Cook, Emily; Hammett, Stephen T; Larsson, Jonas
Early psychological researchers proposed a link between intelligence and low-level perceptual performance. It was recently suggested that this link is driven by individual variations in the ability to suppress irrelevant information, evidenced by the observation of strong correlations between perceptual surround suppression and cognitive performance. However, the neural mechanisms underlying such a link remain unclear. A candidate mechanism is neural inhibition by gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), but direct experimental support for GABA-mediated inhibition underlying suppression is inconsistent. Here we report evidence consistent with a global suppressive mechanism involving GABA underlying the link between sensory performance and intelligence. We measured visual cortical GABA concentration, visuo-spatial intelligence and visual surround suppression in a group of healthy adults. Levels of GABA were strongly predictive of both intelligence and surround suppression, with higher levels of intelligence associated with higher levels of GABA and stronger surround suppression. These results indicate that GABA-mediated neural inhibition may be a key factor determining cognitive performance and suggests a physiological mechanism linking surround suppression and intelligence. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.
L. Waltman (Ludo); J.H. van den Berg (Jan); U. Kaymak (Uzay); N.J.P. van Eck (Nees Jan)
textabstractIn this paper, we visualize the structure and the evolution of the computational intelligence (CI) field. Based on our visualizations, we analyze the way in which the CI field is divided into several subfields. The visualizations provide insight into the characteristics of each subfield
Watanabe, Toyohide; Takahashi, Naohisa; 5th International Conference on Intelligent Interactive Multimedia Systems and Services
This volume contains the Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Intelligent Interactive Multimedia Systems and Services (KES-IIMSS-12). The Conference was jointly organised by Nagoya University in Japan and the KES International organisation, and held in the attractive city of Gifu. The KES-IIMSS conference series, (series chairs Prof. Maria Virvou and Prof. George Tsihrintzis), presents novel research in various areas of intelligent multimedia system relevant to the development of a new generation of interactive, user-centric devices and systems. The aim of the conference is to provide an internationally respected forum for scientific research in the technologies and applications of this new and dynamic research area.
Fogel, Lawrence J.; Porto, Vincent W.; Alexander, Steven M.
To be fully effective, combat simulation must include an intelligently interactive enemy... one that can be calibrated. But human operated combat simulations are uncalibratable, for we learn during the engagement, there's no average enemy, and we cannot replicate their culture/personality. Rule-based combat simulations (expert systems) are not interactive. They do not take advantage of unexpected mistakes, learn, innovate, and reflect the changing mission/situation. And it is presumed that the enemy does not have a copy of the rules, that the available experts are good enough, that they know why they did what they did, that their combat experience provides a sufficient sample and that we know how to combine the rules offered by differing experts. Indeed, expert systems become increasingly complex, costly to develop, and brittle. They have face validity but may be misleading. In contrast, intelligently interactive combat simulation is purpose- driven. Each player is given a well-defined mission, reference to the available weapons/platforms, their dynamics, and the sensed environment. Optimal tactics are discovered online and in real-time by simulating phenotypic evolution in fast time. The initial behaviors are generated randomly or include hints. The process then learns without instruction. The Valuated State Space Approach provides a convenient way to represent any purpose/mission. Evolutionary programming searches the domain of possible tactics in a highly efficient manner. Coupled together, these provide a basis for cruise missile mission planning, and for driving tank warfare simulation. This approach is now being explored to benefit Air Force simulations by a shell that can enhance the original simulation.
Wagner, Boris; Eck, Ralf; Unmüessig, Gabriel; Peinsipp-Byma, Elisabeth
When a spatiotemporal events happens, multi-source intelligence data is gathered to understand the problem, and strategies for solving the problem are investigated. The difficulties arising from handling spatial and temporal intelligence data represent the main problem. The map might be the bridge to visualize the data and to get the most understand model for all stakeholders. For the analysis of geodata based intelligence data, a software was developed as a working environment that combines geodata with optimized ergonomics. The interaction with the common operational picture (COP) is so essentially facilitated. The composition of the COP is based on geodata services, which are normalized by international standards of the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC). The basic geodata are combined with intelligence data from images (IMINT) and humans (HUMINT), stored in a NATO Coalition Shared Data Server (CSD). These intelligence data can be combined with further information sources, i.e., live sensors. As a result a COP is generated and an interaction suitable for the specific workspace is added. This allows the users to work interactively with the COP, i.e., searching with an on board CSD client for suitable intelligence data and integrate them into the COP. Furthermore, users can enrich the scenario with findings out of the data of interactive live sensors and add data from other sources. This allows intelligence services to contribute effectively to the process by what military and disaster management are organized.
Visualization has become a valuable means for data exploration and analysis. Interactive visualization combines expressive graphical representations and effective user interaction. Although interaction is an important component of visualization approaches, much of the visualization literature tends to pay more attention to the graphical representation than to interaction.The goal of this work is to strengthen the interaction side of visualization. Based on a brief review of general aspects of interaction, we develop an interaction-oriented view on visualization. This view comprises five key as
2012 International Conference on Affective Computing and Intelligent Interaction (ICACII 2012) was the most comprehensive conference focused on the various aspects of advances in Affective Computing and Intelligent Interaction. The conference provided a rare opportunity to bring together worldwide academic researchers and practitioners for exchanging the latest developments and applications in this field such as Intelligent Computing, Affective Computing, Machine Learning, Business Intelligence and HCI. This volume is a collection of 119 papers selected from 410 submissions from universities and industries all over the world, based on their quality and relevancy to the conference. All of the papers have been peer-reviewed by selected experts.
Basole, Rahul C
Macroscopic insight into business ecosystems is becoming increasingly important. With the emergence of new digital business data, opportunities exist to develop rich, interactive visual-analytics tools. Georgia Institute of Technology researchers have been developing and implementing visual business ecosystem intelligence tools in corporate settings. This article discusses the challenges they faced, the lessons learned, and opportunities for future research.
Mokhtari, Marielle; Lavigne, Valérie; Drolet, Frédéric
Dealing with an ever increasing amount of data is a challenge that military intelligence analysts or team of analysts face day to day. Increased individual and collective comprehension goes through collaboration between people. Better is the collaboration, better will be the comprehension. Nowadays, various technologies support and enhance collaboration by allowing people to connect and collaborate in settings as varied as across mobile devices, over networked computers, display walls, tabletop surfaces, to name just a few. A powerful collaboration system includes traditional and multimodal visualization features to achieve effective human communication. Interactive visualization strengthens collaboration because this approach is conducive to incrementally building a mental assessment of the data meaning. The purpose of this paper is to present an overview of the envisioned collaboration architecture and the interactive visualization concepts underlying the Sensemaking Support System prototype developed to support analysts in the context of the Joint Intelligence Collection and Analysis Capability project at DRDC Valcartier. It presents the current version of the architecture, discusses future capabilities to help analyst(s) in the accomplishment of their tasks and finally recommends collaboration and visualization technologies allowing to go a step further both as individual and as a team.
Lopes, Paulo N; Brackett, Marc A; Nezlek, John B; Schütz, Astrid; Sellin, Ina; Salovey, Peter
Two studies found positive relationships between the ability to manage emotions and the quality of social interactions, supporting the predictive and incremental validity of an ability measure of emotional intelligence, the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT). In a sample of 118 American college students (Study 1), higher scores on the managing emotions subscale of the MSCEIT were positively related to the quality of interactions with friends, evaluated separately by participants and two friends. In a diary study of social interaction with 103 German college students (Study 2), managing emotions scores were positively related to the perceived quality of interactions with opposite sex individuals. Scores on this subscale were also positively related to perceived success in impression management in social interactions with individuals of the opposite sex. In both studies, the main findings remained statistically significant after controlling for Big Five personality traits.
In recent years, scientific and technological advances have produced artificial systems that have matched or surpassed human capabilities in narrow domains such as face detection and optical character recognition. However, the problem of producing truly intelligent machines still remains far from being solved. In this chapter, we first describe some of these recent advances, and then review one approach to moving beyond these limited successes – the neuromorphic approach of studying and reverse-engineering the networks of neurons in the human brain (specifically, the visual system). Finally, we discuss several possible future directions in the quest for visual intelligence.
Iqbal, Asim; Farooq, Umar; Mahmood, Hassan; Asad, Muhammad Usman; Khan, Akrama; Atiq, Hafiz Muhammad
A self teaching image processing and voice recognition based system is developed to educate visually impaired children, chiefly in their primary education. System comprises of a computer, a vision camera, an ear speaker and a microphone. Camera, attached with the computer system is mounted on the ceiling opposite (on the required angle) to the desk on which the book is placed. Sample images and voices in the form of instructions and commands of English, Urdu alphabets, Numeric Digits, Operators and Shapes are already stored in the database. A blind child first reads the embossed character (object) with the help of fingers than he speaks the answer, name of the character, shape etc into the microphone. With the voice command of a blind child received by the microphone, image is taken by the camera which is processed by MATLAB® program developed with the help of Image Acquisition and Image processing toolbox and generates a response or required set of instructions to child via ear speaker, resulting in self education of a visually impaired child. Speech recognition program is also developed in MATLAB® with the help of Data Acquisition and Signal Processing toolbox which records and process the command of the blind child.
Zhao, Yiqun; Wang, Zhihui
The Internet of things (IOT) is a kind of intelligent networks which can be used to locate, track, identify and supervise people and objects. One of important core technologies of intelligent visual internet of things ( IVIOT) is the intelligent visual tag system. In this paper, a research is done into visual feature extraction and establishment of visual tags of the human face based on ORL face database. Firstly, we use the principal component analysis (PCA) algorithm for face feature extraction, then adopt the support vector machine (SVM) for classifying and face recognition, finally establish a visual tag for face which is already classified. We conducted a experiment focused on a group of people face images, the result show that the proposed algorithm have good performance, and can show the visual tag of objects conveniently.
Full Text Available Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to study the architecture of holographic personalized portal, user modeling, commodity modeling and intelligent interaction. Design/methodology/approach – In this paper, the authors propose crowd-science industrial ecological system based on holographic personalized portal and its interaction. The holographic personality portal is based on holographic enterprises, commodities and consumers, and the personalized portal consists of accurate ontology, reliable supply, intelligent demand and smart cyberspace. Findings – The personalized portal can realize the information acquisition, characteristic analysis and holographic presentation. Then, the intelligent interaction, e.g. demand decomposition, personalized search, personalized presentation and demand prediction, will be implemented within the personalized portal. Originality/value – The authors believe that their work on intelligent interaction based on holographic personalized portal, which has been first proposed in this paper, is innovation focusing on the interaction between intelligence and convenience.
Ellsworth, David; Green, Bryan; Moran, Patrick
This paper describes the methods used to produce an interactive visualization of a 2 TB computational fluid dynamics (CFD) data set using particle tracing (streaklines). We use the method introduced by Bruckschen et al.  that pre-computes a large number of particles, stores them on disk using a space-filling curve ordering that minimizes seeks, and then retrieves and displays the particles according to the user's command. We describe how the particle computation can be performed using a PC cluster, how the algorithm can be adapted to work with a multi-block curvilinear mesh, and how the out-of-core visualization can be scaled to 296 billion particles while still achieving interactive performance on PG hardware. Compared to the earlier work, our data set size and total number of particles are an order of magnitude larger. We also describe a new compression technique that allows the lossless compression of the particles by 41% and speeds the particle retrieval by about 30%.
Ko, Inseok; Chang, Hyejung
Big data analysis is receiving increasing attention in many industries, including healthcare. Visualization plays an important role not only in intuitively showing the results of data analysis but also in the whole process of collecting, cleaning, analyzing, and sharing data. This paper presents a procedure for the interactive visualization and analysis of healthcare data using Tableau as a business intelligence tool. Starting with installation of the Tableau Desktop Personal version 10.3, this paper describes the process of understanding and visualizing healthcare data using an example. The example data of colon cancer patients were obtained from health insurance claims in years 2012 and 2013, provided by the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service. To explore the visualization of healthcare data using Tableau for beginners, this paper describes the creation of a simple view for the average length of stay of colon cancer patients. Since Tableau provides various visualizations and customizations, the level of analysis can be increased with small multiples, view filtering, mark cards, and Tableau charts. Tableau is a software that can help users explore and understand their data by creating interactive visualizations. The software has the advantages that it can be used in conjunction with almost any database, and it is easy to use by dragging and dropping to create an interactive visualization expressing the desired format.
the addressee with subtle clues about personality or cultural background. Gestures are an extremly rich source of communication-specific and contextual information for interactions in ambient intelligence environments. This chapter reviews the semantic layers of gestural interaction, focusing on the layer...
Ong, James C.; Remolina, Emilio; Breeden, David; Stroozas, Brett A.; Mohammed, John L.
Any reasoning system is fallible, so crew members and flight controllers must be able to cross-check automated diagnoses of spacecraft or habitat problems by considering alternate diagnoses and analyzing related evidence. Cross-checking improves diagnostic accuracy because people can apply information processing heuristics, pattern recognition techniques, and reasoning methods that the automated diagnostic system may not possess. Over time, cross-checking also enables crew members to become comfortable with how the diagnostic reasoning system performs, so the system can earn the crew s trust. We developed intelligent data visualization software that helps users cross-check automated diagnoses of system faults more effectively. The user interface displays scrollable arrays of timelines and time-series graphs, which are tightly integrated with an interactive, color-coded system schematic to show important spatial-temporal data patterns. Signal processing and rule-based diagnostic reasoning automatically identify alternate hypotheses and data patterns that support or rebut the original and alternate diagnoses. A color-coded matrix display summarizes the supporting or rebutting evidence for each diagnosis, and a drill-down capability enables crew members to quickly view graphs and timelines of the underlying data. This system demonstrates that modest amounts of diagnostic reasoning, combined with interactive, information-dense data visualizations, can accelerate system diagnosis and cross-checking.
Demir, I.; Krajewski, W. F.
As geoscientists are confronted with increasingly massive datasets from environmental observations to simulations, one of the biggest challenges is having the right tools to gain scientific insight from the data and communicate the understanding to stakeholders. Recent developments in web technologies make it easy to manage, visualize and share large data sets with general public. Novel visualization techniques and dynamic user interfaces allow users to interact with data, and modify the parameters to create custom views of the data to gain insight from simulations and environmental observations. This requires developing new data models and intelligent knowledge discovery techniques to explore and extract information from complex computational simulations or large data repositories. Scientific visualization will be an increasingly important component to build comprehensive environmental information platforms. This presentation provides an overview of the trends and challenges in the field of scientific visualization, and demonstrates information visualization and communication tools in the Iowa Flood Information System (IFIS), developed within the light of these challenges. The IFIS is a web-based platform developed by the Iowa Flood Center (IFC) to provide access to and visualization of flood inundation maps, real-time flood conditions, flood forecasts both short-term and seasonal, and other flood-related data for communities in Iowa. The key element of the system's architecture is the notion of community. Locations of the communities, those near streams and rivers, define basin boundaries. The IFIS provides community-centric watershed and river characteristics, weather (rainfall) conditions, and streamflow data and visualization tools. Interactive interfaces allow access to inundation maps for different stage and return period values, and flooding scenarios with contributions from multiple rivers. Real-time and historical data of water levels, gauge heights, and
Ellis, Stephen R. (Editor); Slater, Mel (Editor); Alexander, Thomas (Editor)
What makes virtual actors and objects in virtual environments seem real? How can the illusion of their reality be supported? What sorts of training or user-interface applications benefit from realistic user-environment interactions? These are some of the central questions that designers of virtual environments face. To be sure simulation realism is not necessarily the major, or even a required goal, of a virtual environment intended to communicate specific information. But for some applications in entertainment, marketing, or aspects of vehicle simulation training, realism is essential. The following chapters will examine how a sense of truly interacting with dynamic, intelligent agents may arise in users of virtual environments. These chapters are based on presentations at the London conference on Intelligent Motion and Interaction within a Virtual Environments which was held at University College, London, U.K., 15-17 September 2003.
Stacey, Mark; Jorgensen, Adam
Go beyond design concepts and learn to build state-of-the-art visualizations The visualization experts at Microsoft's Pragmatic Works have created a full-color, step-by-step guide to building specific types of visualizations. The book thoroughly covers the Microsoft toolset for data analysis and visualization, including Excel, and explores best practices for choosing a data visualization design, selecting tools from the Microsoft stack, and building a dynamic data visualization from start to finish. You'll examine different types of visualizations, their strengths and weaknesses, a
Hamdi Ellouzi; Hela Ltifi; Mounir Ben Ayed
the aim of this paper is to present an intelligent architecture of Decision Support System (DSS) based on visual data mining. This architecture applies the multi-agent technology to facilitate the design and development of DSS in complex and dynamic environment. Multi-Agent Systems add a high level of abstraction. To validate the proposed architecture, it is implemented to develop a distributed visual data mining based DSS to predict nosocomial infectionsoccurrence in intensive care units. Th...
Dekker, R.; And Others
Statistical analyses of scores on subtests of the Intelligence Test for Visually Impaired Children were done for two groups of children, either with or without usable vision. Results suggest that the battery has differential factorial and predictive validity. (Author/DB)
SIEVAS provides an immersive visualization framework for connecting multiple systems in real time for data science. SIEVAS provides the ability to connect multiple COTS and GOTS products in a seamless fashion for data fusion, data analysis, and viewing. It provides this capability by using a combination of micro services, real time messaging, and web service compliant back-end system.
Problems and possibilities assessing intellectual abilities of visually impaired children are addressed in the article. In other countries, usually there are few or no nationally standardized tests available for use with this population. Therefore parts of available instruments designed for normally sighted children are used. Sometimes test procedures or stimuli are modified what affects the validity of the results and they need to be interpreted with caution. Intellectual abilities of Lithua...
Peters, Richard Alan, II (Inventor)
An architecture for robot intelligence enables a robot to learn new behaviors and create new behavior sequences autonomously and interact with a dynamically changing environment. Sensory information is mapped onto a Sensory Ego-Sphere (SES) that rapidly identifies important changes in the environment and functions much like short term memory. Behaviors are stored in a database associative memory (DBAM) that creates an active map from the robot's current state to a goal state and functions much like long term memory. A dream state converts recent activities stored in the SES and creates or modifies behaviors in the DBAM.
Customer Value(CV) is a data analytics company experiencing problems presenting the result of their analytics in a satisfiable manner. As a result, they considered the use of a data visualization and business intelligence softwares. The purpose of such softwares are to, amongst other things, virtually represent data in an interactive and perceptible manner to the viewer. There are however a large number of these types of applications on the market, making it hard for companies to find the one...
Powell, Mark W.
The Interactive 3D Mars Visualization system provides high-performance, immersive visualization of satellite and surface vehicle imagery of Mars. The software can be used in mission operations to provide the most accurate position information for the Mars rovers to date. When integrated into the mission data pipeline, this system allows mission planners to view the location of the rover on Mars to 0.01-meter accuracy with respect to satellite imagery, with dynamic updates to incorporate the latest position information. Given this information so early in the planning process, rover drivers are able to plan more accurate drive activities for the rover than ever before, increasing the execution of science activities significantly. Scientifically, this 3D mapping information puts all of the science analyses to date into geologic context on a daily basis instead of weeks or months, as was the norm prior to this contribution. This allows the science planners to judge the efficacy of their previously executed science observations much more efficiently, and achieve greater science return as a result. The Interactive 3D Mars surface view is a Mars terrain browsing software interface that encompasses the entire region of exploration for a Mars surface exploration mission. The view is interactive, allowing the user to pan in any direction by clicking and dragging, or to zoom in or out by scrolling the mouse or touchpad. This set currently includes tools for selecting a point of interest, and a ruler tool for displaying the distance between and positions of two points of interest. The mapping information can be harvested and shared through ubiquitous online mapping tools like Google Mars, NASA WorldWind, and Worldwide Telescope.
Patnaik, Srikanta; Yu, Zhengtao
This book provides the latest research findings and developments in the field of interactive intelligent systems, addressing diverse areas such as autonomous systems, Internet and cloud computing, pattern recognition and vision systems, mobile computing and intelligent networking, and e-enabled systems. It gathers selected papers from the International Conference on Intelligent and Interactive Systems and Applications (IISA2016) held on June 25–26, 2016 in Shanghai, China. Interactive intelligent systems are among the most important multi-disciplinary research and development domains of artificial intelligence, human–computer interaction, machine learning and new Internet-based technologies. Accordingly, these systems embrace a considerable number of application areas such as autonomous systems, expert systems, mobile systems, recommender systems, knowledge-based and semantic web-based systems, virtual communication environments, and decision support systems, to name a few. To date, research on interactiv...
Redi, J.A.; Liu, H.; Zunino, R.; Heynderickx, I.E.J.R.
Several attempts to integrate visual saliency information in quality metrics are described in literature, albeit with contradictory results. The way saliency is integrated in quality metrics should reflect the mechanisms underlying the interaction between image quality assessment and visual
Monden, N.; Yoshino, Y.; Hirakawa, M.; Tanaka, M.; Ichikawa, T.
This paper presents a language named HI-VISUAL which supports visual interaction in programming. Following a brief description of the language concept, the icon semantics and language primitives characterizing HI-VISUAL are extensively discussed. HI-VISUAL also shows a system extensively discussed. HI-VISUAL also shows a system extendability providing the possibility of organizing a high level application system as an integration of several existing subsystems, and will serve to developing systems in various fields of applications supporting simple and efficient interactions between programmer and computer. In this paper, the authors have presented a language named HI-VISUAL. Following a brief description of the language concept, the icon semantics and language primitives characterizing HI-VISUAL were extensively discussed
Midoro, V.; And Others
Describes the theoretical framework of a research project aimed at exploring the new potentials for instructional systems offered by videodisc technology and artificial intelligence. A prototype of an intelligent tutoring system, "Earth," is described, and types of interactions in instructional systems are discussed as they relate to the…
Evitts, Paul M.; Portugal, Lindsay; Van Dine, Ami; Holler, Aline
Background: There is minimal research on the contribution of visual information on speech intelligibility for individuals with a laryngectomy (IWL). Aims: The purpose of this project was to determine the effects of mode of presentation (audio-only, audio-visual) on alaryngeal speech intelligibility. Method: Twenty-three naive listeners were…
Full Text Available A new control system of a hand gesture-controlled wheelchair (EWC is proposed. This smart control device is suitable for a large number of patients who cannot manipulate a standard joystick wheelchair. The movement control system uses a camera fixed on the wheelchair. The patient’s hand movements are recognized using a visual recognition algorithm and artificial intelligence software; the derived corresponding signals are thus used to control the EWC in real time. One of the main features of this control technique is that it allows the patient to drive the wheelchair with a variable speed similar to that of a standard joystick. The designed device “hand gesture-controlled wheelchair” is performed at low cost and has been tested on real patients and exhibits good results. Before testing the proposed control device, we have created a three-dimensional environment simulator to test its performances with extreme security. These tests were performed on real patients with diverse hand pathologies in Mohamed Kassab National Institute of Orthopedics, Physical and Functional Rehabilitation Hospital of Tunis, and the validity of this intelligent control system had been proved.
Endo, T.; Kasahara, H.; Nakagawa, T.
In CCITT, Message Handling Systems (MHS) have been studied from the viewpoint of communications protocol standardization. In addition to MHS services, Message Processing (MP) services, such as image processing, filing and retrieving services, will come into increasing demand in office automation field. These messaging services, including MHS services, can be thought of as Intelligent Messaging (IM) services. IM services include many basic services, optional user facilities and service parameters. Accordingly, it is necessary to deal with these parameters and MP procedures in as systematic and user-friendly a manner as possible. As one step towards realizing a user-friendly IM services interface, the characteristics of IM service parameters are studied and a Visualized Message Interface (VMI) which resembles a conventional letter exchange format is presented. The concept of VMI formation is discussed using the generic document structure concept as well as a Screen Interface and Protocol Interface conversion package
Leone, Giuseppe Riccardo; Moroni, Davide; Pieri, Gabriele; Petracca, Matteo; Salvetti, Ovidio; Azzarà, Andrea; Marino, Francesco
Smart cities are demanding solutions for improved traffic efficiency, in order to guarantee optimal access to mobility resources available in urban areas. Intelligent video analytics deployed directly on board embedded sensors offers great opportunities to gather highly informative data about traffic and transport, allowing reconstruction of a real-time neat picture of urban mobility patterns. In this paper, we present a visual sensor network in which each node embeds computer vision logics for analyzing in real time urban traffic. The nodes in the network share their perceptions and build a global and comprehensive interpretation of the analyzed scenes in a cooperative and adaptive fashion. This is possible thanks to an especially designed Internet of Things (IoT) compliant middleware which encompasses in-network event composition as well as full support of Machine-2-Machine (M2M) communication mechanism. The potential of the proposed cooperative visual sensor network is shown with two sample applications in urban mobility connected to the estimation of vehicular flows and parking management. Besides providing detailed results of each key component of the proposed solution, the validity of the approach is demonstrated by extensive field tests that proved the suitability of the system in providing a scalable, adaptable and extensible data collection layer for managing and understanding mobility in smart cities.
Giuseppe Riccardo Leone
Full Text Available Smart cities are demanding solutions for improved traffic efficiency, in order to guarantee optimal access to mobility resources available in urban areas. Intelligent video analytics deployed directly on board embedded sensors offers great opportunities to gather highly informative data about traffic and transport, allowing reconstruction of a real-time neat picture of urban mobility patterns. In this paper, we present a visual sensor network in which each node embeds computer vision logics for analyzing in real time urban traffic. The nodes in the network share their perceptions and build a global and comprehensive interpretation of the analyzed scenes in a cooperative and adaptive fashion. This is possible thanks to an especially designed Internet of Things (IoT compliant middleware which encompasses in-network event composition as well as full support of Machine-2-Machine (M2M communication mechanism. The potential of the proposed cooperative visual sensor network is shown with two sample applications in urban mobility connected to the estimation of vehicular flows and parking management. Besides providing detailed results of each key component of the proposed solution, the validity of the approach is demonstrated by extensive field tests that proved the suitability of the system in providing a scalable, adaptable and extensible data collection layer for managing and understanding mobility in smart cities.
Leone, Giuseppe Riccardo; Petracca, Matteo; Salvetti, Ovidio; Azzarà, Andrea
Smart cities are demanding solutions for improved traffic efficiency, in order to guarantee optimal access to mobility resources available in urban areas. Intelligent video analytics deployed directly on board embedded sensors offers great opportunities to gather highly informative data about traffic and transport, allowing reconstruction of a real-time neat picture of urban mobility patterns. In this paper, we present a visual sensor network in which each node embeds computer vision logics for analyzing in real time urban traffic. The nodes in the network share their perceptions and build a global and comprehensive interpretation of the analyzed scenes in a cooperative and adaptive fashion. This is possible thanks to an especially designed Internet of Things (IoT) compliant middleware which encompasses in-network event composition as well as full support of Machine-2-Machine (M2M) communication mechanism. The potential of the proposed cooperative visual sensor network is shown with two sample applications in urban mobility connected to the estimation of vehicular flows and parking management. Besides providing detailed results of each key component of the proposed solution, the validity of the approach is demonstrated by extensive field tests that proved the suitability of the system in providing a scalable, adaptable and extensible data collection layer for managing and understanding mobility in smart cities. PMID:29125535
Ang, Li Minn; Seng, Kah Phooi; Ge, Feng Lu
This paper presents an investigation of natural inspired intelligent computing and its corresponding application towards visual information processing systems for viticulture. The paper has three contributions: (1) a review of visual information processing applications for viticulture; (2) the development of natural inspired computing algorithms based on artificial immune system (AIS) techniques for grape berry detection; and (3) the application of the developed algorithms towards real-world grape berry images captured in natural conditions from vineyards in Australia. The AIS algorithms in (2) were developed based on a nature-inspired clonal selection algorithm (CSA) which is able to detect the arcs in the berry images with precision, based on a fitness model. The arcs detected are then extended to perform the multiple arcs and ring detectors information processing for the berry detection application. The performance of the developed algorithms were compared with traditional image processing algorithms like the circular Hough transform (CHT) and other well-known circle detection methods. The proposed AIS approach gave a Fscore of 0.71 compared with Fscores of 0.28 and 0.30 for the CHT and a parameter-free circle detection technique (RPCD) respectively.
Hayes, Gillian R.; Hirano, Sen; Marcu, Gabriela; Monibi, Mohamad; Nguyen, David H.; Yeganyan, Michael
Interventions to support children with autism often include the use of visual supports, which are cognitive tools to enable learning and the production of language. Although visual supports are effective in helping to diminish many of the challenges of autism, they are difficult and time-consuming to create, distribute, and use. In this paper, we present the results of a qualitative study focused on uncovering design guidelines for interactive visual supports that would address the many chall...
Rimbatmojo, S.; Kusmayadi, T. A.; Riyadi, R.
This study aims to find out students metacognition difficulty during solving open-ended problem in mathematics. It focuses on analysing the metacognition difficulty of students with visual-spatial intelligence in solving open-ended problem. A qualitative research with case study strategy is used in this study. Data in the form of visual-spatial intelligence test result and recorded interview during solving open-ended problems were analysed qualitatively. The results show that: (1) students with high visual-spatial intelligence have no difficulty on each metacognition aspects, (2) students with medium visual-spatial intelligence have difficulty on knowledge aspect on strategy and cognitive tasks, (3) students with low visual-spatial intelligence have difficulty on three metacognition aspects, namely knowledge on strategy, cognitive tasks and self-knowledge. Even though, several researches about metacognition process and metacognition literature recommended the steps to know the characteristics. It is still important to discuss that the difficulties of metacognitive is happened because of several factors, one of which on the characteristics of student’ visual-spatial intelligence. Therefore, it is really important for mathematics educators to consider and pay more attention toward students’ visual-spatial intelligence and metacognition difficulty in designing better mathematics learning.
Virvou, Maria; Jain, Lakhmi; Howlett, Robert; Watanabe, Toyohide
This research book presents some specific multimedia systems that have been developed and applied in practice. More specifically, it consists of an editorial, an introductory chapter and six chapters as below. · Use of Multi-attribute Decision Making for Combining Audio-Lingual and Visual-Facial Modalities in Emotion Recognition. · Cooperative Learning assisted by Automatic Classification within Social Networking Services. · Improving Peer-to-Peer Communication in e-Learning by Development of an Advanced Messaging System. · Fuzzy-based Digital Video Stabilization in Static Scenes. · Development of Architecture, Information Archive and Multimedia Formats for Digital e-Libraries. · Layered Ontological Image for Intelligent Interaction to extend User Capabilities on Multimedia Systems in a Folksonomy Driven Environment.
Smith, Christopher E.; Papanikolopoulos, Nikolaos P.; Brandt, Scott A.; Richards, Charles
The complexity and congestion of current transportation systems often produce traffic situations that jeopardize the safety of the people involved. These situations vary from maintaining a safe distance behind a leading vehicle to safely allowing a pedestrian to cross a busy street. Environmental sensing plays a critical role in virtually all of these situations. Of the sensors available, vision sensors provide information that is richer and more complete than other sensors, making them a logical choice for a multisensor transportation system. In this paper we present robust techniques for intelligent vehicle-highway applications where computer vision plays a crucial role. In particular, we demonstrate that the controlled active vision framework can be utilized to provide a visual sensing modality to a traffic advisory system in order to increase the overall safety margin in a variety of common traffic situations. We have selected two application examples, vehicle tracking and pedestrian tracking, to demonstrate that the framework can provide precisely the type of information required to effectively manage the given situation.
Reinisch, B. W.; Khmyrov, G.; Galkin, I. A.; Kozlov, A.
Vertical ionospheric sounding data have been used in a variety of scenarios for ionospheric now-casting. Growing need for an accurate real-time specification of vertical electron density distribution at multiple locations stimulates interest to intelligent data management systems that can arrange concurrent, remote access to the acquired data. This type of data access requires high level of interaction and organization to support routing of data between ionosondes, data analysts, quality validation experts, end user applications, data managers, and online data repositories such as the World Data Centers. Digital Ionogram Database (DIDBase) is a pilot project started at UMASS Lowell in 2001, sponsored in part by the Air Force Research Laboratory, for management of real-time and retro data from a network of 50 digisondes. The DIDBase archives hold both raw and derived digisonde data under management of a commerical strength DBMS, providing convenient means for automated ingestion of real-time data from online digisondes (40 locations worldwide as of September 2004), remote read access to the data over HTTP Web protocol (http://ulcar.uml.edu/DIDBase/), remote read/write access from SAO Explorer workstations used for data visualization and interactive editing, and an ADRES subsystem for automated management of data requests. DIDBase and ADRES employ cross-platform solutions for all involved software, exchange protocols, and data. The paper briefly describes the DIDBase operations during a recent Cal/Val campaign for the SSUSI/SSULI instruments on the DMSP F16 spacecraft. Here 26 online digisondes provided ground-truth NmF2 data for the overhead and limb passes of the spacecraft. Since the start of the campaign in December 2003, the total number of the ADRES requests exceeded 9,000 by summer 2004.
Heer, Jeffrey; Bostock, Michael
We investigate the design of declarative, domain-specific languages for constructing interactive visualizations. By separating specification from execution, declarative languages can simplify development, enable unobtrusive optimization, and support retargeting across platforms. We describe the design of the Protovis specification language and its implementation within an object-oriented, statically-typed programming language (Java). We demonstrate how to support rich visualizations without requiring a toolkit-specific data model and extend Protovis to enable declarative specification of animated transitions. To support cross-platform deployment, we introduce rendering and event-handling infrastructures decoupled from the runtime platform, letting designers retarget visualization specifications (e.g., from desktop to mobile phone) with reduced effort. We also explore optimizations such as runtime compilation of visualization specifications, parallelized execution, and hardware-accelerated rendering. We present benchmark studies measuring the performance gains provided by these optimizations and compare performance to existing Java-based visualization tools, demonstrating scalability improvements exceeding an order of magnitude.
Sereno, Bertrand; Boursinou, Eleni; Maxwell, Katrina; Angehrn, Albert
Sereno, B., Boursinou, E., Maxwell, K., & Angehrn, A. A. (2007). Supporting Social Interaction in Intelligent Competence Development Systems. In D. Griffiths, R. Koper & O. Liber (Eds.), Proceedings of the 2nd TENCompetence Open Workshop (pp. 29-35). January, 11-12, 2007, Manchester, United Kingdom.
Soleymani, Mohammad; Soleymani, M.; Pun, T.; Pun, Thierry; Nijholt, Antinus
The fifth biannual Humaine Association Conference on Affective Computing and Intelligent Interaction (ACII 2013) was held in Geneva, Switzerland. This conference featured the recent advancement in affective computing and relevant applications in education, entertainment and health. A number of
Paul C. Jorgensen
Full Text Available Interacting systems are increasingly common. Many examples pervade our everyday lives: automobiles, aircraft, defense systems, telephone switching systems, financial systems, national governments, and so on. Closer to computer science, embedded systems and Systems of Systems are further examples of interacting systems. Common to all of these is that some "whole" is made up of constituent parts, and these parts interact with each other. By design, these interactions are intentional, but it is the unintended interactions that are problematic. The Systems of Systems literature uses the terms "constituent systems" and "constituents" to refer to systems that interact with each other. That practice is followed here. This paper presents a visual formalism, Swim Lane Event-Driven Petri Nets, that is proposed as a basis for Model-Based Testing (MBT of interacting systems. In the absence of available tools, this model can only support the offline form of Model-Based Testing.
Tucker, Laura; Scherr, Rachel E.; Zickler, Todd; Mazur, Eric
Large-scale audiovisual data that measure group learning are time consuming to collect and analyze. As an initial step towards scaling qualitative classroom observation, we qualitatively coded classroom video using an established coding scheme with and without its audio cues. We find that interrater reliability is as high when using visual data only—without audio—as when using both visual and audio data to code. Also, interrater reliability is high when comparing use of visual and audio data to visual-only data. We see a small bias to code interactions as group discussion when visual and audio data are used compared with video-only data. This work establishes that meaningful educational observation can be made through visual information alone. Further, it suggests that after initial work to create a coding scheme and validate it in each environment, computer-automated visual coding could drastically increase the breadth of qualitative studies and allow for meaningful educational analysis on a far greater scale.
Full Text Available Large-scale audiovisual data that measure group learning are time consuming to collect and analyze. As an initial step towards scaling qualitative classroom observation, we qualitatively coded classroom video using an established coding scheme with and without its audio cues. We find that interrater reliability is as high when using visual data only—without audio—as when using both visual and audio data to code. Also, interrater reliability is high when comparing use of visual and audio data to visual-only data. We see a small bias to code interactions as group discussion when visual and audio data are used compared with video-only data. This work establishes that meaningful educational observation can be made through visual information alone. Further, it suggests that after initial work to create a coding scheme and validate it in each environment, computer-automated visual coding could drastically increase the breadth of qualitative studies and allow for meaningful educational analysis on a far greater scale.
Bollig, E. F.; Kadlec, B. J.; Erlebacher, G.; Yuen, D. A.; Palchuk, Y. M.
Datasets in the earth sciences continue growing in size due to higher experimental resolving power, and numerical simulations at higher resolutions. Over the last several years, an increasing number of scientists have turned to visualization to represent their vast datasets in a meaningful fashion. In most cases, datasets are downloaded and then visualized on a local workstation with 2D or 3D software packages. However, it becomes inconvenient to download datasets of several gigabytes unless network bandwidth is sufficiently high (10 Gbits/sec). We are investigating the use of Virtual Network Computing (VNC) to provide interactive three-dimensional visualization services to the user community. Specialized software [1,2] enables OpenGL-based visualization software to capitalize on the hardware capabilities of modern graphics cards and transfer session information to clients through the VNC protocol. The virtue of this software is that it does not require any changes to visualization software. Session information is displayed within java applets, enabling the use of a wide variety of clients, including hand-held devices. The VNC protocol makes collaboration and interaction between multiple users possible. We demonstrate the collaborative VNC system with the commercial 3D visualization system Amira (http://www.tgs.com) and the open source VTK (http://www.vtk.org) over a 100 Mbit network. We also present ongoing work for integrating VNC within the Naradabrokering Grid environment.  Stegmaier, S. and Magallon, M. and T. Ertl, "A Generic Solution for Hardware-Accelerated Remote Visualization," Joint Eurographics -- IEEE TCVG Symposium on Visualization, 2002.  VirtualGL--3D without boundaries http://virtualgl.sourceforge.net/installation.htm
projects.htm, Site accessed January 5, 2009. 12. John S. Weir, Major, USAF, Mediated User-Simulator Interactive Command with Visualization ( MUSIC -V). Master’s...Computing Sciences in Colleges, December 2005). 14. Enrique Campos -Nanez, “nscript user manual,” Department of System Engineer- ing University of
Murphy, Nora A
Intelligence is an important trait that affects everyday social interaction. The present research utilized the ecological perspective of social perception to investigate the impression management of intelligence and strangers' evaluations of targets' intelligence levels. The ability to effectively portray an impression of intelligence to outside judges as well as interaction partners was appraised and the effect of impression management on the accurate judgment of intelligence was assessed. In addition, targets' behavior was studied in relation to impression management, perceived intelligence, and actual measured intelligence. Impression-managing targets appeared more intelligent to video judges but not to their interaction partner as compared to controls. The intelligence quotient (IQ) of impression-managing targets was more accurately judged than controls' IQ. Impression-managing targets displayed distinct nonverbal behavioral patterns that differed from controls. Looking while speaking was a key behavior: It significantly correlated with IQ, was successfully manipulated by impression-managing targets, and contributed to higher perceived intelligence ratings.
Bruni, Luis Emilio; Baceviciute, Sarune
In this article we define various aspects, or parameters, of interactive narrative systems and present them as a framework that can help authors, creators and designers to conceive, analyze, or prioritize the narrative goals of a given system. We start by defining the Author-Audience distance (AA...
We present a method for the interactive exploration of tera-scale particle data sets. Such data sets arise from molecular dynamics, particle-based fluid simulation, and astrophysics. Our visualization technique provides a focus+context view of the data that runs interactively on commodity hardware. The method is based on a hybrid multi-scale rendering architecture, which renders the context as a hierarchical density volume. Fine details in the focus are visualized using direct particle rendering. In addition, clusters like dark matter halos can be visualized as semi-transparent spheres enclosing the particles. Since the detail data is too large to be stored in main memory, our approach uses an out-of-core technique that streams data on demand. Our technique is designed to take advantage of a dual-GPU configuration, in which the workload is split between the GPUs based on the type of data. Structural features in the data are visually enhanced using advanced rendering and shading techniques. To allow users to easily identify interesting locations even in overviews, both the focus and context view use color tables to show data attributes on the respective scale. We demonstrate that our technique achieves interactive performance on a one trillionpar-ticle data set from the DarkSky simulation.
Aliaga, Daniel G; Rosen, Paul A; Bekins, Daniel R
Interactive visualization of architecture provides a way to quickly visualize existing or novel buildings and structures. Such applications require both fast rendering and an effortless input regimen for creating and changing architecture using high-level editing operations that automatically fill in the necessary details. Procedural modeling and synthesis is a powerful paradigm that yields high data amplification and can be coupled with fast-rendering techniques to quickly generate plausible details of a scene without much or any user interaction. Previously, forward generating procedural methods have been proposed where a procedure is explicitly created to generate particular content. In this paper, we present our work in inverse procedural modeling of buildings and describe how to use an extracted repertoire of building grammars to facilitate the visualization and quick modification of architectural structures and buildings. We demonstrate an interactive application where the user draws simple building blocks and, using our system, can automatically complete the building "in the style of" other buildings using view-dependent texture mapping or nonphotorealistic rendering techniques. Our system supports an arbitrary number of building grammars created from user subdivided building models and captured photographs. Using only edit, copy, and paste metaphors, the entire building styles can be altered and transferred from one building to another in a few operations, enhancing the ability to modify an existing architectural structure or to visualize a novel building in the style of the others.
