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Sample records for intelligent recharging grids

  1. Integrating private transport into renewable energy policy: The strategy of creating intelligent recharging grids for Electric Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Poul Houman; Mathews, John A.; Rask, Morten

    2009-01-01

    A new business model for accelerating the introduction of Electric Vehicles into private transport systems involves the provision by an Electric Recharge Grid Operator (ERGO) of an intelligent rechargeable network in advance of the vehicles themselves. The ERGO business model creates a market...... (as witnessed in the Danish case with wind energy) and managing the resulting fluctuating supply efficiently. The other problem concerns finding ways to reduce CO2 emissions in the transport sector. The ERGO business model effectively solves both problems, by transforming EVs into distributed storage...

  2. Integrating private transport into renewable energy policy. The strategy of creating intelligent recharging grids for electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, Poul H.; Rask, Morten; Mathews, John A.

    2009-01-01

    A new business model for accelerating the introduction of electric vehicles into private transport systems involves the provision by an Electric Recharge Grid Operator (ERGO) of an intelligent rechargeable network in advance of the vehicles themselves. The ERGO business model creates a market for co-ordinated production and consumption of renewable energy. The innovative contribution of the model rests in its ability to combine two problems and thereby solve them in a fresh way. One problem derives from utilizing power grids with a substantial increase in renewable electric energy production (as witnessed in the Danish case with wind energy) and managing the resulting fluctuating supply efficiently. The other problem concerns finding ways to reduce CO 2 emissions in the transport sector. The ERGO business model effectively solves both problems, by transforming EVs into distributed storage devices for electricity, thus enabling a fresh approach to evening out of fluctuating and unpredictable energy sources, while drastically reducing greenhouse gas emissions. This integrated solution carries many other associated benefits, amongst which are the possibility of introducing vehicle-to-grid (V2G) distributed power generation; introducing IT intelligence to the grid, and creating virtual power plants from distributed sources; and providing new applications for carbon credits in the decarbonisation of the economy. The countries and regions that have signed on to this model and are working to introduce it in 2009-2011 include Israel, Denmark, Australia, and in the US, the Bay Area cities and the state of Hawaii. (author)

  3. A new rechargeable intelligent vehicle detection sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, L; Han, X B; Ding, R; Li, G; Lu, Steven C-Y; Hong, Q

    2005-01-01

    Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) is a valid approach to solve the increasing transportation issue in cities. Vehicle detection is one of the key technologies in ITS. The ITS collects and processes traffic data (vehicle flow, vehicular speed, vehicle density and occupancy ratios) from vehicle detection sensors buried under the road or installed along the road. Inductive loop detector as one type of the vehicle detector is applied extensively, with the characters of stability, high value to cost ratio and feasibility. On the other hand, most of the existing inductive loop vehicle detection sensors have some weak points such as friability of detective loop, huge engineering for setting and traffic interruption during installing the sensor. The design and reality of a new rechargeable intelligent vehicle detection sensor is presented in this paper against these weak points existing now. The sensor consists of the inductive loop detector, the rechargeable batteries, the MCU (microcontroller) and the transmitter. In order to reduce the installing project amount, make the loop durable and easily maintained, the volume of the detective loop is reduced as much as we can. Communication in RF (radio frequency) brings on the advantages of getting rid of the feeder cable completely and reducing the installing project amount enormously. For saving the cable installation, the sensor is supplied by the rechargeable batteries. The purpose of the intelligent management of the energy and transmitter by means of MCU is to minimize the power consumption and prolong the working period of the sensor. In a word, the new sensor is more feasible with smaller volume, wireless communication, rechargeable batteries, low power consumption, low cost, high detector precision and easy maintenance and installation

  4. A new rechargeable intelligent vehicle detection sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, L [Inspiring Technology Research Laboratory, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Han, X B [Inspiring Technology Research Laboratory, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Ding, R [Tianjin University of Technology and Education, Tianjin 300222 (China); Li, G [Inspiring Technology Research Laboratory, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Lu, Steven C-Y [Inspiring Technology Research Laboratory, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Hong, Q [Inspiring Technology Research Laboratory, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2005-01-01

    Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) is a valid approach to solve the increasing transportation issue in cities. Vehicle detection is one of the key technologies in ITS. The ITS collects and processes traffic data (vehicle flow, vehicular speed, vehicle density and occupancy ratios) from vehicle detection sensors buried under the road or installed along the road. Inductive loop detector as one type of the vehicle detector is applied extensively, with the characters of stability, high value to cost ratio and feasibility. On the other hand, most of the existing inductive loop vehicle detection sensors have some weak points such as friability of detective loop, huge engineering for setting and traffic interruption during installing the sensor. The design and reality of a new rechargeable intelligent vehicle detection sensor is presented in this paper against these weak points existing now. The sensor consists of the inductive loop detector, the rechargeable batteries, the MCU (microcontroller) and the transmitter. In order to reduce the installing project amount, make the loop durable and easily maintained, the volume of the detective loop is reduced as much as we can. Communication in RF (radio frequency) brings on the advantages of getting rid of the feeder cable completely and reducing the installing project amount enormously. For saving the cable installation, the sensor is supplied by the rechargeable batteries. The purpose of the intelligent management of the energy and transmitter by means of MCU is to minimize the power consumption and prolong the working period of the sensor. In a word, the new sensor is more feasible with smaller volume, wireless communication, rechargeable batteries, low power consumption, low cost, high detector precision and easy maintenance and installation.

  5. Enabling Privacy in Vehicle-to-Grid Interactions for Battery Recharging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Rottondi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The diffusion of Electric Vehicles (EV fostered by the evolution of the power system towards the new concept of Smart Grid introduces several technological challenges related to the synergy among electricity-propelled vehicle fleets and the energy grid ecosystem. EVs promise to reduce carbon emissions by exploiting Renewable Energy Sources (RESes for battery recharge, and could potentially serve as storage bank to flatten the fluctuations of power generation caused by the intermittent nature of RESes by relying on a load aggregator, which intelligently schedules the battery charge/discharge of a fleet of vehicles according to the users’ requests and grid’s needs. However, the introduction of such vehicle-to-grid (V2G infrastructure rises also privacy concerns: plugging the vehicles in the recharging infrastructures may expose private information regarding the user’s locations and travelling habits. Therefore, this paper proposes a privacy-preserving V2G infrastructure which does not disclose to the aggregator the current battery charge level, the amount of refilled energy, nor the time periods in which the vehicles are actually plugged in. The communication protocol relies on the Shamir Secret Sharing threshold cryptosystem. We evaluate the security properties of our solution and compare its performance to the optimal scheduling achievable by means of an Integer Linear Program (ILP aimed at maximizing the ratio of the amount of charged/discharged energy to/from the EV’s batteries to the grid power availability/request. This way, we quantify the reduction in the effectiveness of the scheduling strategy due to the preservation of data privacy.

  6. Intelligent and robust optimization frameworks for smart grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhansri, Naren Reddy

    A smart grid implies a cyberspace real-time distributed power control system to optimally deliver electricity based on varying consumer characteristics. Although smart grids solve many of the contemporary problems, they give rise to new control and optimization problems with the growing role of renewable energy sources such as wind or solar energy. Under highly dynamic nature of distributed power generation and the varying consumer demand and cost requirements, the total power output of the grid should be controlled such that the load demand is met by giving a higher priority to renewable energy sources. Hence, the power generated from renewable energy sources should be optimized while minimizing the generation from non renewable energy sources. This research develops a demand-based automatic generation control and optimization framework for real-time smart grid operations by integrating conventional and renewable energy sources under varying consumer demand and cost requirements. Focusing on the renewable energy sources, the intelligent and robust control frameworks optimize the power generation by tracking the consumer demand in a closed-loop control framework, yielding superior economic and ecological benefits and circumvent nonlinear model complexities and handles uncertainties for superior real-time operations. The proposed intelligent system framework optimizes the smart grid power generation for maximum economical and ecological benefits under an uncertain renewable wind energy source. The numerical results demonstrate that the proposed framework is a viable approach to integrate various energy sources for real-time smart grid implementations. The robust optimization framework results demonstrate the effectiveness of the robust controllers under bounded power plant model uncertainties and exogenous wind input excitation while maximizing economical and ecological performance objectives. Therefore, the proposed framework offers a new worst-case deterministic

  7. Real-Time Business Intelligence in the MIRABEL Smart Grid System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Ulrike; Kaulakiene, Dalia; Khalefa, Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    of energy related data, and must be able to react rapidly (but intelligently) when conditions change, leading to substantial real-time business intelligence challenges. This paper discusses these challenges and presents data management solutions in the European smart grid project MIRABEL. These solutions......) data. Experimental studies show that the proposed solutions support important real-time business intelligence tasks in a smart grid system....

  8. Intelligent energy systems - Regulating the electricity grid using car batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horbaty, R.

    2009-01-01

    This article takes a look at how the electricity supply industry will, in the future, be able to substantially rely on decentrally organised sources of renewable energy. As such forms of power generation are, in part, difficult to plan, the increasing importance of regulating energy is being stressed. The use of the batteries of plug-in hybrid vehicles to provide such regulating power is discussed. So-called smart grids within the framework of a deregulated energy market are discussed and examples of possible configurations are noted. The intelligent control of apparatus and generation and storage facilities is discussed. Individual mobility with lower emissions is examined. New business areas now opening up for the electricity economy and vehicle manufacturers are discussed.

  9. Intelligent Operation and Maintenance of Micro-grid Technology and System Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Ming; Song, Jinyan; Zhao, Jingtao; Du, Jian

    2018-01-01

    In order to achieve the micro-grid operation and management, Studying the micro-grid operation and maintenance knowledge base. Based on the advanced Petri net theory, the fault diagnosis model of micro-grid is established, and the intelligent diagnosis and analysis method of micro-grid fault is put forward. Based on the technology, the functional system and architecture of the intelligent operation and maintenance system of micro-grid are studied, and the microcomputer fault diagnosis function is introduced in detail. Finally, the system is deployed based on the micro-grid of a park, and the micro-grid fault diagnosis and analysis is carried out based on the micro-grid operation. The system operation and maintenance function interface is displayed, which verifies the correctness and reliability of the system.

  10. Intelligent Anti Misoperation System for Power Grid Dispatching of Regions and Counties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Yuan; Zhang, Yunju; Zhou, Siming; Wang, Xiangdong; Ma, Jianwei

    2018-01-01

    With the power system of large capacity, large units, high voltage development trend, dispatching operations becoming more frequent, complex, and probability of mistakes are increasing. For the existing grid dispatching integrated system loss of anti-error function, single dispatching function, low efficiency, according to the existing conditions of Anshun Power Supply Bureau, the Intelligent anti misoperation system for power grid dispatching of regions and counties is designed, introduced the technologies such as the intelligent anti misoperation analysis, automatic process control, and interactive constraint, the system has the advantages of scientific, reasonable and efficient, and providing the technical support for anti misoperation of regions and counties.

  11. Intelligent voltage control in a DC micro-grid containing PV generation and energy storage

    OpenAIRE

    Rouzbehi, Kumars; Miranian, Arash; Candela García, José Ignacio; Luna Alloza, Álvaro; Rodríguez Cortés, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes an intelligent control scheme for DC voltage regulationin a DC micro-grid integrating photovoltaic (PV) generation, energy storage and electric loads. The maximum power generation of the PV panel is followed using the incremental conductance (IC) maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithm while a high-performance local linear controller (LLC)is developed for the DC voltage control in the micro-grid.The LLC, as a data-driven control strategy, controls the bidirectional c...

  12. Advanced Control Architectures for Intelligent MicroGrids, Part I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerrero, Josep M.; Chandorkar, Mukul; Lee, Tzung-Lin

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a review of advanced control techniques for microgrids. The paper covers decentralized, distributed, and hierarchical control of grid connected and islanded microgrids. At first, decentralized control techniques for microgrids are reviewed. Then, the recent developments in the...

  13. Communication solutions for intelligent electricity grid; Kommunikationsloesungen fuer intelligente Stromnetze

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fielhauer, Jochen; Wieserner, Gerhard [Siemens AG, Nuernberg (Germany). Business Unit Sensors and Communication

    2013-06-01

    A central role in the construction of power transmission and power distribution systems are solutions that withstand even the harsh environmental conditions and meet performance-critical applications reliably and without interference. This also applies to all ethernet networks in the power generation and power distribution. Secure and robust communication solutions for smart grids which enable a cost-effective remote monitoring and control of smart grids are decisive.

  14. Intelligent battery energy management and control for vehicle-to-grid via cloud computing network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khayyam, Hamid; Abawajy, Jemal; Javadi, Bahman; Goscinski, Andrzej; Stojcevski, Alex; Bab-Hadiashar, Alireza

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The intelligent battery energy management substantially reduces the interactions of PEV with parking lots. • The intelligent battery energy management improves the energy efficiency. • The intelligent battery energy management predicts the road load demand for vehicles. - Abstract: Plug-in Electric Vehicles (PEVs) provide new opportunities to reduce fuel consumption and exhaust emission. PEVs need to draw and store energy from an electrical grid to supply propulsive energy for the vehicle. As a result, it is important to know when PEVs batteries are available for charging and discharging. Furthermore, battery energy management and control is imperative for PEVs as the vehicle operation and even the safety of passengers depend on the battery system. Thus, scheduling the grid power electricity with parking lots would be needed for efficient charging and discharging of PEV batteries. This paper aims to propose a new intelligent battery energy management and control scheduling service charging that utilize Cloud computing networks. The proposed intelligent vehicle-to-grid scheduling service offers the computational scalability required to make decisions necessary to allow PEVs battery energy management systems to operate efficiently when the number of PEVs and charging devices are large. Experimental analyses of the proposed scheduling service as compared to a traditional scheduling service are conducted through simulations. The results show that the proposed intelligent battery energy management scheduling service substantially reduces the required number of interactions of PEV with parking lots and grid as well as predicting the load demand calculated in advance with regards to their limitations. Also it shows that the intelligent scheduling service charging using Cloud computing network is more efficient than the traditional scheduling service network for battery energy management and control

  15. Protecting Intelligent Distributed Power Grids against Cyber Attacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong Wei; Yan Lu; Mohsen Jafari; Paul Skare; Kenneth Rohde

    2010-12-31

    Like other industrial sectors, the electrical power industry is facing challenges involved with the increasing demand for interconnected operations and control. The electrical industry has largely been restructured due to deregulation of the electrical market and the trend of the Smart Grid. This moves new automation systems from being proprietary and closed to the current state of Information Technology (IT) being highly interconnected and open. However, while gaining all of the scale and performance benefits of IT, existing IT security challenges are acquired as well. The power grid automation network has inherent security risks due to the fact that the systems and applications for the power grid were not originally designed for the general IT environment. In this paper, we propose a conceptual layered framework for protecting power grid automation systems against cyber attacks. The following factors are taken into account: (1) integration with existing, legacy systems in a non-intrusive fashion; (2) desirable performance in terms of modularity, scalability, extendibility, and manageability; (3) alignment to the 'Roadmap to Secure Control Systems in the Energy Sector' and the future smart grid. The on-site system test of the developed prototype security system is briefly presented as well.

  16. Incentivizing intelligent customer behavior in smart-grids: a risk-sharing tariff & optimal strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Methenitis (Georgios); M. Kaisers (Michael); J.A. La Poutré (Han)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractCurrent electricity tariffs for retail rarely provide incentives for intelligent demand response of flexible customers. Such customers could otherwise contribute to balancing supply and demand in future smart grids. This paper proposes an innovative risk-sharing tariff to incentivize

  17. Intelligent Control for a DC Micro-Grid System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martino, Michele; Quiñones, Yamshid Farhat; Raboni, Pietro

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the dynamic response of a DC–micro-grid (DC-MG) controlled in master-slave mode. The benefits of the micro-grids (MGs) are the low cost in terms of power electronics converters and the high reliability and quality, even in case of loss connection to the transmission system. A ...... the units, especially in case of variable weather conditions with different DC loads. Thus the voltage level of the system and the power flow are shown, out of a detailed description of the power electronic interfaces featuring the distributed generators (DGs).......This paper presents the dynamic response of a DC–micro-grid (DC-MG) controlled in master-slave mode. The benefits of the micro-grids (MGs) are the low cost in terms of power electronics converters and the high reliability and quality, even in case of loss connection to the transmission system. A DC......-MG in fact can survive in standalone mode if properly managed. The considered system is made by a photovoltaic array (PV), a wind turbine (WT), a gas engine (GE) and an energy storage system (ESS). The DC-MG behavior is analyzed in different scenarios to demonstrate the efficacy of the control for all...

  18. Smart grid communication-enabled intelligence for the electric power grid

    CERN Document Server

    Bush, Stephen F

    2014-01-01

    This book bridges the divide between the fields of power systems engineering and computer communication through the new field of power system information theory. Written by an expert with vast experience in the field, this book explores the smart grid from generation to consumption, both as it is planned today and how it will evolve tomorrow. The book focuses upon what differentiates the smart grid from the ""traditional"" power grid as it has been known for the last century. Furthermore, the author provides the reader with a fundamental understanding of both power systems and communication ne

  19. Smart market. From smart grid to the intelligent energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aichele, Christian; Doleski, Oliver D.

    2014-01-01

    Dare more market. - The design of this postulate provides an important contribution to the success of the German energy transition. The Bundesnetzagentur has shown with its highly regarded benchmark paper on smart grids and markets leads the way towards more market in the energy sector. The therein required differentiation in a network and market sphere contributes to greater transparency on the consumer side and enables a gid releaving shift in energy consumption. The book focuses on actors and roles in the modified market circumstances as well as components and products of a future Smart Markets. Finally, to the reader concrete business models are offered. Authors from science and practice give in this book answers on how the interaction of Smart Grid and Smart Market works. [de

  20. Intelligence by design in an entropic power grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrete-Pincetic, Matias Alejandro

    In this work, the term Entropic Grid is coined to describe a power grid with increased levels of uncertainty and dynamics. These new features will require the reconsideration of well-established paradigms in the way of planning and operating the grid and its associated markets. New tools and models able to handle uncertainty and dynamics will form the required scaffolding to properly capture the behavior of the physical system, along with the value of new technologies and policies. The leverage of this knowledge will facilitate the design of new architectures to organize power and energy systems and their associated markets. This work presents several results, tools and models with the goal of contributing to that design objective. A central idea of this thesis is that the definition of products is critical in electricity markets. When markets are constructed with appropriate product definitions in mind, the interference between the physical and the market/financial systems seen in today's markets can be reduced. A key element of evaluating market designs is understanding the impact that salient features of an entropic grid---uncertainty, dynamics, constraints---can have on the electricity markets. Dynamic electricity market models tailored to capture such features are developed in this work. Using a multi-settlement dynamic electricity market, the impact of volatility is investigated. The results show the need to implement policies and technologies able to cope with the volatility of renewable sources. Similarly, using a dynamic electricity market model in which ramping costs are considered, the impacts of those costs on electricity markets are investigated. The key conclusion is that those additional ramping costs, in average terms, are not reflected in electricity prices. These results reveal several difficulties with today's real-time markets. Elements of an alternative architecture to organize these markets are also discussed.

  1. INTELLIGENT NETWORKS, SMART GRIDS CONCEPT, CRUCIAL TECHNOLOGIES FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin RADU

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article is presented the concept of smart grids, a very important technology for sustainable development. In the context of globalization of the world lives in an increasingly complex security environment, with rapid changes, some obvious, others less obvious implications in the short, medium or long term, international, national, local and up to every citizen. All countries in the globalized world economy is facing energy problems in terms of climate change have intensified in the twentieth century.

  2. A Fuzzy ANP Model Integrated with Benefits, Opportunities, Costs, and Risks to Prioritize Intelligent Power Grid Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsing Hung Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although growth of renewable energy is envisaged, many concerns are critical like the ability to maintain the balance between demands and supply and the variability, noncontrollability, and flexibility of the sources. Then, what will be the future concerns about the main composition of intelligent power grid systems in the future? There is no such research tackled before. Thus, this paper first finds critical success criteria of intelligent power grid systems and then constructs a multiple criteria and decision making model to help in identifying the suitable trends under complex economic performance, environmental impacts, and rapid technological and marketing changes. After empirical demonstration, the paper summarizes that the most suitable composition of future intelligent power grid systems should be constituted by “DHT” P2P grid, “C&D workflow” P2P scheduling, “GARCM” trustworthy P2P grid, and “multipurpose” grid applications in the future.

  3. Smarter Grid through Collective Intelligence: User Awareness for Enhanced Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Macarulla

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – This paper examines the scenario of a university campus, and the impact on energy consumption of the awareness of building managers and users (lecturers, students and administrative staff.Design/methodology/approach – This study draws a comparison between direct fruition of the information by both skilled (building managers and unskilled (users recipients, and the effect of peer pressure and beneficial competition between users in applying the good practices. In fact, the usage of edutainment, implemented by the automatic publication on the Twitter platform of energy consumption data from different users, can promote general users’ awareness on best practices and their effect on energy consumption. In addition, the use of a social network platform allows the interaction between users, sharing experiences and increasing the collective intelligence in the energy efficiency field.Findings – Tests revealed that enhanced awareness helped managers to identify strategies that, if implemented in the whole building, could reduce energy consumption by about 6%. The tests on university users’ awareness hint that the expected energy savings can reach 9%, in addition to the previous 6%. In fact, the measures were implemented in one of the three common rooms, and at building level the total energy consumption decreased by 3.42%, proving that a large deal of energy can be saved by capillary actions targeting society at large. The emerging collective intelligence of the final users ends up having a stronger effect on energy saving than the actions of more educated professionals.Practical implications – The approach used in this paper moved the burden of evolving the energy saving strategies to new scenarios onto the collective intelligence of the users, by connecting the users – and their experiences in new scenarios – using a social network to provide guidelines to other users involved in the same decision processes

  4. Intelligent distributed voltage control system for smart grid application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sajadi, Amirhossein [Warsaw Univ. of Technology (Poland); Ariatabar, Mitra [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    Increasing penetration of the renewable energy source (RES) units in distribution networks particularly due to nonlinear and unpredictable nature of renewable units brings up new challenges in different aspects of electricity network, which leads to more complex power systems. Multi-agent system is consisting of agents which are capable to perceive environment that they are located in and to reacts with each other by communication infrastructure in order to achieve overall goals. In this paper an approach to control the voltage based on in the power distribution system is proposed and discussed. Therefore, a multi-agent system has been integrated with artificial intelligence to come up with fuzzy multi-agent based system. The proposed control scheme is deployed to a smart distribution system consisting distribution generation units, modelled in MATLAB/Simulink, to evaluate its effectiveness. The simulation results show how proposed system can regulate voltage in smart distribution feeders. (orig.)

  5. Behind the Meter Grid Services: Intelligent Load Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Woohyun [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Katipamula, Srinivas [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lutes, Robert G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Underhill, Ronald M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-11-15

    This report describes how the intelligent load control (ILC) algorithm can be implemented to achieve peak demand reduction while minimizing impacts on occupant comfort. The algorithm was designed to minimize the additional sensors and minimum configuration requirements to enable a scalable and cost-effective implementation for both large and small-/medium-sized commercial buildings. The ILC algorithm uses an analytic hierarchy process (AHP) to dynamically prioritize the available curtailable loads based on both quantitative (deviation of zone conditions from set point) and qualitative rules (types of zone). Although the ILC algorithm described in this report was highly tailored to work with rooftop units, it can be generalized for application to other building loads such as variable-air-volume (VAV) boxes and lighting systems.

  6. Intelligent Control of Flexible Loads for Improving Low Voltage Grids Utilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Peter Thais; Szczesny, Ireneusz Grzegorz; Diaz de Cerio Mendaza, Iker

    2013-01-01

    in an intelligent manner. A centralized control strategy is developed at the secondary substation level in order to maximize the grid utilization thereby reducing the need for grid reinforcements. The simulation results show that the control strategy allows heat pumps and electric vehicles to charge in a time......Denmark has a plan to increase the amount of renewable energy in the power system in the coming decades. The wind power penetration is scheduled to increase to more than 50% by 2020. To cope with the high amount of fluctuating production, large power system reinforcements would be desirable...

  7. Intelligent sensor and controller framework for the power grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyol, Bora A.; Haack, Jereme Nathan; Craig, Jr., Philip Allen; Tews, Cody William; Kulkarni, Anand V.; Carpenter, Brandon J.; Maiden, Wendy M.; Ciraci, Selim

    2018-03-20

    Disclosed below are representative embodiments of methods, apparatus, and systems for monitoring and using data in an electric power grid. For example, one disclosed embodiment comprises a sensor for measuring an electrical characteristic of a power line, electrical generator, or electrical device; a network interface; a processor; and one or more computer-readable storage media storing computer-executable instructions. In this embodiment, the computer-executable instructions include instructions for implementing an authorization and authentication module for validating a software agent received at the network interface; instructions for implementing one or more agent execution environments for executing agent code that is included with the software agent and that causes data from the sensor to be collected; and instructions for implementing an agent packaging and instantiation module for storing the collected data in a data container of the software agent and for transmitting the software agent, along with the stored data, to a next destination.

  8. Smart grid strategy - the future intelligent energy system. [Denmark]; Smart grid-strategi - fremtidens intelligente energisystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-04-15

    The Government's Smart Grid Strategy brings Danish consumers a big step closer to managing their own energy consumption. The strategy, combines electricity meters read on an hourly basis with variable tariffs and a data hub. It will make it possible for consumers to use the power when it is least expensive. ''Today we set the course for developing a smart energy network that will reduce the cost of converting to sustainable energy, cut electricity bills and create brand new products consumers will welcome,'' says Minister of Climate, Energy and Building Martin Lidegaard. Encouraging consumers to use energy more efficiently is a key aspect of the strategy. The remote-read electricity meters are crucial if consumers are to play a role in optimising the flexible energy network. (LN)

  9. Integrative solutions for intelligent energy management. Smart metering, smart home, smart grid; Integrative Loesungsansaetze fuer ein intelligentes Energiemanagement. Smart Metering, Smart Home and Smart Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jungfleisch, Achim [Hager Vertriebsgesellschaft mbH und Co. KG, Blieskastel (Germany). Marketing

    2011-07-01

    Smart Metering, Smart Home, Smart Grid - these key words significantly determine the current debate about intelligent energy management, or new energy concepts. The author of the contribution under consideration describes the interactions between Smart Metering, Smart Home and Smart Grids and the technical connection of these interactions. Thus, the compact tebis KNX demovea server connects Windows computer and the Internet with the building automation based on KNX. The technically simple combination of smart metering and smart home via Hager radio tower of the building automation provides an access to key energy data for an intelligent load management.

  10. Defining a convergence network platform framework for smart grid and intelligent transport systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coronado Mondragon, Adrian E.; Coronado, Etienne S.; Coronado Mondragon, Christian E.

    2015-01-01

    The challenges faced by electricity grids suggest smart grids will have to coordinate its operation with other important initiatives in areas such as transportation. The smart grid relies on the use of network platforms where meter readings and data can be transmitted. On the other hand, concerning transportation systems the need to achieve a reduction of road congestion and traffic accidents among the increasing use of electric vehicles has consolidated the importance of ITS (intelligent transport systems). Given the magnitude of the challenges faced by both the smart grid and ITS, the aim of this work is to identify the elements comprising a convergence platform capable of supporting future services for data traffic associated to smart grid operations as well as ITS-related commercial service applications and road traffic safety messaging. A seaport terminal scenario is used to present a convergence network platform incorporating WSN (wireless sensor network) theory. The results of the simulation of the proposed network confirms the suitability of WSN to be used in the transmission of data traffic associated to meter readings which is required for effective energy consumption and management policies in industrial environments comprising equipment with high energy demands. - Highlights: • Common needs/challenges of smart grid/ITS can be addressed by a convergence network platform. • VANETs are identified as key components of the smart grid/ITS convergence network platform. • WSN (Wireless Sensor Network) theory is suitable for the transmission of data traffic associated to meter readings. • The amount of energy supplied to the network is low but enough to support data traffic required in industrial environments. • WSN supports the steady exchange of packets as characterized in industrial environments like seaports

  11. Contextual Intelligent Load Management Considering Real Time Pricing in a Smart Grid Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gomes, Luis; Fernandes, Filipe; Faria, Pedro

    2013-01-01

    The use of demand response programs enables the adequate use of resources of small and medium players, bringing high benefits to the smart grid, and increasing its efficiency. One of the difficulties to proceed with this paradigm is the lack of intelligence in the management of small and medium...... size players. In order to make demand response programs a feasible solution, it is essential that small and medium players have an efficient energy management and a fair optimization mechanism to decrease the consumption without heavy loss of comfort, making it acceptable for the users. This paper...... addresses the application of real-time pricing in a house that uses an intelligent optimization module involving artificial neural networks....

  12. Intelligent Demand Side Management within production systems. Towards Industrial Smart Grids; Intelligente Lastverschiebung in der Produktionstechnik. Ein Weg zum Industrial Smart Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schriegel, Sebastian; Pethig, Florian; Jasperneite, Juergen [Fraunhofer-Anwendungszentrum Industrial Automation (IOSB-INA), Lemgo (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    Demand Side Management is a key technology of smart grids. Consumers adjust their energy consumption at current time-volatile energy generation capacity. The currently used energy consumption optimizations, such as the use of energy efficient actuators, pause functions and peak load management should be supplemented by a dynamic real-time energy management. For industrial consumers, such an energy management may be established at various levels of the automation pyramid. On plant level energy optimization is based on predictions, on control and field level optimization is based on process variables. The taxonomy of potential energy optimization differentiates between organizational, synchronization and single parameter optimization. This potential can be exploited with intelligent control technology based on qualified process models and tunable control programs. An Industrial Smart Grid results by interlinking the former mentioned intelligent control technologies with the plant infrastructure and thereby provides an optimal energy consumption behavior and a perfect integration into and interaction with the smart grid. (orig.)

  13. Intelligent Scheduling of a Grid-Connected Heat Pump in a Danish Detached House

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gianniou, Panagiota; Foteinaki, Kyriaki; Heller, Alfred

    This study proposes a methodology for intelligent scheduling of a heat pump installed in a refurbished grid-connected detached house in Denmark. This scheduling is conducted through the coupling of a dynamic building simulation tool with an optimization tool. The optimization of the operation of ...... thermal comfort conditions. The proposed methodology bridges dynamic building modelling with optimization of real-time operation of HVAC systems offering a detailed model for building physics, especially regarding thermal mass and a stochastic price-based control....... of the system is based on a price-signal considering a three-day period for different weather cases. The results show that the optimal scheduling of the system is successful in terms of reducing the peak load during times when electricity prices are high, thus achieving cost savings as well as maintaining good......This study proposes a methodology for intelligent scheduling of a heat pump installed in a refurbished grid-connected detached house in Denmark. This scheduling is conducted through the coupling of a dynamic building simulation tool with an optimization tool. The optimization of the operation...

  14. A multi-agent approach to intelligent monitoring in smart grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallejo, D.; Albusac, J.; Glez-Morcillo, C.; Castro-Schez, J. J.; Jiménez, L.

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, we propose a scalable multi-agent architecture to give support to smart grids, paying special attention to the intelligent monitoring of distribution substations. The data gathered by multiple sensors are used by software agents that are responsible for monitoring different aspects or events of interest, such as normal voltage values or unbalanced intensity values that can end up blowing fuses and decreasing the quality of service of end consumers. The knowledge bases of these agents have been built by means of a formal model for normality analysis that has been successfully used in other surveillance domains. The architecture facilitates the integration of new agents and can be easily configured and deployed to monitor different environments. The experiments have been conducted over a power distribution network.

  15. VDE congress 2012 Smart Grid. Intelligent energy supply of the future. Lectures; VDE-Kongress 2012 Smart Grid. Intelligente Energieversorgung der Zukunft. Kongressbeitraege

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    The optimal design of the process of energy production and power distribution conserving resources requires an intensive interdisciplinary cooperation between engineers of different disciplines. A major challenge for a functioning, nationwide infrastructure comes along that will result in new business models and business processes. The VDE Congress 'Smart Grids' on 5th to 6th November 2012 at the International Congress Center Stuttgart (Federal Republic of Germany) enables an intensive knowledge exchange due to the following six topics: Smart home; intelligent load management; smart metering and business models; network infrastructure; smart grid applications / services; society and resources. The range of presentations from overview lectures to specialist presentations on important aspects of the smart grid is a particular feature of this event.

  16. Application of Wireless Sensor and Actuator Networks to Achieve Intelligent Microgrids: A Promising Approach towards a Global Smart Grid Deployment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Llaria

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Smart Grids (SGs constitute the evolution of the traditional electrical grid towards a new paradigm, which should increase the reliability, the security and, at the same time, reduce the costs of energy generation, distribution and consumption. Electrical microgrids (MGs can be considered the first stage of this evolution of the grid, because of the intelligent management techniques that must be applied to assure their correct operation. To accomplish this task, sensors and actuators will be necessary, along with wireless communication technologies to transmit the measured data and the command messages. Wireless Sensor and Actuator Networks (WSANs are therefore a promising solution to achieve an intelligent management of MGs and, by extension, the SG. In this frame, this paper surveys several aspects concerning the application of WSANs to manage MGs and the electrical grid, as well as the communication protocols that could be applied. The main concerns regarding the SG deployment are also presented, including future scenarios where the interoperability of different generation technologies must be assured.

  17. Smart market. From smart grid to the intelligent energy market; Smart Market. Vom Smart Grid zum intelligenten Energiemarkt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aichele, Christian [Hochschule Kaiserslautern, Zweibruecken (Germany). Fachbereich Betriebswirtschaft; Doleski, Oliver D. (ed.)

    2014-07-01

    Dare more market. - The design of this postulate provides an important contribution to the success of the German energy transition. The Bundesnetzagentur has shown with its highly regarded benchmark paper on smart grids and markets leads the way towards more market in the energy sector. The therein required differentiation in a network and market sphere contributes to greater transparency on the consumer side and enables a gid releaving shift in energy consumption. The book focuses on actors and roles in the modified market circumstances as well as components and products of a future Smart Markets. Finally, to the reader concrete business models are offered. Authors from science and practice give in this book answers on how the interaction of Smart Grid and Smart Market works. [German] Mehr Markt wagen. - Die Ausgestaltung dieses Postulats liefert einen wichtigen Beitrag zum Gelingen der deutschen Energiewende. Die Bundesnetzagentur hat mit ihrem vielbeachteten Eckpunktepapier zu intelligenten Netzen und Maerkten diesen Weg in Richtung mehr Markt in der Energiewirtschaft gewiesen. Die darin geforderte Differenzierung in eine Netz- und Marktsphaere traegt zu mehr Transparenz auf der Verbraucherseite bei und ermoeglicht eine netzentlastende Verlagerung des Energieverbrauchs. Das Buch beleuchtet Akteure und Rollen im geaenderten Marktumfeld ebenso wie Komponenten und Produkte eines zukuenftigen Smart Markets. Schliesslich werden dem Leser konkrete Geschaeftsmodelle angeboten. Autoren aus Wissenschaft und Praxis geben in diesem Buch Antworten darauf, wie das Zusammenspiel von Smart Grid und Smart Market funktioniert.

  18. An Effective Wormhole Attack Defence Method for a Smart Meter Mesh Network in an Intelligent Power Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungtaek Seo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Smart meters are one of the key components of intelligent power grids. Wireless mesh networks based on smart meters could provide customer-oriented information on electricity use to the operational control systems, which monitor power grid status and estimate electric power demand. Using this information, an operational control system could regulate devices within the smart grid in order to provide electricity in a cost-efficient manner. Ensuring the availability of the smart meter mesh network is therefore a critical factor in securing the soundness of an intelligent power system. Wormhole attacks can be one of the most difficult-to-address threats to the availability of mesh networks, and although many methods to nullify wormhole attacks have been tried, these have been limited by high computational resource requirements and unnecessary overhead, as well as by the lack of ability of such methods to respond to attacks. In this paper, an effective defense mechanism that both detects and responds to wormhole attacks is proposed. In the proposed system, each device maintains information on its neighbors, allowing each node to identify replayed packets. The effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed method is analyzed in light of additional computational message and memory complexities.

  19. Intelligent Decision-Making System with Green Pervasive Computing for Renewable Energy Business in Electricity Markets on Smart Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park JongHyuk

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is about the intelligent decision-making system for the smart grid based electricity market which requires distributed decision making on the competitive environments composed of many players and components. It is very important to consider the renewable energy and emission problem which are expected to be monitored by wireless communication networks. It is very difficult to predict renewable energy outputs and emission prices over time horizon, so it could be helpful to catch up those data on real time basis using many different kinds of communication infrastructures. On this backgrounds this paper provides an algorithm to make an optimal decision considering above factors.

  20. Role of proactive behaviour enabled by advanced computational intelligence and ICT in Smart Energy Grids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, P.H.; Kling, W.L.; Ribeiro, P.F.; Venayagamoorthy, G.K.; Croes, R.

    2013-01-01

    Significant increase in renewable energy production and new forms of consumption has enormous impact to the electrical power grid operation. A Smart Energy Grid (SEG) is needed to overcome the challenge of a sustainable and reliable energy supply by merging advanced ICT and control techniques to

  1. Modeling, control, and simulation of grid connected intelligent hybrid battery/photovoltaic system using new hybrid fuzzy-neural method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezvani, Alireza; Khalili, Abbas; Mazareie, Alireza; Gandomkar, Majid

    2016-07-01

    Nowadays, photovoltaic (PV) generation is growing increasingly fast as a renewable energy source. Nevertheless, the drawback of the PV system is its dependence on weather conditions. Therefore, battery energy storage (BES) can be considered to assist for a stable and reliable output from PV generation system for loads and improve the dynamic performance of the whole generation system in grid connected mode. In this paper, a novel topology of intelligent hybrid generation systems with PV and BES in a DC-coupled structure is presented. Each photovoltaic cell has a specific point named maximum power point on its operational curve (i.e. current-voltage or power-voltage curve) in which it can generate maximum power. Irradiance and temperature changes affect these operational curves. Therefore, the nonlinear characteristic of maximum power point to environment has caused to development of different maximum power point tracking techniques. In order to capture the maximum power point (MPP), a hybrid fuzzy-neural maximum power point tracking (MPPT) method is applied in the PV system. Obtained results represent the effectiveness and superiority of the proposed method, and the average tracking efficiency of the hybrid fuzzy-neural is incremented by approximately two percentage points in comparison to the conventional methods. It has the advantages of robustness, fast response and good performance. A detailed mathematical model and a control approach of a three-phase grid-connected intelligent hybrid system have been proposed using Matlab/Simulink. Copyright © 2016 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Intelligent Control of Micro Grid: A Big Data-Based Control Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lu; Wang, Yanping; Liu, Li; Wang, Zhiseng

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, a structure of micro grid system with big data-based control center is introduced. Energy data from distributed generation, storage and load are analized through the control center, and from the results new trends will be predicted and applied as a feedback to optimize the control. Therefore, each step proceeded in micro grid can be adjusted and orgnized in a form of comprehensive management. A framework of real-time data collection, data processing and data analysis will be proposed by employing big data technology. Consequently, a integrated distributed generation and a optimized energy storage and transmission process can be implemented in the micro grid system.

  3. Network control stations in the smart grid. Process and information knots for business intelligence applications; Netzleitstellen im Smart Grid. Prozess- und Informationsknoten fuer Business Intelligence Applikationen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kautsch, Stephan; Kroll, Meinhard [ABB AG, Mannheim (Germany); Schoellhorn, Daniel [EnBW Regional AG, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    The degree of automation in the distribution will increase, whereas a more extensive monitoring is possible. Smart metering in the local network station replaces the drag pointers. This allows the pre-determined load flows to be precise and it can be determined and valuable data can be collected about how resources, for example the transformers in the secondary substations, are actually utilized. The amount of information available is increasing steadily, not least because of the increasing expansion of smart meters, that also provide valuable information for the operation of the distribution networks. This ''flood'' of data that is processed by the system, filtered, and analyzed must be prepared for the user in order to make sense, but can also be used to support and optimize many business processes. Although these tasks mentioned are usually not yet allocated within the grid operator organization, they offer themselves to be placed close to the network control centers as they propose new challenges but also opportunities. (orig.)

  4. A cost-efficient and reliable energy management of a micro-grid using intelligent demand-response program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safamehr, Hossein; Rahimi-Kian, Ashkan

    2015-01-01

    Providing a cost-efficient and reliable energy is one of the main issues in human societies of the 21st century. In response to this demand, new features of micro grid technology have provided huge potentials, specifically by the capability of having an interactive coordination between energy suppliers and consumers. Accordingly, this paper offers an improved model for achieving an optimal Demand Response programing. To solve the proposed multi-objective optimization problem, Artificial Bee Colony algorithm and quasi-static technique are utilized. The considered objectives in this paper are minimizing the overall cost of energy consumption and also improving the technical parameters of micro grid over a time horizon. This optimization is subject to several constraints such as satisfying the energy balance and the operating constraints of each energy supply sources. Manageable load or load as source is another enabling feature existing in smart energy networks, which is considered in this paper and its effect on cost reduction and reliability improvement is studied. Trying to examine the performance of the proposed Demand Response Programing in real conditions, the uncertainties are also analyzed by stochastic methods. The results show significant improvements which are obtained by applying just intelligent programming and management. - Highlights: • This paper presents a cost-efficient and reliable energy management of a micro-grid. • New models of battery and manageable loads are formulated. • Artificial Bee Colony algorithm is used to solve the optimization problem. • Quasi-static technique is used to simplify the solving procedure. • The uncertainties are also analyzed by stochastic methods.

  5. Intelligent Energy Management for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles: The Role of ITS Infrastructure in Vehicle Electrification Gestion énergétique intelligente pour véhicules électriques hybrides rechargeables : rôle de l’infrastructure de systèmes de transport intelligents (STI dans l’électrification des véhicules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marano V.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The desire to reduce carbon emissions due to transportation sources has led over the past decade to the development of new propulsion technologies, focused on vehicle electrification (including hybrid, plug-in hybrid and battery electric vehicles. These propulsion technologies, along with advances in telecommunication and computing power, have the potential of making passenger and commercial vehicles more energy efficient and environment friendly. In particular, energy management algorithms are an integral part of plug-in vehicles and are very important for achieving the performance benefits. The optimal performance of energy management algorithms depends strongly on the ability to forecast energy demand from the vehicle. Information available about environment (temperature, humidity, wind, road grade, etc. and traffic (traffic density, traffic lights, etc., is very important in operating a vehicle at optimal efficiency. This article outlines some current technologies that can help achieving this optimum efficiency goal. In addition to information available from telematic and geographical information systems, knowledge of projected vehicle charging demand on the power grid is necessary to build an intelligent energy management controller for future plug-in hybrid and electric vehicles. The impact of charging millions of vehicles from the power grid could be significant, in the form of increased loading of power plants, transmission and distribution lines, emissions and economics (information are given and discussed for the US case. Therefore, this effect should be considered in an intelligent way by controlling/scheduling the charging through a communication based distributed control. Le désir de réduire les émissions de carbone issues des sources de transport a conduit durant la dernière décennie au développement de nouvelles technologies de propulsion, axées sur l’électrification des véhicules (comprenant les véhicules

  6. Intelligent grid management with variable grid fees as indirect control system for Distribution System Operators; Intelligentes Netzlastmanagement mit variablen Netzentgelten als indirektes Steuerungsinstrument fuer Verteilnetzbetreiber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engel, Stephan; Nestle, David; Selzam, Patrick; Strauss, Philipp [Fraunhofer Institut fuer Windenergie und Energiesystemtechnik, Kassel (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Variable grid fees are an incentive system to motivate the grid customers to adjust their energy consumption to the requirements of the distribution grid. Therefore, the Distribution System Operator can reduce grid peak load, improve the integration of fluctuating renewable power producers and optimize the grid load prediction. Compared to variable grid fees which are just in the research stage, peak power demand prices are an existing incentive system. The comparison between these two incentive systems demonstrates which system can support more efficiently the requirements of a sustainable energy system. In E-Energy-Project ''Modellstadt Mannheim'', a proposal for a transparent calculation of variable grid fees will be developed and a technical solution deployed. (orig.)

  7. Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Intelligence is the ability to learn from experience and to adapt to, shape, and select environments. Intelligence as measured by (raw scores on) conventional standardized tests varies across the lifespan, and also across generations. Intelligence can be understood in part in terms of the biology of the brain—especially with regard to the functioning in the prefrontal cortex—and also correlates with brain size, at least within humans. Studies of the effects of genes and environment suggest that the heritability coefficient (ratio of genetic to phenotypic variation) is between .4 and .8, although heritability varies as a function of socioeconomic status and other factors. Racial differences in measured intelligence have been observed, but race is a socially constructed rather than biological variable, so such differences are difficult to interpret. PMID:22577301

  8. Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Robert J

    2012-03-01

    Intelligence is the ability to learn from experience and to adapt to, shape, and select environments. Intelligence as measured by (raw scores on) conventional standardized tests varies across the lifespan, and also across generations. Intelligence can be understood in part in terms of the biology of the brain-especially with regard to the functioning in the prefrontal cortex-and also correlates with brain size, at least within humans. Studies of the effects of genes and environment suggest that the heritability coefficient (ratio of genetic to phenotypic variation) is between .4 and .8, although heritability varies as a function of socioeconomic status and other factors. Racial differences in measured intelligence have been observed, but race is a socially constructed rather than biological variable, so such differences are difficult to interpret.

  9. Statewide Groundwater Recharge Modeling in New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, F.; Cadol, D.; Newton, B. T.; Phillips, F. M.

    2017-12-01

    It is crucial to understand the rate and distribution of groundwater recharge in New Mexico because it not only largely defines a limit for water availability in this semi-arid state, but also is the least understood aspect of the state's water budget. With the goal of estimating groundwater recharge statewide, we are developing the Evapotranspiration and Recharge Model (ETRM), which uses existing spatial datasets to model the daily soil water balance over the state at a resolution of 250 m cell. The input datasets includes PRISM precipitation data, MODIS Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), NRCS soils data, state geology data and reference ET estimates produced by Gridded Atmospheric Data downscalinG and Evapotranspiration Tools (GADGET). The current estimated recharge presents diffuse recharge only, not focused recharge as in channels or playas. Direct recharge measurements are challenging and rare, therefore we estimate diffuse recharge using a water balance approach. The ETRM simulated runoff amount was compared with USGS gauged discharge in four selected ephemeral channels: Mogollon Creek, Zuni River, the Rio Puerco above Bernardo, and the Rio Puerco above Arroyo Chico. Result showed that focused recharge is important, and basin characteristics can be linked with watershed hydrological response. As the sparse instruments in NM provide limited help in improving estimation of focused recharge by linking basin characteristics, the Walnut Gulch Experimental Watershed, which is one of the most densely gauged and monitored semiarid rangeland watershed for hydrology research purpose, is now being modeled with ETRM. Higher spatial resolution of field data is expected to enable detailed comparison of model recharge results with measured transmission losses in ephemeral channels. The final ETRM product will establish an algorithm to estimate the groundwater recharge as a water budget component of the entire state of New Mexico. Reference ET estimated by GADGET

  10. Intelligent optimization to integrate a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle smart parking lot with renewable energy resources and enhance grid characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazelpour, Farivar; Vafaeipour, Majid; Rahbari, Omid; Rosen, Marc A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The proposed algorithms handled design steps of an efficient parking lot of PHEVs. • Optimizations are performed with 1 h intervals to find optimum charging rates. • Multi-objective optimization is performed to find the optimum size and site of DG. • Optimal sizing of a PV–wind–diesel HRES is attained. • Charging rates are optimized intelligently during peak and off-peak times. - Abstract: Widespread application of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) as an important part of smart grids requires drivers and power grid constraints to be satisfied simultaneously. We address these two challenges with the presence of renewable energy and charging rate optimization in the current paper. First optimal sizing and siting for installation of a distributed generation (DG) system is performed through the grid considering power loss minimization and voltage enhancement. Due to its benefits, the obtained optimum site is considered as the optimum location for constructing a movie theater complex equipped with a PHEV parking lot. To satisfy the obtained size of DG, an on-grid hybrid renewable energy system (HRES) is chosen. In the next set of optimizations, optimal sizing of the HRES is performed to minimize the energy cost and to find the best number of decision variables, which are the number of the system’s components. Eventually, considering demand uncertainties due to the unpredictability of the arrival and departure times of the vehicles, time-dependent charging rate optimizations of the PHEVs are performed in 1 h intervals for the 24-h of a day. All optimization problems are performed using genetic algorithms (GAs). The outcome of the proposed optimization sets can be considered as design steps of an efficient grid-friendly parking lot of PHEVs. The results indicate a reduction in real power losses and improvement in the voltage profile through the distribution line. They also show the competence of the utilized energy delivery method in

  11. Real time Intelligent Control Laboratory (RT-ICL) of PowerLabDK for smart grid technology development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostergaard, Jacob; Wu, Qiuwei; Garcia-Valle, Rodrigo

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the Intelligent Control Laboratory (ICL) of the PowerLabDK and describes examples of ongoing research work utilizing the ICL. The ICL is comprised of a real time digital simulator (RTDS) with 5 racks, a full scale SCADA system and experimental control room with a link to the B......This paper presents the Intelligent Control Laboratory (ICL) of the PowerLabDK and describes examples of ongoing research work utilizing the ICL. The ICL is comprised of a real time digital simulator (RTDS) with 5 racks, a full scale SCADA system and experimental control room with a link...

