WorldWideScience

Sample records for intelligent real-time control

  1. Interfacing An Intelligent Decision-Maker To A Real-Time Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evers, D. C.; Smith, D. M.; Staros, C. J.

    1984-06-01

    This paper discusses some of the practical aspects of implementing expert systems in a real-time environment. There is a conflict between the needs of a process control system and the computational load imposed by intelligent decision-making software. The computation required to manage a real-time control problem is primarily concerned with routine calculations which must be executed in real time. On most current hardware, non-trivial AI software should not be forced to operate under real-time constraints. In order for the system to work efficiently, the two processes must be separated by a well-defined interface. Although the precise nature of the task separation will vary with the application, the definition of the interface will need to follow certain fundamental principles in order to provide functional separation. This interface was successfully implemented in the expert scheduling software currently running the automated chemical processing facility at Lockheed-Georgia. Potential applications of this concept in the areas of airborne avionics and robotics will be discussed.

  2. A Real-Time Temperature Data Transmission Approach for Intelligent Cooling Control of Mass Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Lin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary aim of the study presented in this paper is to propose a real-time temperature data transmission approach for intelligent cooling control of mass concrete. A mathematical description of a digital temperature control model is introduced in detail. Based on pipe mounted and electrically linked temperature sensors, together with postdata handling hardware and software, a stable, real-time, highly effective temperature data transmission solution technique is developed and utilized within the intelligent mass concrete cooling control system. Once the user has issued the relevant command, the proposed programmable logic controllers (PLC code performs all necessary steps without further interaction. The code can control the hardware, obtain, read, and perform calculations, and display the data accurately. Hardening concrete is an aggregate of complex physicochemical processes including the liberation of heat. The proposed control system prevented unwanted structural change within the massive concrete blocks caused by these exothermic processes based on an application case study analysis. In conclusion, the proposed temperature data transmission approach has proved very useful for the temperature monitoring of a high arch dam and is able to control thermal stresses in mass concrete for similar projects involving mass concrete.

  3. Real time Intelligent Control Laboratory (RT-ICL) of PowerLabDK for smart grid technology development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostergaard, Jacob; Wu, Qiuwei; Garcia-Valle, Rodrigo

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the Intelligent Control Laboratory (ICL) of the PowerLabDK and describes examples of ongoing research work utilizing the ICL. The ICL is comprised of a real time digital simulator (RTDS) with 5 racks, a full scale SCADA system and experimental control room with a link to the B......This paper presents the Intelligent Control Laboratory (ICL) of the PowerLabDK and describes examples of ongoing research work utilizing the ICL. The ICL is comprised of a real time digital simulator (RTDS) with 5 racks, a full scale SCADA system and experimental control room with a link...

  4. Theoretical analysis and real time implementation of a classical controller with intelligent properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Essam Hendawi

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents theoretical analysis and experimental implementation of a classical controller with intelligent properties. The controller has constant parameters, but it performs as an intelligent controller. The controller design mimics the fuzzy logic controller in a classical form and combines the advantages of classical controllers and properties of intelligent controllers. The designed controller parameters force the controlled variable to behave such as a first order system with a desired time constant. DC motor practical system is used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the presented controller. Root locus and frequency response using Bode diagram are used to help the design of the controller parameters. Simulation and experimental results verify the high performance of the presented controller. Keywords: Classical controller, DC motor, Root locus, Frequency response, Arduino microcontroller

  5. De toekomst van Real Time Intelligence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, J. van den; Berg, C.H. van den

    2013-01-01

    Al direct vanaf de start van de Nationale Politie is gewerkt aan het opzetten van tien real-time intelligence centra in Nederland. Van daaruit worden 24 uur per dag en zeven dagen in de week agenten op straat actief ondersteund met real-time informatie bij de melding waar ze op af gaan. In de visie

  6. Intelligent control for modeling of real-time reservoir operation, part II: artificial neural network with operating rule curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ya-Ting; Chang, Li-Chiu; Chang, Fi-John

    2005-04-01

    To bridge the gap between academic research and actual operation, we propose an intelligent control system for reservoir operation. The methodology includes two major processes, the knowledge acquired and implemented, and the inference system. In this study, a genetic algorithm (GA) and a fuzzy rule base (FRB) are used to extract knowledge based on the historical inflow data with a design objective function and on the operating rule curves respectively. The adaptive network-based fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) is then used to implement the knowledge, to create the fuzzy inference system, and then to estimate the optimal reservoir operation. To investigate its applicability and practicability, the Shihmen reservoir, Taiwan, is used as a case study. For the purpose of comparison, a simulation of the currently used M-5 operating rule curve is also performed. The results demonstrate that (1) the GA is an efficient way to search the optimal input-output patterns, (2) the FRB can extract the knowledge from the operating rule curves, and (3) the ANFIS models built on different types of knowledge can produce much better performance than the traditional M-5 curves in real-time reservoir operation. Moreover, we show that the model can be more intelligent for reservoir operation if more information (or knowledge) is involved.

  7. Operational and real-time Business Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Ioana SANDU

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A key component of a company’s IT framework is a business intelligence (BI system. BI enables business users to report on, analyze and optimize business operations to reduce costs and increase revenues. Organizations use BI for strategic and tactical decision making where the decision-making cycle may span a time period of several weeks (e.g., campaign management or months (e.g., improving customer satisfaction.Competitive pressures coming from a very dynamic business environment are forcing companies to react faster to changing business conditions and customer requirements. As a result, there is now a need to use BI to help drive and optimize business operations on a daily basis, and, in some cases, even for intraday decision making. This type of BI is usually called operational business intelligence and real-time business intelligence.

  8. The Synthesis of Intelligent Real-Time Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-11-09

    Synthesis of Intelligent Real - Time Systems . The purpose of the effort was to develop and extend theories and techniques that facilitate the design and...implementation of intelligent real - time systems . In particular, Teleos has extended situated-automata theory to apply to situations in which the system has

  9. Real-Time Business Intelligence for the Utilities Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janina POPEANGA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In today’s competitive environment with rapid innovation in smart metering and smart grids, there is an increased need for real-time business intelligence (RTBI in the utilities industry. Giving the fact that this industry is an environment where decisions are time sensitive, RTBI solutions will help utilities improve customer experiences and operational efficiencies. The focus of this paper is on the importance of real-time business intelligence (RTBI in the utilities industry, outlining our vision of real-time business intelligence for this industry. Besides the analysis in this area, the article presents as a case study the Oracle Business Intelligence solution for utilities.

  10. A conceptual framework for intelligent real-time information processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schudy, Robert

    1987-01-01

    By combining artificial intelligence concepts with the human information processing model of Rasmussen, a conceptual framework was developed for real time artificial intelligence systems which provides a foundation for system organization, control and validation. The approach is based on the description of system processing terms of an abstraction hierarchy of states of knowledge. The states of knowledge are organized along one dimension which corresponds to the extent to which the concepts are expressed in terms of the system inouts or in terms of the system response. Thus organized, the useful states form a generally triangular shape with the sensors and effectors forming the lower two vertices and the full evaluated set of courses of action the apex. Within the triangle boundaries are numerous processing paths which shortcut the detailed processing, by connecting incomplete levels of analysis to partially defined responses. Shortcuts at different levels of abstraction include reflexes, sensory motor control, rule based behavior, and satisficing. This approach was used in the design of a real time tactical decision aiding system, and in defining an intelligent aiding system for transport pilots.

  11. Making the Grid "Smart" Through "Smart" Microgrids: Real-Time Power Management of Microgrids with Multiple Distributed Generation Sources Using Intelligent Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nehrir, M. Hashem [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States)

    2016-10-20

    In this Project we collaborated with two DOE National Laboratories, Pacific Northwest National Lab (PNNL) and Lawrence Berkeley National Lab (LBL). Dr. Hammerstrom of PNNL initially supported our project and was on the graduate committee of one of the Ph.D. students (graduated in 2014) who was supported by this project. He is also a committee member of a current graduate student of the PI who was supported by this project in the last two years (August 2014-July 2016). The graduate student is now supported be the Electrical and Computer Engineering (ECE) Department at Montana State University (MSU). Dr. Chris Marney of LBL provided actual load data, and the software WEBOPT developed at LBL for microgrid (MG) design for our project. NEC-Labs America, a private industry, also supported our project, providing expert support and modest financial support. We also used the software “HOMER,” originally developed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the most recent version made available to us by HOMER Energy, Inc., for MG (hybrid energy system) unit sizing. We compared the findings from WebOpt and HOMER and designed appropriately sized hybrid systems for our case studies. The objective of the project was to investigate real-time power management strategies for MGs using intelligent control, considering maximum feasible energy sustainability, reliability and efficiency while, minimizing cost and undesired environmental impact (emissions). Through analytic and simulation studies, we evaluated the suitability of several heuristic and artificial-intelligence (AI)-based optimization techniques that had potential for real-time MG power management, including genetic algorithms (GA), ant colony optimization (ACO), particle swarm optimization (PSO), and multi-agent systems (MAS), which is based on the negotiation of smart software-based agents. We found that PSO and MAS, in particular, distributed MAS, were more efficient and better suited for our work. We

  12. Unmanned air vehicles - real time intelligence without the risk

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, James Bryan.

    1988-01-01

    Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs) are capable of supporting the officer in tactical command (OTC) by gathering intelligence in real- or near real-time. UAVs now under development will be able to collect high-resolution imagery, and thus provide the OTC with the option of gathering tactical intelligence without using manned reconnaissance platforms. This thesis asserts that UAVs should be used to supplement existing intelligence sensors, particularly in those cases where current sources are too amb...

  13. Real-time operations intelligence from the user perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kharbat, Fayez [Saudi Aramco, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

    2004-07-01

    Running a refinery or a chemical plant is a complex business. Planning and scheduling, process control and maintenance require dedicated, multifaceted solutions necessitating highly trained and experienced users. The inevitable system and user specialization results in the proliferation of disparate data sources, incoherent information, inconsistent decisions and the failure to realize corporate objectives - until today. IndX Software Corporation is the de facto market-leading provider of operations intelligence solutions. IndX's XHQ{sup TM} Real-time Operations Intelligence solutions have been selected by many of the world's major corporations in their quest for Operational Excellence and IndX is currently engaged in more than 50 maximizedROI{sup TM} deployments around the world. This paper describes the thinking and technology behind XHQ and the implementation methodology typically employed in deploying an XHQ solution enterprise-wide. This paper will also provide examples of the benefits that users have realized from their implementation of XHQ. (author)

  14. Real-time controller for hydrostatic transmission

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    M. Ing. (Electrical and Electronic Engineering) This dissertation describes the development of a modular real-time controller implemented on a personal computer for a hydrostatically driven vehicle. In such a vehicle the conventional mechanical transmission is replaced with a hydrostatic pump and two hydrostatic motors, making use of the secondary control principle. The infinitely variable transmission and wheel pair controller gives the vehicle superior traction and mobility over conventi...

  15. Real time computer controlled weld skate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, W. A., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    A real time, adaptive control, automatic welding system was developed. This system utilizes the general case geometrical relationships between a weldment and a weld skate to precisely maintain constant weld speed and torch angle along a contoured workplace. The system is compatible with the gas tungsten arc weld process or can be adapted to other weld processes. Heli-arc cutting and machine tool routing operations are possible applications.

  16. Optimal, real-time control--colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, J.E.

    1991-05-01

    With reasonable definitions, optimal control is possible for both classical and quantal systems with new approaches called PISC(Parallel) and NISC(Neural) from analogy with RISC (Reduced Instruction Set Computing). If control equals interaction, observation and comparison to some figure of merit with interaction via external fields, then optimization comes from varying these fields to give design or operating goals. Structural stability can then give us tolerance and design constraints. But simulations use simplified models, are not in real-time and assume fixed or stationary conditions, so optimal control goes far beyond convergence rates of algorithms. It is inseparable from design and this has many implications for colliders. 12 refs., 3 figs

  17. Concepts of real time and semi-real time material control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovett, J.E.

    1975-01-01

    After a brief consideration of the traditional material balance accounting on an MBA basis, this paper explores the basic concepts of real time and semi-real time material control, together with some of the major problems to be solved. Three types of short-term material control are discussed: storage, batch processing, and continuous processing. (DLC)

  18. A framework for intelligent data acquisition and real-time database searching for shotgun proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graumann, Johannes; Scheltema, Richard A; Zhang, Yong; Cox, Jürgen; Mann, Matthias

    2012-03-01

    In the analysis of complex peptide mixtures by MS-based proteomics, many more peptides elute at any given time than can be identified and quantified by the mass spectrometer. This makes it desirable to optimally allocate peptide sequencing and narrow mass range quantification events. In computer science, intelligent agents are frequently used to make autonomous decisions in complex environments. Here we develop and describe a framework for intelligent data acquisition and real-time database searching and showcase selected examples. The intelligent agent is implemented in the MaxQuant computational proteomics environment, termed MaxQuant Real-Time. It analyzes data as it is acquired on the mass spectrometer, constructs isotope patterns and SILAC pair information as well as controls MS and tandem MS events based on real-time and prior MS data or external knowledge. Re-implementing a top10 method in the intelligent agent yields similar performance to the data dependent methods running on the mass spectrometer itself. We demonstrate the capabilities of MaxQuant Real-Time by creating a real-time search engine capable of identifying peptides "on-the-fly" within 30 ms, well within the time constraints of a shotgun fragmentation "topN" method. The agent can focus sequencing events onto peptides of specific interest, such as those originating from a specific gene ontology (GO) term, or peptides that are likely modified versions of already identified peptides. Finally, we demonstrate enhanced quantification of SILAC pairs whose ratios were poorly defined in survey spectra. MaxQuant Real-Time is flexible and can be applied to a large number of scenarios that would benefit from intelligent, directed data acquisition. Our framework should be especially useful for new instrument types, such as the quadrupole-Orbitrap, that are currently becoming available.

  19. Real-time control of fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves, B.; Sousa, J.; Varandas, C.A.F.

    2010-01-01

    The next generation fusion experiments, e.g. ITER, will be highly complex and raise new challenges in the field of control and data acquisition systems. The more advanced operation scenarios have to be capable of sustaining long pulse steady-state plasma and to suppress plasma instabilities almost completely. Such scenarios will heavily rely on Multiple-Input-Multiple-Output (MIMO) fast control systems. To ensure safety for the operation these systems have to be robust and resilient to faults while ensuring high availability. Mindful of the importance of such features for future fusion experiments ATCA based systems have been successfully used in fusion experiment as MIMO fast controller. This is the most promising architecture to substantially enhance the performance and capability of existing standard systems delivering well high throughput as well as high availability. The real-time control needs of a fusion experiment, the rational for the presently pursued solutions, the existing problems and the broad scientific and technical questions that need to be addressed on the path to a fusion power plant will be discussed.

  20. Data processing system for real-time control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oasa, K.; Mochizuki, O.; Toyokawa, R.; Yahiro, K.

    1983-01-01

    Real-time control, for large Tokamak JT-60, requires various data processings between diagnostic devices to control system. These processings require to high speed performance so that it aims at giving information necessary for feedback control during discharges. Then, the architecture of this system has hierachical structure of processors. These processors are connected each other by the CAMAC modules and the optical communication network, which is the 5 M bytes/second CAMAC serial highway. This system has two kinds of intelligences for this purpose. One is ACM-PU pairs in some torus hall crates which has a microcomputerized auxiliary controller and a preprocessing unit. Other is real-time processor which has a minicomputer and preprocessing unit. Most of the real-time processing, for example Abel inversion are characteristic to the diagnostic devices. Such a processing is carried out by an ACM-PU pair in the crate dedicated to the diagnostic device. Some processings, however, are also necessary which compute secondary parameters as functions of primary parameters. A typical example is Zeff, which is a function of Te, Ne and bremsstrahluny intensity. The real-time processor is equipped for such secondary processings and transfer the results. Preprocessing unit -PU- attached to ACM and real-time processor contains a signal processor, which executes in parallel such function as move, add and multiply during one micro-instruction cycle of 200 nsec. According to the progress of the experiment, more high speed processing are required, so the authors developed the PU-X module that contains multi signal processors. After a shot, inter-shot-processor which consists of general-purpose computers, gathers data into the database, then analyze them, and improve these processes to more effective

  1. Real-time control environment for the RFX experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barana, O.; Cavinato, M.; Luchetta, A.; Manduchi, G.; Taliercio, C.

    2005-01-01

    A comprehensive set of control schemes can be presently implemented on RFX due to the enhanced load assembly and renewed power supply system. The schemes include: plasma equilibrium control and resistive wall mode stabilization, aiming at controlling actively the discharge when the passive action of the shell vanishes; the rotation of the localised helical deformation to minimize the enhanced plasma-wall interaction; the MHD mode control and the 'intelligent shell', aiming at achieving a better comprehension of the underlying physics. To the purpose, an integrated, distributed, digital system has been developed consisting of a set of computing nodes. Each node can act either as pre-processing or control station, the former acquiring raw data and computing intermediate control parameters, the latter executing control algorithms and driving the power amplifiers. An overview of the system architecture is presented in the paper with reference to the software real-time environment providing both basic functions, such as data read-out and real-time communication, and useful tools to program control algorithms, to perform simulations and to commission the system. To simulate the control schemes, the real-time environment is extended to include a so called 'simulation mode', in which the real-time nodes exchange their input/output signals with one station running a suitable model of the experiment, for instance the two dimensional FEM code MAXFEA in the case of the equilibrium control. In this way the control system can be tested offline and the time needed for the commissioning of algorithms reduced

  2. Memory controllers for real-time embedded systems predictable and composable real-time systems

    CERN Document Server

    Akesson, Benny

    2012-01-01

      Verification of real-time requirements in systems-on-chip becomes more complex as more applications are integrated. Predictable and composable systems can manage the increasing complexity using formal verification and simulation.  This book explains the concepts of predictability and composability and shows how to apply them to the design and analysis of a memory controller, which is a key component in any real-time system. This book is generally intended for readers interested in Systems-on-Chips with real-time applications.   It is especially well-suited for readers looking to use SDRAM memories in systems with hard or firm real-time requirements. There is a strong focus on real-time concepts, such as predictability and composability, as well as a brief discussion about memory controller architectures for high-performance computing. Readers will learn step-by-step how to go from an unpredictable SDRAM memory, offering highly variable bandwidth and latency, to a predictable and composable shared memory...

  3. Real-time measurement and control at Jet. Experiment Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felton, R.; Zabeo, L.; Sartori, F.; Piccolo, F.; Farthing, J.; Budd, T.; Dorling, S.; McCullen, P.; Harling, J.; Dalley, S.; Goodyear, A.; Stephen, A.; Card, P.; Bright, M.; Lucock, R.; Jones, E.; Griph, S.; Hogben, C.; Beldishevski, M.; Buckley, M.; Davis, J.; Young, I.; Hemming, O.; Wheatley, M.; Heesterman, P.; Lloyd, G.; Walters, M.; Bridge, R.; Leggate, H.; Howell, D.; Zastrow, K.D.; Giroud, C.; Coffey, I.; Hawkes, N.; Stamp, M.; Barnsley, R.; Edlington, T.; Guenther, K.; Gowers, C.; Popovichef, S.; Huber, A.; Ingesson, C.; Joffrin, E.; Mazon, D.; Moreau, D.; Murari, A.; Riva, M.; Barana, O.; Bolzonella, T.; Valisa, M.; Innocente, P.; Zerbini, M.; Bosak, K.; Blum, J.; Vitale, E.; Crisanti, F.; La Luna, E. de; Sanchez, J.

    2004-01-01

    Over the past few ears, the preparation of ITER-relevant plasma scenarios has been the main focus experimental activity on tokamaks. The development of integrated, simultaneous, real-time controls of plasma shape, current, pressure, temperature, radiation, neutron profiles, and also impurities, ELMs (edge localized modes) and MHD are now seen to be essential for further development of quasi-steady state conditions with feedback, or the stabilisation of transient phenomena with event-driven actions. For this thrust, the EFDA JET Real Time Project has developed a set of real-time plasma measurements, experiment control, and communication facilities. The Plasma Diagnostics used for real-time experiments are Far Infra Red interferometry, polarimetry, visible, UV and X-ray spectroscopy, LIDAR, bolometry, neutron and magnetics. Further analysis systems produce integrated results such as temperature profiles on geometry derived from MHD equilibrium solutions. The Actuators include toroidal, poloidal and divertor coils, gas and pellet fuelling, neutral beam injection, radiofrequency (ICRH) waves and microwaves (LH). The Heating/Fuelling Operators can either define a power or gas request waveform or select the real-time instantaneous power/gas request from the Real Time Experiment Central Control (RTCC) system. The Real Time Experiment Control system provides both a high-level, control-programming environment and interlocks with the actuators. A MATLAB facility is being developed for the development of more complex controllers. The plasma measurement, controller and plant control systems communicate in ATM network. The EFDA Real Time project is essential groundwork for future reactors such as ITER. It involves many staff from several institutions. The facility is now frequently used in experiments. (authors)

  4. Intelligent data management for real-time spacecraft monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwuttke, Ursula M.; Gasser, Les; Abramson, Bruce

    1992-01-01

    Real-time AI systems have begun to address the challenge of restructuring problem solving to meet real-time constraints by making key trade-offs that pursue less than optimal strategies with minimal impact on system goals. Several approaches for adapting to dynamic changes in system operating conditions are known. However, simultaneously adapting system decision criteria in a principled way has been difficult. Towards this end, a general technique for dynamically making such trade-offs using a combination of decision theory and domain knowledge has been developed. Multi-attribute utility theory (MAUT), a decision theoretic approach for making one-time decisions is discussed and dynamic trade-off evaluation is described as a knowledge-based extension of MAUT that is suitable for highly dynamic real-time environments, and provides an example of dynamic trade-off evaluation applied to a specific data management trade-off in a real-world spacecraft monitoring application.

  5. Real-Time Business Intelligence in the MIRABEL Smart Grid System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Ulrike; Kaulakiene, Dalia; Khalefa, Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    of energy related data, and must be able to react rapidly (but intelligently) when conditions change, leading to substantial real-time business intelligence challenges. This paper discusses these challenges and presents data management solutions in the European smart grid project MIRABEL. These solutions......) data. Experimental studies show that the proposed solutions support important real-time business intelligence tasks in a smart grid system....

  6. Real time control engineering systems and automation

    CERN Document Server

    Ng, Tian Seng

    2016-01-01

    This book covers the two broad areas of the electronics and electrical aspects of control applications, highlighting the many different types of control systems of relevance to real-life control system design. The control techniques presented are state-of-the-art. In the electronics section, readers will find essential information on microprocessor, microcontroller, mechatronics and electronics control. The low-level assembly programming language performs basic input/output control techniques as well as controlling the stepper motor and PWM dc motor. In the electrical section, the book addresses the complete elevator PLC system design, neural network plant control, load flow analysis, and process control, as well as machine vision topics. Illustrative diagrams, circuits and programming examples and algorithms help to explain the details of the system function design. Readers will find a wealth of computer control and industrial automation practices and applications for modern industries, as well as the educat...

  7. Real time control of plasmas and ECRH systems on TCV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paley, J.I.; Felici, F.; Berrino, J.; Coda, S.; Cruz, N.; Duval, B.P.; Goodman, T.P.; Martin, Y.; Moret, J.-M.; Piras, F.; Rodrigues, A.P.; Santos, B.; Varandas, C.A.F.

    2008-01-01

    Developments in the real time control hardware on TCV paired with the flexibility of plasma shaping and ECRH actuators are opening many opportunities to perform real time experiments and develop algorithms and methods for fusion applications. The ability to control MHD instabilities is particularly

  8. REAL-TIME INTELLIGENT MULTILAYER ATTACK CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Subbhulakshmi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS takes the lion’s share of the current security infrastructure. Detection of intrusions is vital for initiating the defensive procedures. Intrusion detection was done by statistical and distance based methods. A threshold value is used in these methods to indicate the level of normalcy. When the network traffic crosses the level of normalcy then above which it is flagged as anomalous. When there are occurrences of new intrusion events which are increasingly a key part of system security, the statistical techniques cannot detect them. To overcome this issue, learning techniques are used which helps in identifying new intrusion activities in a computer system. The objective of the proposed system designed in this paper is to classify the intrusions using an Intelligent Multi Layered Attack Classification System (IMLACS which helps in detecting and classifying the intrusions with improved classification accuracy. The intelligent multi layered approach contains three intelligent layers. The first layer involves Binary Support Vector Machine classification for detecting the normal and attack. The second layer involves neural network classification to classify the attacks into classes of attacks. The third layer involves fuzzy inference system to classify the attacks into various subclasses. The proposed IMLACS can be able to detect an intrusion behavior of the networks since the system contains a three intelligent layer classification and better set of rules. Feature selection is also used to improve the time of detection. The experimental results show that the IMLACS achieves the Classification Rate of 97.31%.

  9. Real-time communication for distributed plasma control systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luchetta, A. [Consorzio RFX, Associazione Euratom-ENEA sulla Fusione, Corso Stati Uniti 4, Padova 35127 (Italy)], E-mail: adriano.luchetta@igi.cnr.it; Barbalace, A.; Manduchi, G.; Soppelsa, A.; Taliercio, C. [Consorzio RFX, Associazione Euratom-ENEA sulla Fusione, Corso Stati Uniti 4, Padova 35127 (Italy)

    2008-04-15

    Real-time control applications will benefit in the near future from the enhanced performance provided by multi-core processor architectures. Nevertheless real-time communication will continue to be critical in distributed plasma control systems where the plant under control typically is distributed over a wide area. At RFX-mod real-time communication is crucial for hard real-time plasma control, due to the distributed architecture of the system, which consists of several VMEbus stations. The system runs under VxWorks and uses Gigabit Ethernet for sub-millisecond real-time communication. To optimize communication in the system, a set of detailed measurements has been carried out on the target platforms (Motorola MVME5100 and MVME5500) using either the VxWorks User Datagram Protocol (UDP) stack or raw communication based on the data link layer. Measurements have been carried out also under Linux, using its UDP stack or, in alternative, RTnet, an open source hard real-time network protocol stack. RTnet runs under Xenomai or RTAI, two popular real-time extensions based on the Linux kernel. The paper reports on the measurements carried out and compares the results, showing that the performance obtained by using open source code is suitable for sub-millisecond real-time communication in plasma control.

  10. Real-Time Plasma Control Tools for Advanced Tokamak Operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varandas, C. A. F.; Sousa, J.; Rodrigues, A. P.; Carvalho, B. B.; Fernandes, H.; Batista, A. J.; Cruz, N.; Combo, A.; Pereira, R. C.

    2006-01-01

    Real-time control will play an important role in the operation and scientific exploitation of the new generation fusion devices. This paper summarizes the real-time systems and diagnostics developed by the Portuguese Fusion Euratom Association based on digital signal processors and field programmable gate arrays

  11. Real-time software for the COMPASS tokamak plasma control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valcarcel, D.F.; Duarte, A.S.; Neto, A.; Carvalho, I.S.; Carvalho, B.B.; Fernandes, H.; Sousa, J.; Sartori, F.; Janky, F.; Cahyna, P.; Hron, M.; Panek, R.

    2010-01-01

    The COMPASS tokamak has started its operation recently in Prague and to meet the necessary operation parameters its real-time system, for data processing and control, must be designed for both flexibility and performance, allowing the easy integration of code from several developers and to guarantee the desired time cycle. For this purpose an Advanced Telecommunications Computing Architecture based real-time system has been deployed with a solution built on a multi-core x86 processor. It makes use of two software components: the BaseLib2 and the MARTe (Multithreaded Application Real-Time executor) real-time frameworks. The BaseLib2 framework is a generic real-time library with optimized objects for the implementation of real-time algorithms. This allowed to build a library of modules that process the acquired data and execute control algorithms. MARTe executes these modules in kernel space Real-Time Application Interface allowing to attain the required cycle time and a jitter of less than 1.5 μs. MARTe configuration and data storage are accomplished through a Java hardware client that connects to the FireSignal control and data acquisition software. This article details the implementation of the real-time system for the COMPASS tokamak, in particular the organization of the control code, the design and implementation of the communications with the actuators and how MARTe integrates with the FireSignal software.

  12. Real-time software for the COMPASS tokamak plasma control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valcarcel, D.F., E-mail: danielv@ipfn.ist.utl.p [Associacao EURATOM/IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusao Nuclear - Laboratorio Associado, Instituto Superior Tecnico, P-1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Duarte, A.S.; Neto, A.; Carvalho, I.S.; Carvalho, B.B.; Fernandes, H.; Sousa, J. [Associacao EURATOM/IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusao Nuclear - Laboratorio Associado, Instituto Superior Tecnico, P-1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Sartori, F. [Euratom-UKAEA, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 3DB Oxon (United Kingdom); Janky, F.; Cahyna, P.; Hron, M.; Panek, R. [Institute of Plasma Physics AS CR, v.v.i., Association EURATOM/IPP.CR, Za Slovankou 3, 182 00 Prague (Czech Republic)

    2010-07-15

    The COMPASS tokamak has started its operation recently in Prague and to meet the necessary operation parameters its real-time system, for data processing and control, must be designed for both flexibility and performance, allowing the easy integration of code from several developers and to guarantee the desired time cycle. For this purpose an Advanced Telecommunications Computing Architecture based real-time system has been deployed with a solution built on a multi-core x86 processor. It makes use of two software components: the BaseLib2 and the MARTe (Multithreaded Application Real-Time executor) real-time frameworks. The BaseLib2 framework is a generic real-time library with optimized objects for the implementation of real-time algorithms. This allowed to build a library of modules that process the acquired data and execute control algorithms. MARTe executes these modules in kernel space Real-Time Application Interface allowing to attain the required cycle time and a jitter of less than 1.5 {mu}s. MARTe configuration and data storage are accomplished through a Java hardware client that connects to the FireSignal control and data acquisition software. This article details the implementation of the real-time system for the COMPASS tokamak, in particular the organization of the control code, the design and implementation of the communications with the actuators and how MARTe integrates with the FireSignal software.

  13. Real time control of plasmas and ECRH systems on TCV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paley, J.I.; Berrino, J.; Coda, S.; Cruz, N.; Duval, B.P.; Felici, F.; Goodman, T.P.; Martin, Y.; Moret, J.-M.; Piras, F.; Rodriques, A.P.; Santos, B.; Varandas, C.A.F.

    2009-01-01

    Developments in the real time control hardware on Tokamak Configuration Variable (TCV) coupled with the flexibility of plasma shaping and electron cyclotron (EC) heating and current drive actuators are opening many opportunities to perform real time experiments and develop algorithms and methods for

  14. Prototyping Real-Time Control in the SPS

    CERN Document Server

    Andersson, J; Jensen, L; Jones, R; Lamont, M; Wenninger, J; Wijnands, Thijs; CERN. Geneva. AB Department

    2003-01-01

    Real-time control of beam related parameters will be required in the LHC. In order to gain experience of the issues involved in implementing distributed real-time control over large distances, a prototype local orbit feedback system is being developed in the SPS. This will use 6 pickups, each equipped with the full LHC acquisition electronics chain and linked to a real-time communication and feedback system. This reports summarises the .rst tests performed with this system in October 2002, where the data from four pickups was successfully acquired and displayed at 10 Hz in the control room.

  15. Academic Training: Real Time Process Control - Lecture series

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2004-01-01

    ACADEMIC TRAINING LECTURE REGULAR PROGRAMME 7, 8 and 9 June From 11:00 hrs to 12:00 hrs - Main Auditorium bldg. 500 Real Time Process Control T. Riesco / CERN-TS What exactly is meant by Real-time? There are several definitions of real-time, most of them contradictory. Unfortunately the topic is controversial, and there does not seem to be 100% agreement over the terminology. Real-time applications are becoming increasingly important in our daily lives and can be found in diverse environments such as the automatic braking system on an automobile, a lottery ticket system, or robotic environmental samplers on a space station. These lectures will introduce concepts and theory like basic concepts timing constraints, task scheduling, periodic server mechanisms, hard and soft real-time.ENSEIGNEMENT ACADEMIQUE ACADEMIC TRAINING Françoise Benz 73127 academic.training@cern.ch

  16. A Real-Time Embedded Control System for Electro-Fused Magnesia Furnace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Zheng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Since smelting process of electro-fused magnesia furnace is a complicated process which has characteristics like complex operation conditions, strong nonlinearities, and strong couplings, traditional linear controller cannot control it very well. Advanced intelligent control strategy is a good solution to this kind of industrial process. However, advanced intelligent control strategy always involves huge programming task and hard debugging and maintaining problems. In this paper, a real-time embedded control system is proposed for the process control of electro-fused magnesia furnace based on intelligent control strategy and model-based design technology. As for hardware, an embedded controller based on an industrial Single Board Computer (SBC is developed to meet industrial field environment demands. As for software, a Linux based on Real-Time Application Interface (RTAI is used as the real-time kernel of the controller to improve its real-time performance. The embedded software platform is also modified to support generating embedded code automatically from Simulink/Stateflow models. Based on the proposed embedded control system, the intelligent embedded control software of electro-fused magnesium furnace can be directly generated from Simulink/Stateflow models. To validate the effectiveness of the proposed embedded control system, hardware-in-the-loop (HIL and industrial field experiments are both implemented. Experiments results show that the embedded control system works very well in both laboratory and industry environments.

  17. Real-time intelligent pattern recognition algorithm for surface EMG signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahed Mehran

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Electromyography (EMG is the study of muscle function through the inquiry of electrical signals that the muscles emanate. EMG signals collected from the surface of the skin (Surface Electromyogram: sEMG can be used in different applications such as recognizing musculoskeletal neural based patterns intercepted for hand prosthesis movements. Current systems designed for controlling the prosthetic hands either have limited functions or can only be used to perform simple movements or use excessive amount of electrodes in order to achieve acceptable results. In an attempt to overcome these problems we have proposed an intelligent system to recognize hand movements and have provided a user assessment routine to evaluate the correctness of executed movements. Methods We propose to use an intelligent approach based on adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS integrated with a real-time learning scheme to identify hand motion commands. For this purpose and to consider the effect of user evaluation on recognizing hand movements, vision feedback is applied to increase the capability of our system. By using this scheme the user may assess the correctness of the performed hand movement. In this work a hybrid method for training fuzzy system, consisting of back-propagation (BP and least mean square (LMS is utilized. Also in order to optimize the number of fuzzy rules, a subtractive clustering algorithm has been developed. To design an effective system, we consider a conventional scheme of EMG pattern recognition system. To design this system we propose to use two different sets of EMG features, namely time domain (TD and time-frequency representation (TFR. Also in order to decrease the undesirable effects of the dimension of these feature sets, principle component analysis (PCA is utilized. Results In this study, the myoelectric signals considered for classification consists of six unique hand movements. Features chosen for EMG signal

  18. Real-Time Application Performance Steering and Adaptive Control

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reed, Daniel

    2002-01-01

    .... The objective of the Real-time Application Performance Steering and Adaptive Control project is to replace ad hoc, post-mortem performance optimization with an extensible, portable, and distributed...

  19. Using real-time stereopsis for mobile robot control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonasso, R. P.; Nishihara, H. K.

    1991-02-01

    This paper describes on-going work in using range and motion data generated at video-frame rates as the basis for long-range perception in a mobile robot. A current approach in the artificial intelligence community to achieve timecritical perception for situated reasoning is to use low-level perception for motor reflex-like activity and higher-level but more computationally intense perception for path planning reconnaissance and retrieval activities. Typically inclinometers and a compass or an infra-red beacon system provide stability and orientation maintenance and ultrasonic or infra-red sensors serve as proximity detectors for obstacle avoidance. For distant ranging and area occupancy determination active imaging systems such as laser scanners can be prohibitivtly expensive and heretofore passive systems typically performed more slowly than the cycle time of the control system causing the robot to halt periodically along its way. However a recent stereo system developed by Nishihara known as PRISM (Practical Real-time Imaging Stereo Matcher) matches stereo pairs using a sign-correlation technique that gives range and motion at video frame rates. We are integrating this technique with constant-time control software for distant ranging and object detection at a speed that is comparable with the cycle-times of the low-level sensors. Possibilities for a variety of uses in a leader-follower mobile robot situation are discussed.

  20. Efficient simultaneous partial nitrification, anammox and denitrification (SNAD) system equipped with a real-time dissolved oxygen (DO) intelligent control system and microbial community shifts of different substrate concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Xin; Gong, Benzhou; Zhou, Jian; He, Qiang; Qing, Xiaoxia

    2017-08-01

    Simultaneous partial nitrification, anammox and denitrification (SNAD) process was studied in a sequencing batch biofilm reactor (SBBR) fed with synthetic wastewater in a range of 2200 mgN/L ∼ 50 mgN/L. Important was an external real-time precision dissolved oxygen (DO) intelligent control system that consisted of feed forward control system and feedback control system. This DO control system permitted close control of oxygen supply according to influent concentration, effluent quality and other environmental factors in the reactor. In this study the operation was divided into six phases according to influent nitrogen applied. SNAD system was successfully set up after adding COD into a CANON system. And the presence of COD enabled the survival of denitrifiers, and made Thauera and Pseudomonas predominant as functional denitrifiers in this system. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and 16S rRNA amplicon pyrosequencing were used to analyze the microbial variations of different substrate concentrations. Results indicated that the relative population of ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) members decreased when influent ammonia concentration decreased from 2200 mg/L to 50 mg/L, while no dramatic drop of the percent of anammox bacteria was seen. And Nitrosomonas europaea was the predominant AOB in SNAD system treating sewage, while Candidatus Brocadia was the dominant anammox bacteria. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Developing infrared array controller with software real time operating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sako, Shigeyuki; Miyata, Takashi; Nakamura, Tomohiko; Motohara, Kentaro; Uchimoto, Yuka Katsuno; Onaka, Takashi; Kataza, Hirokazu

    2008-07-01

    Real-time capabilities are required for a controller of a large format array to reduce a dead-time attributed by readout and data transfer. The real-time processing has been achieved by dedicated processors including DSP, CPLD, and FPGA devices. However, the dedicated processors have problems with memory resources, inflexibility, and high cost. Meanwhile, a recent PC has sufficient resources of CPUs and memories to control the infrared array and to process a large amount of frame data in real-time. In this study, we have developed an infrared array controller with a software real-time operating system (RTOS) instead of the dedicated processors. A Linux PC equipped with a RTAI extension and a dual-core CPU is used as a main computer, and one of the CPU cores is allocated to the real-time processing. A digital I/O board with DMA functions is used for an I/O interface. The signal-processing cores are integrated in the OS kernel as a real-time driver module, which is composed of two virtual devices of the clock processor and the frame processor tasks. The array controller with the RTOS realizes complicated operations easily, flexibly, and at a low cost.

  2. Real-time fault diagnosis and fault-tolerant control

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Zhiwei; Ding, Steven X.; Cecati, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    This "Special Section on Real-Time Fault Diagnosis and Fault-Tolerant Control" of the IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics is motivated to provide a forum for academic and industrial communities to report recent theoretic/application results in real-time monitoring, diagnosis, and fault-tolerant design, and exchange the ideas about the emerging research direction in this field. Twenty-three papers were eventually selected through a strict peer-reviewed procedure, which represent the mo...

  3. Development of an intelligent hydroinformatic system for real-time monitoring and assessment of civil infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Paul; Michalis, Panagiotis; Solman, Hrvoje; Kerin, Igor; Bekic, Damir; Pakrashi, Vikram; McKeogh, Eamon

    2017-04-01

    With the effects of climate change becoming more apparent, extreme weather events are now occurring with greater frequency throughout the world. Such extreme events have resulted in increased high intensity flood events which are having devastating consequences on hydro-structures, especially on bridge infrastructure. The remote and often inaccessible nature of such bridges makes inspections problematic, a major concern if safety assessments are required during and after extreme flood events. A solution to this is the introduction of smart, low cost sensing solutions at locations susceptible to hydro-hazards. Such solutions can provide real-time information on the health of the bridge and its environments, with such information aiding in the mitigation of the risks associated with extreme weather events. This study presents the development of an intelligent system for remote, real-time monitoring of hydro-hazards to bridge infrastructure. The solution consists of two types of remote monitoring stations which have the capacity to monitor environmental conditions and provide real-time information to a centralized, big data database solution, from which an intelligent decision support system will accommodate the results to control and manage bridge, river and catchment assets. The first device developed as part of the system is the Weather Information Logging Device (WILD), which monitors rainfall, temperature and air and soil moisture content. The ability of the WILD to monitor rainfall in real time enables flood early warning alerts and predictive river flow conditions, thereby enabling decision makers the ability to make timely and effective decisions about critical infrastructures in advance of extreme flood events. The WILD is complemented by a second monitoring device, the Bridge Information Recording Device (BIRD), which monitors water levels at a given location in real-time. The monitoring of water levels of a river allows for, among other applications

  4. Real-time control systems: feedback, scheduling and robustness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Daniel; Seuret, Alexandre; Sename, Olivier

    2017-08-01

    The efficient control of real-time distributed systems, where continuous components are governed through digital devices and communication networks, needs a careful examination of the constraints arising from the different involved domains inside co-design approaches. Thanks to the robustness of feedback control, both new control methodologies and slackened real-time scheduling schemes are proposed beyond the frontiers between these traditionally separated fields. A methodology to design robust aperiodic controllers is provided, where the sampling interval is considered as a control variable of the system. Promising experimental results are provided to show the feasibility and robustness of the approach.

  5. Real time computer control of a nonlinear Multivariable System via Linearization and Stability Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raza, K.S.M.

    2004-01-01

    This paper demonstrates that if a complicated nonlinear, non-square, state-coupled multi variable system is smartly linearized and subjected to a thorough stability analysis then we can achieve our design objectives via a controller which will be quite simple (in term of resource usage and execution time) and very efficient (in terms of robustness). Further the aim is to implement this controller via computer in a real time environment. Therefore first a nonlinear mathematical model of the system is achieved. An intelligent work is done to decouple the multivariable system. Linearization and stability analysis techniques are employed for the development of a linearized and mathematically sound control law. Nonlinearities like the saturation in actuators are also been catered. The controller is then discretized using Runge-Kutta integration. Finally the discretized control law is programmed in a computer in a real time environment. The programme is done in RT -Linux using GNU C for the real time realization of the control scheme. The real time processes, like sampling and controlled actuation, and the non real time processes, like graphical user interface and display, are programmed as different tasks. The issue of inter process communication, between real time and non real time task is addressed quite carefully. The results of this research pursuit are presented graphically. (author)

  6. Real-time Control Mediation in Agile Distributed Software Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, John Stouby; Aaen, Ivan; Mathiassen, Lars

    2008-01-01

    Agile distributed environments pose particular challenges related to control of quality and collaboration in software development. Moreover, while face-to-face interaction is fundamental in agile development, distributed environments must rely extensively on mediated interactions. On this backdrop...... control was mediated over distance by technology through real-time exchanges. Contrary to previous research, the analysis suggests that both formal and informal elements of real-time mediated control were used; that evolving goals and adjustment of expectations were two of the main issues in real......-time mediated control exchanges; and, that the actors, despite distances in space and culture, developed a clan-like pattern mediated by technology to help control quality and collaboration in software development....

  7. Real time neutral beam power control on MAST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Homfray, David A., E-mail: david.homfray@ccfe.ac.uk [EURATOM/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon (United Kingdom); Benn, A.; Ciric, D.; Day, I.; Dunkley, V.; Keeling, D.; Khilar, S.; King, D.; King, R. [EURATOM/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon (United Kingdom); Kurutz, U. [Department of Experimental Plasma Physics, University of Augsburg, Augsburg (Germany); Payne, D.; Simmonds, M.; Stevenson, P.; Tame, C. [EURATOM/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon (United Kingdom)

    2011-10-15

    Real time power control of neutral beam provides an excellent tool for many different plasma physics studies. Power control at a better resolution than the level of a single injector is usually achieved by modulating individual power supplies. However, the short beam slowing down time on MAST is such that the plasma would be sensitive to modulating the neutral beam using this 100% on-off pulse-width modulation method. A novel alternative method of power control has been demonstrated, where the arc current, and hence beam current, has been controlled in real time allowing variations in neutral beam power. This has been demonstrated in a MAST plasma with almost no loss of transmission as a consequence of the optical properties of the high perveance MAST neutral beam system. This paper will detail the methodology, experiment and results and discuss the full implementation of this method that will allow MAST to control the beam power in real time.

  8. Upgrade of the COMPASS tokamak real-time control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janky, F., E-mail: filip.janky.work@gmail.com [Institute of Plasma Physics, AS CR, v.v.i., Association EURATOM/IPP.CR, Za Slovankou 3, 18200 Prague (Czech Republic); Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, V Holesovickach 2, 18000 Prague (Czech Republic); Havlicek, J. [Institute of Plasma Physics, AS CR, v.v.i., Association EURATOM/IPP.CR, Za Slovankou 3, 18200 Prague (Czech Republic); Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, V Holesovickach 2, 18000 Prague (Czech Republic); Batista, A.J.N. [Associação EURATOM/IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Kudlacek, O.; Seidl, J. [Institute of Plasma Physics, AS CR, v.v.i., Association EURATOM/IPP.CR, Za Slovankou 3, 18200 Prague (Czech Republic); Neto, A.C. [Associação EURATOM/IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Pipek, J.; Hron, M. [Institute of Plasma Physics, AS CR, v.v.i., Association EURATOM/IPP.CR, Za Slovankou 3, 18200 Prague (Czech Republic); Mikulin, O. [Institute of Plasma Physics, AS CR, v.v.i., Association EURATOM/IPP.CR, Za Slovankou 3, 18200 Prague (Czech Republic); Czech Technical University, Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering, V Holesovickach 2, 18000 Prague (Czech Republic); and others

    2014-03-15

    Highlights: • An upgrade of the COMPASS real-time system has been made to generally improve the plasma performance. • Stability of discharges in SNT configuration has been increased. • Plasma flat-top phase length has been extended. • Central solenoid protection has been developed. • Plasma position estimation has been improved. - Abstract: The COMPASS plasma control system is based on the MARTe real-time framework. Thanks to MARTe modularity and flexibility new algorithms have been developed for plasma diagnostic (plasma position calculation), control (shaping field control), and protection systems (central solenoid protection). Moreover, the MARTe framework itself was modified to broaden the communication capabilities via Aurora. This paper presents the recent upgrades and improvements made to the COMPASS real-time plasma control system, focusing on the issues related to precision of the real-time calculations, and discussing the improvements in terms of discharge parameters and stability. In particular, the new real-time system has given the possibility to analyze and to minimize the transport delays of each control loop.

  9. Real time control of plasmas and ECRH systems on TCV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paley, J.I.; Berrino, J.; Coda, S.; Duval, B.P.; Felici, F.; Goodman, T.P.; Martin, Y.; Moret, J.M.; Piras, F.; Cruz, N.; Rodriques, A.P.; Santos, B.; Varandas, C.A.F.

    2009-01-01

    Developments in the real time control hardware on Tokamak a Configuration Variable (TCV) coupled with the flexibility of plasma shaping and electron cyclotron (EC) heating and current drive actuators are opening many opportunities to perform real time experiments and develop algorithms and methods for fusion applications. The ability to control magnetohydrodynamic instabilities is particularly important for achieving high performance fusion plasmas and EC is envisaged as a key actuator in maintaining high performance. We have successfully demonstrated control of the sawtooth instability using the EC launcher injection angle to modify the current profile around the q =1 surface. This paper presents an overview of recent real time control experiments on TCV, developments in the hardware and algorithms together with plans for the future.

  10. FPGA Implementation of Real-Time Ethernet for Motion Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Youdong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an applicable implementation of real-time Ethernet named CASNET, which modifies the Ethernet medium access control (MAC to achieve the real-time requirement for motion control. CASNET is the communication protocol used for motion control system. Verilog hardware description language (VHDL has been used in the MAC logic design. The designed MAC serves as one of the intellectual properties (IPs and is applicable to various industrial controllers. The interface of the physical layer is RJ45. The other layers have been implemented by using C programs. The real-time Ethernet has been implemented by using field programmable gate array (FPGA technology and the proposed solution has been tested through the cycle time, synchronization accuracy, and Wireshark testing.

  11. Design for interaction between humans and intelligent systems during real-time fault management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malin, Jane T.; Schreckenghost, Debra L.; Thronesbery, Carroll G.

    1992-01-01

    Initial results are reported to provide guidance and assistance for designers of intelligent systems and their human interfaces. The objective is to achieve more effective human-computer interaction (HCI) for real time fault management support systems. Studies of the development of intelligent fault management systems within NASA have resulted in a new perspective of the user. If the user is viewed as one of the subsystems in a heterogeneous, distributed system, system design becomes the design of a flexible architecture for accomplishing system tasks with both human and computer agents. HCI requirements and design should be distinguished from user interface (displays and controls) requirements and design. Effective HCI design for multi-agent systems requires explicit identification of activities and information that support coordination and communication between agents. The effects are characterized of HCI design on overall system design and approaches are identified to addressing HCI requirements in system design. The results include definition of (1) guidance based on information level requirements analysis of HCI, (2) high level requirements for a design methodology that integrates the HCI perspective into system design, and (3) requirements for embedding HCI design tools into intelligent system development environments.

  12. The evolution of real-time control systems at JET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodyear, A.; Dorling, S.; Felton, R

    2001-07-01

    Real-time feedback control of the JET experiment is based upon a collection of diagnostics providing signals which are processed by various controllers that manipulate actuator parameters for plasma current, shape and heating. The real-time data network (RTDN) connects the diagnostic, controller and actuator systems to form a flexible feedback and protection system for plasma monitoring and control. The controllers are mainly VME systems based on the Motorola 680X0 (68K) processor with some computationally intensive systems utilising Texas Instruments TMS320C40 (C40) digital signal processors (DSP), though lately there has been a move towards PowerPC 750 based processors. The majority of 68K VME systems use VxWorks, a hard real time operating system. There is an ongoing requirement to improve the efficiency of the real-time control systems at JET. This is driven by a desire to either add more input signals, reduce the feedback cycle time or increase algorithm complexity. New technology has a major role to play in the upgrade of the real-time control systems but the novel redeployment of existing equipment can also be used to enhance performance. This paper examines the configuration of existing systems, both hardware and software, and how new technology can be gradually integrated without jeopardising the current functionality. The adoption of Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) as the connection medium for the RTDN is key to the evolutional development of the control systems. The ATM network is extremely flexible to configure and benefits from low message latency and deterministic delivery time, essential properties for a real-time network. (author)

  13. Evaluation of Real-time operating systems for FGC controls

    CERN Document Server

    Chalas, Konstantinos

    2015-01-01

    Power Converter Control for various experiments at CERN, is con- ducted using a machine called Function Generator Controller. The cur- rent generation of FGCs being deployed is FGC3. A certain number of FGCs require very fast and precise control, and for these systems, there is uncertainty of whether the existing hardware will be able to provide the level of determinism required. I have worked in the CCS section as a summer student on a project to study the potential of ARM-based CPUs to provide a real time behaviour fit for a future high-performance FGC4. In this paper, i will present the results of my research into real-time vari- ants of Linux and other real-time operating systems on two different ARM CPUs.

  14. Real time equilibrium reconstruction for tokamak discharge control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferron, J.R.; Walker, M.L.; Lao, L.L.; St John, H.E.; Humphreys, D.A.; Leuer, J.A.

    1998-01-01

    A practical method for performing a tokamak equilibrium reconstruction in real time for arbitrary time varying discharge shapes and current profiles is described. An approximate solution to the Grad-Shafranov equilibrium relation is found which best fits the diagnostic measurements. Thus, a solution for the spatial distribution of poloidal flux and toroidal current density is available in real time that is consistent with plasma force balance, allowing accurate evaluation of parameters such as discharge shape and safety factor profile. The equilibrium solutions are produced at a rate sufficient for discharge control. This equilibrium reconstruction algorithm has been implemented on the digital plasma control system for the DIII-D tokamak. The first application of real time equilibrium reconstruction to discharge shape control is described. (author)

  15. Real-Time Software for the Compass Tokamak Plasma Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valcarcel, D.F.; Duarte, A.S.; Neto, A.; Carvalho, I.S.; Carvalho, B.B.; Fernandes, H.; Sousa, J. [Instituto de Plasmas e Fusao Nuclear, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Lisboa (Portugal); Sartori, F. [Euratom-UKAEA, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 3DB Oxon (United Kingdom); Janky, F.; Cahyna, P.; Hron, M.; Panek, R. [Institute of Plasma Physics AS CR, v.v.i., Association EURATOM / IPP.CR, Prague (Costa Rica)

    2009-07-01

    This poster presents the flexible and high-performance real time system that guarantees the desired time cycles for plasma control on the COMPASS tokamak: 500 {mu}s for toroidal field, current, equilibrium and shaping; 50 {mu}s for fast control of the equilibrium and vertical instability. This system was developed on top of a high-performance processor and a software framework (MARTe) tailored for real-time. The preliminary measurements indicate that the time constraints will be met on the final solution. The system allows the making of modifications in the future to improve software components. (A.C.)

  16. Model-Checking Real-Time Control Programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, T. K.; Kristoffersen, K. J.; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, we present a method for automatic verification of real-time control programs running on LEGO(R) RCX(TM) bricks using the verification tool UPPALL. The control programs, consisting of a number of tasks running concurrently, are automatically translated into the mixed automata model...... of UPPAAL. The fixed scheduling algorithm used by the LEGO(R) RCX(TM) processor is modeled in UPPALL, and supply of similar (sufficient) timed automata models for the environment allows analysis of the overall real-time system using the tools of UPPALL. To illustrate our technique for sorting LEGO(R) bricks...

  17. Infrared wireless data transfer for real-time motion control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gajdusek, M.; Overboom, T.T.; Damen, A.A.H.; Bosch, van den P.P.J.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper several wireless solution are compared for their suitability for real-time control of a fast motion system. From the comparison, Very Fast Infrared (VFIR) communication link has been found to be an attractive solution for presented wirelessly controlled manipulator. Because standard

  18. Testing power system controllers by real-time simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Venne, Philippe; Guillaud, Xavier; Sirois, Frédéric

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we present a number of state-of-the art methods for testing power system controllers based on the use of a real-time power system simulator. After introducing Hypersim, we list and discuss the different means of connection between the controller under tests and the power system...

  19. Real-Time Control of an Articulatory-Based Speech Synthesizer for Brain Computer Interfaces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florent Bocquelet

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Restoring natural speech in paralyzed and aphasic people could be achieved using a Brain-Computer Interface (BCI controlling a speech synthesizer in real-time. To reach this goal, a prerequisite is to develop a speech synthesizer producing intelligible speech in real-time with a reasonable number of control parameters. We present here an articulatory-based speech synthesizer that can be controlled in real-time for future BCI applications. This synthesizer converts movements of the main speech articulators (tongue, jaw, velum, and lips into intelligible speech. The articulatory-to-acoustic mapping is performed using a deep neural network (DNN trained on electromagnetic articulography (EMA data recorded on a reference speaker synchronously with the produced speech signal. This DNN is then used in both offline and online modes to map the position of sensors glued on different speech articulators into acoustic parameters that are further converted into an audio signal using a vocoder. In offline mode, highly intelligible speech could be obtained as assessed by perceptual evaluation performed by 12 listeners. Then, to anticipate future BCI applications, we further assessed the real-time control of the synthesizer by both the reference speaker and new speakers, in a closed-loop paradigm using EMA data recorded in real time. A short calibration period was used to compensate for differences in sensor positions and articulatory differences between new speakers and the reference speaker. We found that real-time synthesis of vowels and consonants was possible with good intelligibility. In conclusion, these results open to future speech BCI applications using such articulatory-based speech synthesizer.

  20. Upgrade of the COMPASS tokamak real-time control system

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janky, Filip; Havlíček, Josef; Batista, A.J.N.; Kudláček, Ondřej; Seidl, Jakub; Neto, A.C.; Pipek, Jan; Hron, Martin; Mikulín, Ondřej; Duarte, A.S.; Carvalho, B.B.; Stöckel, Jan; Pánek, Radomír

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 89, č. 3 (2014), s. 186-194 ISSN 0920-3796 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP205/11/2470; GA MŠk 7G10072; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011021 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Real-time * Feedback control * Real-time framework * MARTe * COMPASS tokamak Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.152, year: 2014 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0920379613007564

  1. Neural Feedback Scheduling of Real-Time Control Tasks

    OpenAIRE

    Xia, Feng; Tian, Yu-Chu; Sun, Youxian; Dong, Jinxiang

    2008-01-01

    Many embedded real-time control systems suffer from resource constraints and dynamic workload variations. Although optimal feedback scheduling schemes are in principle capable of maximizing the overall control performance of multitasking control systems, most of them induce excessively large computational overheads associated with the mathematical optimization routines involved and hence are not directly applicable to practical systems. To optimize the overall control performance while minimi...

  2. REAL-TIME CONTROL OF COMBINED SEWER NETWORKS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Real-time control (RTC) is a custom-designed management program for a specific urban sewerage system during a wet-weather event. The function of RTC is to assure efficient operation of the sewerage system and maximum utilization of existing storage capacity, either to fully conta...

  3. Design of a real-time hybrid controller

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lim, K.W.; Preisig, H.A.; Rauch, H.E.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the framework of an automated supervisory control system realisation. It is developed to support rapid prototyping of real time hybrid con trol systems, described using a simple and flexible set of text descriptors. The design is versatile in allow ing the user to define

  4. BENEFITS OF SEWERAGE SYSTEM REAL-TIME CONTROL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Real-time control (RTC) is a custom-designed computer-assisted management system for a specific urban sewerage network that is activated during a wet-weather flow event. Though uses of RTC systems had started in the mid 60s, recent developments in computers, telecommunication, in...

  5. Knowledge Management and Problem Solving in Real Time: The Role of Swarm Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris W Callaghan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge management research applied to the development of real-time research capability, or capability to solve societal problems in hours and days instead of years and decades, is perhaps increasingly important, given persistent global problems such as the Zika virus and rapidly developing antibiotic resistance. Drawing on swarm intelligence theory, this paper presents an approach to real-time research problem-solving in the form of a framework for understanding the complexity of real-time research and the challenges associated with maximizing collaboration. The objective of this research is to make explicit certain theoretical, methodological, and practical implications deriving from new literature on emerging technologies and new forms of problem solving and to offer a model of real-time problem solving based on a synthesis of the literature. Drawing from ant colony, bee colony, and particle swarm optimization, as well as other population-based metaheuristics, swarm intelligence principles are derived in support of improved effectiveness and efficiency for multidisciplinary human swarm problem-solving. This synthesis seeks to offer useful insights into the research process, by offering a perspective of what maximized collaboration, as a system, implies for real-time problem solving.

  6. Real time control of the SSC string magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvo, O.; Flora, R.; MacPherson, M.

    1987-01-01

    The system described in this paper, called SECAR, was designed to control the excitation of a test string of magnets for the proposed Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) and will be used to upgrade the present Tevatron Excitation, Control and Regulation (TECAR) hardware and software. It resides in a VME orate and is controlled by a 68020/68881 based CPU running the application software under a real time operating system named VRTX

  7. Real-time control for long ohmic alternate current discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, Ivo S.; Duarte, Paulo; Fernandes, Horácio; Valcárcel, Daniel F.; Carvalho, Pedro J.; Silva, Carlos; Duarte, André S.; Neto, André; Sousa, Jorge; Batista, António J.N.; Hekkert, Tiago; Carvalho, Bernardo B.; Gomes, Rui B.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • 40 Alternate plasma current (AC) semi-cycles without loss of ionization, more than 1 s of operation. • AC discharges automatic control: feedback loops, time-windows control strategy, goal oriented time-windows and exception handling. • Energy deposition and Carbon radiation evolution during the AC discharges. - Abstract: The ISTTOK tokamak has a long tradition on alternate plasma current (AC) discharges, but the old control system was limiting and lacked full system integration. In order to improve the AC discharges performance the ISTTOK fast control system was updated. This control system developed on site based on the Advanced Telecommunications Computing Architecture (ATCA) standard now integrates the information gathered by all the tokamak real-time diagnostics to produce an accurate observation of the plasma parameters. The real-time actuators were also integrated, allowing a Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) control environment with several synchronization strategies available. The control system software was developed in C++ on top of a Linux system with the Multi-threaded Application Real-Time executor (MARTe) Framework to synchronize the real-time code execution under a 100μs control cycle. In addition, to simplify the discharge programming, a visual Human–Machine Interface (HMI) was also developed using the BaseLib2 libraries included in the MARTe Framework. This paper presents the ISTTOK control system and the optimizations that extended the AC current discharges duration to more than 1 s, corresponding to 40 semi-cycles without apparent degradation of the plasma parameters. This upgrade allows ISTTOK to be used as a low-cost material testing facility with long time exposures to nuclear fusion relevant plasmas, comparable (in duration) with medium size tokamaks

  8. Real-time control for long ohmic alternate current discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Ivo S., E-mail: ivoc@ipfn.ist.utl.pt; Duarte, Paulo; Fernandes, Horácio; Valcárcel, Daniel F.; Carvalho, Pedro J.; Silva, Carlos; Duarte, André S.; Neto, André; Sousa, Jorge; Batista, António J.N.; Hekkert, Tiago; Carvalho, Bernardo B.; Gomes, Rui B.