Full Text Available Crowdsensing leverages human intelligence/experience from the general public and social interactions to create participatory sensor networks, where context-aware and semantically complex information is gathered, processed, and shared to collaboratively solve specific problems. This paper proposes a real-time projector-camera finger system based on the crowdsensing, in which user can interact with a computer by bare hand touching on arbitrary surfaces. The interaction process of the system can be completely carried out automatically, and it can be used as an intelligent device in intelligent transport system where the driver can watch and interact with the display information while driving, without causing visual distractions. A single camera is used in the system to recover 3D information of fingertip for hand touch detection. A linear-scanning method is used in the system to determine the touch for increasing the users’ collaboration and operationality. Experiments are performed to show the feasibility of the proposed system. The system is robust to different lighting conditions. The average percentage of correct hand touch detection of the system is 92.0% and the average time of processing one video frame is 30 milliseconds.
Social intelligence in robots has a quite recent history in artificial intelligence and robotics. However, it has become increasingly apparent that social and interactive skills are necessary requirements in many application areas and contexts where robots need to interact and collaborate with other robots or humans. Research on human-robot interaction (HRI) poses many challenges regarding the nature of interactivity and 'social behaviour' in robot and humans. The first part of this paper addresses dimensions of HRI, discussing requirements on social skills for robots and introducing the conceptual space of HRI studies. In order to illustrate these concepts, two examples of HRI research are presented. First, research is surveyed which investigates the development of a cognitive robot companion. The aim of this work is to develop social rules for robot behaviour (a 'robotiquette') that is comfortable and acceptable to humans. Second, robots are discussed as possible educational or therapeutic toys for children with autism. The concept of interactive emergence in human-child interactions is highlighted. Different types of play among children are discussed in the light of their potential investigation in human-robot experiments. The paper concludes by examining different paradigms regarding 'social relationships' of robots and people interacting with them.
The many observation and simulation based ocean models available today can provide crucial insights for all fields of marine research and can serve as valuable references when planning data collection missions. However, the increasing size and complexity of these models makes leveraging their contents difficult for end users. Through a combination of data visualization techniques, interactive analysis tools, and new hardware technologies, the data within these models can be made more accessible to domain scientists. We present an interactive system that supports exploratory visual analysis within large-scale ocean flow models. The currents and eddies within the models are illustrated using effective, particle-based flow visualization techniques. Stereoscopic displays and rendering methods are employed to ensure that the user can correctly perceive the complex 3D structures of depth-dependent flow patterns. Interactive analysis tools are provided which allow the user to experiment through the introduction of their customizable virtual dye particles into the models to explore regions of interest. A multi-touch interface provides natural, efficient interaction, with custom multi-touch gestures simplifying the otherwise challenging tasks of navigating and positioning tools within a 3D environment. We demonstrate the potential applications of our visual analysis environment with two examples of real-world significance: Firstly, an example of using customized particles with physics-based behaviors to simulate pollutant release scenarios, including predicting the oil plume path for the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill disaster. Secondly, an interactive tool for plotting and revising proposed autonomous underwater vehicle mission pathlines with respect to the surrounding flow patterns predicted by the model; as these survey vessels have extremely limited energy budgets, designing more efficient paths allows for greater survey areas.
Samigulina, Galina; Shayakhmetova, Assem; Nuysuppov, Adlet
The aim of the study is to develop innovative intelligent technology and information systems of distance education for people with impaired vision (PIV). To solve this problem a comprehensive approach has been proposed, which consists in the aggregate of the application of artificial intelligence methods and statistical analysis. Creating an accessible learning environment, identifying the intellectual, physiological, psychophysiological characteristics of perception and information awareness by this category of people is based on cognitive approach. On the basis of fuzzy logic the individually-oriented learning path of PIV is con- structed with the aim of obtaining high-quality engineering education with modern equipment in the joint use laboratories.
Full Text Available The aim of the study is to develop innovative intelligent technology and information systems of distance education for people with impaired vision (PIV. To solve this problem a comprehensive approach has been proposed, which consists in the aggregate of the application of artificial intelligence methods and statistical analysis. Creating an accessible learning environment, identifying the intellectual, physiological, psychophysiological characteristics of perception and information awareness by this category of people is based on cognitive approach. On the basis of fuzzy logic the individually-oriented learning path of PIV is con- structed with the aim of obtaining high-quality engineering education with modern equipment in the joint use laboratories.
Visual attention is the collection of mechanisms by which relevant visual information is selected, and irrelevant visual information is ignored. Visual working memory is the mechanism by which relevant visual information is retained, and irrelevant information is suppressed. In addition to this
Recent advancements in mobile devices---such as Global Positioning System (GPS), cellular phones, car navigation system, and radio-frequency identification (RFID)---have greatly influenced the nature and volume of data about individual-based movement in space and time. Due to the prevalence of mobile devices, vast amounts of mobile objects data are being produced and stored in databases, overwhelming the capacity of traditional spatial analytical methods. There is a growing need for discovering unexpected patterns, trends, and relationships that are hidden in the massive mobile objects data. Geographic visualization (GVis) and knowledge discovery in databases (KDD) are two major research fields that are associated with knowledge discovery and construction. Their major research challenges are the integration of GVis and KDD, enhancing the ability to handle large volume mobile objects data, and high interactivity between the computer and users of GVis and KDD tools. This dissertation proposes a visualization toolkit to enable highly interactive visual data exploration for mobile objects datasets. Vector algebraic representation and online analytical processing (OLAP) are utilized for managing and querying the mobile object data to accomplish high interactivity of the visualization tool. In addition, reconstructing trajectories at user-defined levels of temporal granularity with time aggregation methods allows exploration of the individual objects at different levels of movement generality. At a given level of generality, individual paths can be combined into synthetic summary paths based on three similarity measures, namely, locational similarity, directional similarity, and geometric similarity functions. A visualization toolkit based on the space-time cube concept exploits these functionalities to create a user-interactive environment for exploring mobile objects data. Furthermore, the characteristics of visualized trajectories are exported to be utilized for data
Mérida-López, Sergio; Extremera, Natalio; Rey, Lourdes
This study examined the additive and interactive effects of role stress and emotional intelligence for predicting engagement among 288 teachers. Emotional intelligence and engagement were positively associated. Role ambiguity and role conflict showed negative associations with vigor and dedication scores. The interaction of role ambiguity and emotional intelligence was significant in explaining engagement dimensions. Similar results were found considering overall teacher engagement. Emotional intelligence boosted engagement when the levels of role ambiguity were higher. Our findings suggest the need for future research examining the impact of job hindrances on the links between emotional intelligence and teachers' occupational well-being indicators. Finally, the implications for emotional intelligence training in education are discussed.
Phillippy Adam M
Samigulina, Galina A.; Shayakhmetova, Assem S.
Research objective is the creation of intellectual innovative technology and information Smart-system of distance learning for visually impaired people. The organization of the available environment for receiving quality education for visually impaired people, their social adaptation in society are important and topical issues of modern education.The proposed Smart-system of distance learning for visually impaired people can significantly improve the efficiency and quality of education of this category of people. The scientific novelty of proposed Smart-system is using intelligent and statistical methods of processing multi-dimensional data, and taking into account psycho-physiological characteristics of perception and awareness learning information by visually impaired people.
Stephen, Damian G.; Mirman, Daniel
Many cognitive theories have described behavior as the summation of independent contributions from separate components. Contrasting views have emphasized the importance of multiplicative interactions and emergent structure. We describe a statistical approach to distinguishing additive and multiplicative processes and apply it to the dynamics of eye movements during classic visual cognitive tasks. The results reveal interaction-dominant dynamics in eye movements in each of the three tasks, and that fine-grained eye movements are modulated by task constraints. These findings reveal the interactive nature of cognitive processing and are consistent with theories that view cognition as an emergent property of processes that are broadly distributed over many scales of space and time rather than a componential assembly line. PMID:20070957
Tachibana, Ryosuke; Namba, Yuri; Noguchi, Yasuki
Growing evidence indicates a moderate but significant relationship between processing speed in visuo-cognitive tasks and general intelligence. On the other hand, findings from neuroscience proposed that the primate visual system consists of two major pathways, the ventral pathway for objects recognition and the dorsal pathway for spatial processing and attentive analysis. Previous studies seeking for visuo-cognitive factors of human intelligence indicated a significant correlation between fluid intelligence and the inspection time (IT), an index for a speed of object recognition performed in the ventral pathway. We thus presently examined a possibility that neural processing speed in the dorsal pathway also represented a factor of intelligence. Specifically, we used the mental rotation (MR) task, a popular psychometric measure for mental speed of spatial processing in the dorsal pathway. We found that the speed of MR was significantly correlated with intelligence scores, while it had no correlation with one's IT (recognition speed of visual objects). Our results support the new possibility that intelligence could be explained by two types of mental speed, one related to object recognition (IT) and another for manipulation of mental images (MR).
Chae, K.; Edirisinghe, D.; Lingerfelt, E. J.; Guidry, M. W.
We are developing a series of interactive 3D visualization tools that employ the Java 3D API. We have applied this approach initially to a simple 3-dimensional galaxy collision model (restricted 3-body approximation), with quite satisfactory results. Running either as an applet under Web browser control, or as a Java standalone application, this program permits real-time zooming, panning, and 3-dimensional rotation of the galaxy collision simulation under user mouse and keyboard control. We shall also discuss applications of this technology to 3-dimensional visualization for other problems of astrophysical interest such as neutron star mergers and the time evolution of element/energy production networks in X-ray bursts. *Managed by UT-Battelle, LLC, for the U.S. Department of Energy under contract DE-AC05-00OR22725.
Full Text Available Background: Nowadays researches find that athlete’s performance is affected not only by physical fitness, technical and tactical factors, but also mental and emotional features can affect sport performance. Objective: Hence, the aim of this study is examined the dimensions of emotional intelligence and mental toughness visually impaired male and female athletes. Methodology: This was a causal-comparative study, where the statistical population included 300 visually impaired male and female athletes taking part in the First National Cultural- Sports Festival featuring goalball, tug-of-war, track and field, swimming, and powerlifting. Using a smaple of convenience, 70 participants completed the Sheard, Golby, and van Wersch-questionnaire on mental toughness in three dimensions of “confidence” “ control” and “constancy”, and the Petrides and Furnham’s questionnaire in four dimensions of “ understanding emotions”, “ social skills” “ controlling emotions” and “ optimism”. Results: Analysis of variables using an independent t-test showed significant differences in the dimensions of controlling emotions, understanding emotions, and social skills in favor of visually impaired sportswomen. However, there were no significant differences between the genders for optimism in the emotional intelligence questionnaire, and in mental toughness questionnaire. Conclusions: Visually impaired individuals pass through stages of emotional intelligence in a different way compared to those with normal vision. Moreover, motor skills and sports for the visually impaired are of a different kind. Moreover, our results showed that women benefited more from participating in physical and sporting activities than men did. Therefore, we recommend that authorities and people involved in sports for the visually impaired should make more use of exercises in psychological skills, along with technical and tactical ones, for visually impaired male
Full Text Available In addition to universal social changes, the information revolution also brought a lot of innovation to the workings of intelligence services, which are traditionally the part of the national security system that is conducting data analyses and for which information is the primary product. If in the past the main problem and challenge has been the timely acquisition of data, today most agencies are faced with an entirely different problem - information overload. This problem is being tackled by technical as well as systemic measures that combine various types of intelligence work. However, there are still unanswered questions regarding the applicability of intelligence products for decision makers. Here we have to point out information visualization as the subject of an interdisciplinary scientific research that definitely shows a lot of potential in the context of the defense science as well. This article points out three key requirements that allow the application of information visualization to defense research: (1 the concept of the intelligence cycle can be used as a good basis for the information that is subject to visualization; (2 the quality of decision-making support information depends on proper visualization; (3 the first two requirements offer a stable theoretical and empirical basis for the introduction of innovative scientific methods in the field of defense science, such as experiments.
Hou, Ming; Burns, Catherine
A synthesis of recent research and developments on intelligent adaptive systems from the HF (human factors) and HCI (human-computer interaction) domains, this book provides integrated design guidance and recommendations for researchers and system developers. It addresses a recognized lack of integration between the HF and HCI research communities, which has led to inconsistencies between the research approaches adopted, and a lack of exploitation of research from one field by the other. The book establishes design guidance through the review of conceptual frameworks, analytical methodologies,
Kellogg, L.H.; Bawden, G.W.; Bernardin, T.; Billen, M.; Cowgill, E.; Hamann, B.; Jadamec, M.; Kreylos, O.; Staadt, O.; Sumner, D.
The geological sciences are challenged to manage and interpret increasing volumes of data as observations and simulations increase in size and complexity. For example, simulations of earthquake-related processes typically generate complex, time-varying data sets in two or more dimensions. To facilitate interpretation and analysis of these data sets, evaluate the underlying models, and to drive future calculations, we have developed methods of interactive visualization with a special focus on using immersive virtual reality (VR) environments to interact with models of Earth's surface and interior. Virtual mapping tools allow virtual "field studies" in inaccessible regions. Interactive tools allow us to manipulate shapes in order to construct models of geological features for geodynamic models, while feature extraction tools support quantitative measurement of structures that emerge from numerical simulation or field observations, thereby enabling us to improve our interpretation of the dynamical processes that drive earthquakes. VR has traditionally been used primarily as a presentation tool, albeit with active navigation through data. Reaping the full intellectual benefits of immersive VR as a tool for scientific analysis requires building on the method's strengths, that is, using both 3D perception and interaction with observed or simulated data. This approach also takes advantage of the specialized skills of geological scientists who are trained to interpret, the often limited, geological and geophysical data available from field observations. ?? Birkhaueser 2008.
Fabry, Thomas; Feral, Bruno
Intervention planning is crucial for maintenance operations in particle accelerator environments with ionizing radiation, during which the radiation dose contracted by maintenance workers should be reduced to a minimum. In this context, we discuss the visualization aspects of a new software tool, which integrates interactive exploration of a scene depicting an accelerator facility augmented with residual radiation level simulations, with the visualization of intervention data such as the followed trajectory and maintenance tasks. The visualization of each of these aspects has its effect on the final predicted contracted radiation dose. In this context, we explore the possible benefits of a user study, with the goal of enhancing the visual conditions in which the intervention planner using the software tool is minimizing the radiation dose.
Pons, Patricia; Jaen, Javier; Catala, Alejandro
User-centered design applied to non-human animals is showing to be a promising research line known as Animal Computer Interaction (ACI), aimed at improving animals' wellbeing using technology. Within this research line, intelligent systems for animal entertainment could have remarkable benefits for
Schulz, Wolfgang; Hermanns, Torsten; Al Khawli, Toufik
Decision making for competitive production in high-wage countries is a daily challenge where rational and irrational methods are used. The design of decision making processes is an intriguing, discipline spanning science. However, there are gaps in understanding the impact of the known mathematical and procedural methods on the usage of rational choice theory. Following Benjamin Franklin's rule for decision making formulated in London 1772, he called "Prudential Algebra" with the meaning of prudential reasons, one of the major ingredients of Meta-Modelling can be identified finally leading to one algebraic value labelling the results (criteria settings) of alternative decisions (parameter settings). This work describes the advances in Meta-Modelling techniques applied to multi-dimensional and multi-criterial optimization by identifying the persistence level of the corresponding Morse-Smale Complex. Implementations for laser cutting and laser drilling are presented, including the generation of fast and frugal Meta-Models with controlled error based on mathematical model reduction Reduced Models are derived to avoid any unnecessary complexity. Both, model reduction and analysis of multi-dimensional parameter space are used to enable interactive communication between Discovery Finders and Invention Makers. Emulators and visualizations of a metamodel are introduced as components of Virtual Production Intelligence making applicable the methods of Scientific Design Thinking and getting the developer as well as the operator more skilled.
Full Text Available In recent years, with the rapid development of video surveillance infrastructure, more and more intelligent surveillance systems have employed computer vision and pattern recognition techniques. In this paper, we present a novel intelligent surveillance system used for the management of road vehicles based on Intelligent Visual Internet of Things (IVIoT. The system has the ability to extract the vehicle visual tags on the urban roads; in other words, it can label any vehicle by means of computer vision and therefore can easily recognize vehicles with visual tags. The nodes designed in the system can be installed not only on the urban roads for providing basic information but also on the mobile sensing vehicles for providing mobility support and improving sensing coverage. Visual tags mentioned in this paper consist of license plate number, vehicle color, and vehicle type and have several additional properties, such as passing spot and passing moment. Moreover, we present a fast and efficient image haze removal method to deal with haze weather condition. The experiment results show that the designed road vehicle monitoring system achieves an average real-time tracking accuracy of 85.80% under different conditions.
Sturm, J.A.; Bekker, M.M.; Groenendaal, B.; Wesselink, R.; Eggen, J.H.
An Intelligent Playground is an environment with interactive objects that, using advanced technology such as sensors and actuators, react to the interaction with the children and actively encourage children to play. Thus, an intelligent playground stimulates children to move and play together. In
In medieval times, due to people’s reliance on belief, public space of Christianity came into being. With the rise of secularization, religion gradually turned into private belief, and accordingly public space returned to private space. In the 21st century, due to people’s reliance on intelligent devices, information-interactive public space emerges, and as information interaction is constantly constraining the visually impaired, public space regressed to the exclusive space of limited people. Modernity is marked by technical rationality, but an ensuing basic problem lies in the separation between human action, ethics and public space. When technology fails to overcome obstacles for a particular group, the gap between the burgeoning intelligent phenomena and the increasing ratio of visually impaired is also expanding, ultimately resulting in a growing number of “blind spots” in information-interactive space. Technological innovation not only promotes the development of the information industry, but also promotes the rapid development of the transportation industry. Traffic patterns are diversifying and diverging nowadays, but it’s a fatal blow for people with visually disabilities, Because they still can only experience the most traditional mode of transportation, sometimes even not go out. How to guarantee their interactive accessibility in large urban public transport system right, currently, is a very important research direction.
Ward, Matthew; Keim, Daniel
Visualization is the process of representing data, information, and knowledge in a visual form to support the tasks of exploration, confirmation, presentation, and understanding. This book is designed as a textbook for students, researchers, analysts, professionals, and designers of visualization techniques, tools, and systems. It covers the full spectrum of the field, including mathematical and analytical aspects, ranging from its foundations to human visual perception; from coded algorithms for different types of data, information and tasks to the design and evaluation of new visualization techniques. Sample programs are provided as starting points for building one's own visualization tools. Numerous data sets have been made available that highlight different application areas and allow readers to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of different visualization methods. Exercises, programming projects, and related readings are given for each chapter. The book concludes with an examination of several existin...
Perception operates on an immense amount of incoming information that greatly exceeds the brain's processing capacity. Because of this fundamental limitation, the ability to suppress irrelevant information is a key determinant of perceptual efficiency. Here, I will review a series of studies investigating suppressive mechanisms in visual motion processing, namely perceptual suppression of large, background-like motions. These spatial suppression mechanisms are adaptive, operating only when sensory inputs are sufficiently robust to guarantee visibility. Converging correlational and causal evidence links these behavioral results with inhibitory center-surround mechanisms, namely those in cortical area MT. Spatial suppression is abnormally weak in several special populations, including the elderly and individuals with schizophrenia-a deficit that is evidenced by better-than-normal direction discriminations of large moving stimuli. Theoretical work shows that this abnormal weakening of spatial suppression should result in motion segregation deficits, but direct behavioral support of this hypothesis is lacking. Finally, I will argue that the ability to suppress information is a fundamental neural process that applies not only to perception but also to cognition in general. Supporting this argument, I will discuss recent research that shows individual differences in spatial suppression of motion signals strongly predict individual variations in IQ scores. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available This study examined the additive and interactive effects of role stress and emotional intelligence for predicting engagement among 288 teachers. Emotional intelligence and engagement were positively associated. Role ambiguity and role conflict showed negative associations with vigor and dedication scores. The interaction of role ambiguity and emotional intelligence was significant in explaining engagement dimensions. Similar results were found considering overall teacher engagement. Emotional intelligence boosted engagement when the levels of role ambiguity were higher. Our findings suggest the need for future research examining the impact of job hindrances on the links between emotional intelligence and teachers’ occupational well-being indicators. Finally, the implications for emotional intelligence training in education are discussed.
This study examined the additive and interactive effects of role stress and emotional intelligence for predicting engagement among 288 teachers. Emotional intelligence and engagement were positively associated. Role ambiguity and role conflict showed negative associations with vigor and dedication scores. The interaction of role ambiguity and emotional intelligence was significant in explaining engagement dimensions. Similar results were found considering overall teacher engagement. Emotional intelligence boosted engagement when the levels of role ambiguity were higher. Our findings suggest the need for future research examining the impact of job hindrances on the links between emotional intelligence and teachers’ occupational well-being indicators. Finally, the implications for emotional intelligence training in education are discussed. PMID:28961218
Nyamugudza, Tendai; Rajasekar, Venkatesh; Sen, Prasad; Nirmala, M.; Madhu Viswanatham, V.
Advancements in networking technology have seen more and more devices becoming connected day by day. This has given organizations capacity to extend their networks beyond their boundaries to remote offices and remote employees. However as the network grows security becomes a major challenge since the attack surface also increases. There is need to guard the network against different types of attacks like intrusion and malware through using different tools at different networking levels. This paper describes how network intelligence can be acquired through implementing a low-interaction honeypot which detects and track network intrusion. Honeypot allows an organization to interact and gather information about an attack earlier before it compromises the network. This process is important because it allows the organization to learn about future attacks of the same nature and allows them to develop counter measures. The paper further shows how honeypot-honey net based model for interruption detection system (IDS) can be used to get the best valuable information about the attacker and prevent unexpected harm to the network.
Zeringue, J.; Bowring, J. F.; McLean, N. M.; Pastor, F.
Since the early 1990s, Ken Ludwig's Isoplot software has been the tool of choice for visualization and analysis of isotopic data used for geochronology. The software is an add-in to Microsoft Excel that allows users to generate visual representations of data. However, recent changes to Excel have made Isoplot more difficult to use and maintain, and the software is no longer supported. In the last several years, the Cyber Infrastructure Research and Development Lab for the Earth Sciences (CIRDLES), at the College of Charleston, has worked collaboratively with geochronologists to develop U-Pb_Redux, a software product that provides some of Isoplot's functionality for U-Pb geochronology. However, the community needs a full and complete Isoplot replacement that is open source, platform independent, and not dependent on proprietary software. This temporary lapse in tooling also presents a tremendous opportunity for scientific computing in the earth sciences. When Isoplot was written for Excel, it gained much of the platform's flexibility and power but also was burdened with its limitations. For example, Isoplot could not be used outside of Excel, could not be cross-platform (so long as Excel wasn't), could not be embedded in other applications, and only static images could be produced. Nonetheless this software was and still is a powerful tool that has served the community for more than two decades and the trade-offs were more than acceptable. In 2014, we seek to gain flexibility not available with Excel. We propose that the next generation of charting software be reusable, platform-agnostic, and interactive. This new software should allow scientists to easily explore—not just passively view—their data. Beginning in the fall of 2013, researchers at CIRDLES began planning for and prototyping a 21st-century replacement for Isoplot, which we call Topsoil, an anagram of Isoplot. This work is being conducted in the public domain at https://github.com/CIRDLES/topsoil. We
The purpose of Interactive Visualization is to develop scientific methods to increase scientists'' abilities to explore data and to understand better the results of experiments based on extensive calculations. This book provides readers with insight in Interactive Visualization from various perspectives, representing the developments in the field.
Chen, Hong-Ren; Chiang, Chih-Hao; Lin, Wen-Shan
With the rapid progress in information technology, interactive whiteboards have become IT-integrated in teaching activities. The theory of multiple intelligences argues that every person possesses multiple intelligences, emphasizing learners' cognitive richness and the possible role of these differences in enhanced learning. This study is the…
Twellmann, Thorsten; Lange, Oliver; Nattkemper, Tim Wilhelm; Meyer-Bäse, Anke
Intelligent medical systems based on supervised and unsupervised artificial neural networks are applied to the automatic visualization and classification of suspicious lesions in breast MRI. These systems represent an important component of future sophisticated computer-aided diagnosis systems and enable the extraction of spatial and temporal features of dynamic MRI data stemming from patients with confirmed lesion diagnosis. By taking into account the heterogenity of the cancerous tissue, these techniques reveal the malignant, benign and normal kinetic signals and and provide a regional subclassification of pathological breast tissue. Intelligent medical systems are expected to have substantial implications in healthcare politics by contributing to the diagnosis of indeterminate breast lesions by non-invasive imaging.
The purpose of the study was to compare 2D and 3D visual presentation styles, both still frame and animation, on subjects' brain activity measured by the amplitude of EEG alpha wave and on their recall to see if alpha power and recall differ significantly by depth and movement of visual presentation style and by spatial intelligence. In addition,…
Muigg, Philipp; Hadwiger, Markus; Doleisch, Helmut; Grö ller, Eduard M.
This paper presents a novel framework for visualizing volumetric data specified on complex polyhedral grids, without the need to perform any kind of a priori tetrahedralization. These grids are composed of polyhedra that often are non
Meng Lin; Rui Hu; Yun Su; Ronghua Zhang; Yanhua Yang
Full text of publication follows: Many thermal-hydraulic system codes were developed in the past twenty years, such as RELAP5, RETRAN, ATHLET, etc. Because of their general and advanced features in thermal-hydraulic computation, they are widely used in the world to analyze transients and accidents. But there are following disadvantages for most of these original thermal-hydraulic system codes. Firstly, because models are built through input decks, so the input files are complex and non-figurative, and the style of input decks is various for different users and models. Secondly, results are shown in off-line data file form. It is not convenient for analysts who may pay more attention to dynamic parameters trend and changing. Thirdly, there are few interfaces with other program in these original thermal-hydraulic system codes. This restricts the codes expanding. The subject of this paper is to develop a powerful analyzer based on these thermal-hydraulic system codes to analyze transients and accidents more simply, accurately and fleetly. Firstly, modeling is visual and intelligent. Users build the thermalhydraulic system model using component objects according to their needs, and it is not necessary for them to face bald input decks. The style of input decks created automatically by the analyzer is unified and can be accepted easily by other people. Secondly, parameters concerned by analyst can be dynamically communicated to show or even change. Thirdly, the analyzer provide interface with other programs for the thermal-hydraulic system code. Thus parallel computation between thermal-hydraulic system code and other programs become possible. In conclusion, through visual and intelligent method, the analyzer based on general and advanced thermal-hydraulic system codes can be used to analysis transients and accidents more effectively. The main purpose of this paper is to present developmental activities, assessment and application results of the visual and intelligent
Zhang, Hui; Boyles, Michael J.
We present a novel interaction paradigm for the visual exploration, manipulation and analysis of human-robot interaction (HRI) rules; our development is implemented using a visual programming interface and exploits key techniques drawn from both information visualization and visual data mining to facilitate the interaction design and knowledge discovery process. HRI is often concerned with manipulations of multi-modal signals, events, and commands that form various kinds of interaction rules. Depicting, manipulating and sharing such design-level information is a compelling challenge. Furthermore, the closed loop between HRI programming and knowledge discovery from empirical data is a relatively long cycle. This, in turn, makes design-level verification nearly impossible to perform in an earlier phase. In our work, we exploit a drag-and-drop user interface and visual languages to support depicting responsive behaviors from social participants when they interact with their partners. For our principal test case of gaze-contingent HRI interfaces, this permits us to program and debug the robots' responsive behaviors through a graphical data-flow chart editor. We exploit additional program manipulation interfaces to provide still further improvement to our programming experience: by simulating the interaction dynamics between a human and a robot behavior model, we allow the researchers to generate, trace and study the perception-action dynamics with a social interaction simulation to verify and refine their designs. Finally, we extend our visual manipulation environment with a visual data-mining tool that allows the user to investigate interesting phenomena such as joint attention and sequential behavioral patterns from multiple multi-modal data streams. We have created instances of HRI interfaces to evaluate and refine our development paradigm. As far as we are aware, this paper reports the first program manipulation paradigm that integrates visual programming
i-Car: An Intelligent and Interactive Interface for Driver Assistance System. ... techniques with pattern recognition, feature extraction, machine learning, object recognition, ... The system uses eye closure based decision algorithm to detect driver ...
This paper presents a novel framework for visualizing volumetric data specified on complex polyhedral grids, without the need to perform any kind of a priori tetrahedralization. These grids are composed of polyhedra that often are non-convex and have an arbitrary number of faces, where the faces can be non-planar with an arbitrary number of vertices. The importance of such grids in state-of-the-art simulation packages is increasing rapidly. We propose a very compact, face-based data structure for representing such meshes for visualization, called two-sided face sequence lists (TSFSL), as well as an algorithm for direct GPU-based ray-casting using this representation. The TSFSL data structure is able to represent the entire mesh topology in a 1D TSFSL data array of face records, which facilitates the use of efficient 1D texture accesses for visualization. In order to scale to large data sizes, we employ a mesh decomposition into bricks that can be handled independently, where each brick is then composed of its own TSFSL array. This bricking enables memory savings and performance improvements for large meshes. We illustrate the feasibility of our approach with real-world application results, by visualizing highly complex polyhedral data from commercial state-of-the-art simulation packages. © 2011 IEEE.
Tucker, Laura; Scherr, Rachel E.; Zickler, Todd; Mazur, Eric
Large-scale audiovisual data that measure group learning are time consuming to collect and analyze. As an initial step towards scaling qualitative classroom observation, we qualitatively coded classroom video using an established coding scheme with and without its audio cues. We find that interrater reliability is as high when using visual data…
Nijholt, Antinus; Dijk, Esko O.; Lemmens, Paul M.C.; Luitjens, S.B.
The intention of the symposium on Haptic and Audio-visual stimuli at the EuroHaptics 2010 conference is to deepen the understanding of the effect of combined Haptic and Audio-visual stimuli. The knowledge gained will be used to enhance experiences and interactions in daily life. To this end, a
The automation of visual inspection is a complex task that requires collaboration between experts, for example inspection specialist, vision specialist. on-line operators. Solving such problems through prototyping promotes this collaboration: the use of a non specific programming environment allows rapid, concrete checking of method validity, thus leading incrementally to the final system. In this context, artificial intelligence techniques permit easy, extensible, and modular design of the prototype, together with heuristic solution building. We define and achieve the SPOR prototyping environment, based on object-oriented programming and rules-basis managing. The feasibility and the validity of an heuristic method for automated visual inspection in fluoroscopy have been proved through prototyping in SPOR. (author) [fr
Full Text Available The buildings provide a significant contribution to total energy consumption and CO2 emission. It has been estimated that the development of an intelligent power consumption monitor and control system will result in about 30% savings in energy consumption. This design innovatively integrates the advanced technologies such as the internet of things, the internet, intelligent buildings and intelligent electricity which can offer open, efficient, convenient energy consumption detection platform in demand side and visual management demonstration application platform in power enterprises side. The system was created to maximize the effective and efficient the use of energy resource. It was development around sensor networks and intelligent gateway and the monitoring center software. This will realize the highly integration and comprehensive application in energy and information to meet the needs with intelligent buildings
van den Heuvel, C.; Smiraglia, R.; Slavic, A.; Akdag Salah, A.; Davies, S.
This paper discusses early experiments of Paul Otlet that visualize multidimensional knowledge organization and interaction. It examines their potential for future information retrieval. "Likeness" has been a recurrent theme in classification theory; here we discuss the concept of "likeliness" and
Sternberg, Robert J.
Intelligence is the ability to learn from experience and to adapt to, shape, and select environments. Intelligence as measured by (raw scores on) conventional standardized tests varies across the lifespan, and also across generations. Intelligence can be understood in part in terms of the biology of the brain—especially with regard to the functioning in the prefrontal cortex—and also correlates with brain size, at least within humans. Studies of the effects of genes and environment suggest that the heritability coefficient (ratio of genetic to phenotypic variation) is between .4 and .8, although heritability varies as a function of socioeconomic status and other factors. Racial differences in measured intelligence have been observed, but race is a socially constructed rather than biological variable, so such differences are difficult to interpret. PMID:22577301
Sternberg, Robert J
Intelligence is the ability to learn from experience and to adapt to, shape, and select environments. Intelligence as measured by (raw scores on) conventional standardized tests varies across the lifespan, and also across generations. Intelligence can be understood in part in terms of the biology of the brain-especially with regard to the functioning in the prefrontal cortex-and also correlates with brain size, at least within humans. Studies of the effects of genes and environment suggest that the heritability coefficient (ratio of genetic to phenotypic variation) is between .4 and .8, although heritability varies as a function of socioeconomic status and other factors. Racial differences in measured intelligence have been observed, but race is a socially constructed rather than biological variable, so such differences are difficult to interpret.
Cuttone, Andrea; Jørgensen, Sune Lehmann; Larsen, Jakob Eg
We describe a personal informatics system for Android smartphones that provides personal data on mobility and social interactions through interactive visualization interfaces. The mobile app has been made available to N=136 first year university students as part of a study of social network...... interactions in a university campus setting. The design of the interactive visualization interfaces enabling the participants to gain insights into own behaviors is described. We report initial findings based on device logging of participant interactions with the interactive visualization app on the smartphone...
Porebski, Benjamin T; Ho, Bosco K; Buckle, Ashley M
In structural biology, management of a large number of Protein Data Bank (PDB) files and raw X-ray diffraction images often presents a major organizational problem. Existing software packages that manipulate these file types were not designed for these kinds of file-management tasks. This is typically encountered when browsing through a folder of hundreds of X-ray images, with the aim of rapidly inspecting the diffraction quality of a data set. To solve this problem, a useful functionality of the Macintosh operating system (OSX) has been exploited that allows custom visualization plugins to be attached to certain file types. Software plugins have been developed for diffraction images and PDB files, which in many scenarios can save considerable time and effort. The direct visualization of diffraction images and PDB structures in the file browser can be used to identify key files of interest simply by scrolling through a list of files.
Bush, Brian W [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Brunhart-Lupo, Nicholas J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gruchalla, Kenny M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Duckworth, Jonathan C [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
This brochure describes a system dynamics simulation (SD) framework that supports an end-to-end analysis workflow that is optimized for deployment on ESIF facilities(Peregrine and the Insight Center). It includes (I) parallel and distributed simulation of SD models, (ii) real-time 3D visualization of running simulations, and (iii) comprehensive database-oriented persistence of simulation metadata, inputs, and outputs.
Bush, Brian W [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Brunhart-Lupo, Nicholas J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gruchalla, Kenny M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Duckworth, Jonathan C [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
This presentation describes a system dynamics simulation (SD) framework that supports an end-to-end analysis workflow that is optimized for deployment on ESIF facilities(Peregrine and the Insight Center). It includes (I) parallel and distributed simulation of SD models, (ii) real-time 3D visualization of running simulations, and (iii) comprehensive database-oriented persistence of simulation metadata, inputs, and outputs.
Full Text Available As we move into the big data era, data grows not just in size, but also in complexity, containing a rich set of attributes, including location and time information, such as data from mobile devices (e.g., smart phones, natural disasters (e.g., earthquake and hurricane, epidemic spread, etc. We are motivated by the rising challenge and build a visualization tool for exploring generic spatiotemporal data, i.e., records containing time location information and numeric attribute values. Since the values often evolve over time and across geographic regions, we are particularly interested in detecting and analyzing the anomalous changes over time/space. Our analytic tool is based on geographic information system and is combined with spatiotemporal data mining algorithms, as well as various data visualization techniques, such as anomaly grids and anomaly bars superimposed on the map. We study how effective the tool may guide users to find potential anomalies through demonstrating and evaluating over publicly available spatiotemporal datasets. The tool for spatiotemporal anomaly analysis and visualization is useful in many domains, such as security investigation and monitoring, situation awareness, etc.
Warner, Jeremy L; Denny, Joshua C; Kreda, David A; Alterovitz, Gil
Our aim was to uncover unrecognized phenomic relationships using force-based network visualization methods, based on observed electronic medical record data. A primary phenotype was defined from actual patient profiles in the Multiparameter Intelligent Monitoring in Intensive Care II database. Network visualizations depicting primary relationships were compared to those incorporating secondary adjacencies. Interactivity was enabled through a phenotype visualization software concept: the Phenomics Advisor. Subendocardial infarction with cardiac arrest was demonstrated as a sample phenotype; there were 332 primarily adjacent diagnoses, with 5423 relationships. Primary network visualization suggested a treatment-related complication phenotype and several rare diagnoses; re-clustering by secondary relationships revealed an emergent cluster of smokers with the metabolic syndrome. Network visualization reveals phenotypic patterns that may have remained occult in pairwise correlation analysis. Visualization of complex data, potentially offered as point-of-care tools on mobile devices, may allow clinicians and researchers to quickly generate hypotheses and gain deeper understanding of patient subpopulations. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Schatz, Karsten; Mü ller, Christoph; Krone, Michael; Schneider, Jens; Reina, Guido; Ertl, Thomas
users to easily identify interesting locations even in overviews, both the focus and context view use color tables to show data attributes on the respective scale. We demonstrate that our technique achieves interactive performance on a one trillionpar
Cutfield, Nicholas J; Scott, Gregory; Waldman, Adam D; Sharp, David J; Bronstein, Adolfo M
Following bilateral vestibular loss (BVL) patients gradually adapt to the loss of vestibular input and rely more on other sensory inputs. Here we examine changes in the way proprioceptive and visual inputs interact. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate visual responses in the context of varying levels of proprioceptive input in 12 BVL subjects and 15 normal controls. A novel metal-free vibrator was developed to allow vibrotactile neck proprioceptive input to be delivered in the MRI system. A high level (100 Hz) and low level (30 Hz) control stimulus was applied over the left splenius capitis; only the high frequency stimulus generates a significant proprioceptive stimulus. The neck stimulus was applied in combination with static and moving (optokinetic) visual stimuli, in a factorial fMRI experimental design. We found that high level neck proprioceptive input had more cortical effect on brain activity in the BVL patients. This included a reduction in visual motion responses during high levels of proprioceptive input and differential activation in the midline cerebellum. In early visual cortical areas, the effect of high proprioceptive input was present for both visual conditions but in lateral visual areas, including V5/MT, the effect was only seen in the context of visual motion stimulation. The finding of a cortical visuo-proprioceptive interaction in BVL patients is consistent with behavioural data indicating that, in BVL patients, neck afferents partly replace vestibular input during the CNS-mediated compensatory process. An fMRI cervico-visual interaction may thus substitute the known visuo-vestibular interaction reported in normal subject fMRI studies. The results provide evidence for a cortical mechanism of adaptation to vestibular failure, in the form of an enhanced proprioceptive influence on visual processing. The results may provide the basis for a cortical mechanism involved in proprioceptive substitution of vestibular
Hoque, Enamul; Setlur, Vidya; Tory, Melanie; Dykeman, Isaac
Interactive visual data analysis is most productive when users can focus on answering the questions they have about their data, rather than focusing on how to operate the interface to the analysis tool. One viable approach to engaging users in interactive conversations with their data is a natural language interface to visualizations. These interfaces have the potential to be both more expressive and more accessible than other interaction paradigms. We explore how principles from language pragmatics can be applied to the flow of visual analytical conversations, using natural language as an input modality. We evaluate the effectiveness of pragmatics support in our system Evizeon, and present design considerations for conversation interfaces to visual analytics tools.
Mulumba, P.; Gain, J.; Marais, P.; Woudt, P.
MeerKAT in South Africa (Meer = More Karoo Array Telescope) will require software to help visualize, interpret and interact with multidimensional data. While visualization of multi-dimensional data is a well explored topic, little work has been published on the design of intuitive interfaces to such systems. More specifically, the use of non-traditional interfaces (such as motion tracking and multi-touch) has not been widely investigated within the context of visualizing astronomy data. We hypothesize that a natural user interface would allow for easier data exploration which would in turn lead to certain kinds of visualizations (volumetric, multidimensional). To this end, we have developed a multi-platform scientific visualization system for FITS spectral data cubes using VTK (Visualization Toolkit) and a natural user interface to explore the interaction between a gesture input device and multidimensional data space. Our system supports visual transformations (translation, rotation and scaling) as well as sub-volume extraction and arbitrary slicing of 3D volumetric data. These tasks were implemented across three prototypes aimed at exploring different interaction strategies: standard (mouse/keyboard) interaction, volumetric gesture tracking (Leap Motion controller) and multi-touch interaction (multi-touch monitor). A Heuristic Evaluation revealed that the volumetric gesture tracking prototype shows great promise for interfacing with the depth component (z-axis) of 3D volumetric space across multiple transformations. However, this is limited by users needing to remember the required gestures. In comparison, the touch-based gesture navigation is typically more familiar to users as these gestures were engineered from standard multi-touch actions. Future work will address a complete usability test to evaluate and compare the different interaction modalities against the different visualization tasks.
Bae, Gi-Yeul; Luck, Steven J
We investigated whether the representations of different objects are maintained independently in working memory or interact with each other. Observers were shown two sequentially presented orientations and required to reproduce each orientation after a delay. The sequential presentation minimized perceptual interactions so that we could isolate interactions between memory representations per se. We found that similar orientations were repelled from each other whereas dissimilar orientations were attracted to each other. In addition, when one of the items was given greater attentional priority by means of a cue, the representation of the high-priority item was not influenced very much by the orientation of the low-priority item, but the representation of the low-priority item was strongly influenced by the orientation of the high-priority item. This indicates that attention modulates the interactions between working memory representations. In addition, errors in the reported orientations of the two objects were positively correlated under some conditions, suggesting that representations of distinct objects may become grouped together in memory. Together, these results demonstrate that working-memory representations are not independent but instead interact with each other in a manner that depends on attentional priority.
