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Sample records for intelligent memory device

  1. PIYAS-Proceeding to Intelligent Service Oriented Memory Allocation for Flash Based Data Centric Sensor Devices in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanam Shahla Rizvi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Flash memory has become a more widespread storage medium for modern wireless devices because of its effective characteristics like non-volatility, small size, light weight, fast access speed, shock resistance, high reliability and low power consumption. Sensor nodes are highly resource constrained in terms of limited processing speed, runtime memory, persistent storage, communication bandwidth and finite energy. Therefore, for wireless sensor networks supporting sense, store, merge and send schemes, an efficient and reliable file system is highly required with consideration of sensor node constraints. In this paper, we propose a novel log structured external NAND flash memory based file system, called Proceeding to Intelligent service oriented memorY Allocation for flash based data centric Sensor devices in wireless sensor networks (PIYAS. This is the extended version of our previously proposed PIYA [1]. The main goals of the PIYAS scheme are to achieve instant mounting and reduced SRAM space by keeping memory mapping information to a very low size of and to provide high query response throughput by allocation of memory to the sensor data by network business rules. The scheme intelligently samples and stores the raw data and provides high in-network data availability by keeping the aggregate data for a longer period of time than any other scheme has done before. We propose effective garbage collection and wear-leveling schemes as well. The experimental results show that PIYAS is an optimized memory management scheme allowing high performance for wireless sensor networks.

  2. PIYAS-proceeding to intelligent service oriented memory allocation for flash based data centric sensor devices in wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizvi, Sanam Shahla; Chung, Tae-Sun

    2010-01-01

    Flash memory has become a more widespread storage medium for modern wireless devices because of its effective characteristics like non-volatility, small size, light weight, fast access speed, shock resistance, high reliability and low power consumption. Sensor nodes are highly resource constrained in terms of limited processing speed, runtime memory, persistent storage, communication bandwidth and finite energy. Therefore, for wireless sensor networks supporting sense, store, merge and send schemes, an efficient and reliable file system is highly required with consideration of sensor node constraints. In this paper, we propose a novel log structured external NAND flash memory based file system, called Proceeding to Intelligent service oriented memorY Allocation for flash based data centric Sensor devices in wireless sensor networks (PIYAS). This is the extended version of our previously proposed PIYA [1]. The main goals of the PIYAS scheme are to achieve instant mounting and reduced SRAM space by keeping memory mapping information to a very low size of and to provide high query response throughput by allocation of memory to the sensor data by network business rules. The scheme intelligently samples and stores the raw data and provides high in-network data availability by keeping the aggregate data for a longer period of time than any other scheme has done before. We propose effective garbage collection and wear-leveling schemes as well. The experimental results show that PIYAS is an optimized memory management scheme allowing high performance for wireless sensor networks.

  3. Nanoscale memory devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Andy; Deen, Jamal; Lee, Jeong-Soo; Meyyappan, M

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews the current status and future prospects for the use of nanomaterials and devices in memory technology. First, the status and continuing scaling trends of the flash memory are discussed. Then, a detailed discussion on technologies trying to replace flash in the near-term is provided. This includes phase change random access memory, Fe random access memory and magnetic random access memory. The long-term nanotechnology prospects for memory devices include carbon-nanotube-based memory, molecular electronics and memristors based on resistive materials such as TiO 2 . (topical review)

  4. Static memory devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2012-01-01

    A semiconductor memory device includes n-wells (22) and p-wells (24) used to make up a plurality of memory cell elements (40). The n-wells (22) and p-5 wells (24) can be back-biased to improve reading and writing performance. One of the n-wells and p-wells can be globally biased while the other one

  5. Smoothing type buffer memory device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podorozhnyj, D.M.; Yashin, I.V.

    1990-01-01

    The layout of the micropower 4-bit smoothing type buffer memory device allowing one to record without counting the sequence of input randomly distributed pulses in multi-channel devices with serial poll, is given. The power spent by a memory cell for one binary digit recording is not greater than 0.15 mW, the device dead time is 10 mus

  6. Nonvolatile Memory Materials for Neuromorphic Intelligent Machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Doo Seok; Hwang, Cheol Seong

    2018-04-18

    Recent progress in deep learning extends the capability of artificial intelligence to various practical tasks, making the deep neural network (DNN) an extremely versatile hypothesis. While such DNN is virtually built on contemporary data centers of the von Neumann architecture, physical (in part) DNN of non-von Neumann architecture, also known as neuromorphic computing, can remarkably improve learning and inference efficiency. Particularly, resistance-based nonvolatile random access memory (NVRAM) highlights its handy and efficient application to the multiply-accumulate (MAC) operation in an analog manner. Here, an overview is given of the available types of resistance-based NVRAMs and their technological maturity from the material- and device-points of view. Examples within the strategy are subsequently addressed in comparison with their benchmarks (virtual DNN in deep learning). A spiking neural network (SNN) is another type of neural network that is more biologically plausible than the DNN. The successful incorporation of resistance-based NVRAM in SNN-based neuromorphic computing offers an efficient solution to the MAC operation and spike timing-based learning in nature. This strategy is exemplified from a material perspective. Intelligent machines are categorized according to their architecture and learning type. Also, the functionality and usefulness of NVRAM-based neuromorphic computing are addressed. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Higher Social Intelligence Can Impair Source Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Sarah J.; Franklin, Nancy; Naka, Makiko; Yoshimura, Hiroki

    2010-01-01

    Source monitoring is made difficult when the similarity between candidate sources increases. The current work examines how individual differences in social intelligence and perspective-taking abilities serve to increase source similarity and thus negatively impact source memory. Strangers first engaged in a cooperative storytelling task. On each…

  8. Learning, working memory, and intelligence revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamez, Elaine; Myerson, Joel; Hale, Sandra

    2008-06-01

    Based on early findings showing low correlations between intelligence test scores and learning on laboratory tasks, psychologists typically have dismissed the role of learning in intelligence and emphasized the role of working memory instead. In 2006, however, B.A. Williams developed a verbal learning task inspired by three-term reinforcement contingencies and reported unexpectedly high correlations between this task and Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices (RAPM) scores [Williams, B.A., Pearlberg, S.L., 2006. Learning of three-term contingencies correlates with Raven scores, but not with measures of cognitive processing. Intelligence 34, 177-191]. The present study replicated this finding: Performance on the three-term learning task explained almost 25% of the variance in RAPM scores. Adding complex verbal working memory span, measured using the operation span task, did not improve prediction. Notably, this was not due to a lack of correlation between complex working memory span and RAPM scores. Rather, it occurred because most of the variance captured by the complex working memory span was already accounted for by the three-term learning task. Taken together with the findings of Williams and Pearlberg, the present results make a strong case for the role of learning in performance on intelligence tests.

  9. Intelligence, Working Memory, and Multitasking Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colom, Roberto; Martinez-Molina, Agustin; Shih, Pei Chun; Santacreu, Jose

    2010-01-01

    Multitasking performance is relevant in everyday life and job analyses highlight the influence of multitasking over several diverse occupations. Intelligence is the best single predictor of overall job performance and it is also related to individual differences in multitasking. However, it has been shown that working memory capacity (WMC) is…

  10. Selective attention, working memory, and animal intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzel, Louis D; Kolata, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that the storage and processing capabilities of the human working memory system co-vary with individuals' performance on a wide range of cognitive tasks. The ubiquitous nature of this relationship suggests that variations in these processes may underlie individual differences in intelligence. Here we briefly review relevant data which supports this view. Furthermore, we emphasize an emerging literature describing a trait in genetically heterogeneous mice that is quantitatively and qualitatively analogous to general intelligence (g) in humans. As in humans, this animal analog of g co-varies with individual differences in both storage and processing components of the working memory system. Absent some of the complications associated with work with human subjects (e.g., phonological processing), this work with laboratory animals has provided an opportunity to assess otherwise intractable hypotheses. For instance, it has been possible in animals to manipulate individual aspects of the working memory system (e.g., selective attention), and to observe causal relationships between these variables and the expression of general cognitive abilities. This work with laboratory animals has coincided with human imaging studies (briefly reviewed here) which suggest that common brain structures (e.g., prefrontal cortex) mediate the efficacy of selective attention and the performance of individuals on intelligence test batteries. In total, this evidence suggests an evolutionary conservation of the processes that co-vary with and/or regulate "intelligence" and provides a framework for promoting these abilities in both young and old animals.

  11. Fast, Capacious Disk Memory Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Ronald M.

    1990-01-01

    Device for recording digital data on, and playing back data from, memory disks has high recording or playback rate and utilizes available recording area more fully. Two disks, each with own reading/writing head, used to record data at same time. Head on disk A operates on one of tracks numbered from outside in; head on disk B operates on track of same number in sequence from inside out. Underlying concept of device applicable to magnetic or optical disks.

  12. Compression in Working Memory and Its Relationship With Fluid Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chekaf, Mustapha; Gauvrit, Nicolas; Guida, Alessandro; Mathy, Fabien

    2018-06-01

    Working memory has been shown to be strongly related to fluid intelligence; however, our goal is to shed further light on the process of information compression in working memory as a determining factor of fluid intelligence. Our main hypothesis was that compression in working memory is an excellent indicator for studying the relationship between working-memory capacity and fluid intelligence because both depend on the optimization of storage capacity. Compressibility of memoranda was estimated using an algorithmic complexity metric. The results showed that compressibility can be used to predict working-memory performance and that fluid intelligence is well predicted by the ability to compress information. We conclude that the ability to compress information in working memory is the reason why both manipulation and retention of information are linked to intelligence. This result offers a new concept of intelligence based on the idea that compression and intelligence are equivalent problems. Copyright © 2018 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  13. Memory Based Machine Intelligence Techniques in VLSI hardware

    OpenAIRE

    James, Alex Pappachen

    2012-01-01

    We briefly introduce the memory based approaches to emulate machine intelligence in VLSI hardware, describing the challenges and advantages. Implementation of artificial intelligence techniques in VLSI hardware is a practical and difficult problem. Deep architectures, hierarchical temporal memories and memory networks are some of the contemporary approaches in this area of research. The techniques attempt to emulate low level intelligence tasks and aim at providing scalable solutions to high ...

  14. From silicon to organic nanoparticle memory devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsoukalas, D

    2009-10-28

    After introducing the operational principle of nanoparticle memory devices, their current status in silicon technology is briefly presented in this work. The discussion then focuses on hybrid technologies, where silicon and organic materials have been combined together in a nanoparticle memory device, and finally concludes with the recent development of organic nanoparticle memories. The review is focused on the nanoparticle memory concept as an extension of the current flash memory device. Organic nanoparticle memories are at a very early stage of research and have not yet found applications. When this happens, it is expected that they will not directly compete with mature silicon technology but will find their own areas of application.

  15. Organic Nonvolatile Memory Devices Based on Ferroelectricity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naber, Ronald C. G.; Asadi, Kamal; Blom, Paul W. M.; de Leeuw, Dago M.; de Boer, Bert

    2010-01-01

    A memory functionality is a prerequisite for many applications of electronic devices. Organic nonvolatile memory devices based on ferroelectricity are a promising approach toward the development of a low-cost memory technology. In this Review Article we discuss the latest developments in this area

  16. Organic nonvolatile memory devices based on ferroelectricity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naber, R.C.G.; Asadi, K.; Blom, P.W.M.; Leeuw, D.M. de; Boer, B. de

    2010-01-01

    A memory functionality is a prerequisite for many applications of electronic devices. Organic nonvolatile memory devices based on ferroelectricity are a promising approach toward the development of a low-cost memory technology. In this Review Article we discuss the latest developments in this area

  17. 2nd International Conference on Intelligent Computing, Communication & Devices

    CERN Document Server

    Popentiu-Vladicescu, Florin

    2017-01-01

    The book presents high quality papers presented at 2nd International Conference on Intelligent Computing, Communication & Devices (ICCD 2016) organized by Interscience Institute of Management and Technology (IIMT), Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India, during 13 and 14 August, 2016. The book covers all dimensions of intelligent sciences in its three tracks, namely, intelligent computing, intelligent communication and intelligent devices. intelligent computing track covers areas such as intelligent and distributed computing, intelligent grid and cloud computing, internet of things, soft computing and engineering applications, data mining and knowledge discovery, semantic and web technology, hybrid systems, agent computing, bioinformatics, and recommendation systems. Intelligent communication covers communication and network technologies, including mobile broadband and all optical networks that are the key to groundbreaking inventions of intelligent communication technologies. This covers communication hardware, soft...

  18. FPGA Based Intelligent Co-operative Processor in Memory Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Zaki; Sotudeh, Reza; Hussain, Dil Muhammad Akbar

    2011-01-01

    benefits of PIM, a concept of Co-operative Intelligent Memory (CIM) was developed by the intelligent system group of University of Hertfordshire, based on the previously developed Co-operative Pseudo Intelligent Memory (CPIM). This paper provides an overview on previous works (CPIM, CIM) and realization......In a continuing effort to improve computer system performance, Processor-In-Memory (PIM) architecture has emerged as an alternative solution. PIM architecture incorporates computational units and control logic directly on the memory to provide immediate access to the data. To exploit the potential...

  19. 1st International Conference on Intelligent Computing, Communication and Devices

    CERN Document Server

    Patnaik, Srikanta; Ichalkaranje, Nikhil

    2015-01-01

    In the history of mankind, three revolutions which impact the human life are the tool-making revolution, agricultural revolution and industrial revolution. They have transformed not only the economy and civilization but the overall development of the society. Probably, intelligence revolution is the next revolution, which the society will perceive in the next 10 years. ICCD-2014 covers all dimensions of intelligent sciences, i.e. Intelligent Computing, Intelligent Communication and Intelligent Devices. This volume covers contributions from Intelligent Communication which are from the areas such as Communications and Wireless Ad Hoc & Sensor Networks, Speech & Natural Language Processing, including Signal, Image and Video Processing and Mobile broadband and Optical networks, which are the key to the ground-breaking inventions to intelligent communication technologies. Secondly, Intelligent Device is any type of equipment, instrument, or machine that has its own computing capability. Contributions from ...

  20. Time temperature indicators as devices intelligent packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Pavelková

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Food packaging is an important part of food production. Temperature is a one of crucial factor which affecting the quality and safety of food products during distribution, transport and storage. The one way of control of food quality and safety is the application of new packaging systems, which also include the intelligent or smart packaging. Intelligent packaging is a packaging system using different indicators for monitoring the conditions of production, but in particular the conditions during transport and storage. Among these indicators include the time-temperature indicators to monitor changes in temperature, which is exposed the product and to inform consumers about the potential risks associated with consumption of these products. Time temperature indicators are devices that show an irreversible change in a physical characteristic, usually color or shape, in response to temperature history. Some are designed to monitor the evolution of temperature with time along the distribution chain and others are designed to be used in the consumer packages.

  1. Shape memory polymer medical device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maitland, Duncan [Pleasant Hill, CA; Benett, William J [Livermore, CA; Bearinger, Jane P [Livermore, CA; Wilson, Thomas S [San Leandro, CA; Small, IV, Ward; Schumann, Daniel L [Concord, CA; Jensen, Wayne A [Livermore, CA; Ortega, Jason M [Pacifica, CA; Marion, III, John E.; Loge, Jeffrey M [Stockton, CA

    2010-06-29

    A system for removing matter from a conduit. The system includes the steps of passing a transport vehicle and a shape memory polymer material through the conduit, transmitting energy to the shape memory polymer material for moving the shape memory polymer material from a first shape to a second and different shape, and withdrawing the transport vehicle and the shape memory polymer material through the conduit carrying the matter.

  2. New Content Addressable Memory (CAM) Technologies for Big Data and Intelligent Electronics Enabled by Magneto-Electric Ternary CAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-11

    AFRL-RY-WP-TR-2017-0198 NEW CONTENT ADDRESSABLE MEMORY (CAM) TECHNOLOGIES FOR BIG DATA AND INTELLIGENT ELECTRONICS ENABLED BY MAGNETO-ELECTRIC...MEMORY (CAM) TECHNOLOGIES FOR BIG DATA AND INTELLIGENT ELECTRONICS ENABLED BY MAGNETO-ELECTRIC TERNARY CAM 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA8650-16-1-7655 5b... electronic applications, such as internet of things, big data, wireless sensors, and mobile devices, have begun to focus on the importance of energy

  3. Projected phase-change memory devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koelmans, Wabe W; Sebastian, Abu; Jonnalagadda, Vara Prasad; Krebs, Daniel; Dellmann, Laurent; Eleftheriou, Evangelos

    2015-09-03

    Nanoscale memory devices, whose resistance depends on the history of the electric signals applied, could become critical building blocks in new computing paradigms, such as brain-inspired computing and memcomputing. However, there are key challenges to overcome, such as the high programming power required, noise and resistance drift. Here, to address these, we present the concept of a projected memory device, whose distinguishing feature is that the physical mechanism of resistance storage is decoupled from the information-retrieval process. We designed and fabricated projected memory devices based on the phase-change storage mechanism and convincingly demonstrate the concept through detailed experimentation, supported by extensive modelling and finite-element simulations. The projected memory devices exhibit remarkably low drift and excellent noise performance. We also demonstrate active control and customization of the programming characteristics of the device that reliably realize a multitude of resistance states.

  4. Intelligent Memory Module Overcomes Harsh Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Radiation Tolerant Intelligent Memory Stack (RTIMS).

  5. Failure of Working Memory Training to Enhance Cognition or Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Todd W.; Waskom, Michael L.; Garel, Keri-Lee A.; Cardenas-Iniguez, Carlos; Reynolds, Gretchen O.; Winter, Rebecca; Chang, Patricia; Pollard, Kiersten; Lala, Nupur; Alvarez, George A.; Gabrieli, John D. E.

    2013-01-01

    Fluid intelligence is important for successful functioning in the modern world, but much evidence suggests that fluid intelligence is largely immutable after childhood. Recently, however, researchers have reported gains in fluid intelligence after multiple sessions of adaptive working memory training in adults. The current study attempted to replicate and expand those results by administering a broad assessment of cognitive abilities and personality traits to young adults who underwent 20 sessions of an adaptive dual n-back working memory training program and comparing their post-training performance on those tests to a matched set of young adults who underwent 20 sessions of an adaptive attentional tracking program. Pre- and post-training measurements of fluid intelligence, standardized intelligence tests, speed of processing, reading skills, and other tests of working memory were assessed. Both training groups exhibited substantial and specific improvements on the trained tasks that persisted for at least 6 months post-training, but no transfer of improvement was observed to any of the non-trained measurements when compared to a third untrained group serving as a passive control. These findings fail to support the idea that adaptive working memory training in healthy young adults enhances working memory capacity in non-trained tasks, fluid intelligence, or other measures of cognitive abilities. PMID:23717453

  6. Failure of working memory training to enhance cognition or intelligence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd W Thompson

    Full Text Available Fluid intelligence is important for successful functioning in the modern world, but much evidence suggests that fluid intelligence is largely immutable after childhood. Recently, however, researchers have reported gains in fluid intelligence after multiple sessions of adaptive working memory training in adults. The current study attempted to replicate and expand those results by administering a broad assessment of cognitive abilities and personality traits to young adults who underwent 20 sessions of an adaptive dual n-back working memory training program and comparing their post-training performance on those tests to a matched set of young adults who underwent 20 sessions of an adaptive attentional tracking program. Pre- and post-training measurements of fluid intelligence, standardized intelligence tests, speed of processing, reading skills, and other tests of working memory were assessed. Both training groups exhibited substantial and specific improvements on the trained tasks that persisted for at least 6 months post-training, but no transfer of improvement was observed to any of the non-trained measurements when compared to a third untrained group serving as a passive control. These findings fail to support the idea that adaptive working memory training in healthy young adults enhances working memory capacity in non-trained tasks, fluid intelligence, or other measures of cognitive abilities.

  7. Working memory and intelligibility of hearing-aid processed speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Pamela E.; Arehart, Kathryn H.; Shen, Jing; Anderson, Melinda; Kates, James M.

    2015-01-01

    Previous work suggested that individuals with low working memory capacity may be at a disadvantage in adverse listening environments, including situations with background noise or substantial modification of the acoustic signal. This study explored the relationship between patient factors (including working memory capacity) and intelligibility and quality of modified speech for older individuals with sensorineural hearing loss. The modification was created using a combination of hearing aid processing [wide-dynamic range compression (WDRC) and frequency compression (FC)] applied to sentences in multitalker babble. The extent of signal modification was quantified via an envelope fidelity index. We also explored the contribution of components of working memory by including measures of processing speed and executive function. We hypothesized that listeners with low working memory capacity would perform more poorly than those with high working memory capacity across all situations, and would also be differentially affected by high amounts of signal modification. Results showed a significant effect of working memory capacity for speech intelligibility, and an interaction between working memory, amount of hearing loss and signal modification. Signal modification was the major predictor of quality ratings. These data add to the literature on hearing-aid processing and working memory by suggesting that the working memory-intelligibility effects may be related to aggregate signal fidelity, rather than to the specific signal manipulation. They also suggest that for individuals with low working memory capacity, sensorineural loss may be most appropriately addressed with WDRC and/or FC parameters that maintain the fidelity of the signal envelope. PMID:25999874

  8. Working memory training may increase working memory capacity but not fluid intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Tyler L; Shipstead, Zach; Hicks, Kenny L; Hambrick, David Z; Redick, Thomas S; Engle, Randall W

    2013-12-01

    Working memory is a critical element of complex cognition, particularly under conditions of distraction and interference. Measures of working memory capacity correlate positively with many measures of real-world cognition, including fluid intelligence. There have been numerous attempts to use training procedures to increase working memory capacity and thereby performance on the real-world tasks that rely on working memory capacity. In the study reported here, we demonstrated that training on complex working memory span tasks leads to improvement on similar tasks with different materials but that such training does not generalize to measures of fluid intelligence.

  9. A potential spatial working memory training task to improve both episodic memory and fluid intelligence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah R Rudebeck

    Full Text Available One current challenge in cognitive training is to create a training regime that benefits multiple cognitive domains, including episodic memory, without relying on a large battery of tasks, which can be time-consuming and difficult to learn. By giving careful consideration to the neural correlates underlying episodic and working memory, we devised a computerized working memory training task in which neurologically healthy participants were required to monitor and detect repetitions in two streams of spatial information (spatial location and scene identity presented simultaneously (i.e. a dual n-back paradigm. Participants' episodic memory abilities were assessed before and after training using two object and scene recognition memory tasks incorporating memory confidence judgments. Furthermore, to determine the generalizability of the effects of training, we also assessed fluid intelligence using a matrix reasoning task. By examining the difference between pre- and post-training performance (i.e. gain scores, we found that the trainers, compared to non-trainers, exhibited a significant improvement in fluid intelligence after 20 days. Interestingly, pre-training fluid intelligence performance, but not training task improvement, was a significant predictor of post-training fluid intelligence improvement, with lower pre-training fluid intelligence associated with greater post-training gain. Crucially, trainers who improved the most on the training task also showed an improvement in recognition memory as captured by d-prime scores and estimates of recollection and familiarity memory. Training task improvement was a significant predictor of gains in recognition and familiarity memory performance, with greater training improvement leading to more marked gains. In contrast, lower pre-training recollection memory scores, and not training task improvement, led to greater recollection memory performance after training. Our findings demonstrate that practice

  10. P300 correlates with learning & memory abilities and fluid intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Hafeez Ullah; Malik, Aamir Saeed; Kamel, Nidal; Chooi, Weng-Tink; Hussain, Muhammad

    2015-09-23

    Educational psychology research has linked fluid intelligence with learning and memory abilities and neuroimaging studies have specifically associated fluid intelligence with event related potentials (ERPs). The objective of this study is to find the relationship of ERPs with learning and memory recall and predict the memory recall score using P300 (P3) component. A sample of thirty-four healthy subjects between twenty and thirty years of age was selected to perform three tasks: (1) Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices (RAPM) test to assess fluid intelligence; (2) learning and memory task to assess learning ability and memory recall; and (3) the visual oddball task to assess brain-evoked potentials. These subjects were divided into High Ability (HA) and Low Ability (LA) groups based on their RAPM scores. A multiple regression analysis was used to predict the learning & memory recall and fluid intelligence using P3 amplitude and latency. Behavioral results demonstrated that the HA group learned and recalled 10.89 % more information than did the LA group. ERP results clearly showed that the P3 amplitude of the HA group was relatively larger than that observed in the LA group for both the central and parietal regions of the cerebrum; particularly during the 300-400 ms time window. In addition, a shorter latency for the P3 component was observed at Pz site for the HA group compared to the LA group. These findings agree with previous educational psychology and neuroimaging studies which reported an association between ERPs and fluid intelligence as well as learning performance. These results also suggest that the P3 component is associated with individual differences in learning and memory recall and further indicate that P3 amplitude might be used as a supporting factor in standard psychometric tests to assess an individual's learning & memory recall ability; particularly in educational institutions to aid in the predictability of academic skills.

  11. A Latent Variable Analysis of Working Memory Capacity, Short-Term Memory Capacity, Processing Speed, and General Fluid Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Andrew R. A.; Cowan, Nelsin; Bunting, Michael F.; Therriault, David J.; Minkoff, Scott R. B.

    2002-01-01

    Studied the interrelationships among general fluid intelligence, short-term memory capacity, working memory capacity, and processing speed in 120 young adults and used structural equation modeling to determine the best predictor of general fluid intelligence. Results suggest that working memory capacity, but not short-term memory capacity or…

  12. Combating Memory Corruption Attacks On Scada Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellettini, Carlo; Rrushi, Julian

    Memory corruption attacks on SCADA devices can cause significant disruptions to control systems and the industrial processes they operate. However, despite the presence of numerous memory corruption vulnerabilities, few, if any, techniques have been proposed for addressing the vulnerabilities or for combating memory corruption attacks. This paper describes a technique for defending against memory corruption attacks by enforcing logical boundaries between potentially hostile data and safe data in protected processes. The technique encrypts all input data using random keys; the encrypted data is stored in main memory and is decrypted according to the principle of least privilege just before it is processed by the CPU. The defensive technique affects the precision with which attackers can corrupt control data and pure data, protecting against code injection and arc injection attacks, and alleviating problems posed by the incomparability of mitigation techniques. An experimental evaluation involving the popular Modbus protocol demonstrates the feasibility and efficiency of the defensive technique.

  13. Resistively heated shape memory polymer device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marion, III, John E.; Bearinger, Jane P.; Wilson, Thomas S.; Maitland, Duncan J.

    2017-09-05

    A resistively heated shape memory polymer device is made by providing a rod, sheet or substrate that includes a resistive medium. The rod, sheet or substrate is coated with a first shape memory polymer providing a coated intermediate unit. The coated intermediate unit is in turn coated with a conductive material providing a second intermediate unit. The second coated intermediate unit is in turn coated with an outer shape memory polymer. The rod, sheet or substrate is exposed and an electrical lead is attached to the rod, sheet or substrate. The conductive material is exposed and an electrical lead is attached to the conductive material.

  14. Resistively heated shape memory polymer device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marion, III, John E.; Bearinger, Jane P.; Wilson, Thomas S.; Maitland, Duncan J.

    2016-10-25

    A resistively heated shape memory polymer device is made by providing a rod, sheet or substrate that includes a resistive medium. The rod, sheet or substrate is coated with a first shape memory polymer providing a coated intermediate unit. The coated intermediate unit is in turn coated with a conductive material providing a second intermediate unit. The second coated intermediate unit is in turn coated with an outer shape memory polymer. The rod, sheet or substrate is exposed and an electrical lead is attached to the rod, sheet or substrate. The conductive material is exposed and an electrical lead is attached to the conductive material.

  15. Decay of Iconic Memory Traces Is Related to Psychometric Intelligence: A Fixed-Links Modeling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Robert; Rammsayer, Thomas H.; Schweizer, Karl; Troche, Stefan J.

    2010-01-01

    Several memory processes have been examined regarding their relation to psychometric intelligence with the exception of sensory memory. This study examined the relation between decay of iconic memory traces, measured with a partial-report task, and psychometric intelligence, assessed with the Berlin Intelligence Structure test, in 111…

  16. In-Memory Business Intelligence: Concepts and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rantung, V. P.; Kembuan, O.; Rompas, P. T. D.; Mewengkang, A.; Liando, O. E. S.; Sumayku, J.

    2018-02-01

    This research aims to discuss in-memory Business Intelligent (BI) and to model the business analysis questions to know the performance of the in-memory BI. By using, the Qlickview application found BI dashboards that easily accessed and modified. The dashboards are developed together using an agile development approach such as pre-study, planning, iterative execution, implementation, and evaluation. At the end, this research helping analyzer in choosing a right implementation for BI solution.

  17. Working memory and intelligibility of hearing-aid processed speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela eSouza

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Previous work suggested that individuals with low working memory capacity may be at a disadvantage in adverse listening environments, including situations with background noise or substantial modification of the acoustic signal. This study explored the relationship between patient factors (including working memory capacity and intelligibility and quality of modified speech for older individuals with sensorineural hearing loss. The modification was created using a combination of hearing aid processing (wide-dynamic range compression and frequency compression applied to sentences in multitalker babble. The extent of signal modification was quantified via an envelope fidelity index. We also explored the contribution of components of working memory by including measures of processing speed and executive function. We hypothesized that listeners with low working memory capacity would perform more poorly than those with high working memory capacity across all situations, and would also be differentially affected by high amounts of signal modification. Results showed a significant effect of working memory capacity for speech intelligibility, and an interaction between working memory, amount of hearing loss and signal modification. Signal modification was the major predictor of quality ratings. These data add to the literature on hearing-aid processing and working memory by suggesting that the working memory-intelligibility effects may be related to aggregate signal fidelity, rather than on the specific signal manipulation. They also suggest that for individuals with low working memory capacity, sensorineural loss may be most appropriately addressed with wide-dynamic range compression and/or frequency compression parameters that maintain the fidelity of the signal envelope.

  18. Working Memory Capacity and Fluid Intelligence: Maintenance and Disengagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipstead, Zach; Harrison, Tyler L; Engle, Randall W

    2016-11-01

    Working memory capacity and fluid intelligence have been demonstrated to be strongly correlated traits. Typically, high working memory capacity is believed to facilitate reasoning through accurate maintenance of relevant information. In this article, we present a proposal reframing this issue, such that tests of working memory capacity and fluid intelligence are seen as measuring complementary processes that facilitate complex cognition. Respectively, these are the ability to maintain access to critical information and the ability to disengage from or block outdated information. In the realm of problem solving, high working memory capacity allows a person to represent and maintain a problem accurately and stably, so that hypothesis testing can be conducted. However, as hypotheses are disproven or become untenable, disengaging from outdated problem solving attempts becomes important so that new hypotheses can be generated and tested. From this perspective, the strong correlation between working memory capacity and fluid intelligence is due not to one ability having a causal influence on the other but to separate attention-demanding mental functions that can be contrary to one another but are organized around top-down processing goals. © The Author(s) 2016.

  19. 1st International Conference on Intelligent Communication, Control and Devices

    CERN Document Server

    Choudhury, Sushabhan

    2017-01-01

    The book presents high-quality research papers presented at the first international conference, ICICCD 2016, organised by the Department of Electronics, Instrumentation and Control Engineering of University of Petroleum and Energy Studies, Dehradun on 2nd and 3rd April, 2016. The book is broadly divided into three sections: Intelligent Communication, Intelligent Control and Intelligent Devices. The areas covered under these sections are wireless communication and radio technologies, optical communication, communication hardware evolution, machine-to-machine communication networks, routing techniques, network analytics, network applications and services, satellite and space communications, technologies for e-communication, wireless Ad-Hoc and sensor networks, communications and information security, signal processing for communications, communication software, microwave informatics, robotics and automation, optimization techniques and algorithms, intelligent transport, mechatronics system, guidance and navigat...

  20. Multimedia techniques for device and ambient intelligence: A continuing endeavor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, Egon

    2011-01-01

    The edited volume "Multimedia techniques for device and ambient intelligence" consists of two parts: i) an introduction to a variety of basic low level image processing techniques, leaving aside other modalities, and ii) work on high level, knowledge based processing, including interesting chapters

  1. Secure data exchange between intelligent devices and computing centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naqvi, Syed; Riguidel, Michel

    2005-03-01

    The advent of reliable spontaneous networking technologies (commonly known as wireless ad-hoc networks) has ostensibly raised stakes for the conception of computing intensive environments using intelligent devices as their interface with the external world. These smart devices are used as data gateways for the computing units. These devices are employed in highly volatile environments where the secure exchange of data between these devices and their computing centers is of paramount importance. Moreover, their mission critical applications require dependable measures against the attacks like denial of service (DoS), eavesdropping, masquerading, etc. In this paper, we propose a mechanism to assure reliable data exchange between an intelligent environment composed of smart devices and distributed computing units collectively called 'computational grid'. The notion of infosphere is used to define a digital space made up of a persistent and a volatile asset in an often indefinite geographical space. We study different infospheres and present general evolutions and issues in the security of such technology-rich and intelligent environments. It is beyond any doubt that these environments will likely face a proliferation of users, applications, networked devices, and their interactions on a scale never experienced before. It would be better to build in the ability to uniformly deal with these systems. As a solution, we propose a concept of virtualization of security services. We try to solve the difficult problems of implementation and maintenance of trust on the one hand, and those of security management in heterogeneous infrastructure on the other hand.

  2. Radiation-Tolerant Intelligent Memory Stack - RTIMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Tak-kwong; Herath, Jeffrey A.

    2011-01-01

    This innovation provides reconfigurable circuitry and 2-Gb of error-corrected or 1-Gb of triple-redundant digital memory in a small package. RTIMS uses circuit stacking of heterogeneous components and radiation shielding technologies. A reprogrammable field-programmable gate array (FPGA), six synchronous dynamic random access memories, linear regulator, and the radiation mitigation circuits are stacked into a module of 42.7 42.7 13 mm. Triple module redundancy, current limiting, configuration scrubbing, and single- event function interrupt detection are employed to mitigate radiation effects. The novel self-scrubbing and single event functional interrupt (SEFI) detection allows a relatively soft FPGA to become radiation tolerant without external scrubbing and monitoring hardware

  3. Intelligent device management in the selfcare marketplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biniaris, Christos G; Marsh, Andrew J

    2008-01-01

    Over the last ten years the Internet has emerged as a key infrastructure for service innovation, enabling IP (Internet Protocol) to become the wide area network communication protocol of choice. The natural result of this choice is that service providers and their customers are looking for ways to optimise costs by migrating existing services and applications onto IP as well. A good example is the medical industry, which is transitioning to Internet-based communications as the field of telemedicine broadens to preventative and self healthcare. However, technology is changing quickly and consumers face an array of choices to satisfy their healthcare needs with numerous devices from different vendors. Seamless healthcare device networking can play a major role in automating and safeguarding the process of collecting and transferring medical data, remote patient monitoring and reducing costs through remote equipment monitoring. In this scope, we describe an approach augmenting the Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) with healthcare services in order to form a framework for efficient collection and storage of measurements, aiming to address the issues of the lack of a standardised data interface for consumer healthcare technologies (including hardware and protocols) and the lack of a standardised format for self-collected healthcare data (including the storage medium). In this framework, measurements can be seamlessly collected and stored as XML notes located virtually anywhere, such as the user's home or mobile device. Additionally, these notes can be accessed locally or remotely by doctors and specialists. Also, we discuss how this approach supports user mobility by proxying and redirecting requests to the user's current location and how it can remove the complexity of using consumer healthcare technologies from different vendors connected to different devices and the opportunities for Independent Software Vendors to develop additional services.

  4. Working Memory Training Does Not Improve Intelligence in Healthy Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chooi, Weng-Tink; Thompson, Lee A.

    2012-01-01

    Jaeggi and her colleagues claimed that they were able to improve fluid intelligence by training working memory. Subjects who trained their working memory on a dual n-back task for a period of time showed significant improvements in working memory span tasks and fluid intelligence tests such as the Raven's Progressive Matrices and the Bochumer…

  5. Evaluating the relation between memory and intelligence in children with learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoerig, Dianne C; David, Andrew S; D'Amato, Rik Carl

    2002-12-01

    Although both intelligence tests and memory tests are commonly used in neuropsychological examinations, the relationship between memory and intelligence has not been fully explored, particularly for children having learning disabilities. Memory, or the ability to retain information, was evaluated using the Test of Memory and Learning, a recently released test that gives a comprehensive measure of global memory functioning. This, and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition, used to assess intelligence, were given to 80 students with learning disabilities. The correlation between a global measure of memory and a global measure f intelligence was significant (r = .59), indicating that memory should be viewed as an important component when evaluating children with learning disabilities.

  6. Intelligent structures based on the improved activation of shape memory polymers using Peltier cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Díaz Lantada, Andrés; Lafont Morgado, Pilar; Muñoz Sanz, José Luis; Muñoz García, Julio; Munoz-Guijosa, Juan Manuel; Echávarri Otero, Javier

    2010-01-01

    This study is focused on obtaining intelligent structures manufactured from shape memory polymers possessing the ability to change their geometry in successive or 'step-by-step' actions. This objective has been reached by changing the conventionally used shape memory activation systems (heating resistance, laser or induction heating). The solution set out consists in using Peltier cells as a heating system capable of heating (and activating) a specific zone of the device in the first activation, while the opposite zone keeps its original geometry. By carefully reversing the polarity of the electrical supply to the Peltier cell, in the second activation, the as yet unchanged zone is activated while the already changed zone in the first activation remains unaltered. We have described the criteria for the selection, calibration and design of this alternative heating (activation) system based on the thermoelectric effect, together with the development of different 'proof of concept' prototypes that have enabled us to validate the concepts put forward, as well as suggest future improvements for 'intelligent' shape memory polymer-based devices

  7. Intelligent Devices in Rural Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel FUENTES

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The rural wireless networks are increasingly in demand by associations and autarchies to expand Internet access in this type of areas. The problem of such solutions centers not only in network deployment and its maintenance, but also in the equipment installation on clients, which always has big costs. This installation and configuration must be performed by a technician on site, so that the equipment can be integrated in the infrastructure. To try to mitigate this problem, it is presented a solution that allows the clients to install, with transparency, the device at home, reducing not only the cost for the management entity but also for the clients. This way, for info-excluded people or with new technology low experience level, it is the user that integrates himself in the network, making him part of the process, fostering the network usage.In this article are specified not only the system architecture but also the way that it works and how it obtains the desirable result. The tests made to the solution show the quickness, reliability and autonomy in the execution of the tasks, making it a benefit for rural wireless networks.This solution, by its robustness and simplicity, allowed an uptake to the IT by people who never thought to do it, namely an advanced age group (elderly who want to join the world of the new technologies

  8. Memory device sensitivity trends in aircraft's environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouchet, T.; Fourtine, S.; Calvet, M.C.

    1999-01-01

    The authors present the SEU (single event upset) sensitivity of 31 SRAM (static random access memory) and 8 DRAM (dynamic random access memory) according to their technologies. 2 methods have been used to compute the SEU rate: the NCS (neutron cross section) method and the BGR (burst generation rate) method, the physics data required by both methods have been either found in scientific literature or directly measured. The use of new technologies implies a quicker time response through a dramatic reduction of chip size and of the amount of energy representing 1 bit. The reduction of size makes less particles are likely to interact with the chip but the reduction of the critical charge implies that these interactions are more likely to damage the chip. The SEU sensitivity is then parted between these 2 opposed trends. Results show that for technologies beyond 0,18 μm these 2 trends balance roughly. Nevertheless the feedback experience shows that the number of errors is increasing. This is due to the fact that avionics requires more and more memory to perform numerical functions, the number of bits is increasing so is the risk of errors. As far as SEU is concerned, RAM devices are less and less sensitive comparatively for 1 bit, and DRAM seem to be less sensitive than SRAM. (A.C.)

  9. A study on electromechanical carbon nanotube memory devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Jeong Won; Hwang, Ho Jung

    2005-01-01

    Electromechanical operations of carbon-nanotube (CNT) bridge memory device were investigated by using atomistic simulations based on empirical potentials. The nanotube-bridge memory device was operated by the electrostatic and the van der Waals forces acting on the nanotube-bridge. For the CNT bridge memory device, the van der Waals interactions between the CNT bridge and the oxide were very important. As the distance between the CNT bridge and the oxide decreased and the van der Waals interaction energy increased, the pull-in bias of the CNT-bridge decreased and the nonvolatility of the nanotube-bridge memory device increased, while the pull-out voltages increased. When the materials composed of the oxide film are different, since the van der Waals interactions must be also different, the oxide materials must be carefully selected for the CNT-bridge memory device to work as a nonvolatile memory.

  10. Establishment and application of Competitive Intelligence System in Mobile Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anass El Haddadi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The strategy concept has changed dramatically: from a long range planning to strategic planning then to strategic responsiveness. This response implies moving from a concept of change to a concept of continuous evolution. In our context, the competitive intelligence system presented aims to improve decision‐making in all aspects of business life, particularly for offensive and innovative decisions. In the paper we present XPlor EveryWhere, our competitive intelligence system based on a multidimensional analysis model for mobile devices. The objective of this system is to capture the information environment in all dimensions of a decision problem, with the exploitation of information by analyzing the evolution of their interactions

  11. The relationship of intelligence and memory to interrogative suggestibility: the importance of range effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudjonsson, G H

    1988-05-01

    This paper looks at the relationship between intelligence, memory and interrogative suggestibility, particularly with reference to range effects. The subjects were 60 normal subjects and 100 forensic patients who had completed the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale (GSS) and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale. Clear range effects of IQ and memory were evident in their relationship with suggestibility.

  12. Microwave impedance imaging on semiconductor memory devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundhikanjana, Worasom; Lai, Keji; Yang, Yongliang; Kelly, Michael; Shen, Zhi-Xun

    2011-03-01

    Microwave impedance microscopy (MIM) maps out the real and imaginary components of the tip-sample impedance, from which the local conductivity and dielectric constant distribution can be derived. The stray field contribution is minimized in our shielded cantilever design, enabling quantitative analysis of nano-materials and device structures. We demonstrate here that the MIM can spatially resolve the conductivity variation in a dynamic random access memory (DRAM) sample. With DC or low-frequency AC bias applied to the tip, contrast between n-doped and p-doped regions in the dC/dV images is observed, and p-n junctions are highlighted in the dR/dV images. The results can be directly compared with data taken by scanning capacitance microscope (SCM), which uses unshielded cantilevers and resonant electronics, and the MIM reveals more information of the local dopant concentration than SCM.

  13. Improving fluid intelligence with training on working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeggi, Susanne M; Buschkuehl, Martin; Jonides, John; Perrig, Walter J

    2008-05-13

    Fluid intelligence (Gf) refers to the ability to reason and to solve new problems independently of previously acquired knowledge. Gf is critical for a wide variety of cognitive tasks, and it is considered one of the most important factors in learning. Moreover, Gf is closely related to professional and educational success, especially in complex and demanding environments. Although performance on tests of Gf can be improved through direct practice on the tests themselves, there is no evidence that training on any other regimen yields increased Gf in adults. Furthermore, there is a long history of research into cognitive training showing that, although performance on trained tasks can increase dramatically, transfer of this learning to other tasks remains poor. Here, we present evidence for transfer from training on a demanding working memory task to measures of Gf. This transfer results even though the trained task is entirely different from the intelligence test itself. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the extent of gain in intelligence critically depends on the amount of training: the more training, the more improvement in Gf. That is, the training effect is dosage-dependent. Thus, in contrast to many previous studies, we conclude that it is possible to improve Gf without practicing the testing tasks themselves, opening a wide range of applications.

  14. Guide wire extension for shape memory polymer occlusion removal devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maitland, Duncan J [Pleasant Hill, CA; Small, IV, Ward; Hartman, Jonathan [Sacramento, CA

    2009-11-03

    A flexible extension for a shape memory polymer occlusion removal device. A shape memory polymer instrument is transported through a vessel via a catheter. A flexible elongated unit is operatively connected to the distal end of the shape memory polymer instrument to enhance maneuverability through tortuous paths en route to the occlusion.

  15. The development of working memory capacity and fluid intelligence in children

    OpenAIRE

    Engel de Abreu, Pascale; Gathercole, S; Conway, A

    2010-01-01

    A longitudinal study was conducted to investigate the relationship between working memory capacity and fluid intelligence and how this relationship develops in early childhood. The major aim was to determine which aspect of the working memory system – short-term storage or executive attention – drives the relationship with fluid intelligence. A sample of 119 children was followed from kindergarten to second grade and completed multiple assessments of short-term memory, wor...

  16. Radiation Damage in Electronic Memory Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Fetahović, Irfan; Pejović, Milić; Vujisić, Miloš

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the behavior of semiconductor memories exposed to radiation in order to establish their applicability in a radiation environment. The experimental procedure has been used to test radiation hardness of commercial semiconductor memories. Different types of memory chips have been exposed to indirect ionizing radiation by changing radiation dose intensity. The effect of direct ionizing radiation on semiconductor memory behavior has been analyzed by using Monte Carlo simula...

  17. Memory-assisted measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panayi, Christiana; Razavi, Mohsen; Ma, Xiongfeng; Lütkenhaus, Norbert

    2014-04-01

    A protocol with the potential of beating the existing distance records for conventional quantum key distribution (QKD) systems is proposed. It borrows ideas from quantum repeaters by using memories in the middle of the link, and that of measurement-device-independent QKD, which only requires optical source equipment at the user's end. For certain memories with short access times, our scheme allows a higher repetition rate than that of quantum repeaters with single-mode memories, thereby requiring lower coherence times. By accounting for various sources of nonideality, such as memory decoherence, dark counts, misalignment errors, and background noise, as well as timing issues with memories, we develop a mathematical framework within which we can compare QKD systems with and without memories. In particular, we show that with the state-of-the-art technology for quantum memories, it is potentially possible to devise memory-assisted QKD systems that, at certain distances of practical interest, outperform current QKD implementations.

  18. Forced Ion Migration for Chalcogenide Phase Change Memory Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Kristy A (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Non-volatile memory devices with two stacked layers of chalcogenide materials comprising the active memory device have been investigated for their potential as phase-change memories. The devices tested included GeTe/SnTe, Ge2Se3/SnTe, and Ge2Se3/SnSe stacks. All devices exhibited resistance switching behavior. The polarity of the applied voltage with respect to the SnTe or SnSe layer was critical to the memory switching properties, due to the electric field induced movement of either Sn or Te into the Ge-chalcogenide layer. One embodiment of the invention is a device comprising a stack of chalcogenide-containing layers which exhibit phase-change switching only after a reverse polarity voltage potential is applied across the stack causing ion movement into an adjacent layer and thus "activating" the device to act as a phase-change random access memory device or a reconfigurable electronics device when the applied voltage potential is returned to the normal polarity. Another embodiment of the invention is a device that is capable of exhibiting more than two data states.

  19. Software to manage transformers using intelligent electronic device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Zamboti Fortes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Power companies usually answer the increase in power demand by building new generation facilities. Nevertheless, an efficient use of energy could reduce and delay the costs of investment in new power plants. This paper shows a software system to manage transformers and evaluate losses when they work with zero loads. This system contributes to reduce the waste of energy with some simple actions such as shutting off an unused transformer or reconnecting disabled equipment based on the customer’s demand. It uses real time measurements collected from Intelligent Electronic Devices as a base for software decisions. It also measures and reports the total power saving.

  20. The Molecular Basis of Neural Memory. Part 7: Neural Intelligence (NI versus Artificial Intelligence (AI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerard Marx

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The link of memory to intelligence is incontestable, though the development of electronic artifacts with memory has confounded cognitive and computer scientists’ conception of memory and its relevance to “intelligence”. We propose two categories of “Intelligence”: (1 Logical (objective — mathematics, numbers, pattern recognition, games, programmable in binary format. (2 Emotive (subjective — sensations, feelings, perceptions, goals desires, sociability, sex, food, love. The 1st has been reduced to computational algorithms of which we are well versed, witness global technology and the internet. The 2nd relates to the mysterious process whereby (psychic emotive states are achieved by neural beings sensing, comprehending, remembering and dealing with their surroundings. Many theories and philosophies have been forwarded to rationalize this process, but as neuroscientists, we remain dissatisfied. Our own musings on universal neural memory, suggest a tripartite mechanism involving neurons interacting with their surroundings, notably the neural extracellular matrix (nECM with dopants [trace metals and neurotransmitters (NTs]. In particular, the NTs are the molecular encoders of emotive states. We have developed a chemographic representation of such a molecular code.To quote Longuet-Higgins, “Perhaps it is time for the term ‘artificial intelligence’ to be replaced by something more modest and less provisional”. We suggest “artifact intelligence” (ARTI or “machine intelligence” (MI, neither of which imply emulation of emotive neural processes, but simply refer to the ‘demotive’ (lacking emotive quality capability of electronic artifacts that employ a recall function, to calculate algorithms.

  1. Relationships among processing speed, working memory, and fluid intelligence in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, A F; Hale, S

    2000-10-01

    The present review focuses on three issues, (a) the time course of developmental increases in cognitive abilities; (b) the impact of age on individual differences in these abilities, and (c) the mechanisms by which developmental increases in different aspects of cognition affect each other. We conclude from our review of the literature that the development of processing speed, working memory, and fluid intelligence, all follow a similar time course, suggesting that all three abilities develop in concert. Furthermore, the strength of the correlation between speed and intelligence does not appear to change with age, and most of the effect of the age-related increase in speed on intelligence appears to be mediated through the effect of speed on working memory. Finally, most of the effect of the age-related improvement in working memory on intelligence is itself attributable to the effect of the increase in speed on working memory, providing evidence of a cognitive developmental cascade.

  2. Discovering Authentication Credentials in Volatile Memory of Android Mobile Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Apostolopoulos , Dimitris; Marinakis , Giannis; Ntantogian , Christoforos; Xenakis , Christos

    2013-01-01

    Part 5: Adoption Issues in e/m-Services; International audience; This paper investigates whether authentication credentials in the volatile memory of Android mobile devices can be discovered using freely available tools. The experiments that we carried out for each application included two different sets: In the first set, our goal was to check if we could recover our own submitted credentials from the memory dump of the mobile device. In the second set of experiments, the goal was to find pa...

  3. Electrostatically telescoping nanotube nonvolatile memory device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Jeong Won; Jiang Qing

    2007-01-01

    We propose a nonvolatile memory based on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) serving as the key building blocks for molecular-scale computers and investigate the dynamic operations of a double-walled CNT memory element by classical molecular dynamics simulations. The localized potential energy wells achieved from both the interwall van der Waals energy and CNT-metal binding energy make the bistability of the CNT positions and the electrostatic attractive forces induced by the voltage differences lead to the reversibility of this CNT memory. The material for the electrodes should be carefully chosen to achieve the nonvolatility of this memory. The kinetic energy of the CNT shuttle experiences several rebounds induced by the collisions of the CNT onto the metal electrodes, and this is critically important to the performance of such an electrostatically telescoping CNT memory because the collision time is sufficiently long to cause a delay of the state transition

  4. Radiation Damage in Electronic Memory Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irfan Fetahović

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the behavior of semiconductor memories exposed to radiation in order to establish their applicability in a radiation environment. The experimental procedure has been used to test radiation hardness of commercial semiconductor memories. Different types of memory chips have been exposed to indirect ionizing radiation by changing radiation dose intensity. The effect of direct ionizing radiation on semiconductor memory behavior has been analyzed by using Monte Carlo simulation method. Obtained results show that gamma radiation causes decrease in threshold voltage, being proportional to the absorbed dose of radiation. Monte Carlo simulations of radiation interaction with material proved to be significant and can be a good estimation tool in probing semiconductor memory behavior in radiation environment.

  5. 3D Printed Photoresponsive Devices Based on Shape Memory Composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hui; Leow, Wan Ru; Wang, Ting; Wang, Juan; Yu, Jiancan; He, Ke; Qi, Dianpeng; Wan, Changjin; Chen, Xiaodong

    2017-09-01

    Compared with traditional stimuli-responsive devices with simple planar or tubular geometries, 3D printed stimuli-responsive devices not only intimately meet the requirement of complicated shapes at macrolevel but also satisfy various conformation changes triggered by external stimuli at the microscopic scale. However, their development is limited by the lack of 3D printing functional materials. This paper demonstrates the 3D printing of photoresponsive shape memory devices through combining fused deposition modeling printing technology and photoresponsive shape memory composites based on shape memory polymers and carbon black with high photothermal conversion efficiency. External illumination triggers the shape recovery of 3D printed devices from the temporary shape to the original shape. The effect of materials thickness and light density on the shape memory behavior of 3D printed devices is quantified and calculated. Remarkably, sunlight also triggers the shape memory behavior of these 3D printed devices. This facile printing strategy would provide tremendous opportunities for the design and fabrication of biomimetic smart devices and soft robotics. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. One bipolar transistor selector - One resistive random access memory device for cross bar memory array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluguri, R.; Kumar, D.; Simanjuntak, F. M.; Tseng, T.-Y.

    2017-09-01

    A bipolar transistor selector was connected in series with a resistive switching memory device to study its memory characteristics for its application in cross bar array memory. The metal oxide based p-n-p bipolar transistor selector indicated good selectivity of about 104 with high retention and long endurance showing its usefulness in cross bar RRAM devices. Zener tunneling is found to be the main conduction phenomena for obtaining high selectivity. 1BT-1R device demonstrated good memory characteristics with non-linearity of 2 orders, selectivity of about 2 orders and long retention characteristics of more than 105 sec. One bit-line pull-up scheme shows that a 650 kb cross bar array made with this 1BT1R devices works well with more than 10 % read margin proving its ability in future memory technology application.

  7. A stacked memory device on logic 3D technology for ultra-high-density data storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jiyoung; Hong, Augustin J; Kim, Sung Min; Shin, Kyeong-Sik; Song, Emil B; Hwang, Yongha; Xiu, Faxian; Galatsis, Kosmas; Chui, Chi On; Candler, Rob N; Wang, Kang L; Choi, Siyoung; Moon, Joo-Tae

    2011-01-01

    We have demonstrated, for the first time, a novel three-dimensional (3D) memory chip architecture of stacked-memory-devices-on-logic (SMOL) achieving up to 95% of cell-area efficiency by directly building up memory devices on top of front-end CMOS devices. In order to realize the SMOL, a unique 3D Flash memory device and vertical integration structure have been successfully developed. The SMOL architecture has great potential to achieve tera-bit level memory density by stacking memory devices vertically and maximizing cell-area efficiency. Furthermore, various emerging devices could replace the 3D memory device to develop new 3D chip architectures.

  8. A stacked memory device on logic 3D technology for ultra-high-density data storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jiyoung; Hong, Augustin J; Kim, Sung Min; Shin, Kyeong-Sik; Song, Emil B; Hwang, Yongha; Xiu, Faxian; Galatsis, Kosmas; Chui, Chi On; Candler, Rob N; Wang, Kang L [Device Research Laboratory, Department of Electrical Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Choi, Siyoung; Moon, Joo-Tae, E-mail: hbt100@ee.ucla.edu [Advanced Technology Development Team and Process Development Team, Memory R and D Center, Samsung Electronics Co. Ltd (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-06-24

    We have demonstrated, for the first time, a novel three-dimensional (3D) memory chip architecture of stacked-memory-devices-on-logic (SMOL) achieving up to 95% of cell-area efficiency by directly building up memory devices on top of front-end CMOS devices. In order to realize the SMOL, a unique 3D Flash memory device and vertical integration structure have been successfully developed. The SMOL architecture has great potential to achieve tera-bit level memory density by stacking memory devices vertically and maximizing cell-area efficiency. Furthermore, various emerging devices could replace the 3D memory device to develop new 3D chip architectures.

  9. An UV photochromic memory effect in proton-based WO3 electrochromic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yong; Lee, S.-H.; Mascarenhas, A.; Deb, S. K.

    2008-01-01

    We report an UV photochromic memory effect on a standard proton-based WO 3 electrochromic device. It exhibits two memory states, associated with the colored and bleached states of the device, respectively. Such an effect can be used to enhance device performance (increasing the dynamic range), re-energize commercial electrochromic devices, and develop memory devices

  10. An UV photochromic memory effect in proton-based WO3 electrochromic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Lee, S.-H.; Mascarenhas, A.; Deb, S. K.

    2008-11-01

    We report an UV photochromic memory effect on a standard proton-based WO3 electrochromic device. It exhibits two memory states, associated with the colored and bleached states of the device, respectively. Such an effect can be used to enhance device performance (increasing the dynamic range), re-energize commercial electrochromic devices, and develop memory devices.

  11. Light programmable organic transistor memory device based on hybrid dielectric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xiaochen; Chan, Paddy K. L.

    2013-09-01

    We have fabricated the transistor memory devices based on SiO2 and polystyrene (PS) hybrid dielectric. The trap states densities with different semiconductors have been investigated and a maximum 160V memory window between programming and erasing is realized. For DNTT based transistor, the trapped electron density is limited by the number of mobile electrons in semiconductor. The charge transport mechanism is verified by light induced Vth shift effect. Furthermore, in order to meet the low operating power requirement of portable electronic devices, we fabricated the organic memory transistor based on AlOx/self-assembly monolayer (SAM)/PS hybrid dielectric, the effective capacitance of hybrid dielectric is 210 nF cm-2 and the transistor can reach saturation state at -3V gate bias. The memory window in transfer I-V curve is around 1V under +/-5V programming and erasing bias.

  12. Organic nonvolatile memory devices with charge trapping multilayer graphene film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, Yongsung; Choe, Minhyeok; Cho, Byungjin; Song, Sunghoon; Yoon, Jongwon; Ko, Heung Cho; Lee, Takhee

    2012-01-01

    We fabricated an array-type organic nonvolatile memory device with multilayer graphene (MLG) film embedded in polyimide (PI) layers. The memory devices showed a high ON/OFF ratio (over 10 6 ) and a long retention time (over 10 4 s). The switching of the Al/PI/MLG/PI/Al memory devices was due to the presence of the MLG film inserted into the PI layers. The double-log current–voltage characteristics could be explained by the space-charge-limited current conduction based on a charge-trap model. A conductive atomic force microscopy found that the conduction paths in the low-resistance ON state were distributed in a highly localized area, which was associated with a carbon-rich filamentary switching mechanism. (paper)

  13. Pattern recognition with magnonic holographic memory device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozhevnikov, A.; Dudko, G.; Filimonov, Y.; Gertz, F.; Khitun, A.

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we present experimental data demonstrating the possibility of using magnonic holographic devices for pattern recognition. The prototype eight-terminal device consists of a magnetic matrix with micro-antennas placed on the periphery of the matrix to excite and detect spin waves. The principle of operation is based on the effect of spin wave interference, which is similar to the operation of optical holographic devices. Input information is encoded in the phases of the spin waves generated on the edges of the magnonic matrix, while the output corresponds to the amplitude of the inductive voltage produced by the interfering spin waves on the other side of the matrix. The level of the output voltage depends on the combination of the input phases as well as on the internal structure of the magnonic matrix. Experimental data collected for several magnonic matrixes show the unique output signatures in which maxima and minima correspond to specific input phase patterns. Potentially, magnonic holographic devices may provide a higher storage density compare to optical counterparts due to a shorter wavelength and compatibility with conventional electronic devices. The challenges and shortcoming of the magnonic holographic devices are also discussed

  14. Terrestrial neutron-induced soft errors in advanced memory devices

    CERN Document Server

    Nakamura, Takashi; Ibe, Eishi; Yahagi, Yasuo; Kameyama, Hideaki

    2008-01-01

    Terrestrial neutron-induced soft errors in semiconductor memory devices are currently a major concern in reliability issues. Understanding the mechanism and quantifying soft-error rates are primarily crucial for the design and quality assurance of semiconductor memory devices. This book covers the relevant up-to-date topics in terrestrial neutron-induced soft errors, and aims to provide succinct knowledge on neutron-induced soft errors to the readers by presenting several valuable and unique features. Sample Chapter(s). Chapter 1: Introduction (238 KB). Table A.30 mentioned in Appendix A.6 on

  15. A graphene integrated highly transparent resistive switching memory device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugu, Sita; Pavunny, Shojan P.; Limbu, Tej B.; Weiner, Brad R.; Morell, Gerardo; Katiyar, Ram S.