    2014-05-15

    Highlights: • 40 Alternate plasma current (AC) semi-cycles without loss of ionization, more than 1 s of operation. • AC discharges automatic control: feedback loops, time-windows control strategy, goal oriented time-windows and exception handling. • Energy deposition and Carbon radiation evolution during the AC discharges. - Abstract: The ISTTOK tokamak has a long tradition on alternate plasma current (AC) discharges, but the old control system was limiting and lacked full system integration. In order to improve the AC discharges performance the ISTTOK fast control system was updated. This control system developed on site based on the Advanced Telecommunications Computing Architecture (ATCA) standard now integrates the information gathered by all the tokamak real-time diagnostics to produce an accurate observation of the plasma parameters. The real-time actuators were also integrated, allowing a Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) control environment with several synchronization strategies available. The control system software was developed in C++ on top of a Linux system with the Multi-threaded Application Real-Time executor (MARTe) Framework to synchronize the real-time code execution under a 100μs control cycle. In addition, to simplify the discharge programming, a visual Human–Machine Interface (HMI) was also developed using the BaseLib2 libraries included in the MARTe Framework. This paper presents the ISTTOK control system and the optimizations that extended the AC current discharges duration to more than 1 s, corresponding to 40 semi-cycles without apparent degradation of the plasma parameters. This upgrade allows ISTTOK to be used as a low-cost material testing facility with long time exposures to nuclear fusion relevant plasmas, comparable (in duration) with medium size tokamaks.

  9. Advanced Map For Real-Time Process Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiobara, Yasuhisa; Matsudaira, Takayuki; Sashida, Yoshio; Chikuma, Makoto

    1987-10-01

    MAP, a communications protocol for factory automation proposed by General Motors [1], has been accepted by users throughout the world and is rapidly becoming a user standard. In fact, it is now a LAN standard for factory automation. MAP is intended to interconnect different devices, such as computers and programmable devices, made by different manufacturers, enabling them to exchange information. It is based on the OSI intercomputer com-munications protocol standard under development by the ISO. With progress and standardization, MAP is being investigated for application to process control fields other than factory automation [2]. The transmission response time of the network system and centralized management of data exchanged with various devices for distributed control are import-ant in the case of a real-time process control with programmable controllers, computers, and instruments connected to a LAN system. MAP/EPA and MINI MAP aim at reduced overhead in protocol processing and enhanced transmission response. If applied to real-time process control, a protocol based on point-to-point and request-response transactions limits throughput and transmission response. This paper describes an advanced MAP LAN system applied to real-time process control by adding a new data transmission control that performs multicasting communication voluntarily and periodically in the priority order of data to be exchanged.

  10. The hybrid UNIX controller for real-time data acquisition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huesman, R.H.; Klein, G.J.; Fleming, T.K.

    1996-01-01

    The authors describe a hybrid data acquisition architecture integrating a conventional UNIX workstation with CAMAC-based real-time hardware. The system combines the high-level programming simplicity and user interface of a UNIX workstation with the low-level timing control available from conventional real-time hardware. They detail this architecture as it has been implemented for control of the Donner 600-Crystal Positron Tomograph (PET600). Low-level data acquisition is carried out in this system using eight LeCroy 3588 histogrammers, which together after derandomization, acquire events at rates up to 4 MHz, and two dedicated Motorola 6809 microprocessors, which arbitrate fine timing control during acquisition. A SUN Microsystems UNIX workstation is used for high-level control, allowing an easily extensible user interface in an X-Windows environment, as well as real-time communications to the low-level acquisition units. Communication between the high- and low-level units is carried out via a Jorway 73A SCSI-CAMAC crate controller and a serial interface. For this application, the hybrid configuration segments low from high-level control for ease of maintenance and provided a low-cost upgrade from dated high-level control hardware

  11. Real Time Optimal Control of Supercapacitor Operation for Frequency Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Yusheng; Panwar, Mayank; Mohanpurkar, Manish; Hovsapian, Rob

    2016-07-01

    Supercapacitors are gaining wider applications in power systems due to fast dynamic response. Utilizing supercapacitors by means of power electronics interfaces for power compensation is a proven effective technique. For applications such as requency restoration if the cost of supercapacitors maintenance as well as the energy loss on the power electronics interfaces are addressed. It is infeasible to use traditional optimization control methods to mitigate the impacts of frequent cycling. This paper proposes a Front End Controller (FEC) using Generalized Predictive Control featuring real time receding optimization. The optimization constraints are based on cost and thermal management to enhance to the utilization efficiency of supercapacitors. A rigorous mathematical derivation is conducted and test results acquired from Digital Real Time Simulator are provided to demonstrate effectiveness.

  12. Soft Real-Time PID Control on a VME Computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karayan, Vahag; Sander, Stanley; Cageao, Richard

    2007-01-01

    microPID (uPID) is a computer program for real-time proportional + integral + derivative (PID) control of a translation stage in a Fourier-transform ultraviolet spectrometer. microPID implements a PID control loop over a position profile at sampling rate of 8 kHz (sampling period 125microseconds). The software runs in a strippeddown Linux operating system on a VersaModule Eurocard (VME) computer operating in real-time priority queue using an embedded controller, a 16-bit digital-to-analog converter (D/A) board, and a laser-positioning board (LPB). microPID consists of three main parts: (1) VME device-driver routines, (2) software that administers a custom protocol for serial communication with a control computer, and (3) a loop section that obtains the current position from an LPB-driver routine, calculates the ideal position from the profile, and calculates a new voltage command by use of an embedded PID routine all within each sampling period. The voltage command is sent to the D/A board to control the stage. microPID uses special kernel headers to obtain microsecond timing resolution. Inasmuch as microPID implements a single-threaded process and all other processes are disabled, the Linux operating system acts as a soft real-time system.

  13. Using Sun’s Java Real-Time System to Manage Behavior-Based Mobile Robot Controllers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew McKenzie

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Implementing a robot controller that can effectively manage limited resources in a deterministic, real-time manner is challenging. Behavior-based architectures that decompose autonomy into levels of intelligence are popular due to their robustness but do not provide real-time features that enforce timing constraints or support determinism. We propose an architecture and approach for using the real-time features of the Real-Time Specification for Java (RTSJ in a behavior-based mobile robot controller to show that timing constraints affect performance. This is accomplished by extending a real-time aware architecture that explicitly enumerates timing requirements for each behavior. It is not enough to reduce latency. The usefulness of this approach is demonstrated via an implementation on Solaris 10 and the Sun Java Real-Time System (Java RTS. Experimental results are obtained using a K-team Koala robot performing path following with four composite behaviors. Experiments were conducted using several task period sets in three cases: real-time threads with the real-time garbage collector, real-time threads with the non- real-time garbage collector, and non-real-time threads with the non-real-time garbage collector. Results show that even if latency and determinism are improved, the timing of each individual behavior significantly affects task performance.

  14. Real-time operation guide system for sintering process with artificial intelligence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Xiao-hui; CHEN Xu-ling; JIANG Tao; LI Tao

    2005-01-01

    In order to optimize the sintering process, a real-time operation guide system with artificial intelligence was developed, mainly including the data acquisition online subsystem, the sinter chemical composition controller, the sintering process state controller, and the abnormal conditions diagnosis subsystem. Knowledge base of the sintering process controlling was constructed, and inference engine of the system was established. Sinter chemical compositions were controlled by the strategies of self-adaptive prediction, internal optimization and center on basicity. And the state of sintering was stabilized centering on permeability. In order to meet the needs of process change and make the system clear, the system has learning ability and explanation function. The software of the system was developed in Visual C++ programming language. The application of the system shows that the hitting accuracy of sinter compositions and burning through point prediction are more than 85%; the first-grade rate of sinter chemical composition, stability rate of burning through point and stability rate of sintering process are increased by 3%, 9% and 4%, respectively.

  15. Real-time electricity pricing in a deregulated environment using artificial intelligence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dondo, M.G.

    1998-12-31

    The challenge of implementing real-time pricing of electricity was discussed. Several electric utilities want to incorporate real-time pricing into their rate policies. Conventional programming methods are not fast enough to process and distribute information in real time. Therefore, a new method that would match the current advances in communication speeds is needed. Also, conventional programming methods do not incorporate the uncertainties that are inherent in the lives of humans. Therefore, it is necessary to incorporate this fuzziness into the model. This study showed that the elements of speed and uncertainties can be readily incorporated into the determination of spot-pricing based electricity rates. A unique computational intelligence model was designed which consists of a feedforward neural network based on back-propagation training and a fuzzy logic model. The work has been demonstrated on the IEEE test systems and the Nova Scotia Power Corporation`s system.

  16. Real time control of the sawtooth period using EC launchers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paley, J I; Felici, F; Coda, S; Goodman, T P; Piras, F

    2009-01-01

    Tokamak plasmas operating at high performance are limited by several MHD instabilities. The sawtooth instability limits the core plasma pressure and can drive the neoclassical tearing mode unstable, but also prevents accumulation of impurities in the core. Electron cyclotron heating and current drive systems can be used to modify the local current profile and therefore tailor the sawtooth period. This paper reports on demonstrations of continuous real time feedback control of the sawtooth period by varying the EC injection angle.

  17. Upgrade of the RFX-mod real time control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manduchi, G., E-mail: gabriele.manduchi@igi.cnr.it [Consorzio RFX, Euratom-ENEA Association, Corso Stati Uniti 4, Padova 35127 (Italy); Barbalace, A.; Luchetta, A.; Soppelsa, A.; Taliercio, C.; Zampiva, E. [Consorzio RFX, Euratom-ENEA Association, Corso Stati Uniti 4, Padova 35127 (Italy)

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The paper describes the experience in running the real-time control system of RFX-mod. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It proposes a new architecture based multicore technology. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It analyzes two different solutions for data acquisition. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It discusses the effect of non simultaneous sampling in acquisition. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It provides some preliminary performance measurements. - Abstract: The real-time control system of RFX-mod, in operation since 2005, has been successful and has allowed several important achievements in the RFX physics research program. As a consequence of this fact, new control algorithms are under investigation, which are more demanding in terms of both enhanced computing power and reduced system latency, currently around 1.5 ms. For this reason, a major upgrade of the system is being considered, and a new architecture has been proposed, taking advantage of the rapid evolution of computer technology in the last years. The central component of the new architecture is a Linux-based multicore server, where individual cores replace the VME computers. The server is connected to the I/O via PCI-e based bus extenders, and every PCI-e connection is managed by a separate core. The system is supervised by MARTe, a software framework for real-time applications written in C++ and developed at JET and currently used for the JET vertical stabilization and in other fusion devices.

  18. Upgrade of the RFX-mod real time control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manduchi, G.; Barbalace, A.; Luchetta, A.; Soppelsa, A.; Taliercio, C.; Zampiva, E.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The paper describes the experience in running the real-time control system of RFX-mod. ► It proposes a new architecture based multicore technology. ► It analyzes two different solutions for data acquisition. ► It discusses the effect of non simultaneous sampling in acquisition. ► It provides some preliminary performance measurements. - Abstract: The real-time control system of RFX-mod, in operation since 2005, has been successful and has allowed several important achievements in the RFX physics research program. As a consequence of this fact, new control algorithms are under investigation, which are more demanding in terms of both enhanced computing power and reduced system latency, currently around 1.5 ms. For this reason, a major upgrade of the system is being considered, and a new architecture has been proposed, taking advantage of the rapid evolution of computer technology in the last years. The central component of the new architecture is a Linux-based multicore server, where individual cores replace the VME computers. The server is connected to the I/O via PCI-e based bus extenders, and every PCI-e connection is managed by a separate core. The system is supervised by MARTe, a software framework for real-time applications written in C++ and developed at JET and currently used for the JET vertical stabilization and in other fusion devices.

  19. Panel Discussion: Near Real Time Imagery Intelligence How Will We Do It?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andraitis, Arthur A.; Crane, Alfred C.; Daniels, George; Graham, Johnny; LaGesse, Francis R.

    1987-02-01

    This afternoon's panel discussion will address near real time imagery and intelligence--how will we do it? Our moderator is Arthur Andraitis, a consultant in intelligence reconnaissance systems and international marketing. He was commissioned in the United States Air Force out of the University of Idaho, and entered the Air Force in 1955 where he became an Image Intelligence Officer serving in a variety of intelligence and reconnaisance related assignments, including two tours each in Asia and Europe supporting tactical theater and national level operations. He also suffered through two Pentagon tours--one as Branch Chief of the Imagery Branch for the Assistant Chief of Staff for Intelligence. He was the U. S. National Coordinator for two NATO intelligence and reconnaissance panels, and served several assignments in support of special operations, which included a year with the special forces in Viet Nam where he flew many missions in L-19s, 01 and assault helicopters. He has been an advisor on intelligence and reconnaissance matters to several foreign countries. In 1978 he retired from the United States Air Force, went to work for Itek, and then became an independent consultant in intelligence and reconaissance systems. I would like to introduce Art Andraitis.

  20. A generic flexible and robust approach for intelligent real-time video-surveillance systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desurmont, Xavier; Delaigle, Jean-Francois; Bastide, Arnaud; Macq, Benoit

    2004-05-01

    In this article we present a generic, flexible and robust approach for an intelligent real-time video-surveillance system. A previous version of the system was presented in [1]. The goal of these advanced tools is to provide help to operators by detecting events of interest in visual scenes and highlighting alarms and compute statistics. The proposed system is a multi-camera platform able to handle different standards of video inputs (composite, IP, IEEE1394 ) and which can basically compress (MPEG4), store and display them. This platform also integrates advanced video analysis tools, such as motion detection, segmentation, tracking and interpretation. The design of the architecture is optimised to playback, display, and process video flows in an efficient way for video-surveillance application. The implementation is distributed on a scalable computer cluster based on Linux and IP network. It relies on POSIX threads for multitasking scheduling. Data flows are transmitted between the different modules using multicast technology and under control of a TCP-based command network (e.g. for bandwidth occupation control). We report here some results and we show the potential use of such a flexible system in third generation video surveillance system. We illustrate the interest of the system in a real case study, which is the indoor surveillance.

  1. Real-time statistical quality control and ARM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blough, D.K.

    1992-05-01

    An important component of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is real-time quality control of data obtained from meteorological instruments. It is the goal of the ARM program to enhance the predictive capabilities of global circulation models by incorporating in them more detailed information on the radiative characteristics of the earth's atmosphere. To this end, a number of Cloud and Radiation Testbeds (CART's) will be built at various locations worldwide. Each CART will consist of an array of instruments designed to collect radiative data. The large amount of data obtained from these instruments necessitates real-time processing in order to flag outliers and possible instrument malfunction. The Bayesian dynamic linear model (DLM) proves to be an effective way of monitoring the time series data which each instrument generates. It provides a flexible yet powerful approach to detecting in real-time sudden shifts in a non-stationary multivariate time series. An application of these techniques to data arising from a remote sensing instrument to be used in the CART is provided. Using real data from a wind profiler, the ability of the DLM to detect outliers is studied. 5 refs

  2. Real-time control of internal transport barriers in JET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazon, D.; Litaudon, X.; Moreau, D. [Association Euratom-CEA, CEA Cadarache, St. Paul lez Durance (France)] [and others

    2002-07-01

    We present the results of recent experiments related to real-time control of internal transport barriers (ITBs) in JET. Using a simple criterion to characterize the ITB existence, location and strength, we have successfully controlled for the first time the radial electron temperature profile within the ITB. The dimensionless variable used in the real-time algorithm - ratio of the ion gyro-radius to the local gradient scale length of the electron temperature - is a measure of the normalized electron temperature gradient and characterizes satisfactorily the main ITB features with a relatively low computational cost. We show several examples of control of this variable in various experimental conditions of toroidal field and plasma current, using different heating systems as control actuators. We also present a double-loop feedback scheme where both the global neutron rate from D-D reactions and the ITB strength are controlled simultaneously. In this case the ITB is sustained in a fully non-inductive current drive regime during several seconds. With the proposed control method, disruptions are avoided by holding the plasma performance at a prescribed target and this opens the route towards stationary operation of tokamak plasmas with ITBs. Initial results suggest that the additional control of the current profile is an important issue for achieving steady-state operation, in particular in the triggering and the sustainment of the ITB. (author)

  3. Distributed digital real-time control system for TCV tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le, H.B. [École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas (CRPP), Association EURATOM-Confédération Suisse, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Felici, F. [Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Paley, J.I.; Duval, B.P.; Moret, J.-M.; Coda, S.; Sauter, O.; Fasel, D.; Marmillod, P. [École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas (CRPP), Association EURATOM-Confédération Suisse, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2014-03-15

    Highlights: • A new distributed digital control system for the TCV tokamak has been commissioned. • Data is shared in real-time between all nodes using the reflective memory. • The customised Linux OS allows achieving deterministic and low latency behaviour. • The control algorithm design in Simulink together with the automatic code generation using Embedded Coder allow rapid algorithm development. • Controllers designed outside the TCV environment can be ported easily. • The previous control system functions have been emulated and improved. • New capabilities include MHD control, profile control, equilibrium reconstruction. - Abstract: A new digital feedback control system (named the SCD “Système de Contrôle Distribué”) has been developed, integrated and used successfully to control TCV (Tokamak à Configuration Variable) plasmas. The system is designed to be modular, distributed, and scalable, accommodating hundreds of diagnostic inputs and actuator outputs. With many more inputs and outputs available than previously possible, it offers the possibility to design advanced control algorithms with better knowledge of the plasma state and to coherently control all TCV actuators, including poloidal field (PF) coils, gas valves, the gyrotron powers and launcher angles of the electron cyclotron heating and current drive system (ECRH/ECCD) together with diagnostic triggering signals. The system consists of multiple nodes; each is a customised Linux desktop or embedded PC which may have local ADC and DAC cards. Each node is also connected to a memory network (reflective memory) providing a reliable, deterministic method of sharing memory between all nodes. Control algorithms are programmed as block diagrams in Matlab-Simulink providing a powerful environment for modelling and control design. The C code is generated automatically from the Simulink block diagram and compiled, with the Simulink Embedded Coder (SEC, formerly Real-Time Workshop Embedded

  4. RFX: New tools for real-time MHD control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gnesotto, F.; Luchetta, A.; Marchiori, G.

    2005-01-01

    RFX has been recently modified to improve its capability of controlling different MHD phenomena by means of fast, feedback controlled amplifiers and distributed radial field inductors. The paper, after summarizing the principal results obtained in the past by means of active control of magnetic fields in RFX, describes the recent modifications to the machine and the improvements to the power supplies and to the magnetic diagnostics. The old thick shell has been replaced by a much thinner shell, whose electromagnetic time constants are much shorter than pulse duration, and a system of 192 radial field coils has been added, covering the whole torus surface. Then the paper describes the models used to design the new real-time control system of RFX and gives some preliminary results obtained, with the same techniques, on the EXTRAP-T2R device. The basic choices about the technologies adopted for the new RFX control system are discussed with reference to the general problem of real-time control of MHD instabilities in magnetic fusion devices. Finally, the paper defines the main objectives of the RFX scientific programme aimed at exploiting these new tools. (author)

  5. Efficient Evaluation of Wireless Real-Time Control Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Horvath

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a system simulation framework for the design and performance evaluation of complex wireless cyber-physical systems. We describe the simulator architecture and the specific developments that are required to simulate cyber-physical systems relying on multi-channel, multihop mesh networks. We introduce realistic and efficient physical layer models and a system simulation methodology, which provides statistically significant performance evaluation results with low computational complexity. The capabilities of the proposed framework are illustrated in the example of WirelessHART, a centralized, real-time, multi-hop mesh network designed for industrial control and monitor applications.

  6. Real Time Energy Management Control Strategies for Hybrid Powertrains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaher, Mohamed Hegazi Mohamed

    In order to improve fuel efficiency and reduce emissions of mobile vehicles, various hybrid power-train concepts have been developed over the years. This thesis focuses on embedded control of hybrid powertrain concepts for mobile vehicle applications. Optimal robust control approach is used to develop a real time energy management strategy for continuous operations. The main idea is to store the normally wasted mechanical regenerative energy in energy storage devices for later usage. The regenerative energy recovery opportunity exists in any condition where the speed of motion is in opposite direction to the applied force or torque. This is the case when the vehicle is braking, decelerating, or the motion is driven by gravitational force, or load driven. There are three main concepts for regernerative energy storing devices in hybrid vehicles: electric, hydraulic, and flywheel. The real time control challenge is to balance the system power demand from the engine and the hybrid storage device, without depleting the energy storage device or stalling the engine in any work cycle, while making optimal use of the energy saving opportunities in a given operational, often repetitive cycle. In the worst case scenario, only engine is used and hybrid system completely disabled. A rule based control is developed and tuned for different work cycles and linked to a gain scheduling algorithm. A gain scheduling algorithm identifies the cycle being performed by the machine and its position via GPS, and maps them to the gains.

  7. Real-Time Energy Management Control for Hybrid Electric Powertrains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Zaher

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on embedded control of a hybrid powertrain concepts for mobile vehicle applications. Optimal robust control approach is used to develop a real-time energy management strategy. The main idea is to store the normally wasted mechanical regenerative energy in energy storage devices for later usage. The regenerative energy recovery opportunity exists in any condition where the speed of motion is in the opposite direction to the applied force or torque. This is the case when the vehicle is braking, decelerating, the motion is driven by gravitational force, or load driven. There are three main concepts for energy storing devices in hybrid vehicles: electric, hydraulic, and mechanical (flywheel. The real-time control challenge is to balance the system power demands from the engine and the hybrid storage device, without depleting the energy storage device or stalling the engine in any work cycle. In the worst-case scenario, only the engine is used and the hybrid system is completely disabled. A rule-based control algorithm is developed and is tuned for different work cycles and could be linked to a gain scheduling algorithm. A gain scheduling algorithm identifies the cycle being performed by the work machine and its position via GPS and maps both of them to the gains.

  8. Progress in real-time feedback control systems in RFX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barana, O.; Luchetta, A. E-mail: adriano.luchetta@igi.cnr.it; Manduchi, G.; Taliercio, C

    2004-06-01

    Major modifications of the RFX load assembly and power supplies are in progress to allow extensive active control schemes, such as equilibrium and plasma position control and innovative control of the MHD modes. The digital control system is implemented in VME64 using a distributed architecture. The use of a 'stable' operating system that is likely to survive some generations of processors can help coping with evolution of technology. PowerPC and Pentium processors were thus considered as candidates and tested and the first one has been selected due to the better performance in floating point computation. Wind River VxWorks has been chosen as real-time operating system. 100 Mbit switched Ethernet has been evaluated for real-time communication by using the user datagram protocol (UDP). Measurements have been executed on a prototype system to assess data transfer latency, jitter and reliability and the results confirm that the solution is suitable for the application. The paper describes in detail the reasons for the choice in the hardware components. Results from several tests comparing the performance of different solutions are also provided.

  9. A study on the development of a real-time intelligent system for ultrasonic flaw classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Sung Jin; Kim, Hak Joon; Lee, Hyun; Lee, Seung Seok

    1998-01-01

    In spite of significant progress in research on ultrasonic pattern recognition it is not widely used in many practical field inspection in weldments. For the convenience of field application of this methodology, following four key issues have to be suitably addressed; 1) a software where the ultrasonic pattern recognition algorithm is efficiently implemented, 2) a real-time ultrasonic testing system which can capture the digitized ultrasonic flaw signal so the pattern recognition software can be applied in a real-time fashion, 3) database of ultrasonic flaw signals in weldments, which is served as a foundation of the ultrasonic pattern recognition algorithm, and finally, 4) ultrasonic features which should be invariant to operational variables of the ultrasonic test system. Presented here is the recent progress in the development of a real-time ultrasonic flaw classification by the novel combination of followings; an intelligent software for ultrasonic flaw classification in weldments, a computer-base real-time ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation system, database of ultrasonic flaw signals, and invariant ultrasonic features called 'normalized features.'

  10. Design of a real-time tax-data monitoring intelligent card system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yajun; Bi, Guotang; Chen, Liwei; Wang, Zhiyuan

    2009-07-01

    To solve the current problem of low efficiency of domestic Oil Station's information management, Oil Station's realtime tax data monitoring system has been developed to automatically access tax data of Oil pumping machines, realizing Oil-pumping machines' real-time automatic data collection, displaying and saving. The monitoring system uses the noncontact intelligent card or network to directly collect data which can not be artificially modified and so seals the loopholes and improves the tax collection's automatic level. It can perform real-time collection and management of the Oil Station information, and find the problem promptly, achieves the automatic management for the entire process covering Oil sales accounting and reporting. It can also perform remote query to the Oil Station's operation data. This system has broad application future and economic value.

  11. Tool set for distributed real-time machine control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrott, Andrew J.; Wright, Christopher D.; West, Andrew A.; Harrison, Robert; Weston, Richard H.

    1997-01-01

    Demands for increased control capabilities require next generation manufacturing machines to comprise intelligent building elements, physically located at the point where the control functionality is required. Networks of modular intelligent controllers are increasingly designed into manufacturing machines and usable standards are slowly emerging. To implement a control system using off-the-shelf intelligent devices from multi-vendor sources requires a number of well defined activities, including (a) the specification and selection of interoperable control system components, (b) device independent application programming and (c) device configuration, management, monitoring and control. This paper briefly discusses the support for the above machine lifecycle activities through the development of an integrated computing environment populated with an extendable software toolset. The toolset supports machine builder activities such as initial control logic specification, logic analysis, machine modeling, mechanical verification, application programming, automatic code generation, simulation/test, version control, distributed run-time support and documentation. The environment itself consists of system management tools and a distributed object-oriented database which provides storage for the outputs from machine lifecycle activities and specific target control solutions.

  12. Prototype Real-time ATCA-based LLRF Control System

    CERN Document Server

    Makowski, Dariusz; Jezynski, Tomasz; Piotrowski, Adam; Jablonski, Grzegorz; Jalmuzna, Wojciech; Czuba, Krzysztof; Predki, Paweł; Simrock, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    The linear accelerators employed to drive Free Electron Lasers (FELs), such as the X-ray Free Electron Laser (XFEL) currently being built in Hamburg, require sophisticated control systems. The Low Level Radio Frequency (LLRF) control system should stabilize the phase and amplitude of the electromagnetic field in accelerating modules with tolerances below 0.02 % for amplitude and 0.01 degree for phase to produce ultra-stable electron beam that meets the conditions required for Self-Amplified Spontaneous Emission (SASE). The LLRF control system of 32-cavity accelerating module of the XFEL accelerator requires acquisition of more than 100 analogue signals sampled with frequency around 100 MHz. Data processing in real-time loop should complete within a few hundreds of nanoseconds. Moreover, the LLRF control system should be reliable, upgradable and serviceable. The Advanced Telecommunications Computing Architecture (ATCA) standard, developed for telecommunication applications, can fulfil all of the above mentione...

  13. Intelligent Traffic Information System a Real-Time Traffic Information System on the Shiraz Bypass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sodagaran Amir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Real-time traffic information system is an Intelligent Transportation System (ITS that allows commuters to make their traveling plan better. In this regard, an intelligent and real-time traffic information system was developed based on the video detection and an image processing algorithm was applied to measure traffic-flow according to the average speed of vehicles. Then, traffic status of each pass way is broadcasted to the electronic boards installed on all decision making entrance / exit. Different levels of congestion related to the routes ahead are shown on the boards with different colors in order to assist commuters. This system was implemented on the Shiraz Dry River’s bypasses which account as vital routes to moderate traffic of city center. Experimental results are promising due to the proximity of determined traffic status by the system compared to the detection done by traffic experts. Average speed improvement is another result of using this system. This intelligent system developed and implemented in Shiraz city for the first time in Iran.s.

  14. Wireless communication of real-time ultrasound data and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobias, Richard J.

    2015-03-01

    The Internet of Things (IoT) is expected to grow to 26 billion connected devices by 2020, plus the PC, smart phone, and tablet segment that includes mobile Health (mHealth) connected devices is projected to account for another 7.3 billion units by 2020. This paper explores some of the real-time constraints on the data-flow and control of a wireless connected ultrasound machine. The paper will define an ultrasound server and the capabilities necessary for real-time use of the device. The concept of an ultrasound server wirelessly (or over any network) connected to multiple lightweight clients on devices like an iPad, iPhone, or Android-based tablet, smartphone and other network-attached displays (i.e., Google Glass) is explored. Latency in the ultrasound data stream is one of the key areas to measure and to focus on keeping as small as possible (20 frames-per-second on a properly configured wireless network. The ultrasound server needs to be designed to accept multiple ultrasound data clients and multiple control clients. A description of the server and some of its key features will be described.

  15. Real time testing of intelligent relays for synchronous distributed generation islanding detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Davy

    As electric power systems continue to grow to meet ever-increasing energy demand, their security, reliability, and sustainability requirements also become more stringent. The deployment of distributed energy resources (DER), including generation and storage, in conventional passive distribution feeders, gives rise to integration problems involving protection and unintentional islanding. Distributed generators need to be islanded for safety reasons when disconnected or isolated from the main feeder as distributed generator islanding may create hazards to utility and third-party personnel, and possibly damage the distribution system infrastructure, including the distributed generators. This thesis compares several key performance indicators of a newly developed intelligent islanding detection relay, against islanding detection devices currently used by the industry. The intelligent relay employs multivariable analysis and data mining methods to arrive at decision trees that contain both the protection handles and the settings. A test methodology is developed to assess the performance of these intelligent relays on a real time simulation environment using a generic model based on a real-life distribution feeder. The methodology demonstrates the applicability and potential advantages of the intelligent relay, by running a large number of tests, reflecting a multitude of system operating conditions. The testing indicates that the intelligent relay often outperforms frequency, voltage and rate of change of frequency relays currently used for islanding detection, while respecting the islanding detection time constraints imposed by standing distributed generator interconnection guidelines.

  16. Real time speckle monitoring to control retinal photocoagulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliedtner, Katharina; Seifert, Eric; Brinkmann, Ralf

    2017-07-01

    Photocoagulation is a treatment modality for several retinal diseases. Intra- and inter-individual variations of the retinal absorption as well as ocular transmission and light scattering makes it impossible to achieve a uniform effective exposure with one set of laser parameters. To guarantee a uniform damage throughout the therapy a real-time control is highly requested. Here, an approach to realize a real-time optical feedback using dynamic speckle analysis in-vivo is presented. A 532 nm continuous wave Nd:YAG laser is used for coagulation. During coagulation, speckle dynamics are monitored by a coherent object illumination using a 633 nm diode laser and analyzed by a CMOS camera with a frame rate up to 1 kHz. An algorithm is presented that can discriminate between different categories of retinal pigment epithelial damage ex-vivo in enucleated porcine eyes and that seems to be robust to noise in-vivo. Tissue changes in rabbits during retinal coagulation could be observed for different lesion strengths. This algorithm can run on a FPGA and is able to calculate a feedback value which is correlated to the thermal and coagulation induced tissue motion and thus the achieved damage.

  17. REAL TIME QUALITY CONTROL OF THE HEATSET OFFSET PRINTING PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Răzvan-George RĂCHERU

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Offset lithography is one of the most common ways of creating printed materials. Compared to other printing methods, offset printing is best suited for economically producing large volumes of high quality prints in a manner that requires little maintenance. Because of the high speed and the high volume of the printing press, we have to rely on automation for press control and not just to the printer’s eye. When printing an image that has more than one color, it is necessary to print each color separately and ensure each color overlaps the others precisely. If this is not done, the finished image will look fuzzy, blurred or "out of register". To help line the colors up correctly, a system of registration is necessary. Therefore, the use of an automated real time quality control system will result in a more consistent color for the customer and less waste for the printer.

  18. Real-time software for the COMPASS tokamak plasma control

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Valcárcel, D.F.; Duarte, A.S.; Neto, A.; Carvalho, I.S.; Carvalho, B.B.; Fernandes, H.; Sousa, J.; Sartori, F.; Janky, Filip; Cahyna, Pavel; Hron, Martin; Pánek, Radomír

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 85, 3-4 (2010), s. 470-473 ISSN 0920-3796. [IAEA Technical Meeting on Control, Data Acquisition and Remote Participation for Fusion Research/7th./. Aix – en – Provence, 15.06.2009-19.06.2009] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Real-time * ATCA * Data acquisition * Plasma control software Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.143, year: 2010 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6V3C-4YXMP1Y-3&_user=6542793&_coverDate=07%2F31%2F2010&_rdoc=1&_fmt=high&_orig=search&_origin=search&_sort=d&_docanchor=&view=c&_acct=C000070123&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=6542793&md5=9005df0735c0dbb3a93a9c154b0d09c1&searchtype=a

  19. Radio controlled detonators and sequential real time blast applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, T.; Laboz, J.M. [Delta Caps International, Nice (France)

    1995-12-31

    Among the numerous technical evolutions in the blasting environment the authors are going to describe below the concept of electronic detonator sequenced by radio waves, and also its numerous applications. Three major technologies are used in the initiation environment: fused-initiated detonators; electric detonators; and non-electric detonators. The last two technologies were made available under multiple variants. Two major innovations are going to substantially change the way traditional detonators operate: pyrotechnic delays are replaced by electronic delays (greater accuracy); and triggering orders, passing through a cable, is now replaced by radio-waves transmission (possibility to do real time delay pattern). Such a new product provided all the features offered by current detonators, but also allows mastering specific cases that were difficult to control with the current technology, such as: vibration control; underground blast; and building demolition.

  20. Developing a real-time emulation of multiresolutional control architectures for complex, discrete-event systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, W.J.; Macro, J.G.; Brook, A.L. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    This paper first discusses an object-oriented, control architecture and then applies the architecture to produce a real-time software emulator for the Rapid Acquisition of Manufactured Parts (RAMP) flexible manufacturing system (FMS). In specifying the control architecture, the coordinated object is first defined as the primary modeling element. These coordinated objects are then integrated into a Recursive, Object-Oriented Coordination Hierarchy. A new simulation methodology, the Hierarchical Object-Oriented Programmable Logic Simulator, is then employed to model the interactions among the coordinated objects. The final step in implementing the emulator is to distribute the models of the coordinated objects over a network of computers and to synchronize their operation to a real-time clock. The paper then introduces the Hierarchical Subsystem Controller as an intelligent controller for the coordinated object. The proposed approach to intelligent control is then compared to the concept of multiresolutional semiosis that has been developed by Dr. Alex Meystel. Finally, the plans for implementing an intelligent controller for the RAMP FMS are discussed.

  1. Contextual Intelligent Load Management Considering Real Time Pricing in a Smart Grid Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gomes, Luis; Fernandes, Filipe; Faria, Pedro

    2013-01-01

    The use of demand response programs enables the adequate use of resources of small and medium players, bringing high benefits to the smart grid, and increasing its efficiency. One of the difficulties to proceed with this paradigm is the lack of intelligence in the management of small and medium...... size players. In order to make demand response programs a feasible solution, it is essential that small and medium players have an efficient energy management and a fair optimization mechanism to decrease the consumption without heavy loss of comfort, making it acceptable for the users. This paper...... addresses the application of real-time pricing in a house that uses an intelligent optimization module involving artificial neural networks....

  2. A PEMFC hybrid electric vehicle real time control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hongqiao

    In recent years, environmental friendly technologies and alternative energy solutions have drawn a lot of public attentions due to global energy crisis and pollution issues. Fuel cell (FC), a technology invented almost at the same time as the internal combustion (IC) engine, is now the focus of the automotive industry again. The fuel cell vehicle (FCV) has zero emission and its efficiency is significantly higher than the conventional IC engine power vehicles. Among a variety of FCV technologies, proton exchange membrane (PEM) FC vehicle appears to be far more attractive and mature. The prototype PEMFC vehicle has been developed and demonstrated to the public by nearly all the major automotive manufacturers in recent years. However, to the interest of the public research, publications and documentations on the PEMFC vehicle technology are rarely available due to its proprietary nature, which essentially makes it a secured technology. This dissertation demonstrates a real world application of a PEMFC hybrid electric vehicle. Through presenting the vehicle design concept, developing the real time control system and generating generic operation principles, this dissertation targets at establishing the public knowledge base on this new technology. A complete PEMFC hybrid electric vehicle design, including vehicle components layout, process flow diagram, real time control system architecture, subsystem structures and control algorithms, is presented in order to help understand the whole vehicle system. The design concept is validated through the vehicle demonstration. Generic operating principles are established along with the validation process, which helps populate this emerging technology. Thereafter, further improvements and future research directions are discussed.

  3. New magnetic real time shape control for MAST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pangione, L., E-mail: luigi.pangione@ccfe.ac.uk [EURATOM/CCFE Fusion Association – Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); McArdle, G.; Storrs, J. [EURATOM/CCFE Fusion Association – Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► New magnetic shape control system has been implemented. ► It has been intensively tested in a simulation environment. ► A tool chain to produce LTI model and simulate its behaviour has been implemented. ► Experimental results are shown. -- Abstract: The Mega Ampere Spherical Tokamak (MAST) real time plasma position controller is based on an optical linear camera placed on the mid plane of the vessel. This solution has the advantage of being a direct observation of the D{sub α} emissions coming from the interaction between the boundary of the plasma and neutral gas, but, on the other hand, it restricts the control to the outer radius of the plasma only. A complete chain of tools has been set up to implement, test and simulate a new real time magnetic plasma shape controller based on the rtEFIT code. The complete working path consists of three elements: a linear static relationship between control parameters and current demands, a linear state space model needed to represent the plasma dynamic response in closed loop simulations, and the possibility to run simulations inside the Plasma Control System (PCS). The linear relationship has been calculated using the FIESTA code, which is developed using Matlab at CCFE. The linear state space model was generated using the CREATE-L code developed by the CREATE Consortium. It has already been successfully used to model JET, FTU and TCV tokamaks. Using this working path many simulations have been carried out allowing fine tuning of the control gains before the real experiment. The simulation testing includes the plasma shape control law as implemented in PCS itself, so intensive debugging has been possible prior to operation. Successful control using rtEFIT was established in the second dedicated experiment during the MAST 2011–12 campaign. This work is a stepping stone towards divertor control which is ultimately intended for application to the super-X divertor in the MAST Upgrade experiment.

  4. Intelligent Flight Support System (IFSS): A Real-time Intelligent Decision Support Prototype, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The integration of the analysis tools with the advanced visualization capabilities in The Intelligent Flight Support System (IFSS) can provide a unique method for...

  5. Intelligent Stale-Frame Discards for Real-Time Video Streaming over Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheu Tsang-Ling

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper presents intelligent early packet discards (I-EPD for real-time video streaming over a multihop wireless ad hoc network. In a multihop wireless ad hoc network, the quality of transferring real-time video streams could be seriously degraded, since every intermediate node (IN functionally like relay device does not possess large buffer and sufficient bandwidth. Even worse, a selected relay node could leave or power off unexpectedly, which breaks the route to destination. Thus, a stale video frame is useless even if it can reach destination after network traffic becomes smooth or failed route is reconfigured. In the proposed I-EPD, an IN can intelligently determine whether a buffered video packet should be early discarded. For the purpose of validation, we implement the I-EPD on Linux-based embedded systems. Via the comparisons of performance metrics (packet/frame discards ratios, PSNR, etc., we demonstrate that video quality over a wireless ad hoc network can be substantially improved and unnecessary bandwidth wastage is greatly reduced.

  6. Fuzzy controller for real time supervision of nuclear power reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bala Subramanian, R.

    2012-01-01

    Generally nuclear energy provides about 60% of the whole electricity production. A modulation of the nuclear power plants must be able to respond to the demand on the network. The pressurized water nuclear reactor has to yield correctly a load set point. Fundamentally, two parameters are concerned in leading this task to a successful conclusion: the power axial-offset and the control rods position. The focus of this study is the automation of the control of the power axial-offset by adding soluble boron and by minimizing the volume flows through the water pump. It is also important to take into consideration the liquid waste volume. Water or boron is injected into the reactor primary circuit. At the present time this task is still performed manually by an operator, for all previous attempts to automate it failed. That device, sketchily described in the paper, gave rise to the development of a real-time fuzzy controller for the power axial-offset and the control rods insertion in a pressurized water reactor (PWR). The fuzzy controller, which is the main subject of the paper, expresses more naturally the human expertise, thus avoiding the previous issue of empirical tunings. It was implemented in simulation using Matlab-Simulink on a Sun workstation. Two realistic tests discussed show that the fuzzy controller runs as efficiently as an expert operator does

  7. Compilation and synthesis for real-time embedded controllers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fränzle, Martin; Müller-Olm, Markus

    1999-01-01

    This article provides an overview over two constructive approaches to provably correct hard real-time code generation where hard real-time code is generated from abstract requirements rather than verified against the timing requirements a posteriori. The first, more pragmatic approach is concerne......-time systems at a very high level of abstraction....

  8. Improved Bit Rate Control for Real-Time MPEG Watermarking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranata Sugiri

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The alteration of compressed video bitstream due to embedding of digital watermark tends to produce unpredictable video bit rate variations which may in turn lead to video playback buffer overflow/underflow or transmission bandwidth violation problems. This paper presents a novel bit rate control technique for real-time MPEG watermarking applications. In our experiments, spread spectrum watermarks are embedded in the quantized DCT domain without requantization and motion reestimation to achieve fast watermarking. The proposed bit rate control scheme evaluates the combined bit lengths of a set of multiple watermarked VLC codewords, and successively replaces watermarked VLC codewords having the largest increase in bit length with their corresponding unmarked VLC codewords until a target bit length is achieved. The proposed method offers flexibility and scalability, which are neglected by similar works reported in the literature. Experimental results show that the proposed bit rate control scheme is effective in meeting the bit rate targets and capable of improving the watermark detection robustness for different video contents compressed at different bit rates.

  9. Cybersecurity through Real-Time Distributed Control Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kisner, Roger A [ORNL; Manges, Wayne W [ORNL; MacIntyre, Lawrence Paul [ORNL; Nutaro, James J [ORNL; Munro Jr, John K [ORNL; Ewing, Paul D [ORNL; Howlader, Mostofa [ORNL; Kuruganti, Phani Teja [ORNL; Wallace, Richard M [ORNL; Olama, Mohammed M [ORNL

    2010-04-01

    Critical infrastructure sites and facilities are becoming increasingly dependent on interconnected physical and cyber-based real-time distributed control systems (RTDCSs). A mounting cybersecurity threat results from the nature of these ubiquitous and sometimes unrestrained communications interconnections. Much work is under way in numerous organizations to characterize the cyber threat, determine means to minimize risk, and develop mitigation strategies to address potential consequences. While it seems natural that a simple application of cyber-protection methods derived from corporate business information technology (IT) domain would lead to an acceptable solution, the reality is that the characteristics of RTDCSs make many of those methods inadequate and unsatisfactory or even harmful. A solution lies in developing a defense-in-depth approach that ranges from protection at communications interconnect levels ultimately to the control system s functional characteristics that are designed to maintain control in the face of malicious intrusion. This paper summarizes the nature of RTDCSs from a cybersecurity perspec tive and discusses issues, vulnerabilities, candidate mitigation approaches, and metrics.

  10. A Crowdsensing-Based Real-Time System for Finger Interactions in Intelligent Transport System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengqun Song

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Crowdsensing leverages human intelligence/experience from the general public and social interactions to create participatory sensor networks, where context-aware and semantically complex information is gathered, processed, and shared to collaboratively solve specific problems. This paper proposes a real-time projector-camera finger system based on the crowdsensing, in which user can interact with a computer by bare hand touching on arbitrary surfaces. The interaction process of the system can be completely carried out automatically, and it can be used as an intelligent device in intelligent transport system where the driver can watch and interact with the display information while driving, without causing visual distractions. A single camera is used in the system to recover 3D information of fingertip for hand touch detection. A linear-scanning method is used in the system to determine the touch for increasing the users’ collaboration and operationality. Experiments are performed to show the feasibility of the proposed system. The system is robust to different lighting conditions. The average percentage of correct hand touch detection of the system is 92.0% and the average time of processing one video frame is 30 milliseconds.

  11. REAL TIME ANALYSIS OF WIRELESS CONTROLLER AREA NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardine Immaculate Mary

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available It is widely known that Control Area Networks (CAN are used in real-time, distributed and parallel processing which cover manufacture plants, humanoid robots, networking fields, etc., In applications where wireless conditions are encountered it is convenient to continue the exchange of CAN frames within the Wireless CAN (WCAN. The WCAN considered in this research is based on wireless token ring protocol (WTRP; a MAC protocol for wireless networks to reduce the number of retransmissions due to collision and the wired counterpart CAN attribute on message based communication. WCAN uses token frame method to provide channel access to the nodes in the system. This method allow all the nodes to share common broadcast channel by taken turns in transmitting upon receiving the token frame which is circulating within the network for specified amount of time. This method provides high throughput in bounded latency environment, consistent and predictable delays and good packet delivery ratio. The most important factor to consider when evaluating a control network is the end-to-end time delay between sensors, controllers, and actuators. The correct operation of a control system depends on the timeliness of the data coming over the network, and thus, a control network should be able to guarantee message delivery within a bounded transmission time. The proposed WCAN is modeled and simulated using QualNet, and its average end to end delay and packet delivery ratio (PDR are calculated. The parameters boundaries of WCAN are evaluated to guarantee a maximum throughput and a minimum latency time, in the case of wireless communications, precisely WCAN.

  12. Nondestructive assay technology and automated ''real-time'' materials control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keepin, G.R.

    1977-01-01

    Significant advances in nondestructive assay techniques and instrumentation now enable rapid, accurate and direct in-plant measurement of nuclear material on a continuous or ''real-time'' basis as it progresses through a nuclear facility. A variety of passive and active assay instruments are required for the broad range of materials measurement problems encountered by safeguards inspectors and facility operators in various types of nuclear plants. Representative NDA techniques and instruments are presented and reviewed with special attention to their assay capabilities and areas of applicability in the nuclear fuel cycle. An advanced system of materials control - called ''DYMAC'', for Dynamic Materials Control - is presently under development by the U.S. Energy Research and Development Administration; the DYMAC program integrates new nondestructive assay instrumentation and modern data-processing methods, with the overall objective of demonstrating a workable, cost-effective system of stringent safeguards and materials control in various generic types of facilities found in the nuclear fuel cycle. Throughout the program, emphasis will be placed on devloping practical solutions to generic measurement problems so that resulting techniques and instrumentation will have widespread utility. Projected levels of safeguards assurance, together with other vital - and cost-sensitive - plant operational factors such as process and quality control, criticality safety and waste management are examined in an evaluation of the impact of future advanced materials control systems on overall plant operations, efficiency and productivity. The task of implementing effective and stringent safeguards includes the transfer of new safeguards technology to the nuclear industry. Clearly the training of inspectors (both IAEA and national), plant people, etc., in the effective use of new NDA equipment is of paramount importance; thus in the United States, the Energy Research and Development

  13. NCU-SWIP Space Weather Instrumentation Payload - Intelligent Sensors On Efficient Real-Time Distributed LUTOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Tse-Liang; Dmitriev, Alexei; Chu, Yen-Hsyang; Jiang, Shyh-Biau; Chen, Li-Wu

    The NCU-SWIP - Space Weather Instrumentation Payload is developed for simultaneous in-situ and remote measurement of space weather parameters for cross verifications. The measurements include in-situ electron density, electron temperature, magnetic field, the deceleration of satellite due to neutral wind, and remotely the linear cumulative intensities of oxygen ion air-glows at 135.6nm and 630.0nm along the flight path in forward, nader, and backward directions for tomographic reconstruction of the electron density distribution underneath. This instrument package is suitable for micro satellite constellation to establish nominal space weather profiles and, thus, to detect abnormal variations as the signs of ionospheric disturbances induced by severe atmospheric weather, or earth quake - mantle movement through their Lithosphere-Atmosphere-Ionosphere Coupling Mechanism. NCU-SWIP is constructed with intelligent sensor modules connected by common bus with their functionalities managed by an efficient distributed real-time system LUTOS. The same hierarchy can be applied to the level of satellite constellation. For example SWIP's in a constellation in coordination with the GNSS Occultation Experiment TriG planned for the Formosa-7 constellation, data can be cross correlated for verification and refinement for real-time, stable and reliable measurements. A SWIP will be contributed to the construction of a MAI Micro Satellite for verification. The SWIP consists of two separate modules: the SWIP main control module and the SWIP-PMTomo sensor module. They are respectively a 1.5kg W120xL120xH100 (in mm) box with forward facing 120mmPhi circular disk probe on a boom top edged at 470mm height and a 7.2kg W126xL590x372H (in mm) slab containing 3 legs looking downwards along the flight path, while consuming the maximum electricity of 10W and 12W. The sensors are 1) ETPEDP measuring 16bits floating potentials for electron temperature range of 1000K to 3000K and 24bits electron

  14. An intelligent system for real time automatic defect inspection on specular coated surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinhua; Parker, Johné M.; Hou, Zhen

    2005-07-01

    Product visual inspection is still performed manually or semi automatically in most industries from simple ceramic tile grading to complex automotive body panel paint defect and surface quality inspection. Moreover, specular surfaces present additional challenge to conventional vision systems due to specular reflections, which may mask the true location of objects and lead to incorrect measurements. There are some sophisticated visual inspection methods developed in recent years. Unfortunately, most of them are highly computational. Systems built on those methods are either inapplicable or very costly to achieve real time inspection. In this paper, we describe an integrated low-cost intelligent system developed to automatically capture, extract, and segment defects on specular surfaces with uniform color coatings. The system inspects and locates regular surface defects with lateral dimensions as small as a millimeter. The proposed system is implemented on a group of smart cameras using its on-board processing ability to achieve real time inspection. The experimental results on real test panels demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of proposed system.

  15. Green FLASH: energy efficient real-time control for AO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratadour, D.; Dipper, N.; Biasi, R.; Deneux, H.; Bernard, J.; Brule, J.; Dembet, R.; Doucet, N.; Ferreira, F.; Gendron, E.; Laine, M.; Perret, D.; Rousset, G.; Sevin, A.; Bitenc, U.; Geng, D.; Younger, E.; Andrighettoni, M.; Angerer, G.; Patauner, C.; Pescoller, D.; Porta, F.; Dufourcq, G.; Flaischer, A.; Leclere, J.-B.; Nai, A.; Palazzari, P.; Pretet, D.; Rouaud, C.

    2016-07-01

    The main goal of Green Flash is to design and build a prototype for a Real-Time Controller (RTC) targeting the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT) Adaptive Optics (AO) instrumentation. The E-ELT is a 39m diameter telescope to see first light in the early 2020s. To build this critical component of the telescope operations, the astronomical community is facing technical challenges, emerging from the combination of high data transfer bandwidth, low latency and high throughput requirements, similar to the identified critical barriers on the road to Exascale. With Green Flash, we will propose technical solutions, assess these enabling technologies through prototyping and assemble a full scale demonstrator to be validated with a simulator and tested on sky. With this R&D program we aim at feeding the E-ELT AO systems preliminary design studies, led by the selected first-light instruments consortia, with technological validations supporting the designs of their RTC modules. Our strategy is based on a strong interaction between academic and industrial partners. Components specifications and system requirements are derived from the AO application. Industrial partners lead the development of enabling technologies aiming at innovative tailored solutions with potential wide application range. The academic partners provide the missing links in the ecosystem, targeting their application with mainstream solutions. This increases both the value and market opportunities of the developed products. A prototype harboring all the features is used to assess the performance. It also provides the proof of concept for a resilient modular solution to equip a large scale European scientific facility, while containing the development cost by providing opportunities for return on investment.

  16. Real-time control using open source RTOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Philip C.; Johnson, Richard L., Jr.

    2002-12-01

    Complex telescope systems such as interferometers tend to rely heavily on hard real-time operating systems (RTOS). It has been standard practice at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and many other institutions to use costly commercial RTOSs and hardware. After developing a real-time toolkit for VxWorks on the PowerPC platform (dubbed RTC), the interferometry group at JPL is porting this code to the real-time Application Interface (RTAI), an open source RTOS that is essentially an extension to the Linux kernel. This port has the potential to reduce software and hardware costs for future projects, while increasing the level of performance. The goals of this paper are to briefly describe the RTC toolkit, highlight the successes and pitfalls of porting the toolkit from VxWorks to Linux-RTAI, and to discuss future enhancements that will be implemented as a direct result of this port. The first port of any body of code is always the most difficult since it uncovers the OS-specific calls and forces "red flags" into those portions of the code. For this reason, It has also been a huge benefit that the project chose a generic, platform independent OS extension, ACE, and its CORBA counterpart, TAO. This port of RTC will pave the way for conversions to other environments, the most interesting of which is a non-real-time simulation environment, currently being considered by the Space Interferometry Mission (SIM) and the Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) Projects.

  17. Event Detection Intelligent Camera: Demonstration of flexible, real-time data taking and processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szabolics, Tamás, E-mail: szabolics.tamas@wigner.mta.hu; Cseh, Gábor; Kocsis, Gábor; Szepesi, Tamás; Zoletnik, Sándor

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • We present EDICAM's operation principles description. • Firmware tests results. • Software test results. • Further developments. - Abstract: An innovative fast camera (EDICAM – Event Detection Intelligent CAMera) was developed by MTA Wigner RCP in the last few years. This new concept was designed for intelligent event driven processing to be able to detect predefined events and track objects in the plasma. The camera provides a moderate frame rate of 400 Hz at full frame resolution (1280 × 1024), and readout of smaller region of interests can be done in the 1–140 kHz range even during exposure of the full image. One of the most important advantages of this hardware is a 10 Gbit/s optical link which ensures very fast communication and data transfer between the PC and the camera, enabling two level of processing: primitive algorithms in the camera hardware and high-level processing in the PC. This camera hardware has successfully proven to be able to monitoring the plasma in several fusion devices for example at ASDEX Upgrade, KSTAR and COMPASS with the first version of firmware. A new firmware and software package is under development. It allows to detect predefined events in real time and therefore the camera is capable to change its own operation or to give warnings e.g. to the safety system of the experiment. The EDICAM system can handle a huge amount of data (up to TBs) with high data rate (950 MB/s) and will be used as the central element of the 10 camera overview video diagnostic system of Wendenstein 7-X (W7-X) stellarator. This paper presents key elements of the newly developed built-in intelligence stressing the revolutionary new features and the results of the test of the different software elements.

  18. SMR-CL, A Real-time Control Language for Mobile Robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nils Axel; Ravn, Ole

    2004-01-01

    The paper describes requirements and implementation of a tactical control lan¬guage for mobile robots. Emphasis is given to the real-time issues of the language especially the isolation of the hard real-time and the soft real-time layers of the mobile robot control system. The language may be used...

  19. Real-Time Optimization and Control of Next-Generation Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    -Generation Distribution Infrastructure Real-Time Optimization and Control of Next-Generation Distribution developing a system-theoretic distribution network management framework that unifies real-time voltage and Infrastructure | Grid Modernization | NREL Real-Time Optimization and Control of Next

  20. An overview on real-time control schemes for wheeled mobile robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radzak, M. S. A.; Ali, M. A. H.; Sha’amri, S.; Azwan, A. R.

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review real-time control motion algorithms for wheeled mobile robot (WMR) when navigating in environment such as road. Its need a good controller to avoid collision with any disturbance and maintain a track error at zero level. The controllers are used with other aiding sensors to measure the WMR’s velocities, posture, and interference to estimate the required torque to be applied on the wheels of mobile robot. Four main categories for wheeled mobile robot control systems have been found in literature which are namely: Kinematic based controller, Dynamic based controllers, artificial intelligence based control system, and Active Force control. A MATLAB/Simulink software is the main software to simulate and implement the control system. The real-time toolbox in MATLAB/SIMULINK are used to receive/send data from sensors/to actuator with presence of disturbances, however others software such C, C++ and visual basic are rare to be used.

  1. Highly reconfigurable production systems controlled by real-time agents

    OpenAIRE

    Schütz, D.;Schraufstetter, M.;Folmer, J.;Vogel-Heuser, B.;Gmeiner, T.;Shea, K.

    2017-01-01

    Flexible plant components can significantly increase the flexibility of manufacturing systems and enable concepts like mass-customized production. This paper presents an approach for production planning and execution for flexible manufacturing system components, based on software agents. The agents are implemented directly on a PLC, making them capable of real-time operation. Additionally, a service-interface contributes to the vertical integration of the approach into the higher level planni...

  2. A Sarsa(λ)-based control model for real-time traffic light coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaoke; Zhu, Fei; Liu, Quan; Fu, Yuchen; Huang, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Traffic problems often occur due to the traffic demands by the outnumbered vehicles on road. Maximizing traffic flow and minimizing the average waiting time are the goals of intelligent traffic control. Each junction wants to get larger traffic flow. During the course, junctions form a policy of coordination as well as constraints for adjacent junctions to maximize their own interests. A good traffic signal timing policy is helpful to solve the problem. However, as there are so many factors that can affect the traffic control model, it is difficult to find the optimal solution. The disability of traffic light controllers to learn from past experiences caused them to be unable to adaptively fit dynamic changes of traffic flow. Considering dynamic characteristics of the actual traffic environment, reinforcement learning algorithm based traffic control approach can be applied to get optimal scheduling policy. The proposed Sarsa(λ)-based real-time traffic control optimization model can maintain the traffic signal timing policy more effectively. The Sarsa(λ)-based model gains traffic cost of the vehicle, which considers delay time, the number of waiting vehicles, and the integrated saturation from its experiences to learn and determine the optimal actions. The experiment results show an inspiring improvement in traffic control, indicating the proposed model is capable of facilitating real-time dynamic traffic control.

  3. A Sarsa(λ-Based Control Model for Real-Time Traffic Light Coordination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoke Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic problems often occur due to the traffic demands by the outnumbered vehicles on road. Maximizing traffic flow and minimizing the average waiting time are the goals of intelligent traffic control. Each junction wants to get larger traffic flow. During the course, junctions form a policy of coordination as well as constraints for adjacent junctions to maximize their own interests. A good traffic signal timing policy is helpful to solve the problem. However, as there are so many factors that can affect the traffic control model, it is difficult to find the optimal solution. The disability of traffic light controllers to learn from past experiences caused them to be unable to adaptively fit dynamic changes of traffic flow. Considering dynamic characteristics of the actual traffic environment, reinforcement learning algorithm based traffic control approach can be applied to get optimal scheduling policy. The proposed Sarsa(λ-based real-time traffic control optimization model can maintain the traffic signal timing policy more effectively. The Sarsa(λ-based model gains traffic cost of the vehicle, which considers delay time, the number of waiting vehicles, and the integrated saturation from its experiences to learn and determine the optimal actions. The experiment results show an inspiring improvement in traffic control, indicating the proposed model is capable of facilitating real-time dynamic traffic control.

  4. Application of Genetic Algorithm for Tuning of a PID Controller for a Real Time Industrial Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Giri RAJKUMAR

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available PID (Proportional Integral Derivative controller has become inevitable in the process control industries due to its simplicity and effectiveness, but the real challenge lies in tuning them to meet the expectations. Although a host of methods already exist there is still a need for an advanced system for tuning these controllers. Computational intelligence (CI has caught the eye of the researchers due to its simplicity, low computational cost and good performance, makes it a possible choice for tuning of PID controllers, to increase their performance. This paper discusses in detail about Genetic Algorithm (GA, a CI technique, and its implementation in PID tuning for a real time industrial process which is closed loop in nature. Compared to other conventional PID tuning methods, the result shows that better performance can be achieved with the proposed method.