Penn, Stephen Paul
This systematic literature review of current scholarship on business intelligence, individual decision-making behavior, strategy as practice, and strategic planning offers a roadmap for firms seeking to increase their competitive advantage through data driven decision-making. Planning, deciding, and using information is a single phenomenon where…
Nafari, Maryam; Weaver, Chris
Richly interactive visualization tools are increasingly popular for data exploration and analysis in a wide variety of domains. Existing systems and techniques for recording provenance of interaction focus either on comprehensive automated recording of low-level interaction events or on idiosyncratic manual transcription of high-level analysis activities. In this paper, we present the architecture and translation design of a query-to-question (Q2Q) system that automatically records user interactions and presents them semantically using natural language (written English). Q2Q takes advantage of domain knowledge and uses natural language generation (NLG) techniques to translate and transcribe a progression of interactive visualization states into a visual log of styled text that complements and effectively extends the functionality of visualization tools. We present Q2Q as a means to support a cross-examination process in which questions rather than interactions are the focus of analytic reasoning and action. We describe the architecture and implementation of the Q2Q system, discuss key design factors and variations that effect question generation, and present several visualizations that incorporate Q2Q for analysis in a variety of knowledge domains.
Hu, Lei-di; Long, Yi; Qian, Cheng-yang; Zhang, Ling; Lv, Guo-nian
Voice technology is one of the important contents to improve the intelligence and humanization of tourism service system. Combining voice technology, the paper concentrates on application needs and the composition of system to present an overall intelligent tourism service system's framework consisting of presentation layer, Web services layer, and tourism application service layer. On the basis, the paper further elaborated the implementation of the system and its key technologies, including intelligent voice interactive technology, seamless integration technology of multiple data sources, location-perception-based guides' services technology, and tourism safety control technology. Finally, according to the situation of Nanjing tourism, a prototype of Tourism Services System is realized.
Demir, I.; Krajewski, W. F.
As geoscientists are confronted with increasingly massive datasets from environmental observations to simulations, one of the biggest challenges is having the right tools to gain scientific insight from the data and communicate the understanding to stakeholders. Recent developments in web technologies make it easy to manage, visualize and share large data sets with general public. Novel visualization techniques and dynamic user interfaces allow users to interact with data, and modify the parameters to create custom views of the data to gain insight from simulations and environmental observations. This requires developing new data models and intelligent knowledge discovery techniques to explore and extract information from complex computational simulations or large data repositories. Scientific visualization will be an increasingly important component to build comprehensive environmental information platforms. This presentation provides an overview of the trends and challenges in the field of scientific visualization, and demonstrates information visualization and communication tools developed within the light of these challenges.
Nielsen, Matthias; Brewer, Robert S.; Grønbæk, Kaj
Domain experts dealing with big data are typically not familiar with advanced data mining tools. This especially holds true for domain experts within energy management. In this paper, we introduce a visual analytics approach that empowers such users to visually analyze energy behavior based......Viz, that interactively maps data from real world buildings. It is an overview +detail inter-active visual analytics tool supporting both rapid ad hoc explorations and structured evaluation of hypotheses about patterns and anomalies in resource consumption data mixed with occupant survey data. We have evaluated...... the approach with five domain experts within energy management, and further with 10 data analytics experts and found that it was easily attainable and that it supported visual analysis of mixed consumption and survey data. Finally, we discuss future perspectives of affine visual analytics for mixed...
Pisharady, Pramod Kumar; Poh, Loh Ai
This book presents a collection of computational intelligence algorithms that addresses issues in visual pattern recognition such as high computational complexity, abundance of pattern features, sensitivity to size and shape variations and poor performance against complex backgrounds. The book has 3 parts. Part 1 describes various research issues in the field with a survey of the related literature. Part 2 presents computational intelligence based algorithms for feature selection and classification. The algorithms are discriminative and fast. The main application area considered is hand posture recognition. The book also discusses utility of these algorithms in other visual as well as non-visual pattern recognition tasks including face recognition, general object recognition and cancer / tumor classification. Part 3 presents biologically inspired algorithms for feature extraction. The visual cortex model based features discussed have invariance with respect to appearance and size of the hand, and provide good...
Marije van Beilen
Full Text Available Little is known about the influence of visual characteristics other than colour on flavor perception, and the complex interactions between more than two sensory modalities. This study focused on the effects of recognizability of visual (texture information on flavor perception of odorized sweet beverages. Participants rated the perceived sweetness of odorized sucrose solutions in the presence or absence of either a congruent or incongruent visual context. Odors were qualitatively reminiscent of sweet foods (strawberry and caramel or not (savoury. Visual context was either an image of the same sweet foods (figurative context or a visual texture derived from this product (non-figurative context. Textures were created using a texture synthesis method that preserved perceived food qualities while removing object information. Odor-taste combinations were rated sweeter within a figurative than a non-figurative context. This behaviour was exhibited for all odor-taste combinations, even in trials without images, indicating sustained priming by figurative visual context. A non-figurative context showed a transient sweetening effect. Sweetness was generally enhanced most by the strawberry odor. We conclude that the degree of recognizability of visual information (figurative versus non-figurative, influences flavor perception differently. Our results suggest that this visual context priming is mediated by separate sustained and transient processes that are differently evoked by figurative and non-figurative visual contexts. These components operate independent of the congruency of the image-odor-taste combinations.
Pronged Approach for Improved Data Understanding: 3-D Visualization, Use of Gaming Techniques, and Intelligent Advisory Agents. In Visualising Network...University at the start of each fall semester, when numerous new students arrive on campus and begin downloading extensive amounts of audio and...SIGGRAPH ’92 • C. Cruz-Neira, D.J. Sandin, T.A. DeFanti, R.V. Kenyon and J.C. Hart, "The CAVE: Audio Visual Experience Automatic Virtual Environment
Lopes, Manuel; Montesano, Luis
In this survey we present different approaches that allow an intelligent agent to explore autonomous its environment to gather information and learn multiple tasks. Different communities proposed different solutions, that are in many cases, similar and/or complementary. These solutions include active learning, exploration/exploitation, online-learning and social learning. The common aspect of all these approaches is that it is the agent to selects and decides what information to gather next. ...
Yan Naing Aye
Full Text Available The intelligent handheld instrument, ITrem2, enhances manual positioning accuracy by cancelling erroneous hand movements and, at the same time, provides automatic micromanipulation functions. Visual data is acquired from a high speed monovision camera attached to the optical surgical microscope and acceleration measurements are acquired from the inertial measurement unit (IMU on board ITrem2. Tremor estimation and canceling is implemented via Band-limited Multiple Fourier Linear Combiner (BMFLC filter. The piezoelectric actuated micromanipulator in ITrem2 generates the 3D motion to compensate erroneous hand motion. Preliminary bench-top 2-DOF experiments have been conducted. The error motions simulated by a motion stage is reduced by 67% for multiple frequency oscillatory motions and 56.16% for pre-conditioned recorded physiological tremor.
Mccormick, Patrick S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Brownlee, Carson S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pegoraro, Vincent [UNIV OF UTAH; Shankar, Siddharth [UNIV OF UTAH; Hansen, Charles D [UNIV OF UTAH
Understanding fluid flow is a difficult problem and of increasing importance as computational fluid dynamics produces an abundance of simulation data. Experimental flow analysis has employed techniques such as shadowgraph and schlieren imaging for centuries which allow empirical observation of inhomogeneous flows. Shadowgraphs provide an intuitive way of looking at small changes in flow dynamics through caustic effects while schlieren cutoffs introduce an intensity gradation for observing large scale directional changes in the flow. The combination of these shading effects provides an informative global analysis of overall fluid flow. Computational solutions for these methods have proven too complex until recently due to the fundamental physical interaction of light refracting through the flow field. In this paper, we introduce a novel method to simulate the refraction of light to generate synthetic shadowgraphs and schlieren images of time-varying scalar fields derived from computational fluid dynamics (CFD) data. Our method computes physically accurate schlieren and shadowgraph images at interactive rates by utilizing a combination of GPGPU programming, acceleration methods, and data-dependent probabilistic schlieren cutoffs. Results comparing this method to previous schlieren approximations are presented.
Gilbert, C; Ito, M; Kapadia, M; Westheimer, G
Attention in early visual processing engages the higher order, context dependent properties of neurons. Even at the earliest stages of visual cortical processing neurons play a role in intermediate level vision - contour integration and surface segmentation. The contextual influences mediating this process may be derived from long range connections within primary visual cortex (V1). These influences are subject to perceptual learning, and are strongly modulated by visuospatial attention, which is itself a learning dependent process. The attentional influences may involve interactions between feedback and horizontal connections in V1. V1 is therefore a dynamic and active processor, subject to top-down influences.
Full Text Available The objective of interactive geographic maps is to provide geographic information to a large audience in a captivating and intuitive way. Storytelling helps to create exciting experiences and to explain complex or otherwise hidden relationships of geospatial data. Furthermore, interactive 3D applications offer a wide range of attractive elements for advanced visual story creation and offer the possibility to convey the same story in many different ways. In this paper, we discuss and analyze storytelling techniques in 3D geographic visualizations so that authors and developers working with geospatial data can use these techniques to conceptualize their visualization and interaction design. Finally, we outline two examples which apply the given concepts.
Gill, Joel C.; Malamud, Bruce D.
This paper presents a broad overview, characterization, and visualization of the interaction relationships between 21 natural hazards, drawn from six hazard groups (geophysical, hydrological, shallow Earth, atmospheric, biophysical, and space hazards). A synthesis is presented of the identified interaction relationships between these hazards, using an accessible visual format particularly suited to end users. Interactions considered are primarily those where a primary hazard triggers or increases the probability of secondary hazards occurring. In this paper we do the following: (i) identify, through a wide-ranging review of grey- and peer-review literature, 90 interactions; (ii) subdivide the interactions into three levels, based on how well we can characterize secondary hazards, given information about the primary hazard; (iii) determine the spatial overlap and temporal likelihood of the triggering relationships occurring; and (iv) examine the relationship between primary and secondary hazard intensities for each identified hazard interaction and group these into five possible categories. In this study we have synthesized, using accessible visualization techniques, large amounts of information drawn from many scientific disciplines. We outline the importance of constraining hazard interactions and reinforce the importance of a holistic (or multihazard) approach to natural hazard assessment. This approach allows those undertaking research into single hazards to place their work within the context of other hazards. It also communicates important aspects of hazard interactions, facilitating an effective analysis by those working on reducing and managing disaster risk within both the policy and practitioner communities.
Albourae, A. T.; Armenakis, C.; Kyan, M.
With the increased exposure to tourists, historical monuments are at an ever-growing risk of disappearing. Building Information Modelling (BIM) offers a process of digitally documenting of all the features that are made or incorporated into the building over its life-span, thus affords unique opportunities for information preservation. BIM of historical buildings are called Historical Building Information Models (HBIM). This involves documenting a building in detail throughout its history. Geomatics professionals have the potential to play a major role in this area as they are often the first professionals involved on construction development sites for many Architectural, Engineering, and Construction (AEC) projects. In this work, we discuss how to establish an architectural database of a heritage site, digitally reconstruct, preserve and then interact with it through an immersive environment that leverages BIM for exploring historic buildings. The reconstructed heritage site under investigation was constructed in the early 15th century. In our proposed approach, the site selection was based on many factors such as architectural value, size, and accessibility. The 3D model is extracted from the original collected and integrated data (Image-based, range-based, CAD modelling, and land survey methods), after which the elements of the 3D objects are identified by creating a database using the BIM software platform (Autodesk Revit). The use of modern and widely accessible game engine technology (Unity3D) is explored, allowing the user to fully embed and interact with the scene using handheld devices. The details of implementing an integrated pipeline between HBIM, GIS and augmented and virtual reality (AVR) tools and the findings of the work are presented.
A. T. Albourae
Full Text Available With the increased exposure to tourists, historical monuments are at an ever-growing risk of disappearing. Building Information Modelling (BIM offers a process of digitally documenting of all the features that are made or incorporated into the building over its life-span, thus affords unique opportunities for information preservation. BIM of historical buildings are called Historical Building Information Models (HBIM. This involves documenting a building in detail throughout its history. Geomatics professionals have the potential to play a major role in this area as they are often the first professionals involved on construction development sites for many Architectural, Engineering, and Construction (AEC projects. In this work, we discuss how to establish an architectural database of a heritage site, digitally reconstruct, preserve and then interact with it through an immersive environment that leverages BIM for exploring historic buildings. The reconstructed heritage site under investigation was constructed in the early 15th century. In our proposed approach, the site selection was based on many factors such as architectural value, size, and accessibility. The 3D model is extracted from the original collected and integrated data (Image-based, range-based, CAD modelling, and land survey methods, after which the elements of the 3D objects are identified by creating a database using the BIM software platform (Autodesk Revit. The use of modern and widely accessible game engine technology (Unity3D is explored, allowing the user to fully embed and interact with the scene using handheld devices. The details of implementing an integrated pipeline between HBIM, GIS and augmented and virtual reality (AVR tools and the findings of the work are presented.
Cao, Huai; Sun, Yuwen
The pure and fresh air can not only contribute to our physical and mental health, but also can be beneficial to ease the pressure and relax the mood. The vertical intelligent air cleaner can remove the harmful gases from the air and absorb the suspended particles in the air, especially all kinds of the bacteria and viruses. The air cleaner is good for improving the air quality of the indoor and maintaining the health of the people. The designing of the vertical air cleaner is as follows: The designing of the vertical intelligent make full use of the developed air purification technology. The smart home is inserted into the work. Simultaneously, in the aspect of the design of intelligent products, the intelligent interactive processes are scientifically planned. Moreover, the emotional design and the user experience are fully considered, which can enhance the comprehensive design ability.
Nozaki, Yuki; Koyasu, Masuo
Regulation of emotions in others is distinct from other activities related to trait emotional intelligence in that only such behavior can directly change other people's psychological states. Although emotional intelligence has generally been associated with prosociality, emotionally intelligent people may manipulate others' behaviors to suit their own interests using high-level capabilities to read and manage the emotions of others. This study investigated how trait emotional intelligence was related to interacting with ostracized others who attempt retaliation. We experimentally manipulated whether two people were simultaneously ostracized or not by using an online ball-tossing game called Cyberball. Eighty university students participated in Cyberball for manipulating ostracism and a "recommendation game," a variation of the ultimatum game for assessing how to interact with others who attempt retaliation, with four participants. After the recommendation game, participants rated their intention to retaliate during the game. People with higher interpersonal emotional intelligence were more likely to recommend that the ostracized other should inhibit retaliation and maximize additional rewards when they have a weaker intention to retaliate. However, they were more likely to recommend that the ostracized other should retaliate against the ostracizers when they have a stronger intention to retaliate. This is the first laboratory study that empirically reveals that people with high interpersonal emotional intelligence influence others' emotions based on their own goals contrary to the general view. Trait emotional intelligence itself is neither positive nor negative, but it can facilitate interpersonal behaviors for achieving goals. Our study offers valuable contributions for the refinement of the trait emotional intelligence concept in the respect of its social function.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Visualization concerns the representation of data visually and is an important task in scientific research. Protein-protein interactions (PPI are discovered using either wet lab techniques, such mass spectrometry, or in silico predictions tools, resulting in large collections of interactions stored in specialized databases. The set of all interactions of an organism forms a protein-protein interaction network (PIN and is an important tool for studying the behaviour of the cell machinery. Since graphic representation of PINs may highlight important substructures, e.g. protein complexes, visualization is more and more used to study the underlying graph structure of PINs. Although graphs are well known data structures, there are different open problems regarding PINs visualization: the high number of nodes and connections, the heterogeneity of nodes (proteins and edges (interactions, the possibility to annotate proteins and interactions with biological information extracted by ontologies (e.g. Gene Ontology that enriches the PINs with semantic information, but complicates their visualization. Methods In these last years many software tools for the visualization of PINs have been developed. Initially thought for visualization only, some of them have been successively enriched with new functions for PPI data management and PIN analysis. The paper analyzes the main software tools for PINs visualization considering four main criteria: (i technology, i.e. availability/license of the software and supported OS (Operating System platforms; (ii interoperability, i.e. ability to import/export networks in various formats, ability to export data in a graphic format, extensibility of the system, e.g. through plug-ins; (iii visualization, i.e. supported layout and rendering algorithms and availability of parallel implementation; (iv analysis, i.e. availability of network analysis functions, such as clustering or mining of the graph, and the
Venkat, A; Christensen, C; Gyulassy, A; Summa, B; Federer, F; Angelucci, A; Pascucci, V
The goal of the recently emerged field of connectomics is to generate a wiring diagram of the brain at different scales. To identify brain circuitry, neuroscientists use specialized microscopes to perform multichannel imaging of labeled neurons at a very high resolution. CLARITY tissue clearing allows imaging labeled circuits through entire tissue blocks, without the need for tissue sectioning and section-to-section alignment. Imaging the large and complex non-human primate brain with sufficient resolution to identify and disambiguate between axons, in particular, produces massive data, creating great computational challenges to the study of neural circuits. Researchers require novel software capabilities for compiling, stitching, and visualizing large imagery. In this work, we detail the image acquisition process and a hierarchical streaming platform, ViSUS, that enables interactive visualization of these massive multi-volume datasets using a standard desktop computer. The ViSUS visualization framework has previously been shown to be suitable for 3D combustion simulation, climate simulation and visualization of large scale panoramic images. The platform is organized around a hierarchical cache oblivious data layout, called the IDX file format, which enables interactive visualization and exploration in ViSUS, scaling to the largest 3D images. In this paper we showcase the VISUS framework used in an interactive setting with the microscopy data.
Read, E. K.; Appling, A.; Carr, L.; De Cicco, L.; Read, J. S.; Walker, J. I.; Winslow, L. A.
Our Nation's rapidly growing store of environmental data makes new demands on researchers: to take on increasingly broad-scale, societally relevant analyses and to rapidly communicate findings to the public. Interactive web-based data visualizations now commonly supplement or comprise journalism, and science journalism has followed suit. To maximize the impact of US Geological Survey (USGS) science, the USGS Office of Water Information Data Science team builds tools and products that combine traditional static research products (e.g., print journal articles) with web-based, interactive data visualizations that target non-scientific audiences. We developed a lightweight, open-source framework for web visualizations to reduce time to production. The framework provides templates for a data visualization workflow and the packaging of text, interactive figures, and images into an appealing web interface with standardized look and feel, usage tracking, and responsiveness. By partnering with subject matter experts to focus on timely, societally relevant issues, we use these tools to produce appealing visual stories targeting specific audiences, including managers, the general public, and scientists, on diverse topics including drought, microplastic pollution, and fisheries response to climate change. We will describe the collaborative and technical methodologies used; describe some examples of how it's worked; and challenges and opportunities for the future.
Wu, Yingcai; Wei, Furu; Liu, Shixia; Au, Norman; Cui, Weiwei; Zhou, Hong; Qu, Huamin
The rapid development of Web technology has resulted in an increasing number of hotel customers sharing their opinions on the hotel services. Effective visual analysis of online customer opinions is needed, as it has a significant impact on building a successful business. In this paper, we present OpinionSeer, an interactive visualization system that could visually analyze a large collection of online hotel customer reviews. The system is built on a new visualization-centric opinion mining technique that considers uncertainty for faithfully modeling and analyzing customer opinions. A new visual representation is developed to convey customer opinions by augmenting well-established scatterplots and radial visualization. To provide multiple-level exploration, we introduce subjective logic to handle and organize subjective opinions with degrees of uncertainty. Several case studies illustrate the effectiveness and usefulness of OpinionSeer on analyzing relationships among multiple data dimensions and comparing opinions of different groups. Aside from data on hotel customer feedback, OpinionSeer could also be applied to visually analyze customer opinions on other products or services.
Leurdijk, A.; Limonard, S.
NM2 (New Media for a New Millennium) develops tools for interactive, personalised and non-linear audio-visual content that will be tested in seven pilot productions. This paper looks at the market potential for these productions from a technological, a business and a users' perspective. It shows
Ding, Linfang; Meng, Liqiu; Yang, Jian; Krisp, Jukka M.
In this paper, we propose a visual analytics approach for the exploration of spatiotemporal interaction patterns of massive origin-destination data. Firstly, we visually query the movement database for data at certain time windows. Secondly, we conduct interactive clustering to allow the users to select input variables/features (e.g., origins, destinations, distance, and duration) and to adjust clustering parameters (e.g. distance threshold). The agglomerative hierarchical clustering method is applied for the multivariate clustering of the origin-destination data. Thirdly, we design a parallel coordinates plot for visualizing the precomputed clusters and for further exploration of interesting clusters. Finally, we propose a gradient line rendering technique to show the spatial and directional distribution of origin-destination clusters on a map view. We implement the visual analytics approach in a web-based interactive environment and apply it to real-world floating car data from Shanghai. The experiment results show the origin/destination hotspots and their spatial interaction patterns. They also demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed approach.
Nguyen, G.P.; Worring, M.
At one end of the spectrum, research in interactive content-based retrieval concentrates on machine learning methods for effective use of relevance feedback. On the other end, the information visualization community focuses on effective methods for conveying information to the user. What is lacking
Krause, F.; Bekkering, H.; Pratt, J.; Lindemann, O.
The current study investigates an interaction between numbers and physical size (i.e. size congruity) in visual search. In three experiments, participants had to detect a physically large (or small) target item among physically small (or large) distractors in a search task comprising single-digit
Howlett, Robert; Jain, Lakhmi; Gallo, Luigi; Pietro, Giuseppe
Intelligent interactive multimedia systems and services will be ever more important in computer systems. Nowadays, computers are widespread and computer users range from highly qualified scientists to non-computer expert professionals. Therefore, designing dynamic personalization and adaptivity methods to store, process, transmit and retrieve information is critical for matching the technological progress with the consumer needs. This book contains the contributions presented at the eighth international KES conference on Intelligent Interactive Multimedia: Systems and Services, which took place in Sorrento, Italy, June 17-19, 2015. It contains 33 peer-reviewed scientific contributions that focus on issues ranging from intelligent image or video storage, retrieval, transmission and analysis to knowledge-based technologies, from advanced information technology architectures for video processing and transmission to advanced functionalities of information and knowledge-based services. We believe that this book w...
Gallo, Luigi; Howlett, Robert; Jain, Lakhmi; IIMSS-16; Intelligent Interactive Multimedia Systems and Services 2016
This book contains the contributions presented at the ninth international KES conference on Intelligent Interactive Multimedia: Systems and Services, which took place in Puerto de la Cruz, Tenerife, Spain, June 15-17, 2016. It contains 65 peer-reviewed book chapters that focus on issues ranging from intelligent image or video storage, retrieval, transmission and analysis to knowledge-based technologies, from advanced information technology architectures for video processing and transmission to advanced functionalities of information and knowledge-based services. We believe that this book will serve as a useful source of knowledge for both academia and industry, for all those faculty members, research scientists, scholars, Ph.D. students and practitioners, who are interested in fundamental and applied facets of intelligent interactive multimedia.
Herce, Henry D.; Deng, Wen; Helma, Jonas; Leonhardt, Heinrich; Cardoso, M. Cristina
Protein–protein interactions are the basis of all processes in living cells, but most studies of these interactions rely on biochemical in vitro assays. Here we present a simple and versatile fluorescent-three-hybrid (F3H) strategy to visualize and target protein–protein interactions. A high-affinity nanobody anchors a GFP-fusion protein of interest at a defined cellular structure and the enrichment of red-labelled interacting proteins is measured at these sites. With this approach, we visualize the p53–HDM2 interaction in living cells and directly monitor the disruption of this interaction by Nutlin 3, a drug developed to boost p53 activity in cancer therapy. We further use this approach to develop a cell-permeable vector that releases a highly specific peptide disrupting the p53 and HDM2 interaction. The availability of multiple anchor sites and the simple optical readout of this nanobody-based capture assay enable systematic and versatile analyses of protein–protein interactions in practically any cell type and species. PMID:24154492
Mehmani, Bahar; Aiello, Andrea
We present a graphical example of the interaction picture-time evolution. Our aim is to help students understand in a didactic manner the simplicity that this picture provides. Visualizing the interaction picture unveils its advantages, which are hidden behind the involved mathematics. Specifically, we show that the time evolution of a driven harmonic oscillator in the interaction picture corresponds to a local transformation of a phase space-reference frame into the one that is co-rotating with the Wigner function. (paper)
Simard, Isabelle; Luck, David; Mottron, Laurent; Zeffiro, Thomas A.; Soulières, Isabelle
Different test types lead to different intelligence estimates in autism, as illustrated by the fact that autistic individuals obtain higher scores on the Raven's Progressive Matrices (RSPM) test than they do on the Wechsler IQ, in contrast to relatively similar performance on both tests in non-autistic individuals. However, the cerebral processes underlying these differences are not well understood. This study investigated whether activity in the fluid “reasoning” network, which includes frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital regions, is differently modulated by task complexity in autistic and non-autistic individuals during the RSPM. In this purpose, we used fMRI to study autistic and non-autistic participants solving the 60 RSPM problems focussing on regions and networks involved in reasoning complexity. As complexity increased, activity in the left superior occipital gyrus and the left middle occipital gyrus increased for autistic participants, whereas non-autistic participants showed increased activity in the left middle frontal gyrus and bilateral precuneus. Using psychophysiological interaction analyses (PPI), we then verified in which regions did functional connectivity increase as a function of reasoning complexity. PPI analyses revealed greater connectivity in autistic, compared to non-autistic participants, between the left inferior occipital gyrus and areas in the left superior frontal gyrus, right superior parietal lobe, right middle occipital gyrus and right inferior temporal gyrus. We also observed generally less modulation of the reasoning network as complexity increased in autistic participants. These results suggest that autistic individuals, when confronted with increasing task complexity, rely mainly on visuospatial processes when solving more complex matrices. In addition to the now well-established enhanced activity observed in visual areas in a range of tasks, these results suggest that the enhanced reliance on visual perception has a
Full Text Available Different test types lead to different intelligence estimates in autism, as illustrated by the fact that autistic individuals obtain higher scores on the Raven's Progressive Matrices (RSPM test than they do on the Wechsler IQ, in contrast to relatively similar performance on both tests in non-autistic individuals. However, the cerebral processes underlying these differences are not well understood. This study investigated whether activity in the fluid “reasoning” network, which includes frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital regions, is differently modulated by task complexity in autistic and non-autistic individuals during the RSPM. In this purpose, we used fMRI to study autistic and non-autistic participants solving the 60 RSPM problems focussing on regions and networks involved in reasoning complexity. As complexity increased, activity in the left superior occipital gyrus and the left middle occipital gyrus increased for autistic participants, whereas non-autistic participants showed increased activity in the left middle frontal gyrus and bilateral precuneus. Using psychophysiological interaction analyses (PPI, we then verified in which regions did functional connectivity increase as a function of reasoning complexity. PPI analyses revealed greater connectivity in autistic, compared to non-autistic participants, between the left inferior occipital gyrus and areas in the left superior frontal gyrus, right superior parietal lobe, right middle occipital gyrus and right inferior temporal gyrus. We also observed generally less modulation of the reasoning network as complexity increased in autistic participants. These results suggest that autistic individuals, when confronted with increasing task complexity, rely mainly on visuospatial processes when solving more complex matrices. In addition to the now well-established enhanced activity observed in visual areas in a range of tasks, these results suggest that the enhanced reliance on visual
Deckers, E.J.L.; Stouw, van der B.; Peutz, J.
This paper presents an ongoing innovation project on the development of an intelligent and interactive carpet called PeR+, short for Perception Rug Plus. This design-research project is a collaboration between an international flooring company, DESSO, and the Department of Industrial Design at the
Han, Heeyoung; Johnson, Scott D.
The purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship between students' emotional intelligence, social bond, and their interactions in an online learning environment. The research setting in this study was a 100% online master's degree program within a university located in the Midwest of the United States. Eighty-four students participated…
An Ambient Intelligence Environment is meant to sense and respond to the presence of people, using its embedded technology. In order to effectively sense the activities and intentions of its inhabitants, such an environment needs to utilize information captured from multiple sensors and modalities. By doing so, the interaction becomes more natural…
Dimitrova, Vania; Brna, Paul
STyLE-OLM (Dimitrova 2003 "International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education," 13, 35-78) presented a framework for interactive open learner modelling which entails the development of the means by which learners can "inspect," "discuss" and "alter" the learner model that has been jointly…
Cohn, Jeffrey; Cohn, Jeffrey; Nijholt, Antinus; Pantic, Maja
It is a pleasure and an honor to have organized the Third International Conference on Affective Computing and Intelligent Interaction (ACII). The conference will be held from 10th – 12th September 2009 in Amsterdam, The Netherlands. The conference series is the premier forum for presenting research
Poel, M.; Nijboer, F.; Broek, E.L. van den; Fairclough, S.; Nijholt, A.
BCIs are traditionally conceived as a way to control apparatus, an interface that allows you to act on" external devices as a form of input control. We propose an alternative use of BCIs, that of monitoring users as an additional intelligent sensor to enrich traditional means of interaction. This
Poel, Mannes; Nijboer, Femke; van den Broek, Egon; Fairclough, Stephen; Morency, Louis-Philippe; Bohus, Dan; Aghajan, Hamid; Nijholt, Antinus; Cassell, Justine; Epps, Julien
BCIs are traditionally conceived as a way to control apparatus, an interface that allows you to "act on" external devices as a form of input control. We propose an alternative use of BCIs, that of monitoring users as an additional intelligent sensor to enrich traditional means of interaction. This
Schneegans, Sebastian; Spencer, John P.; Schöner, Gregor; Hwang, Seongmin; Hollingworth, Andrew
Recent psychophysical experiments have shown that working memory for visual surface features interacts with saccadic motor planning, even in tasks where the saccade target is unambiguously specified by spatial cues. Specifically, a match between a memorized color and the color of either the designated target or a distractor stimulus influences saccade target selection, saccade amplitudes, and latencies in a systematic fashion. To elucidate these effects, we present a dynamic neural field model in combination with new experimental data. The model captures the neural processes underlying visual perception, working memory, and saccade planning relevant to the psychophysical experiment. It consists of a low-level visual sensory representation that interacts with two separate pathways: a spatial pathway implementing spatial attention and saccade generation, and a surface feature pathway implementing color working memory and feature attention. Due to bidirectional coupling between visual working memory and feature attention in the model, the working memory content can indirectly exert an effect on perceptual processing in the low-level sensory representation. This in turn biases saccadic movement planning in the spatial pathway, allowing the model to quantitatively reproduce the observed interaction effects. The continuous coupling between representations in the model also implies that modulation should be bidirectional, and model simulations provide specific predictions for complementary effects of saccade target selection on visual working memory. These predictions were empirically confirmed in a new experiment: Memory for a sample color was biased toward the color of a task-irrelevant saccade target object, demonstrating the bidirectional coupling between visual working memory and perceptual processing. PMID:25228628
Schneegans, Sebastian; Spencer, John P; Schöner, Gregor; Hwang, Seongmin; Hollingworth, Andrew
Recent psychophysical experiments have shown that working memory for visual surface features interacts with saccadic motor planning, even in tasks where the saccade target is unambiguously specified by spatial cues. Specifically, a match between a memorized color and the color of either the designated target or a distractor stimulus influences saccade target selection, saccade amplitudes, and latencies in a systematic fashion. To elucidate these effects, we present a dynamic neural field model in combination with new experimental data. The model captures the neural processes underlying visual perception, working memory, and saccade planning relevant to the psychophysical experiment. It consists of a low-level visual sensory representation that interacts with two separate pathways: a spatial pathway implementing spatial attention and saccade generation, and a surface feature pathway implementing color working memory and feature attention. Due to bidirectional coupling between visual working memory and feature attention in the model, the working memory content can indirectly exert an effect on perceptual processing in the low-level sensory representation. This in turn biases saccadic movement planning in the spatial pathway, allowing the model to quantitatively reproduce the observed interaction effects. The continuous coupling between representations in the model also implies that modulation should be bidirectional, and model simulations provide specific predictions for complementary effects of saccade target selection on visual working memory. These predictions were empirically confirmed in a new experiment: Memory for a sample color was biased toward the color of a task-irrelevant saccade target object, demonstrating the bidirectional coupling between visual working memory and perceptual processing. © 2014 ARVO.
Dykes, T.; Hassan, A.; Gheller, C.; Croton, D.; Krokos, M.
Virtual observatories (VOs) are online hubs of scientific knowledge. They encompass a collection of platforms dedicated to the storage and dissemination of astronomical data, from simple data archives to e-research platforms offering advanced tools for data exploration and analysis. Whilst the more mature platforms within VOs primarily serve the observational community, there are also services fulfilling a similar role for theoretical data. Scientific visualization can be an effective tool for analysis and exploration of data sets made accessible through web platforms for theoretical data, which often contain spatial dimensions and properties inherently suitable for visualization via e.g. mock imaging in 2D or volume rendering in 3D. We analyse the current state of 3D visualization for big theoretical astronomical data sets through scientific web portals and virtual observatory services. We discuss some of the challenges for interactive 3D visualization and how it can augment the workflow of users in a virtual observatory context. Finally we showcase a lightweight client-server visualization tool for particle-based data sets, allowing quantitative visualization via data filtering, highlighting two example use cases within the Theoretical Astrophysical Observatory.
Dykes, Tim; Hassan, A.; Gheller, C.; Croton, D.; Krokos, M.
Virtual Observatories (VOs) are online hubs of scientific knowledge. They encompass a collection of platforms dedicated to the storage and dissemination of astronomical data, from simple data archives to e-research platforms offering advanced tools for data exploration and analysis. Whilst the more mature platforms within VOs primarily serve the observational community, there are also services fulfilling a similar role for theoretical data. Scientific visualization can be an effective tool for analysis and exploration of datasets made accessible through web platforms for theoretical data, which often contain spatial dimensions and properties inherently suitable for visualization via e.g. mock imaging in 2d or volume rendering in 3d. We analyze the current state of 3d visualization for big theoretical astronomical datasets through scientific web portals and virtual observatory services. We discuss some of the challenges for interactive 3d visualization and how it can augment the workflow of users in a virtual observatory context. Finally we showcase a lightweight client-server visualization tool for particle-based datasets allowing quantitative visualization via data filtering, highlighting two example use cases within the Theoretical Astrophysical Observatory.
Porter, M.; Hill, M. C.; Pierce, S. A.; Gil, Y.; Pennington, D. D.
DiscoverWater is a web-based visualization tool developed to enable the visual representation of data, and thus, aid scientific and societal understanding of hydrologic systems. Open data sources are coalesced to, for example, illustrate the impacts on streamflow of irrigation withdrawals. Scientists and stakeholders are informed through synchronized time-series data plots that correlate multiple spatiotemporal datasets and an interactive time-evolving map that provides a spatial analytical context. Together, these components elucidate trends so that the user can try to envision the relations between groundwater-surface water interactions, the impacts of pumping on these interactions, and the interplay of climate. Aligning data in this manner has the capacity for interdisciplinary knowledge discovery and motivates dialogue about system processes that we seek to enhance through qualitative features informed through quantitative models. DiscoverWater and its connection is demonstrated using two field cases. First, it is used to visualize data sets from the High Plains aquifer, where reservoir- and groundwater-supported irrigation has affected the Arkansas River in western Kansas. Second, data and model results from Barton Springs segment of the Edwards aquifer in Texas reveal the effects of regional pumping on this important urbanizing aquifer system. Identifying what is interesting about the data and the modeled system in the two different case studies is a step towards moving typically static visualization capabilities to an adaptive framework. Additionally, the dashboard interface incorporates both quantitative and qualitative information about distinctive case studies in a machine-readable form, such that a catalog of qualitative models can capture subject matter expertise alongside associated datasets. As the catalog is expanded to include other case studies, the collection has potential to establish a standard framework able to inform intelligent system
Schindler, Sebastian; Kissler, Johanna
Human brains spontaneously differentiate between various emotional and neutral stimuli, including written words whose emotional quality is symbolic. In the electroencephalogram (EEG), emotional-neutral processing differences are typically reflected in the early posterior negativity (EPN, 200-300 ms) and the late positive potential (LPP, 400-700 ms). These components are also enlarged by task-driven visual attention, supporting the assumption that emotional content naturally drives attention. Still, the spatio-temporal dynamics of interactions between emotional stimulus content and task-driven attention remain to be specified. Here, we examine this issue in visual word processing. Participants attended to negative, neutral, or positive nouns while high-density EEG was recorded. Emotional content and top-down attention both amplified the EPN component in parallel. On the LPP, by contrast, emotion and attention interacted: Explicit attention to emotional words led to a substantially larger amplitude increase than did explicit attention to neutral words. Source analysis revealed early parallel effects of emotion and attention in bilateral visual cortex and a later interaction of both in right visual cortex. Distinct effects of attention were found in inferior, middle and superior frontal, paracentral, and parietal areas, as well as in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Results specify separate and shared mechanisms of emotion and attention at distinct processing stages. Hum Brain Mapp 37:3575-3587, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available Multi-agent systems are now wide spread in scientific works and in industrial applications. Few applications deal with the Human/Multi-agent system interaction. Multi-agent systems are characterized by individual entities, called agents, in interaction with each other and with their environment. Multi-agent systems are generally classified into complex systems categories since the global emerging phenomenon cannot be predicted even if every component is well known. The systems developed in this paper are named reactive because they behave using simple interaction models. In the reactive approach, the issue of Human/system interaction is hard to cope with and is scarcely exposed in literature. This paper presents Sphericall, an application aimed at studying Human/Complex System interactions and based on two physics inspired multi-agent systems interacting together. The Sphericall device is composed of a tactile screen and a spherical world where agents evolve. This paper presents both the technical background of Sphericall project and a feedback taken from the demonstration performed during OFFF Festival in La Villette (Paris.
Abouelhassan, Amal A.
Organic Photovoltaic (OPV) solar cells provide a promising alternative for harnessing solar energy. However, the efficient design of OPV materials that achieve better performance requires support by better-tailored visualization tools than are currently available, which is the goal of this thesis. One promising approach in the OPV field is to control the effective material of the OPV device, which is known as the Bulk-Heterojunction (BHJ) morphology. The BHJ morphology has a complex composition. Current BHJ exploration techniques deal with the morphologies as black boxes with no perception of the photoelectric current in the BHJ morphology. Therefore, this method depends on a trial-and-error approach and does not efficiently characterize complex BHJ morphologies. On the other hand, current state-of-the-art methods for assessing the performance of BHJ morphologies are based on the global quantification of morphological features. Accordingly, scientists in OPV research are still lacking a sufficient understanding of the best material design. To remove these limitations, we propose a new approach for knowledge-assisted visual exploration and analysis in the OPV domain. We develop new techniques for enabling efficient OPV charge transport path analysis. We employ, adapt, and develop techniques from scientific visualization, geometric modeling, clustering, and visual interaction to obtain new designs of visualization tools that are specifically tailored for the needs of OPV scientists. At the molecular scale, the user can use semantic rules to define clusters of atoms with certain geometric properties. At the nanoscale, we propose a novel framework for visual characterization and exploration of local structure-performance correlations. We also propose a new approach for correlating structural features to performance bottlenecks. We employ a visual feedback strategy that allows scientists to make intuitive choices about fabrication parameters. We furthermore propose a
Raz, Sivan; Dan, Orrie; Zysberg, Leehu
The present study was aimed at identifying potential behavioral and neural correlates of Emotional Intelligence (EI) by using scalp-recorded Event-Related Potentials (ERPs). EI levels were defined according to both self-report questionnaire and a performance-based ability test. We identified ERP correlates of emotional processing by using a visual-emotional oddball paradigm, in which subjects were confronted with one frequent standard stimulus (a neutral face) and two deviant stimuli (a happy and an angry face). The effects of these faces were then compared across groups with low and high EI levels. The ERP results indicate that participants with high EI exhibited significantly greater mean amplitudes of the P1, P2, N2, and P3 ERP components in response to emotional and neutral faces, at frontal, posterior-parietal and occipital scalp locations. P1, P2 and N2 are considered indexes of attention-related processes and have been associated with early attention to emotional stimuli. The later P3 component has been thought to reflect more elaborative, top-down, emotional information processing including emotional evaluation and memory encoding and formation. These results may suggest greater recruitment of resources to process all emotional and non-emotional faces at early and late processing stages among individuals with higher EI. The present study underscores the usefulness of ERP methodology as a sensitive measure for the study of emotional stimuli processing in the research field of EI. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Rodzianko, A.; Versteeg, R.; Johnson, D. V.; Soltanian, M. R.; Versteeg, O. J.; Girouard, M.
Wu, Yingcai; Lan, Ji; Shu, Xinhuan; Ji, Chenyang; Zhao, Kejian; Wang, Jiachen; Zhang, Hui
The rapid development of information technology paved the way for the recording of fine-grained data, such as stroke techniques and stroke placements, during a table tennis match. This data recording creates opportunities to analyze and evaluate matches from new perspectives. Nevertheless, the increasingly complex data poses a significant challenge to make sense of and gain insights into. Analysts usually employ tedious and cumbersome methods which are limited to watching videos and reading statistical tables. However, existing sports visualization methods cannot be applied to visualizing table tennis competitions due to different competition rules and particular data attributes. In this work, we collaborate with data analysts to understand and characterize the sophisticated domain problem of analysis of table tennis data. We propose iTTVis, a novel interactive table tennis visualization system, which to our knowledge, is the first visual analysis system for analyzing and exploring table tennis data. iTTVis provides a holistic visualization of an entire match from three main perspectives, namely, time-oriented, statistical, and tactical analyses. The proposed system with several well-coordinated views not only supports correlation identification through statistics and pattern detection of tactics with a score timeline but also allows cross analysis to gain insights. Data analysts have obtained several new insights by using iTTVis. The effectiveness and usability of the proposed system are demonstrated with four case studies.
This paper describes the cross section graphics software package ZVVIEW that was developed for the evaluators to perform efficient interactive visual analysis of experimental and theoretical nuclear data. ZVVIEW is a very powerful and complete package that simplifies the presentation of nuclear cross section data. A CD-ROM version of this computer package is available from the IAEA-NDS on request. (a.n.)