  12. Analysis of electric vehicle driver recharging demand profiles and subsequent impacts on the carbon content of electric vehicle trips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, A.P.; Blythe, P.T.; Bell, M.C.; Hübner, Y.; Hill, G.A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper quantifies the recharging behaviour of a sample of electric vehicle (EV) drivers and evaluates the impact of current policy in the north east of England on EV driver recharging demand profiles. An analysis of 31,765 EV trips and 7704 EV recharging events, constituting 23,805 h of recharging, were recorded from in-vehicle loggers as part of the Switch EV trials is presented. Altogether 12 private users, 21 organisation individuals and 32 organisation pool vehicles were tracked over two successive six month trial periods. It was found that recharging profiles varied between the different user types and locations. Private users peak demand was in the evening at home recharging points. Organisation individual vehicles were recharged primarily upon arrival at work. Organisation pool users recharged at work and public recharging points throughout the working day. It is recommended that pay-as-you-go recharging be implemented at all public recharging locations, and smart meters be used to delay recharging at home and work locations until after 23:00 h to reduce peak demand on local power grids and reduce carbon emissions associated with EV recharging. - Highlights: • Study of EV driver recharging habits in the north east of England. • 7704 electric vehicle recharging events, comprising 23,805 h were collected. • There was minimal recharging during off- peak hours. • Free parking and electricity at point of use encouraged daytime recharging. • Need for financial incentives and smart solutions to better manage recharging demand peaks

  13. Rechargeable batteries applications handbook

    CERN Document Server

    1998-01-01

    Represents the first widely available compendium of the information needed by those design professionals responsible for using rechargeable batteries. This handbook introduces the most common forms of rechargeable batteries, including their history, the basic chemistry that governs their operation, and common design approaches. The introduction also exposes reader to common battery design terms and concepts.Two sections of the handbook provide performance information on two principal types of rechargeable batteries commonly found in consumer and industrial products: sealed nickel-cad

  14. Microgrid Central Controller Development and Hierarchical Control Implementation in the Intelligent MicroGrid Lab of Aalborg University

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meng, Lexuan; Savaghebi, Mehdi; Andrade, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the development of a microgrid central controller in an inverter-based intelligent microgrid (iMG) lab in Aalborg University, Denmark. The iMG lab aims to provide a flexible experimental platform for comprehensive studies of microgrids. The complete control system applied...... in this lab is based on the hierarchical control scheme for microgrids and includes primary, secondary and tertiary control. The structure of the lab, including the lab facilities, configurations and communication network, is first introduced. Primary control loops are developed in MATLAB....../Simulink and compiled to dSPACEs for local control purposes. In order to realize system supervision and proper secondary and tertiary management, a LabVIEW-based microgrid central controller is also developed. The software and hardware schemes are described. An example case is introduced and tested in the iMG lab...

  15. Advances of aqueous rechargeable lithium-ion battery: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alias, Nurhaswani; Mohamad, Ahmad Azmin

    2015-01-01

    The electrochemical characteristic of the aqueous rechargeable lithium-ion battery has been widely investigated in efforts to design a green and safe technology that can provide a highly specific capacity, high efficiency and long life for high power applications such as the smart grid and electric vehicle. It is believed that the advantages of this battery will overcome the limitations of the rechargeable lithium-ion battery with organic electrolytes that comprise safety and create high fabrication cost issues. This review focuses on the opportunities of the aqueous rechargeable lithium-ion battery compared to the conventional rechargeable lithium-ion battery with organic-based electrolytes. Previously reported studies are briefly summarised, together with the presentation of new findings based on the conductivity, morphology, electrochemical performance and cycling stability results. The factors that influence the electrochemical performance, the challenges and potential of the aqueous rechargeable lithium-ion battery are highlighted in order to understand and maintained the excellent battery performance.

  16. Making the Grid "Smart" Through "Smart" Microgrids: Real-Time Power Management of Microgrids with Multiple Distributed Generation Sources Using Intelligent Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nehrir, M. Hashem [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States)

    2016-10-20

    investigated the following: • Intelligent load control - demand response (DR) - for frequency stabilization in islanded MGs (partially supported by PNNL). • The impact of high penetration of solar photovoltaic (PV)-generated power at the distribution level (partially supported by PNNL). • The application of AI approaches to renewable (wind, PV) power forecasting (proposed by the reviewers of our proposal). • Application of AI approaches and DR for real-time MG power management (partially supported by NEC Labs-America) • Application of DR in dealing with the variability of wind power • Real-time MG power management using DR and storage (partially supported by NEC Labs-America) • Application of DR in enhancing the performance of load-frequency controller • MAS-based whole-sale and retail power market design for smart grid A

  17. Development of intelligent MPPT (maximum power point tracking) control for a grid-connected hybrid power generation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Chih-Ming; Ou, Ting-Chia; Lu, Kai-Hung

    2013-01-01

    A hybrid power control system is proposed in the paper, consisting of solar power, wind power, and a diesel-engine. To achieve a fast and stable response for the real power control, an intelligent controller was proposed, which consists of the Wilcoxon (radial basis function network) RBFN and the improved (Elman neural network) ENN for (maximum power point tracking) MPPT. The pitch angle control of wind power uses improved ENN controller, and the output is fed to the wind turbine to achieve the MPPT. The solar array is integrated with an RBFN control algorithm to track the maximum power. MATLAB (MATrix LABoratory)/Simulink was used to build the dynamic model and simulate the solar and diesel-wind hybrid power system. - Highlights: ► To achieve a fast and stable response for the real power control. ► The pitch control of wind power uses improved ENN (Elman neural network) controller to achieve the MPPT (maximum power point tracking). ► The RBFN (radial basis function network) can quickly and accurately track the maximum power output for PV (photovoltaic) array. ► MATLAB was used to build the dynamic model and simulate the hybrid power system. ► This method can reach the desired performance even under different load conditions

  18. Geophysical Methods for Investigating Ground-Water Recharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferre, Ty P.A.; Binley, Andrew M.; Blasch, Kyle W.; Callegary, James B.; Crawford, Steven M.; Fink, James B.; Flint, Alan L.; Flint, Lorraine E.; Hoffmann, John P.; Izbicki, John A.; Levitt, Marc T.; Pool, Donald R.; Scanlon, Bridget R.

    2007-01-01

    While numerical modeling has revolutionized our understanding of basin-scale hydrologic processes, such models rely almost exclusively on traditional measurements?rainfall, streamflow, and water-table elevations?for calibration and testing. Model calibration provides initial estimates of ground-water recharge. Calibrated models are important yet crude tools for addressing questions about the spatial and temporal distribution of recharge. An inverse approach to recharge estimation is taken of necessity, due to inherent difficulties in making direct measurements of flow across the water table. Difficulties arise because recharging fluxes are typically small, even in humid regions, and because the location of the water table changes with time. Deep water tables in arid and semiarid regions make recharge monitoring especially difficult. Nevertheless, recharge monitoring must advance in order to improve assessments of ground-water recharge. Improved characterization of basin-scale recharge is critical for informed water-resources management. Difficulties in directly measuring recharge have prompted many efforts to develop indirect methods. The mass-balance approach of estimating recharge as the residual of generally much larger terms has persisted despite the use of increasing complex and finely gridded large-scale hydrologic models. Geophysical data pertaining to recharge rates, timing, and patterns have the potential to substantially improve modeling efforts by providing information on boundary conditions, by constraining model inputs, by testing simplifying assumptions, and by identifying the spatial and temporal resolutions needed to predict recharge to a specified tolerance in space and in time. Moreover, under certain conditions, geophysical measurements can yield direct estimates of recharge rates or changes in water storage, largely eliminating the need for indirect measures of recharge. This appendix presents an overview of physically based, geophysical methods

  19. Oh and by the way, you get meter readings too : a look at distribution automation, intelligent grids, and demand side management : getting the real value from your AMI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Summerlin, T. [Gestalt, Camden, NJ (United States); Ferguson, P.D. [Newmarket Hydro Ltd., Newmarket, ON (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    The full value of smart metering programs will be realized when information and communication capabilities are used to enable distribution automation, intelligent grids, and sufficient data management that will transform interval meter data into useful information. By leveraging and managing meter data effectively, utilities can increase their operational efficiency, improve their understanding of customers' needs, and develop more effective demand side management programs. This presentation examined some of the changing priorities of advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) strategies, and provided details of meter data management (MDM) technologies developed to help utilities increase efficiency, cut costs and provide better service to their customers. An MDM system is the set of data bases and applications required to provide utilities with a solution for the data retention, analysis and storage repository gaps that will be created when monthly manual meter readings are replaced with AMI systems. In order to resolve storage, functionality and legacy integration gaps, MDM systems must be scalable systems that can support large and small quantities of meter data, and must also conform to industry standard data warehouse designs. Data structure in the systems must support both regulated and deregulated markets, and be capable of providing extensive graphical, tabular and Excel export of the metered and totalized data from the interval to system level. MDM systems can provide improved support for demand response decision-making processes; distribution planning and reliability; outage management; revenue assurance; forecasting; and curtailment. It was concluded that MDM systems can be used to improve processes and provide additional benefits well beyond the meter reading and billing process benefits originally identified by utilities as a primary goal of implementing AMI. refs., tabs., figs.

  20. Smart grids and e-mobility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    integration of electric vehicles and plug-in-vehicles in the power system (H. Seljeseth); (21) Implications of vehicle-to-grid strategies on lithium-ion batteries and grids (M. Hackmann); (22) A methodology for evaluating the hosting capacity margins for PEVs on distribution grids (I.M. Gianinoni); (23) Integration of fast EV charging systems into the distribution grid (M. Zamalloa); (24) The need for innovative functionalities for on-board electrical vehicle chargers (J.A. Pecas Lopes); (25) Towards a system for accessing real-time, cross-provider electric mobility charging station information (T. Lutz); (26) Concept evaluation of an inductive charging system for electric vehicles (H. Barth); (27) System integrated testing of EV batteries (O. Gehrke); (28) Requirements analysis for a smart charging infrastructure enabling maximum use of renewable energy (R. Ponnette); (29) The hybrid power supply system for Truong Sa Islands using solar and wind energy (T.Q. Vinh); (30) Intelligent local network management for the integration of distributed generation and storage systems (W. Heckmann); (31) Network of value creation networks for e-mobility - An analysis of the collaboration competitive advantage (R. Colmom); (32) Project netquality (R. Witzmann); (33) The interdependences between electric vehicles and offshore wind energy - An investigation for the North-Western Region of Germany (M. Buchmann); (34) Testing platform for e-mobility (TPE) (J. Prior); (35) Experiences from integrating DG in rural MV networks (M.K. Istad); (36) MUGIELEC: A comprehensive approach to EV recharge infrastructure (A. Arzuaga); (37) Model region electric mobility Munich - Drive eCharged (W. vom Eyser).

  1. Wireless rechargeable sensor networks

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Yuanyuan

    2015-01-01

    This SpringerBrief provides a concise guide to applying wireless energy transfer techniques in traditional battery-powered sensor networks. It examines the benefits and challenges of wireless power including efficiency and reliability. The authors build a wireless rechargeable sensor networks from scratch and aim to provide perpetual network operation. Chapters cover a wide range of topics from the collection of energy information and recharge scheduling to joint design with typical sensing applications such as data gathering. Problems are approached using a natural combination of probability

  2. Progress in aqueous rechargeable batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Jilei Liu; Chaohe Xu; Zhen Chen; Shibing Ni; Ze Xiang Shen

    2018-01-01

    Over the past decades, a series of aqueous rechargeable batteries (ARBs) were explored, investigated and demonstrated. Among them, aqueous rechargeable alkali-metal ion (Li+, Na+, K+) batteries, aqueous rechargeable-metal ion (Zn2+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Al3+) batteries and aqueous rechargeable hybrid batteries are standing out due to peculiar properties. In this review, we focus on the fundamental basics of these batteries, and discuss the scientific and/or technological achievements and challenges. B...

  3. Intelligence in the power grid and services to the consumers. Issue paper - working group 4; Denmark. Smart Grid Network; Intelligens i el-nettet og serviceydelser til forbrugerne. Issue paper, arbejdsgruppe 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonsen, B.O. (Solar Danmark A/S, Vejen (Denmark)); Hauge, B. (IT-Branchen, Copenhagen (Denmark)); Strunge, C. (Energinet.dk, Fredericia (Denmark)) (and others)

    2011-07-01

    The Smart Grid Network was established in 2010 by the Danish climate and energy minister tasked with developing recommendations for future actions and initiatives that make it possible to handle up to 50% electricity from wind energy in the power system in 2020. The task of working group 4 was to investigate what it takes to involve consumers in smart grid and how to create good conditions for new services related to smart grid. Against this background, the working group agreed the following recommendations: 1) Enhance consumer engagement. A prerequisite for electricity customers becoming involved in smart grid is that they have awareness and knowledge about the smart grid and their own possibilities for action in relation thereto. Therefore it is important that concepts such as smart grid and flexible electricity consumption gradually become popular among electric customers; 2) Minimize the risk. In order to promote electric customers' and other stakeholders' participation in the smart grid, the risk of this participation must be minimized. It is therefore recommended to enhance the skills of the professionals and to establish a common framework for security; 3) Make it easier to create new services. Part of the potential of smart grid can be realized through new services such as delivery of flexible electricity consumption for electric cars and heat pumps and the resale of local power generation at the customer. To facilitate the conditions for these services, the working group recommends that better access to relevant data is created, that the interoperability of smart grid solutions is strengthened, that requirements for buildings are made, that it is made easier to be an aggregator, and that test and inspiration laboratories for small and medium enterprises in the smart grid area are established. (LN)

  4. SWB Groundwater Recharge Analysis, Catalina Island, California: Assessing Spatial and Temporal Recharge Patterns Within a Mediterranean Climate Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlow, J.

    2017-12-01

    Groundwater recharge quantification is a key parameter for sustainable groundwater management. Many recharge quantification techniques have been devised, each with advantages and disadvantages. A free, GIS based recharge quantification tool - the Soil Water Balance (SWB) model - was developed by the USGS to produce fine-tuned recharge constraints in watersheds and illuminate spatial and temporal dynamics of recharge. The subject of this research is to examine SWB within a Mediterranean climate zone, focusing on the Catalina Island, California. This project relied on publicly available online resources with the exception the geospatial processing software, ArcGIS. Daily climate station precipitation and temperature data was obtained from the Desert Research Institute for the years 2008-2014. Precipitation interpolations were performed with ArcGIS using the Natural Neighbor method. The USGS-National Map Viewer (NMV) website provided a 30-meter DEM - to interpolate high and low temperature ASCII grids using the Temperature Lapse Rate (TLR) method, to construct a D-8 flow direction grid for downhill redirection of soil-moisture saturated runoff toward non-saturated cells, and for aesthetic map creation. NMV also provided a modified Anderson land cover classification raster. The US Department of Agriculture-National Resource Conservation Service (NRCS) Web Soil Survey website provided shapefiles of soil water capacity and hydrologic soil groups. The Hargreaves and Samani method was implemented to determine evapotranspiration rates. The resulting SWB output data, in the form of ASCII grids are easily added to ArcGIS for quick visualization and data analysis (Figure 1). Calculated average recharge for 2008-2014 was 3537 inches/year, or 0.0174 acre feet/year. Recharge was 10.2% of the islands gross precipitation. The spatial distribution of the most significant recharge is in hotspots which dominate the residential hills above Avalon, followed by grassy/unvegetated areas

  5. Wireless Communications in Smart Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojkovic, Zoran; Bakmaz, Bojan

    Communication networks play a crucial role in smart grid, as the intelligence of this complex system is built based on information exchange across the power grid. Wireless communications and networking are among the most economical ways to build the essential part of the scalable communication infrastructure for smart grid. In particular, wireless networks will be deployed widely in the smart grid for automatic meter reading, remote system and customer site monitoring, as well as equipment fault diagnosing. With an increasing interest from both the academic and industrial communities, this chapter systematically investigates recent advances in wireless communication technology for the smart grid.

  6. A Rechargeable Hydrogen Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christudas Dargily, Neethu; Thimmappa, Ravikumar; Manzoor Bhat, Zahid; Devendrachari, Mruthunjayachari Chattanahalli; Kottaichamy, Alagar Raja; Gautam, Manu; Shafi, Shahid Pottachola; Thotiyl, Musthafa Ottakam

    2018-04-27

    We utilize proton-coupled electron transfer in hydrogen storage molecules to unlock a rechargeable battery chemistry based on the cleanest chemical energy carrier molecule, hydrogen. Electrochemical, spectroscopic, and spectroelectrochemical analyses evidence the participation of protons during charge-discharge chemistry and extended cycling. In an era of anthropogenic global climate change and paramount pollution, a battery concept based on a virtually nonpolluting energy carrier molecule demonstrates distinct progress in the sustainable energy landscape.

  7. Fast reactor recharging device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artemiev, L.N.; Kurilkin, V.V.

    1979-01-01

    Disclosure is made of a device for recharging a fast-neutron reactor, intended for the transfer of fuel assemblies and rods of the control and safety system, having profiled heads to be gripped on the outside. The device comprises storage drums whose compartments for rods of the control and safety system are identical to compartments for fuel assemblies. In order to store and transport rods of the control and safety system from the storage drums to the recharging mechanism provision is made for sleeve-type holders. When placed in such a holder, the dimensions of a rod of the control and safety system are equal to those of a fuel assembly. To join a holder to a rod of the control and safety system, on the open end of each holder there is mounted a collet, whereas on the surface of each rod of the control and safety system, close to its head, there is provided an encircling groove to interact with the collet. The grip of the recharging mechanism is provided with a stop interacting with the collet in order to open the latter and withdraw the safety and control system rod from its holder

  8. Smart electric grids in the United Kingdom energy strategy; Les reseaux electriques intelligents dans la strategie energetique du Royaume-Uni

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gloaguen, Olivier [Ambassade de France au Royaume-Uni, Service de presse, 58 Knightsbridge, London SW1X 7JT (United Kingdom); Dreyfus, Charles-Antoine [Ecole des Mines de Paris - MINES Paris Tech, 60, Boulevard Saint-Michel 75272 Paris cedex 06 (France)

    2011-09-15

    This study first gives an overview of the current status and limitations of the British power grid. It indicates the British energy mix, describes the network structure and its economic operation (gross and retail market with the bid and offer system, role of the System Operator, ways to increase the electricity production). It presents the energy policy and its regulation framework, outlines the current limitations and challenges (ageing grid, power crunch, de-carbonation challenges). It presents the development of a smart grid as a solution to economy de-carbonation challenges: definition of the 'smart grid concept', smart grid development planning (from 2010 to 2050), technological transition associated with smart electric grid development (a cleaner but more intermittent and random electricity production, better use of fossil fuels, electric energy storage, consequences for the grid, introduction and effects of smart meters). It describes the new associated economic model: evolution of the value chain, financial challenges (required investments, expected benefits, subsidies), new regulation system. It addresses the strategic challenges and the various uncertainties (notably in terms of consumption, privacy issue in relation with the use of smart meters, and project implementation).

  9. Are isolated wetlands groundwater recharge hotspots?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, A.; Wicks, C. M.; Brantley, S. T.; Golladay, S. W.

    2017-12-01

    Geographically isolated wetlands (GIWs) are a common landscape feature in the mantled karst terrain of the Dougherty Plain physiographic district in Southwestern Georgia. These wetlands support a high diversity of obligate/facultative wetland flora and fauna, including several endangered species. While the ecological value of these wetlands is well documented, the hydrologic effects of GIWs on larger watershed processes, such as water storage and aquifer recharge, are less clear. Our project seeks to understand the spatial and temporal variation in recharge across GIWs on this mantled karst landscape. In particular, our first step is to understand the role of isolated wetlands (presumed sinkholes) in delivering water into the underlying aquifer. Our hypothesis is that many GIWs are actually water-filled sinkholes and are locations of focused recharge feeding either the underlying upper Floridan aquifer or the nearby creeks. If we are correct, then these sinkholes should exhibit "drains", i.e., conduits into the limestone bedrock. Thus, the purposes of our initial study are to image the soil-limestone contact (the buried epikarstic surface) and determine if possible subsurface drains exist. Our field work was conducted at the Joseph W Jones Ecological Research Center. During the dry season, we conducted ground penetrating radar (GPR) surveys as grids and lines across a large wetland and across a field with no surface expression of a wetland or sinkhole. We used GPR (200 MHz antenna) with 1-m spacing between antenna and a ping rate of 1 ping per 40 centimeters. Our results show that the epikarstic surface exhibits a drain underneath the wetland (sinkhole) and that no similar feature was seen under the field, even though the survey grid and spacing were similar. As our project progresses, we will survey additional wetlands occurring across varying soil types to determine the spatial distribution between surface wetlands and subsurface drains.

  10. When energy grids become intelligent: smart grid standardisation in the starting-blocks; interconnection in Europe: 50 billions Euros to boost all networks; smart electric grids feed new projects; The United States and Europe connect standards on smart electric grids; smart metering: standards place their marker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nedey, Fabienne; Tourneur, Jean-Claude; Barthet, Marie-Claire

    2012-01-01

    As talking about smart grids has became a leitmotiv, their development appears to be complex as it requires all the actors (carriers, dealers, providers, decentralised producers, consumers, equipment manufacturers, and so on) to share a same transverse vision. A European cooperation group has been set up which gathers representatives of the European electrical and telecommunication industry. Beside, the European Commission has presented a plan which comprises 50 billions Euros of investments to improve all networks in the fields of transports, energy and digital technology. In France, six projects on smart grids gathered 115 millions Euros. At the international level, the NIST and SGCG have been asked to cooperatively elaborate a standard framework for smart grids. But smart metering concerns other fields than electricity...

  11. Progress and Challenge of Artificial Intelligence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhong-Zhi Shi; Nan-Ning Zheng

    2006-01-01

    Artificial Intelligence (AI) is generally considered to be a subfield of computer science, that is concerned to attempt simulation, extension and expansion of human intelligence. Artificial intelligence has enjoyed tremendous success over the last fifty years. In this paper we only focus on visual perception, granular computing, agent computing, semantic grid. Human-level intelligence is the long-term goal of artificial intelligence. We should do joint research on basic theory and technology of intelligence by brain science, cognitive science, artificial intelligence and others. A new cross discipline intelligence science is undergoing a rapid development. Future challenges are given in final section.

  12. Analysis of Information Quality in event triggered Smart Grid Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Thomas le Fevre; Olsen, Rasmus Løvenstein; Rasmussen, Jakob Gulddahl

    2015-01-01

    The integration of renewable energy sources into the power grid requires added control intelligence which imposes new communication requirements onto the future power grid. Since large scale implementation of new communication infrastructure is infeasible, we consider methods of increasing...

  13. Smart grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Dong Bae

    2001-11-01

    This book describes press smart grid from basics to recent trend. It is divided into ten chapters, which deals with smart grid as green revolution in energy with introduction, history, the fields, application and needed technique for smart grid, Trend of smart grid in foreign such as a model business of smart grid in foreign, policy for smart grid in U.S.A, Trend of smart grid in domestic with international standard of smart grid and strategy and rood map, smart power grid as infrastructure of smart business with EMS development, SAS, SCADA, DAS and PQMS, smart grid for smart consumer, smart renewable like Desertec project, convergence IT with network and PLC, application of an electric car, smart electro service for realtime of electrical pricing system, arrangement of smart grid.

  14. Micro grids toward the smart grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerrero, J.

    2011-01-01

    Worldwide electrical grids are expecting to become smarter in the near future, with interest in Microgrids likely to grow. A microgrid can be defined as a part of the grid with elements of prime energy movers, power electronics converters, distributed energy storage systems and local loads, that can operate autonomously but also interacting with main grid. Thus, the ability of intelligent Microgrids to operate in island mode or connected to the grid will be a keypoint to cope with new functionalities and the integration of renewable energy resources. The functionalities expected for these small grids are: black start operation, frequency and voltage stability, active and reactive power flow control, active power filter capabilities, and storage energy management. In this presentation, a review of the main concepts related to flexible Microgrids will be introduced, with examples of real Microgrids. AC and DC Microgrids to integrate renewable and distributed energy resources will also be presented, as well as distributed energy storage systems, and standardization issues of these Microgrids. Finally, Microgrid hierarchical control will be analyzed looking at three different levels: i) a primary control based on the droop method, including an output impedance virtual loop; ii) a secondary control, which enables restoring any deviations produced by the primary control; and iii) a tertiary control to manage the power flow between the microgrid and the external electrical distribution system.

  15. Optimal charging scheduling for large-scale EV (electric vehicle) deployment based on the interaction of the smart-grid and intelligent-transport systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Yugong; Zhu, Tao; Wan, Shuang; Zhang, Shuwei; Li, Keqiang

    2016-01-01

    The widespread use of electric vehicles (EVs) is becoming an imminent trend. Research has been done on the scheduling of EVs from the perspective of the charging characteristic, improvement in the safety and economy of the power grid, or the traffic jams in the transport system caused by a large number of EVs driven to charging stations. There is a lack of systematic studies considering EVs, the power grid, and the transport system all together. In this paper, a novel optimal charging scheduling strategy for different types of EVs is proposed based on not only transport system information, such as road length, vehicle velocity and waiting time, but also grid system information, such as load deviation and node voltage. In addition, a charging scheduling simulation platform suitable for large-scale EV deployment is developed based on actual charging scenarios. The simulation results show that the improvements in both the transport system efficiency and the grid system operation can be obtained by using the optimal strategy, such as the node voltage drop is decreased, the power loss is reduced, and the load curve is optimized. - Highlights: • A novel optimal charging scheduling strategy is proposed for different electric vehicles (EVs). • A simulation platform suitable for large-scale EV deployment is established. • The traffic congestion near the charging and battery-switch stations is relieved. • The safety and economy problems of the distribution network are solved. • The peak-to-valley load of the distribution system is reduced.

  16. Intelligence in Artificial Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Datta, Shoumen Palit Austin

    2016-01-01

    The elusive quest for intelligence in artificial intelligence prompts us to consider that instituting human-level intelligence in systems may be (still) in the realm of utopia. In about a quarter century, we have witnessed the winter of AI (1990) being transformed and transported to the zenith of tabloid fodder about AI (2015). The discussion at hand is about the elements that constitute the canonical idea of intelligence. The delivery of intelligence as a pay-per-use-service, popping out of ...

  17. Smart grids are advancing, light and supple

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petitot, Pauline

    2016-01-01

    While indicating some innovations produced by the Greenlys laboratory (SmartScan to localize losses by means of smart counters, a system for grid self-healing, Sequoia to manage a low voltage network, a tool for the prediction of photovoltaic production in real time), and also the main smart grid projects in France (Nice Grid, Solenn, SoGrid, Smart Electric Lyon, Poste intelligent, Greenlys, Smart Grids Vendee, BienVEnu), this article comments the emergence of several experiments on smart grids in France, the first drawn conclusions and recommendations. Some issues for this new architecture are discussed: the active demand management, cut-offs and flexibility, and the search for profitability

  18. Future electrical distribution grids: Smart Grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadjsaid, N.; Sabonnadiere, J.C.; Angelier, J.P.

    2010-01-01

    The new energy paradigm faced by distribution network represents a real scientific challenge. Thus, national and EU objectives in terms of environment and energy efficiency with resulted regulatory incentives for renewable energies, the deployment of smart meters and the need to respond to changing needs including new uses related to electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles introduce more complexity and favour the evolution towards a smarter grid. The economic interest group in Grenoble IDEA in connection with the power laboratory G2ELab at Grenoble Institute of technology, EDF and Schneider Electric are conducting research on the electrical distribution of the future in presence of distributed generation for ten years.Thus, several innovations emerged in terms of flexibility and intelligence of the distribution network. One can notice the intelligence solutions for voltage control, the tools of network optimization, the self-healing techniques, the innovative strategies for connecting distributed and intermittent generation or load control possibilities for the distributor. All these innovations are firmly in the context of intelligent networks of tomorrow 'Smart Grids'. (authors)

  19. Rechargeable radioactive isotope generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thornton, A.K.; Cerone, F.E.

    1978-01-01

    The description is given of a rechargeable radioactive isotope generator having the following features: a box containing a transport shield, a shielded generator including elements for the absorption and holding of the parent isotope, an eluant tank, a first pipe causing this tank to communicate with the transport shield, a second pipe causing this transport shield to communicate with the shielded generator and a third pipe placing the shielded generator in communication with the outside of the unit. It also includes a shelf across the external front part of the unit a part of which is shielded by external components, a shielded elution flask in which the eluate is poured and a filter set at a point between the flask and the third pipe [fr

  20. Progress in aqueous rechargeable batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jilei Liu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decades, a series of aqueous rechargeable batteries (ARBs were explored, investigated and demonstrated. Among them, aqueous rechargeable alkali-metal ion (Li+, Na+, K+ batteries, aqueous rechargeable-metal ion (Zn2+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Al3+ batteries and aqueous rechargeable hybrid batteries are standing out due to peculiar properties. In this review, we focus on the fundamental basics of these batteries, and discuss the scientific and/or technological achievements and challenges. By critically reviewing state-of-the-art technologies and the most promising results so far, we aim to analyze the benefits of ARBs and the critical issues to be addressed, and to promote better development of ARBs.

  1. Smart grids - French Expertise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-11-01

    The adaptation of electrical systems is the focus of major work worldwide. Bringing electricity to new territories, modernizing existing electricity grids, implementing energy efficiency policies and deploying renewable energies, developing new uses for electricity, introducing electric vehicles - these are the challenges facing a multitude of regions and countries. Smart Grids are the result of the convergence of electrical systems technologies with information and communications technologies. They play a key role in addressing the above challenges. Smart Grid development is a major priority for both public and private-sector actors in France. The experience of French companies has grown with the current French electricity system, a system that already shows extensive levels of 'intelligence', efficiency and competitiveness. French expertise also leverages substantial competence in terms of 'systems engineering', and can provide a tailored response to meet all sorts of needs. French products and services span all the technical and commercial building blocks that make up the Smart Grid value chain. They address the following issues: Improving the use and valuation of renewable energies and decentralized means of production, by optimizing the balance between generation and consumption. Strengthening the intelligence of the transmission and distribution grids: developing 'Supergrid', digitizing substations in transmission networks, and automating the distribution grids are the focus of a great many projects designed to reinforce the 'self-healing' capacity of the grid. Improving the valuation of decentralized flexibilities: this involves, among others, deploying smart meters, reinforcing active energy efficiency measures, and boosting consumers' contribution to grid balancing, via practices such as demand response which implies the aggregation of flexibility among residential, business, and/or industrial sites. Addressing current technological challenges, in

  2. An overview of smart grid routing algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junsheng; OU, Qinghai; Shen, Haijuan

    2017-08-01

    This paper summarizes the typical routing algorithm in smart grid by analyzing the communication business and communication requirements of intelligent grid. Mainly from the two kinds of routing algorithm is analyzed, namely clustering routing algorithm and routing algorithm, analyzed the advantages and disadvantages of two kinds of typical routing algorithm in routing algorithm and applicability.

  3. Synchronized phasor measurements for smart grids

    CERN Document Server

    Mohanta, D K

    2017-01-01

    The use of advanced technologies such as Phasor Measurement Units (PMUs) have made it possible to transform the power grid to an intelligent Smart Grid with realtime control and monitoring of the system. This book explores the application of PMUs in power systems.

  4. The Grid

    CERN Document Server

    Klotz, Wolf-Dieter

    2005-01-01

    Grid technology is widely emerging. Grid computing, most simply stated, is distributed computing taken to the next evolutionary level. The goal is to create the illusion of a simple, robust yet large and powerful self managing virtual computer out of a large collection of connected heterogeneous systems sharing various combinations of resources. This talk will give a short history how, out of lessons learned from the Internet, the vision of Grids was born. Then the extensible anatomy of a Grid architecture will be discussed. The talk will end by presenting a selection of major Grid projects in Europe and US and if time permits a short on-line demonstration.

  5. Modelling of recharge and pollutant fluxes to urban groundwaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Abraham; Tellam, John

    2006-01-01

    Urban groundwater resources are of considerable importance to the long-term viability of many cities world-wide, yet prediction of the quantity and quality of recharge is only rarely attempted at anything other than a very basic level. This paper describes the development of UGIf, a simple model written within a GIS, designed to provide estimates of spatially distributed recharge and recharge water quality in unconfined but covered aquifers. The following processes (with their calculation method indicated) are included: runoff and interception (curve number method); evapotranspiration (Penman-Grindley); interflow (empirical index approach); volatilization (Henry's law); sorption (distribution coefficient); and degradation (first order decay). The input data required are: meteorological data, landuse/cover map with event mean concentration attributes, geological maps with hydraulic and geochemical attributes, and topographic and water table elevation data in grid form. Standard outputs include distributions of: surface runoff, infiltration, potential recharge, ground level slope, interflow, actual recharge, pollutant fluxes in surface runoff, travel times of each pollutant through the unsaturated zone, and the pollutant fluxes and concentrations at the water table. The process of validation has commenced with a study of the Triassic Sandstone aquifer underlying Birmingham, UK. UGIf predicts a similar average recharge rate for the aquifer as previous groundwater flow modelling studies, but with significantly more spatial detail: in particular the results indicate that recharge through paved areas may be more important than previously thought. The results also highlight the need for more knowledge/data on the following: runoff estimation; interflow (including the effects of lateral flow and channelling on flow times and therefore chemistry); evapotranspiration in paved areas; the nature of unsaturated zone flow below paved areas; and the role of the pipe network

  6. IBM announces global Grid computing solutions for banking, financial markets

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    "IBM has announced a series of Grid projects around the world as part of its Grid computing program. They include IBM new Grid-based product offerings with business intelligence software provider SAS and other partners that address the computer-intensive needs of the banking and financial markets industry (1 page)."

  7. The Knowledge Grid

    CERN Document Server

    Zhuge, Hai

    2004-01-01

    The Knowledge Grid is an intelligent and sustainable interconnection environment that enables people and machines to effectively capture, publish, share and manage knowledge resources. It also provides appropriate on-demand services to support scientific research, technological innovation, cooperative teamwork, problem solving, and decision making. It incorporates epistemology and ontology to reflect human cognitive characteristics; exploits social, ecological and economic principles; and adopts techniques and standards developed during work toward the future web. This book presents its methodology, theory, models and applications systematically for the first time.

  8. Vesicle-based rechargeable batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanish, I.; Singh, A. [Center for Bio/Molecular Science and Engineering, Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Ave., S.W., Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Lowy, D.A. [Nova Research, Inc., 1900 Elkin St., Alexandria, VA 22308 (United States); Hung, C.W. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)

    2005-05-02

    Vesicle-based rechargeable batteries can be fabricated by mounting polymerized vesicles filled with ferrocyanide or ferricyanide to a conductive surface. The potential can be adjusted by changing the concentration ratio of hydroquinone and benzoquinone bound to the vesicle membranes. These batteries show promise as a means of supplying portable power for future autonomous nanosystems. (Abstract Copyright [2005], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  9. Smart homes as a base for smart grids; Smart Home als Basis fuer Smart Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segbusch, Klaus von [ABB AG, Mannheim (Germany). Team Business Development Smart Grids; Struwe, Christian [Busch-Jaeger Elektro GmbH, Luedenscheid (Germany)

    2010-09-15

    Integration of renewable energy sources requires more intelligent distribution systems, i.e. so-called smart grids. For this, it is necessary to integrate the end customers in grid operation, giving them financial incentives, information in near real time from the utility, and means for automatic control of their consumption. (orig.)

  10. Comparison and Evaluation of the Performance of Various Types of Neural Networks for Planning Issues Related to Optimal Management of Charging and Discharging Electric Cars in Intelligent Power Grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Moradzaeh

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of electric vehicles in addition to reducing environmental concerns can play a significant role in reducing the peak and filling the characteristic valleys of the daily network load. In other words, in the context of smart grids, it is possible to improve the battery of electric vehicles by scheduling charging and discharging processes. In this research, the issue of controlling the charge and discharge of electric vehicles was evaluated using a variety of neural models, until the by examining the effect of the growth rate of the penetration level of electric vehicles of the hybrid type that can be connected to the distribution network, the results of the charge management and discharge model of the proposed response are examined. The results indicate that due to increased penetration of these cars is increased the amount of responses to charge and discharge management. In this research, a variety of neural network methods, a neural network method using Multilayer Perceptron Training (MLP, b neural network method using Jordan Education (RNN, c neural network method using training (RBF Was evaluated based on parameters such as reduction of training error, reduction of network testing error, duration of run and number of replications for each one. The final results indicate that electric vehicles can be used as scattered power plants, and can be useful for regulating the frequency and regulation of network voltages and the supply of peak traffic. This also reduces peak charges and incidental costs, which ultimately helps to further network stability. Finally, the charge and discharge management response reflects the fact that intelligent network-based models have the ability to manage the charge and discharge of electric vehicles, and among the models the amount of error reduction training and testing is very favourable for both RNN, MLP.

  11. Grid Security

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2004-01-01

    The aim of Grid computing is to enable the easy and open sharing of resources between large and highly distributed communities of scientists and institutes across many independent administrative domains. Convincing site security officers and computer centre managers to allow this to happen in view of today's ever-increasing Internet security problems is a major challenge. Convincing users and application developers to take security seriously is equally difficult. This paper will describe the main Grid security issues, both in terms of technology and policy, that have been tackled over recent years in LCG and related Grid projects. Achievements to date will be described and opportunities for future improvements will be addressed.

  12. Authentication Method for Privacy Protection in Smart Grid Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Do-Eun; Yeo, Sang-Soo; Kim, Si-Jung

    2014-01-01

    Recently, the interest in green energy is increasing as a means to resolve problems including the exhaustion of the energy source and, effective management of energy through the convergence of various fields. Therefore, the projects of smart grid which is called intelligent electrical grid for the accomplishment of low carbon green growth are being carried out in a rush. However, as the IT is centered upon the electrical grid, the shortage of IT also appears in smart grid and the complexity o...

  13. Intelligible Artificial Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Weld, Daniel S.; Bansal, Gagan

    2018-01-01

    Since Artificial Intelligence (AI) software uses techniques like deep lookahead search and stochastic optimization of huge neural networks to fit mammoth datasets, it often results in complex behavior that is difficult for people to understand. Yet organizations are deploying AI algorithms in many mission-critical settings. In order to trust their behavior, we must make it intelligible --- either by using inherently interpretable models or by developing methods for explaining otherwise overwh...

  14. Grid Computing

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A computing grid interconnects resources such as high performancecomputers, scientific databases, and computercontrolledscientific instruments of cooperating organizationseach of which is autonomous. It precedes and is quitedifferent from cloud computing, which provides computingresources by vendors to customers ...

  15. Grid Computing

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    emergence of supercomputers led to the use of computer simula- tion as an .... Scientific and engineering applications (e.g., Tera grid secure gate way). Collaborative ... Encryption, privacy, protection from malicious software. Physical Layer.

  16. Iron-Air Rechargeable Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Sri R. (Inventor); Prakash, G.K. Surya (Inventor); Kindler, Andrew (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Embodiments include an iron-air rechargeable battery having a composite electrode including an iron electrode and a hydrogen electrode integrated therewith. An air electrode is spaced from the iron electrode and an electrolyte is provided in contact with the air electrode and the iron electrodes. Various additives and catalysts are disclosed with respect to the iron electrode, air electrode, and electrolyte for increasing battery efficiency and cycle life.

  17. Groundwater recharge and agricultural contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhlke, J.K.

    2002-01-01

    Agriculture has had direct and indirect effects on the rates and compositions of groundwater recharge and aquifer biogeochemistry. Direct effects include dissolution and transport of excess quantities of fertilizers and associated materials and hydrologic alterations related to irrigation and drainage. Some indirect effects include changes in water–rock reactions in soils and aquifers caused by increased concentrations of dissolved oxidants, protons, and major ions. Agricultural activities have directly or indirectly affected the concentrations of a large number of inorganic chemicals in groundwater, for example NO3–, N2, Cl, SO42–, H+, P, C, K, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ra, and As, as well as a wide variety of pesticides and other organic compounds. For reactive contaminants like NO3–, a combination of chemical, isotopic, and environmental-tracer analytical approaches might be required to resolve changing inputs from subsequent alterations as causes of concentration gradients in groundwater. Groundwater records derived from multi-component hydrostratigraphic data can be used to quantify recharge rates and residence times of water and dissolved contaminants, document past variations in recharging contaminant loads, and identify natural contaminant-remediation processes. These data indicate that many of the world's surficial aquifers contain transient records of changing agricultural contamination from the last half of the 20th century. The transient agricultural groundwater signal has important implications for long-term trends and spatial heterogeneity in discharge.

  18. A Cloud Associated Smart Grid Admin Dashboard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Naveen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Intelligent smart grid system undertakes electricity demand in a sustainable, reliable, economical and environmentally friendly manner. As smart grid involves, it has the liability of meeting the changing consumer needs on the day-to-day basis. Modern energy consumers like to vivaciously regulate their consumption patterns more competently and intelligently than current provided ways. To fulfill the consumers’ needs, smart meters and sensors make the grid infrastructure more efficient and resilient in energy data collection and management even with the ever-changing renewable power generation. Though cloud acts as an outlet for the energy consumers to retrieve energy data from the grid, the information systems available are technically constrained and not user-friendly. Hence, a simple technology enabled utility-consumer interactive information system in the form of a dashboard is presented to cater the electric consumer needs.

  19. Potential groundwater recharge for the State of Minnesota using the Soil-Water-Balance model, 1996-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Erik A.; Westenbroek, Stephen M.

    2015-01-01

    Groundwater recharge is one of the most difficult components of a water budget to ascertain, yet is an important boundary condition necessary for the quantification of water resources. In Minnesota, improved estimates of recharge are necessary because approximately 75 percent of drinking water and 90 percent of agricultural irrigation water in Minnesota are supplied from groundwater. The water that is withdrawn must be supplied by some combination of (1) increased recharge, (2) decreased discharge to streams, lakes, and other surface-water bodies, and (3) removal of water that was stored in the system. Recent pressure on groundwater resources has highlighted the need to provide more accurate recharge estimates for various tools that can assess the sustainability of long-term water use. As part of this effort, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency, used the Soil-Water-Balance model to calculate gridded estimates of potential groundwater recharge across Minnesota for 1996‒2010 at a 1-kilometer (0.621-mile) resolution. The potential groundwater recharge estimates calculated for Minnesota from the Soil-Water Balance model included gridded values (1-kilometer resolution) of annual mean estimates (that is, the means for individual years from 1996 through 2010) and mean annual estimates (that is, the mean for the 15-year period 1996−2010).

  20. Artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Hunt, Earl B

    1975-01-01

    Artificial Intelligence provides information pertinent to the fundamental aspects of artificial intelligence. This book presents the basic mathematical and computational approaches to problems in the artificial intelligence field.Organized into four parts encompassing 16 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the various fields of artificial intelligence. This text then attempts to connect artificial intelligence problems to some of the notions of computability and abstract computing devices. Other chapters consider the general notion of computability, with focus on the interaction bet

  1. Intelligent mechatronics; Intelligent mechatronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, H. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Institute of Industrial Science

    1995-10-01

    Intelligent mechatronics (IM) was explained as follows: a study of IM essentially targets realization of a robot namely, but in the present stage the target is a creation of new values by intellectualization of machine, that is, a combination of the information infrastructure and the intelligent machine system. IM is also thought to be constituted of computers positively used and micromechatronics. The paper next introduces examples of IM study, mainly those the author is concerned with as shown below: sensor gloves, robot hands, robot eyes, tele operation, three-dimensional object recognition, mobile robot, magnetic bearing, construction of remote controlled unmanned dam, robot network, sensitivity communication using neuro baby, etc. 27 figs.

  2. Quantification of groundwater recharge in urban environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubau, Isabel; Vázquez-Suñé, Enric; Carrera, Jesús; Valhondo, Cristina; Criollo, Rotman

    2017-08-15

    Groundwater management in urban areas requires a detailed knowledge of the hydrogeological system as well as the adequate tools for predicting the amount of groundwater and water quality evolution. In that context, a key difference between urban and natural areas lies in recharge evaluation. A large number of studies have been published since the 1990s that evaluate recharge in urban areas, with no specific methodology. Most of these methods show that there are generally higher rates of recharge in urban settings than in natural settings. Methods such as mixing ratios or groundwater modeling can be used to better estimate the relative importance of different sources of recharge and may prove to be a good tool for total recharge evaluation. However, accurate evaluation of this input is difficult. The objective is to present a methodology to help overcome those difficulties, and which will allow us to quantify the variability in space and time of the recharge into aquifers in urban areas. Recharge calculations have been initially performed by defining and applying some analytical equations, and validation has been assessed based on groundwater flow and solute transport modeling. This methodology is applicable to complex systems by considering temporal variability of all water sources. This allows managers of urban groundwater to evaluate the relative contribution of different recharge sources at a city scale by considering quantity and quality factors. The methodology is applied to the assessment of recharge sources in the Barcelona city aquifers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. European electricity grid. Status and perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maillard, Dominique

    2010-01-01

    There is no doubt about the need to expand and modernize the European electricity grid, especially in order to allow renewable energies to be fed stochastically into existing systems. As it is hardly possible at the present time and also in the near future to store electricity on a major scale and at adequate prices, electricity must be transmitted from the point of generation to the point of consumption directly and in real time. The development of grid systems, including cross-border transmission systems, is still behind expectations. This is not due to a shortage of projects or a lack of interest on the part of grid operators; the necessary political support is available as well, and investments at present are covered by the feed tariffs. The problem is the lack of acceptance. It is difficult to obtain new permits or commission new grids. This problem of the licensing authorities often results in considerable delays. Consequently, it is up to the grid operators to handle this situation and promote new, intelligent grid systems in an effort to achieve acceptance of a technical-scale infrastructure. This includes transparency in grid expansion, exchange with the public in order to reach mutual understanding and trust and also find compromises as well as the willingness to discuss various approaches to solutions (underground routing, upgrading of existing grid systems, smart systems, and intelligent designs) so as to optimize the use of the existing infrastructure. (orig.)

  4. PPARC: Grid technology helps astronomers keep pace with the Universe

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    "Intelligent Agent" computer programs are roaming the Internet and watching the skies. These programs, using Grid computing technology, will help astronomers detect some of the most dramatic events in the universe, such as massive supernova explosions (1 page).

  5. Smart Grids Cyber Security Issues and Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Imen Aouini; Lamia Ben Azzouz

    2015-01-01

    The energy need is growing rapidly due to the population growth and the large new usage of power. Several works put considerable efforts to make the electricity grid more intelligent to reduce essentially energy consumption and provide efficiency and reliability of power systems. The Smart Grid is a complex architecture that covers critical devices and systems vulnerable to significant attacks. Hence, security is a crucial factor for the success and the wide deployment of...

  6. Consumer Behavior towards Scheduling and Pricing of Electric Cars Recharging: Theoretical and Experimental Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fetene, Gebeyehu Manie

    electric cars. The last chapter deals with analysis of energy consumption rate and its determinants of electric cars under the hands of customers. A variety of techniques are used including analysis of field data, economics laboratory experiments and theoretical modeling with simulation. Chapter one...... and Pricing of Electric Vehicle Recharging’, proposes, and tests at laboratory, contracts about recharging BEVs combining the ultimatum game framework and the myopic loss aversion (MLA) behavioral hypothesis. The model represents the behavior of EV-owners trading-off between the amount of the discount on fee...... price as long-term contracts may curtail MLA behavior and help BEV owners to choose cost minimizing recharging time and, simultaneously, may help to reduce BEVs impact on the electricity grid system. The fourth chapter, ‘Using the Peer Effect in Scheduling and Pricing Electric Vehicles Recharging...

  7. Management decision of optimal recharge water in groundwater artificial recharge conditions- A case study in an artificial recharge test site

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, H. Y.; Shi, X. F.; Zhu, W.; Wang, C. Q.; Ma, H. W.; Zhang, W. J.

    2017-11-01

    The city conducted groundwater artificial recharge test which was taken a typical site as an example, and the purpose is to prevent and control land subsidence, increase the amount of groundwater resources. To protect groundwater environmental quality and safety, the city chose tap water as recharge water, however, the high cost makes it not conducive to the optimal allocation of water resources and not suitable to popularize widely. To solve this, the city selects two major surface water of River A and B as the proposed recharge water, to explore its feasibility. According to a comprehensive analysis of the cost of recharge, the distance of the water transport, the quality of recharge water and others. Entropy weight Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation Method is used to prefer tap water and water of River A and B. Evaluation results show that water of River B is the optimal recharge water, if used; recharge cost will be from 0.4724/m3 to 0.3696/m3. Using Entropy weight Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation Method to confirm water of River B as optimal water is scientific and reasonable. The optimal water management decisions can provide technical support for the city to carry out overall groundwater artificial recharge engineering in deep aquifer.

  8. Artificial Intelligence and Moral intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Pana

    2008-01-01

    We discuss the thesis that the implementation of a moral code in the behaviour of artificial intelligent systems needs a specific form of human and artificial intelligence, not just an abstract intelligence. We present intelligence as a system with an internal structure and the structural levels of the moral system, as well as certain characteristics of artificial intelligent agents which can/must be treated as 1- individual entities (with a complex, specialized, autonomous or selfdetermined,...

  9. Power grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viterbo, J.

    2012-01-01

    The implementation of renewable energies represents new challenges for electrical systems. The objective: making power grids smarter so they can handle intermittent production. The advent of smart grids will allow flexible operations like distributing energy in a multidirectional manner instead of just one way and it will make electrical systems capable of integrating actions by different users, consumers and producers in order to maintain efficient, sustainable, economical and secure power supplies. Practically speaking, they associate sensors, instrumentation and controls with information processing and communication systems in order to create massively automated networks. Smart grids require huge investments: for example more than 7 billion dollars have been invested in China and in the Usa in 2010 and France is ranked 9. worldwide with 265 million dollars invested. It is expected that smart grids will promote the development of new business models and a change in the value chain for energy. Decentralized production combined with the probable introduction of more or less flexible rates for sales or purchases and of new supplier-customer relationships will open the way to the creation of new businesses. (A.C.)

  10. Conference on grid integration of renewable energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontaine, Pierre; Goeke, Berthold; Mignon, Herve; Brakelmann, Heinrich; Huebner, Gundula; Tanja Schmedes; Remy Garaude Verdier; Pierre-Guy Therond; Werner Diwald

    2012-01-01

    The French-German office for Renewable energies (OFAEnR) organised a conference on grid integration of renewable energies. In the framework of this French-German exchange of experience, about a hundred of participants exchanged views on the similarities and differences between the French and German approaches of renewable energies integration to grids. This document brings together the available presentations (slides) made during this event: 1 - Power grid development - Policy and challenges (Pierre Fontaine); 2 - Grid Development: German Strategy (Berthold Goeke); 3 - Power grids development: situational analysis (Herve Mignon); 4 - Traditional Power Lines, Partial Underground Cabling and HVDC lines: Costs, Benefits and Acceptance (Heinrich Brakelmann); 5 - Transmission Lines - Local Acceptance (Gundula Huebner); 6 - eTelligence- energy meets Intelligence: experience feedback from the grid operator EWe on smart grids and the integration of renewable energies (Tanja Schmedes); 7 - Nice Grid, The French Smart Grid Project within Grid4eU (Remy Garaude Verdier); 8 - Economical Analysis Of energy Storage For Renewable energy Farms - experience of EDF en on the basis of 3 call for tender issued by the French Government in 01/2010, 11/2010, and 09/2011: what conditions for a real deployment (Pierre-Guy Therond); 9 - Hydrogen as a renewable energies storage mean (Werner Diwald)

  11. Transformer Recharging with Alpha Channeling in Tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisch, N.J.

    2009-01-01

    Transformer recharging with lower hybrid waves in tokamaks can give low average auxiliary power if the resistivity is kept high enough during the radio frequency (rf) recharging stage. At the same time, operation in the hot ion mode via alpha channeling increases the effective fusion reactivity. This paper will address the extent to which these two large cost saving steps are compatible.