  5. The ITER Fast Plant System Controller ATCA prototype Real-Time Software Architecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, B.B.; Santos, B.; Carvalho, P.F.; Neto, A.; Boncagni, L.; Batista, A.J.N.; Correia, M.; Sousa, J.; Gonçalves, B.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► High performance ATCA systems for fast control and data acquisition. ► IEEE1588 timing system and synchronization. ► Plasma control algorithms. ► Real-time control software frameworks. ► Targeted for nuclear fusion experiments with long duration discharges. -- Abstract: IPFN is developing a prototype Fast Plant System Controller (FPSC) based in ATCA embedded technologies dedicated to ITER CODAC data acquisition and control tasks in the sub-millisecond range. The main goal is to demonstrate the usability of the ATCA standard and its enhanced specifications for the high speed, very high density parallel data acquisition needs of the most demanding ITER tokamak plasma Instrumentation and Control (I and C) systems. This effort included the in-house development of a new family of high performance ATCA I/O and timing boards. The standard ITER software system CODAC Core System (CCS) v3.1, with the control based in the EPICS system does not cover yet the real-time requirements fulfilled by this hardware, so a new set of software components was developed for this specific platform, attempting to integrate and leverage the new features in CSS, for example the Multithreaded Application Real Time executor (MARTe) software framework, the new Data Archiving Network (DAN) solution, an ATCA IEEE-1588-2008 timing interface, and the Intelligent Platform Management Interface (IPMI) for system monitoring and remote management. This paper presents the overall software architecture for the ATCA FPSC, as well a discussion on the ITER constrains and design choices and finally a detailed description of the software components already developed

  6. The ITER Fast Plant System Controller ATCA prototype Real-Time Software Architecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, B.B., E-mail: bernardo@ipfn.ist.utl.pt [Associacao EURATOM/IST Instituto de Plasmas e Fusao Nuclear, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, P-1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Santos, B.; Carvalho, P.F.; Neto, A. [Associacao EURATOM/IST Instituto de Plasmas e Fusao Nuclear, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, P-1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Boncagni, L. [Associazione Euratom-ENEA sulla Fusione, Frascati Research Centre, Division of Fusion Physics, Frascati, Rome (Italy); Batista, A.J.N.; Correia, M.; Sousa, J.; Gonçalves, B. [Associacao EURATOM/IST Instituto de Plasmas e Fusao Nuclear, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, P-1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► High performance ATCA systems for fast control and data acquisition. ► IEEE1588 timing system and synchronization. ► Plasma control algorithms. ► Real-time control software frameworks. ► Targeted for nuclear fusion experiments with long duration discharges. -- Abstract: IPFN is developing a prototype Fast Plant System Controller (FPSC) based in ATCA embedded technologies dedicated to ITER CODAC data acquisition and control tasks in the sub-millisecond range. The main goal is to demonstrate the usability of the ATCA standard and its enhanced specifications for the high speed, very high density parallel data acquisition needs of the most demanding ITER tokamak plasma Instrumentation and Control (I and C) systems. This effort included the in-house development of a new family of high performance ATCA I/O and timing boards. The standard ITER software system CODAC Core System (CCS) v3.1, with the control based in the EPICS system does not cover yet the real-time requirements fulfilled by this hardware, so a new set of software components was developed for this specific platform, attempting to integrate and leverage the new features in CSS, for example the Multithreaded Application Real Time executor (MARTe) software framework, the new Data Archiving Network (DAN) solution, an ATCA IEEE-1588-2008 timing interface, and the Intelligent Platform Management Interface (IPMI) for system monitoring and remote management. This paper presents the overall software architecture for the ATCA FPSC, as well a discussion on the ITER constrains and design choices and finally a detailed description of the software components already developed.

  7. An SDRAM controller for real-time systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lakis, Edgar; Schoeberl, Martin

    2013-01-01

    For real-time systems we need to statically determine worst-case execution times (WCET) of tasks to proof the schedulability of the system. To enable static WCET analysis, the platform needs to be time-predictable. The platform includes the processor, the caches, the memory system, the operating...... system, and the application software itself. All those components need to be timing analyzable. Current computers use DRAM as a cost effective main memory. However, these DRAM chips have timing requirements that depend on former accesses and also need to be refreshed to retain their content. Standard...... a base of the memory hierarchy for time-predictable systems....

  8. FORPS: a FORTH-based production system and its application to a real-time robot control problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matheus, C.J.; Martin, H.L.

    1986-01-01

    A simple yet very powerful system has been developed that merges the artificial intelligence qualities of a production system with the real-time control capabilities of FORTH. FORPS (FORTH-based Production System) offers the advantages of intelligent, rule-based control in a small package offering high speed, extensibility, and simplicity. A practical example of the system is presented in the development of an obstacle avoidance program to aid in controlling an overhead manipulator transport system. Several other potential applications to the area of control are discussed

  9. Real-time operation without a real-time operating system for instrument control and data acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Randolf; Poglitsch, Albrecht; Fumi, Fabio; Geis, Norbert; Hamidouche, Murad; Hoenle, Rainer; Looney, Leslie; Raab, Walfried; Viehhauser, Werner

    2004-09-01

    We are building the Field-Imaging Far-Infrared Line Spectrometer (FIFI LS) for the US-German airborne observatory SOFIA. The detector read-out system is driven by a clock signal at a certain frequency. This signal has to be provided and all other sub-systems have to work synchronously to this clock. The data generated by the instrument has to be received by a computer in a timely manner. Usually these requirements are met with a real-time operating system (RTOS). In this presentation we want to show how we meet these demands differently avoiding the stiffness of an RTOS. Digital I/O-cards with a large buffer separate the asynchronous working computers and the synchronous working instrument. The advantage is that the data processing computers do not need to process the data in real-time. It is sufficient that the computer can process the incoming data stream on average. But since the data is read-in synchronously, problems of relating commands and responses (data) have to be solved: The data is arriving at a fixed rate. The receiving I/O-card buffers the data in its buffer until the computer can access it. To relate the data to commands sent previously, the data is tagged by counters in the read-out electronics. These counters count the system's heartbeat and signals derived from that. The heartbeat and control signals synchronous with the heartbeat are sent by an I/O-card working as pattern generator. Its buffer gets continously programmed with a pattern which is clocked out on the control lines. A counter in the I/O-card keeps track of the amount of pattern words clocked out. By reading this counter, the computer knows the state of the instrument or knows the meaning of the data that will arrive with a certain time-tag.

  10. Real-Time Structural Overload Control via Control Allocation Optimization Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This control methodology utilizes real-time vehicle structural load and shape measurements to actively respond to and protect against vehicle damage due to...

  11. Real-time SEM studies in controlled reactive atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, B. D.; Garcia, A., III; Alonzo, J. R.

    1985-01-01

    A unique scanning electron accessory has been developed that allows the observation of specimens under partial pressures of any gas. The sample is placed in a metal support boat inside a special sample holder. The sample in the boat is imaged on a CRT and is simultaneously recorded on a videotape, allowing the reaction between the sample and the gas to be observed in real time. Sample changes can be seen continuously as the sample is being heated or cooled. This process allows the observation of material transformations such as phase changes as they happen. Temperatures as high as 1000 C have been used and are continuously monitored using a thermocouple with a digital display on the CRT and videotape. X-ray analyses can also be run before and after any reactions. In the study described here, thick-film screen-printing inks using molybdenum/tin compositions as a replacement for silver were developed to be used on terrestrial photovoltaic cells. Pieces were placed on the sample stage and heated in both O2 and H2 atmospheres. The results were used to determine the most effective frits to be used in the thick-film inks.

  12. Real-Time Payload Control and Monitoring on the World Wide Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Charles; Windrem, May; Givens, John J. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    World Wide Web (W3) technologies such as the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) and the Java object-oriented programming environment offer a powerful, yet relatively inexpensive, framework for distributed application software development. This paper describes the design of a real-time payload control and monitoring system that was developed with W3 technologies at NASA Ames Research Center. Based on Java Development Toolkit (JDK) 1.1, the system uses an event-driven "publish and subscribe" approach to inter-process communication and graphical user-interface construction. A C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS) compatible inference engine provides the back-end intelligent data processing capability, while Oracle Relational Database Management System (RDBMS) provides the data management function. Preliminary evaluation shows acceptable performance for some classes of payloads, with Java's portability and multimedia support identified as the most significant benefit.

  13. Flexible structure control experiments using a real-time workstation for computer-aided control engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stieber, Michael E.

    1989-01-01

    A Real-Time Workstation for Computer-Aided Control Engineering has been developed jointly by the Communications Research Centre (CRC) and Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum (RUB), West Germany. The system is presently used for the development and experimental verification of control techniques for large space systems with significant structural flexibility. The Real-Time Workstation essentially is an implementation of RUB's extensive Computer-Aided Control Engineering package KEDDC on an INTEL micro-computer running under the RMS real-time operating system. The portable system supports system identification, analysis, control design and simulation, as well as the immediate implementation and test of control systems. The Real-Time Workstation is currently being used by CRC to study control/structure interaction on a ground-based structure called DAISY, whose design was inspired by a reflector antenna. DAISY emulates the dynamics of a large flexible spacecraft with the following characteristics: rigid body modes, many clustered vibration modes with low frequencies and extremely low damping. The Real-Time Workstation was found to be a very powerful tool for experimental studies, supporting control design and simulation, and conducting and evaluating tests withn one integrated environment.

  14. Programming a real-time operating system for satellite control applications Satellite Control Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omer, M.; Anjum, O.; Suddle, M.R.

    2004-01-01

    With the realization of ideas like formation flights and multi-body space vehicles the demands on an attitude control system have become increasingly complex. Even in its most simplified form, the control system for a typical geostationary satellite has to run various supervisory functions along with determination and control algorithms side by side. Within each algorithm it has to employ multiple actuation and sensing mechanisms and service real time interrupts, for example, in the case of actuator saturation and sensor data fusion. This entails the idea of thread scheduling and program synchronization, tasks specifically meant for a real time OS. This paper explores the embedding of attitude determination and control loop within the framework of a real time operating system provided for TI's DSP C6xxx series. The paper details out the much functionality provided within the scaleable real time kernel and the analysis and configuration tools available, It goes on to describe a layered implementation stack associated with a typical control for Geo Stationary satellites. An application for control is then presented in which state of the art analysis tools are employed to view program threads, synchronization semaphores, hardware interrupts and data exchange pipes operating in real time. (author)

  15. Extensions to the Parallel Real-Time Artificial Intelligence System (PRAIS) for fault-tolerant heterogeneous cycle-stealing reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, David

    1991-01-01

    Extensions to an architecture for real-time, distributed (parallel) knowledge-based systems called the Parallel Real-time Artificial Intelligence System (PRAIS) are discussed. PRAIS strives for transparently parallelizing production (rule-based) systems, even under real-time constraints. PRAIS accomplished these goals (presented at the first annual C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS) conference) by incorporating a dynamic task scheduler, operating system extensions for fact handling, and message-passing among multiple copies of CLIPS executing on a virtual blackboard. This distributed knowledge-based system tool uses the portability of CLIPS and common message-passing protocols to operate over a heterogeneous network of processors. Results using the original PRAIS architecture over a network of Sun 3's, Sun 4's and VAX's are presented. Mechanisms using the producer-consumer model to extend the architecture for fault-tolerance and distributed truth maintenance initiation are also discussed.

  16. Reducing lumber thickness variation using real-time statistical process control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas M. Young; Brian H. Bond; Jan Wiedenbeck

    2002-01-01

    A technology feasibility study for reducing lumber thickness variation was conducted from April 2001 until March 2002 at two sawmills located in the southern U.S. A real-time statistical process control (SPC) system was developed that featured Wonderware human machine interface technology (HMI) with distributed real-time control charts for all sawing centers and...

  17. Brain-Activity-Driven Real-Time Music Emotive Control

    OpenAIRE

    Giraldo, Sergio; Ramirez, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    Active music listening has emerged as a study field that aims to enable listeners to interactively control music. Most of active music listening systems aim to control music aspects such as playback, equalization, browsing, and retrieval, but few of them aim to control expressive aspects of music to convey emotions. In this study our aim is to enrich the music listening experience by allowing listeners to control expressive parameters in music performances using their perceived emotional stat...

  18. Integrated and Real-Time Anticipatory Control of Road Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taale, H.

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic traffic management is an important approach to minimise the negative effects of increasing congestion. Measures such as ramp metering and route information, but also the traditional traffic signal control is used. The focus in designing traffic control plans has always been on local control.

  19. Real-Time Load-Side Control of Electric Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Changhong

    Two trends are emerging from modern electric power systems: the growth of renewable (e.g., solar and wind) generation, and the integration of information technologies and advanced power electronics. The former introduces large, rapid, and random fluctuations in power supply, demand, frequency, and voltage, which become a major challenge for real-time operation of power systems. The latter creates a tremendous number of controllable intelligent endpoints such as smart buildings and appliances, electric vehicles, energy storage devices, and power electronic devices that can sense, compute, communicate, and actuate. Most of these endpoints are distributed on the load side of power systems, in contrast to traditional control resources such as centralized bulk generators. This thesis focuses on controlling power systems in real time, using these load side resources. Specifically, it studies two problems. (1) Distributed load-side frequency control: We establish a mathematical framework to design distributed frequency control algorithms for flexible electric loads. In this framework, we formulate a category of optimization problems, called optimal load control (OLC), to incorporate the goals of frequency control, such as balancing power supply and demand, restoring frequency to its nominal value, restoring inter-area power flows, etc., in a way that minimizes total disutility for the loads to participate in frequency control by deviating from their nominal power usage. By exploiting distributed algorithms to solve OLC and analyzing convergence of these algorithms, we design distributed load-side controllers and prove stability of closed-loop power systems governed by these controllers. This general framework is adapted and applied to different types of power systems described by different models, or to achieve different levels of control goals under different operation scenarios. We first consider a dynamically coherent power system which can be equivalently modeled with

  20. Design of a real-time open architecture controller for a reconfigurable machine tool

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Masekamela, I

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the design and the development of a real-time, open architecture controller that is used for control of reconfigurable manufacturing tools (RMTs) in reconfigurable manufacturing systems (RMS). The controller that is presented can...

  1. Real-time laser cladding control with variable spot size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, J. L.; Montealegre, M. A.; Vidal, F.; Rodríguez, J.; Mann, S.; Abels, P.; Motmans, F.

    2014-03-01

    Laser cladding processing has been used in different industries to improve the surface properties or to reconstruct damaged pieces. In order to cover areas considerably larger than the diameter of the laser beam, successive partially overlapping tracks are deposited. With no control over the process variables this conduces to an increase of the temperature, which could decrease mechanical properties of the laser cladded material. Commonly, the process is monitored and controlled by a PC using cameras, but this control suffers from a lack of speed caused by the image processing step. The aim of this work is to design and develop a FPGA-based laser cladding control system. This system is intended to modify the laser beam power according to the melt pool width, which is measured using a CMOS camera. All the control and monitoring tasks are carried out by a FPGA, taking advantage of its abundance of resources and speed of operation. The robustness of the image processing algorithm is assessed, as well as the control system performance. Laser power is decreased as substrate temperature increases, thus maintaining a constant clad width. This FPGA-based control system is integrated in an adaptive laser cladding system, which also includes an adaptive optical system that will control the laser focus distance on the fly. The whole system will constitute an efficient instrument for part repair with complex geometries and coating selective surfaces. This will be a significant step forward into the total industrial implementation of an automated industrial laser cladding process.

  2. Real-time control of power systems using nodal prices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jokic, A.; Lazar, M.; Bosch, van den P.P.J.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a novel control scheme for achieving optimal power balancing and congestion management in electrical power systems via nodal prices. We develop a dynamic controller that guarantees economically optimal steady-state operation while respecting all line flow constraints in

  3. Modeling and validating distributed embedded real-time control systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoef, M.H.G.

    2009-01-01

    The development of complex embedded control systems can be improved significantly by applying formal techniques from control engineering and software engineering. It is shown how these approaches can be combined to improve the design and analysis of high-tech systems, both in theory and practice.

  4. TRIANA. A control strategy for Smart Grids. Forecasting, planning and real-time control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakker, V.

    2012-01-01

    Increasing demand, extra fluctuation and a large share of distributed electricity generation will put more stress on the electricity supply chain. Therefore, changes are required in the supply chain to maintain a properly functioning, stable and affordable grid. Currently the supply chain is completely driven by demand by constantly adapting the production to the demand. The exploitation of flexibility on the demand side of the supply chain allows for a more efficient and sustainable electricity production. Techniques like controllable distributed generation, distributed storage, and smart appliances can introduce this required flexibility. To exploit the new flexibility, the grid has to become more intelligent, i.e. become a Smart Grid. In this thesis TRIANA, a three step control strategy for the Smart Grid is presented. In the first step of TRIANA, the forecasting step, the scheduling freedom (flexibility) of a device is determined for each individual device by a local controller. In the second step, a (central) planner tries to exploit the freedom of the devices determined in the first step for his objective. The last step of TRIANA is the real-time control step performed by the local controller achieving the planning in the best possible way. In order to analyze the impact of control methodologies for Smart Grid, a simulator based on an energy model has been built. The basic elements of the model are individual devices and between devices energy streams are defined. The energy streams are connected via so called pools, which represent the physical connections between the devices. To study the effectiveness of the control methodology and study the most economic use of the flexibility of devices, multiple scenarios have been simulated. Simulations show that TRIANA can optimize the energy flows and can control the operation of the domestic devices in an economic manner without discomfort for the residents. TRIANA is a methodology capable of adjusting the energy

  5. Industrial Raman gas sensing for real-time system control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buric, M.; Mullen, J.; Chorpening, B.; Woodruff, S.

    2014-06-01

    Opportunities exist to improve on-line process control in energy applications with a fast, non-destructive measurement of gas composition. Here, we demonstrate a Raman sensing system which is capable of reporting the concentrations of numerous species simultaneously with sub-percent accuracy and sampling times below one-second for process control applications in energy or chemical production. The sensor is based upon a hollow-core capillary waveguide with a 300 micron bore with reflective thin-film metal and dielectric linings. The effect of using such a waveguide in a Raman process is to integrate Raman photons along the length of the sample-filled waveguide, thus permitting the acquisition of very large Raman signals for low-density gases in a short time. The resultant integrated Raman signals can then be used for quick and accurate analysis of a gaseous mixture. The sensor is currently being tested for energy applications such as coal gasification, turbine control, well-head monitoring for exploration or production, and non-conventional gas utilization. In conjunction with an ongoing commercialization effort, the researchers have recently completed two prototype instruments suitable for hazardous area operation and testing. Here, we report pre-commercialization testing of those field prototypes for control applications in gasification or similar processes. Results will be discussed with respect to accuracy, calibration requirements, gas sampling techniques, and possible control strategies of industrial significance.

  6. Real-time plutonium accountability and inventory control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarich, J.P.

    An on-line inventory system for a large storage and processing facility is planned. A terminal system will provide for interactive updating and information retrieval. The data base will contain information on inventory items and transactions, as well as process monitoring information and laboratory bookkeeping data. Access to the terminals, as well as the storage vaults, will be controlled by fingerprint comparison with a personnel identification data base. Bar code labels attached to each inventory item will be read by a light pen during physical inventories and when materials are transferred. The use of devices to continuously monitor and control storage locations within the vaults is planned. (U.S.)

  7. Real-time plutonium accountability and inventory control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarich, J.P.

    1975-01-01

    An on-line inventory system for a large storage and processing facility is planned. A terminal system will provide for interactive updating and information retrieval. The data base will contain information on inventory items and transactions, as well as process monitoring information and laboratory bookkeeping data. Access to the terminals, as well as the storage vaults, will be controlled by fingerprint comparison with a personnel identification data base. Bar code labels attached to each inventory item will be read by a light pen during physical inventories and when material is transferred. The use of devices to continuously monitor and control s locations within the vaults is planned

  8. Real-Time Optimization for Economic Model Predictive Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sokoler, Leo Emil; Edlund, Kristian; Frison, Gianluca

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we develop an efficient homogeneous and self-dual interior-point method for the linear programs arising in economic model predictive control. To exploit structure in the optimization problems, the algorithm employs a highly specialized Riccati iteration procedure. Simulations show...

  9. Hybrid systems: a real-time interface to control engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Thomas Juul; Heilmann, Søren; Holdgaard, Michael

    1996-01-01

    are usually investigated by control engineers that base their work on the theory of dynamic systems. The mathematical tool for this work is thus mathematical analysis, in particular the theory of differential equations. The paper gives an introduction to a general hybrid systems model for definition of system...

  10. Real time modeling, simulation and control of dynamical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Mughal, Asif Mahmood

    2016-01-01

    This book introduces modeling and simulation of linear time invariant systems and demonstrates how these translate to systems engineering, mechatronics engineering, and biomedical engineering. It is organized into nine chapters that follow the lectures used for a one-semester course on this topic, making it appropriate for students as well as researchers. The author discusses state space modeling derived from two modeling techniques and the analysis of the system and usage of modeling in control systems design. It also contains a unique chapter on multidisciplinary energy systems with a special focus on bioengineering systems and expands upon how the bond graph augments research in biomedical and bio-mechatronics systems.

  11. A cost-effective intelligent robotic system with dual-arm dexterous coordination and real-time vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzwell, Neville I.; Chen, Alexander Y. K.

    1991-01-01

    Dexterous coordination of manipulators based on the use of redundant degrees of freedom, multiple sensors, and built-in robot intelligence represents a critical breakthrough in development of advanced manufacturing technology. A cost-effective approach for achieving this new generation of robotics has been made possible by the unprecedented growth of the latest microcomputer and network systems. The resulting flexible automation offers the opportunity to improve the product quality, increase the reliability of the manufacturing process, and augment the production procedures for optimizing the utilization of the robotic system. Moreover, the Advanced Robotic System (ARS) is modular in design and can be upgraded by closely following technological advancements as they occur in various fields. This approach to manufacturing automation enhances the financial justification and ensures the long-term profitability and most efficient implementation of robotic technology. The new system also addresses a broad spectrum of manufacturing demand and has the potential to address both complex jobs as well as highly labor-intensive tasks. The ARS prototype employs the decomposed optimization technique in spatial planning. This technique is implemented to the framework of the sensor-actuator network to establish the general-purpose geometric reasoning system. The development computer system is a multiple microcomputer network system, which provides the architecture for executing the modular network computing algorithms. The knowledge-based approach used in both the robot vision subsystem and the manipulation control subsystems results in the real-time image processing vision-based capability. The vision-based task environment analysis capability and the responsive motion capability are under the command of the local intelligence centers. An array of ultrasonic, proximity, and optoelectronic sensors is used for path planning. The ARS currently has 18 degrees of freedom made up by two

  12. Intelligent automation of high-performance liquid chromatography method development by means of a real-time knowledge-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    I, Ting-Po; Smith, Randy; Guhan, Sam; Taksen, Ken; Vavra, Mark; Myers, Douglas; Hearn, Milton T W

    2002-09-27

    We describe the development, attributes and capabilities of a novel type of artificial intelligence system, called LabExpert, for automation of HPLC method development. Unlike other computerised method development systems, LabExpert operates in real-time, using an artificial intelligence system and design engine to provide experimental decision outcomes relevant to the optimisation of complex separations as well as the control of the instrumentation, column selection, mobile phase choice and other experimental parameters. LabExpert manages every input parameter to a HPLC data station and evaluates each output parameter of the HPLC data station in real-time as part of its decision process. Based on a combination of inherent and user-defined evaluation criteria, the artificial intelligence system programs use a reasoning process, applying chromatographic principles and acquired experimental observations to iteratively provide a regime for a priori development of an acceptable HPLC separation method. Because remote monitoring and control are also functions of LabExpert, the system allows full-time utilisation of analytical instrumentation and associated laboratory resources. Based on our experience with LabExpert with a wide range of analyte mixtures, this artificial intelligence system consistently identified in a similar or faster time-frame preferred sets of analytical conditions that are equal in resolution, efficiency and throughput to those empirically determined by highly experienced chromatographic scientists. An illustrative example, demonstrating the potential of LabExpert in the process of method development of drug substances, is provided.

  13. Real-time Non-linear Target Tracking Control of Wheeled Mobile Robots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Wenyong

    2006-01-01

    A control strategy for real-time target tracking for wheeled mobile robots is presented. Using a modified Kalman filter for environment perception, a novel tracking control law derived from Lyapunov stability theory is introduced. Tuning of linear velocity and angular velocity with mechanical constraints is applied. The proposed control system can simultaneously solve the target trajectory prediction, real-time tracking, and posture regulation problems of a wheeled mobile robot. Experimental results illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed tracking control laws.

  14. Real-time Tactical and Strategic Sales Management for Intelligent Agents Guided By Economic Regimes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Ketter (Wolfgang); J. Collins (John); M. Gini (Maria); A. Gupta (Alok); P. Schrater (Paul)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractMany enterprises that participate in dynamic markets need to make product pricing and inventory resource utilization decisions in real-time. We describe a family of statistical models that address these needs by combining characterization of the economic environment with the ability to

  15. Real-Time Tactical and Strategic Sales Management for Intelligent Agents Guided by Economic Regimes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Ketter (Wolfgang); J. Collins (John); M. Gini (Maria); A. Gupta (Alok); P. Schrater (Paul)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractMany enterprises that participate in dynamic markets need to make product pricing and inventory resource utilization decisions in real time. We describe a family of statistical models that addresses these needs by combining characterization of the economic environment with the ability to

  16. Development of in-plant real-time materials control: the DYMAC program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Augustson, R.H.

    1976-01-01

    LASL is in the process of developing a dynamic materials control program, called DYMAC, to provide the technology for stringent real-time nuclear materials control. The DYMAC program combines hardware and software into four component subsystems: nondestructive assay (NDA), instrumentation, data acquisition, data base management, and real-time accountability. To demonstrate the feasibility of DYMAC, a working real-time materials control system will be installed at the new plutonium facility presently under construction at LASL. Program emphasis is on developing practical solutions to generic problems and communicating those solutions to other installations for use throughout the nuclear fuel cycle

  17. The real-time control of planetary rovers through behavior modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David P.

    1991-01-01

    It is not yet clear of what type, and how much, intelligence is needed for a planetary rover to function semi-autonomously on a planetary surface. Current designs assume an advanced AI system that maintains a detailed map of its journeys and the surroundings, and that carefully calculates and tests every move in advance. To achieve these abilities, and because of the limitations of space-qualified electronics, the supporting rover is quite sizable, massing a large fraction of a ton, and requiring technology advances in everything from power to ground operations. An alternative approach is to use a behavior driven control scheme. Recent research has shown that many complex tasks may be achieved by programming a robot with a set of behaviors and activation or deactivating a subset of those behaviors as required by the specific situation in which the robot finds itself. Behavior control requires much less computation than is required by tradition AI planning techniques. The reduced computation requirements allows the entire rover to be scaled down as appropriate (only down-link communications and payload do not scale under these circumstances). The missions that can be handled by the real-time control and operation of a set of small, semi-autonomous, interacting, behavior-controlled planetary rovers are discussed.

  18. Database application research in real-time data access of accelerator control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Guanghua; Chen Jianfeng; Wan Tianmin

    2012-01-01

    The control system of Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF) is a large-scale distributed real-time control system, It involves many types and large amounts of real-time data access during the operating. Database system has wide application prospects in the large-scale accelerator control system. It is the future development direction of the accelerator control system, to replace the differently dedicated data structures with the mature standardized database system. This article discusses the application feasibility of database system in accelerators based on the database interface technology, real-time data access testing, and system optimization research and to establish the foundation of the wide scale application of database system in the SSRF accelerator control system. Based on the database interface technology, real-time data access testing and system optimization research, this article will introduce the application feasibility of database system in accelerators, and lay the foundation of database system application in the SSRF accelerator control system. (authors)

  19. Real-time control of Tokamak plasmas: from control of physics to physics-based control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felici, F. A. A.

    2011-11-01

    Stable, high-performance operation of a tokamak requires several plasma control problems to be handled simultaneously. Moreover, the complex physics which governs the tokamak plasma evolution must be studied and understood to make correct choices in controller design. In this thesis, the two subjects have been merged, using control solutions as experimental tool for physics studies, and using physics knowledge for developing new advanced control solutions. The TCV tokamak at CRPP-EPFL is ideally placed to explore issues at the interface between plasma physics and plasma control, by combining a digital realtime control system with a flexible and powerful set of actuators, in particular the electron cyclotron heating and current drive system (ECRH/ECCD). This experimental platform has been used to develop and test new control strategies for three plasma physics instabilities: sawtooth, edge localized mode (ELM) and neoclassical tearing mode (NTM). The period of the sawtooth crash, a periodic MHD instability in the core of a tokamak plasma, can be varied by localized deposition of ECRH/ECCD near the q = 1 surface (q: safety factor). A sawtooth pacing controller was developed which is able to control the time of appearance of the next sawtooth crash. Each individual sawtooth period can be controlled in real-time. A similar scheme is applied to H-mode plasmas with type-I ELMs, where it is shown that pacing regularizes the ELM period. The regular, reproducible and therefore predictable sawtooth crashes have been used to study the relationship between sawteeth and NTMs. Postcrash MHD activity can provide the ‘seed’ island for an NTM, which then grows under its neoclassical bootstrap drive. The seeding of 3/2 NTMs by long sawtooth crashes can be avoided by preemptive, crash-synchronized EC power injection pulses at the q = 3/2 rational surface location. NTM stabilization experiments in which the ECRH deposition location is moved in real-time with steerable mirrors have

  20. Versatile synchronized real-time MEG hardware controller for large-scale fast data acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Limin; Han, Menglai; Pratt, Kevin; Paulson, Douglas; Dinh, Christoph; Esch, Lorenz; Okada, Yoshio; Hämäläinen, Matti

    2017-05-01

    Versatile controllers for accurate, fast, and real-time synchronized acquisition of large-scale data are useful in many areas of science, engineering, and technology. Here, we describe the development of a controller software based on a technique called queued state machine for controlling the data acquisition (DAQ) hardware, continuously acquiring a large amount of data synchronized across a large number of channels (>400) at a fast rate (up to 20 kHz/channel) in real time, and interfacing with applications for real-time data analysis and display of electrophysiological data. This DAQ controller was developed specifically for a 384-channel pediatric whole-head magnetoencephalography (MEG) system, but its architecture is useful for wide applications. This controller running in a LabVIEW environment interfaces with microprocessors in the MEG sensor electronics to control their real-time operation. It also interfaces with a real-time MEG analysis software via transmission control protocol/internet protocol, to control the synchronous acquisition and transfer of the data in real time from >400 channels to acquisition and analysis workstations. The successful implementation of this controller for an MEG system with a large number of channels demonstrates the feasibility of employing the present architecture in several other applications.

  1. Determination of the plasma position for its real-time control in the COMPASS tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janky, F.; Havlicek, J.; Valcarcel, D.; Hron, M.; Horacek, J.; Kudlacek, O.; Panek, R.; Carvalho, B.B.

    2011-01-01

    An efficient horizontal and vertical stabilization of the plasma column position are essential for a reliable tokamak operation. Plasma position is generally determined by plasma current, plasma pressure and external vertical and horizontal magnetic fields. Such fields are generated by poloidal field coils and proper algorithm for the current control have to by applied, namely, in case of fast feedback loops. This paper presents a real-time plasma position reconstruction algorithms developed for the COMPASS tokamak. Further, its implementation in the MARTe (Multithreaded Application Real-Time executor) is described and the first results from test of the algorithm for real-time control of horizontal plasma positions are presented.

  2. Determination of the plasma position for its real-time control in the COMPASS tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janky, F., E-mail: jankyf@ipp.cas.cz [Institute of Plasma Physics, AS CR, v.v.i., Association EURATOM/IPP.CR, Za Slovankou 3, 182 00 Prague (Czech Republic); Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, V Holesovickach 2, CZ-18000 Prague (Czech Republic); Havlicek, J. [Institute of Plasma Physics, AS CR, v.v.i., Association EURATOM/IPP.CR, Za Slovankou 3, 182 00 Prague (Czech Republic); Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, V Holesovickach 2, CZ-18000 Prague (Czech Republic); Valcarcel, D. [Associacao EURATOM/IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusao Nuclear - Laboratorio Associado, Instituto Superior Tecnico, P1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Hron, M.; Horacek, J. [Institute of Plasma Physics, AS CR, v.v.i., Association EURATOM/IPP.CR, Za Slovankou 3, 182 00 Prague (Czech Republic); Kudlacek, O. [Czech Technical University, Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering, Technicka 2, 166 27 Prague (Czech Republic); Panek, R. [Institute of Plasma Physics, AS CR, v.v.i., Association EURATOM/IPP.CR, Za Slovankou 3, 182 00 Prague (Czech Republic); Carvalho, B.B. [Associacao EURATOM/IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusao Nuclear - Laboratorio Associado, Instituto Superior Tecnico, P1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2011-10-15

    An efficient horizontal and vertical stabilization of the plasma column position are essential for a reliable tokamak operation. Plasma position is generally determined by plasma current, plasma pressure and external vertical and horizontal magnetic fields. Such fields are generated by poloidal field coils and proper algorithm for the current control have to by applied, namely, in case of fast feedback loops. This paper presents a real-time plasma position reconstruction algorithms developed for the COMPASS tokamak. Further, its implementation in the MARTe (Multithreaded Application Real-Time executor) is described and the first results from test of the algorithm for real-time control of horizontal plasma positions are presented.

  3. AUTOMATED CONTROL AND REAL-TIME DATA PROCESSING OF WIRE SCANNER/HALO SCRAPER MEASUREMENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Day, L.A.; Gilpatrick, J.D.

    2001-01-01

    The Low-Energy Demonstration Accelerator (LEDA), assembled and operating at Los Alamos National Laboratory, provides the platform for obtaining measurements of high-power proton beam-halo formation. Control system software and hardware have been integrated and customized to enable the production of real-time beam-halo profiles. The Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) hosted on a VXI platform, Interactive Data Language (IDL) programs hosted on UNIX platforms, and LabVIEW (LV) Virtual Instruments hosted on a PC platform have been integrated and customized to provide real-time, synchronous motor control, data acquisition, and data analysis of data acquired through specialized DSP instrumentation. These modules communicate through EPICS Channel Access (CA) communication protocol extensions to control and manage execution flow ensuring synchronous data acquisition and real-time processing of measurement data. This paper describes the software integration and management scheme implemented to produce these real-time beam profiles

  4. Semantic-Based Concurrency Control for Object-Oriented Database Systems Supporting Real-Time Applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lee, Juhnyoung; Son, Sang H

    1994-01-01

    .... This paper investigates major issues in designing semantic-based concurrency control for object-oriented database systems supporting real-time applications, and it describes approaches to solving...

  5. Acquisition of Real Time Simulator for Intelligent Power Networks in Operational Energy Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-05

    and fixed power installations to enhance DoD mission effectiveness. The long term goal of this effort is to create a strong research and education ...effort is to create a strong research and education center at UTSA focused on innovative technologies and solutions for Energy-Systems Management...in Real-Time. , Grid Low voltage dc = ~ Dual Active Bridge (DAB) With 3-Level NPC HV bridge and High frequency transformer High voltage dc

  6. Route around real time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terrier, Francois

    1996-01-01

    The greater and greater autonomy and complexity asked to the control and command systems lead to work on introducing techniques such as Artificial Intelligence or concurrent object programming in industrial applications. However, while the critical feature of these systems impose to control the dynamics of the proposed solutions, their complexity often imposes a high adaptability to a partially modelled environment. The studies presented start from low level control and command systems to more complex applications at higher levels, such as 'supervision systems'. Techniques such as temporal reasoning and uncertainty management are proposed for the first studies, while the second are tackled with programming techniques based on the real time object paradigm. The outcomes of this itinerary crystallize on the ACCORD project which targets to manage - on the whole life cycle of a real time application - these two problematics, sometimes antagonistic: control of the dynamics and adaptivity. (author) [fr

  7. Computerized real-time materials accountability system for safeguards material control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, W.F.; Affel, R.G.; Austin, H.C.; Nichols, J.P.; Stoutt, B.H.; Wachter, J.W.

    1975-01-01

    A real-time, computer-based system is described which provides safeguards material control at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Originally installed in 1972 to provide computerized real-time fissile materials accountability for criticality control purposes, the system has been expanded to provide accountability of all source and nuclear materials (SNM) and to utilize the on-line inventory files in support of the Laboratory physical protection and surveillance procedures. (auth)

  8. Real-time monitoring, prognosis, and resilient control for wind turbine systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Zhiwei; Sheng, Shuangwen

    2018-02-01

    This special issue aims to provide a platform for academic and industrial communities to report recent results and emerging research in real-time monitoring, fault diagnosis, prognosis, and resilient control and design of wind turbine systems. After a strict peer-review process, 20 papers were selected, which represent the most recent progress of the real-time monitoring, diagnosis, prognosis, and resilient control methods/techniques in wind turbine systems.

  9. QoS Negotiation in Real-Time Systems and its Application to Automated Flight Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-11-01

    QoS Negotiation in Real - Time Systems and Its Application to Automated Flight Control Tarek F. Abdelzaher, Member, IEEE, Ella M. Atkins, Member, IEEE...been committed to those that arrived earlier. In hard- real - time systems , a static analysis may be performed to guarantee a priori that all requests be...DATE 2000 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2000 to 00-00-2000 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE QoS Negotiation in Real - Time Systems and its

  10. The implementation of CMOS sensors within a real time digital mammography intelligent imaging system: The I-ImaS System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esbrand, C.; Royle, G.; Griffiths, J.; Speller, R.

    2009-07-01

    The integration of technology with healthcare has undoubtedly propelled the medical imaging sector well into the twenty first century. The concept of digital imaging introduced during the 1970s has since paved the way for established imaging techniques where digital mammography, phase contrast imaging and CT imaging are just a few examples. This paper presents a prototype intelligent digital mammography system designed and developed by a European consortium. The final system, the I-ImaS system, utilises CMOS monolithic active pixel sensor (MAPS) technology promoting on-chip data processing, enabling the acts of data processing and image acquisition to be achieved simultaneously; consequently, statistical analysis of tissue is achievable in real-time for the purpose of x-ray beam modulation via a feedback mechanism during the image acquisition procedure. The imager implements a dual array of twenty 520 pixel × 40 pixel CMOS MAPS sensing devices with a 32μm pixel size, each individually coupled to a 100μm thick thallium doped structured CsI scintillator. This paper presents the first intelligent images of real breast tissue obtained from the prototype system of real excised breast tissue where the x-ray exposure was modulated via the statistical information extracted from the breast tissue itself. Conventional images were experimentally acquired where the statistical analysis of the data was done off-line, resulting in the production of simulated real-time intelligently optimised images. The results obtained indicate real-time image optimisation using the statistical information extracted from the breast as a means of a feedback mechanisms is beneficial and foreseeable in the near future.

  11. ASDEX Upgrade Discharge Control System—A real-time plasma control framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treutterer, W.; Cole, R.; Lüddecke, K.; Neu, G.; Rapson, C.; Raupp, G.; Zasche, D.; Zehetbauer, T.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The ASDEX Upgrade Discharge Control System (DCS) is a comprehensive control system to conduct fusion experiments. • DCS supports real-time diagnostic integration, adaptable feedback schemes, actuator management and exception handling. • DCS offers workflow management, logging and archiving, self-monitoring and inter-process communication. • DCS is based on a distributed, modular software framework architecture designed for real-time operation. • DCS is composed of re-usable generic but highly customisable components. - Abstract: ASDEX Upgrade is a fusion experiment with a size and complexity to allow extrapolation of technical and physical conditions and requirements to devices like ITER and even beyond. In addressing advanced physics topics it makes extensive use of sophisticated real-time control methods. It comprises real-time diagnostic integration, dynamically adaptable multivariable feedback schemes, actuator management including load distribution schemes and a powerful monitoring and pulse supervision concept based on segment scheduling and exception handling. The Discharge Control System (DCS) supplies all this functionality on base of a modular software framework architecture designed for real-time operation. It provides system-wide services like workflow management, logging and archiving, self-monitoring and inter-process communication on Linux, VxWorks and Solaris operating systems. By default DCS supports distributed computing, and a communication layer allows multi-directional signal transfer and data-driven process synchronisation over shared memory as well as over a number of real-time networks. The entire system is built following the same common design concept combining a rich set of re-usable generic but highly customisable components with a configuration-driven component deployment method. We will give an overview on the architectural concepts as well as on the outstanding capabilities of DCS in the domains of inter

  12. ASDEX Upgrade Discharge Control System—A real-time plasma control framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Treutterer, W., E-mail: Wolfgang.Treutterer@ipp.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Boltzmannstraße 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Cole, R.; Lüddecke, K. [Unlimited Computer Systems GmbH, Iffeldorf (Germany); Neu, G.; Rapson, C.; Raupp, G.; Zasche, D.; Zehetbauer, T. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Boltzmannstraße 2, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2014-03-15

    Highlights: • The ASDEX Upgrade Discharge Control System (DCS) is a comprehensive control system to conduct fusion experiments. • DCS supports real-time diagnostic integration, adaptable feedback schemes, actuator management and exception handling. • DCS offers workflow management, logging and archiving, self-monitoring and inter-process communication. • DCS is based on a distributed, modular software framework architecture designed for real-time operation. • DCS is composed of re-usable generic but highly customisable components. - Abstract: ASDEX Upgrade is a fusion experiment with a size and complexity to allow extrapolation of technical and physical conditions and requirements to devices like ITER and even beyond. In addressing advanced physics topics it makes extensive use of sophisticated real-time control methods. It comprises real-time diagnostic integration, dynamically adaptable multivariable feedback schemes, actuator management including load distribution schemes and a powerful monitoring and pulse supervision concept based on segment scheduling and exception handling. The Discharge Control System (DCS) supplies all this functionality on base of a modular software framework architecture designed for real-time operation. It provides system-wide services like workflow management, logging and archiving, self-monitoring and inter-process communication on Linux, VxWorks and Solaris operating systems. By default DCS supports distributed computing, and a communication layer allows multi-directional signal transfer and data-driven process synchronisation over shared memory as well as over a number of real-time networks. The entire system is built following the same common design concept combining a rich set of re-usable generic but highly customisable components with a configuration-driven component deployment method. We will give an overview on the architectural concepts as well as on the outstanding capabilities of DCS in the domains of inter

  13. Performance Improvement of Real-Time System for Plasma Control in RFX-mod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luchetta, A.; Manduchi, G.; Soppelsa, A.; Taliercio, C.

    2006-01-01

    The real-time system for plasma control has been used routinely in RFX-mod since commissioning (mid 2005). It is based on a modular hardware/software infrastructure, currently including 7 VME stations, capable of fulfilling the tight system requirements in terms of input/output channels (> 700 / > 250), real-time data flow (> 2 Mbyte/s), computation capability (> 1 GFLOP/s per station), and real-time constraints (application cycle times rd EPS Conf. on Plasma Physics, Rome Italy, June 19 - 23 2006]. The high flexibility of the system has stimulated the development of a large number of control schemes with progressively increasing requests in terms of computation complexity and real-time data flow, demanding, at the same time, strict control on cycle times and system latency. Even though careful optimisation of algorithm implementation and real-time data transmission have been performed, allowing to keep pace, so far, with the increased control requirements, future developments require to evolve the current technology, retaining the basic architecture and concepts. Two system enhancements are envisaged in the near future. The 500 MHz PowerPC-based Single Board Computer currently in use will be substituted with the 1 GHz version, whereas the real-time communication system will increase in bandwidth from 100 Mbit/s to 1 Gbit/s. These improvements will surely enhance the overall system performance, even if it is not possible to quantify a priori the exact performance boost, since other components may limit the performance in the new configuration. The paper reports in detail on the analysis of the bottlenecks of the current architecture. Based on measurements carried out in laboratory, it presents the results achieved with the proposed enhancements in terms of real-time data throughput, cycle times and latency. The paper analyses in detail the effects of the increased computing power on the components of the control system and of the improved bandwidth in real-time

  14. Development of real-time plasma analysis and control algorithms for the TCV tokamak using SIMULINK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felici, F.; Le, H.B.; Paley, J.I.; Duval, B.P.; Coda, S.; Moret, J.-M.; Bortolon, A.; Federspiel, L.; Goodman, T.P.; Hommen, G.; Karpushov, A.; Piras, F.; Pitzschke, A.; Romero, J.; Sevillano, G.; Sauter, O.; Vijvers, W.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A new digital control system for the TCV tokamak has been commissioned. • The system is entirely programmable by SIMULINK, allowing rapid algorithm development. • Different control system nodes can run different algorithms at varying sampling times. • The previous control system functions have been emulated and improved. • New capabilities include MHD control, profile control, equilibrium reconstruction. - Abstract: One of the key features of the new digital plasma control system installed on the TCV tokamak is the possibility to rapidly design, test and deploy real-time algorithms. With this flexibility the new control system has been used for a large number of new experiments which exploit TCV's powerful actuators consisting of 16 individually controllable poloidal field coils and 7 real-time steerable electron cyclotron (EC) launchers. The system has been used for various applications, ranging from event-based real-time MHD control to real-time current diffusion simulations. These advances have propelled real-time control to one of the cornerstones of the TCV experimental program. Use of the SIMULINK graphical programming language to directly program the control system has greatly facilitated algorithm development and allowed a multitude of different algorithms to be deployed in a short time. This paper will give an overview of the developed algorithms and their application in physics experiments

  15. An experiment of a 3D real-time robust visual odometry for intelligent vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez Florez , Sergio Alberto; Fremont , Vincent; Bonnifait , Philippe

    2009-01-01

    International audience; Vision systems are nowadays very promising for many on-board vehicles perception functionalities, like obstacles detection/recognition and ego-localization. In this paper, we present a 3D visual odometric method that uses a stereo-vision system to estimate the 3D ego-motion of a vehicle in outdoor road conditions. In order to run in real-time, the studied technique is sparse meaning that it makes use of feature points that are tracked during several frames. A robust sc...

  16. Ab initio quantum-enhanced optical phase estimation using real-time feedback control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berni, Adriano; Gehring, Tobias; Nielsen, Bo Melholt

    2015-01-01

    of a quantum-enhanced and fully deterministic ab initio phase estimation protocol based on real-time feedback control. Using robust squeezed states of light combined with a real-time Bayesian adaptive estimation algorithm, we demonstrate deterministic phase estimation with a precision beyond the quantum shot...... noise limit. The demonstrated protocol opens up new opportunities for quantum microscopy, quantum metrology and quantum information processing....

  17. Research on Control Method Based on Real-Time Operational Reliability Evaluation for Space Manipulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yifan Wang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A control method based on real-time operational reliability evaluation for space manipulator is presented for improving the success rate of a manipulator during the execution of a task. In this paper, a method for quantitative analysis of operational reliability is given when manipulator is executing a specified task; then a control model which could control the quantitative operational reliability is built. First, the control process is described by using a state space equation. Second, process parameters are estimated in real time using Bayesian method. Third, the expression of the system's real-time operational reliability is deduced based on the state space equation and process parameters which are estimated using Bayesian method. Finally, a control variable regulation strategy which considers the cost of control is given based on the Theory of Statistical Process Control. It is shown via simulations that this method effectively improves the operational reliability of space manipulator control system.

  18. Chaos Synchronization Based Novel Real-Time Intelligent Fault Diagnosis for Photovoltaic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Tsung Hsieh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The traditional solar photovoltaic fault diagnosis system needs two to three sets of sensing elements to capture fault signals as fault features and many fault diagnosis methods cannot be applied with real time. The fault diagnosis method proposed in this study needs only one set of sensing elements to intercept the fault features of the system, which can be real-time-diagnosed by creating the fault data of only one set of sensors. The aforesaid two points reduce the cost and fault diagnosis time. It can improve the construction of the huge database. This study used Matlab to simulate the faults in the solar photovoltaic system. The maximum power point tracker (MPPT is used to keep a stable power supply to the system when the system has faults. The characteristic signal of system fault voltage is captured and recorded, and the dynamic error of the fault voltage signal is extracted by chaos synchronization. Then, the extension engineering is used to implement the fault diagnosis. Finally, the overall fault diagnosis system only needs to capture the voltage signal of the solar photovoltaic system, and the fault type can be diagnosed instantly.

  19. Real time determination of dose radiation through artificial intelligence and virtual reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitas, Victor G.G.; Mol, Antonio C.A.; Pereira, Claudio M.N.A.

    2009-01-01

    In the last years, a virtual environment of Argonauta research reactor, sited in the Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (Brazil), has been developed. Such environment, called here Argonauta Virtual (AV), is a 3D model of the reactor hall, in which virtual people (avatar) can navigate. In AV, simulations of nuclear sources and doses are possible. In a recent work, a real time monitoring system (RTMS) was developed to provide (by means of Ethernet TCP/IP) the information of area detectors situated in the reactor hall. Extending the scope of AV, this work is intended to provide a continuous determination of gamma radiation dose in the reactor hall, based in several monitored parameters. To accomplish that a module based in artificial neural network (ANN) was developed. The ANN module is able to predict gamma radiation doses using as inputs: the avatar position (from virtual environment), the reactor power (from RTMS) and information of fixed area detectors (from RTMS). The ANN training data has been obtained by measurements of gamma radiation doses in a mesh of points, with previously defined positions, for different power levels. Through the use of ANN it is possible to estimate, in real time, the dose received by a person at any position in Argonauta reactor hall. Such approach allows tasks simulations and training of people inside the AV system, without exposing them to radiation effects. (author)

  20. Real time determination of dose radiation through artificial intelligence and virtual reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitas, Victor Goncalves Gloria

    2009-01-01

    In the last years, a virtual environment of Argonauta research reactor, sited in the Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (Brazil), has been developed. Such environment, called here Argonauta Virtual (AV), is a 3D model of the reactor hall, in which virtual people (avatar) can navigate. In AV, simulations of nuclear sources and doses are possible. In a recent work, a real time monitoring system (RTMS) was developed to provide (by means of Ethernet TCP/I P) the information of area detectors situated in the reactor hall. Extending the scope of AV, this work is intended to provide a continuous determination of gamma radiation dose in the reactor hall, based in several monitored parameters. To accomplish that a module based in artificial neural network (ANN) was developed. The ANN module is able to predict gamma radiation doses using as inputs: the avatar position (from virtual environment), the reactor power (from RTMS) and information of fixed area detectors (from RTMS). The ANN training data has been obtained by measurements of gamma radiation doses in a mesh of points, with previously defined positions, for different power levels. Through the use of ANN it is possible to estimate, in real time, the dose received by a person at any position in Argonauta reactor hall. Such approach allows tasks simulations and training of people inside the AV system, without exposing them to radiation effects. (author)

  1. Performance Comparison of EPICS IOC and MARTe in a Hard Real-Time Control Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbalace, Antonio; Manduchi, Gabriele; Neto, A.; De Tommasi, G.; Sartori, F.; Valcarcel, D. F.

    2011-12-01

    EPICS is used worldwide mostly for controlling accelerators and large experimental physics facilities. Although EPICS is well fit for the design and development of automation systems, which are typically VME or PLC-based systems, and for soft real-time systems, it may present several drawbacks when used to develop hard real-time systems/applications especially when general purpose operating systems as plain Linux are chosen. This is in particular true in fusion research devices typically employing several hard real-time systems, such as the magnetic control systems, that may require strict determinism, and high performance in terms of jitter and latency. Serious deterioration of important plasma parameters may happen otherwise, possibly leading to an abrupt termination of the plasma discharge. The MARTe framework has been recently developed to fulfill the demanding requirements for such real-time systems that are alike to run on general purpose operating systems, possibly integrated with the low-latency real-time preemption patches. MARTe has been adopted to develop a number of real-time systems in different Tokamaks. In this paper, we first summarize differences and similarities between EPICS IOC and MARTe. Then we report on a set of performance measurements executed on an x86 64 bit multicore machine running Linux with an IO control algorithm implemented in an EPICS IOC and in MARTe.

  2. Example of an in-plant near-real-time accountancy/process control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    This session describes an existing computerized in-plant near-real-time accounting and process monitoring system at the Allied-General Nuclear Services (AGNS) Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant (BNFP). Details of the system performance, objectives, hardware, plant instrumentation, and system functions are presented. Examples of actual programs for accounting and monitoring are described and system benefits will be discussed. The purpose of this session is to enable participants to: (1) identify the major computer hardware components of functional near-real-time accounting systems; (2) identify the types of process instrumentation necessary to perform near-real-time accounting; (3) describe the major nuclear material control and accounting functions of the AGNS computer system; and (4) assess the benefits to safeguards and plant operations of a computerized near-real-time accounting system

  3. Polar coordinated fuzzy controller based real-time maximum-power point control of photovoltaic system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syafaruddin; Hiyama, Takashi [Department of Computer Science and Electrical Engineering of Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Karatepe, Engin [Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering of Ege University, 35100 Bornova-Izmir (Turkey)

    2009-12-15

    It is crucial to improve the photovoltaic (PV) system efficiency and to develop the reliability of PV generation control systems. There are two ways to increase the efficiency of PV power generation system. The first is to develop materials offering high conversion efficiency at low cost. The second is to operate PV systems optimally. However, the PV system can be optimally operated only at a specific output voltage and its output power fluctuates under intermittent weather conditions. Moreover, it is very difficult to test the performance of a maximum-power point tracking (MPPT) controller under the same weather condition during the development process and also the field testing is costly and time consuming. This paper presents a novel real-time simulation technique of PV generation system by using dSPACE real-time interface system. The proposed system includes Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and fuzzy logic controller scheme using polar information. This type of fuzzy logic rules is implemented for the first time to operate the PV module at optimum operating point. ANN is utilized to determine the optimum operating voltage for monocrystalline silicon, thin-film cadmium telluride and triple junction amorphous silicon solar cells. The verification of availability and stability of the proposed system through the real-time simulator shows that the proposed system can respond accurately for different scenarios and different solar cell technologies. (author)

  4. Real-time control data wrangling for development of mathematical control models of technological processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilyeva, N. V.; Koteleva, N. I.; Fedorova, E. R.

    2018-05-01

    The relevance of the research is due to the need to stabilize the composition of the melting products of copper-nickel sulfide raw materials in the Vanyukov furnace. The goal of this research is to identify the most suitable methods for the aggregation of the real time data for the development of a mathematical model for control of the technological process of melting copper-nickel sulfide raw materials in the Vanyukov furnace. Statistical methods of analyzing the historical data of the real technological object and the correlation analysis of process parameters are described. Factors that exert the greatest influence on the main output parameter (copper content in matte) and ensure the physical-chemical transformations are revealed. An approach to the processing of the real time data for the development of a mathematical model for control of the melting process is proposed. The stages of processing the real time information are considered. The adopted methodology for the aggregation of data suitable for the development of a control model for the technological process of melting copper-nickel sulfide raw materials in the Vanyukov furnace allows us to interpret the obtained results for their further practical application.

  5. Fuzzy Coordinated PI Controller: Application to the Real-Time Pressure Control Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Kanagaraj

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the real-time implementation of a fuzzy coordinated classical PI control scheme for controlling the pressure in a pilot pressure tank system. The fuzzy system has been designed to track the variation parameters in a feedback loop and tune the classical controller to achieve a better control action for load disturbances and set point changes. The error and process inputs are chosen as the inputs of fuzzy system to tune the conventional PI controller according to the process condition. This online conventional controller tuning technique will reduce the human involvement in controller tuning and increase the operating range of the conventional controller. The proposed control algorithm is experimentally implemented for the real-time pressure control of a pilot air tank system and validated using a high-speed 32-bit ARM7 embedded microcontroller board (ATMEL AT91M55800A. To demonstrate the performance of the fuzzy coordinated PI control scheme, results are compared with a classical PI and PI-type fuzzy control method. It is observed that the proposed controller structure is able to quickly track the parameter variation and perform better in load disturbances and also for set point changes.

  6. Internally controlled, generic real-time PCR for quantification and multiplex real-time PCR with serotype-specific probes for serotyping of dengue virus infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menting, Sandra; Thai, Khoa T. D.; Nga, Tran T. T.; Phuong, Hoang L.; Klatser, Paul; Wolthers, Katja C.; Binh, Tran Q.; de Vries, Peter J.; Beld, Marcel

    2011-01-01

    Dengue has become a global public health problem and a sensitive diagnostic test for early phase detection can be life saving. An internally controlled, generic real-time PCR was developed and validated by testing serial dilutions of a DENV positive control RNA in the presence of a fixed amount of

  7. Integration of domain and resource-based reasoning for real-time control in dynamic environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Keith; Whitebread, Kenneth R.; Kendus, Michael; Cromarty, Andrew S.

    1993-01-01

    A real-time software controller that successfully integrates domain-based and resource-based control reasoning to perform task execution in a dynamically changing environment is described. The design of the controller is based on the concept of partitioning the process to be controlled into a set of tasks, each of which achieves some process goal. It is assumed that, in general, there are multiple ways (tasks) to achieve a goal. The controller dynamically determines current goals and their current criticality, choosing and scheduling tasks to achieve those goals in the time available. It incorporates rule-based goal reasoning, a TMS-based criticality propagation mechanism, and a real-time scheduler. The controller has been used to build a knowledge-based situation assessment system that formed a major component of a real-time, distributed, cooperative problem solving system built under DARPA contract. It is also being employed in other applications now in progress.

  8. Plasma density control in real-time on the COMPASS tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janky, F., E-mail: filip.janky.work@gmail.com [Institute of Plasma Physics AS CR, v.v.i., Association EURATOM/IPP.CR, Za Slovankou 3, 182 00 Praha 8 (Czech Republic); Department of Surface and Plasma Science, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University in Prague, V Holešovičkách 2, 180 00 Praha 8 (Czech Republic); Hron, M. [Institute of Plasma Physics AS CR, v.v.i., Association EURATOM/IPP.CR, Za Slovankou 3, 182 00 Praha 8 (Czech Republic); Havlicek, J. [Institute of Plasma Physics AS CR, v.v.i., Association EURATOM/IPP.CR, Za Slovankou 3, 182 00 Praha 8 (Czech Republic); Department of Surface and Plasma Science, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University in Prague, V Holešovičkách 2, 180 00 Praha 8 (Czech Republic); Varavin, M.; Zacek, F.; Seidl, J.; Panek, R. [Institute of Plasma Physics AS CR, v.v.i., Association EURATOM/IPP.CR, Za Slovankou 3, 182 00 Praha 8 (Czech Republic)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • We fitted length of the chord of the interferometry crossing plasma in the different plasma scenarios. • We add correction to the actual length of the chord of the interferometry according to plasma shape and position in real-time code. • We used this correction to control plasma density in real-time. - Abstract: The electron density on COMPASS is measured using 2 mm microwave interferometer. Interferometer signal is used as an input for the feedback control loop, running under the MARTe real-time framework. Two different threads are used to calculate (fast 50 μs thread) and to control (slow 500 μs thread) the electron density. The interferometer measures a line averaged density along a measurement chord. This paper describes an approach to control the line-averaged electron density in a real-time loop, using a correction to the real plasma shape, the plasma position, and non-linear effects of the electron density measurement at high densities. Newly developed real-time electron density control give COMPASS the chance to control the electron density more accurately which is essential for parametric scans for diagnosticians, for physics experiments and also for achieving plasma scenarios with H-mode.

  9. Electric space heating scheduling for real-time explicit power control in active distribution networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costanzo, Giuseppe Tommaso; Bernstein, Andrey; Chamorro, Lorenzo Reyes

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a systematic approach for abstracting the flexibility of a building space heating system and using it within a composable framework for real-time explicit power control of microgrids and, more in general, active distribution networks. In particular, the proposed approach...... is developed within the context of a previously defined microgrid control framework, called COMMELEC, conceived for the explicit and real-time control of these specific networks. The designed control algorithm is totally independent from the need of a building model and allows exploiting the intrinsic thermal...... inertia for real-time control. The paper first discusses the general approach, then it proves its validity via dedicated simulations performed on specific case study composed by the CIGRE LV microgrid benchmark proposed by the Cigré TF C6.04.02....

  10. Real-time horizontal position control for Aditya-upgrade tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Rohit; Ghosh, Joydeep; Tanna, Rakesh L.

    2015-01-01

    Position of plasma column is required to be controlled in real time for improved operation of any tokamak. A PID based system for real-time horizontal plasma position control has been designed for Aditya Upgrade tokamak. Modelling of transfer functions of actuators, plasma and diagnostic system are carried out for ADITYA-U tokamak. The PID controller is optimized using MATLAB-SIMULINK for horizontal position control. Further feed-forward loop is implemented where disturbance due to density variation is suppressed, which results in improved performance as compared to conventional PID operation. In this paper the detailed design of the whole system for real time control of plasma horizontal position in Aditya Upgrade tokamak is presented. (author)

  11. RTSPM: real-time Linux control software for scanning probe microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekhar, V; Mehta, M M

    2013-01-01

    Real time computer control is an essential feature of scanning probe microscopes, which have become important tools for the characterization and investigation of nanometer scale samples. Most commercial (and some open-source) scanning probe data acquisition software uses digital signal processors to handle the real time data processing and control, which adds to the expense and complexity of the control software. We describe here scan control software that uses a single computer and a data acquisition card to acquire scan data. The computer runs an open-source real time Linux kernel, which permits fast acquisition and control while maintaining a responsive graphical user interface. Images from a simulated tuning-fork based microscope as well as a standard topographical sample are also presented, showing some of the capabilities of the software.

  12. Real time hardware-in-loop simulation of ESMO satellite attitude control system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rune Finnset

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies attitude control of the ESMO satellite using six reaction thrusters. Bang-bang control with dead-zone and Pulse-Width Modulation (PWM for the modulation of the on-time of the thrusters are treated. Closed loop hardware-in-loop simulations, using themicrocontroller unit (MCU Microchip PIC18F452 for implementation of attitude control and MatLab in a standard PC for simulating satellite dynamics, are carried out. Results for real time simulation are compared with autonomous simulations. The controller gives a satisfactory performance in the real time environment.