Krause, Florian; Bekkering, Harold; Pratt, Jay; Lindemann, Oliver
The current study investigates an interaction between numbers and physical size (i.e. size congruity) in visual search. In three experiments, participants had to detect a physically large (or small) target item among physically small (or large) distractors in a search task comprising single-digit numbers. The relative numerical size of the digits was varied, such that the target item was either among the numerically large or small numbers in the search display and the relation between numeric...
Hunt, Earl B
Artificial Intelligence provides information pertinent to the fundamental aspects of artificial intelligence. This book presents the basic mathematical and computational approaches to problems in the artificial intelligence field.Organized into four parts encompassing 16 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the various fields of artificial intelligence. This text then attempts to connect artificial intelligence problems to some of the notions of computability and abstract computing devices. Other chapters consider the general notion of computability, with focus on the interaction bet
Full Text Available Individuals possessing absolute pitch (AP are able to identify a given musical tone or to reproduce it without reference to another tone. The present study sought to learn whether this exceptional auditory ability impacts visual perception under stimulus conditions that provoke visual competition in the form of binocular rivalry. Nineteen adult participants with 3-19 years of musical training were divided into two groups according to their performance on a task involving identification of the specific note associated with hearing a given musical pitch. During test trials lasting just over half a minute, participants dichoptically viewed a scrolling musical score presented to one eye and a drifting sinusoidal grating presented to the other eye; throughout the trial they pressed buttons to track the alternations in visual awareness produced by these dissimilar monocular stimuli. On "pitch-congruent" trials, participants heard an auditory melody that was congruent in pitch with the visual score, on "pitch-incongruent" trials they heard a transposed auditory melody that was congruent with the score in melody but not in pitch, and on "melody-incongruent" trials they heard an auditory melody completely different from the visual score. For both groups, the visual musical scores predominated over the gratings when the auditory melody was congruent compared to when it was incongruent. Moreover, the AP participants experienced greater predominance of the visual score when it was accompanied by the pitch-congruent melody compared to the same melody transposed in pitch; for non-AP musicians, pitch-congruent and pitch-incongruent trials yielded equivalent predominance. Analysis of individual durations of dominance revealed differential effects on dominance and suppression durations for AP and non-AP participants. These results reveal that AP is accompanied by a robust form of bisensory interaction between tonal frequencies and musical notation that boosts
Bryden, Aaron; Broderick, Scott; Suram, Santosh K.; Kaluskar, Kaustubh; LeSar, Richard; Rajan, Krishna
Understanding the impact of noise and incomplete data is a critical need for using atom probe tomography effectively. Although many tools and techniques have been developed to address this problem, visualization of the raw data remains an important part of this process. In this paper, we present two contributions to the visualization of data acquired through atom probe tomography. First, we describe the application of a rendering technique, ray-cast spherical impostors, that enables the interactive rendering of large numbers (as large as 10 million plus) of pixel perfect, lit spheres representing individual atoms. This technique is made possible by the use of a consumer-level graphics processing unit (GPU), and it yields an order of magnitude improvement both in render quality and speed over techniques previously used to render spherical glyphs in this domain. Second, we present an interactive tool that allows the user to mask, filter, and colorize the data in real time to help them understand and visualize a precise subset and properties of the raw data. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our tool through benchmarks and an example that shows how the ability to interactively render large numbers of spheres, combined with the use of filters and masks, leads to improved understanding of the three-dimensional (3D) and incomplete nature of atom probe data. This improvement arises from the ability of lit spheres to more effectively show the 3D position and the local spatial distribution of individual atoms than what is possible with point or isosurface renderings. The techniques described in this paper serve to introduce new rendering and interaction techniques that have only recently become practical as well as new ways of interactively exploring the raw data. - Highlights: ► Application of spherical impostor rendering to atom probe data visualization. ► Presented an interactive tool for visualizing atom probe tomography data. ► Presented a comparison of
Geng, Yujie; Lin, Ying; Ma, Yan; Guo, Zhihong; Gu, Chao; Wang, Mingtao
The commission and operation of dissolved gas analysis (DGA) online monitoring makes up for the weakness of traditional DGA method. However, volume and high-dimensional DGA data brings a huge challenge for monitoring and analysis. In this paper, we present a novel interactive visualization model of DGA data based on multiple views. This model imitates multi-angle analysis by combining parallel coordinates, scatter plot matrix and data table. By offering brush, collaborative filter and focus + context technology, this model provides a convenient and flexible interactive way to analyze and understand the DGA data.
Vaidya, Vivek; Suryanarayanan, Srikanth; Krishnan, Kajoli; Mullick, Rakesh
As the imaging modalities used in medicine transition to increasingly three-dimensional data the question of how best to interact with and analyze this data becomes ever more pressing. Immersive virtual reality systems seem to hold promise in tackling this, but how individuals learn and interact in these environments is not fully understood. Here we will attempt to show some methods in which user interaction in a virtual reality environment can be visualized and how this can allow us to gain greater insight into the process of interaction/learning in these systems. Also explored is the possibility of using this method to improve understanding and management of ergonomic issues within an interface.
Full Text Available Technology has become a necessity in our everyday lives and essential for completing activities we typically take for granted; technologies can assist us by completing set tasks or achieving desired goals with optimal affect and in the most efficient way, thereby improving our interactive experiences. This paper presents research that explores the representation of user interaction levels using an intelligent hybrid system approach with agents. We evaluate interaction levels of Human-Computer Interaction (HCI with the aim of enhancing user experiences. We consider the description of interaction levels using an intelligent hybrid system to provide a decision-making system to an agent that evaluates interaction levels when using interactive modules of a museum exhibition. The agents represent a high-level abstraction of the system, where communication takes place between the user, the exhibition and the environment. In this paper, we provide a means to measure the interaction levels and natural behaviour of users, based on museum user-exhibition interaction. We consider that, by analysing user interaction in a museum, we can help to design better ways to interact with exhibition modules according to the properties and behaviour of the users. An interaction-evaluator agent is proposed to achieve the most suitable representation of the interaction levels with the aim of improving user interactions to offer the most appropriate directions, services, content and information, thereby improving the quality of interaction experienced between the user-agent and exhibition-agent.
Matković, Kresimir; Gracanin, Denis; Jelović, Mario; Hauser, Helwig
Interactive steering with visualization has been a common goal of the visualization research community for twenty years, but it is rarely ever realized in practice. In this paper we describe a successful realization of a tightly coupled steering loop, integrating new simulation technology and interactive visual analysis in a prototyping environment for automotive industry system design. Due to increasing pressure on car manufacturers to meet new emission regulations, to improve efficiency, and to reduce noise, both simulation and visualization are pushed to their limits. Automotive system components, such as the powertrain system or the injection system have an increasing number of parameters, and new design approaches are required. It is no longer possible to optimize such a system solely based on experience or forward optimization. By coupling interactive visualization with the simulation back-end (computational steering), it is now possible to quickly prototype a new system, starting from a non-optimized initial prototype and the corresponding simulation model. The prototyping continues through the refinement of the simulation model, of the simulation parameters and through trial-and-error attempts to an optimized solution. The ability to early see the first results from a multidimensional simulation space--thousands of simulations are run for a multidimensional variety of input parameters--and to quickly go back into the simulation and request more runs in particular parameter regions of interest significantly improves the prototyping process and provides a deeper understanding of the system behavior. The excellent results which we achieved for the common rail injection system strongly suggest that our approach has a great potential of being generalized to other, similar scenarios.
Cui You Xiang
Full Text Available More than 100,000 people were killed and around 2.6 million injured in road accidents in the People’s Republic of China (PRC, that is four to eight times that of developed countries, equivalent to 6.2 mortality per 10 thousand vehicles—the highest rate in the world. There are more than 1,700 fatalities and 840,000 injuries yearly due to vehicle crashes off public highways. In this paper, we proposed a interactive safety situation and threat analysis framework based on driver behaviour and vehicle dynamics risk analysis based on ISO26262…
Roy, Lawrence; Kumar, Prashant; Golbabaei, Sanaz; Zhang, Yue; Zhang, Eugene
Branched covering spaces are a mathematical concept which originates from complex analysis and topology and has applications in tensor field topology and geometry remeshing. Given a manifold surface and an -way rotational symmetry field, a branched covering space is a manifold surface that has an -to-1 map to the original surface except at the ramification points, which correspond to the singularities in the rotational symmetry field. Understanding the notion and mathematical properties of branched covering spaces is important to researchers in tensor field visualization and geometry processing, and their application areas. In this paper, we provide a framework to interactively design and visualize the branched covering space (BCS) of an input mesh surface and a rotational symmetry field defined on it. In our framework, the user can visualize not only the BCSs but also their construction process. In addition, our system allows the user to design the geometric realization of the BCS using mesh deformation techniques as well as connecting tubes. This enables the user to verify important facts about BCSs such as that they are manifold surfaces around singularities, as well as the Riemann-Hurwitz formula which relates the Euler characteristic of the BCS to that of the original mesh. Our system is evaluated by student researchers in scientific visualization and geometry processing as well as faculty members in mathematics at our university who teach topology. We include their evaluations and feedback in the paper.
Pavel, M; Sperling, G; Riedl, T; Vanderbeek, A
To determine the limits of human observers' ability to identify visually presented American Sign Language (ASL), the contrast s and the amount of additive noise n in dynamic ASL images were varied independently. Contrast was tested over a 4:1 range; the rms signal-to-noise ratios (s/n) investigated were s/n = 1/4, 1/2, 1, and infinity (which is used to designate the original, uncontaminated images). Fourteen deaf subjects were tested with an intelligibility test composed of 85 isolated ASL signs, each 2-3 sec in length. For these ASL signs (64 x 96 pixels, 30 frames/sec), subjects' performance asymptotes between s/n = 0.5 and 1.0; further increases in s/n do not improve intelligibility. Intelligibility was found to depend only on s/n and not on contrast. A formulation in terms of logistic functions was proposed to derive intelligibility of ASL signs from s/n, sign familiarity, and sign difficulty. Familiarity (ignorance) is represented by additive signal-correlated noise; it represents the likelihood of a subject's knowing a particular ASL sign, and it adds to s/n. Difficulty is represented by a multiplicative difficulty coefficient; it represents the perceptual vulnerability of an ASL sign to noise and it adds to log(s/n).
Clay, Olivio J; Edwards, Jerri D; Ross, Lesley A; Okonkwo, Ozioma; Wadley, Virginia G; Roth, David L; Ball, Karlene K
To evaluate the relationship between sensory and cognitive decline, particularly with respect to speed of processing, memory span, and fluid intelligence. In addition, the common cause, sensory degradation and speed of processing hypotheses were compared. Structural equation modeling was used to investigate the complex relationships among age-related decrements in these areas. Cross-sectional data analyses included 842 older adult participants (M = 73 years). After accounting for age-related declines in vision and processing speed, the direct associations between age and memory span and between age and fluid intelligence were nonsignificant. Older age was associated with visual decline, which was associated with slower speed of processing, which in turn was associated with greater cognitive deficits. The findings support both the sensory degradation and speed of processing accounts of age-related, cognitive decline. Furthermore, the findings highlight positive aspects of normal cognitive aging in that older age may not be associated with a loss of fluid intelligence if visual sensory functioning and processing speed can be maintained.
Full Text Available This paper aims to analyse the different forms of intelligence within organizations in a systemic and inclusive vision, in order to design an integrated environment based on Artificial Intelligence (AI and Collective Intelligence (CI. This way we effectively shift the classical approaches of connecting people with people using collaboration tools (which allow people to work together, such as videoconferencing or email, groupware in virtual space, forums, workflow, of connecting people with a series of content management knowledge (taxonomies and documents classification, ontologies or thesauri, search engines, portals, to the current approaches of connecting people on the use (automatic of operational knowledge to solve problems and make decisions based on intellectual cooperation. Few technologies have the big potential to review how we live, move, and work. Artificial intelligence (AI is nowdays equivalent of electricity and the Internet. AI is expected to bring massive shifts in how people perceive and interact with technology, with machines performing a wider range of tasks, in many cases doing a better job than humans.
Full Text Available As part of business analytics (BA technologies, reporting and visualization play essential roles in mitigating users’ limitations (i.e., being inexperienced, having limited knowledge, and relying on simplified information. Reporting and visualization can potentially enhance users’ sense-making, thus permitting them to focus more on the information’s message rather than numerical analysis. To better understand the role of reporting and visualization in a contextualized environment, we investigate using interactive data visualization (IDV within accounting. We aim to understand whether IDV can help enhance non-professional investors’ ability to make sense of foundational financial statement analyses. This study conducted an experiment using a sample of 324 nonprofessional investors. Our findings indicate that nonprofessional investors who use IDV are more heuristically adept than non-professional investors who use non-IDV. These findings enrich the theoretical understanding of business analytics’ use in accounting decision making. The results of this study also suggest several practical courses of action, such as promoting wider use of IDV and making affordable IDV more broadly available, particularly for non-professional investors.
Mate, Judit; Allen, Richard J; Baqués, Josep
The aim of this study was to explore whether the content of a simple concurrent verbal load task determines the extent of its interference on memory for coloured shapes. The task consisted of remembering four visual items while repeating aloud a pair of words that varied in terms of imageability and relatedness to the task set. At test, a cue appeared that was either the colour or the shape of one of the previously seen objects, with participants required to select the object's other feature from a visual array. During encoding and retention, there were four verbal load conditions: (a) a related, shape-colour pair (from outside the experimental set, i.e., "pink square"); (b) a pair of unrelated but visually imageable, concrete, words (i.e., "big elephant"); (c) a pair of unrelated and abstract words (i.e., "critical event"); and (d) no verbal load. Results showed differential effects of these verbal load conditions. In particular, imageable words (concrete and related conditions) interfered to a greater degree than abstract words. Possible implications for how visual working memory interacts with verbal memory and long-term memory are discussed.
Magnenat, Stéphane; Philippsen, Roland; Mondada, Francesco
The goal of creating machines that autonomously perform useful work in a safe, robust and intelligent manner continues to motivate robotics research. Achieving this autonomy requires capabilities for understanding the environment, physically interacting with it, predicting the outcomes of actions and reasoning with this knowledge. Such intelligent physical interaction was at the centre of early robotic investigations and remains an open topic. In this paper, we build on the fruit of decades ...
Li, Hao; Li, Wen; Miao, Bo; Li, Bin; Liu, Chang; Lv, Zhipeng
On the background of the rise of intelligence and the increasing deepening of “Internet +”application, the energy internet has become the focus of the energy research field. This paper, based on the fundamental understanding on the energy internet of the intelligent town, discusses the mode of energy supply in the source-load interactive region, and gives an in-depth study on the output characteristics of the energy supply side and the load characteristics of the demand side, so as to derive the law of energy-load interaction of the intelligent-town energy internet.
Fernandes, João Pedro; Fonseca, Alexandra; Pereira, Luís; Faria, Adriano; Figueira, Helder; Henriques, Inês; Garção, Rita; Câmara, António
This paper describes the development of a digital spatial library based on mosaics of digital orthophotos, called Interactive Portugal, that will enable users both to retrieve geospatial information existing in the Portuguese National System for Geographic Information World Wide Web server, and to develop local databases connected to the main system. A set of navigation, interaction, and visualization tools are proposed and discussed. They include sketching, dynamic sketching, and navigation capabilities over the digital orthophotos mosaics. Main applications of this digital spatial library are pointed out and discussed, namely for education, professional, and tourism markets. Future developments are considered. These developments are related to user reactions, technological advancements, and projects that also aim at delivering and exploring digital imagery on the World Wide Web. Future capabilities for site selection and change detection are also considered.
Butkiewicz, T.; Englert, C. M.
Coastal sediment transport models simulate the effects that waves, currents, and tides have on near-shore bathymetry and features such as beaches and barrier islands. Understanding these dynamic processes is integral to the study of coastline stability, beach erosion, and environmental contamination. Furthermore, analyzing the results of these simulations is a critical task in the design, placement, and engineering of coastal structures such as seawalls, jetties, support pilings for wind turbines, etc. Despite the importance of these models, there is a lack of available visualization software that allows users to explore and perform analysis on these datasets in an intuitive and effective manner. Existing visualization interfaces for these datasets often present only one variable at a time, using two dimensional plan or cross-sectional views. These visual restrictions limit the ability to observe the contents in the proper overall context, both in spatial and multi-dimensional terms. To improve upon these limitations, we use 3D rendering and particle system based illustration techniques to show water column/flow data across all depths simultaneously. We can also encode multiple variables across different perceptual channels (color, texture, motion, etc.) to enrich surfaces with multi-dimensional information. Interactive tools are provided, which can be used to explore the dataset and find regions-of-interest for further investigation. Our visualization package provides an intuitive 4D (3D, time-varying) visualization of sediment transport model output. In addition, we are also integrating real world observations with the simulated data to support analysis of the impact from major sediment transport events. In particular, we have been focusing on the effects of Superstorm Sandy on the Redbird Artificial Reef Site, offshore of Delaware Bay. Based on our pre- and post-storm high-resolution sonar surveys, there has significant scour and bedform migration around the
Koehring, Andrew; Foo, Jung Leng; Miyano, Go; Lobe, Thom; Winer, Eliot
The visualization of medical images obtained from scanning techniques such as computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging is a well-researched field. However, advanced tools and methods to manipulate these data for surgical planning and other tasks have not seen widespread use among medical professionals. Radiologists have begun using more advanced visualization packages on desktop computer systems, but most physicians continue to work with basic two-dimensional grayscale images or not work directly with the data at all. In addition, new display technologies that are in use in other fields have yet to be fully applied in medicine. It is our estimation that usability is the key aspect in keeping this new technology from being more widely used by the medical community at large. Therefore, we have a software and hardware framework that not only make use of advanced visualization techniques, but also feature powerful, yet simple-to-use, interfaces. A virtual reality system was created to display volume-rendered medical models in three dimensions. It was designed to run in many configurations, from a large cluster of machines powering a multiwalled display down to a single desktop computer. An augmented reality system was also created for, literally, hands-on interaction when viewing models of medical data. Last, a desktop application was designed to provide a simple visualization tool, which can be run on nearly any computer at a user's disposal. This research is directed toward improving the capabilities of medical professionals in the tasks of preoperative planning, surgical training, diagnostic assistance, and patient education.
Pienta, Robert; Hohman, Fred; Endert, Alex; Tamersoy, Acar; Roundy, Kevin; Gates, Chris; Navathe, Shamkant; Chau, Duen Horng
Finding patterns in graphs has become a vital challenge in many domains from biological systems, network security, to finance (e.g., finding money laundering rings of bankers and business owners). While there is significant interest in graph databases and querying techniques, less research has focused on helping analysts make sense of underlying patterns within a group of subgraph results. Visualizing graph query results is challenging, requiring effective summarization of a large number of subgraphs, each having potentially shared node-values, rich node features, and flexible structure across queries. We present VIGOR, a novel interactive visual analytics system, for exploring and making sense of query results. VIGOR uses multiple coordinated views, leveraging different data representations and organizations to streamline analysts sensemaking process. VIGOR contributes: (1) an exemplar-based interaction technique, where an analyst starts with a specific result and relaxes constraints to find other similar results or starts with only the structure (i.e., without node value constraints), and adds constraints to narrow in on specific results; and (2) a novel feature-aware subgraph result summarization. Through a collaboration with Symantec, we demonstrate how VIGOR helps tackle real-world problems through the discovery of security blindspots in a cybersecurity dataset with over 11,000 incidents. We also evaluate VIGOR with a within-subjects study, demonstrating VIGOR's ease of use over a leading graph database management system, and its ability to help analysts understand their results at higher speed and make fewer errors.
Wagner, Justin; Chelaru, Florin; Kancherla, Jayaram; Paulson, Joseph N; Zhang, Alexander; Felix, Victor; Mahurkar, Anup; Elmqvist, Niklas; Corrada Bravo, Héctor
Large studies profiling microbial communities and their association with healthy or disease phenotypes are now commonplace. Processed data from many of these studies are publicly available but significant effort is required for users to effectively organize, explore and integrate it, limiting the utility of these rich data resources. Effective integrative and interactive visual and statistical tools to analyze many metagenomic samples can greatly increase the value of these data for researchers. We present Metaviz, a tool for interactive exploratory data analysis of annotated microbiome taxonomic community profiles derived from marker gene or whole metagenome shotgun sequencing. Metaviz is uniquely designed to address the challenge of browsing the hierarchical structure of metagenomic data features while rendering visualizations of data values that are dynamically updated in response to user navigation. We use Metaviz to provide the UMD Metagenome Browser web service, allowing users to browse and explore data for more than 7000 microbiomes from published studies. Users can also deploy Metaviz as a web service, or use it to analyze data through the metavizr package to interoperate with state-of-the-art analysis tools available through Bioconductor. Metaviz is free and open source with the code, documentation and tutorials publicly accessible.
Kirmizibayrak, Can; Yim, Yeny; Wakid, Mike; Hahn, James
Surgeons use information from multiple sources when making surgical decisions. These include volumetric datasets (such as CT, PET, MRI, and their variants), 2D datasets (such as endoscopic videos), and vector-valued datasets (such as computer simulations). Presenting all the information to the user in an effective manner is a challenging problem. In this paper, we present a visualization approach that displays the information from various sources in a single coherent view. The system allows the user to explore and manipulate volumetric datasets, display analysis of dataset values in local regions, combine 2D and 3D imaging modalities and display results of vector-based computer simulations. Several interaction methods are discussed: in addition to traditional interfaces including mouse and trackers, gesture-based natural interaction methods are shown to control these visualizations with real-time performance. An example of a medical application (medialization laryngoplasty) is presented to demonstrate how the combination of different modalities can be used in a surgical setting with our approach.
Full Text Available Scientific visualization in technology of virtual reality is a graphical representation of virtual environment in the form of images or animation that can be displayed with various devices such as Head Mounted Display (HMD or monitors that can view threedimensional world. Research in real time is a desirable capability for scientific visualization and virtual reality in which we are immersed and make the research process easier. In this scientific paper the interaction between the user and objects in the virtual environment аrе in real time which gives a sense of reality to the user. Also, Quest3D VR software package is used and the movement of the user through the virtual environment, the impossibility to walk through solid objects, methods for grabbing objects and their displacement are programmed and all interactions between them will be possible. At the end some critical analysis were made on all of these techniques on various computer systems and excellent results were obtained.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In the context of interacting activities requiring close-body contact such as fighting or dancing, the actions of one agent can be used to predict the actions of the second agent. In the present study, we investigated whether interpersonal predictive coding extends to interactive activities--such as communicative interactions--in which no physical contingency is implied between the movements of the interacting individuals. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Participants observed point-light displays of two agents (A and B performing separate actions. In the communicative condition, the action performed by agent B responded to a communicative gesture performed by agent A. In the individual condition, agent A's communicative action was substituted with a non-communicative action. Using a simultaneous masking detection task, we demonstrate that observing the communicative gesture performed by agent A enhanced visual discrimination of agent B. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our finding complements and extends previous evidence for interpersonal predictive coding, suggesting that the communicative gestures of one agent can serve as a predictor for the expected actions of the respondent, even if no physical contact between agents is implied.
Nishimura, Masataka; Song, Wen-Jie
Recent studies in humans and monkeys have reported that acoustic stimulation influences visual responses in the primary visual cortex (V1). Such influences can be generated in V1, either by direct auditory projections or by feedback projections from extrastriate cortices. To test these hypotheses, cortical activities were recorded using optical imaging at a high spatiotemporal resolution from multiple areas of the guinea pig visual cortex, to visual and/or acoustic stimulations. Visuo-auditory interactions were evaluated according to differences between responses evoked by combined auditory and visual stimulation, and the sum of responses evoked by separate visual and auditory stimulations. Simultaneous presentation of visual and acoustic stimulations resulted in significant interactions in V1, which occurred earlier than in other visual areas. When acoustic stimulation preceded visual stimulation, significant visuo-auditory interactions were detected only in V1. These results suggest that V1 is a cortical origin of visuo-auditory interaction. PMID:23029483
Pokorný, Jaroslav; Snášel, Václav; Abraham, Ajith
The Third International Conference on Intelligent Human Computer Interaction 2011 (IHCI 2011) was held at Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic from August 29 - August 31, 2011. This conference was third in the series, following IHCI 2009 and IHCI 2010 held in January at IIIT Allahabad, India. Human computer interaction is a fast growing research area and an attractive subject of interest for both academia and industry. There are many interesting and challenging topics that need to be researched and discussed. This book aims to provide excellent opportunities for the dissemination of interesting new research and discussion about presented topics. It can be useful for researchers working on various aspects of human computer interaction. Topics covered in this book include user interface and interaction, theoretical background and applications of HCI and also data mining and knowledge discovery as a support of HCI applications.
Alor-Hernández, Giner; Pérez-Gallardo, Yuliana; Posada-Gómez, Rubén; Cortes-Robles, Guillermo; Rodríguez-González, Alejandro; Aguilar-Laserre, Alberto A
Nowadays, traditional search engines such as Google, Yahoo and Bing facilitate the retrieval of information in the format of images, but the results are not always useful for the users. This is mainly due to two problems: (1) the semantic keywords are not taken into consideration and (2) it is not always possible to establish a query using the image features. This issue has been covered in different domains in order to develop content-based image retrieval (CBIR) systems. The expert community has focussed their attention on the healthcare domain, where a lot of visual information for medical analysis is available. This paper provides a solution called iPixel Visual Search Engine, which involves semantics and content issues in order to search for digitized mammograms. iPixel offers the possibility of retrieving mammogram features using collective intelligence and implementing a CBIR algorithm. Our proposal compares not only features with similar semantic meaning, but also visual features. In this sense, the comparisons are made in different ways: by the number of regions per image, by maximum and minimum size of regions per image and by average intensity level of each region. iPixel Visual Search Engine supports the medical community in differential diagnoses related to the diseases of the breast. The iPixel Visual Search Engine has been validated by experts in the healthcare domain, such as radiologists, in addition to experts in digital image analysis.
Chen, Shuwang; Yin, Xiaowei; Chang, Ruijiang; Pan, Peiyun; Wang, Xuedi; Shi, Shuze; Wei, Zhongqian
A man-machine interactive garment frame model intelligent processing system is studied in this paper. The system consists of several sensor device, voice processing module, mechanical parts and data centralized acquisition devices. The sensor device is used to collect information on the environment changes brought by the body near the clothes frame model, the data collection device is used to collect the information of the environment change induced by the sensor device, voice processing module is used for speech recognition of nonspecific person to achieve human-machine interaction, mechanical moving parts are used to make corresponding mechanical responses to the information processed by data collection device.it is connected with data acquisition device by a means of one-way connection. There is a one-way connection between sensor device and data collection device, two-way connection between data acquisition device and voice processing module. The data collection device is one-way connection with mechanical movement parts. The intelligent processing system can judge whether it needs to interact with the customer, realize the man-machine interaction instead of the current rigid frame model.
Rota, Paolo; Dang-Nguyen, Duc-Tien; Conci, Nicola; Sebe, Nicu
In this paper we propose a new method to infer human social interactions using typical techniques adopted in literature for visual search and information retrieval. The main piece of information we use to discriminate among different types of interactions is provided by proxemics cues acquired by a tracker, and used to distinguish between intentional and casual interactions. The proxemics information has been acquired through the analysis of two different metrics: on the one hand we observe the current distance between subjects, and on the other hand we measure the O-space synergy between subjects. The obtained values are taken at every time step over a temporal sliding window, and processed in the Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) domain. The features are eventually merged into an unique array, and clustered using the K-means algorithm. The clusters are reorganized using a second larger temporal window into a Bag Of Words framework, so as to build the feature vector that will feed the SVM classifier.
Göschl, Florian; Engel, Andreas K.; Friese, Uwe
Factors influencing crossmodal interactions are manifold and operate in a stimulus-driven, bottom-up fashion, as well as via top-down control. Here, we evaluate the interplay of stimulus congruence and attention in a visual-tactile task. To this end, we used a matching paradigm requiring the identification of spatial patterns that were concurrently presented visually on a computer screen and haptically to the fingertips by means of a Braille stimulator. Stimulation in our paradigm was always bimodal with only the allocation of attention being manipulated between conditions. In separate blocks of the experiment, participants were instructed to (a) focus on a single modality to detect a specific target pattern, (b) pay attention to both modalities to detect a specific target pattern, or (c) to explicitly evaluate if the patterns in both modalities were congruent or not. For visual as well as tactile targets, congruent stimulus pairs led to quicker and more accurate detection compared to incongruent stimulation. This congruence facilitation effect was more prominent under divided attention. Incongruent stimulation led to behavioral decrements under divided attention as compared to selectively attending a single sensory channel. Additionally, when participants were asked to evaluate congruence explicitly, congruent stimulation was associated with better performance than incongruent stimulation. Our results extend previous findings from audiovisual studies, showing that stimulus congruence also resulted in behavioral improvements in visuotactile pattern matching. The interplay of stimulus processing and attentional control seems to be organized in a highly flexible fashion, with the integration of signals depending on both bottom-up and top-down factors, rather than occurring in an ‘all-or-nothing’ manner. PMID:25203102
Full Text Available Factors influencing crossmodal interactions are manifold and operate in a stimulus-driven, bottom-up fashion, as well as via top-down control. Here, we evaluate the interplay of stimulus congruence and attention in a visual-tactile task. To this end, we used a matching paradigm requiring the identification of spatial patterns that were concurrently presented visually on a computer screen and haptically to the fingertips by means of a Braille stimulator. Stimulation in our paradigm was always bimodal with only the allocation of attention being manipulated between conditions. In separate blocks of the experiment, participants were instructed to (a focus on a single modality to detect a specific target pattern, (b pay attention to both modalities to detect a specific target pattern, or (c to explicitly evaluate if the patterns in both modalities were congruent or not. For visual as well as tactile targets, congruent stimulus pairs led to quicker and more accurate detection compared to incongruent stimulation. This congruence facilitation effect was more prominent under divided attention. Incongruent stimulation led to behavioral decrements under divided attention as compared to selectively attending a single sensory channel. Additionally, when participants were asked to evaluate congruence explicitly, congruent stimulation was associated with better performance than incongruent stimulation. Our results extend previous findings from audiovisual studies, showing that stimulus congruence also resulted in behavioral improvements in visuotactile pattern matching. The interplay of stimulus processing and attentional control seems to be organized in a highly flexible fashion, with the integration of signals depending on both bottom-up and top-down factors, rather than occurring in an 'all-or-nothing' manner.
Malin, Jane T.; Schreckenghost, Debra L.; Thronesbery, Carroll G.
Initial results are reported to provide guidance and assistance for designers of intelligent systems and their human interfaces. The objective is to achieve more effective human-computer interaction (HCI) for real time fault management support systems. Studies of the development of intelligent fault management systems within NASA have resulted in a new perspective of the user. If the user is viewed as one of the subsystems in a heterogeneous, distributed system, system design becomes the design of a flexible architecture for accomplishing system tasks with both human and computer agents. HCI requirements and design should be distinguished from user interface (displays and controls) requirements and design. Effective HCI design for multi-agent systems requires explicit identification of activities and information that support coordination and communication between agents. The effects are characterized of HCI design on overall system design and approaches are identified to addressing HCI requirements in system design. The results include definition of (1) guidance based on information level requirements analysis of HCI, (2) high level requirements for a design methodology that integrates the HCI perspective into system design, and (3) requirements for embedding HCI design tools into intelligent system development environments.
Potter, Kristin; Kirby, Robert Michael; Xiu, Dongbin; Johnson, Chris R.
The probability density function (PDF), and its corresponding cumulative density function (CDF), provide direct statistical insight into the characterization of a random process or field. Typically displayed as a histogram, one can infer probabilities of the occurrence of particular events. When examining a field over some two-dimensional domain in which at each point a PDF of the function values is available, it is challenging to assess the global (stochastic) features present within the field. In this paper, we present a visualization system that allows the user to examine two-dimensional data sets in which PDF (or CDF) information is available at any position within the domain. The tool provides a contour display showing the normed difference between the PDFs and an ansatz PDF selected by the user and, furthermore, allows the user to interactively examine the PDF at any particular position. Canonical examples of the tool are provided to help guide the reader into the mapping of stochastic information to visual cues along with a description of the use of the tool for examining data generated from an uncertainty quantification exercise accomplished within the field of electrophysiology.
Yachdav, Guy; Wilzbach, Sebastian; Rauscher, Benedikt; Sheridan, Robert; Sillitoe, Ian; Procter, James; Lewis, Suzanna E; Rost, Burkhard; Goldberg, Tatyana
The most important resources to fulfill today’s energy demands are fossil fuels, such as oil and natural gas. When exploiting hydrocarbon reservoirs, a detailed and credible model of the subsurface structures is crucial in order to minimize economic and ecological risks. Creating such a model is an inverse problem: reconstructing structures from measured reflection seismics. The major challenge here is twofold: First, the structures in highly ambiguous seismic data are interpreted in the time domain. Second, a velocity model has to be built from this interpretation to match the model to depth measurements from wells. If it is not possible to obtain a match at all positions, the interpretation has to be updated, going back to the first step. This results in a lengthy back and forth between the different steps, or in an unphysical velocity model in many cases. This paper presents a novel, integrated approach to interactively creating subsurface models from reflection seismics. It integrates the interpretation of the seismic data using an interactive horizon extraction technique based on piecewise global optimization with velocity modeling. Computing and visualizing the effects of changes to the interpretation and velocity model on the depth-converted model on the fly enables an integrated feedback loop that enables a completely new connection of the seismic data in time domain and well data in depth domain. Using a novel joint time/depth visualization, depicting side-by-side views of the original and the resulting depth-converted data, domain experts can directly fit their interpretation in time domain to spatial ground truth data. We have conducted a domain expert evaluation, which illustrates that the presented workflow enables the creation of exact subsurface models much more rapidly than previous approaches. © 2012 IEEE.
Hollt, Thomas; Freiler, Wolfgang; Gschwantner, Fritz M.; Doleisch, Helmut; Heinemann, Gabor F.; Hadwiger, Markus
The most important resources to fulfill today’s energy demands are fossil fuels, such as oil and natural gas. When exploiting hydrocarbon reservoirs, a detailed and credible model of the subsurface structures is crucial in order to minimize economic and ecological risks. Creating such a model is an inverse problem: reconstructing structures from measured reflection seismics. The major challenge here is twofold: First, the structures in highly ambiguous seismic data are interpreted in the time domain. Second, a velocity model has to be built from this interpretation to match the model to depth measurements from wells. If it is not possible to obtain a match at all positions, the interpretation has to be updated, going back to the first step. This results in a lengthy back and forth between the different steps, or in an unphysical velocity model in many cases. This paper presents a novel, integrated approach to interactively creating subsurface models from reflection seismics. It integrates the interpretation of the seismic data using an interactive horizon extraction technique based on piecewise global optimization with velocity modeling. Computing and visualizing the effects of changes to the interpretation and velocity model on the depth-converted model on the fly enables an integrated feedback loop that enables a completely new connection of the seismic data in time domain and well data in depth domain. Using a novel joint time/depth visualization, depicting side-by-side views of the original and the resulting depth-converted data, domain experts can directly fit their interpretation in time domain to spatial ground truth data. We have conducted a domain expert evaluation, which illustrates that the presented workflow enables the creation of exact subsurface models much more rapidly than previous approaches. © 2012 IEEE.
Hollt, T; Freiler, W; Gschwantner, F; Doleisch, H; Heinemann, G; Hadwiger, M
The most important resources to fulfill today's energy demands are fossil fuels, such as oil and natural gas. When exploiting hydrocarbon reservoirs, a detailed and credible model of the subsurface structures is crucial in order to minimize economic and ecological risks. Creating such a model is an inverse problem: reconstructing structures from measured reflection seismics. The major challenge here is twofold: First, the structures in highly ambiguous seismic data are interpreted in the time domain. Second, a velocity model has to be built from this interpretation to match the model to depth measurements from wells. If it is not possible to obtain a match at all positions, the interpretation has to be updated, going back to the first step. This results in a lengthy back and forth between the different steps, or in an unphysical velocity model in many cases. This paper presents a novel, integrated approach to interactively creating subsurface models from reflection seismics. It integrates the interpretation of the seismic data using an interactive horizon extraction technique based on piecewise global optimization with velocity modeling. Computing and visualizing the effects of changes to the interpretation and velocity model on the depth-converted model on the fly enables an integrated feedback loop that enables a completely new connection of the seismic data in time domain and well data in depth domain. Using a novel joint time/depth visualization, depicting side-by-side views of the original and the resulting depth-converted data, domain experts can directly fit their interpretation in time domain to spatial ground truth data. We have conducted a domain expert evaluation, which illustrates that the presented workflow enables the creation of exact subsurface models much more rapidly than previous approaches.
Wong, Wee Ling
Redefining science education to harness emerging integrated media technologies with innovative pedagogical goals represents a unique challenge. The Integrated Media Systems Center (IMSC) is the only engineering research center in the area of multimedia and creative technologies sponsored by the National Science Foundation. The research program at IMSC is focused on developing advanced technologies that address human-computer interfaces, database management, and high- speed network capabilities. The BioSIGHT project at IMSC is a demonstration technology project in the area of education that seeks to address how such emerging multimedia technologies can make an impact on science education. The scope of this project will help solidify NASA's commitment for the development of innovative educational resources that promotes science literacy for our students and the general population as well. These issues must be addressed as NASA marches towards the goal of enabling human space exploration that requires an understanding of life sciences in space. The IMSC BioSIGHT lab was established with the purpose of developing a novel methodology that will map a high school biology curriculum into a series of interactive visualization modules that can be easily incorporated into a space biology curriculum. Fundamental concepts in general biology must be mastered in order to allow a better understanding and application for space biology. Interactive visualization is a powerful component that can capture the students' imagination, facilitate their assimilation of complex ideas, and help them develop integrated views of biology. These modules will augment the role of the teacher and will establish the value of student-centered interactivity, both in an individual setting as well as in a collaborative learning environment. Students will be able to interact with the content material, explore new challenges, and perform virtual laboratory simulations. The BioSIGHT effort is truly cross
Fierz, Charles; Egger, Thomas; gerber, Matthias; Bavay, Mathias; Techel, Frank
Rebolledo Rodríguez, Rigel A.; Samaniego González, Euclides
This document describes the evaluation project of multiple intelligences in children aged 7 to 11 years through the implementation of an interactive software, developed on Android for tablets, allowing parents, teachers, tutors, psy-chologists or other responsible adult, identifying the different types of intelligences that have children in order to know each other and develop their skills and their future potential. Similarly, research was developed to evaluate the effective-ness of the t...
Zhu, Qin; Fisher, Stephen A; Dueck, Hannah; Middleton, Sarah; Khaladkar, Mugdha; Kim, Junhyong
Many R packages have been developed for transcriptome analysis but their use often requires familiarity with R and integrating results of different packages requires scripts to wrangle the datatypes. Furthermore, exploratory data analyses often generate multiple derived datasets such as data subsets or data transformations, which can be difficult to track. Here we present PIVOT, an R-based platform that wraps open source transcriptome analysis packages with a uniform user interface and graphical data management that allows non-programmers to interactively explore transcriptomics data. PIVOT supports more than 40 popular open source packages for transcriptome analysis and provides an extensive set of tools for statistical data manipulations. A graph-based visual interface is used to represent the links between derived datasets, allowing easy tracking of data versions. PIVOT further supports automatic report generation, publication-quality plots, and program/data state saving, such that all analysis can be saved, shared and reproduced. PIVOT will allow researchers with broad background to easily access sophisticated transcriptome analysis tools and interactively explore transcriptome datasets.
Ambient Intelligence systems are aimed at making user-system interaction and content consumption a truly positive experience. The endless search for nifty information visualisation mechanism to squeeze yet one more piece of information onto a visual display is surpassed by the challenge to embed
Ammon, C. J.
... and related spatial and volumetric visualization problems. By virtual environments, we meant an immersive visual and audio technology such that experimenter has little or no awareness of the real environment...
Vanorio, T.; Di Bonito, C.; Clark, A. C.
As new scientific challenges demand more comprehensive and multidisciplinary investigations, laboratory experiments are not expected to become simpler and/or faster. Experimental investigation is an indispensable element of scientific inquiry and must play a central role in the way current and future generations of scientist make decisions. To turn the complexity of laboratory work (and that of rocks!) into dexterity, engagement, and expanded learning opportunities, we are building an interactive, virtual laboratory reproducing in form and function the Stanford Rock Physics Laboratory, at Stanford University. The objective is to combine lectures on laboratory techniques and an online repository of visualized experiments consisting of interactive, 3-D renderings of equipment used to measure properties central to the study of rock physics (e.g., how to saturate rocks, how to measure porosity, permeability, and elastic wave velocity). We use a game creation system together with 3-D computer graphics, and a narrative voice to guide the user through the different phases of the experimental protocol. The main advantage gained in employing computer graphics over video footage is that students can virtually open the instrument, single out its components, and assemble it. Most importantly, it helps describe the processes occurring within the rock. These latter cannot be tracked while simply recording the physical experiment, but computer animation can efficiently illustrate what happens inside rock samples (e.g., describing acoustic waves, and/or fluid flow through a porous rock under pressure within an opaque core-holder - Figure 1). The repository of visualized experiments will complement lectures on laboratory techniques and constitute an on-line course offered through the EdX platform at Stanford. This will provide a virtual laboratory for anyone, anywhere to facilitate teaching/learning of introductory laboratory classes in Geophysics and expand the number of courses
Z. Zenn Bien
Full Text Available The smart house under consideration is a service-integrated complex system to assist older persons and/or people with disabilities. The primary goal of the system is to achieve independent living by various robotic devices and systems. Such a system is treated as a human-in-the loop system in which human- robot interaction takes place intensely and frequently. Based on our experiences of having designed and implemented a smart house environment, called Intelligent Sweet Home (ISH, we present a framework of realizing human-friendly HRI (human-robot interaction module with various effective techniques of computational intelligence. More specifically, we partition the robotic tasks of HRI module into three groups in consideration of the level of specificity, fuzziness or uncertainty of the context of the system, and present effective interaction method for each case. We first show a task planning algorithm and its architecture to deal with well-structured tasks autonomously by a simplified set of commands of the user instead of inconvenient manual operations. To provide with capability of interacting in a human-friendly way in a fuzzy context, it is proposed that the robot should make use of human bio-signals as input of the HRI module as shown in a hand gesture recognition system, called a soft remote control system. Finally we discuss a probabilistic fuzzy rule-based life-long learning system, equipped with intention reading capability by learning human behavioral patterns, which is introduced as a solution in uncertain and time-varying situations.