    2018-05-01

    We demonstrate the hybrid fabrication process of a graphene integrated highly transparent resistive random-access memory (TRRAM) device. The indium tin oxide (ITO)/Al2O3/graphene nonvolatile memory device possesses a high transmittance of >82% in the visible region (370-700 nm) and exhibits stable and non-symmetrical bipolar switching characteristics with considerably low set and reset voltages (ITO/Al2O3/Pt device and studied its switching characteristics for comparison and a better understanding of the ITO/Al2O3/graphene device characteristics. The conduction mechanisms in high and low resistance states were analyzed, and the observed polarity dependent resistive switching is explained based on electro-migration of oxygen ions.

  16. Hybrid superconducting-magnetic memory device using competing order parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Burm; Rippard, William H; Benz, Samuel P; Russek, Stephen E; Dresselhaus, Paul D

    2014-05-28

    In a hybrid superconducting-magnetic device, two order parameters compete, with one type of order suppressing the other. Recent interest in ultra-low-power, high-density cryogenic memories has spurred new efforts to simultaneously exploit superconducting and magnetic properties so as to create novel switching elements having these two competing orders. Here we describe a reconfigurable two-layer magnetic spin valve integrated within a Josephson junction. Our measurements separate the suppression in the superconducting coupling due to the exchange field in the magnetic layers, which causes depairing of the supercurrent, from the suppression due to the stray magnetic field. The exchange field suppression of the superconducting order parameter is a tunable and switchable behaviour that is also scalable to nanometer device dimensions. These devices demonstrate non-volatile, size-independent switching of Josephson coupling, in magnitude as well as phase, and they may enable practical nanoscale superconducting memory devices.

  17. Memory-assisted measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panayi, Christiana; Razavi, Mohsen; Ma, Xiongfeng; Lütkenhaus, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    A protocol with the potential of beating the existing distance records for conventional quantum key distribution (QKD) systems is proposed. It borrows ideas from quantum repeaters by using memories in the middle of the link, and that of measurement-device-independent QKD, which only requires optical source equipment at the user's end. For certain memories with short access times, our scheme allows a higher repetition rate than that of quantum repeaters with single-mode memories, thereby requiring lower coherence times. By accounting for various sources of nonideality, such as memory decoherence, dark counts, misalignment errors, and background noise, as well as timing issues with memories, we develop a mathematical framework within which we can compare QKD systems with and without memories. In particular, we show that with the state-of-the-art technology for quantum memories, it is potentially possible to devise memory-assisted QKD systems that, at certain distances of practical interest, outperform current QKD implementations. (paper)

  18. Numerical analysis of a polysilicon-based resistive memory device

    KAUST Repository

    Berco, Dan; Chand, Umesh

    2018-01-01

    This study investigates a conductive bridge resistive memory device based on a Cu top electrode, 10-nm polysilicon resistive switching layer and a TiN bottom electrode, by numerical analysis for $$10^{3}$$103 programming and erase simulation cycles

  19. Original article Functioning of memory and attention processes in children with intelligence below average

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta Rita Borkowska

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The aim of the research was to assess memorization and recall of logically connected and unconnected material, coded graphically and linguistically, and the ability to focus attention, in a group of children with intelligence below average, compared to children with average intelligence. PARTICIPANTS AND PROCEDURE The study group included 27 children with intelligence below average. The control group consisted of 29 individuals. All of them were examined using the authors’ experimental trials and the TUS test (Attention and Perceptiveness Test. RESULTS Children with intelligence below average memorized significantly less information contained in the logical material, demonstrated lower ability to memorize the visual material, memorized significantly fewer words in the verbal material learning task, achieved lower results in such indicators of the visual attention process pace as the number of omissions and mistakes, and had a lower pace of perceptual work, compared to children with average intelligence. CONCLUSIONS The results confirm that children with intelligence below average have difficulties with memorizing new material, both logically connected and unconnected. The significantly lower capacity of direct memory is independent of modality. The results of the study on the memory process confirm the hypothesis about lower abilities of children with intelligence below average, in terms of concentration, work pace, efficiency and perception.

  20. Camera memory study for large space telescope. [charge coupled devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, C. P.; Brewer, J. E.; Brager, E. A.; Farnsworth, D. L.

    1975-01-01

    Specifications were developed for a memory system to be used as the storage media for camera detectors on the large space telescope (LST) satellite. Detectors with limited internal storage time such as intensities charge coupled devices and silicon intensified targets are implied. The general characteristics are reported of different approaches to the memory system with comparisons made within the guidelines set forth for the LST application. Priority ordering of comparisons is on the basis of cost, reliability, power, and physical characteristics. Specific rationales are provided for the rejection of unsuitable memory technologies. A recommended technology was selected and used to establish specifications for a breadboard memory. Procurement scheduling is provided for delivery of system breadboards in 1976, prototypes in 1978, and space qualified units in 1980.

  1. Bioorganic nanodots for non-volatile memory devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amdursky, Nadav; Shalev, Gil; Handelman, Amir; Natan, Amir; Rosenwaks, Yossi; Litsyn, Simon; Szwarcman, Daniel; Rosenman, Gil; Roizin, Yakov

    2013-01-01

    In recent years we are witnessing an intensive integration of bio-organic nanomaterials in electronic devices. Here we show that the diphenylalanine bio-molecule can self-assemble into tiny peptide nanodots (PNDs) of ∼2 nm size, and can be embedded into metal-oxide-semiconductor devices as charge storage nanounits in non-volatile memory. For that purpose, we first directly observe the crystallinity of a single PND by electron microscopy. We use these nanocrystalline PNDs units for the formation of a dense monolayer on SiO 2 surface, and study the electron/hole trapping mechanisms and charge retention ability of the monolayer, followed by fabrication of PND-based memory cell device

  2. Bioorganic nanodots for non-volatile memory devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amdursky, Nadav; Shalev, Gil; Handelman, Amir; Natan, Amir; Rosenwaks, Yossi [School of Electrical Engineering, Iby and Aladar Fleischman Faculty of Engineering, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Litsyn, Simon; Szwarcman, Daniel; Rosenman, Gil, E-mail: rgil@post.tau.ac.il [School of Electrical Engineering, Iby and Aladar Fleischman Faculty of Engineering, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); StoreDot LTD, 16 Menahem Begin St., Ramat Gan (Israel); Roizin, Yakov [School of Electrical Engineering, Iby and Aladar Fleischman Faculty of Engineering, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); TowerJazz, P.O. Box 619, Migdal HaEmek 23105 (Israel)

    2013-12-01

    In recent years we are witnessing an intensive integration of bio-organic nanomaterials in electronic devices. Here we show that the diphenylalanine bio-molecule can self-assemble into tiny peptide nanodots (PNDs) of ∼2 nm size, and can be embedded into metal-oxide-semiconductor devices as charge storage nanounits in non-volatile memory. For that purpose, we first directly observe the crystallinity of a single PND by electron microscopy. We use these nanocrystalline PNDs units for the formation of a dense monolayer on SiO{sub 2} surface, and study the electron/hole trapping mechanisms and charge retention ability of the monolayer, followed by fabrication of PND-based memory cell device.

  3. New memory devices based on the proton transfer process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wierzbowska, Małgorzata

    2016-01-01

    Memory devices operating due to the fast proton transfer (PT) process are proposed by the means of first-principles calculations. Writing  information is performed using the electrostatic potential of scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). Reading information is based on the effect of the local magnetization induced at the zigzag graphene nanoribbon (Z-GNR) edge—saturated with oxygen or the hydroxy group—and can be realized with the use of giant magnetoresistance (GMR), a magnetic tunnel junction or spin-transfer torque devices. The energetic barriers for the hop forward and backward processes can be tuned by the distance and potential of the STM tip; this thus enables us to tailor the non-volatile logic states. The proposed system enables very dense packing of the logic cells and could be used in random access and flash memory devices. (paper)

  4. New memory devices based on the proton transfer process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierzbowska, Małgorzata

    2016-01-01

    Memory devices operating due to the fast proton transfer (PT) process are proposed by the means of first-principles calculations. Writing information is performed using the electrostatic potential of scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). Reading information is based on the effect of the local magnetization induced at the zigzag graphene nanoribbon (Z-GNR) edge—saturated with oxygen or the hydroxy group—and can be realized with the use of giant magnetoresistance (GMR), a magnetic tunnel junction or spin-transfer torque devices. The energetic barriers for the hop forward and backward processes can be tuned by the distance and potential of the STM tip; this thus enables us to tailor the non-volatile logic states. The proposed system enables very dense packing of the logic cells and could be used in random access and flash memory devices.

  5. Silicon nano crystal-based non-volatile memory devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, C.Y.; Chen, T.P.; Sreeduth, D.; Chen, Q.; Ding, L.; Du, A.

    2006-01-01

    In this work, we have investigated the performance and reliability of a Flash memory based on silicon nanocrystal synthesized with very-low energy ion beams. The devices are fabricated with a conventional CMOS process and the size of the nanocrystal is ∼ 4 nm as determined from TEM measurement. Electrical properties of the devices with a tunnel oxide of either 3 nm or 7 nm are evaluated. The devices exhibit good endurance up to 10 5 W/E cycles even at the high operation temperature of 85 deg. C for both the tunnel oxide thicknesses. For the thicker tunnel oxide (i.e., the 7-nm tunnel oxide), a good retention performance with an extrapolated 10-year memory window of ∼ 0.3 V (or ∼ 20% of charge lose after 10 years) is achieved. However, ∼ 70% of charge loss after 10 years is expected for the thinner tunnel oxide (i.e., the 3-nm tunnel oxide)

  6. The Structure of Working Memory in Young Children and Its Relation to Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Gray, Shelley; Green, Samuel; Alt, Mary; Hogan, Tiffany P.; Kuo, Trudy; Brinkley, Shara; Cowan, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the structure of working memory in young school-age children by testing the fit of three competing theoretical models using a wide variety of tasks. The best fitting models were then used to assess the relationship between working memory and nonverbal measures of fluid reasoning (Gf) and visual processing (Gv) intelligence. One hundred sixty-eight English-speaking 7–9 year olds with typical development, from three states, participated. Results showed that Cowan’s three...

  7. Transfer effects after working memory training lead to improved fluid intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Onken, Johanna

    2013-01-01

    Fluid intelligence describes the ability to think abstract, to adapt to new situations and to solve unknown problems. It is important for learning as well as for academic and professional success. Working memory is characterized as a cognitive system, that saves information over a short period of time in spite of possible distractions. More- over, working memory is able to assess the relevance of information while requirements change. Effective implicit training is able to increase the workin...

  8. All-spin logic operations: Memory device and reconfigurable computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Moumita; Maiti, Santanu K.

    2018-02-01

    Exploiting spin degree of freedom of electron a new proposal is given to characterize spin-based logical operations using a quantum interferometer that can be utilized as a programmable spin logic device (PSLD). The ON and OFF states of both inputs and outputs are described by spin state only, circumventing spin-to-charge conversion at every stage as often used in conventional devices with the inclusion of extra hardware that can eventually diminish the efficiency. All possible logic functions can be engineered from a single device without redesigning the circuit which certainly offers the opportunities of designing new generation spintronic devices. Moreover, we also discuss the utilization of the present model as a memory device and suitable computing operations with proposed experimental setups.

  9. C-RAM: breaking mobile device memory barriers using the cloud

    OpenAIRE

    Pamboris, A; Pietzuch, P

    2015-01-01

    ?Mobile applications are constrained by the available memory of mobile devices. We present C-RAM, a system that uses cloud-based memory to extend the memory of mobile devices. It splits application state and its associated computation between a mobile device and a cloud node to allow applications to consume more memory, while minimising the performance impact. C-RAM thus enables developers to realise new applications or port legacy desktop applications with a large memory footprint to mobile ...

  10. Interrogative Suggestibility among Adolescent Boys and Its Relationship with Intelligence, Memory, and Cognitive Set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Krishna K.; Gudjonsson, Gisli H.

    1992-01-01

    Investigated hypotheses generated by Gudjonsson and Clark model of interrogative suggestibility. Adolescent boys (n=40) completed Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale and measures of intellectual skills, memory, field-dependence, hostility, and attitudes toward persons in authority. Suggestibility correlated negatively with intelligence quotient and…

  11. Some Factors Underlying Mathematical Performance: The Role of Visuospatial Working Memory and Non-Verbal Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyttala, Minna; Lehto, Juhani E.

    2008-01-01

    Passive and active visuospatial working memory (VSWM) were investigated in relation to maths performance. The mental rotation task was employed as a measure of active VSWM whereas passive VSWM was investigated using a modified Corsi Blocks task and a matrix pattern task. The Raven Progressive Matrices Test measured fluid intelligence. A total of…

  12. Genetic covariance structure of reading, intelligence and memory in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, Marieke; van den Berg, Stéphanie Martine; Peper, Jiska S.; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E.; Boomsma, Dorret I.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the genetic relationship among reading performance, IQ, verbal and visuospatial working memory (WM) and short-term memory (STM) in a sample of 112, 9-year-old twin pairs and their older siblings. The relationship between reading performance and the other traits was explained

  13. Genetic Covariance Structure of Reading, Intelligence and Memory in Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, M.; van den Berg, S.M.; Peper, J.S.; Hulshoff Pol, H.E.; Boomsma, D.I.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the genetic relationship among reading performance, IQ, verbal and visuospatial working memory (WM) and short-term memory (STM) in a sample of 112, 9-year-old twin pairs and their older siblings. The relationship between reading performance and the other traits was explained

  14. Genetic Covariance Structure of Reading, Intelligence and Memory in Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, Marieke; van den Berg, Stephanie M.; Peper, Jiska S.; Pol, Hilleke E. Hulshoff; Boomsma, Dorret I.

    This study investigates the genetic relationship among reading performance, IQ, verbal and visuospatial working memory (WM) and short-term memory (STM) in a sample of 112, 9-year-old twin pairs and their older siblings. The relationship between reading performance and the other traits was explained

  15. Working memory, intelligence and reading ability in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jonge, P.; de Jong, P.F.

    1996-01-01

    The dimensions of working memory in children and the relationships between working memory capacity, reasoning and reading ability were investigated. Simple and complex span tests were administered to 280 grade four, five and six elementary school children. Simple span tests were hypothesized to

  16. RFID and Memory Devices Fabricated Integrally on Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm, Harry F.

    2004-01-01

    Electronic identification devices containing radio-frequency identification (RFID) circuits and antennas would be fabricated integrally with the objects to be identified, according to a proposal. That is to say, the objects to be identified would serve as substrates for the deposition and patterning of the materials of the devices used to identify them, and each identification device would be bonded to the identified object at the molecular level. Vacuum arc vapor deposition (VAVD) is the NASA derived process for depositing layers of material on the substrate. This proposal stands in contrast to the current practice of fabricating RFID and/or memory devices as wafer-based, self-contained integrated-circuit chips that are subsequently embedded in or attached to plastic cards to make smart account-information cards and identification badges. If one relies on such a chip to store data on the history of an object to be tracked and the chip falls off or out of the object, then one loses both the historical data and the means to track the object and verify its identity electronically. Also, in contrast is the manufacturing philosophy in use today to make many memory devices. Today s methods involve many subtractive processes such as etching. This proposal only uses additive methods, building RFID and memory devices from the substrate up in thin layers. VAVD is capable of spraying silicon, copper, and other materials commonly used in electronic devices. The VAVD process sprays most metals and some ceramics. The material being sprayed has a very strong bond with the substrate, whether that substrate is metal, ceramic, or even wood, rock, glass, PVC, or paper. An object to be tagged with an identification device according to the proposal must be compatible with a vacuum deposition process. Temperature is seldom an issue as the substrate rarely reaches 150 F (66 C) during the deposition process. A portion of the surface of the object would be designated as a substrate for

  17. Intelligence as the efficiency of cue-driven retrieval from secondary memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liesefeld, Heinrich René; Hoffmann, Eugenia; Wentura, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    Complex-span (working-memory-capacity) tasks are among the most successful predictors of intelligence. One important contributor to this relationship is the ability to efficiently employ cues for the retrieval from secondary memory. Presumably, intelligent individuals can considerably restrict their memory search sets by using such cues and can thereby improve recall performance. We here test this assumption by experimentally manipulating the validity of retrieval cues. When memoranda are drawn from the same semantic category on two successive trials of a verbal complex-span task, the category is a very strong retrieval cue on its first occurrence (strong-cue trial) but loses some of its validity on its second occurrence (weak-cue trial). If intelligent individuals make better use of semantic categories as retrieval cues, their recall accuracy suffers more from this loss of cue validity. Accordingly, our results show that less variance in intelligence is explained by recall accuracy on weak-cue compared with strong-cue trials.

  18. Improving fluid intelligence with training on working memory

    OpenAIRE

    Jaeggi, Susanne M.; Buschkuehl, Martin; Jonides, John; Perrig, Walter J.

    2008-01-01

    Fluid intelligence (Gf) refers to the ability to reason and to solve new problems independently of previously acquired knowledge. Gf is critical for a wide variety of cognitive tasks, and it is considered one of the most important factors in learning. Moreover, Gf is closely related to professional and educational success, especially in complex and demanding environments. Although performance on tests of Gf can be improved through direct practice on the tests themselves, there is no evidence ...

  19. Intelligence related upper alpha desynchronization in a semantic memory task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doppelmayr, M; Klimesch, W; Hödlmoser, K; Sauseng, P; Gruber, W

    2005-07-30

    Recent evidence shows that event-related (upper) alpha desynchronization (ERD) is related to cognitive performance. Several studies observed a positive, some a negative relationship. The latter finding, interpreted in terms of the neural efficiency hypothesis, suggests that good performance is associated with a more 'efficient', smaller extent of cortical activation. Other studies found that ERD increases with semantic processing demands and that this increase is larger for good performers. Studies supporting the neural efficiency hypothesis used tasks that do not specifically require semantic processing. Thus, we assume that the lack of semantic processing demands may at least in part be responsible for the reduced ERD. In the present study we measured ERD during a difficult verbal-semantic task. The findings demonstrate that during semantic processing, more intelligent (as compared to less intelligent) subjects exhibited a significantly larger upper alpha ERD over the left hemisphere. We conclude that more intelligent subjects exhibit a more extensive activation in a semantic processing system and suggest that divergent findings regarding the neural efficiency hypotheses are due to task specific differences in semantic processing demands.

  20. [Artificial intelligence meeting neuropsychology. Semantic memory in normal and pathological aging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aimé, Xavier; Charlet, Jean; Maillet, Didier; Belin, Catherine

    2015-03-01

    Artificial intelligence (IA) is the subject of much research, but also many fantasies. It aims to reproduce human intelligence in its learning capacity, knowledge storage and computation. In 2014, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) started the restoring active memory (RAM) program that attempt to develop implantable technology to bridge gaps in the injured brain and restore normal memory function to people with memory loss caused by injury or disease. In another IA's field, computational ontologies (a formal and shared conceptualization) try to model knowledge in order to represent a structured and unambiguous meaning of the concepts of a target domain. The aim of these structures is to ensure a consensual understanding of their meaning and a univariant use (the same concept is used by all to categorize the same individuals). The first representations of knowledge in the AI's domain are largely based on model tests of semantic memory. This one, as a component of long-term memory is the memory of words, ideas, concepts. It is the only declarative memory system that resists so remarkably to the effects of age. In contrast, non-specific cognitive changes may decrease the performance of elderly in various events and instead report difficulties of access to semantic representations that affect the semantics stock itself. Some dementias, like semantic dementia and Alzheimer's disease, are linked to alteration of semantic memory. We propose in this paper, using the computational ontologies model, a formal and relatively thin modeling, in the service of neuropsychology: 1) for the practitioner with decision support systems, 2) for the patient as cognitive prosthesis outsourced, and 3) for the researcher to study semantic memory.

  1. Use of intelligent devices in high-energy physics experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verkerk, C.

    1981-01-01

    In these lectures we concentrate on two areas for which special devices have been developed: On line data processing, generally to perform event selection and/or to achieve compaction of data before recording. Preparation of experimental apparatus: testing of detectors, optimimization of operating conditions and calibration. Much attention will be given to the event-selection process and the devices used for this purpose. (orig./HSI)

  2. Algorithm of Energy Efficiency Improvement for Intelligent Devices in Railway Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beinaroviča Anna

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The present paper deals with the use of systems and devices with artificial intelligence in the motor vehicle driving. The main objective of transport operations is a transportation planning with minimum energy consumption. There are various methods for energy saving, and the paper discusses one of them – proper planning of transport operations. To gain proper planning it is necessary to involve the system and devices with artificial intelligence. They will display possible developments in the choice of one or another transport plan. Consequently, it can be supposed how much the plan is effective against the spent energy. The intelligent device considered in this paper consists of an algorithm, a database, and the internet for the connection to other intelligent devices. The main task of the target function is to minimize the total downtime at intermediate stations. A specific unique PHP-based computer model was created. It uses the MySQL database for simulation data storage and processing. Conclusions based on the experiments were made. The experiments showed that after optimization, a train can pass intermediate stations without making multiple stops breaking and accelerating, which leads to decreased energy consumption.

  3. Analysis of intelligent hinged shell structures: deployable deformation and shape memory effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Guang-Hui; Yang, Qing-Sheng; He, X. Q.

    2013-12-01

    Shape memory polymers (SMPs) are a class of intelligent materials with the ability to recover their initial shape from a temporarily fixable state when subjected to external stimuli. In this work, the thermo-mechanical behavior of a deployable SMP-based hinged structure is modeled by the finite element method using a 3D constitutive model with shape memory effect. The influences of hinge structure parameters on the nonlinear loading process are investigated. The total shape memory of the processes the hinged structure goes through, including loading at high temperature, decreasing temperature with load carrying, unloading at low temperature and recovering the initial shape with increasing temperature, are illustrated. Numerical results show that the present constitutive theory and the finite element method can effectively predict the complicated thermo-mechanical deformation behavior and shape memory effect of SMP-based hinged shell structures.

  4. Analysis of intelligent hinged shell structures: deployable deformation and shape memory effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Guang-Hui; Yang, Qing-Sheng; He, X Q

    2013-01-01

    Shape memory polymers (SMPs) are a class of intelligent materials with the ability to recover their initial shape from a temporarily fixable state when subjected to external stimuli. In this work, the thermo-mechanical behavior of a deployable SMP-based hinged structure is modeled by the finite element method using a 3D constitutive model with shape memory effect. The influences of hinge structure parameters on the nonlinear loading process are investigated. The total shape memory of the processes the hinged structure goes through, including loading at high temperature, decreasing temperature with load carrying, unloading at low temperature and recovering the initial shape with increasing temperature, are illustrated. Numerical results show that the present constitutive theory and the finite element method can effectively predict the complicated thermo-mechanical deformation behavior and shape memory effect of SMP-based hinged shell structures. (paper)

  5. Wearable Intrinsically Soft, Stretchable, Flexible Devices for Memories and Computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajan, Krishna; Garofalo, Erik; Chiolerio, Alessandro

    2018-01-27

    A recent trend in the development of high mass consumption electron devices is towards electronic textiles (e-textiles), smart wearable devices, smart clothes, and flexible or printable electronics. Intrinsically soft, stretchable, flexible, Wearable Memories and Computing devices (WMCs) bring us closer to sci-fi scenarios, where future electronic systems are totally integrated in our everyday outfits and help us in achieving a higher comfort level, interacting for us with other digital devices such as smartphones and domotics, or with analog devices, such as our brain/peripheral nervous system. WMC will enable each of us to contribute to open and big data systems as individual nodes, providing real-time information about physical and environmental parameters (including air pollution monitoring, sound and light pollution, chemical or radioactive fallout alert, network availability, and so on). Furthermore, WMC could be directly connected to human brain and enable extremely fast operation and unprecedented interface complexity, directly mapping the continuous states available to biological systems. This review focuses on recent advances in nanotechnology and materials science and pays particular attention to any result and promising technology to enable intrinsically soft, stretchable, flexible WMC.

  6. Electronic polymer memory devices-Easy to fabricate, difficult to understand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, Shashi; Salaoru, Iulia

    2010-01-01

    There has been a number reports on polymer memory devices for the last one decade. Polymer memory devices are fabricated by depositing a blend (an admixture of organic polymer, small organic molecules and nanoparticles) between two metal electrodes. These devices show two electrical conductance states ('1' and '0') when voltage is applied, thus rendering the structures suitable for data retention. These two states can be viewed as the realisation of memory devices. However, polymer memory devices reported so far suffer from multiple drawbacks that render their industrial implementation premature. There is a large discrepancy in the results reported by different groups. This article attempts to answer some of the questions.

  7. An Intelligent Improvement of Internet-Wide Scan Engine for Fast Discovery of Vulnerable IoT Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwankuk Kim

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Since 2016, Mirai and Persirai malware have infected hundreds of thousands of Internet of Things (IoT devices and created a massive IoT botnet, which caused distributed denial of service (DDoS attacks. IoT malware targets vulnerable IoT devices, which are vulnerable to security risks. Techniques are needed to prevent IoT devices from being exploited by attackers. However, unlike high-performance PCs, IoT devices are lightweight, low-power, and low-cost, having performance limitations regarding processing and memory, which makes it difficult to install security and anti-malware programs. Recently, several studies have been attempted to quickly search for vulnerable internet-connected devices to solve this real issue. Issues yet to be studied still exist regarding these types of internet-wide scan technologies, such as filtering by security devices and a shortage of collected operating system (OS information. This paper proposes an intelligent internet-wide scan model that improves IP state scanning with advanced internet protocol (IP randomization, reactive protocol (port scanning, and OS fingerprinting scanning, applying k* algorithm in order to find vulnerable IoT devices. Additionally, we describe the experiment’s results compared to the existing internet-wide scan technologies, such as ZMap and Shodan. As a result, the proposed model experimentally shows improved performance. Although we improved the ZMap, the throughput per minute (TPM performance is similar to ZMap without degrading the IP scan throughput and the performance of generating a single IP address is about 118% better than ZMap. In the protocol scan performance experiments, it is about 129% better than the Censys based ZMap, and the performance of OS fingerprinting is better than ZMap, with about 50% accuracy.

  8. Intelligent Balanced Device and its Sensing System for Beam Pumping Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hangxin WEI

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to save the energy of the beam pumping unit, the intelligent balanced device was developed. The device can adjust the position of the balanced-block automatically by the single chip microcomputer controller, and the fuzzy PD control algorithm was used to control the servo motor of the device. Since some signals should be inputted into the intelligent balanced device to calculate the balanced index of the pumping unit, the signals sensing system were designed. The sensing system includes the electric current sensor and voltage sensor of the main motor, the displacement sensor and the force sensor of the horse head. The sensing network has three layers: slave station, relay station and master station. The data transmission between them is based on ZigBee and GPRS method which can adapt the environment of the oil field. The results of application show that the intelligent balanced device and its sensing system can have the effect of reducing the power consumption, working reliability and communication efficiently.

  9. Numerical analysis of a polysilicon-based resistive memory device

    KAUST Repository

    Berco, Dan

    2018-03-08

    This study investigates a conductive bridge resistive memory device based on a Cu top electrode, 10-nm polysilicon resistive switching layer and a TiN bottom electrode, by numerical analysis for $$10^{3}$$103 programming and erase simulation cycles. The low and high resistive state values in each cycle are calculated, and the analysis shows that the structure has excellent retention reliability properties. The presented Cu species density plot indicates that Cu insertion occurs almost exclusively along grain boundaries resulting in a confined isomorphic conductive filament that maintains its overall shape and electric properties during cycling. The superior reliability of this structure may thus be attributed to the relatively low amount of Cu migrating into the RSL during initial formation. In addition, the results show a good match and help to confirm experimental measurements done over a previously demonstrated device.

  10. Selected Advances in Nanoelectronic Devices Logic, Memory and RF

    CERN Document Server

    Joodaki, Mojtaba

    2013-01-01

    Nanoelectronics, as a true successor of microelectronics, is certainly a major technology boomer in the 21st century. This has been shown by its several applications and also by its enormous potential to influence all areas of electronics, computers, information technology, aerospace defense, and consumer goods. Although the current semiconductor technology is projected to reach its physical limit in about a decade, nanoscience and nanotechnology promise breakthroughs for the future. The present books provides an in-depth review of the latest advances in the technology of nanoelectronic devices and their developments over the past decades. Moreover, it introduces new concepts for the realization of future nanoelectronic devices. The main focus of the book is on three fundamental branches of semiconductor products or applications: logic, memory, and RF and communication. By pointing out to the key technical challenges, important aspects and characteristics of various designs are used to illustrate mechanisms t...

  11. A Novel Biometric Identification Based on a User's Input Pattern Analysis for Intelligent Mobile Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hojin Seo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available As intelligent mobile devices become more popular, security threats targeting them are increasing. The resource constraints of mobile devices, such as battery life and computing power, however, make it harder to handle such threats effectively. The existing physical and behavioural biometric identification methods - looked upon as good alternatives - are unsuitable for the current mobile environment. This paper proposes a specially designed biometric identification method for intelligent mobile devices by analysing the user's input patterns, such as a finger's touch duration, pressure level and the touching width of the finger on the touch screen. We collected the input pattern data of individuals to empirically test our method. Our testing results show that this method effectively identifies users with near a 100% rate of accuracy.

  12. In-memory databases and innovations in Business Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruxandra BABEANU

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The large amount of data that companies are dealing with, day by day, is a big challenge for the traditional BI systems and databases. A significant part of this data is usually wasted because the companies do not own the appropriate capacity to process it. In the actual competitive environment, this lost data could point up valuable information if it was analyzed and put in the right context. In these circumstances, in-memory databases seem to be the solution. This innovative technology combined with specialized BI solutions offers high performance and satisfaction to users and comes up with new data modeling and processing options.

  13. Leveling the playing field: attention mitigates the effects of intelligence on memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markant, Julie; Amso, Dima

    2014-05-01

    Effective attention and memory skills are fundamental to typical development and essential for achievement during the formal education years. It is critical to identify the specific mechanisms linking efficiency of attentional selection of an item and the quality of its memory retention. The present study capitalized on the spatial cueing paradigm to examine the role of selection via suppression in modulating children and adolescents' memory encoding. By varying a single parameter, the spatial cueing task can elicit either a simple orienting mechanism (i.e., facilitation) or one that involves both target selection and simultaneous suppression of competing information (i.e., IOR). We modified this paradigm to include images of common items in target locations. Participants were not instructed to learn the items and were not told they would be completing a memory test later. Following the cueing task, we imposed a 7-min delay and then asked participants to complete a recognition memory test. Results indicated that selection via suppression promoted recognition memory among 7-17year-olds. Moreover, individual differences in the extent of suppression during encoding predicted recognition memory accuracy. When basic cueing facilitated orienting to target items during encoding, IQ was the best predictor of recognition memory performance for the attended items. In contrast, engaging suppression (i.e., IOR) during encoding counteracted individual differences in intelligence, effectively improving recognition memory performance among children with lower IQs. This work demonstrates that engaging selection via suppression during learning and encoding improves memory retention and has broad implications for developing effective educational techniques. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. FY1995 four-terminal-device intelligent LSI system for real-time event recognition; 1995 nendo shunji ninshiki kino wo motta 4 tanshi device chino LSI no kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Development of an intelligent LSI system having real-time response capability for real-word events. This is accomplished by enhancing the functionality of an elemental device, employing ultra-fine-grain parallelism and merging software directly in the LSI hardware. Intelligent functions are created directly on the LSI hardware, thus enabling real-time recognition by electronic systems. The origin of human intelligence lies in the huge memory data base acquired through one's life and the very fast search mechanism to recall the 'most similar' event to the current input. Based on this principle components of intelligent LSI systems have been developed. An analog EEPROM technology capable of storing 256 levels of data per cell without time-consuming write/verify operations has been developed. In situ monitoring of memory content during writing has allowed us high-accuracy data writing. A high-speed parallel-search engine for the minimum distance vector (an associator) has been developed using neuron MOS technology. The associator has been applied to the motion vector detector as an example, which has shown a very fast detection with an extremely simple hardware configuration. The association architecture has been applied to a real-time motion picture compression system, demonstrating three orders of magnitude higher performance than typical CISC processors (Pentium 166MHz). (NEDO)

  15. FY1995 four-terminal-device intelligent LSI system for real-time event recognition; 1995 nendo shunji ninshiki kino wo motta 4 tanshi device chino LSI no kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Development of an intelligent LSI system having real-time response capability for real-word events. This is accomplished by enhancing the functionality of an elemental device, employing ultra-fine-grain parallelism and merging software directly in the LSI hardware. Intelligent functions are created directly on the LSI hardware, thus enabling real-time recognition by electronic systems. The origin of human intelligence lies in the huge memory data base acquired through one's life and the very fast search mechanism to recall the 'most similar' event to the current input. Based on this principle components of intelligent LSI systems have been developed. An analog EEPROM technology capable of storing 256 levels of data per cell without time-consuming write/verify operations has been developed. In situ monitoring of memory content during writing has allowed us high-accuracy data writing. A high-speed parallel-search engine for the minimum distance vector (an associator) has been developed using neuron MOS technology. The associator has been applied to the motion vector detector as an example, which has shown a very fast detection with an extremely simple hardware configuration. The association architecture has been applied to a real-time motion picture compression system, demonstrating three orders of magnitude higher performance than typical CISC processors (Pentium 166MHz). (NEDO)

  16. Novel nano materials for high performance logic and memory devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Saptarshi

    After decades of relentless progress, the silicon CMOS industry is approaching a stall in device performance for both logic and memory devices due to fundamental scaling limitations. In order to reinforce the accelerating pace, novel materials with unique properties are being proposed on an urgent basis. This list includes one dimensional nanotubes, quasi one dimensional nanowires, two dimensional atomistically thin layered materials like graphene, hexagonal boron nitride and the more recently the rich family of transition metal di-chalcogenides comprising of MoS2, WSe2, WS2 and many more for logic applications and organic and inorganic ferroelectrics, phase change materials and magnetic materials for memory applications. Only time will tell who will win, but exploring these novel materials allow us to revisit the fundamentals and strengthen our understanding which will ultimately be beneficial for high performance device design. While there has been growing interest in two-dimensional (2D) crystals other than graphene, evaluating their potential usefulness for electronic applications is still in its infancies due to the lack of a complete picture of their performance potential. The fact that the 2-D layered semiconducting di-chalcogenides need to be connected to the "outside" world in order to capitalize on their ultimate potential immediately emphasizes the importance of a thorough understanding of the contacts. This thesis demonstrate that through a proper understanding and design of source/drain contacts and the right choice of number of MoS2 layers the excellent intrinsic properties of this 2D material can be harvested. A comprehensive experimental study on the dependence of carrier mobility on the layer thickness of back gated multilayer MoS 2 field effect transistors is also provided. A resistor network model that comprises of Thomas-Fermi charge screening and interlayer coupling is used to explain the non-monotonic trend in the extracted field effect

  17. Working memory - not processing speed - mediates fluid intelligence deficits associated with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brydges, Christopher R; Ozolnieks, Krista L; Roberts, Gareth

    2017-09-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a psychological condition characterized by inattention and hyperactivity. Cognitive deficits are commonly observed in ADHD patients, including impaired working memory, processing speed, and fluid intelligence, the three of which are theorized to be closely associated with one another. In this study, we aimed to determine if decreased fluid intelligence was associated with ADHD, and was mediated by deficits in working memory and processing speed. This study tested 142 young adults from the general population on a range of working memory, processing speed, and fluid intelligence tasks, and an ADHD self-report symptoms questionnaire. Results showed that total and hyperactive ADHD symptoms correlated significantly and negatively with fluid intelligence, but this association was fully mediated by working memory. However, inattentive symptoms were not associated with fluid intelligence. Additionally, processing speed was not associated with ADHD symptoms at all, and was not uniquely predictive of fluid intelligence. The results provide implications for working memory training programs for ADHD patients, and highlight potential differences between the neuropsychological profiles of ADHD subtypes. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  18. Artificial intelligence applications of fast optical memory access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henshaw, P. D.; Todtenkopf, A. B.

    The operating principles and performance of rapid laser beam-steering (LBS) techniques are reviewed and illustrated with diagrams; their applicability to fast optical-memory (disk) access is evaluated; and the implications of fast access for the design of expert systems are discussed. LBS methods examined include analog deflection (source motion, wavefront tilt, and phased arrays), digital deflection (polarization modulation, reflectivity modulation, interferometric switching, and waveguide deflection), and photorefractive LBS. The disk-access problem is considered, and typical LBS requirements are listed as 38,000 beam positions, rotational latency 25 ms, one-sector rotation time 1.5 ms, and intersector space 87 microsec. The value of rapid access for increasing the power of expert systems (by permitting better organization of blocks of information) is illustrated by summarizing the learning process of the MVP-FORTH system (Park, 1983).

  19. Study of nanoimprint lithography (NIL) for HVM of memory devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kono, Takuya; Hatano, Masayuki; Tokue, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Kei; Suzuki, Masato; Fukuhara, Kazuya; Asano, Masafumi; Nakasugi, Tetsuro; Choi, Eun Hyuk; Jung, Wooyung

    2017-03-01

    A low cost alternative lithographic technology is desired to meet the decreasing feature size of semiconductor devices. Nano-imprint lithography (NIL) is one of the candidates for alternative lithographic technologies.[1][2][3] NIL has such advantages as good resolution, critical dimension (CD) uniformity and low line edge roughness (LER). On the other hand, the critical issues of NIL are defectivity, overlay, and throughput. In order to introduce NIL into the HVM, it is necessary to overcome these three challenges simultaneously.[4]-[12] In our previous study, we have reported a dramatic improvement in NIL process defectivity on a pilot line tool, FPA-1100 NZ2. We have described that the NIL process for 2x nm half pitch is getting closer to the target of HVM.[12] In this study, we report the recent evaluation of the NIL process performance to judge the applicability of NIL to memory device fabrications. In detail, the CD uniformity and LER are found to be less than 2nm. The overlay accuracy of the test device is less than 7nm. A defectivity level of below 1pcs./cm2 has been achieved at a throughput of 15 wafers per hour.

  20. Scaling dependence of memory windows and different carrier charging behaviors in Si nanocrystal nonvolatile memory devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jie; Chen, Kun-ji; Ma, Zhong-yuan; Zhang, Xin-xin; Jiang, Xiao-fan; Wu, Yang-qing; Huang, Xin-fan; Oda, Shunri

    2016-09-01

    Based on the charge storage mode, it is important to investigate the scaling dependence of memory performance in silicon nanocrystal (Si-NC) nonvolatile memory (NVM) devices for its scaling down limit. In this work, we made eight kinds of test key cells with different gate widths and lengths by 0.13-μm node complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology. It is found that the memory windows of eight kinds of test key cells are almost the same of about 1.64 V @ ± 7 V/1 ms, which are independent of the gate area, but mainly determined by the average size (12 nm) and areal density (1.8 × 1011/cm2) of Si-NCs. The program/erase (P/E) speed characteristics are almost independent of gate widths and lengths. However, the erase speed is faster than the program speed of test key cells, which is due to the different charging behaviors between electrons and holes during the operation processes. Furthermore, the data retention characteristic is also independent of the gate area. Our findings are useful for further scaling down of Si-NC NVM devices to improve the performance and on-chip integration. Project supported by the State Key Development Program for Basic Research of China (Grant No. 2010CB934402) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11374153, 61571221, and 61071008).

  1. Implementation of Transformer Protection by Intelligent Electronic Device for Different Faults

    OpenAIRE

    Y V Aruna, Beena S

    2015-01-01

    Protection of power system equipments was traditionally done by using electromagnetic relay, static relays, and numerical relays. At present the microprocessor based relays are replacing the old Electromagnetic relays because of their high level accuracy and fast operation. RET670(Transformer protection relay ), an IED (INTELLIGENT ELECTRONIC DEVICE) provides fast and selective protection, monitoring, and control of all types of transformer. The configured IED is tested under diff...

  2. Transistor memory devices with large memory windows, using multi-stacking of densely packed, hydrophobic charge trapping metal nanoparticle array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Ikjun; Cho, Jinhan; Kim, Beom Joon; Cho, Jeong Ho; Ryu, Sook Won

    2014-01-01

    Organic field-effect transistor (OFET) memories have rapidly evolved from low-cost and flexible electronics with relatively low-memory capacities to memory devices that require high-capacity memory such as smart memory cards or solid-state hard drives. Here, we report the high-capacity OFET memories based on the multilayer stacking of densely packed hydrophobic metal NP layers in place of the traditional transistor memory systems based on a single charge trapping layer. We demonstrated that the memory performances of devices could be significantly enhanced by controlling the adsorption isotherm behavior, multilayer stacking structure and hydrophobicity of the metal NPs. For this study, tetraoctylammonium (TOA)-stabilized Au nanoparticles (TOA-Au NPs ) were consecutively layer-by-layer (LbL) assembled with an amine-functionalized poly(amidoamine) dendrimer (PAD). The formed (PAD/TOA-Au NP ) n films were used as a multilayer stacked charge trapping layer at the interface between the tunneling dielectric layer and the SiO 2 gate dielectric layer. For a single Au NP layer (i.e. PAD/TOA-Au NP ) 1 ) with a number density of 1.82 × 10 12 cm −2 , the memory window of the OFET memory device was measured to be approximately 97 V. The multilayer stacked OFET memory devices prepared with four Au NP layers exhibited excellent programmable memory properties (i.e. a large memory window (ΔV th ) exceeding 145 V, a fast switching speed (1 μs), a high program/erase (P/E) current ratio (greater than 10 6 ) and good electrical reliability) during writing and erasing over a relatively short time scale under an operation voltage of 100 V applied at the gate. (paper)

  3. Effects of chewing gum on mood, learning, memory and performance of an intelligence test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew

    2009-04-01

    Recent research suggests that chewing gum may increase alertness and lead to changes in cognitive performance. The present study examined effects of chewing gum on these functions within the context of a single study. This study had four main aims. The first was to examine whether chewing gum improved learning and memory of information in a story. The second aim was to determine whether chewing gum improved test performance on a validated intellectual task (the Alice Heim task). A third aim was to determine whether chewing gum improved performance on short memory tasks (immediate and delayed recall of a list of words, delayed recognition memory, retrieval from semantic memory, and a working memory task). The final aim was to determine whether chewing gum improved mood (alertness, calm and hedonic tone). A cross-over design was used with gum and no-gum sessions being on consecutive weeks. In each week, volunteers attended for two sessions, two days apart. The first session assessed mood, immediate recall of information from a story and performance on short memory tasks. The second session assessed mood, delayed recall of information from a story and performance of an intelligence test (the Alice Heim test). There were no significant effects of chewing gum on any aspect of recall of the story. Chewing gum improved the accuracy of performing the Alice Heim test which confirms the benefits of gum on test performance seen in an earlier study. Chewing gum had no significant effect on the short memory tasks. Chewing gum increased alertness at the end of the test session in both parts of the study. This effect was in the region of a 10% increase and was highly significant (P increases alertness. In contrast, no significant effects of chewing gum were observed in the memory tasks. Intellectual performance was improved in the gum condition. Overall, the results suggest further research on the alerting effects of chewing gum and possible improved test performance in these

  4. Memory Device and Nanofabrication Techniques Using Electrically Configurable Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascenso Simões, Bruno

    Development of novel nanofabrication techniques and single-walled carbon nanotubes field configurable transistor (SWCNT-FCT) memory devices using electrically configurable materials is presented. A novel lithographic technique, electric lithography (EL), that uses electric field for pattern generation has been demonstrated. It can be used for patterning of biomolecules on a polymer surface and patterning of resist as well. Using electrical resist composed of a polymer having Boc protected amine group and iodonium salt, Boc group on the surface of polymer was modified to free amine by applying an electric field. On the modified surface of the polymer, Streptavidin pattern was fabricated with a sub-micron scale. Also patterning of polymer resin composed of epoxy monomers and diaryl iodonium salt by EL has been demonstrated. Reaction mechanism for electric resist configuration is believed to be induced by an acid generation via electrochemical reduction in the resist. We show a novel field configurable transistor (FCT) based on single-walled carbon nanotube network field-effect transistors in which poly (ethylene glycol) crosslinked by electron-beam is incorporated into the gate. The device conductance can be configured to arbitrary states reversibly and repeatedly by applying external gate voltages. Raman spectroscopy revealed that evolution of the ratio of D- to G-band intensity in the SWCNTs of the FCT progressively increases as the device is configured to lower conductance states. Electron transport studies at low temperatures showed a strong temperature dependence of the resistance. Band gap widening of CNTs up to ˜ 4 eV has been observed by examining the differential conductance-gate voltage-bias voltage relationship. The switching mechanism of the FCT is attributed a structural transformation of CNTs via reversible hydrogenation and dehydrogenations induced by gate voltages, which tunes the CNT bandgap continuously and reversibly to non-volatile analog values

  5. Intelligent speed adaptation as an assistive device for drivers with acquired brain injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klarborg, Brith; Lahrmann, Harry Spaabæk; Agerholm, Niels

    2012-01-01

    Intelligent speed adaptation (ISA) was tested as an assistive device for drivers with an acquired brain injury (ABI). The study was part of the “Pay as You Speed” project (PAYS) and used the same equipment and technology as the main study (Lahrmann et al., in press-a, in press-b). Two drivers......, and in general they described driving with ISA as relaxed. ISA reduced the percentage of the total distance that was driven with a speed above the speed limit (PDA), but the subjects relapsed to their previous PDA level in Baseline 2. This suggests that ISA is more suited as a permanent assistive device (i...

  6. The Structure of Working Memory in Young Children and Its Relation to Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Shelley; Green, Samuel; Alt, Mary; Hogan, Tiffany P.; Kuo, Trudy; Brinkley, Shara; Cowan, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the structure of working memory in young school-age children by testing the fit of three competing theoretical models using a wide variety of tasks. The best fitting models were then used to assess the relationship between working memory and nonverbal measures of fluid reasoning (Gf) and visual processing (Gv) intelligence. One hundred sixty-eight English-speaking 7–9 year olds with typical development, from three states, participated. Results showed that Cowan’s three-factor embedded processes model fit the data slightly better than Baddeley and Hitch’s (1974) three-factor model (specified according to Baddeley, 1986) and decisively better than Baddeley’s (2000) four-factor model that included an episodic buffer. The focus of attention factor in Cowan’s model was a significant predictor of Gf and Gv. The results suggest that the focus of attention, rather than storage, drives the relationship between working memory, Gf, and Gv in young school-age children. Our results do not rule out the Baddeley and Hitch model, but they place constraints on both it and Cowan’s model. A common attentional component is needed for feature binding, running digit span, and visual short-term memory tasks; phonological storage is separate, as is a component of central executive processing involved in task manipulation. The results contribute to a zeitgeist in which working memory models are coming together on common ground (cf. Cowan, Saults, & Blume, 2014; Hu, Allen, Baddeley, & Hitch, 2016). PMID:27990060

  7. The Structure of Working Memory in Young Children and Its Relation to Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Shelley; Green, Samuel; Alt, Mary; Hogan, Tiffany P; Kuo, Trudy; Brinkley, Shara; Cowan, Nelson

    2017-02-01

    This study investigated the structure of working memory in young school-age children by testing the fit of three competing theoretical models using a wide variety of tasks. The best fitting models were then used to assess the relationship between working memory and nonverbal measures of fluid reasoning ( Gf ) and visual processing ( Gv ) intelligence. One hundred sixty-eight English-speaking 7-9 year olds with typical development, from three states, participated. Results showed that Cowan's three-factor embedded processes model fit the data slightly better than Baddeley and Hitch's (1974) three-factor model (specified according to Baddeley, 1986) and decisively better than Baddeley's (2000) four-factor model that included an episodic buffer. The focus of attention factor in Cowan's model was a significant predictor of Gf and Gv . The results suggest that the focus of attention, rather than storage, drives the relationship between working memory, Gf , and Gv in young school-age children. Our results do not rule out the Baddeley and Hitch model, but they place constraints on both it and Cowan's model. A common attentional component is needed for feature binding, running digit span, and visual short-term memory tasks; phonological storage is separate, as is a component of central executive processing involved in task manipulation. The results contribute to a zeitgeist in which working memory models are coming together on common ground (cf. Cowan, Saults, & Blume, 2014; Hu, Allen, Baddeley, & Hitch, 2016).

  8. Sensory ERPs predict differences in working memory span and fluid intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumback, Carrie R; Low, Kathy A; Gratton, Gabriele; Fabiani, Monica

    2004-02-09

    The way our brain reacts to sensory stimulation may provide important clues about higher-level cognitive function and its operation. Here we show that short-latency (memory span, as well as between subjects scoring high and low on a fluid intelligence test. Our findings also suggest that this link between sensory responses and complex cognitive tasks is modality specific (visual sensory measures correlate with visuo-spatial tasks whereas auditory sensory measures correlate with verbal tasks). We interpret these findings as indicating that people's effectiveness in controlling attention and gating sensory information is a critical determinant of individual differences in complex cognitive abilities.

  9. Working Memory and Fluid Intelligence: Capacity, Attention Control, and Secondary Memory Retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unsworth, Nash; Fukuda, Keisuke; Awh, Edward; Vogel, Edward K.

    2015-01-01

    Several theories have been put forth to explain the relation between working memory (WM) and gF. Unfortunately, no single factor has been shown to fully account for the relation between these two important constructs. In the current study we tested whether multiple factors (capacity, attention control, and secondary memory) would collectively account for the relation. A large number of participants performed multiple measures of each construct and latent variable analyses were used to examine the data. The results demonstrated that capacity, attention control, and secondary memory were uniquely related to WM storage, WM processing, and gF. Importantly, the three factors completely accounted for the relation between WM (both processing and storage) and gF. Thus, although storage and processing make independent contributions to gF, both of these contributions are accounted for by variation in capacity, attention control and secondary memory. These results are consistent with the multifaceted view of WM, suggesting that individual differences in capacity, attention control, and secondary memory jointly account for individual differences in WM and its relation with gF. PMID:24531497

  10. Working memory and fluid intelligence: capacity, attention control, and secondary memory retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unsworth, Nash; Fukuda, Keisuke; Awh, Edward; Vogel, Edward K

    2014-06-01

    Several theories have been put forth to explain the relation between working memory (WM) and gF. Unfortunately, no single factor has been shown to fully account for the relation between these two important constructs. In the current study we tested whether multiple factors (capacity, attention control, and secondary memory) would collectively account for the relation. A large number of participants performed multiple measures of each construct and latent variable analyses were used to examine the data. The results demonstrated that capacity, attention control, and secondary memory were uniquely related to WM storage, WM processing, and gF. Importantly, the three factors completely accounted for the relation between WM (both processing and storage) and gF. Thus, although storage and processing make independent contributions to gF, both of these contributions are accounted for by variation in capacity, attention control and secondary memory. These results are consistent with the multifaceted view of WM, suggesting that individual differences in capacity, attention control, and secondary memory jointly account for individual differences in WM and its relation with gF. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Demonstration of Ultra-Fast Switching in Nano metallic Resistive Switching Memory Devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Interdependency of switching voltage and time creates a dilemma/obstacle for most resistive switching memories, which indicates low switching voltage and ultra-fast switching time cannot be simultaneously achieved. In this paper, an ultra-fast (sub-100 ns) yet low switching voltage resistive switching memory device (“nano metallic ReRAM”) was demonstrated. Experimental switching voltage is found independent of pulse width (intrinsic device property) when the pulse is long but shows abrupt time dependence (“cliff”) as pulse width approaches characteristic RC time of memory device (extrinsic device property). Both experiment and simulation show that the onset of cliff behavior is dependent on physical device size and parasitic resistance, which is expected to diminish as technology nodes shrink down. We believe this study provides solid evidence that nano metallic resistive switching memory can be reliably operated at low voltage and ultra-fast regime, thus beneficial to future memory technology.

  12. Relationships among Verbal Memory, Spatial Working Memory and Intelligence in Children of 10-11 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burdukova Yu,A.

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The issue investigates the relationship Selective Reminding Test (SRT, a test of spatial working memory (SWM with Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children (KABC II. It has been found that the efficiency of memorizing verbal material is associated with the estimates on the K-ABC Sequential processing scale and K-ABC Simultaneous processing scale, but not to the Learning scale of education, is measured indirectly verbal memorization. Spatial working memory is not related to IQ.The issue is part of a research project on cognitive function in children with neuro-oncological disorders

  13. Effects on incidental memory of affective tone in associated past and future episodes: influence of emotional intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyota, Hiroshi

    2011-02-01

    The present study examined the effects of emotion elicited by episodes (past events or expected future events) and the relationship between individual differences in emotional intelligence and memory. Participants' emotional intelligence was assessed on the Japanese version of Emotional Skills and Competence Questionnaire. They rated the pleasantness of episodes they associated with targets, and then performed unexpected free recall tests. When the targets were associated with episodes that were past events, all participants recalled more of the targets associated with pleasant and unpleasant episodes than those associated with neutral episodes. However, when the targets were associated with episodes expected to occur in the future, only participants with higher emotional intelligence scores recalled more of the targets associated with pleasant and unpleasant episodes. The participants with lower emotional intelligence scores recalled the three target types with similar accuracy. These results were interpreted as showing that emotional intelligence is associated with the processing of targets associated with future episodes as retrieval cues.

  14. No Spearman’s Law of Diminishing Returns for the working memory and intelligence relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kroczek Bartłomiej

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Spearman’s Law of Diminishing Returns (SLODR holds that correlation between general (g/fluid (Gf intelligence factor and other cognitive abilities weakens with increasing ability level. Thus, cognitive processing in low ability people is most strongly saturated by g/Gf, whereas processing in high ability people depends less on g/Gf. Numerous studies demonstrated that low g is more strongly correlated with crystallized intelligence/creativity/processing speed than is high g, however no study tested an analogous effect in the case of working memory (WM. Our aim was to investigate SLODR for the relationship between Gf and WM capacity, using a large data set from our own previous studies. We tested alternative regression models separately for three types of WM tasks that tapped short-term memory storage, attention control, and relational integration, respectively. No significant SLODR effect was found for any of these tasks. Each task shared with Gf virtually the same amount of variance in the case of low- and high-ability people. This result suggests that Gf and WM rely on one and the same (neurocognitive mechanism.

  15. A Comparison of Laboratory and Clinical Working Memory Tests and Their Prediction of Fluid Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Jill T.; Elliott, Emily M.; Hill, B. D.; Calamia, Matthew R.; Gouvier, Wm. Drew

    2010-01-01

    The working memory (WM) construct is conceptualized similarly across domains of psychology, yet the methods used to measure WM function vary widely. The present study examined the relationship between WM measures used in the laboratory and those used in applied settings. A large sample of undergraduates completed three laboratory-based WM measures (operation span, listening span, and n-back), as well as the WM subtests from the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III and the Wechsler Memory Scale-III. Performance on all of the WM subtests of the clinical batteries shared positive correlations with the lab measures; however, the Arithmetic and Spatial Span subtests shared lower correlations than the other WM tests. Factor analyses revealed that a factor comprising scores from the three lab WM measures and the clinical subtest, Letter-Number Sequencing (LNS), provided the best measurement of WM. Additionally, a latent variable approach was taken using fluid intelligence as a criterion construct to further discriminate between the WM tests. The results revealed that the lab measures, along with the LNS task, were the best predictors of fluid abilities. PMID:20161647

  16. Impacts of Co doping on ZnO transparent switching memory device characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simanjuntak, Firman Mangasa; Wei, Kung-Hwa [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 30010, Taiwan (China); Prasad, Om Kumar [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 30010, Taiwan (China); Panda, Debashis [Department of Electronics Engineering, National Institute of Science and Technology, Berhampur, Odisha 761008 (India); Lin, Chun-An; Tsai, Tsung-Ling; Tseng, Tseung-Yuen, E-mail: tseng@cc.nctu.edu.tw [Department of Electronics Engineering and Institute of Electronics, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 30010, Taiwan (China)

    2016-05-02

    The resistive switching characteristics of indium tin oxide (ITO)/Zn{sub 1−x}Co{sub x}O/ITO transparent resistive memory devices were investigated. An appropriate amount of cobalt dopant in ZnO resistive layer demonstrated sufficient memory window and switching stability. In contrast, pure ZnO devices demonstrated a poor memory window, and using an excessive dopant concentration led to switching instability. To achieve suitable memory performance, relying only on controlling defect concentrations is insufficient; the grain growth orientation of the resistive layer must also be considered. Stable endurance with an ON/OFF ratio of more than one order of magnitude during 5000 cycles confirmed that the Co-doped ZnO device is a suitable candidate for resistive random access memory application. Additionally, fully transparent devices with a high transmittance of up to 90% at wavelength of 550 nm have been fabricated.

  17. Three-terminal resistive switching memory in a transparent vertical-configuration device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ungureanu, Mariana; Llopis, Roger; Casanova, Fèlix; Hueso, Luis E.

    2014-01-01

    The resistive switching phenomenon has attracted much attention recently for memory applications. It describes the reversible change in the resistance of a dielectric between two non-volatile states by the application of electrical pulses. Typical resistive switching memories are two-terminal devices formed by an oxide layer placed between two metal electrodes. Here, we report on the fabrication and operation of a three-terminal resistive switching memory that works as a reconfigurable logic component and offers an increased logic density on chip. The three-terminal memory device we present is transparent and could be further incorporated in transparent computing electronic technologies

  18. Intelligent low-level RF system by non-destructive beam monitoring device for cyclotrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifi Asadi Malafeh, M. S.; Ghergherehchi, M.; Afarideh, H.; Chai, J. S.; Yoon, Sang Kim

    2016-04-01

    The project of a 10 MeV PET cyclotron accelerator for medical diagnosis and treatment was started at Amirkabir University of Technology in 2012. The low-level RF system of the cyclotron accelerator is designed to stabilize acceleration voltage and control the resonance frequency of the cavity. In this work an Intelligent Low Level Radio Frequency Circuit or ILLRF, suitable for most AVF cyclotron accelerators, is designed using a beam monitoring device and narrow band tunable band-pass filter. In this design, the RF phase detection does not need signal processing by a microcontroller.

  19. Lanthanum Gadolinium Oxide: A New Electronic Device Material for CMOS Logic and Memory Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shojan P. Pavunny

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive study on the ternary dielectric, LaGdO3, synthesized and qualified in our laboratory as a novel high-k dielectric material for logic and memory device applications in terms of its excellent features that include a high linear dielectric constant (k of ~22 and a large energy bandgap of ~5.6 eV, resulting in sufficient electron and hole band offsets of ~2.57 eV and ~1.91 eV, respectively, on silicon, good thermal stability with Si and lower gate leakage current densities within the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS specified limits at the sub-nanometer electrical functional thickness level, which are desirable for advanced complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS, bipolar (Bi and BiCMOS chips applications, is presented in this review article.

  20. Bulk heterojunction polymer memory devices with reduced graphene oxide as electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Juqing; Yin, Zongyou; Cao, Xiehong; Zhao, Fei; Lin, Anping; Xie, Linghai; Fan, Quli; Boey, Freddy; Zhang, Hua; Huang, Wei

    2010-07-27

    A unique device structure with a configuration of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) /P3HT:PCBM/Al has been designed for the polymer nonvolatile memory device. The current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of the fabricated device showed the electrical bistability with a write-once-read-many-times (WORM) memory effect. The memory device exhibits a high ON/OFF ratio (10(4)-10(5)) and low switching threshold voltage (0.5-1.2 V), which are dependent on the sheet resistance of rGO electrode. Our experimental results confirm that the carrier transport mechanisms in the OFF and ON states are dominated by the thermionic emission current and ohmic current, respectively. The polarization of PCBM domains and the localized internal electrical field formed among the adjacent domains are proposed to explain the electrical transition of the memory device.

  1. Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Intelligence is the ability to learn from experience and to adapt to, shape, and select environments. Intelligence as measured by (raw scores on) conventional standardized tests varies across the lifespan, and also across generations. Intelligence can be understood in part in terms of the biology of the brain—especially with regard to the functioning in the prefrontal cortex—and also correlates with brain size, at least within humans. Studies of the effects of genes and environment suggest that the heritability coefficient (ratio of genetic to phenotypic variation) is between .4 and .8, although heritability varies as a function of socioeconomic status and other factors. Racial differences in measured intelligence have been observed, but race is a socially constructed rather than biological variable, so such differences are difficult to interpret. PMID:22577301

  2. Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Robert J

    2012-03-01

    Intelligence is the ability to learn from experience and to adapt to, shape, and select environments. Intelligence as measured by (raw scores on) conventional standardized tests varies across the lifespan, and also across generations. Intelligence can be understood in part in terms of the biology of the brain-especially with regard to the functioning in the prefrontal cortex-and also correlates with brain size, at least within humans. Studies of the effects of genes and environment suggest that the heritability coefficient (ratio of genetic to phenotypic variation) is between .4 and .8, although heritability varies as a function of socioeconomic status and other factors. Racial differences in measured intelligence have been observed, but race is a socially constructed rather than biological variable, so such differences are difficult to interpret.