  13. Three axis electronic flight motion simulator real time control system design and implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Zhiyuan; Miao, Zhonghua, E-mail: zhonghua-miao@163.com; Wang, Xiaohua [School of Mechatronic Engineering and Automation, Shanghai University, Shanghai, 200072 (China); Wang, Xuyong [School of Mechanical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2014-12-15

    A three axis electronic flight motion simulator is reported in this paper including the modelling, the controller design as well as the hardware implementation. This flight motion simulator could be used for inertial navigation test and high precision inertial navigation system with good dynamic and static performances. A real time control system is designed, several control system implementation problems were solved including time unification with parallel port interrupt, high speed finding-zero method of rotary inductosyn, zero-crossing management with continuous rotary, etc. Tests were carried out to show the effectiveness of the proposed real time control system.

  14. Three axis electronic flight motion simulator real time control system design and implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhiyuan; Miao, Zhonghua; Wang, Xuyong; Wang, Xiaohua

    2014-12-01

    A three axis electronic flight motion simulator is reported in this paper including the modelling, the controller design as well as the hardware implementation. This flight motion simulator could be used for inertial navigation test and high precision inertial navigation system with good dynamic and static performances. A real time control system is designed, several control system implementation problems were solved including time unification with parallel port interrupt, high speed finding-zero method of rotary inductosyn, zero-crossing management with continuous rotary, etc. Tests were carried out to show the effectiveness of the proposed real time control system.

  15. Solving Algebraic Riccati Equation Real Time for Integrated Vehicle Dynamics Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kunnappillil Madhusudhanan, A; Corno, M.; Bonsen, B.; Holweg, E.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present a comparison study of different computational methods to implement State Dependent Riccati Equation (SDRE) based control in real time for a vehicle dynamics control application. Vehicles are mechatronic systems with nonlinear dynamics. One of the promising nonlinear control

  16. Real time control of the flexible dynamics of orbital launch vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, van den J.; Steinbuch, M.; Gutierrez, H.M.

    2011-01-01

    During this traineeship the flexible dynamics of orbital launch vehicles are estimated and controlled in real time, using distributed fiber-Bragg sensor arrays for motion estimation and cold gas thrusters for control. The use of these cold-gas thrusters to actively control flexible modes is the main

  17. Real time control of EC heating & current drive systems on TCV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paley, J.I.; Felici, F.; Curchod, L.; Coda, S.; Goodman, T.P.

    2009-01-01

    The ability to control, in real time, the electron cyclotron heating & current drive systems for the control of MHD instabilities is particularly important for large tokamaks operating at high performance. Several algorithms have been developed and tested on TCV to explore possible control

  18. Real-time data acquisition and feedback control using Linux Intel computers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penaflor, B.G.; Ferron, J.R.; Piglowski, D.A.; Johnson, R.D.; Walker, M.L.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the experiences of the DIII-D programming staff in adapting Linux based Intel computing hardware for use in real-time data acquisition and feedback control systems. Due to the highly dynamic and unstable nature of magnetically confined plasmas in tokamak fusion experiments, real-time data acquisition and feedback control systems are in routine use with all major tokamaks. At DIII-D, plasmas are created and sustained using a real-time application known as the digital plasma control system (PCS). During each experiment, the PCS periodically samples data from hundreds of diagnostic signals and provides these data to control algorithms implemented in software. These algorithms compute the necessary commands to send to various actuators that affect plasma performance. The PCS consists of a group of rack mounted Intel Xeon computer systems running an in-house customized version of the Linux operating system tailored specifically to meet the real-time performance needs of the plasma experiments. This paper provides a more detailed description of the real-time computing hardware and custom developed software, including recent work to utilize dual Intel Xeon equipped computers within the PCS

  19. Real-time beam tracing for control of the deposition location of electron cyclotron waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reich, M., E-mail: matthias.reich@ipp.mpg.de; Bilato, R.; Mszanowski, U.; Poli, E.; Rapson, C.; Stober, J.; Volpe, F.; Zille, R.

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • We successfully integrated a real-time EC beam tracing code at ASDEX Upgrade. • The calculation of EC beam deposition location is fast enough for control purposes. • The accuracy of the deposition location calculation exceeds equivalent measurements. • The implementation method is by design portable to larger fusion devices. - Abstract: Plasma control techniques that use electron cyclotron (EC) resonance heating and current drive such as control of neoclassical tearing modes require accurate control of the deposition location of EC beams. ASDEX Upgrade has successfully implemented a real-time version of the beam-tracing code TORBEAM into its real-time diagnostic system to act as a globally available module that calculates current deposition location and its sensitivity from other real-time diagnostic measurements for all its moveable EC wave launchers. Based on a highly (100×) accelerated version of TORBEAM, the software implementation as a diagnostic process uses parallelization and achieves cycle times of 15–20 ms for determining the radial deposition location of 12 beams in the plasma. This cycle time includes data input–output overhead arising from the use of available real-time signals. The system is by design portable to other machines such as ITER.

  20. A Controller for Dynamic Partial Reconfiguration in FPGA-Based Real-Time Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pezzarossa, Luca; Schoeberl, Martin; Sparsø, Jens

    2017-01-01

    -source DPR controller specially developed for hard real-time systems and prototyped in connection with the open-source multi-core platform for real-time applications T-CREST. The controller enables a processor to perform reconfiguration in a time-predictable manner and supports different operating modes......In real-time systems, the use of hardware accelerators can lead to a worst-case execution-time speed-up, to a simplification of its analysis, and to a reduction of its pessimism. When using FPGA technology, dynamic partial reconfiguration (DPR) can be used to minimize the area, by only loading....... The paper also presents a software tool for bitstream conversion, compression, and for reconfiguration time analysis. The DPR controller is evaluated in terms of hardware cost, operating frequency, speed, and bitstream compression ratio vs. reconfiguration time trade-off. A simple application example...

  1. Real Time Part Input Control of a Pull Production System by Finding IF-THEN Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramli, Rizauddin; Yamamoto, Hidehiko; Abu Qudeiri, Jaber

    This paper considers the part input problem of a production system where two Flexible Transfer Lines (FTLs) consisting of an up-stream production line and a down-stream production line while operating under Just In Time (JIT) production management. The up-stream production line processes the raw material after receiving them from suppliers, and after processing them, delivers the processed product to a down-stream production line via a conveyer. In this paper, we have proposed a novel idea for a part input real time control system, known as Algorithm for Real Time Control of Part Input Systems (ARTCOPS). The algorithm is useful when FTLs are in operation under a production order that is different from the pre-decided production schedule. Simulations of virtual production systems have been carried out to verify that ARTCOPS is useful in real time control, although the production orders are different from the pre-decided production scheduling.

  2. Data-driven modeling and real-time distributed control for energy efficient manufacturing systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou, Jing; Chang, Qing; Arinez, Jorge; Xiao, Guoxian

    2017-01-01

    As manufacturers face the challenges of increasing global competition and energy saving requirements, it is imperative to seek out opportunities to reduce energy waste and overall cost. In this paper, a novel data-driven stochastic manufacturing system modeling method is proposed to identify and predict energy saving opportunities and their impact on production. A real-time distributed feedback production control policy, which integrates the current and predicted system performance, is established to improve the overall profit and energy efficiency. A case study is presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control policy. - Highlights: • A data-driven stochastic manufacturing system model is proposed. • Real-time system performance and energy saving opportunity identification method is developed. • Prediction method for future potential system performance and energy saving opportunity is developed. • A real-time distributed feedback control policy is established to improve energy efficiency and overall system profit.

  3. Real-Time Reliability Verification for UAV Flight Control System Supporting Airworthiness Certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Haiyang; Wang, Ping

    2016-01-01

    In order to verify the real-time reliability of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) flight control system and comply with the airworthiness certification standard, we proposed a model-based integration framework for modeling and verification of time property. Combining with the advantages of MARTE, this framework uses class diagram to create the static model of software system, and utilizes state chart to create the dynamic model. In term of the defined transformation rules, the MARTE model could be transformed to formal integrated model, and the different part of the model could also be verified by using existing formal tools. For the real-time specifications of software system, we also proposed a generating algorithm for temporal logic formula, which could automatically extract real-time property from time-sensitive live sequence chart (TLSC). Finally, we modeled the simplified flight control system of UAV to check its real-time property. The results showed that the framework could be used to create the system model, as well as precisely analyze and verify the real-time reliability of UAV flight control system.

  4. Real time MHD mode control using ECCD in KSTAR: Plan and requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joung, M.; Woo, M. H.; Jeong, J. H.; Hahn, S. H.; Yun, S. W.; Lee, W. R.; Bae, Y. S.; Oh, Y. K.; Kwak, J. G.; Yang, H. L. [National Fusion Research Institute, 52 Eoeun-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Namkung, W.; Park, H.; Cho, M. H. [Department of Physics, POSTECH, Hyoja-dong, Nam-gu, Pohang, Gyeongangbuk-do (Korea, Republic of); Kim, M. H.; Kim, K. J.; Na, Y. S. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University, Daehak-dong, Gwanak-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hosea, J.; Ellis, R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton (United States)

    2014-02-12

    For a high-performance, advanced tokamak mode in KSTAR, we have been developing a real-time control system of MHD modes such as sawtooth and Neo-classical Tearing Mode (NTM) by ECH/ECCD. The active feedback control loop will be also added to the mirror position and the real-time detection of the mode position. In this year, for the stabilization of NTM that is crucial to plasma performance we have implemented open-loop ECH antenna control system in KSTAR Plasma Control System (PCS) for ECH mirror movement during a single plasma discharge. KSTAR 170 GHz ECH launcher which was designed and fabricated by collaboration with PPPL and POSTECH has a final mirror of a poloidally and toroidally steerable mirror. The poloidal steering motion is only controlled in the real-time NTM control system and its maximum steering speed is 10 degree/sec by DC motor. However, the latency of the mirror control system and the return period of ECH antenna mirror angle are not fast because the existing launcher mirror control system is based on PLC which is connected to the KSTAR machine network through serial to LAN converter. In this paper, we present the design of real time NTM control system, ECH requirements, and the upgrade plan.

  5. A real-time data acquisition and elaboration system for instabilities control in the FTU tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alessi, E., E-mail: alessi@ifp.cnr.it [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA, IFP-CNR, Milano (Italy); Boncagni, L. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA, C.R. Frascati (Italy); Galperti, C.; Marchetto, C.; Nowak, S.; Sozzi, C. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA, IFP-CNR, Milano (Italy); Apruzzese, G. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA, C.R. Frascati (Italy); Bin, W. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA, IFP-CNR, Milano (Italy); Belli, F.; Botrugno, A. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA, C.R. Frascati (Italy); Bruschi, A.; Cirant, S. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA, IFP-CNR, Milano (Italy); D' Antona, G.; Davoudi, M. [Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Elettrotecnica (Italy); Figini, L. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA, IFP-CNR, Milano (Italy); Ferrero, R. [Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Elettrotecnica (Italy); Gabellieri, L. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA, C.R. Frascati (Italy); Garavaglia, S.; Granucci, G. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA, IFP-CNR, Milano (Italy); Grosso, A. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA, C.R. Frascati (Italy); and others

    2013-08-21

    A real-time data acquisition and elaboration system is being implemented to control the new ECH launcher recently installed at FTU (Frascati Tokamak Upgrade). The system is aimed at controlling different kinds of magnetohydrodynamic instabilities, in particular the deleterious 3/2 and 2/1 (neoclassical) tearing modes, (N)TM, and the saw teeth period in order to prevent the seeding of NTMs. The complete system is presented here together with preliminary offline and real-time tests. © 2001 Elsevier Science. All rights reserved.

  6. Real-time simulation requirements for study and optimization of power system controls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakra, Harbans; McCallum, David; Gagnon, Charles [Institut de Recherche d` Hydro-Quebec, Quebec, PQ (Canada); Venne, Andre; Gagnon, Julien [Hydro-Quebec, Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    1994-12-31

    At the time of ordering for the multi-terminal dc system linking Hydro-Quebec with New England, Hydro-Quebec also ordered functionally duplicate controls of all the converters and installed these in its real time simulation laboratory. The Hydro-Quebec ac system was also simulated in detail and the testing of the controls as thus made possible in a realistic environment. Many field tests were duplicated and many additional tests were done for correction and optimization. This paper describes some of the features of the real-time simulation carried out for this purpose. (author) 3 figs.

  7. Real-time distributed economic model predictive control for complete vehicle energy management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romijn, Constantijn; Donkers, Tijs; Kessels, John; Weiland, Siep

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, a real-time distributed economic model predictive control approach for complete vehicle energy management (CVEM) is presented using a receding control horizon in combination with a dual decomposition. The dual decomposition allows the CVEM optimization problem to be solved by solving

  8. Real-time sail and heading optimization for a surface sailing vessel by extremum seeking control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Treichel, Kai; Jouffroy, Jerome

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we develop a simplified mathematical model representing the main elements of the behaviour of sailing vessels as a basis for simulation and controller design. For adaptive real-time optimization of the sail and heading angle we then apply extremum seeking control (which is a gradient...

  9. Genetic algorithms for adaptive real-time control in space systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderzijp, J.; Choudry, A.

    1988-01-01

    Genetic Algorithms that are used for learning as one way to control the combinational explosion associated with the generation of new rules are discussed. The Genetic Algorithm approach tends to work best when it can be applied to a domain independent knowledge representation. Applications to real time control in space systems are discussed.

  10. Coupling DCS and MARTe: two real-time control frameworks in collaboration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapson, Christopher J.; Carvalho, Pedro; Lüddecke, Klaus; Neto, André C.; Santos, Bruno; Treutterer, Wolfgang; Winter, Axel; Zehetbauer, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Similarities and differences between DCS and MARTe. • Identifies the state-of-the-art in terms of software frameworks for fusion control. • Interfaces developed for realtime and non-realtime communication between DCS and MARTe. • An algorithm replicated in DCS and MARTe produces identical results and good performance. • The start of collaboration to develop a new framework for ITER PCS. - Abstract: Fusion experiments place high demands on real-time control systems. Within the fusion community two modern framework-based software architectures have emerged as powerful tools for developing algorithms for real-time control of complex systems while maintaining the flexibility required when operating a physics experiment. The two frameworks are known as DCS (Discharge Control System), from ASDEX Upgrade and MARTe (Multithreaded Application Real-Time executor), originally from JET. Based on the success of DCS and MARTe, ITER has chosen to develop a framework architecture for its Plasma Control System which will adopt major design concepts from both the existing frameworks. This paper describes a coupling of the two existing frameworks, which was undertaken to explore the degree of similarity and compliance between the concepts, and to extend their capabilities. DCS and MARTe operate in parallel with synchronised state machines and a common message logger. Configuration data is exchanged before the real-time phase. During the real-time phase, structured data is exchanged via shared memory and an existing DCS algorithm is replicated within MARTe. The coupling tests the flexibility and identifies the respective strengths of the two frameworks, providing a well-informed basis on which to move forward and design a new ITER real-time framework

  11. Coupling DCS and MARTe: two real-time control frameworks in collaboration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapson, Christopher J., E-mail: chris.rapson@ipp.mpg.de [Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, Boltzmannstrasse 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Carvalho, Pedro [Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Lüddecke, Klaus; Neto, André C. [Unlimited Computer Systems GmbH, Seeshaupterstr. 15, 82393 Iffeldorf (Germany); Santos, Bruno [Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Treutterer, Wolfgang [Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, Boltzmannstrasse 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Winter, Axel [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, 13115 St.-Paul-Lès-Durance (France); Zehetbauer, Thomas [Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, Boltzmannstrasse 2, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Similarities and differences between DCS and MARTe. • Identifies the state-of-the-art in terms of software frameworks for fusion control. • Interfaces developed for realtime and non-realtime communication between DCS and MARTe. • An algorithm replicated in DCS and MARTe produces identical results and good performance. • The start of collaboration to develop a new framework for ITER PCS. - Abstract: Fusion experiments place high demands on real-time control systems. Within the fusion community two modern framework-based software architectures have emerged as powerful tools for developing algorithms for real-time control of complex systems while maintaining the flexibility required when operating a physics experiment. The two frameworks are known as DCS (Discharge Control System), from ASDEX Upgrade and MARTe (Multithreaded Application Real-Time executor), originally from JET. Based on the success of DCS and MARTe, ITER has chosen to develop a framework architecture for its Plasma Control System which will adopt major design concepts from both the existing frameworks. This paper describes a coupling of the two existing frameworks, which was undertaken to explore the degree of similarity and compliance between the concepts, and to extend their capabilities. DCS and MARTe operate in parallel with synchronised state machines and a common message logger. Configuration data is exchanged before the real-time phase. During the real-time phase, structured data is exchanged via shared memory and an existing DCS algorithm is replicated within MARTe. The coupling tests the flexibility and identifies the respective strengths of the two frameworks, providing a well-informed basis on which to move forward and design a new ITER real-time framework.

  12. Current status of DIII-D real-time digital plasma control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penaflor, B.G.; Piglowski, D.A.; Ferron, J.R.; Walker, M.L.

    1999-06-01

    This paper describes the current status of real-time digital plasma control for the DIII-D tokamak. The digital plasma control system (PCS) has been in place at DIII-D since the early 1990s and continues to expand and improve in its capabilities to monitor and control plasma parameters for DIII-D fusion science experiments. The PCs monitors over 200 tokamak parameters from the DIII-D experiment using a real-time data acquisition system that acquires a new set of samples once every 60 micros. This information is then used in a number of feedback control algorithms to compute and control a variety of parameters including those affecting plasma shape and position. A number of system related improvements has improved the usability and flexibility of the DIII-D PCS. These include more graphical user interfaces to assist in entering and viewing the large and ever growing number of parameters controlled by the PCS, increased interaction and accessibility from other DIII-D applications, and upgrades to the computer hardware and vended software. Future plans for the system include possible upgrades of the real-time computers, further links to other DIII-D diagnostic measurements such as real-time Thomson scattering analysis, and joint collaborations with other tokamak experiments including the NSTX at Princeton

  13. Effects of computing time delay on real-time control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Kang G.; Cui, Xianzhong

    1988-01-01

    The reliability of a real-time digital control system depends not only on the reliability of the hardware and software used, but also on the speed in executing control algorithms. The latter is due to the negative effects of computing time delay on control system performance. For a given sampling interval, the effects of computing time delay are classified into the delay problem and the loss problem. Analysis of these two problems is presented as a means of evaluating real-time control systems. As an example, both the self-tuning predicted (STP) control and Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) control are applied to the problem of tracking robot trajectories, and their respective effects of computing time delay on control performance are comparatively evaluated. For this example, the STP (PID) controller is shown to outperform the PID (STP) controller in coping with the delay (loss) problem.

  14. From distributed to multicore architecture in the RFX-mod real time control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manduchi, G.; Luchetta, A.; Soppelsa, A.; Taliercio, C.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The paper describes the experience in running the real-time control system of RFX-mod. • It presents a new architecture based on multicore technology. • It analyze the feasibility of Linux MRG for real-time control. • It presents an application of the MARTe framework. - Abstract: The real-time control system of RFX has been operating since 2004 providing effective control of the plasma position and of the MagnetoHydroDynamic (MHD) modes. The demand for new and more computing-intensive control algorithms and the need for shorter latency pushed the system to its limits and, thus, a complete re-design was carried out in 2012. The new system adopts radically different solutions in hardware, operating system and software management. The VME PowerPC CPUs communicating over Ethernet have been now replaced by a single multicore server. VxWorks, previously used in the VME CPUs has now been replaced by Linux, which can be currently considered a real-time system provided an accurate tuning of the Linux scheduler and interrupt configuration. The previous framework for control and communication has been replaced by MARTe, a modern framework for real-time control gaining interest in the fusion community. The usage of MARTe allowed a rapid development of the control system and, in particular, its intrinsic simulation ability gave us the possibility of carrying out most debugging in simulation, without affecting machine operation. As a result the whole system has been finally commissioned in RFX in only two weeks

  15. From distributed to multicore architecture in the RFX-mod real time control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manduchi, G., E-mail: gabriele.manduchi@igi.cnr.it; Luchetta, A.; Soppelsa, A.; Taliercio, C.

    2014-03-15

    Highlights: • The paper describes the experience in running the real-time control system of RFX-mod. • It presents a new architecture based on multicore technology. • It analyze the feasibility of Linux MRG for real-time control. • It presents an application of the MARTe framework. - Abstract: The real-time control system of RFX has been operating since 2004 providing effective control of the plasma position and of the MagnetoHydroDynamic (MHD) modes. The demand for new and more computing-intensive control algorithms and the need for shorter latency pushed the system to its limits and, thus, a complete re-design was carried out in 2012. The new system adopts radically different solutions in hardware, operating system and software management. The VME PowerPC CPUs communicating over Ethernet have been now replaced by a single multicore server. VxWorks, previously used in the VME CPUs has now been replaced by Linux, which can be currently considered a real-time system provided an accurate tuning of the Linux scheduler and interrupt configuration. The previous framework for control and communication has been replaced by MARTe, a modern framework for real-time control gaining interest in the fusion community. The usage of MARTe allowed a rapid development of the control system and, in particular, its intrinsic simulation ability gave us the possibility of carrying out most debugging in simulation, without affecting machine operation. As a result the whole system has been finally commissioned in RFX in only two weeks.

  16. Real-time feedback control of the plasma density profile on ASDEX Upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mlynek, A.; Reich, M.; Giannone, L.; Treutterer, W.; Behler, K.; Blank, H.; Buhler, A.; Cole, R.; Eixenberger, H.; Fischer, R.; Lohs, A.; Lueddecke, K.; Merkel, R.; Neu, G.; Ryter, F.; Zasche, D.

    2011-01-01

    The spatial distribution of density in a fusion experiment is of significant importance as it enters in numerous analyses and contributes to the fusion performance. The reconstruction of the density profile is therefore commonly done in offline data analysis. In this paper, we present an algorithm which allows for density profile reconstruction from the data of the submillimetre interferometer and the magnetic equilibrium in real-time. We compare the obtained results to the profiles yielded by a numerically more complex offline algorithm. Furthermore, we present recent ASDEX Upgrade experiments in which we used the real-time density profile for active feedback control of the shape of the density profile.

  17. Real-time operating system timing jitter and its impact on motor control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Frederick M.; Shackleford, William P.

    2001-12-01

    General-purpose microprocessors are increasingly being used for control applications due to their widespread availability and software support for non-control functions like networking and operator interfaces. Two classes of real-time operating systems (RTOS) exist for these systems. The traditional RTOS serves as the sole operating system, and provides all OS services. Examples include ETS, LynxOS, QNX, Windows CE and VxWorks. RTOS extensions add real-time scheduling capabilities to non-real-time OSes, and provide minimal services needed for the time-critical portions of an application. Examples include RTAI and RTL for Linux, and HyperKernel, OnTime and RTX for Windows NT. Timing jitter is an issue in these systems, due to hardware effects such as bus locking, caches and pipelines, and software effects from mutual exclusion resource locks, non-preemtible critical sections, disabled interrupts, and multiple code paths in the scheduler. Jitter is typically on the order of a microsecond to a few tens of microseconds for hard real-time operating systems, and ranges from milliseconds to seconds in the worst case for soft real-time operating systems. The question of its significance on the performance of a controller arises. Naturally, the smaller the scheduling period required for a control task, the more significant is the impact of timing jitter. Aside from this intuitive relationship is the greater significance of timing on open-loop control, such as for stepper motors, than for closed-loop control, such as for servo motors. Techniques for measuring timing jitter are discussed, and comparisons between various platforms are presented. Techniques to reduce jitter or mitigate its effects are presented. The impact of jitter on stepper motor control is analyzed.

  18. Intelligent monitoring system for real-time geologic CO2 storage, optimization and reservoir managemen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, S.; Commer, M.; Ajo Franklin, J. B.; Freifeld, B. M.; Robertson, M.; Wood, T.; McDonald, S.

    2017-12-01

    Archer Daniels Midland Company's (ADM) world-scale agricultural processing and biofuels production complex located in Decatur, Illinois, is host to two industrial-scale carbon capture and storage projects. The first operation within the Illinois Basin-Decatur Project (IBDP) is a large-scale pilot that injected 1,000,000 metric tons of CO2 over a three year period (2011-2014) in order to validate the Illinois Basin's capacity to permanently store CO2. Injection for the second operation, the Illinois Industrial Carbon Capture and Storage Project (ICCS), started in April 2017, with the purpose of demonstrating the integration of carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology at an ethanol plant. The capacity to store over 1,000,000 metric tons of CO2 per year is anticipated. The latter project is accompanied by the development of an intelligent monitoring system (IMS) that will, among other tasks, perform hydrogeophysical joint analysis of pressure, temperature and seismic reflection data. Using a preliminary radial model assumption, we carry out synthetic joint inversion studies of these data combinations. We validate the history-matching process to be applied to field data once CO2-breakthrough at observation wells occurs. This process will aid the estimation of permeability and porosity for a reservoir model that best matches monitoring observations. The reservoir model will further be used for forecasting studies in order to evaluate different leakage scenarios and develop appropriate early-warning mechanisms. Both the inversion and forecasting studies aim at building an IMS that will use the seismic and pressure-temperature data feeds for providing continuous model calibration and reservoir status updates.

  19. Robustness of parameter-less remote real-time pressure control in water distribution systems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Page, Philip R

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available One way of reducing water leakage, pipe bursts and water consumption in a water distribution system (WDS) is to manage the pressure to be as low as possible. This can be done by adjusting a pressure control valve (PCV) in real-time in order to keep...

  20. Application of Bf-EVALPSN to Real-time Process Order Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamatsu, Kazumi; Akama, Seiki; Abe, Jair M.

    2009-01-01

    We have already proposed a paraconsistent annotated logic program called EVALPSN. In this paper, EVALPSN is developed to deal with before-after relations between two processes (time intervals), and its application to real-time process order control based on logical safety verification.

  1. Dynamic state estimation and prediction for real-time control and operation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, P.H.; Venayagamoorthy, G.K.; Kling, W.L.; Ribeiro, P.F.

    2013-01-01

    Real-time control and operation are crucial to deal with increasing complexity of modern power systems. To effectively enable those functions, it is required a Dynamic State Estimation (DSE) function to provide accurate network state variables at the right moment and predict their trends ahead. This

  2. Dynamic Beam Solutions for Real-Time Simulation and Control Development of Flexible Rockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Weihua; King, Cecilia K.; Clark, Scott R.; Griffin, Edwin D.; Suhey, Jeffrey D.; Wolf, Michael G.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, flexible rockets are structurally represented by linear beams. Both direct and indirect solutions of beam dynamic equations are sought to facilitate real-time simulation and control development for flexible rockets. The direct solution is completed by numerically integrate the beam structural dynamic equation using an explicit Newmark-based scheme, which allows for stable and fast transient solutions to the dynamics of flexile rockets. Furthermore, in the real-time operation, the bending strain of the beam is measured by fiber optical sensors (FOS) at intermittent locations along the span, while both angular velocity and translational acceleration are measured at a single point by the inertial measurement unit (IMU). Another study in this paper is to find the analytical and numerical solutions of the beam dynamics based on the limited measurement data to facilitate the real-time control development. Numerical studies demonstrate the accuracy of these real-time solutions to the beam dynamics. Such analytical and numerical solutions, when integrated with data processing and control algorithms and mechanisms, have the potential to increase launch availability by processing flight data into the flexible launch vehicle's control system.

  3. Distributed digital real-time control system for the TCV tokamak and its applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anand, H.; Galperti, C.; Coda, S.; Duval, B.P.; Felici, F.; Blanken, T.; Maljaars, E.; Moret, J.M.; Sauter, O.; Goodman, T.P.; Kim, D.

    2017-01-01

    A key feature of the new digital plasma control system installed on the TCV (Tokamak à Configuration Variable) tokamak is its possibility to rapidly design, test and deploy real-time algorithms. It accommodates hundreds of diagnostic inputs and actuator outputs, and offers the possibility to design

  4. Real-time monitoring and structural control of a wind turbine using a rocking system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caterino, Nicola; Spizzuoco, Mariacristina; Georgakis, Christos T.

    2016-01-01

    The design of a semi-active (SA) control system to mitigate wind induced structural demand to high wind turbine towers is discussed herein. A variable restraint at the base, able to modify in real time its mechanical properties according to the instantaneous response of the tower, is proposed...

  5. Performance analysis of a real-time database with optimistic concurrency control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sassen, S.A.E.; Wal, van der J.

    1997-01-01

    For a real-time shared-memory database with Optimistic Concurrency Control (OCC), an approximation for the transaction response-time distribution and thus for the deadline miss probability is obtained. Transactions arrive at the database according to a Poisson process. There is a limited number of

  6. The response time distribution in a real-time database with optimistic concurrency control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sassen, S.A.E.; Wal, van der J.

    1996-01-01

    For a real-time shared-memory database with optimistic concurrency control, an approximation for the transaction response time distribution is obtained. The model assumes that transactions arrive at the database according to a Poisson process, that every transaction uses an equal number of

  7. Optimized Real-Time Control of Combined Sewerage Systems: Two Case Studies (Proceedings Paper)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper presents results of two case studies of Real-Time Control (RTC) alternatives evaluations that were conducted on portions of sewerage systems near Paris, France and in Quebec City, Canada, respectively. The studies were performed at real-scale demonstration sites. RTC al...

  8. OPTIMIZED REAL-TIME CONTROL OF COMBINED SEWERAGE SYSTEMS: TWO CASE STUDIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper presents results of two case studies of Real-Time Control (RTC) alternatives evaluations that were conducted on portions of sewerage systems near Paris, France and in Quebec City, Canada, respectively. The studies were performed at real-scale demonstration sites. RTC ...

  9. Real-Time Performance of Hybrid Mobile Robot Control Utilizing USB Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Augustyn

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the problem of usability of the USB 2.0 protocol in the area of real-time control of a mobile robot. Optimization methods of data transfer handling were proposed. The impact of the optimization results on the entire system's performance was examined in practice. As a test-bed, a hybrid system composed of two devices communicating by direct USB connection was implemented. The first of the mentioned devices was a 32-bit SoC micro-system serving as a direct control unit, and the second one was an off-the-shelf PDA providing supervisory control and logging. Due to this design, the system meets regimes of the real-time constraints and maintains continuity of a data stream at a large bandwidth. The real-time performances of subsystems and the entire system were experimentally examined depending on various operating conditions. Thanks to the performed experiments, the dependency of real-time limits on operational parameters has been determined.

  10. Automated real-time testing (ARTT) for embedded control systems (ECS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkins, J; Howard, R; Nguyen, H.

    2001-01-01

    Many of today's automated real-time testing systems for embedded systems were developed using expensive custom hardware and software. In this article they describe how to use commercially available off-the-shelf hardware and software to design and develop an automated real-time test systems for Embedded Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) Based Control Systems. The system development began with the implementation of the VALI/TEST Pro testing methodology as a means for structuring the testing. Using this methodology, they were able to decompose system requirement documents for a Personnel Safety System (PSS) into its high, intermediate and detail level requirements. next, the validation procedures for the PSS system were decomposed into testing units called builds, test runs and test cases. To measure the PSS system's test coverage three levels of system requirements were mapped to their respective unit level of test using a specially constructed validation matrix that was designed to handle over 150 test cases and requirements. All of the above work led to the development of an Automated Real-Time Test System (ARTTS) that is capable of performing complete black box testing in real-time for Embedded PLC Based Control Systems. Also note, that the PSS system under test and mentioned in this paper is located at the Advance Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National Laboratory Basic Energy Science Facility in Argonne, Illinois

  11. Real-time integration of control strategies for an isolated DFIG-based WECS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchiba, Nouha; Barkia, Asma; Chrifi-Alaoui, Larbi; Drid, Saïd; Sallem, Souhir; Kammoun, M. B. A.

    2017-08-01

    This paper deals with voltage and frequency control of a stand-alone wind energy conversion system (WECS) based on a double fed induction generator (DFIG) under wind speed and load variations. In this context, two kinds of linear and nonlinear control strategies, classical PI and backstepping, have been applied to the system in real time. A series of experiments have been conducted to evaluate and to compare dynamic performances of the proposed control approaches. Experiments on a 1.5Kw doubly fed induction machine in real time are carried out using dSpace DS1104 card based on the MATLAB/Simulink environment. Experimental results show the validity of implemented controllers and demonstrate the effectiveness, the precision and the rapidity of the backstepping control strategy compared with the PI controller.

  12. Multi-channel control circuit for real-time control of events in Aditya tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edappala, Praveenlal, E-mail: praveen@ipr.res.in; Shah, Minsha; Rajpal, Rachana; Tanna, R.L.; Ghosh, Joydeep; Chattopadhyay, P.K.; Jha, R.

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Low cost microcontroller based control circuit. • The control hardware can be programmed/configured very easily for different applications. • Microcontroller programming is done in assembly language so that precise timing can be achieved with micro seconds resolution. • Successful implementation of this circuit in noisy tokamak environment. • Efficient noise and burst elimination. • Can be integrated in to the other subsystems. • Low cost solution for implementing feedback control in small and medium size tokamaks and other experiments requiring feedback control. - Abstract: Tokamak plasma is prone to many random events having potential for causing severe damages to the machine, such as disruptions, production and elimination of high-energy runaway electrons etc. These events can be mitigated by obtaining pre-cursor signal leading to these events and then taking proper measures just before their onset to avoid their happenings, like disruptions can be mitigated by massive gas injection or putting a bias voltage on an electrode placed inside the plasma, the runaways can be mitigated by gas injection and by applying specific magnetic fields. Hence for real time control of these events, the pre-cursors should be electronically recorded and the mitigation techniques should be initiated by sending triggers to their individual operational systems. To implement these methodologies of real-time controlling of events in Aditya Tokamak, a low cost multi-channel Micro-Controller based timing circuit is designed and developed in-house. This circuit first compares the precursor signals fed into it with the pre-set values and gives a trigger output whenever the signals overshoot the pre-set values. The circuit readies itself for operation along with start of the tokamak discharge and waits up to an initial pre-determined delay and then initiates a trigger at the time of overshooting of precursor signal. The circuit is fully integrated and assembled in

  13. Real-Time Inverse Optimal Neural Control for Image Based Visual Servoing with Nonholonomic Mobile Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos López-Franco

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an inverse optimal neural controller for a nonholonomic mobile robot with parameter uncertainties and unknown external disturbances. The neural controller is based on a discrete-time recurrent high order neural network (RHONN trained with an extended Kalman filter. The reference velocities for the neural controller are obtained with a visual sensor. The effectiveness of the proposed approach is tested by simulations and real-time experiments.

  14. Implementation of Real-Time Feedback Flow Control Algorithms on a Canonical Testbed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Ye; Song, Qi; Cattafesta, Louis

    2005-01-01

    This report summarizes the activities on "Implementation of Real-Time Feedback Flow Control Algorithms on a Canonical Testbed." The work summarized consists primarily of two parts. The first part summarizes our previous work and the extensions to adaptive ID and control algorithms. The second part concentrates on the validation of adaptive algorithms by applying them to a vibration beam test bed. Extensions to flow control problems are discussed.

  15. Plasma Shape Control on the National Spherical Torus Experiment using Real-time Equilibrium Reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gates, D.A.; Ferron, J.R.; Bell, M.; Gibney, T.; Johnson, R.; Marsala, R.J.; Mastrovito, D.; Menard, J.E.; Mueller, D.; Penaflor, B.; Sabbagh, S.A.; Stevenson, T.

    2005-01-01

    Plasma shape control using real-time equilibrium reconstruction has been implemented on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). The rtEFIT code originally developed for use on DIII-D was adapted for use on NSTX. The real-time equilibria provide calculations of the flux at points on the plasma boundary, which is used as input to a shape control algorithm known as isoflux control. The flux at the desired boundary location is compared to a reference flux value, and this flux error is used as the basic feedback quantity for the poloidal-field coils on NSTX. The hardware that comprises the control system is described, as well as the software infrastructure. Examples of precise boundary control are also presented

  16. A Probabilistic Approach to Control of Complex Systems and Its Application to Real-Time Pricing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koichi Kobayashi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Control of complex systems is one of the fundamental problems in control theory. In this paper, a control method for complex systems modeled by a probabilistic Boolean network (PBN is studied. A PBN is widely used as a model of complex systems such as gene regulatory networks. For a PBN, the structural control problem is newly formulated. In this problem, a discrete probability distribution appeared in a PBN is controlled by the continuous-valued input. For this problem, an approximate solution method using a matrix-based representation for a PBN is proposed. Then, the problem is approximated by a linear programming problem. Furthermore, the proposed method is applied to design of real-time pricing systems of electricity. Electricity conservation is achieved by appropriately determining the electricity price over time. The effectiveness of the proposed method is presented by a numerical example on real-time pricing systems.

  17. A flexible and reusable software for real-time control applications at JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Tommasi, G.; Piccolo, F.; Sartori, F.

    2005-01-01

    The fast growth of the JET real-time control network and the increasing demand for new systems have been the triggers that started the development of the JETRT software framework. This new architecture is designed for maximum reuse and is particularly suited for implementation of both real-time control and data acquisition systems in a complex experimental environment such as JET. Most of the software is the same in all applications independent of the platform. The varying part is the project specific algorithm, which is also compiled into a separate software component, in order to achieve a separation from the plant interface code. This design choice maximises the software reliability, reduces development costs and allows non-specialist programmers to contribute to the implementation of real-time projects. JETRT also provides an integrated set of debugging and testing tools, some of them well integrated with the Matlab environment. This feature besides the framework portability among different platforms allows to perform most of the test and validation phase on a desktop PC running Windows, significantly reducing the commissioning time of a new real-time system

  18. Acceleration optimization of real-time equilibrium reconstruction for HL-2A tokamak discharge control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rui, MA; Fan, XIA; Fei, LING; Jiaxian, LI

    2018-02-01

    Real-time equilibrium reconstruction is crucially important for plasma shape control in the process of tokamak plasma discharge. However, as the reconstruction algorithm is computationally intensive, it is very difficult to improve its accuracy and reduce the computation time, and some optimizations need to be done. This article describes the three most important aspects of this optimization: (1) compiler optimization; (2) some optimization for middle-scale matrix multiplication on the graphic processing unit and an algorithm which can solve the block tri-diagonal linear system efficiently in parallel; (3) a new algorithm to locate the X&O point on the central processing unit. A static test proves the correctness and a dynamic test proves the feasibility of using the new code for real-time reconstruction with 129 × 129 grids; it can complete one iteration around 575 μs for each equilibrium reconstruction. The plasma displacements from real-time equilibrium reconstruction are compared with the experimental measurements, and the calculated results are consistent with the measured ones, which can be used as a reference for the real-time control of HL-2A discharge.

  19. Advanced real-time control systems for magnetically confined fusion plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves, B.; Sousa, J.; Fernandes, H.; Rodrigues, A.P.; Carvalho, B.B.; Neto, A.; Varandas, C.A.F.

    2008-01-01

    Real-time control of magnetically confined plasmas is a critical issue for the safety, operation and high performance scientific exploitation of the experimental devices on regimes beyond the current operation frontiers. The number of parameters and the data volumes used for the plasma properties identification scale normally not only with the machine size but also with the technology improvements, leading to a great complexity of the plant system. A strong computational power and fast communication infrastructure are needed to handle in real-time this information, allowing just-in-time decisions to achieve the fusion critical plasma conditions. These advanced control systems require a tiered infrastructure including the hardware layer, the signal-processing middleware, real-time timing and data transport, the real-time operating system tools and drivers, the framework for code development, simulation, deployment and experiment parameterization and the human real-time plasma condition monitoring and management. This approach is being implemented at CFN by offering a vertical solution for the forthcoming challenges, including ITER, the first experimental fusion reactor. A given set of tools and systems are described on this paper, namely: (i) an ATCA based hardware multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) platform, PCI and PCIe acquisition and control modules; (ii) FPGA and DSP parallelized signal processing algorithms; (iii) a signal data and event distribution system over a 2.5/10Gb optical network with sub-microsecond latencies; (iv) RTAI and Linux drivers; and (v) the FireSignal, FusionTalk, SDAS FireCalc application tools. (author)

  20. Real-Time Control of a Video Game Using Eye Movements and Two Temporal EEG Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelkader Nasreddine Belkacem

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available EEG-controlled gaming applications range widely from strictly medical to completely nonmedical applications. Games can provide not only entertainment but also strong motivation for practicing, thereby achieving better control with rehabilitation system. In this paper we present real-time control of video game with eye movements for asynchronous and noninvasive communication system using two temporal EEG sensors. We used wavelets to detect the instance of eye movement and time-series characteristics to distinguish between six classes of eye movement. A control interface was developed to test the proposed algorithm in real-time experiments with opened and closed eyes. Using visual feedback, a mean classification accuracy of 77.3% was obtained for control with six commands. And a mean classification accuracy of 80.2% was obtained using auditory feedback for control with five commands. The algorithm was then applied for controlling direction and speed of character movement in two-dimensional video game. Results showed that the proposed algorithm had an efficient response speed and timing with a bit rate of 30 bits/min, demonstrating its efficacy and robustness in real-time control.

  1. Demonstration of real-time control for poloidal beta in KSTAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Hyunsun; Hahn, S.H.; Bak, J.G.; Hyatt, A.; Johnson, R.; Woo, M.H.; Kim, J.S.; Bae, Y.S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Real time control system for poloidal beta has been designed in KSTAR. • Poloidal beta has been calculated based on the diamagnetic loop signals. • The neutral beam Injector plays a role as the actuator. • The control system has been validated in the KSTAR experiments. - Abstract: Sustaining the plasma in a stable and a high performance condition is one of the important control issues for future steady state tokamaks. In the 2014 KSTAR campaign, we have developed a real-time poloidal beta (β p ) control technique and carried out preliminary experiments to identify its feasibility. In the control system, the β p is calculated in real time using the measured diamagnetic loop signal, and compared with the target value leading to the change of the neutral beam (NB) heating power using a feedback PID control algorithm. To match the requested power of NB which is operated with constant voltage, the on-time periods of the intervals were adjusted as the ratio of the required power to the maximum achievable one. This paper will present the overall procedures of the β p control, the β p estimation process and NB operation scheme implemented in the plasma control system (PCS), and the analysis on the preliminary experimental results

  2. Demonstration of real-time control for poloidal beta in KSTAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Hyunsun, E-mail: hyunsun@nfri.re.kr [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of); Hahn, S.H.; Bak, J.G. [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of); Hyatt, A.; Johnson, R. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Woo, M.H.; Kim, J.S.; Bae, Y.S. [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • Real time control system for poloidal beta has been designed in KSTAR. • Poloidal beta has been calculated based on the diamagnetic loop signals. • The neutral beam Injector plays a role as the actuator. • The control system has been validated in the KSTAR experiments. - Abstract: Sustaining the plasma in a stable and a high performance condition is one of the important control issues for future steady state tokamaks. In the 2014 KSTAR campaign, we have developed a real-time poloidal beta (β{sub p}) control technique and carried out preliminary experiments to identify its feasibility. In the control system, the β{sub p} is calculated in real time using the measured diamagnetic loop signal, and compared with the target value leading to the change of the neutral beam (NB) heating power using a feedback PID control algorithm. To match the requested power of NB which is operated with constant voltage, the on-time periods of the intervals were adjusted as the ratio of the required power to the maximum achievable one. This paper will present the overall procedures of the β{sub p} control, the β{sub p} estimation process and NB operation scheme implemented in the plasma control system (PCS), and the analysis on the preliminary experimental results.

  3. Real-Time Control of a Video Game Using Eye Movements and Two Temporal EEG Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkacem, Abdelkader Nasreddine; Saetia, Supat; Zintus-art, Kalanyu; Shin, Duk; Kambara, Hiroyuki; Yoshimura, Natsue; Berrached, Nasreddine; Koike, Yasuharu

    2015-01-01

    EEG-controlled gaming applications range widely from strictly medical to completely nonmedical applications. Games can provide not only entertainment but also strong motivation for practicing, thereby achieving better control with rehabilitation system. In this paper we present real-time control of video game with eye movements for asynchronous and noninvasive communication system using two temporal EEG sensors. We used wavelets to detect the instance of eye movement and time-series characteristics to distinguish between six classes of eye movement. A control interface was developed to test the proposed algorithm in real-time experiments with opened and closed eyes. Using visual feedback, a mean classification accuracy of 77.3% was obtained for control with six commands. And a mean classification accuracy of 80.2% was obtained using auditory feedback for control with five commands. The algorithm was then applied for controlling direction and speed of character movement in two-dimensional video game. Results showed that the proposed algorithm had an efficient response speed and timing with a bit rate of 30 bits/min, demonstrating its efficacy and robustness in real-time control.

  4. Expert system and process optimization techniques for real-time monitoring and control of plasma processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jie; Qian, Zhaogang; Irani, Keki B.; Etemad, Hossein; Elta, Michael E.

    1991-03-01

    To meet the ever-increasing demand of the rapidly-growing semiconductor manufacturing industry it is critical to have a comprehensive methodology integrating techniques for process optimization real-time monitoring and adaptive process control. To this end we have accomplished an integrated knowledge-based approach combining latest expert system technology machine learning method and traditional statistical process control (SPC) techniques. This knowledge-based approach is advantageous in that it makes it possible for the task of process optimization and adaptive control to be performed consistently and predictably. Furthermore this approach can be used to construct high-level and qualitative description of processes and thus make the process behavior easy to monitor predict and control. Two software packages RIST (Rule Induction and Statistical Testing) and KARSM (Knowledge Acquisition from Response Surface Methodology) have been developed and incorporated with two commercially available packages G2 (real-time expert system) and ULTRAMAX (a tool for sequential process optimization).

  5. Real-time control of ultrafast laser micromachining by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tong Tao; Li Jinggao; Longtin, Jon P.

    2004-01-01

    Ultrafast laser micromachining provides many advantages for precision micromachining. One challenging problem, however, particularly for multilayer and heterogeneous materials, is how to prevent a given material from being ablated, as ultrafast laser micromachining is generally material insensitive. We present a real-time feedback control system for an ultrafast laser micromachining system based on laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). The characteristics of ultrafast LIBS are reviewed and discussed so as to demonstrate the feasibility of the technique. Comparison methods to identify the material emission patterns are developed, and several of the resulting algorithms were implemented into a real-time computer control system. LIBS-controlled micromachining is demonstrated for the fabrication of microheater structures on thermal sprayed materials. Compared with a strictly passive machining process without any such feedback control, the LIBS-based system provides several advantages including less damage to the substrate layer, reduced machining time, and more-uniform machining features

  6. Real-time control of electron density in a capacitively coupled plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keville, Bernard; Gaman, Cezar; Turner, Miles M.; Zhang Yang; Daniels, Stephen; Holohan, Anthony M.

    2013-01-01

    Reactive ion etching (RIE) is sensitive to changes in chamber conditions, such as wall seasoning, which have a deleterious effect on process reproducibility. The application of real time, closed loop control to RIE may reduce this sensitivity and facilitate production with tighter tolerances. The real-time, closed loop control of plasma density with RF power in a capacitively coupled argon plasma using a hairpin resonance probe as a sensor is described. Elementary control analysis shows that an integral controller provides stable and effective set point tracking and disturbance attenuation. The trade off between performance and robustness may be quantified in terms of one parameter, namely the position of the closed loop pole. Experimental results are presented, which are consistent with the theoretical analysis.

  7. Real time test bed development for power system operation, control and cyber security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddi, Ram Mohan

    The operation and control of the power system in an efficient way is important in order to keep the system secure, reliable and economical. With advancements in smart grid, several new algorithms have been developed for improved operation and control. These algorithms need to be extensively tested and validated in real time before applying to the real electric power grid. This work focuses on the development of a real time test bed for testing and validating power system control algorithms, hardware devices and cyber security vulnerability. The test bed developed utilizes several hardware components including relays, phasor measurement units, phasor data concentrator, programmable logic controllers and several software tools. Current work also integrates historian for power system monitoring and data archiving. Finally, two different power system test cases are simulated to demonstrate the applications of developed test bed. The developed test bed can also be used for power system education.

  8. Implementation of PID Controller in MATLAB for Real Time DC Motor Speed Control System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjunatha Reddy H. K.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the implementation of PIDC (proportional + integral + derivative controller in MATLAB environment for real time DC motor speed control is presented. The MATLAB environment is chosen because of availability of tool boxes which allows the effective way of implementation and analysis of the control system. The performance of PID controller for different inputs is studied. To establish a communication between PC and process parameter, an indigenous Analog to digital and digital to analog (AD-DA board is designed. This board consists of 12-bit A/D converter and 12-bit D/A converter to facilitate the data acquisition and control. In the present study Advantech make PCI-1751 DIOT card is used to interface AD-DA board to PC externally. The data between the AD-DA board and the PC is communicated through the script file written in MATLAB environment. By applying different standard test commands such as step, square, staircase and triangular, the performance of PID controller is studied. The PID controller provides better system response in terms of transient as well as steady-state performances. The controller parameters are manually tuned (kp=0.232, ki=0.078 and kd=0.035 and the results of the best tuned PID controller are presented.

  9. Design and real-time control of a robotic system for fracture manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagnino, G; Georgilas, I; Tarassoli, P; Atkins, R; Dogramadzi, S

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents the design, development and control of a new robotic system for fracture manipulation. The objective is to improve the precision, ergonomics and safety of the traditional surgical procedure to treat joint fractures. The achievements toward this direction are here reported and include the design, the real-time control architecture and the evaluation of a new robotic manipulator system. The robotic manipulator is a 6-DOF parallel robot with the struts developed as linear actuators. The control architecture is also described here. The high-level controller implements a host-target structure composed by a host computer (PC), a real-time controller, and an FPGA. A graphical user interface was designed allowing the surgeon to comfortably automate and monitor the robotic system. The real-time controller guarantees the determinism of the control algorithms adding an extra level of safety for the robotic automation. The system's positioning accuracy and repeatability have been demonstrated showing a maximum positioning RMSE of 1.18 ± 1.14mm (translations) and 1.85 ± 1.54° (rotations).

  10. RETIMAC: a real-time material control concept for strategic special nuclear material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shea, T.E.

    1975-01-01

    As one possible means to upgrade licensee safeguards systems, the NRC is exploring a real-time material control concept. The concept incorporates process controls, material containment provisions, and extensive instrumentation. Plants incorporating this concept would be better able to prevent, deter, and detect diversion, and to assure that diversion has not gone undetected. A substantial methods development, evaluation, and preliminary standards development program is under way to develop the basis for future policy decisions

  11. Coarse-grained simulation of a real-time process control network under peak load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, A.D.; Clapp, N.E. Jr.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents a simulation study on the real-time process control network proposed for the new ANS reactor system at ORNL. A background discussion is provided on networks, modeling, and simulation, followed by an overview of the ANS process control network, its three peak-load models, and the results of a series of coarse-grained simulation studies carried out on these models using implementations of 802.3, 802.4, and 802.5 standard local area networks

  12. CHIMERA II - A real-time multiprocessing environment for sensor-based robot control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, David B.; Schmitz, Donald E.; Khosla, Pradeep K.

    1989-01-01

    A multiprocessing environment for a wide variety of sensor-based robot system, providing the flexibility, performance, and UNIX-compatible interface needed for fast development of real-time code is addressed. The requirements imposed on the design of a programming environment for sensor-based robotic control is outlined. The details of the current hardware configuration are presented, along with the details of the CHIMERA II software. Emphasis is placed on the kernel, low-level interboard communication, user interface, extended file system, user-definable and dynamically selectable real-time schedulers, remote process synchronization, and generalized interprocess communication. A possible implementation of a hierarchical control model, the NASA/NBS standard reference model for telerobot control system is demonstrated.

  13. CONTROLLED CONDENSATION IN K-NN AND ITS APPLICATION FOR REAL TIME COLOR IDENTIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Villar Patiño

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available k-NN algorithms are frequently used in statistical classification. They are accurate and distribution free. Despite these advantages, k-NN algorithms imply a high computational cost. To find efficient ways to implement them is an important challenge in pattern recognition. In this article, an improved version of the k-NN Controlled Condensation algorithm is introduced. Its potential for instantaneous color identification in real time is also analyzed. This algorithm is based on the representation of data in terms of a reduced set of informative prototypes. It includes two parameters to control the balance between speed and precision. This gives us the opportunity to achieve a convenient percentage of condensation without incurring in an important loss of accuracy. We test our proposal in an instantaneous color identification exercise in video images. We achieve the real time identification by using k-NN Controlled Condensation executed through multi-threading programming methods. The results are encouraging.

  14. Real time quality control of meteorological data used in SRP's emergency response system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pendergast, M.M.

    1980-05-01

    The Savannah River Laboratory's WIND minicomputer system allows quick and accurate assessment of an accidental release at the Savannah River Plant using data from eight meteorological towers. The accuracy of the assessment is largely determined by the accuracy of the meteorological data; therefore quality control is important in an emergency response system. Real-time quality control of this data will be added to the WIND system to automatically identify inaccurate data. Currently, the system averages the measurements from the towers to minimize the influence of inaccurate data being used in calculations. The computer code used in the real-time quality control has been previously used to identify inaccurate measurements from the archived tower data

  15. Real-time monitoring and operational control of drinking-water systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ocampo-Martínez, Carlos; Pérez, Ramon; Cembrano, Gabriela; Quevedo, Joseba; Escobet, Teresa

    2017-01-01

    This book presents a set of approaches for the real-time monitoring and control of drinking-water networks based on advanced information and communication technologies. It shows the reader how to achieve significant improvements in efficiency in terms of water use, energy consumption, water loss minimization, and water quality guarantees. The methods and approaches presented are illustrated and have been applied using real-life pilot demonstrations based on the drinking-water network in Barcelona, Spain. The proposed approaches and tools cover: • decision-making support for real-time optimal control of water transport networks, explaining how stochastic model predictive control algorithms that take explicit account of uncertainties associated with energy prices and real demand allow the main flow and pressure actuators—pumping stations and pressure regulation valves—and intermediate storage tanks to be operated to meet demand using the most sustainable types of source and with minimum electricity costs;...

  16. Real Time Grouting Control Method. Development and application using Aespoe HRL data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Shinji; Stille, Haakan; Gustafson, Gunnar; Stille, Bjoern

    2008-10-01

    The spread of grout is governed by a number of complex relations. The desired results, such as grout penetration and sealing of fractures, cannot be directly measured during the grouting process. This means that the issue of how or when the injection of grout should be stopped cannot be answered by simple rules of thumb. This is also the background to the great variety of empirical rules used in the grouting sector worldwide. The research during recent years has given a better understanding of the water-bearing structures of the rock mass as well as analytical solutions. In this report the methodology has been further studied and a method for design and control of rock grouting has been proposed. The concept of what we call the 'Real Time Grouting Control Method' is to calculate the grout penetration and control grouting in real time by applying the development of the theories for grout spread. Our intention is to combine our method with a computerized logging tool to acquire an active tool in order to be able to govern the grout spread in real time during the grouting operation. The objectives of this report are: to further develop the theory concerning the relationship between grout penetration and grouting time to describe the real course of grouting, to establish the concept of 'Real Time Grouting Control Method' for design and control for rock grouting based on the developed theory, and to verify the concept by using the field data from the grouting experiment at the 450 m level in the Aespoe HRL. In this report, the approximations and analysis of dimensionality have been checked and further developments of the theory with respect to varying grouting pressure, time-dependent grout properties, changing grout mixes, and changing the flow dimension of the fracture have been carried out. The concept of 'Real Time Grouting Control Method' has been described in order to calculate the grout penetration and to control grouting in real time by applying developed

  17. Real-time measurement and control at JET signal processing and physics analysis for diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felton, R.; Joffrin, E.; Murari, A.

    2005-01-01

    To meet the requirements of the scientific programme, the EFDA JET real-time measurement and control project has developed an integrated set of real-time plasma measurements, experiment control and communication facilities. Traditional experiments collected instrument data during the plasma pulse and calculated physics data after the pulse. The challenge for continuous tokamak operation is to calculate the physics data in real-time, keeping up with the evolution of the plasma. In JET, many plasma diagnostics have been augmented with extra data acquisition and signal-processing systems so that they can both capture instrument data for conventional post-pulse analysis and calculate calibrated, validated physics results in real-time. During the pulse, the systems send sampled data sets into a network, which distributes the data to several destinations. The receiving systems may do further analysis, integrating data from several measurements, or may control the plasma scenario by heating or fuelling. The simplest real-time diagnostic systems apply scale factors to the signals, as with the electron cyclotron emission (ECE) diagnostic's 96 tuned radiometer channels, giving the electron temperature profile. In various spectroscopy diagnostics, spectral features are least-squares-fitted to measure spectra from several lines of sight, within 50 ms. Ion temperatures and rotation speed can be calculated from the line widths and shifts. For diagnostics using modulation techniques, the systems implement digital-signal processing phase trackers, lock-in amplifiers and filters, e.g., the far infrared (FIR) interferometer samples 15 channels at 400 kHz for 30 s, i.e., six million samples per second. Diagnostics have specific lines of sight, spatial channels, and various sampling rates. The heating/fuelling systems have relatively coarse spatial localisation. Analysis systems have been developed to integrate the basic physics data into smaller sets of controllable parameters on a

  18. Real-time signal communication between diagnostic and control in ASDEX Upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treutterer, Wolfgang; Neu, Gregor; Raupp, Gerhard; Zehetbauer, Thomas; Zasche, Dieter; Lueddecke, Klaus; Cole, Richard

    2010-01-01

    The ASDEX Upgrade tokamak experiment is equipped with a versatile discharge monitoring and control system. It allows to develop and use advanced control algorithms to investigate plasma physics under well-defined conditions with the objective of optimising plasma performance. The achievable quality depends on the accuracy with which the plasma state can be reconstructed from measurements under real-time conditions. Today's advanced algorithms need physics quantities - scalar entities as well as profiles. These are obtained processing huge numbers of raw measurements with complex diagnostic algorithms. Adequate network communication for the resulting signals is crucial to satisfy real-time requirements, especially when several diagnostic systems cooperate in a feedback control loop. Support for the technology of choice, however, is not easily available for all of the diverse, highly specialised diagnostic systems. We give an overview about the methods that have been explored at ASDEX Upgrade for real-time signal transfer. In particular, we investigated reflective shared memory and Ethernet technologies. Our solution strives to combine their strengths. For fast communication on dedicated computing nodes, reflective shared memory is used. For the majority of diagnostic systems producing large data blocks at moderate rates, Ethernet connections with UDP protocol are employed. Following ASDEX Upgrade's framework concept, a software layer hides the networks used from both diagnostic and control applications.

  19. Real-time signal communication between diagnostic and control in ASDEX Upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Treutterer, Wolfgang, E-mail: Wolfgang.Treutterer@ipp.mpg.d [Max-Planck Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching, EURATOM Association (Germany); Neu, Gregor; Raupp, Gerhard; Zehetbauer, Thomas; Zasche, Dieter [Max-Planck Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching, EURATOM Association (Germany); Lueddecke, Klaus; Cole, Richard [Unlimited Computer Systems, Iffeldorf (Germany)

    2010-07-15

    The ASDEX Upgrade tokamak experiment is equipped with a versatile discharge monitoring and control system. It allows to develop and use advanced control algorithms to investigate plasma physics under well-defined conditions with the objective of optimising plasma performance. The achievable quality depends on the accuracy with which the plasma state can be reconstructed from measurements under real-time conditions. Today's advanced algorithms need physics quantities - scalar entities as well as profiles. These are obtained processing huge numbers of raw measurements with complex diagnostic algorithms. Adequate network communication for the resulting signals is crucial to satisfy real-time requirements, especially when several diagnostic systems cooperate in a feedback control loop. Support for the technology of choice, however, is not easily available for all of the diverse, highly specialised diagnostic systems. We give an overview about the methods that have been explored at ASDEX Upgrade for real-time signal transfer. In particular, we investigated reflective shared memory and Ethernet technologies. Our solution strives to combine their strengths. For fast communication on dedicated computing nodes, reflective shared memory is used. For the majority of diagnostic systems producing large data blocks at moderate rates, Ethernet connections with UDP protocol are employed. Following ASDEX Upgrade's framework concept, a software layer hides the networks used from both diagnostic and control applications.

  20. Real-time image processing and control interface for remote operation of a microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Hesong; Wilder, Joseph

    1999-08-01

    A real-time image processing and control interface for remote operation of a microscope is presented in this paper. The system has achieved real-time color image display for 640 X 480 pixel images. Multi-resolution image representation can be provided for efficient transmission through the network. Through the control interface the computer can communicate with the programmable microscope via the RS232 serial ports. By choosing one of three scanning patterns, a sequence of images can be saved as BMP or PGM files to record information on an entire microscope slide. The system will be used by medical and graduate students at the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey for distance learning. It can be used in many network-based telepathology applications.