Zijlmans, L J M; Embregts, P J C M; Gerits, L; Bosman, A M T; Derksen, J J L
Recent research addressed the relationship between staff behaviour and challenging behaviour of individuals with an intellectual disability (ID). Consequently, research on interventions aimed at staff is warranted. The present study focused on the effectiveness of a staff training aimed at emotional intelligence and interactions between staff and clients. The effects of the training on emotional intelligence, coping style and emotions of support staff were investigated. Participants were 214 support staff working within residential settings for individuals with ID and challenging behaviour. The experimental group consisted of 76 staff members, 138 staff members participated in two different control groups. A pre-test, post-test, follow-up control group design was used. Effectiveness was assessed using questionnaires addressing emotional intelligence, coping and emotions. Emotional intelligence of the experimental group changed significantly more than that of the two control groups. The experimental group showed an increase in task-oriented coping, whereas one control group did not. The results with regard to emotions were mixed. Follow-up data revealed that effects within the experimental group were still present four months after the training ended. A staff training aimed at emotional intelligence and staff-client interactions is effective in improving emotional intelligence and coping styles of support staff. However, the need for more research aiming at the relationship between staff characteristics, organisational factors and their mediating role in the effectiveness of staff training is emphasised. © 2014 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available Review of the past literature on the characteristics of successful language learners indicates that more successful learners are those who apply more strategies. Although a sizeable number of studies were conducted on language learning strategies, there is a limited amount of research with focus on speaking strategies. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between Iranian EFL learners’ musical and visual intelligences and their use of speaking strategies in communication. Gender differences regarding the use of speaking strategies were also examined in this research. Participants in this study were three hundred and sixty undergraduate EFL learners from several universities in Iran who were presented with a questionnaire including McKenzie’s Multiple Intelligences Inventory and Oral Communication Strategy Inventory (OCSI. Results of data analysis revealed that there is a significant relationship between EFL learners’ musical and visual intelligences and their use of speaking strategies. Results of more analysis indicated significant relationship between musical intelligence and accuracy-oriented and fluency-oriented strategies, and visual intelligence and social affective and negotiation for meaning strategies. Findings also revealed that females were superior in using some strategy types including message reduction and nonverbal strategies.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Behavioral laterality is known for a variety of vertebrate and invertebrate animals. Laterality in social interactions has been described for a wide range of species including humans. Although evidence and theoretical predictions indicate that in social species the degree of population level laterality is greater than in solitary ones, the origin of these unilateral biases is not fully understood. It is especially poorly studied in the wild animals. Little is known about the role, which laterality in social interactions plays in natural populations. A number of brain characteristics make cetaceans most suitable for investigation of lateralization in social contacts. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Observations were made on wild beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas in the greatest breeding aggregation in the White Sea. Here we show that young calves (in 29 individually identified and in over a hundred of individually not recognized mother-calf pairs swim and rest significantly longer on a mother's right side. Further observations along with the data from other cetaceans indicate that found laterality is a result of the calves' preference to observe their mothers with the left eye, i.e., to analyze the information on a socially significant object in the right brain hemisphere. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Data from our and previous work on cetacean laterality suggest that basic brain lateralizations are expressed in the same way in cetaceans and other vertebrates. While the information on social partners and novel objects is analyzed in the right brain hemisphere, the control of feeding behavior is performed by the left brain hemisphere. Continuous unilateral visual contacts of calves to mothers with the left eye may influence social development of the young by activation of the contralateral (right brain hemisphere, indicating a possible mechanism on how behavioral lateralization may influence species life and welfare. This hypothesis is
Full Text Available The integration of the computer as a tool in language learningat the tertiary level brings several opportunities for adaptingto individual student needs, but lack of appropriate material suited for the level of student proficiency in Scandinavia has meant that university teachers have found it difficult to blendthe traditional approach with computer tools. This article will present one programme (VISL which has been developed with the purpose of supporting and enhancing traditional instruction. Visual Interactive Syntax Learning (VISL is a programme which is basically a parser put to pedagogical use. The pedagogical purpose is to teach English syntax to university students at an advanced level. The programme allows the students to build sophisticated tree diagrams of Englishsentences with provisions for both functions and forms (simple or complex, incl. subclauses. VISL was initiated as an attempt to facilitate the metalinguistic learning process. Thisarticle will present VISL as a pedagogical tool and tries to argue the case for the benefits of blending traditional lecturing with modern technology while pointing out some of the issues involved.
The present research focuses on modernising the approach to learning and teaching the visual arts in teaching practice, as well as examining the performance of an interactive approach to learning and teaching in visual arts classes with the use of a combination of general and specific (visual arts) teaching methods. The study uses quantitative…
Measuring progress in the field of Artificial General Intelligence (AGI) can be difficult without commonly accepted methods of evaluation. An AGI benchmark would allow evaluation and comparison of the many computational intelligence algorithms that have been developed. In this paper I propose that a benchmark for natural world interaction would possess seven key characteristics: fitness, breadth, specificity, low cost, simplicity, range, and task focus. I also outline two benchmark examples that meet most of these criteria. In the first, the direction task, a human coach directs a machine to perform a novel task in an unfamiliar environment. The direction task is extremely broad, but may be idealistic. In the second, the AGI battery, AGI candidates are evaluated based on their performance on a collection of more specific tasks. The AGI battery is designed to be appropriate to the capabilities of currently existing systems. Both the direction task and the AGI battery would require further definition before implementing. The paper concludes with a description of a task that might be included in the AGI battery: the search and retrieve task.
Ma, Kwan-Liu [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)
The relationship between our ability to analyze and extract insights from visualization of climate model output and the capability of the available resources to make those visualizations has reached a crisis point. The large volume of data currently produced by climate models is overwhelming the current, decades-old visualization workflow. The traditional methods for visualizing climate output also have not kept pace with changes in the types of grids used, the number of variables involved, and the number of different simulations performed with a climate model or the feature-richness of high-resolution simulations. This project has developed new and faster methods for visualization in order to get the most knowledge out of the new generation of high-resolution climate models. While traditional climate images will continue to be useful, there is need for new approaches to visualization and analysis of climate data if we are to gain all the insights available in ultra-large data sets produced by high-resolution model output and ensemble integrations of climate models such as those produced for the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project. Towards that end, we have developed new visualization techniques for performing correlation analysis. We have also introduced highly scalable, parallel rendering methods for visualizing large-scale 3D data. This project was done jointly with climate scientists and visualization researchers at Argonne National Laboratory and NCAR.
Loewen, Eric P.; Bonazza, Riccardo; Corradini, Michael L.; Johannesen, Robert E.
Dynamic X-ray imaging of fuel-coolant interactions (FCI), including quantitative measurement of fuel-coolant volume fractions and length scales, has been accomplished with a novel imaging system at the Nuclear Safety Research Center at the University of Wisconsin, Madison. The imaging system consists of visible-light high-speed digital video, low-energy X-ray digital imaging, and high-energy X-ray digital imaging subsystems. The data provide information concerning the melt jet velocity, melt jet configuration, melt volume fractions, void fractions, and spatial and temporal quantification of premixing length scales for a model fuel-coolant system of molten lead poured into a water pool (fuel temperatures 500 to 1000 K; jet diameters 10 to 30 mm; coolant temperatures 20 to 90 deg. C). Overall results indicate that the FCI has three general regions of behavior, with the high fuel-coolant temperature region similar to what might be expected under severe accident conditions. It was observed that the melt jet leading edge has the highest void fraction and readily fragments into discrete masses, which then subsequently subdivide into smaller masses of length scales <10 mm. The intact jet penetrates <3 to 5 jet length/jet diameter before this breakup occurs into discrete masses, which continue to subdivide. Hydrodynamic instabilities can be visually identified at the leading edge and along the jet column with an interfacial region that consists of melt, vapor, and water. This interface region was observed to grow in size as the water pool temperature was increased, indicating mixing enhancement by boiling processes
Etindele Sosso, Faustin Armel
Many neurodegenerative diseases have a memory component. Brain structures related to memory are affected by environmental stimuli, and it is difficult to dissociate effects of all behavior of neurons. Here, visual cortex of mice was stimulated with gratings and dot, and an observation of neuronal activity before and after was made. Bandwidth, firing rate and orientation selectivity index were evaluated. A primary communication between primary visual cortex and short-term memory appeared to show an interesting path to train cognitive circuitry and investigate the basics mechanisms of the neuronal learning. The findings also suggested the interplay between primary visual cortex and short-term plasticity. The properties inside a visual target shape the perception and affect the basic encoding. Using visual cortex, it may be possible to train the memory and improve the recovery of people with cognitive disabilities or memory deficit.
Full Text Available Recent research showed that visual cueing can have both beneficial and detrimental effects on handwriting of patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD and healthy controls depending on the circumstances. Hence, using other sensory modalities to deliver cueing or feedback may be a valuable alternative. Therefore, the current study compared the effects of short-term training with either continuous visual cues or intermittent intelligent verbal feedback. Ten PD patients and nine healthy controls were randomly assigned to one of these training modes. To assess transfer of learning, writing performance was assessed in the absence of cueing and feedback on both trained and untrained writing sequences. The feedback pen and a touch-sensitive writing tablet were used for testing. Both training types resulted in improved writing amplitudes for the trained and untrained sequences. In conclusion, these results suggest that the feedback pen is a valuable tool to implement writing training in a tailor-made fashion for people with PD. Future studies should include larger sample sizes and different subgroups of PD for long-term training with the feedback pen.
Bringula, Rex P.; Basa, Roselle S.; Dela Cruz, Cecilio; Rodrigo, Ma. Mercedes T.
This study attempted to determine the influence of prior knowledge in mathematics of students on learner-interface interactions in a learning-by-teaching intelligent tutoring system. One hundred thirty-nine high school students answered a pretest (i.e., the prior knowledge in mathematics) and a posttest. In between the pretest and posttest, they…
Abouelhassan, Amal A.
Organic Photovoltaic (OPV) solar cells provide a promising alternative for harnessing solar energy. However, the efficient design of OPV materials that achieve better performance requires support by better-tailored visualization tools than
Özcan, E.; Van Egmond, R.
Consistent product experience requires congruity between product properties such as visual appearance and sound. Therefore, for designing appropriate product sounds by manipulating their spectral-temporal structure, product sounds should preferably not be considered in isolation but as an integral
Ponto, Kevin; Kuester, Falk
data sets. We propose a distributed data gathering and visualization system that allows researchers to view these data at hundreds of megapixels simultaneously. This system allows scientists to view real-time geospatial information at unprecedented
Samuel Olugbenga King
Full Text Available There has been significant interest in thedevelopment and deployment of visual taggingapplications in recent times. But user perceptions aboutthe purpose and function of visual tagging systems havenot received much attention. This paper presents a userexperience study that investigates the cognitive modelsthat novice users have about interacting with visualtagging applications. The results of the study show thatalthough most users are unfamiliar with visual taggingtechnologies, they could accurately predict the purposeand mode of retrieval of data stored in visual tags. Thestudy concludes with suggestions on how to improve therecognition, ease of recall and design of visual tags.
Kuru, Kaya; Niranjan, Mahesan; Tunca, Yusuf; Osvank, Erhan; Azim, Tayyaba
In general, medical geneticists aim to pre-diagnose underlying syndromes based on facial features before performing cytological or molecular analyses where a genotype-phenotype interrelation is possible. However, determining correct genotype-phenotype interrelationships among many syndromes is tedious and labor-intensive, especially for extremely rare syndromes. Thus, a computer-aided system for pre-diagnosis can facilitate effective and efficient decision support, particularly when few similar cases are available, or in remote rural districts where diagnostic knowledge of syndromes is not readily available. The proposed methodology, visual diagnostic decision support system (visual diagnostic DSS), employs machine learning (ML) algorithms and digital image processing techniques in a hybrid approach for automated diagnosis in medical genetics. This approach uses facial features in reference images of disorders to identify visual genotype-phenotype interrelationships. Our statistical method describes facial image data as principal component features and diagnoses syndromes using these features. The proposed system was trained using a real dataset of previously published face images of subjects with syndromes, which provided accurate diagnostic information. The method was tested using a leave-one-out cross-validation scheme with 15 different syndromes, each of comprised 5-9 cases, i.e., 92 cases in total. An accuracy rate of 83% was achieved using this automated diagnosis technique, which was statistically significant (pbenefits of using hybrid image processing and ML-based computer-aided diagnostics for identifying facial phenotypes. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Stitt, Iain; Galindo-Leon, Edgar; Pieper, Florian; Hollensteiner, Karl J; Engler, Gerhard; Engel, Andreas K
The integration of visual and auditory spatial information is important for building an accurate perception of the external world, but the fundamental mechanisms governing such audiovisual interaction have only partially been resolved. The earliest interface between auditory and visual processing pathways is in the midbrain, where the superior (SC) and inferior colliculi (IC) are reciprocally connected in an audiovisual loop. Here, we investigate the mechanisms of audiovisual interaction in the midbrain by recording neural signals from the SC and IC simultaneously in anesthetized ferrets. Visual stimuli reliably produced band-limited phase locking of IC local field potentials (LFPs) in two distinct frequency bands: 6-10 and 15-30 Hz. These visual LFP responses co-localized with robust auditory responses that were characteristic of the IC. Imaginary coherence analysis confirmed that visual responses in the IC were not volume-conducted signals from the neighboring SC. Visual responses in the IC occurred later than retinally driven superficial SC layers and earlier than deep SC layers that receive indirect visual inputs, suggesting that retinal inputs do not drive visually evoked responses in the IC. In addition, SC and IC recording sites with overlapping visual spatial receptive fields displayed stronger functional connectivity than sites with separate receptive fields, indicating that visual spatial maps are aligned across both midbrain structures. Reciprocal coupling between the IC and SC therefore probably serves the dynamic integration of visual and auditory representations of space. © 2015 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available [b]Abstract[/b]. The article presents a selected area of research on the possibility of automatic prediction of material properties based on the analysis of digital images. Original, holistic model of forecasting properties of surface layers based on a multi-step process that includes the selected methods of processing and analysis of images, inference with the use of a priori knowledge bases and multi-valued fuzzy logic, and simulation with the use of finite element methods is presented. Surface layers characteristics and core technologies of their production processes such as mechanical, thermal, thermo-mechanical, thermo-chemical, electrochemical, physical are discussed. Developed methods used in the model for the classification of images of the surface layers are shown. The objectives of the use of selected methods of processing and analysis of digital images, including techniques for improving the quality of images, segmentation, morphological transformation, pattern recognition and simulation of physical phenomena in the structures of materials are described.[b]Keywords[/b]: image analysis, surface layer, artificial intelligence, fuzzy logic
This paper aims to analyse the different forms of intelligence within organizations in a systemic and inclusive vision, in order to design an integrated environment based on Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Collective Intelligence (CI). This way we effectively shift the classical approaches of connecting people with people using collaboration tools (which allow people to work together, such as videoconferencing or email, groupware in virtual space, forums, workflow), of connecting people with...
Gotz, David; Borland, David
The healthcare industry's widespread digitization efforts are reshaping one of the largest sectors of the world's economy. This transformation is enabling systems that promise to use ever-improving data-driven evidence to help doctors make more precise diagnoses, institutions identify at risk patients for intervention, clinicians develop more personalized treatment plans, and researchers better understand medical outcomes within complex patient populations. Given the scale and complexity of the data required to achieve these goals, advanced data visualization tools have the potential to play a critical role. This article reviews a number of visualization challenges unique to the healthcare discipline.
Ohtori, Hiroyuki; Iwano, Kaoru; Takeichi, Yasuo; Ono, Kanta; Mitsumata, Chiharu; Yano, Masao; Kato, Akira; Miyamoto, Noritaka; Shoji, Tetsuya; Manabe, Akira
Using scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM), in this report we visualized the magnetic dipolar interactions in nanocrystalline Nd-Fe-B magnets and imaged their magnetization distributions at various applied fields. We calculated the magnetic dipolar interaction by analyzing the interaction between the magnetization at each point and those at the other points on the STXM image.
Rodriguez Florez , Sergio Alberto; Fremont , Vincent; Bonnifait , Philippe
International audience; Vision systems are nowadays very promising for many on-board vehicles perception functionalities, like obstacles detection/recognition and ego-localization. In this paper, we present a 3D visual odometric method that uses a stereo-vision system to estimate the 3D ego-motion of a vehicle in outdoor road conditions. In order to run in real-time, the studied technique is sparse meaning that it makes use of feature points that are tracked during several frames. A robust sc...
Rissman, Jesse; Gazzaley, Adam; D’Esposito, Mark
The active maintenance of visual stimuli across a delay interval in working memory tasks is thought to involve reverberant neural communication between the prefrontal cortex and posterior visual association areas. The hippocampus has also recently been attributed a role in this retention process, presumably via its reciprocal connectivity with visual regions. To characterize the nature of these inter-regional interactions, we applied a recently developed functional connectivity analysis metho...
McDaniel, Scott N.; Green, Lisa
Simulations can make complex ideas easier for students to visualize and understand. It has been shown that guidance in the use of these simulations enhances students’ learning. This paper describes the implementation and evaluation of the Independent Interactive Inquiry-based (I3) Learning Modules, which use existing open-source Java applets, combined with audio-visual instruction. Students are guided to discover and visualize important concepts in post-calculus and algebra-based courses in p...
Bragin, Victoria M.
determine acid/base dissociation constants. Several curves may be superimposed to enable visual comparison and emphasize the effect of acid/base strength on overall curve shape. At the simplest level, the user determines the equivalents of an unknown acid or base using an indicator, and titration curves are not shown. When an inappropriate indicator is chosen and the student discovers, for example, that a color change occurs even when significantly less than the equivalent amount of titrant is added, this becomes a point of departure for explaining the chemical functioning of an indicator and how to select the proper one for a particular analysis. The student interfaces with TitrationLab through interactive representations of traditional laboratory apparatus displayed on the screen so as to simulate actual laboratory manipulations, and the student is made aware of the consequences of mistakes common among novices in the laboratory, such as forgetting to add the indicator, allowing the buret contents to fall below the zero level, etc. Comprehension of abstract concepts is facilitated by the use of computer- generated displays. It'sAGas! is a newly developed hard-sphere simulation of the behavior of gas molecules demonstrating the basic principles of the kinetic molecular theory of gases. The concept of pressure as the rate of component particle collisions is made more vivid by having sound accompany collisions. The effect of changing conditions such as temperature on molecular properties, such as velocity, or of changing container size on the frequency of particle collisions is vividly illustrated. RasMol, shareware by Roger Sayle, allows the user to manipulate the computer representation of a molecule with intuitive mouse commands in a way that facilitates exploration of concepts such as the relationship between symmetry and dipole moment. The multitasking capability of the operating system used in the project allows simultaneous execution of software like RasMol and
Arbab-Zavar, B.; Chakravarthy, A.; Sabeur, Z. A.
The rapid development of advanced smart communication tools with good quality and resolution video cameras, audio and GPS devices in the last few years shall lead to profound impacts on the way future environmental observations are conducted and accessed by communities. The resulting large scale interconnections of these "Future Internet Things" form a large environmental sensing network which will generate large volumes of quality environmental observations and at highly localised spatial scales. This enablement in environmental sensing at local scales will be of great importance to contribute in the study of fauna and flora in the near future, particularly on the effect of climate change on biodiversity in various regions of Europe and beyond. The Future Internet could also potentially become the de facto information space to provide participative real-time sensing by communities and improve our situation awarness of the effect of climate on local environments. In the ENVIROFI(2011-2013) Usage Area project in the FP7 FI-PPP programme, a set of requirements for specific (and generic) enablers is achieved with the potential establishement of participating community observatories of the future. In particular, the specific enablement of interest concerns the building of future interoperable services for the management of environmental data intelligently with tagged contextual geo-spatial information generated by multiple operators in communities (Using smart phones). The classification of observed species in the resulting images is achieved with structured data pre-processing, semantic enrichement using contextual geospatial information, and high level fusion with controlled uncertainty estimations. The returned identification of species is further improved using future ground truth corrections and learning by the specific enablers.
Shanta, Linda L; Connolly, Maria
King's theory is a broad theory designed to provide a framework for nursing (I.M. King, 1981), whereas emotional intelligence (EI; J.D. Mayer & P. Salovey, 2004) is a theory that is specific for addressing potential competency in dealing with emotions and emotional information. J.D. Mayer, P. Salovey, D.R. Caruso, and G. Sitarenios (2001) defined EI as the "ability to recognize the meaning of emotions and their relationships and to use them as a basis for reasoning and problem solving" (p. 234). These researchers believed that EI is related to cognitive intellect through the ability to use reasoning by way of information to find meaning. J.D. Mayer and P. Salovey (2004) argued that the skills that comprise EI were likely enhanced through obtaining a liberal education infused with values exploration. J.D. Mayer, P. Salovey, D.R. Caruso, and G. Sitarenios (2001) contended that there are 4 branches of abilities that create EI: (a) the skill of perceiving emotion within oneself and others, (b) assimilation of an emotion to facilitate thinking, (c) understanding and knowledge of emotion, and (d) conscious regulation of emotion. Each level or branch builds upon the previous one, and awareness of what each branch offers the individual in enhancing relationships with others is a key component of healthy emotional interactions. This article will provide a theoretic foundation based upon King's interacting systems theory (IST; 1981) that embraces EI as a crucial component in the nurse's ability to provide holistic care for patients, peers, and themselves. King's IST underscores the necessity of nurses possessing abilities of EI as they care for others but does not fully describe a mechanism to understand and incorporate emotions within the complex nurse-patient interactions and communications that are part of the nursing process. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
M.M. Gawade (Mrunal); M.L. Kersten (Martin)
textabstractSearching for the performance bottleneck in an execution trace is an error prone and time consuming activity. Existing tools oer some comfort by providing a visual representation of trace for analysis. In this paper we present the Stethoscope, an interactive visual tool to inspect and
Gawade, M.; Kersten, M.
Searching for the performance bottleneck in an execution trace is an error prone and time consuming activity. Existing tools offer some comfort by providing a visual representation of trace for analysis. In this paper we present the Stethoscope, an interactive visual tool to inspect and ana- lyze
Atena Salehi Baladehi
Full Text Available In the current changing world, named the era of knowledge explosion, specialists and those involved in education have been attracted finding a response to a question: what should we teach today’s students that to be useful for them in the future life? The main objective of this study is to investigate the appropriate and inappropriate methods of visual arts education in pre-school. According to the types of multiple intelligences, reaching to this goal requires careful planning, proper training and proper content selection along with talent and interests of learners along with the use of appropriate practice training and educational staff training. The research handles descriptive and analytic methods as well as academic literature. The results suggest the importance of understanding the multiple intelligences in the visual arts education.
Liu Cheng, A.; Bier, H.H.
This paper proposes an extended Ambient Intelligence (AmI) solution that expresses intelligence with respect to both Information and Communications Technologies (ICTs) and spatial reconfiguration in the built-environment. With respect to the former, a solution based on a decentralized yet unified
Cheon, Suh Hyun; Lee, J. K.; Choi, I. K.; Kye, S. C.; Lee, N. K. [Dongguk University, Seoul (Korea)
Visualization techniques can be used to support operator's information navigation tasks on the system especially consisting of an enormous volume of information, such as operating information display system and computerized operating procedure system in advanced control room of nuclear power plants. By offering an easy understanding environment of hierarchically structured information, these techniques can reduce the operator's supplementary navigation task load. As a result of that, operators can pay more attention on the primary tasks and ultimately improve the cognitive task performance. In this report, an interface was designed and implemented using hyperbolic visualization technique, which is expected to be applied as a means of optimizing operator's information navigation tasks. 15 refs., 19 figs., 32 tabs. (Author)
Fiehler, Katja; Rösler, Frank; Henriques, Denise Y P
There is considerable evidence that targets for action are represented in a dynamic gaze-centered frame of reference, such that each gaze shift requires an internal updating of the target. Here, we investigated the effect of eye movements on the spatial representation of targets used for position judgements. Participants had their hand passively placed to a location, and then judged whether this location was left or right of a remembered visual or remembered proprioceptive target, while gaze direction was varied. Estimates of position of the remembered targets relative to the unseen position of the hand were assessed with an adaptive psychophysical procedure. These positional judgements significantly varied relative to gaze for both remembered visual and remembered proprioceptive targets. Our results suggest that relative target positions may also be represented in eye-centered coordinates. This implies similar spatial reference frames for action control and space perception when positions are coded relative to the hand.
Madden, D J; Blumenthal, J A
Previous research suggests that some aspects of cognitive performance decline as a joint function of age and hypertension. In this experiment, 51 unmedicated individuals with mild essential hypertension and 48 normotensive individuals, 18-78 years of age, performed a visual search task. The estimated time required to identify a display character and shift attention between display positions increased with age. This attention shift time did not differ significantly between hypertensive and normotensive participants, but regression analyses indicated some mediation of the age effect by blood pressure. For individuals less than 60 years of age, the error rate was greater for hypertensive than for normotensive participants. Although the present design could detect effects of only moderate to large size, the results suggest that effects of hypertension may be more evident in a relatively general measure of performance (mean error rate) than in the speed of shifting visual attention.
A three-month study examined how interactive iconography impacts social studies and promotes critical writing skills. Groups of three middle-school immigrant students constructed museum labels using "Scope Out", an experimental online revision tool that makes iconography interactive. This study included three comparison groups and one…
Geospatial information systems provide an abundance of information for researchers and scientists. Unfortunately this type of data can usually only be analyzed a few megapixels at a time, giving researchers a very narrow view into these voluminous data sets. We propose a distributed data gathering and visualization system that allows researchers to view these data at hundreds of megapixels simultaneously. This system allows scientists to view real-time geospatial information at unprecedented levels expediting analysis, interrogation, and discovery. ©2010 IEEE.
Kevin Hussey and others at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory produced web applications to visualize all of the spacecraft in orbit around Earth and in the Solar System. Hussey worked with Milwaukee, Wisconsin-based The Elumenati to rewrite the programs, and after licensing them, the company started offering a version that can be viewed on spheres and dome theaters for schools, museums, science centers, and other institutions.
Tracey L Weissgerber
Full Text Available Data presentation for scientific publications in small sample size studies has not changed substantially in decades. It relies on static figures and tables that may not provide sufficient information for critical evaluation, particularly of the results from small sample size studies. Interactive graphics have the potential to transform scientific publications from static reports of experiments into interactive datasets. We designed an interactive line graph that demonstrates how dynamic alternatives to static graphics for small sample size studies allow for additional exploration of empirical datasets. This simple, free, web-based tool (http://statistika.mfub.bg.ac.rs/interactive-graph/ demonstrates the overall concept and may promote widespread use of interactive graphics.
Kern, Michael; Lex, Alexander; Gehlenborg, Nils; Johnson, Chris R
With ever-increasing amounts of data produced in biology research, scientists are in need of efficient data analysis methods. Cluster analysis, combined with visualization of the results, is one such method that can be used to make sense of large data volumes. At the same time, cluster analysis is known to be imperfect and depends on the choice of algorithms, parameters, and distance measures. Most clustering algorithms don't properly account for ambiguity in the source data, as records are often assigned to discrete clusters, even if an assignment is unclear. While there are metrics and visualization techniques that allow analysts to compare clusterings or to judge cluster quality, there is no comprehensive method that allows analysts to evaluate, compare, and refine cluster assignments based on the source data, derived scores, and contextual data. In this paper, we introduce a method that explicitly visualizes the quality of cluster assignments, allows comparisons of clustering results and enables analysts to manually curate and refine cluster assignments. Our methods are applicable to matrix data clustered with partitional, hierarchical, and fuzzy clustering algorithms. Furthermore, we enable analysts to explore clustering results in context of other data, for example, to observe whether a clustering of genomic data results in a meaningful differentiation in phenotypes. Our methods are integrated into Caleydo StratomeX, a popular, web-based, disease subtype analysis tool. We show in a usage scenario that our approach can reveal ambiguities in cluster assignments and produce improved clusterings that better differentiate genotypes and phenotypes.
Full Text Available A study has been made to optimise the influential parameters of surface lapping process. Lapping time, lapping speed, downward pressure, and charging pressure were chosen from the preliminary studies as parameters to determine process performances in terms of material removal, lap width, and clamp force. The desirability functions of the-nominal-the-best were used to compromise multiple responses into the overall desirability function level or D response. The conventional modified simplex or Nelder-Mead simplex method and the interactive desirability function are performed to optimise online the parameter levels in order to maximise the D response. In order to determine the lapping process parameters effectively, this research then applies two powerful artificial intelligence optimisation mechanisms from harmony search and firefly algorithms. The recommended condition of (lapping time, lapping speed, downward pressure, and charging pressure at (33, 35, 6.0, and 5.0 has been verified by performing confirmation experiments. It showed that the D response level increased to 0.96. When compared with the current operating condition, there is a decrease of the material removal and lap width with the improved process performance indices of 2.01 and 1.14, respectively. Similarly, there is an increase of the clamp force with the improved process performance index of 1.58.
Cláudio Filipe Tereso
Full Text Available This article presents VAFAE – Forum Access Visualization on a Distance Learning Environment, a web tool that visually maps Universidade Aberta’s (UAb students’ interaction with a course available on the e-learning platform. Raw data is extracted from the log files that are then transformed to obtain the necessary format. Next, different visualization techniques are applied with the aim of improving and streamlining the underlying information. In a more specific way, VAFAE aims at helping teachers to better understand the level and quality of the interaction of the students with the modules of the learning units in UAb’s distance learning environment.
Full Text Available Although visual information seems to affect thermal perception (e.g. red color is associated with heat, previous studies have failed to demonstrate the interaction between visual and thermal senses. However, it has been reported that humans feel an illusory thermal sensation in conjunction with an apparently-thermal visual stimulus placed on a prosthetic hand in the rubber hand illusion (RHI wherein an individual feels that a prosthetic (rubber hand belongs to him/her. This study tests the possibility that the ownership of the body surface on which a visual stimulus is placed enhances the likelihood of a visual-thermal interaction. We orthogonally manipulated three variables: induced hand-ownership, visually-presented thermal information, and tactically-presented physical thermal information. Results indicated that the sight of an apparently-thermal object on a rubber hand that is illusorily perceived as one's own hand affects thermal judgments about the object physically touching this hand. This effect was not observed without the RHI. The importance of ownership of a body part that is touched by the visual object on the visual-thermal interaction is discussed.
Staadt, Oliver G.; Natarjan, Vijay; Weber, Gunther H.; Wiley,David F.; Hamann, Bernd
Background: Applications in biomedical science and life science produce large data sets using increasingly powerful imaging devices and computer simulations. It is becoming increasingly difficult for scientists to explore and analyze these data using traditional tools. Interactive data processing and visualization tools can support scientists to overcome these limitations. Results: We show that new data processing tools and visualization systems can be used successfully in biomedical and life science applications. We present an adaptive high-resolution display system suitable for biomedical image data, algorithms for analyzing and visualization protein surfaces and retinal optical coherence tomography data, and visualization tools for 3D gene expression data. Conclusion: We demonstrated that interactive processing and visualization methods and systems can support scientists in a variety of biomedical and life science application areas concerned with massive data analysis.
Strojnik Scholl, Marija; Páez, Gonzalo; Scholl, Michelle K.
We review the evolution of machine vision and comment on the cross-fertilization from the neural sciences onto flourishing fields of neural processing, parallel processing, and associative memory in optical sciences and computing. Then we examine how the intensive efforts in mapping the human brain have been influenced by concepts in computer sciences, control theory, and electronic circuits. We discuss two neural paths that employ the input from the vision sense to determine the navigational options and object recognition. They are ventral temporal pathway for object recognition (what?) and dorsal parietal pathway for navigation (where?), respectively. We describe the reflexive and conscious decision centers in cerebral cortex involved with visual attention and gaze control. Interestingly, these require return path though the midbrain for ocular muscle control. We find that the cognitive psychologists currently study human brain employing low-spatial-resolution fMRI with temporal response on the order of a second. In recent years, the life scientists have concentrated on insect brains to study neural processes. We discuss how reflexive and conscious gaze-control decisions are made in the frontal eye field and inferior parietal lobe, constituting the fronto-parietal attention network. We note that ethical and experiential learnings impact our conscious decisions.
Full Text Available Over the centuries, people have combined fields, leading to the creation of new domains. For example, artists have used technology to widen the range of their medium to express ideas in new ways. Similarly, technology has leveraged art to expand its range of application. Both art and technology continue to inspire innovation in each other. A contemporary example of this process is evident in interactive art era; this article covers this topic focusing on tangible interface pieces. There have been many compelling demonstrations that involve tangible interaction to increase audience interests through their embodied interaction. However, most existing approaches are limited to engaging a user’s immediate, temporary experience with setting some context of the environment with story elements. This article presents an interactive installation that engages the audience, building an immersive environment based on the synergy between embodied interaction and storytelling in a more active and meaningful way. It is based on the belief that tangible interfaces have the potential to convey narratives more meaningfully based on physical interaction and human senses and fundamentally, aims to supply another potential of tangible interfaces to spark further discussion in this area.
Fung, David C Y; Wilkins, Marc R; Hart, David; Hong, Seok-Hee
The force-directed layout is commonly used in computer-generated visualizations of protein-protein interaction networks. While it is good for providing a visual outline of the protein complexes and their interactions, it has two limitations when used as a visual analysis method. The first is poor reproducibility. Repeated running of the algorithm does not necessarily generate the same layout, therefore, demanding cognitive readaptation on the investigator's part. The second limitation is that it does not explicitly display complementary biological information, e.g. Gene Ontology, other than the protein names or gene symbols. Here, we present an alternative layout called the clustered circular layout. Using the human DNA replication protein-protein interaction network as a case study, we compared the two network layouts for their merits and limitations in supporting visual analysis.
Bell, A. M.; Parton, K.; Smith, E.
Earth science classes in colleges and high schools use a variety of satellite image processing software to teach earth science and remote sensing principles. However, current tutorials for image processing software are often paper-based or lecture-based and do not take advantage of the full potential of the computer context to teach, immerse, and stimulate students. We present EarthTutor, an adaptive, interactive Intelligent Tutoring System (ITS) being built for NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) that is integrated directly with an image processing application. The system aims to foster the use of satellite imagery in classrooms and encourage inquiry-based, hands-on earth science scientific study by providing students with an engaging imagery analysis learning environment. EarthTutor's software is available as a plug-in to ImageJ, a free image processing system developed by the NIH (National Institute of Health). Since it is written in Java, it can be run on almost any platform and also as an applet from the Web. Labs developed for EarthTutor combine lesson content (such as HTML web pages) with interactive activities and questions. In each lab the student learns to measure, calibrate, color, slice, plot and otherwise process and analyze earth science imagery. During the activities, EarthTutor monitors students closely as they work, which allows it to provide immediate feedback that is customized to a particular student's needs. As the student moves through the labs, EarthTutor assesses the student, and tailors the presentation of the content to a student's demonstrated skill level. EarthTutor's adaptive approach is based on emerging Artificial Intelligence (AI) research. Bayesian networks are employed to model a student's proficiency with different earth science and image processing concepts. Agent behaviors are used to track the student's progress through activities and provide guidance when a student encounters difficulty. Through individual
Hoffmann, T.L.; Koopmann, G.H.
In this paper experimentally observed trajectories of particles undergoing acoustically induced interaction and agglomeration processes are compared to and validated with numerically generated trajectories based on existing agglomeration theories. Models for orthokinetic, scattering, mutual radiation pressure, and hydrodynamic particle interaction are considered in the analysis. The characteristic features of the classical orthokinetic agglomeration hypothesis, such as collision processes and agglomerations due to the relative entrainment motion, are not observed in the digital images. The measured entrainment rates of the particles are found to be consistently lower than the theoretically predicted values. Some of the experiments reveal certain characteristics which may possibly be related to mutual scattering interaction. The study's most significant discovery is the so-called tuning fork agglomeration [T. L. Hoffmann and G. H. Koopmann, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 99, 2130 endash 2141 (1996)]. It is shown that this phenomenon contradicts the theories for mutual scattering interaction and mutual radiation pressure interaction, but agrees with the acoustic wake effect model in its intrinsic feature of attraction between particles aligned along the acoustic axis. A model by Dianov et al. [Sov. Phys. Acoust. 13 (3), 314 endash 319 (1968)] is used to describe this effect based on asymmetric flow fields around particles under Oseen flow conditions. It is concluded that this model is consistent with the general characteristics of the tuning fork agglomerations, but lacks certain refinements with respect to accurate quantification of the effect. copyright 1997 Acoustical Society of America
Full Text Available Previous work has suggested that large repositories of data can revolutionize healthcare activities; however, there remains a disconnection between data collection and its effective usage. The way in which users interact with data strongly impacts their ability to not only complete tasks but also capitalize on the purported benefits of such data. Interactive visualizations can provide a means by which many data-driven tasks can be performed. Recent surveys, however, suggest that many visualizations mostly enable users to perform simple manipulations, thus limiting their ability to complete tasks. Researchers have called for tools that allow for richer discourse with data. Nonetheless, systematic design of human-data interaction for visualization tools is a non-trivial task. It requires taking into consideration a myriad of issues. Creation of visualization tools that incorporate rich human-data discourse would benefit from the use of design frameworks. In this paper, we examine and present a design process that is based on a conceptual human-data interaction framework. We discuss and describe the design of interaction for a visualization tool intended for sensemaking of public health data. We demonstrate the utility of systematic interaction design in two ways. First, we use scenarios to highlight how our design approach supports a rich and meaningful discourse with data. Second, we present results from a study that details how users were able to perform various tasks with health data and learn about global health trends.
A software system, GRAVE (Geometry Rendering and Visual Editor), has been developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to perform interactive visualization and development of models used as input to the TORT three-dimensional discrete ordinates radiation transport code. Three-dimensional and two-dimensional visualization displays are included. Display capabilities include image rotation, zoom, translation, wire-frame and translucent display, geometry cuts and slices, and display of individual component bodies and material zones. The geometry can be interactively edited and saved in TORT input file format. This system is an advancement over the current, non-interactive, two-dimensional display software. GRAVE is programmed in the Java programming language and can be implemented on a variety of computer platforms. Three- dimensional visualization is enabled through the Visualization Toolkit (VTK), a free-ware C++ software library developed for geometric and data visual display. Future plans include an extension of the system to read inputs using binary zone maps and combinatorial geometry models containing curved surfaces, such as those used for Monte Carlo code inputs. Also GRAVE will be extended to geometry visualization/editing for the DORT two-dimensional transport code and will be integrated into a single GUI-based system for all of the ORNL discrete ordinates transport codes
Punzo, D.; van der Hulst, J. M.; Roerdink, J. B. T. M.; Oosterloo, T. A.; Ramatsoku, M.; Verheijen, M. A. W.
Upcoming H I surveys will deliver large datasets, and automated processing using the full 3-D information (two positional dimensions and one spectral dimension) to find and characterize H I objects is imperative. In this context, visualization is an essential tool for enabling qualitative and quantitative human control on an automated source finding and analysis pipeline. We discuss how Visual Analytics, the combination of automated data processing and human reasoning, creativity and intuition, supported by interactive visualization, enables flexible and fast interaction with the 3-D data, helping the astronomer to deal with the analysis of complex sources. 3-D visualization, coupled to modeling, provides additional capabilities helping the discovery and analysis of subtle structures in the 3-D domain. The requirements for a fully interactive visualization tool are: coupled 1-D/2-D/3-D visualization, quantitative and comparative capabilities, combined with supervised semi-automated analysis. Moreover, the source code must have the following characteristics for enabling collaborative work: open, modular, well documented, and well maintained. We review four state of-the-art, 3-D visualization packages assessing their capabilities and feasibility for use in the case of 3-D astronomical data.
Isenberg, Tobias; Everts, Maarten H.; Grubert, Jens; Carpendale, Sheelagh
In this paper we present several techniques to interactively explore representations of 2D vector fields. Through a set of simple hand postures used on large, touch-sensitive displays, our approach allows individuals to custom design glyphs (arrows, lines, etc.) that best reveal patterns of the
Our goal is to integrate the objective and subjective aspects of our personal experience into a single complete theory of reality. To further this endeavor we replace elementary particles with elementary events as the building blocks of an event oriented description of that reality. The simplest event in such a conception is an adaptation of A. Wheeler's primitive explanatory--measurement cycle between internal observations experienced by an observer and their assumed physical causes. We will show how internal forces between charge and mass are required to complete the cyclic sequence of activity. This new formulation of internal material is easier to visualize and map to cognitive experiences than current formulations of sub-atomic physics. In our formulation, called Cognitive Action Theory, such internal forces balance the external forces of gravity-inertia and electricity-magnetism. They thereby accommodate outside influences by adjusting the internal structure of material from which all things are composed. Such accommodation is interpreted as the physical implementation of a model of the external physical world in the brain of a cognitive being or alternatively the response mechanism to external influences in the material of inanimate objects. We adopt the deBroglie-Bohm causal interpretation of QT to show that the nature of space in our model is mathematically equivalent to a field of clocks. Within this field small oscillations form deBroglie waves. This interpretation allows us to visualize the underlying structure of empty space with a charge-mass separation field in equilibrium, and objects appearing in space with quantum wave disturbances to that equilibrium occurring inside material. Space is thereby associated with the internal structure of material and quantum mechanics is shown to be, paraphrasing Heisenberg, the physics of the material that knows the world.