  3. Solution-processed flexible NiO resistive random access memory device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soo-Jung; Lee, Heon; Hong, Sung-Hoon

    2018-04-01

    Non-volatile memories (NVMs) using nanocrystals (NCs) as active materials can be applied to soft electronic devices requiring a low-temperature process because NCs do not require a heat treatment process for crystallization. In addition, memory devices can be implemented simply by using a patterning technique using a solution process. In this study, a flexible NiO ReRAM device was fabricated using a simple NC patterning method that controls the capillary force and dewetting of a NiO NC solution at low temperature. The switching behavior of a NiO NC based memory was clearly observed by conductive atomic force microscopy (c-AFM).

  4. Status and Prospects of ZnO-Based Resistive Switching Memory Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simanjuntak, Firman Mangasa; Panda, Debashis; Wei, Kung-Hwa; Tseng, Tseung-Yuen

    2016-08-01

    In the advancement of the semiconductor device technology, ZnO could be a prospective alternative than the other metal oxides for its versatility and huge applications in different aspects. In this review, a thorough overview on ZnO for the application of resistive switching memory (RRAM) devices has been conducted. Various efforts that have been made to investigate and modulate the switching characteristics of ZnO-based switching memory devices are discussed. The use of ZnO layer in different structure, the different types of filament formation, and the different types of switching including complementary switching are reported. By considering the huge interest of transparent devices, this review gives the concrete overview of the present status and prospects of transparent RRAM devices based on ZnO. ZnO-based RRAM can be used for flexible memory devices, which is also covered here. Another challenge in ZnO-based RRAM is that the realization of ultra-thin and low power devices. Nevertheless, ZnO not only offers decent memory properties but also has a unique potential to be used as multifunctional nonvolatile memory devices. The impact of electrode materials, metal doping, stack structures, transparency, and flexibility on resistive switching properties and switching parameters of ZnO-based resistive switching memory devices are briefly compared. This review also covers the different nanostructured-based emerging resistive switching memory devices for low power scalable devices. It may give a valuable insight on developing ZnO-based RRAM and also should encourage researchers to overcome the challenges.

  5. Metal-organic molecular device for non-volatile memory storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radha, B.; Sagade, Abhay A.; Kulkarni, G. U.

    2014-01-01

    Non-volatile memory devices have been of immense research interest for their use in active memory storage in powered off-state of electronic chips. In literature, various molecules and metal compounds have been investigated in this regard. Molecular memory devices are particularly attractive as they offer the ease of storing multiple memory states in a unique way and also represent ubiquitous choice for miniaturized devices. However, molecules are fragile and thus the device breakdown at nominal voltages during repeated cycles hinders their practical applicability. Here, in this report, a synergetic combination of an organic molecule and an inorganic metal, i.e., a metal-organic complex, namely, palladium hexadecylthiolate is investigated for memory device characteristics. Palladium hexadecylthiolate following partial thermolysis is converted to a molecular nanocomposite of Pd(II), Pd(0), and long chain hydrocarbons, which is shown to exhibit non-volatile memory characteristics with exceptional stability and retention. The devices are all solution-processed and the memory action stems from filament formation across the pre-formed cracks in the nanocomposite film.

  6. Local intelligent electronic device (IED) rendering templates over limited bandwidth communication link to manage remote IED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradetich, Ryan; Dearien, Jason A; Grussling, Barry Jakob; Remaley, Gavin

    2013-11-05

    The present disclosure provides systems and methods for remote device management. According to various embodiments, a local intelligent electronic device (IED) may be in communication with a remote IED via a limited bandwidth communication link, such as a serial link. The limited bandwidth communication link may not support traditional remote management interfaces. According to one embodiment, a local IED may present an operator with a management interface for a remote IED by rendering locally stored templates. The local IED may render the locally stored templates using sparse data obtained from the remote IED. According to various embodiments, the management interface may be a web client interface and/or an HTML interface. The bandwidth required to present a remote management interface may be significantly reduced by rendering locally stored templates rather than requesting an entire management interface from the remote IED. According to various embodiments, an IED may comprise an encryption transceiver.

  7. Intelligent RF-Based Gesture Input Devices Implemented Using e-Textiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Hughes

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an radio-frequency (RF-based approach to gesture detection and recognition, using e-textile versions of common transmission lines used in microwave circuits. This approach allows for easy fabrication of input swatches that can detect a continuum of finger positions and similarly basic gestures, using a single measurement line. We demonstrate that the swatches can perform gesture detection when under thin layers of cloth or when weatherproofed, providing a high level of versatility not present with other types of approaches. Additionally, using small convolutional neural networks, low-level gestures can be identified with a high level of accuracy using a small, inexpensive microcontroller, allowing for an intelligent fabric that reports only gestures of interest, rather than a simple sensor requiring constant surveillance from an external computing device. The resulting e-textile smart composite has applications in controlling wearable devices by providing a simple, eyes-free mechanism to input simple gestures.

  8. Intelligibility and Clarity of Reverberant Speech: Effects of Wide Dynamic Range Compression Release Time and Working Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhart, Paul N.; Souza, Pamela E.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of varying wide dynamic range compression (WDRC) release time on intelligibility and clarity of reverberant speech. The study also considered the role of individual working memory. Method: Thirty older listeners with mild to moderately-severe sloping sensorineural hearing loss…

  9. Exploring Possible Neural Mechanisms of Intelligence Differences Using Processing Speed and Working Memory Tasks: An fMRI Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waiter, Gordon D.; Deary, Ian J.; Staff, Roger T.; Murray, Alison D.; Fox, Helen C.; Starr, John M.; Whalley, Lawrence J.

    2009-01-01

    To explore the possible neural foundations of individual differences in intelligence test scores, we examined the associations between Raven's Matrices scores and two tasks that were administered in a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) setting. The two tasks were an n-back working memory (N = 37) task and inspection time (N = 47). The…

  10. Fabrication and electrical characterization of a MOS memory device containing self-assembled metallic nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargentis, Ch.; Giannakopoulos, K.; Travlos, A.; Tsamakis, D.

    2007-04-01

    Floating gate devices with nanoparticles embedded in dielectrics have recently attracted much attention due to the fact that these devices operate as non-volatile memories with high speed, high density and low power consumption. In this paper, memory devices containing gold (Au) nanoparticles have been fabricated using e-gun evaporation. The Au nanoparticles are deposited on a very thin SiO 2 layer and are then fully covered by a HfO 2 layer. The HfO 2 is a high- k dielectric and gives good scalability to the fabricated devices. We studied the effect of the deposition parameters to the size and the shape of the Au nanoparticles using capacitance-voltage and conductance-voltage measurements, we demonstrated that the fabricated device can indeed operate as a low-voltage memory device.

  11. Ferroelectric-gate field effect transistor memories device physics and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Ishiwara, Hiroshi; Okuyama, Masanori; Sakai, Shigeki; Yoon, Sung-Min

    2016-01-01

    This book provides comprehensive coverage of the materials characteristics, process technologies, and device operations for memory field-effect transistors employing inorganic or organic ferroelectric thin films. This transistor-type ferroelectric memory has interesting fundamental device physics and potentially large industrial impact. Among the various applications of ferroelectric thin films, the development of nonvolatile ferroelectric random access memory (FeRAM) has progressed most actively since the late 1980s and has achieved modest mass production levels for specific applications since 1995. There are two types of memory cells in ferroelectric nonvolatile memories. One is the capacitor-type FeRAM and the other is the field-effect transistor (FET)-type FeRAM. Although the FET-type FeRAM claims ultimate scalability and nondestructive readout characteristics, the capacitor-type FeRAMs have been the main interest for the major semiconductor memory companies, because the ferroelectric FET has fatal handic...

  12. Nonvolatile write-once-read-many-times memory device with functionalized-nanoshells/PEDOT:PSS nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avila-Nino, J.A.; Segura-Cardenas, E.; Sustaita, A.O.; Cruz-Cruz, I.; Lopez-Sandoval, R.; Reyes-Reyes, M.

    2011-01-01

    We have investigated the memory effect of the nanocomposites of functionalized carbon nanoshells (f-CNSs) mixed with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) doped with polystyrenesulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) polymer. The f-CNSs were synthesized by the spray pyrolysis method and functionalized in situ with functional groups (OH, COOH, C-H, C-OH) with the aim of improving their compatibility in the aqueous dispersion of PEDOT:PSS. The current-voltage (I-V) sweep curves at room temperature for the Al/f-CNSs, for certain concentrations range, embedded in a PEDOT:PSS layer/Al devices showed electrical bistability for write-once-read-many-times (WORM) memory devices. The memory effect observed in the devices can be explained due to the existence of trapped charges in the f-CNSs/PEDOT:PSS layer. The carrier transport mechanisms for the memory devices is studied and discussed.

  13. Nonvolatile write-once-read-many-times memory device with functionalized-nanoshells/PEDOT:PSS nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avila-Nino, J.A.; Segura-Cardenas, E. [Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, Instituto de Investigacion en Comunicacion Optica, Alvaro Obregon 64 Zona Centro, 78000 SLP (Mexico); Sustaita, A.O. [Instituto Potosino de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica, Camino a la presa San Jose 2055, CP 78216, San Luis Potosi (Mexico); Cruz-Cruz, I. [Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, Instituto de Investigacion en Comunicacion Optica, Alvaro Obregon 64 Zona Centro, 78000 SLP (Mexico); Lopez-Sandoval, R. [Instituto Potosino de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica, Camino a la presa San Jose 2055, CP 78216, San Luis Potosi (Mexico); Reyes-Reyes, M., E-mail: reyesm@iico.uaslp.mx [Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, Instituto de Investigacion en Comunicacion Optica, Alvaro Obregon 64 Zona Centro, 78000 SLP (Mexico)

    2011-03-25

    We have investigated the memory effect of the nanocomposites of functionalized carbon nanoshells (f-CNSs) mixed with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) doped with polystyrenesulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) polymer. The f-CNSs were synthesized by the spray pyrolysis method and functionalized in situ with functional groups (OH, COOH, C-H, C-OH) with the aim of improving their compatibility in the aqueous dispersion of PEDOT:PSS. The current-voltage (I-V) sweep curves at room temperature for the Al/f-CNSs, for certain concentrations range, embedded in a PEDOT:PSS layer/Al devices showed electrical bistability for write-once-read-many-times (WORM) memory devices. The memory effect observed in the devices can be explained due to the existence of trapped charges in the f-CNSs/PEDOT:PSS layer. The carrier transport mechanisms for the memory devices is studied and discussed.

  14. Memory characteristics of silicon nitride with silicon nanocrystals as a charge trapping layer of nonvolatile memory devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Sangmoo; Yang, Hyundeok; Chang, Man; Baek, Sungkweon; Hwang, Hyunsang; Jeon, Sanghun; Kim, Juhyung; Kim, Chungwoo

    2005-01-01

    Silicon nitride with silicon nanocrystals formed by low-energy silicon plasma immersion ion implantation has been investigated as a charge trapping layer of a polycrystalline silicon-oxide-nitride-oxide-silicon-type nonvolatile memory device. Compared with the control sample without silicon nanocrystals, silicon nitride with silicon nanocrystals provides excellent memory characteristics, such as larger width of capacitance-voltage hysteresis, higher program/erase speed, and lower charge loss rate at elevated temperature. These improved memory characteristics are derived by incorporation of silicon nanocrystals into the charge trapping layer as additional accessible charge traps with a deeper effective trap energy level

  15. Electrical studies of Ge4Sb1Te5 devices for memory applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangeetha, B. G.; Shylashree, N.

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, the Ge4Sb1Te5 thin film device preparation and electrical studies for memory devices were carried out. The device was deposited using vapor-evaporation technique. RESET to SET state switching was shown using current-voltage characterization. The current-voltage characterization shows the switching between SET to RESET state and it was found that it requires a low energy for transition. Switching between amorphous to crystalline nature was studied using resistance-voltage characteristics. The endurance showed the effective use of this composition for memory device.

  16. Intelligence or years of education: which is better correlated with memory function in normal elderly Japanese subjects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murayama, Norio; Iseki, Eizo; Tagaya, Hirokuni; Ota, Kazumi; Kasanuki, Koji; Fujishiro, Hiroshige; Arai, Heii; Sato, Kiyoshi

    2013-03-01

    We compared differences in intelligence and memory function between normal elderly Japanese subjects with more years of education and those with fewer years of education. We also investigated clinical and neuropsychological factors that are strongly correlated with memory function. There were 118 normal elderly subjects who underwent the Mini-Mental State Examination, Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, 3rd edition (WAIS-III), and Wechsler Memory Scale Revised. Subjects with at least 13 years of education were categorized as the H group, and those with 12 years of education or less were categorized as the L group. Age and Mini-Mental State Examination scores were not significantly different between the two groups. On the WAIS-III, there were significant differences between the two groups in Verbal IQ and Full Scale IQ. On the Wechsler Memory Scale Revised, there were significant differences between the two groups in Visual Memory, General Memory, and Delayed Recall. Correlation coefficients between memory function and the other factors demonstrated significant but weak correlations between years of education and General Memory (R = 0.22) and between years of education and Delayed Recall (R = 0.20). Strong correlations were found between Verbal IQ and Verbal Memory (R = 0.45), between Verbal IQ and General Memory (R = 0.49), between Full Scale IQ and General Memory (R = 0.50) and between Full Scale IQ and Delayed Recall (R = 0.48). In normal elderly Japanese subjects, years of education weakly correlated with memory function while Verbal IQ, Full Scale IQ and Verbal Comprehension on WAIS-III had stronger correlations with memory function. Verbal IQ and Verbal Comprehension on WAIS-III were found to be insusceptible to the cognitive decline characteristic of Alzheimer's disease or amnestic mild cognitive impairment. Therefore, verbal intelligence, as measured by Verbal IQ and Verbal Comprehension, may be the most useful factor for inferring premorbid memory function

  17. Configurable memory system and method for providing atomic counting operations in a memory device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellofatto, Ralph E.; Gara, Alan G.; Giampapa, Mark E.; Ohmacht, Martin

    2010-09-14

    A memory system and method for providing atomic memory-based counter operations to operating systems and applications that make most efficient use of counter-backing memory and virtual and physical address space, while simplifying operating system memory management, and enabling the counter-backing memory to be used for purposes other than counter-backing storage when desired. The encoding and address decoding enabled by the invention provides all this functionality through a combination of software and hardware.

  18. Observation of long term potentiation in papain-based memory devices

    KAUST Repository

    Bag, A.

    2014-06-01

    Biological synaptic behavior in terms of long term potentiation has been observed in papain-based (plant protein) memory devices (memristors) for the first time. Improvement in long term potentiation depends on pulse amplitude and width (duration). Continuous/repetitive dc voltage sweep leads to an increase in memristor conductivity leading to a long term memory in the \\'learning\\' processes.

  19. Observation of long term potentiation in papain-based memory devices

    KAUST Repository

    Bag, A.; Hota, Mrinal Kanti; Mallik, Sandipan B.; Maì ti, Chinmay Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Biological synaptic behavior in terms of long term potentiation has been observed in papain-based (plant protein) memory devices (memristors) for the first time. Improvement in long term potentiation depends on pulse amplitude and width (duration). Continuous/repetitive dc voltage sweep leads to an increase in memristor conductivity leading to a long term memory in the 'learning' processes.

  20. Electric-field-controlled interface dipole modulation for Si-based memory devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyata, Noriyuki

    2018-05-31

    Various nonvolatile memory devices have been investigated to replace Si-based flash memories or emulate synaptic plasticity for next-generation neuromorphic computing. A crucial criterion to achieve low-cost high-density memory chips is material compatibility with conventional Si technologies. In this paper, we propose and demonstrate a new memory concept, interface dipole modulation (IDM) memory. IDM can be integrated as a Si field-effect transistor (FET) based memory device. The first demonstration of this concept employed a HfO 2 /Si MOS capacitor where the interface monolayer (ML) TiO 2 functions as a dipole modulator. However, this configuration is unsuitable for Si-FET-based devices due to its large interface state density (D it ). Consequently, we propose, a multi-stacked amorphous HfO 2 /1-ML TiO 2 /SiO 2 IDM structure to realize a low D it and a wide memory window. Herein we describe the quasi-static and pulse response characteristics of multi-stacked IDM MOS capacitors and demonstrate flash-type and analog memory operations of an IDM FET device.

  1. Structural equation modeling in the genetically informative study of the covariation of intelligence, working memory and planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voronin I.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Structural equation modelling (SEM has become an important tool in behaviour genetic research. The application of SEM for multivariate twin analysis allows revealing the structure of genetic and environmental factors underlying individual differences in human traits. We outline the framework of twin method and SEM, describe SEM implementation of a multivariate twin model and provide an example of a multivariate twin study. The study included 901 adolescent twin pairs from Russia. We measured general cognitive ability and characteristics of working memory and planning. The individual differences in working memory and planning were explained mostly by person-specific environment. The variability of intelligence is related to genes, family environment, and person specific environment. Moderate and weak associations between intelligence, working memory, and planning were entirely explained by shared environmental effects.

  2. Non-volatile memory devices with redox-active diruthenium molecular compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pookpanratana, S; Zhu, H; Bittle, E G; Richter, C A; Li, Q; Hacker, C A; Natoli, S N; Ren, T

    2016-01-01

    Reduction-oxidation (redox) active molecules hold potential for memory devices due to their many unique properties. We report the use of a novel diruthenium-based redox molecule incorporated into a non-volatile Flash-based memory device architecture. The memory capacitor device structure consists of a Pd/Al 2 O 3 /molecule/SiO 2 /Si structure. The bulky ruthenium redox molecule is attached to the surface by using a ‘click’ reaction and the monolayer structure is characterized by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to verify the Ru attachment and molecular density. The ‘click’ reaction is particularly advantageous for memory applications because of (1) ease of chemical design and synthesis, and (2) provides an additional spatial barrier between the oxide/silicon to the diruthenium molecule. Ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy data identified the energy of the electronic levels of the surface before and after surface modification. The molecular memory devices display an unsaturated charge storage window attributed to the intrinsic properties of the redox-active molecule. Our findings demonstrate the strengths and challenges with integrating molecular layers within solid-state devices, which will influence the future design of molecular memory devices. (paper)

  3. Cognitive predictors of a common multitasking ability: Contributions from working memory, attention control, and fluid intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redick, Thomas S; Shipstead, Zach; Meier, Matthew E; Montroy, Janelle J; Hicks, Kenny L; Unsworth, Nash; Kane, Michael J; Hambrick, D Zachary; Engle, Randall W

    2016-11-01

    Previous research has identified several cognitive abilities that are important for multitasking, but few studies have attempted to measure a general multitasking ability using a diverse set of multitasks. In the final dataset, 534 young adult subjects completed measures of working memory (WM), attention control, fluid intelligence, and multitasking. Correlations, hierarchical regression analyses, confirmatory factor analyses, structural equation models, and relative weight analyses revealed several key findings. First, although the complex tasks used to assess multitasking differed greatly in their task characteristics and demands, a coherent construct specific to multitasking ability was identified. Second, the cognitive ability predictors accounted for substantial variance in the general multitasking construct, with WM and fluid intelligence accounting for the most multitasking variance compared to attention control. Third, the magnitude of the relationships among the cognitive abilities and multitasking varied as a function of the complexity and structure of the various multitasks assessed. Finally, structural equation models based on a multifaceted model of WM indicated that attention control and capacity fully mediated the WM and multitasking relationship. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Skill Learning for Intelligent Robot by Perception-Action Integration: A View from Hierarchical Temporal Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinzheng Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Skill learning autonomously through interactions with the environment is a crucial ability for intelligent robot. A perception-action integration or sensorimotor cycle, as an important issue in imitation learning, is a natural mechanism without the complex program process. Recently, neurocomputing model and developmental intelligence method are considered as a new trend for implementing the robot skill learning. In this paper, based on research of the human brain neocortex model, we present a skill learning method by perception-action integration strategy from the perspective of hierarchical temporal memory (HTM theory. The sequential sensor data representing a certain skill from a RGB-D camera are received and then encoded as a sequence of Sparse Distributed Representation (SDR vectors. The sequential SDR vectors are treated as the inputs of the perception-action HTM. The HTM learns sequences of SDRs and makes predictions of what the next input SDR will be. It stores the transitions of the current perceived sensor data and next predicted actions. We evaluated the performance of this proposed framework for learning the shaking hands skill on a humanoid NAO robot. The experimental results manifest that the skill learning method designed in this paper is promising.

  5. Individual differences in working memory, secondary memory, and fluid intelligence: evidence from the levels-of-processing span task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Nathan S

    2013-12-01

    Individual differences in working memory (WM) are related to performance on secondary memory (SM), and fluid intelligence (gF) tests. However, the source of the relation remains unclear, in part because few studies have controlled for the nature of encoding; therefore, it is unclear whether individual variation is due to encoding, maintenance, or retrieval processes. In the current study, participants performed a WM task (the levels-of-processing span task; Rose, Myerson, Roediger III, & Hale, 2010) and a SM test that tested for both targets and the distracting processing words from the initial WM task. Deeper levels of processing at encoding did not benefit WM, but did benefit subsequent SM, although the amount of benefit was smaller for those with lower WM spans. This result suggests that, despite encoding cues that facilitate retrieval from SM, low spans may have engaged in shallower, maintenance-focused processing to maintain the words in WM. Low spans also recalled fewer targets, more distractors, and more extralist intrusions than high spans, although this was partially due to low spans' poorer recall of targets, which resulted in a greater number of opportunities to commit recall errors. Delayed recall of intrusions and commission of source errors (labeling targets as processing words and vice versa) were significant negative predictors of gF. These results suggest that the ability to use source information to recall relevant information and withhold recall of irrelevant information is a critical source of both individual variation in WM and the relation between WM, SM, and gF. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Soluble dendrimers europium(III) β-diketonate complex for organic memory devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Binbin; Fang Junfeng; Li Bin; You Han; Ma Dongge; Hong Ziruo; Li Wenlian; Su Zhongmin

    2008-01-01

    We report the synthesis of a soluble dendrimers europium(III) complex, tris(dibenzoylmethanato)(1,3,5-tris[2-(2'-pyridyl) benzimidazoly]methylbenzene)-europium(III), and its application in organic electrical bistable memory device. Excellent stability that ensured more than 10 6 write-read-erase-reread cycles has been performed in ambient conditions without current-induced degradation. High-density, low-cost memory, good film-firming property, fascinating thermal and morphological stability allow the application of the dendrimers europium(III) complex as an active medium in non-volatile memory devices

  7. Characterizations of MoTiO5 flash memory devices with post-annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kao, Chyuan Haur; Chen, Hsiang; Chen, Su Zhien; Chen, Yu Jie; Chu, Yu Cheng

    2014-01-01

    In this study, high-K MoTiO 5 dielectrics were applied as charge trapping layers in fabricated metal-oxide-high-K MoTiO 5 -oxide-Si-type memory devices. Among the applied MoTiO 5 trapping layer treatment conditions, annealing at 900 °C yielded devices that exhibited superior memory performance, such as a larger memory window and faster programming/erasing speed. Multiple material analyses, namely X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy, confirmed that annealing at 900 °C can improve the material quality as a result of crystallization. The fabricated MoTiO 5 -based memory devices show potential for future commercial memory device applications. - Highlights: • MoTiO5-based flash memories have been fabricated. • MoTiO5 trapping layers could be formed by co-sputtering. • MoTiO5 layers with annealing exhibited a good memory performance. • Multiple material analyses confirm that annealing enhanced crystallization

  8. Can we improve the clinical assessment of working memory? An evaluation of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition using a working memory criterion construct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, B D; Elliott, Emily M; Shelton, Jill T; Pella, Russell D; O'Jile, Judith R; Gouvier, W Drew

    2010-03-01

    Working memory is the cognitive ability to hold a discrete amount of information in mind in an accessible state for utilization in mental tasks. This cognitive ability is impaired in many clinical populations typically assessed by clinical neuropsychologists. Recently, there have been a number of theoretical shifts in the way that working memory is conceptualized and assessed in the experimental literature. This study sought to determine to what extent the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition (WAIS-III) Working Memory Index (WMI) measures the construct studied in the cognitive working memory literature, whether an improved WMI could be derived from the subtests that comprise the WAIS-III, and what percentage of variance in individual WAIS-III subtests is explained by working memory. It was hypothesized that subtests beyond those currently used to form the WAIS-III WMI would be able to account for a greater percentage of variance in a working memory criterion construct than the current WMI. Multiple regression analyses (n = 180) revealed that the best predictor model of subtests for assessing working memory was composed of the Digit Span, Letter-Number Sequencing, Matrix Reasoning, and Vocabulary. The Arithmetic subtest was not a significant contributor to the model. These results are discussed in the context of how they relate to Unsworth and Engle's (2006, 2007) new conceptualization of working memory mechanisms.

  9. Memory operation devices based on light-illumination ambipolar carbon-nanotube thin-film-transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aïssa, B., E-mail: aissab@emt.inrs.ca [Qatar Environment and Energy Research Institute (QEERI), Qatar Foundation, P.O. Box 5825, Doha (Qatar); Centre Energie, Matériaux et Télécommunications, INRS, 1650, Boulevard Lionel-Boulet Varennes, Quebec J3X 1S2 (Canada); Nedil, M. [Telebec Wireless Underground Communication Laboratory, UQAT, 675, 1ère Avenue, Val d' Or, Quebec J9P 1Y3 (Canada); Kroeger, J. [NanoIntegris & Raymor Nanotech, Raymor Industries Inc., 3765 La Vérendrye, Boisbriand, Quebec J7H 1R8 (Canada); Haddad, T. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec H3A 0B8 (Canada); Rosei, F. [Centre Energie, Matériaux et Télécommunications, INRS, 1650, Boulevard Lionel-Boulet Varennes, Quebec J3X 1S2 (Canada)

    2015-09-28

    We report the memory operation behavior of a light illumination ambipolar single-walled carbon nanotube thin film field-effect transistors devices. In addition to the high electronic-performance, such an on/off transistor-switching ratio of 10{sup 4} and an on-conductance of 18 μS, these memory devices have shown a high retention time of both hole and electron-trapping modes, reaching 2.8 × 10{sup 4} s at room temperature. The memory characteristics confirm that light illumination and electrical field can act as an independent programming/erasing operation method. This could be a fundamental step toward achieving high performance and stable operating nanoelectronic memory devices.

  10. Memory operation devices based on light-illumination ambipolar carbon-nanotube thin-film-transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aïssa, B.; Nedil, M.; Kroeger, J.; Haddad, T.; Rosei, F.

    2015-01-01

    We report the memory operation behavior of a light illumination ambipolar single-walled carbon nanotube thin film field-effect transistors devices. In addition to the high electronic-performance, such an on/off transistor-switching ratio of 10 4 and an on-conductance of 18 μS, these memory devices have shown a high retention time of both hole and electron-trapping modes, reaching 2.8 × 10 4  s at room temperature. The memory characteristics confirm that light illumination and electrical field can act as an independent programming/erasing operation method. This could be a fundamental step toward achieving high performance and stable operating nanoelectronic memory devices

  11. Ferroelectric Thin Films Basic Properties and Device Physics for Memory Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Okuyama, Masanori

    2005-01-01

    Ferroelectric thin films continue to attract much attention due to their developing, diverse applications in memory devices, FeRAM, infrared sensors, piezoelectric sensors and actuators. This book, aimed at students, researchers and developers, gives detailed information about the basic properties of these materials and the associated device physics. All authors are acknowledged experts in the field.

  12. [Intelligent operating room suite : From passive medical devices to the self-thinking cognitive surgical assistant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenngott, H G; Wagner, M; Preukschas, A A; Müller-Stich, B P

    2016-12-01

    Modern operating room (OR) suites are mostly digitally connected but until now the primary focus was on the presentation, transfer and distribution of images. Device information and processes within the operating theaters are barely considered. Cognitive assistance systems have triggered a fundamental rethinking in the automotive industry as well as in logistics. In principle, tasks in the OR, some of which are highly repetitive, also have great potential to be supported by automated cognitive assistance via a self-thinking system. This includes the coordination of the entire workflow in the perioperative process in both the operating theater and the whole hospital. With corresponding data from hospital information systems, medical devices and appropriate models of the surgical process, intelligent systems could optimize the workflow in the operating theater in the near future and support the surgeon. Preliminary results on the use of device information and automatically controlled OR suites are already available. Such systems include, for example the guidance of laparoscopic camera systems. Nevertheless, cognitive assistance systems that make use of knowledge about patients, processes and other pieces of information to improve surgical treatment are not yet available in the clinical routine but are urgently needed in order to automatically assist the surgeon in situation-related activities and thus substantially improve patient care.

  13. Empirical study of the metal-nitride-oxide-semiconductor device characteristics deduced from a microscopic model of memory traps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngai, K.L.; Hsia, Y.

    1982-01-01

    A graded-nitride gate dielectric metal-nitride-oxide-semiconductor (MNOS) memory transistor exhibiting superior device characteristics is presented and analyzed based on a qualitative microscopic model of the memory traps. The model is further reviewed to interpret some generic properties of the MNOS memory transistors including memory window, erase-write speed, and the retention-endurance characteristic features

  14. A new approach for two-terminal electronic memory devices - Storing information on silicon nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saranti, Konstantina; Alotaibi, Sultan; Paul, Shashi

    2016-06-01

    The work described in this paper focuses on the utilisation of silicon nanowires as the information storage element in flash-type memory devices. Silicon nanostructures have attracted attention due to interesting electrical and optical properties, and their potential integration into electronic devices. A detailed investigation of the suitability of silicon nanowires as the charge storage medium in two-terminal non-volatile memory devices are presented in this report. The deposition of the silicon nanostructures was carried out at low temperatures (less than 400 °C) using a previously developed a novel method within our research group. Two-terminal non-volatile (2TNV) memory devices and metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) structures containing the silicon nanowires were fabricated and an in-depth study of their characteristics was carried out using current-voltage and capacitance techniques.

  15. Device and methods for writing and erasing analog information in small memory units via voltage pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Gabaly Marquez, Farid; Talin, Albert Alec

    2018-04-17

    Devices and methods for non-volatile analog data storage are described herein. In an exemplary embodiment, an analog memory device comprises a potential-carrier source layer, a barrier layer deposited on the source layer, and at least two storage layers deposited on the barrier layer. The memory device can be prepared to write and read data via application of a biasing voltage between the source layer and the storage layers, wherein the biasing voltage causes potential-carriers to migrate into the storage layers. After initialization, data can be written to the memory device by application of a voltage pulse between two storage layers that causes potential-carriers to migrate from one storage layer to another. A difference in concentration of potential carriers caused by migration of potential-carriers between the storage layers results in a voltage that can be measured in order to read the written data.

  16. Magnetic Resonance Flow Velocity and Temperature Mapping of a Shape Memory Polymer Foam Device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Small IV, W; Gjersing, E; Herberg, J L; Wilson, T S; Maitland, D J

    2008-10-29

    Interventional medical devices based on thermally responsive shape memory polymer (SMP) are under development to treat stroke victims. The goals of these catheter-delivered devices include re-establishing blood flow in occluded arteries and preventing aneurysm rupture. Because these devices alter the hemodynamics and dissipate thermal energy during the therapeutic procedure, a first step in the device development process is to investigate fluid velocity and temperature changes following device deployment. A laser-heated SMP foam device was deployed in a simplified in vitro vascular model. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques were used to assess the fluid dynamics and thermal changes associated with device deployment. Spatial maps of the steady-state fluid velocity and temperature change inside and outside the laser-heated SMP foam device were acquired. Though non-physiological conditions were used in this initial study, the utility of MRI in the development of a thermally-activated SMP foam device has been demonstrated.

  17. Reliability and efficiency upgrades of power systems operation by implementing intelligent electronic devices with synchrophasor measurement technology support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mokeev Alexey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews issues of reliability and efficiency upgrades of power systems functions by means of a widespread implementation of intelligent electronic devices (IED in various purposes supporting synchrophasor measurement technology. Thus, such issues as IED’s operational analysis in the conditions of electromagnetic and electromechanical transient processes and synthesis of digital filters that improve static and dynamic responses of these devices play an important role in their development.

  18. Reliability and efficiency upgrades of power systems operation by implementing intelligent electronic devices with synchrophasor measurement technology support

    OpenAIRE

    Mokeev Alexey

    2017-01-01

    This paper reviews issues of reliability and efficiency upgrades of power systems functions by means of a widespread implementation of intelligent electronic devices (IED) in various purposes supporting synchrophasor measurement technology. Thus, such issues as IED’s operational analysis in the conditions of electromagnetic and electromechanical transient processes and synthesis of digital filters that improve static and dynamic responses of these devices play an important role in their devel...

  19. Memory attacks on device-independent quantum cryptography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Jonathan; Colbeck, Roger; Kent, Adrian

    2013-01-04

    Device-independent quantum cryptographic schemes aim to guarantee security to users based only on the output statistics of any components used, and without the need to verify their internal functionality. Since this would protect users against untrustworthy or incompetent manufacturers, sabotage, or device degradation, this idea has excited much interest, and many device-independent schemes have been proposed. Here we identify a critical weakness of device-independent protocols that rely on public communication between secure laboratories. Untrusted devices may record their inputs and outputs and reveal information about them via publicly discussed outputs during later runs. Reusing devices thus compromises the security of a protocol and risks leaking secret data. Possible defenses include securely destroying or isolating used devices. However, these are costly and often impractical. We propose other more practical partial defenses as well as a new protocol structure for device-independent quantum key distribution that aims to achieve composable security in the case of two parties using a small number of devices to repeatedly share keys with each other (and no other party).

  20. Charge Carrier Transport Mechanism Based on Stable Low Voltage Organic Bistable Memory Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramana, V V; Moodley, M K; Kumar, A B V Kiran; Kannan, V

    2015-05-01

    A solution processed two terminal organic bistable memory device was fabricated utilizing films of polymethyl methacrylate PMMA/ZnO/PMMA on top of ITO coated glass. Electrical characterization of the device structure showed that the two terminal device exhibited favorable switching characteristics with an ON/OFF ratio greater than 1 x 10(4) when the voltage was swept between - 2 V and +3 V. The device maintained its state after removal of the bias voltage. The device did not show degradation after a 1-h retention test at 120 degrees C. The memory functionality was consistent even after fifty cycles of operation. The charge transport switching mechanism is discussed on the basis of carrier transport mechanism and our analysis of the data shows that the charge carrier trans- port mechanism of the device during the writing process can be explained by thermionic emission (TE) and space-charge-limited-current (SCLC) mechanism models while erasing process could be explained by the FN tunneling mechanism. This demonstration provides a class of memory devices with the potential for low-cost, low-power consumption applications, such as a digital memory cell.

  1. Artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Hunt, Earl B

    1975-01-01

    Artificial Intelligence provides information pertinent to the fundamental aspects of artificial intelligence. This book presents the basic mathematical and computational approaches to problems in the artificial intelligence field.Organized into four parts encompassing 16 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the various fields of artificial intelligence. This text then attempts to connect artificial intelligence problems to some of the notions of computability and abstract computing devices. Other chapters consider the general notion of computability, with focus on the interaction bet

  2. Robust resistive memory devices using solution-processable metal-coordinated azo aromatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Sreetosh; Matula, Adam J.; Rath, Santi P.; Hedström, Svante; Saha, Surajit; Annamalai, Meenakshi; Sengupta, Debabrata; Patra, Abhijeet; Ghosh, Siddhartha; Jani, Hariom; Sarkar, Soumya; Motapothula, Mallikarjuna Rao; Nijhuis, Christian A.; Martin, Jens; Goswami, Sreebrata; Batista, Victor S.; Venkatesan, T.

    2017-12-01

    Non-volatile memories will play a decisive role in the next generation of digital technology. Flash memories are currently the key player in the field, yet they fail to meet the commercial demands of scalability and endurance. Resistive memory devices, and in particular memories based on low-cost, solution-processable and chemically tunable organic materials, are promising alternatives explored by the industry. However, to date, they have been lacking the performance and mechanistic understanding required for commercial translation. Here we report a resistive memory device based on a spin-coated active layer of a transition-metal complex, which shows high reproducibility (~350 devices), fast switching (106 s) and scalability (down to ~60 nm2). In situ Raman and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy alongside spectroelectrochemistry and quantum chemical calculations demonstrate that the redox state of the ligands determines the switching states of the device whereas the counterions control the hysteresis. This insight may accelerate the technological deployment of organic resistive memories.

  3. Shape-memory polymer foam device for treating aneurysms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega, Jason M.; Benett, William J.; Small, Ward; Wilson, Thomas S.; Maitland, Duncan J; Hartman, Jonathan

    2017-05-30

    A system for treating an aneurysm in a blood vessel or vein, wherein the aneurysm has a dome, an interior, and a neck. The system includes a shape memory polymer foam in the interior of the aneurysm between the dome and the neck. The shape memory polymer foam has pores that include a first multiplicity of pores having a first pore size and a second multiplicity of pores having a second pore size. The second pore size is larger than said first pore size. The first multiplicity of pores are located in the neck of the aneurysm. The second multiplicity of pores are located in the dome of the aneurysm.

  4. Relating children's attentional capabilities to intelligence, memory, and academic achievement: a test of construct specificity in children with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annett, Robert D; Bender, Bruce G; Gordon, Michael

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between attention, intelligence, memory, achievement, and behavior in a large population (N = 939) of children without neuropsychologic problems was investigated in children with mild and moderate asthma. It was hypothesized that different levels of children's attentional capabilities would be associated with different levels of intellectual, memory, and academic abilities. Children ages 6-12 at the eight clinical centers of the Childhood Asthma Management Program (CAMP) were enrolled in this study. Standardized measures of child neuropsychological and behavioral performance were administered to all participants, with analyses examining both the developmental trajectory of child attentional capabilities and the associations between Continuous Performance Test (CPT) scores and intellectual functioning, and measures of memory, academic achievement, and behavioral functioning. Findings demonstrated that correct responses on the CPT increase significantly with age, while commission errors decrease significantly with age. Performance levels on the CPT were associated with differences in child intellectual function, memory, and academic achievement. Overall these findings reveal how impairments in child attention skills were associated with normal levels of performance on measures of children's intelligence, memory, academic achievement, and behavioral functioning, suggesting that CPT performance is a salient marker of brain function.

  5. Nonvolatile rewritable memory device based on solution-processable graphene/poly(3-hexylthiophene) nanocomposite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Li, E-mail: lizhang9@zzu.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450052 (China); Li, Ye; Shi, Jun [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450052 (China); Shi, Gaoquan [Department of Chemistry, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Cao, Shaokui, E-mail: Caoshaokui@zzu.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450052 (China)

    2013-11-01

    An electrically bistable device utilizing a nanocomposite of hexadecylamine-functionalized graphene oxide (HDAGO) with poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) is demonstrated. The device has an ITO/P3HT-HDAGO/Al sandwich structure, in which the composite film of P3HT-HDAGO was prepared by simple solution phase mixing of the exfoliated HDAGO monolayers with P3HT matrix and a spin-coating method. The memory device exhibits typical bistable electrical switching behavior and a nonvolatile rewritable memory effect, with a turn-on voltage of about 1.5 V and an ON/OFF-state current ratio of 10{sup 5}. Under ambient conditions, both the ON and OFF states are stable under a constant voltage stress or a continuous pulse voltage stress at a read voltage of 1 V. The conduction mechanism is deduced from the modeling of the nature of currents in both states, and the electrical switching behavior can be attributed to the electric-field-induced charge transfer between P3HT and HDAGO nanosheets. - Highlights: • Nonvolatile rewritable memory effect in P3HT–graphene composite is demonstrated. • The memory device was fabricated through a simple solution processing technique. • The device shows a remarkable electrical bistable behavior and excellent stability. • Memory mechanism is deduced from the modeling of the currents in both states.

  6. Nonvolatile rewritable memory device based on solution-processable graphene/poly(3-hexylthiophene) nanocomposite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Li; Li, Ye; Shi, Jun; Shi, Gaoquan; Cao, Shaokui

    2013-01-01

    An electrically bistable device utilizing a nanocomposite of hexadecylamine-functionalized graphene oxide (HDAGO) with poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) is demonstrated. The device has an ITO/P3HT-HDAGO/Al sandwich structure, in which the composite film of P3HT-HDAGO was prepared by simple solution phase mixing of the exfoliated HDAGO monolayers with P3HT matrix and a spin-coating method. The memory device exhibits typical bistable electrical switching behavior and a nonvolatile rewritable memory effect, with a turn-on voltage of about 1.5 V and an ON/OFF-state current ratio of 10 5 . Under ambient conditions, both the ON and OFF states are stable under a constant voltage stress or a continuous pulse voltage stress at a read voltage of 1 V. The conduction mechanism is deduced from the modeling of the nature of currents in both states, and the electrical switching behavior can be attributed to the electric-field-induced charge transfer between P3HT and HDAGO nanosheets. - Highlights: • Nonvolatile rewritable memory effect in P3HT–graphene composite is demonstrated. • The memory device was fabricated through a simple solution processing technique. • The device shows a remarkable electrical bistable behavior and excellent stability. • Memory mechanism is deduced from the modeling of the currents in both states

  7. A new DRAM-type memory devices based on polymethacrylate containing pendant 2-methylbenzothiazole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Dong; Li Hua; Li Najun; Zhao Ying; Zhou Qianhao; Xu Qingfeng; Lu Jianmei; Wang Lihua

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The devices fabricated with 75 nm and 45 nm thick pBVMA films were both found to exhibit DRAM type memory behaviors, which may indicate that the Al nanoparticles had no penetration into the thin film during the vacuum-deposition process. Highlights: ► The side-functional moieties of pBVMA regularly arranged in film state. ► The device exhibits volatile memory behavior with an ON/OFF current ratio up to 10 5 . ► The film thickness has nothing to do with the device's memory behavior. ► Physical theoretical models and molecular simulation supported the memory mechanism. - Abstract: A polymethacrylate containing pendant 2-methylbenzothiazole (pBVMA) with good thermal stability was synthesized by free radical polymerization. The devices based on pBVMA possess a sandwich structure comprising bottom indium-tin oxide (ITO) electrode and top Al electrode. The as-fabricated device exhibits the dynamic random access memory (DRAM) behavior with an ON/OFF current ratio up to 10 5 and can endure 10 8 read cycles under −1 V pulse voltage. The effect of the film thickness on the device performance was investigated and the devices fabricated with 75 nm and 45 nm thick pBVMA films were both found to exhibit DRAM type memory behaviors, which may indicate that the Al nanoparticles had no penetration into the thin film during the vacuum-deposition process. The molecular simulation and physical theoretical models were analyzed and the mechanism of the DRAM performance may be attributed to the weak electron withdrawing ability of the molecule.

  8. Computational Intelligence Method for Early Diagnosis Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever Using Fuzzy on Mobile Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salman Afan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Mortality from Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever (DHF is still increasing in Indonesia particularly in Jakarta. Diagnosis of the dengue shall be made as early as possible so that first aid can be given in expectation of decreasing death risk. The Study will be conducted by developing expert system based on Computational Intelligence Method. On the first year, study will use the Fuzzy Inference System (FIS Method to diagnose Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever particularly in Mobile Device consist of smart phone. Expert system application which particularly using fuzzy system can be applied in mobile device and it is useful to make early diagnosis of Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever that produce outcome faster than laboratory test. The evaluation of this application is conducted by performing accuracy test before and after validation using data of patient who has the Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever. This expert system application is easy, convenient, and practical to use, also capable of making the early diagnosis of Dengue Haemorraghic to avoid mortality in the first stage.

  9. Design and Implementation of an Intelligent Windowsill System Using Smart Handheld Device and Fuzzy Microcontroller.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing-Min; Yang, Ming-Ta; Chen, Po-Lin

    2017-04-11

    With the advance of science and technology, people have a desire for convenient and comfortable living. Creating comfortable and healthy indoor environments is a major consideration for designing smart homes. As handheld devices become increasingly powerful and ubiquitous, this paper proposes an innovative use of smart handheld devices (SHD), using MIT App Inventor and fuzzy control, to perform the real-time monitoring and smart control of the designed intelligent windowsill system (IWS) in a smart home. A compact weather station that consists of environment sensors was constructed in the IWS for measuring of indoor illuminance, temperature-humidity, carbon dioxide (CO₂) concentration and outdoor rain and wind direction. According to the measured environment information, the proposed system can automatically send a command to a fuzzy microcontroller performed by Arduino UNO to fully or partly open the electric curtain and electric window for adapting to climate changes in the indoor and outdoor environment. Moreover, the IWS can automatically close windows for rain splashing on the window. The presented novel control method for the windowsill not only expands the SHD applications, but greatly enhances convenience to users. To validate the feasibility and effectiveness of the IWS, a laboratory prototype was built and confirmed experimentally.

  10. Application of graphene oxide-poly (vinyl alcohol) polymer nanocomposite for memory devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushal, Jyoti; Kaur, Ravneet; Sharma, Jadab; Tripathi, S. K.

    2018-05-01

    Significant attention has been gained by polymer nanocomposites because of their possible demands in future electronic memory devices. In the present work, device based on Graphene Oxide (GO) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) has been made and examined for the memory device application. The prepared Graphene oxide (GO) and GO-PVA nanocomposite (NC) has been characterized by X-ray Diffraction (XRD). GO nanosheets show the diffraction peak at 2θ = 11.60° and the interlayer spacing of 0.761 nm. The XRD of GO-PVA NC shows the diffraction peak at 2θ =18.56°. The fabricated device shows bipolar switching behavior having ON/OFF current ratio ˜102. The Write-Read-Erase-Read (WRER) cycles test shows that the Al/GO-PVA/Ag device has good stability and repeatability.

  11. Organic bistable memory devices based on MoO3 nanoparticle embedded Alq3 structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abhijith, T.; Kumar, T. V. Arun; Reddy, V. S.

    2017-03-01

    Organic bistable memory devices were fabricated by embedding a thin layer of molybdenum trioxide (MoO3) between two tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum (Alq3) layers. The device exhibited excellent switching characteristics with an ON/OFF current ratio of 1.15 × 103 at a read voltage of 1 V. The device showed repeatable write-erase capability and good stability in both the conductance states. These conductance states are non-volatile in nature and can be obtained by applying appropriate voltage pulses. The effect of MoO3 layer thickness and its location in the Alq3 matrix on characteristics of the memory device was investigated. The field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) images of the MoO3 layer revealed the presence of isolated nanoparticles. Based on the experimental results, a mechanism has been proposed for explaining the conductance switching of fabricated devices.

  12. Modeling of strain effects on the device behaviors of ferroelectric memory field-effect transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Feng; Hu, Guangda; Wu, Weibing; Yang, Changhong; Wu, Haitao; Tang, Minghua

    2013-01-01

    The influence of strains on the channel current–gate voltage behaviors and memory windows of ferroelectric memory field-effect transistors (FeMFETs) were studied using an improved model based on the Landau–Devonshire theory. ‘Channel potential–gate voltage’ ferroelectric polarization and silicon surface potential diagrams were constructed for strained single-domain BaTiO 3 FeMFETs. The compressive strains can increase (or decrease) the amplitude of transistor currents and enlarge memory windows. However, tensile strains only decrease the maximum value of transistor currents and compress memory windows. Mismatch strains were found to have a significant influence on the electrical behaviors of the devices, therefore, they must be considered in FeMFET device designing. (fast track communication)

  13. A study on carbon nanotube bridge as a electromechanical memory device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jeong Won; Ha Lee, Jun; Joo Lee, Hoong; Hwang, Ho Jung

    2005-04-01

    A nanoelectromechanical (NEM) nanotube random access memory (NRAM) device based on carbon nanotube (CNT) was investigated using atomistic simulations. For the CNT-based NEM memory, the mechanical properties of the CNT-bridge and van der Waals interactions between the CNT-bridge and substrate were very important. The critical amplitude of the CNT-bridge was 16% of the length of the CNT-bridge. As molecular dynamics time increased, the CNT-bridge went to the steady state under the electrostatic force with the damping of the potential and the kinetic energies of the CNT-bridge. The interatomic interaction between the CNT-bridge and substrate, value of the CNT-bridge slack, and damping rate of the CNT-bridge were very important for the operation of the NEM memory device as a nonvolatile memory.

  14. Resistive switching characteristics of polymer non-volatile memory devices in a scalable via-hole structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Tae-Wook; Choi, Hyejung; Oh, Seung-Hwan; Jo, Minseok; Wang, Gunuk; Cho, Byungjin; Kim, Dong-Yu; Hwang, Hyunsang; Lee, Takhee

    2009-01-01

    The resistive switching characteristics of polyfluorene-derivative polymer material in a sub-micron scale via-hole device structure were investigated. The scalable via-hole sub-microstructure was fabricated using an e-beam lithographic technique. The polymer non-volatile memory devices varied in size from 40 x 40 μm 2 to 200 x 200 nm 2 . From the scaling of junction size, the memory mechanism can be attributed to the space-charge-limited current with filamentary conduction. Sub-micron scale polymer memory devices showed excellent resistive switching behaviours such as a large ON/OFF ratio (I ON /I OFF ∼10 4 ), excellent device-to-device switching uniformity, good sweep endurance, and good retention times (more than 10 000 s). The successful operation of sub-micron scale memory devices of our polyfluorene-derivative polymer shows promise to fabricate high-density polymer memory devices.

  15. The effectiveness of music as a mnemonic device on recognition memory for people with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Kimberly Sena; Peterson, David A; O'Shea, Geoffrey; McIntosh, Gerald C; Thaut, Michael H

    2008-01-01

    Research shows that people with multiple sclerosis exhibit learning and memory difficulties and that music can be used successfully as a mnemonic device to aid in learning and memory. However, there is currently no research investigating the effectiveness of music mnemonics as a compensatory learning strategy for people with multiple sclerosis. Participants with clinically definitive multiple sclerosis (N = 38) were given a verbal learning and memory test. Results from a recognition memory task were analyzed that compared learning through music (n = 20) versus learning through speech (n = 18). Preliminary baseline neuropsychological data were collected that measured executive functioning skills, learning and memory abilities, sustained attention, and level of disability. An independent samples t test showed no significant difference between groups on baseline neuropsychological functioning or on recognition task measures. Correlation analyses suggest that music mnemonics may facilitate learning for people who are less impaired by the disease. Implications for future research are discussed.

  16. A chiral-based magnetic memory device without a permanent magnet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Dor, Oren; Yochelis, Shira; Mathew, Shinto P; Naaman, Ron; Paltiel, Yossi

    2013-01-01

    Several technologies are currently in use for computer memory devices. However, there is a need for a universal memory device that has high density, high speed and low power requirements. To this end, various types of magnetic-based technologies with a permanent magnet have been proposed. Recent charge-transfer studies indicate that chiral molecules act as an efficient spin filter. Here we utilize this effect to achieve a proof of concept for a new type of chiral-based magnetic-based Si-compatible universal memory device without a permanent magnet. More specifically, we use spin-selective charge transfer through a self-assembled monolayer of polyalanine to magnetize a Ni layer. This magnitude of magnetization corresponds to applying an external magnetic field of 0.4 T to the Ni layer. The readout is achieved using low currents. The presented technology has the potential to overcome the limitations of other magnetic-based memory technologies to allow fabricating inexpensive, high-density universal memory-on-chip devices.

  17. Working memory and fluid intelligence are both identical to g?! Reanalyses and critical evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GILLES E. GIGNAC

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available In this investigation, two previously published confirmatory factor analytic studies that separately reported working memory and fluid intelligence higher-order loadings so large as to suggest isomor-phism with g were evaluated critically within the context of internal consistency reliability. Specifi-cally, based on two data analytic approaches, the previously reported higher-order loadings which suggested isomorphism with g were demonstrated to have been achieved via the substantial disattenua-tion effects observed within structural equation modeling, when the latent variable corresponding composite scores are associated with low levels of reliability. The two approaches were: (1 the obverse of the disattenuation procedure for imperfect reliability, and (2 the implied correlation between a corresponding phantom composite variable and a higher-order g factor. The results derived from the two approaches were found to correspond very closely. To allow for a more informative evaluation, researchers are encouraged to report the internal consistency reliabilities associated with the composite scores which correspond to their latent variables, as well as to report both the disattenuated and attenu-ated higher-order loadings within their multi-factor models.

  18. Intelligent design optimization of a shape-memory-alloy-actuated reconfigurable wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagoudas, Dimitris C.; Strelec, Justin K.; Yen, John; Khan, Mohammad A.

    2000-06-01

    The unique thermal and mechanical properties offered by shape memory alloys (SMAs) present exciting possibilities in the field of aerospace engineering. When properly trained, SMA wires act as linear actuators by contracting when heated and returning to their original shape when cooled. It has been shown experimentally that the overall shape of an airfoil can be altered by activating several attached SMA wire actuators. This shape-change can effectively increase the efficiency of a wing in flight at several different flow regimes. To determine the necessary placement of these wire actuators within the wing, an optimization method that incorporates a fully-coupled structural, thermal, and aerodynamic analysis has been utilized. Due to the complexity of the fully-coupled analysis, intelligent optimization methods such as genetic algorithms have been used to efficiently converge to an optimal solution. The genetic algorithm used in this case is a hybrid version with global search and optimization capabilities augmented by the simplex method as a local search technique. For the reconfigurable wing, each chromosome represents a realizable airfoil configuration and its genes are the SMA actuators, described by their location and maximum transformation strain. The genetic algorithm has been used to optimize this design problem to maximize the lift-to-drag ratio for a reconfigured airfoil shape.

  19. Spatial memory in nonhuman primates implanted with the subdural pharmacotherapy device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludvig, Nandor; Tang, Hai M; Baptiste, Shirn L; Stefanov, Dimitre G; Kral, John G

    2015-06-01

    This study investigated the possible influence of the Subdural Pharmacotherapy Device (SPD) on spatial memory in 3 adult, male bonnet macaques (Macaca radiata). The device was implanted in and above the subdural/subarachnoid space and cranium overlaying the right parietal/frontal cortex: a circuitry involved in spatial memory processing. A large test chamber, equipped with four baited and four non-baited food-ports at different locations, was used: reaches into empty food ports were counted as spatial memory errors. In this study of within-subject design, before SPD implantation (control) the animals made mean 373.3 ± 114.9 (mean ± SEM) errors in the first spatial memory test session. This value dropped to 47.7 ± 18.4 by the 8th session. After SPD implantation and alternating cycles of transmeningeal saline delivery and local cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) drainage in the implanted cortex the spatial memory error count, with the same port locations, was 33.0 ± 12.2 during the first spatial memory test session, further decreasing to 5.7 ± 3.5 by the 8th post-implantation session (Pmemory performance, which in fact included at least one completely error-free session per animal over time. The study showed that complication-free implantation and use of the SPD over the parietal and frontal cortices for months leave spatial memory processes intact in nonhuman primates. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Microwave oven fabricated hybrid memristor devices for non-volatile memory storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verrelli, E; Gray, R J; O’Neill, M; Kemp, N T; Kelly, S M

    2014-01-01

    Novel hybrid non-volatile memories made using an ultra-fast microwave heating method are reported for the first time. The devices, consisting of aligned ZnO nanorods embedded in poly (methyl methacrylate), require no forming step and exhibit reliable and reproducible bipolar resistive switching at low voltages and with low power usage. We attribute these properties to a combination of the high aspect ratio of the nanorods and the polymeric hybrid structure of the device. The extremely easy, fast and low-cost solution based method of fabrication makes possible the simple and quick production of cheap memory cells. (paper)

  1. Non-Hebbian learning implementation in light-controlled resistive memory devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungureanu, Mariana; Stoliar, Pablo; Llopis, Roger; Casanova, Fèlix; Hueso, Luis E

    2012-01-01

    Non-Hebbian learning is often encountered in different bio-organisms. In these processes, the strength of a synapse connecting two neurons is controlled not only by the signals exchanged between the neurons, but also by an additional factor external to the synaptic structure. Here we show the implementation of non-Hebbian learning in a single solid-state resistive memory device. The output of our device is controlled not only by the applied voltages, but also by the illumination conditions under which it operates. We demonstrate that our metal/oxide/semiconductor device learns more efficiently at higher applied voltages but also when light, an external parameter, is present during the information writing steps. Conversely, memory erasing is more efficiently at higher applied voltages and in the dark. Translating neuronal activity into simple solid-state devices could provide a deeper understanding of complex brain processes and give insight into non-binary computing possibilities.

  2. Compact modeling of CRS devices based on ECM cells for memory, logic and neuromorphic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linn, E; Ferch, S; Waser, R; Menzel, S

    2013-01-01

    Dynamic physics-based models of resistive switching devices are of great interest for the realization of complex circuits required for memory, logic and neuromorphic applications. Here, we apply such a model of an electrochemical metallization (ECM) cell to complementary resistive switches (CRSs), which are favorable devices to realize ultra-dense passive crossbar arrays. Since a CRS consists of two resistive switching devices, it is straightforward to apply the dynamic ECM model for CRS simulation with MATLAB and SPICE, enabling study of the device behavior in terms of sweep rate and series resistance variations. Furthermore, typical memory access operations as well as basic implication logic operations can be analyzed, revealing requirements for proper spike and level read operations. This basic understanding facilitates applications of massively parallel computing paradigms required for neuromorphic applications. (paper)

  3. The impact of intelligence on memory and executive functions of children with temporal lobe epilepsy: Methodological concerns with clinical relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzezak, Patricia; Guimarães, Catarina A; Guerreiro, Marilisa M; Valente, Kette D

    2017-05-01

    Patients with TLE are prone to have lower IQ scores than healthy controls. Nevertheless, the impact of IQ differences is not usually considered in studies that compared the cognitive functioning of children with and without epilepsy. This study aimed to determine the effect of using IQ as a covariate on memory and attentional/executive functions of children with TLE. Thirty-eight children and adolescents with TLE and 28 healthy controls paired as to age, gender, and sociodemographic factors were evaluated with a comprehensive neuropsychological battery for memory and executive functions. The authors conducted three analyses to verify the impact of IQ scores on the other cognitive domains. First, we compared performance on cognitive tests without controlling for IQ differences between groups. Second, we performed the same analyses, but we included IQ as a confounding factor. Finally, we evaluated the predictive value of IQ on cognitive functioning. Although patients had IQ score in the normal range, they showed lower IQ scores than controls (p = 0.001). When we did not consider IQ in the analyses, patients had worse performance in verbal and visual memory (short and long-term), semantic memory, sustained, divided and selective attention, mental flexibility and mental tracking for semantic information. By using IQ as a covariate, patients showed worse performance only in verbal memory (long-term), semantic memory, sustained and divided attention and in mental flexibility. IQ was a predictor factor of verbal and visual memory (immediate and delayed), working memory, mental flexibility and mental tracking for semantic information. Intelligence level had a significant impact on memory and executive functioning of children and adolescents with TLE without intellectual disability. This finding opens the discussion of whether IQ scores should be considered when interpreting the results of differences in cognitive performance of patients with epilepsy compared to healthy

  4. Application of complex programmable logic devices in memory radiation effects test system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yonghong; He Chaohui; Yang Hailiang; He Baoping

    2005-01-01

    The application of the complex programmable logic device (CPLD) in electronics is emphatically discussed. The method of using software MAX + plus II and CPLD are introduced. A new test system for memory radiation effects is established by using CPLD devices-EPM7128C84-15. The old test system's function are realized and, moreover, a number of small scale integrated circuits are reduced and the test system's reliability is improved. (authors)

  5. Growth of Si nanocrystals on alumina and integration in memory devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, T.; Fernandes, A.; Damlencourt, J. F.; De Salvo, B.; Martin, F.; Mazen, F.; Haukka, S.

    2003-06-01

    We present a detailed study of the growth of Si quantum dots (Si QDs) by low pressure chemical vapor deposition on alumina dielectric deposited by atomic layer deposition. The Si QDs density is very high, 1012 cm-2, for a mean diameter between 5 and 10 nm. Al2O3/Si QD stacks have been integrated in memory devices as granular floating gate. The devices demonstrate good charge storage and data retention characteristics.