  1. Benchmarking hardware architecture candidates for the NFIRAOS real-time controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Malcolm; Kerley, Dan; Herriot, Glen; Véran, Jean-Pierre

    2014-07-01

    As a part of the trade study for the Narrow Field Infrared Adaptive Optics System, the adaptive optics system for the Thirty Meter Telescope, we investigated the feasibility of performing real-time control computation using a Linux operating system and Intel Xeon E5 CPUs. We also investigated a Xeon Phi based architecture which allows higher levels of parallelism. This paper summarizes both the CPU based real-time controller architecture and the Xeon Phi based RTC. The Intel Xeon E5 CPU solution meets the requirements and performs the computation for one AO cycle in an average of 767 microseconds. The Xeon Phi solution did not meet the 1200 microsecond time requirement and also suffered from unpredictable execution times. More detailed benchmark results are reported for both architectures.

  2. A generalised Dynamic Overflow Risk Assessment (DORA) for Real Time Control of urban drainage systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vezzaro, Luca; Grum, Morten

    2014-01-01

    An innovative and generalised approach to the integrated Real Time Control of urban drainage systems is presented. The Dynamic Overflow Risk Assessment (DORA) strategy aims to minimise the expected Combined Sewer Overflow (CSO) risk by considering (i) the water volume presently stored in the drai......An innovative and generalised approach to the integrated Real Time Control of urban drainage systems is presented. The Dynamic Overflow Risk Assessment (DORA) strategy aims to minimise the expected Combined Sewer Overflow (CSO) risk by considering (i) the water volume presently stored...... and their uncertainty contributed to further improving the performance of drainage systems. The results of this paper will contribute to the wider usage of global RTC methods in the management of urban drainage networks....

  3. Tools for Real-Time Control Systems Co-Design - A Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Henriksson, Dan; El-Khoury, Jad; Årzén, Karl-Erik; Törngren, Martin; Redell, Ola

    2005-01-01

    This report presents a survey of current simulation tools in the area of integrated control and real-time systems design. Each tool is presented with a quick overview followed by a more detailed section describing comparative aspects of the tool. These aspects describe the context and purpose of the tool (scenarios, development stages, activities, and qualities/constraints being addressed) and the actual tool technology (tool architecture, inputs, outputs, modeling content, extensibility and ...

  4. Real time software for the control and monitoring of DIII-D system interlocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broesch, J.D.; Penaflor, B.G.; Coon, R.M.; Harris, J.J.; Scoville, J.T.

    1996-10-01

    This paper describes the real time, multi-tasking, multi-user software and communications of the E-Power Supply System Integrated Controller (EPSSIC) for the DIII-D tokamak. EPSSIC performs the DIII-D system wide go/no-go determination for the plasma sequencing. This paper discusses the data module handling, task work load balancing, and communications requirements. Operational experience with the new EPSSIC and recent improvements to this system are also described

  5. Real-time monitoring and control of the plasma hearth process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Power, M.A.; Carney, K.P.; Peters, G.G.

    1996-01-01

    A distributed monitoring and control system is proposed for a plasma hearth, which will be used to decompose hazardous organic materials, encapsulate actinide waste in an obsidian-like slag, and reduce storage volume of actinide waste. The plasma hearth will be installed at ANL-West with the assistance of SAIC. Real-time monitoring of the off-gas system is accomplished using a Sun Workstation and embedded PCs. LabWindows/CVI software serves as the graphical user interface

  6. Development of device drivers embedded in real time OS for SPring-8 SR control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masuda, T.; Fujiwara, S.; Nakamura, T.; Takebe, H.; Wada, T.

    1994-01-01

    A distributed computer system has been adopted for the SPring-8 SR control system. For lower level computers, we intend to adopt VMEbus computer systems with the real time OS which are compliant with POSIX. For R and D study, we introduced LynxOS and wrote device drivers for Digital Output(DO), Digital Input(DI) and Analog Input(AI) boards on VMEbus. They were successfully operated with device drivers. (author)

  7. Short-Term Wave Forecasting for Real-Time Control of Wave Energy Converters

    OpenAIRE

    Fusco, Francesco; Ringwood, John

    2010-01-01

    Real-time control of wave energy converters requires knowledge of future incident wave elevation in order to approach optimal efficiency of wave energy extraction. We present an approach where the wave elevation is treated as a time series and it is predicted only from its past history. A comparison of a range of forecasting methodologies on real wave observations from two different locations shows how the relatively simple linear autoregressive model, which implicitly models the cyclical beh...

  8. Control-Oriented Models for Real-Time Simulation of Automotive Transmission Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cavina N.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A control-oriented model of a Dual Clutch Transmission (DCT was developed for real-time Hardware In the Loop (HIL applications, to support model-based development of the DCT controller and to systematically test its performance. The model is an innovative attempt to reproduce the fast dynamics of the actuation system while maintaining a simulation step size large enough for real-time applications. The model comprehends a detailed physical description of hydraulic circuit, clutches, synchronizers and gears, and simplified vehicle and internal combustion engine sub-models. As the oil circulating in the system has a large bulk modulus, the pressure dynamics are very fast, possibly causing instability in a real-time simulation; the same challenge involves the servo valves dynamics, due to the very small masses of the moving elements. Therefore, the hydraulic circuit model has been modified and simplified without losing physical validity, in order to adapt it to the real-time simulation requirements. The results of offline simulations have been compared to on-board measurements to verify the validity of the developed model, which was then implemented in a HIL system and connected to the Transmission Control Unit (TCU. Several tests have been performed on the HIL simulator, to verify the TCU performance: electrical failure tests on sensors and actuators, hydraulic and mechanical failure tests on hydraulic valves, clutches and synchronizers, and application tests comprehending all the main features of the control actions performed by the TCU. Being based on physical laws, in every condition the model simulates a plausible reaction of the system. A test automation procedure has finally been developed to permit the execution of a pattern of tests without the interaction of the user; perfectly repeatable tests can be performed for non-regression verification, allowing the testing of new software releases in fully automatic mode.

  9. Control bandwidth improvements in GRAVITY fringe tracker by switching to a synchronous real time computer architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuter, Roberto; Dembet, Roderick; Lacour, Sylvestre; di Lieto, Nicola; Woillez, Julien; Eisenhauer, Frank; Fedou, Pierre; Phan Duc, Than

    2016-08-01

    The new VLTI (Very Large Telescope Interferometer) 1 instrument GRAVITY5, 22, 23 is equipped with a fringe tracker16 able to stabilize the K-band fringes on six baselines at the same time. It has been designed to achieve a performance for average seeing conditions of a residual OPD (Optical Path Difference) lower than 300 nm with objects brighter than K = 10. The control loop implementing the tracking is composed of a four stage real time computer system compromising: a sensor where the detector pixels are read in and the OPD and GD (Group Delay) are calculated; a controller receiving the computed sensor quantities and producing commands for the piezo actuators; a concentrator which combines both the OPD commands with the real time tip/tilt corrections offloading them to the piezo actuator; and finally a Kalman15 parameter estimator. This last stage is used to monitor current measurements over a window of few seconds and estimate new values for the main Kalman15 control loop parameters. The hardware and software implementation of this design runs asynchronously and communicates the four computers for data transfer via the Reflective Memory Network3. With the purpose of improving the performance of the GRAVITY5, 23 fringe tracking16, 22 control loop, a deviation from the standard asynchronous communication mechanism has been proposed and implemented. This new scheme operates the four independent real time computers involved in the tracking loop synchronously using the Reflective Memory Interrupts2 as the coordination signal. This synchronous mechanism had the effect of reducing the total pure delay of the loop from 3.5 [ms] to 2.0 [ms] which then translates on a better stabilization of the fringes as the bandwidth of the system is substantially improved. This paper will explain in detail the real time architecture of the fringe tracker in both is synchronous and synchronous implementation. The achieved improvements on reducing the delay via this mechanism will be

  10. Real time plasma control experiments using the JET auxiliary plasma heating systems as the actuator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zornig, N.H.

    1999-01-01

    The role of the Real Time Power Control system (RTPC) in the Joint European Torus (JET) is described in depth. The modes of operation are discussed in detail and a number of successful experiments are described. These experiments prove that RTPC can be used for a wide range of experiments, including: (1) Feedback control of plasma parameters in real time using Ion Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ICRH) or Neutral Beam Heating (NBH) as the actuator in various JET operating regimes. It is demonstrated that in a multi-parameter space it is not sufficient to control one global plasma parameter in order to avoid performance limiting events. (2) Restricting neutron production and subsequent machine activation resulting from high performance pulses. (3) The simulation of α-particle heating effects in a DT-plasma in a D-only plasma. The heating properties of α-particles are simulated using ICRH-power, which is adjusted in real time. The simulation of α-particle heating in JET allows the effects of a change in isotopic mass to be separated from α-particle heating. However, the change in isotopic mass of the plasma ions appears to affect not only the global energy confinement time (τ E ) but also other parameters such as the electron temperature at the plasma edge. This also affects τ E , making it difficult to make a conclusive statement about any isotopic effect. (4) For future JET experiments a scheme has been designed which simulates the behaviour of a fusion reactor experimentally. The design parameters of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) are used. In the proposed scheme the most relevant dimensionless plasma parameters are similar in JET and ITER. It is also shown how the amount of heating may be simulated in real time by RTPC using the electron temperature and density as input parameters. The results of two demonstration experiments are presented. (author)

  11. The Chimera II Real-Time Operating System for advanced sensor-based control applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, David B.; Schmitz, Donald E.; Khosla, Pradeep K.

    1992-01-01

    Attention is given to the Chimera II Real-Time Operating System, which has been developed for advanced sensor-based control applications. The Chimera II provides a high-performance real-time kernel and a variety of IPC features. The hardware platform required to run Chimera II consists of commercially available hardware, and allows custom hardware to be easily integrated. The design allows it to be used with almost any type of VMEbus-based processors and devices. It allows radially differing hardware to be programmed using a common system, thus providing a first and necessary step towards the standardization of reconfigurable systems that results in a reduction of development time and cost.

  12. A nuclear decision support system built with a real-time process control AI shell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nevins, M.A.

    1990-01-01

    Managing large nuclear power plants is generally approached by creating separate management teams to handle major functional areas such as operations, maintenance, training and engineering. While this approach facilitates a general understanding of the specific functions and problem areas of a nuclear plant, such broad definitions diminish the integration of information needed to understand the overall problem domain. One solution utilizes a decision support system that integrates a real-time process control AI shell, relational database manager, graphic depiction of the real-time events, and distributed knowledge bases that reside within each of the departments. The goal is to create a living model between plant components, procedures, tech specs, specific functions, maintenance and training requirements. This paper describes such a model, called Engineering Model and Simulation System (EMASS)

  13. The LBT real-time based control software to mitigate and compensate vibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borelli, J.; Trowitzsch, J.; Brix, M.; Kürster, M.; Gässler, W.; Bertram, T.; Briegel, F.

    2010-07-01

    The Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) uses two 8.4 meters active primary mirrors and two adaptive secondary mirrors on the same mounting to take advantage of its interferometric capabilities. Both applications, interferometry and AO, are sensitive to vibrations. Several measurement campaigns have been carried out at the LBT and their results strongly indicate that a vibration monitoring system is required to improve the performance of LINC-NIRVANA, LBTI, and ARGOS, the laser guided ground layer adaptive optic system. Currently, a control software for mitigation and compensation of the vibrations is being designed. A complex set of algorithms collects real-time vibration data, archiving it for further analysis, and in parallel, generating the tip-tilt and optical path difference (OPD) data for the control loop of the instruments. A real-time data acquisition device equipped with embedded real-time Linux is used in our systems. A set of quick-look tools is currently under development in order to verify if the conditions at the telescope are suitable for interferometric/adaptive observations.

  14. Real-time control strategy to maximize hybrid electric vehicle powertrain efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shabbir, Wassif; Evangelou, Simos A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • An off-line local control is proposed for real-time HEV energy management. • Powertrain efficiencies are studied to produce a unified objective function. • Penalty function is designed to ensure charge sustaining operation. • Implementation by storing optimal power share in a two-dimensional control map. • Proposed control improved fuel economy by up to 20% compared to conventional control. - Abstract: The proposed supervisory control system (SCS) uses a control map to maximize the powertrain efficiency of a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) in real-time. The paper presents the methodology and structure of the control, including a novel, comprehensive and unified expression for the overall powertrain efficiency that considers the engine-generator set and the battery in depth as well as the power electronics. A control map is then produced with instructions for the optimal power share between the engine branch and battery branch of the vehicle such that the powertrain efficiency is maximized. This map is computed off-line and can thereafter be operated in real-time at very low computational cost. A charge sustaining factor is also developed and introduced to ensure the SCS operates the vehicle within desired SOC bounds. This SCS is then tested and benchmarked against two conventional control strategies in a high-fidelity vehicle model, representing a series HEV. Extensive simulation results are presented for repeated cycles of a diverse range of standard driving cycles, showing significant improvements in fuel economy (up to 20%) and less aggressive use of the battery

  15. A modular control architecture for real-time synchronous and asynchronous systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, P.L.; Jones, J.P.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes a control architecture for real-time control of complex robotic systems. The Modular Integrated Control Architecture (MICA), which is actually two complementary control systems, recognizes and exploits the differences between asynchronous and synchronous control. The asynchronous control system simulates shared memory on a heterogeneous network. For control information, a portable event-scheme is used. This scheme provides consistent interprocess coordination among multiple tasks on a number of distributed systems. The machines in the network can vary with respect to their native operating systems and the intemal representation of numbers they use. The synchronous control system is needed for tight real-time control of complex electromechanical systems such as robot manipulators, and the system uses multiple processors at a specified rate. Both the synchronous and asynchronous portions of MICA have been developed to be extremely modular. MICA presents a simple programming model to code developers and also considers the needs of system integrators and maintainers. MICA has been used successfully in a complex robotics project involving a mobile 7-degree-of-freedom manipulator in a heterogeneous network with a body of software totaling over 100,000 lines of code. MICA has also been used in another robotics system, controlling a commercial long-reach manipulator

  16. Knowledge based support for real time application of multiagent control and automation in electric power systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saleem, Arshad; Nordstrom, Lars; Lind, Morten

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a mechanism for developing knowledge based support for real time application of multiagent systems (MAS) in control, automation and diagnosis of electric power systems. In particular it presents a way for autonomous agents to utilize a qualitative means-ends based model...... for reasoning about control situations. The proposed mechanism has been used in different scenarios of electric power distribution system protection and control. Results show that agents can use local models of their environment and coordinate with other agents to analyze and understand a disturbance situation...

  17. CamOn: A Real-Time Autonomous Camera Control System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burelli, Paolo; Jhala, Arnav Harish

    2009-01-01

    This demonstration presents CamOn, an autonomous cam- era control system for real-time 3D games. CamOn employs multiple Artificial Potential Fields (APFs), a robot motion planning technique, to control both the location and orienta- tion of the camera. Scene geometry from the 3D environment...... contributes to the potential field that is used to determine po- sition and movement of the camera. Composition constraints for the camera are modelled as potential fields for controlling the view target of the camera. CamOn combines the compositional benefits of constraint- based camera systems, and improves...

  18. Dynamic Cognitive Self-Organized TDMA for Medium Access Control in Real-Time Vehicle to Vehicle Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Manzano

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of intelligent transport systems has brought out a new set of requirements on wireless communication. To cope with these requirements, several proposals are currently under discussion. In this highly mobile environment, the design of a prompt, efficient, flexible, and reliable medium access control, able to cover the specific constraints of the named real-time communications applications, is still unsolved. This paper presents the original proposal integrating Non-Cooperative Cognitive Time Division Multiple Access (NCC-TDMA based on Cognitive Radio (CR techniques to obtain a mechanism which complies with the requirements of real-time communications. Though the proposed MAC uses a slotted channel, it can be adapted to operate on the physical layer of different standards. The authors’ analysis considers the IEEE WAVE and 802.11p as the standards of reference. The mechanism also offers other advantages, such as avoiding signalling and the adaptation capacity to channel conditions and interferences. The solution is applied to the problem of units merging a convoy. Comparison results between NCC-TDMA and Slotted-Aloha are included.

  19. Adaptation of Control Center Software to Commerical Real-Time Display Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Mark D.

    1994-01-01

    NASA-Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is currently developing an enhanced Huntsville Operation Support Center (HOSC) system designed to support multiple spacecraft missions. The Enhanced HOSC is based upon a distributed computing architecture using graphic workstation hardware and industry standard software including POSIX, X Windows, Motif, TCP/IP, and ANSI C. Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) is currently developing a prototype of the Display Services application for this system. Display Services provides the capability to generate and operate real-time data-driven graphic displays. This prototype is a highly functional application designed to allow system end users to easily generate complex data-driven displays. The prototype is easy to use, flexible, highly functional, and portable. Although this prototype is being developed for NASA-MSFC, the general-purpose real-time display capability can be reused in similar mission and process control environments. This includes any environment depending heavily upon real-time data acquisition and display. Reuse of the prototype will be a straight-forward transition because the prototype is portable, is designed to add new display types easily, has a user interface which is separated from the application code, and is very independent of the specifics of NASA-MSFC's system. Reuse of this prototype in other environments is a excellent alternative to creation of a new custom application, or for environments with a large number of users, to purchasing a COTS package.

  20. Neural network evaluation of tokamak current profiles for real time control (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wróblewski, Dariusz

    1997-01-01

    Active feedback control of the current profile, requiring real-time determination of the current profile parameters, is envisioned for tokamaks operating in enhanced confinement regimes. The distribution of toroidal current in a tokamak is now routinely evaluated based on external (magnetic probes, flux loops) and internal (motional Stark effect) measurements of the poloidal magnetic field. However, the analysis involves reconstruction of magnetohydrodynamic equilibrium and is too intensive computationally to be performed in real time. In the present study, a neural network is used to provide a mapping from the magnetic measurements (internal and external) to selected parameters of the safety factor profile. The single-pass, feedforward calculation of output of a trained neural network is very fast, making this approach particularly suitable for real-time applications. The network was trained on a large set of simulated equilibrium data for the DIII-D tokamak. The database encompasses a large variety of current profiles including the hollow current profiles important for reversed central shear operation. The parameters of safety factor profile (a quantity related to the current profile through the magnetic field tilt angle) estimated by the neural network include central safety factor, q0, minimum value of q, qmin, and the location of qmin. Very good performance of the trained neural network both for simulated test data and for experimental data is demonstrated.

  1. Neural network evaluation of tokamak current profiles for real time control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wróblewski, Dariusz

    1997-02-01

    Active feedback control of the current profile, requiring real-time determination of the current profile parameters, is envisioned for tokamaks operating in enhanced confinement regimes. The distribution of toroidal current in a tokamak is now routinely evaluated based on external (magnetic probes, flux loops) and internal (motional Stark effect) measurements of the poloidal magnetic field. However, the analysis involves reconstruction of magnetohydrodynamic equilibrium and is too intensive computationally to be performed in real time. In the present study, a neural network is used to provide a mapping from the magnetic measurements (internal and external) to selected parameters of the safety factor profile. The single-pass, feedforward calculation of output of a trained neural network is very fast, making this approach particularly suitable for real-time applications. The network was trained on a large set of simulated equilibrium data for the DIII-D tokamak. The database encompasses a large variety of current profiles including the hollow current profiles important for reversed central shear operation. The parameters of safety factor profile (a quantity related to the current profile through the magnetic field tilt angle) estimated by the neural network include central safety factor, q0, minimum value of q, qmin, and the location of qmin. Very good performance of the trained neural network both for simulated test data and for experimental datais demonstrated.

  2. Neural network evaluation of tokamak current profiles for real time control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wroblewski, D.

    1997-01-01

    Active feedback control of the current profile, requiring real-time determination of the current profile parameters, is envisioned for tokamaks operating in enhanced confinement regimes. The distribution of toroidal current in a tokamak is now routinely evaluated based on external (magnetic probes, flux loops) and internal (motional Stark effect) measurements of the poloidal magnetic field. However, the analysis involves reconstruction of magnetohydrodynamic equilibrium and is too intensive computationally to be performed in real time. In the present study, a neural network is used to provide a mapping from the magnetic measurements (internal and external) to selected parameters of the safety factor profile. The single-pass, feedforward calculation of output of a trained neural network is very fast, making this approach particularly suitable for real-time applications. The network was trained on a large set of simulated equilibrium data for the DIII-D tokamak. The database encompasses a large variety of current profiles including the hollow current profiles important for reversed central shear operation. The parameters of safety factor profile (a quantity related to the current profile through the magnetic field tilt angle) estimated by the neural network include central safety factor, q 0 , minimum value of q, q min , and the location of q min . Very good performance of the trained neural network both for simulated test data and for experimental datais demonstrated. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  3. Neural network evaluation of tokamak current profiles for real time control (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wroblewski, D.

    1997-01-01

    Active feedback control of the current profile, requiring real-time determination of the current profile parameters, is envisioned for tokamaks operating in enhanced confinement regimes. The distribution of toroidal current in a tokamak is now routinely evaluated based on external (magnetic probes, flux loops) and internal (motional Stark effect) measurements of the poloidal magnetic field. However, the analysis involves reconstruction of magnetohydrodynamic equilibrium and is too intensive computationally to be performed in real time. In the present study, a neural network is used to provide a mapping from the magnetic measurements (internal and external) to selected parameters of the safety factor profile. The single-pass, feedforward calculation of output of a trained neural network is very fast, making this approach particularly suitable for real-time applications. The network was trained on a large set of simulated equilibrium data for the DIII-D tokamak. The database encompasses a large variety of current profiles including the hollow current profiles important for reversed central shear operation. The parameters of safety factor profile (a quantity related to the current profile through the magnetic field tilt angle) estimated by the neural network include central safety factor, q 0 , minimum value of q, q min , and the location of q min . Very good performance of the trained neural network both for simulated test data and for experimental data is demonstrated. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  4. Bridging FPGA and GPU technologies for AO real-time control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perret, Denis; Lainé, Maxime; Bernard, Julien; Gratadour, Damien; Sevin, Arnaud

    2016-07-01

    Our team has developed a common environment for high performance simulations and real-time control of AO systems based on the use of Graphics Processors Units in the context of the COMPASS project. Such a solution, based on the ability of the real time core in the simulation to provide adequate computing performance, limits the cost of developing AO RTC systems and makes them more scalable. A code developed and validated in the context of the simulation may be injected directly into the system and tested on sky. Furthermore, the use of relatively low cost components also offers significant advantages for the system hardware platform. However, the use of GPUs in an AO loop comes with drawbacks: the traditional way of offloading computation from CPU to GPUs - involving multiple copies and unacceptable overhead in kernel launching - is not well suited in a real time context. This last application requires the implementation of a solution enabling direct memory access (DMA) to the GPU memory from a third party device, bypassing the operating system. This allows this device to communicate directly with the real-time core of the simulation feeding it with the WFS camera pixel stream. We show that DMA between a custom FPGA-based frame-grabber and a computation unit (GPU, FPGA, or Coprocessor such as Xeon-phi) across PCIe allows us to get latencies compatible with what will be needed on ELTs. As a fine-grained synchronization mechanism is not yet made available by GPU vendors, we propose the use of memory polling to avoid interrupts handling and involvement of a CPU. Network and Vision protocols are handled by the FPGA-based Network Interface Card (NIC). We present the results we obtained on a complete AO loop using camera and deformable mirror simulators.

  5. Design and realization of the real-time spectrograph controller for LAMOST based on FPGA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianing; Wu, Liyan; Zeng, Yizhong; Dai, Songxin; Hu, Zhongwen; Zhu, Yongtian; Wang, Lei; Wu, Zhen; Chen, Yi

    2008-08-01

    A large Schmitt reflector telescope, Large Sky Area Multi-Object Fiber Spectroscopic Telescope(LAMOST), is being built in China, which has effective aperture of 4 meters and can observe the spectra of as many as 4000 objects simultaneously. To fit such a large amount of observational objects, the dispersion part is composed of a set of 16 multipurpose fiber-fed double-beam Schmidt spectrographs, of which each has about ten of moveable components realtimely accommodated and manipulated by a controller. An industrial Ethernet network connects those 16 spectrograph controllers. The light from stars is fed to the entrance slits of the spectrographs with optical fibers. In this paper, we mainly introduce the design and realization of our real-time controller for the spectrograph, our design using the technique of System On Programmable Chip (SOPC) based on Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) and then realizing the control of the spectrographs through NIOSII Soft Core Embedded Processor. We seal the stepper motor controller as intellectual property (IP) cores and reuse it, greatly simplifying the design process and then shortening the development time. Under the embedded operating system μC/OS-II, a multi-tasks control program has been well written to realize the real-time control of the moveable parts of the spectrographs. At present, a number of such controllers have been applied in the spectrograph of LAMOST.

  6. Autonomous watersheds: Reducing flooding and stream erosion through real-time control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerkez, B.; Wong, B. P.

    2017-12-01

    We introduce an analytical toolchain, based on dynamical system theory and feedback control, to determine how many control points (valves, gates, pumps, etc.) are needed to transform urban watersheds from static to adaptive. Advances and distributed sensing and control stand to fundamentally change how we manage urban watersheds. In lieu of new and costly infrastructure, the real-time control of stormwater systems will reduce flooding, mitigate stream erosion, and improve the treatment of polluted runoff. We discuss the how open source technologies, in the form of wireless sensor nodes and remotely-controllable valves (open-storm.org), have been deployed to build "smart" stormwater systems in the Midwestern US. Unlike "static" infrastructure, which cannot readily adapt to changing inputs and land uses, these distributed control assets allow entire watersheds to be reconfigured on a storm-by-storm basis. Our results show how the control of even just a few valves within urban catchments (1-10km^2) allows for the real-time "shaping" of hydrographs, which reduces downstream erosion and flooding. We also introduce an equivalence framework that can be used by decision-makers to objectively compare investments into "smart" system to more traditional solutions, such as gray and green stormwater infrastructure.

  7. An IEEE 802.3 Compatible Real Time Medium Access Control with Length-based Priority

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A new medium access control method is proposed over the predominant Ethernet broadcast channel. Taking advantages of intrinsic variable length characteristic of standard Ethernet frame, message-oriented dynamic priority mechanism is established. Prioritized medium access control operates under a so-called block mode in event of collisions.High priority messages have a chance to preempt block status incurred by low priority ones. By this means, the new MAC provides a conditional deterministic real time performance beyond a statistical one. Experiments demonstrate effectiveness and attractiveness of the proposed scheme. Moreover, this new MAC is completely compatible with IEEE802.3.

  8. ICH rf system data acquisition and real time control using a microcomputer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cary, W.P.; Allen, J.A.; Pinsker, R.I.; Petty, C.C.

    1993-10-01

    On the basis of the rapidly increasing power, speed, and decreasing cost of the personal computer (microcomputer) it was felt that a real time data acquisition and control system could be configured quickly and very cost effectively. It was further felt that by using a high level or object-oriented programming language that considerable time and expense could be saved and at the same time increase system flexibility. This paper will attempt to address the desired system requirements and performance for both the control of the high power transmitters and for the data acquisition and presentation of the information

  9. Engineering of real-time systems with an experiment in hybrid control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Anders P.; Eriksen, Thomas Juul; Holdgaard, Michael

    1998-01-01

    powered manipulator with two links. The architecture uses local control for each of the links, and has a mode switched control algorithm which detects and reactson changes in model parameters due to variations in the forcesacting on the link. The result shows that it is feasible to check a design against...... of requirements and designs are expressed in duration calculus,a real-time interval logic, which is also used in verification. Theimplementation is done in occam for a network of four transputer's.Low level timing constraints are checked manually by calculating path lengths....

  10. Plasma density control in real-time on the COMPASS tokamak

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janky, Filip; Hron, Martin; Havlíček, Josef; Varavin, Mykyta; Žáček, František; Seidl, Jakub; Pánek, Radomír

    96-97, October (2015), s. 637-640 ISSN 0920-3796. [Symposium on Fusion Technology 2014(SOFT-28)/28./. San Sebastián, 29.09.2014-03.10.2014] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011021 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 633053 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : COMPASS tokamak * Real-time control * Density control * MARTe * Interferometer * Stickiness of the valve Subject RIV: JF - Nuclear Energetics OBOR OECD: Nuclear related engineering Impact factor: 1.301, year: 2015 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S092037961500294X

  11. Approach to a generalized real-time nuclear materials control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarsch, V.; Onnen, S.; Polster, F.J.; Woit, J.

    1978-01-01

    Untrained users and a large amount of--at first glance incompatible--processes and materials are the environment of computer-aided nuclear materials control systems. To find an efficient model of the real processes and materials descriptions and to allow the operating personnel to communicate with the system in his everyday symbolism are goals in the development of the concept presented in this paper. According to this concept a real-time minicomputer-based materials control system is being implemented in the Nuclear Research Center of Karlsruhe. The chosen approach satisfies the heterogeneous requirements of the various institutes of the Center and is also applicable to other nuclear plants

  12. Sawtooth Pacing by Real-Time Auxiliary Power Control in a Tokamak Plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodman, T. P.; Felici, F.; Sauter, O.; Graves, J. P.

    2011-01-01

    In the standard scenario of tokamak plasma operation, sawtooth crashes are the main perturbations that can trigger performance-degrading, and potentially disruption-generating, neoclassical tearing modes. This Letter demonstrates sawtooth pacing by real-time control of the auxiliary power. It is shown that the sawtooth crash takes place in a reproducible manner shortly after the removal of that power, and this can be used to precisely prescribe, i.e., pace, the individual sawteeth. In combination with preemptive stabilization of the neoclassical tearing modes, sawtooth pacing provides a new sawtooth control paradigm for improved performance in burning plasmas.

  13. Real time simulation of nonlinear generalized predictive control for wind energy conversion system with nonlinear observer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouari, Kamel; Rekioua, Toufik; Ouhrouche, Mohand

    2014-01-01

    In order to make a wind power generation truly cost-effective and reliable, an advanced control techniques must be used. In this paper, we develop a new control strategy, using nonlinear generalized predictive control (NGPC) approach, for DFIG-based wind turbine. The proposed control law is based on two points: NGPC-based torque-current control loop generating the rotor reference voltage and NGPC-based speed control loop that provides the torque reference. In order to enhance the robustness of the controller, a disturbance observer is designed to estimate the aerodynamic torque which is considered as an unknown perturbation. Finally, a real-time simulation is carried out to illustrate the performance of the proposed controller. Copyright © 2013 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Real time implementation and control validation of the wind energy conversion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattar, Adnan

    The purpose of the thesis is to analyze dynamic and transient characteristics of wind energy conversion systems including the stability issues in real time environment using the Real Time Digital Simulator (RTDS). There are different power system simulation tools available in the market. Real time digital simulator (RTDS) is one of the powerful tools among those. RTDS simulator has a Graphical User Interface called RSCAD which contains detail component model library for both power system and control relevant analysis. The hardware is based upon the digital signal processors mounted in the racks. RTDS simulator has the advantage of interfacing the real world signals from the external devices, hence used to test the protection and control system equipments. Dynamic and transient characteristics of the fixed and variable speed wind turbine generating systems (WTGSs) are analyzed, in this thesis. Static Synchronous Compensator (STATCOM) as a flexible ac transmission system (FACTS) device is used to enhance the fault ride through (FRT) capability of the fixed speed wind farm. Two level voltage source converter based STATCOM is modeled in both VSC small time-step and VSC large time-step of RTDS. The simulation results of the RTDS model system are compared with the off-line EMTP software i.e. PSCAD/EMTDC. A new operational scheme for a MW class grid-connected variable speed wind turbine driven permanent magnet synchronous generator (VSWT-PMSG) is developed. VSWT-PMSG uses fully controlled frequency converters for the grid interfacing and thus have the ability to control the real and reactive powers simultaneously. Frequency converters are modeled in the VSC small time-step of the RTDS and three phase realistic grid is adopted with RSCAD simulation through the use of optical analogue digital converter (OADC) card of the RTDS. Steady state and LVRT characteristics are carried out to validate the proposed operational scheme. Simulation results show good agreement with real

  15. Software architecture for a multi-purpose real-time control unit for research purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epple, S.; Jung, R.; Jalba, K.; Nasui, V.

    2017-05-01

    A new, freely programmable, scalable control system for academic research purposes was developed. The intention was, to have a control unit capable of handling multiple PT1000 temperature sensors at reasonable accuracy and temperature range, as well as digital input signals and providing powerful output signals. To take full advantage of the system, control-loops are run in real time. The whole eight bit system with very limited memory runs independently of a personal computer. The two on board RS232 connectors allow to connect further units or to connect other equipment, as required in real time. This paper describes the software architecture for the third prototype that now provides stable measurements and an improvement in accuracy compared to the previous designs. As test case a thermal solar system to produce hot tap water and assist heating in a single-family house was implemented. The solar fluid pump was power-controlled and several temperatures at different points in the hydraulic system were measured and used in the control algorithms. The software architecture proved suitable to test several different control strategies and their corresponding algorithms for the thermal solar system.

  16. First Trial of Real-time Poloidal Beta Control in KSTAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hyunsun; Hahn, S. H.; Bak, J. G.; Walker, M. L.; Woo, M. H.; Kim, J. S.; Kim, Y. J.; Bae, Y. S.; KSTAR Team

    2014-10-01

    Sustaining the plasma in a stable and a high performance condition is one of the important control issues for future steady state tokamaks. In the 2014 KSTAR campaign, we have developed a real-time poloidal beta (βp) control technique and carried out preliminary experiments to identify its feasibility. In the control system, the βp is calculated in real time using the measured diamagnetic loop signal (DLM03) with coil pickup corrections, and compared with the target value leading to the change of the neutral beam (NB) heating power using a feedback PID control algorithm. To match the required power of NB which is operated with constant voltage, the duty cycles of the modulation were adjusted as the ratio of the required power to the maximum achievable one. This paper will present the overall procedures of the βp control, the βp estimation process implemented in the plasma control system, and the analysis on the preliminary experimental results. This work is supported by the KSTAR research project funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT & Future Planning of Korea.

  17. Real-Time Performance of Mechatronic PZT Module Using Active Vibration Feedback Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggogeri, Francesco; Borboni, Alberto; Merlo, Angelo; Pellegrini, Nicola; Ricatto, Raffaele

    2016-09-25

    This paper proposes an innovative mechatronic piezo-actuated module to control vibrations in modern machine tools. Vibrations represent one of the main issues that seriously compromise the quality of the workpiece. The active vibration control (AVC) device is composed of a host part integrated with sensors and actuators synchronized by a regulator; it is able to make a self-assessment and adjust to alterations in the environment. In particular, an innovative smart actuator has been designed and developed to satisfy machining requirements during active vibration control. This study presents the mechatronic model based on the kinematic and dynamic analysis of the AVC device. To ensure a real time performance, a H2-LQG controller has been developed and validated by simulations involving a machine tool, PZT actuator and controller models. The Hardware in the Loop (HIL) architecture is adopted to control and attenuate the vibrations. A set of experimental tests has been performed to validate the AVC module on a commercial machine tool. The feasibility of the real time vibration damping is demonstrated and the simulation accuracy is evaluated.

  18. Real time production optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saputelli, Luigi; Otavio, Joao; Araujo, Turiassu; Escorcia, Alvaro [Halliburton, Houston, TX (United States). Landmark Division

    2004-07-01

    Production optimization encompasses various activities of measuring, analyzing, modeling, prioritizing and implementing actions to enhance productivity of a field. We present a state-of-the-art framework for optimizing production on a continuous basis as new sensor data is acquired in real time. Permanently acquired data is modeled and analyzed in order to create predictive models. A model based control strategy is used to regulate well and field instrumentation. The optimum field operating point, which changes with time, satisfies the maximum economic return. This work is a starting point for further development in automatic, intelligent reservoir technologies which get the most out of the abilities of permanent, instrumented wells and remotely activated downhole completions. The strategy, tested with history-matched data from a compartmentalised giant field, proved to reduce operating costs while increasing oil recovery by 27% in this field. (author)

  19. Real-time adjustment of pressure to demand in water distribution systems: Parameter-less P-controller algorithm

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Page, Philip R

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Remote real-time control is currently the most advanced form of pressure management. Here the parameters describing pressure control valves (or pumps) are changed in real-time in such a way to provide the most optimal pressure in the water...

  20. A real-time control framework for urban water reservoirs operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galelli, S.; Goedbloed, A.; Schwanenberg, D.

    2012-04-01

    Drinking water demand in urban areas is growing parallel to the worldwide urban population, and it is acquiring an increasing part of the total water consumption. Since the delivery of sufficient water volumes in urban areas represents a difficult logistic and economical problem, different metropolitan areas are evaluating the opportunity of constructing relatively small reservoirs within urban areas. Singapore, for example, is developing the so-called 'Four National Taps Strategies', which detects the maximization of water yields from local, urban catchments as one of the most important water sources. However, the peculiar location of these reservoirs can provide a certain advantage from the logistical point of view, but it can pose serious difficulties in their daily management. Urban catchments are indeed characterized by large impervious areas: this results in a change of the hydrological cycle, with decreased infiltration and groundwater recharge, and increased patterns of surface and river discharges, with higher peak flows, volumes and concentration time. Moreover, the high concentrations of nutrients and sediments characterizing urban discharges can cause further water quality problems. In this critical hydrological context, the effective operation of urban water reservoirs must rely on real-time control techniques, which can exploit hydro-meteorological information available in real-time from hydrological and nowcasting models. This work proposes a novel framework for the real-time control of combined water quality and quantity objectives in urban reservoirs. The core of this framework is a non-linear Model Predictive Control (MPC) scheme, which employs the current state of the system, the future discharges furnished by a predictive model and a further model describing the internal dynamics of the controlled sub-system to determine an optimal control sequence over a finite prediction horizon. The main advantage of this scheme stands in its reduced

  1. A real-time current driving control system for the TJ-II coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pena, Angel de la; Pacios, Luis; Carrasco, Ricardo; Lapayese, Fernando

    2009-01-01

    Since the start of plasma operation in the TJ-II stellarator, the required values of DC currents that are fed to its different coil sets have been controlled to high precision along the complete discharge flat-top. As a result each current configuration produced a highly stable magnetic-field configuration. Recently, the configurational flexibility of the TJ-II has been broadened by the commissioning of a new mode of operation that allows magnetic configurations to be varied dynamically during the discharge flat-top. In order to achieve this, new hardware and software features have been added to the TJ-II Control System. These new features may also provide new strategies for feedback control in accordance with parameters measured in one or more diagnostics. In this new set-up, coil current profiles are generated and controlled to millisecond timescales by a system based on VMEbus and OS9 real-time operating system. A new communication middleware architecture called XML-based Messages Distribution Service (X-MDS) has been designed to exchange XML-based data with calling clients. Furthermore, with this software, a fully functional Java application for supervision and for current profiles settings has been developed. This paper provides a detailed description of the complete TJ-II real-time current-profile control system and results obtained during its operation.

  2. On-Board Real-Time Optimization Control for Turbo-Fan Engine Life Extending

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Qiangang; Zhang, Haibo; Miao, Lizhen; Sun, Fengyong

    2017-11-01

    A real-time optimization control method is proposed to extend turbo-fan engine service life. This real-time optimization control is based on an on-board engine mode, which is devised by a MRR-LSSVR (multi-input multi-output recursive reduced least squares support vector regression method). To solve the optimization problem, a FSQP (feasible sequential quadratic programming) algorithm is utilized. The thermal mechanical fatigue is taken into account during the optimization process. Furthermore, to describe the engine life decaying, a thermal mechanical fatigue model of engine acceleration process is established. The optimization objective function not only contains the sub-item which can get fast response of the engine, but also concludes the sub-item of the total mechanical strain range which has positive relationship to engine fatigue life. Finally, the simulations of the conventional optimization control which just consider engine acceleration performance or the proposed optimization method have been conducted. The simulations demonstrate that the time of the two control methods from idle to 99.5 % of the maximum power are equal. However, the engine life using the proposed optimization method could be surprisingly increased by 36.17 % compared with that using conventional optimization control.

  3. Real time determination and control of the plasma localisation and internal inductance in Tore Supra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saint-Laurent, F. E-mail: stlauren@drfc.cad.cea.fr; Martin, G

    2001-10-01

    The study of long-duration high-power discharges need an efficient real time control of the plasma parameters, especially the plasma position when RF heating systems are used. On Tore Supra, recent improvements have been carried out (i) for the poloidal interpolation and the radial extrapolation of the magnetic measurements, (ii) for a better feedback matrix converting the radial errors of the plasma position to voltage values for the poloidal generators, and (iii) for a very fast solution to find the plasma parameters from the knowledge of its surface. The plasma edge localisation is now controlled with a precision better than 1 cm and controlled within a few millimetres uncertainty for several tenths of seconds. Moreover, for advanced tokamak scenarios, a precise real time determination of safety factor, poloidal beta, internal inductance, Shafranov shift as well as the online computation of the electron density and current density profiles are now available on Tore Supra. These quantities compare well with results from batch calculations using an equilibrium code. To fulfil the new requirements of plasma control for the CIEL project, a local control of the plasma edge position and curvature is planned for the near future.

  4. A real-time current driving control system for the TJ-II coils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pena, Angel de la [Association EURATOM - CIEMAT, Avda. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: a.delapena@ciemat.es; Pacios, Luis; Carrasco, Ricardo; Lapayese, Fernando [Association EURATOM - CIEMAT, Avda. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2009-06-15

    Since the start of plasma operation in the TJ-II stellarator, the required values of DC currents that are fed to its different coil sets have been controlled to high precision along the complete discharge flat-top. As a result each current configuration produced a highly stable magnetic-field configuration. Recently, the configurational flexibility of the TJ-II has been broadened by the commissioning of a new mode of operation that allows magnetic configurations to be varied dynamically during the discharge flat-top. In order to achieve this, new hardware and software features have been added to the TJ-II Control System. These new features may also provide new strategies for feedback control in accordance with parameters measured in one or more diagnostics. In this new set-up, coil current profiles are generated and controlled to millisecond timescales by a system based on VMEbus and OS9 real-time operating system. A new communication middleware architecture called XML-based Messages Distribution Service (X-MDS) has been designed to exchange XML-based data with calling clients. Furthermore, with this software, a fully functional Java application for supervision and for current profiles settings has been developed. This paper provides a detailed description of the complete TJ-II real-time current-profile control system and results obtained during its operation.

  5. Narrow Artificial Intelligence with Machine Learning for Real-Time Estimation of a Mobile Agent’s Location Using Hidden Markov Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cédric Beaulac

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose to use a supervised machine learning technique to track the location of a mobile agent in real time. Hidden Markov Models are used to build artificial intelligence that estimates the unknown position of a mobile target moving in a defined environment. This narrow artificial intelligence performs two distinct tasks. First, it provides real-time estimation of the mobile agent’s position using the forward algorithm. Second, it uses the Baum–Welch algorithm as a statistical learning tool to gain knowledge of the mobile target. Finally, an experimental environment is proposed, namely, a video game that we use to test our artificial intelligence. We present statistical and graphical results to illustrate the efficiency of our method.

  6. Adaptation of the MAST passive current simulation model for real-time plasma control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McArdle, G.J.; Taylor, D.

    2008-01-01

    Successful equilibrium reconstruction on MAST depends on a reliable estimate of the passive current induced in the thick vacuum vessel (which also acts as the load assembly) and other toroidally continuous internal support structures. For the EFIT reconstruction code, a pre-processing program takes the measured plasma and PF coil current evolution and uses a sectional model of the passive structure to solve the ODEs for electromagnetic induction. The results are written to a file, which is treated by EFIT as a set of virtual measurements of the passive current in each section. However, when a real-time version of EFIT was recently installed in the MAST plasma control system, a similar function was required for real-time estimation of the instantaneous passive current. This required several adaptation steps for the induction model to reduce the computational overhead to the absolute minimum, whilst preserving accuracy of the result. These include: ·conversion of the ODE to use an auxiliary variable, avoiding the need to calculate the time derivative of current; ·minimise the order of the system via model reduction techniques with a state-space representation of the problem; ·transformation to eigenmode form, to diagonalise the main matrix for faster computation; ·discretisation of the ODE; ·hand-optimisation to use vector instruction extensions in the real-time processor; ·splitting the task into two parts: the time-critical feedback part, and the next cycle pre-calculation part. After these optimisations, the algorithm was successfully implemented at a cost of just 65 μs per 500 μs control cycle, with only 27 μs added to the control latency. The results show good agreement with the original off-line version. Some of these optimisations have also been used subsequently to improve the performance of the off-line version

  7. Real-Time Fixed-Order Lateral H2 Controller for Micro Air Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenakshi M.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design and development of a fixed low-order, robust H2 controller for a micro air vehicle (MAV named Sarika-2. The controller synthesis uses strengthened discrete optimal projection equations and frequency-dependent performance index to achieve robust performance and stability. A single fixed gain low-order dynamic controller provides simultaneous stabilization, disturbance rejection, and sensor noise attenuation over the entire flight speed range of 16 m/sec to 26 m/sec. Comparative study indicates that the low-order H2-controller achieves robust performance levels similar to that of full order controller. Subsequently, the controller is implemented on a digital signal processor-based flight computer and is validated through the real time hardware in loop simulation. The responses obtained with hardware in loop simulation compares well with those obtained from the offline simulation.

  8. Real-time control of focused ultrasound heating based on rapid MR thermometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vimeux, F C; De Zwart, J A; Palussiére, J; Fawaz, R; Delalande, C; Canioni, P; Grenier, N; Moonen, C T

    1999-03-01

    Real-time control of the heating procedure is essential for hyperthermia applications of focused ultrasound (FUS). The objective of this study is to demonstrate the feasibility of MRI-controlled FUS. An automatic control system was developed using a dedicated interface between the MR system control computer and the FUS wave generator. Two algorithms were used to regulate FUS power to maintain the focal point temperature at a desired level. Automatic control of FUS power level was demonstrated ex vivo at three target temperature levels (increase of 5 degrees C, 10 degrees C, and 30 degrees C above room temperature) during 30-minute hyperthermic periods. Preliminary in vivo results on rat leg muscle confirm that necrosis estimate, calculated on-line during FUS sonication, allows prediction of tissue damage. CONCLUSIONS. The feasibility of fully automatic FUS control based on MRI thermometry has been demonstrated.

  9. A fuzzy controller for the real time supervision of nuclear power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Si Fodil, M.; Guly, F.; Siarry, P.; Tyran, J.L.

    2000-01-01

    We describe the development of a real time fuzzy controller aimed at an adequate core axial power distribution inside a pressurized water reactor (PWR). The system has been implemented in simulation using the EDF model on Matlab-Simulink on a Sun workstation. Some experiments tests at different power levels have been performed: several low levels modeling falls in the network consumption and test modeling falls in the consumption followed by a recovery of the consumption. The results of all these experiments will be discussed. (orig.)

  10. In-Situ Real Time Monitoring and Control of Mold Making and Filling Processes: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohamed Abdelrahman; Kenneth Currie

    2010-12-22

    This project presents a model for addressing several objectives envisioned by the metal casting industries through the integration of research and educational components. It provides an innovative approach to introduce technologies for real time characterization of sand molds, lost foam patterns and monitoring of the mold filling process. The technology developed will enable better control over the casting process. It is expected to reduce scrap and variance in the casting quality. A strong educational component is integrated into the research plan to utilize increased awareness of the industry professional, the potential benefits of the developed technology, and the potential benefits of cross cutting technologies.

  11. Real-time control of electronic motion: Application to NaI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønager, Michael; Henriksen, Niels Engholm

    1998-01-01

    + + I- depends on the electron distribution (i.e., where the electron "sits") prior to the time where the bond is broken by a subpicosecond half-cycle unipolar electromagnetic pulse. Thus we control, in real time, which nucleus one of the valence electrons will follow after the bond is broken. (C) 1998......We study theoretically the electronic and nuclear dynamics in NaI. After a femtosecond pulse has prepared a wave packet in the first excited state, we consider the adiabatic and the nonadiabatic electronic dynamics and demonstrate explicitly that a nonstationary electron is created in Na...

  12. Real-time control of a microfluidic channel for size-independent deformability cytometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guan, Guofeng; Chen, Peter C Y; Ong, Chong Jin; Peng, Weng Kung; Bhagat, Ali Asgar; Han, Jongyoon

    2012-01-01

    Mechanical properties of cells can be correlated with various cell states and are now considered as an important class of biophysical markers. Effectiveness of existing high-throughput microfluidic techniques for investigating cell mechanical properties is adversely affected by cell-size variation in a given cell population. In this work, we introduce a new microfluidic system with real-time feedback control to evaluate single-cell deformability while minimizing cell-size dependence of the measurement. Using breast cancer cells (MCF-7), we demonstrate the potential of this system for stiffness profiling of cells in complex, diverse cell populations. (paper)

  13. Intelligent Mission Controller Node

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Perme, David

    2002-01-01

    The goal of the Intelligent Mission Controller Node (IMCN) project was to improve the process of translating mission taskings between real-world Command, Control, Communications, Computers, and Intelligence (C41...

  14. On-line, real-time monitoring for petrochemical and pipeline process control applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kane, Russell D.; Eden, D.C.; Cayard, M.S.; Eden, D.A.; Mclean, D.T. [InterCorr International, Inc., 14503 Bammel N. Houston, Suite 300, Houston Texas 77014 (United States); Kintz, J. [BASF Corporation, 602 Copper Rd., Freeport, Texas 77541 (United States)

    2004-07-01

    Corrosion problems in petroleum and petrochemical plants and pipeline may be inherent to the processes, but costly and damaging equipment losses are not. With the continual drive to increase productivity, while protecting both product quality, safety and the environment, corrosion must become a variable that can be continuously monitored and assessed. This millennium has seen the introduction of new 'real-time', online measurement technologies and vast improvements in methods of electronic data handling. The 'replace when it fails' approach is receding into a distant memory; facilities management today is embracing new technology, and rapidly appreciating the value it has to offer. It has offered the capabilities to increase system run time between major inspections, reduce the time and expense associated with turnaround or in-line inspections, and reduce major upsets which cause unplanned shut downs. The end result is the ability to know on a practical basis of how 'hard' facilities can be pushed before excessive corrosion damage will result, so that process engineers can understand the impact of their process control actions and implement true asset management. This paper makes reference to use of a online, real-time electrochemical corrosion monitoring system - SmartCET 1- in a plant running a mostly organic process media. It also highlights other pertinent examples where similar systems have been used to provide useful real-time information to detect system upsets, which would not have been possible otherwise. This monitoring/process control approach has operators and engineers to see, for the first time, changes in corrosion behavior caused by specific variations in process parameters. Process adjustments have been identified that reduce corrosion rates while maintaining acceptable yields and quality. The monitoring system has provided a new window into the chemistry of the process, helping chemical engineers improve their process

  15. Dealing with rainfall forecast uncertainties in real-time flood control along the Demer river

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vermuyten Evert

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Real-time Model Predictive Control (MPC of hydraulic structures strongly reduces flood consequences under ideal circumstances. The performance of such flood control may, however, be significantly affected by uncertainties. This research quantifies the influence of rainfall forecast uncertainties and related uncertainties in the catchment rainfall-runoff discharges on the control performance for the Herk river case study in Belgium. To limit the model computational times, a fast conceptual model is applied. It is calibrated to a full hydrodynamic river model. A Reduced Genetic Algorithm is used as optimization method. Next to the analysis of the impact of the rainfall forecast uncertainties on the control performance, a Multiple Model Predictive Control (MMPC approach is tested to reduce this impact. Results show that the deterministic MPC-RGA outperforms the MMPC and that it is inherently robust against rainfall forecast uncertainties due to its receding horizon strategy.

  16. Real-time depth monitoring and control of laser machining through scanning beam delivery system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, Yang; Grindal, Alexander W; Fraser, James M; Webster, Paul J L

    2015-01-01

    Scanning optics enable many laser applications in manufacturing because their low inertia allows rapid movement of the process beam across the sample. We describe our method of inline coherent imaging for real-time (up to 230 kHz) micron-scale (7–8 µm axial resolution) tracking and control of laser machining depth through a scanning galvo-telecentric beam delivery system. For 1 cm trench etching in stainless steel, we collect high speed intrapulse and interpulse morphology which is useful for further understanding underlying mechanisms or comparison with numerical models. We also collect overall sweep-to-sweep depth penetration which can be used for feedback depth control. For trench etching in silicon, we show the relationship of etch rate with average power and scan speed by computer processing of depth information without destructive sample post-processing. We also achieve three-dimensional infrared continuous wave (modulated) laser machining of a 3.96 × 3.96 × 0.5 mm 3 (length × width × maximum depth) pattern on steel with depth feedback. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first successful demonstration of direct real-time depth monitoring and control of laser machining with scanning optics. (paper)

  17. Progress towards steady-state operation and real time control of internal transport barriers in JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litaudon, X.

    2002-01-01

    In JET advanced tokamak research mainly focuses on plasmas with internal transport barriers (ITBs), generated by modifications of the current profile. The formerly developed optimised shear regime with low magnetic shear in the plasma center has been extended to deeply reversed magnetic shear configurations. ITBs occur at much lower access powers. The achievement of high fusion performance is reported in deeply reversed magnetic shear configuration. The generation of plasmas with wide ITBs in this configuration has allowed an extension of the accessible normalised toroidal beta at high magnetic field. We report on the successful sustainment and control of the electron and ion ITB in full current drive operation with a large fraction of bootstrap current. Progress towards the steady state capability of ITB plasmas includes techniques to avoid strong ELM activity and the newly developed real time control of the local ITB strength. Thanks to the real time control of the ITB characteristics the improved confinement state is maintained in a more reproducible and stable manner in quasi-stationary conditions. (author)

  18. Optimal strategies for real-time sparse actuator compensation in RFX-mod MHD control operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pigatto, L., E-mail: leonardo.pigatto@igi.cnr.it [Consorzio RFX, Corso Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy); University of Padova, Padova (Italy); Bettini, P. [Consorzio RFX, Corso Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy); University of Padova, Padova (Italy); Bolzonella, T.; Marchiori, G. [Consorzio RFX, Corso Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy); Villone, F. [CREATE, DIEI, Università di Cassino e del Lazio Meridionale, Cassino (Italy)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Sparse missing actuator compensation is solved with a new real-time strategy. • Testing is carried out with a dynamical model to prove feasibility and limits. • Dedicated experiments have been run to validate simulated results. - Abstract: In many devices aiming at magnetic confinement of fusion relevant plasmas, feedback control of MHD instabilities by means of active coils is nowadays mandatory to ensure the robustness of high performance operational scenarios. Actuators involved in the control loop are often coupled in the sensor measurements and an optimal strategy for decoupling can be limited by the need of reducing as much as possible the cycle time of the control loop itself. It is also important to stress the fact that the problem is intrinsically 3D, involving different non-axisymmetric contributions. The baseline situation in RFX-mod is documented, where the identity matrix is chosen to represent the simplest case of mutual coupling matrix. The problem of missing or broken actuators is introduced and tackled with dedicated compensation strategies. A detailed description is given for a possible compensation concept which can be applied in real-time operation thanks to its implementation strategy, yielding very promising results in terms of local field reconstruction.

  19. Improving the Multi-Objective Performance of Rainwater Harvesting Systems Using Real-Time Control Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei D. Xu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have identified the potential of rainwater harvesting (RWH systems to simultaneously augment potable water supply and reduce delivery of uncontrolled stormwater flows to downstream drainage networks. Potentially, such systems could also play a role in the controlled delivery of water to urban streams in ways which mimic baseflows. The performance of RWH systems to achieve these three objectives could be enhanced using Real-Time Control (RTC technology to receive rainfall forecasts and initiate pre-storm release in real time, although few studies have explored such potential. We used continuous simulation to model the ability of a range of allotment-scale RWH systems to simultaneously deliver: (i water supply; (ii stormwater retention; and (iii baseflow restoration. We compared the performance of RWH systems with RTC technology to conventional RWH systems and also systems designed with a passive baseflow release, rather than the active (RTC configuration. We found that RWH systems employing RTC technology were generally superior in simultaneously achieving water supply, stormwater retention and baseflow restoration benefits compared with the other types of system tested. The active operation provided by RTC allows the system to perform optimally across a wider range of climatic conditions, but needs to be carefully designed. We conclude that the active release mechanism employing RTC technology exhibits great promise; its ability to provide centralised control and failure detection also opens the possibility of delivering a more reliable rainwater harvesting system, which can be readily adapted to varying climate over both the short and long term.

  20. Memory controllers for high-performance and real-time MPSoCs : requirements, architectures, and future trends

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akesson, K.B.; Huang, Po-Chun; Clermidy, F.; Dutoit, D.; Goossens, K.G.W.; Chang, Yuan-Hao; Kuo, Tei-Wei; Vivet, P.; Wingard, D.

    2011-01-01

    Designing memory controllers for complex real-time and high-performance multi-processor systems-on-chip is challenging, since sufficient capacity and (real-time) performance must be provided in a reliable manner at low cost and with low power consumption. This special session contains four

  1. Design and Real Time Implementation of CDM-PI Control System in a Conical Tank Liquid Level Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. K. Bhaba

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The work focuses on the design and real time implementation of Coefficient Diagram Method (CDM based PI (CDM-PI control system for a Conical Tank Liquid Level Process (CTLLP which exhibits severe static non-linear characteristics. By taking this static non-linearity into account, a Wiener Model (WM based CDM-PI control system is developed and implemented in real time operations. The performance of this control system for set point tracking and load disturbance rejection is studied. In addition, the performance is compared with other WM based PI controllers. Real time results clearly show that WM based CDM-PI control system outperforms over the others.

  2. Real-time control of the current density and pressure profiles in Jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazon, D.; Moreau, D.; Litaudon, X.; Joffrin, E.; Laborde, L.; Zabeo, L.; Crisanti, F.; Riva, M.; Felton, R.; Murari, A.; Tala, T.

    2003-01-01

    In order to ultimately control internal transport barriers during advanced operation scenarios, new algorithms using a truncated singular value decomposition of a linearized model operator have been implemented in the JET real-time controller, with the potentiality of retaining the distributed nature of plasma parameter profiles. First experiments using the simplest, lumped-parameter, version of this technique have been dedicated to the feedback control of the current density profile in a negative shear plasma using three heating and current drive actuators, namely neutral beam injection (NBI), ion cyclotron resonant frequency heating (ICRH) and lower hybrid current drive (LHCD). Successful control of the safety factor profile has been achieved on the time scale of the current redistribution time, first during an extended preheat phase with only LHCD as actuator and, then, in quasi steady-state conditions during the main heating phase of a discharge, using the three heating and current drive actuators

  3. Supervisory Control for Real Time Reactive Power Flow Optimization in Islanded Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milczarek, Adam; Vasquez, Juan Carlos; Malinowski, Mariusz

    2013-01-01

    -line measurements. Similarly to any process system, MG hierarchical control is divided into three levels. However, an additional control algorithm is required to manage power transmission between sources and loads, maximizing efficiency and minimizing transmission losses. This real-time optimization problem......A microgrid (MG) is a local energy system consisting of a number of energy sources, energy storage units and loads that operate connected to the main electrical grid or autonomously. MGs include wind, solar or other renewable energy sources. MGs provide flexibility, reduce the main electricity grid...... dependence and contribute to change the large centralized production paradigm to local and distributed generation. However, such energy systems require complex management, advanced control and optimization. Interest on MGs hierarchical control has increased due to the availability of cheap on...

  4. Discrete events simulation of a route with traffic lights through automated control in real time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo César Teixeira Baptista

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the integration and communication in real-time of a discrete event simulation model with an automatic control system. The simulation model of an intersection with roads having traffic lights was built in the Arena environment. The integration and communication have been made via network, and the control system was operated by a programmable logic controller. Scenarios were simulated for the free, regular and congested traffic situations. The results showed the average number of vehicles that entered in the system and that were retained and also the total average time of the crossing of the vehicles on the road. In general, the model allowed evaluating the behavior of the traffic in each of the ways and the commands from the controller to activation and deactivation of the traffic lights.

  5. Industrial implementation of spatial variability control by real-time SPC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roule, O.; Pasqualini, F.; Borde, M.

    2016-10-01

    Advanced technology nodes require more and more information to get the wafer process well setup. The critical dimension of components decreases following Moore's law. At the same time, the intra-wafer dispersion linked to the spatial non-uniformity of tool's processes is not capable to decrease in the same proportions. APC systems (Advanced Process Control) are being developed in waferfab to automatically adjust and tune wafer processing, based on a lot of process context information. It can generate and monitor complex intrawafer process profile corrections between different process steps. It leads us to put under control the spatial variability, in real time by our SPC system (Statistical Process Control). This paper will outline the architecture of an integrated process control system for shape monitoring in 3D, implemented in waferfab.

