attractiveness of food industries in Ukraine over 2012–2015. Investment attractiveness of food industries can be measured by indicators of liquidity, financial sustainability, and profit rate...

  13. Potential of Sharia-compliant investments

    OpenAIRE

    Ishuayed, Mohamed; Ruiz, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    Islamic finance and Sharia-compliant investing has seen substantial growth over the years. As more investors are interested in becoming fully Sharia-compliant, the question of what may they be giving up in exchange arises. This has led us to analyze the potential of Sharia-compliant investments. It is well known that having a Sharia-compliant investment portfolio could be rather restrictive as some sectors and investment instruments are forbidden such as tobacco, alcohol, gambling, pork produ...

  14. Foreign Investments in Russia in 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Ekaterina Iliukhina

    2013-01-01

    In 2012, a decline in foreign investors’ activities in the Russian Federation was observed. The inflow of foreign investments as a share of GDP decreased by 2.3 p.p. as compared to 2011. Foreign investments concentrated mainly in the industry and the fi nancial sector. In the industry, the leaders were manufacturing industries. As the geographic pattern of foreign investments is concerned, the largest volume of investments into the Russian Federation came from Switzerland, the Netherlands and...

  15. Do Older Investors Make Better Investment Decisions?

    OpenAIRE

    George M Korniotis; Alok Kumar

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the investment decisions of older individual investors. We find that older and experienced investors are more likely to follow rules of thumb that reflect greater investment knowledge. However, older investors are less effective in applying their investment knowledge and exhibit worse investment skill, especially if they are less educated, earn lower income, and belong to minority racial/ethnic groups. Overall, the adverse effects of aging dominate the positive effects of ...

  16. Kappe neurons, a novel population of olfactory sensory neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahuja, Gaurav; Bozorg Nia, Shahrzad; Zapilko, Veronika; Shiriagin, Vladimir; Kowatschew, Daniel; Oka, Yuichiro; Korsching, Sigrun I

    2014-02-10

    Perception of olfactory stimuli is mediated by distinct populations of olfactory sensory neurons, each with a characteristic set of morphological as well as functional parameters. Beyond two large populations of ciliated and microvillous neurons, a third population, crypt neurons, has been identified in teleost and cartilaginous fishes. We report here a novel, fourth olfactory sensory neuron population in zebrafish, which we named kappe neurons for their characteristic shape. Kappe neurons are identified by their Go-like immunoreactivity, and show a distinct spatial distribution within the olfactory epithelium, similar to, but significantly different from that of crypt neurons. Furthermore, kappe neurons project to a single identified target glomerulus within the olfactory bulb, mdg5 of the mediodorsal cluster, whereas crypt neurons are known to project exclusively to the mdg2 glomerulus. Kappe neurons are negative for established markers of ciliated, microvillous and crypt neurons, but appear to have microvilli. Kappe neurons constitute the fourth type of olfactory sensory neurons reported in teleost fishes and their existence suggests that encoding of olfactory stimuli may require a higher complexity than hitherto assumed already in the peripheral olfactory system.

  17. Quantitative investment strategies and portfolio management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guo, J.

    2012-01-01

    This book contains three essays on alternative investments and portfolio management. Taking from a portfolio investor’s perspective, the first essay analyzes the portfolio implication of investing in hedge funds when there is a hedge fund lockup period. The second essay studies the investment

  18. Pension fund sophistication and investment policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Dreu, J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/364537906; Bikker, J.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/06912261X

    This paper assesses the sophistication of pension funds’ investment policies using data on 748 Dutch pension funds during the 1999–2006 period. We develop three indicators of sophistication: gross rounding of investment choices, investments in alternative sophisticated asset classes and ‘home bias’.

  19. 76 FR 43385 - Lending and Investment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of Thrift Supervision Lending and Investment AGENCY: Office of... collection. Title of Proposal: Lending and Investment. OMB Number: 1550-0078. Form Number: N/A. Description: Current OTS regulations for the documentation of loans and investments for safety and soundness purposes...

  20. 76 FR 28504 - Lending and Investment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of Thrift Supervision Lending and Investment AGENCY: Office of... collection. Title of Proposal: Lending and Investment. OMB Number: 1550-0078. Form Number: N/A. Description: Current OTS regulations for the documentation of loans and investments for safety and soundness purposes...

  1. 31 CFR 560.207 - Prohibited investment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prohibited investment. 560.207... § 560.207 Prohibited investment. Except as otherwise authorized pursuant to this part, and... investment by a United States person in Iran or in property (including entities) owned or controlled by the...

  2. 31 CFR 560.316 - New investment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false New investment. 560.316 Section 560.316 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... § 560.316 New investment. The term new investment means a transaction after 12:01 EDT, May 7, 1995, that...

  3. 31 CFR 586.312 - New investment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false New investment. 586.312 Section 586.312 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF...) KOSOVO SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 586.312 New investment. The term new investment means...

  4. Perspectives of state investment policy in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rumyantseva Anna

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The state investment policy is an important mechanism for the country economy development. The main elements of the state investment policy allow us to outline the ways of this process development in order to increase the economic growth rates and overcome the investment climate complexities.

  5. PARTICULARITIES OF BUDGETING OF INVESTMENTS YIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANCA JARMILA GUŢĂ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents some particularities of the budget process of all the investments as a main aspect in taking the best decision according to the main use of all the firms’ resources. As a measure method of the investments yield the main one is that which describes the relationship between the profit and the investment which improves the deccisional process.

  6. FOREIGN INVESTMENTS IN RUSSIA IN 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Ekaterina Ilyukhina

    2014-01-01

    Foreign investment in the Russian economy in 2013 increased 10.1% year-o-year. The increase was triggered by the results achieved in Q1 2013. Foreign investment was concentrated in the industrial sector, trade, and financial sector. Manufacturing industry was leading in the industrial sector. Cyprus, Switzerland, and Great Britain were leading in volumes of investment in the Russian Federation.

  7. 12 CFR 228.23 - Investment test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Investment test. 228.23 Section 228.23 Banks... COMMUNITY REINVESTMENT (REGULATION BB) Standards for Assessing Performance § 228.23 Investment test. (a) Scope of test. The investment test evaluates a bank's record of helping to meet the credit needs of its...

  8. Chinese outward foreign direct investments to Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blomkvist, Katarina; Drogendijk, Rian

    This paper addresses Chinese outward foreign direct investments (OFDI) in Europe. We aim to provide more knowledge on the ongoing research discussion about Chinese OFDI, more specifically, we answer questions about what is driving Chinese firms to invest in Europe, and whether Chinese investment

  9. Investments in art: opportunities and challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Pashkus, M.

    2013-01-01

    Art as an investment avenue has been considered an interesting and profitable alternative, but it is also extremely risky. These alternative investments' performance is alluring. Indices tracking the performance of high-class art have held up well in the recent economic slowdown, while art-auction houses report record prices. This article discusses the basic problems of investment in works of Art.

  10. 78 FR 1991 - Major Capital Investment Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-09

    ... Administration 49 CFR Part 611 Major Capital Investment Projects; Notice of Availability of Proposed New Starts... Capital Investment Projects AGENCY: Federal Transit Administration (FTA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY... capital investments seeking funding under the discretionary ``New Starts'' and ``Small Starts'' programs...

  11. 75 FR 31383 - Major Capital Investment Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-03

    ...-0009] RIN 2132-AB02 Major Capital Investment Projects AGENCIES: Federal Transit Administration (FTA... current approach to evaluating and rating major capital investment projects (``New Starts'' and ``Small...'' to address identified transportation needs in the corridor without a major capital investment in new...

  12. National investment programs and sustainable development

    OpenAIRE

    Szyja, Paulina

    2014-01-01

    In situation of economic crisis many countries, for example the United States, members of European Union prepared anti-crisis programs to conduct investments. In most cases, they concentrated on modernization of transport or energy infrastructure. In Poland it would have been presented program "Polish Investments". The main purposes of the article is presentation of public investments programs and their role in sustainable development.

  13. 12 CFR 703.16 - Prohibited investments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Prohibited investments. 703.16 Section 703.16 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS INVESTMENT AND DEPOSIT ACTIVITIES § 703.16 Prohibited investments. (a) Derivatives. A Federal credit union may...

  14. 47 CFR 32.1406 - Nonregulated investments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nonregulated investments. 32.1406 Section 32.1406 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES UNIFORM... Nonregulated investments. This account shall include the carrier's investment in nonregulated activities...

  15. Does Investment Treaty Affect the Improvement on FDI?

    OpenAIRE

    Eunsook Seo

    2008-01-01

    The paper analyzes how investment treaty affects investment creation. Analysis results show that investment treaty could not directly affect the increase in investment with the form of investment agreement contradicting and the opening of investment treaty countries have increased a great deal of investment. Contracting the investment agreement means to ultimately improve the investment environment such as policy transparency, simplification of administration, and the simplification or the cl...

  16. Intensified nitrogen and phosphorus removal in a novel electrolysis-integrated tidal flow constructed wetland system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Xinxin; Wu, Shubiao; Zhang, Yansheng; Dong, Renjie

    2014-08-01

    A novel electrolysis-integrated tidal flow constructed wetland (CW) system was developed in this study. The dynamics of intensified nitrogen and phosphorus removal and that of hydrogen sulphide control were evaluated. Ammonium removal of up to 80% was achieved with an inflow concentration of 60 mg/L in wetland systems with and without electrolysis integration. Effluent nitrate concentration decreased from 2 mg/L to less than 0.5 mg/L with the decrease in current intensity from 1.5 mA/cm(2) to 0.57 mA/cm(2) in the electrolysis-integrated wetland system, thus indicating that the current intensity of electrolysis plays an important role in nitrogen transformations. Phosphorus removal was significantly enhanced, exceeding 95% in the electrolysis-integrated CW system because of the in-situ formation of a ferric iron coagulant through the electro-dissolution of a sacrificial iron anode. Moreover, the electrolyzed wetland system effectively inhibits sulphide accumulation as a result of a sulphide precipitation coupled with ferrous-iron electro-dissolution and/or an inhibition of bacterial sulphate reduction under increased aerobic conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Probabilistic discrimination between large-scale environments of intensifying and decaying African Easterly Waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agudelo, Paula A. [Area Hidrometria e Instrumentacion Carrera, Empresas Publicas de Medellin, Medellin (Colombia); Hoyos, Carlos D.; Curry, Judith A.; Webster, Peter J. [School of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2011-04-15

    About 50-60% of Atlantic tropical cyclones (TCs) including nearly 85% of intense hurricanes have their origins as African Easterly Waves (AEWs). However, predicting the likelihood of AEW intensification remains a difficult task. We have developed a Bayesian diagnostic methodology to understand genesis of North Atlantic TCs spawned by AEWs through the examination of the characteristics of the AEW itself together with the large-scale environment, resulting in a probabilistic discrimination between large-scale environments associated with intensifying and decaying AEWs. The methodology is based on a new objective and automatic AEW tracking scheme used for the period 1980 to 2001 based on spatio-temporally Fourier-filtered relative vorticity and meridional winds at different levels and outgoing long wave radiation. Using the AEW and Hurricane Best Track Files (HURDAT) data sets, probability density functions of environmental variables that discriminate between AEWs that decay, become TCs or become major hurricanes are determined. Results indicate that the initial amplitude of the AEWs is a major determinant for TC genesis, and that TC genesis risk increases when the wave enters an environment characterized by pre-existing large-scale convergence and moist convection. For the prediction of genesis, the most useful variables are column integrated heating, vertical velocity and specific humidity, and a combined form of divergence and vertical velocity and SST. It is also found that the state of the large-scale environment modulates the annual cycle and interannual variability of the AEW intensification efficiency. (orig.)

  18. Intensifying the Casimir force between two silicon substrates within three different layers of materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seyedzahedi, A.; Moradian, A.; Setare, M.R.

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the Casimir force for a system composed of two thick slabs as substrates within three different homogeneous layers. We use the scattering approach along with the Matsubara formalism in order to calculate the Casimir force at finite temperature. First, we focus on constructing the reflection matrices and then we calculate the Casimir force for a water–lipid system. According to the conventional use of silicon as a substrate, we apply the formalism to calculate the Casimir force for layers of Au, VO 2 , mica, KCl and foam rubber on the thick slabs of silicon. Afterwards, introducing an increasing factor, we compare our results with Lifshitz force in the vacuum between two semispaces of silicon in order to illustrate the influence of the layers on intensifying the Casimir force. We also calculate the Casimir force between two slabs of the forementioned materials with finite thicknesses to indicate the substrate's role in increasing the obtained Casimir force. Our simple calculation is interesting since one can extend it along with the Rigorous Coupled Wave Analysis to systems containing inhomogeneous layers as good candidates for designing nanomechanical devices.