  6. Association of demographic characteristics, symptomatology, retrospective and prospective memory, executive functioning and intelligence with social functioning in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Yu-Tao; Shum, David; Chiu, Helen F K; Tang, Wai-Kwong; Ungvari, Gabor S

    2010-12-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the influence of socio-demographic and clinical factors and neurocognitive variables (i.e. prospective and retrospective memory, executive functioning, and intelligence) on social functioning in Chinese schizophrenia patients. The study sample comprised 110 Chinese schizophrenia patients. Their clinical condition and social functioning were evaluated with the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) and the Functional Needs Assessment (FNA), respectively. Three prospective memory (PM) tasks (time-, event-, and activity-based), three tests of executive functioning (the Design Fluency Test [DFT], Tower of London [TOL], and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test [WCST]), one test of intelligence (Raven's Progressive Matrices), and two retrospective memory (RM) tasks (the immediate and delayed recall conditions of the Logical Memory subtest of the Wechsler Memory Scales-Revised [WMS-R]) were administered to all patients. In correlation analyses higher education and better performance on the WCST (categories completed) and the Logical Memory subtests (delayed and immediate) of the WMS-R are significantly correlated with better social functioning, whereas a lower WCST score (perseverative errors) and more severe negative symptoms are associated with poorer social functioning. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that higher education and a lower WCST score (perseverative errors) independently contribute to better social functioning. Unexpectedly, most socio-demographic and clinical factors do not seem to have a significant impact on social functioning of Chinese schizophrenia patients living in a Chinese society. Negative symptoms and certain cognitive deficits were the main predictors of social functioning and they should be the main targets for antipsychotic treatment and psychosocial interventions to improve social adjustment in Chinese schizophrenia patients.

  7. Configurable Resistive Switching between Memory and Threshold Characteristics for Protein-Based Devices

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Hong

    2015-05-01

    The employ of natural biomaterials as the basic building blocks of electronic devices is of growing interest for biocompatible and green electronics. Here, resistive switching (RS) devices based on naturally silk protein with configurable functionality are demonstrated. The RS type of the devices can be effectively and exactly controlled by controlling the compliance current in the set process. Memory RS can be triggered by a higher compliance current, while threshold RS can be triggered by a lower compliance current. Furthermore, two types of memory devices, working in random access and WORM modes, can be achieved with the RS effect. The results suggest that silk protein possesses the potential for sustainable electronics and data storage. In addition, this finding would provide important guidelines for the performance optimization of biomaterials based memory devices and the study of the underlying mechanism behind the RS effect arising from biomaterials. Resistive switching (RS) devices with configurable functionality based on protein are successfully achieved. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Loose-Lipped Mobile Device Intelligent Personal Assistants: A Discussion of Information Gleaned from Siri on Locked iOS Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsman, Graeme

    2018-04-23

    The forensic analysis of mobile handsets is becoming a more prominent factor in many criminal investigations. Despite such devices frequently storing relevant evidential content to support an investigation, accessing this information is becoming an increasingly difficult task due to enhanced effective security features. Where access to a device's resident data is not possible via traditional mobile forensic methods, in some cases it may still be possible to extract user information via queries made to an installed intelligent personal assistant. This article presents an evaluation of the information which is retrievable from Apple's Siri when interacted with on a locked iOS device running iOS 11.2.5 (the latest at the time of testing). The testing of verbal commands designed to elicit a response from Siri demonstrate the ability to recover call log, SMS, Contacts, Apple Maps, Calendar, and device information which may support any further investigation. © 2018 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  9. A study of selenium nanoparticles as charge storage element for flexible semi-transparent memory devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alotaibi, Sattam; Nama Manjunatha, Krishna; Paul, Shashi

    2017-12-01

    Flexible Semi-Transparent electronic memory would be useful in coming years for integrated flexible transparent electronic devices. However, attaining such flexibility and semi-transparency leads to the boundaries in material composition. Thus, impeding processing speed and device performance. In this work, we present the use of inorganic stable selenium nanoparticles (Se-NPs) as a storage element and hydrogenated amorphous carbon (a-C:H) as an insulating layer in two terminal non-volatile physically flexible and semi-transparent capacitive memory devices (2T-NMDs). Furthermore, a-C:H films can be deposited at very low temperature (industrial technique called Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapour Deposition (PECVD) which is available in many existing fabrication labs. Self-assembled Se-NPs has several unique features including deposition at room temperature by simple vacuum thermal evaporation process without the need for further optimisation. This facilitates the fabrication of memory on a flexible substrate. Moreover, the memory behaviour of the Se-NPs was found to be more distinct than those of the semiconductor and metal nanostructures due to higher work function compared to the commonly used semiconductor and metal species. The memory behaviour was observed from the hysteresis of current-voltage (I-V) measurements while the two distinguishable electrical conductivity states (;0; and "1") were studied by current-time (I-t) measurements.

  10. Electronic memory devices based on the chalcone with negative electrostatic potential regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Bao-Long; Sun, Ru; Ge, Jian-Feng; Wang, Dong; Li, Hua; Lu, Jian-Mei

    2013-01-01

    The molecular electrostatic potential (ESP) properties were used for the explanation of organic electric memory ability. Several chalcone compounds, owning a negative ESP region locates at the oxygen atom, were selected in this paper to validate the selection of compounds for organic memory materials. The synthesis, characterization, fabrication of the organic memory devices and the electrical properties for them were reported, and they were shown as WORM (write once read many times) type memory devices. The molecular geometries were optimized by the addition of a changeable electric field in the x direction inside the molecules using FF-DFT (Finite Field-Density Functionary Theory) method. The relationship between ESP of the molecules under different electric field and the property was discussed, and the mechanisms associated with the memory effect were also elucidated from DFT calculation results. - Highlights: • The molecular electrostatic potential (ESP) properties were used. • The chalcone compounds were used for the WORM type device. • The molecular geometries were optimized by the addition of a changeable electric field in the x direction. • The structure–property relationship was discussed

  11. Exploration of Uninitialized Configuration Memory Space for Intrinsic Identification of Xilinx Virtex-5 FPGA Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Sander

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available SRAM-based fingerprinting uses deviations in power-up behaviour caused by the CMOS fabrication process to identify distinct devices. This method is a promising technique for unique identification of physical devices. In the case of SRAM-based hardware reconfigurable devices such as FPGAs, the integrated SRAM cells are often initialized automatically at power-up, sweeping potential identification data. We demonstrate an approach to utilize unused parts of configuration memory space for device identification. Based on a total of over 200,000 measurements on nine Xilinx Virtex-5 FPGAs, we show that the retrieved values have promising properties with respect to consistency on one device, variety between different devices, and stability considering temperature variation and aging.

  12. Visual function and cognitive speed of processing mediate age-related decline in memory span and fluid intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay, Olivio J; Edwards, Jerri D; Ross, Lesley A; Okonkwo, Ozioma; Wadley, Virginia G; Roth, David L; Ball, Karlene K

    2009-06-01

    To evaluate the relationship between sensory and cognitive decline, particularly with respect to speed of processing, memory span, and fluid intelligence. In addition, the common cause, sensory degradation and speed of processing hypotheses were compared. Structural equation modeling was used to investigate the complex relationships among age-related decrements in these areas. Cross-sectional data analyses included 842 older adult participants (M = 73 years). After accounting for age-related declines in vision and processing speed, the direct associations between age and memory span and between age and fluid intelligence were nonsignificant. Older age was associated with visual decline, which was associated with slower speed of processing, which in turn was associated with greater cognitive deficits. The findings support both the sensory degradation and speed of processing accounts of age-related, cognitive decline. Furthermore, the findings highlight positive aspects of normal cognitive aging in that older age may not be associated with a loss of fluid intelligence if visual sensory functioning and processing speed can be maintained.

  13. Chemical insight into origin of forming-free resistive random-access memory devices

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, X.; Fang, Z.; Li, K.; Bosman, M.; Raghavan, N.; Li, X.; Yu, H. Y.; Singh, N.; Lo, G. Q.; Zhang, Xixiang; Pey, K. L.

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate the realization of a forming-step free resistive random access memory (RRAM) device using a HfOx/TiOx/HfOx/TiOxmultilayer structure, as a replacement for the conventional HfOx-based single layer structure. High-resolution transmission

  14. Realization of transient memory-loss with NiO-based resistive switching device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, S. G.; Liu, Y.; Chen, T. P.; Liu, Z.; Yu, Q.; Deng, L. J.; Yin, Y.; Hosaka, Sumio

    2012-11-01

    A resistive switching device based on a nickel-rich nickel oxide thin film, which exhibits inherent learning and memory-loss abilities, is reported in this work. The conductance of the device gradually increases and finally saturates with the number of voltage pulses (or voltage sweepings), which is analogous to the behavior of the short-term and long-term memory in the human brain. Furthermore, the number of the voltage pulses (or sweeping cycles) required to achieve a given conductance state increases with the interval between two consecutive voltage pulses (or sweeping cycles), which is attributed to the heat diffusion in the material of the conductive filaments formed in the nickel oxide thin film. The phenomenon resembles the behavior of the human brain, i.e., forgetting starts immediately after an impression, a larger interval of the impressions leads to more memory loss, thus the memorization needs more impressions to enhance.

  15. Polymer ferroelectric field-effect memory device with SnO channel layer exhibits record hole mobility

    KAUST Repository

    Caraveo-Frescas, Jesus Alfonso

    2014-06-10

    Here we report for the first time a hybrid p-channel polymer ferroelectric field-effect transistor memory device with record mobility. The memory device, fabricated at 200C on both plastic polyimide and glass substrates, uses ferroelectric polymer P(VDF-TrFE) as the gate dielectric and transparent p-type oxide (SnO) as the active channel layer. A record mobility of 3.3 cm 2V-1s-1, large memory window (~16 V), low read voltages (~-1 V), and excellent retention characteristics up to 5000 sec have been achieved. The mobility achieved in our devices is over 10 times higher than previously reported polymer ferroelectric field-effect transistor memory with p-type channel. This demonstration opens the door for the development of non-volatile memory devices based on dual channel for emerging transparent and flexible electronic devices.

  16. Polymer ferroelectric field-effect memory device with SnO channel layer exhibits record hole mobility

    KAUST Repository

    Caraveo-Frescas, Jesus Alfonso; Khan, M. A.; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2014-01-01

    Here we report for the first time a hybrid p-channel polymer ferroelectric field-effect transistor memory device with record mobility. The memory device, fabricated at 200C on both plastic polyimide and glass substrates, uses ferroelectric polymer P(VDF-TrFE) as the gate dielectric and transparent p-type oxide (SnO) as the active channel layer. A record mobility of 3.3 cm 2V-1s-1, large memory window (~16 V), low read voltages (~-1 V), and excellent retention characteristics up to 5000 sec have been achieved. The mobility achieved in our devices is over 10 times higher than previously reported polymer ferroelectric field-effect transistor memory with p-type channel. This demonstration opens the door for the development of non-volatile memory devices based on dual channel for emerging transparent and flexible electronic devices.

  17. The quadratic relationship between difficulty of intelligence test items and their correlations with working memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz eSmoleń

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Fluid intelligence (Gf is a crucial cognitive ability that involves abstract reasoning in order to solve novel problems. Recent research demonstrated that Gf strongly depends on the individual effectiveness of working memory (WM. We investigated a popular claim that if the storage capacity underlay the WM-Gf correlation, then such a correlation should increase with an increasing number of items or rules (load in a Gf test. As often no such link is observed, on that basis the storage-capacity account is rejected, and alternative accounts of Gf (e.g., related to executive control or processing speed are proposed. Using both analytical inference and numerical simulations, we demonstrated that the load-dependent change in correlation is primarily a function of the amount of floor/ceiling effect for particular items. Thus, the item-wise WM correlation of a Gf test depends on its overall difficulty, and the difficulty distribution across its items. When the early test items yield huge ceiling, but the late items do not approach floor, that correlation will increase throughout the test. If the early items locate themselves between ceiling and floor, but the late items approach floor, the respective correlation will decrease. For a hallmark Gf test, the Raven test, whose items span from ceiling to floor, the quadratic relationship is expected, and it was shown empirically using a large sample and two types of WMC tasks. In consequence, no changes in correlation due to varying WM/Gf load, or lack of them, can yield an argument for or against any theory of WM/Gf. Moreover, as the mathematical properties of the correlation formula make it relatively immune to ceiling/floor effects for overall moderate correlations, only minor changes (if any in the WM-Gf correlation should be expected for many psychological tests.

  18. The quadratic relationship between difficulty of intelligence test items and their correlations with working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolen, Tomasz; Chuderski, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Fluid intelligence (Gf) is a crucial cognitive ability that involves abstract reasoning in order to solve novel problems. Recent research demonstrated that Gf strongly depends on the individual effectiveness of working memory (WM). We investigated a popular claim that if the storage capacity underlay the WM-Gf correlation, then such a correlation should increase with an increasing number of items or rules (load) in a Gf-test. As often no such link is observed, on that basis the storage-capacity account is rejected, and alternative accounts of Gf (e.g., related to executive control or processing speed) are proposed. Using both analytical inference and numerical simulations, we demonstrated that the load-dependent change in correlation is primarily a function of the amount of floor/ceiling effect for particular items. Thus, the item-wise WM correlation of a Gf-test depends on its overall difficulty, and the difficulty distribution across its items. When the early test items yield huge ceiling, but the late items do not approach floor, that correlation will increase throughout the test. If the early items locate themselves between ceiling and floor, but the late items approach floor, the respective correlation will decrease. For a hallmark Gf-test, the Raven-test, whose items span from ceiling to floor, the quadratic relationship is expected, and it was shown empirically using a large sample and two types of WMC tasks. In consequence, no changes in correlation due to varying WM/Gf load, or lack of them, can yield an argument for or against any theory of WM/Gf. Moreover, as the mathematical properties of the correlation formula make it relatively immune to ceiling/floor effects for overall moderate correlations, only minor changes (if any) in the WM-Gf correlation should be expected for many psychological tests.

  19. A bio-inspired memory device based on interfacing Physarum polycephalum with an organic semiconductor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agostino Romeo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of devices able to detect and record ion fluxes is a crucial point in order to understand the mechanisms that regulate communication and life of organisms. Here, we take advantage of the combined electronic and ionic conduction properties of a conducting polymer to develop a hybrid organic/living device with a three-terminal configuration, using the Physarum polycephalum Cell (PPC slime mould as a living bio-electrolyte. An over-oxidation process induces a conductivity switch in the polymer, due to the ionic flux taking place at the PPC/polymer interface. This behaviour endows a current-depending memory effect to the device.

  20. A bio-inspired memory device based on interfacing Physarum polycephalum with an organic semiconductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romeo, Agostino; Dimonte, Alice; Tarabella, Giuseppe; D’Angelo, Pasquale, E-mail: dangelo@imem.cnr.it, E-mail: iannotta@imem.cnr.it; Erokhin, Victor; Iannotta, Salvatore, E-mail: dangelo@imem.cnr.it, E-mail: iannotta@imem.cnr.it [IMEM-CNR, Institute of Materials for Electronics and Magnetism-National Research Council, Parma 43124 (Italy)

    2015-01-01

    The development of devices able to detect and record ion fluxes is a crucial point in order to understand the mechanisms that regulate communication and life of organisms. Here, we take advantage of the combined electronic and ionic conduction properties of a conducting polymer to develop a hybrid organic/living device with a three-terminal configuration, using the Physarum polycephalum Cell (PPC) slime mould as a living bio-electrolyte. An over-oxidation process induces a conductivity switch in the polymer, due to the ionic flux taking place at the PPC/polymer interface. This behaviour endows a current-depending memory effect to the device.

  1. Anomalous Threshold Voltage Variability of Nitride Based Charge Storage Nonvolatile Memory Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Chuan Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional technology scaling is implemented to meet the insatiable demand of high memory density and low cost per bit of charge storage nonvolatile memory (NVM devices. In this study, effect of technology scaling to anomalous threshold voltage ( variability is investigated thoroughly on postcycled and baked nitride based charge storage NVM devices. After long annealing bake of high temperature, cell’s variability of each subsequent bake increases within stable distribution and found exacerbate by technology scaling. Apparent activation energy of this anomalous variability was derived through Arrhenius plots. Apparent activation energy (Eaa of this anomalous variability is 0.67 eV at sub-40 nm devices which is a reduction of approximately 2 times from 110 nm devices. Technology scaling clearly aggravates this anomalous variability, and this poses reliability challenges to applications that demand strict control, for example, reference cells that govern fundamental program, erase, and verify operations of NVM devices. Based on critical evidence, this anomalous variability is attributed to lateral displacement of trapped charges in nitride storage layer. Reliability implications of this study are elucidated. Moreover, potential mitigation methods are proposed to complement technology scaling to prolong the front-runner role of nitride based charge storage NVM in semiconductor flash memory market.

  2. Negative effect of Au nanoparticles on an IGZO TFT-based nonvolatile memory device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Myunghoon; Yoo, Gwangwe; Lee, Jongtaek; Jeong, Seokwon; Roh, Yonghan; Park, Jinhong; Kwon, Namyong [Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Wooshik [Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2014-02-15

    In this letter, the electrical characteristics of nonvolatile memory devices based on back gate type indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO) thin-film transistors (TFTs) are investigated in terms of the Au nanoparticles (NPs) employed in the floating gate-stack of the device. The size of the Au NPs is controlled using a by 500 .deg. C annealing process after the Au thin-film deposition. The size and the roughness of the Au NPs were observed by using scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. In order to analyze the electrical properties according to Au NP size, we measured the current-voltage (I{sub D}-V{sub G}) characteristics of the nonvolatile memory devices fabricated without Au NPs and with Au NPs of various sizes. The size of the Au NP increased, so did the surface roughness of the gate. This resulted in increased carrier scattering, which subsequently degraded the on-current of the memory device. In addition, inter-diffusion between the Au and the α-IGZO through the non-uniform Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} tunneling layer seemed to further degrade the device performance.

  3. Novel spintronics devices for memory and logic: prospects and challenges for room temperature all spin computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian-Ping

    An energy efficient memory and logic device for the post-CMOS era has been the goal of a variety of research fields. The limits of scaling, which we expect to reach by the year 2025, demand that future advances in computational power will not be realized from ever-shrinking device sizes, but rather by innovative designs and new materials and physics. Magnetoresistive based devices have been a promising candidate for future integrated magnetic computation because of its unique non-volatility and functionalities. The application of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy for potential STT-RAM application was demonstrated and later has been intensively investigated by both academia and industry groups, but there is no clear path way how scaling will eventually work for both memory and logic applications. One of main reasons is that there is no demonstrated material stack candidate that could lead to a scaling scheme down to sub 10 nm. Another challenge for the usage of magnetoresistive based devices for logic application is its available switching speed and writing energy. Although a good progress has been made to demonstrate the fast switching of a thermally stable magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) down to 165 ps, it is still several times slower than its CMOS counterpart. In this talk, I will review the recent progress by my research group and my C-SPIN colleagues, then discuss the opportunities, challenges and some potential path ways for magnetoresitive based devices for memory and logic applications and their integration for room temperature all spin computing system.

  4. An intelligent 1:2 demultiplexer as an intracellular theranostic device based on DNA/Ag cluster-gated nanovehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, Xiang; Wang, Zhenzhen; Ju, Enguo; Pu, Fang; Song, Yanqiu; Ren, Jinsong; Qu, Xiaogang

    2018-02-01

    The logic device demultiplexer can convey a single input signal into one of multiple output channels. The choice of the output channel is controlled by a selector. Several molecules and biomolecules have been used to mimic the function of a demultiplexer. However, the practical application of logic devices still remains a big challenge. Herein, we design and construct an intelligent 1:2 demultiplexer as a theranostic device based on azobenzene (azo)-modified and DNA/Ag cluster-gated nanovehicles. The configuration of azo and the conformation of the DNA ensemble can be regulated by light irradiation and pH, respectively. The demultiplexer which uses light as the input and acid as the selector can emit red fluorescence or a release drug under different conditions. Depending on different cells, the intelligent logic device can select the mode of cellular imaging in healthy cells or tumor therapy in tumor cells. The study incorporates the logic gate with the theranostic device, paving the way for tangible applications of logic gates in the future.

  5. A Memory-Based Programmable Logic Device Using Look-Up Table Cascade with Synchronous Static Random Access Memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Kazuyuki; Sasao, Tsutomu; Matsuura, Munehiro; Tanaka, Katsumasa; Yoshizumi, Kenichi; Nakahara, Hiroki; Iguchi, Yukihiro

    2006-04-01

    A large-scale memory-technology-based programmable logic device (PLD) using a look-up table (LUT) cascade is developed in the 0.35-μm standard complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) logic process. Eight 64 K-bit synchronous SRAMs are connected to form an LUT cascade with a few additional circuits. The features of the LUT cascade include: 1) a flexible cascade connection structure, 2) multi phase pseudo asynchronous operations with synchronous static random access memory (SRAM) cores, and 3) LUT-bypass redundancy. This chip operates at 33 MHz in 8-LUT cascades at 122 mW. Benchmark results show that it achieves a comparable performance to field programmable gate array (FPGAs).

  6. Feasibility study of molecular memory device based on DNA using methylation to store information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Liming; Al-Dirini, Feras; Qiu, Wanzhi; Skafidas, Efstratios; Hossain, Faruque M.; Evans, Robin

    2016-01-01

    DNA, because of its robustness and dense information storage capability, has been proposed as a potential candidate for next-generation storage media. However, encoding information into the DNA sequence requires molecular synthesis technology, which to date is costly and prone to synthesis errors. Reading the DNA strand information is also complex. Ideally, DNA storage will provide methods for modifying stored information. Here, we conduct a feasibility study investigating the use of the DNA 5-methylcytosine (5mC) methylation state as a molecular memory to store information. We propose a new 1-bit memory device and study, based on the density functional theory and non-equilibrium Green's function method, the feasibility of electrically reading the information. Our results show that changes to methylation states lead to changes in the peak of negative differential resistance which can be used to interrogate memory state. Our work demonstrates a new memory concept based on methylation state which can be beneficial in the design of next generation DNA based molecular electronic memory devices.

  7. Migration of interfacial oxygen ions modulated resistive switching in oxide-based memory devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C.; Gao, S.; Zeng, F.; Tang, G. S.; Li, S. Z.; Song, C.; Fu, H. D.; Pan, F.

    2013-07-01

    Oxides-based resistive switching memory induced by oxygen ions migration is attractive for future nonvolatile memories. Numerous works had focused their attentions on the sandwiched oxide materials for depressing the characteristic variations, but the comprehensive studies of the dependence of electrodes on the migration behavior of oxygen ions are overshadowed. Here, we investigated the interaction of various metals (Ni, Co, Al, Ti, Zr, and Hf) with oxygen atoms at the metal/Ta2O5 interface under electric stress and explored the effect of top electrode on the characteristic variations of Ta2O5-based memory device. It is demonstrated that chemically inert electrodes (Ni and Co) lead to the scattering switching characteristics and destructive gas bubbles, while the highly chemically active metals (Hf and Zr) formed a thick and dense interfacial intermediate oxide layer at the metal/Ta2O5 interface, which also degraded the resistive switching behavior. The relatively chemically active metals (Al and Ti) can absorb oxygen ions from the Ta2O5 film and avoid forming the problematic interfacial layer, which is benefit to the formation of oxygen vacancies composed conduction filaments in Ta2O5 film thus exhibit the minimum variations of switching characteristics. The clarification of oxygen ions migration behavior at the interface can lead further optimization of resistive switching performance in Ta2O5-based memory device and guide the rule of electrode selection for other oxide-based resistive switching memories.

  8. Feasibility study of molecular memory device based on DNA using methylation to store information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Liming; Al-Dirini, Feras [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, The University of Melbourne, Parkville 3010 (Australia); Center for Neural Engineering (CfNE), The University of Melbourne, Carlton 3053 (Australia); National ICT Australia, The University of Melbourne, Parkville 3010 (Australia); Qiu, Wanzhi; Skafidas, Efstratios, E-mail: sskaf@unimelb.edu.au [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, The University of Melbourne, Parkville 3010 (Australia); Center for Neural Engineering (CfNE), The University of Melbourne, Carlton 3053 (Australia); Hossain, Faruque M. [Center for Neural Engineering (CfNE), The University of Melbourne, Carlton 3053 (Australia); Evans, Robin [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, The University of Melbourne, Parkville 3010 (Australia)

    2016-07-14

    DNA, because of its robustness and dense information storage capability, has been proposed as a potential candidate for next-generation storage media. However, encoding information into the DNA sequence requires molecular synthesis technology, which to date is costly and prone to synthesis errors. Reading the DNA strand information is also complex. Ideally, DNA storage will provide methods for modifying stored information. Here, we conduct a feasibility study investigating the use of the DNA 5-methylcytosine (5mC) methylation state as a molecular memory to store information. We propose a new 1-bit memory device and study, based on the density functional theory and non-equilibrium Green's function method, the feasibility of electrically reading the information. Our results show that changes to methylation states lead to changes in the peak of negative differential resistance which can be used to interrogate memory state. Our work demonstrates a new memory concept based on methylation state which can be beneficial in the design of next generation DNA based molecular electronic memory devices.

  9. Resistance Switching Characteristics in ZnO-Based Nonvolatile Memory Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu-Chien Chiu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bipolar resistance switching characteristics are demonstrated in Pt/ZnO/Pt nonvolatile memory devices. A negative differential resistance or snapback characteristic can be observed when the memory device switches from a high resistance state to a low resistance state due to the formation of filamentary conducting path. The dependence of pulse width and temperature on set/reset voltages was examined in this work. The exponentially decreasing trend of set/reset voltage with increasing pulse width is observed except when pulse width is larger than 1 s. Hence, to switch the ZnO memory devices, a minimum set/reset voltage is required. The set voltage decreases linearly with the temperature whereas the reset voltage is nearly temperature-independent. In addition, the ac cycling endurance can be over 106 switching cycles, whereas, the dependence of HRS/LRS resistance distribution indicates that a significant memory window closure may take place after about 102  dc switching cycles.

  10. Indirect intelligent sliding mode control of a shape memory alloy actuated flexible beam using hysteretic recurrent neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannen, Jennifer C; Buckner, Gregory D; Crews, John H

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces an indirect intelligent sliding mode controller (IISMC) for shape memory alloy (SMA) actuators, specifically a flexible beam deflected by a single offset SMA tendon. The controller manipulates applied voltage, which alters SMA tendon temperature to track reference bending angles. A hysteretic recurrent neural network (HRNN) captures the nonlinear, hysteretic relationship between SMA temperature and bending angle. The variable structure control strategy provides robustness to model uncertainties and parameter variations, while effectively compensating for system nonlinearities, achieving superior tracking compared to an optimized PI controller. (paper)

  11. On the relationship between executive functions of working memory and components derived from fluid intelligence measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xuezhu; Schweizer, Karl; Wang, Tengfei; Chu, Pei; Gong, Qin

    2017-10-01

    The aim of the current study is to provide new insights into the relationship between executive functions and intelligence measures in considering the item-position effect observed in intelligence items. Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices (APM) and Horn's LPS reasoning test were used to assess fluid intelligence which served as criterion in investigating the relationship between intelligence and executive functions. A battery of six experimental tasks measured the updating, shifting, and inhibition processes of executive functions. Data were collected from 205 university students. Fluid intelligence showed substantial correlations with the updating and inhibition processes and no correlation with the shifting process without considering the item-position effect. Next, the fixed-link model was applied to APM and LPS data separately to decompose them into an ability component and an item-position component. The results of relating the components to executive functions showed that the updating and shifting processes mainly contributed to the item-position component whereas the inhibition process was mainly associated with the ability component of each fluid intelligence test. These findings suggest that improvements in the efficiency of updating and shifting processes are likely to occur during the course of completing intelligence measures and inhibition is important for intelligence in general. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Study of Verbal and Visual Memory in Patients with Schizophrenia Diagnosed According to the Prognosis and the Level of General Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Zare

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Assessment of cognitive functions in schizophrenia patients is very important. Because the cognitive deficiencies in memory and intelligence are the fundamental and underlying aspects. Both indicate from a structural and neurological similar deficits. The present study sought to examine the impact of severity and prognosis of schizophrenia on cognitive function, such as memory and intelligence and the relationship between intelligence and memory. Material & Methods: In this study, 60 schizophrenia patients participate, who had at least 2 years of their diagnosis. Based on interviews by the PANSS scale in the two groups of 30 persons including the first group with mild symptoms (stable group and the second group with severe symptoms (deteriorate group, were studied. Two groups by age, literacy, lack of mental retardation before diagnosis of disease, the use of ECT, the lack of anti-psychotic drug treatment more than three months during the past year were cloning. the Wechsler memory test and the raven IQ test for adults were used, the results were analyzed with using independent t-test, correlation and regression. Results: Average of memory quotient in stable group with 77.4 and in deteriorated group with 65.93 had significant difference (P=0.002. Average of IQ in stable group with 84.26 and in deteriorated group with 76.9 had significant difference (P=0.015. Regression test showed that the memory can be predicted from IQ (P=0.001. Conclusion: with severity of disease and deteriorated of schizophrenia and negative symptoms, deficiency in memory, has increased. In these patients, there was a positive relationship between intelligence and memory. The level of intelligence was in deteriorated group significantly lower than from stable group

  13. Graphene resistive random memory — the promising memory device in next generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xue-Feng; Zhao Hai-Ming; Yang Yi; Ren Tian-Ling

    2017-01-01

    Graphene-based resistive random access memory (GRRAM) has grasped researchers’ attention due to its merits compared with ordinary RRAM. In this paper, we briefly review different types of GRRAMs. These GRRAMs can be divided into two categories: graphene RRAM and graphene oxide (GO)/reduced graphene oxide (rGO) RRAM. Using graphene as the electrode, GRRAM can own many good characteristics, such as low power consumption, higher density, transparency, SET voltage modulation, high uniformity, and so on. Graphene flakes sandwiched between two dielectric layers can lower the SET voltage and achieve multilevel switching. Moreover, the GRRAM with rGO and GO as the dielectric or electrode can be simply fabricated. Flexible and high performance RRAM and GO film can be modified by adding other materials layer or making a composite with polymer, nanoparticle, and 2D materials to further improve the performance. Above all, GRRAM shows huge potential to become the next generation memory. (topical reviews)

  14. Resistive switching characteristics of HfO2-based memory devices on flexible plastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yong; Cho, Kyoungah; Park, Sukhyung; Kim, Sangsig

    2014-11-01

    In this study, we examine the characteristics of HfO2-based resistive switching random access memory (ReRAM) devices on flexible plastics. The Pt/HfO2/Au ReRAM devices exhibit the unipolar resistive switching behaviors caused by the conducting filaments. From the Auger depth profiles of the HfO2 thin film, it is confirmed that the relatively lower oxygen content in the interface of the bottom electrode is responsible for the resistive switching by oxygen vacancies. And the unipolar resistive switching behaviors are analyzed from the C-V characteristics in which negative and positive capacitances are measured in the low-resistance state and the high-resistance state, respectively. The devices have a high on/off ratio of 10(4) and the excellent retention properties even after a continuous bending test of two thousand cycles. The correlation between the device size and the memory characteristics is investigated as well. A relatively smaller-sized device having a higher on/off ratio operates at a higher voltage than a relatively larger-sized device.

  15. Density-controllable nonvolatile memory devices having metal nanocrystals through chemical synthesis and assembled by spin-coating technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Guangli; Chen Yubin; Shi Yi; Pu Lin; Pan Lijia; Zhang Rong; Zheng Youdou

    2010-01-01

    A novel two-step method is employed, for the first time, to fabricate nonvolatile memory devices that have metal nanocrystals. First, size-averaged Au nanocrystals are synthesized chemically; second, they are assembled into memory devices by a spin-coating technique at room temperature. This attractive approach makes it possible to tailor the diameter and control the density of nanocrystals individually. In addition, processes at room temperature prevent Au diffusion, which is a main concern for the application of metal nanocrystal-based memory. The experimental results, both the morphology characterization and the electrical measurements, reveal that there is an optimum density of nanocrystal monolayer to balance between long data retention and a large hysteresis memory window. At the same time, density-controllable devices could also feed the preferential emphasis on either memory window or retention time. All these facts confirm the advantages and novelty of our two-step method. (semiconductor devices)

  16. Application of nanomaterials in two-terminal resistive-switching memory devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianyong Ouyang

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Nanometer materials have been attracting strong attention due to their interesting structure and properties. Many important practical applications have been demonstrated for nanometer materials based on their unique properties. This article provides a review on the fabrication, electrical characterization, and memory application of two-terminal resistive-switching devices using nanomaterials as the active components, including metal and semiconductor nanoparticles (NPs, nanotubes, nanowires, and graphenes. There are mainly two types of device architectures for the two-terminal devices with NPs. One has a triple-layer structure with a metal film sandwiched between two organic semiconductor layers, and the other has a single polymer film blended with NPs. These devices can be electrically switched between two states with significant different resistances, i.e. the ‘ON’ and ‘OFF’ states. These render the devices important application as two-terminal non-volatile memory devices. The electrical behavior of these devices can be affected by the materials in the active layer and the electrodes. Though the mechanism for the electrical switches has been in argument, it is generally believed that the resistive switches are related to charge storage on the NPs. Resistive switches were also observed on crossbars formed by nanotubes, nanowires, and graphene ribbons. The resistive switches are due to nanoelectromechanical behavior of the materials. The Coulombic interaction of transient charges on the nanomaterials affects the configurable gap of the crossbars, which results into significant change in current through the crossbars. These nanoelectromechanical devices can be used as fast-response and high-density memory devices as well. Dr. Jianyong Ouyang received his bachelor degree from the Tsinghua University in Beijing, China, and MSc from the Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Science. He received his PhD from the Institute for Molecular

  17. Flexible All-Inorganic Perovskite CsPbBr3 Nonvolatile Memory Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dongjue; Lin, Qiqi; Zang, Zhigang; Wang, Ming; Wangyang, Peihua; Tang, Xiaosheng; Zhou, Miao; Hu, Wei

    2017-02-22

    All-inorganic perovskite CsPbX 3 (X = Cl, Br, or I) is widely used in a variety of photoelectric devices such as solar cells, light-emitting diodes, lasers, and photodetectors. However, studies to understand the flexible CsPbX 3 electrical application are relatively scarce, mainly due to the limitations of the low-temperature fabricating process. In this study, all-inorganic perovskite CsPbBr 3 films were successfully fabricated at 75 °C through a two-step method. The highly crystallized films were first employed as a resistive switching layer in the Al/CsPbBr 3 /PEDOT:PSS/ITO/PET structure for flexible nonvolatile memory application. The resistive switching operations and endurance performance demonstrated the as-prepared flexible resistive random access memory devices possess reproducible and reliable memory characteristics. Electrical reliability and mechanical stability of the nonvolatile device were further tested by the robust current-voltage curves under different bending angles and consecutive flexing cycles. Moreover, a model of the formation and rupture of filaments through the CsPbBr 3 layer was proposed to explain the resistive switching effect. It is believed that this study will offer a new setting to understand and design all-inorganic perovskite materials for future stable flexible electronic devices.

  18. Academic Achievement from Using the Learning Medium Via a Tablet Device Based on Multiple Intelligences in Grade 1 Elementary Student.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuallaong, Winitra; Nuallaong, Thanya; Preechadirek, Nongluck

    2015-04-01

    To measure academic achievement of the multiple intelligence-based learning medium via a tablet device. This is a quasi-experimental research study (non-randomized control group pretest-posttest design) in 62 grade 1 elementary students (33 males and 29 females). Thirty-one students were included in an experimental group using purposive sampling by choosing a student who had highest multiple intelligence test scores in logical-mathematic. Then, this group learned by the new learning medium via a tablet which the application matched to logical-mathematic multiple intelligence. Another 31 students were included in a control group using simple random sampling and then learning by recitation. Both groups did pre-test and post-test vocabulary. Thirty students in the experimental group and 24 students in the control group increased post-test scores (odds ratio = 8.75). Both groups made significant increasing in post-test scores. The experimental group increased 9.07 marks (95% CI 8.20-9.93) significantly higher than the control group which increased 4.39 marks (95% CI 3.06-5.72) (t = -6.032, df = 51.481, p learning from either multiple intelligence-based learning medium via a tablet or recitation can contribute academic achievement, learningfrom the new medium contributed more achievement than recitation. The new learning medium group had higher post-test scores 8.75 times than the recitation group. Therefore, the new learning medium is more effective than the traditional recitation in terms of academic achievement. This study has limitations because samples came from the same school. However, the previous study in Thailand did notfind a logical-mathematical multiple intelligence difference among schools. In the future, long-term research to find how the new learning medium affects knowledge retention will support the advantage for life-long learning.

  19. Chemical-Vapor-Deposited Graphene as Charge Storage Layer in Flash Memory Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. J. Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrated a flash memory device with chemical-vapor-deposited graphene as a charge trapping layer. It was found that the average RMS roughness of block oxide on graphene storage layer can be significantly reduced from 5.9 nm to 0.5 nm by inserting a seed metal layer, which was verified by AFM measurements. The memory window is 5.6 V for a dual sweep of ±12 V at room temperature. Moreover, a reduced hysteresis at the low temperature was observed, indicative of water molecules or −OH groups between graphene and dielectric playing an important role in memory windows.

  20. Transparent and flexible write-once-read-many (WORM) memory device based on egg albumen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qu, Bo; Lin, Qianru; Wan, Tao; Du, Haiwei; Chen, Nan; Lin, Xi; Chu, Dewei

    2017-01-01

    Egg albumen, as an important protein resource in nature, is an interesting dielectric material exhibiting many fascinating properties for the development of environmentally friendly electronic devices. Taking advantage of their extraordinary transparency and flexibility, this paper presents an innovative preparation approach for albumen thin film based write-once-read-many-times (WORM) memory devices in a simple, cost-effective manner. The fabricated device shows superior data retention properties including non-volatile character (over 10 5 s) and promising great read durability (10 6 times). Furthermore, our results suggested that the electric-field-induced trap-controlled space charge limited current (SCLC) conduction is responsible for the observed resistance switching effect. The present study may likely reveal another pathway towards complete see-through electrical devices. (paper)

  1. A 3D Printed Implantable Device for Voiding the Bladder Using Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) Actuators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassani, Faezeh Arab; Peh, Wendy Yen Xian; Gammad, Gil Gerald Lasam; Mogan, Roshini Priya; Ng, Tze Kiat; Kuo, Tricia Li Chuen; Ng, Lay Guat; Luu, Percy; Yen, Shih-Cheng; Lee, Chengkuo

    2017-11-01

    Underactive bladder or detrusor underactivity (DU) is defined as a reduction of contraction strength or duration of the bladder wall. Despite the serious healthcare implications of DU, there are limited solutions for affected individuals. A flexible 3D printed implantable device driven by shape memory alloys (SMA) actuators is presented here for the first time to physically contract the bladder to restore voluntary control of the bladder for individuals suffering from DU. This approach is used initially in benchtop experiments with a rubber balloon acting as a model for the rat bladder to verify its potential for voiding, and that the operating temperatures are safe for the eventual implantation of the device in a rat. The device is then implanted and tested on an anesthetized rat, and a voiding volume of more than 8% is successfully achieved for the SMA-based device without any surgical intervention or drug injection to relax the external sphincter.

  2. Nonvolatile organic write-once-read-many-times memory devices based on hexadecafluoro-copper-phthalocyanine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lidan; Su, Zisheng; Wang, Cheng

    2012-05-01

    Nonvolatile organic write-once-read-many-times memory device was demonstrated based on hexadecafluoro-copper-phthalocyanine (F16CuPc) single layer sandwiched between indium tin oxide (ITO) anode and Al cathode. The as fabricated device remains in ON state and it can be tuned to OFF state by applying a reverse bias. The ON/OFF current ratio of the device can reach up to 2.3 × 103. Simultaneously, the device shows long-term storage stability and long retention time in air. The ON/OFF transition is attributed to the formation and destruction of the interfacial dipole layer in the ITO/F16CuPc interface, and such a mechanism is different from previously reported ones.

  3. Transparent and flexible write-once-read-many (WORM) memory device based on egg albumen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Bo; Lin, Qianru; Wan, Tao; Du, Haiwei; Chen, Nan; Lin, Xi; Chu, Dewei

    2017-08-01

    Egg albumen, as an important protein resource in nature, is an interesting dielectric material exhibiting many fascinating properties for the development of environmentally friendly electronic devices. Taking advantage of their extraordinary transparency and flexibility, this paper presents an innovative preparation approach for albumen thin film based write-once-read-many-times (WORM) memory devices in a simple, cost-effective manner. The fabricated device shows superior data retention properties including non-volatile character (over 105 s) and promising great read durability (106 times). Furthermore, our results suggested that the electric-field-induced trap-controlled space charge limited current (SCLC) conduction is responsible for the observed resistance switching effect. The present study may likely reveal another pathway towards complete see-through electrical devices.

  4. Parasitic resistive switching uncovered from complementary resistive switching in single active-layer oxide memory device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lisha; Hu, Wei; Gao, Chao; Guo, Yongcai

    2017-12-01

    This paper reports the reversible transition processes between the bipolar and complementary resistive switching (CRS) characteristics on the binary metal-oxide resistive memory devices of Pt/HfO x /TiN and Pt/TaO x /TiN by applying the appropriate bias voltages. More interestingly, by controlling the amplitude of the negative bias, the parasitic resistive switching effect exhibiting repeatable switching behavior is uncovered from the CRS behavior. The electrical observation of the parasitic resistive switching effect can be explained by the controlled size of the conductive filament. This work confirms the transformation and interrelationship among the bipolar, parasitic, and CRS effects, and thus provides new insight into the understanding of the physical mechanism of the binary metal-oxide resistive switching memory devices.

  5. Characterization of gold nanoparticle pentacene memory device with polymer dielectric layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyung-Jun; Jung, Sung Mok; Kim, Yo-Han; Kim, Bong-Jin; Ha, Sanghyub; Kim, Yong-Sang; Yoon, Tae-Sik; Lee, Hyun Ho

    2011-01-01

    We report on the electrical behavior of gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) intervened metal-pentacene-insulator-semiconductor structures. The structure adopts polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and pentacene as gate insulator and semiconductor, respectively. On the PVA (250 nm) film which was spin-coated and UV cross-linked, 3-aminopropyl triethoxysilane was functionalized for self assembling of the Au NPs monolayer. The devices exhibited clockwise hysteresis in their capacitance-voltage characteristics, with a memory window depending on the range of the voltage sweep. A relatively large memory window of about 4.7 V, which was deduced from control devices, was achieved with voltage sweep of (-/+)7 V. Formation of the monolayered Au NPs was confirmed by field effect scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy.

  6. Working memory components that predict word problem solving: Is it merely a function of reading, calculation, and fluid intelligence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Wenson; Swanson, H Lee

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess whether the differential effects of working memory (WM) components (the central executive, phonological loop, and visual-spatial sketchpad) on math word problem-solving accuracy in children (N = 413, ages 6-10) are completely mediated by reading, calculation, and fluid intelligence. The results indicated that all three WM components predicted word problem solving in the nonmediated model, but only the storage component of WM yielded a significant direct path to word problem-solving accuracy in the fully mediated model. Fluid intelligence was found to moderate the relationship between WM and word problem solving, whereas reading, calculation, and related skills (naming speed, domain-specific knowledge) completely mediated the influence of the executive system on problem-solving accuracy. Our results are consistent with findings suggesting that storage eliminates the predictive contribution of executive WM to various measures Colom, Rebollo, Abad, & Shih (Memory & Cognition, 34: 158-171, 2006). The findings suggest that the storage component of WM, rather than the executive component, has a direct path to higher-order processing in children.

  7. Reliable gains? Evidence for substantially underpowered designs in studies of working memory training transfer to fluid intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogg, Tim; Lasecki, Leanne

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, cognitive scientists and commercial interests (e.g., Fit Brains, Lumosity) have focused research attention and financial resources on cognitive tasks, especially working memory tasks, to explore and exploit possible transfer effects to general cognitive abilities, such as fluid intelligence. The increased research attention has produced mixed findings, as well as contention about the disposition of the evidence base. To address this contention, Au et al. (2014) recently conducted a meta-analysis of extant controlled experimental studies of n-back task training transfer effects on measures of fluid intelligence in healthy adults; the results of which showed a small training transfer effect. Using several approaches, the current review evaluated and re-analyzed the meta-analytic data for the presence of two different forms of small-study effects: (1) publication bias in the presence of low power and; (2) low power in the absence of publication bias. The results of these approaches showed no evidence of selection bias in the working memory training literature, but did show evidence of small-study effects related to low power in the absence of publication bias. While the effect size estimate identified by Au et al. (2014) provided the most precise estimate to date, it should be interpreted in the context of a uniformly low-powered base of evidence. The present work concludes with a brief set of considerations for assessing the adequacy of a body of research findings for the application of meta-analytic techniques.

  8. Magnetic Shape Memory Alloys as smart materials for micro-positioning devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hubert

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In the field of microrobotics, actuators based on smart materials are predominant because of very good precision, integration capabilities and high compactness. This paper presents the main characteristics of Magnetic Shape Memory Alloys as new candidates for the design of micromechatronic devices. The thermo-magneto-mechanical energy conversion process is first presented followed by the adequate modeling procedure required to design actuators. Finally, some actuators prototypes realized at the Femto-ST institute are presented, including a push-pull bidirectional actuator. Some results on the control and performances of these devices conclude the paper.

  9. Metal-free, single-polymer device exhibits resistive memory effect

    KAUST Repository

    Bhansali, Unnat Sampatraj; Khan, Yasser; Cha, Dong Kyu; Almadhoun, Mahmoud N.; Li, Ruipeng; Chen, Long; Amassian, Aram; Odeh, Ihab N.; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2013-01-01

    All-polymer, write-once-read-many times resistive memory devices have been fabricated on flexible substrates using a single polymer, poly(3,4- ethylenedioxythiophene):polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS). Spin-cast or inkjet-printed films of solvent-modified PEDOT:PSS are used as electrodes, while the unmodified or as-is PEDOT:PSS is used as the semiconducting active layer. The all-polymer devices exhibit an irreversible but stable transition from a low resistance state (ON) to a high resistance state (OFF) at low voltages caused by an electric-field-induced morphological rearrangement of PEDOT and PSS at the electrode interface. However, in the metal-PEDOT:PSS-metal devices, we have shown a metal filament formation switching the device from an initial high resistance state (OFF) to the low resistance state (ON). The all-PEDOT:PSS memory device has low write voltages (<3 V), high ON/OFF ratio (>10 3), good retention characteristics (>10 000 s), and stability in ambient storage (>3 months). © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  10. Metal-free, single-polymer device exhibits resistive memory effect

    KAUST Repository

    Bhansali, Unnat Sampatraj

    2013-12-23

    All-polymer, write-once-read-many times resistive memory devices have been fabricated on flexible substrates using a single polymer, poly(3,4- ethylenedioxythiophene):polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS). Spin-cast or inkjet-printed films of solvent-modified PEDOT:PSS are used as electrodes, while the unmodified or as-is PEDOT:PSS is used as the semiconducting active layer. The all-polymer devices exhibit an irreversible but stable transition from a low resistance state (ON) to a high resistance state (OFF) at low voltages caused by an electric-field-induced morphological rearrangement of PEDOT and PSS at the electrode interface. However, in the metal-PEDOT:PSS-metal devices, we have shown a metal filament formation switching the device from an initial high resistance state (OFF) to the low resistance state (ON). The all-PEDOT:PSS memory device has low write voltages (<3 V), high ON/OFF ratio (>10 3), good retention characteristics (>10 000 s), and stability in ambient storage (>3 months). © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  11. Effect of vacuum annealing on evaporated pentacene thin films for memory device applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gayathri, A.G.; Joseph, C.M.

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Switching of ITO/pentacene/Al thin films for different annealing temperatures. - Highlights: • Memory device performance in pentacene improved considerably with annealing. • ON/OFF ratio of the pentacene device increases due to annealing. • Threshold voltage reduces from 2.55 V to 1.35 V due to annealing. • Structure of pentacene thin films is also dependent on annealing temperature. - Abstract: Thin films of pentacene were deposited thermally onto glass substrates and annealed at 323 K, 373 K, 423 K, 473 K and 523 K in high vacuum. Effect of annealing on the morphological and structural properties of these films was studied. X-ray diffraction patterns confirmed the crystalline nature of the films. Electrical studies for the use as write once read many (WORM) memory devices were done for the vacuum deposited pentacene thin films on indium tin oxide coated glass. Due to annealing, a sharp increase in the ON/OFF ratio of current and a decrease in threshold voltage were observed at around 373 K. This device showed a stable switching with an ON/OFF current ratio as high as 10 9 and a switching threshold voltage of 1.35 V. The performance of the device degraded above 423 K due to the changes in the crystallinity of the film.

  12. Interfacial behavior of resistive switching in ITO–PVK–Al WORM memory devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitcher, T J; Woon, K L; Wong, W S; Chanlek, N; Nakajima, H; Saisopa, T; Songsiriritthigul, P

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the mechanism of resistive switching in a memory device is fundamental in order to improve device performance. The mechanism of current switching in a basic organic write-once read-many (WORM) memory device is investigated by determining the energy level alignments of indium tin oxide (ITO), poly(9-vinylcarbazole) (PVK) and aluminum (Al) using x-ray and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy, current–voltage characterization and Auger depth profiling. The current switching mechanism was determined to be controlled by the interface between the ITO and the PVK. The electric field applied across the device causes the ITO from the uneven surface of the anode to form metallic filaments through the PVK, causing a shorting effect within the device leading to increased conduction. This was found to be independent of the PVK thickness, although the switch-on voltage was non-linearly dependent on the thickness. The formation of these filaments also caused the destruction of the interfacial dipole at the PVK–Al interface. (paper)

  13. Interfacial behavior of resistive switching in ITO-PVK-Al WORM memory devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitcher, T. J.; Woon, K. L.; Wong, W. S.; Chanlek, N.; Nakajima, H.; Saisopa, T.; Songsiriritthigul, P.

    2016-02-01

    Understanding the mechanism of resistive switching in a memory device is fundamental in order to improve device performance. The mechanism of current switching in a basic organic write-once read-many (WORM) memory device is investigated by determining the energy level alignments of indium tin oxide (ITO), poly(9-vinylcarbazole) (PVK) and aluminum (Al) using x-ray and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy, current-voltage characterization and Auger depth profiling. The current switching mechanism was determined to be controlled by the interface between the ITO and the PVK. The electric field applied across the device causes the ITO from the uneven surface of the anode to form metallic filaments through the PVK, causing a shorting effect within the device leading to increased conduction. This was found to be independent of the PVK thickness, although the switch-on voltage was non-linearly dependent on the thickness. The formation of these filaments also caused the destruction of the interfacial dipole at the PVK-Al interface.

  14. Metal oxide resistive random access memory based synaptic devices for brain-inspired computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Bin; Kang, Jinfeng; Zhou, Zheng; Chen, Zhe; Huang, Peng; Liu, Lifeng; Liu, Xiaoyan

    2016-04-01

    The traditional Boolean computing paradigm based on the von Neumann architecture is facing great challenges for future information technology applications such as big data, the Internet of Things (IoT), and wearable devices, due to the limited processing capability issues such as binary data storage and computing, non-parallel data processing, and the buses requirement between memory units and logic units. The brain-inspired neuromorphic computing paradigm is believed to be one of the promising solutions for realizing more complex functions with a lower cost. To perform such brain-inspired computing with a low cost and low power consumption, novel devices for use as electronic synapses are needed. Metal oxide resistive random access memory (ReRAM) devices have emerged as the leading candidate for electronic synapses. This paper comprehensively addresses the recent work on the design and optimization of metal oxide ReRAM-based synaptic devices. A performance enhancement methodology and optimized operation scheme to achieve analog resistive switching and low-energy training behavior are provided. A three-dimensional vertical synapse network architecture is proposed for high-density integration and low-cost fabrication. The impacts of the ReRAM synaptic device features on the performances of neuromorphic systems are also discussed on the basis of a constructed neuromorphic visual system with a pattern recognition function. Possible solutions to achieve the high recognition accuracy and efficiency of neuromorphic systems are presented.

  15. Effect of vacuum annealing on evaporated pentacene thin films for memory device applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gayathri, A.G., E-mail: gaythri305@yahoo.com; Joseph, C.M., E-mail: cmjoseph@rediffmail.com

    2016-09-15

    Graphical abstract: Switching of ITO/pentacene/Al thin films for different annealing temperatures. - Highlights: • Memory device performance in pentacene improved considerably with annealing. • ON/OFF ratio of the pentacene device increases due to annealing. • Threshold voltage reduces from 2.55 V to 1.35 V due to annealing. • Structure of pentacene thin films is also dependent on annealing temperature. - Abstract: Thin films of pentacene were deposited thermally onto glass substrates and annealed at 323 K, 373 K, 423 K, 473 K and 523 K in high vacuum. Effect of annealing on the morphological and structural properties of these films was studied. X-ray diffraction patterns confirmed the crystalline nature of the films. Electrical studies for the use as write once read many (WORM) memory devices were done for the vacuum deposited pentacene thin films on indium tin oxide coated glass. Due to annealing, a sharp increase in the ON/OFF ratio of current and a decrease in threshold voltage were observed at around 373 K. This device showed a stable switching with an ON/OFF current ratio as high as 10{sup 9} and a switching threshold voltage of 1.35 V. The performance of the device degraded above 423 K due to the changes in the crystallinity of the film.

  16. Preparation and characterization of Sb2Se3 devices for memory applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shylashree, N.; Uma B., V.; Dhanush, S.; Abachi, Sagar; Nisarga, A.; Aashith, K.; Sangeetha B., G.

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, A phase change material of Sb2Se3 was proposed for non volatile memory application. The thin film device preparation and characterization were carried out. The deposition method used was vapor evaporation technique and a thickness of 180nm was deposited. The switching between the SET and RESET state is shown by the I-V characterization. The change of phase was studied using R-V characterization. Different fundamental modes were also identified using Raman spectroscopy.

  17. Electrical switching and memory phenomena observed in redox-gradient dendrimer sandwich devices

    OpenAIRE

    Li, JianChang; Blackstock, Silas C.; Szulczewski, Greg J.

    2005-01-01

    We report on the fabrication of dendrimer sandwich devices with electrical switching and memory properties. The storage media is consisted of a redox-gradient dendrimer layer sandwiched in organic barrier thin films. The dendrimer layer acts as potential well where redox-state changes and consequent electrical transitions of the embedded dendrimer molecules are expected to be effectively triggered and retained, respectively. Experimental results indicated that electrical switching could be re...

  18. InAs quantum dots as charge storing elements for applications in flash memory devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Islam, Sk Masiul; Biswas, Pranab [Materials Science Centre, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721 302 (India); Banerji, P., E-mail: pallab@matsc.iitkgp.ernet.in [Materials Science Centre, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721 302 (India); Chakraborty, S. [Applied Materials Science Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Sector-I, Kolkata 700 064 (India)

    2015-08-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Catalyst-free growth of InAs quantum dots was carried out on high-k ZrO{sub 2}. • Memory device with InAs quantum dots as charge storage nodes are fabricated. • Superior memory window, low leakage and reasonably good retention were observed. • Carrier transport phenomena are explained in both program and erase operations. - Abstract: InAs quantum dots (QDs) were grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition technique to use them as charge storage nodes. Uniform QDs were formed with average diameter 5 nm and height 5–10 nm with a density of 2 × 10{sup 11} cm{sup −2}. The QDs were grown on high-k dielectric layer (ZrO{sub 2}), which was deposited onto ultra-thin GaP passivated p-GaAs (1 0 0) substrate. A charge storage device with the structure Metal/ZrO{sub 2}/InAs QDs/ZrO{sub 2}/(GaP)GaAs/Metal was fabricated. The devices containing InAs QDs exhibit superior memory window, low leakage current density along with reasonably good charge retention. A suitable electronic band diagram corresponding to programming and erasing operations was proposed to explain the operation.

  19. Germanium nanoparticles grown at different deposition times for memory device applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mederos, M.; Mestanza, S.N.M.; Lang, R.; Doi, I.; Diniz, J.A.

    2016-01-01

    In the present work, circular Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor capacitors with 200 μm of diameter and germanium (Ge) nanoparticles (NPs) embedded in the gate oxide are studied for memory applications. Optimal process parameters are investigated for Ge NPs growing by low pressure chemical vapor deposition at different deposition times. Photoluminescence measurements showed room-temperature size-dependent green-red region bands attributed to quantum confinement effects present in the NPs. High-frequency capacitance versus voltage measurements demonstrated the memory effects on the MOS structures due to the presence of Ge NPs in the gate oxide acting as discrete floating gates. Current versus voltage measurements confirmed the Fowler-Nordheim tunneling as the programming mechanism of the devices. - Highlights: • Ge nanoparticles with high density and uniforms sizes were obtained by LPCVD. • Room-temperature size-dependent bands of photoluminescence were observed. • MOS capacitors with Ge nanoparticles embedded in the oxide were fabricated. • Ge nanoparticles are the main responsible for the memory properties in the devices. • Fowler-Nordheim tunneling is the conduction mechanism observed on the devices.

  20. Germanium nanoparticles grown at different deposition times for memory device applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mederos, M., E-mail: melissa.mederos@gmail.com [Center for Semiconductor Components and Nanotechnology (CCSNano), University of Campinas (Unicamp), Rua João Pandia Calógeras 90, Campinas, CEP: 13083-870, São Paulo (Brazil); Mestanza, S.N.M. [Federal University of ABC (UFABC), Rua Santa Adélia 166, Bangu, Santo André, CEP: 09210-170, São Paulo (Brazil); Lang, R. [Institute of Science and Technology, Federal University of São Paulo (UNIFESP), Rua Talim, 330, São José dos Campos, CEP: 12231-280, São Paulo (Brazil); Doi, I.; Diniz, J.A. [Center for Semiconductor Components and Nanotechnology (CCSNano), University of Campinas (Unicamp), Rua João Pandia Calógeras 90, Campinas, CEP: 13083-870, São Paulo (Brazil); School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Campinas (Unicamp), Av. Albert Einstein 400, Campinas, CEP: 13083-852, São Paulo (Brazil)

    2016-07-29

    In the present work, circular Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor capacitors with 200 μm of diameter and germanium (Ge) nanoparticles (NPs) embedded in the gate oxide are studied for memory applications. Optimal process parameters are investigated for Ge NPs growing by low pressure chemical vapor deposition at different deposition times. Photoluminescence measurements showed room-temperature size-dependent green-red region bands attributed to quantum confinement effects present in the NPs. High-frequency capacitance versus voltage measurements demonstrated the memory effects on the MOS structures due to the presence of Ge NPs in the gate oxide acting as discrete floating gates. Current versus voltage measurements confirmed the Fowler-Nordheim tunneling as the programming mechanism of the devices. - Highlights: • Ge nanoparticles with high density and uniforms sizes were obtained by LPCVD. • Room-temperature size-dependent bands of photoluminescence were observed. • MOS capacitors with Ge nanoparticles embedded in the oxide were fabricated. • Ge nanoparticles are the main responsible for the memory properties in the devices. • Fowler-Nordheim tunneling is the conduction mechanism observed on the devices.

  1. Systematic Development Strategy for Smart Devices Based on Shape-Memory Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Díaz Lantada

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Shape-memory polymers are outstanding “smart” materials, which can perform important geometrical changes, when activated by several types of external stimuli, and which can be applied to several emerging engineering fields, from aerospace applications, to the development of biomedical devices. The fact that several shape-memory polymers can be structured in an additive way is an especially noteworthy advantage, as the development of advanced actuators with complex geometries for improved performance can be achieved, if adequate design and manufacturing considerations are taken into consideration. Present study presents a review of challenges and good practices, leading to a straightforward methodology (or integration of strategies, for the development of “smart” actuators based on shape-memory polymers. The combination of computer-aided design, computer-aided engineering and additive manufacturing technologies is analyzed and applied to the complete development of interesting shape-memory polymer-based actuators. Aspects such as geometrical design and optimization, development of the activation system, selection of the adequate materials and related manufacturing technologies, training of the shape-memory effect, final integration and testing are considered, as key processes of the methodology. Current trends, including the use of low-cost 3D and 4D printing, and main challenges, including process eco-efficiency and biocompatibility, are also discussed and their impact on the proposed methodology is considered.