  12. Recharge at the Hanford Site: Status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gee, G.W.

    1987-11-01

    A variety of field programs designed to evaluate recharge and other water balance components including precipitation, infiltration, evaporation, and water storage changes, have been carried out at the Hanford Site since 1970. Data from these programs have indicated that a wide range of recharge rates can occur depending upon specific site conditions. Present evidence suggests that minimum recharge occurs where soils are fine-textured and surfaces are vegetated with deep-rooted plants. Maximum recharge occurs where coarse soils or gravels exist at the surface and soils are kept bare. Recharge can occur in areas where shallow-rooted plants dominate the surface, particularly where soils are coarse-textured. Recharge estimates have been made for the site using simulation models. A US Geological Survey model that attempts to account for climate variability, soil storage parameters, and plant factors has calculated recharge values ranging from near zero to an average of about 1 cm/yr for the Hanford Site. UNSAT-H, a deterministic model developed for the site, appears to be the best code available for estimating recharge on a site-specific basis. Appendix I contains precipitation data from January 1979 to June 1987. 42 refs., 11 figs., 11 tabs

  13. A rechargeable carbon-oxygen battery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The invention relates to a rechargeable battery and a method to operate a rechargeable battery having high efficiency and high energy density for storing energy. The battery stores electrical energy in the bonds of carbon and oxygen atoms by converting carbon dioxide into solid carbon and oxygen....

  14. NORTH CAROLINA GROUNDWATER RECHARGE RATES 1994

    Science.gov (United States)

    North Carolina Groundwater Recharge Rates, from Heath, R.C., 1994, Ground-water recharge in North Carolina: North Carolina State University, as prepared for the NC Department of Environment, Health and Natural Resources (NC DEHNR) Division of Enviromental Management Groundwater S...

  15. A Game Theoretic Approach for EV Recharge Pricing Under Competition: Analysis and Simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Amigo , Isabel; Gagnaire , Maurice

    2015-01-01

    Electric Vehicles (EV) are a key element of future smart cities, providing a clean transportation technology and potential benefits for the grid. Nevertheless, limited vehicle autonomy and lack of charging stations are preventing EVs to be broadly accepted. To address this challenge, French GreenFeed project is working to develop an interoperable and universal architecture to allow EV recharge across multiple cities and countries. In this work, we consider such architecture and focus on price...

  16. Mini Smart Grid @ Copenhagen Business School

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rasmus U.; Furtak, Simon J.; Häuser, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    Project Smart Grid: The Intelligent Electrical System Is the Way Forward In 2012 Peter Møllgaard from Department of Economics and Rasmus Pedersen from Department of IT Management initiated a new project supported by CBS Sustainability Platform. The purpose of the project is to establish an unders......Project Smart Grid: The Intelligent Electrical System Is the Way Forward In 2012 Peter Møllgaard from Department of Economics and Rasmus Pedersen from Department of IT Management initiated a new project supported by CBS Sustainability Platform. The purpose of the project is to establish...... an understanding of micro-economic and IT challenges related to Smart Grid technology. The mini-smart-grid project at Copenhagen Business School (MSC@CBS) project seeks to investigate the business opportunities and issues that arise from this new technology. The project revolves around the concepts of Smart Grids......, Smart Meters and prosumers. Smart Grids are a new method of managing electricity and power supply. It has not reached its full potential yet, but it offers a more interactive platform for both the consumer and the main supplier e.g. Dong Energy. The Smart Grid will collect and control the behavior...

  17. Grid pulser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansweijer, P.P.M.; Es, J.T. van.

    1990-01-01

    This report describes a fast pulse generator. This generator delivers a high-voltage pulse of at most 6000 V with a rise time being smaller than 50 nS. this results in a slew rate of more than 120.000 volts per μS. The pulse generator is used to control the grid of the injector of the electron accelerator MEA. The capacity of this grid is about 60 pF. In order to charge this capacity up to 6000 volts in 50 nS a current of 8 ampere is needed. The maximal pulse length is 50 μS with a repeat frequency of 500 Hz. During this 50 μS the stability of the pulse amplitude is better than 0.1%. (author). 20 figs

  18. The grid

    OpenAIRE

    Morrad, Annie; McArthur, Ian

    2018-01-01

    Project Anywhere Project title: The Grid   Artists: Annie Morrad: Artist/Senior Lecturer, University of Lincoln, School of Film and Media, Lincoln, UK   Dr Ian McArthur: Hybrid Practitioner/Senior Lecturer, UNSW Art & Design, UNSW Australia, Sydney, Australia   Annie Morrad is a London-based artist and musician and senior lecturer at the University of Lincoln, UK. Dr Ian McArthur is a Sydney-based hybrid practitione...

  19. Adaptive Data Collection Mechanisms for Smart Monitoring of Distribution Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kemal, Mohammed Seifu; Olsen, Rasmus Løvenstein

    2016-01-01

    Smart Grid systems not only transport electric energy but also information which will be active part of the electricity supply system. This has led to the introduction of intelligent components on all layers of the electrical grid in power generation, transmission, distribution and consumption...... in the loop test-bed with power and communication co-simulation for validation purposes....

  20. Power systems signal processing for smart grids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ribeiro, P.F.; Duque, C.A.; Da Silveira, P.M.; Cerqueira, A.S.

    2013-01-01

    With special relation to smart grids, this book provides clear and comprehensive explanation of how Digital Signal Processing (DSP) and Computational Intelligence (CI) techniques can be applied to solve problems in the power system. Its unique coverage bridges the gap between DSP, electrical power

  1. 2nd International Conference on Intelligent Computing, Communication & Devices

    CERN Document Server

    Popentiu-Vladicescu, Florin

    2017-01-01

    The book presents high quality papers presented at 2nd International Conference on Intelligent Computing, Communication & Devices (ICCD 2016) organized by Interscience Institute of Management and Technology (IIMT), Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India, during 13 and 14 August, 2016. The book covers all dimensions of intelligent sciences in its three tracks, namely, intelligent computing, intelligent communication and intelligent devices. intelligent computing track covers areas such as intelligent and distributed computing, intelligent grid and cloud computing, internet of things, soft computing and engineering applications, data mining and knowledge discovery, semantic and web technology, hybrid systems, agent computing, bioinformatics, and recommendation systems. Intelligent communication covers communication and network technologies, including mobile broadband and all optical networks that are the key to groundbreaking inventions of intelligent communication technologies. This covers communication hardware, soft...

  2. Safe Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Edward T.; Stewart, Helen; Korsmeyer, David (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    The biggest users of GRID technologies came from the science and technology communities. These consist of government, industry and academia (national and international). The NASA GRID is moving into a higher technology readiness level (TRL) today; and as a joint effort among these leaders within government, academia, and industry, the NASA GRID plans to extend availability to enable scientists and engineers across these geographical boundaries collaborate to solve important problems facing the world in the 21 st century. In order to enable NASA programs and missions to use IPG resources for program and mission design, the IPG capabilities needs to be accessible from inside the NASA center networks. However, because different NASA centers maintain different security domains, the GRID penetration across different firewalls is a concern for center security people. This is the reason why some IPG resources are been separated from the NASA center network. Also, because of the center network security and ITAR concerns, the NASA IPG resource owner may not have full control over who can access remotely from outside the NASA center. In order to obtain organizational approval for secured remote access, the IPG infrastructure needs to be adapted to work with the NASA business process. Improvements need to be made before the IPG can be used for NASA program and mission development. The Secured Advanced Federated Environment (SAFE) technology is designed to provide federated security across NASA center and NASA partner's security domains. Instead of one giant center firewall which can be difficult to modify for different GRID applications, the SAFE "micro security domain" provide large number of professionally managed "micro firewalls" that can allow NASA centers to accept remote IPG access without the worry of damaging other center resources. The SAFE policy-driven capability-based federated security mechanism can enable joint organizational and resource owner approved remote

  3. Artificial Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information Technology Quarterly, 1985

    1985-01-01

    This issue of "Information Technology Quarterly" is devoted to the theme of "Artificial Intelligence." It contains two major articles: (1) Artificial Intelligence and Law" (D. Peter O'Neill and George D. Wood); (2) "Artificial Intelligence: A Long and Winding Road" (John J. Simon, Jr.). In addition, it contains two sidebars: (1) "Calculating and…

  4. Competitive Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, Pierrette; Hiller, Christine A.

    2002-01-01

    Reviews the evolution of competitive intelligence since 1994, including terminology and definitions and analytical techniques. Addresses the issue of ethics; explores how information technology supports the competitive intelligence process; and discusses education and training opportunities for competitive intelligence, including core competencies…

  5. Grid interoperability: joining grid information systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flechl, M; Field, L

    2008-01-01

    A grid is defined as being 'coordinated resource sharing and problem solving in dynamic, multi-institutional virtual organizations'. Over recent years a number of grid projects, many of which have a strong regional presence, have emerged to help coordinate institutions and enable grids. Today, we face a situation where a number of grid projects exist, most of which are using slightly different middleware. Grid interoperation is trying to bridge these differences and enable Virtual Organizations to access resources at the institutions independent of their grid project affiliation. Grid interoperation is usually a bilateral activity between two grid infrastructures. Recently within the Open Grid Forum, the Grid Interoperability Now (GIN) Community Group is trying to build upon these bilateral activities. The GIN group is a focal point where all the infrastructures can come together to share ideas and experiences on grid interoperation. It is hoped that each bilateral activity will bring us one step closer to the overall goal of a uniform grid landscape. A fundamental aspect of a grid is the information system, which is used to find available grid services. As different grids use different information systems, interoperation between these systems is crucial for grid interoperability. This paper describes the work carried out to overcome these differences between a number of grid projects and the experiences gained. It focuses on the different techniques used and highlights the important areas for future standardization

  6. Smart Grid Communication Technologies in the Brazilian Electrical Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Kühne, Philipp; Hauer, Ines; Styczynski, Zbigniew A.; Fernandes, Rubipiara; Vale, Zita

    2013-01-01

    Intelligent electrical grids can be considered as the next generation of electrical energy transportation. The enormous potential leads to worldwide focus of research on the technology of smart grids. This paper aims to present a review of the Brazilian electricity sector in context with the integration of communication technologies for smart grids. The work gives an overview of the generation, transmission and distribution of electrical energy in the Brazil and a brief summary ...

  7. Intelligence Ethics:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønn, Kira Vrist

    2016-01-01

    Questions concerning what constitutes a morally justified conduct of intelligence activities have received increased attention in recent decades. However, intelligence ethics is not yet homogeneous or embedded as a solid research field. The aim of this article is to sketch the state of the art...... of intelligence ethics and point out subjects for further scrutiny in future research. The review clusters the literature on intelligence ethics into two groups: respectively, contributions on external topics (i.e., the accountability of and the public trust in intelligence agencies) and internal topics (i.......e., the search for an ideal ethical framework for intelligence actions). The article concludes that there are many holes to fill for future studies on intelligence ethics both in external and internal discussions. Thus, the article is an invitation – especially, to moral philosophers and political theorists...

  8. Intelligence Naturelle et Intelligence Artificielle

    OpenAIRE

    Dubois, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Cet article présente une approche systémique du concept d’intelligence naturelle en ayant pour objectif de créer une intelligence artificielle. Ainsi, l’intelligence naturelle, humaine et animale non-humaine, est une fonction composée de facultés permettant de connaître et de comprendre. De plus, l'intelligence naturelle reste indissociable de la structure, à savoir les organes du cerveau et du corps. La tentation est grande de doter les systèmes informatiques d’une intelligence artificielle ...

  9. Rechargeable Lithium Metal Cell, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — PSI proposes to develop a rechargeable lithium metal cell with energy density >400Wh/kg. This represents a >70% increase as compared to similarly constructed...

  10. NTS groundwater recharge study, FY 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyles, B.F.; Mihevc, T.M.

    1992-10-01

    Groundwater recharge from precipitation is thought by many scientists to be extremely low in Southem Nevada; however, no direct measurements of recharge have been made to substantiate this hypothesis. Three geomorphic regions have been identified as potential areas of groundwater recharge at the Nevada Test Site (NTS): mesas, washes, and lowlands. Eight recharge monitoring stations have been installed to monitor each of these regions; four of the stations are on Pahute/Rainier Mesa, two stations are in Fortymile Wash, one station is in a transition area between the mesas and the lowlands (Whiterock Spring), and one station is located in Yucca Flat at the bottom of the U-3fd crater. An additional station is proposed for Frenchman Flat near the Area 5 mixed waste facility; however, the instrumentation of that site has been delayed due to the complex permitting process associated with instrument installation near the mixed waste facility. Digital data were collected from eight sites during FY 1992

  11. Multiple recharge processes to heterogeneous Mediterranean coastal aquifers and implications on recharge rates evolution in time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoni, S.; Huneau, F.; Garel, E.; Celle-Jeanton, H.

    2018-04-01

    Climate change is nowadays widely considered to have major effects on groundwater resources. Climatic projections suggest a global increase in evaporation and higher frequency of strong rainfall events especially in Mediterranean context. Since evaporation is synonym of low recharge conditions whereas strong rainfall events are more favourable to recharge in heterogeneous subsurface contexts, a lack of knowledge remains then on the real ongoing and future drinking groundwater supply availability at aquifers scale. Due to low recharge potential and high inter-annual climate variability, this issue is strategic for the Mediterranean hydrosystems. This is especially the case for coastal aquifers because they are exposed to seawater intrusion, sea-level rise and overpumping risks. In this context, recharge processes and rates were investigated in a Mediterranean coastal aquifer with subsurface heterogeneity located in Southern Corsica (France). Aquifer recharge rates from combining ten physical and chemical methods were computed. In addition, hydrochemical and isotopic investigations were carried out through a monthly two years monitoring combining major ions and stable isotopes of water in rain, runoff and groundwater. Diffuse, focused, lateral mountain system and irrigation recharge processes were identified and characterized. A predominant focused recharge conditioned by subsurface heterogeneity is evidenced in agreement with variable but highly favourable recharge rates. The fast water transfer from the surface to the aquifer implied by this recharge process suggests less evaporation, which means higher groundwater renewal and availability in such Mediterranean coastal aquifers.

  12. Intelligent Electricity Broker

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grode, Jesper Nicolai Riis; Væggemose, Poul Erik; Kulik, Tomas

    The Intelligent Electricity Broker (IEB) is a new energy storage and energy broker facility that serves two purposes. Firstly, it allows for storing excessive energy in the Smart Grid [1, 2, 3] it is connected to. Secondly, it runs a broker-algorithm that ensures that energy is purchased and sold...... when feasible to the system owner. This paper describes how the IEB can be used by house owners, in building clusters, and/or by energy providers to take advantage of electricity stock market prices and weather forecasts to control energy surplus storage suffers as well as to lower electricity bills...

  13. Estimation of alluvial recharge in the semiarid

    OpenAIRE

    Andrade,Tafnes S.; Montenegro,Suzana M. G. L.; Montenegro,Abelardo A. de A.; Rodrigues,Diogo F. B.

    2014-01-01

    In areas where there is irrigated agriculture, the recuperation of water reserves in alluvial aquifers may occur preferentially due to precipitation. Recharging can be evaluated from variation information of water depth measured in piezometers or observation wells. Thus, the aim of this research is to study the recharge in the alluvial aquifer formed by the Mimoso temporary stream in the semiarid region of Pernambuco (PE), Brazil, using the method of the fluctuation of the water level. This s...

  14. Economics of Managed Aquifer Recharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert G. Maliva

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Managed aquifer recharge (MAR technologies can provide a variety of water resources management benefits by increasing the volume of stored water and improving water quality through natural aquifer treatment processes. Implementation of MAR is often hampered by the absence of a clear economic case for the investment to construct and operate the systems. Economic feasibility can be evaluated using cost benefit analysis (CBA, with the challenge of monetizing benefits. The value of water stored or treated by MAR systems can be evaluated by direct and indirect measures of willingness to pay including market price, alternative cost, value marginal product, damage cost avoided, and contingent value methods. CBAs need to incorporate potential risks and uncertainties, such as failure to meet performance objectives. MAR projects involving high value uses, such as potable supply, tend to be economically feasible provided that local hydrogeologic conditions are favorable. They need to have low construction and operational costs for lesser value uses, such as some irrigation. Such systems should therefore be financed by project beneficiaries, but dichotomies may exist between beneficiaries and payers. Hence, MAR projects in developing countries may be economically viable, but external support is often required because of limited local financial resources.

  15. Proposed artificial recharge studies in northern Qatar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimrey, J.O.

    1985-01-01

    The aquifer system in northern Qatar comprises a water-table aquifer in the Rus Formation which is separated by an aquitard from a partially confined aquifer in the top of the overlying Umm er Radhuma Formation. These two aquifers are composed of limestone and dolomite of Eocene and Paleocene age and contain a fragile lens of freshwater which is heavily exploited as a source of water for agricultural irrigation. Net withdrawals are greatly in excess of total recharge, and quality of ground water is declining. Use of desalinated seawater for artificial recharge has been proposed for the area. Artificial recharge, on a large scale, could stabilize the decline in ground-water quality while allowing increased withdrawals for irrigation. The proposal appears technically feasible. Recharge should be by injection to the Umm er Radhuma aquifer whose average transmissivity is about 2,000 meters squared per day (as compared to an average of about 200 meters squared per day for the Rus aquifer). Implementation of artificial recharge should be preceded by a hydrogeologic appraisal. These studies should include test drilling, conventional aquifer tests, and recharge-recovery tests at four sites in northern Qatar. (USGS)

  16. Smart Grid Communications System Blueprint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Adrian; Pavlovski, Chris

    2010-10-01

    Telecommunications operators are well versed in deploying 2G and 3G wireless networks. These networks presently support the mobile business user and/or retail consumer wishing to place conventional voice calls and data connections. The electrical power industry has recently commenced transformation of its distribution networks by deploying smart monitoring and control devices throughout their networks. This evolution of the network into a `smart grid' has also motivated the need to deploy wireless technologies that bridge the communication gap between the smart devices and information technology systems. The requirements of these networks differ from traditional wireless networks that communications operators have deployed, which have thus far forced energy companies to consider deploying their own wireless networks. We present our experience in deploying wireless networks to support the smart grid and highlight the key properties of these networks. These characteristics include application awareness, support for large numbers of simultaneous cell connections, high service coverage and prioritized routing of data. We also outline our target blueprint architecture that may be useful to the industry in building wireless and fixed networks to support the smart grid. By observing our experiences, telecommunications operators and equipment manufacturers will be able to augment their current networks and products in a way that accommodates the needs of the emerging industry of smart grids and intelligent electrical networks.

  17. MOIDSS?- Mobile Online Intelligent Decision Support System, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — GRID has had a successfully completed Phase I 'Mobile Online Intelligent Decision Support System' (MOIDSS). The system developed into a total solution that supports...

  18. Estimating natural recharge in San Gorgonio Pass watersheds, California, 1913–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hevesi, Joseph A.; Christensen, Allen H.

    2015-12-21

    A daily precipitation-runoff model was developed to estimate spatially and temporally distributed recharge for groundwater basins in the San Gorgonio Pass area, southern California. The recharge estimates are needed to define transient boundary conditions for a groundwater-flow model being developed to evaluate the effects of pumping and climate on the long-term availability of groundwater. The area defined for estimating recharge is referred to as the San Gorgonio Pass watershed model (SGPWM) and includes three watersheds: San Timoteo Creek, Potrero Creek, and San Gorgonio River. The SGPWM was developed by using the U.S. Geological Survey INFILtration version 3.0 (INFILv3) model code used in previous studies of recharge in the southern California region, including the San Gorgonio Pass area. The SGPWM uses a 150-meter gridded discretization of the area of interest in order to account for spatial variability in climate and watershed characteristics. The high degree of spatial variability in climate and watershed characteristics in the San Gorgonio Pass area is caused, in part, by the high relief and rugged topography of the area.

  19. A multi-agent system for distribution grid congestion management with electric vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Junjie; Saleem, Arshad; You, Shi

    2015-01-01

    Electric vehicles (EVs) are widely regarded as valuable assets in the smart grid as distributed energy resources in addition to their primary transportation function. However, connecting EVs to the distribution network and recharging the EV batteries without any control may overload the transform......Electric vehicles (EVs) are widely regarded as valuable assets in the smart grid as distributed energy resources in addition to their primary transportation function. However, connecting EVs to the distribution network and recharging the EV batteries without any control may overload...

  20. The MammoGrid Project Grids Architecture

    CERN Document Server

    McClatchey, Richard; Hauer, Tamas; Estrella, Florida; Saiz, Pablo; Rogulin, Dmitri; Buncic, Predrag; Clatchey, Richard Mc; Buncic, Predrag; Manset, David; Hauer, Tamas; Estrella, Florida; Saiz, Pablo; Rogulin, Dmitri

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the recently EU-funded MammoGrid project is, in the light of emerging Grid technology, to develop a European-wide database of mammograms that will be used to develop a set of important healthcare applications and investigate the potential of this Grid to support effective co-working between healthcare professionals throughout the EU. The MammoGrid consortium intends to use a Grid model to enable distributed computing that spans national borders. This Grid infrastructure will be used for deploying novel algorithms as software directly developed or enhanced within the project. Using the MammoGrid clinicians will be able to harness the use of massive amounts of medical image data to perform epidemiological studies, advanced image processing, radiographic education and ultimately, tele-diagnosis over communities of medical "virtual organisations". This is achieved through the use of Grid-compliant services [1] for managing (versions of) massively distributed files of mammograms, for handling the distri...

  1. Electric Vehicle Requirements for Operation in Smart Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marra, Francesco; Sacchetti, Dario; Træholt, Chresten

    2011-01-01

    Several European projects on smart grids are considering Electric Vehicles (EVs) as active element in future power systems. Both battery-powered vehicles and plug-in hybrid vehicles are expected to interact with the grid, sharing their energy storage capacity. Different coordination concepts...... for EVs are being investigated, in which vehicles can be intelligently charged or discharged feeding power back to the grid in vehicle-to-grid mode (V2G). To respond to such needs, EVs are required to share their battery internal data as well as respond to external control signals. In this paper...

  2. Artificial Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wash, Darrel Patrick

    1989-01-01

    Making a machine seem intelligent is not easy. As a consequence, demand has been rising for computer professionals skilled in artificial intelligence and is likely to continue to go up. These workers develop expert systems and solve the mysteries of machine vision, natural language processing, and neural networks. (Editor)

  3. Intelligent Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Poul G.

    2005-01-01

    Forestillingen om at naturen er designet af en guddommelig 'intelligens' er et smukt filosofisk princip. Teorier om Intelligent Design som en naturvidenskabeligt baseret teori er derimod helt forfærdelig.......Forestillingen om at naturen er designet af en guddommelig 'intelligens' er et smukt filosofisk princip. Teorier om Intelligent Design som en naturvidenskabeligt baseret teori er derimod helt forfærdelig....

  4. Recharge Area of Groundwater of Jakarta Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wandowo; Abidin, Zainal; Alip; Djiono

    2002-01-01

    Groundwater inside the earth contained in a porous and permeable layers called aquifers. Depend on the hydrogeological structure, the aquifers may be composed of independent layers separated each other by impermeable boundaries. Such a condition may effect the location of recharge where water is able to infiltrate and goes to the aquifers. The objective of this research is to find out and to locate the recharge area of Jakarta basin by utilizing stable isotopes 2H and 18O . The work was done by collecting shallow and deep groundwater samples throughout Jabotabek area and precipitations from different altitudes. Since the stable isotopes composition of precipitation is subject to the altitude, the recharge area would be able to be identified by assessing the correlation of stable isotopes composition of precipitation and corresponding groundwater population. The data obtained from this study suggested that shallow groundwater is originated from local recharge while deep groundwater is recharged from the area having altitude of 125 -230 meters, it correspond to the area between Depok and Bogor

  5. Modeling Recharge - can it be Done?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verburg, K.; Bond, W. J.; Smith, C. J.; Dunin, F. X.

    2001-12-01

    In sub-humid areas where rainfall is relatively low and sporadic, recharge (defined as water movement beyond the active root zone) is the small difference between the much larger numbers rainfall and evapotranspiration. It is very difficult to measure and often modeling is resorted to instead. But is modeling this small number any less difficult than measurement? In Australia there is considerable debate over the magnitude of recharge under different agricultural systems because of its contribution to rising saline groundwater levels following the clearing of native vegetation in the last 100 years. Hence the adequacy of measured and modeled estimates of recharge is under close scrutiny. Results will be presented for the water balance of an intensively monitored 8 year sequence of crops and pastures. Measurements included meteorological inputs, evapotranspiration measured with a pair of weighing lysimeters, and soil water content was measured with TDR and neutron moisture meter. Recharge was estimated from the percolate removed from the lysimeters as well as, when conditions were suitable, from soil water measurements and combined soil water and evapotranspiration measurements. This data was simulated using a comprehensive soil-plant-atmosphere model (APSIM). Comparison with field measurements shows that the recharge can be simulated with an accuracy similar to that with which it can be measured. However, is either sufficiently accurate for the applications for which they are required?

  6. Radioecological aspects in artificial groundwater recharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthess, G [Kiel Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Geologisch-Palaeontologisches Inst. und Museum; Neumayr, V [Institut fuer Wasser-, Boden- und Lufthygiene, Frankfurt am Main (Germany, F.R.)

    1980-01-01

    In increasing extent surface waters, especially those of rivers and streams, are contaminated by radionuclides. Therefore it is necessary to investigate the possibility of impairment of the quality of artificially recharged groundwater and drinking water by radionuclides. Hazards for man are possible by drinking water, that was affected by waste and during exposition to air, as well as indirectly by irrigation water and the food chain. In a model calculation using realistic conditions the order of magnitude of these hazards for man by incorporation of radioactively contaminated artificially recharged drinking water are to be assessed. Here the parameters are discussed which must be considered in such an assessment. The model includes the use of river water for artificial recharge. All models and assessments assume the most unfavourable preconditions, which may lead to an impact to man.

  7. Using groundwater levels to estimate recharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, R.W.; Cook, P.G.

    2002-01-01

    Accurate estimation of groundwater recharge is extremely important for proper management of groundwater systems. Many different approaches exist for estimating recharge. This paper presents a review of methods that are based on groundwater-level data. The water-table fluctuation method may be the most widely used technique for estimating recharge; it requires knowledge of specific yield and changes in water levels over time. Advantages of this approach include its simplicity and an insensitivity to the mechanism by which water moves through the unsaturated zone. Uncertainty in estimates generated by this method relate to the limited accuracy with which specific yield can be determined and to the extent to which assumptions inherent in the method are valid. Other methods that use water levels (mostly based on the Darcy equation) are also described. The theory underlying the methods is explained. Examples from the literature are used to illustrate applications of the different methods.

  8. Impacts of vegetation change on groundwater recharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, W. J.; Verburg, K.; Smith, C. J.

    2003-12-01

    Vegetation change is the accepted cause of increasing river salt concentrations and the salinisation of millions of hectares of farm land in Australia. Replacement of perennial native vegetation by annual crops and pastures following European settlement has altered the water balance causing increased groundwater recharge and mobilising the naturally saline groundwater. The Redesigning Agriculture for Australian Landscapes Program, of which the work described here is a part, was established to develop agricultural practices that are more attuned to the delicate water balance described above. Results of field measurements will be presented that contrast the water balance characteristics of native vegetation with those of conventional agricultural plants, and indicate the functional characteristics required of new agricultural practices to reduce recharge. New agricultural practices may comprise different management of current crops and pastures, or may involve introducing totally new species. In either case, long-term testing is required to examine their impact on recharge over a long enough climate record to encompass the natural variability of rainfall that is characteristic of most Australian farming regions. Field experimentation therefore needs to be complemented and extended by computer simulation. This requires a modelling approach that is more robust than conventional crop modelling because (a) it needs to be sensitive enough to predict small changes in the residual recharge term, (b) it needs to be able to simulate a variety of vegetation in different sequences, (c) it needs to be able to simulate continuously for several decades of input data, and (d) it therefore needs to be able to simulate the period between crops, which often has a critical impact on recharge. The APSIM simulation framework will be used to illustrate these issues and to explore the effect of different vegetation combinations on recharge.

  9. The intelligent energy system for tomorrow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, Hans; Morthorst, Poul Erik; Bindslev, Henrik; Sonderberg Petersen, Leif

    2010-09-15

    In a future energy system non-fossil fuels have taken the lead, end-use technologies are highly efficient and closely interlinked to supply through intelligent energy systems. Climate change issues, security of supply and economic development need to be pursued concurrently. This calls for flexible and intelligent energy system infrastructures that effectively accommodate large amounts of fluctuating renewable energy and let the end-user interact with the supply through advanced ICT. The second important characteristic is intelligent integration of the entire transport sector. The third key area is advanced energy storage facilities in the system and the introduction of super-grids.

  10. Rechargeable batteries materials, technologies and new trends

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Zhengcheng

    2015-01-01

    This book updates the latest advancements in new chemistries, novel materials and system integration of rechargeable batteries, including lithium-ion batteries and batteries beyond lithium-ion and addresses where the research is advancing in the near future in a brief and concise manner. The book is intended for a wide range of readers from undergraduates, postgraduates to senior scientists and engineers. In order to update the latest status of rechargeable batteries and predict near research trend, we plan to invite the world leading researchers who are presently working in the field to write

  11. Intelligent playgrounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lasse Juel

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines play, gaming and learning in regard to intelligent playware developed for outdoor use. The key questions are how does these novel artefacts influence the concept of play, gaming and learning. Up until now play and game have been understood as different activities. This paper...... examines if the sharp differentiation between the two can be uphold in regard to intelligent playware for outdoor use. Play and game activities will be analysed and viewed in conjunction with learning contexts. This paper will stipulate that intelligent playware facilitates rapid shifts in contexts...

  12. Artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Ennals, J R

    1987-01-01

    Artificial Intelligence: State of the Art Report is a two-part report consisting of the invited papers and the analysis. The editor first gives an introduction to the invited papers before presenting each paper and the analysis, and then concludes with the list of references related to the study. The invited papers explore the various aspects of artificial intelligence. The analysis part assesses the major advances in artificial intelligence and provides a balanced analysis of the state of the art in this field. The Bibliography compiles the most important published material on the subject of

  13. Artificial Intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Warwick, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    if AI is outside your field, or you know something of the subject and would like to know more then Artificial Intelligence: The Basics is a brilliant primer.' - Nick Smith, Engineering and Technology Magazine November 2011 Artificial Intelligence: The Basics is a concise and cutting-edge introduction to the fast moving world of AI. The author Kevin Warwick, a pioneer in the field, examines issues of what it means to be man or machine and looks at advances in robotics which have blurred the boundaries. Topics covered include: how intelligence can be defined whether machines can 'think' sensory

  14. Reliability Prediction Approaches For Domestic Intelligent Electric Energy Meter Based on IEC62380

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ning; Tong, Guanghua; Yang, Jincheng; Sun, Guodong; Han, Dongjun; Wang, Guixian

    2018-01-01

    The reliability of intelligent electric energy meter is a crucial issue considering its large calve application and safety of national intelligent grid. This paper developed a procedure of reliability prediction for domestic intelligent electric energy meter according to IEC62380, especially to identify the determination of model parameters combining domestic working conditions. A case study was provided to show the effectiveness and validation.

  15. On-line Configuration of Network Emulator for Intelligent Energy System Testbed Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kemal, Mohammed Seifu; Iov, Florin; Olsen, Rasmus Løvenstein

    2015-01-01

    Intelligent energy networks (or Smart Grids) provide efficient solutions for a grid integrated with near-real-time communication technologies between various grid assets in power generation, transmission and distribution systems. The design of a communication network associated with intelligent...... power system involves detailed analysis of its communication requirements, a proposal of the appropriate protocol architecture, the choice of appropriate communication technologies for each case study, and a means to support heterogeneous communication technology management system. This paper discuses...

  16. Grid Integration Research | Wind | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grid Integration Research Grid Integration Research Researchers study grid integration of wind three wind turbines with transmission lines in the background. Capabilities NREL's grid integration electric power system operators to more efficiently manage wind grid system integration. A photo of

  17. Control of grid interactive AC microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xiongfei; Guerrero, Josep M.; Chen, Zhe

    2010-01-01

    Over the last decade, distributed energy resources (DER) technology has undergone a fast development. Increased penetration of DER units and wide spread use of renewable energy sources challenge the entire architecture of traditional power system. Microgrid, characterizing higher flexibility......, microgrid controls and power management strategies are presented. Future trends of microgrid are discussed pointing out how this concept can be a key to achieve a more intelligent and flexible AC grid....

  18. Intelligent Advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz Pinedo, Edilfredo Eliot

    2012-01-01

    Intelligent Advertisement diseña e implementa un sistema de publicidad para dispositivos móviles en un centro comercial, donde los clientes reciben publicidad de forma pasiva en sus dispositivos mientras están dentro.

  19. BUSINESS INTELLIGENCE

    OpenAIRE

    Bogdan Mohor Dumitrita

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to present business intelligence systems. These systems can be extremely complex and important in modern market competition. Its effectiveness also reflects in price, so we have to exlore their financial potential before investment. The systems have 20 years long history and during that time many of such tools have been developed, but they are rarely still in use. Business intelligence system consists of three main areas: Data Warehouse, ETL tools and tools f...

  20. Intelligent indexing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farkas, J.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the relevance of artificial intelligence to the automatic indexing of natural language text. We describe the use of domain-specific semantically-based thesauruses and address the problem of creating adequate knowledge bases for intelligent indexing systems. We also discuss the relevance of the Hilbert space ι 2 to the compact representation of documents and to the definition of the similarity of natural language texts. (author). 17 refs., 2 figs

  1. Intelligent indexing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farkas, J

    1993-12-31

    In this paper we discuss the relevance of artificial intelligence to the automatic indexing of natural language text. We describe the use of domain-specific semantically-based thesauruses and address the problem of creating adequate knowledge bases for intelligent indexing systems. We also discuss the relevance of the Hilbert space {iota}{sup 2} to the compact representation of documents and to the definition of the similarity of natural language texts. (author). 17 refs., 2 figs.

  2. Integration of Electric Vehicles in Low Voltage Danish Distribution Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna; Thøgersen, Paul; Møller, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Electric Vehicles (EVs) are considered as one of the important components of the future intelligent grids. Their role as energy storages in the electricity grid could provide local sustainable solutions to support more renewable energy. In order to estimate the extent of interaction of EVs...... in the electricity grid operation, a careful examination in the local electricity system is essential. This paper investigates the degree of EV penetration and its key influence on the low voltage distribution grids. Three detailed models of residential grids in Denmark are considered as test cases in this study...... it is shown that there is enough head-space on the transformer capacity which can be used to charge many EVs during a day. The overall transformer capability of handling EV loads varies between 6-40% for peak and minimum demand hours, which is dependent on the robustness of the grids. The voltage drops...

  3. Spatial and Temporal Variability of Groundwater Recharge in a Sandstone Aquifer in a Semi-Arid Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manna, F.; Murray, S.; Abbey, D.; Martin, P.; Cherry, J.; Parker, B. L.

    2017-12-01

    Groundwater recharge estimates are required to constrain groundwater fluxes over a 11.5 km2 site, located on an upland ridge of southern California. The site is a decommissioned industrial research facility that features chemical contamination of the underlying sedimentary bedrock aquifer and recharge values are necessary to quantify the volumetric flow rate available to transport contaminants. As a first step to assess recharge, Manna et al. (2016) used to chloride mass balance method based on on-site measurements of bulk atmospheric chloride deposition comprised of dry fallout and precipitation, 1490 groundwater samples, and measurements of chloride in surface water runoff. However, this study only provided site-wide long-term average value and did not address spatial and temporal variability of recharge. To this purpose, a spatially distributed hydrological model was used to reflect the site-specific conditions and represent the transient nature of recharge, runoff, storage and evapotranspiration over a 20-year period in a catchment (2.16 km2) of the study area. The integrated model was developed using MIKESHE employing a 20 by 20 m finite difference grid and using on-site measured physical and hydrological input parameters. We found that recharge is highly variable across the study area, with values that span over three orders of magnitude. The main factors affecting recharge are land use and topography: lower recharge values were found in vegetated areas, whereas higher values were found in areas with exposed bedrock at the surface and along the main drainages of the catchment. Analyzing the seasonal variability of the water budget components, evapotranspiration is the dominant process throughout the year and recharge occurs episodically only during the winter season. These results are validated by the comparison of measured and simulated water levels and overland flow rates and are consistent with a previous study carried out at the site using the chloride

  4. Apparatus for reading and recharging condenser ionization chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCall, R.C.

    1977-01-01

    A metering circuit for a condenser ionization chamber is disclosed for simultaneously recharging the ionization chamber and reading out the amount of charge required to recharge the chamber. During the recharging process, the amount of charge necessary to recharge the ionization chamber capacitor is placed on an integrating capacitor in the metering apparatus. The resultant voltage across the integrating capacitor is a measure of the radiation to which the ionization chamber was exposed. 9 claims, 1 figure

  5. Managing high penetration of renewable energy in MV grid by electric vehicle storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kordheili, Reza Ahmadi; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte; Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes an intelligent algorithm for dealing with high penetration of renewable energy sources (RESs) in the medium voltage by intelligently managing electric vehicles (EVs), as one of the grid flexible loads. The MV grid used in this work is a CIGRE benchmark grid. Different...... residential and industrial loads are considered in this grid. The connection of medium voltage wind turbines to the grid is investigated. The solar panels in this study are residential panels. Also, EVs are located among the buses with residential demand. The study is done for different winter and summer...... scenarios, considering typical load profiles in Denmark. Different scenarios have been studied with different penetration level of RESs in the grid. The results show the capability of the proposed algorithm to reduce voltage deviations among the grid buses, as well as to increase the RES penetration...

  6. Alloys of clathrate allotropes for rechargeable batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Candace K; Miller, Michael A; Chan, Kwai S

    2014-12-09

    The present disclosure is directed at an electrode for a battery wherein the electrode comprises clathrate alloys of silicon, germanium or tin. In method form, the present disclosure is directed at methods of forming clathrate alloys of silicon, germanium or tin which methods lead to the formation of empty cage structures suitable for use as electrodes in rechargeable type batteries.

  7. Modelling of rechargeable NiMH batteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ledovskikh, A.; Verbitskiy, E.; Ayeb, A.; Notten, P.H.L.

    2003-01-01

    A new mathematical model has been developed for rechargeable NiMH batteries, which is based on the occurring physical–chemical processes inside. This model enables one to simultaneously simulate the battery voltage, internal gas pressures (both PO2 and PH2) and temperature during battery operation.

  8. The rechargeable aluminum-ion battery

    KAUST Repository

    Jayaprakash, N.; Das, S. K.; Archer, L. A.

    2011-01-01

    We report a novel aluminium-ion rechargeable battery comprised of an electrolyte containing AlCl3 in the ionic liquid, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride, and a V2O5 nano-wire cathode against an aluminium metal anode. The battery delivered a

  9. Groundwater Recharge, Evapotranspiration and Surface Runoff ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bheema

    Using WetSpass Modeling Method in Illala Catchment, Northern Ethiopia ... Recharge is estimated by chloride ion mass balance method, empirical method, ..... environmental conditions of the catchment by applying some soil and water ... meteorological data in Ethiopia: Journal of engineers and architects, Addis Ababa,.

  10. Economic MPC for Power Management in the Smart Grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovgaard, Tobias Gybel; Edlund, Kristian; Jørgensen, John Bagterp

    2011-01-01

    To increase the amount of green energy (e.g. solar and wind) significantly a new intelligent electrical infrastructure is needed. We must not only control the production of electricity but also the consumption in an efficient and proactive manner. This future intelligent grid is in Europe known...... as the SmartGrid. In this paper we demonstrate the use of Economic Model Predictive Control to operate a portfolio of power generators and consumers such that the cost of producing the required power is minimized. With conventional coal and gas fired power generators representing the controllable power...

  11. Natural vs. artificial groundwater recharge, quantification through inverse modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Hashemi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Estimating the change in groundwater recharge from an introduced artificial recharge system is important in order to evaluate future water availability. This paper presents an inverse modeling approach to quantify the recharge contribution from both an ephemeral river channel and an introduced artificial recharge system based on floodwater spreading in arid Iran. The study used the MODFLOW-2000 to estimate recharge for both steady- and unsteady-state conditions. The model was calibrated and verified based on the observed hydraulic head in observation wells and model precision, uncertainty, and model sensitivity were analyzed in all modeling steps. The results showed that in a normal year without extreme events, the floodwater spreading system is the main contributor to recharge with 80% and the ephemeral river channel with 20% of total recharge in the studied area. Uncertainty analysis revealed that the river channel recharge estimation represents relatively more uncertainty in comparison to the artificial recharge zones. The model is also less sensitive to the river channel. The results show that by expanding the artificial recharge system, the recharge volume can be increased even for small flood events, while the recharge through the river channel increases only for major flood events.

  12. Intelligent Electric Vehicle Integration - Domain Interfaces and Supporting Informatics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter Bach

    This thesis seeks to apply the field of informatics to the intelligent integration of electric vehicles into the power system. The main goal is to release the potential of electric vehicles in relation to a reliable, economically efficient power system based on renewables. To make intelligent EV...... and services in which the electric vehicle may be best suited to participate. The next stakeholder investigated is the distribution system operator representing the low voltage grid. The challenge is assessed by considering a number of grid impacts studies. Next, a set of grid congestion mitigation strategies...

  13. Metal Hydrides for Rechargeable Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valoeen, Lars Ole

    2000-03-01

    Rechargeable battery systems are paramount in the power supply of modern electronic and electromechanical equipment. For the time being, the most promising secondary battery systems for the future are the lithium-ion and the nickel metal hydride (NiMH) batteries. In this thesis, metal hydrides and their properties are described with the aim of characterizing and improving those. The thesis has a special focus on the AB{sub 5} type hydrogen storage alloys, where A is a rare earth metal like lanthanum, or more commonly misch metal, which is a mixture of rare earth metals, mainly lanthanum, cerium, neodymium and praseodymium. B is a transition metal, mainly nickel, commonly with additions of aluminium, cobalt, and manganese. The misch metal composition was found to be very important for the geometry of the unit cell in AB{sub 5} type alloys, and consequently the equilibrium pressure of hydrogen in these types of alloys. The A site substitution of lanthanum by misch metal did not decrease the surface catalytic properties of AB{sub 5} type alloys. B-site substitution of nickel with other transition elements, however, substantially reduced the catalytic activity of the alloy. If the internal pressure within the electrochemical test cell was increased using inert argon gas, a considerable increase in the high rate charge/discharge performance of LaNi{sub 5} was observed. An increased internal pressure would enable the utilisation of alloys with a high hydrogen equivalent pressure in batteries. Such alloys often have favourable kinetics and high hydrogen diffusion rates and thus have a potential for improving the high current discharge rates in metal hydride batteries. The kinetic properties of metal hydride electrodes were found to improve throughout their lifetime. The activation properties were found highly dependent on the charge/discharge current. Fewer charge/discharge cycles were needed to activate the electrodes if a small current was used instead of a higher

  14. Monitoring and modeling infiltration-recharge dynamics of managed aquifer recharge with desalinated seawater

    OpenAIRE

    Ganot, Yonatan; Holtzman, Ran; Weisbrod, Noam; Nitzan, Ido; Katz, Yoram; Kurtzman, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    We study the relation between surface infiltration and groundwater recharge during managed aquifer recharge (MAR) with desalinated seawater in an infiltration pond, at the Menashe site that overlies the northern part of the Israeli Coastal Aquifer. We monitor infiltration dynamics at multiple scales (up to the scale of the entire pond) by measuring the ponding depth, sediment water content and groundwater levels, using pressure sensors, single-ring infiltrometers, soil sensors and observation...

  15. Monitoring and modeling infiltration–recharge dynamics of managed aquifer recharge with desalinated seawater

    OpenAIRE

    Ganot, Y.; Ganot, Y.; Holtzman, R.; Weisbrod, N.; Nitzan, I.; Katz, Y.; Kurtzman, D.

    2017-01-01

    We study the relation between surface infiltration and groundwater recharge during managed aquifer recharge (MAR) with desalinated seawater in an infiltration pond, at the Menashe site that overlies the northern part of the Israeli Coastal Aquifer. We monitor infiltration dynamics at multiple scales (up to the scale of the entire pond) by measuring the ponding depth, sediment water content and groundwater levels, using pressure sensors, single-ring infiltrometers, soil senso...

  16. An approach to identify urban groundwater recharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Vázquez-Suñé

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Evaluating the proportion in which waters from different origins are mixed in a given water sample is relevant for many hydrogeological problems, such as quantifying total recharge, assessing groundwater pollution risks, or managing water resources. Our work is motivated by urban hydrogeology, where waters with different chemical signature can be identified (losses from water supply and sewage networks, infiltration from surface runoff and other water bodies, lateral aquifers inflows, .... The relative contribution of different sources to total recharge can be quantified by means of solute mass balances, but application is hindered by the large number of potential origins. Hence, the need to incorporate data from a large number of conservative species, the uncertainty in sources concentrations and measurement errors. We present a methodology to compute mixing ratios and end-members composition, which consists of (i Identification of potential recharge sources, (ii Selection of tracers, (iii Characterization of the hydrochemical composition of potential recharge sources and mixed water samples, and (iv Computation of mixing ratios and reevaluation of end-members. The analysis performed in a data set from samples of the Barcelona city aquifers suggests that the main contributors to total recharge are the water supply network losses (22%, the sewage network losses (30%, rainfall, concentrated in the non-urbanized areas (17%, from runoff infiltration (20%, and the Besòs River (11%. Regarding species, halogens (chloride, fluoride and bromide, sulfate, total nitrogen, and stable isotopes (18O, 2H, and 34S behaved quite conservatively. Boron, residual alkalinity, EDTA and Zn did not. Yet, including these species in the computations did not affect significantly the proportion estimations.

  17. What could make 2017 the banner year for smart grids?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortega, Florian

    2015-01-01

    With billings slated to reach 6 euros billion per year by 2020, intelligent networks, known as smart grids are an attractive proposition for many companies and will generate up to 25 000 jobs directly in France. While it seems, in light of all the commitments that have been made, that 2017 can considered as 'the year of the smart grids', there remain a number of uncertainties. (author)

  18. Optimal Grid Scheduling Using Improved Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    T. Vigneswari; M. A. Maluk Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Job Scheduling plays an important role for efficient utilization of grid resources available across different domains and geographical zones. Scheduling of jobs is challenging and NPcomplete. Evolutionary / Swarm Intelligence algorithms have been extensively used to address the NP problem in grid scheduling. Artificial Bee Colony (ABC) has been proposed for optimization problems based on foraging behaviour of bees. This work proposes a modified ABC algorithm, Cluster Hete...

  19. Internet of Things Technology and its Applications in Smart Grid

    OpenAIRE

    Liu Hua; Zhang Junguo; Lin Fantao

    2013-01-01

    Smart grid is the latest trend of development and reform in today’s world, and it is also a major technological innovation and development trend in the 21st century. Internet of Things technology is a new information processing and acquisition method, and it has been widely used in intelligent transportation, environmental monitoring and other fields. Internet of Things is an important technical mean to promote the development of smart grid. Using Internet of Things technology can effectively...

  20. Parallel grid population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wald, Ingo; Ize, Santiago

    2015-07-28

    Parallel population of a grid with a plurality of objects using a plurality of processors. One example embodiment is a method for parallel population of a grid with a plurality of objects using a plurality of processors. The method includes a first act of dividing a grid into n distinct grid portions, where n is the number of processors available for populating the grid. The method also includes acts of dividing a plurality of objects into n distinct sets of objects, assigning a distinct set of objects to each processor such that each processor determines by which distinct grid portion(s) each object in its distinct set of objects is at least partially bounded, and assigning a distinct grid portion to each processor such that each processor populates its distinct grid portion with any objects that were previously determined to be at least partially bounded by its distinct grid portion.

  1. Building Automation Networks for Smart Grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peizhong Yi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Smart grid, as an intelligent power generation, distribution, and control system, needs various communication systems to meet its requirements. The ability to communicate seamlessly across multiple networks and domains is an open issue which is yet to be adequately addressed in smart grid architectures. In this paper, we present a framework for end-to-end interoperability in home and building area networks within smart grids. 6LoWPAN and the compact application protocol are utilized to facilitate the use of IPv6 and Zigbee application profiles such as Zigbee smart energy for network and application layer interoperability, respectively. A differential service medium access control scheme enables end-to-end connectivity between 802.15.4 and IP networks while providing quality of service guarantees for Zigbee traffic over Wi-Fi. We also address several issues including interference mitigation, load scheduling, and security and propose solutions to them.

  2. A new science infrastruture: the grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Gongxing

    2003-01-01

    As the depth and scale of science reserch growing, it's requirement of computing power will become bigger and bigger, as well as the global collaboration is being enhanced. therefore, integration and sharing of all available resources among the participating organizations is required, including computing, storage, networks, even human resource and intelligant instruments. Grid technology is developed for the goal mentioned above, and could become an infrastructure the future science research and engineering. As a global computing technology, there are a lot of key technologies to be addressed. In the paper, grid architecture and secure infrastructure and application domains and tools will be described, at last we will give the grid prospect in the future. (authors)

  3. A grid portal for Earth Observation community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aloisio, G.; Cafaro, M.; Carteni, G.; Epicoco, I.; Quarta, G.

    2005-01-01

    Earth Observation techniques offer many powerful instruments far Earth planet study, urban development planning, military intelligence helping and so on. Tera bytes of EO and geo spatial data about lands, oceans, glaciers, cities, etc. are continuously downloaded through remote-sensing infrastructures and stored into heterogeneous, distributed repositories usually belonging to different virtual organizations. A problem-solving environment can be a viable solution to handle, coordinate and share heterogeneous and distributed resources. Moreover, grid computing is an emerging technology to salve large-scale problems in dynamic, multi-institutional Virtual Organizations coordinated by sharing resources such as high-performance computers, observation devices, data and databases aver high-speed networks, etc. In this paper we present the Italian Grid far Earth Observation (I-GEO) project, a pervasive environment based on grid technology to help the integration and processing of Earth Observation data, providing a tool to share and access data, applications and computational resources among several organizations

  4. Smart grid security

    CERN Document Server

    Goel, Sanjay; Papakonstantinou, Vagelis; Kloza, Dariusz

    2015-01-01

    This book on smart grid security is meant for a broad audience from managers to technical experts. It highlights security challenges that are faced in the smart grid as we widely deploy it across the landscape. It starts with a brief overview of the smart grid and then discusses some of the reported attacks on the grid. It covers network threats, cyber physical threats, smart metering threats, as well as privacy issues in the smart grid. Along with the threats the book discusses the means to improve smart grid security and the standards that are emerging in the field. The second part of the b

  5. Groundwater Recharge Process in the Morondava Sedimentary Basin, Southwestern Madagascar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamifarananahary, E.; Rajaobelison, J.; Ramaroson, V.; Rahobisoa, J.J.