  6. Local Adaptive Control of Solar Photovoltaics and Electric Water Heaters for Real-time Grid Support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhattarai, Bishnu Prasad; Mendaza, Iker Diaz de Cerio; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2016-01-01

    Overvoltage (OV) in a low voltage distribution network is one of the foremost issues observed even under moderate penetration of rooftop solar photovoltaics (PVs). Similarly, grid under-voltage (UV) is foreseen as a potential issue resulting from increased integration of large flexible loads......, such as electric vehicles, electric water heaters (EWHs) etc. An adaptive control using only local measurements for the EWHs and PVs is proposed in this study to alleviate OV as well as UV issues. The adaptive control is designed such that it monitors the voltage at the point of connection and adjusts active...... and reactive power injection/consumptions of the EWHs and PVs following the voltage violations. To effectively support the network in real-time, the controller allows EWHs to operate prior to PVs in OV and after the PVs in UV violations. The effectiveness of the proposed control strategy is demonstrated...

  7. Servo-controlling structure of five-axis CNC system for real-time NURBS interpolating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liangji; Guo, Guangsong; Li, Huiying

    2017-07-01

    NURBS (Non-Uniform Rational B-Spline) is widely used in CAD/CAM (Computer-Aided Design / Computer-Aided Manufacturing) to represent sculptured curves or surfaces. In this paper, we develop a 5-axis NURBS real-time interpolator and realize it in our developing CNC(Computer Numerical Control) system. At first, we use two NURBS curves to represent tool-tip and tool-axis path respectively. According to feedrate and Taylor series extension, servo-controlling signals of 5 axes are obtained for each interpolating cycle. Then, generation procedure of NC(Numerical Control) code with the presented method is introduced and the method how to integrate the interpolator into our developing CNC system is given. And also, the servo-controlling structure of the CNC system is introduced. Through the illustration, it has been indicated that the proposed method can enhance the machining accuracy and the spline interpolator is feasible for 5-axis CNC system.

  8. SAFCM: A Security-Aware Feedback Control Mechanism for Distributed Real-Time Embedded Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Yue; Jiang, Wei; Sang, Nan

    2012-01-01

    Distributed Real-time Embedded (DRE) systems are facing great challenges in networked, unpredictable and especially unsecured environments. In such systems, there is a strong need to enforce security on distributed computing nodes in order to guard against potential threats, while satisfying......-time systems, a multi-input multi-output feedback loop is designed and a model predictive controller is deployed based on an equation model that describes the dynamic behavior of the DRE systems. This control loop uses security level scaling to globally control the CPU utilization and security performance...... for the whole system. We propose a "security level" metric based on an evolution of cryptography algorithms used in embedded systems. Experimental results demonstrate that SAFCM not only has the excellent adaptivity compared to open-loop mechanism, but also has a better overall performance than PID control...

  9. Development of Geometrical Quality Control Real-time Analysis Program using an Electronic Portal Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Rok; Jung, Kyung Yong; Jang, Min Sun; Lee, Byung Gu; Kwon, Young Ho

    2012-01-01

    To develop a geometrical quality control real-time analysis program using an electronic portal imaging to replace film evaluation method. A geometrical quality control item was established with the Eclipse treatment planning system (Version 8.1, Varian, USA) after the Electronic Portal Imaging Device (EPID) took care of the problems occurring from the fixed substructure of the linear accelerator (CL-iX, Varian, USA). Electronic portal image (single exposure before plan) was created at the treatment room's 4DTC (Version 10.2, Varian, USA) and a beam was irradiated in accordance with each item. The gaining the entire electronic portal imaging at the Off-line review and was evaluated by a self-developed geometrical quality control real-time analysis program. As for evaluation methods, the intra-fraction error was analyzed by executing 5 times in a row under identical conditions and procedures on the same day, and in order to confirm the infer-fraction error, it was executed for 10 days under identical conditions of all procedures and was compared with the film evaluation method using an Iso-align quality control device. Measurement and analysis time was measured by sorting the time into from the device setup to data achievement and the time amount after the time until the completion of analysis and the convenience of the users and execution processes were compared. The intra-fraction error values for each average 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.2 mm at light-radiation field coincidence, collimator rotation axis, couch rotation axis and gantry rotation axis. By checking the infer-fraction error through 10 days of continuous quality control, the error values obtained were average 1.7, 1.4, 0.7, 1.1 mm for each item. Also, the measurement times were average 36 minutes, 15 minutes for the film evaluation method and electronic portal imaging system, and the analysis times were average 30 minutes, 22 minutes. When conducting a geometrical quality control using an electronic portal imaging

  10. Development and Validation in Air Traffic Control by Means of Real-Time Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Herr

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The airspace in Central Europe is already one of the busiest airspaces in the world and the forecasts predict further traffic increases. The current air transport system is reaching its capacity limits, not only at airports but also in parts of the en-route area. This is mainly due to the workload constraints of air traffic controllers. In the past, many technical system functionalities were developed with the aim of reducing controller workload and thus enabling the safe handling of the predicted traffic growth. But these new functionalities alone will not provide adequate relief to air traffic controllers. Their working procedures and the airspace structure will have to be adapted accordingly. In order to obtain real operational benefits, these technical innovations must be integrated into an overall concept which – in addition to the above-mentioned factors – also takes account of ergonomic aspects and human-machine interfaces. When developing such an overall concept, additional evaluation and validation measures are indispensable to ensure that the desired operational benefits are achieved. This is why DFS has for many years used fast- and real-time simulations to assess and optimise any changes to be made to the air traffic control system. The working methods of DFS in this context are in keeping with the European Operational Concept Validation Methodology of 2007, in short E-OCVM. This paper outlines the development and validation activities of DFS using the MSP D/L project as an example. The project deals with the introduction of the new role of air traffic controllers as multi-sector planners (MSP and new system functionalities, such as air/ground data link (D/L. The project included the development of an operational concept for using the new functionalities as well as for defining working procedures and the airspace structure. This concept was subsequently evaluated by means of a fast-time simulation and two real-time simulations

  11. FPGA cluster for high-performance AO real-time control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Deli; Goodsell, Stephen J.; Basden, Alastair G.; Dipper, Nigel A.; Myers, Richard M.; Saunter, Chris D.

    2006-06-01

    Whilst the high throughput and low latency requirements for the next generation AO real-time control systems have posed a significant challenge to von Neumann architecture processor systems, the Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) has emerged as a long term solution with high performance on throughput and excellent predictability on latency. Moreover, FPGA devices have highly capable programmable interfacing, which lead to more highly integrated system. Nevertheless, a single FPGA is still not enough: multiple FPGA devices need to be clustered to perform the required subaperture processing and the reconstruction computation. In an AO real-time control system, the memory bandwidth is often the bottleneck of the system, simply because a vast amount of supporting data, e.g. pixel calibration maps and the reconstruction matrix, need to be accessed within a short period. The cluster, as a general computing architecture, has excellent scalability in processing throughput, memory bandwidth, memory capacity, and communication bandwidth. Problems, such as task distribution, node communication, system verification, are discussed.

  12. Real-Time Scintigraphic Assessment of Intravenous Radium-223 Administration for Quality Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chadwick L. Wright

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Radium-223 (223Ra dichloride is an approved intravenous radiotherapy for patients with osseous metastases from castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC. In addition to the therapeutic alpha radiation, there is additional 223Ra radiation generated which produces photons that can be imaged with conventional gamma cameras. No studies have evaluated real-time and quality imaging during intravenous 223Ra administration to verify systemic circulation and exclude 223Ra extravasation at the injection site. A retrospective review was performed for fifteen 223Ra administrations for CRPC patients which were imaged using a large field of view portable gamma camera (LFOVPGC for the purposes of quality control and patient safety. Dynamic imaging of the chest was performed before, during, and after the 223Ra administration to verify systemic circulation, per institutional clinical protocol. Before and after 223Ra administration, a static image was obtained of the intravenous access site. Dynamic imaging of the chest confirmed systemic administration early during the 1-minute injection period for all patients. There were no cases of focal 223Ra extravasation at the site of intravenous access. These results verify that systemic 223Ra administrations can be quantified with real-time imaging using an LFOVPGC. This simple approach can confirm and quantify systemic circulation of 223Ra early during injection and exclude focal extravasation for the purposes of quality control.

  13. Design Of Real-Time Implementable Distributed Suboptimal Control: An LQR Perspective

    KAUST Repository

    Jaleel, Hassan

    2017-09-29

    We propose a framework for multiagent systems in which the agents compute their control actions in real time, based on local information only. The novelty of the proposed framework is that the process of computing a suboptimal control action is divided into two phases: an offline phase and an online phase. In the offline phase, an approximate problem is formulated with a cost function that is close to the optimal cost in some sense and is distributed, i.e., the costs of non-neighboring nodes are not coupled. This phase is centralized and is completed before the deployment of the system. In the online phase, the approximate problem is solved in real time by implementing any efficient distributed optimization algorithm. To quantify the performance loss, we derive upper bounds for the maximum error between the optimal performance and the performance under the proposed framework. Finally, the proposed framework is applied to an example setup in which a team of mobile nodes is assigned the task of establishing a communication link between two base stations with minimum energy consumption. We show through simulations that the performance under the proposed framework is close to the optimal performance and the suboptimal policy can be efficiently implemented online.

  14. Towards the conceptual design of the ITER real-time plasma control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winter, A.; Makijarvi, P.; Simrock, S.; Snipes, J.A.; Wallander, A.; Zabeo, L.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We describe the main control areas and interfaces for the ITER real-time plasma control system and the current state of their design. • An overview is given for the implementation strategy for the plasma control system as part of the ITER control, data access and communication system. • Current efforts on the creation of simulation and development tools are presented. - Abstract: ITER will be the world's largest magnetic confinement tokamak fusion device and is currently under construction in southern France. The ITER Plasma Control System (PCS) is a fundamental component of the ITER Control, Data Access and Communication system (CODAC). It will control the evolution of all plasma parameters that are necessary to operate ITER throughout all phases of the discharge. The design and implementation of the PCS poses a number of unique challenges. The timescales of phenomena to be controlled spans three orders of magnitude, ranging from a few milliseconds to seconds. Novel control schemes, which have not been implemented at present-day machines need to be developed, and control schemes that are only done as demonstration experiments today will have to become routine. In addition, advances in computing technology and available physics models make the implementation of real-time or faster-than-real-time predictive calculations to forecast and subsequently to avoid disruptions or undesired plasma regimes feasible. This requires the PCS design to be adaptable in real-time to the results of these forecasting algorithms. A further novel feature is a sophisticated event handling system, which provides a means to deal with plasma related events (such as MHD instabilities or L-H transitions) or component failure. Finally, the schedule for design and implementation poses another challenge. The beginning of ITER operation will be in late 2020, but the conceptual design activity of the PCS has already commenced as required by the on-going development of

  15. Aggregate modeling of fast-acting demand response and control under real-time pricing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chassin, David P.; Rondeau, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Demand elasticity for fast-acting demand response load under real-time pricing. • Validated first-principles logistic demand curve matches random utility model. • Logistic demand curve suitable for diversified aggregate loads market-based transactive control systems. - Abstract: This paper develops and assesses the performance of a short-term demand response (DR) model for utility load control with applications to resource planning and control design. Long term response models tend to underestimate short-term demand response when induced by prices. This has two important consequences. First, planning studies tend to undervalue DR and often overlook its benefits in utility demand management program development. Second, when DR is not overlooked, the open-loop DR control gain estimate may be too low. This can result in overuse of load resources, control instability and excessive price volatility. Our objective is therefore to develop a more accurate and better performing short-term demand response model. We construct the model from first principles about the nature of thermostatic load control and show that the resulting formulation corresponds exactly to the Random Utility Model employed in economics to study consumer choice. The model is tested against empirical data collected from field demonstration projects and is shown to perform better than alternative models commonly used to forecast demand in normal operating conditions. The results suggest that (1) existing utility tariffs appear to be inadequate to incentivize demand response, particularly in the presence of high renewables, and (2) existing load control systems run the risk of becoming unstable if utilities close the loop on real-time prices.

  16. Real-time product attribute control to manufacture antibodies with defined N-linked glycan levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zupke, Craig; Brady, Lowell J; Slade, Peter G; Clark, Philip; Caspary, R Guy; Livingston, Brittney; Taylor, Lisa; Bigham, Kyle; Morris, Arvia E; Bailey, Robert W

    2015-01-01

    Pressures for cost-effective new therapies and an increased emphasis on emerging markets require technological advancements and a flexible future manufacturing network for the production of biologic medicines. The safety and efficacy of a product is crucial, and consistent product quality is an essential feature of any therapeutic manufacturing process. The active control of product quality in a typical biologic process is challenging because of measurement lags and nonlinearities present in the system. The current study uses nonlinear model predictive control to maintain a critical product quality attribute at a predetermined value during pilot scale manufacturing operations. This approach to product quality control ensures a more consistent product for patients, enables greater manufacturing efficiency, and eliminates the need for extensive process characterization by providing direct measures of critical product quality attributes for real time release of drug product. © 2015 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  17. Real-Time Monitoring and Control of HgCdTe MBE Using an Integrated Multi-Sensor System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Olson, G

    1998-01-01

    We present recent progress on the use of an integrated real-time sensing and control system for monitoring and controlling substrate temperature, layer composition, and effusion cell flux during MBE...

  18. Canonical failure modes of real-time control systems: insights from cognitive theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Rodrick

    2016-04-01

    Newly developed necessary conditions statistical models from cognitive theory are applied to generalisation of the data-rate theorem for real-time control systems. Rather than graceful degradation under stress, automatons and man/machine cockpits appear prone to characteristic sudden failure under demanding fog-of-war conditions. Critical dysfunctions span a spectrum of phase transition analogues, ranging from a ground state of 'all targets are enemies' to more standard data-rate instabilities. Insidious pathologies also appear possible, akin to inattentional blindness consequent on overfocus on an expected pattern. Via no-free-lunch constraints, different equivalence classes of systems, having structure and function determined by 'market pressures', in a large sense, will be inherently unreliable under different but characteristic canonical stress landscapes, suggesting that deliberate induction of failure may often be relatively straightforward. Focusing on two recent military case histories, these results provide a caveat emptor against blind faith in the current path-dependent evolutionary trajectory of automation for critical real-time processes.

  19. Real-time sawtooth control and neoclassical tearing mode preemption in ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, D., E-mail: doohyun.kim@epfl.ch; Goodman, T. P.; Sauter, O. [École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas (CRPP), CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2014-06-15

    Real-time control of multiple plasma actuators is a requirement in advanced tokamaks; for example, for burn control, plasma current profile control and MHD stabilization—electron cyclotron (EC) wave absorption is ideally suited especially for the latter. On ITER, 24 EC sources can be switched between 56 inputs at the torus. In the torus, 5 launchers direct the power to various locations across the plasma profile via 11 steerable mirrors. For optimal usage of the available power, the aiming and polarization of the beams must be adapted to the plasma configuration and the needs of the scenario. Since the EC system performs many competing tasks, present day systems should demonstrate the ability of an EC plant to deal with several targets in parallel and/or to switch smoothly between goals to attain overall satisfaction. Based on pacing and locking experiments performed on TCV (Tokamak à Configuration Variable), the real-time sawtooth control of ITER with this complex set of actuators is analyzed, as an example. It is shown that sawtooth locking and pacing are possible with various levels of powers, leading to different time delays between the end of the EC power phase and the next sawtooth crash. This timing is important since it allows use of the same launchers for neoclassical tearing mode (NTM) preemption at the q = 1.5 or 2 surface, avoiding the need to switch power between launchers. These options are presented. It is also demonstrated that increasing the total EC power does not necessarily increase the range of control because of the geometry of the launchers.

  20. Real-time changes in corticospinal excitability related to motor imagery of a force control task

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tatemoto, Tsuyoshi; Tsuchiya, Junko; Numata, Atsuki

    2017-01-01

    Objective To investigate real-time excitability changes in corticospinal pathways related to motor imagery in a changing force control task, using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Methods Ten healthy volunteers learnt to control the contractile force of isometric right wrist dorsiflexion...... in order to track an on-screen sine wave form. Participants performed the trained task 40 times with actual muscle contraction in order to construct the motor image. They were then instructed to execute the task without actual muscle contraction, but by imagining contraction of the right wrist...... in dorsiflexion. Motor evoked potentials (MEPs), induced by TMS in the right extensor carpi radialis muscle (ECR) and flexor carpi radialis muscle (FCR), were measured during motor imagery. MEPs were induced at five time points: prior to imagery, during the gradual generation of the imaged wrist dorsiflexion...

  1. Potential and limitations of modern equipment for real time control of urban wastewater systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campisano, A.; Cabot Ple, J.; Muschalla, D.

    2013-01-01

    Real Time Control (RTC) has become an accepted technique for improving the performance of Urban Drainage Systems (UDS) due to its flexibility and sustainability. Numerous implementations of RTC have been reported during the last decades. At the same time, guideline documents and state...... describes the specific components in detail. This comprises the introduction of available technologies for sensors, actuators, controllers and telemetry systems in the context of RTC and the discussion of their potential and limitations. Lessons learned from the field operational experiences and future......-of-the-art reports have been published. Whereas the general aspects and challenges of planning and installation of RTC systems are well covered, there is a lack of information about the adequate equipment for RTC of UDS. After identifying and briefly discussing the basic components of RTC systems for UDS, this paper...

  2. Long forecast horizon to improve Real Time Control of urban drainage systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Courdent, Vianney Augustin Thomas; Vezzaro, Luca; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen

    2014-01-01

    Global Real Time Control (RTC) of urban drainage system is increasingly seen as cost-effective solution in order to respond to increasing performance demand (e.g. reduction of Combined Sewer Overflow, protection of sensitive areas as bathing water etc.). The Dynamic Overflow Risk Assessment (DORA......) strategy was developed to operate Urban Drainage Systems (UDS) in order to minimize the expected overflow risk by considering the water volume presently stored in the drainage network, the expected runoff volume based on a 2-hours radar forecast model and an estimated uncertainty of the runoff forecast....... However, such temporal horizon (1-2 hours) is relatively short when used for the operation of large storage facilities, which may require a few days to be emptied. This limits the performance of the optimization and control in reducing combined sewer overflow and in preparing for possible flooding. Based...

  3. A real-time expert system for self-repairing flight control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaither, S. A.; Agarwal, A. K.; Shah, S. C.; Duke, E. L.

    1989-01-01

    An integrated environment for specifying, prototyping, and implementing a self-repairing flight-control (SRFC) strategy is described. At an interactive workstation, the user can select paradigms such as rule-based expert systems, state-transition diagrams, and signal-flow graphs and hierarchically nest them, assign timing and priority attributes, establish blackboard-type communication, and specify concurrent execution on single or multiple processors. High-fidelity nonlinear simulations of aircraft and SRFC systems can be performed off-line, with the possibility of changing SRFC rules, inference strategies, and other heuristics to correct for control deficiencies. Finally, the off-line-generated SRFC can be transformed into highly optimized application-specific real-time C-language code. An application of this environment to the design of aircraft fault detection, isolation, and accommodation algorithms is presented in detail.

  4. Application of IEEE 1588 to the real-time control system of accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Mingchao; Chen Jianfeng; Shen Liren; Jiang Geyang

    2014-01-01

    Background: Time synchronization is one of the core technology of realizing the real-time control of accelerator under the distributed control system architecture. The ordinary crystal frequency deviation of IEEE 1588 causes low synchronous accuracy, which doesn't meet the needs of high precision synchronization. Purpose: This paper proposes an algorithm to improve the synchronization precision caused by the crystal frequency deviation. Methods: According to the basic principle of IEEE 1588 time synchronization, a dynamic frequency compensation (DFC) algorithm module was designed and a test platform was built to verify the feasibility and practicability of the algorithm. The influence of the synchronous cycle and delay jitter of the switch on the synchronization accuracy were analyzed. Results: Experimental results showed the great precision improvement of synchronization after using DFC algorithm. Conclusion: Low synchronous accuracy caused by the crystal frequency deviation can be improved by using DFC algorithm implemented for precision time protocol (PTP) of IEEE 1588. (authors)

  5. Verification and controller synthesis for resource-constrained real-time systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Shuhao; Pettersson, Paul

    2010-01-01

    -TIGA to check whether a given control objective can be enforced, and if so, we synthesize a controller for the system. We carry out a case study of this approach on a battery-powered autonomous truck. Experimental results indicate that the method is effective and computationally feasible.......An embedded system is often subject to timing constraints, resource constraints, and it should operate properly no matter how its environment behaves. This paper proposes to use timed game automata to characterize the timed behaviors and the environment uncertainties, and use piece-wise constant...... integer functions to approximate the continuous resources in real-time embedded systems. Based on these formal models and techniques, we employ the realtime model checker UPPAAL to verify a system against a given functional and/or timing requirement. Furthermore, we employ the timed game solver UPPAAL...

  6. National Spherical Torus Experiment Real Time Plasma Control Data Acquisition Hardware

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    R.J. Marsala; J. Schneider

    2002-01-01

    The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is currently providing researchers data on low aspect-ratio toroidal plasmas. NSTX's Plasma Control System adjusts the firing angles of thyristor rectifier power supplies, in real time, to control plasma position, shape and density. A Data Acquisition system comprised of off-the-shelf and custom hardware provides the magnetic diagnostics data required in calculating firing angles. This VERSAmodule Eurocard (VME) bus-based system utilizes Front Panel Data Port (FPDP) for high-speed data transfer. Data coming from physically different locations is referenced to several different ground potentials necessitating the need for a custom FPDP multiplexer. This paper discusses the data acquisition system configuration, the in-house designed 4-to-1 FPDP Input Multiplexing Module (FIMM), and future expansion plans

  7. The new control system of J-TEXT divertor power supply system using J-TEXT real-time framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Ming; Zheng, Guozhen; Chen, Zhi [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); College of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Zheng, Wei, E-mail: zhengwei@hust.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); College of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Yuan, Tao; Li, Yang [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); College of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • The most highlight of this paper is the J-TEXT Real-Time Framework (JRTF). JRTF is a flexible real-time software framework which allows users to develop real-time applications rapidly without compromise on the performance. It makes a clear separation between control functions and hard/software administration, developers just need to focus on the control logic and algorithms. • The JRTF based control system can achieve a precise control loop cycle of 1 ms and a jitter under 0.01 ms on Linux operation system. The real-time performance meets the requirement of the real-time control tasks in J-TEXT. • Several days of operation with no faults were already achieved with the system running and in real-time 8 h per day. The stability of the new system is qualified for discharging experiment. - Abstract: The J-TEXT divertor power supply system is designed as a parallel connection, 12-pulse rectifier which is powered by a 100 MVA pulse generator unit. To achieve robust current feedback control, high performance real-time control system is required. The new control system adopts a more powerful software framework named J-TEXT real-time framework (JRTF). JRTF is a flexible real-time software framework designed for the implementation of real-time control systems. A JRTF application contains various Application Blocks (AB) which execute specific functions such as feedback computing and protection. JRTF is compatible with ITER standard PFC (Plant Fast Controller) hardware and ITER CODAC (Control, Data Access and Communication) Core software, so it can be monitored and configured by any EPICS based control system. The hardware of the new control system is upgraded to standard ITER fast controller which are much faster and more reliable than former controllers. This control system is the first application of JRTF, and the result shows that the new control system is running properly and stably. It provides an instance for real-time control schemes in J-TEXT, and

  8. The new control system of J-TEXT divertor power supply system using J-TEXT real-time framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Ming; Zheng, Guozhen; Chen, Zhi; Zheng, Wei; Yuan, Tao; Li, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The most highlight of this paper is the J-TEXT Real-Time Framework (JRTF). JRTF is a flexible real-time software framework which allows users to develop real-time applications rapidly without compromise on the performance. It makes a clear separation between control functions and hard/software administration, developers just need to focus on the control logic and algorithms. • The JRTF based control system can achieve a precise control loop cycle of 1 ms and a jitter under 0.01 ms on Linux operation system. The real-time performance meets the requirement of the real-time control tasks in J-TEXT. • Several days of operation with no faults were already achieved with the system running and in real-time 8 h per day. The stability of the new system is qualified for discharging experiment. - Abstract: The J-TEXT divertor power supply system is designed as a parallel connection, 12-pulse rectifier which is powered by a 100 MVA pulse generator unit. To achieve robust current feedback control, high performance real-time control system is required. The new control system adopts a more powerful software framework named J-TEXT real-time framework (JRTF). JRTF is a flexible real-time software framework designed for the implementation of real-time control systems. A JRTF application contains various Application Blocks (AB) which execute specific functions such as feedback computing and protection. JRTF is compatible with ITER standard PFC (Plant Fast Controller) hardware and ITER CODAC (Control, Data Access and Communication) Core software, so it can be monitored and configured by any EPICS based control system. The hardware of the new control system is upgraded to standard ITER fast controller which are much faster and more reliable than former controllers. This control system is the first application of JRTF, and the result shows that the new control system is running properly and stably. It provides an instance for real-time control schemes in J-TEXT, and

  9. Implementation of Real-Time Machining Process Control Based on Fuzzy Logic in a New STEP-NC Compatible System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po Hu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Implementing real-time machining process control at shop floor has great significance on raising the efficiency and quality of product manufacturing. A framework and implementation methods of real-time machining process control based on STEP-NC are presented in this paper. Data model compatible with ISO 14649 standard is built to transfer high-level real-time machining process control information between CAPP systems and CNC systems, in which EXPRESS language is used to define new STEP-NC entities. Methods for implementing real-time machining process control at shop floor are studied and realized on an open STEP-NC controller, which is developed using object-oriented, multithread, and shared memory technologies conjunctively. Cutting force at specific direction of machining feature in side mill is chosen to be controlled object, and a fuzzy control algorithm with self-adjusting factor is designed and embedded in the software CNC kernel of STEP-NC controller. Experiments are carried out to verify the proposed framework, STEP-NC data model, and implementation methods for real-time machining process control. The results of experiments prove that real-time machining process control tasks can be interpreted and executed correctly by the STEP-NC controller at shop floor, in which actual cutting force is kept around ideal value, whether axial cutting depth changes suddenly or continuously.

  10. Modeling and control for a magnetic levitation system based on SIMLAB platform in real time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mundher H.A. Yaseen

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic Levitation system becomes a hot topic of study due to the minimum friction and low energy consumption which regards as very important issues. This paper proposed a new magnetic levitation system using real-time control simulink feature of (SIMLAB microcontroller. The control system of the maglev transportation system is verified by simulations with experimental results, and its superiority is indicated in comparison with previous literature and conventional control strategies. In addition, the proposed system was implemented under effect of three controller types which are Linear–quadratic regulator (LQR, proportional–integral–derivative controller (PID and Lead compensation. As well, the controller system performance was compared in term of three parameters Peak overshoot, Settling time and Rise time. The findings prove the agreement of simulation with experimental results obtained. Moreover, the LQR controller produced a great stability and homogeneous response than other controllers used. For experimental results, the LQR brought a 14.6%, 0.199 and 0.064 for peak overshoot, Setting time and Rise time respectively. Keywords: Magnetic levitation system, Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR, PID control, Lead compensation

  11. The renewed HT-7 plasma control system based on real-time Linux cluster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Q.P., E-mail: qpyuan@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei (China); Xiao, B.J.; Zhang, R.R. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei (China); Walker, M.L.; Penaflor, B.G.; Piglowski, D.A.; Johnson, R.D. [General Atomics, DIII-D National Fusion Facility, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The hardware and software structure of the new HT-7 plasma control system (HT-7 PCS) is reported. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer All original systems were integrated in the new HT-7 PCS. And the implementation details of the control algorithms are given in the paper. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Different from EAST PCS, the AC operation mode is realized in HT-7 PCS. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The experiment results are discussed. Good control performance has been obtained. - Abstract: In order to improve the synchronization, flexibility and expansibility of the plasma control on HT-7, a new plasma control system (HT-7 PCS) was constructed. The HT-7 PCS was based on a real-time Linux cluster with a well-defined, robust and flexible software infrastructure which was adapted from DIII-D PCS. In this paper, the hardware structure and system customization details for HT-7 PCS are reported. The plasma position and current control, plasma density control and off-normal event detection, which were realized in separated systems originally, have been integrated and implemented in such HT-7 PCS. All these control algorithms have been successfully validated in the last several HT-7 experiment campaigns. Good control performance has been achieved and the experiment results are discussed in the paper.

  12. Embedded system based on a real time fuzzy motor speed controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Abd El-Hamid Mohamed Ramadan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an implementation of a fuzzy logic control (FLC system and a/the conventional proportional-integral (PI controller for speed control of DC motor, based on field programmable gate array (FPGA circuit. The proposed scheme is aimed to improve the tracking performance and to eliminate the load disturbance in the speed control of DC motors. The proposed fuzzy system has been applied to a permanent magnet DC motor, via a configuration of H-bridge. The fuzzy control algorithm is designed and verified with a nonlinear model, using the MATLAB® tools. Both FLC and conventional PI controller hardware are synthesized, functionally verified and implemented using Xilinx Integrated Software Environment (ISE Version 11.1i. The real time implementation of these controllers is made on Spartan-3E FPGA starter kit (XC3S500E. The practical results showed that the proposed FLC scheme has better tracking performance than the conventional PI controller for the speed control of DC motors.

  13. An Internal Data Non-hiding Type Real-time Kernel and its Application to the Mechatronics Controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Toshio

    For the mechatronics equipment controller that controls robots and machine tools, high-speed motion control processing is essential. The software system of the controller like other embedded systems is composed of three layers software such as real-time kernel layer, middleware layer, and application software layer on the dedicated hardware. The application layer in the top layer is composed of many numbers of tasks, and application function of the system is realized by the cooperation between these tasks. In this paper we propose an internal data non-hiding type real-time kernel in which customizing the task control is possible only by change in the program code of the task side without any changes in the program code of real-time kernel. It is necessary to reduce the overhead caused by the real-time kernel task control for the speed-up of the motion control of the mechatronics equipment. For this, customizing the task control function is needed. We developed internal data non-cryptic type real-time kernel ZRK to evaluate this method, and applied to the control of the multi system automatic lathe. The effect of the speed-up of the task cooperation processing was able to be confirmed by combined task control processing on the task side program code using an internal data non-hiding type real-time kernel ZRK.

  14. Embedded Web Technology: Internet Technology Applied to Real-Time System Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniele, Carl J.

    1998-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center is developing software tools to bridge the gap between the traditionally non-real-time Internet technology and the real-time, embedded-controls environment for space applications. Internet technology has been expanding at a phenomenal rate. The simple World Wide Web browsers (such as earlier versions of Netscape, Mosaic, and Internet Explorer) that resided on personal computers just a few years ago only enabled users to log into and view a remote computer site. With current browsers, users not only view but also interact with remote sites. In addition, the technology now supports numerous computer platforms (PC's, MAC's, and Unix platforms), thereby providing platform independence.In contrast, the development of software to interact with a microprocessor (embedded controller) that is used to monitor and control a space experiment has generally been a unique development effort. For each experiment, a specific graphical user interface (GUI) has been developed. This procedure works well for a single-user environment. However, the interface for the International Space Station (ISS) Fluids and Combustion Facility will have to enable scientists throughout the world and astronauts onboard the ISS, using different computer platforms, to interact with their experiments in the Fluids and Combustion Facility. Developing a specific GUI for all these users would be cost prohibitive. An innovative solution to this requirement, developed at Lewis, is to use Internet technology, where the general problem of platform independence has already been partially solved, and to leverage this expanding technology as new products are developed. This approach led to the development of the Embedded Web Technology (EWT) program at Lewis, which has the potential to significantly reduce software development costs for both flight and ground software.

  15. Real Time Computer for Plugging Indicator Control of Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manimaran, M.; Manoj, P.; Shanmugam, A.; Murali, N.; Satya Murty, S.A.V.

    2013-06-01

    Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) is in the advanced stage of construction at Kalpakkam, India. Liquid sodium is used as coolant to transfer the heat produced in the reactor core to steam water circuit. Impurities present in the sodium are removed using purification circuit. Plugging indicator is a device used to measure the purity of the sodium. Versa Module Europa bus based Real Time Computer (RTC) system is used for plugging indicator control. Hot standby architecture consisting of dual redundant RTC system with switch over logic system is the configuration adopted to achieve fault tolerance. Plugging indicator can be controlled in two modes namely continuous and discontinuous mode. Software based Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) algorithms are developed for plugging indicator control wherein the set point changes dynamically for every scan interval of the RTC system. Set points and PID constants are kept as configurable in runtime in order to control the process in very efficient manner, which calls for reliable communication between RTC system and control station, hence TCP/IP protocol is adopted. Performance of the RTC system for plugging indicator control was thoroughly studied in the laboratory by simulating the inputs and monitored the control outputs. The control outputs were also monitored for different PID constants. Continuous and discontinuous mode plots were generated. (authors)

  16. Modeling and control for a magnetic levitation system based on SIMLAB platform in real time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaseen, Mundher H. A.; Abd, Haider J.

    2018-03-01

    Magnetic Levitation system becomes a hot topic of study due to the minimum friction and low energy consumption which regards as very important issues. This paper proposed a new magnetic levitation system using real-time control simulink feature of (SIMLAB) microcontroller. The control system of the maglev transportation system is verified by simulations with experimental results, and its superiority is indicated in comparison with previous literature and conventional control strategies. In addition, the proposed system was implemented under effect of three controller types which are Linear-quadratic regulator (LQR), proportional-integral-derivative controller (PID) and Lead compensation. As well, the controller system performance was compared in term of three parameters Peak overshoot, Settling time and Rise time. The findings prove the agreement of simulation with experimental results obtained. Moreover, the LQR controller produced a great stability and homogeneous response than other controllers used. For experimental results, the LQR brought a 14.6%, 0.199 and 0.064 for peak overshoot, Setting time and Rise time respectively.

  17. Real-time simultaneous and proportional myoelectric control using intramuscular EMG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lauren H.; Kuiken, Todd A.; Hargrove, Levi J.

    2014-12-01

    Objective. Myoelectric prostheses use electromyographic (EMG) signals to control movement of prosthetic joints. Clinically available myoelectric control strategies do not allow simultaneous movement of multiple degrees of freedom (DOFs); however, the use of implantable devices that record intramuscular EMG signals could overcome this constraint. The objective of this study was to evaluate the real-time simultaneous control of three DOFs (wrist rotation, wrist flexion/extension, and hand open/close) using intramuscular EMG. Approach. We evaluated task performance of five able-bodied subjects in a virtual environment using two control strategies with fine-wire EMG: (i) parallel dual-site differential control, which enabled simultaneous control of three DOFs and (ii) pattern recognition control, which required sequential control of DOFs. Main results. Over the course of the experiment, subjects using parallel dual-site control demonstrated increased use of simultaneous control and improved performance in a Fitts’ Law test. By the end of the experiment, performance using parallel dual-site control was significantly better (up to a 25% increase in throughput) than when using sequential pattern recognition control for tasks requiring multiple DOFs. The learning trends with parallel dual-site control suggested that further improvements in performance metrics were possible. Subjects occasionally experienced difficulty in performing isolated single-DOF movements with parallel dual-site control but were able to accomplish related Fitts’ Law tasks with high levels of path efficiency. Significance. These results suggest that intramuscular EMG, used in a parallel dual-site configuration, can provide simultaneous control of a multi-DOF prosthetic wrist and hand and may outperform current methods that enforce sequential control.

  18. The TDAQ Analytics Dashboard: a real-time web application for the ATLAS TDAQ control infrastructure

    CERN Document Server

    Magnoni, L; The ATLAS collaboration; Sloper, J E

    2011-01-01

    The ATLAS Trigger and Data Acquisition (TDAQ) infrastructure is responsible for filtering and transferring ATLAS experimental data from detectors to mass storage systems. It relies on a large, distributed computing environment composed by thousands of software applications running concurrently. In such a complex environment, information sharing is fundamental for controlling applications behavior, error reporting and operational monitoring. During data taking runs, the streams of messages sent by applications and data published via information services are constantly monitored by experts to verify correctness of running operations and to understand problematic situations. To simplify and improve system analysis and errors detection tasks, we developed the TDAQ Analytics Dashboard, a web application that aims to collect, correlate and visualize effectively this real time flow of information. The TDAQ Analytics Dashboard is composed by two main entities, that reflect the twofold scope of the application. The fi...

  19. The TDAQ Analytics Dashboard: a real-time web application for the ATLAS TDAQ control infrastructure

    CERN Document Server

    Magnoni, L; Sloper, J E

    2010-01-01

    The ATLAS Trigger and Data Acquisition (TDAQ) infrastructure is responsible for filtering and transferring ATLAS experimental data from detectors to mass storage systems. It relies on a large, distributed computing environment composed by thousands of software applications running concurrently. In such a complex environment, information sharing is fundamental for controlling applications behavior, error reporting and operational monitoring. During data taking runs, the streams of messages sent by applications and data published via information services are constantly monitored by experts to verify correctness of running operations and to understand problematic situations. To simplify and improve system analysis and errors detection tasks, we developed the TDAQ Analytics Dashboard, a web application that aims to collect, correlate and visualize effectively this real time flow of information. The TDAQ Analytics Dashboard is composed by two main entities, that reflect the twofold scope of the application. The fi...

  20. Development of the real-time control (RTC) system for Tokyo sewage system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, M; Mizushima, H; Ito, K

    2005-01-01

    Tokyo Metropolitan government has decided to make the maximum possible use of the existing facilities while ensuring safety against inundation and to promote measures also from a software approach by introducing a system capable of minimizing combined sewer overflow, the real-time control system (RTC). A pilot RTC system was installed in August 2002 for the Shinozaki Pumping Station. The RTC system monitors the precipitation volume and the water level in the pipe. Simulations were carried out on the basis of these data. From the results, it was found that with the use of the RTC it is possible to reduce CSO by roughly 50% for small rainfalls with a total precipitation level of 20 mm or less by strong rainwater in the pipe routes at the beginning of the rain. It has also been shown that CSO can be reduced by about 80% through the use of rainfall forecasting.

  1. Real-time head movement system and embedded Linux implementation for the control of power wheelchairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, H T; King, L M; Knight, G

    2004-01-01

    Mobility has become very important for our quality of life. A loss of mobility due to an injury is usually accompanied by a loss of self-confidence. For many individuals, independent mobility is an important aspect of self-esteem. Head movement is a natural form of pointing and can be used to directly replace the joystick whilst still allowing for similar control. Through the use of embedded LINUX and artificial intelligence, a hands-free head movement wheelchair controller has been designed and implemented successfully. This system provides for severely disabled users an effective power wheelchair control method with improved posture, ease of use and attractiveness.

  2. Real time capable control design with increased life expectancy for research purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epple, S.; Jung, R.; Jalba, K.; Nasui, V.

    2017-05-01

    A new, freely programmable, scalable control system for academic research purposes was developed. The intention was, to have a control unit capable of handling multiple PT1000 temperature sensors at reasonable accuracy and temperature range, as well as digital input signals and providing more powerful output signals at 230V AC than conventional control units. To take full advantage of the system, control-loops are run in real time. The whole system runs independently of a personal computer. The two on-board RS232 connectors allow to connect further units to use more sensors or actuators or to connect other laboratory equipment, as required. To allow usage for long-time experiments, systematically electronic components with low failure-in-time (FIT) rate have been chosen in order to achieve high life expectancy. This paper describes the third prototype, which now provides stable measurements, and an improvement in accuracy compared to the previous designs. A rough estimation about the expected mean time between failures is given. As test case, a thermal solar system to produce hot tap water and assist heating in a single-family house was implemented. The solar fluid pump was power-controlled and several temperatures at different points in the hydraulic system were measured and used in the control algorithms. The hardware design proved suitable to test several different control strategies and their corresponding algorithms for the thermal solar system.

  3. The new real-time control and data acquisition system for an experimental tritium removal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefan, Iuliana; Stefan, Liviu; Retevoi, Carmen; Balteanu, Ovidiu; Bucur, Ciprian

    2006-01-01

    Full text: The purpose of the paper is to present a real-time control and data acquisition system based on virtual instrumentation (LabView, compact I/O) applicable to an experimental heavy water detritiation plant. The initial data acquisition system based on analogue instruments is now upgraded to a fully digital system, this because of greater flexibility and capability than analogue hardware what allows easy modifications of the control system. Virtual instrumentation became lately much used for monitoring and controlling the operational parameters in plants. In the specific case of ETRF there are a lot of process parameters which have to be monitored and controlled. The essential improvement in the new system is the collection of all signals and control functions by a PC, what makes any changes in configuration easy. The system hardware-PC with embedded controllers is selected, as most cost effective. The LabView platform provides faster program development with a convenient user interface. The system provides independent digital control of each parameters and records data of the process. The system is flexible and has the advantage of further extension. (authors)

  4. Adaptive Model Predictive Vibration Control of a Cantilever Beam with Real-Time Parameter Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gergely Takács

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an adaptive-predictive vibration control system using extended Kalman filtering for the joint estimation of system states and model parameters. A fixed-free cantilever beam equipped with piezoceramic actuators serves as a test platform to validate the proposed control strategy. Deflection readings taken at the end of the beam have been used to reconstruct the position and velocity information for a second-order state-space model. In addition to the states, the dynamic system has been augmented by the unknown model parameters: stiffness, damping constant, and a voltage/force conversion constant, characterizing the actuating effect of the piezoceramic transducers. The states and parameters of this augmented system have been estimated in real time, using the hybrid extended Kalman filter. The estimated model parameters have been applied to define the continuous state-space model of the vibrating system, which in turn is discretized for the predictive controller. The model predictive control algorithm generates state predictions and dual-mode quadratic cost prediction matrices based on the updated discrete state-space models. The resulting cost function is then minimized using quadratic programming to find the sequence of optimal but constrained control inputs. The proposed active vibration control system is implemented and evaluated experimentally to investigate the viability of the control method.

  5. ArControl: An Arduino-Based Comprehensive Behavioral Platform with Real-Time Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xinfeng; Li, Haohong

    2017-01-01

    Studying animal behavior in the lab requires reliable delivering stimulations and monitoring responses. We constructed a comprehensive behavioral platform (ArControl: Arduino Control Platform) that was an affordable, easy-to-use, high-performance solution combined software and hardware components. The hardware component was consisted of an Arduino UNO board and a simple drive circuit. As for software, the ArControl provided a stand-alone and intuitive GUI (graphical user interface) application that did not require users to master scripts. The experiment data were automatically recorded with the built in DAQ (data acquisition) function. The ArControl also allowed the behavioral schedule to be entirely stored in and operated on the Arduino chip. This made the ArControl a genuine, real-time system with high temporal resolution (<1 ms). We tested the ArControl, based on strict performance measurements and two mice behavioral experiments. The results showed that the ArControl was an adaptive and reliable system suitable for behavioral research.

  6. Real-time myoelectric control of a multi-fingered hand prosthesis using principal components analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matrone Giulia C

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In spite of the advances made in the design of dexterous anthropomorphic hand prostheses, these sophisticated devices still lack adequate control interfaces which could allow amputees to operate them in an intuitive and close-to-natural way. In this study, an anthropomorphic five-fingered robotic hand, actuated by six motors, was used as a prosthetic hand emulator to assess the feasibility of a control approach based on Principal Components Analysis (PCA, specifically conceived to address this problem. Since it was demonstrated elsewhere that the first two principal components (PCs can describe the whole hand configuration space sufficiently well, the controller here employed reverted the PCA algorithm and allowed to drive a multi-DoF hand by combining a two-differential channels EMG input with these two PCs. Hence, the novelty of this approach stood in the PCA application for solving the challenging problem of best mapping the EMG inputs into the degrees of freedom (DoFs of the prosthesis. Methods A clinically viable two DoFs myoelectric controller, exploiting two differential channels, was developed and twelve able-bodied participants, divided in two groups, volunteered to control the hand in simple grasp trials, using forearm myoelectric signals. Task completion rates and times were measured. The first objective (assessed through one group of subjects was to understand the effectiveness of the approach; i.e., whether it is possible to drive the hand in real-time, with reasonable performance, in different grasps, also taking advantage of the direct visual feedback of the moving hand. The second objective (assessed through a different group was to investigate the intuitiveness, and therefore to assess statistical differences in the performance throughout three consecutive days. Results Subjects performed several grasp, transport and release trials with differently shaped objects, by operating the hand with the myoelectric

  7. Plasma boundary shape control and real-time equilibrium reconstruction on NSTX-U

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, M. D.; Battaglia, D. J.; Mueller, D.; Eidietis, N.; Erickson, K.; Ferron, J.; Gates, D. A.; Gerhardt, S.; Johnson, R.; Kolemen, E.; Menard, J.; Myers, C. E.; Sabbagh, S. A.; Scotti, F.; Vail, P.

    2018-03-01

    The upgrade to the National Spherical Torus eXperiment (NSTX-U) included two main improvements: a larger center-stack, enabling higher toroidal field and longer pulse duration, and the addition of three new tangentially aimed neutral beam sources, which increase available heating and current drive, and allow for flexibility in shaping power, torque, current, and particle deposition profiles. To best use these new capabilities and meet the high-performance operational goals of NSTX-U, major upgrades to the NSTX-U control system (NCS) hardware and software have been made. Several control algorithms, including those used for real-time equilibrium reconstruction and shape control, have been upgraded to improve and extend plasma control capabilities. As part of the commissioning phase of first plasma operations, the shape control system was tuned to control the boundary in both inner-wall limited and diverted discharges. It has been used to accurately track the requested evolution of the boundary (including the size of the inner gap between the plasma and central solenoid, which is a challenge for the ST configuration), X-point locations, and strike point locations, enabling repeatable discharge evolutions for scenario development and diagnostic commissioning.

  8. Simultaneous real-time control of the current and pressure profiles in JET: experiments and modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazon, D.; Laborde, L.; Litaudon, X.; Moreau, D.; Zabeo, L.; Joffrin, E. [Association Euratom-CEA Cadarache (DSM/DRFC), 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee; Murari, A. [Consorzio RFX Association Euratom-ENEA, Padova (Italy); Ariola, M.; Albanese, R.; Tommasi, G. de; Pironti, A. [Association Euratom-ENEA, CREATE, Napoly (Italy); Moreau, D. [EFDA-JET CSU, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX (United Kingdom); Tala, T. [Euratom-Tekes Association, VTT Processes (Finland); Crisanti, F.; Pericoli-Ridolfini, V.; Tuccillo, A. [Association Euratom-ENEA, C.R. Frascati (Italy); Baar, M. de; Vries, P. de [Euratom-FOM Association, TEC Cluster, Nieuwegein (Netherlands); De la Luna, E. [Euratom-Ciemat Association (Spain); Felton, R.; Corrigan, G. [Euratom-UKAEA Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-01

    Real-time control of the plasma profiles (current density, pressure and flow) is one of the major issues for sustaining internal transport barriers (ITB) in a high performance plasma, with a large bootstrap current fraction. We have recently investigated the experimental and numerical aspects of the simultaneous control of the current and pressure profiles in JET ITB discharges. The current density and the electron temperature were successfully controlled via the safety factor profile (or via its inverse the tau-profile) and the {rho}{sup *}{sub Te} profile respectively. The results of these new studies are presented. With only a limited number of actuators, the technique aims at minimizing an integral square error signal which combines the 2 profiles, rather than attempting to control plasma parameters at some given radii with great precision. The resulting fuzziness of the control scheme allows the plasma to relax towards a physically accessible non-linear state which may not be accurately known in advance, but is close enough to the requested one to provide the required plasma performance. Closed loop experiments have allow to reach different target q and {rho}{sup *}{sub Te} profiles, and to some degree, to displace the region of maximum electron temperature gradient. The control has also shown some robustness in front of rapid transients.

  9. A Formal Approach to Run-Time Evaluation of Real-Time Behaviour in Distributed Process Control Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, C.H.

    This thesis advocates a formal approach to run-time evaluation of real-time behaviour in distributed process sontrol systems, motivated by a growing interest in applying the increasingly popular formal methods in the application area of distributed process control systems. We propose to evaluate...... because the real-time aspects of distributed process control systems are considered to be among the hardest and most interesting to handle....

  10. A curriculum for real-time computer and control systems engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halang, Wolfgang A.

    1990-01-01

    An outline of a syllabus for the education of real-time-systems engineers is given. This comprises the treatment of basic concepts, real-time software engineering, and programming in high-level real-time languages, real-time operating systems with special emphasis on such topics as task scheduling, hardware architectures, and especially distributed automation structures, process interfacing, system reliability and fault-tolerance, and integrated project development support systems. Accompanying course material and laboratory work are outlined, and suggestions for establishing a laboratory with advanced, but low-cost, hardware and software are provided. How the curriculum can be extended into a second semester is discussed, and areas for possible graduate research are listed. The suitable selection of a high-level real-time language and supporting operating system for teaching purposes is considered.

  11. Real-time LMR control parameter generation using advanced adaptive synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, R.W.; Mott, J.E.

    1990-01-01

    The reactor ''delta T'', the difference between the average core inlet and outlet temperatures, for the liquid-sodium-cooled Experimental Breeder Reactor 2 is empirically synthesized in real time from, a multitude of examples of past reactor operation. The real-time empirical synthesis is based on reactor operation. The real-time empirical synthesis is based on system state analysis (SSA) technology embodied in software on the EBR 2 data acquisition computer. Before the real-time system is put into operation, a selection of reactor plant measurements is made which is predictable over long periods encompassing plant shutdowns, core reconfigurations, core load changes, and plant startups. A serial data link to a personal computer containing SSA software allows the rapid verification of the predictability of these plant measurements via graphical means. After the selection is made, the real-time synthesis provides a fault-tolerant estimate of the reactor delta T accurate to +/-1%. 5 refs., 7 figs

  12. Evaluating performance of MARTe as a real-time framework for feed-back control system at tokamak device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Sangwon; Lee, Woongryol; Lee, Taegu; Park, Mikyung; Lee, Sangil [National Fusion Research Institute (NFRI), Gwahangno 169-148, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of); Neto, André C. [Associação EURATOM/IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, P-1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Wallander, Anders [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St Paul Lez Durance (France); Kim, Young-Kuk, E-mail: ykim@cnu.ac.kr [Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: •We measured the performance of MARTe by measuring response time and jitter. •We compared the performance of application with and without MARTe. •We compared the performance of MARTe application on different O/Ss. -- Abstract: The Korea Super conducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) is performing the task of “Demonstration and Evaluation of ITER CODAC Technologies at KSTAR” whose objective is the evaluation of real-time technologies for decision making on real-time operating systems (RTOS), real-time frameworks and 10 GbE networks. In this task, the Multi-threaded Application Real-Time executor (MARTe) has been evaluated as a real-time framework for real-time feedback control system. The performance of MARTe has been verified by measuring response time and jitter in a path of feedback control from an analog input of a monitoring system to an analog output of an actuator system. In addition, the evaluation has been performed in terms of applicability of MARTe and its performance depending on types of operating system and tuning of CPU affinity and priority. This paper describes the overview of MARTe as a real-time framework, the results of evaluation performance and its implementation.

  13. Evaluating performance of MARTe as a real-time framework for feed-back control system at tokamak device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Sangwon; Lee, Woongryol; Lee, Taegu; Park, Mikyung; Lee, Sangil; Neto, André C.; Wallander, Anders; Kim, Young-Kuk

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •We measured the performance of MARTe by measuring response time and jitter. •We compared the performance of application with and without MARTe. •We compared the performance of MARTe application on different O/Ss. -- Abstract: The Korea Super conducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) is performing the task of “Demonstration and Evaluation of ITER CODAC Technologies at KSTAR” whose objective is the evaluation of real-time technologies for decision making on real-time operating systems (RTOS), real-time frameworks and 10 GbE networks. In this task, the Multi-threaded Application Real-Time executor (MARTe) has been evaluated as a real-time framework for real-time feedback control system. The performance of MARTe has been verified by measuring response time and jitter in a path of feedback control from an analog input of a monitoring system to an analog output of an actuator system. In addition, the evaluation has been performed in terms of applicability of MARTe and its performance depending on types of operating system and tuning of CPU affinity and priority. This paper describes the overview of MARTe as a real-time framework, the results of evaluation performance and its implementation

  14. The TDAQ Analytics Dashboard: a real-time web application for the ATLAS TDAQ control infrastructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miotto, Giovanna Lehmann; Magnoni, Luca; Sloper, John Erik

    2011-01-01

    The ATLAS Trigger and Data Acquisition (TDAQ) infrastructure is responsible for filtering and transferring ATLAS experimental data from detectors to mass storage systems. It relies on a large, distributed computing system composed of thousands of software applications running concurrently. In such a complex environment, information sharing is fundamental for controlling applications behavior, error reporting and operational monitoring. During data taking, the streams of messages sent by applications and data published via information services are constantly monitored by experts to verify the correctness of running operations and to understand problematic situations. To simplify and improve system analysis and errors detection tasks, we developed the TDAQ Analytics Dashboard, a web application that aims to collect, correlate and visualize effectively this real time flow of information. The TDAQ Analytics Dashboard is composed of two main entities that reflect the twofold scope of the application. The first is the engine, a Java service that performs aggregation, processing and filtering of real time data stream and computes statistical correlation on sliding windows of time. The results are made available to clients via a simple web interface supporting SQL-like query syntax. The second is the visualization, provided by an Ajax-based web application that runs on client's browser. The dashboard approach allows to present information in a clear and customizable structure. Several types of interactive graphs are proposed as widgets that can be dynamically added and removed from visualization panels. Each widget acts as a client for the engine, querying the web interface to retrieve data with desired criteria. In this paper we present the design, development and evolution of the TDAQ Analytics Dashboard. We also present the statistical analysis computed by the application in this first period of high energy data taking operations for the ATLAS experiment.

  15. Human Exploration Using Real-Time Robotic Operations (HERRO)- Crew Telerobotic Control Vehicle (CTCV) Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleson, Steven R.; McGuire, Melissa L.; Burke, Laura; Chato, David; Fincannon, James; Landis, Geoff; Sandifer, Carl; Warner, Joe; Williams, Glenn; Colozza, Tony; hide

    2010-01-01

    The HERRO concept allows real time investigation of planets and small bodies by sending astronauts to orbit these targets and telerobotically explore them using robotic systems. Several targets have been put forward by past studies including Mars, Venus, and near Earth asteroids. A conceptual design study was funded by the NASA Innovation Fund to explore what the HERRO concept and it's vehicles would look like and what technological challenges need to be met. This design study chose Mars as the target destination. In this way the HERRO studies can define the endpoint design concepts for an all-up telerobotic exploration of the number one target of interest Mars. This endpoint design will serve to help planners define combined precursor telerobotics science missions and technology development flights. A suggested set of these technologies and demonstrator missions is shown in Appendix B. The HERRO concept includes a crewed telerobotics orbit vehicle as well three Truck rovers, each supporting two teleoperated geologist robots Rockhounds (each truck/Rockhounds set is landed using a commercially launched aeroshell landing system.) Options include a sample ascent system teamed with an orbital telerobotic sample rendezvous and return spacecraft (S/C) (yet to be designed). Each truck rover would be landed in a science location with the ability to traverse a 100 km diameter area, carrying the Rockhounds to 100 m diameter science areas for several week science activities. The truck is not only responsible for transporting the Rockhounds to science areas, but also for relaying telecontrol and high-res communications to/from the Rockhound and powering/heating the Rockhound during the non-science times (including night-time). The Rockhounds take the place of human geologists by providing an agile robotic platform with real-time telerobotics control to the Rockhound from the crew telerobotics orbiter. The designs of the Truck rovers and Rockhounds will be described in other

  16. Commissioning and initial operation experience with ASDEX Upgrade's new real-time control and data acquisition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raupp, G.; Behler, K.; Cole, R.; Engelhardt, K.; Lohs, A.; Lueddecke, K.; Treutterer, W.; Neu, G.; Vijverberg, T.; Zasche, D.; Zehetbauer, Th.

    2006-01-01

    ASDEX Upgrade was equipped with a distributed real-time (RT) control and diagnostic system. Application processes can be freely mapped onto controllers. They communicate through RT data exchanged via a shared memory network. Processes run self-organized with a data-driven scheme, i.e. a process executes when all required data has become available and produced data drive other processes waiting for these. The process chain starts periodically through a time-synchronous cycle master process to deterministically execute closed-loop control. Generic processes were implemented for feedback of plasma position and shape, and for performance control with fuelling and heating systems, for evaluation and monitoring of plasma quantities and Tokamak components, and generation of reference values in RT. Upon commissioning the system was speed-optimized to run a 1.6 ms cycle. Methods to exchange data and time information in RT and operate distributed data-driven processes work efficiently and reliably. The ability to freely map processes to computing nodes and RT data to generic processes provides outstanding configurational flexibility for optimizing system performance or supporting in situ replay and simulation runs. In the computation of reference values in RT acting on underlying feedback controllers, demonstrated for soft-landing, we see great potential to counteract instabilities or optimize pulses

  17. Aircraft Control Using Engine Thrust: A History of Learning TOC Real-Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Jennifer H.; Batteas, Frank; Fullerton, Gordon

    2006-01-01

    A history of learning the operation of Throttles Only Control (TOC) to control an aircraft in real time using engine thrust is shown. The topics include: 1) Past TOC Accidents/Incidents; 2) 1972: DC-10 American Airlines; 3) May 1974: USAF B-52H; 4) April 1975: USAF C-5A; 5) April 1975: USAF C-5A; 6) 1981: USAF B-52G; 7) August 1985: JAL 123 B-747; 8) JAL 123 Survivor Story; 9) JAL 123 Investigation Findings; 10) July 1989: UAL 232 DC-10; 11) UAL 232 DC-10; 12) Eastwind 517 B-737; 13) November 2003: DHL A-300; 14) Historically, TOC has saved lives; 15) Automated Throttles-Only Control; 16) PCA Project; 17) Propulsion-Controlled Aircraft; 18) MD-11 PCA System and Flight Test Envelope; 19) MD-11 Simulation, PCA ILS-Soupled Landing Dispersion; 20) Throttles-Only Pitch and Roll Control Power; 21) PCA in Commercial Fleet; 22) Fall 2005: PCAR Project; 23) PCAR Background - TOC; and 24) PCAR Background - TOC.

  18. ELT-scale Adaptive Optics real-time control with thes Intel Xeon Phi Many Integrated Core Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, David R.; Basden, Alastair; Myers, Richard M.

    2018-05-01

    We propose a solution to the increased computational demands of Extremely Large Telescope (ELT) scale adaptive optics (AO) real-time control with the Intel Xeon Phi Knights Landing (KNL) Many Integrated Core (MIC) Architecture. The computational demands of an AO real-time controller (RTC) scale with the fourth power of telescope diameter and so the next generation ELTs require orders of magnitude more processing power for the RTC pipeline than existing systems. The Xeon Phi contains a large number (≥64) of low power x86 CPU cores and high bandwidth memory integrated into a single socketed server CPU package. The increased parallelism and memory bandwidth are crucial to providing the performance for reconstructing wavefronts with the required precision for ELT scale AO. Here, we demonstrate that the Xeon Phi KNL is capable of performing ELT scale single conjugate AO real-time control computation at over 1.0kHz with less than 20μs RMS jitter. We have also shown that with a wavefront sensor camera attached the KNL can process the real-time control loop at up to 966Hz, the maximum frame-rate of the camera, with jitter remaining below 20μs RMS. Future studies will involve exploring the use of a cluster of Xeon Phis for the real-time control of the MCAO and MOAO regimes of AO. We find that the Xeon Phi is highly suitable for ELT AO real time control.