  2. The influence of Ti doping and annealing on Ce_2Ti_2O_7 flash memory devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kao, Chyuan Haur; Chen, Su Zhien; Luo, Yang; Chiu, Wang Ting; Chiu, Shih Wei; Chen, I Chien; Lin, Chan-Yu; Chen, Hsiang

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Ce_2Ti_2O_7 flash memories have been fabricated. • Material quality can be improved by annealing. • The memory performance can be enhanced by Ti doping. • Ti doping and annealing can reinforce crystallization. - Abstract: In this research, a CeO_2 film with Ti doping was used as a trapping layer in metal oxide high-K-oxide-Si (MOHOS)-type memory devices. Since incorporation of Ti atoms into the film could fix dangling bonds and defects, the Ce_2Ti_2O_7 trapping layer with annealing treatment could have a larger memory window and a faster programming/erasing speed. To confirm the origin, multiple material analyses indicate that annealing at an appropriate temperature and Ti doping could enhance crystallization. The Ce_2Ti_2O_7-based memory device is promising for future industrial flash memory applications.

  3. The function of the sleep spindle: a physiological index of intelligence and a mechanism for sleep-dependent memory consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogel, Stuart M; Smith, Carlyle T

    2011-04-01

    Until recently, the electrophysiological mechanisms involved in strengthening new memories into a more permanent form during sleep have been largely unknown. The sleep spindle is an event in the electroencephalogram (EEG) characterizing Stage 2 sleep. Sleep spindles may reflect, at the electrophysiological level, an ideal mechanism for inducing long-term synaptic changes in the neocortex. Recent evidence suggests the spindle is highly correlated with tests of intellectual ability (e.g.; IQ tests) and may serve as a physiological index of intelligence. Further, spindles increase in number and duration in sleep following new learning and are correlated with performance improvements. Spindle density and sigma (14-16Hz) spectral power have been found to be positively correlated with performance following a daytime nap, and animal studies suggest the spindle is involved in a hippocampal-neocortical dialogue necessary for memory consolidation. The findings reviewed here collectively provide a compelling body of evidence that the function of the sleep spindle is related to intellectual ability and memory consolidation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. No Evidence of Intelligence Improvement after Working Memory Training: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redick, Thomas S.; Shipstead, Zach; Harrison, Tyler L.; Hicks, Kenny L.; Fried, David E.; Hambrick, David Z.; Kane, Michael J.; Engle, Randall W.

    2013-01-01

    Numerous recent studies seem to provide evidence for the general intellectual benefits of working memory training. In reviews of the training literature, Shipstead, Redick, and Engle (2010, 2012) argued that the field should treat recent results with a critical eye. Many published working memory training studies suffer from design limitations…

  5. Intelligence moderates the benefits of strategy instructions on memory performance: An adult-lifespan examination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frankenmolen, N.L.; Altgassen, A.M.; Kessels, R.M.H.; Waal, M.M. de; Hindriksen, J.A.; Verhoeven, B.W.H.; Fasotti, L.; Scheres, A.P.J.; Kessels, R.P.C.; Oosterman, J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Whether older adults can compensate for their associative memory deficit by using memory strategies efficiently might depend on their general cognitive abilities. This study examined the moderating role of an IQ estimate on the beneficial effects of strategy instructions. A total of 142 participants

  6. Zinc Cadmium Selenide Cladded Quantum Dot Based Electroluminescent and Nonvolatile Memory Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Amody, Fuad H.

    This dissertation presents electroluminescent (EL) and nonvolatile memory devices fabricated using pseudomorphic ZnCdSe-based cladded quantum dots (QDs). These dots were grown using our own in-school built novel reactor. The EL device was fabricated on a substrate of ITO (indium tin oxide) coated glass with the quantum dots sandwiched between anode and cathode contacts with a small barrier layer on top of the QDs. The importance of these cladded dots is to increase the quantum yield of device. This device is unique as they utilize quantum dots that are pseudomorphic (nearly lattice-matched core and the shell of the dot). In the case of floating quantum dot gate nonvolatile memory, cladded ZnCdSe quantum dots are deposited on single crystalline gate insulator (ZnMgS/ZnMgSe), which is grown using metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). The control gate dielectric layer of the nonvolatile memory is Si3N4 or SiO2 and is grown using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). The cladded dots are grown using an improved methodology of photo-assisted microwave plasma metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (PMP-MOCVD) enhanced reactor. The cladding composition of the core and shell of the dots was engineered by the help of ultraviolet light which changed the incorporation of zinc (and hence composition of ZnCdSe). This makes ZnxCd1--xSe-ZnyCd1--y Se QDs to have a low composition of zinc in the core than the cladding (x

  7. Towards an Artificial Phonological Loop: An Assistive Device for Working Memory and Attentional Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Bogen

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe the initial development of an artificial phonological loop (APL, a new technology to assist individuals with impairment of the working memory system. The phonological loop, along with the visuospatial sketchpad, is one of the two slave short-term memory subsystems that comprise working memory, a cognitive function closely associated with the control of attention. In the phonological loop, phonological (speech information lasting for 1–2 second is maintained active by repetitive, subvocal (silent speech rehearsal. Deficits in working memory, specifically in the phonological loop, occur in many disorders, including attention-deficit disorder and Alzheimer’s disease. In these disorders, it appears that the ability for phonological rehearsal is intact, but the regulation or triggering of the rehearsal process is inadequate, thus causing the contents of working memory to be lost. The purpose, then, of the APL is to facilitate the phonological loop by artificially extending the duration of phonological rehearsals. The APL mimics the natural phonological loop by providing audible vocal echoes to take the place of subvocal rehearsals. In this system, the user talks to him/herself in short (1–2 second phrases; the device records these phrases, stores them in electronic memory, and then repeats— i.e., echoes—the phrases multiple times over an extended period. Two versions of this device have been developed: the Echo-APL and the Rearticulation-APL. In the Echo-APL, only echoing is involved. In the Rearticulation-APL, however, the user re-vocalizes (rearticulates the phrase in response to an audible cue. The device repeats the cue until it detects (hears the re-vocalization. Future research and development of the APL will require extensive testing and careful evaluation of possible echo-schedules: the predefined program controlling inter-echo time intervals and echo-amplitude (echo loudness. The APL essentially exteriorizes the silent

  8. Analog memory and spike-timing-dependent plasticity characteristics of a nanoscale titanium oxide bilayer resistive switching device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Kyungah; Park, Sangsu; Lee, Kwanghee; Lee, Byounghun; Hwang, Hyunsang; Kim, Insung; Jung, Seungjae; Jo, Minseok; Park, Jubong; Shin, Jungho; Biju, Kuyyadi P; Kong, Jaemin

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrated analog memory, synaptic plasticity, and a spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) function with a nanoscale titanium oxide bilayer resistive switching device with a simple fabrication process and good yield uniformity. We confirmed the multilevel conductance and analog memory characteristics as well as the uniformity and separated states for the accuracy of conductance change. Finally, STDP and a biological triple model were analyzed to demonstrate the potential of titanium oxide bilayer resistive switching device as synapses in neuromorphic devices. By developing a simple resistive switching device that can emulate a synaptic function, the unique characteristics of synapses in the brain, e.g. combined memory and computing in one synapse and adaptation to the outside environment, were successfully demonstrated in a solid state device.

  9. Unusual magnetic behavior in a chiral-based magnetic memory device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben-Dor, Oren; Yochelis, Shira [Department of Applied Physics, Center of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Felner, Israel, E-mail: Israel.felner@mail.huij.ac.il [“Racah” Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Paltiel, Yossi [Department of Applied Physics, Center of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel)

    2016-01-15

    In recent years chiral molecules were found to act as efficient spin filters. Using a multilayer structure with chiral molecules magnetic memory was realized. Observed rare magnetic phenomena in a chiral-based magnetic memory device was reported by O-Ben Dor et. al in Nature Commun, 4, 2256 (2013). This multi-layered device is built from α-helix L-polyalanine (AHPA-L) adsorbed on gold, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (7 nm) and Ni (30 nm) layers. It was shown that certain temperature range the FC branch crosses the magnetic peak (at 55 K) observed in the ZFC curve thus ZFC>FC. We show here that in another similar multi-layered material, at low applied field, the ZFC curve lies above the FC one up to 70 K. The two features have the same origin and the crucial necessary components to exhibit them are: AHPA-L and 30 nm Ni layered thick. Similar effects were also reported in sulfur doped amorphous carbon. A comparison between the two systems and the ingredients for these peculiar observations is discussed. - Highlights: • The highlights of the present manuscript is the peculiar magnetic behavior observed in a multilayer structure with chiral molecules, magnetic memory. • It is shown that certain temperature range the FC branch crosses the magnetic peak (at 55 K) observed in the ZFC curve thus ZFC>FC. • Similar effects were also reported in sulfur doped amorphous carbon.

  10. Resistive switching effect of N-doped MoS2-PVP nanocomposites films for nonvolatile memory devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zijin; Wang, Tongtong; Sun, Changqi; Liu, Peitao; Xia, Baorui; Zhang, Jingyan; Liu, Yonggang; Gao, Daqiang

    2017-12-01

    Resistive memory technology is very promising in the field of semiconductor memory devices. According to Liu et al, MoS2-PVP nanocomposite can be used as an active layer material for resistive memory devices due to its bipolar resistive switching behavior. Recent studies have also indicated that the doping of N element can reduce the band gap of MoS2 nanosheets, which is conducive to improving the conductivity of the material. Therefore, in this paper, we prepared N-doped MoS2 nanosheets and then fabricated N-doped MoS2-PVP nanocomposite films by spin coating. Finally, the resistive memory [C. Tan et al., Chem. Soc. Rev. 44, 2615 (2015)], device with ITO/N-doped MoS2-PVP/Pt structure was fabricated. Study on the I-V characteristics shows that the device has excellent resistance switching effect. It is worth mentioning that our device possesses a threshold voltage of 0.75 V, which is much better than 3.5 V reported previously for the undoped counterparts. The above research shows that N-doped MoS2-PVP nanocomposite films can be used as the active layer of resistive switching memory devices, and will make the devices have better performance.

  11. The effects of working memory capacity and semantic cues on the intelligibility of speech in noise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zekveld, A.A.; Rudner, M.; Johnsrude, I.S.; Ronnberg, J.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined how semantically related information facilitates the intelligibility of spoken sentences in the presence of masking sound, and how this facilitation is influenced by masker type and by individual differences in cognitive functioning. Dutch sentences were masked by stationary

  12. Anisotropic sensor and memory device with a ferromagnetic tunnel barrier as the only magnetic element.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lόpez-Mir, L; Frontera, C; Aramberri, H; Bouzehouane, K; Cisneros-Fernández, J; Bozzo, B; Balcells, L; Martínez, B

    2018-01-16

    Multiple spin functionalities are probed on Pt/La 2 Co 0.8 Mn 1.2 O 6 /Nb:SrTiO 3 , a device composed by a ferromagnetic insulating barrier sandwiched between non-magnetic electrodes. Uniquely, La 2 Co 0.8 Mn 1.2 O 6 thin films present strong perpendicular magnetic anisotropy of magnetocrystalline origin, property of major interest for spintronics. The junction has an estimated spin-filtering efficiency of 99.7% and tunneling anisotropic magnetoresistance (TAMR) values up to 30% at low temperatures. This remarkable angular dependence of the magnetoresistance is associated with the magnetic anisotropy whose origin lies in the large spin-orbit interaction of Co 2+ which is additionally tuned by the strain of the crystal lattice. Furthermore, we found that the junction can operate as an electrically readable magnetic memory device. The findings of this work demonstrate that a single ferromagnetic insulating barrier with strong magnetocrystalline anisotropy is sufficient for realizing sensor and memory functionalities in a tunneling device based on TAMR.

  13. Atomic-layer deposited IrO2 nanodots for charge-trap flash-memory devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Sangmoo; Cha, Young-Kwan; Seo, Bum-Seok; Park, Sangjin; Park, Ju-Hee; Shin, Sangmin; Seol, Kwang Soo; Park, Jong-Bong; Jung, Young-Soo; Park, Youngsoo; Park, Yoondong; Yoo, In-Kyeong; Choi, Suk-Ho

    2007-01-01

    Charge-trap flash- (CTF) memory structures have been fabricated by employing IrO 2 nanodots (NDs) grown by atomic-layer deposition. A band of isolated IrO 2 NDs of about 3 nm lying almost parallel to Si/SiO 2 interface is confirmed by transmission electron microscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The memory device with IrO 2 NDs shows much larger capacitance-voltage (C-V) hysteresis and memory window compared with the control sample without IrO 2 NDs. After annealing at 800 deg. C for 20 min, the ND device shows almost no change in the width of C-V hysteresis and the ND distribution. These results indicate that the IrO 2 NDs embedded in SiO 2 can be utilized as thermally stable, discrete charge traps, promising for metal oxide-ND-based CTF memory devices

  14. Cognitive Processing Speed, Working Memory, and the Intelligibility of Hearing Aid-Processed Speech in Persons with Hearing Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wycliffe Kabaywe Yumba

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have demonstrated that successful listening with advanced signal processing in digital hearing aids is associated with individual cognitive capacity, particularly working memory capacity (WMC. This study aimed to examine the relationship between cognitive abilities (cognitive processing speed and WMC and individual listeners’ responses to digital signal processing settings in adverse listening conditions. A total of 194 native Swedish speakers (83 women and 111 men, aged 33–80 years (mean = 60.75 years, SD = 8.89, with bilateral, symmetrical mild to moderate sensorineural hearing loss who had completed a lexical decision speed test (measuring cognitive processing speed and semantic word-pair span test (SWPST, capturing WMC participated in this study. The Hagerman test (capturing speech recognition in noise was conducted using an experimental hearing aid with three digital signal processing settings: (1 linear amplification without noise reduction (NoP, (2 linear amplification with noise reduction (NR, and (3 non-linear amplification without NR (“fast-acting compression”. The results showed that cognitive processing speed was a better predictor of speech intelligibility in noise, regardless of the types of signal processing algorithms used. That is, there was a stronger association between cognitive processing speed and NR outcomes and fast-acting compression outcomes (in steady state noise. We observed a weaker relationship between working memory and NR, but WMC did not relate to fast-acting compression. WMC was a relatively weaker predictor of speech intelligibility in noise. These findings might have been different if the participants had been provided with training and or allowed to acclimatize to binary masking noise reduction or fast-acting compression.

  15. Reliable gains? Evidence for substantially underpowered designs in studies of working memory training transfer to fluid intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim eBogg

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, cognitive scientists and commercial interests (e.g., Fit Brains, Lumosity have focused research attention and financial resources on cognitive tasks, especially working memory tasks, to explore and exploit possible transfer effects to general cognitive abilities, such as fluid intelligence. The increased research attention has produced mixed findings, as well as contention about the disposition of the evidence base. To address this contention, J. Au and colleagues (2014; doi:10.3758/s13423-014-0699-x recently conducted a meta-analysis of extant controlled experimental studies of n-back task training transfer effects on measures of fluid intelligence in healthy adults; the results of which showed a small training transfer effect. Using several approaches, the current review evaluated and re-analyzed the meta-analytic data for the presence of two different forms of small-study effects: 1 publication bias in the presence of low power and; 2 low power in the absence of publication bias. The results of these approaches showed no evidence of selection bias in the working memory training literature, but did show evidence of small-study effects related to low power in the absence of publication bias. While the effect size estimate identified by Au and colleagues provided the most precise estimate to date, it should be interpreted in the context of a uniformly low-powered base of evidence. The present work concludes with a brief set of considerations for assessing the adequacy of a body of research findings for the application of meta-analytic techniques.

  16. Modeling Mental Speed: Decomposing Response Time Distributions in Elementary Cognitive Tasks and Correlations with Working Memory Capacity and Fluid Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Schmitz

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has shown an inverse relation between response times in elementary cognitive tasks and intelligence, but findings are inconsistent as to which is the most informative score. We conducted a study (N = 200 using a battery of elementary cognitive tasks, working memory capacity (WMC paradigms, and a test of fluid intelligence (gf. Frequently used candidate scores and model parameters derived from the response time (RT distribution were tested. Results confirmed a clear correlation of mean RT with WMC and to a lesser degree with gf. Highly comparable correlations were obtained for alternative location measures with or without extreme value treatment. Moderate correlations were found as well for scores of RT variability, but they were not as strong as for mean RT. Additionally, there was a trend towards higher correlations for slow RT bands, as compared to faster RT bands. Clearer evidence was obtained in an ex-Gaussian decomposition of the response times: the exponential component was selectively related to WMC and gf in easy tasks, while mean response time was additionally predictive in the most complex tasks. The diffusion model parsimoniously accounted for these effects in terms of individual differences in drift rate. Finally, correlations of model parameters as trait-like dispositions were investigated across different tasks, by correlating parameters of the diffusion and the ex-Gaussian model with conventional RT and accuracy scores.

  17. Working memory capacity and fluid intelligence are strongly related constructs: comment on Ackerman, Beier, and Boyle (2005).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Michael J; Hambrick, David Z; Conway, Andrew R A

    2005-01-01

    The authors agree with P. L. Ackerman, M. E. Beier, and M. O. Boyle (2005; see record 2004-22408-002) that working memory capacity (WMC) is not isomorphic with general fluid intelligence (Gf) or reasoning ability. However, the WMC and Gf/reasoning constructs are more strongly associated than Ackerman et al. (2005) indicate, particularly when considering the outcomes of latent-variable studies. The authors' reanalysis of 14 such data sets from 10 published studies, representing more than 3,100 young-adult subjects, suggests a strong correlation between WMC and Gf/reasoning factors (median r=.72), indicating that the WMC and Gf constructs share approximately 50% of their variance. This comment also clarifies the authors' "executive attention" view of WMC, it demonstrates that WMC has greater discriminant validity than Ackerman et al. (2005) implied, and it suggests some future directions and challenges for the scientific study of the convergence of WMC, attention control, and intelligence. Copyright (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved.

  18. Intelligence moderates the benefits of strategy instructions on memory performance: an adult-lifespan examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankenmolen, Nikita L; Altgassen, Mareike; Kessels, Renée; de Waal, Marleen M; Hindriksen, Julie-Anne; Verhoeven, Barbara; Fasotti, Luciano; Scheres, Anouk; Kessels, Roy P C; Oosterman, Joukje M

    2017-01-01

    Whether older adults can compensate for their associative memory deficit by using memory strategies efficiently might depend on their general cognitive abilities. This study examined the moderating role of an IQ estimate on the beneficial effects of strategy instructions. A total of 142 participants (aged 18-85 years) received either intentional learning or strategy ("sentence generation") instructions during encoding of word pairs. Whereas young adults with a lower IQ benefited from strategy instructions, those with a higher IQ did not, presumably because they already use strategies spontaneously. Older adults showed the opposite effect: following strategy instructions, older adults with a higher IQ showed a strong increase in memory performance (approximately achieving the level of younger adults), whereas older adults with a lower IQ did not, suggesting that they have difficulties implementing the provided strategies. These results highlight the importance of the role of IQ in compensating for the aging-related memory decline.

  19. Role of potential fluctuations in phase-change GST memory devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agarwal, Satish C. [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur 208016 (India)

    2012-10-15

    The long range potential fluctuations (LRPFs) arising from the defects and heterogeneities in disordered semiconductors are important for understanding their atomic and electronic properties. Here, they are measured in Ge{sub X}Sb{sub Y}Te{sub 1-X-Y} (GST) chalcogenide glasses used in rewritable phase change memory (PCM) devices. It is found that the most commonly used composition Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} has the smallest LRPF amongst its nearby compositions. This finding may be useful in the search for better PCM materials. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  20. Calculation of neutron-induced single-event upset cross sections for semiconductor memory devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeuchi, Taketo; Watanabe, Yukinobu; Nakashima, Hideki; Sun, Weili

    2001-01-01

    Neutron-induced single-event upset (SEU) cross sections for semiconductor memory devices are calculated by the Burst Generation Rate (BGR) method using LA150 data and QMD calculation in the neutron energy range between 20 MeV and 10 GeV. The calculated results are compared with the measured SEU cross sections for energies up to 160 MeV, and the validity of the calculation method and the nuclear data used is verified. The kind of reaction products and the neutron energy range that have the most effect on SEU are discussed. (author)

  1. Finite temperature simulation studies of spin-flop magnetic random access memory devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chui, S.T.; Chang, C.-R.

    2006-01-01

    Spin-flop structures are currently being developed for magnetic random access memory devices. We report simulation studies of this system. We found the switching involves an intermediate edge-pinned domain state, similar to that observed in the single layer case. This switching scenario is quite different from that based on the coherent rotation picture. A significant temperature dependence of the switching field is observed. Our result suggests that the interplane coupling and thus the switching field has to be above a finite threshold for the spin-flop switching to be better than conventional switching methods

  2. Defect engineering: reduction effect of hydrogen atom impurities in HfO2-based resistive-switching memory devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seonghyun; Park, Jubong; Jung, Seungjae; Lee, Wootae; Shin, Jungho; Hwang, Hyunsang; Lee, Daeseok; Woo, Jiyong; Choi, Godeuni

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we propose a new and effective methodology for improving the resistive-switching performance of memory devices by high-pressure hydrogen annealing under ambient conditions. The reduction effect results in the uniform creation of oxygen vacancies that in turn enable forming-free operation and afford uniform switching characteristics. In addition, H + and mobile hydroxyl (OH − ) ions are generated, and these induce fast switching operation due to the higher mobility compared to oxygen ions. Defect engineering, specifically, the introduction of hydrogen atom impurities, improves the device performance for metal–oxide-based resistive-switching random access memory devices. (paper)

  3. Self-formed conductive nanofilaments in (Bi, Mn)Ox for ultralow-power memory devices

    KAUST Repository

    Kang, Chen Fang

    2015-04-01

    Resistive random access memory (RRAM) is one of the most promising candidates as a next generation nonvolatile memory (NVM), owing to its superior scalability, low power consumption and high speed. From the materials science point of view, to explore optimal RRAM materials is still essential for practical application. In this work, a new material (Bi, Mn)Ox (BMO) is investigated and several key performance characteristics of Pt/BMO/Pt structured device, including switching performance, retention and endurance, are examined in details. Furthermore, it has been confirmed by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy that the underlying switching mechanism is attributed to formation and disruption of metallic conducting nanofilaments (CNFs). More importantly, the power dissipation for each CNF is as low as 3.8/20fJ for set/reset process, and a realization of cross-bar structure memory cell is demonstrated to prove the downscaling ability of proposed RRAM. These distinctive properties have important implications for understanding switching mechanisms and implementing ultralow power-dissipation RRAM based on BMO. •Self-formed conductive nanofilaments in BMO show ultralow-power memory feature.•The feature of 10nm in diameter and an average 20-30nm spacing of CNFs suggests the compatibility with the current CMOS technologies.•Power dissipation for each CNF is as low as 3.8/20fJ for set/reset process•A realization of cross-bar structure memory cell is demonstrated to prove the downscaling ability of proposed RRAM. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Intelligent Device Discovery in the Internet of Things - Enabling the Robot Society

    OpenAIRE

    Sunthonlap, James; Nguyen, Phuoc; Ye, Zilong

    2017-01-01

    The Internet of Things (IoT) is continuously growing to connect billions of smart devices anywhere and anytime in an Internet-like structure, which enables a variety of applications, services and interactions between human and objects. In the future, the smart devices are supposed to be able to autonomously discover a target device with desired features and generate a set of entirely new services and applications that are not supervised or even imagined by human beings. The pervasiveness of s...

  5. Chemical insight into origin of forming-free resistive random-access memory devices

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, X.

    2011-09-29

    We demonstrate the realization of a forming-step free resistive random access memory (RRAM) device using a HfOx/TiOx/HfOx/TiOxmultilayer structure, as a replacement for the conventional HfOx-based single layer structure. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), along with electron energy loss spectroscopy(EELS)analysis has been carried out to identify the distribution and the role played by Ti in the RRAM stack. Our results show that Ti out-diffusion into the HfOx layer is the chemical cause of forming-free behavior. Moreover, the capability of Ti to change its ionic state in HfOx eases the reduction-oxidation (redox) reaction, thus lead to the RRAM devices performance improvements.

  6. A complementary switching mechanism for organic memory devices to regulate the conductance of binary states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Giriraj; Dagar, Parveen; Sahu, Satyajit

    2016-06-01

    We have fabricated an organic non-volatile memory device wherein the ON/OFF current ratio has been controlled by varying the concentration of a small organic molecule, 2,3-Dichloro-5,6-dicyano-p-benzoquinone (DDQ), in an insulating matrix of a polymer Poly(4-vinylphenol) (PVP). A maximum ON-OFF ratio of 106 is obtained when the concentration of DDQ is half or 10 wt. % of PVP. In this process, the switching direction for the devices has also been altered, indicating the disparity in conduction mechanism. Conduction due to metal filament formation through the active material and the voltage dependent conformational change of the organic molecule seem to be the motivation behind the gradual change in the switching direction.

  7. Organic nonvolatile resistive memory devices based on thermally deposited Au nanoparticle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Zhiwen; Liu, Guo; Wang, Jizheng

    2013-05-01

    Uniform Au nanoparticles (NPs) are formed by thermally depositing nominal 2-nm thick Au film on a 10-nm thick polyimide film formed on a Al electrode, and then covered by a thin polymer semiconductor film, which acts as an energy barrier for electrons to be injected from the other Al electrode (on top of polymer film) into the Au NPs, which are energetically electron traps in such a resistive random access memory (RRAM) device. The Au NPs based RRAM device exhibits estimated retention time of 104 s, cycle times of more than 100, and ON-OFF ratio of 102 to 103. The carrier transport properties are also analyzed by fitting the measured I-V curves with several conduction models.

  8. Memory properties of a Ge nanoring MOS device fabricated by pulsed laser deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiying

    2008-07-09

    The non-volatile charge-storage properties of memory devices with MOS structure based on Ge nanorings have been studied. The two-dimensional Ge nanorings were prepared on a p-Si(100) matrix by means of pulsed laser deposition (PLD) using the droplet technique combined with rapid annealing. Complete planar nanorings with well-defined sharp inner and outer edges were formed via an elastic self-transformation droplet process, which is probably driven by the lateral strain of the Ge/Si layers and the surface tension in the presence of Ar gas. The low leakage current was attributed to the small roughness and the few interface states in the planar Ge nanorings, and also to the effect of Coulomb blockade preventing injection. A significant threshold-voltage shift of 2.5 V was observed when an operating voltage of 8 V was implemented on the device.

  9. Investigating the Improvement of Decoding Abilities and Working Memory in Children with Incremental or Entity Personal Conceptions of Intelligence: Two Case Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alesi, Marianna; Rappo, Gaetano; Pepi, Annamaria

    2016-01-01

    One of the most significant current discussions has led to the hypothesis that domain-specific training programs alone are not enough to improve reading achievement or working memory abilities. Incremental or Entity personal conceptions of intelligence may be assumed to be an important prognostic factor to overcome domain-specific deficits. Specifically, incremental students tend to be more oriented toward change and autonomy and are able to adopt more efficacious strategies. This study aims at examining the effect of personal conceptions of intelligence to strengthen the efficacy of a multidimensional intervention program in order to improve decoding abilities and working memory. Participants included two children (M age = 10 years) with developmental dyslexia and different conceptions of intelligence. The children were tested on a whole battery of reading and spelling tests commonly used in the assessment of reading disabilities in Italy. Afterwards, they were given a multimedia test to measure motivational factors such as conceptions of intelligence and achievement goals. The children took part in the T.I.R.D. Multimedia Training for the Rehabilitation of Dyslexia (Rappo and Pepi, 2010) reinforced by specific units to improve verbal working memory for 3 months. This training consisted of specific tasks to rehabilitate both visual and phonological strategies (sound blending, word segmentation, alliteration test and rhyme test, letter recognition, digraph recognition, trigraph recognition, and word recognition as samples of visual tasks) and verbal working memory (rapid words and non-words recognition). Posttest evaluations showed that the child holding the incremental theory of intelligence improved more than the child holding a static representation. On the whole this study highlights the importance of treatment programs in which both specificity of deficits and motivational factors are both taken into account. There is a need to plan multifaceted intervention

  10. Functionalized Graphitic Carbon Nitride for Metal-free, Flexible and Rewritable Nonvolatile Memory Device via Direct Laser-Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Fei; Cheng, Huhu; Hu, Yue; Song, Long; Zhang, Zhipan; Jiang, Lan; Qu, Liangti

    2014-01-01

    Graphitic carbon nitride nanosheet (g-C3N4-NS) has layered structure similar with graphene nanosheet and presents unusual physicochemical properties due to the s-triazine fragments. But their electronic and electrochemical applications are limited by the relatively poor conductivity. The current work provides the first example that atomically thick g-C3N4-NSs are the ideal candidate as the active insulator layer with tunable conductivity for achieving the high performance memory devices with electrical bistability. Unlike in conventional memory diodes, the g-C3N4-NSs based devices combined with graphene layer electrodes are flexible, metal-free and low cost. The functionalized g-C3N4-NSs exhibit desirable dispersibility and dielectricity which support the all-solution fabrication and high performance of the memory diodes. Moreover, the flexible memory diodes are conveniently fabricated through the fast laser writing process on graphene oxide/g-C3N4-NSs/graphene oxide thin film. The obtained devices not only have the nonvolatile electrical bistability with great retention and endurance, but also show the rewritable memory effect with a reliable ON/OFF ratio of up to 105, which is the highest among all the metal-free flexible memory diodes reported so far, and even higher than those of metal-containing devices. PMID:25073687

  11. Functionalized Graphitic Carbon Nitride for Metal-free, Flexible and Rewritable Nonvolatile Memory Device via Direct Laser-Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Fei; Cheng, Huhu; Hu, Yue; Song, Long; Zhang, Zhipan; Jiang, Lan; Qu, Liangti

    2014-07-01

    Graphitic carbon nitride nanosheet (g-C3N4-NS) has layered structure similar with graphene nanosheet and presents unusual physicochemical properties due to the s-triazine fragments. But their electronic and electrochemical applications are limited by the relatively poor conductivity. The current work provides the first example that atomically thick g-C3N4-NSs are the ideal candidate as the active insulator layer with tunable conductivity for achieving the high performance memory devices with electrical bistability. Unlike in conventional memory diodes, the g-C3N4-NSs based devices combined with graphene layer electrodes are flexible, metal-free and low cost. The functionalized g-C3N4-NSs exhibit desirable dispersibility and dielectricity which support the all-solution fabrication and high performance of the memory diodes. Moreover, the flexible memory diodes are conveniently fabricated through the fast laser writing process on graphene oxide/g-C3N4-NSs/graphene oxide thin film. The obtained devices not only have the nonvolatile electrical bistability with great retention and endurance, but also show the rewritable memory effect with a reliable ON/OFF ratio of up to 105, which is the highest among all the metal-free flexible memory diodes reported so far, and even higher than those of metal-containing devices.

  12. Organic ferroelectric memory devices with inkjet-printed polymer electrodes on flexible substrates

    KAUST Repository

    Bhansali, Unnat Sampatraj

    2013-05-01

    Drop-on-demand piezoelectric inkjet-printing technique has been used to fabricate a functional cross-bar array of all-organic ferroelectric memory devices. The polymer-ferroelectric-polymer device consists of a ferroelectric copolymer P(VDF-TrFE) film sandwiched between inkjet-patterned, continuous, orthogonal lines of PEDOT:PSS polymer as the bottom and top electrodes. These devices exhibit well-saturated hysteresis curves with a maximum remnant polarization (Pr) = 6.7 μC/cm2, coercive field (E c) = 55 MV/m and a peak capacitance density of 45 nF/cm2. Our polarization fatigue measurements show that these devices retain ∼100% and 45% of their initial Pr values after 103 and 10 5 stress cycles, respectively. The overall performance and polarization retention characteristics of these ferroelectric capacitors with inkjet-printed polymer electrodes are comparable to metal and spin-cast polymer electrodes suggesting their potential use in large-area flexible electronics. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Scalability of voltage-controlled filamentary and nanometallic resistance memory devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yang; Lee, Jong Ho; Chen, I-Wei

    2017-08-31

    Much effort has been devoted to device and materials engineering to realize nanoscale resistance random access memory (RRAM) for practical applications, but a rational physical basis to be relied on to design scalable devices spanning many length scales is still lacking. In particular, there is no clear criterion for switching control in those RRAM devices in which resistance changes are limited to localized nanoscale filaments that experience concentrated heat, electric current and field. Here, we demonstrate voltage-controlled resistance switching, always at a constant characteristic critical voltage, for macro and nanodevices in both filamentary RRAM and nanometallic RRAM, and the latter switches uniformly and does not require a forming process. As a result, area-scalability can be achieved under a device-area-proportional current compliance for the low resistance state of the filamentary RRAM, and for both the low and high resistance states of the nanometallic RRAM. This finding will help design area-scalable RRAM at the nanoscale. It also establishes an analogy between RRAM and synapses, in which signal transmission is also voltage-controlled.

  14. Intelligent Security Auditing Based on Access Control of Devices in Ad Hoc Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Guang-wei; SHI You-qun; ZHU Ming; WU Guo-wen; CAO Qi-ying

    2006-01-01

    Security in Ad Hoc network is an important issue under the opening circumstance of application service. Some protocols and models of security auditing have been proposed to ensure rationality of contracting strategy and operating regulation and used to identify abnormal operation. Model of security auditing based on access control of devices will be advanced to register sign of devices and property of event of access control and to audit those actions. In the end, the model is analyzed and simulated.

  15. Energy Saving Through Intelligent Coordination Among Daily Used Fixed and Mobile Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Rafiullah; Khan, Sarmad Ullah

    2017-01-01

    Network end-user devices such as laptops and desktop PCs are often left powered ON 24/7 while they remain idle most of the time. The main reason behind this is maintaining network connectivity for remote access, VoIP, instant messaging and other Internet-based applications. The Network Connectivity Proxy (NCP) emerged as a quite promising strategy for significantly reducing network energy waste by allowing devices to sleep without losing their presence over Internet. It impersonates presence ...

  16. Algorithm for Public Electric Transport Schedule Control for Intelligent Embedded Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alps, Ivars; Potapov, Andrey; Gorobetz, Mikhail; Levchenkov, Anatoly

    2010-01-01

    In this paper authors present heuristics algorithm for precise schedule fulfilment in city traffic conditions taking in account traffic lights. The algorithm is proposed for programmable controller. PLC is proposed to be installed in electric vehicle to control its motion speed and signals of traffic lights. Algorithm is tested using real controller connected to virtual devices and real functional models of real tram devices. Results of experiments show high precision of public transport schedule fulfilment using proposed algorithm.

  17. High-performance flexible resistive memory devices based on Al2O3:GeOx composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behera, Bhagaban; Maity, Sarmistha; Katiyar, Ajit K.; Das, Samaresh

    2018-05-01

    In this study a resistive switching random access memory device using Al2O3:GeOx composite thin films on flexible substrate is presented. A bipolar switching characteristic was observed for the co-sputter deposited Al2O3:GeOx composite thin films. Al/Al2O3:GeOx/ITO/PET memory device shows excellent ON/OFF ratio (∼104) and endurance (>500 cycles). GeOx nanocrystals embedded in the Al2O3 matrix have been found to play a significant role in enhancing the switching characteristics by facilitating oxygen vacancy formation. Mechanical endurance was retained even after several bending. The conduction mechanism of the device was qualitatively discussed by considering Ohmic and SCLC conduction. This flexible device is a potential candidate for next-generation electronics device.

  18. Epigenetic memory as a basis for intelligent behavior in clonal plants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Latzel, Vít; González, Alejandra Pilar Rendina; Rosenthal, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 7, AUG 31 (2016), s. 1-7, č. článku 1354. ISSN 1664-462X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-06802S Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : epigenetic variability * memory * clonal plant s Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 4.298, year: 2016

  19. Effect of beta and gamma neurofeedback on memory and intelligence in the elderly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staufenbiel, S.M.; Brouwer, A.M.; Keizer, A.W.; Wouwe, N.C. van

    2014-01-01

    Recent research showed a correlation between cognitive decline and a decrease of EEG gamma activity. In the present double-blind randomized control study, we investigated whether gamma and beta neurofeedback protocols, that have been shown to modulate performance on cognitive control and memory in

  20. Phase-change materials for non-volatile memory devices: from technological challenges to materials science issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noé, Pierre; Vallée, Christophe; Hippert, Françoise; Fillot, Frédéric; Raty, Jean-Yves

    2018-01-01

    Chalcogenide phase-change materials (PCMs), such as Ge-Sb-Te alloys, have shown outstanding properties, which has led to their successful use for a long time in optical memories (DVDs) and, recently, in non-volatile resistive memories. The latter, known as PCM memories or phase-change random access memories (PCRAMs), are the most promising candidates among emerging non-volatile memory (NVM) technologies to replace the current FLASH memories at CMOS technology nodes under 28 nm. Chalcogenide PCMs exhibit fast and reversible phase transformations between crystalline and amorphous states with very different transport and optical properties leading to a unique set of features for PCRAMs, such as fast programming, good cyclability, high scalability, multi-level storage capability, and good data retention. Nevertheless, PCM memory technology has to overcome several challenges to definitively invade the NVM market. In this review paper, we examine the main technological challenges that PCM memory technology must face and we illustrate how new memory architecture, innovative deposition methods, and PCM composition optimization can contribute to further improvements of this technology. In particular, we examine how to lower the programming currents and increase data retention. Scaling down PCM memories for large-scale integration means the incorporation of the PCM into more and more confined structures and raises materials science issues in order to understand interface and size effects on crystallization. Other materials science issues are related to the stability and ageing of the amorphous state of PCMs. The stability of the amorphous phase, which determines data retention in memory devices, can be increased by doping the PCM. Ageing of the amorphous phase leads to a large increase of the resistivity with time (resistance drift), which has up to now hindered the development of ultra-high multi-level storage devices. A review of the current understanding of all these

  1. Multi-floor cascading ferroelectric nanostructures: multiple data writing-based multi-level non-volatile memory devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Seung; Kwon, Owoong; Lee, Bom-Yi; Seol, Daehee; Park, Beomjin; Lee, Jae Yong; Lee, Ju Hyun; Kim, Yunseok; Kim, Jin Kon

    2016-01-01

    Multiple data writing-based multi-level non-volatile memory has gained strong attention for next-generation memory devices to quickly accommodate an extremely large number of data bits because it is capable of storing multiple data bits in a single memory cell at once. However, all previously reported devices have failed to store a large number of data bits due to the macroscale cell size and have not allowed fast access to the stored data due to slow single data writing. Here, we introduce a novel three-dimensional multi-floor cascading polymeric ferroelectric nanostructure, successfully operating as an individual cell. In one cell, each floor has its own piezoresponse and the piezoresponse of one floor can be modulated by the bias voltage applied to the other floor, which means simultaneously written data bits in both floors can be identified. This could achieve multi-level memory through a multiple data writing process.Multiple data writing-based multi-level non-volatile memory has gained strong attention for next-generation memory devices to quickly accommodate an extremely large number of data bits because it is capable of storing multiple data bits in a single memory cell at once. However, all previously reported devices have failed to store a large number of data bits due to the macroscale cell size and have not allowed fast access to the stored data due to slow single data writing. Here, we introduce a novel three-dimensional multi-floor cascading polymeric ferroelectric nanostructure, successfully operating as an individual cell. In one cell, each floor has its own piezoresponse and the piezoresponse of one floor can be modulated by the bias voltage applied to the other floor, which means simultaneously written data bits in both floors can be identified. This could achieve multi-level memory through a multiple data writing process. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr07377d

  2. An intelligent stand-alone ultrasonic device for monitoring local structural damage: implementation and preliminary experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pertsch, Alexander; Kim, Jin-Yeon; Wang, Yang; Jacobs, Laurence J

    2011-01-01

    Continuous structural health monitoring has the potential to significantly improve the safety management of aged, in-service civil structures. In particular, monitoring of local damage growth at hot-spot areas can help to prevent disastrous structural failures. Although ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation (NDE) has proved to be effective in monitoring local damage growth, conventional equipment and devices are usually bulky and only suitable for scheduled human inspections. The objective of this research is to harness the latest developments in embedded hardware and wireless communication for developing a stand-alone, compact ultrasonic device. The device is directed at the continuous structural health monitoring of civil structures. Relying on battery power, the device possesses the functionalities of high-speed actuation, sensing, signal processing, and wireless communication. Integrated with contact ultrasonic transducers, the device can generate 1 MHz Rayleigh surface waves in a steel specimen and measure response waves. An envelope detection algorithm based on the Hilbert transform is presented for efficiently determining the peak values of the response signals, from which small surface cracks are successfully identified

  3. Semiconductor-Free Nonvolatile Resistive Switching Memory Devices Based on Metal Nanogaps Fabricated on Flexible Substrates via Adhesion Lithography

    KAUST Repository

    Semple, James

    2017-01-02

    Electronic memory cells are of critical importance in modern-day computing devices, including emerging technology sectors such as large-area printed electronics. One technology that has being receiving significant interest in recent years is resistive switching primarily due to its low dimensionality and nonvolatility. Here, we describe the development of resistive switching memory device arrays based on empty aluminum nanogap electrodes. By employing adhesion lithography, a low-temperature and large-area compatible nanogap fabrication technique, dense arrays of memory devices are demonstrated on both rigid and flexible plastic substrates. As-prepared devices exhibit nonvolatile memory operation with stable endurance, resistance ratios >10⁴ and retention times of several months. An intermittent analysis of the electrode microstructure reveals that controlled resistive switching is due to migration of metal from the electrodes into the nanogap under the application of an external electric field. This alternative form of resistive random access memory is promising for use in emerging sectors such as large-area electronics as well as in electronics for harsh environments, e.g., space, high/low temperature, magnetic influences, radiation, vibration, and pressure.

  4. Semiconductor-Free Nonvolatile Resistive Switching Memory Devices Based on Metal Nanogaps Fabricated on Flexible Substrates via Adhesion Lithography

    KAUST Repository

    Semple, James; Wyatt-Moon, Gwenhivir; Georgiadou, Dimitra G.; McLachlan, Martyn A.; Anthopoulos, Thomas D.

    2017-01-01

    Electronic memory cells are of critical importance in modern-day computing devices, including emerging technology sectors such as large-area printed electronics. One technology that has being receiving significant interest in recent years is resistive switching primarily due to its low dimensionality and nonvolatility. Here, we describe the development of resistive switching memory device arrays based on empty aluminum nanogap electrodes. By employing adhesion lithography, a low-temperature and large-area compatible nanogap fabrication technique, dense arrays of memory devices are demonstrated on both rigid and flexible plastic substrates. As-prepared devices exhibit nonvolatile memory operation with stable endurance, resistance ratios >10⁴ and retention times of several months. An intermittent analysis of the electrode microstructure reveals that controlled resistive switching is due to migration of metal from the electrodes into the nanogap under the application of an external electric field. This alternative form of resistive random access memory is promising for use in emerging sectors such as large-area electronics as well as in electronics for harsh environments, e.g., space, high/low temperature, magnetic influences, radiation, vibration, and pressure.

  5. Multilevel characteristics and memory mechanisms for nonvolatile memory devices based on CuInS2 quantum dot-polymethylmethacrylate nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Yang; Yun, Dong Yeol; Kim, Tae Whan; Kim, Sang Wook

    2014-01-01

    Nonvolatile memory devices based on CuInS 2 (CIS) quantum dots (QDs) embedded in a polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) layer were fabricated using spin-coating method. The memory window widths of the capacitance-voltage (C-V) curves for the Al/CIS QDs embedded in PMMA layer/p-Si devices were 0.3, 0.6, and 1.0 V for sweep voltages of ±3, ±5, and ±7 V, respectively. Capacitance-cycle data demonstrated that the charge-trapping capability of the devices with an ON/OFF ratio value of 2.81 × 10 −10 was maintained for 8 × 10 3 cycles without significant degradation and that the extrapolation of the ON/OFF ratio value to 1 × 10 6 cycles converged to 2.40 × 10 −10 , indicative of the good stability of the devices. The memory mechanisms for the devices are described on the basis of the C-V curves and the energy-band diagrams

  6. Nanoscale chemical state analysis of resistance random access memory device reacting with Ti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shima, Hisashi; Nakano, Takashi; Akinaga, Hiro

    2010-05-01

    The thermal stability of the resistance random access memory material in the reducing atmosphere at the elevated temperature was improved by the addition of Ti. The unipolar resistance switching before and after the postdeposition annealing (PDA) process at 400 °C was confirmed in Pt/CoO/Ti(5 nm)/Pt device, while the severe degradation of the initial resistance occurs in the Pt/CoO/Pt and Pt/CoO/Ti(50 nm)/Pt devices. By investigating the chemical bonding states of Co, O, and Ti using electron energy loss spectroscopy combined with transmission electron microscopy, it was revealed that excess Ti induces the formation of metallic Co, while the thermal stability was improved by trace Ti. Moreover, it was indicated that the filamentary conduction path can be thermally induced after PDA in the oxide layer by analyzing electrical properties of the degraded devices. The adjustment of the reducing elements is quite essential in order to participate in their profits.

  7. GA-based optimum design of a shape memory alloy device for seismic response mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozbulut, O E; Roschke, P N; Lin, P Y; Loh, C H

    2010-01-01

    Damping systems discussed in this work are optimized so that a three-story steel frame structure and its shape memory alloy (SMA) bracing system minimize response metrics due to a custom-tailored earthquake excitation. Multiple-objective numerical optimization that simultaneously minimizes displacements and accelerations of the structure is carried out with a genetic algorithm (GA) in order to optimize SMA bracing elements within the structure. After design of an optimal SMA damping system is complete, full-scale experimental shake table tests are conducted on a large-scale steel frame that is equipped with the optimal SMA devices. A fuzzy inference system is developed from data collected during the testing to simulate the dynamic material response of the SMA bracing subcomponents. Finally, nonlinear analyses of a three-story braced frame are carried out to evaluate the performance of comparable SMA and commonly used steel braces under dynamic loading conditions and to assess the effectiveness of GA-optimized SMA bracing design as compared to alternative designs of SMA braces. It is shown that peak displacement of a structure can be reduced without causing significant acceleration response amplification through a judicious selection of physical characteristics of the SMA devices. Also, SMA devices provide a recentering mechanism for the structure to return to its original position after a seismic event

  8. In-chip optical CD measurements for non-volatile memory devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconi, Mauro; Kremer, Stephanie; Polli, M.; Severgnini, Ermes; Trovati, Silvia S.

    2006-03-01

    A potential limitation to a wider usage of the scatterometry technique for CD evaluation comes from its requirement of dedicated regular measurement gratings, located in wafer scribe lanes. In fact, the simplification of the original chip layout that is often requested to design these gratings may impact on their printed dimension and shape. Etched gratings might also suffer from micro-loading effects other than in the circuit. For all these reasons, measurements collected therein may not represent the real behavior of the device. On the other hand, memory devices come with large sectors that usually possess the characteristics required for a proper scatterometry evaluation. In particular, for a leading edge flash process this approach is in principle feasible for the most critical process steps. The impact of potential drawbacks, mainly lack of pattern regularity within the tool probe area, is investigated. More, a very large sampling plan on features with equal nominal CD and density spread over the same exposure shot becomes feasible, thus yielding a deeper insight of the overall lithographic process window and a quantitative method to evaluate process equipment performance along time by comparison to acceptance data and/or last preventive maintenance. All the results gathered in the device main array are compared to those collected in standard scatterometry targets, tailored to the characteristics of the considered layers in terms of designed CD, pitch, stack and orientation.

  9. Current-driven domain wall motion based memory devices: Application to a ratchet ferromagnetic strip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Tejerina, Luis; Martínez, Eduardo; Raposo, Víctor; Alejos, Óscar

    2018-04-01

    Ratchet memories, where perpendicular magnetocristalline anisotropy is tailored so as to precisely control the magnetic transitions, has been recently proven to be a feasible device to store and manipulate data bits. For such devices, it has been shown that the current-driven regime of domain walls can improve their performances with respect to the field-driven one. However, the relaxing time required by the traveling domain walls constitutes a certain drawback if the former regime is considered, since it results in longer device latencies. In order to speed up the bit shifting procedure, it is demonstrated here that the application of a current of inverse polarity during the DW relaxing time may reduce such latencies. The reverse current must be sufficiently high as to drive the DW to the equilibrium position faster than the anisotropy slope itself, but with an amplitude sufficiently low as to avoid DW backward shifting. Alternatively, it is possible to use such a reverse current to increase the proper range of operation for a given relaxing time, i.e., the pair of values of the current amplitude and pulse time that ensures single DW jumps for a certain latency time.

  10. Design and Implementation of Pointer-Type Multi Meters Intelligent Recognition Device Based on ARM Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yang; Luo, Wang; Fan, Qiang; Peng, Qiwei; Cai, Yiting; Yao, Yiyang; Xu, Changfu

    2018-01-01

    This paper adopts a low power consumption ARM Hisilicon mobile processing platform and OV4689 camera, combined with a new skeleton extraction based on distance transform algorithm and the improved Hough algorithm for multi meters real-time reading. The design and implementation of the device were completed. Experimental results shows that The average error of measurement was 0.005MPa, and the average reading time was 5s. The device had good stability and high accuracy which meets the needs of practical application.

  11. Effect of hydrogen ion beam treatment on Si nanocrystal/SiO_2 superlattice-based memory devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Sheng-Wen; Chen, Hui-Ju; Wu, Hsuan-Ta; Chuang, Bing-Ru; Shih, Chuan-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Memory window and retention properties are improved employing HIBAS technique. • The O/Si ratio and radiative recombination are changed by HIBAS. • Memory properties are affected not only by Si NCs and O/Si ratio but also the RDCs. • The mechanism of hydrogen ion beam alters the memory properties is investigated. - Abstract: This study presents a novel route for synthesizing silicon-rich oxide (SRO)/SiO_2 superlattice-based memory devices with an improved memory window and retention properties. The SiO_2 and SRO superlattices are deposited by reactive sputtering. Specifically, the hydrogen ion beam is used to irradiate the SRO layer immediately after its deposition in the vacuum chamber. The use of the hydrogen ion beam was determined to increase oxygen content and the density of the Si nanocrystals. The memory window increased from 16 to 25.6 V, and the leakage current decreased significantly by two orders, to under ±20 V, for the hydrogen ion beam-prepared devices. This study investigates the mechanism into how hydrogen ion beam treatment alters SRO films and influences memory properties.

  12. Evidence of Filamentary Switching in Oxide-based Memory Devices via Weak Programming and Retention Failure Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younis, Adnan; Chu, Dewei; Li, Sean

    2015-09-01

    Further progress in high-performance microelectronic devices relies on the development of novel materials and device architectures. However, the components and designs that are currently in use have reached their physical limits. Intensive research efforts, ranging from device fabrication to performance evaluation, are required to surmount these limitations. In this paper, we demonstrate that the superior bipolar resistive switching characteristics of a CeO2:Gd-based memory device can be manipulated by means of UV radiation, serving as a new degree of freedom. Furthermore, the metal oxide-based (CeO2:Gd) memory device was found to possess electrical and neuromorphic multifunctionalities. To investigate the underlying switching mechanism of the device, its plasticity behaviour was studied by imposing weak programming conditions. In addition, a short-term to long-term memory transition analogous to the forgetting process in the human brain, which is regarded as a key biological synaptic function for information processing and data storage, was realized. Based on a careful examination of the device’s retention behaviour at elevated temperatures, the filamentary nature of switching in such devices can be understood from a new perspective.

  13. Investigating the improvement of decoding abilities and working memory in children with Incremental or Entity personal conceptions of intelligence: two case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna eAlesi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most significant current discussions has led to the hypothesis that domain-specific training programs alone are not enough to improve reading achievement or working memory abilities. Incremental or Entity personal conceptions of intelligence may be assumed to be an important prognostic factor to overcome domain-specific deficits. Specifically, incremental students tend to be more oriented toward change and autonomy and to adopt more efficacious strategies. This study aims at examining the efficacy of a multidimensional intervention program to improve decoding abilities and working memory. Participants were two children (M age = 10 yr. with developmental dyslexia and different conceptions of intelligence.Children were tested on a whole battery of reading and spelling tests commonly used in the assessment of reading disabilities in Italy. Then, they were given a multimedia test to measure motivational factors such as conceptions of intelligence and achievement goalsChildren took part in the T.I.R.D. Multimedia Training for the Rehabilitation of Dyslexia (Rappo & Pepi, 2010 reinforced by specific units to improve verbal working memory for three months. This training consisted of specific tasks to rehabilitate both visual and phonological strategies (sound blending, word segmentation, alliteration test and rhyme test, letter recognition, digraph recognition, trigraph recognition and word recognition are samples of visual tasks and verbal working memory (rapid words and non-words recognition.Posttest evaluations showed that the child holding the incremental theory of intelligence improved more than the child holding a static representation.On the whole this study highlights the importance of treatment programs in which account is taken of both specificity of deficits and motivational factors. There is a need to plan multifaceted intervention programs based on a transverse approach, looking at both cognitive and motivational factors.

  14. Memory performance on the Auditory Inference Span Test is independent of background noise type for young adults with normal hearing at high speech intelligibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rönnberg, Niklas; Rudner, Mary; Lunner, Thomas; Stenfelt, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Listening in noise is often perceived to be effortful. This is partly because cognitive resources are engaged in separating the target signal from background noise, leaving fewer resources for storage and processing of the content of the message in working memory. The Auditory Inference Span Test (AIST) is designed to assess listening effort by measuring the ability to maintain and process heard information. The aim of this study was to use AIST to investigate the effect of background noise types and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) on listening effort, as a function of working memory capacity (WMC) and updating ability (UA). The AIST was administered in three types of background noise: steady-state speech-shaped noise, amplitude modulated speech-shaped noise, and unintelligible speech. Three SNRs targeting 90% speech intelligibility or better were used in each of the three noise types, giving nine different conditions. The reading span test assessed WMC, while UA was assessed with the letter memory test. Twenty young adults with normal hearing participated in the study. Results showed that AIST performance was not influenced by noise type at the same intelligibility level, but became worse with worse SNR when background noise was speech-like. Performance on AIST also decreased with increasing memory load level. Correlations between AIST performance and the cognitive measurements suggested that WMC is of more importance for listening when SNRs are worse, while UA is of more importance for listening in easier SNRs. The results indicated that in young adults with normal hearing, the effort involved in listening in noise at high intelligibility levels is independent of the noise type. However, when noise is speech-like and intelligibility decreases, listening effort increases, probably due to extra demands on cognitive resources added by the informational masking created by the speech fragments and vocal sounds in the background noise.

  15. A Novel Hybrid Intelligent Indoor Location Method for Mobile Devices by Zones Using Wi-Fi Signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castañón-Puga, Manuel; Salazar, Abby Stephanie; Aguilar, Leocundo; Gaxiola-Pacheco, Carelia; Licea, Guillermo

    2015-12-02

    The increasing use of mobile devices in indoor spaces brings challenges to location methods. This work presents a hybrid intelligent method based on data mining and Type-2 fuzzy logic to locate mobile devices in an indoor space by zones using Wi-Fi signals from selected access points (APs). This approach takes advantage of wireless local area networks (WLANs) over other types of architectures and implements the complete method in a mobile application using the developed tools. Besides, the proposed approach is validated by experimental data obtained from case studies and the cross-validation technique. For the purpose of generating the fuzzy rules that conform to the Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy system structure, a semi-supervised data mining technique called subtractive clustering is used. This algorithm finds centers of clusters from the radius map given by the collected signals from APs. Measurements of Wi-Fi signals can be noisy due to several factors mentioned in this work, so this method proposed the use of Type-2 fuzzy logic for modeling and dealing with such uncertain information.

  16. A Novel Hybrid Intelligent Indoor Location Method for Mobile Devices by Zones Using Wi-Fi Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Castañón–Puga

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The increasing use of mobile devices in indoor spaces brings challenges to location methods. This work presents a hybrid intelligent method based on data mining and Type-2 fuzzy logic to locate mobile devices in an indoor space by zones using Wi-Fi signals from selected access points (APs. This approach takes advantage of wireless local area networks (WLANs over other types of architectures and implements the complete method in a mobile application using the developed tools. Besides, the proposed approach is validated by experimental data obtained from case studies and the cross-validation technique. For the purpose of generating the fuzzy rules that conform to the Takagi–Sugeno fuzzy system structure, a semi-supervised data mining technique called subtractive clustering is used. This algorithm finds centers of clusters from the radius map given by the collected signals from APs. Measurements of Wi-Fi signals can be noisy due to several factors mentioned in this work, so this method proposed the use of Type-2 fuzzy logic for modeling and dealing with such uncertain information.

  17. Function Activation on Intelligent Buildings Using Mobile Devices through Voice Commands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moumtadi Fatima

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Development of information and communication technologies has allowed the incorporation into different areas of human activity of apps that control electrical and electronic devices through voice commands. With these apps, in telemedicine people affected by some temporary decrease in their physical capacities have improved their level of autonomy; utilities have been added to educational environments to facilitate the use of IT applications to users with physical disability; finally, home automated solutions have made possible to any person with permanent limited mobility to take control over home devices using voice commands. In this article a home automated solution, developed over a client-server principle is presented. As the client device a MIDP 2.0 cell phone with a Java MicroEdition application loaded was used; as server a web server PC was used serving also as gateway towards a Konnex network, added with a speech recognizer engine. Fully functional prototype developed allowed take control over 3 devices with 87% success of the speech recognizer reliability, this percentage improved after the use of a drop-down menu of commands displayed over the monitor.

  18. Fabrication of poly(methyl methacrylate)-MoS{sub 2}/graphene heterostructure for memory device application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinde, Sachin M.; Tanemura, Masaki [Department of Frontier Materials, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan); Kalita, Golap, E-mail: kalita.golap@nitech.ac.jp [Department of Frontier Materials, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan); Center for Fostering Young and Innovative Researchers, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan)

    2014-12-07

    Combination of two dimensional graphene and semi-conducting molybdenum disulfide (MoS{sub 2}) is of great interest for various electronic device applications. Here, we demonstrate fabrication of a hybridized structure with the chemical vapor deposited graphene and MoS{sub 2} crystals to configure a memory device. Elongated hexagonal and rhombus shaped MoS{sub 2} crystals are synthesized by sulfurization of thermally evaporated molybdenum oxide (MoO{sub 3}) thin film. Scanning transmission electron microscope studies reveal atomic level structure of the synthesized high quality MoS{sub 2} crystals. In the prospect of a memory device fabrication, poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) is used as an insulating dielectric material as well as a supporting layer to transfer the MoS{sub 2} crystals. In the fabricated device, PMMA-MoS{sub 2} and graphene layers act as the functional and electrode materials, respectively. Distinctive bistable electrical switching and nonvolatile rewritable memory effect is observed in the fabricated PMMA-MoS{sub 2}/graphene heterostructure. The developed material system and demonstrated memory device fabrication can be significant for next generation data storage applications.

  19. Poly (vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene/barium titanate nanocomposite for ferroelectric nonvolatile memory devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uvais Valiyaneerilakkal

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The effect of barium titanate (BaTiO3 nanoparticles (particle size <100nm on the ferroelectric properties of poly (vinylidenefluoride-trifluoroethylene P(VDF-TrFE copolymer has been studied. Different concentrations of nanoparticles were added to P(VDF-TrFE using probe sonication, and uniform thin films were made. Polarisation - Electric field (P-E hysteresis analysis shows an increase in remnant polarization (Pr and decrease in coercive voltage (Vc. Piezo-response force microscopy analysis shows the switching capability of the polymer composite. The topography and surface roughness was studied using atomic force microscopy. It has been observed that this nanocomposite can be used for the fabrication of non-volatile ferroelectric memory devices.

  20. Development of novel nonvolatile memory devices using the colossal magnetoresistive oxide praseodymium-calcium-manganese trioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papagianni, Christina

    Pr0.7Ca0.3MnO3 (PCMO) manganese oxide belongs in the family of materials known as transition metal oxides. These compounds have received increased attention due to their perplexing properties such as Colossal Magnetoresistance effect, Charge-Ordered phase, existence of phase-separated states etc. In addition, it was recently discovered that short electrical pulses in amplitude and duration are sufficient to induce reversible and non-volatile resistance changes in manganese perovskite oxide thin films at room temperature, known as the EPIR effect. The existence of the EPIR effect in PCMO thin films at room temperature opens a viable way for the realization of fast, high-density, low power non-volatile memory devices in the near future. The purpose of this study is to investigate, optimize and understand the properties of Pr0.7Ca0.3MnO 3 (PCMO) thin film devices and to identify how these properties affect the EPIR effect. PCMO thin films were deposited on various substrates, such as metals, and conducting and insulating oxides, by pulsed laser and radio frequency sputtering methods. Our objective was to understand and compare the induced resistive states. We attempted to identify the induced resistance changes by considering two resistive models to be equivalent to our devices. Impedance spectroscopy was also utilized in a wide temperature range that was extended down to 70K. Fitted results of the temperature dependence of the resistance states were also included in this study. In the same temperature range, we probed the resistance changes in PCMO thin films and we examined whether the phase transitions affect the EPIR effect. In addition, we included a comparison of devices with electrodes consisting of different size and different materials. We demonstrated a direct relation between the EPIR effect and the phase diagram of bulk PCMO samples. A model that could account for the observed EPIR effect is presented.