    2007-01-01

    The groundwater recharge process in the Morondava Sedimentary basin was determined using chemical and isotopic tools. The results showed that the main recharge into shallow aquifer is from infiltration of evaporated water. Into deeper aquifer, it is done either from direct infiltration of rainfall from recharge areas on the top of the hill in the East towards the low-lying discharge areas in the West, or from vertical infiltration of evaporated shallow groundwater. The tritium contents suggest that recharge from shallow aquifers is from recent rainfall with short residence time while recharge into deeper aquifers is from older rainfall with longer residence time.

  6. Rechargeable aluminum batteries with conducting polymers as positive electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudak, Nicholas S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2013-12-01

    This report is a summary of research results from an Early Career LDRD project con-ducted from January 2012 to December 2013 at Sandia National Laboratories. Demonstrated here is the use of conducting polymers as active materials in the posi-tive electrodes of rechargeable aluminum-based batteries operating at room tempera-ture. The battery chemistry is based on chloroaluminate ionic liquid electrolytes, which allow reversible stripping and plating of aluminum metal at the negative elec-trode. Characterization of electrochemically synthesized polypyrrole films revealed doping of the polymers with chloroaluminate anions, which is a quasi-reversible reac-tion that facilitates battery cycling. Stable galvanostatic cycling of polypyrrole and polythiophene cells was demonstrated, with capacities at near-theoretical levels (30-100 mAh g-1) and coulombic efficiencies approaching 100%. The energy density of a sealed sandwich-type cell with polythiophene at the positive electrode was estimated as 44 Wh kg-1, which is competitive with state-of-the-art battery chemistries for grid-scale energy storage.

  7. Analysis and improvement of security of energy smart grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halimi, Halim

    2014-01-01

    The Smart grid is the next generation power grid, which is a new self-healing, self-activating form of electricity network, and integrates power-flow control, increased quality of electricity, and energy reliability, energy efficiency and energy security using information and communication technologies. Communication networks play a critical role in smart grid, as the intelligence of smart grid is built based on information exchange across the power grid. Its two-way communication and electricity flow enable to monitor, predict and manage the energy usage. To upgrade an existing power grid into a smart grid, it requires an intelligent and secure communication infrastructure. Because of that, the main goal of this dissertation is to propose new architecture and implementation of algorithms for analysis and improvement of the security and reliability in smart grid. In power transmission segments of smart grid, wired communications are usually adopted to ensure robustness of the backbone power network. In contrast, for a power distribution grid, wireless communications provide many benefits such as low cost high speed links, easy setup of connections among different devices/appliances, and so on. Wireless communications are usually more vulnerable to security attacks than wired ones. Developing appropriate wireless communication architecture and its security measures is extremely important for a smart grid system. This research addresses physical layer security in a Wireless Smart Grid. Hence a defense Quorum- based algorithm is proposed to ensure physical security in wireless communication. The new security architecture for smart grid that supports privacy-preserving, data aggregation and access control is defined. This architecture consists of two parts. In the first part we propose to use an efficient and privacy-preserving aggregation scheme (EPPA), which aggregates real-time data of consumers by Local Gateway. During aggregation the privacy of consumers is

  8. Grid generation methods

    CERN Document Server

    Liseikin, Vladimir D

    2010-01-01

    This book is an introduction to structured and unstructured grid methods in scientific computing, addressing graduate students, scientists as well as practitioners. Basic local and integral grid quality measures are formulated and new approaches to mesh generation are reviewed. In addition to the content of the successful first edition, a more detailed and practice oriented description of monitor metrics in Beltrami and diffusion equations is given for generating adaptive numerical grids. Also, new techniques developed by the author are presented, in particular a technique based on the inverted form of Beltrami’s partial differential equations with respect to control metrics. This technique allows the generation of adaptive grids for a wide variety of computational physics problems, including grid clustering to given function values and gradients, grid alignment with given vector fields, and combinations thereof. Applications of geometric methods to the analysis of numerical grid behavior as well as grid ge...

  9. Intelligent systems

    CERN Document Server

    Irwin, J David

    2011-01-01

    Technology has now progressed to the point that intelligent systems are replacing humans in the decision making processes as well as aiding in the solution of very complex problems. In many cases intelligent systems are already outperforming human activities. Artificial neural networks are not only capable of learning how to classify patterns, such images or sequence of events, but they can also effectively model complex nonlinear systems. Their ability to classify sequences of events is probably more popular in industrial applications where there is an inherent need to model nonlinear system

  10. Intelligent Universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoyle, F

    1983-01-01

    The subject is covered in chapters, entitled: chance and the universe (synthesis of proteins; the primordial soup); the gospel according to Darwin (discussion of Darwin theory of evolution); life did not originate on earth (fossils from space; life in space); the interstellar connection (living dust between the stars; bacteria in space falling to the earth; interplanetary dust); evolution by cosmic control (microorganisms; genetics); why aren't the others here (a cosmic origin of life); after the big bang (big bang and steady state); the information rich universe; what is intelligence up to; the intelligent universe.

  11. Artificial intelligence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perret-Galix, D.

    1992-01-01

    A vivid example of the growing need for frontier physics experiments to make use of frontier technology is in the field of artificial intelligence and related themes. This was reflected in the second international workshop on 'Software Engineering, Artificial Intelligence and Expert Systems in High Energy and Nuclear Physics' which took place from 13-18 January at France Telecom's Agelonde site at La Londe des Maures, Provence. It was the second in a series, the first having been held at Lyon in 1990

  12. Artificial Intelligence and Moral intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Pana

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the thesis that the implementation of a moral code in the behaviour of artificial intelligent systems needs a specific form of human and artificial intelligence, not just an abstract intelligence. We present intelligence as a system with an internal structure and the structural levels of the moral system, as well as certain characteristics of artificial intelligent agents which can/must be treated as 1- individual entities (with a complex, specialized, autonomous or selfdetermined, even unpredictable conduct, 2- entities endowed with diverse or even multiple intelligence forms, like moral intelligence, 3- open and, even, free-conduct performing systems (with specific, flexible and heuristic mechanisms and procedures of decision, 4 – systems which are open to education, not just to instruction, 5- entities with “lifegraphy”, not just “stategraphy”, 6- equipped not just with automatisms but with beliefs (cognitive and affective complexes, 7- capable even of reflection (“moral life” is a form of spiritual, not just of conscious activity, 8 – elements/members of some real (corporal or virtual community, 9 – cultural beings: free conduct gives cultural value to the action of a ”natural” or artificial being. Implementation of such characteristics does not necessarily suppose efforts to design, construct and educate machines like human beings. The human moral code is irremediably imperfect: it is a morality of preference, of accountability (not of responsibility and a morality of non-liberty, which cannot be remedied by the invention of ethical systems, by the circulation of ideal values and by ethical (even computing education. But such an imperfect morality needs perfect instruments for its implementation: applications of special logic fields; efficient psychological (theoretical and technical attainments to endow the machine not just with intelligence, but with conscience and even spirit; comprehensive technical

  13. Analysis of confidence in continental-scale groundwater recharge estimates for Africa using a distributed water balance model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackay, Jonathan; Mansour, Majdi; Bonsor, Helen; Pachocka, Magdalena; Wang, Lei; MacDonald, Alan; Macdonald, David; Bloomfield, John

    2014-05-01

    There is a growing need for improved access to reliable water in Africa as population and food production increases. Currently approximately 300 million people do not have access to a secure source of safe drinking water. To meet these current and future demands, groundwater will need to be increasingly abstracted; groundwater is more reliable than surface water sources due to its relatively long response time to meteorological stresses and therefore is likely to be a more secure water resource in a more variable climate. Recent studies also quantified the volumes of groundwater potentially available which suggest that, if exploited, groundwater could help to meet the demand for fresh water. However, there is still considerable uncertainty as to how these resources may respond in the future due to changes in groundwater recharge and abstraction. Understanding and quantifying groundwater recharge is vital as it forms a primary indicator of the sustainability of underlying groundwater resources. Computational hydrological models provide a means to do this, but the complexity of recharge processes in Africa mean that these simulations are often highly uncertain. This study aims to evaluate our confidence in simulating groundwater recharge over Africa based on a sensitivity analysis using a distributed hydrological model developed by the British Geological Survey, ZOODRM. The model includes land surface, canopy, river, soil and groundwater components. Each component is able to exchange water and as such, forms a distributed water balance of Africa. The components have been parameterised using available spatial datasets of African vegetation, land-use, soil and hydrogeology while the remaining parameters have been estimated by calibrating the model to available river flow data. Continental-scale gridded precipitation and potential evapotranspiration datasets, based on remotely sensed and ground observations, have been used to force the model. Following calibration, the

  14. Smart Grid Security A Smart Meter-Centric Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigo, Roberto; Yuksel, Ender; Ramli, Carroline Dewi Puspa Kencana

    2012-01-01

    , leading to what is known as the Smart Grid. The development of this Cyber-Physical System introduces new security issues, thus calling for efforts in studying possible attacks and devising suitable countermeasures. In this paper, we review a generic model for the Smart Grid, and present possible attacks......The electricity grid is a key infrastructure for our society, therefore its security is a critical public concern. This physical system is becoming more and more complex as it is coupled with a cyber layer carrying information about power usage and control instructions for intelligent appliances...

  15. Chimera Grid Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, William M.; Rogers, Stuart E.; Nash, Steven M.; Buning, Pieter G.; Meakin, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Chimera Grid Tools (CGT) is a software package for performing computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis utilizing the Chimera-overset-grid method. For modeling flows with viscosity about geometrically complex bodies in relative motion, the Chimera-overset-grid method is among the most computationally cost-effective methods for obtaining accurate aerodynamic results. CGT contains a large collection of tools for generating overset grids, preparing inputs for computer programs that solve equations of flow on the grids, and post-processing of flow-solution data. The tools in CGT include grid editing tools, surface-grid-generation tools, volume-grid-generation tools, utility scripts, configuration scripts, and tools for post-processing (including generation of animated images of flows and calculating forces and moments exerted on affected bodies). One of the tools, denoted OVERGRID, is a graphical user interface (GUI) that serves to visualize the grids and flow solutions and provides central access to many other tools. The GUI facilitates the generation of grids for a new flow-field configuration. Scripts that follow the grid generation process can then be constructed to mostly automate grid generation for similar configurations. CGT is designed for use in conjunction with a computer-aided-design program that provides the geometry description of the bodies, and a flow-solver program.

  16. Bayesian grid matching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartelius, Karsten; Carstensen, Jens Michael

    2003-01-01

    A method for locating distorted grid structures in images is presented. The method is based on the theories of template matching and Bayesian image restoration. The grid is modeled as a deformable template. Prior knowledge of the grid is described through a Markov random field (MRF) model which r...

  17. Smart grid in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, Simon; Ma, Zheng; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard

    2015-01-01

    China is planning to transform its traditional power grid in favour of a smart grid, since it allows a more economically efficient and a more environmentally friendly transmission and distribution of electricity. Thus, a nationwide smart grid is likely to save tremendous amounts of resources...

  18. Real-Time Business Intelligence for the Utilities Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janina POPEANGA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In today’s competitive environment with rapid innovation in smart metering and smart grids, there is an increased need for real-time business intelligence (RTBI in the utilities industry. Giving the fact that this industry is an environment where decisions are time sensitive, RTBI solutions will help utilities improve customer experiences and operational efficiencies. The focus of this paper is on the importance of real-time business intelligence (RTBI in the utilities industry, outlining our vision of real-time business intelligence for this industry. Besides the analysis in this area, the article presents as a case study the Oracle Business Intelligence solution for utilities.

  19. The rechargeable aluminum-ion battery

    KAUST Repository

    Jayaprakash, N.

    2011-01-01

    We report a novel aluminium-ion rechargeable battery comprised of an electrolyte containing AlCl3 in the ionic liquid, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride, and a V2O5 nano-wire cathode against an aluminium metal anode. The battery delivered a discharge capacity of 305 mAh g-1 in the first cycle and 273 mAh g-1 after 20 cycles, with very stable electrochemical behaviour. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011.

  20. Quantifying Potential Groundwater Recharge In South Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basant, S.; Zhou, Y.; Leite, P. A.; Wilcox, B. P.

    2015-12-01

    Groundwater in South Texas is heavily relied on for human consumption and irrigation for food crops. Like most of the south west US, woody encroachment has altered the grassland ecosystems here too. While brush removal has been widely implemented in Texas with the objective of increasing groundwater recharge, the linkage between vegetation and groundwater recharge in South Texas is still unclear. Studies have been conducted to understand plant-root-water dynamics at the scale of plants. However, little work has been done to quantify the changes in soil water and deep percolation at the landscape scale. Modeling water flow through soil profiles can provide an estimate of the total water flowing into deep percolation. These models are especially powerful with parameterized and calibrated with long term soil water data. In this study we parameterize the HYDRUS soil water model using long term soil water data collected in Jim Wells County in South Texas. Soil water was measured at every 20 cm intervals up to a depth of 200 cm. The parameterized model will be used to simulate soil water dynamics under a variety of precipitation regimes ranging from well above normal to severe drought conditions. The results from the model will be compared with the changes in soil moisture profile observed in response to vegetation cover and treatments from a study in a similar. Comparative studies like this can be used to build new and strengthen existing hypotheses regarding deep percolation and the role of soil texture and vegetation in groundwater recharge.

  1. Plant intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipavská, Helena; Žárský, Viktor

    2009-01-01

    The concept of plant intelligence, as proposed by Anthony Trewavas, has raised considerable discussion. However, plant intelligence remains loosely defined; often it is either perceived as practically synonymous to Darwinian fitness, or reduced to a mere decorative metaphor. A more strict view can be taken, emphasizing necessary prerequisites such as memory and learning, which requires clarifying the definition of memory itself. To qualify as memories, traces of past events have to be not only stored, but also actively accessed. We propose a criterion for eliminating false candidates of possible plant intelligence phenomena in this stricter sense: an “intelligent” behavior must involve a component that can be approximated by a plausible algorithmic model involving recourse to stored information about past states of the individual or its environment. Re-evaluation of previously presented examples of plant intelligence shows that only some of them pass our test. “You were hurt?” Kumiko said, looking at the scar. Sally looked down. “Yeah.” “Why didn't you have it removed?” “Sometimes it's good to remember.” “Being hurt?” “Being stupid.”—(W. Gibson: Mona Lisa Overdrive) PMID:19816094

  2. Speech Intelligibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Thomas

    Speech intelligibility (SI) is important for different fields of research, engineering and diagnostics in order to quantify very different phenomena like the quality of recordings, communication and playback devices, the reverberation of auditoria, characteristics of hearing impairment, benefit using hearing aids or combinations of these things.

  3. Optimal Design of DC Fast-Charging Stations for EVs in Low Voltage Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjelaj, Marjan; Træholt, Chresten; Hashemi Toghroljerdi, Seyedmostafa

    2017-01-01

    DC Fast Charging Station (DCFCS) is essential for widespread use of Electric Vehicle (EVs). It can recharge EVs in direct current in a short period of time. In recent years, the increasing penetration of EVs and their charging systems are going through a series of changes. This paper addresses...... on the power grid through the application of electrical storage systems within the DC fast charging stations. The proposed solution decreases the charging time and the impact on the low voltage (LV) grid significantly. The charger can be used as a multifunctional grid-utility such as congestion management...

  4. Grid Architecture 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taft, Jeffrey D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The report describes work done on Grid Architecture under the auspices of the Department of Electricity Office of Electricity Delivery and Reliability in 2015. As described in the first Grid Architecture report, the primary purpose of this work is to provide stakeholder insight about grid issues so as to enable superior decision making on their part. Doing this requires the creation of various work products, including oft-times complex diagrams, analyses, and explanations. This report provides architectural insights into several important grid topics and also describes work done to advance the science of Grid Architecture as well.

  5. Evaluating groundwater recharge variations under climate change in an endorheic basin of the Andean plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blin, N.; Hausner, M. B.; Suarez, F. I.

    2017-12-01

    In arid and semi-arid regions, where surface water and precipitations are scarce, groundwater is the main source of drinking water that sustains human and natural ecosystems. Therefore, it is very important to consider the potential impacts of climate change that threaten the availability of this resource. The purpose of this study is to investigate the variations caused by climate change on the recharge of the regional groundwater aquifer at the Huasco salt flat, located in the Chilean Andean plateau. The Huasco salt flat basin has ecosystems sustained by wetlands that depend on the groundwater levels of this aquifer. Due to this reason, the Chilean government has declared this zone as protected. Hence, the assurance of the future availability of the groundwater resource becomes extremely important. The sustainable management of this resource requires reasonable estimates of recharge and evapotranspiration, which are highly dependent on the characteristics and processes occurring in the vadose zone, i.e., topography, soil type and land use, and their temporal and spatial variations are significant in arid regions. With this aim, a three-dimensional groundwater model, implemented in SWAT-MODFLOW, was developed to couple the saturated system with the vadose zone. The model was calibrated and validated using historic data. General circulation models (GCMs) were used as scenarios inputs of recharge to the groundwater model. Future simulations were run by applying an offset to the historic air temperatures and to the precipitation. These offsets were determined using a delta hybrid approach based on the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) multi-model ensemble archive. The obtained results were downscaled to the 0.125º latitude x 0.125º longitude grid cell containing the basin of the Huasco salt flat. The hybrid approach considered the 10th, 50th and 90th percentiles of the projected temperature and precipitation output as three scenarios of climate

  6. DC micro-grid with distributed generation for rural electrification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarker, M.J.; Asare-Bediako, B.; Alipuria, B.; Slootweg, J.G.; Kling, W.L.

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the use of low voltage DC distribution network for rural electrification within an intelligent grid concept. The goal is to provide local communities in sparsely populated areas with electricity supply generated from renewable energy sources. Since these communities subsist

  7. The ENCOURAGE ICT architecture for heterogeneous smart grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albano, Michele; Ferreira, Luis; Le Guilly, Thibaut

    2013-01-01

    The ENCOURAGE project aims at rationalizing energy usage in building by implementing a smart energy grid based on intelligent scheduling of energy consuming appliances, renewable energy production, and inter-building energy trading. This paper presents the reference architecture proposed in the c...

  8. Resilience of Urban Smart Grids Involving Multiple Control Loops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jacob Theilgaard; Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna; Schwefel, Hans-Peter

    2016-01-01

    Intelligent control of energy distribution grids is implemented via a hierarchy of control loops with different input values and different control targets, which also work on different time-scales. This control is enabled by a bi-directional communication flow, which can be interrupted due to ICT...

  9. Smart grid technologies in local electric grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lezhniuk, Petro D.; Pijarski, Paweł; Buslavets, Olga A.

    2017-08-01

    The research is devoted to the creation of favorable conditions for the integration of renewable sources of energy into electric grids, which were designed to be supplied from centralized generation at large electric power stations. Development of distributed generation in electric grids influences the conditions of their operation - conflict of interests arises. The possibility of optimal functioning of electric grids and renewable sources of energy, when complex criterion of the optimality is balance reliability of electric energy in local electric system and minimum losses of electric energy in it. Multilevel automated system for power flows control in electric grids by means of change of distributed generation of power is developed. Optimization of power flows is performed by local systems of automatic control of small hydropower stations and, if possible, solar power plants.

  10. Mapping of grid faults and grid codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iov, Florin; Hansen, A.D.; Sørensen, P.

    loads of wind turbines. The goal is also to clarify and define possible new directions in the certification process of power plant wind turbines, namely wind turbines, which participate actively in the stabilisation of power systems. Practical experience shows that there is a need...... challenges for the design of both the electrical system and the mechanical structure of wind turbines. An overview over the frequency of grid faults and the grid connection requirements in different relevant countries is done in this report. The most relevant study cases for the quantification of the loads......The present report is a part of the research project "Grid fault and design basis for wind turbine" supported by Energinet.dk through the grant PSO F&U 6319. The objective of this project is to investigate into the consequences of the new grid connection requirements for the fatigue and extreme...

  11. Mapping of grid faults and grid codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iov, F.; Hansen, Anca Daniela; Sørensen, Poul Ejnar

    loads of wind turbines. The goal is also to clarify and define possible new directions in the certification process of power plant wind turbines, namely wind turbines, which participate actively in the stabilisation of power systems. Practical experience shows that there is a need...... challenges for the design of both the electrical system and the mechanical structure of wind turbines. An overview over the frequency of grid faults and the grid connection requirements in different relevant countries is done in this report. The most relevant study cases for the quantification of the loads......The present report is a part of the research project ''Grid fault and designbasis for wind turbine'' supported by Energinet.dk through the grant PSO F&U 6319. The objective of this project is to investigate into the consequences of the new grid connection requirements for the fatigue and extreme...

  12. Monitoring and modeling infiltration-recharge dynamics of managed aquifer recharge with desalinated seawater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganot, Yonatan; Holtzman, Ran; Weisbrod, Noam; Nitzan, Ido; Katz, Yoram; Kurtzman, Daniel

    2017-09-01

    We study the relation between surface infiltration and groundwater recharge during managed aquifer recharge (MAR) with desalinated seawater in an infiltration pond, at the Menashe site that overlies the northern part of the Israeli Coastal Aquifer. We monitor infiltration dynamics at multiple scales (up to the scale of the entire pond) by measuring the ponding depth, sediment water content and groundwater levels, using pressure sensors, single-ring infiltrometers, soil sensors, and observation wells. During a month (January 2015) of continuous intensive MAR (2.45 × 106 m3 discharged to a 10.7 ha area), groundwater level has risen by 17 m attaining full connection with the pond, while average infiltration rates declined by almost 2 orders of magnitude (from ˜ 11 to ˜ 0.4 m d-1). This reduction can be explained solely by the lithology of the unsaturated zone that includes relatively low-permeability sediments. Clogging processes at the pond-surface - abundant in many MAR operations - are negated by the high-quality desalinated seawater (turbidity ˜ 0.2 NTU, total dissolved solids ˜ 120 mg L-1) or negligible compared to the low-permeability layers. Recharge during infiltration was estimated reasonably well by simple analytical models, whereas a numerical model was used for estimating groundwater recharge after the end of infiltration. It was found that a calibrated numerical model with a one-dimensional representative sediment profile is able to capture MAR dynamics, including temporal reduction of infiltration rates, drainage and groundwater recharge. Measured infiltration rates of an independent MAR event (January 2016) fitted well to those calculated by the calibrated numerical model, showing the model validity. The successful quantification methodologies of the temporal groundwater recharge are useful for MAR practitioners and can serve as an input for groundwater flow models.

  13. Smart and sustainable power systems operations, planning, and economics of insular electricity grids

    CERN Document Server

    Catalão, João P S

    2015-01-01

    The smart grid initiative, integrating advanced sensing technologies, intelligent control methods, and bi-directional communications into the contemporary electricity grid, offers excellent opportunities for energy efficiency improvements and better integration of distributed generation, coexisting with centralized generation units within an active network. A large share of the installed capacity for recent renewable energy sources already comprises insular electricity grids, since the latter are preferable due to their high potential for renewables. However, the increasing share of

  14. Security Challenges in Smart-Grid Metering and Control Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinxin Fan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The smart grid is a next-generation power system that is increasingly attracting the attention of government, industry, and academia. It is an upgraded electricity network that depends on two-way digital communications between supplier and consumer that in turn give support to intelligent metering and monitoring systems. Considering that energy utilities play an increasingly important role in our daily life, smart-grid technology introduces new security challenges that must be addressed. Deploying a smart grid without adequate security might result in serious consequences such as grid instability, utility fraud, and loss of user information and energy-consumption data. Due to the heterogeneous communication architecture of smart grids, it is quite a challenge to design sophisticated and robust security mechanisms that can be easily deployed to protect communications among different layers of the smart grid-infrastructure. In this article, we focus on the communication-security aspect of a smart-grid metering and control system from the perspective of cryptographic techniques, and we discuss different mechanisms to enhance cybersecurity of the emerging smart grid. We aim to provide a comprehensive vulnerability analysis as well as novel insights on the cybersecurity of a smart grid.

  15. Smart grid security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuellar, Jorge (ed.) [Siemens AG, Muenchen (Germany). Corporate Technology

    2013-11-01

    The engineering, deployment and security of the future smart grid will be an enormous project requiring the consensus of many stakeholders with different views on the security and privacy requirements, not to mention methods and solutions. The fragmentation of research agendas and proposed approaches or solutions for securing the future smart grid becomes apparent observing the results from different projects, standards, committees, etc, in different countries. The different approaches and views of the papers in this collection also witness this fragmentation. This book contains the following papers: 1. IT Security Architecture Approaches for Smart Metering and Smart Grid. 2. Smart Grid Information Exchange - Securing the Smart Grid from the Ground. 3. A Tool Set for the Evaluation of Security and Reliability in Smart Grids. 4. A Holistic View of Security and Privacy Issues in Smart Grids. 5. Hardware Security for Device Authentication in the Smart Grid. 6. Maintaining Privacy in Data Rich Demand Response Applications. 7. Data Protection in a Cloud-Enabled Smart Grid. 8. Formal Analysis of a Privacy-Preserving Billing Protocol. 9. Privacy in Smart Metering Ecosystems. 10. Energy rate at home Leveraging ZigBee to Enable Smart Grid in Residential Environment.

  16. Artificial Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, David R; Palacios-González, César; Harris, John

    2016-04-01

    It seems natural to think that the same prudential and ethical reasons for mutual respect and tolerance that one has vis-à-vis other human persons would hold toward newly encountered paradigmatic but nonhuman biological persons. One also tends to think that they would have similar reasons for treating we humans as creatures that count morally in our own right. This line of thought transcends biological boundaries-namely, with regard to artificially (super)intelligent persons-but is this a safe assumption? The issue concerns ultimate moral significance: the significance possessed by human persons, persons from other planets, and hypothetical nonorganic persons in the form of artificial intelligence (AI). This article investigates why our possible relations to AI persons could be more complicated than they first might appear, given that they might possess a radically different nature to us, to the point that civilized or peaceful coexistence in a determinate geographical space could be impossible to achieve.

  17. Climatic controls on diffuse groundwater recharge across Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Barron

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Reviews of field studies of groundwater recharge have attempted to investigate how climate characteristics control recharge, but due to a lack of data have not been able to draw any strong conclusions beyond that rainfall is the major determinant. This study has used numerical modelling for a range of Köppen-Geiger climate types (tropical, arid and temperate to investigate the effect of climate variables on recharge for different soil and vegetation types. For the majority of climate types, the correlation between the modelled recharge and total annual rainfall is weaker than the correlation between recharge and the annual rainfall parameters reflecting rainfall intensity. Under similar soil and vegetation conditions for the same annual rainfall, annual recharge in regions with winter-dominated rainfall is greater than in regions with summer-dominated rainfall. The importance of climate parameters other than rainfall in recharge estimation is highest in the tropical climate type. Mean annual values of solar radiation and vapour pressure deficit show a greater importance in recharge estimation than mean annual values of the daily mean temperature. Climate parameters have the lowest relative importance in recharge estimation in the arid climate type (with cold winters and the temperate climate type. For 75% of all soil, vegetation and climate types investigated, recharge elasticity varies between 2 and 4 indicating a 20% to 40% change in recharge for a 10% change in annual rainfall. Understanding how climate controls recharge under the observed historical climate allows more informed choices of analogue sites if they are to be used for climate change impact assessments.

  18. Intelligent Tutor

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    NASA also seeks to advance American education by employing the technology utilization process to develop a computerized, artificial intelligence-based Intelligent Tutoring System (ITS) to help high school and college physics students. The tutoring system is designed for use with the lecture and laboratory portions of a typical physics instructional program. Its importance lies in its ability to observe continually as a student develops problem solutions and to intervene when appropriate with assistance specifically directed at the student's difficulty and tailored to his skill level and learning style. ITS originated as a project of the Johnson Space Center (JSC). It is being developed by JSC's Software Technology Branch in cooperation with Dr. R. Bowen Loftin at the University of Houston-Downtown. Program is jointly sponsored by NASA and ACOT (Apple Classrooms of Tomorrow). Other organizations providing support include Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board, the National Research Council, Pennzoil Products Company and the George R. Brown Foundation. The Physics I class of Clear Creek High School, League City, Texas are providing the classroom environment for test and evaluation of the system. The ITS is a spinoff product developed earlier to integrate artificial intelligence into training/tutoring systems for NASA astronauts flight controllers and engineers.

  19. Simulation of net infiltration and potential recharge using a distributed-parameter watershed model of the Death Valley region, Nevada and California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hevesi, Joseph A.; Flint, Alan L.; Flint, Lorraine E.

    2003-01-01

    (as either rain or snow), snow accumulation, sublimation, snowmelt, infiltration into the root zone, evapotranspiration, drainage, water content change throughout the root-zone profile (represented as a 6-layered system), runoff (defined as excess rainfall and snowmelt) and surface water run-on (defined as runoff that is routed downstream), and net infiltration (simulated as drainage from the bottom root-zone layer). Potential evapotranspiration is simulated using an hourly solar radiation model to simulate daily net radiation, and daily evapotranspiration is simulated as an empirical function of root zone water content and potential evapotranspiration. The model uses daily climate records of precipitation and air temperature from a regionally distributed network of 132 climate stations and a spatially distributed representation of drainage basin characteristics defined by topography, geology, soils, and vegetation to simulate daily net infiltration at all locations, including stream channels with intermittent streamflow in response to runoff from rain and snowmelt. The temporal distribution of daily, monthly, and annual net infiltration can be used to evaluate the potential effect of future climatic conditions on potential recharge. The INFILv3 model inputs representing drainage basin characteristics were developed using a geographic information system (GIS) to define a set of spatially distributed input parameters uniquely assigned to each grid cell of the INFILv3 model grid. The model grid, which was defined by a digital elevation model (DEM) of the Death Valley region, consists of 1,252,418 model grid cells with a uniform grid cell dimension of 278.5 meters in the north-south and east-west directions. The elevation values from the DEM were used with monthly regression models developed from the daily climate data to estimate the spatial distribution of daily precipitation and air temperature. The elevation values were also used to simulate atmosp

  20. Summary of groundwater-recharge estimates for Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart O. Reese,; Risser, Dennis W.

    2010-01-01

    Groundwater recharge is water that infiltrates through the subsurface to the zone of saturation beneath the water table. Because recharge is a difficult parameter to quantify, it is typically estimated from measurements of other parameters like streamflow and precipitation. This report provides a general overview of processes affecting recharge in Pennsylvania and presents estimates of recharge rates from studies at various scales.The most common method for estimating recharge in Pennsylvania has been to estimate base flow from measurements of streamflow and assume that base flow (expressed in inches over the basin) approximates recharge. Statewide estimates of mean annual groundwater recharge were developed by relating base flow to basin characteristics of HUC10 watersheds (a fifth-level classification that uses 10 digits to define unique hydrologic units) using a regression equation. The regression analysis indicated that mean annual precipitation, average daily maximum temperature, percent of sand in soil, percent of carbonate rock in the watershed, and average stream-channel slope were significant factors in the explaining the variability of groundwater recharge across the Commonwealth.Several maps are included in this report to illustrate the principal factors affecting recharge and provide additional information about the spatial distribution of recharge in Pennsylvania. The maps portray the patterns of precipitation, temperature, prevailing winds across Pennsylvania’s varied physiography; illustrate the error associated with recharge estimates; and show the spatial variability of recharge as a percent of precipitation. National, statewide, regional, and local values of recharge, based on numerous studies, are compiled to allow comparison of estimates from various sources. Together these plates provide a synopsis of groundwater-recharge estimations and factors in Pennsylvania.Areas that receive the most recharge are typically those that get the most

  1. Startup Report for Ground Water Extraction, Treatment, and Recharge System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lamb, Steve

    1997-01-01

    The document presents startup procedures, observations and measurements conducted during the startup of the Groundwater Extraction, Treatment and Recharge System, built for the 162nd Fighter Wing, Air...

  2. 7th International Symposium on Intelligent Distributed Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Jung, Jason; Badica, Costin

    2014-01-01

    This book represents the combined peer-reviewed proceedings of the Seventh International Symposium on Intelligent Distributed Computing - IDC-2013, of the Second Workshop on Agents for Clouds - A4C-2013, of the Fifth International Workshop on Multi-Agent Systems Technology and Semantics - MASTS-2013, and of the International Workshop on Intelligent Robots - iR-2013. All the events were held in Prague, Czech Republic during September 4-6, 2013. The 41 contributions published in this book address many topics related to theory and applications of intelligent distributed computing and multi-agent systems, including: agent-based data processing, ambient intelligence, bio-informatics, collaborative systems, cryptography and security, distributed algorithms, grid and cloud computing, information extraction, intelligent robotics, knowledge management, linked data, mobile agents, ontologies, pervasive computing, self-organizing systems, peer-to-peer computing, social networks and trust, and swarm intelligence.  .

  3. Room temperature rechargeable polymer electrolyte batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alamgir, M. [EIC Labs., Inc., Norwood, MA (United States); Abraham, K.M. [EIC Labs., Inc., Norwood, MA (United States)

    1995-03-01

    Polyacrylonitrile (PAN)- and poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC)-based Li{sup +}-conductive thin-film electrolytes have been found to be suitable in rechargeable Li and Li-ion cells. Li/Li{sub x}Mn{sub 2}O{sub y} and carbon/LiNiO{sub 2} cells fabricated with these electrolytes have demonstrated rate capabilities greater than the C-rate and more than 375 full depth cycles. Two-cell carbon/LiNiO{sub 2} bipolar batteries could be discharged at pulse currents as high as 50 mA/cm{sup 2}. (orig.)

  4. Rechargeable lithium/polymer cathode batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osaka, Tetsuya; Nakajima, Toshiki; Shiota, Koh; Owens, Boone B.

    1989-06-01

    Polypyrrole (PPy) and polyaniline (PAn) were investigated for cathode materials of rechargeable lithium batteries. PPy films prepared with PF6(-) anion and/or platinum substrate precoated with nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) were excellent cathode materials because of rough and/or highly oriented film structure. PAn films were successfully prepared from non-aqueous propylene carbonate solution containing aniline, CF3COOH and lithium perchlorate. Its acidity strongly affects the anion doping-undoping behavior. The PAn cathode prepared in high acidic solution (e.g., 4:1 ratio of acid:aniline) gives the excellent battery performance.

  5. Advanced Rechargeable Lithium Sulfur Dioxide Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-11-01

    AD-A274 908IIIIlIIIE McDonald , P. Harris, F. Goebel, S. Hossi ierra, M. Guentert, C. Todino 7 ad r nse TECHNICAL PRODUCTS INCY DTIC ELECTE JAN26 1994...Pawcatuck, CT 06379 94-02298 1425 Best Available Copy I ADVANCED RECHARGEABLE LITHIUM SULFUR DIOXIDE CELL I R.C. McDonald , P. Harris, F. Goebel, S. Hossain...20 minutes. The electrochemical measurements were carried out using a I Starbuck 20-station cycler system which is connected to a computer to monitor

  6. Evolution of strategies for modern rechargeable batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodenough, John B

    2013-05-21

    This Account provides perspective on the evolution of the rechargeable battery and summarizes innovations in the development of these devices. Initially, I describe the components of a conventional rechargeable battery along with the engineering parameters that define the figures of merit for a single cell. In 1967, researchers discovered fast Na(+) conduction at 300 K in Na β,β''-alumina. Since then battery technology has evolved from a strongly acidic or alkaline aqueous electrolyte with protons as the working ion to an organic liquid-carbonate electrolyte with Li(+) as the working ion in a Li-ion battery. The invention of the sodium-sulfur and Zebra batteries stimulated consideration of framework structures as crystalline hosts for mobile guest alkali ions, and the jump in oil prices in the early 1970s prompted researchers to consider alternative room-temperature batteries with aprotic liquid electrolytes. With the existence of Li primary cells and ongoing research on the chemistry of reversible Li intercalation into layered chalcogenides, industry invested in the production of a Li/TiS2 rechargeable cell. However, on repeated recharge, dendrites grew across the electrolyte from the anode to the cathode, leading to dangerous short-circuits in the cell in the presence of the flammable organic liquid electrolyte. Because lowering the voltage of the anode would prevent cells with layered-chalcogenide cathodes from competing with cells that had an aqueous electrolyte, researchers quickly abandoned this effort. However, once it was realized that an oxide cathode could offer a larger voltage versus lithium, researchers considered the extraction of Li from the layered LiMO2 oxides with M = Co or Ni. These oxide cathodes were fabricated in a discharged state, and battery manufacturers could not conceive of assembling a cell with a discharged cathode. Meanwhile, exploration of Li intercalation into graphite showed that reversible Li insertion into carbon occurred

  7. LHC computing grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novaes, Sergio

    2011-01-01

    Full text: We give an overview of the grid computing initiatives in the Americas. High-Energy Physics has played a very important role in the development of grid computing in the world and in Latin America it has not been different. Lately, the grid concept has expanded its reach across all branches of e-Science, and we have witnessed the birth of the first nationwide infrastructures and its use in the private sector. (author)

  8. Urban micro-grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faure, Maeva; Salmon, Martin; El Fadili, Safae; Payen, Luc; Kerlero, Guillaume; Banner, Arnaud; Ehinger, Andreas; Illouz, Sebastien; Picot, Roland; Jolivet, Veronique; Michon Savarit, Jeanne; Strang, Karl Axel

    2017-02-01

    ENEA Consulting published the results of a study on urban micro-grids conducted in partnership with the Group ADP, the Group Caisse des Depots, ENEDIS, Omexom, Total and the Tuck Foundation. This study offers a vision of the definition of an urban micro-grid, the value brought by a micro-grid in different contexts based on real case studies, and the upcoming challenges that micro-grid stakeholders will face (regulation, business models, technology). The electric production and distribution system, as the backbone of an increasingly urbanized and energy dependent society, is urged to shift towards a more resilient, efficient and environment-friendly infrastructure. Decentralisation of electricity production into densely populated areas is a promising opportunity to achieve this transition. A micro-grid enhances local production through clustering electricity producers and consumers within a delimited electricity network; it has the ability to disconnect from the main grid for a limited period of time, offering an energy security service to its customers during grid outages for example. However: The islanding capability is an inherent feature of the micro-grid concept that leads to a significant premium on electricity cost, especially in a system highly reliant on intermittent electricity production. In this case, a smart grid, with local energy production and no islanding capability, can be customized to meet relevant sustainability and cost savings goals at lower costs For industrials, urban micro-grids can be economically profitable in presence of high share of reliable energy production and thermal energy demand micro-grids face strong regulatory challenges that should be overcome for further development Whether islanding is or is not implemented into the system, end-user demand for a greener, more local, cheaper and more reliable energy, as well as additional services to the grid, are strong drivers for local production and consumption. In some specific cases

  9. High density grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, Aina E.; Baxter, Elizabeth L.

    2018-01-16

    An X-ray data collection grid device is provided that includes a magnetic base that is compatible with robotic sample mounting systems used at synchrotron beamlines, a grid element fixedly attached to the magnetic base, where the grid element includes at least one sealable sample window disposed through a planar synchrotron-compatible material, where the planar synchrotron-compatible material includes at least one automated X-ray positioning and fluid handling robot fiducial mark.

  10. Challenges facing production grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pordes, Ruth; /Fermilab

    2007-06-01

    Today's global communities of users expect quality of service from distributed Grid systems equivalent to that their local data centers. This must be coupled to ubiquitous access to the ensemble of processing and storage resources across multiple Grid infrastructures. We are still facing significant challenges in meeting these expectations, especially in the underlying security, a sustainable and successful economic model, and smoothing the boundaries between administrative and technical domains. Using the Open Science Grid as an example, I examine the status and challenges of Grids operating in production today.

  11. Intelligent Design and Intelligent Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerman, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    Good Evening, my name is Greg Jerman and for nearly a quarter century I have been performing failure analysis on NASA's aerospace hardware. During that time I had the distinct privilege of keeping the Space Shuttle flying for two thirds of its history. I have analyzed a wide variety of failed hardware from simple electrical cables to cryogenic fuel tanks to high temperature turbine blades. During this time I have found that for all the time we spend intelligently designing things, we need to be equally intelligent about understanding why things fail. The NASA Flight Director for Apollo 13, Gene Kranz, is best known for the expression "Failure is not an option." However, NASA history is filled with failures both large and small, so it might be more accurate to say failure is inevitable. It is how we react and learn from our failures that makes the difference.

  12. Estimating spatially and temporally varying recharge and runoff from precipitation and urban irrigation in the Los Angeles Basin, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hevesi, Joseph A.; Johnson, Tyler D.

    2016-10-17

    A daily precipitation-runoff model, referred to as the Los Angeles Basin watershed model (LABWM), was used to estimate recharge and runoff for a 5,047 square kilometer study area that included the greater Los Angeles area and all surface-water drainages potentially contributing recharge to a 1,450 square kilometer groundwater-study area underlying the greater Los Angeles area, referred to as the Los Angeles groundwater-study area. The recharge estimates for the Los Angeles groundwater-study area included spatially distributed recharge in response to the infiltration of precipitation, runoff, and urban irrigation, as well as mountain-front recharge from surface-water drainages bordering the groundwater-study area. The recharge and runoff estimates incorporated a new method for estimating urban irrigation, consisting of residential and commercial landscape watering, based on land use and the percentage of pervious land area.The LABWM used a 201.17-meter gridded discretization of the study area to represent spatially distributed climate and watershed characteristics affecting the surface and shallow sub-surface hydrology for the Los Angeles groundwater study area. Climate data from a local network of 201 monitoring sites and published maps of 30-year-average monthly precipitation and maximum and minimum air temperature were used to develop the climate inputs for the LABWM. Published maps of land use, land cover, soils, vegetation, and surficial geology were used to represent the physical characteristics of the LABWM area. The LABWM was calibrated to available streamflow records at six streamflow-gaging stations.Model results for a 100-year target-simulation period, from water years 1915 through 2014, were used to quantify and evaluate the spatial and temporal variability of water-budget components, including evapotranspiration (ET), recharge, and runoff. The largest outflow of water from the LABWM was ET; the 100-year average ET rate of 362 millimeters per year (mm

  13. Artificial recharge of groundwater and its role in water management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimrey, J.O.

    1989-01-01

    This paper summarizes and discusses the various aspects and methods of artificial recharge with particular emphasis on its uses and potential role in water management in the Arabian Gulf region. Artificial recharge occurs when man's activities cause more water to enter an aquifer, either under pumping or non-pumping conditions, than otherwise would enter the aquifer. Use of artificial recharge can be a practical means of dealing with problems of overdraft of groundwater. Methods of artificial recharge may be grouped under two broad types: (a) water spreading techniques, and (b) well-injection techniques. Successful use of artificial recharge requires a thorough knowledge of the physical and chemical characteristics of the aquifier system, and extensive onsite experimentation and tailoring of the artificial-recharge technique to fit the local or areal conditions. In general, water spreading techniques are less expensive than well injection and large quantities of water can be handled. Water spreading can also result in significant improvement in quality of recharge waters during infiltration and movement through the unsaturated zone and the receiving aquifer. In comparison, well-injection techniques are often used for emplacement of fresh recharge water into saline aquifer zones to form a manageable lens of fresher water, which may later be partially withdrawn for use or continue to be maintained as a barrier against salt-water encroachment. A major advantage in use of groundwater is its availability, on demand to wells, from a natural storage reservoir that is relatively safe from pollution and from damage by sabotage or other hostile action. However, fresh groundwater occurs only in limited quantities in most of the Arabian Gulf region; also, it is heavily overdrafted in many areas, and receives very little natural recharge. Good use could be made of artificial recharge by well injection in replenishing and managing aquifers in strategic locations if sources of

  14. Estimation of potential rainfall recharge in the pothwar area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afzal, M.; Yaseen, M.

    2015-01-01

    Groundwater recharge is complex phenomenon to understand and describe because it cannot be seen with open eyes. We have to depend some theoretical assumptions to understand this complicated hidden natural underground water movement process. There are many factors affecting and controlling the water movement in soil profile. Groundwater use in district chakwal is of a fundamental importance to meet the rapidly expanding drinking and agricultural water requirements. The man factors contributing to groundwater recharge in chakwal are rainfall, evapotranspiration and geology. due to the semi arid climatic conditions of the area, this resource is almost the only key to economic development. There are a number of dug wells in the area where water is getting stored during rainy season. source and processes of recharge in humid areas are different compared with semi-arid areas. Due to the main resource of available water in the area, the potential groundwater recharge estimation could be good exercise to visulize the amount of rainwater entering the ground. For groundwater recharge estimation there are a number of simple and advanced techniques available. In the present study simple methods were used to estimate potential recharge due to available limited resources. Rainfall runoff, gravimetric and water table fluctuation methods were used to quantify rainfall recharge during the monsoon season. The average potential recharge estimated was 60% of the rainfall of 148 mm. Rainfall runoff and gravimetric methods were found to be comparable for short period potential recharge estimation while water table fluctuation method gives actual recharge and require longer period data. Potential recharge values were higher for area having grassland type vegetation and low for area covering shrubs and tick vegetation. (author)

  15. Development of Managed Aquifer Recharge in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, W.; Zhou, Y.; Sun, X.; Wang, W.

    2014-10-01

    China has a long history in managed aquifer recharge (MAR). The historic development can be divided into 4 stages based on a summary of typical MAR projects. The first stage is MAR applied to agricultural production, the second is MAR applied to industrial production and alleviation of agricultural problems, the third is MAR applied to ecological protection and the increase in urban water supplies, and the fourth is multi-source MAR. In addition, geothermal reinjection and ground source heat pumps are also effective uses of MAR. Nevertheless, the MAR framework is defective, there is a lack of water quality studies, and the recharge rate of most projects is low. However, China has achieved a great effect on industrial and agricultural production, ecological protection, drinking water supplies and urban reclaimed water reuse, amongst others. But there are still many issues to be improved. A feasible, convenient and economic technique of MAR which fits local hydrogeological conditions needs to be developed and guidelines for both MARs and management regulations to ensure the successful running of MAR projects also need to be established. MAR will make a great difference to improving potable water quality, alleviating geological hazards, long distance water diversion, urban water supplies, agriculture irrigation, etc. (Author)

  16. Spring-recharging in the Himalayas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, Anil P.

    2009-01-01

    in the settlement of mountain villages in the Himalayas. In fact, in many places, it was the single factor that determined the location of the villages and naturally rainwater has been the source which recharge the catchments of the springs. Forest cover keeps these catchment areas alive for the slow and constant recharging of the springs. In the recent past due to continuous deforestation, the catchment areas have been drastically reduced. Eventually, these denuded lands were unable to conserve water, which has resulted in the drying-up and dying of many mountain springs. Certainly, this became a major threat to both the natural habitats of the springs, as well as to the survival of the communities. In order to meet the water needs of the villages, the government-development agencies devised a distribution system in which water was diverted from regions with an adequate supply to those deprived of water. This approach to remedy the water shortage brought about significant water conflicts, as the rights to water resources were not well defined. This system also did not adequately address water-management and distribution lines for the water resources

  17. Organic electrode materials for rechargeable lithium batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Yanliang; Tao, Zhanliang; Chen, Jun [Key Laboratory of Advanced Energy Materials Chemistry (Ministry of Education), Chemistry College, Nankai University, Tianjin (China)

    2012-07-15

    Organic compounds offer new possibilities for high energy/power density, cost-effective, environmentally friendly, and functional rechargeable lithium batteries. For a long time, they have not constituted an important class of electrode materials, partly because of the large success and rapid development of inorganic intercalation compounds. In recent years, however, exciting progress has been made, bringing organic electrodes to the attention of the energy storage community. Herein thirty years' research efforts in the field of organic compounds for rechargeable lithium batteries are summarized. The working principles, development history, and design strategies of these materials, including organosulfur compounds, organic free radical compounds, organic carbonyl compounds, conducting polymers, non-conjugated redox polymers, and layered organic compounds are presented. The cell performances of these materials are compared, providing a comprehensive overview of the area, and straightforwardly revealing the advantages/disadvantages of each class of materials. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  18. Optimizing Resource Utilization in Grid Batch Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gellrich, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    On Grid sites, the requirements of the computing tasks (jobs) to computing, storage, and network resources differ widely. For instance Monte Carlo production jobs are almost purely CPU-bound, whereas physics analysis jobs demand high data rates. In order to optimize the utilization of the compute node resources, jobs must be distributed intelligently over the nodes. Although the job resource requirements cannot be deduced directly, jobs are mapped to POSIX UID/GID according to the VO, VOMS group and role information contained in the VOMS proxy. The UID/GID then allows to distinguish jobs, if users are using VOMS proxies as planned by the VO management, e.g. ‘role=production’ for Monte Carlo jobs. It is possible to setup and configure batch systems (queuing system and scheduler) at Grid sites based on these considerations although scaling limits were observed with the scheduler MAUI. In tests these limitations could be overcome with a home-made scheduler.

  19. Rechargeable dual-metal-ion batteries for advanced energy storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Hu-Rong; You, Ya; Yin, Ya-Xia; Wan, Li-Jun; Guo, Yu-Guo

    2016-04-14

    Energy storage devices are more important today than any time before in human history due to the increasing demand for clean and sustainable energy. Rechargeable batteries are emerging as the most efficient energy storage technology for a wide range of portable devices, grids and electronic vehicles. Future generations of batteries are required to have high gravimetric and volumetric energy, high power density, low price, long cycle life, high safety and low self-discharge properties. However, it is quite challenging to achieve the above properties simultaneously in state-of-the-art single metal ion batteries (e.g. Li-ion batteries, Na-ion batteries and Mg-ion batteries). In this contribution, hybrid-ion batteries in which various metal ions simultaneously engage to store energy are shown to provide a new perspective towards advanced energy storage: by connecting the respective advantages of different metal ion batteries they have recently attracted widespread attention due to their novel performances. The properties of hybrid-ion batteries are not simply the superposition of the performances of single ion batteries. To enable a distinct description, we only focus on dual-metal-ion batteries in this article, for which the design and the benefits are briefly discussed. We enumerate some new results about dual-metal-ion batteries and demonstrate the mechanism for improving performance based on knowledge from the literature and experiments. Although the search for hybrid-ion batteries is still at an early age, we believe that this strategy would be an excellent choice for breaking the inherent disadvantages of single ion batteries in the near future.