Full Text Available Pegah Afra, Michael Funke, Fumisuke MatsuoDepartment of Neurology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USAAbstract: Synesthesia is experienced when sensory stimulation of one sensory modality elicits an involuntary sensation in another sensory modality. Auditory-visual synesthesia occurs when auditory stimuli elicit visual sensations. It has developmental, induced and acquired varieties. The acquired variety has been reported in association with deafferentation of the visual system as well as temporal lobe pathology with intact visual pathways. The induced variety has been reported in experimental and post-surgical blindfolding, as well as intake of hallucinogenic or psychedelics. Although in humans there is no known anatomical pathway connecting auditory areas to primary and/or early visual association areas, there is imaging and neurophysiologic evidence to the presence of early cross modal interactions between the auditory and visual sensory pathways. Synesthesia may be a window of opportunity to study these cross modal interactions. Here we review the existing literature in the acquired and induced auditory-visual synesthesias and discuss the possible neural mechanisms.Keywords: synesthesia, auditory-visual, cross modal
Gao, Tao; Gao, Zaifeng; Li, Jie; Sun, Zhongqiang; Shen, Mowei
Mainstream theories of visual perception assume that visual working memory (VWM) is critical for integrating online perceptual information and constructing coherent visual experiences in changing environments. Given the dynamic interaction between online perception and VWM, we propose that how visual information is processed during visual…
Cantor, Michael; Nordberg, Henrik; Smirnova, Tatyana; Andersen, Evan; Tringe, Susannah; Hess, Matthias; Dubchak, Inna
Metagenomics, one of the fastest growing areas of modern genomic science, is the genetic profiling of the entire community of microbial organisms present in an environmental sample. Elviz is a web-based tool for the interactive exploration of metagenome assemblies. Elviz can be used with publicly available data sets from the Joint Genome Institute or with custom user-loaded assemblies. Elviz is available at genome.jgi.doe.gov/viz
CERN. Geneva HR-RFA
The double simplex is a new way to envision the particles and interactions through a three-dimensional construction intended to serve as an invitation to narrative and a spur to curiosity. My goal is to represent what we know is true, what we hope might be true, and what we don't know. Constructing the double simplex expresses the spirit of play, of successive approximations, that animates the way scientists work.
Görg, Carsten; Liu, Zhicheng; Kihm, Jaeyeon; Choo, Jaegul; Park, Haesun; Stasko, John
Investigators across many disciplines and organizations must sift through large collections of text documents to understand and piece together information. Whether they are fighting crime, curing diseases, deciding what car to buy, or researching a new field, inevitably investigators will encounter text documents. Taking a visual analytics approach, we integrate multiple text analysis algorithms with a suite of interactive visualizations to provide a flexible and powerful environment that allows analysts to explore collections of documents while sensemaking. Our particular focus is on the process of integrating automated analyses with interactive visualizations in a smooth and fluid manner. We illustrate this integration through two example scenarios: an academic researcher examining InfoVis and VAST conference papers and a consumer exploring car reviews while pondering a purchase decision. Finally, we provide lessons learned toward the design and implementation of visual analytics systems for document exploration and understanding.
Pervez, Muhammad Tariq; Babar, Masroor Ellahi; Nadeem, Asif; Aslam, Naeem; Naveed, Nasir; Ahmad, Sarfraz; Muhammad, Shah; Qadri, Salman; Shahid, Muhammad; Hussain, Tanveer; Javed, Maryam
IVisTMSA is a software package of seven graphical tools for multiple sequence alignments. MSApad is an editing and analysis tool. It can load 409% more data than Jalview, STRAP, CINEMA, and Base-by-Base. MSA comparator allows the user to visualize consistent and inconsistent regions of reference and test alignments of more than 21-MB size in less than 12 seconds. MSA comparator is 5,200% efficient and more than 40% efficient as compared to BALiBASE c program and FastSP, respectively. MSA reconstruction tool provides graphical user interfaces for four popular aligners and allows the user to load several sequence files at a time. FASTA generator converts seven formats of alignments of unlimited size into FASTA format in a few seconds. MSA ID calculator calculates identity matrix of more than 11,000 sequences with a sequence length of 2,696 base pairs in less than 100 seconds. Tree and Distance Matrix calculation tools generate phylogenetic tree and distance matrix, respectively, using neighbor joining% identity and BLOSUM 62 matrix.
Pedersen, Thomas Lin; Nookaew, Intawat; Wayne Ussery, David
with gene ontology based navigation of gene groups. Furthermore it allows for rich and complex visual querying of gene groups in the pangenome. PanViz visualizations require no external programs and are easily sharable, allowing for rapid pangenome analyses. PanViz is written entirely in Java......PanViz is a novel, interactive, visualization tool for pangenome analysis. PanViz allows visualization of changes in gene group (groups of similar genes across genomes) classification as different subsets of pangenomes are selected, as well as comparisons of individual genomes to pangenomes......Script and is available on https://github.com/thomasp85/PanViz A companion R package that facilitates the creation of PanViz visualizations from a range of data formats is released through Bioconductor and is available at https://bioconductor.org/packages/PanVizGenerator CONTACT: thomasp85@gmail...
Mueller, W.; Gruszczyński, M.; Raba, B.; Lewicki, A.; Przybył, K.; Zaborowicz, M.; Koszela, K.; Boniecki, P.
The process of data visualization, important for their analysis, becomes problematic when large data sets generated via computer simulations are available. This problem concerns, among others, the models that describe the geometry of tire-soil interaction. For the purpose of a graphical representation of this area and implementation of various geometric calculations the authors have developed a plug-in application for AutoCAD, based on the latest technologies, including ObjectARX, LINQ and the use of Visual Studio platform. Selected programming tools offer a wide variety of IT structures that enable data visualization and data analysis and are important e.g. in model verification.
Searight, K. R.; Wojtowicz, D. P.; Walsh, J. E.; Pathi, S.; Bowman, K. P.; Wilhelmson, R. B.
Envision is a software project at the University of Illinois and Texas A&M, funded by NASA's Applied Information Systems Research Project. It provides researchers in the geophysical sciences convenient ways to manage, browse, and visualize large observed or model data sets. Envision integrates data management, analysis, and visualization of geophysical data in an interactive environment. It employs commonly used standards in data formats, operating systems, networking, and graphics. It also attempts, wherever possible, to integrate with existing scientific visualization and analysis software. Envision has an easy-to-use graphical interface, distributed process components, and an extensible design. It is a public domain package, freely available to the scientific community.
Li, Hongjian; Leung, Kwong-Sak; Nakane, Takanori; Wong, Man-Hon
Visualization of protein-ligand complex plays an important role in elaborating protein-ligand interactions and aiding novel drug design. Most existing web visualizers either rely on slow software rendering, or lack virtual reality support. The vital feature of macromolecular surface construction is also unavailable. We have developed iview, an easy-to-use interactive WebGL visualizer of protein-ligand complex. It exploits hardware acceleration rather than software rendering. It features three special effects in virtual reality settings, namely anaglyph, parallax barrier and oculus rift, resulting in visually appealing identification of intermolecular interactions. It supports four surface representations including Van der Waals surface, solvent excluded surface, solvent accessible surface and molecular surface. Moreover, based on the feature-rich version of iview, we have also developed a neat and tailor-made version specifically for our istar web platform for protein-ligand docking purpose. This demonstrates the excellent portability of iview. Using innovative 3D techniques, we provide a user friendly visualizer that is not intended to compete with professional visualizers, but to enable easy accessibility and platform independence.
Full Text Available The present research focuses on modernising the approach to learning and teaching the visual arts in teaching practice, as well as examining the performance of an interactive approach to learning and teaching in visual arts classes with the use of a combination of general and specific (visual arts teaching methods. The study uses quantitative analysis of data on the basis of results obtained from a pedagogical experiment. The subjects of the research were 285 second- and fourth-grade students from four primary schools in the city of Rijeka, Croatia. Paintings made by the students in the initial and final stage of the pedagogical experiment were evaluated. The research results confirmed the hypotheses about the positive effect of interactive approaches to learning and teaching on the following variables: (1 knowledge and understanding of visual arts terms, (2 abilities and skills in the use of art materials and techniques within the framework of planned painting tasks, and (3 creativity in solving visual arts problems. The research results can help shape an optimised model for the planning and performance of visual arts education, and provide guidelines for planning professional development and the further professional education of teachers, with the aim of establishing more efficient learning and teaching of the visual arts in primary school.
Kumar, Anuj; Nong, Paige; Su, Gang; Meng, Fan
Life scientists increasingly use visual analytics to explore large data sets and generate hypotheses. Undergraduate biology majors should be learning these same methods. Yet visual analytics is one of the most underdeveloped areas of undergraduate biology education. This study sought to determine the feasibility of undergraduate biology majors conducting exploratory analysis using the same interactive data visualizations as practicing scientists. We examined 22 upper level undergraduates in a genomics course as they engaged in a case-based inquiry with an interactive heat map. We qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed students’ visual analytic behaviors, reasoning and outcomes to identify student performance patterns, commonly shared efficiencies and task completion. We analyzed students’ successes and difficulties in applying knowledge and skills relevant to the visual analytics case and related gaps in knowledge and skill to associated tool designs. Findings show that undergraduate engagement in visual analytics is feasible and could be further strengthened through tool usability improvements. We identify these improvements. We speculate, as well, on instructional considerations that our findings suggested may also enhance visual analytics in case-based modules. PMID:26877625
Haara, Arto; Pykäläinen, Jouni; Tolvanen, Anne; Kurttila, Mikko
Common to multi-objective forest planning situations is that they all require comparisons, searches and evaluation among decision alternatives. Through these actions, the decision maker can learn from the information presented and thus make well-justified decisions. Interactive data visualization is an evolving approach that supports learning and decision making in multidimensional decision problems and planning processes. Data visualization contributes the formation of mental image data and this process is further boosted by allowing interaction with the data. In this study, we introduce a multi-objective forest planning decision problem framework and the corresponding characteristics of data. We utilize the framework with example planning data to illustrate and evaluate the potential of 14 interactive data visualization techniques to support multi-objective forest planning decisions. Furthermore, broader utilization possibilities of these techniques to incorporate the provisioning of ecosystem services into forest management and planning are discussed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Dave, T. M.; Zhang, Yanqing; Owen, G. S. S.; Sunderraman, Rajshekhar
In this paper, we propose an Avatar-based intelligent agent technique for 3D Web based Virtual Communities based on distributed artificial intelligence, intelligent agent techniques, and databases and knowledge bases in a digital library. One of the goals of this joint NSF (IIS-9980130) and ACM SIGGRAPH Education Committee (ASEC) project is to create a virtual community of educators and students who have a common interest in comptuer graphics, visualization, and interactive techniqeus. In this virtual community (ASEC World) Avatars will represent the educators, students, and other visitors to the world. Intelligent agents represented as specially dressed Avatars will be available to assist the visitors to ASEC World. The basic Web client-server architecture of the intelligent knowledge-based avatars is given. Importantly, the intelligent Web agent software system for the 3D virtual community is implemented successfully.
Chwalibog, André; Sawosz, Ewa; Hotowy, Anna Malgorzata
Purpose: The objective of the present investigation was to evaluate the morphologic characteristics of self-assemblies of diamond (nano-D), silver (nano-Ag), gold (nano-Au), and platinum (nano-Pt) nanoparticles with Staphylococus aureus (bacteria) and Candida albicans (fungi), to determine...... interaction between the nanoparticles and microorganisms showed that nano-D, which are dielectrics and exhibit a positive zeta potential, were very different from the membrane potentials of microorganisms, and uniformly surrounded the microorganisms, without causing visible damage and destruction of cells...... and cell wall. Conclusion: Nano-Ag, nano-Au, and nano-Pt (all metal nanoparticles) are harmful to bacteria and fungi. In contrast, nano-D bind closely to the surface of microorganisms without causing visible damage to cells, and demonstrating good self-assembling ability. The results indicate that both...
Yu, W.; Carrasco Kind, M.; Brunner, R. J.
Lu, F. K.; Settles, G. S.
Kerosene-lampblack mixtures with addition of a ground colored chalk were used in an experiment on visualizing surface flows of swept shock boundary-layer interactions. The results show that contrasting colors intensify the visualization of different regions of the interaction surface, and help the eye in following the fine streaks to locate the upstream influence. The study confirms observations of the separation occurring at shock strength below accepted values. The superiority of the reported technique over the previous monochrome technique is demonstrated.
Hibbard, William L.; Paul, Brian E.; Santek, David A.; Dyer, Charles R.; Battaiola, Andre L.; Voidrot-Martinez, Marie-Francoise
Computers have become essential tools for scientists simulating and observing nature. Simulations are formulated as mathematical models but are implemented as computer algorithms to simulate complex events. Observations are also analyzed and understood in terms of mathematical models, but the number of these observations usually dictates that we automate analyses with computer algorithms. In spite of their essential role, computers are also barriers to scientific understanding. Unlike hand calculations, automated computations are invisible and, because of the enormous numbers of individual operations in automated computations, the relation between an algorithm's input and output is often not intuitive. This problem is illustrated by the behavior of meteorologists responsible for forecasting weather. Even in this age of computers, many meteorologists manually plot weather observations on maps, then draw isolines of temperature, pressure, and other fields by hand (special pads of maps are printed for just this purpose). Similarly, radiologists use computers to collect medical data but are notoriously reluctant to apply image-processing algorithms to that data. To these scientists with life-and-death responsibilities, computer algorithms are black boxes that increase rather than reduce risk. The barrier between scientists and their computations can be bridged by techniques that make the internal workings of algorithms visible and that allow scientists to experiment with their computations. Here we describe two interactive systems developed at the University of Wisconsin-Madison Space Science and Engineering Center (SSEC) that provide these capabilities to Earth and space scientists.
Petz, Christoph; Goldluecke, Bastian; Magnor, Marcus
Single Image Random Dot Stereograms (SIRDS) are an attractive way of depicting three-dimensional objects using conventional display technology. Once trained in decoupling the eyes' convergence and focusing, autostereograms of this kind are able to convey the three-dimensional impression of a scene. We present in this work an algorithm that generates SIRDS at interactive frame rates on a conventional PC. The presented system allows rotating a 3D geometry model and observing the object from arbitrary positions in real-time. Subjective tests show that the perception of a moving or rotating 3D scene presents no problem: The gaze remains focused onto the object. In contrast to conventional SIRDS algorithms, we render multiple pixels in a single step using a texture-based approach, exploiting the parallel-processing architecture of modern graphics hardware. A vertex program determines the parallax for each vertex of the geometry model, and the graphics hardware's texture unit is used to render the dot pattern. No data has to be transferred between main memory and the graphics card for generating the autostereograms, leaving CPU capacity available for other tasks. Frame rates of 25 fps are attained at a resolution of 1024x512 pixels on a standard PC using a consumer-grade nVidia GeForce4 graphics card, demonstrating the real-time capability of the system.
Tsai, Tsung-Hua; Lin, Sung-Jan; Lee, Woan-Ruoh; Wang, Chun-Chin; Hsu, Chih-Ting; Chu, Thomas; Dong, Chen-Yuan
Redundant skin laxity is a major feature of aging. Recently, radiofrequency has been introduced for nonablative tissue tightening by volumetric heating of the deep dermis. Despite the wide range of application based on this therapy, the effect of this technique on tissue and the subsequent tissue remodeling have not been investigated in detail. Our objective is to evaluate the potential of non-linear optics, including multiphoton autofluorescence and second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy, as a non-invasive imaging modality for the real-time study of radiofrequency-tissue interaction. Electro-optical synergy device (ELOS) was used as the radiofrequency source in this study. The back skin of nude mouse was irradiated with radiofrequency at different passes. We evaluated the effect on skin immediately and 1 month after treatment with multiphoton microscopy. Corresponding histology was performed for comparison. We found that SHG is negatively correlated to radiofrequency passes, which means that collagen structural disruption happens immediately after thermal damage. After 1 month of collagen remodeling, SHG signals increased above baseline, indicating that collagen regeneration has occurred. Our findings may explain mechanism of nonablative skin tightening and were supported by histological examinations. Our work showed that monitoring the dermal heating status of RF and following up the detailed process of tissue reaction can be imaged and quantified with multiphoton microscopy non-invasively in vivo. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
Schierholz, Irina; Finke, Mareike; Schulte, Svenja; Hauthal, Nadine; Kantzke, Christoph; Rach, Stefan; Büchner, Andreas; Dengler, Reinhard; Sandmann, Pascale
Auditory deprivation and the restoration of hearing via a cochlear implant (CI) can induce functional plasticity in auditory cortical areas. How these plastic changes affect the ability to integrate combined auditory (A) and visual (V) information is not yet well understood. In the present study, we used electroencephalography (EEG) to examine whether age, temporary deafness and altered sensory experience with a CI can affect audio-visual (AV) interactions in post-lingually deafened CI users. Young and elderly CI users and age-matched NH listeners performed a speeded response task on basic auditory, visual and audio-visual stimuli. Regarding the behavioral results, a redundant signals effect, that is, faster response times to cross-modal (AV) than to both of the two modality-specific stimuli (A, V), was revealed for all groups of participants. Moreover, in all four groups, we found evidence for audio-visual integration. Regarding event-related responses (ERPs), we observed a more pronounced visual modulation of the cortical auditory response at N1 latency (approximately 100 ms after stimulus onset) in the elderly CI users when compared with young CI users and elderly NH listeners. Thus, elderly CI users showed enhanced audio-visual binding which may be a consequence of compensatory strategies developed due to temporary deafness and/or degraded sensory input after implantation. These results indicate that the combination of aging, sensory deprivation and CI facilitates the coupling between the auditory and the visual modality. We suggest that this enhancement in multisensory interactions could be used to optimize auditory rehabilitation, especially in elderly CI users, by the application of strong audio-visually based rehabilitation strategies after implant switch-on. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Krueger, Evan; Messier, Erik; Linte, Cristian A.; Diaz, Gabriel
Recent advances in medical image acquisition allow for the reconstruction of anatomies with 3D, 4D, and 5D renderings. Nevertheless, standard anatomical and medical data visualization still relies heavily on the use of traditional 2D didactic tools (i.e., textbooks and slides), which restrict the presentation of image data to a 2D slice format. While these approaches have their merits beyond being cost effective and easy to disseminate, anatomy is inherently three-dimensional. By using 2D visualizations to illustrate more complex morphologies, important interactions between structures can be missed. In practice, such as in the planning and execution of surgical interventions, professionals require intricate knowledge of anatomical complexities, which can be more clearly communicated and understood through intuitive interaction with 3D volumetric datasets, such as those extracted from high-resolution CT or MRI scans. Open source, high quality, 3D medical imaging datasets are freely available, and with the emerging popularity of 3D display technologies, affordable and consistent 3D anatomical visualizations can be created. In this study we describe the design, implementation, and evaluation of one such interactive, stereoscopic visualization paradigm for human anatomy extracted from 3D medical images. A stereoscopic display was created by projecting the scene onto the lab floor using sequential frame stereo projection and viewed through active shutter glasses. By incorporating a PhaseSpace motion tracking system, a single viewer can navigate an augmented reality environment and directly manipulate virtual objects in 3D. While this paradigm is sufficiently versatile to enable a wide variety of applications in need of 3D visualization, we designed our study to work as an interactive game, which allows users to explore the anatomy of various organs and systems. In this study we describe the design, implementation, and evaluation of an interactive and stereoscopic
Pierce, S. A.; Wagner, K.; Schwartz, S.; Gentle, J. N., Jr.
Critical water resources face the effects of historic drought, increased demand, and potential contamination, the need has never been greater to develop resources to effectively communicate conservation and protection across a broad audience and geographical area. The Watermark application and macro-analysis methodology merges topical analysis of context rich corpus from policy texts with multi-attributed solution sets from integrated models of water resource and other subsystems, such as mineral, food, energy, or environmental systems to construct a scalable, robust, and reproducible approach for identifying links between policy and science knowledge bases. The Watermark application is an open-source, interactive workspace to support science-based visualization and decision making. Designed with generalization in mind, Watermark is a flexible platform that allows for data analysis and inclusion of large datasets with an interactive front-end capable of connecting with other applications as well as advanced computing resources. In addition, the Watermark analysis methodology offers functionality that streamlines communication with non-technical users for policy, education, or engagement with groups around scientific topics of societal relevance. The technology stack for Watermark was selected with the goal of creating a robust and dynamic modular codebase that can be adjusted to fit many use cases and scale to support usage loads that range between simple data display to complex scientific simulation-based modelling and analytics. The methodology uses to topical analysis and simulation-optimization to systematically analyze the policy and management realities of resource systems and explicitly connect the social and problem contexts with science-based and engineering knowledge from models. A case example demonstrates use in a complex groundwater resources management study highlighting multi-criteria spatial decision making and uncertainty comparisons.
Full Text Available Hallucinatory experiences are by far not limited to patients with clinical psychosis. A number of internal and external factors may bring about such experiences in healthy individuals, whereby the personality trait of (positive schizotypy is a major mediator of individual differences. Psychotic experiences are defined as associating abnormal meaning to real but objectively irrelevant perceptions. Especially the ambiguity of a stimulus correlates positively with the likelihood of abnormal interpretation, and intelligence is believed to have an important influence and act as protective against clinical psychosis in highly schizotypic individuals.In this study we presented 131 healthy participants with 216 15-letter strings containing either a word, a non-word or only random letters and asked them to report, whether or not they believed to have seen a word. The aim was to replicate findings that participants with high values in positive schizotypy on the trait-level make more false-positive errors and assess the role of stimulus-ambiguity and verbal intelligence. Additionally, we wanted to examine whether the same effect could be shown for indices of state schizotypy.Our results support findings that both state and trait positive schizotypy explain significant variance in seeing things that are not there and that the properties of individual stimuli have additional strong effects on the false-positive hit rates. Finally, we found that verbal intelligence and positive schizotypy interact with stimulus-ambiguity in the production of false-positive perceptions.
Grant, Phillip; Balser, Mona; Munk, Aisha Judith Leila; Linder, Jens; Hennig, Juergen
Hallucinatory experiences are by far not limited to patients with clinical psychosis. A number of internal and external factors may bring about such experiences in healthy individuals, whereby the personality trait of (positive) schizotypy is a major mediator of individual differences. Psychotic experiences are defined as associating abnormal meaning to real but objectively irrelevant perceptions. Especially, the ambiguity of a stimulus correlates positively with the likelihood of abnormal interpretation, and intelligence is believed to have an important influence and act as protective against clinical psychosis in highly schizotypic individuals. In this study, we presented 131 healthy participants with 216 15-letter strings containing either a word, a non-word, or only random letters and asked them to report, whether or not they believed to have seen a word. The aim was to replicate findings that participants with high values in positive schizotypy on the trait-level make more false-positive errors and assess the role of stimulus-ambiguity and verbal intelligence. Additionally, we wanted to examine whether the same effect could be shown for indices of state schizotypy. Our results support findings that both state and trait positive schizotypy explain significant variance in "seeing things that are not there" and that the properties of individual stimuli have additional strong effects on the false-positive hit rates. Finally, we found that verbal intelligence and positive schizotypy interact with stimulus-ambiguity in the production of false-positive perceptions.
Full Text Available Looking at learning procedure in general and language learning in particular, variations abound in learning processes and styles. Along this journey, some learners travel/move ahead smoothly and some others are faced with challenges of different sorts. Among the significant factors contributing to more effective and efficient language learning output, motivation, attitude, and personality traits play major roles. However, the role played by the intelligence seems to be critical in any language learning tasks and activities. Emotional Intelligence, which is believed to harmonize cognitive and emotional dispositions, seems to be indispensable to the interrelation between the learner’s Multiple Intelligence makeup and respective preferred learning strategies. This can be used to develop materials and teaching tasks to become more or less compatible with the learners’ varying preferences and abilities, thereby promoting their achievements. The findings of the study pertaining to the interrelation of students’ Multiple Intelligence profile and their preferred Language Learning Strategies can be used to plan and categorize language learning and teaching tasks and materials in order to modify them more in accordance with the choice of the students. The educators might use the findings to choose from among various teaching materials to satisfy the needs of their learners with different illiteracies through conducting need analysis prior to choosing any learning and teaching content materials.
Kwon, Oh-Hyun; Muelder, Chris; Lee, Kyungwon; Ma, Kwan-Liu
Information visualization has traditionally limited itself to 2D representations, primarily due to the prevalence of 2D displays and report formats. However, there has been a recent surge in popularity of consumer grade 3D displays and immersive head-mounted displays (HMDs). The ubiquity of such displays enables the possibility of immersive, stereoscopic visualization environments. While techniques that utilize such immersive environments have been explored extensively for spatial and scientific visualizations, contrastingly very little has been explored for information visualization. In this paper, we present our considerations of layout, rendering, and interaction methods for visualizing graphs in an immersive environment. We conducted a user study to evaluate our techniques compared to traditional 2D graph visualization. The results show that participants answered significantly faster with a fewer number of interactions using our techniques, especially for more difficult tasks. While the overall correctness rates are not significantly different, we found that participants gave significantly more correct answers using our techniques for larger graphs.
Liu, Shuai; Chen, Ge; Yao, Shifeng; Tian, Fenglin; Liu, Wei
This paper presents a novel integrated marine visualization framework which focuses on processing, analyzing the multi-dimension spatiotemporal marine data in one workflow. Effective marine data visualization is needed in terms of extracting useful patterns, recognizing changes, and understanding physical processes in oceanography researches. However, the multi-source, multi-format, multi-dimension characteristics of marine data pose a challenge for interactive and feasible (timely) marine data analysis and visualization in one workflow. And, global multi-resolution virtual terrain environment is also needed to give oceanographers and the public a real geographic background reference and to help them to identify the geographical variation of ocean phenomena. This paper introduces a data integration and processing method to efficiently visualize and analyze the heterogeneous marine data. Based on the data we processed, several GPU-based visualization methods are explored to interactively demonstrate marine data. GPU-tessellated global terrain rendering using ETOPO1 data is realized and the video memory usage is controlled to ensure high efficiency. A modified ray-casting algorithm for the uneven multi-section Argo volume data is also presented and the transfer function is designed to analyze the 3D structure of ocean phenomena. Based on the framework we designed, an integrated visualization system is realized. The effectiveness and efficiency of the framework is demonstrated. This system is expected to make a significant contribution to the demonstration and understanding of marine physical process in a virtual global environment.
Confocal microscopy is widely used in neurobiology for studying the three-dimensional structure of the nervous system. Confocal image data are often multi-channel, with each channel resulting from a different fluorescent dye or fluorescent protein; one channel may have dense data, while another has sparse; and there are often structures at several spatial scales: subneuronal domains, neurons, and large groups of neurons (brain regions). Even qualitative analysis can therefore require visualization using techniques and parameters fine-tuned to a particular dataset. Despite the plethora of volume rendering techniques that have been available for many years, the techniques standardly used in neurobiological research are somewhat rudimentary, such as looking at image slices or maximal intensity projections. Thus there is a real demand from neurobiologists, and biologists in general, for a flexible visualization tool that allows interactive visualization of multi-channel confocal data, with rapid fine-tuning of parameters to reveal the three-dimensional relationships of structures of interest. Together with neurobiologists, we have designed such a tool, choosing visualization methods to suit the characteristics of confocal data and a typical biologist\\'s workflow. We use interactive volume rendering with intuitive settings for multidimensional transfer functions, multiple render modes and multi-views for multi-channel volume data, and embedding of polygon data into volume data for rendering and editing. As an example, we apply this tool to visualize confocal microscopy datasets of the developing zebrafish visual system.
Alice M K Wong
Full Text Available The key components of caring for the elderly are diet, living, transportation, education, and safety issues, and telemedical systems can offer great assistance. Through the integration of personal to community information technology platforms, we have developed a new Intelligent Comprehensive Interactive Care (ICIC system to provide comprehensive services for elderly care. The ICIC system consists of six items, including medical care (physiological measuring system, Medication Reminder, and Dr. Ubiquitous, diet, living, transportation, education (Intelligent Watch, entertainment (Sharetouch, and safety (Fall Detection. In this study, we specifically evaluated the users' intention of using the Medication Reminder, Dr. Ubiquitous, Sharetouch, and Intelligent Watch using a modified technological acceptance model (TAM. A total of 121 elderly subjects (48 males and 73 females were recruited. The modified TAM questionnaires were collected after they had used these products. For most of the ICIC units, the elderly subjects revealed great willingness and/or satisfaction in using this system. The elderly users of the Intelligent Watch showed the greatest willingness and satisfaction, while the elderly users of Dr. Ubiquitous revealed fair willingness in the dimension of perceived ease of use. The old-old age group revealed greater satisfaction in the dimension of result demonstrability for the users of the Medication Reminder as compared to the young-old and oldest-old age groups. The women revealed greater satisfaction in the dimension of perceived ease of use for the users of Dr. Ubiquitous as compared to the men. There were no statistically significant differences in terms of gender, age, and education level in the other dimensions. The modified TAM showed its effectiveness in evaluating the acceptance and characteristics of technologic products for the elderly user. The ICIC system offers a user-friendly solution in telemedical care and improves the
Wong, Alice M K; Chang, Wei-Han; Ke, Pei-Chih; Huang, Chun-Kai; Tsai, Tsai-Hsuan; Chang, Hsien-Tsung; Shieh, Wann-Yun; Chan, Hsiao-Lung; Chen, Chih-Kuang; Pei, Yu-Cheng
The key components of caring for the elderly are diet, living, transportation, education, and safety issues, and telemedical systems can offer great assistance. Through the integration of personal to community information technology platforms, we have developed a new Intelligent Comprehensive Interactive Care (ICIC) system to provide comprehensive services for elderly care. The ICIC system consists of six items, including medical care (physiological measuring system, Medication Reminder, and Dr. Ubiquitous), diet, living, transportation, education (Intelligent Watch), entertainment (Sharetouch), and safety (Fall Detection). In this study, we specifically evaluated the users' intention of using the Medication Reminder, Dr. Ubiquitous, Sharetouch, and Intelligent Watch using a modified technological acceptance model (TAM). A total of 121 elderly subjects (48 males and 73 females) were recruited. The modified TAM questionnaires were collected after they had used these products. For most of the ICIC units, the elderly subjects revealed great willingness and/or satisfaction in using this system. The elderly users of the Intelligent Watch showed the greatest willingness and satisfaction, while the elderly users of Dr. Ubiquitous revealed fair willingness in the dimension of perceived ease of use. The old-old age group revealed greater satisfaction in the dimension of result demonstrability for the users of the Medication Reminder as compared to the young-old and oldest-old age groups. The women revealed greater satisfaction in the dimension of perceived ease of use for the users of Dr. Ubiquitous as compared to the men. There were no statistically significant differences in terms of gender, age, and education level in the other dimensions. The modified TAM showed its effectiveness in evaluating the acceptance and characteristics of technologic products for the elderly user. The ICIC system offers a user-friendly solution in telemedical care and improves the quality of
The use of GPUs and the massively parallel computing paradigm have become wide-spread. We describe a framework for the interactive visualization and visual analysis of the run-time behavior of massively parallel programs, especially OpenCL kernels. This facilitates understanding a program\\'s function and structure, finding the causes of possible slowdowns, locating program bugs, and interactively exploring and visually comparing different code variants in order to improve performance and correctness. Our approach enables very specific, user-centered analysis, both in terms of the recording of the run-time behavior and the visualization itself. Instead of having to manually write instrumented code to record data, simple code annotations tell the source-to-source compiler which code instrumentation to generate automatically. The visualization part of our framework then enables the interactive analysis of kernel run-time behavior in a way that can be very specific to a particular problem or optimization goal, such as analyzing the causes of memory bank conflicts or understanding an entire parallel algorithm.
Full Text Available Making sense of complex objects is difficult, and typically requires the use of external representations to support cognitive demands while reasoning about the objects. Visualizations are one type of external representation that can be used to support sensemaking activities. In this paper, we investigate the role of two design strategies in making the interactive features of visualizations more supportive of users’ exploratory needs when trying to make sense of complex objects. These two strategies are visibility and complementarity of interactions. We employ a theoretical framework concerned with human–information interaction and complex cognitive activities to inform, contextualize, and interpret the effects of the design strategies. The two strategies are incorporated in the design of Polyvise, a visualization tool that supports making sense of complex four-dimensional geometric objects. A mixed-methods study was conducted to evaluate the design strategies and the overall usability of Polyvise. We report the findings of the study, discuss some implications for the design of visualization tools that support sensemaking of complex objects, and propose five design guidelines. We anticipate that our results are transferrable to other contexts, and that these two design strategies can be used broadly in visualization tools intended to support activities with complex objects and information spaces.
Klein, Tobias; Bruckner, Stefan; Grö ller, M. Eduard; Hadwiger, Markus; Rautek, Peter
The use of GPUs and the massively parallel computing paradigm have become wide-spread. We describe a framework for the interactive visualization and visual analysis of the run-time behavior of massively parallel programs, especially OpenCL kernels. This facilitates understanding a program's function and structure, finding the causes of possible slowdowns, locating program bugs, and interactively exploring and visually comparing different code variants in order to improve performance and correctness. Our approach enables very specific, user-centered analysis, both in terms of the recording of the run-time behavior and the visualization itself. Instead of having to manually write instrumented code to record data, simple code annotations tell the source-to-source compiler which code instrumentation to generate automatically. The visualization part of our framework then enables the interactive analysis of kernel run-time behavior in a way that can be very specific to a particular problem or optimization goal, such as analyzing the causes of memory bank conflicts or understanding an entire parallel algorithm.
Background Though cluster analysis has become a routine analytic task for bioinformatics research, it is still arduous for researchers to assess the quality of a clustering result. To select the best clustering method and its parameters for a dataset, researchers have to run multiple clustering algorithms and compare them. However, such a comparison task with multiple clustering results is cognitively demanding and laborious. Results In this paper, we present XCluSim, a visual analytics tool that enables users to interactively compare multiple clustering results based on the Visual Information Seeking Mantra. We build a taxonomy for categorizing existing techniques of clustering results visualization in terms of the Gestalt principles of grouping. Using the taxonomy, we choose the most appropriate interactive visualizations for presenting individual clustering results from different types of clustering algorithms. The efficacy of XCluSim is shown through case studies with a bioinformatician. Conclusions Compared to other relevant tools, XCluSim enables users to compare multiple clustering results in a more scalable manner. Moreover, XCluSim supports diverse clustering algorithms and dedicated visualizations and interactions for different types of clustering results, allowing more effective exploration of details on demand. Through case studies with a bioinformatics researcher, we received positive feedback on the functionalities of XCluSim, including its ability to help identify stably clustered items across multiple clustering results. PMID:26328893
Lino , Christophe; Christie , Marc; Ranon , Roberto; Bares , William
International audience; We present the Director's Lens, an intelligent interactive assistant for crafting virtual cinematography using a motion-tracked hand-held device that can be aimed like a real camera. The system employs an intelligent cinematography engine that can compute, at the request of the fi lmmaker, a set of suitable camera placements for starting a shot. These suggestions represent semantically and cinematically distinct choices for visualizing the current narrative. In computi...
Ryoo, Young; Jang, Moon-soo; Bae, Young-Chul
Intelligent systems have been initiated with the attempt to imitate the human brain. People wish to let machines perform intelligent works. Many techniques of intelligent systems are based on artificial intelligence. According to changing and novel requirements, the advanced intelligent systems cover a wide spectrum: big data processing, intelligent control, advanced robotics, artificial intelligence and machine learning. This book focuses on coordinating intelligent systems with highly integrated and foundationally functional components. The book consists of 19 contributions that features social network-based recommender systems, application of fuzzy enforcement, energy visualization, ultrasonic muscular thickness measurement, regional analysis and predictive modeling, analysis of 3D polygon data, blood pressure estimation system, fuzzy human model, fuzzy ultrasonic imaging method, ultrasonic mobile smart technology, pseudo-normal image synthesis, subspace classifier, mobile object tracking, standing-up moti...
Full Text Available This paper investigates the extent to which a mobile data source can be utilised to generate new information intelligence for decision-making in smart city planning processes. In this regard, the Mobility Explorer framework is introduced and applied to the City of Vienna (Austria by using anonymised mobile phone data from a mobile phone service provider. This framework identifies five necessary elements that are needed to develop complex planning applications. As part of the investigation and experiments a new dynamic software tool, called Mobility Explorer, has been designed and developed based on the requirements of the planning department of the City of Vienna. As a result, the Mobility Explorer enables city stakeholders to interactively visualise the dynamic diurnal population distribution, mobility patterns and various other complex outputs for planning needs. Based on the experiences during the development phase, this paper discusses mobile data issues, presents the visual interface, performs various user-defined analyses, demonstrates the application’s usefulness and critically reflects on the evaluation results of the citizens’ motion exploration that reveal the great potential of mobile phone data in smart city planning but also depict its limitations. These experiences and lessons learned from the Mobility Explorer application development provide useful insights for other cities and planners who want to make informed decisions using mobile phone data in their city planning processes through dynamic visualisation of Call Data Record (CDR data.
Lee, S W; Jeong, B S; Choi, J; Kim, J-W
Men tend to have greater positive responses than women to explicit visual erotic stimuli (EVES). However, it remains unclear, which brain network makes men more sensitive to EVES and which factors contribute to the brain network activity. In this study, we aimed to assess the effect of sex difference on brain connectivity patterns by EVES. We also investigated the association of testosterone with brain connection that showed the effects of sex difference. During functional magnetic resonance imaging scans, 14 males and 14 females were asked to see alternating blocks of pictures that were either erotic or non-erotic. Psychophysiological interaction analysis was performed to investigate the functional connectivity of the nucleus accumbens (NA) as it related to EVES. Men showed significantly greater EVES-specific functional connection between the right NA and the right lateral occipital cortex (LOC). In addition, the right NA and the right LOC network activity was positively correlated with the plasma testosterone level in men. Our results suggest that the reason men are sensitive to EVES is the increased interaction in the visual reward networks, which is modulated by their plasma testosterone level.
Full Text Available The temporal congruence between auditory and visual signals coming from the same source can be a powerful means by which the brain integrates information from different senses. To investigate how the brain uses temporal information to integrate auditory and visual information from continuous yet unfamiliar stimuli, we use amplitude-modulated tones and size-modulated shapes with which we could manipulate the temporal congruence between the sensory signals. These signals were independently modulated at a slow or a fast rate. Participants were presented with auditory-only, visual-only or auditory-visual (AV trials in the scanner. On AV trials, the auditory and visual signal could have the same (AV congruent or different modulation rates (AV incongruent. Using psychophysiological interaction analyses, we found that auditory regions showed increased functional connectivity predominantly with frontal regions for AV incongruent relative to AV congruent stimuli. We further found that superior temporal regions, shown previously to integrate auditory and visual signals, showed increased connectivity with frontal and parietal regions for the same contrast. Our findings provide evidence that both activity in a network of brain regions and their connectivity are important for auditory-visual integration, and help to bridge the gap between transient and familiar AV stimuli used in previous studies.
Subramani, Suresh; Kalpana, Raja; Monickaraj, Pankaj Moses; Natarajan, Jeyakumar
The knowledge on protein-protein interactions (PPI) and their related pathways are equally important to understand the biological functions of the living cell. Such information on human proteins is highly desirable to understand the mechanism of several diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and Alzheimer's disease. Because much of that information is buried in biomedical literature, an automated text mining system for visualizing human PPI and pathways is highly desirable. In this paper, we present HPIminer, a text mining system for visualizing human protein interactions and pathways from biomedical literature. HPIminer extracts human PPI information and PPI pairs from biomedical literature, and visualize their associated interactions, networks and pathways using two curated databases HPRD and KEGG. To our knowledge, HPIminer is the first system to build interaction networks from literature as well as curated databases. Further, the new interactions mined only from literature and not reported earlier in databases are highlighted as new. A comparative study with other similar tools shows that the resultant network is more informative and provides additional information on interacting proteins and their associated networks. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The aim of this study is to assess the effects that teaching visually impaired (VI) preschool children play skills has on their abilities to initialize and respond to social interactions with their typically developing (TD) peers in a reverse mainstreaming preschool class. The subjects of the study were three female VI students regularly attending…
Yengin, Ilker; Lazarevic, Bojan
This paper proposes and explains the design of a prototype learning tool named the DiaCog. The DiaCog visualizes dialog interactions within an online dialog game by using dynamically created cognitive maps. As a purposefully designed tool for enhancing learning effectiveness the DiaCog might be applicable to dialogs at discussion boards within a…
Jensen, Mads Møller; Grønbæk, Kaj; Thomassen, Nikolaj
. However, most of these tools are created with a single goal, either to measure or train, and are often used and tested in very controlled settings. In this paper, we present an interactive football-training platform, called Football Lab, featuring sensor- mounted rebounders as well as audio-visual...
Punzo, D.; van der Hulst, J. M.; Roerdink, J. B. T. M.; Fillion-Robin, J. C.; Yu, L.
SKA precursors are capable of detecting hundreds of galaxies in HI in a single 12 h pointing. In deeper surveys one will probe more easily faint HI structures, typically located in the vicinity of galaxies, such as tails, filaments, and extraplanar gas. The importance of interactive visualization in
Budd, Julia M.; LaGrow, Steven J.