  1. SCM-BP: An Intelligent Buffer Management Mechanism for Database in Storage Class Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Tavares, Júlio A.; Filho, José de Aguiar Moraes; Brayner, Angelo; Lustosa, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    A set of new storage media, called Storage Class Memory (SCM), has emerged as a quite promising solution to decrease the difference between HDD data access time and the time that processors can consume data. Four main characteristics may be highlighted in SCM: (i) non-volatility; (ii) low access time; (iii) high rates of IOPS, and  (iv) read/write execution time asymmetry. The former three have a direct benefit for database systems. Notwithstanding, the latter one poses challenges for databas...

  2. Data-Driven Approaches for Computation in Intelligent Biomedical Devices: A Case Study of EEG Monitoring for Chronic Seizure Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveen Verma

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Intelligent biomedical devices implies systems that are able to detect specific physiological processes in patients so that particular responses can be generated. This closed-loop capability can have enormous clinical value when we consider the unprecedented modalities that are beginning to emerge for sensing and stimulating patient physiology. Both delivering therapy (e.g., deep-brain stimulation, vagus nerve stimulation, etc. and treating impairments (e.g., neural prosthesis requires computational devices that can make clinically relevant inferences, especially using minimally-intrusive patient signals. The key to such devices is algorithms that are based on data-driven signal modeling as well as hardware structures that are specialized to these. This paper discusses the primary application-domain challenges that must be overcome and analyzes the most promising methods for this that are emerging. We then look at how these methods are being incorporated in ultra-low-energy computational platforms and systems. The case study for this is a seizure-detection SoC that includes instrumentation and computation blocks in support of a system that exploits patient-specific modeling to achieve accurate performance for chronic detection. The SoC samples each EEG channel at a rate of 600 Hz and performs processing to derive signal features on every two second epoch, consuming 9 μJ/epoch/channel. Signal feature extraction reduces the data rate by a factor of over 40×, permitting wireless communication from the patient’s head while reducing the total power on the head by 14×.

  3. The baseline fluid intelligence modulated the transfer effect from working memory to fluid intelligence%个体差异对工作记忆训练迁移效果的调节

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱祖德; 段懿行; 王穗苹

    2017-01-01

    While some previous studies have found significant transfer effect from working memory to fluid intelligence, other studies have failed. The discrepancy may due to individual difference. One type of individual differences is the working memory training improvement. It was found that, transfer effect was found only in subjects who showed significant training improvement. Another type of individual differences is the cognitive ability at baseline, such as baseline fluid intelligence. It remains unclear how such individual differences modulate transfer effect in working memory training. Specifically, the aim of the present study was to investigate how the individual fluid intelligence at baseline modulates the working memory transfer effect. In total, 40 college students were recruited and randomly assigned into active control group (N = 19, 8 males/ 11 females) and training group (N = 21, 9 males /12 females). The training group was asked to complete a dual n-back task. The participants were asked to perform the training 25 minutes a day, 5 days per week in four weeks. The dual n-back task was computerized, in which participants were required to determine if the stimulus position and voice in the current trial were the same as that in the previous n-1 trial. The n was adaptively changed according to the participants' performances. Meanwhile, the active control group received a scientific knowledge reading training. To make sure the participants' engaged in the task, the reading material was different for each time. The training time setting in the active control group was the same as that in the training group. All participants were tested by the Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices (RSPM) before and after the training. In order to avoid the impact of repeated measures, the RSPM were divided into two parallel tests and were counterbalanced across groups and test sessions. The training group showed significant improvement in the dual n-back task, with an average

  4. Effect of beta and gamma neurofeedback on memory and intelligence in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staufenbiel, S M; Brouwer, A-M; Keizer, A W; van Wouwe, N C

    2014-01-01

    Recent research showed a correlation between cognitive decline and a decrease of EEG gamma activity. In the present double-blind randomized control study, we investigated whether gamma and beta neurofeedback protocols, that have been shown to modulate performance on cognitive control and memory in young adults, also leads to increased brain activity and cognitive performance in elderly. Twenty older adults either performed eight 30-min gamma neurofeedback session or beta neurofeedback session within a period of 21 days. Cognitive performance was determined before and after the training through an IQ and memory task and we added a subjective well-being questionnaire. Both neurofeedback training protocols resulted in a significant increase of the brain activity within each training session, suggesting that the aging brain is still trainable. However, we found no effects on cognitive performance or transfer of the feedback beyond the trainings. We discuss several possible reasons for the lack of training on rest measurements and cognition and ways to improve the feedback protocols for future studies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it has to decide what is worth remembering. Memory is the process of storing and then remembering this information. There are different types of memory. Short-term memory stores information for a few ...

  6. All-polymer bistable resistive memory device based on nanoscale phase-separated PCBM-ferroelectric blends

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Yasser; Bhansali, Unnat Sampatraj; Cha, Dong Kyu; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2012-01-01

    All polymer nonvolatile bistable memory devices are fabricated from blends of ferroelectric poly(vinylidenefluoride-trifluoroethylene (P(VDF-TrFE)) and n-type semiconducting [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM). The nanoscale phase

  7. Parallel database search and prime factorization with magnonic holographic memory devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khitun, Alexander [Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, University of California - Riverside, Riverside, California 92521 (United States)

    2015-12-28

    In this work, we describe the capabilities of Magnonic Holographic Memory (MHM) for parallel database search and prime factorization. MHM is a type of holographic device, which utilizes spin waves for data transfer and processing. Its operation is based on the correlation between the phases and the amplitudes of the input spin waves and the output inductive voltage. The input of MHM is provided by the phased array of spin wave generating elements allowing the producing of phase patterns of an arbitrary form. The latter makes it possible to code logic states into the phases of propagating waves and exploit wave superposition for parallel data processing. We present the results of numerical modeling illustrating parallel database search and prime factorization. The results of numerical simulations on the database search are in agreement with the available experimental data. The use of classical wave interference may results in a significant speedup over the conventional digital logic circuits in special task data processing (e.g., √n in database search). Potentially, magnonic holographic devices can be implemented as complementary logic units to digital processors. Physical limitations and technological constrains of the spin wave approach are also discussed.

  8. Large scale testing of nitinol shape memory alloy devices for retrofitting of bridges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Rita; Emmanuel Maragakis, M; Saiid Saiidi, M; Padgett, Jamie E; DesRoches, Reginald

    2008-01-01

    A large scale testing program was conducted to determine the effects of shape memory alloy (SMA) restrainer cables on the seismic performance of in-span hinges of a representative multiple-frame concrete box girder bridge subjected to earthquake excitations. Another objective of the study was to compare the performance of SMA restrainers to that of traditional steel restrainers as restraining devices for reducing hinge displacement and the likelihood of collapse during earthquakes. The results of the tests show that SMA restrainers performed very well as restraining devices. The forces in the SMA and steel restrainers were comparable. However, the SMA restrainer cables had minimal residual strain after repeated loading and exhibited the ability to undergo many cycles with little strength and stiffness degradation. In addition, the hysteretic damping that was observed in the larger ground accelerations demonstrated the ability of the materials to dissipate energy. An analytical study was conducted to assess the anticipated seismic response of the test setup and evaluate the accuracy of the analytical model. The results of the analytical simulation illustrate that the analytical model was able to match the responses from the experimental tests, including peak stresses, strains, forces, and hinge openings

  9. Parallel database search and prime factorization with magnonic holographic memory devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khitun, Alexander

    2015-12-01

    In this work, we describe the capabilities of Magnonic Holographic Memory (MHM) for parallel database search and prime factorization. MHM is a type of holographic device, which utilizes spin waves for data transfer and processing. Its operation is based on the correlation between the phases and the amplitudes of the input spin waves and the output inductive voltage. The input of MHM is provided by the phased array of spin wave generating elements allowing the producing of phase patterns of an arbitrary form. The latter makes it possible to code logic states into the phases of propagating waves and exploit wave superposition for parallel data processing. We present the results of numerical modeling illustrating parallel database search and prime factorization. The results of numerical simulations on the database search are in agreement with the available experimental data. The use of classical wave interference may results in a significant speedup over the conventional digital logic circuits in special task data processing (e.g., √n in database search). Potentially, magnonic holographic devices can be implemented as complementary logic units to digital processors. Physical limitations and technological constrains of the spin wave approach are also discussed.

  10. Parallel database search and prime factorization with magnonic holographic memory devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khitun, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we describe the capabilities of Magnonic Holographic Memory (MHM) for parallel database search and prime factorization. MHM is a type of holographic device, which utilizes spin waves for data transfer and processing. Its operation is based on the correlation between the phases and the amplitudes of the input spin waves and the output inductive voltage. The input of MHM is provided by the phased array of spin wave generating elements allowing the producing of phase patterns of an arbitrary form. The latter makes it possible to code logic states into the phases of propagating waves and exploit wave superposition for parallel data processing. We present the results of numerical modeling illustrating parallel database search and prime factorization. The results of numerical simulations on the database search are in agreement with the available experimental data. The use of classical wave interference may results in a significant speedup over the conventional digital logic circuits in special task data processing (e.g., √n in database search). Potentially, magnonic holographic devices can be implemented as complementary logic units to digital processors. Physical limitations and technological constrains of the spin wave approach are also discussed

  11. Shape memory alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaszuwara, W.

    2004-01-01

    Shape memory alloys (SMA), when deformed, have the ability of returning, in certain circumstances, to their initial shape. Deformations related to this phenomenon are for polycrystals 1-8% and up to 15% for monocrystals. The deformation energy is in the range of 10 6 - 10 7 J/m 3 . The deformation is caused by martensitic transformation in the material. Shape memory alloys exhibit one directional or two directional shape memory effect as well as pseudoelastic effect. Shape change is activated by temperature change, which limits working frequency of SMA to 10 2 Hz. Other group of alloys exhibit magnetic shape memory effect. In these alloys martensitic transformation is triggered by magnetic field, thus their working frequency can be higher. Composites containing shape memory alloys can also be used as shape memory materials (applied in vibration damping devices). Another group of composite materials is called heterostructures, in which SMA alloys are incorporated in a form of thin layers The heterostructures can be used as microactuators in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). Basic SMA comprise: Ni-Ti, Cu (Cu-Zn,Cu-Al, Cu-Sn) and Fe (Fe-Mn, Fe-Cr-Ni) alloys. Shape memory alloys find applications in such areas: automatics, safety and medical devices and many domestic appliances. Currently the most important appears to be research on magnetic shape memory materials and high temperature SMA. Vital from application point of view are composite materials especially those containing several intelligent materials. (author)

  12. Memory performance on the Auditory Inference Span Test is independent of background noise type for young adults with normal hearing at high speech intelligibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niklas eRönnberg

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Listening in noise is often perceived to be effortful. This is partly because cognitive resources are engaged in separating the target signal from background noise, leaving fewer resources for storage and processing of the content of the message in working memory. The Auditory Inference Span Test (AIST is designed to assess listening effort by measuring the ability to maintain and process heard information. The aim of this study was to use AIST to investigate the effect of background noise types and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR on listening effort, as a function of working memory capacity (WMC and updating ability (UA. The AIST was administered in three types of background noise: steady-state speech-shaped noise, amplitude modulated speech-shaped noise, and unintelligible speech. Three SNRs targeting 90% speech intelligibility or better were used in each of the three noise types, giving nine different conditions. The reading span test assessed WMC, while UA was assessed with the letter memory test. Twenty young adults with normal hearing participated in the study. Results showed that AIST performance was not influenced by noise type at the same intelligibility level, but became worse with worse SNR when background noise was speech-like. Performance on AIST also decreased with increasing MLL. Correlations between AIST performance and the cognitive measurements suggested that WMC is of more importance for listening when SNRs are worse, while UA is of more importance for listening in easier SNRs. The results indicated that in young adults with normal hearing, the effort involved in listening in noise at high intelligibility levels is independent of the noise type. However, when noise is speech-like and intelligibility decreases, listening effort increases, probably due to extra demands on cognitive resources added by the informational masking created by the speech-fragments and vocal sounds in the background noise.

  13. Neural mechanisms of interference control in working memory: effects of interference expectancy and fluid intelligence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory C Burgess

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A critical aspect of executive control is the ability to limit the adverse effects of interference. Previous studies have shown activation of left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex after the onset of interference, suggesting that interference may be resolved in a reactive manner. However, we suggest that interference control may also operate in a proactive manner to prevent effects of interference. The current study investigated the temporal dynamics of interference control by varying two factors - interference expectancy and fluid intelligence (gF - that could influence whether interference control operates proactively versus reactively.A modified version of the recent negatives task was utilized. Interference expectancy was manipulated across task blocks by changing the proportion of recent negative (interference trials versus recent positive (facilitation trials. Furthermore, we explored whether gF affected the tendency to utilize specific interference control mechanisms. When interference expectancy was low, activity in lateral prefrontal cortex replicated prior results showing a reactive control pattern (i.e., interference-sensitivity during probe period. In contrast, when interference expectancy was high, bilateral prefrontal cortex activation was more indicative of proactive control mechanisms (interference-related effects prior to the probe period. Additional results suggested that the proactive control pattern was more evident in high gF individuals, whereas the reactive control pattern was more evident in low gF individuals.The results suggest the presence of two neural mechanisms of interference control, with the differential expression of these mechanisms modulated by both experimental (e.g., expectancy effects and individual difference (e.g., gF factors.

  14. Similar prefrontal cortical activities between general fluid intelligence and visuospatial working memory tasks in preschool children as revealed by optical topography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwajima, Mariko; Sawaguchi, Toshiyuki

    2010-10-01

    General fluid intelligence (gF) is a major component of intellect in both adults and children. Whereas its neural substrates have been studied relatively thoroughly in adults, those are poorly understood in children, particularly preschoolers. Here, we hypothesized that gF and visuospatial working memory share a common neural system within the lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) during the preschool years (4-6 years). At the behavioral level, we found that gF positively and significantly correlated with abilities (especially accuracy) in visuospatial working memory. Optical topography revealed that the LPFC of preschoolers was activated and deactivated during the visuospatial working memory task and the gF task. We found that the spatio-temporal features of neural activity in the LPFC were similar for both the visuospatial working memory task and the gF task. Further, 2 months of training for the visuospatial working memory task significantly increased gF in the preschoolers. These findings suggest that a common neural system in the LPFC is recruited to improve the visuospatial working memory and gF in preschoolers. Efficient recruitment of this neural system may be important for good performance in these functions in preschoolers, and behavioral training using this system would help to increase gF at these ages.

  15. CMOL/CMOS hardware architectures and performance/price for Bayesian memory - The building block of intelligent systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaveri, Mazad Shaheriar

    The semiconductor/computer industry has been following Moore's law for several decades and has reaped the benefits in speed and density of the resultant scaling. Transistor density has reached almost one billion per chip, and transistor delays are in picoseconds. However, scaling has slowed down, and the semiconductor industry is now facing several challenges. Hybrid CMOS/nano technologies, such as CMOL, are considered as an interim solution to some of the challenges. Another potential architectural solution includes specialized architectures for applications/models in the intelligent computing domain, one aspect of which includes abstract computational models inspired from the neuro/cognitive sciences. Consequently in this dissertation, we focus on the hardware implementations of Bayesian Memory (BM), which is a (Bayesian) Biologically Inspired Computational Model (BICM). This model is a simplified version of George and Hawkins' model of the visual cortex, which includes an inference framework based on Judea Pearl's belief propagation. We then present a "hardware design space exploration" methodology for implementing and analyzing the (digital and mixed-signal) hardware for the BM. This particular methodology involves: analyzing the computational/operational cost and the related micro-architecture, exploring candidate hardware components, proposing various custom hardware architectures using both traditional CMOS and hybrid nanotechnology - CMOL, and investigating the baseline performance/price of these architectures. The results suggest that CMOL is a promising candidate for implementing a BM. Such implementations can utilize the very high density storage/computation benefits of these new nano-scale technologies much more efficiently; for example, the throughput per 858 mm2 (TPM) obtained for CMOL based architectures is 32 to 40 times better than the TPM for a CMOS based multiprocessor/multi-FPGA system, and almost 2000 times better than the TPM for a PC

  16. Flexible nonvolatile memory devices based on Au/PMMA nanocomposites deposited on PEDOT:PSS/Ag nanowire hybrid electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, Sihyun; Kim, Tae Whan

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Flexible nonvolatile memory (NVM) devices fabricated utilizing Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) embedded in a PMMA layer were fabricated. • The insertion of the PEDOT:PSS layer enhanced the surface uniformity of the AgNW bottom electrode, resulting in improved device performances. • Current-voltage curves for the Al/PMMA:AuNP/PEDOT:PSS/AgNW/PET devices showed clockwise current hysteresis behaviors. • ON/OFF ratio of 1 × 10 3 was maintained for retention times longer than 1 × 10 4 s. • Memory characteristics of the NVM devices before and after bending were similar. - Abstract: Flexible nonvolatile memory (NVM) devices fabricated utilizing Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) embedded in a poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) layer were fabricated on a silver nanowire (AgNW) or a poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS)/AgNW coated on poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) substrates. The transmittance and the sheet resistance of the PEDOT:PSS/AgNW hybrid layer were approximately 89% and 50 Ω/sq, respectively, which were comparable to the values for commercial indium-tin-oxide (ITO) electrodes. Current-voltage curves for the Al/PMMA:AuNP/PEDOT:PSS/AgNW/PET devices at 300 K showed clockwise current hysteresis behaviors due to the existence of the AuNPs. The endurance number of ON/OFF switching for the NVM devices was above 30 cycles. An ON/OFF ratio of 1 × 10 3 was maintained for retention times longer than 1 × 10 4 s. The maximum memory margins of the NVM devices before and after bending were approximately 3.4 × 10 3 and 1.4 × 10 3 , respectively. The retention times of the devices before and after bending remained same 1 × 10 4 s. The memory margin and the stability of flexible NVMs fabricated on AgNW electrodes were enhanced due to the embedded PEDOT:PSS buffer layer.

  17. Flexible nonvolatile memory devices based on Au/PMMA nanocomposites deposited on PEDOT:PSS/Ag nanowire hybrid electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, Sihyun; Kim, Tae Whan, E-mail: twk@hanyang.ac.kr

    2017-07-31

    Highlights: • Flexible nonvolatile memory (NVM) devices fabricated utilizing Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) embedded in a PMMA layer were fabricated. • The insertion of the PEDOT:PSS layer enhanced the surface uniformity of the AgNW bottom electrode, resulting in improved device performances. • Current-voltage curves for the Al/PMMA:AuNP/PEDOT:PSS/AgNW/PET devices showed clockwise current hysteresis behaviors. • ON/OFF ratio of 1 × 10{sup 3} was maintained for retention times longer than 1 × 10{sup 4} s. • Memory characteristics of the NVM devices before and after bending were similar. - Abstract: Flexible nonvolatile memory (NVM) devices fabricated utilizing Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) embedded in a poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) layer were fabricated on a silver nanowire (AgNW) or a poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS)/AgNW coated on poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) substrates. The transmittance and the sheet resistance of the PEDOT:PSS/AgNW hybrid layer were approximately 89% and 50 Ω/sq, respectively, which were comparable to the values for commercial indium-tin-oxide (ITO) electrodes. Current-voltage curves for the Al/PMMA:AuNP/PEDOT:PSS/AgNW/PET devices at 300 K showed clockwise current hysteresis behaviors due to the existence of the AuNPs. The endurance number of ON/OFF switching for the NVM devices was above 30 cycles. An ON/OFF ratio of 1 × 10{sup 3} was maintained for retention times longer than 1 × 10{sup 4} s. The maximum memory margins of the NVM devices before and after bending were approximately 3.4 × 10{sup 3} and 1.4 × 10{sup 3}, respectively. The retention times of the devices before and after bending remained same 1 × 10{sup 4} s. The memory margin and the stability of flexible NVMs fabricated on AgNW electrodes were enhanced due to the embedded PEDOT:PSS buffer layer.

  18. Plant intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipavská, Helena; Žárský, Viktor

    2009-01-01

    The concept of plant intelligence, as proposed by Anthony Trewavas, has raised considerable discussion. However, plant intelligence remains loosely defined; often it is either perceived as practically synonymous to Darwinian fitness, or reduced to a mere decorative metaphor. A more strict view can be taken, emphasizing necessary prerequisites such as memory and learning, which requires clarifying the definition of memory itself. To qualify as memories, traces of past events have to be not only stored, but also actively accessed. We propose a criterion for eliminating false candidates of possible plant intelligence phenomena in this stricter sense: an “intelligent” behavior must involve a component that can be approximated by a plausible algorithmic model involving recourse to stored information about past states of the individual or its environment. Re-evaluation of previously presented examples of plant intelligence shows that only some of them pass our test. “You were hurt?” Kumiko said, looking at the scar. Sally looked down. “Yeah.” “Why didn't you have it removed?” “Sometimes it's good to remember.” “Being hurt?” “Being stupid.”—(W. Gibson: Mona Lisa Overdrive) PMID:19816094

  19. 76 FR 55417 - In the Matter of Certain Dynamic Random Access Memory and Nand Flash Memory Devices and Products...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-07

    ... Bldg. 3F, 2-1 Yaesu 2- chome Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0028, Japan. Elpida Memory (USA) Inc., 1175 Sonora..., Round Rock, TX 78682. Hewlett-Packard Company, 3000 Hanover Street, Palo Alto, CA 94304. Kingston...

  20. Electrical bistabilities and memory stabilities of nonvolatile bistable devices fabricated utilizing C60 molecules embedded in a polymethyl methacrylate layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Sung Hwan; Lee, Dong Ik; Jung, Jae Hun; Kim, Tae Whan

    2009-01-01

    Current-voltage (I-V) measurements on Al/fullerene (C 60 ) molecules embedded in polymethyl methacrylate/Al devices at 300 K showed a current bistability due to the existence of the C 60 molecules. The on/off ratio of the current bistability for the memory devices was as large as 10 3 . The retention time of the devices was above 2.5 x 10 4 s at room temperature, and cycling endurance tests on these devices indicated that the ON and OFF currents showed no degradation until 50 000 cycles. Carrier transport mechanisms for the nonvolatile bistable devices are described on the basis of the I-V experimental and fitting results.

  1. System of programming units for the K556RT4 and K556RT5 fixed programmed memory devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobkov, S.G.; Ermolin, Yu.V.; Kantserov, V.A.; Strigin, V.B.

    1983-01-01

    The programming system of constant programmable memory devices K556RT4 and K556RT5 that consist of two units (a programming device and an electrothermotraining unit) is described. The modules are made in the KAMAK standard. The programming device takes up 2 normal places, while the electrothermotraining block takes up 1 place. As information recording is done using a computer the time for programming is reduced and the possibility of errors is limited as compared with the manual method. The computer introduces the whole word to be recorded, not the separate parts, in the programming device. The transition to a new digit of a given word in the programming device is done automatically. This reduces the expense of computer time and accelerates the programming of microdiagrams

  2. Single-event phenomena on recent semiconductor devices. Charge-type multiple-bit upsets in high integrated memories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makihara, Akiko; Shindou, Hiroyuki; Nemoto, Norio; Kuboyama, Satoshi; Matsuda, Sumio; Ohshima, Takeshi; Hirao, Toshio; Itoh, Hisayoshi

    2001-01-01

    High integrated memories are used in solid state data recorder (SSDR) of the satellite for accumulating observation data. Single event upset phenomena which turn over an accumulated data in the memory cells are caused by heavy ion incidence. Studies on single-bit upset and multiple-bit upset phenomena in the high integrated memory cells are in progress recently. 16 Mbit DRAM (Dynamic Random Access Memories) and 64 Mbit DRAM are irradiated by heavy ion species, such as iodine, bromine and nickel, in comparison with the irradiation damage in the cosmic environment. Data written on the memory devices are read out after the irradiation. The memory cells in three kinds of states, all of charged state, all of discharged state, and an alternative state of charge and discharge, are irradiated for sorting out error modes caused by heavy ion incidence. The soft error in a single memory cells is known as a turn over from charged state to discharged state. Electrons in electron-hole pair generated by heavy ion incidence are captured in a diffusion region between capacitor electrodes of semiconductor. The charged states in the capacitor electrodes before the irradiation are neutralized and changed to the discharged states. According to high integration of the memories, many of the cells are affected by a single ion incidence. The multiple-bit upsets, however, are generated in the memory cells of discharged state before the irradiation, also. The charge-type multiple-bit upsets is considered as that error data are written on the DRAM during refresh cycle of a sense-up circuit and a pre-charge circuit which control the DRAM. (M. Suetake)

  3. Intelligent speed adaptation as an assistive device for drivers with acquired brain injury: a single-case field experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klarborg, Brith; Lahrmann, Harry; NielsAgerholm; Tradisauskas, Nerius; Harms, Lisbeth

    2012-09-01

    Intelligent speed adaptation (ISA) was tested as an assistive device for drivers with an acquired brain injury (ABI). The study was part of the "Pay as You Speed" project (PAYS) and used the same equipment and technology as the main study (Lahrmann et al., in press-a, in press-b). Two drivers with ABI were recruited as subjects and had ISA equipment installed in their private vehicle. Their speed was logged with ISA equipment for a total of 30 weeks of which 12 weeks were with an active ISA user interface (6 weeks=Baseline 1; 12 weeks=ISA period; 12 weeks=Baseline 2). The subjects participated in two semi-structured interviews concerning their strategies for driving with ABI and for driving with ISA. Furthermore, they gave consent to have data from their clinical journals and be a part of the study. The two subjects did not report any instances of being distracted or confused by ISA, and in general they described driving with ISA as relaxed. ISA reduced the percentage of the total distance that was driven with a speed above the speed limit (PDA), but the subjects relapsed to their previous PDA level in Baseline 2. This suggests that ISA is more suited as a permanent assistive device (i.e. cognitive prosthesis) than as a temporary training device. As ABI is associated with a multitude of cognitive deficits, we developed a conceptual framework, which focused on the cognitive parameters that have been shown to relate to speeding behaviour, namely "intention to speed" and "inattention to speeding". The subjects' combined status on the two independent parameters made up their "speeding profile". A comparison of the speeding profiles and the speed logs indicated that ISA in the present study was more efficient in reducing inattention to speeding than affecting intention to speed. This finding suggests that ISA might be more suited for some neuropsychological profiles than for others, and that customisation of ISA for different neuropsychological profiles may be required

  4. Units for designing multidetector system for spectrometric data storage on the base of the 16Kx24 bit memory device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vagov, V.A.; Korobchenko, M.L.; Sirotin, A.P.

    1985-01-01

    Main units of the system for spectrometric data accumulation on the base of the 16Kx24 bit memory device are considered. Input units: counter unit and unit for organization of analysis are described. The applied method for multiplexing data removed into the counter unit permits to essentially reduce hardware loading. Application of some special functions in the unit for analysis organization simplifies data accumulation control to a large extent. The unit for analysis organization allows application of the memory with an address field up to 64K

  5. Embedded nonvolatile memory devices with various silicon nitride energy band gaps on glass used for flat panel display applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, Dang Ngoc; Van Duy, Nguyen; Jung, Sungwook; Yi, Junsin

    2010-01-01

    Nonvolatile memory (NVM) devices with a nitride–nitride–oxynitride stack structure on a rough poly-silicon (poly-Si) surface were fabricated using a low-temperature poly-Si (LTPS) thin film transistor technology on glass substrates for application of flat panel display (FPD). The plasma-assisted oxidation/nitridation method is used to form a uniform oxynitride with an ultrathin tunneling layer on a rough LTPS surface. The NVMs, using a Si-rich silicon nitride film as a charge-trapping layer, were proposed as one of the solutions for the improvement of device performance such as the program/erase speed, the memory window and the charge retention characteristics. To further improve the vertical scaling and charge retention characteristics of NVM devices, the high-κ high-density N-rich SiN x films are used as a blocking layer. The fabricated NVM devices have outstanding electrical properties, such as a low threshold voltage, a high ON/OFF current ratio, a low subthreshold swing, a low operating voltage of less than ±9 V and a large memory window of 3.7 V, which remained about 1.9 V over a period of 10 years. These characteristics are suitable for electrical switching and data storage with in FPD application

  6. Personal Electronic Devices and the ISR Data Explosion: The Impact of Cyber Cameras on the Intelligence Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    ground.aspx?p=1 Texas Tech Security Group, “Automated Open Source Intelligence ( OSINT ) Using APIs.” RaiderSec, Sunday 30 December 2012, http...Open Source Intelligence ( OSINT ) Using APIs,” RaiderSec, Sunday 30 December 2012, http://raidersec.blogspot.com/2012/12/automated-open- source

  7. Management of long-term and reversible hysteroscopic sterilization: a novel device with nickel-titanium shape memory alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Female sterilization is the second most commonly used method of contraception in the United States. Female sterilization can now be performed through laparoscopic, abdominal, or hysteroscopic approaches. The hysteroscopic sterilization may be a safer option than sterilization through laparoscopy or laparotomy because it avoids invading the abdominal cavity and undergoing general anaesthesia. Hysteroscopic sterilization mainly includes chemical agents and mechanical devices. Common issues related to the toxicity of the chemical agents used have raised concerns regarding this kind of contraception. The difficulty of the transcervical insertion of such mechanical devices into the fallopian tubes has increased the high incidence of device displacement or dislodgment. At present, Essure® is the only commercially available hysteroscopic sterilization device being used clinically. The system is irreversible and is not effective immediately. Presentation of the hypothesis Our new hysteroscopic sterility system consists of nickel-titanium (NiTi) shape memory alloy and a waterproof membrane. The NiTi alloy is covered with two coatings to avoid toxic Ni release and to prevent stimulation of epithelial tissue growth around the oviducts. Because of the shape memory effect of the NiTi alloy, the device works like an umbrella: it stays collapsed at low temperature before placement and opens by the force of shape memory activated by the body temperature after it is inserted hysteroscopically into the interstitial tubal lumen. The rim of the open device will incise into interstitial myometrium during the process of unfolding. Once the device is fixed, it blocks the tube completely. When the patient no longer wishes for sterilization, the device can be closed by perfusing liquid with low temperature into the uterine cavity, followed by prospective hysteroscopic removal. After the device removal, the fallopian tube will revert to its physiological functions. Testing the

  8. Brain Networks for Working Memory and Factors of Intelligence Assessed in Males and Females with fMRI and DTI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, C. Y.; Eaves, E. L.; Ng, J. C.; Carpenter, D. M.; Mai, X.; Schroeder, D. H.; Condon, C. A.; Colom, R.; Haier, R. J.

    2010-01-01

    Neuro-imaging studies of intelligence implicate the importance of a parietal-frontal network. One unresolved issue is whether this network underlies a general factor of intelligence ("g") or other specific cognitive factors. A second unresolved issue is whether males and females use different parts of this network. Here we obtained intelligence…

  9. Effect of Ag nanoparticles on resistive switching of polyfluorene-based organic non-volatile memory devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Tae-Wook; Oh, Seung-Hwan; Choi, Hye-Jung; Wang, Gun-Uk; Kim, Dong-Yu; Hwang, Hyun-Sang; Lee, Tak-Hee

    2010-01-01

    The effects of Ag nanoparticles on the switching behavior of polyfluorene-based organic nonvolatile memory devices were investigated. Polyfluorene-derivatives (WPF-oxy-F) with and without Ag nanoparticles were synthesized, and the presence of Ag nanoparticles in Ag-WPF-oxy-F was identified by transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses. The Ag-nanoparticles did not significantly affect the basic switching performances, such as the current-voltage characteristics, the distribution of on/off resistance, and the retention. The pulse switching time of Ag-WPF-oxy-F was faster than that of WPF-oxy-F. Ag-WPF-oxy-F memory devices showed an area dependence in the high resistance state, implying that formation of a Ag metallic channel for current conduction.

  10. Technology breakthroughs in high performance metal-oxide-semiconductor devices for ultra-high density, low power non-volatile memory applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Augustin Jinwoo

    Non-volatile memory devices have attracted much attention because data can be retained without power consumption more than a decade. Therefore, non-volatile memory devices are essential to mobile electronic applications. Among state of the art non-volatile memory devices, NAND flash memory has earned the highest attention because of its ultra-high scalability and therefore its ultra-high storage capacity. However, human desire as well as market competition requires not only larger storage capacity but also lower power consumption for longer battery life time. One way to meet this human desire and extend the benefits of NAND flash memory is finding out new materials for storage layer inside the flash memory, which is called floating gate in the state of the art flash memory device. In this dissertation, we study new materials for the floating gate that can lower down the power consumption and increase the storage capacity at the same time. To this end, we employ various materials such as metal nanodot, metal thin film and graphene incorporating complementary-metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) compatible processes. Experimental results show excellent memory effects at relatively low operating voltages. Detailed physics and analysis on experimental results are discussed. These new materials for data storage can be promising candidates for future non-volatile memory application beyond the state of the art flash technologies.

  11. Speech Intelligibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Thomas

    Speech intelligibility (SI) is important for different fields of research, engineering and diagnostics in order to quantify very different phenomena like the quality of recordings, communication and playback devices, the reverberation of auditoria, characteristics of hearing impairment, benefit using hearing aids or combinations of these things.

  12. Electric field mediated non-volatile tuning magnetism in CoPt/PMN-PT heterostructure for magnetoelectric memory devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y. T.; Li, J.; Peng, X. L.; Wang, X. Q.; Wang, D. H.; Cao, Q. Q.; Du, Y. W.

    2016-02-01

    We report a power efficient non-volatile magnetoelectric memory in the CoPt/(011)PMN-PT heterostructure. Two reversible and stable electric field induced coercivity states (i.e., high-HC or low-HC) are obtained due to the strain mediated converse magnetoelectric effect. The reading process of the different coercive field information written by electric fields is demonstrated by using a magnetoresistance read head. This result shows good prospects in the application of novel multiferroic devices.

  13. Enhanced oxygen vacancy diffusion in Ta2O5 resistive memory devices due to infinitely adaptive crystal structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hao; Stewart, Derek A.

    2016-04-01

    Metal oxide resistive memory devices based on Ta2O5 have demonstrated high switching speed, long endurance, and low set voltage. However, the physical origin of this improved performance is still unclear. Ta2O5 is an important archetype of a class of materials that possess an adaptive crystal structure that can respond easily to the presence of defects. Using first principles nudged elastic band calculations, we show that this adaptive crystal structure leads to low energy barriers for in-plane diffusion of oxygen vacancies in λ phase Ta2O5. Identified diffusion paths are associated with collective motion of neighboring atoms. The overall vacancy diffusion is anisotropic with higher diffusion barriers found for oxygen vacancy movement between Ta-O planes. Coupled with the fact that oxygen vacancy formation energy in Ta2O5 is relatively small, our calculated low diffusion barriers can help explain the low set voltage in Ta2O5 based resistive memory devices. Our work shows that other oxides with adaptive crystal structures could serve as potential candidates for resistive random access memory devices. We also discuss some general characteristics for ideal resistive RAM oxides that could be used in future computational material searches.

  14. Impact of AlO x layer on resistive switching characteristics and device-to-device uniformity of bilayered HfO x -based resistive random access memory devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Kai-Chi; Chung, Hao-Tung; Chu, Chi-Yan; Luo, Jun-Dao; Li, Wei-Shuo; Li, Yi-Shao; Cheng, Huang-Chung

    2018-06-01

    An AlO x layer was deposited on HfO x , and bilayered dielectric films were found to confine the formation locations of conductive filaments (CFs) during the forming process and then improve device-to-device uniformity. In addition, the Ti interposing layer was also adopted to facilitate the formation of oxygen vacancies. As a result, the resistive random access memory (RRAM) device with TiN/Ti/AlO x (1 nm)/HfO x (6 nm)/TiN stack layers demonstrated excellent device-to-device uniformity although it achieved slightly larger resistive switching characteristics, which were forming voltage (V Forming) of 2.08 V, set voltage (V Set) of 1.96 V, and reset voltage (V Reset) of ‑1.02 V, than the device with TiN/Ti/HfO x (6 nm)/TiN stack layers. However, the device with a thicker 2-nm-thick AlO x layer showed worse uniformity than the 1-nm-thick one. It was attributed to the increased oxygen atomic percentage in the bilayered dielectric films of the 2-nm-thick one. The difference in oxygen content showed that there would be less oxygen vacancies to form CFs. Therefore, the random growth of CFs would become severe and the device-to-device uniformity would degrade.

  15. Towards developing a compact model for magnetization switching in straintronics magnetic random access memory devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barangi, Mahmood; Erementchouk, Mikhail; Mazumder, Pinaki

    2016-01-01

    Strain-mediated magnetization switching in a magnetic tunneling junction (MTJ) by exploiting a combination of piezoelectricity and magnetostriction has been proposed as an energy efficient alternative to spin transfer torque (STT) and field induced magnetization switching methods in MTJ-based magnetic random access memories (MRAM). Theoretical studies have shown the inherent advantages of strain-assisted switching, and the dynamic response of the magnetization has been modeled using the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG) equation. However, an attempt to use LLG for simulating dynamics of individual elements in large-scale simulations of multi-megabyte straintronics MRAM leads to extremely time-consuming calculations. Hence, a compact analytical solution, predicting the flipping delay of the magnetization vector in the nanomagnet under stress, combined with a liberal approximation of the LLG dynamics in the straintronics MTJ, can lead to a simplified model of the device suited for fast large-scale simulations of multi-megabyte straintronics MRAMs. In this work, a tensor-based approach is developed to study the dynamic behavior of the stressed nanomagnet. First, using the developed method, the effect of stress on the switching behavior of the magnetization is investigated to realize the margins between the underdamped and overdamped regimes. The latter helps the designer realize the oscillatory behavior of the magnetization when settling along the minor axis, and the dependency of oscillations on the stress level and the damping factor. Next, a theoretical model to predict the flipping delay of the magnetization vector is developed and tested against LLG-based numerical simulations to confirm the accuracy of findings. Lastly, the obtained delay is incorporated into the approximate solutions of the LLG dynamics, in order to create a compact model to liberally and quickly simulate the magnetization dynamics of the MTJ under stress. Using the developed delay equation, the

  16. Towards developing a compact model for magnetization switching in straintronics magnetic random access memory devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barangi, Mahmood, E-mail: barangi@umich.edu; Erementchouk, Mikhail; Mazumder, Pinaki [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-2121 (United States)

    2016-08-21

    Strain-mediated magnetization switching in a magnetic tunneling junction (MTJ) by exploiting a combination of piezoelectricity and magnetostriction has been proposed as an energy efficient alternative to spin transfer torque (STT) and field induced magnetization switching methods in MTJ-based magnetic random access memories (MRAM). Theoretical studies have shown the inherent advantages of strain-assisted switching, and the dynamic response of the magnetization has been modeled using the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG) equation. However, an attempt to use LLG for simulating dynamics of individual elements in large-scale simulations of multi-megabyte straintronics MRAM leads to extremely time-consuming calculations. Hence, a compact analytical solution, predicting the flipping delay of the magnetization vector in the nanomagnet under stress, combined with a liberal approximation of the LLG dynamics in the straintronics MTJ, can lead to a simplified model of the device suited for fast large-scale simulations of multi-megabyte straintronics MRAMs. In this work, a tensor-based approach is developed to study the dynamic behavior of the stressed nanomagnet. First, using the developed method, the effect of stress on the switching behavior of the magnetization is investigated to realize the margins between the underdamped and overdamped regimes. The latter helps the designer realize the oscillatory behavior of the magnetization when settling along the minor axis, and the dependency of oscillations on the stress level and the damping factor. Next, a theoretical model to predict the flipping delay of the magnetization vector is developed and tested against LLG-based numerical simulations to confirm the accuracy of findings. Lastly, the obtained delay is incorporated into the approximate solutions of the LLG dynamics, in order to create a compact model to liberally and quickly simulate the magnetization dynamics of the MTJ under stress. Using the developed delay equation, the

  17. Homo-junction ferroelectric field-effect-transistor memory device using solution-processed lithium-doped zinc oxide thin films

    KAUST Repository

    Nayak, Pradipta K.; Caraveo-Frescas, J. A.; Bhansali, Unnat. S.; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2012-01-01

    High performance homo-junction field-effect transistor memory devices were prepared using solution processed transparent lithium-doped zinc oxide thin films for both the ferroelectric and semiconducting active layers. A highest field-effect mobility

  18. Investigation of Hotline Allegation of a Questionable Intelligence Activity Concerning the Joint Improvised Explosive Device Defeat Organization (JIEDDO), Counter-IED Operations/Intelligence Integration Center (COIC) (REDACTED)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-04

    Secretary of Defense for lntelligenre Oversight ATSD (10) m::~ intain that DoDD 2000.1 9E granted JIED DO thP authority to conduct intelligence...arrival, receive annual refresher training in 10 and are formally tested on their knowledge tailored to specifi c unit miss ions. Formal testing developed...one or more of thP natural or social sclencPs, engineering, or milltary science, but do not demand, as a primary qualifica tion requirement, f ull

  19. WORM memory devices based on conformation change of a PVK derivative with a rigid spacer in side chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yuanhua; Li Najun; Xia Xuewei; Xu Qingfeng; Ge Jianfeng; Lu Jianmei

    2010-01-01

    A nonvolatile write-once-read-many-times (WORM) memory device based on poly((4-vinylbenzyl)-9H-carbazole) (PVCz) was fabricated by a simple and conventional process. The as-fabricated device was found to be at its OFF state and could be programmed irreversibly to the ON state with a low transition voltage of -1.7 V. The device exhibits a high ON/OFF current ratio of up to 10 6 , high stability in retention time up to 8 h and number of read cycles up to 10 8 under a read voltage of -1.0 V in both ON and OFF states. The results of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and fluorescence emission spectra in different states of PVCz indicate that the electrical bistable phenomenon is caused by the voltage-induced conformation change of the pendant carbazole groups. With high performance, low power consumption and low production cost, the device fabricated with PVCz has a potential application for nonvolatile memory.

  20. Rare-Earth Ions in Niobium-Based Devices as a Quantum Memory: Magneto-Optical Effects on Room Temperature Electrical Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    heterostructure can be used to implement cryogenic memory for superconducting digital computing. Our concept involves embedding rare-earth ions in...rare-earth neodymium by ion implantation in thin films of niobium and niobium-based heterostructure devices. We model the ion implantation process...the films and devices so they can properly designed and optimized for utility as quantum memory. We find that the magnetic field has a strong effect

  1. 3D Printing of Shape Memory Polymers for Flexible Electronic Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarek, Matt; Layani, Michael; Cooperstein, Ido; Sachyani, Ela; Cohn, Daniel; Magdassi, Shlomo

    2016-06-01

    The formation of 3D objects composed of shape memory polymers for flexible electronics is described. Layer-by-layer photopolymerization of methacrylated semicrystalline molten macromonomers by a 3D digital light processing printer enables rapid fabrication of complex objects and imparts shape memory functionality for electrical circuits. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Impact of continuing scaling on the device performance of 3D cylindrical junction-less charge trapping memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xinkai; Huo Zongliang; Jin Lei; Jiang Dandan; Hong Peizhen; Xu Qiang; Tang Zhaoyun; Li Chunlong; Ye Tianchun

    2015-01-01

    This work presents a comprehensive analysis of 3D cylindrical junction-less charge trapping memory device performance regarding continuous scaling of the structure dimensions. The key device performance, such as program/erase speed, vertical charge loss, and lateral charge migration under high temperature are intensively studied using the Sentaurus 3D device simulator. Although scaling of channel radius is beneficial for operation speed improvement, it leads to a retention challenge due to vertical leakage, especially enhanced charge loss through TPO. Scaling of gate length not only decreases the program/erase speed but also leads to worse lateral charge migration. Scaling of spacer length is critical for the interference of adjacent cells and should be carefully optimized according to specific cell operation conditions. The gate stack shape is also found to be an important factor affecting the lateral charge migration. Our results provide guidance for high density and high reliability 3D CTM integration. (paper)

  3. Exponential increase in the on-off ratio of conductance in organic memory devices by controlling the surface morphology of the devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Giriraj; Dagar, Parveen; Sahu, Satyajit

    2018-05-01

    We have shown an exponential increase in the ratio of conductance in the on and off states of switching devices by controlling the surface morphology of the thin films for the device by depositing at different rotational speeds. The pinholes which are preferred topography on the surface at higher rotational speed give rise to higher on-off ratio of current from the devices fabricated at the speed. The lower rotational speed contributes to higher thickness of the film and hence no switching. For thicker films, the domain is formed due to phase segregation between the two components in the film, which also indicates that the film is far from thermal equilibrium. At higher speed, there is very little scope of segregation when the film is drying up. Hence, there are only few pinholes on the surface of the film which are shallow. So, the filamentary mechanism of switching in memory devices can be firmly established by varying the speed of thin film deposition which leads to phase segregation of the materials. Thus, the formation of filament can be regulated by controlling the thickness and the surface morphology.

  4. Nanometer-scale temperature imaging for independent observation of Joule and Peltier effects in phase change memory devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse, Kyle L; Pop, Eric; King, William P

    2014-09-01

    This paper reports a technique for independent observation of nanometer-scale Joule heating and thermoelectric effects, using atomic force microscopy (AFM) based measurements of nanometer-scale temperature fields. When electrical current flows through nanoscale devices and contacts the temperature distribution is governed by both Joule and thermoelectric effects. When the device is driven by an electrical current that is both periodic and bipolar, the temperature rise due to the Joule effect is at a different harmonic than the temperature rise due to the Peltier effect. An AFM tip scanning over the device can simultaneously measure all of the relevant harmonic responses, such that the Joule effect and the Peltier effect can be independently measured. Here we demonstrate the efficacy of the technique by measuring Joule and Peltier effects in phase change memory devices. By comparing the observed temperature responses of these working devices, we measure the device thermopower, which is in the range of 30 ± 3 to 250 ± 10 μV K(-1). This technique could facilitate improved measurements of thermoelectric phenomena and properties at the nanometer-scale.

  5. Nanometer-scale temperature imaging for independent observation of Joule and Peltier effects in phase change memory devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grosse, Kyle L. [Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Pop, Eric [Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); King, William P., E-mail: wpk@illinois.edu [Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Departments of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Materials Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)

    2014-09-15

    This paper reports a technique for independent observation of nanometer-scale Joule heating and thermoelectric effects, using atomic force microscopy (AFM) based measurements of nanometer-scale temperature fields. When electrical current flows through nanoscale devices and contacts the temperature distribution is governed by both Joule and thermoelectric effects. When the device is driven by an electrical current that is both periodic and bipolar, the temperature rise due to the Joule effect is at a different harmonic than the temperature rise due to the Peltier effect. An AFM tip scanning over the device can simultaneously measure all of the relevant harmonic responses, such that the Joule effect and the Peltier effect can be independently measured. Here we demonstrate the efficacy of the technique by measuring Joule and Peltier effects in phase change memory devices. By comparing the observed temperature responses of these working devices, we measure the device thermopower, which is in the range of 30 ± 3 to 250 ± 10 μV K{sup −1}. This technique could facilitate improved measurements of thermoelectric phenomena and properties at the nanometer-scale.

  6. An integrated lithography concept with application on 45-nm ½ pitch flash memory devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusa, Mircea; Engelen, Andre; Finders, Jo

    2006-03-01

    It is well accepted to judge imaging capability of an exposure tool primarily on printing equal line-spaces, at a minimum ½ pitch. Further on, combining line-space minimum ½ pitches with scanner maximum NA, defines the process k I. From a lithographer viewpoint, flash memory device is the perfect candidate to achieve lowest k I lithography for a given NA. This is justified by flash layout specific, with regular and relative simple 1-D topology of the critical layers that look like line-space gratings. In reality, flash layout presents a subtle topology and cannot be considered a simple 1-D line-space problem. Uniqueness to flash layout is the array-end zones, where pattern regularity is broken up by features with dimensions and separation of n x ½ pitch, where n is an integer number that we used in this work to manipulate litho process latitudes. Integrated lithography concept seeks to tweak flash pattern details and tune it with scanner control parameters. We introduce feature-center placement through focus and dose as the metric to characterize a cross-coupling phenomena occurring between adjacent features located at array-end of typical flash poly wordline layer. We comparedthe metric behavior with usual litho process window parameters and identified interactions with scanner CDU control parameters. We show how feature-center placement errors are direct functions of optical and physical characteristics of mask materials, attenuated PSM or binary, and of layout array-end topology. Imaging at extreme low-k I, effects from layout specifics and mask materials are best characterized by full vector, rigorous EM simulation, instead of scalar approach, typically used for OPC treatment. Predicted CDU performance of 1.2NA scanner, based on integrated lithography concept, matched very well the experimental results in printing 45nm ½ pitch flash wordline layer. Results show that 1.2NA scanner, operating at 0.28 k I could be an effective lithography solution for 45nm

  7. Configurable Resistive Switching between Memory and Threshold Characteristics for Protein-Based Devices

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Hong; Du, Yuanmin; Li, Yingtao; Zhu, Bowen; Leow, Wan Ru; Li, Yuangang; Pan, Jisheng; Wu, Tao; Chen, Xiaodong

    2015-01-01

    The employ of natural biomaterials as the basic building blocks of electronic devices is of growing interest for biocompatible and green electronics. Here, resistive switching (RS) devices based on naturally silk protein with configurable

  8. Working Memory Training Does Not Improve Performance on Measures of Intelligence or Other Measures of “Far Transfer”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melby-Lervåg, Monica; Redick, Thomas S.; Hulme, Charles

    2016-01-01

    It has been claimed that working memory training programs produce diverse beneficial effects. This article presents a meta-analysis of working memory training studies (with a pretest-posttest design and a control group) that have examined transfer to other measures (nonverbal ability, verbal ability, word decoding, reading comprehension, or arithmetic; 87 publications with 145 experimental comparisons). Immediately following training there were reliable improvements on measures of intermediate transfer (verbal and visuospatial working memory). For measures of far transfer (nonverbal ability, verbal ability, word decoding, reading comprehension, arithmetic) there was no convincing evidence of any reliable improvements when working memory training was compared with a treated control condition. Furthermore, mediation analyses indicated that across studies, the degree of improvement on working memory measures was not related to the magnitude of far-transfer effects found. Finally, analysis of publication bias shows that there is no evidential value from the studies of working memory training using treated controls. The authors conclude that working memory training programs appear to produce short-term, specific training effects that do not generalize to measures of “real-world” cognitive skills. These results seriously question the practical and theoretical importance of current computerized working memory programs as methods of training working memory skills. PMID:27474138

  9. Investigations on the effects of electrode materials on the device characteristics of ferroelectric memory thin film transistors fabricated on flexible substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ji-Hee; Yun, Da-Jeong; Seo, Gi-Ho; Kim, Seong-Min; Yoon, Myung-Han; Yoon, Sung-Min

    2018-03-01

    For flexible memory device applications, we propose memory thin-film transistors using an organic ferroelectric poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) [P(VDF-TrFE)] gate insulator and an amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O (a-IGZO) active channel. The effects of electrode materials and their deposition methods on the characteristics of memory devices exploiting the ferroelectric field effect were investigated for the proposed ferroelectric memory thin-film transistors (Fe-MTFTs) at flat and bending states. It was found that the plasma-induced sputtering deposition and mechanical brittleness of the indium-tin oxide (ITO) markedly degraded the ferroelectric-field-effect-driven memory window and bending characteristics of the Fe-MTFTs. The replacement of ITO electrodes with metal aluminum (Al) electrodes prepared by plasma-free thermal evaporation greatly enhanced the memory device characteristics even under bending conditions owing to their mechanical ductility. Furthermore, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) was introduced to achieve robust bending performance under extreme mechanical stress. The Fe-MTFTs using PEDOT:PSS source/drain electrodes were successfully fabricated and showed the potential for use as flexible memory devices. The suitable choice of electrode materials employed for the Fe-MTFTs is concluded to be one of the most important control parameters for highly functional flexible Fe-MTFTs.

  10. Intelligence in Artificial Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Datta, Shoumen Palit Austin

    2016-01-01

    The elusive quest for intelligence in artificial intelligence prompts us to consider that instituting human-level intelligence in systems may be (still) in the realm of utopia. In about a quarter century, we have witnessed the winter of AI (1990) being transformed and transported to the zenith of tabloid fodder about AI (2015). The discussion at hand is about the elements that constitute the canonical idea of intelligence. The delivery of intelligence as a pay-per-use-service, popping out of ...

  11. Deposition and Characterization of CVD-Grown Ge-Sb Thin Film Device for Phase-Change Memory Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. C. Huang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Germanium antimony (Ge-Sb thin films with tuneable compositions have been fabricated on SiO2/Si, borosilicate glass, and quartz glass substrates by chemical vapour deposition (CVD. Deposition takes place at atmospheric pressure using metal chloride precursors at reaction temperatures between 750 and 875°C. The compositions and structures of these thin films have been characterized by micro-Raman, scanning electron microscope (SEM with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX and X-ray diffraction (XRD techniques. A prototype Ge-Sb thin film phase-change memory device has been fabricated and reversible threshold and phase-change switching demonstrated electrically, with a threshold voltage of 2.2–2.5 V. These CVD-grown Ge-Sb films show promise for applications such as phase-change memory and optical, electronic, and plasmonic switching.

  12. Oxygen-doped zirconium nitride based transparent resistive random access memory devices fabricated by radio frequency sputtering method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hee-Dong, E-mail: khd0708@sejong.ac.kr [Department of Electrical Engineering, Sejong University, Neungdong-ro 209, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of); Yun, Min Ju [Department of Electrical Engineering, Sejong University, Neungdong-ro 209, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kyeong Heon [School of Electrical Engineering, Korea University, Anam-dong, Sungbuk-gu, Seoul 163-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sungho, E-mail: sungho85.kim@sejong.ac.kr [Department of Electrical Engineering, Sejong University, Neungdong-ro 209, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-08-05

    In this work, we present a feasibility of bipolar resistive switching (RS) characteristics for Oxygen-doped zirconium nitride (O-doped ZrN{sub x}) films, produced by sputtering method, which shows a high optical transmittance of approximately 78% in the visible region as well as near ultra-violet region. In addition, in a RS test, the device has a large current ratio of 5 × 10{sup 3} in positive bias region and 5 × 10{sup 5} in negative bias region. Then, to evaluate an ability of data storage for the proposed memory devices, we measured a retention time for 10{sup 4} s at room temperature (RT) and 85 °C as well. As a result, the set and reset states were stably maintained with a current ratio of ∼10{sup 2} at 85 °C to ∼10{sup 3} at RT. This result means that the transparent memory by controlling the working pressure during sputtering process to deposit the ZrN{sub x} films could be a milestone for future see-through electronic devices. - Highlights: • The resistive switching characteristics of the transparent O-doped ZrN{sub x}-based RRAM cells have investigated. • Oxygen doping concentration within ZrN{sub x} is optimized using working pressure of sputter. • Long retention time were observed.

  13. Oxygen-doped zirconium nitride based transparent resistive random access memory devices fabricated by radio frequency sputtering method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hee-Dong; Yun, Min Ju; Kim, Kyeong Heon; Kim, Sungho

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we present a feasibility of bipolar resistive switching (RS) characteristics for Oxygen-doped zirconium nitride (O-doped ZrN_x) films, produced by sputtering method, which shows a high optical transmittance of approximately 78% in the visible region as well as near ultra-violet region. In addition, in a RS test, the device has a large current ratio of 5 × 10"3 in positive bias region and 5 × 10"5 in negative bias region. Then, to evaluate an ability of data storage for the proposed memory devices, we measured a retention time for 10"4 s at room temperature (RT) and 85 °C as well. As a result, the set and reset states were stably maintained with a current ratio of ∼10"2 at 85 °C to ∼10"3 at RT. This result means that the transparent memory by controlling the working pressure during sputtering process to deposit the ZrN_x films could be a milestone for future see-through electronic devices. - Highlights: • The resistive switching characteristics of the transparent O-doped ZrN_x-based RRAM cells have investigated. • Oxygen doping concentration within ZrN_x is optimized using working pressure of sputter. • Long retention time were observed.

  14. Fabrication of ultrahigh density metal-cell-metal crossbar memory devices with only two cycles of lithography and dry-etch procedures

    KAUST Repository

    Zong, Baoyu; Goh, J. Y.; Guo, Zaibing; Luo, Ping; Wang, Chenchen; Qiu, Jinjun; Ho, Pin; Chen, Yunjie; Zhang, Mingsheng; Han, Guchang

    2013-01-01

    A novel approach to the fabrication of metal-cell-metal trilayer memory devices was demonstrated by using only two cycles of lithography and dry-etch procedures. The fabricated ultrahigh density crossbar devices can be scaled down to ≤70 nm in half

  15. Feasibility study of using a Zener diode as the selection device for bipolar RRAM and WORM memory arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yingtao; Fu, Liping; Tao, Chunlan; Jiang, Xinyu; Sun, Pengxiao

    2014-01-01

    Cross-bar arrays are usually used for the high density application of resistive random access memory (RRAM) devices. However, cross-talk interference limits an increase in the integration density. In this paper, the Zener diode is proposed as a selection device to suppress the sneak current in bipolar RRAM arrays. Measurement results show that the Zener diode can act as a good selection device, and the sneak current can be effectively suppressed. The readout margin is sufficiently improved compared to that obtained without the selection device. Due to the improvement for the reading disturbance, the size of the cross-bar array can be enhanced to more than 10 3  × 10 3 . Furthermore, the possibility of using a write-once-read-many-times (WORM) cross-bar array is also demonstrated by connecting the Zener diode and the bipolar RRAM in series. These results strongly suggest that using a Zener diode as a selection device opens up great opportunities to realize high density bipolar RRAM arrays. (paper)

  16. Unitary or Non-Unitary Nature of Working Memory? Evidence from Its Relation to General Fluid and Crystallized Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Cai-Ping; Braeken, Johan; Ferrer, Emilio; Liu, Chang

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the controversy surrounding working memory: whether it is a unitary system providing general purpose resources or a more differentiated system with domain-specific sub-components. A total of 348 participants completed a set of 6 working memory tasks that systematically varied in storage target contents and type of information…

  17. A model for Intelligent Random Access Memory architecture (IRAM) cellular automata algorithms on the Associative String Processing machine (ASTRA)

    CERN Document Server

    Rohrbach, F; Vesztergombi, G

    1997-01-01

    In the near future, the computer performance will be completely determined by how long it takes to access memory. There are bottle-necks in memory latency and memory-to processor interface bandwidth. The IRAM initiative could be the answer by putting Processor-In-Memory (PIM). Starting from the massively parallel processing concept, one reached a similar conclusion. The MPPC (Massively Parallel Processing Collaboration) project and the 8K processor ASTRA machine (Associative String Test bench for Research \\& Applications) developed at CERN \\cite{kuala} can be regarded as a forerunner of the IRAM concept. The computing power of the ASTRA machine, regarded as an IRAM with 64 one-bit processors on a 64$\\times$64 bit-matrix memory chip machine, has been demonstrated by running statistical physics algorithms: one-dimensional stochastic cellular automata, as a simple model for dynamical phase transitions. As a relevant result for physics, the damage spreading of this model has been investigated.

  18. 3D Printing: 3D Printing of Shape Memory Polymers for Flexible Electronic Devices (Adv. Mater. 22/2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarek, Matt; Layani, Michael; Cooperstein, Ido; Sachyani, Ela; Cohn, Daniel; Magdassi, Shlomo

    2016-06-01

    On page 4449, D. Cohn, S. Magdassi, and co-workers describe a general and facile method based on 3D printing of methacrylated macromonomers to fabricate shape-memory objects that can be used in flexible and responsive electrical circuits. Such responsive objects can be used in the fabrication of soft robotics, minimal invasive medical devices, sensors, and wearable electronics. The use of 3D printing overcomes the poor processing characteristics of thermosets and enables complex geometries that are not easily accessible by other techniques. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Highly scalable 3-D NAND-NOR hybrid-type dual bit per cell flash memory devices with an additional cut-off gate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Seongjae; Shim, Wonbo; Park, Ilhan; Kim, Yoon; Park, Byunggook

    2010-01-01

    In this work, a nonvolatile memory (NVM) device of novel structure in 3 dimensions is introduced, and its operation physics is validated. It is based on a pillar structure in which two identical storage nodes are located for dual-bit operation. The two storage nodes on neighboring pillars are controlled by using one common control gate so that the space between silicon pillars can be further reduced. For compatibility with conventional memory operations, an additional cut-off gate is constructed under the common control gate. This is considered as the ultimate form for a 3-D nonvolatile memory device based on a double-gate structure. The underlying physics is explained, and the operational schemes are validated in various aspects by using a numerical device simulation. Also, critical issues in device design for higher reliability are discussed.