  20. Power systems signal processing for smart grids

    CERN Document Server

    Ribeiro, Paulo Fernando; Ribeiro, Paulo Márcio; Cerqueira, Augusto Santiago

    2013-01-01

    With special relation to smart grids, this book provides clear and comprehensive explanation of how Digital Signal Processing (DSP) and Computational Intelligence (CI) techniques can be applied to solve problems in the power system. Its unique coverage bridges the gap between DSP, electrical power and energy engineering systems, showing many different techniques applied to typical and expected system conditions with practical power system examples. Surveying all recent advances on DSP for power systems, this book enables engineers and researchers to understand the current state of the art a

  1. Smart Grids - The Playground of Energy Transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hribernik, W.

    2016-01-01

    In Europe, energy transition is already in full swing. In the power supply, wind and solar energy play an increasingly important role. The fluctuating feed-in of these often also decentral energy sources can lead to capacity problems at different network levels. Intelligent electrical networks, so called "smart grids", optimally optimize system capacities through ongoing coordination between producers. From a global point of view, the aim is to set a set of measures that meet the most important target parameters for the smart networks: maximum integration of renewable energy sources, maximum security of supply and an optimal functioning of the energy markets in an economically efficient manner. (rössner) [de

  2. Demand Side Management in the Smart Grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costanzo, Giuseppe Tommaso

    . Therefore it does not guarantee optimality in the long run. Two approaches are investigated within predictive control: the first is based on grey-box modelling and quadratic Model Predictive Control (MPC), while the second is based on Artificial Intelligence modelling and gradient-free optimisation......, together with the growing urbanisation, the in- creasing popularity of electricity-based climate control systems and electricity-based private transportation, challenges the distribution systems operators to run the low voltage grids with small safety margins. Depending on the customer and the specific...

  3. Power system SCADA and smart grids

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, Mini S

    2015-01-01

    Power System SCADA and Smart Grids brings together in one concise volume the fundamentals and possible application functions of power system supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA). The text begins by providing an overview of SCADA systems, evolution, and use in power systems and the data acquisition process. It then describes the components of SCADA systems, from the legacy remote terminal units (RTUs) to the latest intelligent electronic devices (IEDs), data concentrators, and master stations, as well as:Examines the building and practical implementation of different SCADA systemsOf

  4. The often neglected yet crucial element in smart grid strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiMarco, T. [Utility Industry Global Marketing Security, New York, NY (United States); Smith, W. [Intergraph Corp., Huntsville, AL (United States)

    2008-11-15

    Smart grids consist of automation technology that includes selfhealing networks, intelligent applications, and smart meters to improve load management. Electric utilities can benefit from making the transition from existing infrastructure to leading edge smart grid technology which offers better reliability and reduced maintenance costs. The smart grid improves the efficiency of electrical transmission and distribution, whether it involves carbon policies, grid modernization, renewable energy sources or smart end-use devices for the customer. Smart grids are expected to improve scheduling efficiency, dispatch management, transmission line surveillance and cyber security by enabling faster and better decisions from the control room. However, a smart grid control center is prone to human error. Operators must monitor data, locate work crews, analyze power system reports, and survey real-time transmission line data. They must choose optimal network configurations, whether it is to control voltage or to manage system restart following an outage. To do so, they need a system that will allow them to speed their analysis and take action. The true value of a smart grid is being able to see and control several critical applications in one unified system. A common operating picture improves overall situational awareness, reduces costs and increases efficiency in grid operations. The control center of the future will have 2D and 3D graphical visualization of complex real-time data to improve situational awareness, with multiple layers of information, including outages, distribution automation, geographic information systems, network analysis, and workforce management in a unified system. 1 fig.

  5. GridOrbit public display

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramos, Juan David Hincapie; Tabard, Aurélien; Bardram, Jakob

    2010-01-01

    We introduce GridOrbit, a public awareness display that visualizes the activity of a community grid used in a biology laboratory. This community grid executes bioin-formatics algorithms and relies on users to donate CPU cycles to the grid. The goal of GridOrbit is to create a shared awareness about...

  6. Load Forecasting with Artificial Intelligence on Big Data

    OpenAIRE

    Glauner, Patrick; State, Radu

    2016-01-01

    In the domain of electrical power grids, there is a particular interest in time series analysis using artificial intelligence. Machine learning is the branch of artificial intelligence giving computers the ability to learn patterns from data without being explicitly programmed. Deep Learning is a set of cutting-edge machine learning algorithms that are inspired by how the human brain works. It allows to self-learn feature hierarchies from the data rather than modeling hand-crafted features. I...

  7. Security for grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humphrey, Marty; Thompson, Mary R.; Jackson, Keith R.

    2005-08-14

    Securing a Grid environment presents a distinctive set of challenges. This paper groups the activities that need to be secured into four categories: naming and authentication; secure communication; trust, policy, and authorization; and enforcement of access control. It examines the current state of the art in securing these processes and introduces new technologies that promise to meet the security requirements of Grids more completely.

  8. The LHCb Grid Simulation

    CERN Multimedia

    Baranov, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    The LHCb Grid access if based on the LHCbDirac system. It provides access to data and computational resources to researchers with different geographical locations. The Grid has a hierarchical topology with multiple sites distributed over the world. The sites differ from each other by their number of CPUs, amount of disk storage and connection bandwidth. These parameters are essential for the Grid work. Moreover, job scheduling and data distribution strategy have a great impact on the grid performance. However, it is hard to choose an appropriate algorithm and strategies as they need a lot of time to be tested on the real grid. In this study, we describe the LHCb Grid simulator. The simulator reproduces the LHCb Grid structure with its sites and their number of CPUs, amount of disk storage and bandwidth connection. We demonstrate how well the simulator reproduces the grid work, show its advantages and limitations. We show how well the simulator reproduces job scheduling and network anomalies, consider methods ...

  9. The play grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fogh, Rune; Johansen, Asger

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we propose The Play Grid, a model for systemizing different play types. The approach is psychological by nature and the actual Play Grid is based, therefore, on two pairs of fundamental and widely acknowledged distinguishing characteristics of the ego, namely: extraversion vs. intro...

  10. Planning in Smart Grids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosman, M.G.C.

    2012-01-01

    The electricity supply chain is changing, due to increasing awareness for sustainability and an improved energy efficiency. The traditional infrastructure where demand is supplied by centralized generation is subject to a transition towards a Smart Grid. In this Smart Grid, sustainable generation

  11. 30 CFR 57.4203 - Extinguisher recharging or replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Extinguisher recharging or replacement. 57.4203 Section 57.4203 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Prevention and Control Firefighting Equipment § 57.4203 Extinguisher recharging or replacement. Fire...

  12. 30 CFR 56.4203 - Extinguisher recharging or replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Extinguisher recharging or replacement. 56.4203 Section 56.4203 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Prevention and Control Firefighting Equipment § 56.4203 Extinguisher recharging or replacement. Fire...

  13. Nondestructive control of residual stresses during welding and recharge processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez, J.C.; Fernandez, L.M.; Cruz, C.; Merino, F.; Aragon, B.

    1993-01-01

    In this work, the stress state of material during welding and recharge processes is controlled with the help of Barkhausen effect. The changes, occurred in the longitudinal and transversal stress profile are show during deposition of welding rings. It is proved that the stress state of the base-material depends on the amount of recharge layers, deposited on it

  14. Comparing groundwater recharge and base flow in the Bukmoongol ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    model, also known as the Rorabaugh Method. (Rorabaugh 1960; Daniel 1976; Rutledge 2007b), estimates groundwater recharges for each stream- flow peak using the recession-curve-displacement method. It is based on an analytical model that describes groundwater discharge subsequent to recharge to the water table ...

  15. Comparing groundwater recharge and base flow in the Bukmoongol ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Groundwater recharge and base flow using different investigated methods are simulated in the 15-ha Bukmoongol small-forested watershed located at the southern part of Korea.The WHAT system, PART,RORA,PULSE,BFI,and RAP software are used to estimate groundwater recharge or base flow and base flow index from ...

  16. Gridded Species Distribution, Version 1: Global Amphibians Presence Grids

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Global Amphibians Presence Grids of the Gridded Species Distribution, Version 1 is a reclassified version of the original grids of amphibian species distribution...

  17. Design of Energy Storage Management System Based on FPGA in Micro-Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yafeng; Wang, Yanping; Han, Dexiao

    2018-01-01

    Energy storage system is the core to maintain the stable operation of smart micro-grid. Aiming at the existing problems of the energy storage management system in the micro-grid such as Low fault tolerance, easy to cause fluctuations in micro-grid, a new intelligent battery management system based on field programmable gate array is proposed : taking advantage of FPGA to combine the battery management system with the intelligent micro-grid control strategy. Finally, aiming at the problem that during estimation of battery charge State by neural network, initialization of weights and thresholds are not accurate leading to large errors in prediction results, the genetic algorithm is proposed to optimize the neural network method, and the experimental simulation is carried out. The experimental results show that the algorithm has high precision and provides guarantee for the stable operation of micro-grid.

  18. MaGate Simulator: A Simulation Environment for a Decentralized Grid Scheduler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ye; Brocco, Amos; Courant, Michele; Hirsbrunner, Beat; Kuonen, Pierre

    This paper presents a simulator for of a decentralized modular grid scheduler named MaGate. MaGate’s design emphasizes scheduler interoperability by providing intelligent scheduling serving the grid community as a whole. Each MaGate scheduler instance is able to deal with dynamic scheduling conditions, with continuously arriving grid jobs. Received jobs are either allocated on local resources, or delegated to other MaGates for remote execution. The proposed MaGate simulator is based on GridSim toolkit and Alea simulator, and abstracts the features and behaviors of complex fundamental grid elements, such as grid jobs, grid resources, and grid users. Simulation of scheduling tasks is supported by a grid network overlay simulator executing distributed ant-based swarm intelligence algorithms to provide services such as group communication and resource discovery. For evaluation, a comparison of behaviors of different collaborative policies among a community of MaGates is provided. Results support the use of the proposed approach as a functional ready grid scheduler simulator.

  19. Grid generation methods

    CERN Document Server

    Liseikin, Vladimir D

    2017-01-01

    This new edition provides a description of current developments relating to grid methods, grid codes, and their applications to actual problems. Grid generation methods are indispensable for the numerical solution of differential equations. Adaptive grid-mapping techniques, in particular, are the main focus and represent a promising tool to deal with systems with singularities. This 3rd edition includes three new chapters on numerical implementations (10), control of grid properties (11), and applications to mechanical, fluid, and plasma related problems (13). Also the other chapters have been updated including new topics, such as curvatures of discrete surfaces (3). Concise descriptions of hybrid mesh generation, drag and sweeping methods, parallel algorithms for mesh generation have been included too. This new edition addresses a broad range of readers: students, researchers, and practitioners in applied mathematics, mechanics, engineering, physics and other areas of applications.

  20. The GRID seminar

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva HR-RFA

    2006-01-01

    The Grid infrastructure is a key part of the computing environment for the simulation, processing and analysis of the data of the LHC experiments. These experiments depend on the availability of a worldwide Grid infrastructure in several aspects of their computing model. The Grid middleware will hide much of the complexity of this environment to the user, organizing all the resources in a coherent virtual computer center. The general description of the elements of the Grid, their interconnections and their use by the experiments will be exposed in this talk. The computational and storage capability of the Grid is attracting other research communities beyond the high energy physics. Examples of these applications will be also exposed during the presentation.

  1. Monitoring and modeling infiltration–recharge dynamics of managed aquifer recharge with desalinated seawater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Ganot

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We study the relation between surface infiltration and groundwater recharge during managed aquifer recharge (MAR with desalinated seawater in an infiltration pond, at the Menashe site that overlies the northern part of the Israeli Coastal Aquifer. We monitor infiltration dynamics at multiple scales (up to the scale of the entire pond by measuring the ponding depth, sediment water content and groundwater levels, using pressure sensors, single-ring infiltrometers, soil sensors, and observation wells. During a month (January 2015 of continuous intensive MAR (2.45  ×  106 m3 discharged to a 10.7 ha area, groundwater level has risen by 17 m attaining full connection with the pond, while average infiltration rates declined by almost 2 orders of magnitude (from  ∼  11 to  ∼  0.4 m d−1. This reduction can be explained solely by the lithology of the unsaturated zone that includes relatively low-permeability sediments. Clogging processes at the pond-surface – abundant in many MAR operations – are negated by the high-quality desalinated seawater (turbidity  ∼  0.2 NTU, total dissolved solids  ∼  120 mg L−1 or negligible compared to the low-permeability layers. Recharge during infiltration was estimated reasonably well by simple analytical models, whereas a numerical model was used for estimating groundwater recharge after the end of infiltration. It was found that a calibrated numerical model with a one-dimensional representative sediment profile is able to capture MAR dynamics, including temporal reduction of infiltration rates, drainage and groundwater recharge. Measured infiltration rates of an independent MAR event (January 2016 fitted well to those calculated by the calibrated numerical model, showing the model validity. The successful quantification methodologies of the temporal groundwater recharge are useful for MAR practitioners and can serve as an input for groundwater flow models.

  2. Global synthesis of groundwater recharge in semiarid and arid regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlon, Bridget R.; Keese, K.E.; Flint, A.L.; Flint, L.E.; Gaye, C.B.; Edmunds, W.M.; Simmers, I.

    2006-01-01

    Global synthesis of the findings from ∼140 recharge study areas in semiarid and arid regions provides important information on recharge rates, controls, and processes, which are critical for sustainable water development. Water resource evaluation, dryland salinity assessment (Australia), and radioactive waste disposal (US) are among the primary goals of many of these recharge studies. The chloride mass balance (CMB) technique is widely used to estimate recharge. Average recharge rates estimated over large areas (40–374 000 km2) range from 0·2 to 35 mm year−1, representing 0·1–5% of long-term average annual precipitation. Extreme local variability in recharge, with rates up to ∼720 m year−1, results from focussed recharge beneath ephemeral streams and lakes and preferential flow mostly in fractured systems. System response to climate variability and land use/land cover (LU/LC) changes is archived in unsaturated zone tracer profiles and in groundwater level fluctuations. Inter-annual climate variability related to El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) results in up to three times higher recharge in regions within the SW US during periods of frequent El Niños (1977–1998) relative to periods dominated by La Niñas (1941–1957). Enhanced recharge related to ENSO is also documented in Argentina. Climate variability at decadal to century scales recorded in chloride profiles in Africa results in recharge rates of 30 mm year−1 during the Sahel drought (1970–1986) to 150 mm year−1 during non-drought periods. Variations in climate at millennial scales in the SW US changed systems from recharge during the Pleistocene glacial period (≥10 000 years ago) to discharge during the Holocene semiarid period. LU/LC changes such as deforestation in Australia increased recharge up to about 2 orders of magnitude. Changes from natural grassland and shrublands to dryland (rain-fed) agriculture altered systems from discharge (evapotranspiration, ET) to recharge in

  3. Business Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Petersen, Anders

    2001-01-01

    Cílem této bakalářské práce je seznámení s Business Intelligence a zpracování vývojového trendu, který ovlivňuje podobu řešení Business Intelligence v podniku ? Business Activity Monitoring. Pro zpracování tohoto tématu byla použita metoda studia odborných pramenů, a to jak v českém, tak v anglickém jazyce. Hlavním přínosem práce je ucelený, v českém jazyce zpracovaný materiál pojednávající o Business Activity Monitoring. Práce je rozdělena do šesti hlavních kapitol. Prvních pět je věnováno p...

  4. Web Intelligence and Artificial Intelligence in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devedzic, Vladan

    2004-01-01

    This paper surveys important aspects of Web Intelligence (WI) in the context of Artificial Intelligence in Education (AIED) research. WI explores the fundamental roles as well as practical impacts of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and advanced Information Technology (IT) on the next generation of Web-related products, systems, services, and…

  5. PV GRID Advisory Paper. Consultation version: key recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barth, Bianca; Concas, Giorgia; Cossent, Rafael; Franz, Oliver; Frias, Pablo; Hermes, Roland; Lama, Riccardo; Loew, Holger; Mateo, Carlos; Rekinger, Manoel; Sonvilla, Paolo Michele; Vandenbergh, Michel

    2014-01-15

    PV GRID is a transnational collaborative effort under the umbrella of the Intelligent Energy Europe programme. The main project goal is to enhance photovoltaic (PV) hosting capacity in distribution grids while overcoming regulatory and normative barriers hampering the application of available technical solutions. The European PV GRID advisory paper aims at providing an overview of the issues and barriers that need to be addressed in order to enhance the distribution grid hosting capacity for PV and other distributed generation (DG).To this purpose, barriers are classified as either cross-cutting challenges or specific barriers, depending on whether they have an overarching, system-wide character or rather focus on one single issue such as curtailment, self-consumption or storage. Finally, a set of preliminary recommendations on how to overcome these issues is presented, allowing for the implementation of the identified technical solutions.

  6. Smart Grids: short history, main components and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belhomme, R.; Maire, J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper tries to describe the smart grids in their entirety. In a first part, two definitions are given for the smart grids, the main drivers for their development are briefly described, along with an overview of the initiatives and projects in different parts of the world: Europe, USA, Asia and Pacific area. The second part is devoted to the main components of the smart grids. The following are considered: distributed generation and renewables, energy storage, demand side integration, intelligent buildings, smart meters, communication infrastructures, distribution and transmission networks, micro-grids, flexibility of the generation park, electric vehicles and regulatory issues. Finally, the conclusion gives a short discussion of some important issues, as well as of the benefits of demonstration projects. (authors)

  7. Smart grid as a service: a discussion on design issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Hung-Lin; Tsai, Chen-Chou; Hsiung, Pao-Ann; Chou, I-Hsin

    2014-01-01

    Smart grid allows the integration of distributed renewable energy resources into the conventional electricity distribution power grid such that the goals of reduction in power cost and in environment pollution can be met through an intelligent and efficient matching between power generators and power loads. Currently, this rapidly developing infrastructure is not as "smart" as it should be because of the lack of a flexible, scalable, and adaptive structure. As a solution, this work proposes smart grid as a service (SGaaS), which not only allows a smart grid to be composed out of basic services, but also allows power users to choose between different services based on their own requirements. The two important issues of service-level agreements and composition of services are also addressed in this work. Finally, we give the details of how SGaaS can be implemented using a FIPA-compliant JADE multiagent system.

  8. Reliable Grid Condition Detection and Control of Single-Phase Distributed Power Generation Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciobotaru, Mihai

    standards addressed to the grid-connected systems will harmonize the combination of the DPGS and the classical power plants. Consequently, the major tasks of this thesis were to develop new grid condition detection techniques and intelligent control in order to allow the DPGS not only to deliver power...... to the utility grid but also to sustain it. This thesis was divided into two main parts, namely "Grid Condition Detection" and "Control of Single-Phase DPGS". In the first part, the main focus was on reliable Phase Locked Loop (PLL) techniques for monitoring the grid voltage and on grid impedance estimation...... techniques. Additionally, a new technique for detecting the islanding mode has been developed and successfully tested. In the second part, the main reported research was concentrated around adaptive current controllers based on the information provided by the grid condition detection techniques. To guarantee...

  9. Nanocarbon networks for advanced rechargeable lithium batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Sen; Guo, Yu-Guo; Wan, Li-Jun

    2012-10-16

    Carbon is one of the essential elements in energy storage. In rechargeable lithium batteries, researchers have considered many types of nanostructured carbons, such as carbon nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes, graphene, and nanoporous carbon, as anode materials and, especially, as key components for building advanced composite electrode materials. Nanocarbons can form efficient three-dimensional conducting networks that improve the performance of electrode materials suffering from the limited kinetics of lithium storage. Although the porous structure guarantees a fast migration of Li ions, the nanocarbon network can serve as an effective matrix for dispersing the active materials to prevent them from agglomerating. The nanocarbon network also affords an efficient electron pathway to provide better electrical contacts. Because of their structural stability and flexibility, nanocarbon networks can alleviate the stress and volume changes that occur in active materials during the Li insertion/extraction process. Through the elegant design of hierarchical electrode materials with nanocarbon networks, researchers can improve both the kinetic performance and the structural stability of the electrode material, which leads to optimal battery capacity, cycling stability, and rate capability. This Account summarizes recent progress in the structural design, chemical synthesis, and characterization of the electrochemical properties of nanocarbon networks for Li-ion batteries. In such systems, storage occurs primarily in the non-carbon components, while carbon acts as the conductor and as the structural buffer. We emphasize representative nanocarbon networks including those that use carbon nanotubes and graphene. We discuss the role of carbon in enhancing the performance of various electrode materials in areas such as Li storage, Li ion and electron transport, and structural stability during cycling. We especially highlight the use of graphene to construct the carbon conducting

  10. Emulation of recharge and evapotranspiration processes in shallow groundwater systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doble, Rebecca C.; Pickett, Trevor; Crosbie, Russell S.; Morgan, Leanne K.; Turnadge, Chris; Davies, Phil J.

    2017-12-01

    In shallow groundwater systems, recharge and evapotranspiration are highly sensitive to changes in the depth to water table. To effectively model these fluxes, complex functions that include soil and vegetation properties are often required. Model emulation (surrogate modelling or meta-modelling) can provide a means of incorporating detailed conceptualisation of recharge and evapotranspiration processes, while maintaining the numerical tractability and computational performance required for regional scale groundwater models and uncertainty analysis. A method for emulating recharge and evapotranspiration processes in groundwater flow models was developed, and applied to the South East region of South Australia and western Victoria, which is characterised by shallow groundwater, wetlands and coastal lakes. The soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfer (SVAT) model WAVES was used to generate relationships between net recharge (diffuse recharge minus evapotranspiration from groundwater) and depth to water table for different combinations of climate, soil and land cover types. These relationships, which mimicked previously described soil, vegetation and groundwater behaviour, were combined into a net recharge lookup table. The segmented evapotranspiration package in MODFLOW was adapted to select values of net recharge from the lookup table depending on groundwater depth, and the climate, soil and land use characteristics of each cell. The model was found to be numerically robust in steady state testing, had no major increase in run time, and would be more efficient than tightly-coupled modelling approaches. It made reasonable predictions of net recharge and groundwater head compared with remotely sensed estimates of net recharge and a standard MODFLOW comparison model. In particular, the method was better able to predict net recharge and groundwater head in areas with steep hydraulic gradients.

  11. From electric networks to 'Smart grids'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadjsaid, Nourredine; Sabonnadiere, Jean-Claude

    2015-12-01

    After decades of slow evolutions, and because of the emergence of renewable energies and of a multiplication of actors due to the liberalisation of energy markets, electric networks are entering a phase of large and complex development which will lead to a massive introduction of intelligence and to the building up of the 'smart grid' concept. The authors first identify the characteristics of the new energetic paradigm. The present operation of electric grids is based on four components: production by means of high power units installed in strategic locations, transport to consumption centres by means of a highly instrumented transport network which has highly centralised and hierarchical management, and consumers who are passive actors. They comment the implications of recent development for these three components. They describe how information and communication technologies (ICT) are used at the service of the grid, and how new technologies are integrated in different instruments (smart counter, actuators, fast cut devices, sensors, advanced supervision and control functions). Then they discuss the definition of a smart network or smart grid, the objectives it allows to be reached for energy transport as well as energy distribution. They discuss the desirable evolution of distribution networks and their technical objectives. Then, they give an overview of the various involved actors (consumers, network managers, electric equipment manufacturers, energy producers, and so on), evokes bodies and institutions involved in research on smart grids (notably in Grenoble within the INPG), give some examples of innovative concepts which are now being developed (intelligence distribution, virtual central station, grid monitoring, re-configurable grid, smart building). They also identify scientific and technological deadlocks, and outline the challenge of preparing the needed abilities for the development of smart grids

  12. Numerical simulation of groundwater movement and managed aquifer recharge from Sand Hollow Reservoir, Hurricane Bench area, Washington County, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marston, Thomas M.; Heilweil, Victor M.

    2012-01-01

    The Hurricane Bench area of Washington County, Utah, is a 70 square-mile area extending south from the Virgin River and encompassing Sand Hollow basin. Sand Hollow Reservoir, located on Hurricane Bench, was completed in March 2002 and is operated primarily as a managed aquifer recharge project by the Washington County Water Conservancy District. The reservoir is situated on a thick sequence of the Navajo Sandstone and Kayenta Formation. Total recharge to the underlying Navajo aquifer from the reservoir was about 86,000 acre-feet from 2002 to 2009. Natural recharge as infiltration of precipitation was approximately 2,100 acre-feet per year for the same period. Discharge occurs as seepage to the Virgin River, municipal and irrigation well withdrawals, and seepage to drains at the base of reservoir dams. Within the Hurricane Bench area, unconfined groundwater-flow conditions generally exist throughout the Navajo Sandstone. Navajo Sandstone hydraulic-conductivity values from regional aquifer testing range from 0.8 to 32 feet per day. The large variability in hydraulic conductivity is attributed to bedrock fractures that trend north-northeast across the study area.A numerical groundwater-flow model was developed to simulate groundwater movement in the Hurricane Bench area and to simulate the movement of managed aquifer recharge from Sand Hollow Reservoir through the groundwater system. The model was calibrated to combined steady- and transient-state conditions. The steady-state portion of the simulation was developed and calibrated by using hydrologic data that represented average conditions for 1975. The transient-state portion of the simulation was developed and calibrated by using hydrologic data collected from 1976 to 2009. Areally, the model grid was 98 rows by 76 columns with a variable cell size ranging from about 1.5 to 25 acres. Smaller cells were used to represent the reservoir to accurately simulate the reservoir bathymetry and nearby monitoring wells; larger

  13. The Rechargeability of Silicon-Air Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    an Si-air electrochemical cell a source of water for other applications. Metal-air batteries, silicon-air, electrochemistry , rechargeable batteries UU...be based on constant amount of water in the IL.  The electrochemistry has to be based on more robust reference electrode. Some use of ferrocence...MgO  -569.4  -601.7  3942  6859  Zn  Zn + 1/2O2 ZnO   -320.8  -350.7  1363  9677  Si  Si + O2 SiO2  -856.5  -910.9  8470  21090  7 electrode. RTIL

  14. Rechargeable metal hydrides for spacecraft application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, J. L.

    1988-01-01

    Storing hydrogen on board the Space Station presents both safety and logistics problems. Conventional storage using pressurized bottles requires large masses, pressures, and volumes to handle the hydrogen to be used in experiments in the U.S. Laboratory Module and residual hydrogen generated by the ECLSS. Rechargeable metal hydrides may be competitive with conventional storage techniques. The basic theory of hydride behavior is presented and the engineering properties of LaNi5 are discussed to gain a clear understanding of the potential of metal hydrides for handling spacecraft hydrogen resources. Applications to Space Station and the safety of metal hydrides are presented and compared to conventional hydride storage. This comparison indicates that metal hydrides may be safer and require lower pressures, less volume, and less mass to store an equivalent mass of hydrogen.

  15. Decentral Smart Grid Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Benjamin; Matthiae, Moritz; Timme, Marc; Witthaut, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Stable operation of complex flow and transportation networks requires balanced supply and demand. For the operation of electric power grids—due to their increasing fraction of renewable energy sources—a pressing challenge is to fit the fluctuations in decentralized supply to the distributed and temporally varying demands. To achieve this goal, common smart grid concepts suggest to collect consumer demand data, centrally evaluate them given current supply and send price information back to customers for them to decide about usage. Besides restrictions regarding cyber security, privacy protection and large required investments, it remains unclear how such central smart grid options guarantee overall stability. Here we propose a Decentral Smart Grid Control, where the price is directly linked to the local grid frequency at each customer. The grid frequency provides all necessary information about the current power balance such that it is sufficient to match supply and demand without the need for a centralized IT infrastructure. We analyze the performance and the dynamical stability of the power grid with such a control system. Our results suggest that the proposed Decentral Smart Grid Control is feasible independent of effective measurement delays, if frequencies are averaged over sufficiently large time intervals.

  16. Decentral Smart Grid Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schäfer, Benjamin; Matthiae, Moritz; Timme, Marc; Witthaut, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Stable operation of complex flow and transportation networks requires balanced supply and demand. For the operation of electric power grids—due to their increasing fraction of renewable energy sources—a pressing challenge is to fit the fluctuations in decentralized supply to the distributed and temporally varying demands. To achieve this goal, common smart grid concepts suggest to collect consumer demand data, centrally evaluate them given current supply and send price information back to customers for them to decide about usage. Besides restrictions regarding cyber security, privacy protection and large required investments, it remains unclear how such central smart grid options guarantee overall stability. Here we propose a Decentral Smart Grid Control, where the price is directly linked to the local grid frequency at each customer. The grid frequency provides all necessary information about the current power balance such that it is sufficient to match supply and demand without the need for a centralized IT infrastructure. We analyze the performance and the dynamical stability of the power grid with such a control system. Our results suggest that the proposed Decentral Smart Grid Control is feasible independent of effective measurement delays, if frequencies are averaged over sufficiently large time intervals. (paper)

  17. Intelligence and negotiating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, D.G.

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses the role of US intelligence during arms control negotiations between 1982 and 1987. It also covers : the orchestration of intelligence projects; an evaluation of the performance of intelligence activities; the effect intelligence work had on actual arms negotiations; and suggestions for improvements in the future

  18. Intelligent products : A survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyer, G.G.; Främling, K.; Holmström, J.

    This paper presents an overview of the field of Intelligent Products. As Intelligent Products have many facets, this paper is mainly focused on the concept behind Intelligent Products, the technical foundations, and the achievable practical goals of Intelligent Products. A novel classification of

  19. Intelligence Issues for Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-23

    open source information— osint (newspapers...by user agencies. Section 1052 of the Intelligence Reform Act expressed the sense of Congress that there should be an open source intelligence ...center to coordinate the collection, analysis, production, and dissemination of open source intelligence to other intelligence agencies. An Open Source

  20. The open science grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pordes, R.

    2004-01-01

    The U.S. LHC Tier-1 and Tier-2 laboratories and universities are developing production Grids to support LHC applications running across a worldwide Grid computing system. Together with partners in computer science, physics grid projects and active experiments, we will build a common national production grid infrastructure which is open in its architecture, implementation and use. The Open Science Grid (OSG) model builds upon the successful approach of last year's joint Grid2003 project. The Grid3 shared infrastructure has for over eight months provided significant computational resources and throughput to a range of applications, including ATLAS and CMS data challenges, SDSS, LIGO, and biology analyses, and computer science demonstrators and experiments. To move towards LHC-scale data management, access and analysis capabilities, we must increase the scale, services, and sustainability of the current infrastructure by an order of magnitude or more. Thus, we must achieve a significant upgrade in its functionalities and technologies. The initial OSG partners will build upon a fully usable, sustainable and robust grid. Initial partners include the US LHC collaborations, DOE and NSF Laboratories and Universities and Trillium Grid projects. The approach is to federate with other application communities in the U.S. to build a shared infrastructure open to other sciences and capable of being modified and improved to respond to needs of other applications, including CDF, D0, BaBar, and RHIC experiments. We describe the application-driven, engineered services of the OSG, short term plans and status, and the roadmap for a consortium, its partnerships and national focus

  1. Recharge heterogeneity and high intensity rainfall events increase contamination risk for Mediterranean groundwater resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Andreas; Jasechko, Scott; Gleeson, Tom; Wada, Yoshihide; Andreo, Bartolomé; Barberá, Juan Antonio; Brielmann, Heike; Charlier, Jean-Baptiste; Darling, George; Filippini, Maria; Garvelmann, Jakob; Goldscheider, Nico; Kralik, Martin; Kunstmann, Harald; Ladouche, Bernard; Lange, Jens; Mudarra, Matías; Francisco Martín, José; Rimmer, Alon; Sanchez, Damián; Stumpp, Christine; Wagener, Thorsten

    2017-04-01

    Karst develops through the dissolution of carbonate rock and results in pronounced spatiotemporal heterogeneity of hydrological processes. Karst groundwater in Europe is a major source of fresh water contributing up to half of the total drinking water supply in some countries like Austria or Slovenia. Previous work showed that karstic recharge processes enhance and alter the sensitivity of recharge to climate variability. The enhanced preferential flow from the surface to the aquifer may be followed by enhanced risk of groundwater contamination. In this study we assess the contamination risk of karst aquifers over Europe and the Mediterranean using simulated transit time distributions. Using a new type of semi-distributed model that considers the spatial heterogeneity of karst hydraulic properties, we were able to simulate karstic groundwater recharge including its heterogeneous spatiotemporal dynamics. The model is driven by gridded daily climate data from the Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS). Transit time distributions are calculated using virtual tracer experiments. We evaluated our simulations by independent information on transit times derived from observed time series of water isotopes of >70 karst springs over Europe. The simulations indicate that, compared to humid, mountain and desert regions, the Mediterranean region shows a stronger risk of contamination in Europe because preferential flow processes are most pronounced given thin soil layers and the seasonal abundance of high intensity rainfall events in autumn and winter. Our modelling approach includes strong simplifications and its results cannot easily be generalized but it still highlights that the combined effects of variable climate and heterogeneous catchment properties constitute a strong risk on water quality.

  2. Intelligent Governmentality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willem de Lint

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Recently, within liberal democracies, the post-Westphalian consolidation of security and intelligence has ushered in the normalization not only of security in ‘securitization’ but also of intelligence in what is proposed here as ‘intelligencification.’ In outlining the features of intelligencified governance, my aim is to interrogate the view that effects or traces, and productivity rather than negation is as persuasive as commonly thought by the constructivists. After all, counter-intelligence is both about purging and reconstructing the archive for undisclosed values. In practice, what is being normalized is the authorized and legalized use of release and retention protocols of politically actionable information. The intelligencification of governmentality affords a sovereignty shell-game or the instrumentalization of sovereign power by interests that are dependent on, yet often inimical to, the power of state, national, and popular sovereignty. On voit le politique et le social comme dépendant de contingences exclusives. Récemment, au sein des démocraties libérales, la consolidation de la sécurité et des services de renseignements de sécurité qui a suivi les traités de la Westphalie a donné lieu à la normalisation non seulement de la sécurité en «sécurisation» mais aussi des services de renseignements de sécurité en ce qui est proposé ici comme «intelligencification» [terme anglais créé par l’auteur, dérivé du mot anglais «intelligence» dans le sens de renseignements des écurité]. En particulier, ce que l’on normalise dans le but de contourner des contingences exclusives est l’utilisation autorisée et légalisée de protocoles de communication et de rétention d’information qui, politiquement, pourrait mener à des poursuites. En esquissant les traits de la gouvernance «intelligencifiée», mon but est d’interroger le point de vue que les effets ou les traces, et la productivité plutôt que la

  3. Pathogen intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael eSteinert

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Different species inhabit different sensory worlds and thus have evolved diverse means of processing information, learning and memory. In the escalated arms race with host defense, each pathogenic bacterium not only has evolved its individual cellular sensing and behaviour, but also collective sensing, interbacterial communication, distributed information processing, joint decision making, dissociative behaviour, and the phenotypic and genotypic heterogeneity necessary for epidemiologic success. Moreover, pathogenic populations take advantage of dormancy strategies and rapid evolutionary speed, which allow them to save co-generated intelligent traits in a collective genomic memory. This review discusses how these mechanisms add further levels of complexity to bacterial pathogenicity and transmission, and how mining for these mechanisms could help to develop new anti-infective strategies.

  4. Intelligent Routines

    CERN Document Server

    Anastassiou, George A

    Intelligent Routines II: Solving Linear Algebra and Differential Geometry with Sage” contains numerous of examples and problems as well as many unsolved problems. This book extensively applies the successful software Sage, which can be found free online http://www.sagemath.org/. Sage is a recent and popular software for mathematical computation, available freely and simple to use. This book is useful to all applied scientists in mathematics, statistics and engineering, as well for late undergraduate and graduate students of above subjects. It is the first such book in solving symbolically with Sage problems in Linear Algebra and Differential Geometry. Plenty of SAGE applications are given at each step of the exposition.

  5. Desktop grid computing

    CERN Document Server

    Cerin, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    Desktop Grid Computing presents common techniques used in numerous models, algorithms, and tools developed during the last decade to implement desktop grid computing. These techniques enable the solution of many important sub-problems for middleware design, including scheduling, data management, security, load balancing, result certification, and fault tolerance. The book's first part covers the initial ideas and basic concepts of desktop grid computing. The second part explores challenging current and future problems. Each chapter presents the sub-problems, discusses theoretical and practical

  6. Transmission grid security

    CERN Document Server

    Haarla, Liisa; Hirvonen, Ritva; Labeau, Pierre-Etienne

    2011-01-01

    In response to the growing importance of power system security and reliability, ""Transmission Grid Security"" proposes a systematic and probabilistic approach for transmission grid security analysis. The analysis presented uses probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) and takes into account the power system dynamics after severe faults. In the method shown in this book the power system states (stable, not stable, system breakdown, etc.) are connected with the substation reliability model. In this way it is possible to: estimate the system-wide consequences of grid faults; identify a chain of eve

  7. Trends in life science grid: from computing grid to knowledge grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konagaya Akihiko

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Grid computing has great potential to become a standard cyberinfrastructure for life sciences which often require high-performance computing and large data handling which exceeds the computing capacity of a single institution. Results This survey reviews the latest grid technologies from the viewpoints of computing grid, data grid and knowledge grid. Computing grid technologies have been matured enough to solve high-throughput real-world life scientific problems. Data grid technologies are strong candidates for realizing "resourceome" for bioinformatics. Knowledge grids should be designed not only from sharing explicit knowledge on computers but also from community formulation for sharing tacit knowledge among a community. Conclusion Extending the concept of grid from computing grid to knowledge grid, it is possible to make use of a grid as not only sharable computing resources, but also as time and place in which people work together, create knowledge, and share knowledge and experiences in a community.

  8. Delineation of groundwater recharge areas, western Cape Cod, Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masterson, John P.; Walter, Donald A.

    2000-01-01

    The unconfined sand-and-gravel aquifer in western Cape Cod, Massachusetts, which is the sole source of water supply for the communities in the area, is recharged primarily from precipitation. The rate of recharge from precipitation is estimated to be about 26 inches per year (in/yr), or about 60 percent of the precipitation rate. This recharge rate yields a flow through the aquifer of about 180 million gallons per day (Mgal/d). Groundwater flows radially outward from the top of the water-table mound in the north-central part of the flow system toward the coast, as indicated by the water-table contours on the large map on this sheet. Recharge that reaches the water table near the top of the mound travels deeper through the aquifer than recharge that reaches the water table closer to the coast. All recharge to the aquifer ultimately discharges to pumping wells, streams, or coastal areas; however, some of this recharge may flow first through kettle ponds before eventually reaching these discharge points.

  9. Quantifying potential recharge in mantled sinkholes using ERT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Benjamin F; Schreiber, Madeline E

    2009-01-01

    Potential recharge through thick soils in mantled sinkholes was quantified using differential electrical resistivity tomography (ERT). Conversion of time series two-dimensional (2D) ERT profiles into 2D volumetric water content profiles using a numerically optimized form of Archie's law allowed us to monitor temporal changes in water content in soil profiles up to 9 m in depth. Combining Penman-Monteith daily potential evapotranspiration (PET) and daily precipitation data with potential recharge calculations for three sinkhole transects indicates that potential recharge occurred only during brief intervals over the study period and ranged from 19% to 31% of cumulative precipitation. Spatial analysis of ERT-derived water content showed that infiltration occurred both on sinkhole flanks and in sinkhole bottoms. Results also demonstrate that mantled sinkholes can act as regions of both rapid and slow recharge. Rapid recharge is likely the result of flow through macropores (such as root casts and thin gravel layers), while slow recharge is the result of unsaturated flow through fine-grained sediments. In addition to developing a new method for quantifying potential recharge at the field scale in unsaturated conditions, we show that mantled sinkholes are an important component of storage in a karst system.

  10. Aquifer recharging in South Carolina: radiocarbon in environmental hydrogeology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, P.A.; Knox, R.L.; Mathews, T.D.

    1985-01-01

    Radiocarbon activities of dissolved inorganic carbon (and tritium activities where infiltration rates are rapid and aquifers shallow) provide relatively unambiguous and inexpensive evidence for identification of significant recharge areas. Such evidence is for the actual occurrence of modern recharge in the aquifer and thus is less inferential than stratigraphic or potentiometric evidence. These underutilized isotopic techniques are neither arcane nor complex and have been more-or-less standardized by earlier researchers. In South Carolina, isotopic evidence has been used from both calcareous and siliceous sedimentary aquifers and fractured crystalline rock aquifers. The Tertiary limestone aquifer is shown not to be principally recharged in its subcrop area, unlike conditions assumed for many other sedimentary aquifers in southeastern United States, and instead receives considerable lateral recharge from interfingering updip Tertiary sand aquifers in the middle coastal plain. Induced recharging at Hilton Head Island is mixing ancient relict water and modern recharge water. Recharging to deeper portions of the Cretaceous Middendorf basal sand aquifer occurs at least as far coastward as the middle coastal plain, near sampling sites that stratigraphically appear to be confined. Pronounced mineralization of water in fractured rocks cannot be considered as evidence of ancient or relict ground water that is isolated from modern contaminants, some of these waters contain considerable radiocarbon and hydrogen-bomb tritium

  11. Groundwater recharge: The intersection between humanity and hydrogeology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smerdon, Brian D.; Drewes, Jörg E.

    2017-12-01

    Groundwater recharge is an essential part of subsurface water circulation and the beginning of groundwater flow systems that can vary in duration from days to millennia. Globally, there is a growing body of evidence suggesting that many of Earth's aquifers contain 'fossil' groundwater that was recharged more than 12,000 years ago (Jasechko et al., 2017), and a very small portion of groundwater that was recharged within the last 50 years (Gleeson et al., 2015). Together, this information demonstrates the irregular distribution of groundwater circulation within the Earth and the wide variability of recharge conditions that replenish aquifer systems (Befus et al., 2017). Knowledge of groundwater recharge rates and distribution are needed for evaluating and regulating the quantity and quality of water resources, understanding consequences of landscapes use, identifying where managed aquifer recharge can augment supply, and predicting how groundwater systems will respond to a changing climate. In-turn, these topics are of central importance for the health of humans and ecosystems, and security of food and energy. Yet, despite the global importance, quantifying groundwater recharge remains challenging as it cannot be measured directly, and there is uncertainty associated with all currently known estimation methods (Scanlon et al., 2002).

  12. Geostatistical estimates of future recharge for the Death Valley region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hevesi, J.A.; Flint, A.L.

    1998-01-01

    Spatially distributed estimates of regional ground water recharge rates under both current and potential future climates are needed to evaluate a potential geologic repository for high-level nuclear waste at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, which is located within the Death Valley ground-water region (DVGWR). Determining the spatial distribution of recharge is important for regional saturated-zone ground-water flow models. In the southern Nevada region, the Maxey-Eakin method has been used for estimating recharge based on average annual precipitation. Although this method does not directly account for a variety of location-specific factors which control recharge (such as bedrock permeability, soil cover, and net radiation), precipitation is the primary factor that controls in the region. Estimates of recharge obtained by using the Maxey-Eakin method are comparable to estimates of recharge obtained by using chloride balance studies. The authors consider the Maxey-Eakin approach as a relatively simple method of obtaining preliminary estimates of recharge on a regional scale

  13. Characteristics and conditions of the recharging water in the Guarani Aquifer System in Paraguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Risiga, A.; Venecio, M.; Sosa, D.; Lenzi, L.

    2007-01-01

    In order to evaluate the characteristics and conditions of the water recharging The Sistema Acuifero Guarani (SAG) in Eastern Paraguay, and their relation to hydrological and environmental issues, this work focussed on the aquifers integrating that System, Independence Group, Misiones Formation and the Basalts of Alto Parana Formation.The regional climatic characterization for the period 1901/2000 was elaborated with monthly precipitation information from a grid of spatially distributed data, and a series Hydric balance on a monthly basis was made with available information from the whole record length at each station in the studied area, which shows the predominance of annual excesses s in all the gauging stations.The infiltration and hydraulic conductivity tests performed in different soils evidence values of basic infiltration and hydraulic conductivity oscillating between 3 and 9 mm/h.The previously compiled information and the one elaborated for the project were integrated into a geographic information system.Besides, three causes originating potential risk of soil, surface water and groundwater contamination were identified: the increasing use of agr i-chemicals, the deficit in basic sanitary infrastructure and the absence of monitoring and adequate environmental conditions in the industrial activities and effluent removal.Therefore, there is the need to work with a monitoring network, to implement actions of environmental control and to encourage more detailed studies to enable the follow up and control of recharge water

  14. Intelligence: Real or artificial?

    OpenAIRE

    Schlinger, Henry D.

    1992-01-01

    Throughout the history of the artificial intelligence movement, researchers have strived to create computers that could simulate general human intelligence. This paper argues that workers in artificial intelligence have failed to achieve this goal because they adopted the wrong model of human behavior and intelligence, namely a cognitive essentialist model with origins in the traditional philosophies of natural intelligence. An analysis of the word “intelligence” suggests that it originally r...

  15. Cognitive Radio for Smart Grid: Theory, Algorithms, and Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghuram Ranganathan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, cognitive radio and smart grid are two areas which have received considerable research impetus. Cognitive radios are intelligent software defined radios (SDRs that efficiently utilize the unused regions of the spectrum, to achieve higher data rates. The smart grid is an automated electric power system that monitors and controls grid activities. In this paper, the novel concept of incorporating a cognitive radio network as the communications infrastructure for the smart grid is presented. A brief overview of the cognitive radio, IEEE 802.22 standard and smart grid, is provided. Experimental results obtained by using dimensionality reduction techniques such as principal component analysis (PCA, kernel PCA, and landmark maximum variance unfolding (LMVU on Wi-Fi signal measurements are presented in a spectrum sensing context. Furthermore, compressed sensing algorithms such as Bayesian compressed sensing and the compressed sensing Kalman filter is employed for recovering the sparse smart meter transmissions. From the power system point of view, a supervised learning method called support vector machine (SVM is used for the automated classification of power system disturbances. The impending problem of securing the smart grid is also addressed, in addition to the possibility of applying FPGA-based fuzzy logic intrusion detection for the smart grid.

  16. Fault tolerance in computational grids: perspectives, challenges, and issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, Sajjad; Nazir, Babar

    2016-01-01

    Computational grids are established with the intention of providing shared access to hardware and software based resources with special reference to increased computational capabilities. Fault tolerance is one of the most important issues faced by the computational grids. The main contribution of this survey is the creation of an extended classification of problems that incur in the computational grid environments. The proposed classification will help researchers, developers, and maintainers of grids to understand the types of issues to be anticipated. Moreover, different types of problems, such as omission, interaction, and timing related have been identified that need to be handled on various layers of the computational grid. In this survey, an analysis and examination is also performed pertaining to the fault tolerance and fault detection mechanisms. Our conclusion is that a dependable and reliable grid can only be established when more emphasis is on fault identification. Moreover, our survey reveals that adaptive and intelligent fault identification, and tolerance techniques can improve the dependability of grid working environments.

  17. Semantic Information Modeling for Emerging Applications in Smart Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Qunzhi; Natarajan, Sreedhar; Simmhan, Yogesh; Prasanna, Viktor

    2012-04-16

    Smart Grid modernizes power grid by integrating digital and information technologies. Millions of smart meters, intelligent appliances and communication infrastructures are under deployment allowing advanced IT applications to be developed to secure and manage power grid operations. Demand response (DR) is one such emerging application to optimize electricity demand by curtailing/shifting power load when peak load occurs. Existing DR approaches are mostly based on static plans such as pricing policies and load shedding schedules. However, improvements to power management applications rely on data emanating from existing and new information sources with the growth of Smart Grid information space. In particular, dynamic DR algorithms depend on information from smart meters that report interval-based power consumption measurement, HVAC systems that monitor buildings heat and humidity, and even weather forecast services. In order for emerging Smart Grid applications to take advantage of the diverse data influx, extensible information integration is required. In this paper, we develop an integrated Smart Grid information model using Semantic Web techniques and present case studies of using semantic information for dynamic DR. We show the semantic model facilitates information integration and knowledge representation for developing the next generation Smart Grid applications.

  18. Improving Grid Resilience through Informed Decision-making (IGRID)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burnham, Laurie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Power Systems Research; Stamber, Kevin L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Systems Research, Analysis and Applications; Jeffers, Robert Fredric [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Resilience and Regulatory Effects; Stevens-Adams, Susan Marie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Human Factors; Verzi, Stephen Joseph [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Systems Research, Analysis and Applications; Galiardi, Meghan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Systems Research, Analysis and Applications; Haass, Michael Joseph [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Cognitive Systems; Cauthen, Katherine Regina [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Systems Research, Analysis and Applications

    2016-09-01

    The transformation of the distribution grid from a centralized to decentralized architecture, with bi-directional power and data flows, is made possible by a surge in network intelligence and grid automation. While changes are largely beneficial, the interface between grid operator and automated technologies is not well understood, nor are the benefits and risks of automation. Quantifying and understanding the latter is an important facet of grid resilience that needs to be fully investigated. The work described in this document represents the first empirical study aimed at identifying and mitigating the vulnerabilities posed by automation for a grid that for the foreseeable future will remain a human-in-the-loop critical infrastructure. Our scenario-based methodology enabled us to conduct a series of experimental studies to identify causal relationships between grid-operator performance and automated technologies and to collect measurements of human performance as a function of automation. Our findings, though preliminary, suggest there are predictive patterns in the interplay between human operators and automation, patterns that can inform the rollout of distribution automation and the hiring and training of operators, and contribute in multiple and significant ways to the field of grid resilience.

  19. Energy management of internet data centers in smart grid

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Tao; Cao, Yang

    2015-01-01

    This book reports the latest findings on intelligent energy management of Internet data centers in smart-grid environments. The book gathers novel research ideas in Internet data center energy management, especially scenarios with cyber-related vulnerabilities, power outages and carbon emission constraints. The book will be of interest to university researchers, R&D engineers and graduate students in communication and networking areas who wish to learn the core principles, methods, algorithms, and applications of energy management of Internet data centers in smart grids.

  20. Volttron: An Agent Platform for the Smart Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haack, Jereme N.; Akyol, Bora A.; Carpenter, Brandon J.; Tews, Cody W.; Foglesong, Lance W.

    2013-05-06

    VOLLTRON platform enables the deployment of intelligent sensors and controllers in the smart grid and provides a stable, secure and flexible framework that expands the sensing and control capabilities. VOLTTRON platform provides services fulfilling the essential requirements of resource management and security for agent operation in the power grid. The facilities provided by the platform allow agent developers to focus on the implementation of their agent system and not on the necessary "plumbing' code. For example, a simple collaborative demand response application was written in less than 200 lines of Python.

  1. Lincoln Laboratory Grid

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Lincoln Laboratory Grid (LLGrid) is an interactive, on-demand parallel computing system that uses a large computing cluster to enable Laboratory researchers to...