  19. Intensifying the Casimir force between two silicon substrates within three different layers of materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seyedzahedi, A. [Department of Science, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Moradian, A., E-mail: a.moradian@uok.ac.ir [Department of Science, Campus of Bijar, University of Kurdistan, Bijar (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Setare, M.R., E-mail: rezakord@ipm.ir [Department of Science, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-04-01

    We investigate the Casimir force for a system composed of two thick slabs as substrates within three different homogeneous layers. We use the scattering approach along with the Matsubara formalism in order to calculate the Casimir force at finite temperature. First, we focus on constructing the reflection matrices and then we calculate the Casimir force for a water–lipid system. According to the conventional use of silicon as a substrate, we apply the formalism to calculate the Casimir force for layers of Au, VO{sub 2}, mica, KCl and foam rubber on the thick slabs of silicon. Afterwards, introducing an increasing factor, we compare our results with Lifshitz force in the vacuum between two semispaces of silicon in order to illustrate the influence of the layers on intensifying the Casimir force. We also calculate the Casimir force between two slabs of the forementioned materials with finite thicknesses to indicate the substrate's role in increasing the obtained Casimir force. Our simple calculation is interesting since one can extend it along with the Rigorous Coupled Wave Analysis to systems containing inhomogeneous layers as good candidates for designing nanomechanical devices.

  20. Study on isothermal precision forging process of rare earth intensifying magnesium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shan, Debin; Xu, Wenchen; Han, Xiuzhu; Huang, Xiaolei

    2012-01-01

    A three dimensional rigid-plastic finite element model is established to simulate the isothermal precision forging process of the magnesium alloy bracket based on DEFORM 3D in order to analyze the material flow rule and determine the forging process scheme. Some problems such as underfilling and too large forging pressure are predicted and resolved through optimizing the shapes of the billet successfully. Compared to the initial microstructure, the isothermal-forged microstructure of the alloy refines obviously and amounts of secondary phases precipitate on the matrix during isothermal forging process. In subsequent ageing process, large quantities of secondary phases precipitate from α-Mg matrix with increasing ageing time. The optimal comprehensive mechanical properties of the alloy have been obtained after aged at 473 K, 63 h with the ultimate tensile strength, tensile yield strength and elongation 380 MPa, 243 MPa and 4.07% respectively, which shows good potential for application of isothermal forging process of rare earth intensifying magnesium alloy.

  1. Root growth of tomato seedlings intensified by humic substances from peat bogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Christofaro Silva

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Peats are an important reserve of humified carbon in terrestrial ecosystems. The interest in the use of humic substances as plant growth promoters is continuously increasing. The objective of this study was to evaluate the bioactivity of alkaline soluble humic substances (HS, humic (HA and fulvic acids (FA isolated from peats with different decomposition stages of organic matter (sapric, fibric and hemic in the Serra do Espinhaço Meridional, state of Minas Gerais. Dose-response curves were established for the number of lateral roots growing from the main plant axis of tomato seedlings. The bioactivity of HA was greatest (highest response in lateral roots at lowest concentration while FA did not intensify root growth. Both HS and HA stimulated root hair formation. At low concentrations, HS and HA induced root hair formation near the root cap, a typical hormonal imbalance effect in plants. Transgenic tomato with reporter gene DR5::GUS allowed the observation that the auxin-related signalling pathway was involved in root growth promotion by HA.

  2. Paediatric interventional cardiology: flat detector versus image intensifier using a test object

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vano, E.; Ubeda, C.; Martinez, L. C.; Leyton, F.; Miranda, P.

    2010-12-01

    Entrance surface air kerma (ESAK) values and image quality parameters were measured and compared for two biplane angiography x-ray systems dedicated to paediatric interventional cardiology, one equipped with image intensifiers (II) and the other one with dynamic flat detectors (FDs). Polymethyl methacrylate phantoms of different thicknesses, ranging from 8 to 16 cm, and a Leeds TOR 18-FG test object were used. The parameters of the image quality evaluated were noise, signal-difference-to-noise ratio (SdNR), high contrast spatial resolution (HCSR) and three figures of merit combining entrance doses and signal-to-noise ratios or HCSR. The comparisons showed a better behaviour of the II-based system in the low contrast region over the whole interval of thicknesses. The FD-based system showed a better performance in HCSR. The FD system evaluated would need around two times more dose than the II system evaluated to reach a given value of SdNR; moreover, a better spatial resolution was measured (and perceived in conventional monitors) for the system equipped with flat detectors. According to the results of this paper, the use of dynamic FD systems does not lead to an automatic reduction in ESAK or to an automatic improvement in image quality by comparison with II systems. Any improvement also depends on the setting of the x-ray systems and it should still be possible to refine these settings for some of the dynamic FDs used in paediatric cardiology.

  3. Using a Non-Fit Message Helps to De-Intensify Negative Reactions to Tough Advice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridman, Ilona; Scherr, Karen; Glare, Paul; Higgins, E. Tory

    2017-01-01

    Sometimes physicians need to provide patients with potentially upsetting advice. For example, physicians may recommend hospice for a terminally ill patient because it best meets their needs, but the patient and their family dislike this advised option. We explore whether regulatory non-fit could be used to improve these types of situations. Across five studies in which participants imagined receiving upsetting advice from a physician, we demonstrate that regulatory non-fit between the form of the physician’s advice (emphasizing gains vs. avoiding losses) and the participants’ motivational orientation (promotion vs. prevention) improves participants’ evaluation of an initially disliked option. Regulatory non-fit de-intensifies participants’ initial attitudes by making them less confident in their initial judgments and motivating them to think more thoroughly about the arguments presented. Furthermore, consistent with previous research on regulatory fit, we showed that the mechanism of regulatory non-fit differs as a function of participants’ cognitive involvement in the evaluation of the option. PMID:27341845

  4. Real-Time Detection of Sporadic Meteors in the Intensified TV Imaging Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vítek, Stanislav; Nasyrova, Maria

    2017-12-29

    The automatic observation of the night sky through wide-angle video systems with the aim of detecting meteor and fireballs is currently among routine astronomical observations. The observation is usually done in multi-station or network mode, so it is possible to estimate the direction and the speed of the body flight. The high velocity of the meteorite flying through the atmosphere determines the important features of the camera systems, namely the high frame rate. Thanks to high frame rates, such imaging systems produce a large amount of data, of which only a small fragment has scientific potential. This paper focuses on methods for the real-time detection of fast moving objects in the video sequences recorded by intensified TV systems with frame rates of about 60 frames per second. The goal of our effort is to remove all unnecessary data during the daytime and make free hard-drive capacity for the next observation. The processing of data from the MAIA (Meteor Automatic Imager and Analyzer) system is demonstrated in the paper.

  5. Can we Observe and Assess Whether the Global Hydrological Cycle is "Intensifying"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, E. F.; Sheffield, J.

    2012-12-01

    There is controversy over whether the hydrological cycle is "intensifying" (or "accelerating"), and if so how and where? Resolving this critical question is a central goal of both national (e.g. NASA's Energy and Water cycle Study: NEWS) and international (WCRP Global Energy and Water cycle Experiment: GEWEX) programs. Its resolution has significant implications for understanding changes in hydroclimatic states and variability, and in future water security at regional to global scales. Over the last decade a number of papers have addressed trends and change in specific water cycle variables with results that can best be described as inconclusive, regardless of the conclusions of specific papers. In this presentation a number of recent studies will be reviewed for their consistency in assessing whether collectively one can make conclusions regarding how the hydrologic cycle is changing. The presentation will also demonstrate a pathway for analyzing where to observe for the detection of change based on a NASA-supported, global, 1983-2009, terrestrial water cycle Earth System Data Record project being led by the author. Initial results will be presented and a discussion presented on the extent that the proposed strategy can be used to detect change in the terrestrial hydrological cycle.

  6. Dynamic flat panel detector versus image intensifier in cardiac imaging: dose and image quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vano, E.; Geiger, B.; Schreiner, A.; Back, C.; Beissel, J.

    2005-12-01

    The practical aspects of the dosimetric and imaging performance of a digital x-ray system for cardiology procedures were evaluated. The system was configured with an image intensifier (II) and later upgraded to a dynamic flat panel detector (FD). Entrance surface air kerma (ESAK) to phantoms of 16, 20, 24 and 28 cm of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) and the image quality of a test object were measured. Images were evaluated directly on the monitor and with numerical methods (noise and signal-to-noise ratio). Information contained in the DICOM header for dosimetry audit purposes was also tested. ESAK values per frame (or kerma rate) for the most commonly used cine and fluoroscopy modes for different PMMA thicknesses and for field sizes of 17 and 23 cm for II, and 20 and 25 cm for FD, produced similar results in the evaluated system with both technologies, ranging between 19 and 589 µGy/frame (cine) and 5 and 95 mGy min-1 (fluoroscopy). Image quality for these dose settings was better for the FD version. The 'study dosimetric report' is comprehensive, and its numerical content is sufficiently accurate. There is potential in the future to set those systems with dynamic FD to lower doses than are possible in the current II versions, especially for digital cine runs, or to benefit from improved image quality.

  7. BaFCl:Eu2+, a new phosphor for X-ray-intensifying screens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevels, A.L.N.; Pingault, F.

    1975-01-01

    A number of phosphors for X-ray-intensifying screens have been evaluated by calculating figures of merit. On use in combination with standard (''blue''-sensitive) X-ray film, BaFCl:Eu 2+ and BaFBr:Eu 2+ give better performance than the traditional CaWO 4 and more recently developed UV or blue-emitting materials (e.g., sulphates and y-oxysulphides). The calculated figures of merit of BaFCl:Eu 2+ or BaFBr:Eu 2+ /standard-film combinations are comparable to those of Gd 2 O 2 S:Tb/green-sensitive X-ray film systems. The preparation of optimal fluorohalide:Eu 2+ phosphors involves proper formation of the host lattice, complete reduction of Eu 3+ ions as well as elimination of afterglow. Measurements on powders and experimental screens indicate that by using BaFCl:Eu 2+ screens in radiography, important dose reductions can be achieved without the necessity of using other than standard (''blue''-sensitive) X-ray films

  8. Sensitometry of intensifying screen-film system for detection of yearly change of imaging quality factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Akira; Asahara, Masayoshi

    2002-01-01

    Systematic sensitometry of 20 green- and 25 blue-intensifying screens made in early 1980s and early 1990s was performed on their physical imaging qualities to evaluate their yearly change. Sensitometry was done with Toshiba KXO-1000 X-ray generator (Tube: Toshiba DRX-431HD, 80 kV, 20 mm-thick Al-filter), characteristic curve examination with KXO-15 (Tube: DRX-1603B, 80 kV, 0.5 mm Cu+4.0 mm Al), determination of modulation transfer function with KXO-15 (Tube: DRX-1303B, 80 kV, 2.0 mm Al), and Wiener spectrometry with Hitachi DH-158 (Tube: Hitachi UH-6GC-108DL, 80 kV, 20 mmAl). Reference screen was that reported by US Bureau of Radiological Health (1982) and Center for Devices and Radiological Health (196) and was obtained from Chicago University. There were products without yearly change, with increased sensitivity with unchanged resolution and noise level, with improved resolution, or with improved sensitivity. (K.H.)

  9. Intensified summer monsoon and the urbanization of Indus Civilization in northwest India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Yama; Hodell, David A; Giesche, Alena; Tandon, Sampat K; Gázquez, Fernando; Saini, Hari S; Skinner, Luke C; Mujtaba, Syed A I; Pawar, Vikas; Singh, Ravindra N; Petrie, Cameron A

    2018-03-09

    Today the desert margins of northwest India are dry and unable to support large populations, but were densely occupied by the populations of the Indus Civilization during the middle to late Holocene. The hydroclimatic conditions under which Indus urbanization took place, which was marked by a period of expanded settlement into the Thar Desert margins, remains poorly understood. We measured the isotopic values (δ 18 O and δD) of gypsum hydration water in paleolake Karsandi sediments in northern Rajasthan to infer past changes in lake hydrology, which is sensitive to changing amounts of precipitation and evaporation. Our record reveals that relatively wet conditions prevailed at the northern edge of Rajasthan from ~5.1 ± 0.2 ka BP, during the beginning of the agricultural-based Early Harappan phase of the Indus Civilization. Monsoon rainfall intensified further between 5.0 and 4.4 ka BP, during the period when Indus urban centres developed in the western Thar Desert margin and on the plains of Haryana to its north. Drier conditions set in sometime after 4.4 ka BP, and by ~3.9 ka BP an eastward shift of populations had occurred. Our findings provide evidence that climate change was associated with both the expansion and contraction of Indus urbanism along the desert margin in northwest India.