  20. Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Wager, Nadia

    2017-01-01

    This chapter will explore a response to traumatic victimisation which has divided the opinions of psychologists at an exponential rate. We will be examining amnesia for memories of childhood sexual abuse and the potential to recover these memories in adulthood. Whilst this phenomenon is generally accepted in clinical circles, it is seen as highly contentious amongst research psychologists, particularly experimental cognitive psychologists. The chapter will begin with a real case study of a wo...

  1. Radiation effect test on ADC/DAC and high density memory devices with 60Co γ-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xing Kefei; Wang Yueke; Pan Huafeng

    2006-01-01

    A test platform was constructed for 60 Co γ-ray irradiation experiment of microelectronics, with the aid of computer and a FPGA module. The tested sample devices included analog-to-digital converter AD10465, digital-to-analog converter AD9857, high density Flash memory MEF64M16 and anti-fused PROM XQR17V16, which are used in signal processing module in spaceborne systems. Evaluations were made on their ability of resisting the total dose based on the proper function criterion of the devices. The results showed that AD10465 and AD9857 ran properly after 1.59 kGy(Si) irradiation, but errors were found when MEF64M16 and XQR17V16's total ionizing dose is 0.13 kGy(Si) and 0.99 kGy(Si), respectively. (authors)

  2. Influence of Cu diffusion conditions on the switching of Cu-SiO2-based resistive memory devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermadam, S. Puthen; Bhagat, S.K.; Alford, T.L.; Sakaguchi, Y.; Kozicki, M.N.; Mitkova, M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a study of Cu diffusion at various temperatures in thin SiO 2 films and the influence of diffusion conditions on the switching of Programmable Metallization Cell (PMC) devices formed from such Cu-doped films. Film composition and diffusion products were analyzed using secondary ion mass spectroscopy, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy methods. We found a strong dependence of the diffused Cu concentration, which varied between 0.8 at.% and 10 -3 at.%, on the annealing temperature. X-ray diffraction and Raman studies revealed that Cu does not react with the SiO 2 network and remains in elemental form after diffusion for the annealing conditions used. PMC resistive memory cells were fabricated with such Cu-diffused SiO 2 films and device performance, including the stability of the switching voltage, is discussed in the context of the material characteristics.

  3. Study Trapped Charge Distribution in P-Channel Silicon-Oxide-Nitride-Oxide-Silicon Memory Device Using Dynamic Programming Scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fu-Hai; Chiu, Yung-Yueh; Lee, Yen-Hui; Chang, Ru-Wei; Yang, Bo-Jun; Sun, Wein-Town; Lee, Eric; Kuo, Chao-Wei; Shirota, Riichiro

    2013-04-01

    In this study, we precisely investigate the charge distribution in SiN layer by dynamic programming of channel hot hole induced hot electron injection (CHHIHE) in p-channel silicon-oxide-nitride-oxide-silicon (SONOS) memory device. In the dynamic programming scheme, gate voltage is increased as a staircase with fixed step amplitude, which can prohibits the injection of holes in SiN layer. Three-dimensional device simulation is calibrated and is compared with the measured programming characteristics. It is found, for the first time, that the hot electron injection point quickly traverses from drain to source side synchronizing to the expansion of charged area in SiN layer. As a result, the injected charges quickly spread over on the almost whole channel area uniformly during a short programming period, which will afford large tolerance against lateral trapped charge diffusion by baking.

  4. Sensory Discrimination, Working Memory and Intelligence in 9-Year-Old and 11-Year-Old Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelke, Annik E.; Troche, Stefan J.; Rammsayer, Thomas H.; Wagner, Felicitas L.; Roebers, Claudia M.

    2013-01-01

    More than a century ago, Galton and Spearman suggested that there was a functional relationship between sensory discrimination ability and intelligence. Studies have since been able to confirm a close relationship between general discrimination ability (GDA) and IQ. The aim of the present study was to assess whether this strong relationship…

  5. Infant Long-Term Memory for a Conditioned Response and Intelligence Test Performance at 2 Years of Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagen, Jeffrey W.; And Others

    To find predictive relations between measures taken in infancy and later scores on intelligence tests, a study was made that measured in the infant those cognitive processes examined later in life. Operant conditioning tasks were employed which required 3-, 7-, and 11-month-old infants to execute some response to produce an environmental…

  6. Superior memory efficiency of quantum devices for the simulation of continuous-time stochastic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Thomas J.; Gu, Mile

    2018-03-01

    Continuous-time stochastic processes pervade everyday experience, and the simulation of models of these processes is of great utility. Classical models of systems operating in continuous-time must typically track an unbounded amount of information about past behaviour, even for relatively simple models, enforcing limits on precision due to the finite memory of the machine. However, quantum machines can require less information about the past than even their optimal classical counterparts to simulate the future of discrete-time processes, and we demonstrate that this advantage extends to the continuous-time regime. Moreover, we show that this reduction in the memory requirement can be unboundedly large, allowing for arbitrary precision even with a finite quantum memory. We provide a systematic method for finding superior quantum constructions, and a protocol for analogue simulation of continuous-time renewal processes with a quantum machine.

  7. An ultrafast programmable electrical tester for enabling time-resolved, sub-nanosecond switching dynamics and programming of nanoscale memory devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Krishna Dayal; Saxena, Nishant; Manivannan, Anbarasu

    2017-12-01

    Recent advancements in commercialization of high-speed non-volatile electronic memories including phase change memory (PCM) have shown potential not only for advanced data storage but also for novel computing concepts. However, an in-depth understanding on ultrafast electrical switching dynamics is a key challenge for defining the ultimate speed of nanoscale memory devices that demands for an unconventional electrical setup, specifically capable of handling extremely fast electrical pulses. In the present work, an ultrafast programmable electrical tester (PET) setup has been developed exceptionally for unravelling time-resolved electrical switching dynamics and programming characteristics of nanoscale memory devices at the picosecond (ps) time scale. This setup consists of novel high-frequency contact-boards carefully designed to capture extremely fast switching transient characteristics within 200 ± 25 ps using time-resolved current-voltage measurements. All the instruments in the system are synchronized using LabVIEW, which helps to achieve various programming characteristics such as voltage-dependent transient parameters, read/write operations, and endurance test of memory devices systematically using short voltage pulses having pulse parameters varied from 1 ns rise/fall time and 1.5 ns pulse width (full width half maximum). Furthermore, the setup has successfully demonstrated strikingly one order faster switching characteristics of Ag5In5Sb60Te30 (AIST) PCM devices within 250 ps. Hence, this novel electrical setup would be immensely helpful for realizing the ultimate speed limits of various high-speed memory technologies for future computing.

  8. Memory device sensitivity trends in aircraft's environment; Evolution de la sensibilite de composants memoires en altitude avion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouchet, T.; Fourtine, S. [Aerospatiale-Matra Airbus, 31 - Toulouse (France); Calvet, M.C. [Aerospatiale-Matra Lanceur, 78 - Les Mureaux (France)

    1999-07-01

    The authors present the SEU (single event upset) sensitivity of 31 SRAM (static random access memory) and 8 DRAM (dynamic random access memory) according to their technologies. 2 methods have been used to compute the SEU rate: the NCS (neutron cross section) method and the BGR (burst generation rate) method, the physics data required by both methods have been either found in scientific literature or directly measured. The use of new technologies implies a quicker time response through a dramatic reduction of chip size and of the amount of energy representing 1 bit. The reduction of size makes less particles are likely to interact with the chip but the reduction of the critical charge implies that these interactions are more likely to damage the chip. The SEU sensitivity is then parted between these 2 opposed trends. Results show that for technologies beyond 0,18 {mu}m these 2 trends balance roughly. Nevertheless the feedback experience shows that the number of errors is increasing. This is due to the fact that avionics requires more and more memory to perform numerical functions, the number of bits is increasing so is the risk of errors. As far as SEU is concerned, RAM devices are less and less sensitive comparatively for 1 bit, and DRAM seem to be less sensitive than SRAM. (A.C.)

  9. Fabrication of Nano-Crossbar Resistive Switching Memory Based on the Copper-Tantalum Pentoxide-Platinum Device Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olga Gneri, Paula; Jardim, Marcos

    Resistive switching memory has been of interest lately not only for its simple metal-insulator-metal (MIM) structure but also for its promising ease of scalability an integration into current CMOS technologies like the Field Programmable Gate Arrays and other non-volatile memory applications. There are several resistive switching MIM combinations but under this scope of research, attention will be paid to the bipolar resistive switching characteristics and fabrication of Tantalum Pentaoxide sandwiched between platinum and copper. By changing the polarity of the voltage bias, this metal-insulator-metal (MIM) device can be switched between a high resistive state (OFF) and low resistive state (ON). The change in states is induced by an electrochemical metallization process, which causes a formation or dissolution of Cu metal filamentary paths in the Tantalum Pentaoxide insulator. There is very little thorough experimental information about the Cu-Ta 2O5-Pt switching characteristics when scaled to nanometer dimensions. In this light, the MIM structure was fabricated in a two-dimensional crossbar format. Also, with the limited available resources, a multi-spacer technique was formulated to localize the active device area in this MIM configuration to less than 20nm. This step is important in understanding the switching characteristics and reliability of this structure when scaled to nanometer dimensions.

  10. In2Ga2ZnO7 oxide semiconductor based charge trap device for NAND flash memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Eun Suk; Kim, Jun Shik; Jeon, Seok Min; Lee, Seung Jun; Jang, Younjin; Cho, Deok-Yong; Hwang, Cheol Seong

    2018-04-01

    The programming characteristics of charge trap flash memory device adopting amorphous In2Ga2ZnO7 (a-IGZO) oxide semiconductors as channel layer were evaluated. Metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) and RF-sputtering processes were used to grow a 45 nm thick a-IGZO layer on a 20 nm thick SiO2 (blocking oxide)/p++-Si (control gate) substrate, where 3 nm thick atomic layer deposited Al2O3 (tunneling oxide) and 5 nm thick low-pressure CVD Si3N4 (charge trap) layers were intervened between the a-IGZO and substrate. Despite the identical stoichiometry and other physicochemical properties of the MOCVD and sputtered a-IGZO, a much faster programming speed of MOCVD a-IGZO was observed. A comparable amount of oxygen vacancies was found in both MOCVD and sputtered a-IGZO, confirmed by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and bias-illumination-instability test measurements. Ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy analysis revealed a higher Fermi level (E F) of the MOCVD a-IGZO (∼0.3 eV) film than that of the sputtered a-IGZO, which could be ascribed to the higher hydrogen concentration in the MOCVD a-IGZO film. Since the programming in a flash memory device is governed by the tunneling of electrons from the channel to charge trapping layer, the faster programming performance could be the result of a higher E F of MOCVD a-IGZO.

  11. Self-formed conductive nanofilaments in (Bi, Mn)Ox for ultralow-power memory devices

    KAUST Repository

    Kang, Chen Fang; Kuo, Wei Cheng; Bao, Wenzhong; Ho, Chih Hsiang; Huang, Chun Wei; Wu, Wen Wei; Chu, Ying Hao; Juang, Jenh Yih; Tseng, Snow H.; Hu, Liangbing; He, Jr-Hau

    2015-01-01

    (CNFs). More importantly, the power dissipation for each CNF is as low as 3.8/20fJ for set/reset process, and a realization of cross-bar structure memory cell is demonstrated to prove the downscaling ability of proposed RRAM. These distinctive properties

  12. Low-temperature process steps for realization of non-volatile memory devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brunets, I.; Boogaard, A.; Aarnink, Antonius A.I.; Kovalgin, Alexeij Y.; Wolters, Robertus A.M.; Holleman, J.; Schmitz, Jurriaan

    2007-01-01

    In this work, the low-temperature process steps required for the realization of nano-crystal non-volatile memory cells are discussed. An amorphous silicon film, crystallized using a diode pumped solid state green laser irradiating at 532 nm, is proposed as an active layer. The deposition of the

  13. THRESHOLD LOGIC IN ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    COMPUTER LOGIC, ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE , BIONICS, GEOMETRY, INPUT OUTPUT DEVICES, LINEAR PROGRAMMING, MATHEMATICAL LOGIC, MATHEMATICAL PREDICTION, NETWORKS, PATTERN RECOGNITION, PROBABILITY, SWITCHING CIRCUITS, SYNTHESIS

  14. Pathogen intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael eSteinert

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Different species inhabit different sensory worlds and thus have evolved diverse means of processing information, learning and memory. In the escalated arms race with host defense, each pathogenic bacterium not only has evolved its individual cellular sensing and behaviour, but also collective sensing, interbacterial communication, distributed information processing, joint decision making, dissociative behaviour, and the phenotypic and genotypic heterogeneity necessary for epidemiologic success. Moreover, pathogenic populations take advantage of dormancy strategies and rapid evolutionary speed, which allow them to save co-generated intelligent traits in a collective genomic memory. This review discusses how these mechanisms add further levels of complexity to bacterial pathogenicity and transmission, and how mining for these mechanisms could help to develop new anti-infective strategies.

  15. Disentangling the impact of artistic creativity on creative thinking, working memory, attention and intelligence:Evidence for domain-specific relationships with a new self-report questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin Lunke

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the present study was to take a new look at the relationship between creativity and cognitive functioning. Based on models that have postulated domain- and sub-domain-structures for different forms of creativity, like scientific, technical or artistic creativity with cognitive functions as important basis, we developed a new questionnaire. The Artistic Creativity Domains Compendium (ACDC assesses interest, ability and performance in a distinct way for different domains of artistic creativity. We present the data of 270 adults tested with the ACDC, standard tests of divergent and convergent thinking, and tests of cognitive functions. We present fine-grained analyses on the internal and external validity of the ACDC and on the relationships between creativity, working memory, attention, and intelligence. Our results indicate domain-specific associations between creativity and attention as well as working memory. We conclude that the ACDC is a valid instrument to assess artistic creativity and that a fine-grained analysis reveals distinct patterns of relationships between separate domains of creativity and cognition.

  16. Disentangling the Impact of Artistic Creativity on Creative Thinking, Working Memory, Attention, and Intelligence: Evidence for Domain-Specific Relationships with a New Self-Report Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunke, Katrin; Meier, Beat

    2016-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to take a new look at the relationship between creativity and cognitive functioning. Based on models that have postulated domain- and sub-domain-structures for different forms of creativity, like scientific, technical or artistic creativity with cognitive functions as important basis, we developed a new questionnaire. The Artistic Creativity Domains Compendium (ACDC) assesses interest, ability and performance in a distinct way for different domains of artistic creativity. We present the data of 270 adults tested with the ACDC, standard tests of divergent and convergent thinking, and tests of cognitive functions. We present fine-grained analyses on the internal and external validity of the ACDC and on the relationships between creativity, working memory, attention, and intelligence. Our results indicate domain-specific associations between creativity and attention as well as working memory. We conclude that the ACDC is a valid instrument to assess artistic creativity and that a fine-grained analysis reveals distinct patterns of relationships between separate domains of creativity and cognition. PMID:27516745

  17. Disentangling the Impact of Artistic Creativity on Creative Thinking, Working Memory, Attention, and Intelligence: Evidence for Domain-Specific Relationships with a New Self-Report Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunke, Katrin; Meier, Beat

    2016-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to take a new look at the relationship between creativity and cognitive functioning. Based on models that have postulated domain- and sub-domain-structures for different forms of creativity, like scientific, technical or artistic creativity with cognitive functions as important basis, we developed a new questionnaire. The Artistic Creativity Domains Compendium (ACDC) assesses interest, ability and performance in a distinct way for different domains of artistic creativity. We present the data of 270 adults tested with the ACDC, standard tests of divergent and convergent thinking, and tests of cognitive functions. We present fine-grained analyses on the internal and external validity of the ACDC and on the relationships between creativity, working memory, attention, and intelligence. Our results indicate domain-specific associations between creativity and attention as well as working memory. We conclude that the ACDC is a valid instrument to assess artistic creativity and that a fine-grained analysis reveals distinct patterns of relationships between separate domains of creativity and cognition.

  18. On-device mobile speech recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Mustafa, MK

    2016-01-01

    Despite many years of research, Speech Recognition remains an active area of research in Artificial Intelligence. Currently, the most common commercial application of this technology on mobile devices uses a wireless client – server approach to meet the computational and memory demands of the speech recognition process. Unfortunately, such an approach is unlikely to remain viable when fully applied over the approximately 7.22 Billion mobile phones currently in circulation. In this thesis we p...

  19. Memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Judith, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    This theme issue of the journal "Exploring" covers the topic of "memories" and describes an exhibition at San Francisco's Exploratorium that ran from May 22, 1998 through January 1999 and that contained over 40 hands-on exhibits, demonstrations, artworks, images, sounds, smells, and tastes that demonstrated and depicted the biological,…

  20. Fabrication of InGaZnO Nonvolatile Memory Devices at Low Temperature of 150 degrees C for Applications in Flexible Memory Displays and Transparency Coating on Plastic Substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanh, Nguyen Hong; Jang, Kyungsoo; Yi, Junsin

    2016-05-01

    We directly deposited amorphous InGaZnO (a-IGZO) nonvolatile memory (NVM) devices with oxynitride-oxide-dioxide (OOO) stack structures on plastic substrate by a DC pulsed magnetron sputtering and inductively coupled plasma chemical vapor deposition (ICPCVD) system, using a low-temperature of 150 degrees C. The fabricated bottom gate a-IGZO NVM devices have a wide memory window with a low operating voltage during programming and erasing, due to an effective control of the gate dielectrics. In addition, after ten years, the memory device retains a memory window of over 73%, with a programming duration of only 1 ms. Moreover, the a-IGZO films show high optical transmittance of over 85%, and good uniformity with a root mean square (RMS) roughness of 0.26 nm. This film is a promising candidate to achieve flexible displays and transparency on plastic substrates because of the possibility of low-temperature deposition, and the high transparent properties of a-IGZO films. These results demonstrate that the a-IGZO NVM devices obtained at low-temperature have a suitable programming and erasing efficiency for data storage under low-voltage conditions, in combination with excellent charge retention characteristics, and thus show great potential application in flexible memory displays.

  1. Plausible carrier transport model in organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite resistive memory devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Nayoung; Kwon, Yongwoo; Choi, Jaeho; Jang, Ho Won; Cha, Pil-Ryung

    2018-04-01

    We demonstrate thermally assisted hopping (TAH) as an appropriate carrier transport model for CH3NH3PbI3 resistive memories. Organic semiconductors, including organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites, have been previously speculated to follow the space-charge-limited conduction (SCLC) model. However, the SCLC model cannot reproduce the temperature dependence of experimental current-voltage curves. Instead, the TAH model with temperature-dependent trap densities and a constant trap level are demonstrated to well reproduce the experimental results.

  2. Random access dynamic memory device with capacity of 4Kx16 bytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damatov, Ya.M.; Nikityuk, N.M.; Nomokonova, A.I.

    1980-01-01

    Random access dynamic memory devjce with capacity of 4Kx16 bytes is described. A block diagram, time diagrams and a general view of a unit are presented. Regimes os unit operation and ways of data regeneration are described. The analyser regime and a possibility of recording data from ''R'' buses of CAMAC dataway permit to use the unit efficiency in spectrometrical channels with a high intensity of experimental events arrival. The unit is developed on the basis of using large integral circuits

  3. Stress-optimised shape memory devices for the use in microvalves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skrobanek, K.D.; Kohl, M.; Miyazaki, S.

    1997-01-01

    A gas valve of 6 x 6 x 2 mm 3 size has been developed for high pressure applications. Stress-optimised shape memory microbeams of 100 μm thickness are used to control the deflection of a membrane above a valve chamber. The shape memory thin sheets have been fabricated by melting and rolling, which creates specific textures. Investigations by X-ray diffraction revealed major orientations of [111] and [011] in rolling direction. The corresponding maximum anisotropy of transformation strain was 20%. The microbeams have been fabricated by laser cutting. For stress-optimisation, the lateral widths of the beams are designed for homogeneous stress distributions along the beam surfaces allowing an optimised use of the shape memory effect and a minimisation of fatigue effects. For actuation, a rhombohedral phase transformation is used. This allows operation below pressure differences of 1200 hPa in designs with one valve chamber and below 4500 hPa in pressure-compensated designs with a second valve chamber above the membrane. Maximum gas flows of 1600 seem (seem cm 2 at standart conditions/minute) and work outputs of 35 μNm are achieved for a driving power of 210 mW. The response times for closing the valves vary between 0.5 and 1.2 s and for opening between 1 and 2 s depending on the applied pressure difference. (orig.)

  4. Characterizations and thermal stability improvement of phase-change memory device containing Ce-doped GeSbTe films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Yu-Jen; Tsai, Min-Chuan; Wang, Chiung-Hsin; Hsieh, Tsung-Eong, E-mail: tehsieh@mail.nctu.edu.tw

    2012-02-29

    Phase-transition temperature of GeSbTe (GST) chalcogenide film was drastically increased from 159 to 236 Degree-Sign C by cerium (Ce) doping (up to 8.6 at.%) without altering the resistivity property of GST. Grain refinement via the solid-solution mechanism and the amplification of p-type semiconducting behavior in Ce-doped GST were observed. They were correlated with the enhancement of thermal stability and data retention property of GST as revealed by exothermal and isothermal analyses. Phase-change memory (PCM) device characterized at various temperatures revealed an effective thermal stability improvement on the threshold voltage of PCM device by Ce doping. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ce doping increased phase-change temperature of GST from 159 to 236 Degree-Sign C. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer No suppression of resistivity level in amorphous Ce-doped GST. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Resistance ratio of amorphous and crystalline Ce-doped GST was preserved at 10{sup 5}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer p-type semiconducting behavior of GST was enhanced by Ce-doping. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ce-doping improved the thermal stability of threshold voltage of GST PCM device.

  5. All-polymer bistable resistive memory device based on nanoscale phase-separated PCBM-ferroelectric blends

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Yasser

    2012-11-21

    All polymer nonvolatile bistable memory devices are fabricated from blends of ferroelectric poly(vinylidenefluoride-trifluoroethylene (P(VDF-TrFE)) and n-type semiconducting [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM). The nanoscale phase separated films consist of PCBM domains that extend from bottom to top electrode, surrounded by a ferroelectric P(VDF-TrFE) matrix. Highly conducting poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) polymer electrodes are used to engineer band offsets at the interfaces. The devices display resistive switching behavior due to modulation of this injection barrier. With careful optimization of the solvent and processing conditions, it is possible to spin cast very smooth blend films (Rrms ≈ 7.94 nm) and with good reproducibility. The devices exhibit high Ion/I off ratios (≈3 × 103), low read voltages (≈5 V), excellent dielectric response at high frequencies (Ïμr ≈ 8.3 at 1 MHz), and excellent retention characteristics up to 10 000 s. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Using Genetic Algorithms in Secured Business Intelligence Mobile Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia TRIF

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to assess the use of genetic algorithms for training neural networks used in secured Business Intelligence Mobile Applications. A comparison is made between classic back-propagation method and a genetic algorithm based training. The design of these algorithms is presented. A comparative study is realized for determining the better way of training neural networks, from the point of view of time and memory usage. The results show that genetic algorithms based training offer better performance and memory usage than back-propagation and they are fit to be implemented on mobile devices.

  7. Homo-junction ferroelectric field-effect-transistor memory device using solution-processed lithium-doped zinc oxide thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Pradipta K.; Caraveo-Frescas, J. A.; Bhansali, Unnat. S.; Alshareef, H. N.

    2012-06-01

    High performance homo-junction field-effect transistor memory devices were prepared using solution processed transparent lithium-doped zinc oxide thin films for both the ferroelectric and semiconducting active layers. A highest field-effect mobility of 8.7 cm2/Vs was obtained along with an Ion/Ioff ratio of 106. The ferroelectric thin film transistors showed a low sub-threshold swing value of 0.19 V/dec and a significantly reduced device operating voltage (±4 V) compared to the reported hetero-junction ferroelectric transistors, which is very promising for low-power non-volatile memory applications.

  8. Homo-junction ferroelectric field-effect-transistor memory device using solution-processed lithium-doped zinc oxide thin films

    KAUST Repository

    Nayak, Pradipta K.

    2012-06-22

    High performance homo-junction field-effect transistor memory devices were prepared using solution processed transparent lithium-doped zinc oxide thin films for both the ferroelectric and semiconducting active layers. A highest field-effect mobility of 8.7 cm2/Vs was obtained along with an Ion/Ioff ratio of 106. The ferroelectric thin filmtransistors showed a low sub-threshold swing value of 0.19 V/dec and a significantly reduced device operating voltage (±4 V) compared to the reported hetero-junction ferroelectrictransistors, which is very promising for low-power non-volatile memory applications.

  9. Nanoscale observations of the operational failure for phase-change-type nonvolatile memory devices using Ge2Sb2Te5 chalcogenide thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Sung-Min; Choi, Kyu-Jeong; Lee, Nam-Yeal; Lee, Seung-Yun; Park, Young-Sam; Yu, Byoung-Gon

    2007-01-01

    In this study, a phase-change memory device was fabricated and the origin of device failure mode was examined using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Ge 2 Sb 2 Te 5 (GST) was used as the active phase-change material in the memory device and the active pore size was designed to be 0.5 μm. After the programming signals of more than 2x10 6 cycles were repeatedly applied to the device, the high-resistance memory state (reset) could not be rewritten and the cell resistance was fixed at the low-resistance state (set). Based on TEM and EDS studies, Sb excess and Ge deficiency in the device operating region had a strong effect on device reliability, especially under endurance-demanding conditions. An abnormal segregation and oxidation of Ge also was observed in the region between the device operating and inactive peripheral regions. To guarantee an data endurability of more than 1x10 10 cycles of PRAM, it is very important to develop phase-change materials with more stable compositions and to reduce the current required for programming

  10. System of common usage on the base of external memory devices and the SM-3 computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baluka, G.; Vasin, A.Yu.; Ermakov, V.A.; Zhukov, G.P.; Zimin, G.N.; Namsraj, Yu.; Ostrovnoj, A.I.; Savvateev, A.S.; Salamatin, I.M.; Yanovskij, G.Ya.

    1980-01-01

    An easily modified system of common usage on the base of external memories and a SM-3 minicomputer replacing some pulse analysers is described. The system has merits of PA and is more advantageous with regard to effectiveness of equipment using, the possibility of changing configuration and functions, the data protection against losses due to user errors and some failures, price of one registration channel, place occupied. The system of common usage is intended for the IBR-2 pulse reactor computing centre. It is designed using the SANPO system means for SM-3 computer [ru

  11. Fabrication of Pb (Zr, Ti) O3 Thin Film for Non-Volatile Memory Device Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mar Lar Win

    2011-12-01

    Ferroelectric lead zirconate titanate powder was composed of mainly the oxides of titanium, zirconium and lead. PZT powder was firstly prepared by thermal synthesis at different Zr/Ti ratios with various sintering temperatures. PZT thin film was fabricated on SiO2/Si substrate by using thermal evaporation method. Physical and elemental analysis were carried out by using SEM, EDX and XRD The ferroelectric properties and the switching behaviour of the PZT thin films were investigated. The ferroelectric properties and switching properties of the PZT thin film (near morphotropic phase boundary sintered at 800 C) could function as a nonvolatile memory.

  12. Plausible carrier transport model in organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite resistive memory devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayoung Park

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate thermally assisted hopping (TAH as an appropriate carrier transport model for CH3NH3PbI3 resistive memories. Organic semiconductors, including organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites, have been previously speculated to follow the space-charge-limited conduction (SCLC model. However, the SCLC model cannot reproduce the temperature dependence of experimental current-voltage curves. Instead, the TAH model with temperature-dependent trap densities and a constant trap level are demonstrated to well reproduce the experimental results.

  13. Highly uniform and reliable resistive switching characteristics of a Ni/WOx/p+-Si memory device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Hyeon; Kim, Sungjun; Kim, Hyungjin; Kim, Min-Hwi; Bang, Suhyun; Cho, Seongjae; Park, Byung-Gook

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, we investigate the resistive switching behavior of a bipolar resistive random-access memory (RRAM) in a Ni/WOx/p+-Si RRAM with CMOS compatibility. Highly unifrom and reliable bipolar resistive switching characteristics are observed by a DC voltage sweeping and its switching mechanism can be explained by SCLC model. As a result, the possibility of metal-insulator-silicon (MIS) structural WOx-based RRAM's application to Si-based 1D (diode)-1R (RRAM) or 1T (transistor)-1R (RRAM) structure is demonstrated.

  14. A simple method to treat an ingrowing toenail with a shape-memory alloy device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishibashi, Masaya; Tabata, Nobuko; Suetake, Takaki; Omori, Toshihiro; Sutou, Yuji; Kainuma, Ryosuke; Yamauchi, Kiyoshi; Ishida, Kiyohito

    2008-01-01

    An ingrowing toenail has no definitive treatment. Previously, effective methods were complicated but easy ones had less effect. We show both an easy and an effective way with Cu-Al-Mn-based shape-memory alloys (SMAs). They have a characteristic shape which patients themselves can detach easily without any pain. But they also have enough corrective force. Cu-based SMAs cost much less than Ni-Ti-based alloys. Despite not being appropriate for all cases of ingrowing toenails, it is an easy, effective and less costly alternative.

  15. Transparent and flexible resistive switching memory devices with a very high ON/OFF ratio using gold nanoparticles embedded in a silk protein matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogurla, Narendar; Mondal, Suvra P.; Sinha, Arun K.; Katiyar, Ajit K.; Banerjee, Writam; Kundu, Subhas C.; Ray, Samit K.

    2013-08-01

    The growing demand for biomaterials for electrical and optical devices is motivated by the need to make building blocks for the next generation of printable bio-electronic devices. In this study, transparent and flexible resistive memory devices with a very high ON/OFF ratio incorporating gold nanoparticles into the Bombyx mori silk protein fibroin biopolymer are demonstrated. The novel electronic memory effect is based on filamentary switching, which leads to the occurrence of bistable states with an ON/OFF ratio larger than six orders of magnitude. The mechanism of this process is attributed to the formation of conductive filaments through silk fibroin and gold nanoparticles in the nanocomposite. The proposed hybrid bio-inorganic devices show promise for use in future flexible and transparent nanoelectronic systems.

  16. Transparent and flexible resistive switching memory devices with a very high ON/OFF ratio using gold nanoparticles embedded in a silk protein matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gogurla, Narendar; Mondal, Suvra P; Sinha, Arun K; Katiyar, Ajit K; Banerjee, Writam; Ray, Samit K; Kundu, Subhas C

    2013-01-01

    The growing demand for biomaterials for electrical and optical devices is motivated by the need to make building blocks for the next generation of printable bio-electronic devices. In this study, transparent and flexible resistive memory devices with a very high ON/OFF ratio incorporating gold nanoparticles into the Bombyx mori silk protein fibroin biopolymer are demonstrated. The novel electronic memory effect is based on filamentary switching, which leads to the occurrence of bistable states with an ON/OFF ratio larger than six orders of magnitude. The mechanism of this process is attributed to the formation of conductive filaments through silk fibroin and gold nanoparticles in the nanocomposite. The proposed hybrid bio-inorganic devices show promise for use in future flexible and transparent nanoelectronic systems. (paper)

  17. Role of Al2O3 thin layer on improving the resistive switching properties of Ta5Si3-based conductive bridge random accesses memory device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Dayanand; Aluguri, Rakesh; Chand, Umesh; Tseng, Tseung-Yuen

    2018-04-01

    Ta5Si3-based conductive bridge random access memory (CBRAM) devices have been investigated to improve their resistive switching characteristics for their application in future nonvolatile memory technology. Changes in the switching characteristics by the addition of a thin Al2O3 layer of different thicknesses at the bottom electrode interface of a Ta5Si3-based CBRAM devices have been studied. The double-layer device with a 1 nm Al2O3 layer has shown improved resistive switching characteristics over the single layer one with a high on/off resistance ratio of 102, high endurance of more than 104 cycles, and good retention for more than 105 s at the temperature of 130 °C. The higher thermal conductivity of Al2O3 over Ta5Si3 has been attributed to the enhanced switching properties of the double-layer devices.

  18. Organic ferroelectric memory devices with inkjet-printed polymer electrodes on flexible substrates

    KAUST Repository

    Bhansali, Unnat Sampatraj; Khan, Yasser; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2013-01-01

    c) = 55 MV/m and a peak capacitance density of 45 nF/cm2. Our polarization fatigue measurements show that these devices retain ∼100% and 45% of their initial Pr values after 103 and 10 5 stress cycles, respectively. The overall performance

  19. Two-channel recoder for magnetometer with energy-independent mass memory device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korzinin, V.N.; Selivanov, A.M.

    1993-01-01

    The paper describes a two-channel digit-to-analog recorder designed for converting the sequence of pulses from proton magnetometer (MMH-203) outlet; the device enables processing of the pulses and their recording in RAM and on the tape of the analog recorder. The availability of nonvolotile RAM allows to transmit digit information to a computer (BK-0010) for its further processing

  20. Pulsed ion-beam assisted deposition of Ge nanocrystals on SiO2 for non-volatile memory device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepina, N.P.; Dvurechenskii, A.V.; Armbrister, V.A.; Kirienko, V.V.; Novikov, P.L.; Kesler, V.G.; Gutakovskii, A.K.; Smagina, Z.V.; Spesivtzev, E.V.

    2008-01-01

    A floating gate memory structure, utilizing Ge nanocrystals (NCs) deposited on tunnel SiO 2 , have been fabricated using pulsed low energy ion-beam induced molecular-beam deposition (MBD) in ultra-high vacuum. The ion-beam action is shown to stimulate the nucleation of Ge NCs when being applied after thin Ge layer deposition. Growth conditions for independent change of NCs size and array density were established allowing to optimize the structure parameters required for memory device. Activation energy E = 0.25 eV was determined from the temperature dependence of NCs array density. Monte Carlo simulation has shown that the process, determining NCs array density, is the surface diffusion. Embedding of the crystalline Ge dots into silicon oxide was carried out by selective oxidation of Si(100)/SiO 2 /Ge(NCs)/poly-Si structure. MOS-capacitor obtained after oxidation showed a hysteresis in its C-V curves attributed to charge retention in the Ge dots

  1. Realization of write-once-read-many-times memory device with O{sub 2} plasma-treated indium gallium zinc oxide thin film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, P., E-mail: liup0013@ntu.edu.sg; Chen, T. P., E-mail: echentp@ntu.edu.sg; Li, X. D.; Wong, J. I. [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Liu, Z. [School of Materials and Energy, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Liu, Y. [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu, Sichuan 610054 (China); Leong, K. C. [GLOBALFOUNDRIES Singapore Pte Ltd, 60 Woodlands Industrial Park D Street 2, Singapore 738406 (Singapore)

    2014-01-20

    A write-once-read-many-times (WORM) memory devices based on O{sub 2} plasma-treated indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO) thin films has been demonstrated. The device has a simple Al/IGZO/Al structure. The device has a normally OFF state with a very high resistance (e.g., the resistance at 2 V is ∼10{sup 9} Ω for a device with the radius of 50 μm) as a result of the O{sub 2} plasma treatment on the IGZO thin films. The device could be switched to an ON state with a low resistance (e.g., the resistance at 2 V is ∼10{sup 3} Ω for the radius of 50 μm) by applying a voltage pulse (e.g., 10 V/1 μs). The WORM device has good data-retention and reading-endurance capabilities.

  2. The influence of Ti doping and annealing on Ce{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7} flash memory devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kao, Chyuan Haur [Department of Electronic Engineering, Chang Gung University, No. 259, Wenhua 1st Rd., Guishan Dist., Taoyuan City 33302, Taiwan, ROC (China); Kidney Research Center, Department of Nephrology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University, College of Medicine, Taoyuan, Taiwan, ROC (China); Department of Electronic Engineering, Ming Chi University of Technology, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chen, Su Zhien [Department of Electronic Engineering, Chang Gung University, No. 259, Wenhua 1st Rd., Guishan Dist., Taoyuan City 33302, Taiwan, ROC (China); Kidney Research Center, Department of Nephrology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University, College of Medicine, Taoyuan, Taiwan, ROC (China); Luo, Yang; Chiu, Wang Ting; Chiu, Shih Wei; Chen, I Chien [Department of Applied Materials and Optoelectronic Engineering, National Chi Nan University, No. 1, University Rd., Puli, Nantou Country 54561, Taiwan, ROC (China); Lin, Chan-Yu [Kidney Research Center, Department of Nephrology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University, College of Medicine, Taoyuan, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chen, Hsiang, E-mail: hchen@ncnu.edu.tw [Department of Applied Materials and Optoelectronic Engineering, National Chi Nan University, No. 1, University Rd., Puli, Nantou Country 54561, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • Ce{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7} flash memories have been fabricated. • Material quality can be improved by annealing. • The memory performance can be enhanced by Ti doping. • Ti doping and annealing can reinforce crystallization. - Abstract: In this research, a CeO{sub 2} film with Ti doping was used as a trapping layer in metal oxide high-K-oxide-Si (MOHOS)-type memory devices. Since incorporation of Ti atoms into the film could fix dangling bonds and defects, the Ce{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7} trapping layer with annealing treatment could have a larger memory window and a faster programming/erasing speed. To confirm the origin, multiple material analyses indicate that annealing at an appropriate temperature and Ti doping could enhance crystallization. The Ce{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7}-based memory device is promising for future industrial flash memory applications.

  3. Reactive Ion Etching as Cleaning Method Post Chemical Mechanical Polishing for Phase Change Memory Device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, Zhong; Zhi-Tang, Song; Bo, Liu; Song-Lin, Feng; Bomy, Chen

    2008-01-01

    In order to improve nano-scale phase change memory performance, a super-clean interface should be obtained after chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) of Ge 2 Sb 2 Te 5 phase change films. We use reactive ion etching (RIE) as the cleaning method. The cleaning effect is analysed by scanning electron microscopy and an energy dispersive spectrometer. The results show that particle residue on the surface has been removed. Meanwhile, Ge 2 Sb 2 Te 5 material stoichiometric content ratios are unchanged. After the top electrode is deposited, current-voltage characteristics test demonstrates that the set threshold voltage is reduced from 13 V to 2.7V and the threshold current from 0.1mA to 0.025mA. Furthermore, we analyse the RIE cleaning principle and compare it with the ultrasonic method

  4. Multistate storage nonvolatile memory device based on ferroelectricity and resistive switching effects of SrBi2Ta2O9 films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zhiwei; Li, Gang; Xiong, Ying; Cheng, Chuanpin; Zhang, Wanli; Tang, Minghua; Li, Zheng; He, Jiangheng

    2018-05-01

    A memory device with a Pt/SrBi2Ta2O9(SBT)/Pt(111) structure was shown to have excellent combined ferroelectricity and resistive switching properties, leading to higher multistate storage memory capacity in contrast to ferroelectric memory devices. In this device, SBT polycrystalline thin films with significant (115) orientation were fabricated on Pt(111)/Ti/SiO2/Si(100) substrates using CVD (chemical vapor deposition) method. Measurement results of the electric properties exhibit reproducible and reliable ferroelectricity switching behavior and bipolar resistive switching effects (BRS) without an electroforming process. The ON/OFF ratio of the resistive switching was found to be about 103. Switching mechanisms for the low resistance state (LRS) and high resistance state (HRS) currents are likely attributed to the Ohmic and space charge-limited current (SCLC) behavior, respectively. Moreover, the ferroelectricity and resistive switching effects were found to be mutually independent, and the four logic states were obtained by controlling the periodic sweeping voltage. This work holds great promise for nonvolatile multistate memory devices with high capacity and low cost.

  5. Smart x-ray beam position monitor system using artificial intelligence methods for the advanced photon source insertion-device beamlines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shu, D.; Ding, H.; Barraza, J.; Kuzay, T.M.; Haeffner, D.; Ramanathan, M.

    1997-09-01

    At the Advanced Photon Source (APS), each insertion device (ID) beamline front-end has two XBPMs to monitor the X-ray beam position for both that vertical and horizontal directions. Performance challenges for a conventional photoemission type X-ray beam position monitor (XBPM) during operations are contamination of the signal from the neighboring bending magnet sources and the sensitivity of the XBPM to the insertion device (ID) gap variations. Problems are exacerbated because users change the ID gap during their operations, and hence the percentage level of the contamination in the front end XBPM signals varies. A smart XBPM system with a high speed digital signal processor has been built at the Advanced Photon Source for the ID beamline front ends. The new version of the software, which uses an artificial intelligence method, provides a self learning and self-calibration capability to the smart XBPM system. The structure of and recent test results with the system are presented in this paper

  6. Progress of application, research and development, and design guidelines for shape memory alloy devices for cultural heritage structures in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellano, Maria G.; Indirli, Maurizio; Martelli, Alessandro

    2001-07-01

    A wide ranging R&D Project (ISTECH) on validation and application of the Innovative Antiseismic Techniques (IATs) for the restoration of Cultural Heritage Structures (CUHESs), especially masonry buildings, based on the Shape Memory Alloys (SMAs), has been funded by the European Commission (EC), in the framework of the Environment and Climate RTD Programme. Because Traditional Restoration Techniques (TRTs) have sometimes proved inadequate in avoiding collapses and often too invasive, the use of superelastic SMA Devices (SMADs) has been developed. Theoretical and numerical studies, as well as intensive testing of material specimens, devices, structural models and in situ campaigns, show that SMADs can substantially increase the stability of masonry CUHESs exposed to an earthquake. Different SMAD types have been investigated to fulfil different structural needs and they can be custom designed taking into account each monument's characteristics. The successful results of the research and its exploitation led to important applications in Italy: the S. Giorgio Church Bell-Tower, located at Trignano, S. Martino in Rio, Reggio Emilia, damaged by the 15th October 1996 earthquake, the transept tympana of the S. Francesco Basilica in Assisi and the S. Feliciano Cathedral façade in Foligno, both heavily damaged by the September 1997 earthquake. In addition, further studies and applications of SMAD technology are foreseen in Italy in the next future, in the framework of Italian and European research projects and proposals.

  7. A numerical analysis and experimental demonstration of a low degradation conductive bridge resistive memory device

    KAUST Repository

    Berco, Dan

    2017-10-23

    This study investigates a low degradation metal-ion conductive bridge RAM (CBRAM) structure. The structure is based on placing a diffusion blocking layer (DBL) between the device\\'s top electrode (TE) and the resistive switching layer (RSL), unlike conventional CBRAMs, where the TE serves as a supply reservoir for metallic species diffusing into the RSL to form a conductive filament (CF) and is kept in direct contact with the RSL. The properties of a conventional CBRAM structure (Cu/HfO2/TiN), having a Cu TE, 10 nm HfO2 RSL, and a TiN bottom electrode, are compared with a 2 nm TaN DBL incorporating structure (Cu/TaN/HfO2/TiN) for 103 programming and erase simulation cycles. The low and high resistive state values for each cycle are calculated and the analysis reveals that adding the DBL yields lower degradation. In addition, the 2D distribution plots of oxygen vacancies, O ions, and Cu species within the RSL indicate that oxidation occurring in the DBL-RSL interface results in the formation of a sub-stoichiometric tantalum oxynitride with higher blocking capabilities that suppresses further Cu insertion beyond an initial CF formation phase, as well as CF lateral widening during cycling. The higher endurance of the structure with DBL may thus be attributed to the relatively low amount of Cu migrating into the RSL during the initial CF formation. Furthermore, this isomorphic CF displays similar cycling behavior to neural ionic channels. The results of numerical analysis show a good match to experimental measurements of similar device structures as well

  8. Stability, bistability and instability of amorphous ZrO2 resistive memory devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parreira, P; Paterson, G W; McVitie, S; MacLaren, D A

    2016-01-01

    Amorphous zirconium oxide thin films deposited at room temperature, sandwiched between Pt and Ti electrodes, show resistive bipolar resistive switching with good overall performance figures (retention, ON/OFF ratio and durability). A variability observed during electrical characterisation is consistent with the coexistence of two different resistive switching mechanisms within the ZrO 2 layer. Electron energy loss spectroscopy is used to map chemical variations across the device on the nanoscale. Partial oxidation of the Ti electrode creates an ohmic contact with zirconia and injects positively charged oxygen vacancies into the zirconia layer that are then responsible for resistive switching at the Pt / zirconia interface. (paper)

  9. [Intelligent telemedicine in intensive care units. Bed-side operation of medical technology devices and IT in intensive care medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röhrig, R; Rüth, R

    2009-03-01

    Patient data management systems (PDMS) may improve the quality of clinical documentation in intensive care medicine. In addition to the documentation, many PDMS offer the clinicians support for clinical decisions and workflow. The data recorded by the PDMS are available for data analysis to support administrative responsibilities (e.g., reimbursement, personnel management, quality management) or scientific questions. Within this process, semantic interoperability is a cornerstone for the integration of the PDMS into the IT infrastructure of the hospital, and the connection of medical devices is an essential precondition. Thus, a medical terminology system, like LOINC or SNOMED CT, is required, but are generally not widely used. This is partly caused by the fact that the effort necessary to implement a standard vocabulary is not equally shared between the sending and receiving systems. The solution could be medical devices that send LOINC-coded data. The experience of implementing LOINC into medical devices and information systems teaches us that more research and development of new functionalities for clinical information systems and PDMS to display and process (LOINC) coded data are needed.

  10. Material-specific retroactive interference effects of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition on the Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition in a nonclinical sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, Nicolette S; Diakoumakos, Jessica V; Sinclair, Erin R; Crowe, Simon F

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated proactive and retroactive interference effects between the Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition (WMS-IV) using the flexible approach, and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV). One hundred and eighty nonclinical participants were assigned to a four (visual interference, verbal interference, visual and verbal interference, vs. no interference) by two (retroactive vs. proactive) between-subjects design. The administration order of the tests was counterbalanced (i.e., administration of the WAIS-IV prior to the WMS-IV, and the WAIS-IV administered during the delay interval of the WMS-IV). The WAIS-IV produced significant retroactive interference effects on the WMS-IV; however, no proactive interference effect was observed. The retroactive interference effect was dependent on material specificity. The results indicate that material presented within the delay of the WMS-IV can have a significant effect on subsequent delayed recall. Clinicians should carefully consider the effects associated with carry-over effects of these tests when using them in combination.

  11. Compliant liquid column damper modified by shape memory alloy device for seismic vibration control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gur, Sourav; Mishra, Sudib Kumar; Bhowmick, Sutanu; Chakraborty, Subrata

    2014-01-01

    Liquid column dampers (LCDs) have long been used for the seismic vibration control of flexible structures. In contrast, tuning LCDs to short-period structures poses difficulty. Various modifications have been proposed on the original LCD configuration for improving its performance in relatively stiff structures. One such system, referred to as a compliant-LCD has been proposed recently by connecting the LCD to the structure with a spring. In this study, an improvement is attempted in compliant LCDs by replacing the linear spring with a spring made of shape memory alloy (SMA). Considering the dissipative, super-elastic, force-deformation hysteresis of SMA triggered by stress-induced micro-structural phase transition, the performance is expected to improve further. The optimum parameters for the SMA-compliant LCD are obtained through design optimization, which is based on a nonlinear random vibration response analysis via stochastic linearization of the force-deformation hysteresis of SMA and dissipation by liquid motion through an orifice. Substantially enhanced performance of the SMA–LCD over a conventional compliant LCD is demonstrated, the consistency of which is further verified under recorded ground motions. The robustness of the improved performance is also validated by parametric study concerning the anticipated variations in system parameters as well as variability in seismic loading. (paper)

  12. A numerical analysis and experimental demonstration of a low degradation conductive bridge resistive memory device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berco, Dan; Chand, Umesh; Fariborzi, Hossein

    2017-10-01

    This study investigates a low degradation metal-ion conductive bridge RAM (CBRAM) structure. The structure is based on placing a diffusion blocking layer (DBL) between the device's top electrode (TE) and the resistive switching layer (RSL), unlike conventional CBRAMs, where the TE serves as a supply reservoir for metallic species diffusing into the RSL to form a conductive filament (CF) and is kept in direct contact with the RSL. The properties of a conventional CBRAM structure (Cu/HfO2/TiN), having a Cu TE, 10 nm HfO2 RSL, and a TiN bottom electrode, are compared with a 2 nm TaN DBL incorporating structure (Cu/TaN/HfO2/TiN) for 103 programming and erase simulation cycles. The low and high resistive state values for each cycle are calculated and the analysis reveals that adding the DBL yields lower degradation. In addition, the 2D distribution plots of oxygen vacancies, O ions, and Cu species within the RSL indicate that oxidation occurring in the DBL-RSL interface results in the formation of a sub-stoichiometric tantalum oxynitride with higher blocking capabilities that suppresses further Cu insertion beyond an initial CF formation phase, as well as CF lateral widening during cycling. The higher endurance of the structure with DBL may thus be attributed to the relatively low amount of Cu migrating into the RSL during the initial CF formation. Furthermore, this isomorphic CF displays similar cycling behavior to neural ionic channels. The results of numerical analysis show a good match to experimental measurements of similar device structures as well.

  13. A numerical analysis and experimental demonstration of a low degradation conductive bridge resistive memory device

    KAUST Repository

    Berco, Dan; Chand, Umesh; Fariborzi, Hossein

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates a low degradation metal-ion conductive bridge RAM (CBRAM) structure. The structure is based on placing a diffusion blocking layer (DBL) between the device's top electrode (TE) and the resistive switching layer (RSL), unlike conventional CBRAMs, where the TE serves as a supply reservoir for metallic species diffusing into the RSL to form a conductive filament (CF) and is kept in direct contact with the RSL. The properties of a conventional CBRAM structure (Cu/HfO2/TiN), having a Cu TE, 10 nm HfO2 RSL, and a TiN bottom electrode, are compared with a 2 nm TaN DBL incorporating structure (Cu/TaN/HfO2/TiN) for 103 programming and erase simulation cycles. The low and high resistive state values for each cycle are calculated and the analysis reveals that adding the DBL yields lower degradation. In addition, the 2D distribution plots of oxygen vacancies, O ions, and Cu species within the RSL indicate that oxidation occurring in the DBL-RSL interface results in the formation of a sub-stoichiometric tantalum oxynitride with higher blocking capabilities that suppresses further Cu insertion beyond an initial CF formation phase, as well as CF lateral widening during cycling. The higher endurance of the structure with DBL may thus be attributed to the relatively low amount of Cu migrating into the RSL during the initial CF formation. Furthermore, this isomorphic CF displays similar cycling behavior to neural ionic channels. The results of numerical analysis show a good match to experimental measurements of similar device structures as well

  14. IC design challenges for ambient intelligence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarts, E.H.L.; Roovers, R.L.J.

    2003-01-01

    The vision of ambient intelligence opens a world of unprecedented experiences: the interaction of people with electronic devices is changed as contextual awareness, natural interfaces and ubiquitous availability of information are realized. We analyze the consequences of the ambient intelligence

  15. Conducting atomic force microscopy studies on doped CulnO2 thin films for resistive memory device applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehta, B.R.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Delafosite thin films have interesting structural, optical and electronic properties due to the highly anisotropic crystal structure and possibility of bipolar conductivity. In this presentation, optical, structural and electrical properties of Sn (n type) and Ca (p type) doped CulnO 2 layers grown by rf magnetron sputtering technique will be discussed. Depending on doping and deposition temperature, these films show nanocolumnar structure with (110) and (006) preferred orientations. The observed decrease in activation energy from 0.9 eV to about 0.10 eV and a large decrease in conductivity from 2.11 x 10 -10 Scm -1 to 1.66 x 10 -1 Scm -1 on Sn doping has been explained due to the change in preferred orientation along with efficient doping. Our results show that crystallite orientation is the most important factor controlling the electrical conduction in delafossite thin films. The anisotropy of electrical conduction along (006) and (110) directions in tin doped samples has been further established using conducting atomic force microscopy (CAFM) measurements. The CAFM measurements shows the presence of nanoconducting region when the current flow direction is aligned along the BO 6 layer and complete absence of conducting regions when the current direction is perpendicular to the film surface. Resistive memory devices based on Sn and Ca doped CulnO 2 films show stable and reproducible 'on' and 'off' states. CAFM measurement on these devices carried out before and after 'forming' show the growth of nanoconducting filaments on the application of a threshold voltage. It is possible to control resistance in the 'on' and 'off' states and magnitude of the forming and switching voltages by controlling the doping concentration and crystallite orientation in CulnO 2 layers

  16. A 600-µW ultra-low-power associative processor for image pattern recognition employing magnetic tunnel junction-based nonvolatile memories with autonomic intelligent power-gating scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yitao; Miura, Sadahiko; Honjo, Hiroaki; Ikeda, Shoji; Hanyu, Takahiro; Ohno, Hideo; Endoh, Tetsuo

    2016-04-01

    A novel associative processor using magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ)-based nonvolatile memories has been proposed and fabricated under a 90 nm CMOS/70 nm perpendicular-MTJ (p-MTJ) hybrid process for achieving the exceptionally low-power performance of image pattern recognition. A four-transistor 2-MTJ (4T-2MTJ) spin transfer torque magnetoresistive random access memory was adopted to completely eliminate the standby power. A self-directed intelligent power-gating (IPG) scheme specialized for this associative processor is employed to optimize the operation power by only autonomously activating currently accessed memory cells. The operations of a prototype chip at 20 MHz are demonstrated by measurement. The proposed processor can successfully carry out single texture pattern matching within 6.5 µs using 128-dimension bag-of-feature patterns, and the measured average operation power of the entire processor core is only 600 µW. Compared with the twin chip designed with 6T static random access memory, 91.2% power reductions are achieved. More than 88.0% power reductions are obtained compared with the latest associative memories. The further power performance analysis is discussed in detail, which verifies the special superiority of the proposed processor in power consumption for large-capacity memory-based VLSI systems.

  17. GaAs metal-oxide-semiconductor based non-volatile flash memory devices with InAs quantum dots as charge storage nodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Islam, Sk Masiul, E-mail: masiulelt@gmail.com; Chowdhury, Sisir; Sarkar, Krishnendu; Nagabhushan, B.; Banerji, P. [Materials Science Centre, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721 302 (India); Chakraborty, S. [Applied Materials Science Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Sector-I, Kolkata 700 064 (India); Mukherjee, Rabibrata [Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721302 (India)

    2015-06-24

    Ultra-thin InP passivated GaAs metal-oxide-semiconductor based non-volatile flash memory devices were fabricated using InAs quantum dots (QDs) as charge storing elements by metal organic chemical vapor deposition technique to study the efficacy of the QDs as charge storage elements. The grown QDs were embedded between two high-k dielectric such as HfO{sub 2} and ZrO{sub 2}, which were used for tunneling and control oxide layers, respectively. The size and density of the QDs were found to be 5 nm and 1.8×10{sup 11} cm{sup −2}, respectively. The device with a structure Metal/ZrO{sub 2}/InAs QDs/HfO{sub 2}/GaAs/Metal shows maximum memory window equivalent to 6.87 V. The device also exhibits low leakage current density of the order of 10{sup −6} A/cm{sup 2} and reasonably good charge retention characteristics. The low value of leakage current in the fabricated memory device is attributed to the Coulomb blockade effect influenced by quantum confinement as well as reduction of interface trap states by ultra-thin InP passivation on GaAs prior to HfO{sub 2} deposition.

  18. A fast, high-endurance and scalable non-volatile memory device made from asymmetric Ta2O5-x/TaO2-x bilayer structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Myoung-Jae; Lee, Chang Bum; Lee, Dongsoo; Lee, Seung Ryul; Chang, Man; Hur, Ji Hyun; Kim, Young-Bae; Kim, Chang-Jung; Seo, David H.; Seo, Sunae; Chung, U.-In; Yoo, In-Kyeong; Kim, Kinam

    2011-08-01

    Numerous candidates attempting to replace Si-based flash memory have failed for a variety of reasons over the years. Oxide-based resistance memory and the related memristor have succeeded in surpassing the specifications for a number of device requirements. However, a material or device structure that satisfies high-density, switching-speed, endurance, retention and most importantly power-consumption criteria has yet to be announced. In this work we demonstrate a TaOx-based asymmetric passive switching device with which we were able to localize resistance switching and satisfy all aforementioned requirements. In particular, the reduction of switching current drastically reduces power consumption and results in extreme cycling endurances of over 1012. Along with the 10 ns switching times, this allows for possible applications to the working-memory space as well. Furthermore, by combining two such devices each with an intrinsic Schottky barrier we eliminate any need for a discrete transistor or diode in solving issues of stray leakage current paths in high-density crossbar arrays.

  19. Intelligible Artificial Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Weld, Daniel S.; Bansal, Gagan

    2018-01-01

    Since Artificial Intelligence (AI) software uses techniques like deep lookahead search and stochastic optimization of huge neural networks to fit mammoth datasets, it often results in complex behavior that is difficult for people to understand. Yet organizations are deploying AI algorithms in many mission-critical settings. In order to trust their behavior, we must make it intelligible --- either by using inherently interpretable models or by developing methods for explaining otherwise overwh...

  20. Resistive switching effect in the planar structure of all-printed, flexible and rewritable memory device based on advanced 2D nanocomposite of graphene quantum dots and white graphene flakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehman, Muhammad Muqeet; Siddiqui, Ghayas Uddin; Kim, Sowon; Choi, Kyung Hyun

    2017-01-01

    Pursuit of the most appropriate materials and fabrication methods is essential for developing a reliable, rewritable and flexible memory device. In this study, we have proposed an advanced 2D nanocomposite of white graphene (hBN) flakes embedded with graphene quantum dots (GQDs) as the functional layer of a flexible memory device owing to their unique electrical, chemical and mechanical properties. Unlike the typical sandwich type structure of a memory device, we developed a cost effective planar structure, to simplify device fabrication and prevent sneak current. The entire device fabrication was carried out using printing technology followed by encapsulation in an atomically thin layer of aluminum oxide (Al 2 O 3 ) for protection against environmental humidity. The proposed memory device exhibited attractive bipolar switching characteristics of high switching ratio, large electrical endurance and enhanced lifetime, without any crosstalk between adjacent memory cells. The as-fabricated device showed excellent durability for several bending cycles at various bending diameters without any degradation in bistable resistive states. The memory mechanism was deduced to be conductive filamentary; this was validated by illustrating the temperature dependence of bistable resistive states. Our obtained results pave the way for the execution of promising 2D material based next generation flexible and non-volatile memory (NVM) applications. (paper)

  1. Model-assisted template extraction SRAF application to contact holes patterns in high-end flash memory device fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seoud, Ahmed; Kim, Juhwan; Ma, Yuansheng; Jayaram, Srividya; Hong, Le; Chae, Gyu-Yeol; Lee, Jeong-Woo; Park, Dae-Jin; Yune, Hyoung-Soon; Oh, Se-Young; Park, Chan-Ha

    2018-03-01

    Sub-resolution assist feature (SRAF) insertion techniques have been effectively used for a long time now to increase process latitude in the lithography patterning process. Rule-based SRAF and model-based SRAF are complementary solutions, and each has its own benefits, depending on the objectives of applications and the criticality of the impact on manufacturing yield, efficiency, and productivity. Rule-based SRAF provides superior geometric output consistency and faster runtime performance, but the associated recipe development time can be of concern. Model-based SRAF provides better coverage for more complicated pattern structures in terms of shapes and sizes, with considerably less time required for recipe development, although consistency and performance may be impacted. In this paper, we introduce a new model-assisted template extraction (MATE) SRAF solution, which employs decision tree learning in a model-based solution to provide the benefits of both rule-based and model-based SRAF insertion approaches. The MATE solution is designed to automate the creation of rules/templates for SRAF insertion, and is based on the SRAF placement predicted by model-based solutions. The MATE SRAF recipe provides optimum lithographic quality in relation to various manufacturing aspects in a very short time, compared to traditional methods of rule optimization. Experiments were done using memory device pattern layouts to compare the MATE solution to existing model-based SRAF and pixelated SRAF approaches, based on lithographic process window quality, runtime performance, and geometric output consistency.