  2. CMS computing on grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guan Wen; Sun Gongxing

    2007-01-01

    CMS has adopted a distributed system of services which implement CMS application view on top of Grid services. An overview of CMS services will be covered. Emphasis is on CMS data management and workload Management. (authors)

  3. Technology Roadmaps: Smart Grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    The development of Technology Roadmaps: Smart Grids -- which the IEA defines as an electricity network that uses digital and other advanced technologies to monitor and manage the transport of electricity from all generation sources to meet the varying electricity demands of end users -- is essential if the global community is to achieve shared goals for energy security, economic development and climate change mitigation. Unfortunately, existing misunderstandings of exactly what smart grids are and the physical and institutional complexity of electricity systems make it difficult to implement smart grids on the scale that is needed. This roadmap sets out specific steps needed over the coming years to achieve milestones that will allow smart grids to deliver a clean energy future.

  4. Meet the Grid

    CERN Multimedia

    Yurkewicz, Katie

    2005-01-01

    Today's cutting-edge scientific projects are larger, more complex, and more expensive than ever. Grid computing provides the resources that allow researchers to share knowledge, data, and computer processing power across boundaries

  5. World Wide Grid

    CERN Multimedia

    Grätzel von Grätz, Philipp

    2007-01-01

    Whether for genetic risk analysis or 3D-rekonstruktion of the cerebral vessels: the modern medicine requires more computing power. With a grid infrastructure, this one can be if necessary called by the network. (4 pages)

  6. Spacer grid corner gusset

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, J.G.

    1984-01-01

    There is provided a spacer grid for a bundle of longitudinally extending rods in spaced generally parallel relationship comprising spacing means for holding the rods in spaced generally parallel relationship; the spacing means includes at least one exterior grid strip circumscribing the bundle of rods along the periphery thereof; with at least one exterior grid strip having a first edge defining the boundary of the strip in one longitudinal direction and a second edge defining the boundary of the strip in the other longitudinal direction; with at least one exterior grid strip having at least one band formed therein parallel to the longitudinal direction; a plurality of corner gussets truncating each of a plurality of corners formed by at least one band and the first edge and the second edge

  7. US National Grid

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This is a polygon feature data layer of United States National Grid (1000m x 1000m polygons ) constructed by the Center for Interdisciplinary Geospatial Information...

  8. Controlling smart grid adaptivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toersche, Hermen; Nykamp, Stefan; Molderink, Albert; Hurink, Johann L.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria

    2012-01-01

    Methods are discussed for planning oriented smart grid control to cope with scenarios with limited predictability, supporting an increasing penetration of stochastic renewable resources. The performance of these methods is evaluated with simulations using measured wind generation and consumption

  9. Grid Computing Education Support

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven Crumb

    2008-01-15

    The GGF Student Scholar program enabled GGF the opportunity to bring over sixty qualified graduate and under-graduate students with interests in grid technologies to its three annual events over the three-year program.

  10. Particle Swarm Optimization applied to combinatorial problem aiming the fuel recharge problem solution in a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meneses, Anderson Alvarenga de Moura; Schirru, Roberto

    2005-01-01

    This work focuses on the usage the Artificial Intelligence technique Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) to optimize the fuel recharge at a nuclear reactor. This is a combinatorial problem, in which the search of the best feasible solution is done by minimizing a specific objective function. However, in this first moment it is possible to compare the fuel recharge problem with the Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP), since both of them are combinatorial, with one advantage: the evaluation of the TSP objective function is much more simple. Thus, the proposed methods have been applied to two TSPs: Oliver 30 and Rykel 48. In 1995, KENNEDY and EBERHART presented the PSO technique to optimize non-linear continued functions. Recently some PSO models for discrete search spaces have been developed for combinatorial optimization. Although all of them having different formulation from the ones presented here. In this paper, we use the PSO theory associated with to the Random Keys (RK)model, used in some optimizations with Genetic Algorithms. The Particle Swarm Optimization with Random Keys (PSORK) results from this association, which combines PSO and RK. The adaptations and changings in the PSO aim to allow the usage of the PSO at the nuclear fuel recharge. This work shows the PSORK being applied to the proposed combinatorial problem and the obtained results. (author)

  11. Solar Energy Grid Integration Systems (SEGIS): adding functionality while maintaining reliability and economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Ward

    2011-09-01

    An overview of the activities and progress made during the US DOE Solar Energy Grid Integration Systems (SEGIS) solicitation, while maintaining reliability and economics is provided. The SEGIS R&D opened pathways for interconnecting PV systems to intelligent utility grids and micro-grids of the future. In addition to new capabilities are "value added" features. The new hardware designs resulted in smaller, less material-intensive products that are being viewed by utilities as enabling dispatchable generation and not just unpredictable negative loads. The technical solutions enable "advanced integrated system" concepts and "smart grid" processes to move forward in a faster and focused manner. The advanced integrated inverters/controllers can now incorporate energy management functionality, intelligent electrical grid support features and a multiplicity of communication technologies. Portals for energy flow and two-way communications have been implemented. SEGIS hardware was developed for the utility grid of today, which was designed for one-way power flow, for intermediate grid scenarios, AND for the grid of tomorrow, which will seamlessly accommodate managed two-way power flows as required by large-scale deployment of solar and other distributed generation. The SEGIS hardware and control developed for today meets existing standards and codes AND provides for future connections to a "smart grid" mode that enables utility control and optimized performance.

  12. Recharge and discharge calculations to characterize the groundwater hydrologic balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liddle, R.G.

    1998-01-01

    Several methods are presented to quantify the ground water component of the hydrologic balance; including (1) hydrograph separation techniques, (2) water budget calculations, (3) spoil discharge techniques, and (4) underground mine inflow studies. Stream hydrograph analysis was used to calculate natural groundwater recharge and discharge rates. Yearly continuous discharge hydrographs were obtained for 16 watersheds in the Cumberland Plateau area of Tennessee. Baseflow was separated from storm runoff using computerized hydrograph analysis techniques developed by the USGS. The programs RECESS, RORA, and PART were used to develop master recession curves, calculate ground water recharge, and ground water discharge respectively. Station records ranged from 1 year of data to 60 years of data with areas of 0.67 to 402 square miles. Calculated recharge ranged from 7 to 28 inches of precipitation while ground water discharge ranged from 6 to 25 inches. Baseflow ranged from 36 to 69% of total flow. For sites with more than 4 years of data the median recharge was 20 inches/year and the 95% confidence interval for the median was 16.4 to 23.8 inches of recharge. Water budget calculations were also developed independently by a mining company in southern Tennessee. Results showed about 19 inches of recharge is available on a yearly basis. A third method used spoil water discharge measurements to calculate average recharge rate to the mine. Results showed 21.5 inches of recharge for this relatively flat area strip mine. In a further analysis it was shown that premining soil recharge rates of 19 inches consisted of about 17 inches of interflow and 2 inches of deep aquifer recharge while postmining recharge to the spoils had almost no interflow component. OSM also evaluated underground mine inflow data from northeast Tennessee and southeast Kentucky. This empirical data showed from 0.38 to 1.26 gallons per minute discharge per unit acreage of underground workings. This is the

  13. Beyond grid security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoeft, B; Epting, U; Koenig, T

    2008-01-01

    While many fields relevant to Grid security are already covered by existing working groups, their remit rarely goes beyond the scope of the Grid infrastructure itself. However, security issues pertaining to the internal set-up of compute centres have at least as much impact on Grid security. Thus, this talk will present briefly the EU ISSeG project (Integrated Site Security for Grids). In contrast to groups such as OSCT (Operational Security Coordination Team) and JSPG (Joint Security Policy Group), the purpose of ISSeG is to provide a holistic approach to security for Grid computer centres, from strategic considerations to an implementation plan and its deployment. The generalised methodology of Integrated Site Security (ISS) is based on the knowledge gained during its implementation at several sites as well as through security audits, and this will be briefly discussed. Several examples of ISS implementation tasks at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe will be presented, including segregation of the network for administration and maintenance and the implementation of Application Gateways. Furthermore, the web-based ISSeG training material will be introduced. This aims to offer ISS implementation guidance to other Grid installations in order to help avoid common pitfalls

  14. Near-Body Grid Adaption for Overset Grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buning, Pieter G.; Pulliam, Thomas H.

    2016-01-01

    A solution adaption capability for curvilinear near-body grids has been implemented in the OVERFLOW overset grid computational fluid dynamics code. The approach follows closely that used for the Cartesian off-body grids, but inserts refined grids in the computational space of original near-body grids. Refined curvilinear grids are generated using parametric cubic interpolation, with one-sided biasing based on curvature and stretching ratio of the original grid. Sensor functions, grid marking, and solution interpolation tasks are implemented in the same fashion as for off-body grids. A goal-oriented procedure, based on largest error first, is included for controlling growth rate and maximum size of the adapted grid system. The adaption process is almost entirely parallelized using MPI, resulting in a capability suitable for viscous, moving body simulations. Two- and three-dimensional examples are presented.

  15. Modeling and control of sustainable power systems. Towards smarter and greener electric grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lingfeng Wang (ed.) [Toledo Univ., OH (United States). Electrical Engineering and Computer Science Dept.

    2012-07-01

    The concept of the smart grid promises the world an efficient and intelligent approach of managing energy production, transportation, and consumption by incorporating intelligence, efficiency, and optimality into the power grid. Both energy providers and consumers can take advantage of the convenience, reliability, and energy savings achieved by real-time and intelligent energy management. To this end, the current power grid is experiencing drastic changes and upgrades. For instance, more significant green energy resources such as wind power and solar power are being integrated into the power grid, and higher energy storage capacity is being installed in order to mitigate the intermittency issues brought about by the variable energy resources. At the same time, novel power electronics technologies and operating strategies are being invented and adopted. For instance, Flexible AC transmission systems and phasor measurement units are two promising technologies for improving the power system reliability and power quality. Demand side management will enable the customers to manage the power loads in an active fashion. As a result, modeling and control of modern power grids pose great challenges due to the adoption of new smart grid technologies. In this book, chapters regarding representative applications of smart grid technologies written by world-renowned experts are included, which explain in detail various innovative modeling and control methods. (orig.)

  16. Optimized Hybrid Renewable Energy System of Isolated Islands in Smart-Grid Scenario - A Case Study in Indian Context

    OpenAIRE

    Aurobi Das; V. Balakrishnan

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on the integration of hybrid renewable energy resources available in remote isolated islands of Sundarban-24 Parganas-South of Eastern part of India to National Grid of conventional power supply to give a Smart-Grid scenario. Before grid-integration, feasibility of optimization of hybrid renewable energy system is monitored through an Intelligent Controller proposed to be installed at Moushuni Island of Sundarban. The objective is to ensure the reliability and efficiency of...

  17. Integrated Multi-Scale Data Analytics and Machine Learning for the Distribution Grid and Building-to-Grid Interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, Emma M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hendrix, Val [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Chertkov, Michael [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Deka, Deepjyoti [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-03-16

    This white paper introduces the application of advanced data analytics to the modernized grid. In particular, we consider the field of machine learning and where it is both useful, and not useful, for the particular field of the distribution grid and buildings interface. While analytics, in general, is a growing field of interest, and often seen as the golden goose in the burgeoning distribution grid industry, its application is often limited by communications infrastructure, or lack of a focused technical application. Overall, the linkage of analytics to purposeful application in the grid space has been limited. In this paper we consider the field of machine learning as a subset of analytical techniques, and discuss its ability and limitations to enable the future distribution grid and the building-to-grid interface. To that end, we also consider the potential for mixing distributed and centralized analytics and the pros and cons of these approaches. Machine learning is a subfield of computer science that studies and constructs algorithms that can learn from data and make predictions and improve forecasts. Incorporation of machine learning in grid monitoring and analysis tools may have the potential to solve data and operational challenges that result from increasing penetration of distributed and behind-the-meter energy resources. There is an exponentially expanding volume of measured data being generated on the distribution grid, which, with appropriate application of analytics, may be transformed into intelligible, actionable information that can be provided to the right actors – such as grid and building operators, at the appropriate time to enhance grid or building resilience, efficiency, and operations against various metrics or goals – such as total carbon reduction or other economic benefit to customers. While some basic analysis into these data streams can provide a wealth of information, computational and human boundaries on performing the analysis

  18. Estimating the proportion of groundwater recharge from flood events in relation to total annual recharge in a karst aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvory, N. Z.; Ronen, A.; Livshitz, Y.; Adar, E.; Kuznetsov, M.; Yakirevich, A.

    2017-12-01

    Sustainable groundwater production from karstic aquifers is primarily dictated by its recharge rate. Therefore, in order to limit over-exploitation, it is essential to accurately quantify groundwater recharge. Infiltration during erratic floods in karstic basins may contribute substantial amount to aquifer recharge. However, the complicated nature of karst systems, which are characterized in part by multiple springs, sinkholes, and losing/gaining streams, present a large obstacle to accurately assess the actual contribution of flood water to groundwater recharge. In this study, we aim to quantify the proportion of groundwater recharge during flood events in relation to the annual recharge for karst aquifers. The role of karst conduits on flash flood infiltration was examined during four flood and artificial runoff events in the Sorek creek near Jerusalem, Israel. The events were monitored in short time steps (four minutes). This high resolution analysis is essential to accurately estimating surface flow volumes, which are of particular importance in arid and semi-arid climate where ephemeral flows may provide a substantial contribution to the groundwater reservoirs. For the present investigation, we distinguished between direct infiltration, percolation through karst conduits and diffused infiltration, which is most affected by evapotranspiration. A water balance was then calculated for the 2014/15 hydrologic year using the Hydrologic Engineering Center - Hydrologic Modelling System (HEC-HMS). Simulations show that an additional 8% to 24% of the annual recharge volume is added from runoff losses along the creek that infiltrate through the karst system into the aquifer. The results improve the understanding of recharge processes and support the use of the proposed methodology for quantifying groundwater recharge.

  19. Isolated grid electron gun and pulser system for long/short pulse operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koontz, R.F.; Feathers, L.; Kilbourne, C.; Leger, G.; McKinney, T.

    1984-04-01

    The new NPI gun at SLAC serves the dual functions of producing long pulse (up to 5 μsec, 180 pps) electron bursts for nuclear physics experiments, and also short (1 nsec) pulses for filling Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL). This is accomplished by means of a newly designed, isolated grid gun, cathode pulsed with a solid state long pulse pulser, and grid pulsed with a fast recharging avalanche type short pulse (1 nsec) grid pulser. The grid pulser is bipolar so that a fast blackout notch can be placed in the long cathode pulse. This fast notch can be seen by Stanford Linear Collider (SLC) instrumentation and allows the long pulse beam to be computer controlled by SLC intensity and beam position monitors

  20. An isolated grid electron gun and pulser system for long/short pulse operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koontz, R.F.; Feathers, L.; Kilbourne, C.; Leger, G.; McKinney, T.

    1984-01-01

    The new NPI gun at SLAC serves the dual functions of producing long pulse (up to 5 μsec, 180 pps) electron bursts for nuclear physics experiments, and also short ( 1 nsec) pulses for filling Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL). This is accomplished by means of a newly designed, isolated grid gun, cathode pulsed with a solid state long pulse pulser, and grid pulsed with a fast recharging avalanche type short pulse (1 nsec) grid pulser. The grid pulser is bipolar so that a fast blackout notch can be placed in the long cathode pulse. This fast notch can be seen by Stanford Linear Collider (SLC) instrumentation and allows the long pulse beam to be computer controlled by SLC intensity and beam position monitors. (orig.)

  1. The Benefits of Grid Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennant, Roy

    2005-01-01

    In the article, the author talks about the benefits of grid networks. In speaking of grid networks the author is referring to both networks of computers and networks of humans connected together in a grid topology. Examples are provided of how grid networks are beneficial today and the ways in which they have been used.

  2. Smart Grid Integration Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troxell, Wade [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    2011-12-22

    The initial federal funding for the Colorado State University Smart Grid Integration Laboratory is through a Congressionally Directed Project (CDP), DE-OE0000070 Smart Grid Integration Laboratory. The original program requested in three one-year increments for staff acquisition, curriculum development, and instrumentation all which will benefit the Laboratory. This report focuses on the initial phase of staff acquisition which was directed and administered by DOE NETL/ West Virginia under Project Officer Tom George. Using this CDP funding, we have developed the leadership and intellectual capacity for the SGIC. This was accomplished by investing (hiring) a core team of Smart Grid Systems engineering faculty focused on education, research, and innovation of a secure and smart grid infrastructure. The Smart Grid Integration Laboratory will be housed with the separately funded Integrid Laboratory as part of CSU's overall Smart Grid Integration Center (SGIC). The period of performance of this grant was 10/1/2009 to 9/30/2011 which included one no cost extension due to time delays in faculty hiring. The Smart Grid Integration Laboratory's focus is to build foundations to help graduate and undergraduates acquire systems engineering knowledge; conduct innovative research; and team externally with grid smart organizations. Using the results of the separately funded Smart Grid Workforce Education Workshop (May 2009) sponsored by the City of Fort Collins, Northern Colorado Clean Energy Cluster, Colorado State University Continuing Education, Spirae, and Siemens has been used to guide the hiring of faculty, program curriculum and education plan. This project develops faculty leaders with the intellectual capacity to inspire its students to become leaders that substantially contribute to the development and maintenance of Smart Grid infrastructure through topics such as: (1) Distributed energy systems modeling and control; (2) Energy and power conversion; (3

  3. Strategic Energy Management (SEM) in a micro grid with modern grid interactive electric vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panwar, Lokesh Kumar; Reddy, K. Srikanth; Kumar, Rajesh; Panigrahi, B.K.; Vyas, Shashank

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • System: Modelling of energy and storage systems for micro grid. • Target: Co-ordination of unitized regenerative fuel cell (URFC) and electric vehicle (EV). • Energy management strategies: Only URFC, URFC–EV charging, URFC-V2G with enabled. • Multi-objective approach: loss, cost minimization, maximization of stored energy. • Proposed Solution: Intelligent co-ordination of URFC and EV with V2G with most effective strategy. - Abstract: In this paper, strategic energy management in a micro grid is proposed incorporating two types of storage elements viz. unitised regenerative fuel cell (URFC) and electric vehicle (EV). Rather than a simple approach of optimizing micro grid operation to minimize line loss in the micro grid, this paper deals with multi objective optimization to minimize line loss, operational cost and maximize the value of stored energy of URFC and EV simultaneously. Apart from URFC, two operation strategies are proposed for EV enabling V2G operation to reduce overall system cost of operation. To address the complexity, non-linearity and multi dimensionality of the objective function, particle swarm optimization-a heuristic approach based solution methodology along with forward and back sweep algorithm based load flow solution technique is developed. Combined with particle swarm optimization (PSO), forward and backward sweep algorithm resolves the complexity and multi dimensionality of the load flow analysis and optimizes the operational cost of micro grid. The simulation results are presented and discussed which are promising with regard to reduction in line loss as well as cost of operation. Scheduling strategy of the micro grid with both URFC and EV enabling V2G operation presents a promising approach to minimize line loss and cost of operation.

  4. High-performance aqueous rechargeable batteries based on zinc ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    and environment-friendly energy storage system. Battery is the most versatile ... safe but limited in energy density.2 Therefore, new aque- ous rechargeable battery ... The working electrodes were prepared by coating slur- ries of active material ...

  5. Web-based global inventory of managed aquifer recharge applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stefan, Catalin; Ansems, Nienke

    2017-01-01

    Managed aquifer recharge (MAR) is being successfully implemented worldwide for various purposes: to increase groundwater storage, improve water quality, restore groundwater levels, prevent salt water intrusion, manage water distribution systems, and enhance ecological benefits. To better understand

  6. Groundwater Modelling For Recharge Estimation Using Satellite Based Evapotranspiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soheili, Mahmoud; (Tom) Rientjes, T. H. M.; (Christiaan) van der Tol, C.

    2017-04-01

    Groundwater movement is influenced by several factors and processes in the hydrological cycle, from which, recharge is of high relevance. Since the amount of aquifer extractable water directly relates to the recharge amount, estimation of recharge is a perquisite of groundwater resources management. Recharge is highly affected by water loss mechanisms the major of which is actual evapotranspiration (ETa). It is, therefore, essential to have detailed assessment of ETa impact on groundwater recharge. The objective of this study was to evaluate how recharge was affected when satellite-based evapotranspiration was used instead of in-situ based ETa in the Salland area, the Netherlands. The Methodology for Interactive Planning for Water Management (MIPWA) model setup which includes a groundwater model for the northern part of the Netherlands was used for recharge estimation. The Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land (SEBAL) based actual evapotranspiration maps from Waterschap Groot Salland were also used. Comparison of SEBAL based ETa estimates with in-situ abased estimates in the Netherlands showed that these SEBAL estimates were not reliable. As such results could not serve for calibrating root zone parameters in the CAPSIM model. The annual cumulative ETa map produced by the model showed that the maximum amount of evapotranspiration occurs in mixed forest areas in the northeast and a portion of central parts. Estimates ranged from 579 mm to a minimum of 0 mm in the highest elevated areas with woody vegetation in the southeast of the region. Variations in mean seasonal hydraulic head and groundwater level for each layer showed that the hydraulic gradient follows elevation in the Salland area from southeast (maximum) to northwest (minimum) of the region which depicts the groundwater flow direction. The mean seasonal water balance in CAPSIM part was evaluated to represent recharge estimation in the first layer. The highest recharge estimated flux was for autumn

  7. Impact of recharge water temperature on bioclogging during managed aquifer recharge: a laboratory study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Lu; Gao, Zongjun; Zheng, Xilai; Wei, Jiuchuan

    2018-04-01

    To investigate the effect of recharge water temperature on bioclogging processes and mechanisms during seasonal managed aquifer recharge (MAR), two groups of laboratory percolation experiments were conducted: a winter test and a summer test. The temperatures were controlled at 5±2 and 15±3 °C, and the tests involved bacterial inoculums acquired from well water during March 2014 and August 2015, for the winter and summer tests, respectively. The results indicated that the sand columns clogged 10 times faster in the summer test due to a 10-fold larger bacterial growth rate. The maximum concentrations of total extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) in the winter test were approximately twice those in the summer test, primarily caused by a 200 μg/g sand increase of both loosely bound EPS (LB-EPS) and tightly bound EPS (TB-EPS). In the first half of the experimental period, the accumulation of bacteria cells and EPS production induced rapid bioclogging in both the winter and summer tests. Afterward, increasing bacterial growth dominated the bioclogging in the summer test, while the accumulation of LB-EPS led to further bioclogging in the winter test. The biological analysis determined that the dominant bacteria in experiments for both seasons were different and the bacterial community diversity was 50% higher in the winter test than that for summer. The seasonal inoculums could lead to differences in the bacterial community structure and diversity, while recharge water temperature was considered to be a major factor influencing the bacterial growth rate and metabolism behavior during the seasonal bioclogging process.

  8. Importance of Grid Center Arrangement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasaogullari, O.; Usul, N.

    2012-12-01

    In Digital Elevation Modeling, grid size is accepted to be the most important parameter. Despite the point density and/or scale of the source data, it is freely decided by the user. Most of the time, arrangement of the grid centers are ignored, even most GIS packages omit the choice of grid center coordinate selection. In our study; importance of the arrangement of grid centers is investigated. Using the analogy between "Raster Grid DEM" and "Bitmap Image", importance of placement of grid centers in DEMs are measured. The study has been conducted on four different grid DEMs obtained from a half ellipsoid. These grid DEMs are obtained in such a way that they are half grid size apart from each other. Resulting grid DEMs are investigated through similarity measures. Image processing scientists use different measures to investigate the dis/similarity between the images and the amount of different information they carry. Grid DEMs are projected to a finer grid in order to co-center. Similarity measures are then applied to each grid DEM pairs. These similarity measures are adapted to DEM with band reduction and real number operation. One of the measures gives function graph and the others give measure matrices. Application of similarity measures to six grid DEM pairs shows interesting results. These four different grid DEMs are created with the same method for the same area, surprisingly; thirteen out of 14 measures state that, the half grid size apart grid DEMs are different from each other. The results indicated that although grid DEMs carry mutual information, they have also additional individual information. In other words, half grid size apart constructed grid DEMs have non-redundant information.; Joint Probability Distributions Function Graphs

  9. Wearable textile battery rechargeable by solar energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong-Hee; Kim, Joo-Seong; Noh, Jonghyeon; Lee, Inhwa; Kim, Hyeong Jun; Choi, Sunghun; Seo, Jeongmin; Jeon, Seokwoo; Kim, Taek-Soo; Lee, Jung-Yong; Choi, Jang Wook

    2013-01-01

    Wearable electronics represent a significant paradigm shift in consumer electronics since they eliminate the necessity for separate carriage of devices. In particular, integration of flexible electronic devices with clothes, glasses, watches, and skin will bring new opportunities beyond what can be imagined by current inflexible counterparts. Although considerable progresses have been seen for wearable electronics, lithium rechargeable batteries, the power sources of the devices, do not keep pace with such progresses due to tenuous mechanical stabilities, causing them to remain as the limiting elements in the entire technology. Herein, we revisit the key components of the battery (current collector, binder, and separator) and replace them with the materials that support robust mechanical endurance of the battery. The final full-cells in the forms of clothes and watchstraps exhibited comparable electrochemical performance to those of conventional metal foil-based cells even under severe folding-unfolding motions simulating actual wearing conditions. Furthermore, the wearable textile battery was integrated with flexible and lightweight solar cells on the battery pouch to enable convenient solar-charging capabilities.

  10. Manganese Dioxide As Rechargeable Magnesium Battery Cathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ling, Chen; Zhang, Ruigang

    2017-01-01

    Rechargeable magnesium battery (rMB) has received increased attention as a promising alternative to current Li-ion technology. However, the lack of appropriate cathode that provides high-energy density and good sustainability greatly hinders the development of practical rMBs. To date, the successful Mg 2+ -intercalation was only achieved in only a few cathode hosts, one of which is manganese dioxide. This review summarizes the research activity of studying MnO 2 in magnesium cells. In recent years, the cathodic performance of MnO 2 was impressively improved to the capacity of >150–200 mAh g −1 at voltage of 2.6–2.8 V with cyclability to hundreds or more cycles. In addition to reviewing electrochemical performance, we sketch a mechanistic picture to show how the fundamental understanding about MnO 2 cathode has been changed and how it paved the road to the improvement of cathode performance.

  11. Manganese Dioxide As Rechargeable Magnesium Battery Cathode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ling, Chen, E-mail: chen.ling@toyota.com; Zhang, Ruigang [Toyota Research Institute of North America, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2017-11-03

    Rechargeable magnesium battery (rMB) has received increased attention as a promising alternative to current Li-ion technology. However, the lack of appropriate cathode that provides high-energy density and good sustainability greatly hinders the development of practical rMBs. To date, the successful Mg{sup 2+}-intercalation was only achieved in only a few cathode hosts, one of which is manganese dioxide. This review summarizes the research activity of studying MnO{sub 2} in magnesium cells. In recent years, the cathodic performance of MnO{sub 2} was impressively improved to the capacity of >150–200 mAh g{sup −1} at voltage of 2.6–2.8 V with cyclability to hundreds or more cycles. In addition to reviewing electrochemical performance, we sketch a mechanistic picture to show how the fundamental understanding about MnO{sub 2} cathode has been changed and how it paved the road to the improvement of cathode performance.

  12. PV-hybrid and mini-grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    Within the 5th European PV-hybrid and mini-grid conference 29th and 30th April, 2010 in Tarragona (Spain) the following lectures were held: (1) Overview of IEA PVPS Task 11 PV-hybrid systems within mini grids; (2) Photovoltaic revolution for deployment in developing countries; (3) Legal and financial conditions for the sustainable operation of mini-grids; (4) EU instruments to promote renewable energies in developing countries; (5) PV hybridization of diesel electricity generators: Conditions of profitability and examples in differential power and storage size ranges; (6) Education suit of designing PV hybrid systems; (7) Sustainable renewable energy projects for intelligent rural electrification in Laos, Cambodia and Vietnam; (8) Techno-economic feasibility of energy supply of remote villages in Palestine by PV systems, diesel generators and electric grid (Case studies: Emnazeil and Atouf villages); (9) Technical, economical and sustainability considerations of a solar PV mini grid as a tool for rural electrification in Uganda; (10) Can we rate inverters for rural electrification on the basis of energy efficiency?; (11) Test procedures for MPPT charge controllers characterization; (12) Energy storage for mini-grid stabilization; (13) Redox flow batteries - Already an alternative storage solution for hybrid PV mini-grids?; (14) Control methods for PV hybrid mini-grids; (15) Partial AC-coupling in mini-grids; (15) Normative issues of small wind turbines in PV hybrid systems; (16) Communication solutions for PV hybrid systems; (17) Towards flexible control and communication of mini-grids; (18) PV/methanol fuel cell hybrid system for powering a highway security variable message board; (19) Polygeneration smartgrids: A solution for the supply of electricity, potable water and hydrogen as fuel for transportation in remote Areas; (20) Implementation of the Bronsbergen micro grid using FACDS; (21) A revisited approach for the design of PV wind hybrid systems; (22

  13. Computational intelligence for technology enhanced learning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xhafa, Fatos [Polytechnic Univ. of Catalonia, Barcelona (Spain). Dept. of Languages and Informatics Systems; Caballe, Santi; Daradoumis, Thanasis [Open Univ. of Catalonia, Barcelona (Spain). Dept. of Computer Sciences Multimedia and Telecommunications; Abraham, Ajith [Machine Intelligence Research Labs (MIR Labs), Auburn, WA (United States). Scientific Network for Innovation and Research Excellence; Juan Perez, Angel Alejandro (eds.) [Open Univ. of Catalonia, Barcelona (Spain). Dept. of Information Sciences

    2010-07-01

    E-Learning has become one of the most wide spread ways of distance teaching and learning. Technologies such as Web, Grid, and Mobile and Wireless networks are pushing teaching and learning communities to find new and intelligent ways of using these technologies to enhance teaching and learning activities. Indeed, these new technologies can play an important role in increasing the support to teachers and learners, to shorten the time to learning and teaching; yet, it is necessary to use intelligent techniques to take advantage of these new technologies to achieve the desired support to teachers and learners and enhance learners' performance in distributed learning environments. The chapters of this volume bring advances in using intelligent techniques for technology enhanced learning as well as development of e-Learning applications based on such techniques and supported by technology. Such intelligent techniques include clustering and classification for personalization of learning, intelligent context-aware techniques, adaptive learning, data mining techniques and ontologies in e-Learning systems, among others. Academics, scientists, software developers, teachers and tutors and students interested in e-Learning will find this book useful for their academic, research and practice activity. (orig.)

  14. Smart grids - intelligence for sustainable electrical power systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slootweg, J.G.; Cordova, C.E.P.; Montes Portela, C.; Morren, J.

    2011-01-01

    Due to the adverse impacts of the consumption of fossil fuels on our environment, the quest for a more sustainable energy supply is increasingly intensifying. Many renewable energy sources, such as wind, solar and tidal power generate electricity. Therefore, the development towards a sustainable

  15. Grid converter for LED based intelligent light sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Török, Lajos

    The purpose of this thesis was to investigate the applicability and effects of digital control to line connected switched mode power supplies with power factor correction. The main approach was cost effectiveness with high efficiency. This involved hardware design for increased switching frequency...... and their implemented control algorithms. As digital control has to be competitive with the existing solutions it was investigated what digital signal processing solutions exist. A performance and cost comparison was also presented. The chosen converter topologies were thoroughly analyzed. Different converters were...... chosen for different power levels. At low power simple boost converter as power factor corrector (PFC) and a RCD-clamped forward converter was chosen as DC-DC converter. This with has double output and coupled lter inductor. To design a digital controller with the tools of the classical control theory...

  16. An intelligent data model for the storage of structured grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clyne, John; Norton, Alan

    2013-04-01

    With support from the U.S. National Science Foundation we have developed, and currently maintain, VAPOR: a geosciences-focused, open source visual data analysis package. VAPOR enables highly interactive exploration, as well as qualitative and quantitative analysis of high-resolution simulation outputs using only a commodity, desktop computer. The enabling technology behind VAPOR's ability to interact with a data set, whose size would overwhelm all but the largest analysis computing resources, is a progressive data access file format, called the VAPOR Data Collection (VDC). The VDC is based on the discrete wavelet transform and their information compaction properties. Prior to analysis, raw data undergo a wavelet transform, concentrating the information content into a fraction of the coefficients. The coefficients are then sorted by their information content (magnitude) into a small number of bins. Data are reconstructed by applying an inverse wavelet transform. If all of the coefficient bins are used during reconstruction the process is lossless (up to floating point round-off). If only a subset of the bins are used, an approximation of the original data is produced. A crucial point here is that the principal benefit to reconstruction from a subset of wavelet coefficients is a reduction in I/O. Further, if smaller coefficients are simply discarded, or perhaps stored on more capacious tertiary storage, secondary storage requirements (e.g. disk) can be reduced as well. In practice, these reductions in I/O or storage can be on the order of tens or even hundreds. This talk will briefly describe the VAPOR Data Collection, and will present real world success stories from the geosciences that illustrate how progressive data access enables highly interactive exploration of Big Data.

  17. Transforming Energy Systems and Indian Initiatives in Intelligent Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razdan, Anil

    2014-07-01

    Ancient words of wisdom have remarkable clarity, brevity, universality and timelessness in their applicability. They cut across civilizations, systems, and situations, almost effortlessly. The positive take is that mistakes can be committed, but can be rectified. What may be appropriate in one situation, has to change in another context. Two proverbs from diverse civilizations are very relevant in the current context...

  18. GridCom, Grid Commander: graphical interface for Grid jobs and data management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galaktionov, V.V.

    2011-01-01

    GridCom - the software package for maintenance of automation of access to means of distributed system Grid (jobs and data). The client part, executed in the form of Java-applets, realises the Web-interface access to Grid through standard browsers. The executive part Lexor (LCG Executor) is started by the user in UI (User Interface) machine providing performance of Grid operations

  19. Evolutionary Hierarchical Multi-Criteria Metaheuristics for Scheduling in Large-Scale Grid Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kołodziej, Joanna

    2012-01-01

    One of the most challenging issues in modelling today's large-scale computational systems is to effectively manage highly parametrised distributed environments such as computational grids, clouds, ad hoc networks and P2P networks. Next-generation computational grids must provide a wide range of services and high performance computing infrastructures. Various types of information and data processed in the large-scale dynamic grid environment may be incomplete, imprecise, and fragmented, which complicates the specification of proper evaluation criteria and which affects both the availability of resources and the final collective decisions of users. The complexity of grid architectures and grid management may also contribute towards higher energy consumption. All of these issues necessitate the development of intelligent resource management techniques, which are capable of capturing all of this complexity and optimising meaningful metrics for a wide range of grid applications.   This book covers hot topics in t...

  20. ISOGA: Integrated Services Optical Grid Architecture for Emerging E-Science Collaborative Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliver Yu

    2008-11-28

    This final report describes the accomplishments in the ISOGA (Integrated Services Optical Grid Architecture) project. ISOGA enables efficient deployment of existing and emerging collaborative grid applications with increasingly diverse multimedia communication requirements over a wide-area multi-domain optical network grid; and enables collaborative scientists with fast retrieval and seamless browsing of distributed scientific multimedia datasets over a wide-area optical network grid. The project focuses on research and development in the following areas: the polymorphic optical network control planes to enable multiple switching and communication services simultaneously; the intelligent optical grid user-network interface to enable user-centric network control and monitoring; and the seamless optical grid dataset browsing interface to enable fast retrieval of local/remote dataset for visualization and manipulation.

  1. Educational Programs for Intelligence Professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jerry P.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the need for education programs for competitive intelligence professionals. Highlights include definitions of intelligence functions, focusing on business intelligence; information utilization by decision makers; information sources; competencies for intelligence professionals; and the development of formal education programs. (38…

  2. A New Dimension of Business Intelligence: Location-based Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Zeljko Panian

    2012-01-01

    Through the course of this paper we define Locationbased Intelligence (LBI) which is outgrowing from process of amalgamation of geolocation and Business Intelligence. Amalgamating geolocation with traditional Business Intelligence (BI) results in a new dimension of BI named Location-based Intelligence. LBI is defined as leveraging unified location information for business intelligence. Collectively, enterprises can transform location data into business intelligence applic...

  3. Recharge signal identification based on groundwater level observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hwa-Lung; Chu, Hone-Jay

    2012-10-01

    This study applied a method of the rotated empirical orthogonal functions to directly decompose the space-time groundwater level variations and determine the potential recharge zones by investigating the correlation between the identified groundwater signals and the observed local rainfall records. The approach is used to analyze the spatiotemporal process of piezometric heads estimated by Bayesian maximum entropy method from monthly observations of 45 wells in 1999-2007 located in the Pingtung Plain of Taiwan. From the results, the primary potential recharge area is located at the proximal fan areas where the recharge process accounts for 88% of the spatiotemporal variations of piezometric heads in the study area. The decomposition of groundwater levels associated with rainfall can provide information on the recharge process since rainfall is an important contributor to groundwater recharge in semi-arid regions. Correlation analysis shows that the identified recharge closely associates with the temporal variation of the local precipitation with a delay of 1-2 months in the study area.

  4. Seasonal variation in natural recharge of coastal aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollema, Pauline N.; Antonellini, Marco

    2013-06-01

    Many coastal zones around the world have irregular precipitation throughout the year. This results in discontinuous natural recharge of coastal aquifers, which affects the size of freshwater lenses present in sandy deposits. Temperature data for the period 1960-1990 from LocClim (local climate estimator) and those obtained from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) SRES A1b scenario for 2070-2100, have been used to calculate the potential evapotranspiration with the Thornthwaite method. Potential recharge (difference between precipitation and potential evapotranspiration) was defined at 12 locations: Ameland (The Netherlands), Auckland and Wellington (New Zealand); Hong Kong (China); Ravenna (Italy), Mekong (Vietnam), Mumbai (India), New Jersey (USA), Nile Delta (Egypt), Kobe and Tokyo (Japan), and Singapore. The influence of variable/discontinuous recharge on the size of freshwater lenses was simulated with the SEAWAT model. The discrepancy between models with continuous and with discontinuous recharge is relatively small in areas where the total annual recharge is low (258-616 mm/year); but in places with Monsoon-dominated climate (e.g. Mumbai, with recharge up to 1,686 mm/year), the difference in freshwater-lens thickness between the discontinuous and the continuous model is larger (up to 5 m) and thus important to consider in numerical models that estimate freshwater availability.

  5. Grid and Entrepreneurship Workshop

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The CERN openlab is organising a special workshop about Grid opportunities for entrepreneurship. This one-day event will provide an overview of what is involved in spin-off technology, with a special reference to the context of computing and data Grids. Lectures by experienced entrepreneurs will introduce the key concepts of entrepreneurship and review, in particular, the industrial potential of EGEE (the EU co-funded Enabling Grids for E-sciencE project, led by CERN). Case studies will be given by CEOs of European start-ups already active in the Grid and computing cluster area, and regional experts will provide an overview of efforts in several European regions to stimulate entrepreneurship. This workshop is designed to encourage students and researchers involved or interested in Grid technology to consider the entrepreneurial opportunities that this technology may create in the coming years. This workshop is organized as part of the CERN openlab student programme, which is co-sponsored by CERN, HP, ...

  6. For smart electric grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran Thiet, Jean-Paul; Leger, Sebastien; Bressand, Florian; Perez, Yannick; Bacha, Seddik; Laurent, Daniel; Perrin, Marion

    2012-01-01

    The authors identify and discuss the main challenges faced by the French electric grid: the management of electricity demand and the needed improvement of energy efficiency, the evolution of consumer's state of mind, and the integration of new production capacities. They notably outline that France have been living until recently with an electricity abundance, but now faces the highest consumption peaks in Europe, and is therefore facing higher risks of power cuts. They also notice that the French energy mix is slowly evolving, and outline the problems raised by the fact that renewable energies which are to be developed, are decentralised and intermittent. They propose an overview of present developments of smart grids, and outline their innovative characteristics, challenges raised by their development and compare international examples. They show that smart grids enable a better adapted supply and decentralisation. A set of proposals is formulated about how to finance and to organise the reconfiguration of electric grids, how to increase consumer's responsibility for peak management and demand management, how to create the conditions of emergence of a European market of smart grids, and how to support self-consumption and the building-up of an energy storage sector

  7. Dynamic vulnerability assessment and intelligent control for sustainable power systems

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez-Longatt, Francisco

    2018-01-01

    Identifying, assessing, and mitigating electric power grid vulnerabilities is a growing focus in short-term operational planning of power systems. Through illustrated application, this important guide surveys state-of-the-art methodologies for the assessment and enhancement of power system security in short-term operational planning and real-time operation. The methodologies employ advanced methods from probabilistic theory, data mining, artificial intelligence, and optimization, to provide knowledge-based support for monitoring, control (preventive and corrective), and decision making tasks. Key features: Introduces behavioural recognition in wide-area monitoring and security constrained optimal power flow for intelligent control and protection and optimal grid management. Provides in-depth understanding of risk-based reliability and security assessment, dynamic vulnerability as essment methods, supported by the underpinning mathematics. Develops expertise in mitigation techniques using intelligent protect...

  8. Soil Water Balance and Recharge Monitoring at the Hanford Site – FY 2010 Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fayer, Michael J.; Saunders, Danielle L.; Herrington, Ricky S.; Felmy, Diana

    2010-10-27

    This report summarizes the recharge data collected in FY 2010 at five locations on the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. Average monthly precipitation and temperature conditions in FY 2010 were near normal and did not present an opportunity for increased recharge. The recharge monitoring data confirmed those conditions, showing normal behavior in water content, matric head, and recharge rates. Also provided in this report is a strategy for recharge estimation for the next 5 years.

  9. Electric vehicles in low voltage residential grid: a danish case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna; Huang, Shaojun; Thøgersen, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Electric Vehicles (EVs) have gained large interest in the energy sector as a carrier to support clean transportation and green electricity. The potential to use battery storages of electric vehicles as a sink for excess electricity that may result from large integration of wind power, especially...... in countries like Denmark, is widely discussed and promoted. However, the wide-spread adoption of EVs requires the provision of intelligent grid and EV charging infrastructure. To analyse and understand the amount of EVs that could be integrated in the local distribution grids, within its existing capabilities......, is absolutely essential for the system operators to plan and implement the levels of grid reinforcement and intelligence required. This paper investigates the local grid limitations to accommodate large amount of EVs of sizable power ratings in residential areas. The case study applied in this paper uses...

  10. Intelligent Extruder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AlperEker; Mark Giammattia; Paul Houpt; Aditya Kumar; Oscar Montero; Minesh Shah; Norberto Silvi; Timothy Cribbs

    2003-04-24

    ''Intelligent Extruder'' described in this report is a software system and associated support services for monitoring and control of compounding extruders to improve material quality, reduce waste and energy use, with minimal addition of new sensors or changes to the factory floor system components. Emphasis is on process improvements to the mixing, melting and de-volatilization of base resins, fillers, pigments, fire retardants and other additives in the :finishing'' stage of high value added engineering polymer materials. While GE Plastics materials were used for experimental studies throughout the program, the concepts and principles are broadly applicable to other manufacturers materials. The project involved a joint collaboration among GE Global Research, GE Industrial Systems and Coperion Werner & Pleiderer, USA, a major manufacturer of compounding equipment. Scope of the program included development of a algorithms for monitoring process material viscosity without rheological sensors or generating waste streams, a novel detection scheme for rapid detection of process upsets and an adaptive feedback control system to compensate for process upsets where at line adjustments are feasible. Software algorithms were implemented and tested on a laboratory scale extruder (50 lb/hr) at GE Global Research and data from a production scale system (2000 lb/hr) at GE Plastics was used to validate the monitoring and detection software. Although not evaluated experimentally, a new concept for extruder process monitoring through estimation of high frequency drive torque without strain gauges is developed and demonstrated in simulation. A plan to commercialize the software system is outlined, but commercialization has not been completed.

  11. Social Impact of Recharging Activity in Long-Term HRI and Verbal Strategies to Manage User Expectations During Recharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amol Deshmukh

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Social robots perform tasks to help humans in their daily activities. However, if they fail to fulfill expectations this may affect their acceptance. This work investigates the service degradation caused by recharging, during which the robot is socially inactive. We describe two studies conducted in an ecologically valid office environment. In the first long-term study (3 weeks, we investigated the service degradation caused by the recharging behavior of a social robot. In the second study, we explored the social strategies used to manage users’ expectations during recharge. Our findings suggest that the use of verbal strategies (transparency, apology, and politeness can make robots more acceptable to users during recharge.

  12. SAGE - MULTIDIMENSIONAL SELF-ADAPTIVE GRID CODE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, C. B.

    1994-01-01

    SAGE, Self Adaptive Grid codE, is a flexible tool for adapting and restructuring both 2D and 3D grids. Solution-adaptive grid methods are useful tools for efficient and accurate flow predictions. In supersonic and hypersonic flows, strong gradient regions such as shocks, contact discontinuities, shear layers, etc., require careful distribution of grid points to minimize grid error and produce accurate flow-field predictions. SAGE helps the user obtain more accurate solutions by intelligently redistributing (i.e. adapting) the original grid points based on an initial or interim flow-field solution. The user then computes a new solution using the adapted grid as input to the flow solver. The adaptive-grid methodology poses the problem in an algebraic, unidirectional manner for multi-dimensional adaptations. The procedure is analogous to applying tension and torsion spring forces proportional to the local flow gradient at every grid point and finding the equilibrium position of the resulting system of grid points. The multi-dimensional problem of grid adaption is split into a series of one-dimensional problems along the computational coordinate lines. The reduced one dimensional problem then requires a tridiagonal solver to find the location of grid points along a coordinate line. Multi-directional adaption is achieved by the sequential application of the method in each coordinate direction. The tension forces direct the redistribution of points to the strong gradient region. To maintain smoothness and a measure of orthogonality of grid lines, torsional forces are introduced that relate information between the family of lines adjacent to one another. The smoothness and orthogonality constraints are direction-dependent, since they relate only the coordinate lines that are being adapted to the neighboring lines that have already been adapted. Therefore the solutions are non-unique and depend on the order and direction of adaption. Non-uniqueness of the adapted grid is

  13. Grid sleeve bulge tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, W.D.; Vaill, R.E.

    1980-01-01

    An improved grid sleeve bulge tool is designed for securing control rod guide tubes to sleeves brazed in a fuel assembly grid. The tool includes a cylinder having an outer diameter less than the internal diameter of the control rod guide tubes. The walls of the cylinder are cut in an axial direction along its length to provide several flexible tines or ligaments. These tines are similar to a fork except they are spaced in a circumferential direction. The end of each alternate tine is equipped with a semispherical projection which extends radially outwardly from the tine surface. A ram or plunger of generally cylindrical configuration and about the same length as the cylinder is designed to fit in and move axially of the cylinder and thereby force the tined projections outwardly when the ram is pulled into the cylinder. The ram surface includes axially extending grooves and plane surfaces which are complimentary to the inner surfaces formed on the tines on the cylinder. As the cylinder is inserted into a control rod guide tube, and the projections on the cylinder placed in a position just below or above a grid strap, the ram is pulled into the cylinder, thus moving the tines and the projections thereon outwardly into contact with the sleeve, to plastically deform both the sleeve and the control rod guide tube, and thereby form four bulges which extend outwardly from the sleeve surface and beyond the outer periphery of the grid peripheral strap. This process is then repeated at the points above the grid to also provide for outwardly projecting surfaces, the result being that the grid is accurately positioned on and mechanically secured to the control rod guide tubes which extend the length of a fuel assembly

  14. Intelligent Mission Controller Node

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Perme, David

    2002-01-01

    The goal of the Intelligent Mission Controller Node (IMCN) project was to improve the process of translating mission taskings between real-world Command, Control, Communications, Computers, and Intelligence (C41...

  15. Algorithms in ambient intelligence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarts, E.H.L.; Korst, J.H.M.; Verhaegh, W.F.J.; Verhaegh, W.F.J.; Aarts, E.H.L.; Korst, J.H.M.

    2004-01-01

    In this chapter, we discuss the new paradigm for user-centered computing known as ambient intelligence and its relation with methods and techniques from the field of computational intelligence, including problem solving, machine learning, and expert systems.

  16. Advanced intelligent systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ryoo, Young; Jang, Moon-soo; Bae, Young-Chul

    2014-01-01

    Intelligent systems have been initiated with the attempt to imitate the human brain. People wish to let machines perform intelligent works. Many techniques of intelligent systems are based on artificial intelligence. According to changing and novel requirements, the advanced intelligent systems cover a wide spectrum: big data processing, intelligent control, advanced robotics, artificial intelligence and machine learning. This book focuses on coordinating intelligent systems with highly integrated and foundationally functional components. The book consists of 19 contributions that features social network-based recommender systems, application of fuzzy enforcement, energy visualization, ultrasonic muscular thickness measurement, regional analysis and predictive modeling, analysis of 3D polygon data, blood pressure estimation system, fuzzy human model, fuzzy ultrasonic imaging method, ultrasonic mobile smart technology, pseudo-normal image synthesis, subspace classifier, mobile object tracking, standing-up moti...

  17. Adaptive Micro-Grid Operation Based on IEC 61850

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Deng

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Automatically identifying the new equipment after its integration and adjusting operation strategy to realize “plug and play” functionality are becoming essential for micro-grid operations. In order to improve and perfect the micro-grid “plug and play” function with the increased amount of equipment with different information protocols and more diverse system applications, this paper presents a solution for adaptive micro-grid operation based on IEC 61850, and proposes the design and specific implementation methods of micro-grid “plug and play” function and system operation mode conversion in detail, by using the established IEC 61850 information model of a micro-grid. Actual operation tests based on the developed IED and micro-grid test platform are performed to verify the feasibility and validity of the proposed solution. The tests results show that the solution can automatically identify the IEC 61850 information model of equipment after its integration, intelligently adjust the operation strategies to adapt to new system states and achieves a reliable system operation mode conversion.

  18. Authentication Method for Privacy Protection in Smart Grid Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Do-Eun Cho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the interest in green energy is increasing as a means to resolve problems including the exhaustion of the energy source and, effective management of energy through the convergence of various fields. Therefore, the projects of smart grid which is called intelligent electrical grid for the accomplishment of low carbon green growth are being carried out in a rush. However, as the IT is centered upon the electrical grid, the shortage of IT also appears in smart grid and the complexity of convergence is aggravating the problem. Also, various personal information and payment information within the smart grid are gradually becoming big data and target for external invasion and attack; thus, there is increase in concerns for this matter. The purpose of this study is to analyze the security vulnerabilities and security requirement within smart grid and the authentication and access control method for privacy protection within home network. Therefore, we propose a secure access authentication and remote control method for user’s home device within home network environment, and we present their security analysis. The proposed access authentication method blocks the unauthorized external access and enables secure remote access to home network and its devices with a secure message authentication protocol.

  19. Investigation of the Present Recharge Rate and Recharge Origins in the Disi Sandstone Aquifer in Southern Jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilani, S.F.