  10. Paediatric interventional cardiology: flat detector versus image intensifier using a test object

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vano, E [Radiology Department, Medicine School, Complutense University and San Carlos University Hospital, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Ubeda, C [Clinical Sciences Department, Faculty of the Science of Health and CIHDE, Tarapaca University, 18 de Septiembre 2222, Arica (Chile); Martinez, L C [Medical Physics and Radiation Protection Service, 12 de Octubre University Hospital, Madrid (Spain); Leyton, F [Institute of Public Health of Chile, Marathon 1000, Nunoa, Santiago (Chile); Miranda, P, E-mail: eliseov@med.ucm.e [Hemodynamic Department, Cardiovascular Service, Luis Calvo Mackenna Hospital, Avenida Antonio Varaas 360, Providencia, Santiago (Chile)

    2010-12-07

    Entrance surface air kerma (ESAK) values and image quality parameters were measured and compared for two biplane angiography x-ray systems dedicated to paediatric interventional cardiology, one equipped with image intensifiers (II) and the other one with dynamic flat detectors (FDs). Polymethyl methacrylate phantoms of different thicknesses, ranging from 8 to 16 cm, and a Leeds TOR 18-FG test object were used. The parameters of the image quality evaluated were noise, signal-difference-to-noise ratio (SdNR), high contrast spatial resolution (HCSR) and three figures of merit combining entrance doses and signal-to-noise ratios or HCSR. The comparisons showed a better behaviour of the II-based system in the low contrast region over the whole interval of thicknesses. The FD-based system showed a better performance in HCSR. The FD system evaluated would need around two times more dose than the II system evaluated to reach a given value of SdNR; moreover, a better spatial resolution was measured (and perceived in conventional monitors) for the system equipped with flat detectors. According to the results of this paper, the use of dynamic FD systems does not lead to an automatic reduction in ESAK or to an automatic improvement in image quality by comparison with II systems. Any improvement also depends on the setting of the x-ray systems and it should still be possible to refine these settings for some of the dynamic FDs used in paediatric cardiology.

  11. Comparison of dose and image quality of a Flat-panel detector and an image intensifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazzaro, M.; Friedrich, B.Q.; Luz, R.M. da; Silva, A.M.M. da

    2016-01-01

    With the development of new technologies, have emerged new conversion methods of X-ray image, such as flat panel detectors. The aim of this work is the comparison of entrance surface air kerma (ESAK) and image quality between an image intensifier type of detector (A) and a flat panel (B). The ESAK was obtained by placing a ionization chamber under PMMA simulators of 10, 20 and 30 cm and the image quality was obtained by using the TOR "1"8FG simulator. The ESAK to the equipment A is higher when compared to the equipment B. The high contrast resolution is better for the equipment A for all thicknesses of simulators. The equipment A has low contrast resolution with a better viewing threshold for thicknesses of 10 and 20 cm, and a worse performance for 30 cm. It is concluded that the equipment B has ESAK smaller and despite having lower resolution, in almost all cases, have appropriate image quality for diagnosis. (author)

  12. Star tracking method based on multiexposure imaging for intensified star trackers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wenbo; Jiang, Jie; Zhang, Guangjun

    2017-07-20

    The requirements for the dynamic performance of star trackers are rapidly increasing with the development of space exploration technologies. However, insufficient knowledge of the angular acceleration has largely decreased the performance of the existing star tracking methods, and star trackers may even fail to track under highly dynamic conditions. This study proposes a star tracking method based on multiexposure imaging for intensified star trackers. The accurate estimation model of the complete motion parameters, including the angular velocity and angular acceleration, is established according to the working characteristic of multiexposure imaging. The estimation of the complete motion parameters is utilized to generate the predictive star image accurately. Therefore, the correct matching and tracking between stars in the real and predictive star images can be reliably accomplished under highly dynamic conditions. Simulations with specific dynamic conditions are conducted to verify the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method. Experiments with real starry night sky observation are also conducted for further verification. Simulations and experiments demonstrate that the proposed method is effective and shows excellent performance under highly dynamic conditions.

  13. Climate change and ocean deoxygenation within intensified surface-driven upwelling circulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakun, Andrew

    2017-09-13

    Ocean deoxygenation often takes place in proximity to zones of intense upwelling. Associated concerns about amplified ocean deoxygenation arise from an arguable likelihood that coastal upwelling systems in the world's oceans may further intensify as anthropogenic climate change proceeds. Comparative examples discussed include the uniquely intense seasonal Somali Current upwelling, the massive upwelling that occurs quasi-continuously off Namibia and the recently appearing and now annually recurring 'dead zone' off the US State of Oregon. The evident 'transience' in causal dynamics off Oregon is somewhat mirrored in an interannual-scale intermittence in eruptions of anaerobically formed noxious gases off Namibia. A mechanistic scheme draws the three examples towards a common context in which, in addition to the obvious but politically problematic remedy of actually reducing 'greenhouse' gas emissions, the potentially manageable abundance of strongly swimming, finely gill raker-meshed small pelagic fish emerges as a plausible regulating factor.This article is part of the themed issue 'Ocean ventilation and deoxygenation in a warming world'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  14. Multiscale hydrodynamic investigation to intensify the biogas production in upflow anaerobic reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jiankai; Wu, Jing; Zhang, Jinbai; Poncin, Souhila; Li, Huai Z

    2014-03-01

    Hydrodynamics plays a main role for the performance of an anaerobic reactor involving three phases: wastewater, sludge granules and biogas bubbles. The present work was focused on an original approach to investigate the hydrodynamics at different scales and then to intensify the performance of such complex reactors. The experiments were carried out respectively in a 3D reactor at macroscale, a 2D reactor at mesoscale and a 1D anaerobic reactor at microscale. A Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV), a micro-PIV and a high-speed camera were employed to quantify the liquid flow fields and the relative motion between sludge granules and bubbles. Shear rates exerted on sludge granules were quantified from liquid flow fields. The optimal biogas production is obtained at mean shear rate varying from 28 to 48s(-1), which is controlled by two antagonistic mechanisms. The multiscale approach demonstrates pertinent mechanisms proper to each scale and allows a better understanding of such reactors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Stochastic neuron models

    CERN Document Server

    Greenwood, Priscilla E

    2016-01-01

    This book describes a large number of open problems in the theory of stochastic neural systems, with the aim of enticing probabilists to work on them. This includes problems arising from stochastic models of individual neurons as well as those arising from stochastic models of the activities of small and large networks of interconnected neurons. The necessary neuroscience background to these problems is outlined within the text, so readers can grasp the context in which they arise. This book will be useful for graduate students and instructors providing material and references for applying probability to stochastic neuron modeling. Methods and results are presented, but the emphasis is on questions where additional stochastic analysis may contribute neuroscience insight. An extensive bibliography is included. Dr. Priscilla E. Greenwood is a Professor Emerita in the Department of Mathematics at the University of British Columbia. Dr. Lawrence M. Ward is a Professor in the Department of Psychology and the Brain...

  16. 77 FR 27499 - Destra Capital Investments LLC and Destra Unit Investment Trust; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-10

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Investment Company Act Release No. 30059; 812-13574-01] Destra Capital Investments LLC and Destra Unit Investment Trust; Notice of Application May 3, 2012. AGENCY...) of the Investment Company Act of 1940 (``Act'') for an exemption from sections 2(a)(32), 2(a)(35), 14...

  17. 77 FR 35082 - Arrow Investment Advisers, LLC and Arrow Investments Trust; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-12

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Investment Company Act Release No. 30100; 812-13937] Arrow Investment Advisers, LLC and Arrow Investments Trust; Notice of Application June 6, 2012. AGENCY: Securities... 6(c) of the Investment Company Act of 1940 (``Act'') for an exemption from sections 2(a)(32), 5(a)(1...

  18. 76 FR 61769 - Destra Capital Investments LLC and Destra Unit Investment Trust; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-05

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Investment Company Act Release No. 29825; 812-13575] Destra Capital Investments LLC and Destra Unit Investment Trust; Notice of Application September 29, 2011. AGENCY... 12(d)(1)(J) of the Investment Company Act of 1940 (``Act'') for an exemption from sections 12(d)(1)(A...

  19. 76 FR 2029 - Small Business Investment Companies-Energy Saving Qualified Investments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-12

    ... 3245-AF86 Small Business Investment Companies--Energy Saving Qualified Investments AGENCY: U.S. Small... Administration (SBA) is setting forth the new defined terms, ``Energy Saving Qualified Investment'' and ``Energy Saving Activities'', for the Small Business Investment Company (SBIC) Program. The new definitions are...

  20. 77 FR 18277 - Domini Social Investment Trust and Domini Social Investments LLC; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-27

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Investment Company Act Release No. 29984; 812-13971] Domini Social Investment Trust and Domini Social Investments LLC; Notice of Application March 21, 2012. AGENCY... the Investment Company Act of 1940 (``Act'') for an exemption from section 15(a) of the Act and rule...

  1. 12 CFR 703.5 - Discretionary control over investments and investment advisers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discretionary control over investments and investment advisers. 703.5 Section 703.5 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS INVESTMENT AND DEPOSIT ACTIVITIES § 703.5 Discretionary control over investments and...

  2. 78 FR 77377 - Small Business Investment Companies-Investments in Passive Businesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-23

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Part 107 RIN 3245-AG57 Small Business Investment Companies--Investments in Passive Businesses AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY... Investment Company (SBIC) program concerning investments in passive businesses. SBICs are generally...

  3. Progranulin overexpression in sensory neurons attenuates neuropathic pain in mice: Role of autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altmann, Christine; Hardt, Stefanie; Fischer, Caroline; Heidler, Juliana; Lim, Hee-Young; Häussler, Annett; Albuquerque, Boris; Zimmer, Béla; Möser, Christine; Behrends, Christian; Koentgen, Frank; Wittig, Ilka; Schmidt, Mirko H H; Clement, Albrecht M; Deller, Thomas; Tegeder, Irmgard

    2016-12-01

    Peripheral or central nerve injury is a frequent cause of chronic pain and the mechanisms are not fully understood. Using newly generated transgenic mice we show that progranulin overexpression in sensory neurons attenuates neuropathic pain after sciatic nerve injury and accelerates nerve healing. A yeast-2-hybrid screen revealed putative interactions of progranulin with autophagy-related proteins, ATG12 and ATG4b. This was supported by colocalization and proteomic studies showing regulations of ATG13 and ATG4b and other members of the autophagy network, lysosomal proteins and proteins involved in endocytosis. The association of progranulin with the autophagic pathway was functionally confirmed in primary sensory neurons. Autophagy and survival were impaired in progranulin-deficient neurons and improved in progranulin overexpressing neurons. Nerve injury in vivo caused an accumulation of LC3b-EGFP positive bodies in neurons of the dorsal root ganglia and nerves suggesting an impairment of autophagic flux. Overexpression of progranulin in these neurons was associated with a reduction of the stress marker ATF3, fewer protein aggregates in the injured nerve and enhanced stump healing. At the behavioral level, further inhibition of the autophagic flux by hydroxychloroquine intensified cold and heat nociception after sciatic nerve injury and offset the pain protection provided by progranulin. We infer that progranulin may assist in removal of protein waste and thereby helps to resolve neuropathic pain after nerve injury. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Neuronal Migration and Neuronal Migration Disorder in Cerebral Cortex

    OpenAIRE

    SUN, Xue-Zhi; TAKAHASHI, Sentaro; GUI, Chun; ZHANG, Rui; KOGA, Kazuo; NOUYE, Minoru; MURATA, Yoshiharu

    2002-01-01

    Neuronal cell migration is one of the most significant features during cortical development. After final mitosis, neurons migrate from the ventricular zone into the cortical plate, and then establish neuronal lamina and settle onto the outermost layer, forming an "inside-out" gradient of maturation. Neuronal migration is guided by radial glial fibers and also needs proper receptors, ligands, and other unknown extracellular factors, requests local signaling (e.g. some emitted by the Cajal-Retz...

  5. Minimal investment risk of a portfolio optimization problem with budget and investment concentration constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinzato, Takashi

    2017-02-01

    In the present paper, the minimal investment risk for a portfolio optimization problem with imposed budget and investment concentration constraints is considered using replica analysis. Since the minimal investment risk is influenced by the investment concentration constraint (as well as the budget constraint), it is intuitive that the minimal investment risk for the problem with an investment concentration constraint can be larger than that without the constraint (that is, with only the budget constraint). Moreover, a numerical experiment shows the effectiveness of our proposed analysis. In contrast, the standard operations research approach failed to identify accurately the minimal investment risk of the portfolio optimization problem.

  6. Comparative Analysis of Investment Decision Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ieva Kekytė

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Rapid development of financial markets resulted new challenges for both investors and investment issues. This increased demand for innovative, modern investment and portfolio management decisions adequate for market conditions. Financial market receives special attention, creating new models, includes financial risk management and investment decision support systems.Researchers recognize the need to deal with financial problems using models consistent with the reality and based on sophisticated quantitative analysis technique. Thus, role mathematical modeling in finance becomes important. This article deals with various investments decision-making models, which include forecasting, optimization, stochatic processes, artificial intelligence, etc., and become useful tools for investment decisions.

  7. Socially responsible investments in mutual funds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Funaru, M.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to add contribution to the socially responsible investments (from now on called “SRI” research by examining the significance of this type of investment in terms of ethical or financial prior behaviour. Using the sample of European market of socially responsible investments funds, we first explore the SRI market dimension compared to the global data on SRI. We also investigate whether the ethical recognition is more important rather than the financial performance. Applied to the European social responsible investment fund market, the paper investigates the difference between these two aspects of behaviour and underlies the importance of socially responsible investments in promoting a sustainable development.

  8. ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL EFFICIENCY OF PROPERTY INVESTMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florina Oana Virlanuta

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Investments play a key part within the goods and services industry, consumerism and community as well. The effects generated by any investment project substantiate this statement, regardless the sector of activity in which they are implemented. In the current market economy, economic efficiency indicators are playing an important role in assessing and analyzing an investment project since due to these indicators, the investor can become aware of the most important aspects they need to respond promptly. In this respect, we conducted a market analysis of real estate investments in Romania, highlighting economic and social efficiency of property investments.