  19. Real-time control of the plasma density profile on ASDEX upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mlynek, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    The tokamak concept currently is the most promising approach to future power generation by controlled thermonuclear fusion. The spatial distribution of the particle density in the toroidally confined fusion plasma is of particular importance. This thesis work therefore focuses on the question as to what extent the shape of the density profile can be actively controlled by a feedback loop in the fusion experiment ASDEX Upgrade. There are basically two essential requirements for such feedback control of the density profile, which has been experimentally demonstrated within the scope of this thesis work: On the one hand, for this purpose the density profile must be continuously calculated under real-time constraints during a plasma discharge. The calculation of the density profile is based on the measurements of a sub-millimeter interferometer, which provides the line-integrated electron density along 5 chords through the plasma. Interferometric density measurements can suffer from counting errors by integer multiples of 2π when detecting the phase difference between a probing and a reference beam. As such measurement errors have severe impact on the reconstructed density profile, one major part of this work consists in the development of new readout electronics for the interferometer, which allows for detection of such measurement errors in real-time with high reliability. A further part of this work is the design of a computer algorithm which reconstructs the spatial distribution of the plasma density from the line-integrated measurements. This algorithm has to be implemented on a computer which communicates the measured data to other computers in real-time, especially to the tokamak control system. On the other hand, a second fundamental requirement for the successful implementation of a feedback controller is the identification of at least one actuator which enables a modification of the density profile. Here, electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) has been

  20. Diagnostics for real-time plasma control in PBX-M

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaita, R.; Batha, S.; Bell, R. E.; Bernabei, S.; Hatcher, R.; Kozub, T.; Kugel, H.; Levinton, F.; Okabayashi, M.; Sesnic, S.; von Goeler, S.; Zolfaghari, A.; PBX-M Group

    1995-01-01

    An important issue for future tokamaks is real-time plasma control for the avoidance of magnetohydrodynamic instabilities and other applications that require detailed plasma profile and fluctuation data. Although measurements from diagnostics providing this information require significantly more processing than magnetic flux data, recent advancements could make them practical for adjusting operational settings for plasma heating and current drive systems as well as field coil currents. On the Princeton Beta Experiment-Modification (PBX-M), the lower hybrid current drive phasing can be varied during a plasma shot using digitally programmable ferrite phase shifters, and neural beam functions can be fully computer controlled. PBX-M diagnostics that may be used for control purposes include motional Stark-effect polarimetry for magnetic field pitch angle profiles, soft x-ray arrays for plasma position control and the separation of βp from li, hard x-ray detectors for energetic electron distributions, a multichannel electron cyclotron emission radiometer for ballooning mode identification, and passive plate eddy current monitors for kink stabilization. We will describe the present status of these systems on PBX-M, and discuss their suitability for feedback applications.

  1. Real-Time Occupant Based Plug-in Device Control Using ICT in Office Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woo-Bin Bae

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to reduce the unnecessary plug loads used by computers, monitors, and computer peripheral devices, all of which account for more than 95% of the entire plug loads of an office building. To this end, an occupant-based plug-in device control (OBC-P software was developed. The OBC-P software collects real-time information about the presence or absence of occupants who are connected to the access point through the Wifi and controls the power of monitors or computers, while a standby power off device controls computer peripheral devices. To measure the plug load saving of the occupant-based plug-in device control, an experiment was conducted, targeting 10 occupants of three research labs of the graduate school, for two weeks. The experiment results showed that it could save the plug loads of monitors and computer peripheral devices by 15% in the Awake mode, and by 26% in the Sleep mode.

  2. A microcomputer real-time monitor for the control of a particle accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouali, M.

    1977-01-01

    The physical management of a particle accelerator requests the supervision and the control of a great number of parameters and various devices. A hierarchically structured multicomputer control system was implemented on the Synchrocyclotron of the 'Institut de Physique Nucleaire' at Orsay (France). A set of 3 microcomputers MICRAL (manufactured in France around an Intel 8080 microprocessor chip) is connected through a CAMAC link to an IBM 1130 central computer used for the general control. At the lowest level, measurements and supervisions are made by the means of special hardwired systems built in the Laboratory (the CSTIs). On the other hand, some measurements are done by using a conventional industrial data acquisition system. All these systems are managed by the 3 MICRALs, as also some independent devices (function generator, radioprotection beacons, beam profile encoders). A real-time monitor resident in the MICRAL computers is responsible for task activations, resource allocation and data exchange management, especially with the main control computer. It uses for the 6 interrupt levels of the MICRAL and it builds and manages in the memory a set of descriptive block and of data stacks [fr

  3. Real-Time Control of an Exoskeleton Hand Robot with Myoelectric Pattern Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhiyuan; Chen, Xiang; Zhang, Xu; Tong, Kay-Yu; Zhou, Ping

    2017-08-01

    Robot-assisted training provides an effective approach to neurological injury rehabilitation. To meet the challenge of hand rehabilitation after neurological injuries, this study presents an advanced myoelectric pattern recognition scheme for real-time intention-driven control of a hand exoskeleton. The developed scheme detects and recognizes user's intention of six different hand motions using four channels of surface electromyography (EMG) signals acquired from the forearm and hand muscles, and then drives the exoskeleton to assist the user accomplish the intended motion. The system was tested with eight neurologically intact subjects and two individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI). The overall control accuracy was [Formula: see text] for the neurologically intact subjects and [Formula: see text] for the SCI subjects. The total lag of the system was approximately 250[Formula: see text]ms including data acquisition, transmission and processing. One SCI subject also participated in training sessions in his second and third visits. Both the control accuracy and efficiency tended to improve. These results show great potential for applying the advanced myoelectric pattern recognition control of the wearable robotic hand system toward improving hand function after neurological injuries.

  4. Development of a scalable generic platform for adaptive optics real time control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surendran, Avinash; Burse, Mahesh P.; Ramaprakash, A. N.; Parihar, Padmakar

    2015-06-01

    The main objective of the present project is to explore the viability of an adaptive optics control system based exclusively on Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs), making strong use of their parallel processing capability. In an Adaptive Optics (AO) system, the generation of the Deformable Mirror (DM) control voltages from the Wavefront Sensor (WFS) measurements is usually through the multiplication of the wavefront slopes with a predetermined reconstructor matrix. The ability to access several hundred hard multipliers and memories concurrently in an FPGA allows performance far beyond that of a modern CPU or GPU for tasks with a well-defined structure such as Adaptive Optics control. The target of the current project is to generate a signal for a real time wavefront correction, from the signals coming from a Wavefront Sensor, wherein the system would be flexible to accommodate all the current Wavefront Sensing techniques and also the different methods which are used for wavefront compensation. The system should also accommodate for different data transmission protocols (like Ethernet, USB, IEEE 1394 etc.) for transmitting data to and from the FPGA device, thus providing a more flexible platform for Adaptive Optics control. Preliminary simulation results for the formulation of the platform, and a design of a fully scalable slope computer is presented.

  5. Control system of neoclassical tearing modes in real time on HL-2A tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Longwen; Ji, Xiaoquan; Song, Shaodong; Xia, Fan; Xu, Yuan; Ye, Jiruo; Jiang, Min; Chen, Wenjin; Sun, Tengfei; Liang, Shaoyong; Ling, Fei; Ma, Rui; Huang, Mei; Qu, Hongpeng; Song, Xianming; Yu, Deliang; Shi, Zhongbin; Liu, Yi; Yang, Qingwei; Xu, Min; Duan, Xuru; Liu, Yong

    2017-11-01

    The stability and performance of tokamak plasmas are routinely limited by various magneto-hydrodynamic instabilities, such as neoclassical tearing modes (NTMs). This paper presents a rather simple method to control the NTMs in real time (RT) on a tokamak, including the control principle of a feedback approach for RT suppression and stabilization for the NTMs. The control system combines Mirnov, electron cyclotron emission, and soft X-ray diagnostics used for determining the NTM positions. A methodology for fast detection of 2/1 or 3/2 NTM positions with 129 × 129 grid reconstruction is elucidated. The forty poloidal angles for steering the electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH)/electron cyclotron current drive launcher are used to establish the alignment of antenna mirrors with the center of the NTM and to ensure launcher emission intersecting with the rational surface of a magnetic island. Pilot experiments demonstrate the RT control capability to trace the conventional tearing modes (CTMs) in the HL-2A tokamak. The 2/1 CTMs have been suppressed or stabilized by the ECRH power deposition on site or with the steerable launcher.

  6. Diagnostics for real-time plasma control in PBX-M

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaita, R.; Batha, S.; Bell, R.E.; Bernabei, S.; Hatcher, R.; Kozub, T.; Kugel, H.; Levinton, F.; Okabayashi, M.; Sesnic, S.; Goeler, S. von; Zolfaghari, A.

    1995-01-01

    An important issue for future tokamaks is real-time plasma control for the avoidance of magnetohydrodynamic instabilities and other applications that require detailed plasma profile and fluctuation data. Although measurements from diagnostics providing this information require significantly more processing than magnetic flux data, recent advancements could make them practical for adjusting operational settings for plasma heating and current drive systems as well as field coil currents. On the Princeton Beta Experiment-Modification (PBX-M), the lower hybrid current drive phasing can be varied during a plasma shot using digitally programmable ferrite phase shifters, and neural beam functions can be fully computer controlled. PBX-M diagnostics that may be used for control purposes include motional Stark-effect polarimetry for magnetic field pitch angle profiles, soft x-ray arrays for plasma position control and the separation of β p from l i , hard x-ray detectors for energetic electron distributions, a multichannel electron cyclotron emission radiometer for ballooning mode identification, and passive plate eddy current monitors for kink stabilization. We will describe the present status of these systems on PBX-M, and discuss their suitability for feedback applications

  7. Palantiri: a distributed real-time database system for process control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tummers, B.J.; Heubers, W.P.J.

    1992-01-01

    The medium-energy accelerator MEA, located in Amsterdam, is controlled by a heterogeneous computer network. A large real-time database contains the parameters involved in the control of the accelerator and the experiments. This database system was implemented about ten years ago and has since been extended several times. In response to increased needs the database system has been redesigned. The new database environment, as described in this paper, consists out of two new concepts: (1) A Palantir which is a per machine process that stores the locally declared data and forwards all non local requests for data access to the appropriate machine. It acts as a storage device for data and a looking glass upon the world. (2) Golems: working units that define the data within the Palantir, and that have knowledge of the hardware they control. Applications access the data of a Golem by name (which do resemble Unix path names). The palantir that runs on the same machine as the application handles the distribution of access requests. This paper focuses on the Palantir concept as a distributed data storage and event handling device for process control. (author)

  8. Real Time Strategy Language

    OpenAIRE

    Hayes, Roy; Beling, Peter; Scherer, William

    2014-01-01

    Real Time Strategy (RTS) games provide complex domain to test the latest artificial intelligence (AI) research. In much of the literature, AI systems have been limited to playing one game. Although, this specialization has resulted in stronger AI gaming systems it does not address the key concerns of AI researcher. AI researchers seek the development of AI agents that can autonomously interpret learn, and apply new knowledge. To achieve human level performance, current AI systems rely on game...

  9. Modelling real-time control of WWTP influent flow under data scarcity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroll, Stefan; Dirckx, Geert; Donckels, Brecht M R; Van Dorpe, Mieke; Weemaes, Marjoleine; Willems, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    In order to comply with effluent standards, wastewater operators need to avoid hydraulic overloading of the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), as this can result in the washout of activated sludge from secondary settling tanks. Hydraulic overloading can occur in a systematic way, for instance when sewer network connections are extended without increasing the WWTP's capacity accordingly. This study demonstrates the use of rule-based real-time control (RTC) to reduce the load to the WWTP while restricting the overall overflow volume of the sewer system to a minimum. Further, it shows the added value of RTC despite the limited availability of monitoring data and information on the catchment through a parsimonious simulation approach, using relocation of spatial system boundaries and creating required input data through reverse modelling. Focus was hereby on the accurate modelling of pump hydraulics and control. Finally, two different methods of global sensitivity analysis were employed to verify the influence of parameters of both the model and the implemented control algorithm. Both methods show the importance of good knowledge of the system properties, but that monitoring errors play a minor role.

  10. Real-time corrosion control system for cathodic protection of buried pipes for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ki Tae; Kim, Hae Woong; Kim, Young Sik; Chang, Hyun Young; Lim, Bu Taek; Park, Heung Bae

    2015-01-01

    Since the operation period of nuclear power plants has increased, the degradation of buried pipes gradually increases and recently it seems to be one of the emerging issues. Maintenance on buried pipes needs high quality of management system because outer surface of buried pipe contacts the various soils but inner surface reacts with various electrolytes of fluid. In the USA, USNRC and EPRI have tried to manage the degradation of buried pipes. However, there is little knowledge about the inspection procedure, test and manage program in the domestic nuclear power plants. This paper focuses on the development and build-up of real-time monitoring and control system of buried pipes. Pipes to be tested are tape-coated carbon steel pipe for primary component cooling water system, asphalt-coated cast iron pipe for fire protection system, and pre-stressed concrete cylinder pipe for sea water cooling system. A control system for cathodic protection was installed on each test pipe which has been monitored and controlled. For the calculation of protection range and optimization, computer simulation was performed using COMSOL Multiphysics (Altsoft co.)

  11. Real-time corrosion control system for cathodic protection of buried pipes for nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ki Tae; Kim, Hae Woong; Kim, Young Sik [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Andong National University, Andong (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Hyun Young; Lim, Bu Taek; Park, Heung Bae [Power Engineering Research Institute, KEPCO Engineering and Construction Company, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    Since the operation period of nuclear power plants has increased, the degradation of buried pipes gradually increases and recently it seems to be one of the emerging issues. Maintenance on buried pipes needs high quality of management system because outer surface of buried pipe contacts the various soils but inner surface reacts with various electrolytes of fluid. In the USA, USNRC and EPRI have tried to manage the degradation of buried pipes. However, there is little knowledge about the inspection procedure, test and manage program in the domestic nuclear power plants. This paper focuses on the development and build-up of real-time monitoring and control system of buried pipes. Pipes to be tested are tape-coated carbon steel pipe for primary component cooling water system, asphalt-coated cast iron pipe for fire protection system, and pre-stressed concrete cylinder pipe for sea water cooling system. A control system for cathodic protection was installed on each test pipe which has been monitored and controlled. For the calculation of protection range and optimization, computer simulation was performed using COMSOL Multiphysics (Altsoft co.)

  12. Moving Stormwater Infrastructure from Real-time Control to Smart Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadzuk, B.; Bryant, S.; Lewellyn, C.; Zaremba, G.; Traver, R.

    2017-12-01

    Urban areas, especially combined sewer communities, are using green infrastructure (GI) systems (e.g. rain gardens, green roofs) to mitigate stormwater runoff volume, rate, and quality issues. Most municipal guidance and regulation limits these systems to static, passive designs that neither fully utilize the active hydrology of a GI system during and after a rainfall event, nor enable dynamic operational control. Real-time control (RTC) applied to GI is emerging, and under ideal model conditions has shown improved performance (i.e., greater volumes managed while minimizing downstream impact). There are a few RTC pilot field projects with promising results, such as on a cistern - green roof system there were only 30 overflow events out of 126 rain events and at a rain garden - cistern system only 1 of 81 events resulted in overflow. However, RTC does not get to a fully dynamic system as the initiation and consequent action is preset and static. In stormwater RTC systems, the initiation is typically a rain forecast or a sensor reading. At a rain garden - cistern system, a cistern that fills when raining is hard set to pump water to the rain garden 24 hours after the predicted rain ends. There have been instances where there is rain occurring or only a minimal amount of dry time for the rain garden to reestablish capacity for the pumped stored water. There is also no mechanism to automatically change the pump initiation time based on season or ambient conditions. A cistern - green roof system that uses stored water in an upstream cistern for green roof irrigation is initiated on a set soil moisture reading or a set irrigation volume daily. The soil moisture reading was rarely reached, so irrigation was often not initiated and the set daily irrigation volume did not vary over season. Moving from RTC to a smart system uses longer term and/or historical data to inform decisions beyond what a short-term forecast or real-time sensor can provide to give more context and

  13. Virtual decoupling flight control via real-time trajectory synthesis and tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuefu

    The production of the General Aviation industry has declined in the past 25 years. Ironically, however, the increasing demand for air travel as a fast, safe, and high-quality mode of transportation has been far from satisfied. Addressing this demand shortfall with personal air transportation necessitates advanced systems for navigation, guidance, control, flight management, and flight traffic control. Among them, an effective decoupling flight control system will not only improve flight quality, safety, and simplicity, and increase air space usage, but also reduce expenses on pilot initial and current training, and thus expand the current market and explore new markets. Because of the formidable difficulties encountered in the actual decoupling of non-linear, time-variant, and highly coupled flight control systems through traditional approaches, a new approach, which essentially converts the decoupling problem into a real-time trajectory synthesis and tracking problem, is employed. Then, the converted problem is solved and a virtual decoupling effect is achieved. In this approach, a trajectory in inertial space can be predefined and dynamically modified based on the flight mission and the pilot's commands. A feedforward-feedback control architecture is constructed to guide the airplane along the trajectory as precisely as possible. Through this approach, the pilot has much simpler, virtually decoupled control of the airplane in terms of speed, flight path angle and horizontal radius of curvature. To verify and evaluate this approach, extensive computer simulation is performed. A great deal of test cases are designed for the flight control under different flight conditions. The simulation results show that our decoupling strategy is satisfactory and promising, and therefore the research can serve as a consolidated foundation for future practical applications.

  14. Application of artificial intelligence in process control

    CERN Document Server

    Krijgsman, A

    1993-01-01

    This book is the result of a united effort of six European universities to create an overall course on the appplication of artificial intelligence (AI) in process control. The book includes an introduction to key areas including; knowledge representation, expert, logic, fuzzy logic, neural network, and object oriented-based approaches in AI. Part two covers the application to control engineering, part three: Real-Time Issues, part four: CAD Systems and Expert Systems, part five: Intelligent Control and part six: Supervisory Control, Monitoring and Optimization.

  15. A real-time digital control, data acquisition and analysis system for the DIII-D multipulse Thomson scattering diagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenfield, C.M.; Campbell, G.L.; Carlstrom, T.N.; DeBoo, J.C.; Hsieh, C.-L.; Snider, R.T.; Trost, P.K.

    1990-10-01

    A VME-based real-time computer systems for laser control, data acquisition and analysis for the DIII-D multipulse Thomson scattering diagnostic is described. The laser control task requires precise timing of up to 8 Nd:YAG lasers, each with an average firing rate of 20 Hz. A cpu module in real-time multiprocessing computer system will operate the lasers with evenly staggered laser pulses or in a ''burst mode'', where all available (fully charged) lasers can be fired at 50--100 μsec intervals upon receipt of an external event trigger signal. One of more cpu modules, along with a LeCroy FERA (Fast Encoding and Readout ADC) system, will perform real-time data acquisition and analysis. Partial electron temperature and density profiles will be available for plasma feedback control within 1 msec following each laser pulse. The VME-based computer system consists of 2 or more target processor modules (25 MHz Motorola 68030) running the VMEexec real-time operating system connected to a Unix based host system (also a 68030). All real-time software is fully interrupt driven to maximize system efficiency. Operator interaction and (non real-time) data analysis takes place on a MicroVAX 3400 connected via DECnet. 17 refs., 1 fig

  16. Real-time digital control, data acquisition, and analysis system for the DIII-D multipulse Thomson scattering diagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenfield, C.M.; Campbell, G.L.; Carlstrom, T.N.; DeBoo, J.C.; Hsieh, C.; Snider, R.T.; Trost, P.K.

    1990-01-01

    A VME-based real-time computer system for laser control, data acquisition, and analysis for the DIII-D multipulse Thomson scattering diagnostic is described. The laser control task requires precise timing of up to eight Nd:YAG lasers, each with an average firing rate of 20 Hz. A cpu module in a real-time multiprocessing computer system will operate the lasers with evenly staggered laser pulses or in a ''burst mode,'' where all available (fully charged) lasers can be fired at 50--100 μs intervals upon receipt of an external event trigger signal. One or more cpu modules, along with a LeCroy FERA (fast encoding and readout ADC) system, will perform real-time data acquisition and analysis. Partial electron temperature and density profiles will be available for plasma feedback control within 1 ms following each laser pulse. The VME-based computer system consists of two or more target processor modules (25 MHz Motorola 68030) running the VMEexec real-time operating system connected to a Unix-based host system (also a 68030). All real-time software is fully interrupt driven to maximize system efficiency. Operator interaction and (non-real-time) data analysis takes place on a MicroVAX 3400 connected via DECnet

  17. Real time spectroscopic ellipsometry for analysis and control of thin film polycrystalline semiconductor deposition in photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koirala, Prakash; Attygalle, Dinesh; Aryal, Puruswottam; Pradhan, Puja; Chen, Jie [Center for Photovoltaics Innovation and Commercialization and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Marsillac, Sylvain [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA 23529 (United States); Ferlauto, Andre S.; Podraza, Nikolas J.; Collins, Robert W. [Center for Photovoltaics Innovation and Commercialization and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States)

    2014-11-28

    Real time spectroscopic ellipsometry (RTSE) from the near-infrared to ultraviolet has been applied for analysis of the deposition of polycrystalline thin films that form the basis of two key photovoltaic heterojunction configurations, superstrate SnO{sub 2}/CdS/CdTe and substrate Mo/Cu(In{sub 1−x}Ga{sub x})Se{sub 2}/CdS. The focus of this work is to develop capabilities for monitoring and controlling the key steps in the fabrication of these device structures. Analysis of RTSE data collected during sputter deposition of CdS on a rough SnO{sub 2} transparent top contact provides the time evolution of the CdS effective thickness, or film volume per unit substrate area. This thickness includes interface, bulk, and surface roughness layer components and affects the CdS/CdTe heterojunction performance and the quantum efficiency of the solar cell in the blue region of the solar spectrum. Similarly, analysis of RTSE data collected during co-evaporation of Cu(In{sub 1−x}Ga{sub x})Se{sub 2} (CIGS; x ∼ 0.3) on a rough Mo back contact provides the evolution of a second phase of Cu{sub 2−x}Se within the CIGS layer. During the last stage of CIGS deposition, the In, Ga, and Se co-evaporants convert this Cu{sub 2−x}Se phase to CIGS, and RTSE identifies the endpoint, specifically the time at which complete conversion occurs and single-phase, large-grain CIGS is obtained in this key stage. - Highlights: • Real time spectroscopic ellipsometry (RTSE) study of CdS and CuIn{sub 1−x}Ga{sub x}Se{sub 2} (CIGS) films. • RTSE during CdS deposition provides the evolution of the CdS effective thickness. • RTSE for CIGS film enables to measure and control the composition and thickness. • The work leads to the development of optical models for processing steps.

  18. Optimization and real-time control for laser treatment of heterogeneous soft tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yusheng; Fuentes, David; Hawkins, Andrea; Bass, Jon M; Rylander, Marissa Nichole

    2009-01-01

    Predicting the outcome of thermotherapies in cancer treatment requires an accurate characterization of the bioheat transfer processes in soft tissues. Due to the biological and structural complexity of tumor (soft tissue) composition and vasculature, it is often very difficult to obtain reliable tissue properties that is one of the key factors for the accurate treatment outcome prediction. Efficient algorithms employing in vivo thermal measurements to determine heterogeneous thermal tissues properties in conjunction with a detailed sensitivity analysis can produce essential information for model development and optimal control. The goals of this paper are to present a general formulation of the bioheat transfer equation for heterogeneous soft tissues, review models and algorithms developed for cell damage, heat shock proteins, and soft tissues with nanoparticle inclusion, and demonstrate an overall computational strategy for developing a laser treatment framework with the ability to perform real-time robust calibrations and optimal control. This computational strategy can be applied to other thermotherapies using the heat source such as radio frequency or high intensity focused ultrasound.

  19. Real Time Monitoring of Diesel Engine Injector Waveforms for Accurate Fuel Metering and Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. R. Farooqi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the development, experimentation, and validation of a reliable and robust system to monitor the injector pulse generated by an engine control module (ECM which can easily be calibrated for different engine platforms and then feedback the corresponding fueling quantity to the real-time computer in a closed-loop controller in the loop (CIL bench in order to achieve optimal fueling. This research utilizes field programmable gate arrays (FPGA and direct memory access (DMA transfer capability to achieve high speed data acquisition and delivery. This work is conducted in two stages: the first stage is to study the variability involved in the injected fueling quantity from pulse to pulse, from injector to injector, between real injector stators and inductor load cells, and over different operating conditions. Different thresholds have been used to find out the best start of injection (SOI threshold and the end of injection (EOI threshold that capture the injector “on-time” with best reliability and accuracy. Second stage involves development of a system that interprets the injector pulse into fueling quantity. The system can easily be calibrated for various platforms. Finally, the use of resulting correction table has been observed to capture the fueling quantity with highest accuracy.

  20. A commercial real-time manufacturing integration platform for the new control system on FTU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panella, M.; Bertocchi, A.; Bozzolan, V.; Buceti, G.; Centioli, C.; Imparato, A.; Mazza, G.; Torelli, C.; Vitale, V.

    1999-01-01

    In 1994 a working group was set up in Frascati to investigate how to build up a new control system for FTU (Frascati tokamak upgrade) considering the evolution in the information technology. Strong emphasis was placed on the use of standard solutions (be they de-facto or de-jure) and commercial platforms where-ever possible. This paper describes our operational experience with the new control system based on the commercial DEC BASEstar family of products. BASEstar is based on client/server computing technologies, providing an environment to collect, process, manage, distribute and integrate real time manufacturing data. UNIX, VMS, PC Win, OS-9 are integrated to handle hosts, PC, VME CPUs. A 4 GL programming language, CIMfast, has been used to handle via automatic procedures the tokamak discharge. X11 standard based mimics are available to display the plants status. A real flexibility of the whole system has been experience and the further use of the this system has been planned for the ITER DTP (divertor test platform). (orig.)

  1. Intermittent compared to continuous real-time fMRI neurofeedback boosts control over amygdala activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellrung, Lydia; Dietrich, Anja; Hollmann, Maurice; Pleger, Burkhard; Kalberlah, Christian; Roggenhofer, Elisabeth; Villringer, Arno; Horstmann, Annette

    2018-02-01

    Real-time fMRI neurofeedback is a feasible tool to learn the volitional regulation of brain activity. So far, most studies provide continuous feedback information that is presented upon every volume acquisition. Although this maximizes the temporal resolution of feedback information, it may be accompanied by some disadvantages. Participants can be distracted from the regulation task due to (1) the intrinsic delay of the hemodynamic response and associated feedback and (2) limited cognitive resources available to simultaneously evaluate feedback information and stay engaged with the task. Here, we systematically investigate differences between groups presented with different variants of feedback (continuous vs. intermittent) and a control group receiving no feedback on their ability to regulate amygdala activity using positive memories and feelings. In contrast to the feedback groups, no learning effect was observed in the group without any feedback presentation. The group receiving intermittent feedback exhibited better amygdala regulation performance when compared with the group receiving continuous feedback. Behavioural measurements show that these effects were reflected in differences in task engagement. Overall, we not only demonstrate that the presentation of feedback is a prerequisite to learn volitional control of amygdala activity but also that intermittent feedback is superior to continuous feedback presentation. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Progress towards steady-state operation and real time control of internal transport barriers in JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litaudon, X.; Becoulet, A.; Crisanti, F.

    2003-01-01

    In JET advanced tokamak research mainly focuses on plasmas with internal transport barriers (ITBs), generated by modifications of the current profile. The formerly developed optimised shear regime with low magnetic shear in the plasma center has been extended to deeply reversed magnetic shear configurations. High fusion performance with wide ITBs has been obtained transiently in deeply reversed magnetic shear configuration: H IPB98(y,2) ∼1.9, β N =2.4 at I p =2.5MA. At somewhat reduced performance electron and ion ITBs have been sustained in full current drive operation with 1MA of bootstrap current: H IPB98(y,2) ∼1, β N =1.7 at I p =2.0MA. The ITBs have been maintained up to 11s. This duration, much larger than the energy confinement time (37 times larger), is already approaching a current resistive time. New real-time measurements and feedback control algorithms have been developed and implemented in JET for successfully controlling the ITB dynamics and the current density profile in the highly non-inductive regime. (author)

  3. Combination of Robot Simulation with Real-time Monitoring and Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianyu YANG

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper mainly focuses in combining virtual reality based operation simulation with remote real-time monitoring and control method for an experimental robot. A system composition framework was designed and relative arm-wheel experimental robot platform was also built. Virtual robots and two virtual environments were developed. To locate the virtual robot within numerical environments, relative mathematical methods is also discussed, including analytic locating methods for linear motion and self-rotation, as well as linear transformation method with homogeneous matrices for turning motion, in order to decrease division calculations. Several experiments were carried out, trajectory errors were found because of relative slides between the wheel and the floor, during the locating experiments. Writing-monitoring experiments were also performed by programming the robotic arm to write a Chinese character, and the virtual robot in monitoring terminal perfectly followed all the movements. All the experiment results confirmed that virtual environment can not only be used as a good supplement to the traditional video monitoring method, but also offer better control experience during the operation.

  4. Classification of Physical Activity: Information to Artificial Pancreas Control Systems in Real Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turksoy, Kamuran; Paulino, Thiago Marques Luz; Zaharieva, Dessi P; Yavelberg, Loren; Jamnik, Veronica; Riddell, Michael C; Cinar, Ali

    2015-10-06

    Physical activity has a wide range of effects on glucose concentrations in type 1 diabetes (T1D) depending on the type (ie, aerobic, anaerobic, mixed) and duration of activity performed. This variability in glucose responses to physical activity makes the development of artificial pancreas (AP) systems challenging. Automatic detection of exercise type and intensity, and its classification as aerobic or anaerobic would provide valuable information to AP control algorithms. This can be achieved by using a multivariable AP approach where biometric variables are measured and reported to the AP at high frequency. We developed a classification system that identifies, in real time, the exercise intensity and its reliance on aerobic or anaerobic metabolism and tested this approach using clinical data collected from 5 persons with T1D and 3 individuals without T1D in a controlled laboratory setting using a variety of common types of physical activity. The classifier had an average sensitivity of 98.7% for physiological data collected over a range of exercise modalities and intensities in these subjects. The classifier will be added as a new module to the integrated multivariable adaptive AP system to enable the detection of aerobic and anaerobic exercise for enhancing the accuracy of insulin infusion strategies during and after exercise. © 2015 Diabetes Technology Society.

  5. Auditory reafferences: The influence of real-time feedback on movement control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian eKennel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Auditory reafferences are real-time auditory products created by a person’s own movements. Whereas the interdependency of action and perception is generally well studied, the auditory feedback channel and the influence of perceptual processes during movement execution remain largely unconsidered. We argue that movements have a rhythmic character that is closely connected to sound, making it possible to manipulate auditory reafferences online to understand their role in motor control. We examined if step sounds, occurring as a by-product of running, have an influence on the performance of a complex movement task. Twenty participants completed a hurdling task in three auditory feedback conditions: a control condition with normal auditory feedback, a white noise condition in which sound was masked, and a delayed auditory feedback condition. Overall time and kinematic data were collected. Results show that delayed auditory feedback led to a significantly slower overall time and changed kinematic parameters. Our findings complement previous investigations in a natural movement situation with nonartificial auditory cues. Our results support the existing theoretical understanding of action–perception coupling and hold potential for applied work, where naturally occurring movement sounds can be implemented in the motor learning processes.

  6. Auditory reafferences: the influence of real-time feedback on movement control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennel, Christian; Streese, Lukas; Pizzera, Alexandra; Justen, Christoph; Hohmann, Tanja; Raab, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Auditory reafferences are real-time auditory products created by a person's own movements. Whereas the interdependency of action and perception is generally well studied, the auditory feedback channel and the influence of perceptual processes during movement execution remain largely unconsidered. We argue that movements have a rhythmic character that is closely connected to sound, making it possible to manipulate auditory reafferences online to understand their role in motor control. We examined if step sounds, occurring as a by-product of running, have an influence on the performance of a complex movement task. Twenty participants completed a hurdling task in three auditory feedback conditions: a control condition with normal auditory feedback, a white noise condition in which sound was masked, and a delayed auditory feedback condition. Overall time and kinematic data were collected. Results show that delayed auditory feedback led to a significantly slower overall time and changed kinematic parameters. Our findings complement previous investigations in a natural movement situation with non-artificial auditory cues. Our results support the existing theoretical understanding of action-perception coupling and hold potential for applied work, where naturally occurring movement sounds can be implemented in the motor learning processes.

  7. Real-time CO2 sensor for the optimal control of electronic EGR system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gwang-jung; Choi, Byungchul; Choi, Inchul

    2013-12-01

    In modern diesel engines, EGR (Exhaust Gas Recirculation) is an important technique used in nitrogen oxide (NOx) emission reduction. This paper describes the development and experimental results of a fiber-optical sensor using a 2.7 μm wavelength absorption to quantify the simultaneous CO2 concentration which is the primary variable of EGR rate (CO2 in the exhaust gas versus CO2 in the intake gas, %). A real-time laser absorption method was developed using a DFB (distributed feedback) diode laser and waveguide to make optimal design and control of electronic EGR system required for `Euro-6' and `Tier 4 Final' NOx emission regulations. While EGR is effective to reduce NOx significantly, the amount of HC and CO is increased in the exhaust gas if EGR rate is not controlled based on driving conditions. Therefore, it is important to recirculate an appropriate amount of exhaust gas in the operation condition generating high volume of NOx. In this study, we evaluated basic characteristics and functions of our optical sensor and studied basically in order to find out optimal design condition. We demonstrated CO2 measurement speed, accuracy and linearity as making a condition similar to real engine through the bench-scale experiment.

  8. Real-time control of current and pressure profiles in tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laborde, L.

    2005-12-01

    Recent progress in the field of 'advanced tokamak scenarios' prefigure the operation regime of a future thermonuclear fusion power plant. Compared to the reference regime, these scenarios offer a longer plasma confinement time thanks to increased magnetohydrodynamic stability and to a better particle and energy confinement through a reduction of plasma turbulence. This should give access to comparable fusion performances at reduced plasma current and could lead to a steady state fusion reactor since the plasma current could be entirely generated non-inductively. Access to this kind of regime is provided by the existence of an internal transport barrier, linked to the current profile evolution in the plasma, which leads to steep temperature and pressure profiles. The comparison between heat transport simulations and experiments allowed the nature of the barriers to be better understood as a region of strongly reduced turbulence. Thus, the control of this barrier in a stationary manner would be a remarkable progress, in particular in view of the experimental reactor ITER. The Tore Supra and JET tokamaks, based in France and in the United Kingdom, constitute ideal instruments for such experiments: the first one allows stationary plasmas to be maintained during several minutes whereas the second one provides unique fusion performances. In Tore Supra, real-time control experiments have been accomplished where the current profile width and the pressure profile gradient were controlled in a stationary manner using heating and current drive systems as actuators. In the JET tokamak, the determination of an empirical static model of the plasma allowed the current and pressure profiles to be simultaneously controlled and so an internal transport barrier to be sustained. Finally, the identification of a dynamic model of the plasma led to the definition of a new controller capable, in principle, of a more efficient control. (author)

  9. Quality control of intelligence research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Yan; Xin Pingping; Wu Jian

    2014-01-01

    Quality control of intelligence research is the core issue of intelligence management, is a problem in study of information science This paper focuses on the performance of intelligence to explain the significance of intelligence research quality control. In summing up the results of the study on the basis of the analysis, discusses quality control methods in intelligence research, introduces the experience of foreign intelligence research quality control, proposes some recommendations to improve quality control in intelligence research. (authors)

  10. Real Time Implementation of a DC Motor Speed Control by Fuzzy Logic Controller and PI Controller Using FPGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Sakthivel

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Fuzzy logic control has met with growing interest in many motor control applications due to its non-linearity, handling features and independence of plant modelling. The hardware implementation of fuzzy logic controller (FLC on FPGA is very important because of the increasing number of fuzzy applications requiring highly parallel and high speed fuzzy processing. Implementation of a fuzzy logic controller and conventional PI controller on an FPGA using VHDL for DC motor speed control is presented in this paper. The proposed scheme is to improve tracking performance of D.C. motor as compared to the conventional (PI control strategy .This paper describes the hardware implementation of two inputs (error and change in error, one output fuzzy logic controller based on PI controller and conventional PI controller using VHDL. Real time implementation FLC and conventional PI controller is made on Spartan-3A DSP FPGA (XC3SD1800A FPGA for the speed control of DC motor. It is observed that fuzzy logic based controllers give better responses than the conventional PI controller for the speed control of dc motor.

  11. Implementation of reactive and predictive real-time control strategies to optimize dry stormwater detention ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaborit, Étienne; Anctil, François; Vanrolleghem, Peter A.; Pelletier, Geneviève

    2013-04-01

    Dry detention ponds have been widely implemented in U.S.A (National Research Council, 1993) and Canada (Shammaa et al. 2002) to mitigate the impacts of urban runoff on receiving water bodies. The aim of such structures is to allow a temporary retention of the water during rainfall events, decreasing runoff velocities and volumes (by infiltration in the pond) as well as providing some water quality improvement from sedimentation. The management of dry detention ponds currently relies on static control through a fixed pre-designed limitation of their maximum outflow (Middleton and Barrett 2008), for example via a proper choice of their outlet pipe diameter. Because these ponds are designed for large storms, typically 1- or 2-hour duration rainfall events with return periods comprised between 5 and 100 years, one of their main drawbacks is that they generally offer almost no retention for smaller rainfall events (Middleton and Barrett 2008), which are by definition much more common. Real-Time Control (RTC) has a high potential for optimizing retention time (Marsalek 2005) because it allows adopting operating strategies that are flexible and hence more suitable to the prevailing fluctuating conditions than static control. For dry ponds, this would basically imply adapting the outlet opening percentage to maximize water retention time, while being able to open it completely for severe storms. This study developed several enhanced RTC scenarios of a dry detention pond located at the outlet of a small urban catchment near Québec City, Canada, following the previous work of Muschalla et al. (2009). The catchment's runoff quantity and TSS concentration were simulated by a SWMM5 model with an improved wash-off formulation. The control procedures rely on rainfall detection and measures of the pond's water height for the reactive schemes, and on rainfall forecasts in addition to these variables for the predictive schemes. The automatic reactive control schemes implemented

  12. Gasohol Quality Control for Real Time Applications by Means of a Multimode Interference Fiber Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Rodríguez, Adolfo J.; Baldovino-Pantaleón, Oscar; Domínguez Cruz, Rene F.; Zamarreño, Carlos R.; Matías, Ignacio R.; May-Arrioja, Daniel A.

    2014-01-01

    In this work we demonstrate efficient quality control of a variety of gasoline and ethanol (gasohol) blends using a multimode interference (MMI) fiber sensor. The operational principle relies on the fact that the addition of ethanol to the gasohol blend reduces the refractive index (RI) of the gasoline. Since MMI sensors are capable of detecting small RI changes, the ethanol content of the gasohol blend is easily determined by tracking the MMI peak wavelength response. Gasohol blends with ethanol contents ranging from 0% to 50% has been clearly identified using this device, which provides a linear response with a maximum sensitivity of 0.270 nm/% EtOH. The sensor can also distinguish when water incorporated in the blend has exceeded the maximum volume tolerated by the gasohol blend, which is responsible for phase separation of the ethanol and gasoline and could cause serious engine failures. Since the MMI sensor is straightforward to fabricate and does not require any special coating it is a cost effective solution for real time and in-situ monitoring of the quality of gasohol blends. PMID:25256111

  13. Potential of turbidity monitoring for real time control of pollutant discharge in sewers during rainfall events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacour, C; Joannis, C; Gromaire, M-C; Chebbo, G

    2009-01-01

    Turbidity sensors can be used to continuously monitor the evolution of pollutant mass discharge. For two sites within the Paris combined sewer system, continuous turbidity, conductivity and flow data were recorded at one-minute time intervals over a one-year period. This paper is intended to highlight the variability in turbidity dynamics during wet weather. For each storm event, turbidity response aspects were analysed through different classifications. The correlation between classification and common parameters, such as the antecedent dry weather period, total event volume per impervious hectare and both the mean and maximum hydraulic flow for each event, was also studied. Moreover, the dynamics of flow and turbidity signals were compared at the event scale. No simple relation between turbidity responses, hydraulic flow dynamics and the chosen parameters was derived from this effort. Knowledge of turbidity dynamics could therefore potentially improve wet weather management, especially when using pollution-based real-time control (P-RTC) since turbidity contains information not included in hydraulic flow dynamics and not readily predictable from such dynamics.

  14. Image analysis for maintenance of coating quality in nickel electroplating baths--real time control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, M; Amigo, J M; Bro, R; van den Berg, F; Ostra, M; Ubide, C

    2011-11-07

    The aim of this paper is to show how it is possible to extract analytical information from images acquired with a flatbed scanner and make use of this information for real time control of a nickel plating process. Digital images of plated steel sheets in a nickel bath are used to follow the process under degradation of specific additives. Dedicated software has been developed for making the obtained results accessible to process operators. This includes obtaining the RGB image, to select the red channel data exclusively, to calculate the histogram of the red channel data and to calculate the mean colour value (MCV) and the standard deviation of the red channel data. MCV is then used by the software to determine the concentration of the additives Supreme Plus Brightner (SPB) and SA-1 (for confidentiality reasons, the chemical contents cannot be further detailed) present in the bath (these two additives degrade and their concentration changes during the process). Finally, the software informs the operator when the bath is generating unsuitable quality plating and suggests the amount of SPB and SA-1 to be added in order to recover the original plating quality. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. FPGA-based real time implementation of MPPT-controller for photovoltaic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mellit, A.; Rezzouk, H.; Medjahed, B. [Faculty of Sciences and Technology, Jijel University, Ouled-aissa, P.O. Box 98, Jijel 18000 (Algeria); Messai, A. [CRNB Ain Oussera, P.O. Box 180, 17200 Djelfa (Algeria)

    2011-05-15

    In this paper an FPGA-based implementation of a real time perturb and observe (P and O) algorithm for tracking the Maximum Power Point (MPP) of a photovoltaic (PV) generator is presented. The P and O algorithm has been designed using the very high-speed description language (VHDL) and implemented on Xilinx Virtex-II-Pro(xc2v1000-4fg456) - Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA). The algorithm and the hardware have been simulated and tested by conditioning the power produced by the PV-modules installed on the rooftop of the ''Hall of Technology Laboratory'' at Jijel University. The main advantages of the developed MPPT are low cost, good velocity, acceptable reliability, and easy implementation. However, its main disadvantage is related to the fact that for fast changes in irradiance it may fail to track the maximum power point. The efficiency of the implemented P and O controller is about 96%. (author)

  16. Gasohol Quality Control for Real Time Applications by Means of a Multimode Interference Fiber Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo J. Rodríguez Rodríguez

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work we demonstrate efficient quality control of a variety of gasoline and ethanol (gasohol blends using a multimode interference (MMI fiber sensor. The operational principle relies on the fact that the addition of ethanol to the gasohol blend reduces the refractive index (RI of the gasoline. Since MMI sensors are capable of detecting small RI changes, the ethanol content of the gasohol blend is easily determined by tracking the MMI peak wavelength response. Gasohol blends with ethanol contents ranging from 0% to 50% has been clearly identified using this device, which provides a linear response with a maximum sensitivity of 0.270 nm/% EtOH. The sensor can also distinguish when water incorporated in the blend has exceeded the maximum volume tolerated by the gasohol blend, which is responsible for phase separation of the ethanol and gasoline and could cause serious engine failures. Since the MMI sensor is straightforward to fabricate and does not require any special coating it is a cost effective solution for real time and in-situ monitoring of the quality of gasohol blends.

  17. Developing an optimal valve closing rule curve for real-time pressure control in pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazarganlari, Mohammad Reza; Afshar, Hossein [Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kerachian, Reza [University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Bashiazghadi, Seyyed Nasser [Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-01-15

    Sudden valve closure in pipeline systems can cause high pressures that may lead to serious damages. Using an optimal valve closing rule can play an important role in managing extreme pressures in sudden valve closure. In this paper, an optimal closing rule curve is developed using a multi-objective optimization model and Bayesian networks (BNs) for controlling water pressure in valve closure instead of traditional step functions or single linear functions. The method of characteristics is used to simulate transient flow caused by valve closure. Non-dominated sorting genetic algorithms-II is also used to develop a Pareto front among three objectives related to maximum and minimum water pressures, and the amount of water passes through the valve during the valve-closing process. Simulation and optimization processes are usually time-consuming, thus results of the optimization model are used for training the BN. The trained BN is capable of determining optimal real-time closing rules without running costly simulation and optimization models. To demonstrate its efficiency, the proposed methodology is applied to a reservoir-pipe-valve system and the optimal closing rule curve is calculated for the valve. The results of the linear and BN-based valve closure rules show that the latter can significantly reduce the range of variations in water hammer pressures.

  18. Real-time Linux operating system for plasma control on FTU--implementation advantages and first experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitale, V.; Centioli, C.; Iannone, F.; Mazza, G.; Panella, M.; Pangione, L.; Podda, S.; Zaccarian, L.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we report on the experiment carried out at the Frascati Tokamak Upgrade (FTU) on the porting of the plasma control system (PCS) from a LynxOS architecture to an open source Linux real-time architecture. The old LynxOS system was implemented on a VME/PPC604r embedded controller guaranteeing successful plasma position, density and current control. The new RTAI-Linux operating system has shown to easily adapt to the VME hardware via a VME/INTELx86 embedded controller. The advantages of the new solution versus the old one are not limited to the reduced cost of the new architecture (based on the open-source characteristic of the RTAI architecture) but also enhanced by the response time of the real-time system which, also through an optimization of the real-time code, has been reduced from 150 μs (LynxOS) to 70 μs (RTAI). The new real-time operating system is also shown to be suitable for new extended control activities, whose implementation is also possible based on the reduced duty cycle duration, which leaves space for the real-time implementation of nonlinear control laws. We report here on recent experiments related to the optimization of the coupling between additional radiofrequency power and plasma

  19. Real-time Linux operating system for plasma control on FTU--implementation advantages and first experimental results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitale, V. E-mail: vitale@frascati.enea.it; Centioli, C.; Iannone, F.; Mazza, G.; Panella, M.; Pangione, L.; Podda, S.; Zaccarian, L

    2004-06-01

    In this paper, we report on the experiment carried out at the Frascati Tokamak Upgrade (FTU) on the porting of the plasma control system (PCS) from a LynxOS architecture to an open source Linux real-time architecture. The old LynxOS system was implemented on a VME/PPC604r embedded controller guaranteeing successful plasma position, density and current control. The new RTAI-Linux operating system has shown to easily adapt to the VME hardware via a VME/INTELx86 embedded controller. The advantages of the new solution versus the old one are not limited to the reduced cost of the new architecture (based on the open-source characteristic of the RTAI architecture) but also enhanced by the response time of the real-time system which, also through an optimization of the real-time code, has been reduced from 150 {mu}s (LynxOS) to 70 {mu}s (RTAI). The new real-time operating system is also shown to be suitable for new extended control activities, whose implementation is also possible based on the reduced duty cycle duration, which leaves space for the real-time implementation of nonlinear control laws. We report here on recent experiments related to the optimization of the coupling between additional radiofrequency power and plasma.

  20. Real-time networked control of an industrial robot manipulator via discrete-time second-order sliding modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massimiliano Capisani, Luca; Facchinetti, Tullio; Ferrara, Antonella

    2010-08-01

    This article presents the networked control of a robotic anthropomorphic manipulator based on a second-order sliding mode technique, where the control objective is to track a desired trajectory for the manipulator. The adopted control scheme allows an easy and effective distribution of the control algorithm over two networked machines. While the predictability of real-time tasks execution is achieved by the Soft Hard Real-Time Kernel (S.Ha.R.K.) real-time operating system, the communication is established via a standard Ethernet network. The performances of the control system are evaluated under different experimental system configurations using, to perform the experiments, a COMAU SMART3-S2 industrial robot, and the results are analysed to put into evidence the robustness of the proposed approach against possible network delays, packet losses and unmodelled effects.

  1. Real time expert systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asami, Tohru; Hashimoto, Kazuo; Yamamoto, Seiichi

    1992-01-01

    Recently, aiming at the application to the plant control for nuclear reactors and traffic and communication control, the research and the practical use of the expert system suitable to real time processing have become conspicuous. In this report, the condition for the required function to control the object that dynamically changes within a limited time is presented, and the technical difference between the real time expert system developed so as to satisfy it and the expert system of conventional type is explained with the actual examples and from theoretical aspect. The expert system of conventional type has the technical base in the problem-solving equipment originating in STRIPS. The real time expert system is applied to the fields accompanied by surveillance and control, to which conventional expert system is hard to be applied. The requirement for the real time expert system, the example of the real time expert system, and as the techniques of realizing real time processing, the realization of interruption processing, dispersion processing, and the mechanism of maintaining the consistency of knowledge are explained. (K.I.)

  2. Real-time changes in corticospinal excitability related to motor imagery of a force control task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatemoto, Tsuyoshi; Tsuchiya, Junko; Numata, Atsuki; Osawa, Ryuji; Yamaguchi, Tomofumi; Tanabe, Shigeo; Kondo, Kunitsugu; Otaka, Yohei; Sugawara, Kenichi

    2017-09-29

    To investigate real-time excitability changes in corticospinal pathways related to motor imagery in a changing force control task, using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Ten healthy volunteers learnt to control the contractile force of isometric right wrist dorsiflexion in order to track an on-screen sine wave form. Participants performed the trained task 40 times with actual muscle contraction in order to construct the motor image. They were then instructed to execute the task without actual muscle contraction, but by imagining contraction of the right wrist in dorsiflexion. Motor evoked potentials (MEPs), induced by TMS in the right extensor carpi radialis muscle (ECR) and flexor carpi radialis muscle (FCR), were measured during motor imagery. MEPs were induced at five time points: prior to imagery, during the gradual generation of the imaged wrist dorsiflexion (Increasing phase), the peak value of the sine wave, during the gradual reduction (Decreasing phase), and after completion of the task. The MEP ratio, as the ratio of imaged MEPs to resting-state, was compared between pre- and post-training at each time point. In the ECR muscle, the MEP ratio significantly increased during the Increasing phase and at the peak force of dorsiflexion imagery after training. Moreover, the MEP ratio was significantly greater in the Increasing phase than in the Decreasing phase. In the FCR, there were no significant consistent changes. Corticospinal excitability during motor imagery in an isometric contraction task was modulated in relation to the phase of force control after image construction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Platform for real-time simulation of dynamic systems and hardware-in-the-loop for control algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Isaac D T; Silva, Sergio N; Teles, Rafael M; Fernandes, Marcelo A C

    2014-10-15

    The development of new embedded algorithms for automation and control of industrial equipment usually requires the use of real-time testing. However, the equipment required is often expensive, which means that such tests are often not viable. The objective of this work was therefore to develop an embedded platform for the distributed real-time simulation of dynamic systems. This platform, called the Real-Time Simulator for Dynamic Systems (RTSDS), could be applied in both industrial and academic environments. In industrial applications, the RTSDS could be used to optimize embedded control algorithms. In the academic sphere, it could be used to support research into new embedded solutions for automation and control and could also be used as a tool to assist in undergraduate and postgraduate teaching related to the development of projects concerning on-board control systems.

  4. Temperature-Controlled High-Speed AFM: Real-Time Observation of Ripple Phase Transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Hirohide; Miyagi, Atsushi; Redondo-Morata, Lorena; Scheuring, Simon

    2016-11-01

    With nanometer lateral and Angstrom vertical resolution, atomic force microscopy (AFM) has contributed unique data improving the understanding of lipid bilayers. Lipid bilayers are found in several different temperature-dependent states, termed phases; the main phases are solid and fluid phases. The transition temperature between solid and fluid phases is lipid composition specific. Under certain conditions some lipid bilayers adopt a so-called ripple phase, a structure where solid and fluid phase domains alternate with constant periodicity. Because of its narrow regime of existence and heterogeneity ripple phase and its transition dynamics remain poorly understood. Here, a temperature control device to high-speed atomic force microscopy (HS-AFM) to observe dynamics of phase transition from ripple phase to fluid phase reversibly in real time is developed and integrated. Based on HS-AFM imaging, the phase transition processes from ripple phase to fluid phase and from ripple phase to metastable ripple phase to fluid phase could be reversibly, phenomenologically, and quantitatively studied. The results here show phase transition hysteresis in fast cooling and heating processes, while both melting and condensation occur at 24.15 °C in quasi-steady state situation. A second metastable ripple phase with larger periodicity is formed at the ripple phase to fluid phase transition when the buffer contains Ca 2+ . The presented temperature-controlled HS-AFM is a new unique experimental system to observe dynamics of temperature-sensitive processes at the nanoscopic level. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Improved process control through real-time measurement of mineral content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turler, Daniel; Karaca, Murat; Davis, William B.; Giauque, Robert D.; Hopkins, Deborah

    2001-11-02

    In a highly collaborative research and development project with mining and university partners, sensors and data-analysis tools are being developed for rock-mass characterization and real-time measurement of mineral content. Determining mineralogy prior to mucking in an open-pit mine is important for routing the material to the appropriate processing stream. A possible alternative to lab assay of dust and cuttings obtained from drill holes is continuous on-line sampling and real-time x-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy. Results presented demonstrate that statistical analyses combined with XRF data can be employed to identify minerals and, possibly, different rock types. The objective is to create a detailed three-dimensional mineralogical map in real time that would improve downstream process efficiency.

  6. Strategies for real-time position control of a single atom in cavity QED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynn, T W; Birnbaum, K; Kimble, H J

    2005-01-01

    Recent realizations of single-atom trapping and tracking in cavity QED open the door for feedback schemes which actively stabilize the motion of a single atom in real time. We present feedback algorithms for cooling the radial component of motion for a single atom trapped by strong coupling to single-photon fields in an optical cavity. Performance of various algorithms is studied through simulations of single-atom trajectories, with full dynamical and measurement noise included. Closed loop feedback algorithms compare favourably to open loop 'switching' analogues, demonstrating the importance of applying actual position information in real time. The high optical information rate in current experiments enables real-time tracking that approaches the standard quantum limit for broadband position measurements, suggesting that realistic active feedback schemes may reach a regime where measurement backaction appreciably alters the motional dynamics

  7. Real-time control of oxic phase using pH (mV)-time profile in swine wastewater treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ga, C.H.; Ra, C.S.

    2009-01-01

    The feasibility of real-time control of the oxic phase using the pH (mV)-time profile in a sequencing batch reactor for swine wastewater treatment was evaluated, and the characteristics of the novel real-time control strategies were analyzed in two different concentrated wastewaters. The nitrogen break point (NBP) on the moving slope change (MSC) of the pH (mV) was designated as a real-time control point, and a pilot-scale sequencing batch reactor (18 m 3 ) was designed to fulfill the objectives of the study. Successful real-time control using the developed control strategy was achieved despite the large variations in the influent strength and the loading rate per cycle. Indeed, complete and consistent removal of NH 4 -N (100% removal) was achieved. There was a strong positive correlation (r 2 = 0.9789) between the loading rate and soluble total organic carbon (TOCs) removal, and a loading rate of 100 g/m 3 /cycle was found to be optimum for TOCs removal. Experimental data showed that the real-time control strategy using the MSC of the pH (mV)-time profile could be utilized successfully for the removal of nitrogen from swine wastewater. Furthermore, the pH (mV) was a more reliable real-time control parameter than the oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) for the control of the oxic phase. However, the nitrate knee point (NKP) appeared more consistently upon the completion of denitrification on the ORP-time profile than on the pH (mV)-time profile.

  8. A New Real Time Lyapunov Based Controller for Power Quality Improvement in Unified Power Flow Controllers Using Direct Matrix Converters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquim Monteiro

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a Direct Matrix Converter operating as a Unified Power Flow Controller (DMC-UPFC with an advanced control method for UPFC, based on the Lyapunov direct method, presenting good results in power quality assessment. This control method is used for real-time calculation of the appropriate matrix switching state, determining which switching state should be applied in the following sampling period. The control strategy takes into account active and reactive power flow references to choose the vector converter closest to the optimum. Theoretical principles for this new real-time vector modulation and control applied to the DMC-UPFC with input filter are established. The method needs DMC-UPFC dynamic equations to be solved just once in each control cycle, to find the required optimum vector, in contrast to similar control methods that need 27 vector estimations per control cycle. The designed controller’s performance was evaluated using Matlab/Simulink software. Controllers were also implemented using a digital signal processing (DSP system and matrix hardware. Simulation and experimental results show decoupled transmission line active (P and reactive (Q power control with zero theoretical error tracking and fast response. Output currents and voltages show small ripple and low harmonic content.

  9. Real-Time Optimization for use in a Control Allocation System to Recover from Pilot Induced Oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Michael W.

    2013-01-01

    Integration of the Control Allocation technique to recover from Pilot Induced Oscillations (CAPIO) System into the control system of a Short Takeoff and Landing Mobility Concept Vehicle simulation presents a challenge because the CAPIO formulation requires that constrained optimization problems be solved at the controller operating frequency. We present a solution that utilizes a modified version of the well-known L-BFGS-B solver. Despite the iterative nature of the solver, the method is seen to converge in real time with sufficient reliability to support three weeks of piloted runs at the NASA Ames Vertical Motion Simulator (VMS) facility. The results of the optimization are seen to be excellent in the vast majority of real-time frames. Deficiencies in the quality of the results in some frames are shown to be improvable with simple termination criteria adjustments, though more real-time optimization iterations would be required.

  10. Teledosimetry: Personal and Area Dosimetry Control in order to evaluate the risk in real time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galan Montenegro, P.; Macias Jaen, J.; Bodineau Gil, C.; Sanchez Hidalgo, M.

    2004-01-01

    Telemedicine is now an essential part of Health care and so, in addition to the scientific programme in the Carlos Haya Hospital in Malaga, Physics Department is involved into a process of change about the vision as a new Health Centre of XXI Century: Knowledge Hospital, by digital architecture and digitally integrated in its world. The Integrating the Health care Enterprise is the model used in order to get a big grade of relationship between medical images and information system. This change must be done in colaboration between some Departments of our centre, because it is a multidisciplinary task. It is understood that Teledosimetry can be considered as an important part of Telemedicine in the Radiological Protection field for workers and general public. In order to get this objective, the first step since 2000 it has been to prepare the internal hospital network with personal dosimetry information. From here workers in our hospital can obtain their dosimetry information data in more than 300 computers and since 2003, from home too. For access, each one of all have got an user identification and a password and so it can be guaranteed the privacy. We transform dose data reported by CND (Dosimetry National Center) in a big and visible database in PHP4 and Javascript format. This process is marked of problems about all due to the big manipulated information. Our intention is to make a better and friendly control, customisable and in real-time of the information dosimetry by a modular monitoring system of electronic dosimeters by the web. These radiation detectors would be located in representatives places. (Author)

  11. Controlling an avatar by thought using real-time fMRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Ori; Koppel, Moshe; Malach, Rafael; Friedman, Doron

    2014-06-01

    Objective. We have developed a brain-computer interface (BCI) system based on real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with virtual reality feedback. The advantage of fMRI is the relatively high spatial resolution and the coverage of the whole brain; thus we expect that it may be used to explore novel BCI strategies, based on new types of mental activities. However, fMRI suffers from a low temporal resolution and an inherent delay, since it is based on a hemodynamic response rather than electrical signals. Thus, our objective in this paper was to explore whether subjects could perform a BCI task in a virtual environment using our system, and how their performance was affected by the delay. Approach. The subjects controlled an avatar by left-hand, right-hand and leg motion or imagery. The BCI classification is based on locating the regions of interest (ROIs) related with each of the motor classes, and selecting the ROI with maximum average values online. The subjects performed a cue-based task and a free-choice task, and the analysis includes evaluation of the performance as well as subjective reports. Main results. Six subjects performed the task with high accuracy when allowed to move their fingers and toes, and three subjects achieved high accuracy using imagery alone. In the cue-based task the accuracy was highest 8-12 s after the trigger, whereas in the free-choice task the subjects performed best when the feedback was provided 6 s after the trigger. Significance. We show that subjects are able to perform a navigation task in a virtual environment using an fMRI-based BCI, despite the hemodynamic delay. The same approach can be extended to other mental tasks and other brain areas.

  12. Teledosimetry: Personal and Area Dosimetry Control in order to evaluate the risk in real time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galan Montenegro, P.; Macias Jaen, J.; Bodineau Gil, C.; Sanchez Hidalgo, M.