  2. Integration of optically active Neodymium ions in Niobium devices (Nd:Nb): quantum memory for hybrid quantum entangled systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayfeh, O. M.; Chao, D.; Djapic, N.; Sims, P.; Liu, B.; Sharma, S.; Lerum, L.; Fahem, M.; Dinh, V.; Zlatanovic, S.; Lynn, B.; Torres, C.; Higa, B.; Moore, J.; Upchurch, A.; Cothern, J.; Tukeman, M.; Barua, R.; Davidson, B.; Ramirez, A. D.; Rees, C. D.; Anant, V.; Kanter, G. S.

    2017-08-01

    Optically active rare-earth Neodymium (Nd) ions are integrated in Niobium (Nb) thin films forming a new quantum memory device (Nd:Nb) targeting long-lived coherence times and multi-functionality enabled by both spin and photon storage properties. Nb is implanted with Nd spanning 10-60 keV energy and 1013-1014 cm-2 dose producing a 1- 3% Nd:Nb concentration as confirmed by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Scanning confocal photoluminescence (PL) at 785 nm excitation are made and sharp emission peaks from the 4F3/2 -red shift and increased broadening to a 4.8 nm linewidth. Nd:Nb is photoconductive and responds strongly to applied fields. Furthermore, optically detected magnetic resonance (ODMR) measurements are presented spanning near-infrared telecom band. The modulation of the emission intensity with magnetic field and microwave power by integration of these magnetic Kramer type Nd ions is quantified along with spin echoes under pulsed microwave π-π/2 excitation. A hybrid system architecture is proposed using spin and photon quantum information storage with the nuclear and electron states of the Nd3+ and neighboring Nb atoms that can couple qubit states to hyperfine 7/2 spin states of Nd:Nb and onto NIR optical levels excitable with entangled single photons, thus enabling implementation of computing and networking/internet protocols in a single platform.

  3. Extreme Ultraviolet Process Optimization for Contact Layer of 14 nm Node Logic and 16 nm Half Pitch Memory Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Shih-En; Chen, Alek

    2012-06-01

    Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography is considered the most promising single exposure technology at the 27 nm half-pitch node and beyond. The imaging performance of ASML TWINSCAN NXE:3100 has been demonstrated to be able to resolve 26 nm Flash gate layer and 16 nm static random access memory (SRAM) metal layer with a 0.25 numerical aperture (NA) and conventional illumination. Targeting for high volume manufacturing, ASML TWINSCAN NXE:3300B, featuring a 0.33 NA lens with off-axis illumination, will generate a higher contrast aerial image due to improved diffraction order collection efficiency and is expected to reduce target dose via mask biasing. This work performed a simulation to determine how EUV high NA imaging benefits the mask rule check trade-offs required to achieve viable lithography solutions in two device application scenarios: a 14 nm node 6T-SRAM contact layer and a 16 nm half-pitch NAND Flash staggered contact layer. In each application, the three-dimensional mask effects versus Kirchhoff mask were also investigated.

  4. Demo-application of shape memory alloy devices: the rehabilitation of the S. Giorgio Church bell tower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indirli, Maurizio; Castellano, Maria G.; Clemente, Paolo; Martelli, Alessandro

    2001-07-01

    This paper describes the rehabilitation of the S. Giorgio Church Bell-Tower (Trignano, Municipality of S. Martino in Rio, Reggio Emilia, Italy), completed in September 1999. This masonry building, seriously damaged by the earthquake of October 15th 1996 which struck the Reggio Emilia and Modena Districts, Italy), was investigated by the authors immediately after the seismic event, as other ancient Cultural Heritage Structures (CUHESs) in the same area. In the past, seismic events have visited substantial destruction that translates into a significant loss of architectural heritage. The most common solution traditionally used to enhance the CUHESs seismic behaviour is the introduction of localized reinforcements, usually Traditional Steel Ties (TSTs), increasing stability and ductility. Anyway, in many cases said reinforcement techniques, often too invasive, proved to be inadequate to prevent collapse. For these reasons, the Bell-Tower intervention applies Innovative Antiseismic Techniques (IATs) by the use of superelastic Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) Devices (SMADs), a technology developed after a large amount of theoretical studies, numerical analyses and test campaigns. The SMADs, which can be considered a powerful tool with respect to the traditional methods, provide acceleration reduction, force limitation and energy dissipation. Furthermore, they are characterized by low invasivity and complete reversibility. When another earthquake occurred on June 18th 2000, with the same epicenter and a comparable Richter Magnitudo, the Bell-Tower, subjected to a new investigation, showed no damage of any type. Thus, the new seismic event has been the best verification of the retrofit intervention.

  5. Multifunctional Energy Storage and Conversion Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yan; Zhu, Minshen; Huang, Yang; Pei, Zengxia; Li, Hongfei; Wang, Zifeng; Xue, Qi; Zhi, Chunyi

    2016-10-01

    Multifunctional energy storage and conversion devices that incorporate novel features and functions in intelligent and interactive modes, represent a radical advance in consumer products, such as wearable electronics, healthcare devices, artificial intelligence, electric vehicles, smart household, and space satellites, etc. Here, smart energy devices are defined to be energy devices that are responsive to changes in configurational integrity, voltage, mechanical deformation, light, and temperature, called self-healability, electrochromism, shape memory, photodetection, and thermal responsivity. Advisable materials, device designs, and performances are crucial for the development of energy electronics endowed with these smart functions. Integrating these smart functions in energy storage and conversion devices gives rise to great challenges from the viewpoint of both understanding the fundamental mechanisms and practical implementation. Current state-of-art examples of these smart multifunctional energy devices, pertinent to materials, fabrication strategies, and performances, are highlighted. In addition, current challenges and potential solutions from materials synthesis to device performances are discussed. Finally, some important directions in this fast developing field are considered to further expand their application. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Modelling intelligent behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, H. S.; Triffet, T.

    1993-01-01

    An introductory discussion of the related concepts of intelligence and consciousness suggests criteria to be met in the modeling of intelligence and the development of intelligent materials. Methods for the modeling of actual structure and activity of the animal cortex have been found, based on present knowledge of the ionic and cellular constitution of the nervous system. These have led to the development of a realistic neural network model, which has been used to study the formation of memory and the process of learning. An account is given of experiments with simple materials which exhibit almost all properties of biological synapses and suggest the possibility of a new type of computer architecture to implement an advanced type of artificial intelligence.

  7. Age-related changes in electrophysiological and neuropsychological indices of working memory, attention control, and fluid intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrie Brumback Peltz

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Older adults exhibit great variability in their cognitive abilities, with some maintaining high levels of performance on executive control tasks and others showing significant deficits. Previous event-related potential (ERP work has shown that some of these performance differences are correlated with persistence of the novelty/frontal P3 in older adults elicited by task-relevant events, presumably reflecting variability in the capacity to suppress orienting to unexpected but no longer novel events. In recent ERP work in young adults, we showed that the operation-span task (OSPAN, a measure of attention control is predictive of the ability of individuals to keep track of stimulus sequencing and to maintain running mental representations of task stimuli, as indexed by the parietally-distributed P300 (or P3b. Both of these phenomena reflect aspects of frontal function (cognitive flexibility and attention control, respectively. To investigate these phenomena we sorted both younger and older adults into low- and high-working memory spans and low- and high-cognitive flexibility subgroups, and examined ERPs during an equal-probability choice reaction-time task. For both age groups (a participants with high OSPAN scores were better able to keep track of stimulus sequencing, as indicated by their smaller P3b to sequential changes; and (b participants with lower cognitive flexibility had larger P3a than their high-scoring counterparts. However, these two phenomena did not interact suggesting that they manifest dissociable control mechanisms. Further, the fact that both effects are already visible in younger adults suggests that at least some of the brain mechanisms underlying individual differences in cognitive aging may already operate early in life.

  8. Material insights of HfO2-based integrated 1-transistor-1-resistor resistive random access memory devices processed by batch atomic layer deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Gang; Kim, Hee-Dong; Roelofs, Robin; Perez, Eduardo; Schubert, Markus Andreas; Zaumseil, Peter; Costina, Ioan; Wenger, Christian

    2016-06-17

    With the continuous scaling of resistive random access memory (RRAM) devices, in-depth understanding of the physical mechanism and the material issues, particularly by directly studying integrated cells, become more and more important to further improve the device performances. In this work, HfO2-based integrated 1-transistor-1-resistor (1T1R) RRAM devices were processed in a standard 0.25 μm complementary-metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) process line, using a batch atomic layer deposition (ALD) tool, which is particularly designed for mass production. We demonstrate a systematic study on TiN/Ti/HfO2/TiN/Si RRAM devices to correlate key material factors (nano-crystallites and carbon impurities) with the filament type resistive switching (RS) behaviours. The augmentation of the nano-crystallites density in the film increases the forming voltage of devices and its variation. Carbon residues in HfO2 films turn out to be an even more significant factor strongly impacting the RS behaviour. A relatively higher deposition temperature of 300 °C dramatically reduces the residual carbon concentration, thus leading to enhanced RS performances of devices, including lower power consumption, better endurance and higher reliability. Such thorough understanding on physical mechanism of RS and the correlation between material and device performances will facilitate the realization of high density and reliable embedded RRAM devices with low power consumption.

  9. Realization of synaptic learning and memory functions in Y2O3 based memristive device fabricated by dual ion beam sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Mangal; Kumar, Amitesh; Singh, Rohit; Than Htay, Myo; Mukherjee, Shaibal

    2018-02-01

    Single synaptic device with inherent learning and memory functions is demonstrated based on a forming-free amorphous Y2O3 (yttria) memristor fabricated by dual ion beam sputtering system. Synaptic functions such as nonlinear transmission characteristics, long-term plasticity, short-term plasticity and ‘learning behavior (LB)’ are achieved using a single synaptic device based on cost-effective metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) structure. An ‘LB’ function is demonstrated, for the first time in the literature, for a yttria based memristor, which bears a resemblance to certain memory functions of biological systems. The realization of key synaptic functions in a cost-effective MIS structure would promote much cheaper synapse for artificial neural network.

  10. Multiferroic Memories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amritendu Roy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiferroism implies simultaneous presence of more than one ferroic characteristics such as coexistence of ferroelectric and magnetic ordering. This phenomenon has led to the development of various kinds of materials and conceptions of many novel applications such as development of a memory device utilizing the multifunctionality of the multiferroic materials leading to a multistate memory device with electrical writing and nondestructive magnetic reading operations. Though, interdependence of electrical- and magnetic-order parameters makes it difficult to accomplish the above and thus rendering the device to only two switchable states, recent research has shown that such problems can be circumvented by novel device designs such as formation of tunnel junction or by use of exchange bias. In this paper, we review the operational aspects of multiferroic memories as well as the materials used for these applications along with the designs that hold promise for the future memory devices.

  11. Influence of Thermal Annealing Treatment on Bipolar Switching Properties of Vanadium Oxide Thin-Film Resistance Random-Access Memory Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kai-Huang; Cheng, Chien-Min; Kao, Ming-Cheng; Chang, Kuan-Chang; Chang, Ting-Chang; Tsai, Tsung-Ming; Wu, Sean; Su, Feng-Yi

    2017-04-01

    The bipolar switching properties and electrical conduction mechanism of vanadium oxide thin-film resistive random-access memory (RRAM) devices obtained using a rapid thermal annealing (RTA) process have been investigated in high-resistive status/low-resistive status (HRS/LRS) and are discussed herein. In addition, the resistance switching properties and quality improvement of the vanadium oxide thin-film RRAM devices were measured by x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, x-ray photoelectron spectrometry (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and current-voltage ( I- V) measurements. The activation energy of the hopping conduction mechanism in the devices was investigated based on Arrhenius plots in HRS and LRS. The hopping conduction distance and activation energy barrier were obtained as 12 nm and 45 meV, respectively. The thermal annealing process is recognized as a candidate method for fabrication of thin-film RRAM devices, being compatible with integrated circuit technology for nonvolatile memory devices.

  12. Synaptic plasticity and memory functions achieved in a WO3−x-based nanoionics device by using the principle of atomic switch operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Rui; Terabe, Kazuya; Yao, Yiping; Tsuruoka, Tohru; Hasegawa, Tsuyoshi; Gimzewski, James K; Aono, Masakazu

    2013-01-01

    A compact neuromorphic nanodevice with inherent learning and memory properties emulating those of biological synapses is the key to developing artificial neural networks rivaling their biological counterparts. Experimental results showed that memorization with a wide time scale from volatile to permanent can be achieved in a WO 3−x -based nanoionics device and can be precisely and cumulatively controlled by adjusting the device’s resistance state and input pulse parameters such as the amplitude, interval, and number. This control is analogous to biological synaptic plasticity including short-term plasticity, long-term potentiation, transition from short-term memory to long-term memory, forgetting processes for short- and long-term memory, learning speed, and learning history. A compact WO 3−x -based nanoionics device with a simple stacked layer structure should thus be a promising candidate for use as an inorganic synapse in artificial neural networks due to its striking resemblance to the biological synapse. (paper)

  13. Combined mask and illumination scheme optimization for robust contact patterning on 45nm technology node flash memory devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaglio Pret, Alessandro; Capetti, Gianfranco; Bollin, Maddalena; Cotti, Gina; De Simone, Danilo; Cantù, Pietro; Vaccaro, Alessandro; Soma, Laura

    2008-03-01

    Immersion Lithography is the most important technique for extending optical lithography's capabilities and meeting the requirements of Semiconductor Roadmap. The introduction of immersion tools has recently allowed the development of 45nm technology node in single exposure. Nevertheless the usage of hyper-high NA scanners (NA > 1), some levels still remain very critical to be imaged with sufficient process performances. For memory devices, contact mask is for sure the most challenging layer. Aim of this paper is to present the lithographic assessment of 193nm contact holes process, with k I value of ~0.30 using NA 1.20 immersion lithography (minimum pitch is 100nm). Different issues will be reported, related to mask choices (Binary or Attenuated Phase Shift) and illuminator configurations. First phase of the work will be dedicated to a preliminary experimental screening on a simple test case in order to reduce the variables in the following optimization sections. Based on this analysis we will discard X-Y symmetrical illuminators (Annular, C-Quad) due to poor contrast. Second phase will be dedicated to a full simulation assessment. Different illuminators will be compared, with both mask type and several mask biases. From this study, we will identify some general trends of lithography performances that can be used for the fine tuning of the RET settings. The last phase of the work will be dedicated to find the sensitivity trends for one of the analyzed illuminators. In particular we study the effect of Numerical Aperture, mask bias in both X and Y direction and poles sigma ring-width and centre.

  14. Highly conducting leakage-free electrolyte for SrCoOx-based non-volatile memory device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katase, Takayoshi; Suzuki, Yuki; Ohta, Hiromichi

    2017-10-01

    The electrochemical switching of SrCoOx-based non-volatile memory with a thin-film-transistor structure was examined by using liquid-leakage-free electrolytes with different conductivities (σ) as the gate insulator. We first examined leakage-free water, which is incorporated in the amorphous (a-) 12CaO.7Al2O3 film with a nanoporous structure (Calcium Aluminate with Nanopore), but the electrochemical oxidation/reduction of the SrCoOx layer required the application of a high gate voltage (Vg) up to 20 V for a very long current-flowing-time (t) ˜40 min, primarily due to the low σ [2.0 × 10-8 S cm-1 at room temperature (RT)] of leakage-free water. We then controlled the σ of the leakage-free electrolyte, infiltrated in the a-NaxTaO3 film with a nanopillar array structure, from 8.0 × 10-8 S cm-1 to 2.5 × 10-6 S cm-1 at RT by changing the x = 0.01-1.0. As the result, the t, required for the metallization of the SrCoOx layer under small Vg = -3 V, becomes two orders of magnitude shorter with increase of the σ of the a-NaxTaO3 leakage-free electrolyte. These results indicate that the ion migration in the leakage-free electrolyte is the rate-determining step for the electrochemical switching, compared to the other electrochemical process, and the high σ of the leakage-free electrolyte is the key factor for the development of the non-volatile SrCoOx-based electro-magnetic phase switching device.

  15. Intelligent mechatronics; Intelligent mechatronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, H. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Institute of Industrial Science

    1995-10-01

    Intelligent mechatronics (IM) was explained as follows: a study of IM essentially targets realization of a robot namely, but in the present stage the target is a creation of new values by intellectualization of machine, that is, a combination of the information infrastructure and the intelligent machine system. IM is also thought to be constituted of computers positively used and micromechatronics. The paper next introduces examples of IM study, mainly those the author is concerned with as shown below: sensor gloves, robot hands, robot eyes, tele operation, three-dimensional object recognition, mobile robot, magnetic bearing, construction of remote controlled unmanned dam, robot network, sensitivity communication using neuro baby, etc. 27 figs.

  16. MBE-grown Si and Si1−xGex quantum dots embedded within epitaxial Gd2O3 on Si(111) substrate for floating gate memory device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manna, S; Aluguri, R; Katiyar, A; Ray, S K; Das, S; Laha, A; Osten, H J

    2013-01-01

    Si and Si 1−x Ge x quantum dots embedded within epitaxial Gd 2 O 3 grown by molecular beam epitaxy have been studied for application in floating gate memory devices. The effect of interface traps and the role of quantum dots on the memory properties have been studied using frequency-dependent capacitance–voltage and conductance–voltage measurements. Multilayer quantum dot memory comprising four and five layers of Si quantum dots exhibits a superior memory window to that of single-layer quantum dot memory devices. It has also been observed that single-layer Si 1−x Ge x quantum dots show better memory characteristics than single-layer Si quantum dots. (paper)

  17. Use of a Novel Artificial Intelligence Platform on Mobile Devices to Assess Dosing Compliance in a Phase 2 Clinical Trial in Subjects With Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bain, Earle E; Shafner, Laura; Walling, David P; Othman, Ahmed A; Chuang-Stein, Christy; Hinkle, John; Hanina, Adam

    2017-02-21

    Accurately monitoring and collecting drug adherence data can allow for better understanding and interpretation of the outcomes of clinical trials. Most clinical trials use a combination of pill counts and self-reported data to measure drug adherence, despite the drawbacks of relying on these types of indirect measures. It is assumed that doses are taken, but the exact timing of these events is often incomplete and imprecise. The objective of this pilot study was to evaluate the use of a novel artificial intelligence (AI) platform (AiCure) on mobile devices for measuring medication adherence, compared with modified directly observed therapy (mDOT) in a substudy of a Phase 2 trial of the α7 nicotinic receptor agonist (ABT-126) in subjects with schizophrenia. AI platform generated adherence measures were compared with adherence inferred from drug concentration measurements. The mean cumulative pharmacokinetic adherence over 24 weeks was 89.7% (standard deviation [SD] 24.92) for subjects receiving ABT-126 who were monitored using the AI platform, compared with 71.9% (SD 39.81) for subjects receiving ABT-126 who were monitored by mDOT. The difference was 17.9% (95% CI -2 to 37.7; P=.08). Using drug levels, this substudy demonstrates the potential of AI platforms to increase adherence, rapidly detect nonadherence, and predict future nonadherence. Subjects monitored using the AI platform demonstrated a percentage change in adherence of 25% over the mDOT group. Subjects were able to use the technology successfully for up to 6 months in an ambulatory setting with early termination rates that are comparable to subjects outside of the substudy. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01655680 https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01655680?term=NCT01655680. ©Earle E Bain, Laura Shafner, David P Walling, Ahmed A Othman, Christy Chuang-Stein, John Hinkle, Adam Hanina. Originally published in JMIR Mhealth and Uhealth (http://mhealth.jmir.org), 21.02.2017.

  18. Use of a Novel Artificial Intelligence Platform on Mobile Devices to Assess Dosing Compliance in a Phase 2 Clinical Trial in Subjects With Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Background Accurately monitoring and collecting drug adherence data can allow for better understanding and interpretation of the outcomes of clinical trials. Most clinical trials use a combination of pill counts and self-reported data to measure drug adherence, despite the drawbacks of relying on these types of indirect measures. It is assumed that doses are taken, but the exact timing of these events is often incomplete and imprecise. Objective The objective of this pilot study was to evaluate the use of a novel artificial intelligence (AI) platform (AiCure) on mobile devices for measuring medication adherence, compared with modified directly observed therapy (mDOT) in a substudy of a Phase 2 trial of the α7 nicotinic receptor agonist (ABT-126) in subjects with schizophrenia. Methods AI platform generated adherence measures were compared with adherence inferred from drug concentration measurements. Results The mean cumulative pharmacokinetic adherence over 24 weeks was 89.7% (standard deviation [SD] 24.92) for subjects receiving ABT-126 who were monitored using the AI platform, compared with 71.9% (SD 39.81) for subjects receiving ABT-126 who were monitored by mDOT. The difference was 17.9% (95% CI -2 to 37.7; P=.08). Conclusions Using drug levels, this substudy demonstrates the potential of AI platforms to increase adherence, rapidly detect nonadherence, and predict future nonadherence. Subjects monitored using the AI platform demonstrated a percentage change in adherence of 25% over the mDOT group. Subjects were able to use the technology successfully for up to 6 months in an ambulatory setting with early termination rates that are comparable to subjects outside of the substudy. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01655680 https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01655680?term=NCT01655680 PMID:28223265

  19. Core-Shell Zn x Cd1- x Se/Zn y Cd1- y Se Quantum Dots for Nonvolatile Memory and Electroluminescent Device Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Amoody, Fuad; Suarez, Ernesto; Rodriguez, Angel; Heller, E.; Huang, Wenli; Jain, F.

    2011-08-01

    This paper presents a floating quantum dot (QD) gate nonvolatile memory device using high-energy-gap Zn y Cd1- y Se-cladded Zn x Cd1- x Se quantum dots ( y > x) with tunneling layers comprising nearly lattice-matched semiconductors (e.g., ZnS/ZnMgS) on Si channels. Also presented is the fabrication of an electroluminescent (EL) device with embedded cladded ZnCdSe quantum dots. These ZnCdSe quantum dots were embedded between indium tin oxide (ITO) on glass and a top Schottky metal electrode deposited on a thin CsF barrier. These QDs, which were nucleated in a photo-assisted microwave plasma (PMP) metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) reactor, were grown between the source and drain regions on a p-type silicon substrate of the nonvolatile memory device. The composition of QD cladding, which relates to the value of y in Zn y Cd1- y Se, was engineered by the intensity of ultraviolet light, which controlled the incorporation of zinc in ZnCdSe. The QD quality is comparable to those deposited by other methods. Characteristics and modeling of the II-VI quantum dots as well as two diverse types of devices are presented in this paper.

  20. Low-cost fabrication and polar-dependent switching uniformity of memory devices using alumina interfacial layer and Ag nanoparticle monolayer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Xia

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A facile and low-cost process was developed for fabricating write-once-read-many-times (WORM Cu/Ag NPs/Alumina/Al memory devices, where the alumina passivation layer formed naturally in air at room temperature, whereas the Ag nanoparticle monolayer was in situ prepared through thermal annealing of a 4.5 nm Ag film in air at 150°C. The devices exhibit irreversible transition from initial high resistance (OFF state to low resistance (ON state, with ON/OFF ratio of 107, indicating the introduction of Ag nanoparticle monolayer greatly improves ON/OFF ratio by four orders of magnitude. The uniformity of threshold voltages exhibits a polar-dependent behavior, and a narrow range of threshold voltages of 0.40 V among individual devices was achieved upon the forward voltage. The memory device can be regarded as two switching units connected in series. The uniform alumina interfacial layer and the non-uniform distribution of local electric fields originated from Ag nanoparticles might be responsible for excellent switching uniformity. Since silver ions in active layer can act as fast ion conductor, a plausible mechanism relating to the formation of filaments sequentially among the two switching units connected in series is suggested for the polar-dependent switching behavior. Furthermore, we demonstrate both alumina layer and Ag NPs monolayer play essential roles in improving switching parameters based on comparative experiments.

  1. Low-cost fabrication and polar-dependent switching uniformity of memory devices using alumina interfacial layer and Ag nanoparticle monolayer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Peng; Li, Luman; Wang, Pengfei; Gan, Ying; Xu, Wei

    2017-11-01

    A facile and low-cost process was developed for fabricating write-once-read-many-times (WORM) Cu/Ag NPs/Alumina/Al memory devices, where the alumina passivation layer formed naturally in air at room temperature, whereas the Ag nanoparticle monolayer was in situ prepared through thermal annealing of a 4.5 nm Ag film in air at 150°C. The devices exhibit irreversible transition from initial high resistance (OFF) state to low resistance (ON) state, with ON/OFF ratio of 107, indicating the introduction of Ag nanoparticle monolayer greatly improves ON/OFF ratio by four orders of magnitude. The uniformity of threshold voltages exhibits a polar-dependent behavior, and a narrow range of threshold voltages of 0.40 V among individual devices was achieved upon the forward voltage. The memory device can be regarded as two switching units connected in series. The uniform alumina interfacial layer and the non-uniform distribution of local electric fields originated from Ag nanoparticles might be responsible for excellent switching uniformity. Since silver ions in active layer can act as fast ion conductor, a plausible mechanism relating to the formation of filaments sequentially among the two switching units connected in series is suggested for the polar-dependent switching behavior. Furthermore, we demonstrate both alumina layer and Ag NPs monolayer play essential roles in improving switching parameters based on comparative experiments.

  2. Artificial Intelligence and Moral intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Pana

    2008-01-01

    We discuss the thesis that the implementation of a moral code in the behaviour of artificial intelligent systems needs a specific form of human and artificial intelligence, not just an abstract intelligence. We present intelligence as a system with an internal structure and the structural levels of the moral system, as well as certain characteristics of artificial intelligent agents which can/must be treated as 1- individual entities (with a complex, specialized, autonomous or selfdetermined,...

  3. Multi-step resistive switching behavior of Li-doped ZnO resistance random access memory device controlled by compliance current

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Chun-Cheng [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Department of Mathematic and Physical Sciences, R.O.C. Air Force Academy, Kaohsiung 820, Taiwan (China); Tang, Jian-Fu; Su, Hsiu-Hsien [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Hong, Cheng-Shong; Huang, Chih-Yu [Department of Electronic Engineering, National Kaohsiung Normal University, Kaohsiung 802, Taiwan (China); Chu, Sheng-Yuan, E-mail: chusy@mail.ncku.edu.tw [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Center for Micro/Nano Science and Technology, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China)

    2016-06-28

    The multi-step resistive switching (RS) behavior of a unipolar Pt/Li{sub 0.06}Zn{sub 0.94}O/Pt resistive random access memory (RRAM) device is investigated. It is found that the RRAM device exhibits normal, 2-, 3-, and 4-step RESET behaviors under different compliance currents. The transport mechanism within the device is investigated by means of current-voltage curves, in-situ transmission electron microscopy, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. It is shown that the ion transport mechanism is dominated by Ohmic behavior under low electric fields and the Poole-Frenkel emission effect (normal RS behavior) or Li{sup +} ion diffusion (2-, 3-, and 4-step RESET behaviors) under high electric fields.

  4. Multi-step resistive switching behavior of Li-doped ZnO resistance random access memory device controlled by compliance current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Chun-Cheng; Tang, Jian-Fu; Su, Hsiu-Hsien; Hong, Cheng-Shong; Huang, Chih-Yu; Chu, Sheng-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    The multi-step resistive switching (RS) behavior of a unipolar Pt/Li 0.06 Zn 0.94 O/Pt resistive random access memory (RRAM) device is investigated. It is found that the RRAM device exhibits normal, 2-, 3-, and 4-step RESET behaviors under different compliance currents. The transport mechanism within the device is investigated by means of current-voltage curves, in-situ transmission electron microscopy, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. It is shown that the ion transport mechanism is dominated by Ohmic behavior under low electric fields and the Poole-Frenkel emission effect (normal RS behavior) or Li + ion diffusion (2-, 3-, and 4-step RESET behaviors) under high electric fields.

  5. Self-organization scenario acting as physical basis of intelligent complex systems created in laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lozneanu, Erzilia; Sanduloviciu, Mircea

    2006-01-01

    The recognition of limits in the tendency to miniaturize the so-called self-organizing devices inspired scientists to seek inspiration from living organisms that operate with functional elements that employ thermal energy exploiting quantum phenomena. Here we show how such operations are performed by a complex space charge configuration emerged by self-organization in plasma. Endowed with a special kind of memory, the complexity is able to ensure its survival in a metastable state performing the operations 'learned' during its emergence by self-organization. Possessing memory, the complexity works as an intelligent system able to evolve under suitable environmental conditions

  6. Cognitive impairment in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders: A comparison of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III and the Wechsler Memory Scale Revised with the Rao Brief Repeatable Neuropsychological Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juichi Fujimori

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Approximately 55% of patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD show cognitive impairment as evaluated using the Rao Brief Repeatable Neuropsychological Battery (BRBN, but this frequency appears to be higher than the frequency of specific brain lesions in NMOSD. Objective: We studied whether cognitive impairment could be observed in NMOSD patients with no or minor non-specific brain lesions. Methods: We evaluated cognitive function in 12 NMOSD and 14 MS patients using the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III (WAIS-III, the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R, and the BRBN. We judged as cognitively impaired patients whose scores were below the average by 2 standard deviations or greater in 2 or more cognitive domains. Results: Cognitive impairment was observed in 5 MS patients (35.7% and in the only NMOSD patient (8.3% with symptomatic brain lesions, but not in the other NMOSD patients who had no or minor non-specific brain lesions. Meanwhile, 5 NMOSD (41.7% and 4 MS (28.6% patients who had normal cognition according to the WAIS-III and WMS-R were assessed as cognitively impaired by the BRBN (which is not standardized for age. Conclusions: Cognitive function in NMOSD patients with no or mild non-specific brain lesions was preserved according to the WAIS-III and WMS-R. Keywords: Neuromyelitis Optica, Cognitive impairment, Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III, Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised, Rao Brief Repeatable Neuropsychological Battery, Multiple sclerosis

  7. Electrical bistabilities and memory mechanisms of nonvolatile organic bistable devices based on exfoliated muscovite-type mica nanoparticle/poly(methylmethacrylate) nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Won Gyu; Lee, Dea Uk; Na, Han Gil; Kim, Hyoun Woo; Kim, Tae Whan

    2018-02-01

    Organic bistable devices (OBDs) with exfoliated mica nanoparticles (NPs) embedded into an insulating poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) layer were fabricated by using a spin-coating method. Current-voltage (I-V) curves for the Al/PMMA/exfoliated mica NP/PMMA/indium-tin-oxide/glass devices at 300 K showed a clockwise current hysteresis behavior due to the existence of the exfoliated muscovite-type mica NPs, which is an essential feature for bistable devices. Write-read-erase-read data showed that the OBDs had rewritable nonvolatile memories and an endurance number of ON/OFF switching for the OBDs of 102 cycles. An ON/OFF ratio of 1 × 103 was maintained for retention times larger than 1 × 104 s. The memory mechanisms of the fabricated OBDs were described by using the trapping and the tunneling processes within a PMMA active layer containing exfoliated muscovite-type mica NPs on the basis of the energy band diagram and the I-V curves.

  8. An overview of Experimental Condensed Matter Physics in Argentina by 2014, and Oxides for Non Volatile Memory Devices: The MeMOSat Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Pablo

    2015-03-01

    In the first part of my talk, I will describe the status of the experimental research in Condensed Matter Physics in Argentina, biased towards developments related to micro and nanotechnology. In the second part, I will describe the MeMOSat Project, a consortium aimed at producing non-volatile memory devices to work in aggressive environments, like those found in the aerospace and nuclear industries. Our devices rely on the Resistive Switching mechanism, which produces a permanent but reversible change in the electrical resistance across a metal-insulator-metal structure by means of a pulsed protocol of electrical stimuli. Our project is devoted to the study of Memory Mechanisms in Oxides (MeMO) in order to establish a technological platform that tests the Resistive RAM (ReRAM) technology for aerospace applications. A review of MeMOSat's activities is presented, covering the initial Proof of Concept in ceramic millimeter sized samples; the study of different oxide-metal couples including (LaPr)2/3Ca1/3MnO, La2/3Ca1/3MnO3, YBa2Cu3O7, TiO2, HfO2, MgO and CuO; and recent miniaturized arrays of micrometer sized devices controlled by in-house designed electronics, which were launched with the BugSat01 satellite in June2014 by the argentinian company Satellogic.

  9. Fabrication of ultrahigh density metal-cell-metal crossbar memory devices with only two cycles of lithography and dry-etch procedures

    KAUST Repository

    Zong, Baoyu

    2013-05-20

    A novel approach to the fabrication of metal-cell-metal trilayer memory devices was demonstrated by using only two cycles of lithography and dry-etch procedures. The fabricated ultrahigh density crossbar devices can be scaled down to ≤70 nm in half-pitch without alignment issues. Depending on the different dry-etch mechanisms in transferring high and low density nanopatterns, suitable dry-etch angles and methods are studied for the transfer of high density nanopatterns. Some novel process methods have also been developed to eliminate the sidewall and other conversion obstacles for obtaining high density of uniform metallic nanopatterns. With these methods, ultrahigh density trilayer crossbar devices (∼2 × 1010 bit cm-2-kilobit electronic memory), which are composed of built-in practical magnetoresistive nanocells, have been achieved. This scalable process that we have developed provides the relevant industries with a cheap means to commercially fabricate three-dimensional high density metal-cell-metal nanodevices. © 2013 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  10. Architecture for robot intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, II, Richard Alan (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    An architecture for robot intelligence enables a robot to learn new behaviors and create new behavior sequences autonomously and interact with a dynamically changing environment. Sensory information is mapped onto a Sensory Ego-Sphere (SES) that rapidly identifies important changes in the environment and functions much like short term memory. Behaviors are stored in a DBAM that creates an active map from the robot's current state to a goal state and functions much like long term memory. A dream state converts recent activities stored in the SES and creates or modifies behaviors in the DBAM.

  11. Artificial Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information Technology Quarterly, 1985

    1985-01-01

    This issue of "Information Technology Quarterly" is devoted to the theme of "Artificial Intelligence." It contains two major articles: (1) Artificial Intelligence and Law" (D. Peter O'Neill and George D. Wood); (2) "Artificial Intelligence: A Long and Winding Road" (John J. Simon, Jr.). In addition, it contains two sidebars: (1) "Calculating and…

  12. Competitive Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, Pierrette; Hiller, Christine A.

    2002-01-01

    Reviews the evolution of competitive intelligence since 1994, including terminology and definitions and analytical techniques. Addresses the issue of ethics; explores how information technology supports the competitive intelligence process; and discusses education and training opportunities for competitive intelligence, including core competencies…

  13. Tri-state resistive switching characteristics of MnO/Ta2O5 resistive random access memory device by a controllable reset process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, N. J.; Kang, T. S.; Hu, Q.; Lee, T. S.; Yoon, T.-S.; Lee, H. H.; Yoo, E. J.; Choi, Y. J.; Kang, C. J.

    2018-06-01

    Tri-state resistive switching characteristics of bilayer resistive random access memory devices based on manganese oxide (MnO)/tantalum oxide (Ta2O5) have been studied. The current–voltage (I–V) characteristics of the Ag/MnO/Ta2O5/Pt device show tri-state resistive switching (RS) behavior with a high resistance state (HRS), intermediate resistance state (IRS), and low resistance state (LRS), which are controlled by the reset process. The MnO/Ta2O5 film shows bipolar RS behavior through the formation and rupture of conducting filaments without the forming process. The device shows reproducible and stable RS both from the HRS to the LRS and from the IRS to the LRS. In order to elucidate the tri-state RS mechanism in the Ag/MnO/Ta2O5/Pt device, transmission electron microscope (TEM) images are measured in the LRS, IRS and HRS. White lines like dendrites are observed in the Ta2O5 film in both the LRS and the IRS. Poole–Frenkel conduction, space charge limited conduction, and Ohmic conduction are proposed as the dominant conduction mechanisms for the Ag/MnO/Ta2O5/Pt device based on the obtained I–V characteristics and TEM images.

  14. A multiscale simulation technique for molecular electronics: design of a directed self-assembled molecular n-bit shift register memory device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambropoulos, Nicholas A; Reimers, Jeffrey R; Crossley, Maxwell J; Hush, Noel S; Silverbrook, Kia

    2013-12-20

    A general method useful in molecular electronics design is developed that integrates modelling on the nano-scale (using quantum-chemical software) and on the micro-scale (using finite-element methods). It is applied to the design of an n-bit shift register memory that could conceivably be built using accessible technologies. To achieve this, the entire complex structure of the device would be built to atomic precision using feedback-controlled lithography to provide atomic-level control of silicon devices, controlled wet-chemical synthesis of molecular insulating pillars above the silicon, and controlled wet-chemical self-assembly of modular molecular devices to these pillars that connect to external metal electrodes (leads). The shift register consists of n connected cells that read data from an input electrode, pass it sequentially between the cells under the control of two external clock electrodes, and deliver it finally to an output device. The proposed cells are trimeric oligoporphyrin units whose internal states are manipulated to provide functionality, covalently connected to other cells via dipeptide linkages. Signals from the clock electrodes are conveyed by oligoporphyrin molecular wires, and μ-oxo porphyrin insulating columns are used as the supporting pillars. The developed multiscale modelling technique is applied to determine the characteristics of this molecular device, with in particular utilization of the inverted region for molecular electron-transfer processes shown to facilitate latching and control using exceptionally low energy costs per logic operation compared to standard CMOS shift register technology.

  15. A multiscale simulation technique for molecular electronics: design of a directed self-assembled molecular n-bit shift register memory device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambropoulos, Nicholas A; Reimers, Jeffrey R; Crossley, Maxwell J; Hush, Noel S; Silverbrook, Kia

    2013-01-01

    A general method useful in molecular electronics design is developed that integrates modelling on the nano-scale (using quantum-chemical software) and on the micro-scale (using finite-element methods). It is applied to the design of an n-bit shift register memory that could conceivably be built using accessible technologies. To achieve this, the entire complex structure of the device would be built to atomic precision using feedback-controlled lithography to provide atomic-level control of silicon devices, controlled wet-chemical synthesis of molecular insulating pillars above the silicon, and controlled wet-chemical self-assembly of modular molecular devices to these pillars that connect to external metal electrodes (leads). The shift register consists of n connected cells that read data from an input electrode, pass it sequentially between the cells under the control of two external clock electrodes, and deliver it finally to an output device. The proposed cells are trimeric oligoporphyrin units whose internal states are manipulated to provide functionality, covalently connected to other cells via dipeptide linkages. Signals from the clock electrodes are conveyed by oligoporphyrin molecular wires, and μ-oxo porphyrin insulating columns are used as the supporting pillars. The developed multiscale modelling technique is applied to determine the characteristics of this molecular device, with in particular utilization of the inverted region for molecular electron-transfer processes shown to facilitate latching and control using exceptionally low energy costs per logic operation compared to standard CMOS shift register technology. (paper)

  16. A multiscale simulation technique for molecular electronics: design of a directed self-assembled molecular n-bit shift register memory device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambropoulos, Nicholas A.; Reimers, Jeffrey R.; Crossley, Maxwell J.; Hush, Noel S.; Silverbrook, Kia

    2013-12-01

    A general method useful in molecular electronics design is developed that integrates modelling on the nano-scale (using quantum-chemical software) and on the micro-scale (using finite-element methods). It is applied to the design of an n-bit shift register memory that could conceivably be built using accessible technologies. To achieve this, the entire complex structure of the device would be built to atomic precision using feedback-controlled lithography to provide atomic-level control of silicon devices, controlled wet-chemical synthesis of molecular insulating pillars above the silicon, and controlled wet-chemical self-assembly of modular molecular devices to these pillars that connect to external metal electrodes (leads). The shift register consists of n connected cells that read data from an input electrode, pass it sequentially between the cells under the control of two external clock electrodes, and deliver it finally to an output device. The proposed cells are trimeric oligoporphyrin units whose internal states are manipulated to provide functionality, covalently connected to other cells via dipeptide linkages. Signals from the clock electrodes are conveyed by oligoporphyrin molecular wires, and μ-oxo porphyrin insulating columns are used as the supporting pillars. The developed multiscale modelling technique is applied to determine the characteristics of this molecular device, with in particular utilization of the inverted region for molecular electron-transfer processes shown to facilitate latching and control using exceptionally low energy costs per logic operation compared to standard CMOS shift register technology.

  17. Accessing memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Doe Hyun; Muralimanohar, Naveen; Chang, Jichuan; Ranganthan, Parthasarathy

    2017-09-26

    A disclosed example method involves performing simultaneous data accesses on at least first and second independently selectable logical sub-ranks to access first data via a wide internal data bus in a memory device. The memory device includes a translation buffer chip, memory chips in independently selectable logical sub-ranks, a narrow external data bus to connect the translation buffer chip to a memory controller, and the wide internal data bus between the translation buffer chip and the memory chips. A data access is performed on only the first independently selectable logical sub-rank to access second data via the wide internal data bus. The example method also involves locating a first portion of the first data, a second portion of the first data, and the second data on the narrow external data bus during separate data transfers.

  18. Cognitive memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widrow, Bernard; Aragon, Juan Carlos

    2013-05-01

    . Neural networks are an important component of the human memory system, and their purpose is for information retrieval, not for information storage. The brain's neural networks are analog devices, subject to drift and unplanned change. Only with constant training is reliable action possible. Good training time is during sleep and while awake and making use of one's memory. A cognitive memory is a learning system. Learning involves storage of patterns or data in a cognitive memory. The learning process for cognitive memory is unsupervised, i.e. autonomous. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Multiple negative differential resistance devices with ultra-high peak-to-valley current ratio for practical multi-valued logic and memory applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sunhae; Rok Kim, Kyung

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel multiple negative differential resistance (NDR) device with ultra-high peak-to-valley current ratio (PVCR) over 106 by combining tunnel diode with a conventional MOSFET, which suppresses the valley current with transistor off-leakage level. Band-to-band tunneling (BTBT) in tunnel junction provides the first peak, and the second peak and valley are generated from the suppression of diffusion current in tunnel diode by the off-state MOSFET. The multiple NDR curves can be controlled by doping concentration of tunnel junction and the threshold voltage of MOSFET. By using complementary multiple NDR devices, five-state memory is demonstrated only with six transistors.

  20. Oxygen-ion-migration-modulated bipolar resistive switching and complementary resistive switching in tungsten/indium tin oxide/gold memory device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xinghui; Zhang, Qiuhui; Cui, Nana; Xu, Weiwei; Wang, Kefu; Jiang, Wei; Xu, Qixing

    2018-06-01

    In this paper, we report our investigation of room-temperature-fabricated tungsten/indium tin oxide/gold (W/ITO/Au) resistive random access memory (RRAM), which exhibits asymmetric bipolar resistive switching (BRS) behavior. The device displays good write/erase endurance and data retention properties. The device shows complementary resistive switching (CRS) characteristics after controlling the compliance current. A WO x layer electrically formed at the W/ITO in the forming process. Mobile oxygen ions within ITO migrate toward the electrode/ITO interface and produce a semiconductor-like layer that acts as a free-carrier barrier. The CRS characteristic here can be elucidated in light of the evolution of an asymmetric free-carrier blocking layer at the electrode/ITO interface.

  1. Working Memory Training Does Not Improve Performance on Measures of Intelligence or Other Measures of "Far Transfer": Evidence From a Meta-Analytic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melby-Lervåg, Monica; Redick, Thomas S; Hulme, Charles

    2016-07-01

    It has been claimed that working memory training programs produce diverse beneficial effects. This article presents a meta-analysis of working memory training studies (with a pretest-posttest design and a control group) that have examined transfer to other measures (nonverbal ability, verbal ability, word decoding, reading comprehension, or arithmetic; 87 publications with 145 experimental comparisons). Immediately following training there were reliable improvements on measures of intermediate transfer (verbal and visuospatial working memory). For measures of far transfer (nonverbal ability, verbal ability, word decoding, reading comprehension, arithmetic) there was no convincing evidence of any reliable improvements when working memory training was compared with a treated control condition. Furthermore, mediation analyses indicated that across studies, the degree of improvement on working memory measures was not related to the magnitude of far-transfer effects found. Finally, analysis of publication bias shows that there is no evidential value from the studies of working memory training using treated controls. The authors conclude that working memory training programs appear to produce short-term, specific training effects that do not generalize to measures of "real-world" cognitive skills. These results seriously question the practical and theoretical importance of current computerized working memory programs as methods of training working memory skills. © The Author(s) 2016.

  2. A review of emerging non-volatile memory (NVM) technologies and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, An

    2016-11-01

    This paper will review emerging non-volatile memory (NVM) technologies, with the focus on phase change memory (PCM), spin-transfer-torque random-access-memory (STTRAM), resistive random-access-memory (RRAM), and ferroelectric field-effect-transistor (FeFET) memory. These promising NVM devices are evaluated in terms of their advantages, challenges, and applications. Their performance is compared based on reported parameters of major industrial test chips. Memory selector devices and cell structures are discussed. Changing market trends toward low power (e.g., mobile, IoT) and data-centric applications create opportunities for emerging NVMs. High-performance and low-cost emerging NVMs may simplify memory hierarchy, introduce non-volatility in logic gates and circuits, reduce system power, and enable novel architectures. Storage-class memory (SCM) based on high-density NVMs could fill the performance and density gap between memory and storage. Some unique characteristics of emerging NVMs can be utilized for novel applications beyond the memory space, e.g., neuromorphic computing, hardware security, etc. In the beyond-CMOS era, emerging NVMs have the potential to fulfill more important functions and enable more efficient, intelligent, and secure computing systems.

  3. Intelligence Ethics:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønn, Kira Vrist

    2016-01-01

    Questions concerning what constitutes a morally justified conduct of intelligence activities have received increased attention in recent decades. However, intelligence ethics is not yet homogeneous or embedded as a solid research field. The aim of this article is to sketch the state of the art...... of intelligence ethics and point out subjects for further scrutiny in future research. The review clusters the literature on intelligence ethics into two groups: respectively, contributions on external topics (i.e., the accountability of and the public trust in intelligence agencies) and internal topics (i.......e., the search for an ideal ethical framework for intelligence actions). The article concludes that there are many holes to fill for future studies on intelligence ethics both in external and internal discussions. Thus, the article is an invitation – especially, to moral philosophers and political theorists...

  4. Intelligence Naturelle et Intelligence Artificielle

    OpenAIRE

    Dubois, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Cet article présente une approche systémique du concept d’intelligence naturelle en ayant pour objectif de créer une intelligence artificielle. Ainsi, l’intelligence naturelle, humaine et animale non-humaine, est une fonction composée de facultés permettant de connaître et de comprendre. De plus, l'intelligence naturelle reste indissociable de la structure, à savoir les organes du cerveau et du corps. La tentation est grande de doter les systèmes informatiques d’une intelligence artificielle ...

  5. Hf layer thickness dependence of resistive switching characteristics of Ti/Hf/HfO2/Au resistive random access memory device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Ryo; Azuma, Atsushi; Yoshida, Hayato; Shimizu, Tomohiro; Ito, Takeshi; Shingubara, Shoso

    2018-06-01

    Resistive random access memory (ReRAM) devices with a HfO2 dielectric layer have been studied extensively owing to the good reproducibility of their SET/RESET switching properties. Furthermore, it was reported that a thin Hf layer next to a HfO2 layer stabilized switching properties because of the oxygen scavenging effect. In this work, we studied the Hf thickness dependence of the resistance switching characteristics of a Ti/Hf/HfO2/Au ReRAM device. It is found that the optimum Hf thickness is approximately 10 nm to obtain good reproducibility of SET/RESET voltages with a small RESET current. However, when the Hf thickness was very small (∼2 nm), the device failed after the first RESET process owing to the very large RESET current. In the case of a very thick Hf layer (∼20 nm), RESET did not occur owing to the formation of a leaky dielectric layer. We observed the occurrence of multiple resistance states in the RESET process of the device with a Hf thickness of 10 nm by increasing the RESET voltage stepwise.

  6. Assessing and Revising the Plan for Intelligence Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evie Vergauwe

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This brief commentary suggests that the usefulness of the concept of intelligence might depend on how one defines intelligence and on whether one is using it for scientific or practical purposes. Furthermore, it is suggested that the concept of working memory must not be overlooked when considering individual differences in intelligence.

  7. Proof of Concept Study for the Design, Manufacturing, and Testing of a Patient-Specific Shape Memory Device for Treatment of Unicoronal Craniosynostosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghi, Alessandro; Rodgers, Will; Schievano, Silvia; Ponniah, Allan; Jeelani, Owase; Dunaway, David

    2018-01-01

    Treatment of unicoronal craniosynostosis is a surgically challenging problem, due to the involvement of coronal suture and cranial base, with complex asymmetries of the calvarium and orbit. Several techniques for correction have been described, including surgical bony remodeling, early strip craniotomy with orthotic helmet remodeling and distraction. Current distraction devices provide unidirectional forces and have had very limited success. Nitinol is a shape memory alloy that can be programmed to the shape of a patient-specific anatomy by means of thermal treatment.In this work, a methodology to produce a nitinol patient-specific distractor is presented: computer tomography images of a 16-month-old patient with unicoronal craniosynostosis were processed to create a 3-dimensional model of his skull and define the ideal shape postsurgery. A mesh was produced from a nitinol sheet, formed to the ideal skull shape and heat treated to be malleable at room temperature. The mesh was afterward deformed to be attached to a rapid prototyped plastic skull, replica of the patient initial anatomy. The mesh/skull construct was placed in hot water to activate the mesh shape memory property: the deformed plastic skull was computed tomography scanned for comparison of its shape with the initial anatomy and with the desired shape, showing that the nitinol mesh had been able to distract the plastic skull to a shape close to the desired one.The shape-memory properties of nitinol allow for the design and production of patient-specific devices able to deliver complex, preprogrammable shape changes.

  8. Smart Electrochemical Energy Storage Devices with Self-Protection and Self-Adaptation Abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yun; Yu, Dandan; Wang, Hua; Guo, Lin

    2017-12-01

    Currently, with booming development and worldwide usage of rechargeable electrochemical energy storage devices, their safety issues, operation stability, service life, and user experience are garnering special attention. Smart and intelligent energy storage devices with self-protection and self-adaptation abilities aiming to address these challenges are being developed with great urgency. In this Progress Report, we highlight recent achievements in the field of smart energy storage systems that could early-detect incoming internal short circuits and self-protect against thermal runaway. Moreover, intelligent devices that are able to take actions and self-adapt in response to external mechanical disruption or deformation, i.e., exhibiting self-healing or shape-memory behaviors, are discussed. Finally, insights into the future development of smart rechargeable energy storage devices are provided. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Artificial intelligence in nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacha, G M; Varona, P

    2013-11-15

    During the last decade there has been increasing use of artificial intelligence tools in nanotechnology research. In this paper we review some of these efforts in the context of interpreting scanning probe microscopy, the study of biological nanosystems, the classification of material properties at the nanoscale, theoretical approaches and simulations in nanoscience, and generally in the design of nanodevices. Current trends and future perspectives in the development of nanocomputing hardware that can boost artificial-intelligence-based applications are also discussed. Convergence between artificial intelligence and nanotechnology can shape the path for many technological developments in the field of information sciences that will rely on new computer architectures and data representations, hybrid technologies that use biological entities and nanotechnological devices, bioengineering, neuroscience and a large variety of related disciplines.

  10. Artificial intelligence in nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacha, G. M.; Varona, P.

    2013-11-01

    During the last decade there has been increasing use of artificial intelligence tools in nanotechnology research. In this paper we review some of these efforts in the context of interpreting scanning probe microscopy, the study of biological nanosystems, the classification of material properties at the nanoscale, theoretical approaches and simulations in nanoscience, and generally in the design of nanodevices. Current trends and future perspectives in the development of nanocomputing hardware that can boost artificial-intelligence-based applications are also discussed. Convergence between artificial intelligence and nanotechnology can shape the path for many technological developments in the field of information sciences that will rely on new computer architectures and data representations, hybrid technologies that use biological entities and nanotechnological devices, bioengineering, neuroscience and a large variety of related disciplines.

  11. Artificial intelligence in nanotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sacha, G M; Varona, P

    2013-01-01

    During the last decade there has been increasing use of artificial intelligence tools in nanotechnology research. In this paper we review some of these efforts in the context of interpreting scanning probe microscopy, the study of biological nanosystems, the classification of material properties at the nanoscale, theoretical approaches and simulations in nanoscience, and generally in the design of nanodevices. Current trends and future perspectives in the development of nanocomputing hardware that can boost artificial-intelligence-based applications are also discussed. Convergence between artificial intelligence and nanotechnology can shape the path for many technological developments in the field of information sciences that will rely on new computer architectures and data representations, hybrid technologies that use biological entities and nanotechnological devices, bioengineering, neuroscience and a large variety of related disciplines. (topical review)

  12. Education-stratified base-rate information on discrepancy scores within and between the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale--Third Edition and the Wechsler Memory Scale--Third Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dori, Galit A; Chelune, Gordon J

    2004-06-01

    The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale--Third Edition (WAIS-III; D. Wechsler, 1997a) and the Wechsler Memory Scale--Third Edition (WMS-III; D. Wechsler, 1997b) are 2 of the most frequently used measures in psychology and neuropsychology. To facilitate the diagnostic use of these measures in the clinical decision-making process, this article provides information on education-stratified, directional prevalence rates (i.e., base rates) of discrepancy scores between the major index scores for the WAIS-III, the WMS-III, and between the WAIS-III and WMS-III. To illustrate how such base-rate data can be clinically used, this article reviews the relative risk (i.e., odds ratio) of empirically defined "rare" cognitive deficits in 2 of the clinical samples presented in the WAIS-III--WMS-III Technical Manual (The Psychological Corporation, 1997). ((c) 2004 APA, all rights reserved)

  13. Can Interactive Working Memory Training Improve Learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alloway, Tracy

    2012-01-01

    Background: Working memory is linked to learning outcomes and there is emerging evidence that training working memory can yield gains in working memory and fluid intelligence. Aims: The aim of the present study was to investigate whether interactive working memory training would transfer to acquired cognitive skills, such as vocabulary and…

  14. 工作记忆、中央执行功能与流体智力的关系分析%Study on the relationship of working memory, central executive function and general fluid intelligence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛振林; 党瑾璇; 李静; 高晓彩; 张富昌

    2013-01-01

    The study aims at explore the relationship among the working memory capacity,the components of central executive function and general fluid intelligence.Main conclusions are as follows:(1) the separability of the central executive function in working memory is conformed by the present results; (2) the WMC is strongly related to Raven liquid test(r=0.208 **) ;(3) compared to the switching and inhibition capacity in central executive function,updating can predict and explain general fluid intelligence better.%探讨工作记忆、中央执行功能子成分与流体智力的关系.以秦巴山区18~40岁健康成人为研究对象,通过对中央执行功能子成分、工作记忆广度以及流体智力的测量,分析了各变量之间的关系,并进一步探讨了中央执行功能各子成分的可分离性.得到(1)工作记忆中的中央执行功能具有可分离性;(2)工作记忆广度与瑞文测验成绩之间的显著相关是刷新功能的作用;(3)相对于抑制功能和转换功能,刷新功能对流体智力具有更强的预测效应和解释力.

  15. AC Electric Field Activated Shape Memory Polymer Composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jin Ho; Siochi, Emilie J.; Penner, Ronald K.; Turner, Travis L.

    2011-01-01

    Shape memory materials have drawn interest for applications like intelligent medical devices, deployable space structures and morphing structures. Compared to other shape memory materials like shape memory alloys (SMAs) or shape memory ceramics (SMCs), shape memory polymers (SMPs) have high elastic deformation that is amenable to tailored of mechanical properties, have lower density, and are easily processed. However, SMPs have low recovery stress and long response times. A new shape memory thermosetting polymer nanocomposite (LaRC-SMPC) was synthesized with conductive fillers to enhance its thermo-mechanical characteristics. A new composition of shape memory thermosetting polymer nanocomposite (LaRC-SMPC) was synthesized with conductive functionalized graphene sheets (FGS) to enhance its thermo-mechanical characteristics. The elastic modulus of LaRC-SMPC is approximately 2.7 GPa at room temperature and 4.3 MPa above its glass transition temperature. Conductive FGSs-doped LaRC-SMPC exhibited higher conductivity compared to pristine LaRC SMP. Applying an electric field at between 0.1 Hz and 1 kHz induced faster heating to activate the LaRC-SMPC s shape memory effect relative to applying DC electric field or AC electric field at frequencies exceeding1 kHz.

  16. Artificial Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wash, Darrel Patrick

    1989-01-01

    Making a machine seem intelligent is not easy. As a consequence, demand has been rising for computer professionals skilled in artificial intelligence and is likely to continue to go up. These workers develop expert systems and solve the mysteries of machine vision, natural language processing, and neural networks. (Editor)

  17. Intelligent Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Poul G.

    2005-01-01

    Forestillingen om at naturen er designet af en guddommelig 'intelligens' er et smukt filosofisk princip. Teorier om Intelligent Design som en naturvidenskabeligt baseret teori er derimod helt forfærdelig.......Forestillingen om at naturen er designet af en guddommelig 'intelligens' er et smukt filosofisk princip. Teorier om Intelligent Design som en naturvidenskabeligt baseret teori er derimod helt forfærdelig....

  18. Laser Nanosoldering of Golden and Magnetite Particles and its Possible Application in 3D Printing Devices and Four-Valued Non-Volatile Memories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaworski Jacek

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years the 3D printing methods have been developing rapidly. This article presents researches about a new composite consisted of golden and magnetite nanoparticles which could be used for this technique. Preparation of golden nanoparticles by laser ablation and their soldering by laser green light irradiation proceeded in water environment. Magnetite was obtained on chemical way. During experiments it was tested a change of a size of nanoparticles during laser irradiation, surface plasmon resonance, zeta potential. The obtained golden - magnetite composite material was magnetic after laser irradiation. On the end there was considered the application it for 3D printing devices, water filters and four-valued non-volatile memories.

  19. The foundations of plant intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trewavas, Anthony

    2017-06-06

    Intelligence is defined for wild plants and its role in fitness identified. Intelligent behaviour exhibited by single cells and systems similarity between the interactome and connectome indicates neural systems are not necessary for intelligent capabilities. Plants sense and respond to many environmental signals that are assessed to competitively optimize acquisition of patchily distributed resources. Situations of choice engender motivational states in goal-directed plant behaviour; consequent intelligent decisions enable efficient gain of energy over expenditure. Comparison of swarm intelligence and plant behaviour indicates the origins of plant intelligence lie in complex communication and is exemplified by cambial control of branch function. Error correction in behaviours indicates both awareness and intention as does the ability to count to five. Volatile organic compounds are used as signals in numerous plant interactions. Being complex in composition and often species and individual specific, they may represent the plant language and account for self and alien recognition between individual plants. Game theory has been used to understand competitive and cooperative interactions between plants and microbes. Some unexpected cooperative behaviour between individuals and potential aliens has emerged. Behaviour profiting from experience, another simple definition of intelligence, requires both learning and memory and is indicated in the priming of herbivory, disease and abiotic stresses.

  20. Pulsed ion-beam assisted deposition of Ge nanocrystals on SiO{sub 2} for non-volatile memory device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stepina, N.P. [Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Lavrenteva 13, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)], E-mail: nstepina@mail.ru; Dvurechenskii, A.V.; Armbrister, V.A.; Kirienko, V.V.; Novikov, P.L.; Kesler, V.G.; Gutakovskii, A.K.; Smagina, Z.V.; Spesivtzev, E.V. [Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Lavrenteva 13, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2008-11-03

    A floating gate memory structure, utilizing Ge nanocrystals (NCs) deposited on tunnel SiO{sub 2}, have been fabricated using pulsed low energy ion-beam induced molecular-beam deposition (MBD) in ultra-high vacuum. The ion-beam action is shown to stimulate the nucleation of Ge NCs when being applied after thin Ge layer deposition. Growth conditions for independent change of NCs size and array density were established allowing to optimize the structure parameters required for memory device. Activation energy E = 0.25 eV was determined from the temperature dependence of NCs array density. Monte Carlo simulation has shown that the process, determining NCs array density, is the surface diffusion. Embedding of the crystalline Ge dots into silicon oxide was carried out by selective oxidation of Si(100)/SiO{sub 2} /Ge(NCs)/poly-Si structure. MOS-capacitor obtained after oxidation showed a hysteresis in its C-V curves attributed to charge retention in the Ge dots.