  9. Music and mirror neurons: from motion to 'e'motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnar-Szakacs, Istvan; Overy, Katie

    2006-12-01

    The ability to create and enjoy music is a universal human trait and plays an important role in the daily life of most cultures. Music has a unique ability to trigger memories, awaken emotions and to intensify our social experiences. We do not need to be trained in music performance or appreciation to be able to reap its benefits-already as infants, we relate to it spontaneously and effortlessly. There has been a recent surge in neuroimaging investigations of the neural basis of musical experience, but the way in which the abstract shapes and patterns of musical sound can have such profound meaning to us remains elusive. Here we review recent neuroimaging evidence and suggest that music, like language, involves an intimate coupling between the perception and production of hierarchically organized sequential information, the structure of which has the ability to communicate meaning and emotion. We propose that these aspects of musical experience may be mediated by the human mirror neuron system.

  10. Pemanfaatan Limbah Investment Menjadi Barang Kerajinan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hastuti Kusreni

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini dimaksudkan untuk memanfaatkan kembali limbah investment padat yang dihasilkan dengan menggunakan teknologi proses pembuatan barang kerajinan yang bisa  diterapkan untuk usaha kecil kerajinan. Pada pembuatan perhiasan dengan metode wax lost casting digunakan bahan investment powder yang menghasilkan limbah padat investment. Limbah padat investment bisa dibuat barang kerajinan dengan cara menambah resin katalist, gips, alkasit, sabut kelapa, semen putih, yang bertujuan untuk memperbaiki sifat plastisitas, meningkatkan kekuatan dan mempercepat pengeringan. Untuk menentukan kualitas sampel dilakukan uji terhadap sifat plastisitas, kekuatan, kekerasan dan waktu pengeringan yang dilakukan secara visual. Hasil olahan limbah investment dengan penambahan gips, alkasit, sabut kelapa dengan komposisi 10:2:1:4, pengeringan selama 3 hari menghasilkan barang kerajinan yang kurang keras, plastis dan kuat. Hasil olahan limbah investment dengan penambahan gips, semen putih dengan komposisi 10:2:4, pengeringan selama 3 jam menghasilkan barang kerajinan yang keras dan plastis. Kata kunci : limbah investment padat

  11. Are stricter investment rules contagious? Host country competition for foreign direct investment through international agreements

    OpenAIRE

    Neumayer, Eric; Nunnenkamp, Peter; Roy, Martin

    2014-01-01

    We argue that the trend toward international investment agreements (IIAs) with stricter investment rules is driven by competitive diffusion, namely defensive moves of developing countries concerned about foreign direct investment (FDI) diversion in favor of competing host countries. Accounting for spatial dependence in the formation of bilateral investment treaties (BITs) and preferential trade agreements (PTAs) that contain investment provisions, we find that the increase in agreements with ...

  12. Giga-Investments: Modelling the Valuation of Very Large Industrial Real Investments

    OpenAIRE

    Collan, Mikael

    2004-01-01

    In this doctoral dissertation characteristics of very large industrial real investments (VLIRI) are investigated and a special group of VLIRI is defined as giga-investments. The investment decision-making regarding to giga-investments is discussed from the points of view of discounted cash-flow based methods and real option valuation. Based on the bacground of establishing giga-investments, state-of-the-art in capital budgeting (including real options) and by applying fuzzy numbers a novel me...

  13. Investing in e-health

    CERN Document Server

    Gustafson, David H; Hawkins, Robert P

    2007-01-01

    As the Internet's presence in health care grows more pervasive, an increasing number of health care providers have begun to implement eHealth innovations in their practice. This book explores the development of a model to predict and explain the degree of success it is possible to achieve in implementing e-health systems. This model allows an institution to benchmark its progress towards IHCS implementation and advises administrators where to invest resources to increase the chance of successful implementation. A set of case studies highlights key features of the model, with each case study fu

  14. Ecological Transition and Green Investment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bureau, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    By introducing an exhaustible resource into an AK growth model, we can identify the determinants of the scale of green investment needs and its impact on capital accumulation dynamics. The role of green capital in the transition to a low-carbon economy depends, in particular, on the relative magnitudes of the elasticities of demand for polluting goods and of the substitutability between green capital and natural resources. The impact on the optimal savings rate also depends on the productivity of green capital and on the ability to adapt existing capital

  15. Optimal lag in dynamical investments

    OpenAIRE

    Serva, M.

    1998-01-01

    A portfolio of different stocks and a risk-less security whose composition is dynamically maintained stable by trading shares at any time step leads to a growth of the capital with a nonrandom rate. This is the key for the theory of optimal-growth investment formulated by Kelly. In presence of transaction costs, the optimal composition changes and, more important, it turns out that the frequency of transactions must be reduced. This simple observation leads to the definition of an optimal lag...

  16. Leverage, Investment, and Firm Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Larry Lang; Eli Ofek; Rene M. Stulz

    1995-01-01

    We show that there is a negative relation between leverage and future growth at the firm level and, for diversified firms, at the segment level. Further, this negative relation between leverage and growth holds for firms with low Tobin's q, but not for high-q firms or firms in high-q industries. Therefore, leverage does not reduce growth for firms known to have good investment opportunities, but is negatively related to growth for firms whose growth opportunities are either not recognized by ...

  17. New investment powers of Euratom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, O.

    1979-01-01

    A steady expansion of nuclear capacity in the European Community is one of the major ways of preventing unacceptable rises in oil imports. Over the period 1978 to 1985, the creation of the necessary nuclear capacity will require about Pound42000 million, and to help utilities Euratom is prepared to provide loans up to 20 per cent of the total investment cost of a project. The purpose is to complement, not replace, traditional financing resources. Fuel cycle facilities may be prominent in future loans. (U.K.)

  18. Neuronal nets in robotics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez Sanchez, Raul

    1999-01-01

    The paper gives a generic idea of the solutions that the neuronal nets contribute to the robotics. The advantages and the inconveniences are exposed that have regarding the conventional techniques. It also describe the more excellent applications as the pursuit of trajectories, the positioning based on images, the force control or of the mobile robots management, among others

  19. Intuitive Choices Lead to Intensified Positive Emotions: An Overlooked Reason for "Intuition Bias"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkebøen, Geir; Nordbye, Gro H H

    2017-01-01

    People have, for many well-documented reasons, a tendency to overemphasize their intuitions and to follow them, even when they should not. This "intuition bias" leads to several kinds of specific intuitive biases in judgments and decision making. Previous studies have shown that characteristics of the decision process have a tendency to "leak" into the experience of the choice outcome. We explore whether intuitive choices influence the experience of the choice outcomes differently from "non-intuitive," analytic choices. Since intuition is feeling based, we examine in particular if intuitive choices have stronger affective consequences than non-intuitive ones. Participants in two scenario studies ( N = 90; N = 126) rated the feelings of decision makers who experienced a conflict between two options, one intuitively appealing and another that appeared preferable on analytic grounds. Choosing the intuitive alternative was anticipated to lead to somewhat more regret after negative outcomes and, in particular, much more satisfaction with positive outcomes. In two autobiographical studies, one with psychology students ( N = 88) and the other with experienced engineers ( N = 99), participants were asked to provide examples of choice conflicts between an intuitive and a non-intuitive option from their own private or professional lives. Both groups showed a tendency to report stronger emotions, in particular positive, after intuitive choices. One well-established explanation for intuition bias focuses on the nature of people's anticipated negative counterfactual thoughts if their decisions were to turn out badly. The present data indicate that intuitive choices intensify positive emotions, anticipated and real, after successful outcomes much more than negative emotions after failures. Positive outcomes are also more commonly expected than negative ones, when we make choices. We argue that markedly amplified emotions, mediated by stronger personal involvement, in the

  20. Intensified association between waist circumference and hypertension in abdominally overweight children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Bin; Wang, Zhiqiang; Yang, Yide; Wang, Hai-Jun; Ma, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Abdominal adiposity is an important risk factor for childhood hypertension. The present study aimed to compare the strength of the association between waist circumference (WC) and hypertension in children with different WC levels. A total of 82,413 Chinese children aged 9-17 years were selected. An abdominally overweight child was defined as a child with WC ≥75th sex- and age-specific percentile. Hypertension was categorised as ≥95th sex-, age- and height-specific percentile. Logistic regression model was applied to calculate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of WC for hypertension after WC was transformed into sex- and age-specific z-score. Abdominally overweight children presented a higher risk of hypertension (OR: 2.39; 95% CI: 2.26, 2.54) than children with normal WC. In children with normal WC, one sex- and age-specific standard deviation increase in WC was associated with a 42% increase in odds of hypertension (OR: 1.42; 95% CI: 1.30, 1.55). That increase was elevated to 74% in abdominally overweight children (OR: 1.74; 95% CI: 1.66, 1.82). A similar pattern was also observed in different sex and area groups, and in children 9-14 years old. An intensified association between WC and hypertension was observed in abdominally overweight Chinese children. The gain in WC was associated with greater increase in hypertensive risk in abdominally overweight children than that of children with normal WC. These findings could improve intervention strategies for hypertension risk reduction in children. Copyright © 2015 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Neutron diffraction tomography: a unique, 3D inspection technique for crystals using an intensifier TV system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, J.B.; Case, A.L.

    1978-01-01

    The application of phosphor-intensifier-TV techniques to neutron topography and tomography of crystals is described. The older, analogous x-ray topography using wavelengths approximately 1.5A is widely used for surface inspection. However, the crystal must actually be cut in order to see diffraction anomalies beneath the surface. Because 1.5-A thermal neutrons are highly penetrating, much larger and thicker specimens can be used. Also, since neutrons have magnetic moments, they are diffracted by magnetic structures within crystals. In neutron volume topography, the entire crystal or a large part of it is irradiated, and the images obtained are superimposed reflections from the total volume. In neutron tomography (or section topography), a collimated beam irradiates a slice (0.5 to 10 mm) of the crystal. The diffracted image is a tomogram from this part only. A series of tomograms covering the crystal can be taken as the specimen is translated in steps across the narrow beam. Grains, voids, twinning, and other defects from regions down to 1 mm in size can be observed and isolated. Although at present poorer in resolution than the original neutron and film methods, the TV techniques are much faster and, in some cases, permit real-time viewing. Two camera systems are described: a counting camera having a 150 mm 6 Li-ZnS screen for low-intensity reflections which are integrated in a digital memory, and a 300-mm system using analog image storage. Topographs and tomograms of several crystals ranging in size from 4 mm to 80 mm are shown

  2. Application of an image intensifier to the study on hadrons in air shower, 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsushima, Itsuro; Kawasumi, Norio; Hashimoto, Katsumi; Machida, Masaharu

    1975-01-01

    As the apparatus for observing cosmic ray air shower, the particle detection apparatus combining spark chamber, scintillator and photomultiplier tube is frequently used, but the exact detection of particle number is impossible with it when particle density is large. The authors have carried out the experiment to measure nuclear active particles in air shower and to grasp the central part of air shower as energy flow by utilizing an image intensifier tube. On the roof of building S, a laboratory was built, and a core detector of 2 m x 2 m area, 13 AS detectors of 0.25 m 2 and an AS detector of 1 m 2 were installed. The gate of the II was opened by utilizing coincidence pulses, and the position and amount of scintillation in the core detector was taken into a camera through the II. The time of observation was 289 hours, and the time of II operation was 113 hours. Total number of air shower recorded was 218 cases, and the centers of 120 cases among them were determined in the AS detectors at four corners. The centers of 39 cases were within the area of the core detector. In the coincident counting of air shower and burst carried out in the present experiment, the total delay time from the arrival of air shower to the gate pulse actuating the II was 1.6 sec. The core of air shower of about 10 6 size and 1.3 age was caught by this method. The problems for future are the determination of core position for the air shower of smaller size, and the meaning of spot images of II. (Kako, I.)

  3. Savings from controlled measurement operations during the selection of the methods of intensifying inflows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pluden, I A

    1979-01-01

    Investigation was made of the effectiveness of the information preservation of problems on the selection of the methods of the intensification of the extraction of petroleum. On the basis of the methodology on the determination of the operational outlay for each well and the cost of the extraction of petroleum which was worked out by the All-Union Science Research Institute for Gas, the formulae concerning the dependence of the cost on the output of the wells is generalized for the case of flooded wells. Formulae are presented, which are suitable for the calculation of the savings on the application of the methods of intensifying extraction. The output of the wells is examined as a random value. Formulae are deduced for the density of the reliability and the function of the distribution of the cost of the extraction of petroleum per well, and a graph of this function of determination is given. The necessity of taking into consideration the error of the dimensions of measurements of the output of the wells in the calculations is pointed out. This error leads in practice to significant errors in the selection of intensification methods and the evaluation of its effectiveness, which in the last analysis has a significant economic disadvantage. Recommendations are made for showing the elimination of this disadvantage by rational organization of the measurement control operations. A graph is made for the dependence between the duration of the measurements of the outputs of the wells and their frequency per month (periodicity) with various outputs of wells for the case when the error of the measurements of the yields does not exceed /sub +//sub -/5%.