A study investigated the efficacy of using the Buddy Road Kit, an interactive, wooden model, to teach environmental concepts to 4 children with visual impairments ages 7 to 11 years old. Results indicate the model was effective in teaching environmental concepts and traffic safety to the children involved. (Contains references.) (CR)
Horn, Michael S.; Phillips, Brenda C.; Evans, Evelyn Margaret; Block, Florian; Diamond, Judy; Shen, Chia
In this study, we investigate museum visitor learning and engagement at an interactive visualization of an evolutionary tree of life consisting of over 70,000 species. The study was conducted at two natural history museums where visitors collaboratively explored the tree of life using direct touch gestures on a multi-touch tabletop display. In the…
Khalil, M.K.; Paas, Fred; Johnson, T.E.; Payer, A.F.
With the increasing use of computers in the classroom and the advancement of information technology, a requirement to investigate and evaluate different strategies for the presentation of verbal information in interactive and dynamic visualizations has risen to a high level of importance. There is a
Datta, Shoumen Palit Austin
The elusive quest for intelligence in artificial intelligence prompts us to consider that instituting human-level intelligence in systems may be (still) in the realm of utopia. In about a quarter century, we have witnessed the winter of AI (1990) being transformed and transported to the zenith of tabloid fodder about AI (2015). The discussion at hand is about the elements that constitute the canonical idea of intelligence. The delivery of intelligence as a pay-per-use-service, popping out of ...
DeBlasio, Stacy L; Chavez, Juan D; Alexander, Mariko M; Ramsey, John; Eng, Jimmy K; Mahoney, Jaclyn; Gray, Stewart M; Bruce, James E; Cilia, Michelle
Demonstrating direct interactions between host and virus proteins during infection is a major goal and challenge for the field of virology. Most protein interactions are not binary or easily amenable to structural determination. Using infectious preparations of a polerovirus (Potato leafroll virus [PLRV]) and protein interaction reporter (PIR), a revolutionary technology that couples a mass spectrometric-cleavable chemical cross-linker with high-resolution mass spectrometry, we provide the first report of a host-pathogen protein interaction network that includes data-derived, topological features for every cross-linked site that was identified. We show that PLRV virions have hot spots of protein interaction and multifunctional surface topologies, revealing how these plant viruses maximize their use of binding interfaces. Modeling data, guided by cross-linking constraints, suggest asymmetric packing of the major capsid protein in the virion, which supports previous epitope mapping studies. Protein interaction topologies are conserved with other species in the Luteoviridae and with unrelated viruses in the Herpesviridae and Adenoviridae. Functional analysis of three PLRV-interacting host proteins in planta using a reverse-genetics approach revealed a complex, molecular tug-of-war between host and virus. Structural mimicry and diversifying selection-hallmarks of host-pathogen interactions-were identified within host and viral binding interfaces predicted by our models. These results illuminate the functional diversity of the PLRV-host protein interaction network and demonstrate the usefulness of PIR technology for precision mapping of functional host-pathogen protein interaction topologies. The exterior shape of a plant virus and its interacting host and insect vector proteins determine whether a virus will be transmitted by an insect or infect a specific host. Gaining this information is difficult and requires years of experimentation. We used protein interaction
Bottoni, Paolo; Cinque, Luigi; De Marsico, Maria; Levialdi, Stefano; Panizzi, Emanuele
This paper reports on the research activities performed by the Pictorial Computing Laboratory at the University of Rome, La Sapienza, during the last 5 years. Such work, essentially is based on the study of humancomputer interaction, spans from metamodels of interaction down to prototypes of interactive systems for both synchronous multimedia communication and groupwork, annotation systems for web pages, also encompassing theoretical and practical issues of visual languages and environments also including pattern recognition algorithms. Some applications are also considered like e-learning and collaborative work.
Probst, Daniel; Reymond, Jean-Louis
During the past decade, big data have become a major tool in scientific endeavors. Although statistical methods and algorithms are well-suited for analyzing and summarizing enormous amounts of data, the results do not allow for a visual inspection of the entire data. Current scientific software, including R packages and Python libraries such as ggplot2, matplotlib and plot.ly, do not support interactive visualizations of datasets exceeding 100 000 data points on the web. Other solutions enable the web-based visualization of big data only through data reduction or statistical representations. However, recent hardware developments, especially advancements in graphical processing units, allow for the rendering of millions of data points on a wide range of consumer hardware such as laptops, tablets and mobile phones. Similar to the challenges and opportunities brought to virtually every scientific field by big data, both the visualization of and interaction with copious amounts of data are both demanding and hold great promise. Here we present FUn, a framework consisting of a client (Faerun) and server (Underdark) module, facilitating the creation of web-based, interactive 3D visualizations of large datasets, enabling record level visual inspection. We also introduce a reference implementation providing access to SureChEMBL, a database containing patent information on more than 17 million chemical compounds. The source code and the most recent builds of Faerun and Underdark, Lore.js and the data preprocessing toolchain used in the reference implementation, are available on the project website (http://doc.gdb.tools/fun/). firstname.lastname@example.org or email@example.com.
Lai, Xin Jie; Alexander, Jack; He, Mingguang; Yang, Zhikuan; Suttle, Catherine
In uncorrected anisometropia, protracted dichoptic stimulation may result in interocular inhibition, which may be a contributing factor in amblyopia development. This study investigates the relationship between interocular interactions and anisometropic amblyopia. Three visual functions (low-contrast acuity, contrast sensitivity, and alignment sensitivity) were measured in the nondominant eye of 44 children aged 5 to 11 years: 10 with normal vision, 17 with anisometropia without amblyopia, and 17 with anisometropic amblyopia. The dominant eye was either fully or partially occluded. The difference in nondominant eye visual function between the full-and partial-occlusion conditions was termed the interaction index. The index of each visual function was compared between subject groups. A higher index indicates stronger inhibition of nondominant eye function with partial occlusion of the dominant eye. Amblyopic children had 6 months of therapy (refractive correction and occlusion), and the reduction in interocular difference in high-contrast acuity was regarded as the treatment outcome. The relationships of the interaction index with the degree of anisometropia, the severity of amblyopia, and the treatment outcomes were examined. The acuity interaction index was significantly higher in anisometropic children with amblyopia than in those without (P = 0.003). It was positively correlated with the degree of anisometropia (r(s) = 0.35, P = 0.042) and the amblyopic treatment outcomes (r(s) = 0.54, P = 0.038). No such difference or association was found between the contrast sensitivity or alignment sensitivity interaction index and anisometropic amblyopia. Interocular interactions are associated with amblyopia, the degree of anisometropia, and amblyopia treatment outcomes, but these associations are visual function dependent.
Elizabeth Anggraeni Amalo
Full Text Available The teaching of English-expressions has always been done through conversation samples in form of written texts, audio recordings, and videos. In the meantime, the development of computer-aided learning technology has made autonomous language learning possible. Game, as one of computer-aided learning technology products, can serve as a medium to provide educational contents like that of language teaching and learning. Visual Novel is considered as a conversational game that is suitable to be combined with English-expressions material. Unlike the other click-based interaction Visual Novel Games, the visual novel game in this research implements speech recognition as the interaction trigger. Hence, this paper aims at elaborating how visual novel games are utilized to deliver English-expressions with speech recognition command for the interaction. This research used Research and Development (R&D method with Experimental design through control and experimental groups to measure its effectiveness in enhancing students’ English-expressions mastery. ANOVA was utilized to prove the significant differences between the control and experimental groups. It is expected that the result of this development and experiment can devote benefits to the English teaching and learning, especially on English-expressions.
Full Text Available Interactive 3D visualizations of spatial data are currently available and popular through various applications such as Google Earth, ArcScene, etc. Several scientific studies have focused on user performance with 3D visualization, but static perspective views are used as stimuli in most of the studies. The main objective of this paper is to try to identify potential differences in user performance with static perspective views and interactive visualizations. This research is an exploratory study. An experiment was designed as a between-subject study and a customized testing tool based on open web technologies was used for the experiment. The testing set consists of an initial questionnaire, a training task and four experimental tasks. Selection of the highest point and determination of visibility from the top of a mountain were used as the experimental tasks. Speed and accuracy of each task performance of participants were recorded. The movement and actions in the virtual environment were also recorded within the interactive variant. The results show that participants deal with the tasks faster when using static visualization. The average error rate was also higher in the static variant. The findings from this pilot study will be used for further testing, especially for formulating of hypotheses and designing of subsequent experiments.
Laing, Mark; Rees, Adrian; Vuong, Quoc C
The temporal congruence between auditory and visual signals coming from the same source can be a powerful means by which the brain integrates information from different senses. To investigate how the brain uses temporal information to integrate auditory and visual information from continuous yet unfamiliar stimuli, we used amplitude-modulated tones and size-modulated shapes with which we could manipulate the temporal congruence between the sensory signals. These signals were independently modulated at a slow or a fast rate. Participants were presented with auditory-only, visual-only, or auditory-visual (AV) trials in the fMRI scanner. On AV trials, the auditory and visual signal could have the same (AV congruent) or different modulation rates (AV incongruent). Using psychophysiological interaction analyses, we found that auditory regions showed increased functional connectivity predominantly with frontal regions for AV incongruent relative to AV congruent stimuli. We further found that superior temporal regions, shown previously to integrate auditory and visual signals, showed increased connectivity with frontal and parietal regions for the same contrast. Our findings provide evidence that both activity in a network of brain regions and their connectivity are important for AV integration, and help to bridge the gap between transient and familiar AV stimuli used in previous studies.
Huber, Timothy C; Krishnaraj, Arun; Monaghan, Dayna; Gaskin, Cree M
Due to mandates from recent legislation, clinical decision support (CDS) software is being adopted by radiology practices across the country. This software provides imaging study decision support for referring providers at the point of order entry. CDS systems produce a large volume of data, providing opportunities for research and quality improvement. In order to better visualize and analyze trends in this data, an interactive data visualization dashboard was created using a commercially available data visualization platform. Following the integration of a commercially available clinical decision support product into the electronic health record, a dashboard was created using a commercially available data visualization platform (Tableau, Seattle, WA). Data generated by the CDS were exported from the data warehouse, where they were stored, into the platform. This allowed for real-time visualization of the data generated by the decision support software. The creation of the dashboard allowed the output from the CDS platform to be more easily analyzed and facilitated hypothesis generation. Integrating data visualization tools into clinical decision support tools allows for easier data analysis and can streamline research and quality improvement efforts.
Michael T Lippert
Full Text Available Perception greatly benefits from integrating multiple sensory cues into a unified percept. To study the neural mechanisms of sensory integration, model systems are required that allow the simultaneous assessment of activity and the use of techniques to affect individual neural processes in behaving animals. While rodents qualify for these requirements, little is known about multisensory integration and areas involved for this purpose in the rodent. Using optical imaging combined with laminar electrophysiological recordings, the rat parietal cortex was identified as an area where visual and somatosensory inputs converge and interact. Our results reveal similar response patterns to visual and somatosensory stimuli at the level of current source density (CSD responses and multi-unit responses within a strip in parietal cortex. Surprisingly, a selective asymmetry was observed in multisensory interactions: when the somatosensory response preceded the visual response, supra-linear summation of CSD was observed, but the reverse stimulus order resulted in sub-linear effects in the CSD. This asymmetry was not present in multi-unit activity however, which showed consistently sub-linear interactions. These interactions were restricted to a specific temporal window, and pharmacological tests revealed significant local intra-cortical contributions to this phenomenon. Our results highlight the rodent parietal cortex as a system to model the neural underpinnings of multisensory processing in behaving animals and at the cellular level.
Rissman, Jesse; Gazzaley, Adam; D'Esposito, Mark
The maintenance of visual stimuli across a delay interval in working memory tasks is thought to involve reverberant neural communication between the prefrontal cortex and posterior visual association areas. Recent studies suggest that the hippocampus might also contribute to this retention process, presumably via reciprocal interactions with visual regions. To characterize the nature of these interactions, we performed functional connectivity analysis on an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging data set in which participants performed a delayed face recognition task. As the number of faces that participants were required to remember was parametrically increased, the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) showed a linearly decreasing degree of functional connectivity with the fusiform face area (FFA) during the delay period. In contrast, the hippocampus linearly increased its delay period connectivity with both the FFA and the IFG as the mnemonic load increased. Moreover, the degree to which participants' FFA showed a load-dependent increase in its connectivity with the hippocampus predicted the degree to which its connectivity with the IFG decreased with load. Thus, these neural circuits may dynamically trade off to accommodate the particular mnemonic demands of the task, with IFG-FFA interactions mediating maintenance at lower loads and hippocampal interactions supporting retention at higher loads.
Scheurer, Maximilian; Rodenkirch, Peter; Siggel, Marc; Bernardi, Rafael C; Schulten, Klaus; Tajkhorshid, Emad; Rudack, Till
Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations have become ubiquitous in all areas of life sciences. The size and model complexity of MD simulations are rapidly growing along with increasing computing power and improved algorithms. This growth has led to the production of a large amount of simulation data that need to be filtered for relevant information to address specific biomedical and biochemical questions. One of the most relevant molecular properties that can be investigated by all-atom MD simulations is the time-dependent evolution of the complex noncovalent interaction networks governing such fundamental aspects as molecular recognition, binding strength, and mechanical and structural stability. Extracting, evaluating, and visualizing noncovalent interactions is a key task in the daily work of structural biologists. We have developed PyContact, an easy-to-use, highly flexible, and intuitive graphical user interface-based application, designed to provide a toolkit to investigate biomolecular interactions in MD trajectories. PyContact is designed to facilitate this task by enabling identification of relevant noncovalent interactions in a comprehensible manner. The implementation of PyContact as a standalone application enables rapid analysis and data visualization without any additional programming requirements, and also preserves full in-program customization and extension capabilities for advanced users. The statistical analysis representation is interactively combined with full mapping of the results on the molecular system through the synergistic connection between PyContact and VMD. We showcase the capabilities and scientific significance of PyContact by analyzing and visualizing in great detail the noncovalent interactions underlying the ion permeation pathway of the human P2X 3 receptor. As a second application, we examine the protein-protein interaction network of the mechanically ultrastable cohesin-dockering complex. Copyright © 2017 Biophysical Society
Dallago, Christian; Goldberg, Tatyana; Andrade-Navarro, Miguel Angel; Alanis-Lobato, Gregorio; Rost, Burkhard
Describes the investigation of the effects of a four-step model program used with third through fifth grade students to implement Gardener's concepts of seven human intelligences--linguistic, logical/mathematical, visual/spatial, musical, kinesthetic, intrapersonal, and interpersonal intelligence--into daily learning. (BB)
Herzinger, Sascha; Gu, Wei; Satagopam, Venkata; Eifes, Serge; Rege, Kavita; Barbosa-Silva, Adriano; Schneider, Reinhard
In translational research, efficient knowledge exchange between the different fields of expertise is crucial. An open platform that is capable of storing a multitude of data types such as clinical, pre-clinical or OMICS data combined with strong visual analytical capabilities will significantly accelerate the scientific progress by making data more accessible and hypothesis generation easier. The open data warehouse tranSMART is capable of storing a variety of data types and has a growing user community including both academic institutions and pharmaceutical companies. tranSMART, however, currently lacks interactive and dynamic visual analytics and does not permit any post-processing interaction or exploration. For this reason, we developed SmartR , a plugin for tranSMART, that equips the platform not only with several dynamic visual analytical workflows, but also provides its own framework for the addition of new custom workflows. Modern web technologies such as D3.js or AngularJS were used to build a set of standard visualizations that were heavily improved with dynamic elements. The source code is licensed under the Apache 2.0 License and is freely available on GitHub: https://github.com/transmart/SmartR . firstname.lastname@example.org. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.
Williams, G.; Durham, L.
Custom visualization analysis programs were developed and used to analyze contaminant transport calculations from a three-dimensional numerical groundwater flow model developed for a Department of Energy Superfund site. The site hydrogeology, which is highly heterogenous, includes both fractured limestone and dolomite and alluvium deposits. Three-dimensional interactive visualization techniques were used to understand and analyze the three-dimensional, double-porosity modeling results. A graphical object oriented programming environment was applied to efficiently develop custom visualization programs in a coarse-grained data structure language. Comparisons were made, using the results from the three-dimensional, finite-difference model, between traditional two-dimensional analyses (contour and vector plots) and interactive three-dimensional techniques. Subjective comparison areas include the accuracy of analysis, the ability to understand the results of three-dimensional contaminant transport simulation, and the capability to transmit the results of the analysis to the project management. In addition, a quantitative comparison was made on the time required to develop a thorough analysis of the modeling results. The conclusions from the comparative study showed that the visualization analysis provided an increased awareness of the contaminant transport mechanisms, provided new insights into contaminant migration, and resulted in a significant time savings
Zhang, Li-Zhen; Zhang, Shao-Wu; Wang, Zi-Long; Yan, Wei-Yu; Zeng, Zhi-Jiang
The power of the small honeybee brain carrying out behavioral and cognitive tasks has been shown repeatedly to be highly impressive. The present study investigates, for the first time, the cross-modal interaction between visual and olfactory learning in Apis cerana. To explore the role and molecular mechanisms of cross-modal learning in A. cerana, the honeybees were trained and tested in a modified Y-maze with seven visual and five olfactory stimulus, where a robust visual threshold for black/white grating (period of 2.8°-3.8°) and relatively olfactory threshold (concentration of 50-25%) was obtained. Meanwhile, the expression levels of five genes (AcCREB, Acdop1, Acdop2, Acdop3, Actyr1) related to learning and memory were analyzed under different training conditions by real-time RT-PCR. The experimental results indicate that A. cerana could exhibit cross-modal interactions between visual and olfactory learning by reducing the threshold level of the conditioning stimuli, and that these genes may play important roles in the learning process of honeybees.
Williams, G. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); Durham, L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)
Custom visualization analysis programs were developed and used to analyze contaminant transport calculations from a three-dimensional numerical groundwater flow model developed for a Department of Energy Superfund site. The site hydrogeology, which is highly heterogenous, includes both fractured limestone and dolomite and alluvium deposits. Three-dimensional interactive visualization techniques were used to understand and analyze the three-dimensional, double-porosity modeling results. A graphical object oriented programming environment was applied to efficiently develop custom visualization programs in a coarse-grained data structure language. Comparisons were made, using the results from the three-dimensional, finite-difference model, between traditional two-dimensional analyses (contour and vector plots) and interactive three-dimensional techniques. Subjective comparison areas include the accuracy of analysis, the ability to understand the results of three-dimensional contaminant transport simulation, and the capability to transmit the results of the analysis to the project management. In addition, a quantitative comparison was made on the time required to develop a thorough analysis of the modeling results. The conclusions from the comparative study showed that the visualization analysis provided an increased awareness of the contaminant transport mechanisms, provided new insights into contaminant migration, and resulted in a significant time savings.
Full Text Available Multispectral and hyperspectral images are well established in various fields of application like remote sensing, astronomy, and microscopic spectroscopy. In recent years, the availability of new sensor designs, more powerful processors, and high-capacity storage further opened this imaging modality to a wider array of applications like medical diagnosis, agriculture, and cultural heritage. This necessitates new tools that allow general analysis of the image data and are intuitive to users who are new to hyperspectral imaging. We introduce a novel framework that bundles new interactive visualization techniques with powerful algorithms and is accessible through an efficient and intuitive graphical user interface. We visualize the spectral distribution of an image via parallel coordinates with a strong link to traditional visualization techniques, enabling new paradigms in hyperspectral image analysis that focus on interactive raw data exploration. We combine novel methods for supervised segmentation, global clustering, and nonlinear false-color coding to assist in the visual inspection. Our framework coined Gerbil is open source and highly modular, building on established methods and being easily extensible for application-specific needs. It satisfies the need for a general, consistent software framework that tightly integrates analysis algorithms with an intuitive, modern interface to the raw image data and algorithmic results. Gerbil finds its worldwide use in academia and industry alike with several thousand downloads originating from 45 countries.
Full Text Available To develop and disseminate tools for interactive visualization of HIV cohort data.If a picture is worth a thousand words, then an interactive video, composed of a long string of pictures, can produce an even richer presentation of HIV population dynamics. We developed an HIV cohort data visualization tool using open-source software (R statistical language. The tool requires that the data structure conform to the HIV Cohort Data Exchange Protocol (HICDEP, and our implementation utilized Caribbean, Central and South America network (CCASAnet data.This tool currently presents patient-level data in three classes of plots: (1 Longitudinal plots showing changes in measurements viewed alongside event probability curves allowing for simultaneous inspection of outcomes by relevant patient classes. (2 Bubble plots showing changes in indicators over time allowing for observation of group level dynamics. (3 Heat maps of levels of indicators changing over time allowing for observation of spatial-temporal dynamics. Examples of each class of plot are given using CCASAnet data investigating trends in CD4 count and AIDS at antiretroviral therapy (ART initiation, CD4 trajectories after ART initiation, and mortality.We invite researchers interested in this data visualization effort to use these tools and to suggest new classes of data visualization. We aim to contribute additional shareable tools in the spirit of open scientific collaboration and hope that these tools further the participation in open data standards like HICDEP by the HIV research community.
Thibodeau, Asa; Márquez, Eladio J; Luo, Oscar; Ruan, Yijun; Menghi, Francesca; Shin, Dong-Guk; Stitzel, Michael L; Vera-Licona, Paola; Ucar, Duygu
Müller, Thomas; Frauendiener, Jörg
In a first course in general relativity, the Schwarzschild spacetime is the most discussed analytic solution to Einstein's field equations. Unfortunately, there is rarely enough time to study the optical consequences of the bending of light for some advanced examples. In this paper, we present how the visual appearance of a thin disc around a Schwarzschild black hole can be determined interactively by means of an analytic solution to the geodesic equation processed on current high-performance graphical processing units. This approach can, in principle, be customized for any other thin disc in a spacetime with geodesics given in closed form. The interactive visualization discussed here can be used either in a first course in general relativity for demonstration purposes only or as a thesis for an enthusiastic student in an advanced course with some basic knowledge of OpenGL and a programming language. (paper)
Full Text Available With the development of cities and the explosion of information, vast amounts of geo-tagged textural data about Points of Interests (POIs have been generated. Extracting useful information and discovering text spatial distributions from the data are challenging and meaningful. Also, the huge numbers of POIs in modern cities make it important to have efficient approaches to retrieve and choose a destination. This paper provides a visual design combing metro map and wordles to meet the needs. In this visualization, metro lines serve as the divider lines splitting the city into several subareas and the boundaries to constrain wordles within each subarea. The wordles are generated from keywords extracted from the text about POIs (including reviews, descriptions, etc. and embedded into the subareas based on their geographical locations. By generating intuitive results and providing an interactive visualization to support exploring text distribution patterns, our strategy can guide the users to explore urban spatial characteristics and retrieve a location efficiently. Finally, we implement a visual analysis of the restaurants data in Shanghai, China as a case study to evaluate our strategy. Keywords: Text visualization, Location retrieval, Urban data, Metro map, Word cloud
Kravtsov A. A.
The author performed a research with the purpose of improving visualization of three-dimensional objects by means of augmented reality technology with the use of massively available mobile devices as a platform. This article summarizes the main results and provides suggestions for future research. Since graphical user interfaces made it to the consumer market about 30 years ago, interaction with the computer has not changed significantly. The focus of current user interface techniques is only...
Interactive Virtual Hair Salon , Presence, (05 2007): 237. doi: 2012/04/17 12:55:26 31 Theodore Kim, Jason Sewall, Avneesh Sud, Ming Lin. Fast...in Games , Utrecht, Netherlands, Nov. 2009. Keynote Speaker, IADIS International Conference on Computer Graphics and Visualization, Portugal, June 2009...Keynote Speaker, ACM Symposium on Virtual Reality Software and Technology, Bordeaux, France, October 2008. Invited Speaker, Motion in Games , Utrecht
to (1) extend our interactive visual analytic framework which combines multiple clinical measurements to allow it to be used to explore large...18. NUMBER OF PAGES 16 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON a. REPORT b. ABSTRACT c. THIS PAGE 19b. TELEPHONE NUMBER (include area code) jmolstre...stress disorder (PTSD) and complex comorbid conditions. See attached paper for more information about VISXplore. Figure 1: Screenshot of our VisXplore
Törnqvist, Heini; Somppi, Sanni; Koskela, Aija; Krause, Christina M.; Vainio, Outi; Kujala, Miiamaaria V.
Previous studies have demonstrated similarities in gazing behaviour of dogs and humans, but comparisons under similar conditions are rare, and little is known about dogs' visual attention to social scenes. Here, we recorded the eye gaze of dogs while they viewed images containing two humans or dogs either interacting socially or facing away: the results were compared with equivalent data measured from humans. Furthermore, we compared the gazing behaviour of two dog and two human populations w...
Full Text Available We introduce the concept of time mask, which is a type of temporal filter suitable for selection of multiple disjoint time intervals in which some query conditions fulfil. Such a filter can be applied to time-referenced objects, such as events and trajectories, for selecting those objects or segments of trajectories that fit in one of the selected time intervals. The selected subsets of objects or segments are dynamically summarized in various ways, and the summaries are represented visually on maps and/or other displays to enable exploration. The time mask filtering can be especially helpful in analysis of disparate data (e.g., event records, positions of moving objects, and time series of measurements, which may come from different sources. To detect relationships between such data, the analyst may set query conditions on the basis of one dataset and investigate the subsets of objects and values in the other datasets that co-occurred in time with these conditions. We describe the desired features of an interactive tool for time mask filtering and present a possible implementation of such a tool. By example of analysing two real world data collections related to aviation and maritime traffic, we show the way of using time masks in combination with other types of filters and demonstrate the utility of the time mask filtering. Keywords: Data visualization, Interactive visualization, Interaction technique
Hwang, Wonjun; Lim, Soo-Chul
In this paper, we present an interaction force estimation method that uses visual information rather than that of a force sensor. Specifically, we propose a novel deep learning-based method utilizing only sequential images for estimating the interaction force against a target object, where the shape of the object is changed by an external force. The force applied to the target can be estimated by means of the visual shape changes. However, the shape differences in the images are not very clear. To address this problem, we formulate a recurrent neural network-based deep model with fully-connected layers, which models complex temporal dynamics from the visual representations. Extensive evaluations show that the proposed learning models successfully estimate the interaction forces using only the corresponding sequential images, in particular in the case of three objects made of different materials, a sponge, a PET bottle, a human arm, and a tube. The forces predicted by the proposed method are very similar to those measured by force sensors.
Goenawan, Ivan H; Bryan, Kenneth; Lynn, David J
: The ability to experimentally determine molecular interactions on an almost proteome-wide scale under different conditions is enabling researchers to move from static to dynamic network analysis, uncovering new insights into how interaction networks are physically rewired in response to different stimuli and in disease. Dynamic interaction data presents a special challenge in network biology. Here, we present DyNet, a Cytoscape application that provides a range of functionalities for the visualization, real-time synchronization and analysis of large multi-state dynamic molecular interaction networks enabling users to quickly identify and analyze the most 'rewired' nodes across many network states. DyNet is available at the Cytoscape (3.2+) App Store (http://apps.cytoscape.org/apps/dynet). email@example.com Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.
Xia, J.Y.; Xiao, B.J.; Li, Dan; Wang, K.R.
Highlights: • Developing a user-friendly interface to visualize the EAST experimental data and the device is important to scientists and engineers. • The Web3D visualization system is based on HTML5 and WebGL, which runs without the need for plug-ins or third party components. • The interactive WebGL-based 3D visualization system is a web-portal integrating EAST 3D models, experimental data and plasma videos. • The original CAD model was discretized into different layers with different simplification to enable realistic rendering and improve performance. - Abstract: In recent years EAST (Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak) experimental data are being shared and analyzed by an increasing number of international collaborators. Developing a user-friendly interface to visualize the data, meta data and the relevant parts of the device is becoming more and more important to aid scientists and engineers. Compared with the previous virtual EAST system based on VRML/Java3D  (Li et al., 2014), a new technology is being adopted to create a 3D visualization system based on HTML5 and WebGL, which runs without the need for plug-ins or third party components. The interactive WebGL-based 3D visualization system is a web-portal integrating EAST 3D models, experimental data and plasma videos. It offers a highly interactive interface allowing scientists to roam inside EAST device and view the complex 3-D structure of the machine. It includes technical details of the device and various diagnostic components, and provides visualization of diagnostic metadata with a direct link to each signal name and its stored data. In order for the quick access to the device 3D model, the original CAD model was discretized into different layers with different simplification. It allows users to search for plasma videos in any experiment and analyze the video frame by frame. In this paper, we present the implementation details to enable realistic rendering and improve performance.
Xia, J.Y., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui (China); University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui (China); Xiao, B.J. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui (China); University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui (China); Li, Dan [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui (China); Wang, K.R. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui (China); University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui (China)
Highlights: • Developing a user-friendly interface to visualize the EAST experimental data and the device is important to scientists and engineers. • The Web3D visualization system is based on HTML5 and WebGL, which runs without the need for plug-ins or third party components. • The interactive WebGL-based 3D visualization system is a web-portal integrating EAST 3D models, experimental data and plasma videos. • The original CAD model was discretized into different layers with different simplification to enable realistic rendering and improve performance. - Abstract: In recent years EAST (Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak) experimental data are being shared and analyzed by an increasing number of international collaborators. Developing a user-friendly interface to visualize the data, meta data and the relevant parts of the device is becoming more and more important to aid scientists and engineers. Compared with the previous virtual EAST system based on VRML/Java3D  (Li et al., 2014), a new technology is being adopted to create a 3D visualization system based on HTML5 and WebGL, which runs without the need for plug-ins or third party components. The interactive WebGL-based 3D visualization system is a web-portal integrating EAST 3D models, experimental data and plasma videos. It offers a highly interactive interface allowing scientists to roam inside EAST device and view the complex 3-D structure of the machine. It includes technical details of the device and various diagnostic components, and provides visualization of diagnostic metadata with a direct link to each signal name and its stored data. In order for the quick access to the device 3D model, the original CAD model was discretized into different layers with different simplification. It allows users to search for plasma videos in any experiment and analyze the video frame by frame. In this paper, we present the implementation details to enable realistic rendering and improve performance.
The design process of a power plant can be viewed as machine- chromosome engineering: When the final layout is implemented, the lifetime operating characteristics, constraints, strengths, and weaknesses of the resulting power-plant-specimen are durably determined. Hence, the safety, operability, maneuverability, availability, maintenance requirements, and costs of a power plant are directly related to the goodness of its electromechanical-genes. This paper addresses the desirability of incorporating distributed computing, distributed object management, and multimedia technologies to power plant engineering, in particular, to design and operations. The promise these technologies have for enhancing the quality and amount of engineering knowledge available, concurrently, online, to plant designers, maintenance crews, and operators is put into perspective. The role that advanced interactive simulations and expert systems will play in the intelligent automation of power plant design and operations is discussed
Rosenauer, D.; Homan, A.C.; Horstmeier, C.A.L.; Voelpel, S.C.
In light of the workforce's increasing nationality diversity, our study explores the antecedents for the successful management of nationality diversity as visualized in a favourable diversity climate and enhanced team performance. We propose a double-contingency model in which we argue that the
Full Text Available Many recent studies show that the human brain integrates information across the different senses and that stimuli of one sensory modality can enhance the perception of other modalities. Here we study the processes that mediate cross-modal facilitation and summation between visual and tactile motion. We find that while summation produced a generic, non-specific improvement of thresholds, probably reflecting higher-order interaction of decision signals, facilitation reveals a strong, direction-specific interaction, which we believe reflects sensory interactions. We measured visual and tactile velocity discrimination thresholds over a wide range of base velocities and conditions. Thresholds for both visual and tactile stimuli showed the characteristic dipper function, with the minimum thresholds occurring at a given pedestal speed. When visual and tactile coherent stimuli were combined (summation condition the thresholds for these multi-sensory stimuli also showed a dipper function with the minimum thresholds occurring in a similar range to that for unisensory signals. However, the improvement of multisensory thresholds was weak and not directionally specific, well predicted by the maximum likelihood estimation model (agreeing with previous research. A different technique (facilitation did, however, reveal direction-specific enhancement. Adding a non-informative pedestal motion stimulus in one sensory modality (vision or touch selectively lowered thresholds in the other, by the same amount as pedestals in the same modality. Facilitation did not occur for neutral stimuli like sounds (that would also have reduced temporal uncertainty, nor for motion in opposite direction, even in blocked trials where the subjects knew that the motion was in the opposite direction showing that the facilitation was not under subject control. Cross-sensory facilitation is strong evidence for functionally relevant cross-sensory integration at early levels of sensory
Rosebrock, Uwe; Hogan, Patrick; Chandola, Varun
The visualization of scientific datasets is becoming an ever-increasing challenge as advances in computing technologies have enabled scientists to build high resolution climate models that have produced petabytes of climate data. To interrogate and analyze these large datasets in real-time is a task that pushes the boundaries of computing hardware and software. But integration of climate datasets with geospatial data requires considerable amount of effort and close familiarity of various data formats and projection systems, which has prevented widespread utilization outside of climate community. TrikeND-iGlobe is a sophisticated software tool that bridges this gap, allows easy integration of climate datasets with geospatial datasets and provides sophisticated visualization and analysis capabilities. The objective for TrikeND-iGlobe is the continued building of an open source 4D virtual globe application using NASA World Wind technology that integrates analysis of climate model outputs with remote sensing observations as well as demographic and environmental data sets. This will facilitate a better understanding of global and regional phenomenon, and the impact analysis of climate extreme events. The critical aim is real-time interactive interrogation. At the data centric level the primary aim is to enable the user to interact with the data in real-time for the purpose of analysis - locally or remotely. TrikeND-iGlobe provides the basis for the incorporation of modular tools that provide extended interactions with the data, including sub-setting, aggregation, re-shaping, time series analysis methods and animation to produce publication-quality imagery. TrikeND-iGlobe may be run locally or can be accessed via a web interface supported by high-performance visualization compute nodes placed close to the data. It supports visualizing heterogeneous data formats: traditional geospatial datasets along with scientific data sets with geographic coordinates (NetCDF, HDF, etc
Amit U Sinha
Full Text Available Increasing use of high throughput genomic scale assays requires effective visualization and analysis techniques to facilitate data interpretation. Moreover, existing tools often require programming skills, which discourages bench scientists from examining their own data. We have created iCanPlot, a compelling platform for visual data exploration based on the latest technologies. Using the recently adopted HTML5 Canvas element, we have developed a highly interactive tool to visualize tabular data and identify interesting patterns in an intuitive fashion without the need of any specialized computing skills. A module for geneset overlap analysis has been implemented on the Google App Engine platform: when the user selects a region of interest in the plot, the genes in the region are analyzed on the fly. The visualization and analysis are amalgamated for a seamless experience. Further, users can easily upload their data for analysis--which also makes it simple to share the analysis with collaborators. We illustrate the power of iCanPlot by showing an example of how it can be used to interpret histone modifications in the context of gene expression.
Doblack, Benjamin N; Allis, Tim; Dávila, Lilian P
The increasing development of computing (hardware and software) in the last decades has impacted scientific research in many fields including materials science, biology, chemistry and physics among many others. A new computational system for the accurate and fast simulation and 3D/VR visualization of nanostructures is presented here, using the open-source molecular dynamics (MD) computer program LAMMPS. This alternative computational method uses modern graphics processors, NVIDIA CUDA technology and specialized scientific codes to overcome processing speed barriers common to traditional computing methods. In conjunction with a virtual reality system used to model materials, this enhancement allows the addition of accelerated MD simulation capability. The motivation is to provide a novel research environment which simultaneously allows visualization, simulation, modeling and analysis. The research goal is to investigate the structure and properties of inorganic nanostructures (e.g., silica glass nanosprings) under different conditions using this innovative computational system. The work presented outlines a description of the 3D/VR Visualization System and basic components, an overview of important considerations such as the physical environment, details on the setup and use of the novel system, a general procedure for the accelerated MD enhancement, technical information, and relevant remarks. The impact of this work is the creation of a unique computational system combining nanoscale materials simulation, visualization and interactivity in a virtual environment, which is both a research and teaching instrument at UC Merced.
Johnston, Semay; Renambot, Luc; Sauter, Daniel
Web Graphics Library (WebGL), the forthcoming web standard for rendering native 3D graphics in a browser, represents an important addition to the biomedical visualization toolset. It is projected to become a mainstream method of delivering 3D online content due to shrinking support for third-party plug-ins. Additionally, it provides a virtual reality (VR) experience to web users accommodated by the growing availability of stereoscopic displays (3D TV, desktop, and mobile). WebGL's value in biomedical visualization has been demonstrated by applications for interactive anatomical models, chemical and molecular visualization, and web-based volume rendering. However, a lack of instructional literature specific to the field prevents many from utilizing this technology. This project defines a WebGL design methodology for a target audience of biomedical artists with a basic understanding of web languages and 3D graphics. The methodology was informed by the development of an interactive web application depicting the anatomy and various pathologies of the human eye. The application supports several modes of stereoscopic displays for a better understanding of 3D anatomical structures.
Tomioka, Nobuo; Itai, Akiko; Iitaka, Yoichi
A new computational and graphical method for facilitating ligand-protein docking studies is developed on a three-dimensional computer graphics display. Various physical and chemical properties inside the ligand binding pocket of a receptor protein, whose structure is elucidated by X-ray crystal analysis, are calculated on three-dimensional grid points and are stored in advance. By utilizing those tabulated data, it is possible to estimate the non-bonded and electrostatic interaction energy and the number of possible hydrogen bonds between protein and ligand molecules in real time during an interactive docking operation. The method also provides a comprehensive visualization of the local environment inside the binding pocket. With this method, it becomes easier to find a roughly stable geometry of ligand molecules, and one can therefore make a rapid survey of the binding capability of many drug candidates. The method will be useful for drug design as well as for the examination of protein-ligand interactions.
Xu Jianjun; Chen Bingde; Wang Xiaojun
The characteristic of the coalesced sliding bubble was visually observed by wide side and narrow side of the narrow rectangular channel using high speed digital camera. The results show that the coalesced time among the sliding bubbles is quick, and the new formation of coalesced bubble is not lift-off, and it continues to slide along the heated surface in low heat flux for the isolated bubble region. The influence region is about 2 times projected area of the sliding bubble when the sliding bubbles begin to interact. The sliding bubble velocities increase duo to the interaction among the bubbles, which contributes to enhance heat transfer of this region. Finally, the effect of coalesced interaction of growing bubble in the nucleation sites on bubble lift-off was discussed and analysed. (authors)
Myneni, Lakshman Sundeep
Students in middle school science classes have difficulty mastering physics concepts such as energy and work, taught in the context of simple machines. Moreover, students' naive conceptions of physics often remain unchanged after completing a science class. To address this problem, I developed an intelligent tutoring system, called the Virtual Physics System (ViPS), which coaches students through problem solving with one class of simple machines, pulley systems. The tutor uses a unique cognitive based approach to teaching simple machines, and includes innovations in three areas. (1) It employs a teaching strategy that focuses on highlighting links among concepts of the domain that are essential for conceptual understanding yet are seldom learned by students. (2) Concepts are taught through a combination of effective human tutoring techniques (e.g., hinting) and simulations. (3) For each student, the system identifies which misconceptions he or she has, from a common set of student misconceptions gathered from domain experts, and tailors tutoring to match the correct line of scientific reasoning regarding the misconceptions. ViPS was implemented as a platform on which students can design and simulate pulley system experiments, integrated with a constraint-based tutor that intervenes when students make errors during problem solving to teach them and to help them. ViPS has a web-based client-server architecture, and has been implemented using Java technologies. ViPS is different from existing physics simulations and tutoring systems due to several original features. (1). It is the first system to integrate a simulation based virtual experimentation platform with an intelligent tutoring component. (2) It uses a novel approach, based on Bayesian networks, to help students construct correct pulley systems for experimental simulation. (3) It identifies student misconceptions based on a novel decision tree applied to student pretest scores, and tailors tutoring to
Grønbæk, Kaj; Kyng, Morten; Krogh, Peter Gall
computers are everywhere, for everyone, at all times. Where IT becomes a still more integrated part of our environments with processors, sensors, and actuators connected via high-speed networks and combined with new visualiza-tion devices ranging from projections directly in the eye to large panorama......Intelligent Buildings have been the subject of research and commercial interest for more than two decades. The different perspectives range from monitoring and controlling energy consumption over interactive rooms supporting work in offices and leisure in the home, to buildings providing...... information to by-passers in plazas and urban environments. This paper puts forward the hypothesis that the coming decade will witness a dramatic increase in both quality and quantity of intelligent buildings due to the emerging field of pervasive computing: the next generation computing environments where...
Full Text Available A field of personal analytics has emerged around self-monitoring practices, which includes the visualization and interpretation of the data produced. This paper explores personal analytics from the perspective of self-optimization, arguing that the ways in which people confront and engage with visualized personal data are as significant as the technology itself. The paper leans on the concept of the “data double”: the conversion of human bodies and minds into data flows that can be figuratively reassembled for the purposes of personal reflection and interaction. Based on an empirical study focusing on heart-rate variability measurement, the discussion underlines that a distanced theorizing of personal analytics is not sufficient if one wants to capture affective encounters between humans and their data doubles. Research outcomes suggest that these explanations can produce permanence and stability while also profoundly changing ways in which people reflect on themselves, on others and on their daily lives.
Mvox is a new tool for visualization, segmentation and manipulation of a wide range of 2-4D grey level and colour images, and 3D surface graphics, which has been developed at the Department of Mathematical Modelling, Technical University of Denmark. The principal idea behind the software has been...... to provide a flexible tool that is able to handle all the kinds of data that are typically used in a research environment for medical imaging and visualization. At the same time the software should be easy to use and have a consistent interface providing locally only the functions relevant to the context....... This has been achieved by using Unix standards such as X/Motif/OpenGL and conforming to modern standards of interactive windowed programs...