    2004-07-01

    Telemedicine is now an essential part of Health care and so, in addition to the scientific programme in the Carlos Haya Hospital in Malaga, Physics Department is involved into a process of change about the vision as a new Health Centre of XXI Century: Knowledge Hospital, by digital architecture and digitally integrated in its world. The Integrating the Health care Enterprise is the model used in order to get a big grade of relationship between medical images and information system. This change must be done in colaboration between some Departments of our centre, because it is a multidisciplinary task. It is understood that Teledosimetry can be considered as an important part of Telemedicine in the Radiological Protection field for workers and general public. In order to get this objective, the first step since 2000 it has been to prepare the internal hospital network with personal dosimetry information. From here workers in our hospital can obtain their dosimetry information data in more than 300 computers and since 2003, from home too. For access, each one of all have got an user identification and a password and so it can be guaranteed the privacy. We transform dose data reported by CND (Dosimetry National Center) in a big and visible database in PHP4 and Javascript format. This process is marked of problems about all due to the big manipulated information. Our intention is to make a better and friendly control, customisable and in real-time of the information dosimetry by a modular monitoring system of electronic dosimeters by the web. These radiation detectors would be located in representatives places. (Author)

  13. Real-time tracking control of electro-hydraulic force servo systems using offline feedback control and adaptive control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Gang; Zhu, Zhencai; Zhao, Jinsong; Zhu, Weidong; Tang, Yu; Li, Xiang

    2017-03-01

    This paper focuses on an application of an electro-hydraulic force tracking controller combined with an offline designed feedback controller (ODFC) and an online adaptive compensator in order to improve force tracking performance of an electro-hydraulic force servo system (EHFS). A proportional-integral controller has been employed and a parameter-based force closed-loop transfer function of the EHFS is identified by a continuous system identification algorithm. By taking the identified system model as a nominal plant model, an H ∞ offline design method is employed to establish an optimized feedback controller with consideration of the performance, control efforts, and robustness of the EHFS. In order to overcome the disadvantage of the offline designed controller and cope with the varying dynamics of the EHFS, an online adaptive compensator with a normalized least-mean-square algorithm is cascaded to the force closed-loop system of the EHFS compensated by the ODFC. Some comparative experiments are carried out on a real-time EHFS using an xPC rapid prototype technology, and the proposed controller yields a better force tracking performance improvement. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Intelligent Traffic Light Based on PLC Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Lin; Zhang, Lijian; Wang, Lingling

    2017-11-01

    The traditional traffic light system with a fixed control mode and single control function is contradicted with the current traffic section. The traditional one has been unable to meet the functional requirements of the existing flexible traffic control system. This paper research and develop an intelligent traffic light called PLC control system. It uses PLC as control core, using a sensor module for receiving real-time information of vehicles, traffic control mode for information to select the traffic lights. Of which control mode is flexible and changeable, and it also set the countdown reminder to improve the effectiveness of traffic lights, which can realize the goal of intelligent traffic diversion, intelligent traffic diversion.

  15. The Diabetes Assistant: A Smartphone-Based System for Real-Time Control of Blood Glucose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Keith-Hynes

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1DM is an autoimmune disease in which the insulin-producing beta cells of the pancreas are destroyed and insulin must be injected daily to enable the body to metabolize glucose. Standard therapy for T1DM involves self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG several times daily with a blood glucose meter and injecting insulin via a syringe, pen or insulin pump. An “Artificial Pancreas” (AP is a closed-loop control system that uses a continuous glucose monitor (CGM, an insulin pump and an internal algorithm to automatically manage insulin infusion to keep the subject’s blood glucose within a desired range. Although no fully closed-loop AP systems are currently commercially available there are intense academic and commercial efforts to produce safe and effective AP systems. In this paper we present the Diabetes Assistant (DiAs, an ultraportable AP research platform designed to enable home studies of Closed Loop Control (CLC of blood glucose in subjects with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus. DiAs consists of an Android (Google Inc., Mountain View, CA, USA smartphone equipped with communication, control and user interface software wirelessly connected to a continuous glucose monitor and insulin pump. The software consists of a network of mobile applications with well-defined Application Programming Interfaces (APIs running atop an enhanced version of Android with non-essential elements removed. CLC and safety applications receive real-time data from the CGM and pump, estimate the patient’s metabolic state and risk of hypo- and hyperglycemia, adjust the insulin infusion rate, raise alarms as needed and transmit de-identified data to a secure remote server. Some applications may be replaced by researchers wishing to conduct outpatient ambulatory studies of novel Closed Loop Control, Safety or User Interface modules. Over the past three years the DiAs platform has been used in a series of AP clinical trials sponsored by the National

  16. A New Approach in Teaching Power Electronics Control of Electrical Drives using Real-Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teodorescu, Remus; Bech, Michael Møller; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2000-01-01

    A new approach in teaching power electronics and electrical drives is achieved at the Flexible Drives System Laboratory (FDSL) from Aalborg University by using the new Total Development Environment (TDE) concept that allows a full visual block-oriented programming of dynamic real-time systems...

  17. A real-time multichannel memory controller and optimal mapping of memory clients to memory channels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gomony, M.D.; Akesson, K.B.; Goossens, K.G.W.

    2015-01-01

    Ever-increasing demands for main memory bandwidth and memory speed/power tradeoff led to the introduction of memories with multiple memory channels, such as Wide IO DRAM. Efficient utilization of a multichannel memory as a shared resource in multiprocessor real-time systems depends on mapping of the

  18. A Prototype Lisp-Based Soft Real-Time Object-Oriented Graphical User Interface for Control System Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litt, Jonathan; Wong, Edmond; Simon, Donald L.

    1994-01-01

    A prototype Lisp-based soft real-time object-oriented Graphical User Interface for control system development is presented. The Graphical User Interface executes alongside a test system in laboratory conditions to permit observation of the closed loop operation through animation, graphics, and text. Since it must perform interactive graphics while updating the screen in real time, techniques are discussed which allow quick, efficient data processing and animation. Examples from an implementation are included to demonstrate some typical functionalities which allow the user to follow the control system's operation.

  19. Real Time Implementation of Incremental Fuzzy Logic Controller for Gas Pipeline Corrosion Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopalakrishnan Jayapalan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A robust virtual instrumentation based fuzzy incremental corrosion controller is presented to protect metallic gas pipelines. Controller output depends on error and change in error of the controlled variable. For corrosion control purpose pipe to soil potential is considered as process variable. The proposed fuzzy incremental controller is designed using a very simple control rule base and the most natural and unbiased membership functions. The proposed scheme is tested for a wide range of pipe to soil potential control. Performance comparison between the conventional proportional integral type and proposed fuzzy incremental controller is made in terms of several performance criteria such as peak overshoot, settling time, and rise time. Result shows that the proposed controller outperforms its conventional counterpart in each case. Designed controller can be taken in automode without waiting for initial polarization to stabilize. Initial startup curve of proportional integral controller and fuzzy incremental controller is reported. This controller can be used to protect any metallic structures such as pipelines, tanks, concrete structures, ship, and offshore structures.

  20. SOSPO-SP: Secure Operation of Sustainable Power Systems Simulation Platform for Real-Time System State Evaluation and Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morais, Hugo; Vancraeyveld, Pieter; Pedersen, Allan Henning Birger

    2014-01-01

    Measurement Units (PMUs) provides more information and enables wide-area monitoring with accurate timing. One of the challenges in the near future is converting the high quantity and quality of information provided by PMUs into useful knowledge about operational state of a global system. The use of real-time...... simulation in closed-loop is essential to develop and validate new real-time applications of wide-area PMU data. This paper presents a simulation platform developed within the research project Secure Operation of Sustainable Power Systems (SOSPO). The SOSPO simulation platform (SOSPO-SP) functions...... in a closed-loop, integrating new real-time assessment methods to provide useful information to operators in power system control centers and to develop new control methodologies that handle emergency situations and avoid power system blackouts....

  1. Real time magnetic field and flux measurements for tokamak control using a multi-core PCI Express system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giannone, L.; Schneider, W.; McCarthy, P.J.; Sips, A.C.C.; Treutterer, W.; Behler, K.; Eich, T.; Fuchs, J.C.; Hicks, N.; Kallenbach, A.; Maraschek, M.; Mlynek, A.; Neu, G.; Pautasso, G.; Raupp, G.; Reich, M.; Schuhbeck, K.H.; Stober, J.; Volpe, F.; Zehetbauer, T.

    2009-01-01

    The existing real time system for the position and shape control in ASDEX Upgrade has been extended to calculate magnetic flux surfaces in real time using a multi-core PCI Express system running LabVIEW RT. The availability of reflective memory for LabVIEW RT will allow this system to be connected to the control system and other diagnostics in a multi-platform real time network. The measured response of each magnetic probe to the individual poloidal field coil currents in the absence of plasma current is compared to the calculated value. Prior to a tokamak discharge this comparison can be used to check for failure of the magnetic probe, flux loop or integrator.

  2. A multi-mode real-time terrain parameter estimation method for wheeled motion control of mobile robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuankai; Ding, Liang; Zheng, Zhizhong; Yang, Qizhi; Zhao, Xingang; Liu, Guangjun

    2018-05-01

    For motion control of wheeled planetary rovers traversing on deformable terrain, real-time terrain parameter estimation is critical in modeling the wheel-terrain interaction and compensating the effect of wheel slipping. A multi-mode real-time estimation method is proposed in this paper to achieve accurate terrain parameter estimation. The proposed method is composed of an inner layer for real-time filtering and an outer layer for online update. In the inner layer, sinkage exponent and internal frictional angle, which have higher sensitivity than that of the other terrain parameters to wheel-terrain interaction forces, are estimated in real time by using an adaptive robust extended Kalman filter (AREKF), whereas the other parameters are fixed with nominal values. The inner layer result can help synthesize the current wheel-terrain contact forces with adequate precision, but has limited prediction capability for time-variable wheel slipping. To improve estimation accuracy of the result from the inner layer, an outer layer based on recursive Gauss-Newton (RGN) algorithm is introduced to refine the result of real-time filtering according to the innovation contained in the history data. With the two-layer structure, the proposed method can work in three fundamental estimation modes: EKF, REKF and RGN, making the method applicable for flat, rough and non-uniform terrains. Simulations have demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed method under three terrain types, showing the advantages of introducing the two-layer structure.

  3. Integrating GPS, GYRO, vehicle speed sensor, and digital map to provide accurate and real-time position in an intelligent navigation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qingquan; Fang, Zhixiang; Li, Hanwu; Xiao, Hui

    2005-10-01

    The global positioning system (GPS) has become the most extensively used positioning and navigation tool in the world. Applications of GPS abound in surveying, mapping, transportation, agriculture, military planning, GIS, and the geosciences. However, the positional and elevation accuracy of any given GPS location is prone to error, due to a number of factors. The applications of Global Positioning System (GPS) positioning is more and more popular, especially the intelligent navigation system which relies on GPS and Dead Reckoning technology is developing quickly for future huge market in China. In this paper a practical combined positioning model of GPS/DR/MM is put forward, which integrates GPS, Gyro, Vehicle Speed Sensor (VSS) and digital navigation maps to provide accurate and real-time position for intelligent navigation system. This model is designed for automotive navigation system making use of Kalman filter to improve position and map matching veracity by means of filtering raw GPS and DR signals, and then map-matching technology is used to provide map coordinates for map displaying. In practical examples, for illustrating the validity of the model, several experiments and their results of integrated GPS/DR positioning in intelligent navigation system will be shown for the conclusion that Kalman Filter based GPS/DR integrating position approach is necessary, feasible and efficient for intelligent navigation application. Certainly, this combined positioning model, similar to other model, can not resolve all situation issues. Finally, some suggestions are given for further improving integrated GPS/DR/MM application.

  4. Real-time corrosion monitoring of steel influenced by microbial activity (SRB) under controlled seawater injection conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kane, Russell D. [InterCorr International, Inc., 14503 Bammel N. Houston Road, Suite 300, Houston, TX 77019 (United States); Campbell, Scott [Commercial Microbiology Inc., 10400 Westoffice Drive Suite 107, Houston, TX 77042 (United States)

    2004-07-01

    An experimental study of microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) was conducted involving online, real-time monitoring of a bio-film loop under controlled conditions simulating oil field water handling and injection. Bio-film growth, MIC and biocide efficacy were monitored using an automated, multi-technique monitoring system including linear polarization resistance, electrochemical noise and harmonic distortion analysis. This data was correlated with conventional off-line methods to differentiate conditions of varying MIC activity in real-time to facilitate quick assessment and operator intervention. (authors)

  5. Controllable Ag nanostructure patterning in a microfluidic channel for real-time SERS systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leem, Juyoung; Kang, Hyun Wook; Ko, Seung Hwan; Sung, Hyung Jin

    2014-03-07

    We present a microfluidic patterning system for fabricating nanostructured Ag thin films via a polyol method. The fabricated Ag thin films can be used immediately in a real-time SERS sensing system. The Ag thin films are formed on the inner surfaces of a microfluidic channel so that a Ag-patterned Si wafer and a Ag-patterned PDMS channel are produced by the fabrication. The optimum sensing region and fabrication duration for effective SERS detection were determined. As SERS active substrates, the patterned Ag thin films exhibit an enhancement factor (EF) of 4.25 × 10(10). The Ag-patterned polymer channel was attached to a glass substrate and used as a microfluidic sensing system for the real-time monitoring of biomolecule concentrations. This microfluidic patterning system provides a low-cost process for the fabrication of materials that are useful in medical and pharmaceutical detection and can be employed in mass production.

  6. Performance evaluation of a full-scale advanced phase isolation ditch process by using real-time control strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyosoo; Kim, Yejin; Kim, Minsoo; Piao, Wenhua; Kim, Changwon; Gee, Jeasung

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes real-time control strategies that can be applied in a full-scale advanced phase isolation ditch (APID) process. Real-time operation mode control (OMC) and aeration section control (ASC) strategies were developed to cope more stably with fluctuations in the influent loading and to increase the nitrification and denitrification reactions within the entire volume. The real-time OMC and ASC strategies were evaluated using mathematical models. When the NH 4 -N in the reactor was maintained at a high level, appropriate control actions, such as continuing the aeration state, stopping the influent inflow and increasing the aeration section, were applied in the APID process. In contrast, when the NO X -N in the reactor was maintained at a high level, the non-aeration state, influent inflow, and decreased aeration section were continued. It was concluded that stable operation in the APID process could be achieved by applying real-time OMC and ASC strategies developed in this study

  7. Performance evaluation of a full-scale advanced phase isolation ditch process by using real-time control strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyosoo; Kim, Yejin; Kim, Minsoo; Piao, Wenhua; Kim, Changwon [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Gee, Jeasung [Taiwha Industrial Co. Ltd., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-15

    This paper proposes real-time control strategies that can be applied in a full-scale advanced phase isolation ditch (APID) process. Real-time operation mode control (OMC) and aeration section control (ASC) strategies were developed to cope more stably with fluctuations in the influent loading and to increase the nitrification and denitrification reactions within the entire volume. The real-time OMC and ASC strategies were evaluated using mathematical models. When the NH{sub 4}-N in the reactor was maintained at a high level, appropriate control actions, such as continuing the aeration state, stopping the influent inflow and increasing the aeration section, were applied in the APID process. In contrast, when the NO{sub X}-N in the reactor was maintained at a high level, the non-aeration state, influent inflow, and decreased aeration section were continued. It was concluded that stable operation in the APID process could be achieved by applying real-time OMC and ASC strategies developed in this study.

  8. Performance of a Nonlinear Real-Time Optimal Control System for HEVs/PHEVs during Car Following

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaijiang Yu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a real-time optimal control approach for the energy management problem of hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs with slope information during car following. The new features of this study are as follows. First, the proposed method can optimize the engine operating points and the driving profile simultaneously. Second, the proposed method gives the freedom of vehicle spacing between the preceding vehicle and the host vehicle. Third, using the HEV/PHEV property, the desired battery state of charge is designed according to the road slopes for better recuperation of free braking energy. Fourth, all of the vehicle operating modes engine charge, electric vehicle, motor assist and electric continuously variable transmission, and regenerative braking, can be realized using the proposed real-time optimal control approach. Computer simulation results are shown among the nonlinear real-time optimal control approach and the ADVISOR rule-based approach. The conclusion is that the nonlinear real-time optimal control approach is effective for the energy management problem of the HEV/PHEV system during car following.

  9. Modelling, Simulation, Animation, and Real-Time Control (Mosart) for a Class of Electromechanical Systems: A System-Theoretic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Armando A.; Metzger, Richard P.; Cifdaloz, Oguzhan; Dhirasakdanon, Thanate; Welfert, Bruno

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes an interactive modelling, simulation, animation, and real-time control (MoSART) environment for a class of 'cart-pendulum' electromechanical systems that may be used to enhance learning within differential equations and linear algebra classes. The environment is useful for conveying fundamental mathematical/systems concepts…

  10. Developing a Tool Point Control Scheme for a Hydraulic Crane Using Interactive Real-time Dynamic Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mikkel Melters; Hansen, Michael Rygaard; Ballebye, Morten

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the implementation of an interactive real-time dynamic simulation model of a hydraulic crane. The user input to the model is given continuously via joystick and output is presented continuously in a 3D animation. Using this simulation model, a tool point control scheme...... is developed for the specific crane, considering the saturation phenomena of the system and practical implementation....

  11. Forecast generation for real-time control of urban drainage systems using greybox modelling and radar rainfall

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Löwe, Roland; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen; Madsen, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    We present stochastic flow forecasts to be used in a real-time control setup for urban drainage systems. The forecasts are generated using greybox models with rain gauge and radar rainfall observations as input. Predictions are evaluated as intervals rather than just mean values. We obtain...

  12. A real-time and closed-loop control algorithm for cascaded multilevel inverter based on artificial neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Libing; Mao, Chengxiong; Wang, Dan; Lu, Jiming; Zhang, Junfeng; Chen, Xun

    2014-01-01

    In order to control the cascaded H-bridges (CHB) converter with staircase modulation strategy in a real-time manner, a real-time and closed-loop control algorithm based on artificial neural network (ANN) for three-phase CHB converter is proposed in this paper. It costs little computation time and memory. It has two steps. In the first step, hierarchical particle swarm optimizer with time-varying acceleration coefficient (HPSO-TVAC) algorithm is employed to minimize the total harmonic distortion (THD) and generate the optimal switching angles offline. In the second step, part of optimal switching angles are used to train an ANN and the well-designed ANN can generate optimal switching angles in a real-time manner. Compared with previous real-time algorithm, the proposed algorithm is suitable for a wider range of modulation index and results in a smaller THD and a lower calculation time. Furthermore, the well-designed ANN is embedded into a closed-loop control algorithm for CHB converter with variable direct voltage (DC) sources. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed closed-loop control algorithm is able to quickly stabilize load voltage and minimize the line current's THD (<5%) when subjecting the DC sources disturbance or load disturbance. In real design stage, a switching angle pulse generation scheme is proposed and experiment results verify its correctness.

  13. A Real-Time and Closed-Loop Control Algorithm for Cascaded Multilevel Inverter Based on Artificial Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libing Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to control the cascaded H-bridges (CHB converter with staircase modulation strategy in a real-time manner, a real-time and closed-loop control algorithm based on artificial neural network (ANN for three-phase CHB converter is proposed in this paper. It costs little computation time and memory. It has two steps. In the first step, hierarchical particle swarm optimizer with time-varying acceleration coefficient (HPSO-TVAC algorithm is employed to minimize the total harmonic distortion (THD and generate the optimal switching angles offline. In the second step, part of optimal switching angles are used to train an ANN and the well-designed ANN can generate optimal switching angles in a real-time manner. Compared with previous real-time algorithm, the proposed algorithm is suitable for a wider range of modulation index and results in a smaller THD and a lower calculation time. Furthermore, the well-designed ANN is embedded into a closed-loop control algorithm for CHB converter with variable direct voltage (DC sources. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed closed-loop control algorithm is able to quickly stabilize load voltage and minimize the line current’s THD (<5% when subjecting the DC sources disturbance or load disturbance. In real design stage, a switching angle pulse generation scheme is proposed and experiment results verify its correctness.

  14. A LEGO Mindstorms NXT Approach for Teaching at Data Acquisition, Control Systems Engineering and Real-Time Systems Undergraduate Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Martin, A.; Fernandez-Madrigal, J. A.; Galindo, C.; Gonzalez-Jimenez, J.; Stockmans-Daou, C.; Blanco-Claraco, J. L.

    2012-01-01

    LEGO Mindstorms NXT robots are being increasingly used in undergraduate courses, mostly in robotics-related subjects. But other engineering topics, like the ones found in data acquisition, control and real-time subjects, also have difficult concepts that can be well understood only with good lab exercises. Such exercises require physical…

  15. The response-time distribution in a real-time database with optimistic concurrency control and constant execution times

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sassen, S.A.E.; Wal, van der J.

    1997-01-01

    For a real-time shared-memory database with optimistic concurrency control, an approximation for the transaction response-time distribution is obtained. The model assumes that transactions arrive at the database according to a Poisson process, that every transaction uses an equal number of

  16. The response-time distribution in a real-time database with optimistic concurrency control and exponential execution times

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sassen, S.A.E.; Wal, van der J.

    1997-01-01

    For a real-time shared-memory database with optimistic concurrency control, an approximation for the transaction response-time distribution is obtained. The model assumes that transactions arrive at the database according to a Poisson process, that every transaction takes an exponential execution

  17. Energy Resources Intelligent Management using on line real-time simulation: A decision support tool for sustainable manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassettari, Lucia; Bendato, Ilaria; Mosca, Marco; Mosca, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A new way to manage the self production of energy from RES in manufacturing industry. • Optimization in terms of both energy costs and environmental impact (CO_2 emissions). • The use of on-line real-time Discrete Event Simulation to manage the stochasticity. • The energy production plan is dynamically suited to weather and manufacturing needs. • The test case presented highlights the effectiveness of the proposed methodology. - Abstract: At a historic time when the eco-sustainability of industrial manufacturing is considered one of the cornerstones of relations between people and the environment, the use of energy from Renewable Energy Sources (RES) has become a fundamental element of this new vision. After years of vain attempts to hammer out an agreement to significantly reduce CO_2 emissions produced by the burning of fossil fuels, a binding global accord was finally reached (Paris December 2015 - New York April 2016). As we know, however, some of the most commonly-used RES, such as solar or wind, present the problem of discontinuity in energy production due to the variability of weather and climatic conditions. For this reason, the authors thought it appropriate to study a new methodology capable of marrying industrial users’ instantaneous need for energy with the production capacity of Renewable Energy Sources, supplemented, when necessary, by energy created through self-production and possibly acquired from third-party suppliers. All of this in order to minimize CO_2 emissions and company energy costs. Given the massive presence of stochastic and sometimes aleatory elements, for the proposed energy management model we have used both Monte Carlo simulation and on-line real-time Discrete Event Simulation (DES), as well as appropriate predictive algorithms. A test conducted on a tannery located in southern Italy, equipped with a 700 KWp photovoltaic installation, showed extremely interesting results, both economically and

  18. Real-time systems

    OpenAIRE

    Badr, Salah M.; Bruztman, Donald P.; Nelson, Michael L.; Byrnes, Ronald Benton

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents an introduction to the basic issues involved in real-time systems. Both real-time operating sys and real-time programming languages are explored. Concurrent programming and process synchronization and communication are also discussed. The real-time requirements of the Naval Postgraduate School Autonomous Under Vehicle (AUV) are then examined. Autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV), hard real-time system, real-time operating system, real-time programming language, real-time sy...

  19. Performance comparison of next generation controller and MPC in real time for a SISO process with low cost DAQ unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Bagyaveereswaran

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a brief overview of real time implementation of next generation Robust, Tracking, Disturbance rejecting, Aggressive (RTDA controller and Model Predictive Control (MPC is provided. The control algorithm is implemented through MATLAB. The plant model used in controller design is obtained using system identification tool and integral response method. The controller model is developed in Simulink using jMPC tool, which will be executed in real time. The outputs obtained are tested for various constraint values to obtain the desirable results. The implementation of Hardware in Loop is done by interfacing it with MATLAB using Arduino as data acquisition unit. The performance of RTDA is compared with those of MPC and Proportional Integral controller.

  20. Intelligent control systems 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoureshi, R.

    1991-01-01

    The field of artificial intelligence (Al) has generated many useful ideas and techniques that can be integrated into the design of control systems. It is believed and, for special cases, has been demonstrated, that integration of Al into control systems would provide the necessary tools for solving many of the complex problems that present control techniques and Al algorithms are unable to do, individually. However, this integration requires the development of basic understanding and new fundamentals to provide scientific bases for achievement of its potential. This book presents an overview of some of the latest research studies in the area of intelligent control systems. These papers present techniques for formulation of intelligent control, and development of the rule-based control systems. Papers present applications of control systems in nuclear power plants and HVAC systems

  1. COMDES-II: A Component-Based Framework for Generative Development of Distributed Real-Time Control Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ke, Xu; Sierszecki, Krzysztof; Angelov, Christo K.

    2007-01-01

    The paper presents a generative development methodology and component models of COMDES-II, a component-based software framework for distributed embedded control systems with real-time constraints. The adopted methodology allows for rapid modeling and validation of control software at a higher lev...... methodology for COMDES-II from a general perspective, describes the component models in details and demonstrates their application through a DC-Motor control system case study.......The paper presents a generative development methodology and component models of COMDES-II, a component-based software framework for distributed embedded control systems with real-time constraints. The adopted methodology allows for rapid modeling and validation of control software at a higher level...

  2. Real-Time Management and Control of a Bus Public Transport Network: The STCP Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Freire Sousa

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available STCP is the main bus operator in the Porto Metropolitan Area. The experimental phase of using fleet tracking and management systems fitted on public transport vehicles began in the late eighties, but only in 2002 the current system (SAEI covered all the buses of the company. Nowadays, these systems are integral company management systems. In this paper, the experience of the past six years or so is presented. The main reasons for the use of such systems are detailed, the architecture and functionalities are described and the importance of accessing real-time information together with subsequent analysis of the data obtained is underlined.

  3. Determination of the plasma position for its real-time control in the COMPASS tokamak

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janky, Filip; Havlíček, Josef; Valcárcel, D.; Hron, Martin; Horáček, Jan; Kudláček, O.; Pánek, Radomír; Carvalho, B.B.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 86, 6-8 (2011), s. 1120-1124 ISSN 0920-3796. [Symposium of Fusion Technology (SOFT-26). Porto, 27.09.2010-01.10.2010] R&D Projects: GA ČR GD202/08/H057 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Real-time * Plasma position * Feedback Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.490, year: 2011 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0920379611001554

  4. Model Predictive Control application for real time operation of controlled structures for the Water Authority Noorderzijlvest, The Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Heeringen, Klaas-Jan; Gooijer, Jan; Knot, Floris; Talsma, Jan

    2015-04-01

    In the Netherlands, flood protection has always been a key issue to protect settlements against storm surges and riverine floods. Whereas flood protection traditionally focused on structural measures, nowadays the availability of meteorological and hydrological forecasts enable the application of more advanced real-time control techniques for operating the existing hydraulic infrastructure in an anticipatory and more efficient way. Model Predictive Control (MPC) is a powerful technique to derive optimal control variables with the help of model based predictions evaluated against a control objective. In a project for the regional water authority Noorderzijlvest in the north of the Netherlands, it has been shown that MPC can increase the safety level of the system during flood events by an anticipatory pre-release of water. Furthermore, energy costs of pumps can be reduced by making tactical use of the water storage and shifting pump activities during normal operating conditions to off-peak hours. In this way cheap energy is used in combination of gravity flow through gates during low tide periods. MPC has now been implemented for daily operational use of the whole water system of the water authority Noorderzijlvest. The system developed to a real time decision support system which not only supports the daily operation but is able to directly implement the optimal control settings at the structures. We explain how we set-up and calibrated a prediction model (RTC-Tools) that is accurate and fast enough for optimization purposes, and how we integrated it in the operational flood early warning system (Delft-FEWS). Beside the prediction model, the weights and the factors of the objective function are an important element of MPC, since they shape the control objective. We developed special features in Delft-FEWS to allow the operators to adjust the objective function in order to meet changing requirements and to evaluate different control strategies.

  5. Comparison of control systems for the optimisation of ice storage in a dynamic real time electricity pricing environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, M.D.; O’Mahony, M.J.; Upton, J.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A cold thermal energy storage system model was created and validated. • Pseudo real time electricity pricing was derived to represent the smart grid. • A demand side management optimisation algorithm was developed. • Demand side management algorithm performance was compared to a standard controller. • Overall the demand side management algorithm produced modest cost savings. - Abstract: The objective of this study was to assess the benefits of introducing a demand side management optimisation controller to a cold thermal storage ice bank. This controller consisted of an ice bank model, an air temperature forecast model and an optimisation algorithm. The financial and grid utilisation benefits produced by implementation of this controller over the current state of the art in ice bank load shifting control was tested in a day ahead real time electricity pricing forecast environment. This hypothetical real time electricity price was based on the cost of electricity in the Irish wholesale market. Multiple ice bank charge levels were simulated in order to quantify the performance of two control methods for varying operating conditions. First, the “standard controller” was based on the current modus operandi for ice bank systems where ice was generated for food cooling at night when the off-peak electricity tariff is available (00:00–08:00 h). Second, the “upgraded controller” was developed as a bespoke Demand Side Management control system for food refrigeration in a future electricity pricing environment. It consisted of a dual function load shifting optimisation algorithm, an ice bank model, and a predictive air temperature model. A preliminary study was also carried out to test the robustness of the controller’s performance in an uncertain real time electricity pricing forecast scenario. Both economic and grid management benefits were found by simulating the operation of the cold thermal storage load shifting controller in a

  6. Intelligent Lighting Control System

    OpenAIRE

    García, Elena; Rodríguez González, Sara; de Paz Santana, Juan F.; Bajo Pérez, Javier

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an adaptive architecture that allows centralized control of public lighting and intelligent management, in order to economise on lighting and maintain maximum comfort status of the illuminated areas. To carry out this management, architecture merges various techniques of artificial intelligence (AI) and statistics such as artificial neural networks (ANN), multi-agent systems (MAS), EM algorithm, methods based on ANOVA and a Service Oriented Aproach (SOA). It performs optim...

  7. Real-time data acquisition and control system for the 349-pixel TACTIC atmospheric Cherenkov imaging telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yadav, K.K.; Koul, R.; Kanda, A.; Kaul, S.R.; Tickoo, A.K. E-mail: aktickoo@apsara.barc.ernet.in; Rannot, R.C.; Chandra, P.; Bhatt, N.; Chouhan, N.; Venugopal, K.; Kothari, M.; Goyal, H.C.; Dhar, V.K.; Kaul, S.K

    2004-07-21

    An interrupt-based multinode data acquisition and control system has been developed for the imaging element of the TACTIC {gamma}-ray telescope. The system which has been designed around a 3-node network of PCs running the QNX real-time operating system, provides single-point control with elaborate GUI facilities for operating the multi-pixel camera of the telescope. In addition to acquiring data from the 349-pixel photomultiplier tube based imaging camera in real time, the system also provides continuous monitoring and control of several vital parameters of the telescope for ensuring the quality of the data. The paper describes the salient features of the hardware and software of the data acquisition and control system of the telescope.

  8. Design and Validation of Real-Time Optimal Control with ECMS to Minimize Energy Consumption for Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiyun Gao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A real-time optimal control of parallel hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs with the equivalent consumption minimization strategy (ECMS is presented in this paper, whose purpose is to achieve the total equivalent fuel consumption minimization and to maintain the battery state of charge (SOC within its operation range at all times simultaneously. Vehicle and assembly models of PHEVs are established, which provide the foundation for the following calculations. The ECMS is described in detail, in which an instantaneous cost function including the fuel energy and the electrical energy is proposed, whose emphasis is the computation of the equivalent factor. The real-time optimal control strategy is designed through regarding the minimum of the total equivalent fuel consumption as the control objective and the torque split factor as the control variable. The validation of the control strategy proposed is demonstrated both in the MATLAB/Simulink/Advisor environment and under actual transportation conditions by comparing the fuel economy, the charge sustainability, and parts performance with other three control strategies under different driving cycles including standard, actual, and real-time road conditions. Through numerical simulations and real vehicle tests, the accuracy of the approach used for the evaluation of the equivalent factor is confirmed, and the potential of the proposed control strategy in terms of fuel economy and keeping the deviations of SOC at a low level is illustrated.

  9. Real-time control and data-acquisition system for high-energy neutral-beam injectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glad, A.S.; Jacobson, V.

    1981-12-01

    The need for a real-time control system and a data acquisition, processing and archiving system operating in parallel on the same computer became a requirement on General Atomic's Doublet III fusion energy project with the addition of high energy neutral beam injectors. The data acquisition processing and archiving system is driven from external events and is sequenced through each experimental shot utilizing ModComp's intertask message service. This system processes, archives and displays on operator console CRTs all physics diagnostic data related to the neutral beam injectores such as temperature, beam alignment, etc. The real-time control system is data base driven and provides periodic monitoring and control of the numerous dynamic subsystems of the neutral beam injectors such as power supplies, timing, water cooling, etc

  10. A hybrid condenser model for real-time applications in performance monitoring, control and optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Xudong; Cai Wenjian; Jia Lei; Wen Changyun; Zhang Guiqing

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, a simple, yet accurate hybrid modeling technique for condensers is presented. The method starts with fundamental physical principles but captures only few key operational characteristic parameters to predict the system performances. The advantages of the methods lie that linear or non-linear least-squares methods can be directly used to determine no more than four key operational characteristic parameters in the model, which can significantly reduce the computational burden. The developed model is verified with the experimental data taken from a pilot system. The testing results confirm that the proposed model can predict accurately the performance of the real-time operating condenser with the maximum error of less than ±10%. The model technique proposed will have wide applications not only in condenser operating optimization, but also in performance assessment and fault detection and diagnosis.

  11. Real-time software use in nuclear materials handling criticality safety control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, S.; Lappa, D.; Chiao, T.; Parrish, C.; Carlson, R.; Lewis, J.; Shikany, D.; Woo, H.

    1997-01-01

    This paper addresses the use of real-time software to assist handlers of fissionable nuclear material. We focus specifically on the issue of workstation mass limits, and the need for handlers to be aware of, and check against, those mass limits during material transfers. Here ''mass limits'' generally refer to criticality safety mass limits; however, in some instances, workstation mass limits for some materials may be governed by considerations other than criticality, e.g., fire or release consequence limitation. As a case study, we provide a simplified reliability comparison of the use of a manual two handler system with a software-assisted two handler system. We identify the interface points between software and handlers that are relevant to criticality safety

  12. Distribution Locational Real-Time Pricing Based Smart Building Control and Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hao, Jun; Dai, Xiaoxiao; Zhang, Yingchen; Zhang, Jun; Gao, Wenzhong

    2016-11-21

    This paper proposes an real-virtual parallel computing scheme for smart building operations aiming at augmenting overall social welfare. The University of Denver's campus power grid and Ritchie fitness center is used for demonstrating the proposed approach. An artificial virtual system is built in parallel to the real physical system to evaluate the overall social cost of the building operation based on the social science based working productivity model, numerical experiment based building energy consumption model and the power system based real-time pricing mechanism. Through interactive feedback exchanged between the real and virtual system, enlarged social welfare, including monetary cost reduction and energy saving, as well as working productivity improvements, can be achieved.

  13. A real-time brain-machine interface combining motor target and trajectory intent using an optimal feedback control design.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam M Shanechi

    Full Text Available Real-time brain-machine interfaces (BMI have focused on either estimating the continuous movement trajectory or target intent. However, natural movement often incorporates both. Additionally, BMIs can be modeled as a feedback control system in which the subject modulates the neural activity to move the prosthetic device towards a desired target while receiving real-time sensory feedback of the state of the movement. We develop a novel real-time BMI using an optimal feedback control design that jointly estimates the movement target and trajectory of monkeys in two stages. First, the target is decoded from neural spiking activity before movement initiation. Second, the trajectory is decoded by combining the decoded target with the peri-movement spiking activity using an optimal feedback control design. This design exploits a recursive Bayesian decoder that uses an optimal feedback control model of the sensorimotor system to take into account the intended target location and the sensory feedback in its trajectory estimation from spiking activity. The real-time BMI processes the spiking activity directly using point process modeling. We implement the BMI in experiments consisting of an instructed-delay center-out task in which monkeys are presented with a target location on the screen during a delay period and then have to move a cursor to it without touching the incorrect targets. We show that the two-stage BMI performs more accurately than either stage alone. Correct target prediction can compensate for inaccurate trajectory estimation and vice versa. The optimal feedback control design also results in trajectories that are smoother and have lower estimation error. The two-stage decoder also performs better than linear regression approaches in offline cross-validation analyses. Our results demonstrate the advantage of a BMI design that jointly estimates the target and trajectory of movement and more closely mimics the sensorimotor control system.

  14. Core stabilization exercise with real-time feedback for chronic hemiparetic stroke: a pilot randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Eunjung; Lee, Byoung-Hee; Hwang, Sujin

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the feasibility of core stabilization exercise with real-time feedback on balance and gait function in patients with chronic hemiparetic stroke. Nineteen stroke subjects were enrolled in this study. The patients were randomly divided into the experimental (n = 10) and control groups (n = 9). Subjects in the experimental group performed core stabilization exercise with real-time feedback training for 30 minutes per day during a period of six weeks. Subjects in the control group performed core stabilization exercise during the same period. This study assessed the kinematic parameters using a portable walkway system, and timed up-and-go test. Gait velocity showed significantly greater improvement in the experimental group (7.3 ± 5.0 sec) than in the control group (-0.7 ± 10.6). Stride length showed significantly greater increase in the experimental group (13.2 ± 7.9 on the affected side and 12.6 ± 8.0 on the less affected side) than the control group (3.5 ± 8.7 on the affected side and 3.4 ± 8.5 on the less affected side). After training, change in results on the timed up and go test was significantly greater in the experimental group than in the control group. Core stabilization exercise using real-time feedback produces greater improvement in gait performance in chronic hemiparetic stroke patients than core stabilization exercise only.

  15. Upgrades and Real Time Ntm Control Application of the Ece Radiometer on Asdex Upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, N. K.; Suttrop, W.; Behler, K.; Giannone, L.; Manini, A.; Maraschek, M.; Raupp, G.; Reich, M.; Sips, A. C. C.; Stober, J.; Treutterer, W.; ASDEX Upgrade Team; Cirant, S.

    2009-04-01

    The 60-channel electron cyclotron emission (ECE) radiometer diagnostic on the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak is presently being upgraded to include a 1 MHz sampling rate data acquisition system. This expanded capability allows electron temperature measurements up to 500 kHz (anti-aliasing filter cut-off) with spatial resolution ~1 cm, and will thus provide measurement of plasma phenomena on the MHD timescale, such as neoclassical tearing modes (NTMs). The upgraded and existing systems may be run in parallel for comparison, and some of the first plasma measurements using the two systems together are presented. A particular planned application of the upgraded radiometer is integration into a real-time NTM stabilization loop using targeted deposition of electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH). For this loop, it is necessary to determine the locations of the NTM and ECRH deposition using ECE measurements. As the magnetic island of the NTM repeatedly rotates through the ECE line of sight, electron temperature fluctuations at the NTM frequency are observed. The magnetic perturbation caused by the NTM is independently measured using Mirnov coils, and a correlation profile between these magnetic measurements and the ECE data is constructed. The phase difference between ECE oscillations on opposite sides of the island manifests as a zero-crossing of the correlation profile, which determines the NTM location in ECE channel space. To determine the location of ECRH power deposition, the power from a given gyrotron may be modulated at a particular frequency. Correlation analysis of this modulated signal and the ECE data identifies a particular ECE channel associated with the deposition of that gyrotron. Real time equilibrium reconstruction allows the ECE channels to be translated into flux surface and spatial coordinates for use in the feedback loop.

  16. Design of a 1 _s real-time low-noise data acquisition for power converters control loop

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)712364; Arpaia, Pasquale; Cerqueira Bastos, Miguel; Martino, Michele

    2015-01-01

    The proof of principle of a real-time data acquisition system to be integrated into a digital control loop for controlling the power converters of the Compact LInear Collider is presented. The system is based on an ultra low noise analogue front-end with 1:1 ppm RMS noise (referred to input), and about 1 _s of real-time delay. After the analogue conditioning, a fully-differential analogue-todigital converter is foreseen. The requirements of this system, directly derived from the accelerator performance, are discussed and translated into design specification. The results obtained by means of Pspice simulations are reported in order to prove that the design is feasible with the proposed architecture. Finally, the results of the experimental validation of the prototype, currently under design, will be included in the final paper.

  17. The driving and controlling techniques of compactPCI bus in VxWorks real-time operating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Anzong; Ju Xiaodong; Qiao Wenxiao

    2005-01-01

    CompactPCI bus and interface featuring, the content and function of PCI configuration register are introduced herein. The driving and controlling techniques of CompactPCI bus in VxWorks real-time operating system are detailed. Hardware interrupt handling is one of key significance in real-time systems, because it is usually through interrupts that the system is informed of external events. VxWorks allows C functions to be connected to any interrupt. A routine connected to an interrupt in this way is called an interrupt service routine (ISR). For response of interrupt, interrupt control/status register of PCI 9054 interface chip needs to be set. The general-purpose binary semaphore used in ISR is capable of addressing the requirements of both forms of task coordination: mutual exclusion and synchronization. Therefore, the system runs stably and reliably. (authors)

  18. Redundant and fault-tolerant algorithms for real-time measurement and control systems for weapon equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dan; Hu, Xiaoguang

    2017-03-01

    Because of the high availability requirements from weapon equipment, an in-depth study has been conducted on the real-time fault-tolerance of the widely applied Compact PCI (CPCI) bus measurement and control system. A redundancy design method that uses heartbeat detection to connect the primary and alternate devices has been developed. To address the low successful execution rate and relatively large waste of time slices in the primary version of the task software, an improved algorithm for real-time fault-tolerant scheduling is proposed based on the Basic Checking available time Elimination idle time (BCE) algorithm, applying a single-neuron self-adaptive proportion sum differential (PSD) controller. The experimental validation results indicate that this system has excellent redundancy and fault-tolerance, and the newly developed method can effectively improve the system availability. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Real-time determination of magnetic island location for neoclassical tearing mode control in DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Y S; Welander, A S

    2006-01-01

    Accurate measurement of island location is crucial for efficient suppression of the neoclassical tearing mode by electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD). In the control system on DIII-D the contour of the resonant q-surface is measured in real time based on real-time magnetohydrodynamic reconstructions, EFITs, that include motional Stark effect measurements of pitch angle in the analysis. A new method for determination of the radial position of the q-surface using a 40 channel electron cyclotron emission radiometer has been developed. This method analyses localized temperature fluctuations caused by motion of the island and can be used by the plasma control system as a complementary measurement of the radial position of the q-surface contour for faster and more accurate alignment of the ECCD

  20. Real-Time Wavelet-Based Coordinated Control of Hybrid Energy Storage Systems for Denoising and Flattening Wind Power Output

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tran Thai Trung

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Since the penetration level of wind energy is continuously increasing, the negative impact caused by the fluctuation of wind power output needs to be carefully managed. This paper proposes a novel real-time coordinated control algorithm based on a wavelet transform to mitigate both short-term and long-term fluctuations by using a hybrid energy storage system (HESS. The short-term fluctuation is eliminated by using an electric double-layer capacitor (EDLC, while the wind-HESS system output is kept constant during each 10-min period by a Ni-MH battery (NB. State-of-charge (SOC control strategies for both EDLC and NB are proposed to maintain the SOC level of storage within safe operating limits. A ramp rate limitation (RRL requirement is also considered in the proposed algorithm. The effectiveness of the proposed algorithm has been tested by using real time simulation. The simulation model of the wind-HESS system is developed in the real-time digital simulator (RTDS/RSCAD environment. The proposed algorithm is also implemented as a user defined model of the RSCAD. The simulation results demonstrate that the HESS with the proposed control algorithm can indeed assist in dealing with the variation of wind power generation. Moreover, the proposed method shows better performance in smoothing out the fluctuation and managing the SOC of battery and EDLC than the simple moving average (SMA based method.

  1. Real-Time Gesture-Controlled Physical Modelling Music Synthesis with Tactile Feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Howard

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Electronic sound synthesis continues to offer huge potential possibilities for the creation of new musical instruments. The traditional approach is, however, seriously limited in that it incorporates only auditory feedback and it will typically make use of a sound synthesis model (e.g., additive, subtractive, wavetable, and sampling that is inherently limited and very often nonintuitive to the musician. In a direct attempt to challenge these issues, this paper describes a system that provides tactile as well as acoustic feedback, with real-time synthesis that invokes a more intuitive response from players since it is based upon mass-spring physical modelling. Virtual instruments are set up via a graphical user interface in terms of the physical properties of basic well-understood sounding objects such as strings, membranes, and solids. These can be interconnected to form complex integrated structures. Acoustic excitation can be applied at any point mass via virtual bowing, plucking, striking, specified waveform, or from any external sound source. Virtual microphones can be placed at any point masses to deliver the acoustic output. These aspects of the instrument are described along with the nature of the resulting acoustic output.

  2. Real-time control of tearing modes using a line-of-sight electron cyclotron emission diagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hennen, B A; Westerhof, E; De Baar, M R; Bongers, W A; Thoen, D J; Nuij, P W J M; Steinbuch, M; Oosterbeek, J W; Buerger, A

    2010-01-01

    The stability and performance of tokamak plasmas are limited by instabilities such as neoclassical tearing modes. This paper reports on an experimental proof of principle of a feedback control approach for real-time, autonomous suppression and stabilization of tearing modes in a tokamak. The system combines an electron cyclotron emission diagnostic for sensing of the tearing modes in the same sight line with a steerable electron cyclotron resonance heating and current drive (ECRH/ECCD) antenna. A methodology for fast detection of q = m/n = 2/1 tearing modes and retrieval of their location, rotation frequency and phase is presented. Set-points to establish alignment of the ECRH/ECCD deposition location with the centre of the tearing mode are generated in real time and forwarded in closed loop to the steerable launcher and as a modulation pulse train to the gyrotron. Experimental results demonstrate the capability of the control system to track externally perturbed tearing modes in real time.

  3. QC-ART: A tool for real-time quality control assessment of mass spectrometry-based proteomics data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanfill, Bryan A; Nakayasu, Ernesto S; Bramer, Lisa M; Thompson, Allison M; Ansong, Charles K; Clauss, Therese; Gritsenko, Marina A; Monroe, Matthew E; Moore, Ronald J; Orton, Daniel J; Piehowski, Paul D; Schepmoes, Athena A; Smith, Richard D; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo; Metz, Thomas O; TEDDY Study Group, The Environmental Determinants Of Diabetes In The Young

    2018-04-17

    Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS)-based proteomics studies of large sample cohorts can easily require from months to years to complete. Acquiring consistent, high-quality data in such large-scale studies is challenging because of normal variations in instrumentation performance over time, as well as artifacts introduced by the samples themselves, such as those due to collection, storage and processing. Existing quality control methods for proteomics data primarily focus on post-hoc analysis to remove low-quality data that would degrade downstream statistics; they are not designed to evaluate the data in near real-time, which would allow for interventions as soon as deviations in data quality are detected.  In addition to flagging analyses that demonstrate outlier behavior, evaluating how the data structure changes over time can aide in understanding typical instrument performance or identify issues such as a degradation in data quality due to the need for instrument cleaning and/or re-calibration.  To address this gap for proteomics, we developed Quality Control Analysis in Real-Time (QC-ART), a tool for evaluating data as they are acquired in order to dynamically flag potential issues with instrument performance or sample quality.  QC-ART has similar accuracy as standard post-hoc analysis methods with the additional benefit of real-time analysis.  We demonstrate the utility and performance of QC-ART in identifying deviations in data quality due to both instrument and sample issues in near real-time for LC-MS-based plasma proteomics analyses of a sample subset of The Environmental Determinants of Diabetes in the Young cohort. We also present a case where QC-ART facilitated the identification of oxidative modifications, which are often underappreciated in proteomic experiments. Published under license by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  4. A Real-Time Accurate Model and Its Predictive Fuzzy PID Controller for Pumped Storage Unit via Error Compensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianzhong Zhou

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Model simulation and control of pumped storage unit (PSU are essential to improve the dynamic quality of power station. Only under the premise of the PSU models reflecting the actual transient process, the novel control method can be properly applied in the engineering. The contributions of this paper are that (1 a real-time accurate equivalent circuit model (RAECM of PSU via error compensation is proposed to reconcile the conflict between real-time online simulation and accuracy under various operating conditions, and (2 an adaptive predicted fuzzy PID controller (APFPID based on RAECM is put forward to overcome the instability of conventional control under no-load conditions with low water head. Respectively, all hydraulic factors in pipeline system are fully considered based on equivalent lumped-circuits theorem. The pretreatment, which consists of improved Suter-transformation and BP neural network, and online simulation method featured by two iterative loops are synthetically proposed to improve the solving accuracy of the pump-turbine. Moreover, the modified formulas for compensating error are derived with variable-spatial discretization to improve the accuracy of the real-time simulation further. The implicit RadauIIA method is verified to be more suitable for PSUGS owing to wider stable domain. Then, APFPID controller is constructed based on the integration of fuzzy PID and the model predictive control. Rolling prediction by RAECM is proposed to replace rolling optimization with its computational speed guaranteed. Finally, the simulation and on-site measurements are compared to prove trustworthy of RAECM under various running conditions. Comparative experiments also indicate that APFPID controller outperforms other controllers in most cases, especially low water head conditions. Satisfying results of RAECM have been achieved in engineering and it provides a novel model reference for PSUGS.

  5. A comparison study of two different control criteria for the real-time management of urban groundwater works.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauser, G; Hendricks Franssen, Harrie-Jan; Stauffer, Fritz; Kaiser, Hans-Peter; Kuhlmann, U; Kinzelbach, W

    2012-08-30

    We present the comparison of two control criteria for the real-time management of a water well field. The criteria were used to simulate the operation of the Hardhof well field in the city of Zurich, Switzerland. This well field is threatened by diffuse pollution in the subsurface of the surrounding city area. The risk of attracting pollutants is higher if the pumping rates in four horizontal wells are increased, and can be reduced by increasing artificial recharge in several recharge basins and infiltration wells or by modifying the artificial recharge distribution. A three-dimensional finite elements flow model was built for the Hardhof site. The first control criterion used hydraulic head differences (Δh-criterion) to control the management of the well field and the second criterion used a path line method (%s-criterion) to control the percentage of inflowing water from the city area. Both control methods adapt the allocation of artificial recharge (AR) for given pumping rates in time. The simulation results show that (1) historical management decisions were less effective compared to the optimal control according to the two different criteria and (2) the distribution of artificial recharge calculated with the two control criteria also differ from each other with the %s-criterion giving better results compared to the Δh-criterion. The recharge management with the %s-criterion requires a smaller amount of water to be recharged. The ratio between average artificial recharge and average abstraction is 1.7 for the Δh-criterion and 1.5 for the %s-criterion. Both criteria were tested online. The methodologies were extended to a real-time control method using the Ensemble Kalman Filter method for assimilating 87 online available groundwater head measurements to update the model in real-time. The results of the operational implementation are also satisfying in regard of a reduced risk of well contamination. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Real-Time Distribution Feeder Performance Monitoring, Advisory Control, and Health Management System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoupis, James; Mousavi, Mirrasoul

    2014-09-30

    New data collection system equipment was installed in Xcel Energy substations and data was collected from 6 substations and 20 feeders. During Phase I, ABB collected and analyzed 793 real-time events to date from 6 Xcel Energy substations and continues today. The development and integration of several applications was completed during the course of this project, including a model-based faulted segment identification algorithm, with very positive results validated with field-gathered data discussed and included in this report. For mostly underground feeders, the success rate is 90% and the overreach rate is 90%. For mostly overhead feeders, the success rate is 74% and the overreach rate is 50%. The developed method is producing very accurate results for mostly underground feeders. For mostly overhead feeders, due to the bad OMS data quality and varying fault resistance when arcing, the developed method is producing good results but with much room for improvement. One area where the algorithm can be improved is the accuracy for sub-cycle fault events. In these cases, the accuracy of the conventional signal processing methods suffers due to most of these methods being based on a one-cycle processing window. By improving the signal processing accuracy, the accuracy of the faulted segment identification algorithm will also improve significantly. ABB intends to devote research in this area in the near future to help solve this problem. Other new applications developed during the course of the project include volt/VAR monitoring, unbalanced capacitor switching detection, unbalanced feeder loading detection, and feeder overloading detection. An important aspect of the demonstration phase of the project is to show the ability to provide adequate “heads-up” time ahead of customer calls or AMI reports so that the operators are provided with the much needed time to collect information needed to address an outage. The advance notification feature of the demonstration system

  7. Intelligent Flow Control Valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Anthony R (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention is an intelligent flow control valve which may be inserted into the flow coming out of a pipe and activated to provide a method to stop, measure, and meter flow coming from the open or possibly broken pipe. The intelligent flow control valve may be used to stop the flow while repairs are made. Once repairs have been made, the valve may be removed or used as a control valve to meter the amount of flow from inside the pipe. With the addition of instrumentation, the valve may also be used as a variable area flow meter and flow controller programmed based upon flowing conditions. With robotic additions, the valve may be configured to crawl into a desired pipe location, anchor itself, and activate flow control or metering remotely.

  8. High throughput detection of Coxiella burnetii by real-time PCR with internal control system and automated DNA preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kramme Stefanie

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coxiella burnetii is the causative agent of Q-fever, a widespread zoonosis. Due to its high environmental stability and infectivity it is regarded as a category B biological weapon agent. In domestic animals infection remains either asymptomatic or presents as infertility or abortion. Clinical presentation in humans can range from mild flu-like illness to acute pneumonia and hepatitis. Endocarditis represents the most common form of chronic Q-fever. In humans serology is the gold standard for diagnosis but is inadequate for early case detection. In order to serve as a diagnostic tool in an eventual biological weapon attack or in local epidemics we developed a real-time 5'nuclease based PCR assay with an internal control system. To facilitate high-throughput an automated extraction procedure was evaluated. Results To determine the minimum number of copies that are detectable at 95% chance probit analysis was used. Limit of detection in blood was 2,881 copies/ml [95%CI, 2,188–4,745 copies/ml] with a manual extraction procedure and 4,235 copies/ml [95%CI, 3,143–7,428 copies/ml] with a fully automated extraction procedure, respectively. To demonstrate clinical application a total of 72 specimens of animal origin were compared with respect to manual and automated extraction. A strong correlation between both methods was observed rendering both methods suitable. Testing of 247 follow up specimens of animal origin from a local Q-fever epidemic rendered real-time PCR more sensitive than conventional PCR. Conclusion A sensitive and thoroughly evaluated real-time PCR was established. Its high-throughput mode may show a useful approach to rapidly screen samples in local outbreaks for other organisms relevant for humans or animals. Compared to a conventional PCR assay sensitivity of real-time PCR was higher after testing samples from a local Q-fever outbreak.

  9. Agent Based Distributed Control of Islanded Microgrid - Real-Time Cyber-Physical Implementation

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Tung Lam; Tran, Quoc-Tuan; Caire, Raphael; Gavriluta, Catalin; Nguyen, Van Hoa

    2017-01-01

    In the hierarchical control of an islanded microgrid, secondary control could be centralized or distributed. The former control strategy has several disadvantages, such as single point of failure at the level of the central controller as well as high investment of communication infrastructure. In this paper a three-layer architecture of distributed control is given, including the device layer, the control layer as well as the agent layer. The agent layer is a multi-agent system in which each ...

  10. An intelligent CPIB controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wikne, J.C.

    1987-12-01

    An intelligent GPIB (General Purpose Interface Bus) controller is described. It employs an autonomous slave CPU together with a dedicated controller/talker/listener chip to handle the GPIB bus protocol, thus freeing the host computer from this time-consuming task. Distribution of a large part of the necessary software to the slave side, assures that the system can be implemented on virtually any computer with a minimum of effort

  11. Automatic intelligent cruise control

    OpenAIRE

    Stanton, NA; Young, MS

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports a study on the evaluation of automatic intelligent cruise control (AICC) from a psychological perspective. It was anticipated that AICC would have an effect upon the psychology of driving—namely, make the driver feel like they have less control, reduce the level of trust in the vehicle, make drivers less situationally aware, but might reduce the workload and make driving might less stressful. Drivers were asked to drive in a driving simulator under manual and automatic inte...

  12. A control-oriented real-time semi-empirical model for the prediction of NOx emissions in diesel engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D’Ambrosio, Stefano; Finesso, Roberto; Fu, Lezhong; Mittica, Antonio; Spessa, Ezio

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • New semi-empirical correlation to predict NOx emissions in diesel engines. • Based on a real-time three-zone diagnostic combustion model. • The model is of fast application, and is therefore suitable for control-oriented applications. - Abstract: The present work describes the development of a fast control-oriented semi-empirical model that is capable of predicting NOx emissions in diesel engines under steady state and transient conditions. The model takes into account the maximum in-cylinder burned gas temperature of the main injection, the ambient gas-to-fuel ratio, the mass of injected fuel, the engine speed and the injection pressure. The evaluation of the temperature of the burned gas is based on a three-zone real-time diagnostic thermodynamic model that has recently been developed by the authors. Two correlations have also been developed in the present study, in order to evaluate the maximum burned gas temperature during the main combustion phase (derived from the three-zone diagnostic model) on the basis of significant engine parameters. The model has been tuned and applied to two diesel engines that feature different injection systems of the indirect acting piezoelectric, direct acting piezoelectric and solenoid type, respectively, over a wide range of steady-state operating conditions. The model has also been validated in transient operation conditions, over the urban and extra-urban phases of an NEDC. It has been shown that the proposed approach is capable of improving the predictive capability of NOx emissions, compared to previous approaches, and is characterized by a very low computational effort, as it is based on a single-equation correlation. It is therefore suitable for real-time applications, and could also be integrated in the engine control unit for closed-loop or feed-forward control tasks

  13. A CORBA-Based Control Architecture for Real-Time Teleoperation Tasks in a Developmental Humanoid Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanafiah Yussof

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the development of new Humanoid Robot Control Architecture (HRCA platform based on Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA in a developmental biped humanoid robot for real-time teleoperation tasks. The objective is to make the control platform open for collaborative teleoperation research in humanoid robotics via the internet. Meanwhile, to generate optimal trajectory generation in bipedal walk, we proposed a real time generation of optimal gait by using Genetic Algorithms (GA to minimize the energy for humanoid robot gait. In addition, we proposed simplification of kinematical solutions to generate controlled trajectories of humanoid robot legs in teleoperation tasks. The proposed control systems and strategies was evaluated in teleoperation experiments between Australia and Japan using humanoid robot Bonten-Maru. Additionally, we have developed a user-friendly Virtual Reality (VR user interface that is composed of ultrasonic 3D mouse system and a Head Mounted Display (HMD for working coexistence of human and humanoid robot in teleoperation tasks. The teleoperation experiments show good performance of the proposed system and control, and also verified the good performance for working coexistence of human and humanoid robot.

  14. Requirements for implementing real-time control functional modules on a hierarchical parallel pipelined system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheatley, Thomas E.; Michaloski, John L.; Lumia, Ronald

    1989-01-01

    Analysis of a robot control system leads to a broad range of processing requirements. One fundamental requirement of a robot control system is the necessity of a microcomputer system in order to provide sufficient processing capability.The use of multiple processors in a parallel architecture is beneficial for a number of reasons, including better cost performance, modular growth, increased reliability through replication, and flexibility for testing alternate control strategies via different partitioning. A survey of the progression from low level control synchronizing primitives to higher level communication tools is presented. The system communication and control mechanisms of existing robot control systems are compared to the hierarchical control model. The impact of this design methodology on the current robot control systems is explored.

  15. Selection of internal control genes for quantitative real-time RT-PCR studies during tomato development process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borges-Pérez Andrés

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The elucidation of gene expression patterns leads to a better understanding of biological processes. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR has become the standard method for in-depth studies of gene expression. A biologically meaningful reporting of target mRNA quantities requires accurate and reliable normalization in order to identify real gene-specific variation. The purpose of normalization is to control several variables such as different amounts and quality of starting material, variable enzymatic efficiencies of retrotranscription from RNA to cDNA, or differences between tissues or cells in overall transcriptional activity. The validity of a housekeeping gene as endogenous control relies on the stability of its expression level across the sample panel being analysed. In the present report we describe the first systematic evaluation of potential internal controls during tomato development process to identify which are the most reliable for transcript quantification by real-time RT-PCR. Results In this study, we assess the expression stability of 7 traditional and 4 novel housekeeping genes in a set of 27 samples representing different tissues and organs of tomato plants at different developmental stages. First, we designed, tested and optimized amplification primers for real-time RT-PCR. Then, expression data from each candidate gene were evaluated with three complementary approaches based on different statistical procedures. Our analysis suggests that SGN-U314153 (CAC, SGN-U321250 (TIP41, SGN-U346908 ("Expressed" and SGN-U316474 (SAND genes provide superior transcript normalization in tomato development studies. We recommend different combinations of these exceptionally stable housekeeping genes for suited normalization of different developmental series, including the complete tomato development process. Conclusion This work constitutes the first effort for the selection of optimal endogenous controls for quantitative real-time

  16. Integrated real time control of influent pumping station and primary settling tanks at WWTP Eindhoven

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Daal-Rombouts, P.M.M.; de Jonge, J; Langeveld, J.G.; Clemens, F.H.L.R.

    2016-01-01

    This research deals with the design and implementation of an integrated control for the WWTP of Eindhoven. The control influences the operation of the primary settling tanks and influent pumping station to reduce reduce ammonia peaks in the WWTP effluent. The control takes into account the treatment

  17. Predictive control of irrigation canals – robust design and real-time implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aguilar, José V.; Langarita, Pedro; Rodellar, José; Linares, Lorenzo; Horváth, K.

    2016-01-01

    Predictive control is one of the most commonly used control methods in a variety of application areas, including hydraulic processes such as water distribution canals for irrigation. This article presents the design and application of predictive control for the water discharge entering into an