  4. Enzymatically modified isoquercitrin supplementation intensifies plantaris muscle fiber hypertrophy in functionally overloaded mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohara, Akiko; Machida, Masanao; Setoguchi, Yuko; Ito, Ryouichi; Sugitani, Masanori; Maruki-Uchida, Hiroko; Inagaki, Hiroyuki; Ito, Tatsuhiko; Omi, Naomi; Takemasa, Tohru

    2017-01-01

    Enzymatically modified isoquercitrin (EMIQ) is produced from rutin using enzymatic hydrolysis followed by treatment with glycosyltransferase in the presence of dextrin to add glucose residues. EMIQ is absorbed in the same way as quercetin, a powerful antioxidant reported to prevent disused muscle atrophy by targeting mitochondria and to have ergogenic effects. The present study investigated the effect of EMIQ on skeletal muscle hypertrophy induced by functional overload. In Study 1, 6-week-old ICR male mice were divided into 4 groups: sham-operated control, sham-operated EMIQ, overload-operated control, and overload-operated EMIQ groups. In Study 2, mice were divided into 3 groups: overload-operated whey control, overload-operated whey/EMIQ (low dose), and overload-operated whey/EMIQ (high dose) groups. The functional overload of the plantaris muscle was induced by ablation of the synergist (gastrocnemius and soleus) muscles. EMIQ and whey protein were administered with food. Three weeks after the operation, the cross-sectional area and minimal fiber diameter of the plantaris muscle fibers were measured. In Study 1, functional overload increased the cross-sectional area and minimal fiber diameter of the plantaris muscle. EMIQ supplementation significantly increased the cross-sectional area and minimal fiber diameter of the plantaris muscle in both the sham-operated and overload-operated groups. In Study 2, EMIQ supplementation combined with whey protein administration significantly increased the cross-sectional area and minimal fiber diameter of the plantaris muscle. EMIQ, even when administered as an addition to whey protein supplementation, significantly intensified the fiber hypertrophy of the plantaris muscle in functionally overloaded mice. EMIQ supplementation also induced fiber hypertrophy of the plantaris in sham-operated mice.

  5. Application of intensified heat transfer for the retrofit of heat exchanger network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yufei; Pan, Ming; Bulatov, Igor; Smith, Robin; Kim, Jin-Kuk

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: → Novel design approach for the retrofit of HEN based on intensified heat transfer. → Development of a mathematical model to evaluate shell-and-tube heat exchanger performances. → Identification of the most appropriate heat exchangers requiring heat transfer enhancements in the heat exchanger network. -- Abstract: A number of design methods have been proposed for the retrofit of heat exchanger networks (HEN) during the last three decades. Although considerable potential for energy savings can be identified from conventional retrofit approaches, the proposed solutions have rarely been adopted in practice, due to significant topology modifications required and resulting engineering complexities during implementation. The intensification of heat transfer for conventional shell-and-tube heat exchangers can eliminate the difficulties of implementing retrofit in HEN which are commonly restricted by topology, safety and maintenance constraints, and includes high capital costs for replacing equipment and pipelines. This paper presents a novel design approach to solve HEN retrofit problems based on heat transfer enhancement. A mathematical model has been developed to evaluate shell-and-tube heat exchanger performances, with which heat-transfer coefficients and pressure drops for both fluids in tube and shell sides are obtained. The developed models have been compared with the Bell-Delaware, simplified Tinker and Wills-Johnston methods and tested with the HTRI (registered) and HEXTRAN (registered) software packages. This demonstrates that the new model is much simpler but can give reliable results in most cases. For the debottlenecking of HEN, four heuristic rules are proposed to identify the most appropriate heat exchangers requiring heat transfer enhancements in the HEN. The application of this new design approach allows a significant improvement in energy recovery without fundamental structural modifications to the network.

  6. Recent intensified impact of December Arctic Oscillation on subsequent January temperature in Eurasia and North Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shengping; Wang, Huijun; Gao, Yongqi; Li, Fei

    2018-03-01

    This study reveals an intensified influence of December Arctic Oscillation (AO) on the subsequent January surface air temperature (SAT) over Eurasia and North Africa in recent decades. The connection is statistically insignificant during 1957/58-1979/80 (P1), which becomes statistically significant during 1989/90-2011/12 (P2). The possible causes are further investigated. Associated with positive December AO during P2, significant anomalous anticyclone emerges over the central North Atlantic, which is accompanied with significant westerly and easterly anomalies along 45°-65°N and 20°-40°N, respectively. This favors the significant influence of December AO on the subsequent January SAT and atmospheric circulation over Eurasia and North Africa via triggering the North Atlantic tripole sea surface temperature (SST) anomaly that persists into the subsequent January. By contrast, the December AO-related anomalous anticyclone during P1 is weak and is characterized by two separate centers located in the eastern and western North Atlantic. Correspondingly, the westerly and easterly anomalies over the North Atlantic Ocean are weak and the-related tripole SST anomaly is not well formed, unfavorable for the persistent impact of the December AO into the subsequent January. Further analyses indicate that the different anomalous anticyclone associated with the December AO over the North Atlantic may be induced by the strengthened synoptic-scale eddy feedbacks over the North Atlantic, which may be related to the interdecadal intensification of the storm track activity. Additionally, the planetary stationary wave related to the December AO propagates from surface into upper stratosphere at mid-latitudes during P2, which further propagates downward to the troposphere and causes anomalous atmospheric circulation in the subsequent January.

  7. Exogenous Acrolein intensifies sensory hypersensitivity after spinal cord injury in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Breanne; Acosta, Glen; Shi, Riyi

    2017-08-15

    Acrolein, an α,β-unsaturated aldehyde associated with oxidative stress, is also a major toxic component of tobacco cigarette smoke, which has been reported in the clinic to coincide with the exacerbation of neuropathic pain after SCI. Previous reports have shown that acrolein involvement in spinal cord injury (SCI) is crucial to the development and persistence of neuropathic pain. Through the activation and upregulation of the transient receptor protein ankyrin-1 (TRPA1) cation channel, acrolein is capable of sensitizing the central nervous system in the acute and chronic stages of SCI. Here, we report that the acute or delayed nasal exposure of acrolein, apart from cigarette smoke but at concentrations similar to that found in cigarette smoke, resulted in increased neuropathic pain behaviors in a rat model of contusion SCI. We also found that this hyperalgesia occurred concurrently with an augmentation in systemic acrolein, detected by an acrolein-glutathione metabolite in the urine. The application of an acrolein scavenger, phenelzine, was shown to reduce the hyperalgesic effect of acrolein inhalation. The previously determined ability of acrolein to bind to and activate the TRPA1 channel and elicit algesic responses may be a mechanism of the phenomenon seen in this study. Upon the exposure to actual cigarette smoke after SCI, intensified neuropathic pain behaviors were also observed and persisted for at least 1week after the cessation of the exposure period. Taken together, these results indicate that cigarette smoke, through mechanisms involving acrolein, poses a threat to the vulnerable CNS after SCI and can contribute to neuropathic pain. This investigation also provides further evidence for the potential utility of acrolein scavengers as a therapeutic strategy in SCI-resultant neuropathic pain. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Continuous, but not intermittent, antipsychotic drug delivery intensifies the pursuit of reward cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bédard, Anne-Marie; Maheux, Jérôme; Lévesque, Daniel; Samaha, Anne-Noël

    2011-05-01

    Chronic exposure to antipsychotic medications can persistently change brain dopamine systems. Most studies on the functional significance of these neural changes have focused on motor behavior and few have addressed how long-term antipsychotic treatment might influence dopamine-mediated reward function. We asked, therefore, whether a clinically relevant antipsychotic treatment regimen would alter the incentive motivational properties of a reward cue. We assessed the ability of a Pavlovian-conditioned stimulus to function as a conditioned reward, as well as to elicit approach behavior in rats treated with haloperidol, either continuously (achieved via subcutaneous osmotic minipump) or intermittently (achieved via daily subcutaneous injections). Continuous, but not intermittent, treatment enhanced the ability of amphetamine to potentiate the conditioned reinforcing effects of a cue associated with water. This effect was not related to differences in the ability to attribute predictive value to a conditioned stimulus (as measured by conditioned approach behavior), but was potentially linked to the development of behavioral supersensitivity to amphetamine and to augmented amphetamine-induced immediate early-gene expression (c-fos and Nur77) in dorsal striatopallidal and striatonigral cells. By enhancing the ability of reward cues to control behavior and by intensifying dopamine-mediated striatopallidal and striatonigral cell activity, standard (ie, continuous) antipsychotic treatment regimens might exacerbate drug-seeking and drug-taking behavior in schizophrenia. Achieving regular but transiently high antipsychotic levels in the brain (as modeled in the intermittent condition) might be a viable option to prevent these changes. This possibility should be explored in the clinic.

  9. Maternal high-fat diet intensifies the metabolic response to stress in male rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbaschi, Roxana; Zardooz, Homeira; Khodagholi, Fariba; Dargahi, Leila; Salimi, Mina; Rashidi, FatemehSadat

    2017-01-01

    The mother's consumption of high-fat food can affect glucose metabolism and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis responsiveness in the offspring and potentially affect the metabolic responses to stress as well. This study examines the effect of maternal high-fat diet on the expression of pancreatic glucose transporter 2 and the secretion of insulin in response to stress in offspring. Female rats were randomly divided into normal and high-fat diet groups and were fed in accordance with their given diets from pre-pregnancy to the end of lactation. The offspring were divided into control (NC and HFC) and stress (NS and HFS) groups based on their mothers' diet and exposure to stress in adulthood. After the two-week stress induction period was over, an intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT) was performed and plasma glucose and insulin levels were assessed. The pancreas was then removed for measuring insulin secretion from the isolated islets as well as glucose transporter 2 mRNA expression and protein levels. According to the results obtained, plasma corticosterone concentrations increased significantly on days 1 and 14 of the stress induction period and were lower on the last day compared to on the first day. In both the NS and HFS groups, stress reduced plasma insulin concentration in the IPGTT without changing the plasma glucose concentration, suggesting an increased insulin sensitivity in the NS and HFS groups, although more markedly in the latter. Stress reduced insulin secretion (at high glucose concentrations) and increased glucose transporter 2 mRNA and protein expression, especially in the HFS group. Mothers' high-fat diet appears to intensify the stress response by changing the programming of the neuroendocrine system in the offspring.

  10. Is climate change intensifying the drying-trend in the Caribbean?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, D. A.; Ault, T.; Fasullo, J.; Carrillo, C. M.

    2017-12-01

    Since 1950, the Caribbean (11ºN-25ºN; 85ºW-60ºW) has seen a significant drying trend characterized by several recent droughts, some of them contemporaneous with El Niño events. Moreover, the most recent drought from 2013 to 2016 was both the most severe and widespread event since at least 1950, and was associated with high temperatures, likely driven in part by climate change. This work examines the role of increased evaporative demand resulting from warmer temperatures on the drying trend observed in the Caribbean since 1950, using observations and model simulations. Large-scale dynamics associated with drought are also analyzed using sea surface temperature, geopotential height, wind, and precipitation anomalies, as well as radiative fluxes anomalies. Furthermore, land surface model soil moisture and high-resolution self-calibrated Palmer Drought Severity Index (scPDSI) datasets are used to quantify drought severity at local scales. The anthropogenic contribution to drought severity is estimated as the difference between the scPDSI calculated using linearly-detrended temperatures, and the scPDSI computed with the observed trend, with unadjusted precipitation, net radiation, and wind speed. Soil moisture anomalies driven by climate change are derived by comparing a large ensemble of forced simulations against a pre-industrial control. The resulting analysis indicates that anthropogenic forcing has intensified the drying trend in the Caribbean by -0.4 scPDSI-units over 60 years, and has increased the dry-land area by 10%. These findings are consistent with observed potential evapotranspiration (PET) anomalies, which are 30% higher than PET-anomalies estimated using detrended temperatures. These results suggest that climate change is already increasing the risk of drought in the Caribbean by enhancing the atmospheric demand of moisture through temperature, and provide insights into the role of climate change in future drought risk in the region.

  11. How much will it cost to eradicate lymphatic filariasis? An analysis of the financial and economic costs of intensified efforts against lymphatic filariasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randee J Kastner

    2017-09-01

    elimination scenario, which includes countries that previously undertook MDA, is estimated to cost 929 million USD (95% Credible Interval: 884m-972m. Proceeding to eradication is anticipated to require a higher financial investment, estimated at 1.24 billion USD (1.17bn-1.30bn in the eradication III scenario (immediate scale-up, with eradication II (intensified scale-up projected at 1.27 billion USD (1.21bn-1.33bn, and eradication I (slow scale-up estimated at 1.29 billion USD (1.23bn-1.34bn. The economic costs of the eradication III scenario are estimated at approximately 7.57 billion USD (7.12bn-7.94bn, while the elimination scenario is projected to have an economic cost of 5.21 billion USD (4.91bn-5.45bn. Countries in the AFRO region will require the greatest investment to reach elimination or eradication, but also stand to gain the most in cost savings. Across all scenarios, capacity strengthening and advocacy and communication represent the greatest financial costs, whereas mapping, post-MDA surveillance, and administration comprise the least.Though challenging to implement, our results indicate that financial and economic savings are greatest under the eradication III scenario. Thus, if eradication for LF is the objective, accelerated scale-up is projected to be the best investment.