    2003-01-01

    This study presents a thorough investigation of recharge origins of the strategic Disi sandstone aquifer in southern Jordan. This aquifer is of substantial potential and huge extension most of which lies in Saudi Arabia. Disi groundwater infiltrated in the ground thousands of years ago and is not currently being replenished, therefore crucial management for this resource is very important. This aquifer is foreseen to provide 100 MCM/a of high quality drinking water to the Capital Amman in addition to the current use of about 60 MCM/a for agricultural activities in the area and to meet the water demand in the port of Aqaba. Origins and amount of recharge to groundwater is one critical aspect in resource management. A study to estimate recharge rate was conducted in the Quaternary sediments and sandstone's of Al Quwayra in southern Jordan where the average rainfall is less than 70 mm per year. Environmental chloride, deuterium and nitrate in the sand profiles in the vadose zone were the study tools. The study showed that recharge if present is a result of severe infrequent storm events and that the aquifer does not receive significant direct recharge from rain. The pollutant profiles in the unsaturated zone might give chronology of the recharge history

  20. Grids, Clouds and Virtualization

    CERN Document Server

    Cafaro, Massimo

    2011-01-01

    Research into grid computing has been driven by the need to solve large-scale, increasingly complex problems for scientific applications. Yet the applications of grid computing for business and casual users did not begin to emerge until the development of the concept of cloud computing, fueled by advances in virtualization techniques, coupled with the increased availability of ever-greater Internet bandwidth. The appeal of this new paradigm is mainly based on its simplicity, and the affordable price for seamless access to both computational and storage resources. This timely text/reference int

  1. Smart Grid Architectures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dondossola, Giovanna; Terruggia, Roberta; Bessler, Sandford

    2014-01-01

    The scope of this paper is to address the evolution of distribution grid architectures following the widespread introduction of renewable energy sources. The increasing connection of distributed resources has a strong impact on the topology and the control functionality of the current distribution...... grids requiring the development of new Information and Communication Technology (ICT) solutions with various degrees of adaptation of the monitoring, communication and control technologies. The costs of ICT based solutions need however to be taken into account, hence it is desirable to work...

  2. Instant jqGrid

    CERN Document Server

    Manricks, Gabriel

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. A step-by-step, practical Starter book, Instant jqGrid embraces you while you take your first steps, and introduces you to the content in an easy-to-follow order.This book is aimed at people who have some knowledge of HTML and JavaScript. Knowledge of PHP and SQL would also prove to be beneficial. No prior knowledge of jqGrid is expected.

  3. Smart Grid, Smart Europe

    OpenAIRE

    VITIELLO SILVIA; FULLI Gianluca; MENGOLINI Anna Maria

    2013-01-01

    Le smart grid, o reti elettriche intelligenti, aprono la strada a nuove applicazioni con conseguenze di vasta portata per l’intero sistema elettrico, tra le quali la principale è la capacità di integrare nella rete esistente più fonti di energia rinnovabili (FER), veicoli elettrici e fonti di generazione distribuita. Le smart grid inoltre garantiscono una più efficiente ed affidabile risposta alla domanda di energia, sia da un punto di vista tecnico, permettendo un monitoraggio e un controll...

  4. Distributed photovoltaic grid transformers

    CERN Document Server

    Shertukde, Hemchandra Madhusudan

    2014-01-01

    The demand for alternative energy sources fuels the need for electric power and controls engineers to possess a practical understanding of transformers suitable for solar energy. Meeting that need, Distributed Photovoltaic Grid Transformers begins by explaining the basic theory behind transformers in the solar power arena, and then progresses to describe the development, manufacture, and sale of distributed photovoltaic (PV) grid transformers, which help boost the electric DC voltage (generally at 30 volts) harnessed by a PV panel to a higher level (generally at 115 volts or higher) once it is

  5. Artificial Intelligence Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Symposium on Aritificial Intelligence and Software Engineering Working Notes, March 1989. Blumenthal, Brad, "An Architecture for Automating...Artificial Intelligence Project Final Technical Report ARO Contract: DAAG29-84-K-OGO Artificial Intelligence LaboratO"ry The University of Texas at...Austin N>.. ~ ~ JA 1/I 1991 n~~~ Austin, Texas 78712 ________k A,.tificial Intelligence Project i Final Technical Report ARO Contract: DAAG29-84-K-0060

  6. Arsenic release during managed aquifer recharge (MAR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichler, T.; Lazareva, O.; Druschel, G.

    2013-12-01

    The mobilization and addition of geogenic trace metals to groundwater is typically caused by anthropogenic perturbations of the physicochemical conditions in the aquifer. This can add dangerously high levels of toxins to groundwater, thus compromising its use as a source of drinking water. In several regions world-wide, aquifer storage and recovery (ASR), a form of managed aquifer recharge (MAR), faces the problem of arsenic release due to the injection of oxygenated storage water. To better understand this process we coupled geochemical reactive transport modeling to bench-scale leaching experiments to investigate and verify the mobilization of geogenic arsenic (As) under a range of redox conditions from an arsenic-rich pyrite bearing limestone aquifer in Central Florida. Modeling and experimental observations showed similar results and confirmed the following: (1) native groundwater and aquifer matrix, including pyrite, were in chemical equilibrium, thus preventing the release of As due to pyrite dissolution under ambient conditions; (2) mixing of oxygen-rich surface water with oxygen-depleted native groundwater changed the redox conditions and promoted the dissolution of pyrite, and (3) the behavior of As along a flow path was controlled by a complex series of interconnected reactions. This included the oxidative dissolution of pyrite and simultaneous sorption of As onto neo-formed hydrous ferric oxides (HFO), followed by the reductive dissolution of HFO and secondary release of adsorbed As under reducing conditions. Arsenic contamination of drinking water in these systems is thus controlled by the re-equilibration of the system to more reducing conditions rather than a purely oxidative process.

  7. Orchestrating Multiple Intelligences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Seana; Kornhaber, Mindy; Gardner, Howard

    2006-01-01

    Education policymakers often go astray when they attempt to integrate multiple intelligences theory into schools, according to the originator of the theory, Howard Gardner, and his colleagues. The greatest potential of a multiple intelligences approach to education grows from the concept of a profile of intelligences. Each learner's intelligence…

  8. Algorithms in ambient intelligence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarts, E.H.L.; Korst, J.H.M.; Verhaegh, W.F.J.; Weber, W.; Rabaey, J.M.; Aarts, E.

    2005-01-01

    We briefly review the concept of ambient intelligence and discuss its relation with the domain of intelligent algorithms. By means of four examples of ambient intelligent systems, we argue that new computing methods and quantification measures are needed to bridge the gap between the class of

  9. Designing with computational intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Lopes, Heitor; Mourelle, Luiza

    2017-01-01

    This book discusses a number of real-world applications of computational intelligence approaches. Using various examples, it demonstrates that computational intelligence has become a consolidated methodology for automatically creating new competitive solutions to complex real-world problems. It also presents a concise and efficient synthesis of different systems using computationally intelligent techniques.

  10. Reflection on robotic intelligence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartneck, C.

    2006-01-01

    This paper reflects on the development or robots, both their physical shape as well as their intelligence. The later strongly depends on the progress made in the artificial intelligence (AI) community which does not yet provide the models and tools necessary to create intelligent robots. It is time

  11. Grid computing the European Data Grid Project

    CERN Document Server

    Segal, B; Gagliardi, F; Carminati, F

    2000-01-01

    The goal of this project is the development of a novel environment to support globally distributed scientific exploration involving multi- PetaByte datasets. The project will devise and develop middleware solutions and testbeds capable of scaling to handle many PetaBytes of distributed data, tens of thousands of resources (processors, disks, etc.), and thousands of simultaneous users. The scale of the problem and the distribution of the resources and user community preclude straightforward replication of the data at different sites, while the aim of providing a general purpose application environment precludes distributing the data using static policies. We will construct this environment by combining and extending newly emerging "Grid" technologies to manage large distributed datasets in addition to computational elements. A consequence of this project will be the emergence of fundamental new modes of scientific exploration, as access to fundamental scientific data is no longer constrained to the producer of...

  12. Benefits and Economic Costs of Managed Aquifer Recharge in California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debra Perrone

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.15447/sfews.2016v14iss2art4Groundwater management is important and challenging, and nowhere is this more evident than in California. Managed aquifer recharge (MAR projects can play an important role in ensuring California manages its groundwater sustainably. Although the benefits and economic costs of surface water storage have been researched extensively, the benefits and economic costs of MAR have been little researched. Historical groundwater data are sparse or proprietary within the state, often impairing groundwater analyses. General obligation bonds from ballot propositions offer a strategic means of mining information about MAR projects, because the information is available publicly. We used bond-funding applications to identify anticipated MAR project benefits and proposed economic costs. We then compared these costs with actual project costs collected from a survey, and identified factors that promote or limit MAR. Our analysis indicates that the median proposed economic cost for MAR projects in California is $410 per acre-foot per year ($0.33 per cubic meter per year. Increasing Water Supply, Conjunctive Use, and Flood Protection are the most common benefits reported. Additionally, the survey indicates that (1 there are many reported reasons for differences between proposed and actual costs ($US 2015 and (2 there is one primary reason for differences between proposed recharge volumes and actual recharge volumes (AFY: availability of source water for recharge. Although there are differences between proposed and actual costs per recharge volume ($US 2015/AFY, the ranges for proposed costs per recharge volume and actual costs per recharge volume for the projects surveyed generally agree. The two most important contributions to the success of a MAR project are financial support and good communication with stakeholders.

  13. Enabling Campus Grids with Open Science Grid Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weitzel, Derek; Fraser, Dan; Pordes, Ruth; Bockelman, Brian; Swanson, David

    2011-01-01

    The Open Science Grid is a recognized key component of the US national cyber-infrastructure enabling scientific discovery through advanced high throughput computing. The principles and techniques that underlie the Open Science Grid can also be applied to Campus Grids since many of the requirements are the same, even if the implementation technologies differ. We find five requirements for a campus grid: trust relationships, job submission, resource independence, accounting, and data management. The Holland Computing Center's campus grid at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln was designed to fulfill the requirements of a campus grid. A bridging daemon was designed to bring non-Condor clusters into a grid managed by Condor. Condor features which make it possible to bridge Condor sites into a multi-campus grid have been exploited at the Holland Computing Center as well.

  14. Enabling campus grids with open science grid technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weitzel, Derek [Nebraska U.; Bockelman, Brian [Nebraska U.; Swanson, David [Nebraska U.; Fraser, Dan [Argonne; Pordes, Ruth [Fermilab

    2011-01-01

    The Open Science Grid is a recognized key component of the US national cyber-infrastructure enabling scientific discovery through advanced high throughput computing. The principles and techniques that underlie the Open Science Grid can also be applied to Campus Grids since many of the requirements are the same, even if the implementation technologies differ. We find five requirements for a campus grid: trust relationships, job submission, resource independence, accounting, and data management. The Holland Computing Center's campus grid at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln was designed to fulfill the requirements of a campus grid. A bridging daemon was designed to bring non-Condor clusters into a grid managed by Condor. Condor features which make it possible to bridge Condor sites into a multi-campus grid have been exploited at the Holland Computing Center as well.

  15. Assessment of grid optimisation measures for the German transmission grid using open source grid data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böing, F.; Murmann, A.; Pellinger, C.; Bruckmeier, A.; Kern, T.; Mongin, T.

    2018-02-01

    The expansion of capacities in the German transmission grid is a necessity for further integration of renewable energy sources into the electricity sector. In this paper, the grid optimisation measures ‘Overhead Line Monitoring’, ‘Power-to-Heat’ and ‘Demand Response in the Industry’ are evaluated and compared against conventional grid expansion for the year 2030. Initially, the methodical approach of the simulation model is presented and detailed descriptions of the grid model and the used grid data, which partly originates from open-source platforms, are provided. Further, this paper explains how ‘Curtailment’ and ‘Redispatch’ can be reduced by implementing grid optimisation measures and how the depreciation of economic costs can be determined considering construction costs. The developed simulations show that the conventional grid expansion is more efficient and implies more grid relieving effects than the evaluated grid optimisation measures.

  16. Utah Bouguer Gravity Grid

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A 2.5 kilometer Bouguer anomaly grid for the state of Utah. Number of columns is 196 and number of rows is 245. The order of the data is from the lower left to the...

  17. Modelling Chinese Smart Grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuksel, Ender; Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming

    In this document, we consider a specific Chinese Smart Grid implementation and try to address the verification problem for certain quantitative properties including performance and battery consumption. We employ stochastic model checking approach and present our modelling and analysis study using...

  18. Grid attacks avian flu

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    During April, a collaboration of Asian and European laboratories analysed 300,000 possible drug components against the avian flu virus H5N1 using the EGEE Grid infrastructure. Schematic presentation of the avian flu virus.The distribution of the EGEE sites in the world on which the avian flu scan was performed. The goal was to find potential compounds that can inhibit the activities of an enzyme on the surface of the influenza virus, the so-called neuraminidase, subtype N1. Using the Grid to identify the most promising leads for biological tests could speed up the development process for drugs against the influenza virus. Co-ordinated by CERN and funded by the European Commission, the EGEE project (Enabling Grids for E-sciencE) aims to set up a worldwide grid infrastructure for science. The challenge of the in silico drug discovery application is to identify those molecules which can dock on the active sites of the virus in order to inhibit its action. To study the impact of small scale mutations on drug r...

  19. Multi-Grid Lanczos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, M. A.; Jung, Chulwoo; Lehner, Christoph

    2018-03-01

    We present a Lanczos algorithm utilizing multiple grids that reduces the memory requirements both on disk and in working memory by one order of magnitude for RBC/UKQCD's 48I and 64I ensembles at the physical pion mass. The precision of the resulting eigenvectors is on par with exact deflation.

  20. Multi-Grid Lanczos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clark M. A.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a Lanczos algorithm utilizing multiple grids that reduces the memory requirements both on disk and in working memory by one order of magnitude for RBC/UKQCD’s 48I and 64I ensembles at the physical pion mass. The precision of the resulting eigenvectors is on par with exact deflation.

  1. Nevada Isostatic Gravity Grid

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A 2 kilometer Isostatic anomaly grid for the state of Nevada. Number of columns is 269 and number of rows is 394. The order of the data is from the lower left to the...

  2. Steering the Smart Grid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molderink, Albert; Bakker, Vincent; Bosman, M.G.C.; Hurink, Johann L.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria

    2010-01-01

    Increasing energy prices and the greenhouse effect lead to more awareness of energy efficiency of electricity supply. During the last years, a lot of technologies and optimization methodologies were developed to increase the efficiency, maintain the grid stability and support large scale

  3. Cutback for grid operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meulmeester, P.; De Laat, J.

    2006-01-01

    The Netherlands Competition Authority (NMa), in which the Office of Energy Regulation (DTe) is included plan to decrease the capital cost compensation (or weighted average cost of capital or WACC) for grid operators. In this article it is explained how the compensation is calculated, why this measure will be taken and what the effects of this cutback are [nl

  4. Autonomous Energy Grids: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroposki, Benjamin D [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dall-Anese, Emiliano [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bernstein, Andrey [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zhang, Yingchen [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hodge, Brian S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-10-04

    With much higher levels of distributed energy resources - variable generation, energy storage, and controllable loads just to mention a few - being deployed into power systems, the data deluge from pervasive metering of energy grids, and the shaping of multi-level ancillary-service markets, current frameworks to monitoring, controlling, and optimizing large-scale energy systems are becoming increasingly inadequate. This position paper outlines the concept of 'Autonomous Energy Grids' (AEGs) - systems that are supported by a scalable, reconfigurable, and self-organizing information and control infrastructure, can be extremely secure and resilient (self-healing), and self-optimize themselves in real-time for economic and reliable performance while systematically integrating energy in all forms. AEGs rely on scalable, self-configuring cellular building blocks that ensure that each 'cell' can self-optimize when isolated from a larger grid as well as partaking in the optimal operation of a larger grid when interconnected. To realize this vision, this paper describes the concepts and key research directions in the broad domains of optimization theory, control theory, big-data analytics, and complex system modeling that will be necessary to realize the AEG vision.

  5. Bolivian Bouguer Anomaly Grid

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A 1 kilometer Bouguer anomaly grid for the country of Bolivia.Number of columns is 550 and number of rows is 900. The order of the data is from the lower left to the...

  6. Smart grid voor comfort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeiler, W.; Vissers, D.R.; Maaijen, H.N.; Kling, W.L.; Velden, van der J.A.J.; Larsen, J.P.

    2012-01-01

    Er vindt onderzoek plaats naar een nieuwe regelstrategie gebaseerd op de toepassing van een draadloos sensor netwerk dat is gekoppeld aan het smart grid. Doel van deze regelstrategie is om op gebruikersniveau energie te kunnen besparen met behoud of zelfs verbetering van het individueel comfort. Er

  7. Kids Enjoy Grids

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    I want to come back and work here when I'm older,' was the spontaneous reaction of one of the children invited to CERN by the Enabling Grids for E-sciencE project for a 'Grids for Kids' day at the end of January. The EGEE project is led by CERN, and the EGEE gender action team organized the day to introduce children to grid technology at an early age. The school group included both boys and girls, aged 9 to 11. All of the presenters were women. 'In general, before this visit, the children thought that scientists always wore white coats and were usually male, with wild Einstein-like hair,' said Jackie Beaver, the class's teacher at the Institut International de Lancy, a school near Geneva. 'They were surprised and pleased to see that women became scientists, and that scientists were quite 'normal'.' The half-day event included presentations about why Grids are needed, a visit of the computer centre, some online games, and plenty of time for questions. In the end, everyone agreed that it was a big success a...

  8. Reconsidering solar grid parity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, C.-J.

    2010-01-01

    Grid parity-reducing the cost of solar energy to be competitive with conventional grid-supplied electricity-has long been hailed as the tipping point for solar dominance in the energy mix. Such expectations are likely to be overly optimistic. A realistic examination of grid parity suggests that the cost-effectiveness of distributed photovoltaic (PV) systems may be further away than many are hoping for. Furthermore, cost-effectiveness may not guarantee commercial competitiveness. Solar hot water technology is currently far more cost-effective than photovoltaic technology and has already reached grid parity in many places. Nevertheless, the market penetration of solar water heaters remains limited for reasons including unfamiliarity with the technologies and high upfront costs. These same barriers will likely hinder the adoption of distributed solar photovoltaic systems as well. The rapid growth in PV deployment in recent years is largely policy-driven and such rapid growth would not be sustainable unless governments continue to expand financial incentives and policy mandates, as well as address regulatory and market barriers.

  9. Maine Bouguer Gravity Grid

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A 2 kilometer Bouguer anomaly grid for the state of Maine. Number of columns is 197 and number of rows is 292. The order of the data is from the lower left to the...

  10. Minnesota Bouguer Anomaly Grid

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A 1.5 kilometer Bouguer anomaly grid for the state of Minnesota. Number of columns is 404 and number of rows is 463. The order of the data is from the lower left to...

  11. Molecular Grid Membranes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Michl, Josef; Magnera, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    ...) porphyrin triply linked in the meso-meso, and both beta-beta positions four times by carbon-carbon bonds to each of its neighbors to form porphite sheets a grid-type material that would be an analog of graphene...

  12. The Grid challenge

    CERN Multimedia

    Lundquest, E

    2003-01-01

    At a customer panel discussion during OracleWorld in San Franciso, grid computing was being pushed as the next big thing - even if panellists couldsn't quite agree on what it is, what it will cost or when it will appear (1 page).

  13. NSTAR Smart Grid Pilot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabari, Anil [NSTAR Electric, Manchester, NH (United States); Fadipe, Oloruntomi [NSTAR Electric, Manchester, NH (United States)

    2014-03-31

    NSTAR Electric & Gas Corporation (“the Company”, or “NSTAR”) developed and implemented a Smart Grid pilot program beginning in 2010 to demonstrate the viability of leveraging existing automated meter reading (“AMR”) deployments to provide much of the Smart Grid functionality of advanced metering infrastructure (“AMI”), but without the large capital investment that AMI rollouts typically entail. In particular, a central objective of the Smart Energy Pilot was to enable residential dynamic pricing (time-of-use “TOU” and critical peak rates and rebates) and two-way direct load control (“DLC”) by continually capturing AMR meter data transmissions and communicating through customer-sited broadband connections in conjunction with a standardsbased home area network (“HAN”). The pilot was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy’s (“DOE”) through the Smart Grid Demonstration program. NSTAR was very pleased to not only receive the funding support from DOE, but the guidance and support of the DOE throughout the pilot. NSTAR is also pleased to report to the DOE that it was able to execute and deliver a successful pilot on time and on budget. NSTAR looks for future opportunities to work with the DOE and others in future smart grid projects.

  14. Controlling smart grid adaptivity

    OpenAIRE

    Toersche, Hermen; Nykamp, Stefan; Molderink, Albert; Hurink, Johann L.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria

    2012-01-01

    Methods are discussed for planning oriented smart grid control to cope with scenarios with limited predictability, supporting an increasing penetration of stochastic renewable resources. The performance of these methods is evaluated with simulations using measured wind generation and consumption data. Forecast errors are shown to affect worst case behavior in particular, the severity of which depends on the chosen adaptivity strategy and error model.

  15. The surveillance error grid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klonoff, David C; Lias, Courtney; Vigersky, Robert; Clarke, William; Parkes, Joan Lee; Sacks, David B; Kirkman, M Sue; Kovatchev, Boris

    2014-07-01

    Currently used error grids for assessing clinical accuracy of blood glucose monitors are based on out-of-date medical practices. Error grids have not been widely embraced by regulatory agencies for clearance of monitors, but this type of tool could be useful for surveillance of the performance of cleared products. Diabetes Technology Society together with representatives from the Food and Drug Administration, the American Diabetes Association, the Endocrine Society, and the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation, and representatives of academia, industry, and government, have developed a new error grid, called the surveillance error grid (SEG) as a tool to assess the degree of clinical risk from inaccurate blood glucose (BG) monitors. A total of 206 diabetes clinicians were surveyed about the clinical risk of errors of measured BG levels by a monitor. The impact of such errors on 4 patient scenarios was surveyed. Each monitor/reference data pair was scored and color-coded on a graph per its average risk rating. Using modeled data representative of the accuracy of contemporary meters, the relationships between clinical risk and monitor error were calculated for the Clarke error grid (CEG), Parkes error grid (PEG), and SEG. SEG action boundaries were consistent across scenarios, regardless of whether the patient was type 1 or type 2 or using insulin or not. No significant differences were noted between responses of adult/pediatric or 4 types of clinicians. Although small specific differences in risk boundaries between US and non-US clinicians were noted, the panel felt they did not justify separate grids for these 2 types of clinicians. The data points of the SEG were classified in 15 zones according to their assigned level of risk, which allowed for comparisons with the classic CEG and PEG. Modeled glucose monitor data with realistic self-monitoring of blood glucose errors derived from meter testing experiments plotted on the SEG when compared to

  16. California GAMA Special Study: Importance of River Water Recharge to Selected Groundwater Basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visser, Ate [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Moran, Jean E. [California State Univ. East Bay (CalState), Hayward, CA (United States); Singleton, Michael J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Esser, Bradley K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-03-21

    River recharge represents 63%, 86% and 46% of modern groundwater in the Mojave Desert, Owens Valley, and San Joaquin Valley, respectively. In pre-modern groundwater, river recharge represents a lower fraction: 36%, 46%, and 24% respectively. The importance of river water recharge in the San Joaquin valley has nearly doubled and is likely the result of a total increase of recharge of 40%, caused by river water irrigation return flows. This emphasizes the importance of recharge of river water via irrigation for renewal of groundwater resources. Mountain front recharge and local precipitation contribute to recharge of desert groundwater basins in part as the result of geological features focusing scarce precipitation promoting infiltration. River water recharges groundwater systems under lower temperatures and with larger water table fluctuations than local precipitation recharge. Surface storage is limited in time and volume, as evidenced by cold river recharge temperatures resulting from fast recharge, compared to the large capacity for subsurface storage. Groundwater banking of seasonal surface water flows therefore appears to be a natural and promising method for increasing the resilience of water supply systems. The distinct isotopic and noble gas signatures of river water recharge, compared to local precipitation recharge, reflecting the source and mechanism of recharge, are valuable constraints for numerical flow models.

  17. High Recharge Areas in the Choushui River Alluvial Fan (Taiwan Assessed from Recharge Potential Analysis and Average Storage Variation Indexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jui-Pin Tsai

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available High recharge areas significantly influence the groundwater quality and quantity in regional groundwater systems. Many studies have applied recharge potential analysis (RPA to estimate groundwater recharge potential (GRP and have delineated high recharge areas based on the estimated GRP. However, most of these studies define the RPA parameters with supposition, and this represents a major source of uncertainty for applying RPA. To objectively define the RPA parameter values without supposition, this study proposes a systematic method based on the theory of parameter identification. A surrogate variable, namely the average storage variation (ASV index, is developed to calibrate the RPA parameters, because of the lack of direct GRP observations. The study results show that the correlations between the ASV indexes and computed GRP values improved from 0.67 before calibration to 0.85 after calibration, thus indicating that the calibrated RPA parameters represent the recharge characteristics of the study area well; these data also highlight how defining the RPA parameters with ASV indexes can help to improve the accuracy. The calibrated RPA parameters were used to estimate the GRP distribution of the study area, and the GRP values were graded into five levels. High and excellent level areas are defined as high recharge areas, which composed 7.92% of the study area. Overall, this study demonstrates that the developed approach can objectively define the RPA parameters and high recharge areas of the Choushui River alluvial fan, and the results should serve as valuable references for the Taiwanese government in their efforts to conserve the groundwater quality and quantity of the study area.

  18. Grid interoperability: the interoperations cookbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Field, L; Schulz, M [CERN (Switzerland)], E-mail: Laurence.Field@cern.ch, E-mail: Markus.Schulz@cern.ch

    2008-07-01

    Over recent years a number of grid projects have emerged which have built grid infrastructures that are now the computing backbones for various user communities. A significant number of these communities are limited to one grid infrastructure due to the different middleware and procedures used in each grid. Grid interoperation is trying to bridge these differences and enable virtual organizations to access resources independent of the grid project affiliation. This paper gives an overview of grid interoperation and describes the current methods used to bridge the differences between grids. Actual use cases encountered during the last three years are discussed and the most important interfaces required for interoperability are highlighted. A summary of the standardisation efforts in these areas is given and we argue for moving more aggressively towards standards.

  19. Grid interoperability: the interoperations cookbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field, L; Schulz, M

    2008-01-01

    Over recent years a number of grid projects have emerged which have built grid infrastructures that are now the computing backbones for various user communities. A significant number of these communities are limited to one grid infrastructure due to the different middleware and procedures used in each grid. Grid interoperation is trying to bridge these differences and enable virtual organizations to access resources independent of the grid project affiliation. This paper gives an overview of grid interoperation and describes the current methods used to bridge the differences between grids. Actual use cases encountered during the last three years are discussed and the most important interfaces required for interoperability are highlighted. A summary of the standardisation efforts in these areas is given and we argue for moving more aggressively towards standards

  20. Allegheny County Map Index Grid

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Map Index Sheets from Block and Lot Grid of Property Assessment and based on aerial photography, showing 1983 datum with solid line and NAD 27 with 5 second grid...

  1. Determining Changes in Groundwater Quality during Managed Aquifer Recharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambhir, T.; Houlihan, M.; Fakhreddine, S.; Dadakis, J.; Fendorf, S. E.

    2016-12-01

    Managed aquifer recharge (MAR) is becoming an increasingly prevalent technology for improving the sustainability of freshwater supply. However, recharge water can alter the geochemical conditions of the aquifer, mobilizing contaminants native to the aquifer sediments. Geochemical alterations on deep (>300 m) injection of highly treated recycled wastewater for MAR has received limited attention. We aim to determine how residual disinfectants used in water treatment processes, specifically the strong oxidants chloramine and hydrogen peroxide, affect metal mobilization within deep injection wells of the Orange County Water District. Furthermore, as the treated recharge water has very low ionic strength (44.6 mg L-1 total dissolved solids), we tested how differing concentrations of magnesium chloride and calcium chloride affected metal mobilization within deep aquifers. Continuous flow experiments were conducted on columns dry packed with sediments from a deep injection MAR site in Orange County, CA. The effluent was analyzed for shifts in water quality, including aqueous concentrations of arsenic, uranium, and chromium. Interaction between the sediment and oxic recharge solution causes naturally-occurring arsenopyrite to repartition onto iron oxides. The stability of arsenic on the newly precipitated iron oxides is dependent on pH changes during recharge.

  2. Geochemical Triggers of Arsenic Mobilization during Managed Aquifer Recharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhreddine, Sarah; Dittmar, Jessica; Phipps, Don; Dadakis, Jason; Fendorf, Scott

    2015-07-07

    Mobilization of arsenic and other trace metal contaminants during managed aquifer recharge (MAR) poses a challenge to maintaining local groundwater quality and to ensuring the viability of aquifer storage and recovery techniques. Arsenic release from sediments into solution has occurred during purified recycled water recharge of shallow aquifers within Orange County, CA. Accordingly, we examine the geochemical processes controlling As desorption and mobilization from shallow, aerated sediments underlying MAR infiltration basins. Further, we conducted a series of batch and column experiments to evaluate recharge water chemistries that minimize the propensity of As desorption from the aquifer sediments. Within the shallow Orange County Groundwater Basin sediments, the divalent cations Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) are critical for limiting arsenic desorption; they promote As (as arsenate) adsorption to the phyllosilicate clay minerals of the aquifer. While native groundwater contains adequate concentrations of dissolved Ca(2+) and Mg(2+), these cations are not present at sufficient concentrations during recharge of highly purified recycled water. Subsequently, the absence of dissolved Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) displaces As from the sediments into solution. Increasing the dosages of common water treatment amendments including quicklime (Ca(OH)2) and dolomitic lime (CaO·MgO) provides recharge water with higher concentrations of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) ions and subsequently decreases the release of As during infiltration.

  3. Fate of human viruses in groundwater recharge systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaughn, J.M.; Landry, E.F.

    1980-03-01

    The overall objective of this research program was to determine the ability of a well-managed tertiary effluent-recharge system to return virologically acceptable water to the groundwater aquifer. The study assessed the quality of waters renovated by indigenous recharge operations and investigated a number of virus-soil interrelationships. The elucidation of the interactions led to the establishment of basin operating criteria for optimizing virus removal. Raw influents, chlorinated tertiary effluents, and renovated wastewater from the aquifer directly beneath a uniquely designed recharge test basin were assayed on a weekly basis for the presence of human enteroviruses and coliform bacteria. High concentrations of viruses were routinely isolated from influents but were isolated only on four occasions from tertiary-treated sewage effluents. In spite of the high quality effluent being recharged, viruses were isolated from the groundwater observation well, indicating their ability to penetrate the unsaturated zone. Results of poliovirus seeding experiments carried out in the test basin clearly indicated the need to operate recharge basins at low (e.g. 1 cm/h) infiltration rates in areas having soil types similar to those found at the study site. The method selected for reducing the test basin infiltration rate involved clogging the basin surface with settled organic material from highly turbid effluent. Alternative methods for slowing infiltration rates are discussed in the text.

  4. GridCom, Grid Commander: graphical interface for Grid jobs and data management; GridCom, Grid Commander: graficheskij interfejs dlya raboty s zadachami i dannymi v gride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galaktionov, V V

    2011-07-01

    GridCom - the software package for maintenance of automation of access to means of distributed system Grid (jobs and data). The client part, executed in the form of Java-applets, realises the Web-interface access to Grid through standard browsers. The executive part Lexor (LCG Executor) is started by the user in UI (User Interface) machine providing performance of Grid operations

  5. Social intelligence, human intelligence and niche construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterelny, Kim

    2007-04-29

    This paper is about the evolution of hominin intelligence. I agree with defenders of the social intelligence hypothesis in thinking that externalist models of hominin intelligence are not plausible: such models cannot explain the unique cognition and cooperation explosion in our lineage, for changes in the external environment (e.g. increasing environmental unpredictability) affect many lineages. Both the social intelligence hypothesis and the social intelligence-ecological complexity hybrid I outline here are niche construction models. Hominin evolution is hominin response to selective environments that earlier hominins have made. In contrast to social intelligence models, I argue that hominins have both created and responded to a unique foraging mode; a mode that is both social in itself and which has further effects on hominin social environments. In contrast to some social intelligence models, on this view, hominin encounters with their ecological environments continue to have profound selective effects. However, though the ecological environment selects, it does not select on its own. Accidents and their consequences, differential success and failure, result from the combination of the ecological environment an agent faces and the social features that enhance some opportunities and suppress others and that exacerbate some dangers and lessen others. Individuals do not face the ecological filters on their environment alone, but with others, and with the technology, information and misinformation that their social world provides.

  6. Current Grid operation and future role of the Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnova, O.

    2012-12-01

    Grid-like technologies and approaches became an integral part of HEP experiments. Some other scientific communities also use similar technologies for data-intensive computations. The distinct feature of Grid computing is the ability to federate heterogeneous resources of different ownership into a seamless infrastructure, accessible via a single log-on. Like other infrastructures of similar nature, Grid functioning requires not only technologically sound basis, but also reliable operation procedures, monitoring and accounting. The two aspects, technological and operational, are closely related: weaker is the technology, more burden is on operations, and other way around. As of today, Grid technologies are still evolving: at CERN alone, every LHC experiment uses an own Grid-like system. This inevitably creates a heavy load on operations. Infrastructure maintenance, monitoring and incident response are done on several levels, from local system administrators to large international organisations, involving massive human effort worldwide. The necessity to commit substantial resources is one of the obstacles faced by smaller research communities when moving computing to the Grid. Moreover, most current Grid solutions were developed under significant influence of HEP use cases, and thus need additional effort to adapt them to other applications. Reluctance of many non-HEP researchers to use Grid negatively affects the outlook for national Grid organisations, which strive to provide multi-science services. We started from the situation where Grid organisations were fused with HEP laboratories and national HEP research programmes; we hope to move towards the world where Grid will ultimately reach the status of generic public computing and storage service provider and permanent national and international Grid infrastructures will be established. How far will we be able to advance along this path, depends on us. If no standardisation and convergence efforts will take place

  7. Current Grid operation and future role of the Grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnova, O

    2012-01-01

    Grid-like technologies and approaches became an integral part of HEP experiments. Some other scientific communities also use similar technologies for data-intensive computations. The distinct feature of Grid computing is the ability to federate heterogeneous resources of different ownership into a seamless infrastructure, accessible via a single log-on. Like other infrastructures of similar nature, Grid functioning requires not only technologically sound basis, but also reliable operation procedures, monitoring and accounting. The two aspects, technological and operational, are closely related: weaker is the technology, more burden is on operations, and other way around. As of today, Grid technologies are still evolving: at CERN alone, every LHC experiment uses an own Grid-like system. This inevitably creates a heavy load on operations. Infrastructure maintenance, monitoring and incident response are done on several levels, from local system administrators to large international organisations, involving massive human effort worldwide. The necessity to commit substantial resources is one of the obstacles faced by smaller research communities when moving computing to the Grid. Moreover, most current Grid solutions were developed under significant influence of HEP use cases, and thus need additional effort to adapt them to other applications. Reluctance of many non-HEP researchers to use Grid negatively affects the outlook for national Grid organisations, which strive to provide multi-science services. We started from the situation where Grid organisations were fused with HEP laboratories and national HEP research programmes; we hope to move towards the world where Grid will ultimately reach the status of generic public computing and storage service provider and permanent national and international Grid infrastructures will be established. How far will we be able to advance along this path, depends on us. If no standardisation and convergence efforts will take place

  8. Communication technologies in smart grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miladinović Nikola

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of communication technologies in Smart Grid lies in integration of large number of devices into one telecommunication system. This paper provides an overview of the technologies currently in use in electric power grid, that are not necessarily in compliance with the Smart Grid concept. Considering that the Smart Grid is open to the flow of information in all directions, it is necessary to provide reliability, protection and security of information.

  9. A Grid Architecture for Manufacturing Database System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurentiu CIOVICĂ

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Before the Enterprise Resource Planning concepts business functions within enterprises were supported by small and isolated applications, most of them developed internally. Yet today ERP platforms are not by themselves the answer to all organizations needs especially in times of differentiated and diversified demands among end customers. ERP platforms were integrated with specialized systems for the management of clients, Customer Relationship Management and vendors, Supplier Relationship Management. They were integrated with Manufacturing Execution Systems for better planning and control of production lines. In order to offer real time, efficient answers to the management level, ERP systems were integrated with Business Intelligence systems. This paper analyses the advantages of grid computing at this level of integration, communication and interoperability between complex specialized informatics systems with a focus on the system architecture and data base systems.

  10. Quality control of intelligence research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Yan; Xin Pingping; Wu Jian

    2014-01-01

    Quality control of intelligence research is the core issue of intelligence management, is a problem in study of information science This paper focuses on the performance of intelligence to explain the significance of intelligence research quality control. In summing up the results of the study on the basis of the analysis, discusses quality control methods in intelligence research, introduces the experience of foreign intelligence research quality control, proposes some recommendations to improve quality control in intelligence research. (authors)

  11. Electric vehicles’ influence on Smart Grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta R. Jabłońska

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the paper is to demonstrate evolution of Electric Vehicles (EV and their infl uence on the Smart Grid (SG. Starting from USA defi nition of the SG considering the fi fth- and sixth- properties of the SG: It accommodates all generation and storage options and it enables new products, services and markets. We can determine EV role in the SG operation. Contemporary we can distinguish following types of the EV: HEVS – hybrid electric vehicles with motor and use batteries with no using electricity from external source, Pure EVs – running on electric motor powered by batteries that are recharged by plugging in the vehicle, Plug-in PHEVs – can be charged with electricity like engine power EVs and run under engine like HEVs. The most interesting for electric power there are Pure EVs and PHEVs that are consumers and also kind of electricity storage devices (very important in SG. These types may be charged “in home”, using special station with diff erent time of charging; there is also considered charging during the time waiting for change of lights on road nodes (junctions. It is important to mention that EV development infl uence not only on SG, social- and climate- environment but also on development of new branch of industries producing equipment necessary for EV operation.

  12. Grid impedance estimation based hybrid islanding detection method for AC microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghzaiel, Walid; Jebali-Ben Ghorbal, Manel; Slama-Belkhodja, Ilhem

    2017-01-01

    This paper focuses on a hybrid islanding detection algorithm for parallel-inverters-based microgrids. The proposed algorithm is implemented on the unit ensuring the control of the intelligent bypass switch connecting or disconnecting the microgrid from the utility. This method employs a grid...... to avoid interactions with other units. The selected inverter will be the one closest to the controllable distributed generation system or to a healthy grid side in case of meshed microgrid with multiple-grid connections. The detection algorithm is applied to quickly detect the resonance phenomena, so...

  13. Grid3: An Application Grid Laboratory for Science

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2004-01-01

    level services required by the participating experiments. The deployed infrastructure has been operating since November 2003 with 27 sites, a peak of 2800 processors, work loads from 10 different applications exceeding 1300 simultaneous jobs, and data transfers among sites of greater than 2 TB/day. The Grid3 infrastructure was deployed from grid level services provided by groups and applications within the collaboration. The services were organized into four distinct "grid level services" including: Grid3 Packaging, Monitoring and Information systems, User Authentication and the iGOC Grid Operatio...

  14. Grid Integration | Water Power | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grid Integration Grid Integration For marine and hydrokinetic technologies to play a larger role in supplying the nation's energy needs, integration into the U.S. power grid is an important challenge to address. Efficient integration of variable power resources like water power is a critical part of the

  15. What is a smart grid?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kumar, A.

    2017-01-01

    The Indian Smart Grid Forum defines a smart grid as "a power system capable of two-way communication between all the entities of the network-generation, transmission, distribution and the consumers". Like most work on smart grids, this view is also mainly technical. This paper aims to progress the

  16. Pyramid solar micro-grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Bin-Juine; Hsu, Po-Chien; Wang, Yi-Hung; Tang, Tzu-Chiao; Wang, Jia-Wei; Dong, Xin-Hong; Hsu, Hsin-Yi; Li, Kang; Lee, Kung-Yen

    2018-03-01

    A novel pyramid solar micro-grid is proposed in the present study. All the members within the micro-grid can mutually share excess solar PV power each other through a binary-connection hierarchy. The test results of a 2+2 pyramid solar micro-grid consisting of 4 individual solar PV systems for self-consumption are reported.

  17. MICROARRAY IMAGE GRIDDING USING GRID LINE REFINEMENT TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.G. Biju

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available An important stage in microarray image analysis is gridding. Microarray image gridding is done to locate sub arrays in a microarray image and find co-ordinates of spots within each sub array. For accurate identification of spots, most of the proposed gridding methods require human intervention. In this paper a fully automatic gridding method which enhances spot intensity in the preprocessing step as per a histogram based threshold method is used. The gridding step finds co-ordinates of spots from horizontal and vertical profile of the image. To correct errors due to the grid line placement, a grid line refinement technique is proposed. The algorithm is applied on different image databases and results are compared based on spot detection accuracy and time. An average spot detection accuracy of 95.06% depicts the proposed method’s flexibility and accuracy in finding the spot co-ordinates for different database images.

  18. Smart Grid Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Craig [National Rural Electric Cooperative Association, Arlington, VA (United States); Carroll, Paul [National Rural Electric Cooperative Association, Arlington, VA (United States); Bell, Abigail [National Rural Electric Cooperative Association, Arlington, VA (United States)

    2015-03-11

    The National Rural Electric Cooperative Association (NRECA) organized the NRECA-U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Smart Grid Demonstration Project (DE-OE0000222) to install and study a broad range of advanced smart grid technologies in a demonstration that spanned 23 electric cooperatives in 12 states. More than 205,444 pieces of electronic equipment and more than 100,000 minor items (bracket, labels, mounting hardware, fiber optic cable, etc.) were installed to upgrade and enhance the efficiency, reliability, and resiliency of the power networks at the participating co-ops. The objective of this project was to build a path for other electric utilities, and particularly electrical cooperatives, to adopt emerging smart grid technology when it can improve utility operations, thus advancing the co-ops’ familiarity and comfort with such technology. Specifically, the project executed multiple subprojects employing a range of emerging smart grid technologies to test their cost-effectiveness and, where the technology demonstrated value, provided case studies that will enable other electric utilities—particularly electric cooperatives— to use these technologies. NRECA structured the project according to the following three areas: Demonstration of smart grid technology; Advancement of standards to enable the interoperability of components; and Improvement of grid cyber security. We termed these three areas Technology Deployment Study, Interoperability, and Cyber Security. Although the deployment of technology and studying the demonstration projects at coops accounted for the largest portion of the project budget by far, we see our accomplishments in each of the areas as critical to advancing the smart grid. All project deliverables have been published. Technology Deployment Study: The deliverable was a set of 11 single-topic technical reports in areas related to the listed technologies. Each of these reports has already been submitted to DOE, distributed to co-ops, and

  19. Gridded ionization chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houston, J.M.

    1977-01-01

    An improved ionization chamber type x-ray detector comprises a heavy gas at high pressure disposed between an anode and a cathode. An open grid structure is disposed adjacent the anode and is maintained at a voltsge intermediate between the cathode and anode potentials. The electric field which is produced by positive ions drifting toward the cathode is thus shielded from the anode. Current measuring circuits connected to the anode are, therefore, responsive only to electron current flow within the chamber and the recovery time of the chamber is shortened. The grid structure also serves to shield the anode from electrical currents which might otherwise be induced by mechanical vibrations in the ionization chamber structure

  20. Estimating ground water recharge from topography, hydrogeology, and land cover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherkauer, Douglas S; Ansari, Sajjad A

    2005-01-01

    Proper management of ground water resources requires knowledge of the rates and spatial distribution of recharge to aquifers. This information is needed at scales ranging from that of individual communities to regional. This paper presents a methodology to calculate recharge from readily available ground surface information without long-term monitoring. The method is viewed as providing a reasonable, but conservative, first approximation of recharge, which can then be fine-tuned with other methods as time permits. Stream baseflow was measured as a surrogate for recharge in small watersheds in southeastern Wisconsin. It is equated to recharge (R) and then normalized to observed annual precipitation (P). Regression analysis was constrained by requiring that the independent and dependent variables be dimensionally consistent. It shows that R/P is controlled by three dimensionless ratios: (1) infiltrating to overland water flux, (2) vertical to lateral distance water must travel, and (3) percentage of land cover in the natural state. The individual watershed properties that comprise these ratios are now commonly available in GIS data bases. The empirical relationship for predicting R/P developed for the study watersheds is shown to be statistically viable and is then tested outside the study area and against other methods of calculating recharge. The method produces values that agree with baseflow separation from streamflow hydrographs (to within 15% to 20%), ground water budget analysis (4%), well hydrograph analysis (12%), and a distributed-parameter watershed model calibrated to total streamflow (18%). It has also reproduced the temporal variation over 5 yr observed at a well site with an average error < 12%.

  1. Gridded Ionization Chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manero Amoros, F.

    1962-01-01

    In the present paper the working principles of a gridded ionization chamber are given, and all the different factors that determine its resolution power are analyzed in detail. One of these devices, built in the Physics Division of the JEN and designed specially for use in measurements of alpha spectroscopy, is described. finally the main applications, in which the chamber can be used, are shown. (Author) 17 refs

  2. The Grid PC farm

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    Housed in the CERN Computer Centre, these banks of computers process and store data produced on the CERN systems. When the LHC starts operation in 2008, it will produce enough data every year to fill a stack of CDs 20 km tall. To handle this huge amount of data, CERN has also developed the Grid, allowing processing power to be shared between computer centres around the world.

  3. Simulating the Smart Grid

    OpenAIRE

    Pöchacker, Manfred; Sobe, Anita; Elmenreich, Wilfried

    2013-01-01

    Major challenges for the transition of power systems do not only tackle power electronics but also communication technology, power market economy and user acceptance studies. Simulation is an important research method therein, as it helps to avoid costly failures. A common smart grid simulation platform is still missing. We introduce a conceptual model of agents in multiple flow networks. Flow networks extend the depth of established power flow analysis through use of networks of information ...

  4. Smart Grid Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Cosma Sorinel

    2010-01-01

    The largest interconnected machine on Earth, the century-old power grid is so massively complex and inextricably linked to human involvement and endeavor that it has been called an ecosystem. To meet sustainability requirements, the electric industry is poised to make the transformation from a centralized, producer-controlled network to one that is less centralized and more consumerinteractive. This move promises to change the industry’s entire business model and its relationship with all sta...

  5. Artificial Intelligence In Computational Fluid Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Alison Andrews

    1991-01-01

    Paper compares four first-generation artificial-intelligence (Al) software systems for computational fluid dynamics. Includes: Expert Cooling Fan Design System (EXFAN), PAN AIR Knowledge System (PAKS), grid-adaptation program MITOSIS, and Expert Zonal Grid Generation (EZGrid). Focuses on knowledge-based ("expert") software systems. Analyzes intended tasks, kinds of knowledge possessed, magnitude of effort required to codify knowledge, how quickly constructed, performances, and return on investment. On basis of comparison, concludes Al most successful when applied to well-formulated problems solved by classifying or selecting preenumerated solutions. In contrast, application of Al to poorly understood or poorly formulated problems generally results in long development time and large investment of effort, with no guarantee of success.

  6. Grids, Clouds, and Virtualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cafaro, Massimo; Aloisio, Giovanni

    This chapter introduces and puts in context Grids, Clouds, and Virtualization. Grids promised to deliver computing power on demand. However, despite a decade of active research, no viable commercial grid computing provider has emerged. On the other hand, it is widely believed - especially in the Business World - that HPC will eventually become a commodity. Just as some commercial consumers of electricity have mission requirements that necessitate they generate their own power, some consumers of computational resources will continue to need to provision their own supercomputers. Clouds are a recent business-oriented development with the potential to render this eventually as rare as organizations that generate their own electricity today, even among institutions who currently consider themselves the unassailable elite of the HPC business. Finally, Virtualization is one of the key technologies enabling many different Clouds. We begin with a brief history in order to put them in context, and recall the basic principles and concepts underlying and clearly differentiating them. A thorough overview and survey of existing technologies provides the basis to delve into details as the reader progresses through the book.

  7. Resilient Grid Operational Strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasqualini, Donatella [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Extreme weather-related disturbances, such as hurricanes, are a leading cause of grid outages historically. Although physical asset hardening is perhaps the most common way to mitigate the impacts of severe weather, operational strategies may be deployed to limit the extent of societal and economic losses associated with weather-related physical damage.1 The purpose of this study is to examine bulk power-system operational strategies that can be deployed to mitigate the impact of severe weather disruptions caused by hurricanes, thereby increasing grid resilience to maintain continuity of critical infrastructure during extreme weather. To estimate the impacts of resilient grid operational strategies, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) developed a framework for hurricane probabilistic risk analysis (PRA). The probabilistic nature of this framework allows us to estimate the probability distribution of likely impacts, as opposed to the worst-case impacts. The project scope does not include strategies that are not operations related, such as transmission system hardening (e.g., undergrounding, transmission tower reinforcement and substation flood protection) and solutions in the distribution network.

  8. Wind power systems. Applications of computational intelligence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Lingfeng [Toledo Univ., OH (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science; Singh, Chanan [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Electrical and Computer Engineering Dept.; Kusiak, Andrew (eds.) [Iowa Univ., Iowa City, IA (United States). Mechanical and Industrial Engineering Dept.

    2010-07-01

    Renewable energy sources such as wind power have attracted much attention because they are environmentally friendly, do not produce carbon dioxide and other emissions, and can enhance a nation's energy security. For example, recently more significant amounts of wind power are being integrated into conventional power grids. Therefore, it is necessary to address various important and challenging issues related to wind power systems, which are significantly different from the traditional generation systems. This book is a resource for engineers, practitioners, and decision-makers interested in studying or using the power of computational intelligence based algorithms in handling various important problems in wind power systems at the levels of power generation, transmission, and distribution. Researchers have been developing biologically-inspired algorithms in a wide variety of complex large-scale engineering domains. Distinguished from the traditional analytical methods, the new methods usually accomplish the task through their computationally efficient mechanisms. Computational intelligence methods such as evolutionary computation, neural networks, and fuzzy systems have attracted much attention in electric power systems. Meanwhile, modern electric power systems are becoming more and more complex in order to meet the growing electricity market. In particular, the grid complexity is continuously enhanced by the integration of intermittent wind power as well as the current restructuring efforts in electricity industry. Quite often, the traditional analytical methods become less efficient or even unable to handle this increased complexity. As a result, it is natural to apply computational intelligence as a powerful tool to deal with various important and pressing problems in the current wind power systems. This book presents the state-of-the-art development in the field of computational intelligence applied to wind power systems by reviewing the most up

  9. Brain Intelligence: Go Beyond Artificial Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Huimin; Li, Yujie; Chen, Min; Kim, Hyoungseop; Serikawa, Seiichi

    2017-01-01

    Artificial intelligence (AI) is an important technology that supports daily social life and economic activities. It contributes greatly to the sustainable growth of Japan's economy and solves various social problems. In recent years, AI has attracted attention as a key for growth in developed countries such as Europe and the United States and developing countries such as China and India. The attention has been focused mainly on developing new artificial intelligence information communication ...