  12. How much will it cost to eradicate lymphatic filariasis? An analysis of the financial and economic costs of intensified efforts against lymphatic filariasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastner, Randee J; Sicuri, Elisa; Stone, Christopher M; Matwale, Gabriel; Onapa, Ambrose; Tediosi, Fabrizio

    2017-09-01

    , which includes countries that previously undertook MDA, is estimated to cost 929 million USD (95% Credible Interval: 884m-972m). Proceeding to eradication is anticipated to require a higher financial investment, estimated at 1.24 billion USD (1.17bn-1.30bn) in the eradication III scenario (immediate scale-up), with eradication II (intensified scale-up) projected at 1.27 billion USD (1.21bn-1.33bn), and eradication I (slow scale-up) estimated at 1.29 billion USD (1.23bn-1.34bn). The economic costs of the eradication III scenario are estimated at approximately 7.57 billion USD (7.12bn-7.94bn), while the elimination scenario is projected to have an economic cost of 5.21 billion USD (4.91bn-5.45bn). Countries in the AFRO region will require the greatest investment to reach elimination or eradication, but also stand to gain the most in cost savings. Across all scenarios, capacity strengthening and advocacy and communication represent the greatest financial costs, whereas mapping, post-MDA surveillance, and administration comprise the least. Though challenging to implement, our results indicate that financial and economic savings are greatest under the eradication III scenario. Thus, if eradication for LF is the objective, accelerated scale-up is projected to be the best investment.

  13. Vasculo-Neuronal Coupling: Retrograde Vascular Communication to Brain Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki Jung; Ramiro Diaz, Juan; Iddings, Jennifer A; Filosa, Jessica A

    2016-12-14

    Continuous cerebral blood flow is essential for neuronal survival, but whether vascular tone influences resting neuronal function is not known. Using a multidisciplinary approach in both rat and mice brain slices, we determined whether flow/pressure-evoked increases or decreases in parenchymal arteriole vascular tone, which result in arteriole constriction and dilation, respectively, altered resting cortical pyramidal neuron activity. We present evidence for intercellular communication in the brain involving a flow of information from vessel to astrocyte to neuron, a direction opposite to that of classic neurovascular coupling and referred to here as vasculo-neuronal coupling (VNC). Flow/pressure increases within parenchymal arterioles increased vascular tone and simultaneously decreased resting pyramidal neuron firing activity. On the other hand, flow/pressure decreases evoke parenchymal arteriole dilation and increased resting pyramidal neuron firing activity. In GLAST-CreERT2; R26-lsl-GCaMP3 mice, we demonstrate that increased parenchymal arteriole tone significantly increased intracellular calcium in perivascular astrocyte processes, the onset of astrocyte calcium changes preceded the inhibition of cortical pyramidal neuronal firing activity. During increases in parenchymal arteriole tone, the pyramidal neuron response was unaffected by blockers of nitric oxide, GABA A , glutamate, or ecto-ATPase. However, VNC was abrogated by TRPV4 channel, GABA B , as well as an adenosine A 1 receptor blocker. Differently to pyramidal neuron responses, increases in flow/pressure within parenchymal arterioles increased the firing activity of a subtype of interneuron. Together, these data suggest that VNC is a complex constitutive active process that enables neurons to efficiently adjust their resting activity according to brain perfusion levels, thus safeguarding cellular homeostasis by preventing mismatches between energy supply and demand. We present evidence for vessel-to-neuron

  14. Innovation investment area: Technology summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-03-01

    The mission of Environmental Management's (EM) Office of Technology Development (OTD) Innovation Investment Area is to identify and provide development support for two types of technologies that are developed to characterize, treat and dispose of DOE waste, and to remediate contaminated sites. They are: technologies that show promise to address specific EM needs, but require proof-of-principle experimentation; and (2) already proven technologies in other fields that require critical path experimentation to demonstrate feasibility for adaptation to specific EM needs. The underlying strategy is to ensure that private industry, other Federal Agencies, universities, and DOE National Laboratories are major participants in developing and deploying new and emerging technologies. To this end, about 125 different new and emerging technologies are being developed through Innovation Investment Area's (IIA) two program elements: RDDT ampersand E New Initiatives (RD01) and Interagency Agreements (RD02). Both of these activities are intended to foster research and development partnerships so as to introduce innovative technologies into other OTD program elements for expedited evaluation

  15. Rubber molds for investment casting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sibtain, S.N.

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of the project is to investigate different types of molding rubbers used for investment casting. The level of shape complexity which can be achieved by using these rubber molds is also studied. It was almost impossible to make complex shapes molds using metal molds, in that cases rubber molds are very important because they arc flexible and give accurate and precise part dimensions. Turbine blades are hi-tech components with air-foil geometries that have close dimensional tolerances. They are made of super-alloys and manufactured by investment casting. The final blade profile depends upon the dimensional accuracy in each of the processing steps. In the present work experimental study for the production of high quality low cost castings of turbine blades using rubber molds and injected wax patterns is presented. Natural Rubber molds and wax patterns from these molds were made. Different types of molding rubbers were studied including natural rubber, silicone rubber and liquid silicone rubber. It was found that by using rubber molds we can make most complex shape with very less finishing required. The shrinkage was 12% as compared to original master pattern. Rubber molds were made using laboratory hot press. Three layers of rubber above and below the master pattern. After that vulcanization was done by giving temperature and pressure. (author)

  16. Advocating investments in information technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nirenberg, L.M.

    1992-01-01

    Information and communication systems can improve the timeliness and quality of decisions. These benefits are strategically important to the utility industry in an era of increasing competition. Because these systems often do not reduce labor cost, however, they can be difficult to evaluate. This report presents a new process for reaching consensus of the value of capital investment in information and communication systems. The results of this project is A Strategic Advocacy Process (ASAP), a methodology that can be used to evaluate investments in information technology. ASAP uses belief graphs to produce a living business case showing facts, assumptions, goals, and metrics for measuring progress toward those goals; shows how to use option pricing theory to quantify the value of managerial flexibility; ASAP uses an organizational impact assessment tool to identify the potential impact of new information systems and how to realize the benefits of managerial flexibility. The ASAP methodology addresses the critical problem of correctly valuing information and communication systems. The methodology offers a way to account for the ''intangible'' value of these systems by recognizing the managerial flexibility these systems can provide in addressing risks and uncovering new business opportunities. Metrics for measuring progress toward new goals can be defined, and plans for achieving the goals can be made. As a result, agreement can be reached on the uses, value, and priority of projects based on a metric other than on labor replacement savings

  17. Innovation investment area: Technology summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-03-01

    The mission of Environmental Management`s (EM) Office of Technology Development (OTD) Innovation Investment Area is to identify and provide development support for two types of technologies that are developed to characterize, treat and dispose of DOE waste, and to remediate contaminated sites. They are: technologies that show promise to address specific EM needs, but require proof-of-principle experimentation; and (2) already proven technologies in other fields that require critical path experimentation to demonstrate feasibility for adaptation to specific EM needs. The underlying strategy is to ensure that private industry, other Federal Agencies, universities, and DOE National Laboratories are major participants in developing and deploying new and emerging technologies. To this end, about 125 different new and emerging technologies are being developed through Innovation Investment Area`s (IIA) two program elements: RDDT&E New Initiatives (RD01) and Interagency Agreements (RD02). Both of these activities are intended to foster research and development partnerships so as to introduce innovative technologies into other OTD program elements for expedited evaluation.

  18. Neuronal survival in the brain: neuron type-specific mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pfisterer, Ulrich Gottfried; Khodosevich, Konstantin

    2017-01-01

    Neurogenic regions of mammalian brain produce many more neurons that will eventually survive and reach a mature stage. Developmental cell death affects both embryonically produced immature neurons and those immature neurons that are generated in regions of adult neurogenesis. Removal of substantial...... numbers of neurons that are not yet completely integrated into the local circuits helps to ensure that maturation and homeostatic function of neuronal networks in the brain proceed correctly. External signals from brain microenvironment together with intrinsic signaling pathways determine whether...... for survival in a certain brain region. This review focuses on how immature neurons survive during normal and impaired brain development, both in the embryonic/neonatal brain and in brain regions associated with adult neurogenesis, and emphasizes neuron type-specific mechanisms that help to survive for various...

  19. Encouraging private sector investment in climatefriendly technologies in developing countries. An assessment of policy options for the Dutch government

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Rooijen, S.N.M.; Van Wees, M.T.

    2006-10-01

    This study aims to explore new or reformed policies to be adopted by the Dutch government to encourage private sector investments in climate-friendly technologies in developing countries. A literature review of barriers to climate-friendly investments and of directions for solutions has been complemented with a number of in-depth interviews with stakeholders representing the major actors involved in investment projects (project sponsors, financing institutions, institutional investors and government). The barrier analysis has resulted in the following list of key obstacles to climate-friendly investments: (1) Lack of a sound, transparent and stable enabling environment for investing in developing countries; (2) Shortage of experienced and creditworthy sponsors; (3) High specific project risks; (4) Overestimation investment risks related to (sustainable) investments in developing countries in general (risk perspective); (5) Additional costs of climate-friendly technologies; (6) Shortage of risk capital; (7) Insufficient guarantee mechanisms; (8) Lack of know-how on public-private partnership structures and on financial design; and (9) Lack of insight how corporate social responsibility can be operationalised. Four main gaps have been identified on the basis of an assessment of current Dutch policies and instruments: (1) Shortage of instruments to directly promote investments; (2) Underdeveloped guarantee instruments; (3) Too restrictive cap on project size in financial schemes; (4) Lack of support in operationalising the concept of corporate social responsibility. Four areas for new or intensified policies have been identified based on the barrier and gap analysis: (1) Direct promotion of (potentially large scale) investments, including: (a) Supporting (the establishment of) sponsor companies developing sustainable energy projects in developing countries; (b) Making risk capital available; (c) Creating investment credit facilities; (d) Making development capital in

  20. On attracting investment to Russian economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleinik Elena

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern conditions of economic systems development have necessitated more precise directions of investment process for the economic growth to accelerate. The precipitous fall of oil prices that occurred in the second half of 2014 weighed heavily on foreign direct investment flows to oilexporting countries. The problem of attracting investment is one of the key problems of economic development. The aim of this study is to analyze and evaluate the shifts in the structure of investments, the study of the structure of investments to the Russian economy. Structural changes result from differences in the growth rate of the elements forming an economic system. An integral coefficient has been used for evaluation of structural changes. Multiple regression was used to analyze the impact of various factors on the change in structure of investment. The regression coefficients in the model give quantitative assessment of the pace of change in the structure as it depends on a specific factor. The model estimation shows that the variables “share of investments in manufacturing” (positive influence and “share of investments in the health, physical culture, education” (negative influence have the largest t-values. Hence, these two factors influence the structural changes in investments most strongly The evaluation and analysis of the structural shifts may lead to conclusions regarding the efficiency of the structure investment and adjustment of the economic policy.

  1. Measurement and monitoring of entrance exposure dose rate in X-ray image intensifier television with dose rate control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, J [Bezirkskrankenhaus Brandenburg (German Democratic Republic)

    1981-03-01

    For X-ray image intensifier television operation very low entrance dose rates (about 5.2 nA/kg) are stated and demanded, respectively. These required values are often manifold exceeded in practice so that a check seems to be necessary. It is shown and proved how these measurements can be performed with simple, generally available means of measurement in the radiological practice. For ZnCdS-image intensifiers should be considered that about 13 nA/kg for the large entrance size are not to be exceeded; for the CsI type lower values (factor 1.5) are practicable because of the twofold quantum absorption efficiency. Furthermore, some tests for a semiquantitative function check of the automatic dose rate control are proposed.

  2. The effects of intensified training on resting metabolic rate (RMR), body composition and performance in trained cyclists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundy, Bronwen; Rogers, Margot A.; Welvaert, Marijke; Halson, Shona; McKune, Andrew

    2018-01-01

    Background Recent research has demonstrated decreases in resting metabolic rate (RMR), body composition and performance following a period of intensified training in elite athletes, however the underlying mechanisms of change remain unclear. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate how an intensified training period, designed to elicit overreaching, affects RMR, body composition, and performance in trained endurance athletes, and to elucidate underlying mechanisms. Method Thirteen (n = 13) trained male cyclists completed a six-week training program consisting of a “Baseline” week (100% of regular training load), a “Build” week (~120% of Baseline load), two “Loading” weeks (~140, 150% of Baseline load, respectively) and two “Recovery” weeks (~80% of Baseline load). Training comprised of a combination of laboratory based interval sessions and on-road cycling. RMR, body composition, energy intake, appetite, heart rate variability (HRV), cycling performance, biochemical markers and mood responses were assessed at multiple time points throughout the six-week period. Data were analysed using a linear mixed modeling approach. Results The intensified training period elicited significant decreases in RMR (F(5,123.36) = 12.0947, p = HRV (F(2,22.608) = 6.5212, p = 0.005); all of which improved following a period of recovery. A state of overreaching was induced, as identified by a reduction in anaerobic performance (F(5,121.87) = 8.2622, p = HRV during intensified training periods may alleviate fatigue and attenuate the observed decrease in RMR, providing more optimal conditions for a positive training adaptation. PMID:29444097

  3. An Analysis of the Observed Low-level Structure of Rapidly Intensifying and Mature Hurricane Earl (2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    structure. J. Atmos. Sci. 49: 919–942. Marks FD, Black PG, Montgomery MT, Burpee RW. 2008. Structure of the eye and eyewall of hurricane Hugo (1989...structure of rapidly intensifying and mature hurricane Earl (2010) Michael T. Montgomery,a* Jun A. Zhangb and Roger K. Smithc aDepartment of Meteorology...Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA, USA bNOAA Hurricane Research Division, Miami, FL, USA cMeteorological Institute, Ludwig Maximilians, University

  4. C.C.D. readout of a picosecond streak camera with an intensified C.C.D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemonier, M.; Richard, J.C.; Cavailler, C.; Mens, A.; Raze, G.

    1984-08-01

    This paper deals with a digital streak camera readout device. The device consists in a low light level television camera made of a solid state C.C.D. array coupled to an image intensifier associated to a video-digitizer coupled to a micro-computer system. The streak camera images are picked-up as a video signal, digitized and stored. This system allows the fast recording and the automatic processing of the data provided by the streak tube

  5. Dynamic imaging with a triggered and intensified CCD camera system in a high-intensity neutron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vontobel, P.; Frei, G.; Brunner, J.; Gildemeister, A.E.; Engelhardt, M.

    2005-01-01

    When time-dependent processes within metallic structures should be inspected and visualized, neutrons are well suited due to their high penetration through Al, Ag, Ti or even steel. Then it becomes possible to inspect the propagation, distribution and evaporation of organic liquids as lubricants, fuel or water. The principle set-up of a suited real-time system was implemented and tested at the radiography facility NEUTRA of PSI. The highest beam intensity there is 2x10 7 cm -2 s -1 , which enables to observe sequences in a reasonable time and quality. The heart of the detection system is the MCP intensified CCD camera PI-Max with a Peltier cooled chip (1300x1340 pixels). The intensifier was used for both gating and image enhancement, where as the information was accumulated over many single frames on the chip before readout. Although, a 16-bit dynamic range is advertised by the camera manufacturers, it must be less due to the inherent noise level from the intensifier. The obtained result should be seen as the starting point to go ahead to fit the different requirements of car producers in respect to fuel injection, lubricant distribution, mechanical stability and operation control. Similar inspections will be possible for all devices with repetitive operation principle. Here, we report about two measurements dealing with the lubricant distribution in a running motorcycle motor turning at 1200rpm. We were monitoring the periodic stationary movements of piston, valves and camshaft with a micro-channel plate intensified CCD camera system (PI-Max 1300RB, Princeton Instruments) triggered at exactly chosen time points

  6. Effects of aspartame metabolites on astrocytes and neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rycerz, Karol; Jaworska-Adamu, Jadwiga Elżbieta

    2013-01-01

    Aspartame, a widespread sweetener used in many food products, is considered as a highly hazardous compound. Aspartame was discovered in 1965 and raises a lot of controversy up to date. Astrocytes are glial cells, the presence and functions of which are closely connected with the central nervous system (CNS). The aim of this article is to demonstrate the direct and indirect role of astrocytes participating in the harmful effects of aspartame metabolites on neurons. The artificial sweetener is broken down into phenylalanine (50%), aspartic acid (40%) and methanol (10%) during metabolism in the body. The excess of phenylalanine blocks the transport of important amino acids to the brain contributing to reduced levels of dopamine and serotonin. Astrocytes directly affect the transport of this amino acid and also indirectly by modulation of carriers in the endothelium. Aspartic acid at high concentrations is a toxin that causes hyperexcitability of neurons and is also a precursor of other excitatory amino acid - glutamates. Their excess in quantity and lack of astrocytic uptake induces excitotoxicity and leads to the degeneration of astrocytes and neurons. The methanol metabolites cause CNS depression, vision disorders and other symptoms leading ultimately to metabolic acidosis and coma. Astrocytes do not play a significant role in methanol poisoning due to a permanent consumption of large amounts of aspartame. Despite intense speculations about the carcinogenicity of aspartame, the latest studies show that its metabolite - diketopiperazine - is cancirogenic in the CNS. It contributes to the formation of tumors in the CNS such as gliomas, medulloblastomas and meningiomas. Glial cells are the main source of tumors, which can be caused inter alia by the sweetener in the brain. On the one hand the action of astrocytes during aspartame poisoning may be advantageous for neuro-protection while on the other it may intensify the destruction of neurons. The role of the glia in

  7. Neuronal synchrony: peculiarity and generality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowotny, Thomas; Huerta, Ramon; Rabinovich, Mikhail I

    2008-09-01

    Synchronization in neuronal systems is a new and intriguing application of dynamical systems theory. Why are neuronal systems different as a subject for synchronization? (1) Neurons in themselves are multidimensional nonlinear systems that are able to exhibit a wide variety of different activity patterns. Their "dynamical repertoire" includes regular or chaotic spiking, regular or chaotic bursting, multistability, and complex transient regimes. (2) Usually, neuronal oscillations are the result of the cooperative activity of many synaptically connected neurons (a neuronal circuit). Thus, it is necessary to consider synchronization between different neuronal circuits as well. (3) The synapses that implement the coupling between neurons are also dynamical elements and their intrinsic dynamics influences the process of synchronization or entrainment significantly. In this review we will focus on four new problems: (i) the synchronization in minimal neuronal networks with plastic synapses (synchronization with activity dependent coupling), (ii) synchronization of bursts that are generated by a group of nonsymmetrically coupled inhibitory neurons (heteroclinic synchronization), (iii) the coordination of activities of two coupled neuronal networks (partial synchronization of small composite structures), and (iv) coarse grained synchronization in larger systems (synchronization on a mesoscopic scale). (c) 2008 American Institute of Physics.

  8. Policy Uncertainty, Investment and Commitment Periods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    Today's investment decisions in key sectors such as energy, forestry or transport have significant impacts on the levels of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions over the coming decades. Given the economic and environmental long-term implications of capital investment and retirement, a climate mitigation regime should aim to encourage capital investment in climate-friendly technologies. Many factors affect technology choice and the timing of investment, including investor expectations about future prices and policies. Recent international discussions have focused on the importance of providing more certainty about future climate policy stringency. The design of commitment periods can play a role in creating this environment. This paper assesses how the length of commitment periods influences policy uncertainty and investment decisions. In particular, the paper analyses the relationship between commitment period length and near term investment decisions in climate friendly technology.

  9. Green investment in sustainable housing. SEV recommendation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fokkema, J.

    1996-07-01

    In cooperation with the Triodos Bank, SEV carried out a study on the possibility to invest money from green investment funds at low interest in houses which are designed and built in a sustainable and energy efficient way. By order of the Triodos Bank and SEV others drafted a guideline to assess dwellings and calculated the financial and economical consequences of green investments in sustainable housing. The results of those studies formed the basis of the SEV recommendation to the Dutch State Secretary of Housing and Planning and the Dutch State Secretary of Economic Affairs, April 1996, to expand the planned Green Investment Regulation to the possibility to invest money in sustainable houses. It is expected that the Green Investment Regulation will come into effect September 1996. 2 appendices

  10. Work environment investments: outcomes from three cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydell, Alexis; Andersson, Ing-Marie

    2017-09-27

    Work environment investments are important in order to create a healthy and safe workplace. This article presents findings from a seven-step interventions process aimed at examining and following-up work environment investments in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), with a particular focus on air contaminants. Three different cases were analyzed and included in the study: (a) an educational center for welding; (b) a paint station in furniture manufacturing; (c) a joinery in furniture manufacturing. The results show that the work environment investments were highly appreciated by the employees and managers, but at the same time the investment could be optimized through markedly decreased exposure levels for the worker. Factors such as follow-ups of the investment, education and training in how to use the equipment, worker involvement in the process and leadership engagement are important in order to optimize work environment investments.

  11. From Neurons to Newtons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Bjørn Gilbert

    2001-01-01

    proteins generate forces, to the macroscopic levels where overt arm movements are vol- untarily controlled within an unpredictable environment by legions of neurons¯ring in orderly fashion. An extensive computer simulation system has been developed for this thesis, which at present contains a neural...... network scripting language for specifying arbitrary neural architectures, de¯nition ¯les for detailed spinal networks, various biologically realistic models of neurons, and dynamic synapses. Also included are structurally accurate models of intrafusal and extra-fusal muscle ¯bers and a general body...... that an explicit function may be derived which expresses the force that the spindle contractile elements must produce to exactly counter spindle unloading during muscle shortening. This information was used to calculate the corresponding "optimal" °-motoneuronal activity level. For some simple arm movement tasks...

  12. Criticality in Neuronal Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Nir; Ito, Shinya; Brinkman, Braden A. W.; Shimono, Masanori; Deville, R. E. Lee; Beggs, John M.; Dahmen, Karin A.; Butler, Tom C.

    2012-02-01

    In recent years, experiments detecting the electrical firing patterns in slices of in vitro brain tissue have been analyzed to suggest the presence of scale invariance and possibly criticality in the brain. Much of the work done however has been limited in two ways: 1) the data collected is from local field potentials that do not represent the firing of individual neurons; 2) the analysis has been primarily limited to histograms. In our work we examine data based on the firing of individual neurons (spike data), and greatly extend the analysis by considering shape collapse and exponents. Our results strongly suggest that the brain operates near a tuned critical point of a highly distinctive universality class.

  13. Forecast simulation of rapidly-intensified typhoon in the Eddy-Rich Northwest Pacific region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyeong Ok; Yuk, Jin-Hee; Jung, Kyung Tae; Kuh Kang, Suk

    2017-04-01

    The real-time typhoon predictions in the Northwest Pacific (NWP) are being distributed by various agencies (for example, KMA, JMA, JTWC, NMC, CWB, HKO and PAGASA). Currently the movement of the typhoon can be predicted with an error of less than 100 km in 48 hours, however it is difficult to the predict of the intensity of the typhoon especially the Rapidly Intensified (RI) Typhoons. The mean occurrence of RI typhoon amounts to 5.4 times a year during 39 years (1977-2015), occupying 21% of typhoons in NWP. Especially the RI typhoon in the Eddy-Rich Northwest Pacific (ER-NWP) occurred 1.8 times a year, covering 29% of typhoons in ER-NWP. A RI typhoon, NEPARTAK (T201601), occurred in July 2016. It was formed in Caroline Islands and moved northwest, straightly heading for Taiwan. However, at the beginning stage many forecasting agencies predicts as move to the Yellow Sea. The accuracy of prediction data of the Typhoon NEPARTAK (T201601) from KMA, JMA and JTWC was compared with the adjusted best-track data from Digital-Typhoon (JMA-RSMC). The sequential prediction data are summarized with 6-hour interval from 3th to 10th July 2016.The JMA prediction of the typhoon track and the JTWC predictions of the maximum wind speed were found to be best. The numerical simulations using WRF model forced with NCEP GFS prediction data and microwave SST is compared. The simulations using one domain (D1), two domains (D2) using a moving nest scheme, and with or without the spectral nudging (-SN) are compared. Comparison of the errors on the track shows the differences of 100 km in 48-hour prediction and200 km in 72-hour prediction on average. The best results on the track prediction are shown in the D2 case of WRF model. However, underestimation of the maximum wind speed of WRF prediction still exists, obviously requiring better understanding of RI-related processes to improve the model prediction.

  14. [Intensified rehabilitation aftercare (IRENA): utilization alongside work and changes in work-related parameters].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamprecht, J; Behrens, J; Mau, W; Schubert, M

    2011-06-01

    An aftercare programme following medical rehabilitation may be beneficial in order to reinforce and stabilize the positive effects of rehabilitation and to encourage individual health-related modifications of behaviour and lifestyle. Medical rehabilitation and the aftercare programme of the German Pension Insurance Fund primarily are intended to sustain earning capacity. As part of an evaluation of the Intensified Rehabilitation Aftercare Programme (IRENA) established by the German Pension Insurance Fund, work-related aspects in orthopaedic patients were analyzed based on various data sources. Firstly, the significance of institutional and individual conditions for utilization of IRENA alongside work was of interest. Secondly, the IRENA participants' judgements of the changes of work-related parameters due to the programme were examined, differentiating specifically by extent of earning capacity impairments as well as by particular work problems. The data set used for the analysis is composed of person-related routine data of the German Pension Insurance Fund relative to IRENA records of the year 2007 (n=30 663), interview data from orthopaedic rehabilitation centres providing IRENA (n=225), and questionnaires of IRENA participants (n=750) that were either collected during a broad evaluation of the IRENA programme or provided by the German Pension Insurance Fund. The results show that the compatibility of IRENA and work is facilitated by the institutional conditions. However, differences between inpatient and outpatient settings have to be recognized. The possibilities to participate in IRENA throughout the day frequently are more diverse in an outpatient setting. In contrast to inpatient centres, outpatient rehabilitation centres see clearly better chances for patients to return to work and to participate in IRENA alongside. With respect to the work-related parameters (work ability, periods of sick leave), clear improvements were reported by participants from

  15. Do biomass burning aerosols intensify drought in equatorial Asia during El Niño?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. Tosca

    2010-04-01

    in the region intensifies drought stress during El Niño.