  10. An electricity market with fast bidding, planning and balancing in smart grids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.F. Höning (Nicolas); J.A. La Poutré (Han)

    2014-01-01

    htmlabstractIn future energy systems, peaks in the daily electricity generation and consumption are expected to increase. The "smart grid" concept aims to maintain high levels of efficiency in the energy system by establishing distributed intelligence. Software agents (operating on devices with

  11. Optimized Energy Management of a Single-House Residential Micro-Grid With Automated Demand Response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad; Monsef, Hassan; Rahimi-Kian, Ashkan

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, an intelligent multi-objective energy management system (MOEMS) is proposed for applications in residential LVAC micro-grids where households are equipped with smart appliances, such as washing machine, dishwasher, tumble dryer and electric heating and they have the capability...

  12. Progress in Grid Generation: From Chimera to DRAGON Grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Meng-Sing; Kao, Kai-Hsiung

    1994-01-01

    Hybrid grids, composed of structured and unstructured grids, combines the best features of both. The chimera method is a major stepstone toward a hybrid grid from which the present approach is evolved. The chimera grid composes a set of overlapped structured grids which are independently generated and body-fitted, yielding a high quality grid readily accessible for efficient solution schemes. The chimera method has been shown to be efficient to generate a grid about complex geometries and has been demonstrated to deliver accurate aerodynamic prediction of complex flows. While its geometrical flexibility is attractive, interpolation of data in the overlapped regions - which in today's practice in 3D is done in a nonconservative fashion, is not. In the present paper we propose a hybrid grid scheme that maximizes the advantages of the chimera scheme and adapts the strengths of the unstructured grid while at the same time keeps its weaknesses minimal. Like the chimera method, we first divide up the physical domain by a set of structured body-fitted grids which are separately generated and overlaid throughout a complex configuration. To eliminate any pure data manipulation which does not necessarily follow governing equations, we use non-structured grids only to directly replace the region of the arbitrarily overlapped grids. This new adaptation to the chimera thinking is coined the DRAGON grid. The nonstructured grid region sandwiched between the structured grids is limited in size, resulting in only a small increase in memory and computational effort. The DRAGON method has three important advantages: (1) preserving strengths of the chimera grid; (2) eliminating difficulties sometimes encountered in the chimera scheme, such as the orphan points and bad quality of interpolation stencils; and (3) making grid communication in a fully conservative and consistent manner insofar as the governing equations are concerned. To demonstrate its use, the governing equations are

  13. Smart grid. Research project of EON Bayern. Research project ''Grid of the future''; Smart-Grid. Forschungsprojekt der Eon Bayern. Forschungsprojekt ''Netz der Zukunft''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garhamer, Michael [Eon Bayern AG, Regensburg (Germany). Bereich Grundsatzaufgaben, Assetmanagement

    2012-03-12

    In February 2010, several smart-grid investigations were initiated by EON's regional utility companies and the EON Energie AG (Munich, Federal Republic of Germany). The focal points of research were: (1) Integration of an enhanced wind energy supply in the medium and high voltage grids; (2) Intelligent local power station; (3) Longitudinal voltage regulator / voltage conditioner and controllable local power transformers; (4) Configuration and investigation of a district with modern building technology, photovoltaic systems and electric vehicles; (5) Integration of an enhanced solar feeding in low and medium voltage grids. The findings relating to the purchase behaviour and supply behaviour of the grids enable customers to optimize the existing planning fundamentals. Future technical and legal innovations are explored previously in the project area and implemented.

  14. DanGrid. Report from working group 23. Information model for dissemination data. [Smart grid in Denmark]; DanGrid. Delrapport. Arbejdsgruppe 23. Informationsmodel for formidling af data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baadsgaard Trolle, M.; Tackie, D.V. [Dansk Energi, Frederiksberg (Denmark); Preben Nyeng, P.; Johansen, K. [Energinet.dk, Fredericia (Denmark); Knudsen, Hans [DONG Energy, Virum (Denmark); Fabricius Nielsen, J. [SEAS-NVE, Svinninge (Denmark)

    2012-09-15

    The mandate of the working group was to submit a consolidated recommendation to information models, that ensure that both technical and commercial players in the power system can easily communicate data between the players. This is to ensure that there are no artificial barriers between power systems operators in that for instance equipment is installed that do not comply with international standards. Based on the analysis of generic processes in the present and future intelligent power system in the five different process phases - agreements, forecasts, activation, metering and billing - it is recommended that the two basic information models Logical Nodes and CIM with corresponding IEC standard series form the backbone in a Danish information model for the exchange of data between the electricity sector operators in the intelligent grid. (LN)

  15. Smart Grid Risk Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad Lopez, Carlos Adrian

    Current electricity infrastructure is being stressed from several directions -- high demand, unreliable supply, extreme weather conditions, accidents, among others. Infrastructure planners have, traditionally, focused on only the cost of the system; today, resilience and sustainability are increasingly becoming more important. In this dissertation, we develop computational tools for efficiently managing electricity resources to help create a more reliable and sustainable electrical grid. The tools we present in this work will help electric utilities coordinate demand to allow the smooth and large scale integration of renewable sources of energy into traditional grids, as well as provide infrastructure planners and operators in developing countries a framework for making informed planning and control decisions in the presence of uncertainty. Demand-side management is considered as the most viable solution for maintaining grid stability as generation from intermittent renewable sources increases. Demand-side management, particularly demand response (DR) programs that attempt to alter the energy consumption of customers either by using price-based incentives or up-front power interruption contracts, is more cost-effective and sustainable in addressing short-term supply-demand imbalances when compared with the alternative that involves increasing fossil fuel-based fast spinning reserves. An essential step in compensating participating customers and benchmarking the effectiveness of DR programs is to be able to independently detect the load reduction from observed meter data. Electric utilities implementing automated DR programs through direct load control switches are also interested in detecting the reduction in demand to efficiently pinpoint non-functioning devices to reduce maintenance costs. We develop sparse optimization methods for detecting a small change in the demand for electricity of a customer in response to a price change or signal from the utility

  16. Links between Bloom's Taxonomy and Gardener's Multiple Intelligences: The issue of Textbook Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Abdi Tabari

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The major thrust of this research was to investigate the cognitive aspect of the high school textbooks and interchange series, due to their extensive use, through content analysis based on Bloom's taxonomy and Gardner's Multiple Intelligences (MI. This study embraced two perspectives in a grid in order to broaden and deepen the analysis by determining the numbers and the types of intelligences with respect to their learning objectives tapped in the textbooks and comparing them. Through codification of Bloom’s learning objectives and Gardner's MI, the results showed that there was a significant difference between the numbers of intelligences with respect to their learning objectives in the textbooks. However, the interchange series enjoyed a large number of the spatial and the interpersonal intelligences across eight levels of learning objectives, whereas they had the least number of the intrapersonal, the musical, and the bodily-kinesthetic intelligences across knowledge understanding and application levels. Keywords: learning objectives, multiple intelligences, textbook analysis

  17. Removal of geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol during managed aquifer recharge: Batch and column studies

    KAUST Repository

    Maeng, Sungkyu; Abel, Chol D T; Sharma, Saroj K.; Park, Nosuk; Amy, Gary L.

    2012-01-01

    Managed aquifer recharge is a robust barrier in the multi-barrier approach to supply safe drinking water. The removal performance of gesomin and 2-methylisoborneol through managed aquifer recharge was investigated using batch and column experiments

  18. Percolation pond as a method of managed aquifer recharge in a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Raicy Mani Christy

    2017-07-17

    Jul 17, 2017 ... Percolation ponds have become very popular methods of managed aquifer recharge due to their low ... effect of recharge structures by some researchers .... qualitative comparison of observed responses of .... Two types of.

  19. Alkaline solid polymer electrolytes and their application to rechargeable batteries; Electrolytes solides polymeres alcalins application aux generateurs electrochimiques rechargeables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guinot, S

    1996-03-15

    A new family of solid polymer electrolytes (SPE) based on polyoxyethylene (POE), KOH and water is investigated in view of its use in rechargeable batteries. After a short review on rechargeable batteries, the preparation of various electrolyte compositions is described. Their characterization by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray diffraction and microscopy confirm a multi-phasic structure. Conductivity measurements give values up to 10 sup -3 S cm sup -1 at room temperature. Their use in cells with nickel as negative electrode and cadmium or zinc as positive electrode has been tested; cycling possibility has been shown to be satisfactory. (C.B.) 113 refs.

  20. Quo Vadis, Artificial Intelligence?

    OpenAIRE

    Berrar, Daniel; Sato, Naoyuki; Schuster, Alfons

    2010-01-01

    Since its conception in the mid 1950s, artificial intelligence with its great ambition to understand and emulate intelligence in natural and artificial environments alike is now a truly multidisciplinary field that reaches out and is inspired by a great diversity of other fields. Rapid advances in research and technology in various fields have created environments into which artificial intelligence could embed itself naturally and comfortably. Neuroscience with its desire to understand nervou...

  1. Principles of artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Nilsson, Nils J

    1980-01-01

    A classic introduction to artificial intelligence intended to bridge the gap between theory and practice, Principles of Artificial Intelligence describes fundamental AI ideas that underlie applications such as natural language processing, automatic programming, robotics, machine vision, automatic theorem proving, and intelligent data retrieval. Rather than focusing on the subject matter of the applications, the book is organized around general computational concepts involving the kinds of data structures used, the types of operations performed on the data structures, and the properties of th

  2. Intelligence of programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novak, D

    1982-01-01

    A general discussion about the level of artificial intelligence in computer programs is presented. The suitability of various languages for the development of complex, intelligent programs is discussed, considering fourth-generation language as well as the well established structured COBOL language. It is concluded that the success of automation in many administrative fields depends to a large extent on the development of intelligent programs.

  3. Intelligence analysis – the royal discipline of Competitive Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    František Bartes

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this article is to propose work methodology for Competitive Intelligence teams in one of the intelligence cycle’s specific area, in the so-called “Intelligence Analysis”. Intelligence Analysis is one of the stages of the Intelligence Cycle in which data from both the primary and secondary research are analyzed. The main result of the effort is the creation of added value for the information collected. Company Competiitve Intelligence, correctly understood and implemented in busines...

  4. Application of intelligent soft start in asynchronous motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xue; Ye, Ying; Wang, Yuelong; Peng, Lei; Zhang, Suying

    2018-05-01

    The starting way of three phase asynchronous motor has full voltage start and step-down start. Direct starting brings large current impact, causing excessive local temperature to the power grid and larger starting torque will also impact the motor equipment and affect the service life of the motor. Aim at the problem of large current and torque caused by start-up, an intelligent soft starter is proposed. Through the application of intelligent soft start on asynchronous motor, highlights its application advantage in motor control.

  5. 1st International Conference on Computational Intelligence and Informatics

    CERN Document Server

    Prasad, V; Rani, B; Udgata, Siba; Raju, K

    2017-01-01

    The book covers a variety of topics which include data mining and data warehousing, high performance computing, parallel and distributed computing, computational intelligence, soft computing, big data, cloud computing, grid computing, cognitive computing, image processing, computer networks, wireless networks, social networks, wireless sensor networks, information and network security, web security, internet of things, bioinformatics and geoinformatics. The book is a collection of best papers submitted in the First International Conference on Computational Intelligence and Informatics (ICCII 2016) held during 28-30 May 2016 at JNTUH CEH, Hyderabad, India. It was hosted by Department of Computer Science and Engineering, JNTUH College of Engineering in association with Division V (Education & Research) CSI, India. .

  6. Advanced solutions in power systems HVDC, facts, and artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Chen-Ching; Edris, Abdel-Aty

    2016-01-01

    Provides insight on both classical means and new trends in the application of power electronic and artificial intelligence techniques in power system operation and control This book presents advanced solutions for power system controllability improvement, transmission capability enhancement and operation planning. The book is organized into three parts. The first part describes the CSC-HVDC and VSC-HVDC technologies, the second part presents the FACTS devices, and the third part refers to the artificial intelligence techniques. All technologies and tools approached in this book are essential for power system development to comply with the smart grid requirements.

  7. Intelligent energy allocation strategy for PHEV charging station using gravitational search algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Imran; Vasant, Pandian M.; Singh, Balbir Singh Mahinder; Abdullah-Al-Wadud, M.

    2014-10-01

    Recent researches towards the use of green technologies to reduce pollution and increase penetration of renewable energy sources in the transportation sector are gaining popularity. The development of the smart grid environment focusing on PHEVs may also heal some of the prevailing grid problems by enabling the implementation of Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G) concept. Intelligent energy management is an important issue which has already drawn much attention to researchers. Most of these works require formulation of mathematical models which extensively use computational intelligence-based optimization techniques to solve many technical problems. Higher penetration of PHEVs require adequate charging infrastructure as well as smart charging strategies. We used Gravitational Search Algorithm (GSA) to intelligently allocate energy to the PHEVs considering constraints such as energy price, remaining battery capacity, and remaining charging time.

  8. Coordinated Scheme of Under-Frequency Load Shedding with Intelligent Appliances in a Cyber Physical Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Wang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The construction of a cyber physical system in a power grid provides more potential control strategies for the power grid. With the rapid employment of intelligent terminal equipment (e.g., smart meters and intelligent appliances in the environment of a smart grid, abundant dynamic response information could be introduced to support a secure and stable power system. Combining demand response technology with the traditional under-frequency load shedding (UFLS scheme, a new UFLS strategy-determining method involving intelligent appliances is put forward to achieve the coordinated control of quick response resources and the traditional control resources. Based on this method, intelligent appliances can be used to meet the regulatory requirements of system operation in advance and prevent significant frequency drop, thereby improving the flexibility and stability of the system. Time-domain simulation verifies the effectiveness of the scheme, which is able to mitigate frequency drop and reduce the amount of load shedding.

  9. Smart electric grids, a market on the edge of energy and domotics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faucheux, Ivan

    2017-01-01

    'Intelligence' - a word derived from intelligentia in Latin, made up of the prefix inte- ('between') and the root legere ('choose, pick') or ligare ('link') - refers to all thought processes that enable a living being to adapt to new situations, to learn or understand and, above all, to act. Intelligence without action is futile. Artificial intelligence is now being installed on everyday objects. Everything is becoming 'smart': homes, buildings, grids... and, above all, the energy sector. Using the example of smart electric grids, this article establishes a few links between information and communication technology and the environmental transition in order to show that, if these two trends converge. A new type of economy - perhaps a smart economy - could emerge

  10. Evaluation of Universitas Indonesia’s Recharge Pond Performance and Potential Utilization for Raw Water Source

    OpenAIRE

    Nyoman Suwartha; Resky Pramadin

    2012-01-01

    The UI recharge pond has been constructed 5 years ago. However, monitoring and evaluation activities on its performances are very lack. Aims of this study are to understand the recharge rate, and to evaluate existing quantity and water quality of the pond during dry and rainy season. Measurement of water depth, rainfall intensity, and evaporation is conducted to determine water availability, recharge rate, and water balance of the recharge pond. Amount of surface water is collected from recha...

  11. Smart grid demonstrators and experiments in France: Economic assessments of smart grids. Challenges, methods, progress status and demonstrators; Contribution of 'smart grid' demonstrators to electricity transport and market architectures; Challenges and contributions of smart grid demonstrators to the distribution network. Focus on the integration of decentralised production; Challenges and contributions of smart grid demonstrators to the evolution of providing-related professions and to consumption practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudret, Thierry; Belhomme, Regine; Nekrassov, Andrei; Chartres, Sophie; Chiappini, Florent; Drouineau, Mathilde; Hadjsaid, Nouredine; Leonard, Cedric; Bena, Michel; Buhagiar, Thierry; Lemaitre, Christian; Janssen, Tanguy; Guedou, Benjamin; Viana, Maria Sebastian; Malarange, Gilles; Hadjsaid, Nouredine; Petit, Marc; Lehec, Guillaume; Jahn, Rafael; Gehain, Etienne

    2015-01-01

    This publication proposes a set of four articles which give an overview of challenges and contributions of smart grid demonstrators for the French electricity system according to different perspectives and different stakeholders. These articles present the first lessons learned from these demonstrators in terms of technical and technological innovations, of business and regulation models, and of customer behaviour and acceptance. More precisely, the authors discuss economic assessments of smart grids with an overview of challenges, methods, progress status and existing smart grid programs in the World, comment the importance of the introduction of intelligence at hardware, software and market level, highlight the challenges and contributions of smart grids for the integration of decentralised production, and discuss how smart grid demonstrators impact providing-related professions and customer consumption practices

  12. Machine listening intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cella, C. E.

    2017-05-01

    This manifesto paper will introduce machine listening intelligence, an integrated research framework for acoustic and musical signals modelling, based on signal processing, deep learning and computational musicology.

  13. STANFORD ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE PROJECT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE , GAME THEORY, DECISION MAKING, BIONICS, AUTOMATA, SPEECH RECOGNITION, GEOMETRIC FORMS, LEARNING MACHINES, MATHEMATICAL MODELS, PATTERN RECOGNITION, SERVOMECHANISMS, SIMULATION, BIBLIOGRAPHIES.

  14. Intelligent Optics Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Intelligent Optics Laboratory supports sophisticated investigations on adaptive and nonlinear optics; advancedimaging and image processing; ground-to-ground and...

  15. Intelligence and childlessness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazawa, Satoshi

    2014-11-01

    Demographers debate why people have children in advanced industrial societies where children are net economic costs. From an evolutionary perspective, however, the important question is why some individuals choose not to have children. Recent theoretical developments in evolutionary psychology suggest that more intelligent individuals may be more likely to prefer to remain childless than less intelligent individuals. Analyses of the National Child Development Study show that more intelligent men and women express preference to remain childless early in their reproductive careers, but only more intelligent women (not more intelligent men) are more likely to remain childless by the end of their reproductive careers. Controlling for education and earnings does not at all attenuate the association between childhood general intelligence and lifetime childlessness among women. One-standard-deviation increase in childhood general intelligence (15 IQ points) decreases women's odds of parenthood by 21-25%. Because women have a greater impact on the average intelligence of future generations, the dysgenic fertility among women is predicted to lead to a decline in the average intelligence of the population in advanced industrial nations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Routledge companion to intelligence studies

    CERN Document Server

    Dover, Robert; Hillebrand, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    The Routledge Companion to Intelligence Studies provides a broad overview of the growing field of intelligence studies. The recent growth of interest in intelligence and security studies has led to an increased demand for popular depictions of intelligence and reference works to explain the architecture and underpinnings of intelligence activity. Divided into five comprehensive sections, this Companion provides a strong survey of the cutting-edge research in the field of intelligence studies: Part I: The evolution of intelligence studies; Part II: Abstract approaches to intelligence; Part III: Historical approaches to intelligence; Part IV: Systems of intelligence; Part V: Contemporary challenges. With a broad focus on the origins, practices and nature of intelligence, the book not only addresses classical issues, but also examines topics of recent interest in security studies. The overarching aim is to reveal the rich tapestry of intelligence studies in both a sophisticated and accessible way. This Companion...

  17. A synopsis of climate change effects on groundwater recharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smerdon, Brian D.

    2017-12-01

    Six review articles published between 2011 and 2016 on groundwater and climate change are briefly summarized. This synopsis focuses on aspects related to predicting changes to groundwater recharge conditions, with several common conclusions between the review articles being noted. The uncertainty of distribution and trend in future precipitation from General Circulation Models (GCMs) results in varying predictions of recharge, so much so that modelling studies are often not able to predict the magnitude and direction (increase or decrease) of future recharge conditions. Evolution of modelling approaches has led to the use of multiple GCMs and hydrologic models to create an envelope of future conditions that reflects the probability distribution. The choice of hydrologic model structure and complexity, and the choice of emissions scenario, has been investigated and somewhat resolved; however, recharge results remain sensitive to downscaling methods. To overcome uncertainty and provide practical use in water management, the research community indicates that modelling at a mesoscale, somewhere between watersheds and continents, is likely ideal. Improvements are also suggested for incorporating groundwater processes within GCMs.

  18. An investigation into recharge in South African underground collieries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vermeulen, P.D.; Usher, B.H. [University of the Free State, Bloemfontein (South Africa). Inst. of Groundwater Studies

    2006-11-15

    The Mineral and Petroleum Act of 2002 states that no closure certificate may be issued to mines unless the management of potential pollution to water resources has been addressed. Continuous recharge into the abandoned collieries occurs, and it is important for collieries that close down to plan their future management strategy accordingly. Research has been initiated to determine the recharge into abandoned mines of different mining depths, methods and size. Collieries of a nature similar to these case studies can thus associate with the recharge values obtained. Water balances are of overriding importance in determining recharge and water loss. These vary from mine to mine. Overriding factors are the method of mining, depth of mining, and surface hydrology. High extraction methods (stooping and longwall) invariably disturb the overlying strata more than bord and pillar methods. A summary of the percentage influx to be expected for the various mining methods is as follows: Shallow bord and pillar: 5-10% of the rainfall; Deep bord and pillar with no subsidence: 3-4% of the rainfall; Stooping: 5-12% of the rainfall; Longwall: 6-15% of the rainfall; Rehabilitated opencast: 14-20% of the rainfall. The actual percentages depend largely on specific circumstances.

  19. Regional Assessment of Groundwater Recharge in the Lower Mekong Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Lacombe

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater recharge remains almost totally unknown across the Mekong River Basin, hindering the evaluation of groundwater potential for irrigation. A regional regression model was developed to map groundwater recharge across the Lower Mekong Basin where agricultural water demand is increasing, especially during the dry season. The model was calibrated with baseflow computed with the local-minimum flow separation method applied to streamflow recorded in 65 unregulated sub-catchments since 1951. Our results, in agreement with previous local studies, indicate that spatial variations in groundwater recharge are predominantly controlled by the climate (rainfall and evapotranspiration while aquifer characteristics seem to play a secondary role at this regional scale. While this analysis suggests large scope for expanding agricultural groundwater use, the map derived from this study provides a simple way to assess the limits of groundwater-fed irrigation development. Further data measurements to capture local variations in hydrogeology will be required to refine the evaluation of recharge rates to support practical implementations.

  20. Managed Aquifer Recharge in Italy: present and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetto, Rudy

    2015-04-01

    On October the 3rd 2014, a one-day Workshop on Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) experiences in Italy took place at the GEOFLUID fair in Piacenza. It was organized within the framework of the EIP AG 128 - MAR Solutions - Managed Aquifer Recharge Strategies and Actions and the EU FPVII MARSOL. The event aimed at showcasing present experiences on MAR in Italy while at the same time starting a network among all the Institutions involved. In this contribution, we discuss the state of MAR application in Italy and summarize the outcomes of that event. In Italy aquifer recharge is traditionally applied unintentionally, by increasing riverbank filtration or because of excess irrigation. A certain interest for artificial recharge of aquifers arose at the end of the '70s and the beginning of the '80s and tests have been carried out in Tuscany, Veneto and Friuli Venezia Giulia. During the last years some projects on aquifer recharge were co-financed by the European Commission mainly through the LIFE program. Nearly all of them use the terminology of artificial recharge instead of MAR. They are: - TRUST (Tool for regional - scale assessment of groundwater storage improvement in adaptation to climate change, LIFE07 ENV/IT/000475; Marsala 2014); - AQUOR (Implementation of a water saving and artificial recharging participated strategy for the quantitative groundwater layer rebalance of the upper Vicenza's plain - LIFE 2010 ENV/IT/380; Mezzalira et al. 2014); - WARBO (Water re-born - artificial recharge: innovative technologies for the sustainable management of water resources, LIFE10 ENV/IT/000394; 2014). While the TRUST project dealt in general with aquifer recharge, AQUOR and WARBO focused essentially on small scale demonstration plants. Within the EU FPVII-ENV-2013 MARSOL project (Demonstrating Managed Aquifer Recharge as a Solution to Water Scarcity and Drought; 2014), a dedicated monitoring and decision support system is under development to manage recharge at a large scale

  1. Trench infiltration for managed aquifer recharge to permeable bedrock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilweil, V.M.; Watt, D.E.

    2011-01-01

    Managed aquifer recharge to permeable bedrock is increasingly being utilized to enhance resources and maintain sustainable groundwater development practices. One such target is the Navajo Sandstone, an extensive regional aquifer located throughout the Colorado Plateau of the western United States. Spreading-basin and bank-filtration projects along the sandstone outcrop's western edge in southwestern Utah have recently been implemented to meet growth-related water demands. This paper reports on a new cost-effective surface-infiltration technique utilizing trenches for enhancing managed aquifer recharge to permeable bedrock. A 48-day infiltration trench experiment on outcropping Navajo Sandstone was conducted to evaluate this alternative surface-spreading artificial recharge method. Final infiltration rates through the bottom of the trench were about 0.5 m/day. These infiltration rates were an order of magnitude higher than rates from a previous surface-spreading experiment at the same site. The higher rates were likely caused by a combination of factors including the removal of lower permeability soil and surficial caliche deposits, access to open vertical sandstone fractures, a reduction in physical clogging associated with silt and biofilm layers, minimizing viscosity effects by maintaining isothermal conditions, minimizing chemical clogging caused by carbonate mineral precipitation associated with algal photosynthesis, and diminished gas clogging associated with trapped air and biogenic gases. This pilot study illustrates the viability of trench infiltration for enhancing surface spreading of managed aquifer recharge to permeable bedrock. ?? 2010.

  2. Estimating Groundwater Mounding in Sloping Aquifers for Managed Aquifer Recharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlotnik, Vitaly A; Kacimov, Anvar; Al-Maktoumi, Ali

    2017-11-01

    Design of managed aquifer recharge (MAR) for augmentation of groundwater resources often lacks detailed data, and simple diagnostic tools for evaluation of the water table in a broad range of parameters are needed. In many large-scale MAR projects, the effect of a regional aquifer base dip cannot be ignored due to the scale of recharge sources (e.g., wadis, streams, reservoirs). However, Hantush's (1967) solution for a horizontal aquifer base is commonly used. To address sloping aquifers, a new closed-form analytical solution for water table mound accounts for the geometry and orientation of recharge sources at the land surface with respect to the aquifer base dip. The solution, based on the Dupiuit-Forchheimer approximation, Green's function method, and coordinate transformations is convenient for computing. This solution reveals important MAR traits in variance with Hantush's solution: mounding is limited in time and space; elevation of the mound is strongly affected by the dip angle; and the peak of the mound moves over time. These findings have important practical implications for assessment of various MAR scenarios, including waterlogging potential and determining proper rates of recharge. Computations are illustrated for several characteristic MAR settings. © 2017, National Ground Water Association.

  3. Intelligent Architecture for Enhanced Observability for Active Distribution System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pokhrel, Basanta Raj; Nainar, Karthikeyan; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2017-01-01

    There is a rapid increase of renewable energy resources (RE) and demand response resources (DRR) in the distribution networks. This is challenging for the reliable and stable operation of the grid. So, to ensure secure, optimized and economical operation in such active distribution grids they need...... for active distribution network which satisfies the need for higher observability reach with less field observation. Improved state estimation with composite load forecasting model is aimed for enhanced observability. This paper also summarizes the application of intelligent architecture in the operation...

  4. 78 FR 55773 - Fourteenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-11

    ... Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size AGENCY: Federal... Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size. SUMMARY... Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size DATES: The meeting...

  5. 78 FR 16031 - Twelfth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-13

    ... Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size AGENCY: Federal... Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size. SUMMARY... Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size. DATES: The meeting...

  6. 77 FR 39321 - Eighth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-02

    ... Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Sizes AGENCY: Federal... Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Sizes. SUMMARY... 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Sizes. DATES: The meeting will...

  7. 77 FR 8325 - Sixth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery Systems...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-14

    ... 225, Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery Systems, Small and Medium Size AGENCY: Federal... Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery Systems, Small and Medium Size. SUMMARY: The FAA..., Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery Systems, Small and Medium Size. DATES: The meeting will be held...

  8. 78 FR 6845 - Eleventh Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-31

    ... Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size AGENCY: Federal... Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size. SUMMARY... Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size. DATES: The meeting...

  9. 77 FR 20688 - Seventh Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery Systems...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-05

    ... Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery Systems, Small and Medium Size AGENCY: Federal... Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery Systems, Small and Medium Size. SUMMARY: The FAA..., Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery Systems, Small and Medium Size. DATES: The meeting will be held May...

  10. Catchment-scale groundwater recharge and vegetation water use efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troch, P. A. A.; Dwivedi, R.; Liu, T.; Meira, A.; Roy, T.; Valdés-Pineda, R.; Durcik, M.; Arciniega, S.; Brena-Naranjo, J. A.

    2017-12-01

    Precipitation undergoes a two-step partitioning when it falls on the land surface. At the land surface and in the shallow subsurface, rainfall or snowmelt can either runoff as infiltration/saturation excess or quick subsurface flow. The rest will be stored temporarily in the root zone. From the root zone, water can leave the catchment as evapotranspiration or percolate further and recharge deep storage (e.g. fractured bedrock aquifer). Quantifying the average amount of water that recharges deep storage and sustains low flows is extremely challenging, as we lack reliable methods to quantify this flux at the catchment scale. It was recently shown, however, that for semi-arid catchments in Mexico, an index of vegetation water use efficiency, i.e. the Horton index (HI), could predict deep storage dynamics. Here we test this finding using 247 MOPEX catchments across the conterminous US, including energy-limited catchments. Our results show that the observed HI is indeed a reliable predictor of deep storage dynamics in space and time. We further investigate whether the HI can also predict average recharge rates across the conterminous US. We find that the HI can reliably predict the average recharge rate, estimated from the 50th percentile flow of the flow duration curve. Our results compare favorably with estimates of average recharge rates from the US Geological Survey. Previous research has shown that HI can be reliably estimated based on aridity index, mean slope and mean elevation of a catchment (Voepel et al., 2011). We recalibrated Voepel's model and used it to predict the HI for our 247 catchments. We then used these predicted values of the HI to estimate average recharge rates for our catchments, and compared them with those estimated from observed HI. We find that the accuracies of our predictions based on observed and predicted HI are similar. This provides an estimation method of catchment-scale average recharge rates based on easily derived catchment

  11. Modeling of a Photovoltaic-Powered Electric Vehicle Charging Station with Vehicle-to-Grid Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azhar Ul-Haq

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is aimed at modelling of a distinct smart charging station for electric vehicles (EVs that is suitable for DC quick EV charging while ensuring minimum stress on the power grid. Operation of the charging station is managed in such a way that it is either supplied by photovoltaic (PV power or the power grid, and the vehicle-to-grid (V2G is also implemented for improving the stability of the grid during peak load hours. The PV interfaced DC/DC converter and grid interfaced DC/AC bidirectional converter share a DC bus. A smooth transition of one operating mode to another demonstrates the effectiveness of the employed control strategy. Modelling and control of the different components are explained and are implemented in Simulink. Simulations illustrate the feasible behaviour of the charging station under all operating modes in terms of the four-way interaction among PV, EVs and the grid along with V2G operation. Additionally, a business model is discussed with comprehensive analysis of cost estimation for the deployment of charging facilities in a residential area. It has been recognized that EVs bring new opportunities in terms of providing regulation services and consumption flexibility by varying the recharging power at a certain time instant. The paper also discusses the potential financial incentives required to inspire EV owners for active participation in the demand response mechanism.

  12. Artificial Consciousness or Artificial Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Spanache Florin

    2017-01-01

    Artificial intelligence is a tool designed by people for the gratification of their own creative ego, so we can not confuse conscience with intelligence and not even intelligence in its human representation with conscience. They are all different concepts and they have different uses. Philosophically, there are differences between autonomous people and automatic artificial intelligence. This is the difference between intelligence and artificial intelligence, autonomous versus a...

  13. 2015 Chinese Intelligent Systems Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Du, Junping; Li, Hongbo; Zhang, Weicun; CISC’15

    2016-01-01

    This book presents selected research papers from the 2015 Chinese Intelligent Systems Conference (CISC’15), held in Yangzhou, China. The topics covered include multi-agent systems, evolutionary computation, artificial intelligence, complex systems, computation intelligence and soft computing, intelligent control, advanced control technology, robotics and applications, intelligent information processing, iterative learning control, and machine learning. Engineers and researchers from academia, industry and the government can gain valuable insights into solutions combining ideas from multiple disciplines in the field of intelligent systems.

  14. Mixing vane grid spacer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, J.F.; Galbraith, K.P.

    1978-01-01

    An improved mixing vane grid spacer having enhanced flow mixing capability by virtue of mixing vanes being positioned at welded intersecting joints of the spacer wherein each mixing vane has an opening or window formed therein substantially directly over the welded joint to provide improved flow mixing capability is described. Some of the vanes are slotted, depending on their particular location in the spacers. The intersecting joints are welded by initially providing consumable tabs at and within each window, which are consumed during the welding of the spacer joints

  15. Smart power grids 2011

    CERN Document Server

    Keyhani, Ali

    2012-01-01

    Electric power systems are experiencing significant changes at the worldwide scale in order to become cleaner, smarter, and more reliable. This edited book examines a wide range of topics related to these changes, which are primarily caused by the introduction of information technologies, renewable energy penetration, digitalized equipment, new operational strategies, and so forth. The emphasis will be put on the modeling and control of smart grid systems. This book addresses research topics such as high efficiency transforrmers, wind turbines and generators, fuel cells, or high speed turbines

  16. The GridSite Web/Grid security system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNab, Andrew; Li Yibiao

    2010-01-01

    We present an overview of the current status of the GridSite toolkit, describing the security model for interactive and programmatic uses introduced in the last year. We discuss our experiences of implementing these internal changes and how they and previous rounds of improvements have been prompted by requirements from users and wider security trends in Grids (such as CSRF). Finally, we explain how these have improved the user experience of GridSite-based websites, and wider implications for portals and similar web/grid sites.

  17. Smart Grid: Network simulator for smart grid test-bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, L C; Ong, H S; Che, Y X; Do, N Q; Ong, X J

    2013-01-01

    Smart Grid become more popular, a smaller scale of smart grid test-bed is set up at UNITEN to investigate the performance and to find out future enhancement of smart grid in Malaysia. The fundamental requirement in this project is design a network with low delay, no packet drop and with high data rate. Different type of traffic has its own characteristic and is suitable for different type of network and requirement. However no one understands the natural of traffic in smart grid. This paper presents the comparison between different types of traffic to find out the most suitable traffic for the optimal network performance.

  18. Ecohydrologic process modeling of mountain block groundwater recharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magruder, Ian A; Woessner, William W; Running, Steve W

    2009-01-01

    Regional mountain block recharge (MBR) is a key component of alluvial basin aquifer systems typical of the western United States. Yet neither water scientists nor resource managers have a commonly available and reasonably invoked quantitative method to constrain MBR rates. Recent advances in landscape-scale ecohydrologic process modeling offer the possibility that meteorological data and land surface physical and vegetative conditions can be used to generate estimates of MBR. A water balance was generated for a temperate 24,600-ha mountain watershed, elevation 1565 to 3207 m, using the ecosystem process model Biome-BGC (BioGeochemical Cycles) (Running and Hunt 1993). Input data included remotely sensed landscape information and climate data generated with the Mountain Climate Simulator (MT-CLIM) (Running et al. 1987). Estimated mean annual MBR flux into the crystalline bedrock terrain is 99,000 m(3) /d, or approximately 19% of annual precipitation for the 2003 water year. Controls on MBR predictions include evapotranspiration (radiation limited in wet years and moisture limited in dry years), soil properties, vegetative ecotones (significant at lower elevations), and snowmelt (dominant recharge process). The ecohydrologic model is also used to investigate how climatic and vegetative controls influence recharge dynamics within three elevation zones. The ecohydrologic model proves useful for investigating controls on recharge to mountain blocks as a function of climate and vegetation. Future efforts will need to investigate the uncertainty in the modeled water balance by incorporating an advanced understanding of mountain recharge processes, an ability to simulate those processes at varying scales, and independent approaches to calibrating MBR estimates. Copyright © 2009 The Author(s). Journal compilation © 2009 National Ground Water Association.

  19. Groundwater recharge dynamics in unsaturated fractured chalk: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherubini, Claudia; Pastore, Nicola; Giasi, Concetta I.; Allegretti, Nicolaetta M.

    2016-04-01

    The heterogeneity of the unsaturated zone controls its hydraulic response to rainfall and the extent to which pollutants are delayed or attenuated before reaching groundwater. It plays therefore a very important role in the recharge of aquifers and the transfer of pollutants because of the presence of temporary storage zones and preferential flows. A better knowledge of the physical processes in the unsaturated zone would allow an improved assessment of the natural recharge in a heterogeneous aquifer and of its vulnerability to surface-applied pollution. The case study regards the role of the thick unsaturated zone of the Cretaceous chalk aquifer in Picardy (North of France) that controls the hydraulic response to rainfall. In the North Paris Basin, much of the recharge must pass through a regional chalk bed that is composed of a porous matrix with embedded fractures. Different types of conceptual models have been formulated to explain infiltration and recharge processes in the unsaturated fractured rock. The present study analyses the episodic recharge in fractured Chalk aquifer using the kinematic diffusion theory to predict water table fluctuation in response to rainfall. From an analysis of the data, there is the evidence of 1) a seasonal behavior characterized by a constant increase in the water level during the winter/spring period and a recession period, 2) a series of episodic behaviors during the summer/autumn. Kinematic diffusion models are useful for predict preferential fluxes and dynamic conditions. The presented approach conceptualizes the unsaturated flow as a combination of 1) diffusive flow refers to the idealized portion of the pore space of the medium within the flow rate is driven essentially by local gradient of potential; 2) preferential flow by which water moves across macroscopic distances through conduits of macropore length.

  20. An intelligent FFR with a self-adjustable ventilation fan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Song; Li, Hui; Shen, Shengnan; Li, Siyu; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Xiaotie; Yang, James

    2017-11-01

    This article presents an intelligent Filtering Facepiece Respirator (FFR) with a self-adjustable ventilation fan for improved comfort. The ventilation fan with an intelligent control aims to reduce temperature, relative humidity, and CO 2 concentrations inside the facepiece. Compared with a previous version of the FFR, the advantage of this new FFR is the intelligent control of the fan's rotation speed based on the change in temperature and relative humidity in the FFR dead space. The design of the control system utilizes an 8-bit, ultra-low power STC15W404AS microcontroller (HongJin technology, Shenzhen, China), and adopts a high-precision AM2320 device (AoSong electronic, Guangzhou, China) as temperature and relative humidity sensor so that control of temperature and relative humidity is realized in real time within the FFR dead space. The ventilation fan is intelligently driven and runs on a rechargeable lithium battery with a power-save mode that provides a correspondingly longer operational time. Meanwhile, the design is simplistic. Two experiments were performed to determine the best location to place the fan.

  1. Recent trends in grid computing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miura, Kenichi

    2004-01-01

    Grid computing is a technology which allows uniform and transparent access to geographically dispersed computational resources, such as computers, databases, experimental and observational equipment etc. via high-speed, high-bandwidth networking. The commonly used analogy is that of electrical power grid, whereby the household electricity is made available from outlets on the wall, and little thought need to be given to where the electricity is generated and how it is transmitted. The usage of grid also includes distributed parallel computing, high through-put computing, data intensive computing (data grid) and collaborative computing. This paper reviews the historical background, software structure, current status and on-going grid projects, including applications of grid technology to nuclear fusion research. (author)

  2. Workshop on Future Generation Grids

    CERN Document Server

    Laforenza, Domenico; Reinefeld, Alexander

    2006-01-01

    The Internet and the Web continue to have a major impact on society. By allowing us to discover and access information on a global scale, they have created entirely new businesses and brought new meaning to the term surf. In addition, however, we want processing, and increasingly, we want collaborative processing within distributed teams. This need has led to the creation of the Grid - an infrastructure that enables us to share capabilities, and integrate services and resources within and across enterprises. "Future Generation Grids" is the second in the "CoreGRID" series. This edited volume brings together contributed articles by scientists and researchers in the Grid community in an attempt to draw a clearer picture of the future generation Grids. This book also identifies some of the most challenging problems on the way to achieving the invisible Grid ideas

  3. Smart Grid Enabled EVSE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2015-01-12

    The combined team of GE Global Research, Federal Express, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, and Consolidated Edison has successfully achieved the established goals contained within the Department of Energy’s Smart Grid Capable Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment funding opportunity. The final program product, shown charging two vehicles in Figure 1, reduces by nearly 50% the total installed system cost of the electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) as well as enabling a host of new Smart Grid enabled features. These include bi-directional communications, load control, utility message exchange and transaction management information. Using the new charging system, Utilities or energy service providers will now be able to monitor transportation related electrical loads on their distribution networks, send load control commands or preferences to individual systems, and then see measured responses. Installation owners will be able to authorize usage of the stations, monitor operations, and optimally control their electricity consumption. These features and cost reductions have been developed through a total system design solution.

  4. Grid-Enabled Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Richard P.; Hesse, Bradford W.; Shaikh, Abdul R.; Courtney, Paul; Morgan, Glen; Augustson, Erik; Kobrin, Sarah; Levin, Kerry; Helba, Cynthia; Garner, David; Dunn, Marsha; Coa, Kisha

    2011-01-01

    Scientists are taking advantage of the Internet and collaborative web technology to accelerate discovery in a massively connected, participative environment —a phenomenon referred to by some as Science 2.0. As a new way of doing science, this phenomenon has the potential to push science forward in a more efficient manner than was previously possible. The Grid-Enabled Measures (GEM) database has been conceptualized as an instantiation of Science 2.0 principles by the National Cancer Institute with two overarching goals: (1) Promote the use of standardized measures, which are tied to theoretically based constructs; and (2) Facilitate the ability to share harmonized data resulting from the use of standardized measures. This is done by creating an online venue connected to the Cancer Biomedical Informatics Grid (caBIG®) where a virtual community of researchers can collaborate together and come to consensus on measures by rating, commenting and viewing meta-data about the measures and associated constructs. This paper will describe the web 2.0 principles on which the GEM database is based, describe its functionality, and discuss some of the important issues involved with creating the GEM database, such as the role of mutually agreed-on ontologies (i.e., knowledge categories and the relationships among these categories— for data sharing). PMID:21521586

  5. Experimental study on the artificial recharge of semiconfined aquifers involved in deep excavation engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, G.; Cao, J. R.; Cheng, X. S.; Ha, D.; Wang, F. J.

    2018-02-01

    Artificial recharge measures have been adopted to control the drawdown of confined aquifers and the ground subsidence caused by dewatering during deep excavation in Tianjin, Shanghai and other regions in China. However, research on recharge theory is still limited. Additionally, confined aquifers consisting of silt and silty sand in Tianjin have lower hydraulic conductivities than those consisting of sand or gravel, and the feasibility and effectiveness of recharge methods in these semiconfined aquifers urgently require investigation. A series of single-well and multiwell pumping and recharge tests was conducted at a metro station excavation site in Tianjin. The test results showed that it was feasible to recharge silt and silty sand semiconfined aquifers, and, to a certain extent, the hydrogeological parameters obtained from the pumping tests could be used to predict the water level rise during single-well recharge. However, the predicted results underestimated the water level rise near the recharge well (within 7 m) by approximately 10-25%, likely because the permeability coefficient around the well was reduced during the recharge process. Pressured recharge significantly improved the efficiency of the recharge process. Maintaining the recharge and pumping rates at a nearly equal level effectively controlled the surrounding surface and building settlement. However, the surrounding surface subsidence tended to rapidly develop when recharge stopped. Therefore, the recharge process should continue and gradually stop after the pumping stops. The twin-well combined recharge technique can be used to control the head loss of an aquifer when one of the recharge wells requires pumping to solve the associated clogging problems.

  6. Comparing potential recharge estimates from three Land Surface Models across the Western US

    Science.gov (United States)

    NIRAULA, REWATI; MEIXNER, THOMAS; AJAMI, HOORI; RODELL, MATTHEW; GOCHIS, DAVID; CASTRO, CHRISTOPHER L.

    2018-01-01

    Groundwater is a major source of water in the western US. However, there are limited recharge estimates available in this region due to the complexity of recharge processes and the challenge of direct observations. Land surface Models (LSMs) could be a valuable tool for estimating current recharge and projecting changes due to future climate change. In this study, simulations of three LSMs (Noah, Mosaic and VIC) obtained from the North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS-2) are used to estimate potential recharge in the western US. Modeled recharge was compared with published recharge estimates for several aquifers in the region. Annual recharge to precipitation ratios across the study basins varied from 0.01–15% for Mosaic, 3.2–42% for Noah, and 6.7–31.8% for VIC simulations. Mosaic consistently underestimates recharge across all basins. Noah captures recharge reasonably well in wetter basins, but overestimates it in drier basins. VIC slightly overestimates recharge in drier basins and slightly underestimates it for wetter basins. While the average annual recharge values vary among the models, the models were consistent in identifying high and low recharge areas in the region. Models agree in seasonality of recharge occurring dominantly during the spring across the region. Overall, our results highlight that LSMs have the potential to capture the spatial and temporal patterns as well as seasonality of recharge at large scales. Therefore, LSMs (specifically VIC and Noah) can be used as a tool for estimating future recharge rates in data limited regions. PMID:29618845

  7. Distributed intelligence in CAMAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunz, P.F.

    1977-01-01

    The CAMAC digital interface standard has served us well since 1969. During this time there have been enormous advances in digital electronics. In particular, low cost microprocessors now make it feasible to consider use of distributed intelligence even in simple data acquisition systems. This paper describes a simple extension of the CAMAC standard which allows distributed intelligence at the crate level

  8. Intelligent design som videnskab?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, Søren Harnow

    2007-01-01

    Diskuterer hvorvidt intelligent design kan betegnes som videnskab; argumenterer for at dette grundet fraværet af klare demarkationskriterier næppe kan afvises.......Diskuterer hvorvidt intelligent design kan betegnes som videnskab; argumenterer for at dette grundet fraværet af klare demarkationskriterier næppe kan afvises....

  9. Distributed intelligence in CAMAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunz, P.F.

    1977-01-01

    A simple extension of the CAMAC standard is described which allows distributed intelligence at the crate level. By distributed intelligence is meant that there is more than one source of control in a system. This standard is just now emerging from the NIM Dataway Working Group and its European counterpart. 1 figure

  10. Intelligence and treaty ratification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cahn, A.H.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that there are two sets of questions applicable to the ratification phase: what is the role of intelligence in the ratification process? What effect did intelligence have on that process. The author attempts to answer these and other questions

  11. Applying Multiple Intelligences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christodoulou, Joanna A.

    2009-01-01

    The ideas of multiple intelligences introduced by Howard Gardner of Harvard University more than 25 years ago have taken form in many ways, both in schools and in other sometimes-surprising settings. The silver anniversary of Gardner's learning theory provides an opportunity to reflect on the ways multiple intelligences theory has taken form and…

  12. Next generation Emotional Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Saveland

    2012-01-01

    Emotional Intelligence has been a hot topic in leadership training since Dan Goleman published his book on the subject in 1995. Emotional intelligence competencies are typically focused on recognition and regulation of emotions in one's self and social situations, yielding four categories: self-awareness, self-management, social awareness and relationship...

  13. Intelligence by consent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diderichsen, Adam; Rønn, Kira Vrist

    2017-01-01

    This article contributes to the current discussions concerning an adequate framework for intelligence ethics. The first part critically scrutinises the use of Just War Theory in intelligence ethics with specific focus on the just cause criterion. We argue that using self-defence as justifying cau...

  14. Intelligence and Physical Attractiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazawa, Satoshi

    2011-01-01

    This brief research note aims to estimate the magnitude of the association between general intelligence and physical attractiveness with large nationally representative samples from two nations. In the United Kingdom, attractive children are more intelligent by 12.4 IQ points (r=0.381), whereas in the United States, the correlation between…

  15. Intelligence and treaty ratification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naftzinger, J.E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the atmosphere leading up to the Senate INF hearings and then surveys the broad issues they raised. After that, the author highlights several aspects of the intelligence community's involvement and discusses the specific intelligence-related issues as the Senate committees saw them, notes their impact on the outcome, and finally draws several conclusions and lessons pertinent to the future

  16. Intelligence, Race, and Genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Robert J.; Grigorenko, Elena L.; Kidd, Kenneth K.

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the authors argue that the overwhelming portion of the literature on intelligence, race, and genetics is based on folk taxonomies rather than scientific analysis. They suggest that because theorists of intelligence disagree as to what it is, any consideration of its relationships to other constructs must be tentative at best. They…

  17. Multiple Intelligences in Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Bruce

    1992-01-01

    Describes the investigation of the effects of a four-step model program used with third through fifth grade students to implement Gardener's concepts of seven human intelligences--linguistic, logical/mathematical, visual/spatial, musical, kinesthetic, intrapersonal, and interpersonal intelligence--into daily learning. (BB)

  18. The Reproduction of Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisenberg, Gerhard

    2010-01-01

    Although a negative relationship between fertility and education has been described consistently in most countries of the world, less is known about the relationship between intelligence and reproductive outcomes. Also the paths through which intelligence influences reproductive outcomes are uncertain. The present study uses the NLSY79 to analyze…

  19. Intelligent robot action planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vamos, T; Siegler, A

    1982-01-01

    Action planning methods used in intelligent robot control are discussed. Planning is accomplished through environment understanding, environment representation, task understanding and planning, motion analysis and man-machine communication. These fields are analysed in detail. The frames of an intelligent motion planning system are presented. Graphic simulation of the robot's environment and motion is used to support the planning. 14 references.

  20. Computational Intelligence in Intelligent Data Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Nürnberger, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Complex systems and their phenomena are ubiquitous as they can be found in biology, finance, the humanities, management sciences, medicine, physics and similar fields. For many problems in these fields, there are no conventional ways to mathematically or analytically solve them completely at low cost. On the other hand, nature already solved many optimization problems efficiently. Computational intelligence attempts to mimic nature-inspired problem-solving strategies and methods. These strategies can be used to study, model and analyze complex systems such that it becomes feasible to handle them. Key areas of computational intelligence are artificial neural networks, evolutionary computation and fuzzy systems. As only a few researchers in that field, Rudolf Kruse has contributed in many important ways to the understanding, modeling and application of computational intelligence methods. On occasion of his 60th birthday, a collection of original papers of leading researchers in the field of computational intell...