  16. Do biomass burning aerosols intensify drought in equatorial Asia during El Niño?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tosca, M G; Randerson, J; Zender, C S; Flanner, M G; Rasch, Philip J

    2010-04-16

    intensifies drought stress during El Niño.

  17. Nuclear investment: performance and opportunity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacy, B.

    2007-01-01

    Nuclear power plant ownership in the United States has continued its steady trend toward ownership consolidation and removal of assets from rate regulated environments that began in 1998. This is paralleled by changes in companies providing nuclear services and growing talk of building new units. World wide, new nuclear plant construction and related supplier investment is proceeding around the world. The nuclear fuel supply part of the business is seeing interest and excitement that would have been almost inconceivable a decade ago. Nuclear is now increasingly being recognized for its energy, economic and environmental benefits. For investors, this is a time of opportunity. And the opportunity is strongly supported by excellent performance trends and fundamental change sin the US electricity business. But in order to benefit from these changes, investors must remain cautious and be committed to comprehensively and thoroughly understanding the individual and interrelated technical, regulatory and political issues that surround this useful and powerful technology. (orig.)

  18. World green electricity, sustaining investments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Jannic, N.

    2013-01-01

    The contribution of the green production to the world production of electricity reached 20.2% in 2011, it means a slight increase in respect to the figure of 2010: 19.8%. Green electricity is the second source of electricity behind fossil energy (67.9%) but before nuclear power (11.7%). The decrease in nuclear power due to the Fukushima accident has automatically benefited green electricity. The figures show the importance of China, China is now the first electricity producer in the world before US and also passed US for the production of green electricity. At the world scale the production of green electricity can break down into: hydro energy (80.5%), wind energy (10.3%), biomass (6.2%), geothermal energy (1.6%) and solar energy (1.4%). The crisis has slowed down the investment in renewable energies in Europe. (A.C.)

  19. Venture investing opportunities in superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zschau, E.

    1987-01-01

    The authors provide an assessment of the venture investing opportunities in superconductivity and some guidelines to follow. There were many elements that made Silicon Valley a leader in technology, not the least of which were the distinguished research universities located here. However, the application of the research results that they produced was done by groups of extraordinary people--people who had ideas, who were willing to take risks, and who inspired others to follow them into the unknown. They sometimes succeeded, but they often didn't. However, they never stopped trying. People like that will be the key to success in advancing and applying superconductivity technology just as they have been in semiconductors

  20. Energy investment in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rovani, Y.

    1982-01-01

    The developing countries are likely to represent the fastest growing component of the global energy demand over the next two decades. The paper presents considerations based on the World Bank's approach to the energy sector in these countries. It is considered that an accelerated development of conventional indigenous sources of energy is absolutely vital if developing countries are to attain a satisfactory rate of economic growth. The cost of the energy investment, the power sector issues, the optimal use of the resources, the role of the external financing and the need of technical assistance are reviewed. One emphasizes the role of the World Bank in analyzing and preparing projects, and in mobilizing financing from other official and commercial sources

  1. Oil investment in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kielmas, M.

    1994-01-01

    In the early 1990s Latin America became a favoured target for foreign investors as one of the side-effects of the collapse of communism in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union. The reason is linked to macroeconomic reforms in Latin America and the failure of equivalent reforms in the former communist countries. Latin American state-owned-oil companies have been welcomed as borrowers on the international financial markets. Simultaneously private sector investment in the oil industry has increased. This chapter examines nationalisation and the state oil companies, the financing of the state sector, privatisation, the boosting of oil exploration and security issues. The sustainability of the economic reforms in the region is discussed. (UK)

  2. Responsible Investment: Taxes and Paradoxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knuutinen Reijo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Taxes have become an issue of corporate social responsibility (CSR, but the role of taxation is to some extent an ambiguous and controversial issue in the CSR framework. Similarly, another unclear question is what role investors who are committed to sustainable and responsible investment (SRI see taxes as having on their environmental, social, and governance (ESG agenda. Corporate taxes have an inverse relationship with the return of the investors: taxes paid directly affect what is left on the bottom line, reducing the return of investors. However, investors are now more aware of tax-related risks, which can include different forms of reputation risk. Corporate tax planning may increase the returns, but those increased returns are riskier. This study focuses particularly on the relationship between SRI and taxation. We find that tax matters are considered to be on the ESG agenda, but their role and significance in the ESG analysis is unclear.

  3. Investment in Renewable Energies in Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Marina Recalde

    2017-01-01

    This article analyzes how the enabling conditions of the energy policy of a developing country such as Argentina, are crucial for the deployment of renewable energy investments. The conclusions highlights that the low institutional quality of the country shapes enabling conditions and reduce effect of the instruments of the energy policy, dropping incentives for investment in renewable technologies in the country. Therefore, in order to promote renewable technologies investments efficiently, ...

  4. Investment in Renewable Energies in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Recalde

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes how the enabling conditions of the energy policy of a developing country such as Argentina, are crucial for the deployment of renewable energy investments. The conclusions highlights that the low institutional quality of the country shapes enabling conditions and reduce effect of the instruments of the energy policy, dropping incentives for investment in renewable technologies in the country. Therefore, in order to promote renewable technologies investments efficiently, the institutional framework of countries must be seriously improved.

  5. Public Investment, Revenue Shocks, and Borrowing Restrictions

    OpenAIRE

    Büttner, Thiess; Wildasin, David E.

    2010-01-01

    This paper lays out a theory of taxation and public investment in an intertemporal setting under conditions of revenue shocks. Without borrowing restrictions, the optimal policy is characterized by smooth time paths of taxes and public investment. While the introduction of formal borrowing restrictions leads to some precautionary savings, it gives rise to fluctuations in public investment in response to adverse but also favorable revenue shocks. This theoretical result is tested empirically u...

  6. Investing in Climate Change. Dutch Banks Compared

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buurgaard Nielsen, J.; Pols, D.; Van Gelder, J.W.; Denie, S.; Scheire, C.

    2007-06-01

    This report is the first comparison of the climate change performance of Dutch banks that analyses the actual investments of these banks. It reviews a substantial share of each bank's portfolio, according to three criteria: how much they invest in the main cause of climate change, fossil fuels; how much they invest in the main alternative to fossil fuels, renewable energy; the bank's plans and policies to limit their contribution to climate change

  7. Finans/Invest - Årsrapport 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bechmann, Ken L.

    2015-01-01

    Lederen gør status for Finans/Invest i 2014 gennem en "årsrapport", hvor en række centrale nøgletal for Finans/Invest præsenteres. Nøgletallene viser eksempelvis, at ca. hver femte artikel/artikelforslag afvises, at forfatterne til publicerede artikler er ligeligt fordelt mellem akademikere og...... praktikere, samt at artiklerne i Finans/Invest har givet anledning til en del medieopmærksomhed i 2014....

  8. The Division of Labor, Investment, and Capital

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaokai Yang

    1999-01-01

    This paper uses a dynamic general equilibrium model based on corner solutions to formalize the classical theory of investment and capital which considers investment to be a vehicle for developing a high level of division of labor in roundabout productive activities. If it takes time for a specialist producer of tractors to learn the right method in producing commercially viable tractors, specialization in producing tractors is infeasible in the absence of investment in terms of consumption go...

  9. Socially Responsible Investment in Japanese Pensions

    OpenAIRE

    Henry Hongbo Jin; Olivia S. Mitchell; John Piggott

    2005-01-01

    As the level of retirement-related assets has grown, so too has public and private interest in so-called "Socially Responsible Investment" (SRI), an investment strategy that employs criteria other than the usual financial risk and return factors when selecting firms in which to invest. This study evaluates whether SRI indexes would alter portfolio risk and return patterns for the new defined contribution pension plans currently on offer in Japan. We conclude that SRI funds can be included as ...

  10. Corporate Tax Stimulus and Investment in Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Galindo, Arturo; Melendez, Marcela

    2010-01-01

    This paper uses a yearly dataset of plant-level investment in Colombian firms during the period 1997 to 2007 to assess the impact of a tax incentive for firms that invest in fixed assets implemented in 2004. A positive and statistically significant correlation is found between the boom observed in investment and the adoption of the tax policy. However, the correlation vanishes when year-specific effects are controlled for. This result is robust to changes in the empirical specification, chang...

  11. Optimal Priority Structure, Capital Structure, and Investment

    OpenAIRE

    Dirk Hackbarth; David C. Mauer

    2012-01-01

    We study the interaction between financing and investment decisions in a dynamic model, where the firm has multiple debt issues and equityholders choose the timing of investment. Jointly optimal capital and priority structures can virtually eliminate investment distortions because debt priority serves as a dynamically optimal contract. Examining the relative efficiency of priority rules observed in practice, we develop several predictions about how firms adjust their priority structure in res...

  12. Leverage, monetary policy, and firm investment

    OpenAIRE

    Charles X. Hu

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, I investigate whether the effects of monetary policy on firm investment can be transmitted through leverage. I find that monetary contractions reduce the growth of investment more for highly leveraged firms than for less leveraged firms. The results suggest that the board credit channel for monetary policy exists, and that it can operate through leverage, as adverse monetary shocks aggravate real debt burdens and raise the effective costs of investment.

  13. Stock returns and foreign investment in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Reis, Luciana; Meurer, Roberto; Da Silva, Sergio

    2008-01-01

    We examine the relationship between stock returns and foreign investment in Brazil, and find that the inflows of foreign investment boosted the returns from 1995 to 2005. There was a strong contemporaneous correlation, although not Granger-causality. Foreign investment along with the exchange rate, the influence of the world stock markets, and country risk can explain 73 percent of the changes that occurred in the stock returns over the period. We also find that positive feedback trading play...

  14. Investment behavior, observable expectations, and internal funds

    OpenAIRE

    Jason G. Cummins; Kevin A. Hassett; Stephen D. Oliner

    1999-01-01

    We use earnings forecasts from securities analysts to construct more accurate measures of the fundamentals that affect the expected returns to investment. We find that investment responds significantly -- in both economic and statistical terms -- to our new measures of fundamentals. Our estimates imply that the elasticity of the investment-capital ratio with respect to a change in fundamentals is generally greater than unity. In addition, we find that internal funds are uncorrelated with inve...

  15. INVESTING IN THE GLOBAL ENERGY: KEY TRENDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Stepanova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The questions of energy investments in the regions of the world, which allowed to carry out analysis of various types of energy production, focus on enerhozberezheni and renewable energy sources. Proved the importance of investing energy sector for the entire civilized world and defined the priorities of the process. Indicated that investment in the energy sector is based on public policy, to determine possible solutions to the energy dependence of Ukraine, taking into account the international experience.

  16. Industrial Employment, Investment Equipment and Economic Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Dellas, Harris

    2000-01-01

    The industrialization of labour is the main engine of growth during the early stages of economic development. In less developed countries, equipment investment has played a less important role than non-equipment investment; and it has only proved growth enhancing when it either encountered a substantial industrial labour force or fostered a large increase in the share of industrial employment. These findings draw attention to the effects of investment on the composition of the labour force; a...

  17. Investment scenarios for Chinese power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    An analysis is provided of returns for investment in power plants in China and India. Three sample investment scenarios are compared to illustrate the relative merits of each financing arrangement. The best returns would seem to be offered by a mix of debt and equity financing. The potential problem of gradual currency depreciation can be overcome by early cash payments. Foreign investment in China's power generation industry would be more readily forthcoming if easier access to debt finance were available. (UK)

  18. Inventory Investment and the Real Interest Rate

    OpenAIRE

    Junayed, Sadaquat; Khan, Hashmat

    2009-01-01

    The relationship between inventory investment and the real interest rate has been difficult to assess empirically. Recent work has proposed a linear-quadratic inventory model with time-varying discount factor to identify the effects of the real interest rate on inventory investment. The authors show that this framework does not separately identify the effects of real interest rate on inventory investment from variables that determine the expected marginal cost of production. In other words, t...

  19. Literature Review on Cyber Security Investment Decisions

    OpenAIRE

    ŞENTÜRK, Hakan; ÇİL, Celal Zaim; SAĞIROĞLU, Şeref

    2016-01-01

    Severe financial losses incurred by cyber security attacks with increasing complexity and frequency, as well as booming cyber security sector offering variety of products as investment options have led the focus of the research in the field to the economic dimension of cyber security. The need for determination of methods to be used when making cyber security investment decisions under budget constraints have become prominent. In five sections as the cyber security investment strategies, risk...

  20. Monitoring the effectiveness evaluation of investment projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skopin Alex O.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The article raised the question of monitoring regulatory evaluation of the effectiveness of regional investment projects. This is justified by the fact that the current regulatory framework defined indicators for measuring the effectiveness of regional investment projects, but these figures are usually used only at the design stage of the project, an interim assessment of the effectiveness of a sufficiently simplified and based on the level of exploration investment.