Macready, Hugh; Kim, Jinman; Feng, David; Cai, Weidong
Dual-modality imaging scanners combining functional PET and anatomical CT constitute a challenge in volumetric visualization that can be limited by the high computational demand and expense. This study aims at providing physicians with multi-dimensional visualization tools, in order to navigate and manipulate the data running on a consumer PC. We have maximized the utilization of pixel-shader architecture of the low-cost graphic hardware and the texture-based volume rendering to provide visualization tools with high degree of interactivity. All the software was developed using OpenGL and Silicon Graphics Inc. Volumizer, tested on a Pentium mobile CPU on a PC notebook with 64M graphic memory. We render the individual modalities separately, and performing real-time per-voxel fusion. We designed a novel "alpha-spike" transfer function to interactively identify structure of interest from volume rendering of PET/CT. This works by assigning a non-linear opacity to the voxels, thus, allowing the physician to selectively eliminate or reveal information from the PET/CT volumes. As the PET and CT are rendered independently, manipulations can be applied to individual volumes, for instance, the application of transfer function to CT to reveal the lung boundary while adjusting the fusion ration between the CT and PET to enhance the contrast of a tumour region, with the resultant manipulated data sets fused together in real-time as the adjustments are made. In addition to conventional navigation and manipulation tools, such as scaling, LUT, volume slicing, and others, our strategy permits efficient visualization of PET/CT volume rendering which can potentially aid in interpretation and diagnosis.
Piëch, Valentin; Li, Wu; Reeke, George N; Gilbert, Charles D
The visual system uses continuity as a cue for grouping oriented line segments that define object boundaries in complex visual scenes. Many studies support the idea that long-range intrinsic horizontal connections in early visual cortex contribute to this grouping. Top-down influences in primary visual cortex (V1) play an important role in the processes of contour integration and perceptual saliency, with contour-related responses being task dependent. This suggests an interaction between recurrent inputs to V1 and intrinsic connections within V1 that enables V1 neurons to respond differently under different conditions. We created a network model that simulates parametrically the control of local gain by hypothetical top-down modification of local recurrence. These local gain changes, as a consequence of network dynamics in our model, enable modulation of contextual interactions in a task-dependent manner. Our model displays contour-related facilitation of neuronal responses and differential foreground vs. background responses over the neuronal ensemble, accounting for the perceptual pop-out of salient contours. It quantitatively reproduces the results of single-unit recording experiments in V1, highlighting salient contours and replicating the time course of contextual influences. We show by means of phase-plane analysis that the model operates stably even in the presence of large inputs. Our model shows how a simple form of top-down modulation of the effective connectivity of intrinsic cortical connections among biophysically realistic neurons can account for some of the response changes seen in perceptual learning and task switching.
Rick Van Der Zwan; Anna Brooks; Duncan Blair; Coralia Machatch; Graeme Hacker
Johnson and Tassinary (2005) proposed that visually perceived sex is signalled by structural or form cues. They suggested also that biological motion cues signal sex, but do so indirectly. We previously have shown that auditory cues can mediate visual sex perceptions (van der Zwan et al., 2009). Here we demonstrate that structural cues to body shape are alone sufficient for visual sex discriminations but that biological motion cues alone are not. Interestingly, biological motions can resolve ...
Zhong-Zhi Shi; Nan-Ning Zheng
Artificial Intelligence (AI) is generally considered to be a subfield of computer science, that is concerned to attempt simulation, extension and expansion of human intelligence. Artificial intelligence has enjoyed tremendous success over the last fifty years. In this paper we only focus on visual perception, granular computing, agent computing, semantic grid. Human-level intelligence is the long-term goal of artificial intelligence. We should do joint research on basic theory and technology of intelligence by brain science, cognitive science, artificial intelligence and others. A new cross discipline intelligence science is undergoing a rapid development. Future challenges are given in final section.
Brian R Granger
Full Text Available The complexity of metabolic networks in microbial communities poses an unresolved visualization and interpretation challenge. We address this challenge in the newly expanded version of a software tool for the analysis of biological networks, VisANT 5.0. We focus in particular on facilitating the visual exploration of metabolic interaction between microbes in a community, e.g. as predicted by COMETS (Computation of Microbial Ecosystems in Time and Space, a dynamic stoichiometric modeling framework. Using VisANT's unique metagraph implementation, we show how one can use VisANT 5.0 to explore different time-dependent ecosystem-level metabolic networks. In particular, we analyze the metabolic interaction network between two bacteria previously shown to display an obligate cross-feeding interdependency. In addition, we illustrate how a putative minimal gut microbiome community could be represented in our framework, making it possible to highlight interactions across multiple coexisting species. We envisage that the "symbiotic layout" of VisANT can be employed as a general tool for the analysis of metabolism in complex microbial communities as well as heterogeneous human tissues. VisANT is freely available at: http://visant.bu.edu and COMETS at http://comets.bu.edu.
Granger, Brian R; Chang, Yi-Chien; Wang, Yan; DeLisi, Charles; Segrè, Daniel; Hu, Zhenjun
The complexity of metabolic networks in microbial communities poses an unresolved visualization and interpretation challenge. We address this challenge in the newly expanded version of a software tool for the analysis of biological networks, VisANT 5.0. We focus in particular on facilitating the visual exploration of metabolic interaction between microbes in a community, e.g. as predicted by COMETS (Computation of Microbial Ecosystems in Time and Space), a dynamic stoichiometric modeling framework. Using VisANT's unique metagraph implementation, we show how one can use VisANT 5.0 to explore different time-dependent ecosystem-level metabolic networks. In particular, we analyze the metabolic interaction network between two bacteria previously shown to display an obligate cross-feeding interdependency. In addition, we illustrate how a putative minimal gut microbiome community could be represented in our framework, making it possible to highlight interactions across multiple coexisting species. We envisage that the "symbiotic layout" of VisANT can be employed as a general tool for the analysis of metabolism in complex microbial communities as well as heterogeneous human tissues. VisANT is freely available at: http://visant.bu.edu and COMETS at http://comets.bu.edu.
Miyazawa, Tatsuo; Otsuki, Taisuke.
We propose a method that makes it possible to interactively rotate and zoom a volume-rendered object and to interactively manipulate a function for transferring data values to color and opacity. The method ray-traces a Value-Intensity-Strength volume (VIS volume) instead of a color-opacity volume, and uses an adaptive refinement technique in generating images. The VIS volume tracing method can reduce by 20-90 percent the computational time of re-calculation necessitated by changing the function for transferring data values to color and opacity, and can reduce the computational time of pre-processing by 20 percent. It can also reduce the required memory space by 40 percent. The combination of VIS volume tracing and adaptive refinement method makes it possible to interactively visualize and analyze 3D medical image data. Once we can see detailed image of 3D objects to determine their orientation, we can easily manipulate the viewing and rendering parameters even while viewing rough, blurred images. The increase in the computation time for generating full-resolution images by using the adaptive refinement technique is approximately five to ten percent. Its effectiveness is evaluated by using the results of visualization for some 3D medical image data. (author)
Full Text Available Simulation models in many scientific fields can have non-unique solutions or unique solutions which can be difficult to find. Moreover, in evolving systems, unique final state solutions can be reached by multiple different trajectories. Neuroscience is no exception. Often, neural network models are subject to parameter fitting to obtain desirable output comparable to experimental data. Parameter fitting without sufficient constraints and a systematic exploration of the possible solution space can lead to conclusions valid only around local minima or around non-minima. To address this issue, we have developed an interactive tool for visualizing and steering parameters in neural network simulation models. In this work, we focus particularly on connectivity generation, since finding suitable connectivity configurations for neural network models constitutes a complex parameter search scenario. The development of the tool has been guided by several use cases—the tool allows researchers to steer the parameters of the connectivity generation during the simulation, thus quickly growing networks composed of multiple populations with a targeted mean activity. The flexibility of the software allows scientists to explore other connectivity and neuron variables apart from the ones presented as use cases. With this tool, we enable an interactive exploration of parameter spaces and a better understanding of neural network models and grapple with the crucial problem of non-unique network solutions and trajectories. In addition, we observe a reduction in turn around times for the assessment of these models, due to interactive visualization while the simulation is computed.
Moll, J; Schulte, R T; Fritzen, C-P; Rezk-Salama, C; Klinkert, T; Kolb, A
Structural health monitoring systems allow a continuous surveillance of the structural integrity of operational systems. As a result, it is possible to reduce time and costs for maintenance without decreasing the level of safety. In this paper, an integrated simulation and visualization environment is presented that enables a detailed study of Lamb wave propagation in isotropic and anisotropic materials. Thus, valuable information about the nature of Lamb wave propagation and its interaction with structural defects become available. The well-known spectral finite element method is implemented to enable a time-efficient calculation of the wave propagation problem. The results are displayed in an interactive visualization framework accounting for the human perception that is much more sensitive to motion than to changes in color. In addition, measurements have been conducted experimentally to record the full out-of-plane wave-field using a Laser-Doppler vibrometry setup. An aluminum structure with two synthetic cuts has been investigated, where the elongated defects have a different orientation with respect to the piezoelectric actuator. The resulting wave-field is also displayed interactively showing that the scattered wave-field at the defect is highly directional.
Guillette, Lauren M; Healy, Susan D
The transmission of information from an experienced demonstrator to a naïve observer often depends on characteristics of the demonstrator, such as familiarity, success or dominance status. Whether or not the demonstrator pays attention to and/or interacts with the observer may also affect social information acquisition or use by the observer. Here we used a video-demonstrator paradigm first to test whether video demonstrators have the same effect as using live demonstrators in zebra finches, and second, to test the importance of visual and vocal interactions between the demonstrator and observer on social information use by the observer. We found that female zebra finches copied novel food choices of male demonstrators they saw via live-streaming video while they did not consistently copy from the demonstrators when they were seen in playbacks of the same videos. Although naive observers copied in the absence of vocalizations by the demonstrator, as they copied from playback of videos with the sound off, females did not copy where there was a mis-match between the visual information provided by the video and vocal information from a live male that was out of sight. Taken together these results suggest that video demonstration is a useful methodology for testing social information transfer, at least in a foraging context, but more importantly, that social information use varies according to the vocal interactions, or lack thereof, between the observer and the demonstrator. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Koeva, M. N.
Nowadays, there are rapid developments in the fields of photogrammetry, laser scanning, computer vision and robotics, together aiming to provide highly accurate 3D data that is useful for various applications. In recent years, various LiDAR and image-based techniques have been investigated for 3D modelling because of their opportunities for fast and accurate model generation. For cultural heritage preservation and the representation of objects that are important for tourism and their interactive visualization, 3D models are highly effective and intuitive for present-day users who have stringent requirements and high expectations. Depending on the complexity of the objects for the specific case, various technological methods can be applied. The selected objects in this particular research are located in Bulgaria - a country with thousands of years of history and cultural heritage dating back to ancient civilizations. This motivates the preservation, visualisation and recreation of undoubtedly valuable historical and architectural objects and places, which has always been a serious challenge for specialists in the field of cultural heritage. In the present research, comparative analyses regarding principles and technological processes needed for 3D modelling and visualization are presented. The recent problems, efforts and developments in interactive representation of precious objects and places in Bulgaria are presented. Three technologies based on real projects are described: (1) image-based modelling using a non-metric hand-held camera; (2) 3D visualization based on spherical panoramic images; (3) and 3D geometric and photorealistic modelling based on architectural CAD drawings. Their suitability for web-based visualization are demonstrated and compared. Moreover the possibilities for integration with additional information such as interactive maps, satellite imagery, sound, video and specific information for the objects are described. This comparative study
M. N. Koeva
Full Text Available Nowadays, there are rapid developments in the fields of photogrammetry, laser scanning, computer vision and robotics, together aiming to provide highly accurate 3D data that is useful for various applications. In recent years, various LiDAR and image-based techniques have been investigated for 3D modelling because of their opportunities for fast and accurate model generation. For cultural heritage preservation and the representation of objects that are important for tourism and their interactive visualization, 3D models are highly effective and intuitive for present-day users who have stringent requirements and high expectations. Depending on the complexity of the objects for the specific case, various technological methods can be applied. The selected objects in this particular research are located in Bulgaria – a country with thousands of years of history and cultural heritage dating back to ancient civilizations. \\this motivates the preservation, visualisation and recreation of undoubtedly valuable historical and architectural objects and places, which has always been a serious challenge for specialists in the field of cultural heritage. In the present research, comparative analyses regarding principles and technological processes needed for 3D modelling and visualization are presented. The recent problems, efforts and developments in interactive representation of precious objects and places in Bulgaria are presented. Three technologies based on real projects are described: (1 image-based modelling using a non-metric hand-held camera; (2 3D visualization based on spherical panoramic images; (3 and 3D geometric and photorealistic modelling based on architectural CAD drawings. Their suitability for web-based visualization are demonstrated and compared. Moreover the possibilities for integration with additional information such as interactive maps, satellite imagery, sound, video and specific information for the objects are described. This
He, Xuelin; Gold, Christopher
Recent years have witnessed the emerging Virtual Globe technology which has been increasingly exhibiting powerful features and capabilities. However, the current technical architecture for geovisualization is still the traditional data- viewer mode, i.e. KML-Geobrowser. Current KML is basically an encoding format for wrapping static snapshots of information frozen at discrete time points, and a geobrowser is virtually a data renderer for geovisualization. In the real world spatial-temporal objects and elements possess specific semantics, applied logic and operational rules, naturally or socially, which need to be considered and to be executed when corresponding data is integrated or visualized in a visual geocontext. However, currently there is no a way to express and execute this kind of applied logic and control rules within the current geobrowsing architecture. This paper proposes a novel architecture by originating a new mechanism, DKML, and implementing a DKML-supporting prototype geobrowser. Embedded programming script within KML files can express applied logic, control conditions, situation-aware analysis utilities and special functionality, to achieve intelligent, controllable and applied logic-conformant geovisualization, and to flexibly extend and customize the DKMLsupporting geobrowser. Benefiting from the mechanism developed in this research, geobrowsers can truly evolve into powerful multi-purpose GeoWeb platforms with promising potential and prospects.
He, Wen; Zhao, Shanrong; Zhang, Chi; Vincent, Michael S; Zhang, Baohong
Sequencing of transcribed RNA molecules (RNA-Seq) has been used wildly for studying cell transcriptomes in bulk or at the single-cell level (Wang et al., Nat Rev Genet, 10:57-63, 2009; Ozsolak and Milos, Nat Rev Genet, 12:87-98, 2011; Sandberg, Nat Methods, 11:22-24, 2014) and is becoming the de facto technology for investigating gene expression level changes in various biological conditions, on the time course, and under drug treatments. Furthermore, RNA-Seq data helped identify fusion genes that are related to certain cancers (Maher et al., Nature, 458:97-101, 2009). Differential gene expression before and after drug treatments provides insights to mechanism of action, pharmacodynamics of the drugs, and safety concerns (Dixit et al., Genomics, 107:178-188, 2016). Because each RNA-Seq run generates tens to hundreds of millions of short reads with size ranging from 50 to 200 bp, a tool that deciphers these short reads to an integrated and digestible analysis report is in high demand. QuickRNASeq (Zhao et al., BMC Genomics, 17:39-53, 2016) is an application for large-scale RNA-Seq data analysis and real-time interactive visualization of complex data sets. This application automates the use of several of the best open-source tools to efficiently generate user friendly, easy to share, and ready to publish report. Figures in this protocol illustrate some of the interactive plots produced by QuickRNASeq. The visualization features of the application have been further improved since its first publication in early 2016. The original QuickRNASeq publication (Zhao et al., BMC Genomics, 17:39-53, 2016) provided details of background, software selection, and implementation. Here, we outline the steps required to implement QuickRNASeq in user's own environment, as well as demonstrate some basic yet powerful utilities of the advanced interactive visualization modules in the report.
Yiasemidou, Marina; Glassman, Daniel; Mushtaq, Faisal; Athanasiou, Christos; Williams, Mark-Mon; Jayne, David; Miskovic, Danilo
Evidence suggests that Mental Practice (MP) could be used to finesse surgical skills. However, MP is cognitively demanding and may be dependent on the ability of individuals to produce mental images. In this study, we hypothesised that the provision of interactive 3D visual aids during MP could facilitate surgical skill performance. 20 surgical trainees were case-matched to one of three different preparation methods prior to performing a simulated Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy (LC). Two intervention groups underwent a 25-minute MP session; one with interactive 3D visual aids depicting the relevant surgical anatomy (3D-MP group, n = 5) and one without (MP-Only, n = 5). A control group (n = 10) watched a didactic video of a real LC. Scores relating to technical performance and safety were recorded by a surgical simulator. The Control group took longer to complete the procedure relative to the 3D&MP condition (p = .002). The number of movements was also statistically different across groups (p = .001), with the 3D&MP group making fewer movements relative to controls (p = .001). Likewise, the control group moved further in comparison to the 3D&MP condition and the MP-Only condition (p = .004). No reliable differences were observed for safety metrics. These data provide evidence for the potential value of MP in improving performance. Furthermore, they suggest that 3D interactive visual aids during MP could potentially enhance performance, beyond the benefits of MP alone. These findings pave the way for future RCTs on surgical preparation and performance.
Zhang, Baohong; Zhao, Shanrong; Neuhaus, Isaac
We present a bioinformatics and systems biology visualization toolkit harmonizing real time interactive exploring and analyzing of big data, full-fledged customizing of look-n-feel, and producing multi-panel publication-ready figures in PDF format simultaneously. Source code and detailed user guides are available at http://canvasxpress.org, https://baohongz.github.io/canvasDesigner, and https://baohongz.github.io/canvasDesigner/demo_video.html. email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com. Supplementary materials are available at https://goo.gl/1uQygs.
Tiago Fernandes Tavares
Full Text Available This paper describes an interactive audio-visual musical installation, namely MOTUS, that aims at being deployed using low-cost hardware and software. This was achieved by writing the software as a web application and using only hardware pieces that are built-in most modern personal computers. This scenario implies in specific technical restrictions, which leads to solutions combining both technical and artistic aspects of the installation. The resulting system is versatile and can be freely used from any computer with Internet access. Spontaneous feedback from the audience has shown that the provided experience is interesting and engaging, regardless of the use of minimal hardware.
Hallin, Peter Fischer; Stærfeldt, Hans Henrik; Rotenberg, Eva
, standard atlases are pre-generated for all prokaryotic genomes available in GenBank, providing a fast overview of all available genomes, including recently deposited genome sequences. The tool is available online from http://www.cbs.dtu.dk/services/gwBrowser. [Supplemental material including interactive...... atlases is available online at http://www.cbs.dtu.dk/services/gwBrowser/suppl/]....... readability and increased functionality compared to other browsers. The tool allows the user to select the display of various genomic features, color setting and data ranges. Custom numerical data can be added to the plot, allowing for example visualization of gene expression and regulation data. Further...
Holzlechner, Matthias; Reitschmidt, Sonja; Gruber, Sabine; Zeilinger, Susanne
Studying microbial interactions by MALDI mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) directly from growing media is a difficult task if high sensitivity is demanded. We present a quick and robust sample preparation strategy for growing fungi (Trichoderma atroviride, Rhizoctonia solani) on glass slides to establish a miniaturized confrontation assay. By this we were able to visualize metabolite distributions by MALDI MSI after matrix deposition with a home‐built sublimation device and thorough recrystallization. We present for the first time MALDI MSI data for secondary metabolite release during active mycoparasitism. PMID:26959280
Johnson, N.; Joslyn, C.; Rocha, L.; Smith, S.; Kantor, M. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Rasmussen, S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)]|[Santa Fe Inst., NM (United States)
-organizing knowledge formation from this symbiotic intelligence exemplifies a new type of self-organizing system, one without dissipation and not constrained by limited resources.
Reader, Arran T; Holmes, Nicholas P
Social interaction is an essential part of the human experience, and much work has been done to study it. However, several common approaches to examining social interactions in psychological research may inadvertently either unnaturally constrain the observed behaviour by causing it to deviate from naturalistic performance, or introduce unwanted sources of variance. In particular, these sources are the differences between naturalistic and experimental behaviour that occur from changes in visual fidelity (quality of the observed stimuli), gaze (whether it is controlled for in the stimuli), and social potential (potential for the stimuli to provide actual interaction). We expand on these possible sources of extraneous variance and why they may be important. We review the ways in which experimenters have developed novel designs to remove these sources of extraneous variance. New experimental designs using a 'two-person' approach are argued to be one of the most effective ways to develop more ecologically valid measures of social interaction, and we suggest that future work on social interaction should use these designs wherever possible.
Törnqvist, Heini; Somppi, Sanni; Koskela, Aija; Krause, Christina M; Vainio, Outi; Kujala, Miiamaaria V
Previous studies have demonstrated similarities in gazing behaviour of dogs and humans, but comparisons under similar conditions are rare, and little is known about dogs' visual attention to social scenes. Here, we recorded the eye gaze of dogs while they viewed images containing two humans or dogs either interacting socially or facing away: the results were compared with equivalent data measured from humans. Furthermore, we compared the gazing behaviour of two dog and two human populations with different social experiences: family and kennel dogs; dog experts and non-experts. Dogs' gazing behaviour was similar to humans: both species gazed longer at the actors in social interaction than in non-social images. However, humans gazed longer at the actors in dog than human social interaction images, whereas dogs gazed longer at the actors in human than dog social interaction images. Both species also made more saccades between actors in images representing non-conspecifics, which could indicate that processing social interaction of non-conspecifics may be more demanding. Dog experts and non-experts viewed the images very similarly. Kennel dogs viewed images less than family dogs, but otherwise their gazing behaviour did not differ, indicating that the basic processing of social stimuli remains similar regardless of social experiences.
Weissgerber, Tracey L; Savic, Marko; Winham, Stacey J; Stanisavljevic, Dejana; Garovic, Vesna D; Milic, Natasa M
Although bar graphs are designed for categorical data, they are routinely used to present continuous data in studies that have small sample sizes. This presentation is problematic, as many data distributions can lead to the same bar graph, and the actual data may suggest different conclusions from the summary statistics. To address this problem, many journals have implemented new policies that require authors to show the data distribution. This paper introduces a free, web-based tool for creating an interactive alternative to the bar graph (http://statistika.mfub.bg.ac.rs/interactive-dotplot/). This tool allows authors with no programming expertise to create customized interactive graphics, including univariate scatterplots, box plots, and violin plots, for comparing values of a continuous variable across different study groups. Individual data points may be overlaid on the graphs. Additional features facilitate visualization of subgroups or clusters of non-independent data. A second tool enables authors to create interactive graphics from data obtained with repeated independent experiments (http://statistika.mfub.bg.ac.rs/interactive-repeated-experiments-dotplot/). These tools are designed to encourage exploration and critical evaluation of the data behind the summary statistics and may be valuable for promoting transparency, reproducibility, and open science in basic biomedical research. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.
Human interaction and population mobility determine the spatio-temporal course of the spread of an airborne disease. This research views such spreads as geo-social interaction problems, because population mobility connects different groups of people over geographical locations via which the viruses transmit. Previous research argued that geo-social interaction patterns identified from population movement data can provide great potential in designing effective pandemic mitigation. However, little work has been done to examine the effectiveness of designing control strategies taking into account geo-social interaction patterns. To address this gap, this research proposes a new framework for effective disease control; specifically this framework proposes that disease control strategies should start from identifying geo-social interaction patterns, designing effective control measures accordingly, and evaluating the efficacy of different control measures. This framework is used to structure design of a new visual analytic tool that consists of three components: a reorderable matrix for geo-social mixing patterns, agent-based epidemic models, and combined visualization methods. With real world human interaction data in a French primary school as a proof of concept, this research compares the efficacy of vaccination strategies between the spatial-social interaction patterns and the whole areas. The simulation results show that locally targeted vaccination has the potential to keep infection to a small number and prevent spread to other regions. At some small probability, the local control strategies will fail; in these cases other control strategies will be needed. This research further explores the impact of varying spatial-social scales on the success of local vaccination strategies. The results show that a proper spatial-social scale can help achieve the best control efficacy with a limited number of vaccines. The case study shows how GS-EpiViz does support the design
Yang, Y. C. E.; Wi, S.
Herman, L.; Řezník, T.
3D information is essential for a number of applications used daily in various domains such as crisis management, energy management, urban planning, and cultural heritage, as well as pollution and noise mapping, etc. This paper is devoted to the issue of 3D modelling from the levels of buildings to cities. The theoretical sections comprise an analysis of cartographic principles for the 3D visualization of spatial data as well as a review of technologies and data formats used in the visualization of 3D models. Emphasis was placed on the verification of available web technologies; for example, X3DOM library was chosen for the implementation of a proof-of-concept web application. The created web application displays a 3D model of the city district of Nový Lískovec in Brno, the Czech Republic. The developed 3D visualization shows a terrain model, 3D buildings, noise pollution, and other related information. Attention was paid to the areas important for handling heterogeneous input data, the design of interactive functionality, and navigation assistants. The advantages, limitations, and future development of the proposed concept are discussed in the conclusions.
Madsen, Jacob Boesen; Madsen, Claus B.
This paper describes aspects of the development of an interactive installation for visualizing a 3D reconstruction of a historical church chapel in Kolding, Denmark. We focus on three aspects inherent to a mobile Augmented Reality development con- text; 1) A procedure for combating gyroscope drift...... on handheld devices, 2) achieving realistic lighting computation on a mobile platform at interactive frame-rates and 3) an approach to re- location within this applications situated location without position tracking. We present a solution to each of these three aspects. The development is targeted a specific...... application, but the presented solutions should be relevant to researchers and developers facing similar issues in other contexts. We furthermore present initial findings from everyday usage by visitors at the museum, and explore how these findings can be useful in connection with novel technology...
The Internet has opened new ways of learning and has brought several advantages to computer-aided education. Global access, self-paced learning, asynchronous teaching, interactivity, and multimedia usage are some of these. Along with the advantages comes the challenge of designing the software using the available facilities. Integrating online…
Oblong Industries Inc. (Oblong, 2011). In addition to the camera-based gesture interaction (Figure 4), this system offers a management capability...EyeTap Lumus Eyewear LOE FogScreen HP LiM PC Microvision PEK and SHOWWX Pico Projectors Head Mounted Display Chinese Holo Screen 10 Advanced Analyst
Biffard, B.; Valenzuela, M.; Conley, P.; MacArthur, M.; Tredger, S.; Guillemot, E.; Pirenne, B.
Ocean Networks Canada (ONC) operates ocean observatories on all three of Canada's coasts. The instruments produce 280 gigabytes of data per day with 1/2 petabyte archived so far. In 2015, 13 terabytes were downloaded by over 500 users from across the world. ONC's data management system is referred to as "Oceans 2.0" owing to its interactive, participative features. A key element of Oceans 2.0 is real time data acquisition and processing: custom device drivers implement the input-output protocol of each instrument. Automatic parsing and calibration takes place on the fly, followed by event detection and quality control. All raw data are stored in a file archive, while the processed data are copied to fast databases. Interactive access to processed data is provided through data download and visualization/quick look features that are adapted to diverse data types (scalar, acoustic, video, multi-dimensional, etc). Data may be post or re-processed to add features, analysis or correct errors, update calibrations, etc. A robust storage structure has been developed consisting of an extensive file system and a no-SQL database (Cassandra). Cassandra is a node-based open source distributed database management system. It is scalable and offers improved performance for big data. A key feature is data summarization. The system has also been integrated with web services and an ERDDAP OPeNDAP server, capable of serving scalar and multidimensional data from Cassandra for fixed or mobile devices.A complex data viewer has been developed making use of the big data capability to interactively display live or historic echo sounder and acoustic Doppler current profiler data, where users can scroll, apply processing filters and zoom through gigabytes of data with simple interactions. This new technology brings scientists one step closer to a comprehensive, web-based data analysis environment in which visual assessment, filtering, event detection and annotation can be integrated.
Kellogg, L. H.
At the W. M. Keck Center for Active Visualization in Earth Sciences (KeckCAVES), a group of geoscientists and computer scientists collaborate to develop and use of interactive, immersive, 3D visualization technology to view, manipulate, and interpret data for scientific research. The visual impact of immersion in a CAVE environment can be extremely compelling, and from the outset KeckCAVES scientists have collaborated with artists to bring this technology to creative works, including theater and dance performance, installations, and gamification. The first full-fledged collaboration designed and produced a performance called "Collapse: Suddenly falling down", choreographed by Della Davidson, which investigated the human and cultural response to natural and man-made disasters. Scientific data (lidar scans of disaster sites, such as landslides and mine collapses) were fully integrated into the performance by the Sideshow Physical Theatre. This presentation will discuss both the technological and creative characteristics of, and lessons learned from the collaboration. Many parallels between the artistic and scientific process emerged. We observed that both artists and scientists set out to investigate a topic, solve a problem, or answer a question. Refining that question or problem is an essential part of both the creative and scientific workflow. Both artists and scientists seek understanding (in this case understanding of natural disasters). Differences also emerged; the group noted that the scientists sought clarity (including but not limited to quantitative measurements) as a means to understanding, while the artists embraced ambiguity, also as a means to understanding. Subsequent art-science-technology collaborations have responded to evolving technology for visualization and include gamification as a means to explore data, and use of augmented reality for informal learning in museum settings.
Sarthou, A.; Mas, S.; Jacquin, M.; Moreno, N.; Salamon, A.
The hybrid visualization and interaction tool EarthScape is presented here. The software is able to display simultaneously LiDAR point clouds, draped videos with moving footprint, volume scientific data (using volume rendering, isosurface and slice plane), raster data such as still satellite images, vector data and 3D models such as buildings or vehicles. The application runs on touch screen devices such as tablets. The software is based on open source libraries, such as OpenSceneGraph, osgEarth and OpenCV, and shader programming is used to implement volume rendering of scientific data. The next goal of EarthScape is to perform data analysis using ENVI Services Engine, a cloud data analysis solution. EarthScape is also designed to be a client of Jagwire which provides multisource geo-referenced video fluxes. When all these components will be included, EarthScape will be a multi-purpose platform that will provide at the same time data analysis, hybrid visualization and complex interactions. The software is available on demand for free at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Full Text Available The hybrid visualization and interaction tool EarthScape is presented here. The software is able to display simultaneously LiDAR point clouds, draped videos with moving footprint, volume scientific data (using volume rendering, isosurface and slice plane, raster data such as still satellite images, vector data and 3D models such as buildings or vehicles. The application runs on touch screen devices such as tablets. The software is based on open source libraries, such as OpenSceneGraph, osgEarth and OpenCV, and shader programming is used to implement volume rendering of scientific data. The next goal of EarthScape is to perform data analysis using ENVI Services Engine, a cloud data analysis solution. EarthScape is also designed to be a client of Jagwire which provides multisource geo-referenced video fluxes. When all these components will be included, EarthScape will be a multi-purpose platform that will provide at the same time data analysis, hybrid visualization and complex interactions. The software is available on demand for free at email@example.com.
Full Text Available Real-time rendering in the realm of computational fluid dynamics (CFD in particular and scientific high performance computing (HPC in general is a comparably young field of research, as the complexity of most problems with practical relevance is too high for a real-time numerical simulation. However, recent advances in HPC and the development of very efficient numerical techniques allow running first optimized numerical simulations in or near real-time, which in return requires integrated and optimized visualization techniques that do not affect performance. In this contribution, we present concepts, implementation details and several application examples of a minimally-invasive, efficient visualization tool for the interactive monitoring of 2D and 3D turbulent flow simulations on commodity hardware. The numerical simulations are conducted with ELBE, an efficient lattice Boltzmann environment based on NVIDIA CUDA (Compute Unified Device Architecture, which provides optimized numerical kernels for 2D and 3D computational fluid dynamics with fluid-structure interactions and turbulence.
Theis, C.; Buchegger, K.H.; Brugger, M.; Forkel-Wirth, D.; Roesler, S.; Vincke, H.
The implementation of three-dimensional geometries for the simulation of radiation transport problems is a very time-consuming task. Each particle transport code supplies its own scripting language and syntax for creating the geometries. All of them are based on the Constructive Solid Geometry scheme requiring textual description. This makes the creation a tedious and error-prone task, which is especially hard to master for novice users. The Monte Carlo code FLUKA comes with built-in support for creating two-dimensional cross-sections through the geometry and FLUKACAD, a custom-built converter to the commercial Computer Aided Design package AutoCAD, exists for 3D visualization. For other codes, like MCNPX, a couple of different tools are available, but they are often specifically tailored to the particle transport code and its approach used for implementing geometries. Complex constructive solid modeling usually requires very fast and expensive special purpose hardware, which is not widely available. In this paper SimpleGeo is presented, which is an implementation of a generic versatile interactive geometry modeler using off-the-shelf hardware. It is running on Windows, with a Linux version currently under preparation. This paper describes its functionality, which allows for rapid interactive visualization as well as generation of three-dimensional geometries, and also discusses critical issues regarding common CAD systems
Jingling, Li; Tseng, Chia-Huei; Zhaoping, Li
Salient items usually capture attention and are beneficial to visual search. Jingling and Tseng (2013), nevertheless, have discovered that a salient collinear column can impair local visual search. The display used in that study had 21 rows and 27 columns of bars, all uniformly horizontal (or vertical) except for one column of bars orthogonally oriented to all other bars, making this unique column of collinear (or noncollinear) bars salient in the display. Observers discriminated an oblique target bar superimposed on one of the bars either in the salient column or in the background. Interestingly, responses were slower for a target in a salient collinear column than in the background. This opens a theoretical question of how contour integration interacts with salience computation, which is addressed here by an examination of how salience modulated the search impairment from the collinear column. We show that the collinear column needs to have a high orientation contrast with its neighbors to exert search interference. A collinear column of high contrast in color or luminance did not produce the same impairment. Our results show that orientation-defined salience interacted with collinear contour differently from other feature dimensions, which is consistent with the neuronal properties in V1.
Russell, R. M.; Johnson, R. M.; Gardiner, E. S.; Bergman, J. J.; Genyuk, J.; Henderson, S.
Interactive visualizations can be powerful tools for helping students, teachers, and the general public comprehend significant features in rich datasets and complex systems. Successful use of such visualizations requires viewers to have, or to acquire, adequate expertise in use of the relevant visualization tools. In many cases, the learning curve associated with competent use of such tools is too steep for casual users, such as members of the lay public browsing science outreach web sites or K-12 students and teachers trying to integrate such tools into their learning about geosciences. "Windows to the Universe" (http://www.windows.ucar.edu) is a large (roughly 6,000 web pages), well-established (first posted online in 1995), and popular (over 5 million visitor sessions and 40 million pages viewed per year) science education web site that covers a very broad range of Earth science and space science topics. The primary audience of the site consists of K-12 students and teachers and the general public. We have developed several interactive visualizations for use on the site in conjunction with text and still image reference materials. One major emphasis in the design of these interactives has been to ensure that casual users can quickly learn how to use the interactive features without becoming frustrated and departing before they were able to appreciate the visualizations displayed. We will demonstrate several of these "user-friendly" interactive visualizations and comment on the design philosophy we have employed in developing them.
Kellogg, L. H.; Kreylos, O.; Billen, M. I.; Hamann, B.; Jadamec, M. A.; Rundle, J. B.; van Aalsburg, J.; Yikilmaz, M. B.
The geological sciences are challenged to manage and interpret increasing volumes of data as observations and simulations increase in size and complexity. Major projects such as EarthScope and GeoEarthScope are producing the data needed to characterize the structure and kinematics of Earth's surface and interior at unprecedented resolution. At the same time, high-performance computing enables high-precision and fine- detail simulation of geodynamics processes, complementing the observational data. To facilitate interpretation and analysis of these datasets, to evaluate models, and to drive future calculations, we have developed methods of interactive visualization with a special focus on using immersive virtual reality (VR) environments to interact with models of Earth's surface and interior. VR has traditionally been used primarily as a presentation tool allowing active navigation through data. Reaping the full intellectual benefits of immersive VR as a tool for accelerated scientific analysis requires building on the method's strengths, that is, using both 3D perception and interaction with observed or simulated data. Our approach to VR takes advantage of the specialized skills of geoscientists who are trained to interpret geological and geophysical data generated from field observations. Interactive tools allow the scientist to explore and interpret geodynamic models, tomographic models, and topographic observations, while feature extraction tools support quantitative measurement of structures that emerge from numerical simulations or field observations. The use of VR technology enables us to improve our interpretation of crust and mantle structure and of geodynamical processes. Mapping tools based on computer visualization allow virtual "field studies" in inaccessible regions, and an interactive tool allows us to construct digital fault models for use in numerical models. Using the interactive tools on a high-end platform such as an immersive virtual reality
Gil, Y.; Duffy, C.
This paper proposes the concept of a "Computable Catchment" which is used to develop a collaborative platform for watershed modeling and data analysis. The object of the research is a sharable, executable document similar to a pdf, but one that includes documentation of the underlying theoretical concepts, interactive computational/numerical resources, linkage to essential data repositories and the ability for interactive model-data visualization and analysis. The executable document for each catchment is stored in the cloud with automatic provisioning and a unique identifier allowing collaborative model and data enhancements for historical hydroclimatic reconstruction and/or future landuse or climate change scenarios to be easily reconstructed or extended. The Computable Catchment adopts metadata standards for naming all variables in the model and the data. The a-priori or initial data is derived from national data sources for soils, hydrogeology, climate, and land cover available from the www.hydroterre.psu.edu data service (Leonard and Duffy, 2015). The executable document is based on Wolfram CDF or Computable Document Format with an interactive open-source reader accessible by any modern computing platform. The CDF file and contents can be uploaded to a website or simply shared as a normal document maintaining all interactive features of the model and data. The Computable Catchment concept represents one application for Geoscience Papers of the Future representing an extensible document that combines theory, models, data and analysis that are digitally shared, documented and reused among research collaborators, students, educators and decision makers.
Cui, Ya; Chen, Xiaowei; Luo, Huaxia; Fan, Zhen; Luo, Jianjun; He, Shunmin; Yue, Haiyan; Zhang, Peng; Chen, Runsheng
Mishra, S. K.; Rapolu, U.; Ding, D.; Muste, M.; Bennett, D.; Schnoor, J. L.
Human activity is intricately linked to the quality and quantity of water resources. Although many studies have examined water-human interaction, the complexity of such coupled systems is not well understood largely because of gaps in our knowledge of water-cycle processes which are heavily influenced by socio-economic drivers. Considerable research has been performed to develop an understanding of the impact of local land use decisions on field and catchment processes at an annual basis. Still less is known about the impact of economic and environmental outcomes on decision-making processes at the local and national level. Traditional geographic information management systems lack the ability to support the modeling and analysis of complex spatial processes. New frameworks are needed to track, query, and analyze the massive amounts of data generated by ensembles of simulations produced by multiple models that couple socioeconomic and natural system processes. On this context, we propose to develop an Intelligent Digital Watershed (IDW) which fuses emerging concepts of Digital Watershed (DW). DW is a comprehensive characterization of the eco hydrologic systems based on the best available digital data generated by measurements and simulations models. Prototype IDW in the form of a cyber infrastructure based engineered system will facilitate novel insights into human/environment interactions through multi-disciplinary research focused on watershed-related processes at multiple spatio-temporal scales. In ongoing effort, the prototype IDW is applied to Clear Creek watershed, an agricultural dominating catchment in Iowa, to understand water-human processes relevant to management decisions by farmers regarding agro ecosystems. This paper would also lay out the database design that stores metadata about simulation scenarios, scenario inputs and outputs, and connections among these elements- essentially the database. The paper describes the cyber infrastructure and
Shahsavarani, Somayeh Bahar
High-level, top-down information such as linguistic knowledge is a salient cortical resource that influences speech perception under most listening conditions. But, are all listeners able to exploit these resources for speech facilitation to the same extent? It was found that children with cochlear implants showed different patterns of benefit from contextual information in speech perception compared with their normal-haring peers. Previous studies have discussed the role of non-acoustic factors such as linguistic and cognitive capabilities to account for this discrepancy. Given the fact that the amount of acoustic information encoded and processed by auditory nerves of listeners with cochlear implants differs from normal-hearing listeners and even varies across individuals with cochlear implants, it is important to study the interaction of specific acoustic properties of the speech signal with contextual cues. This relationship has been mostly neglected in previous research. In this dissertation, we aimed to explore how different acoustic dimensions interact to affect listeners' abilities to combine top-down information with bottom-up information in speech perception beyond the known effects of linguistic and cognitive capacities shown previously. Specifically, the present study investigated whether there were any distinct context effects based on the resolution of spectral versus slowly-varying temporal information in perception of spectrally impoverished speech. To that end, two experiments were conducted. In both experiments, a noise-vocoded technique was adopted to generate spectrally-degraded speech to approximate acoustic cues delivered to listeners with cochlear implants. The frequency resolution was manipulated by varying the number of frequency channels. The temporal resolution was manipulated by low-pass filtering of amplitude envelope with varying low-pass cutoff frequencies. The stimuli were presented to normal-hearing native speakers of American
Partsinevelos, Panagiotis; Agadakos, Ioannis; Pattakos, Nikolas; Maragakis, Michail
The last decade has been characterized by a significant increase of spatially dependent applications that require storage, visualization, analysis and exploration of geographic information. GIS analysis of spatiotemporal geographic data is operated by highly trained personnel under an abundance of software and tools, lacking interoperability and friendly user interaction. Towards this end, new forms of querying and interaction are emerging, including gestural interfaces. Three-dimensional GIS representations refer to either tangible surfaces or projected representations. Making a 3D tangible geographic representation touch-sensitive may be a convenient solution, but such an approach raises the cost significantly and complicates the hardware and processing required to combine touch-sensitive material (for pinpointing points) with deformable material (for displaying elevations). In this study, a novel interaction scheme upon a three dimensional visualization of GIS data is proposed. While gesture user interfaces are not yet fully acceptable due to inconsistencies and complexity, a non-tangible GIS system where 3D visualizations are projected, calls for interactions that are based on three-dimensional, non-contact and gestural procedures. Towards these objectives, we use the Microsoft Kinect II system which includes a time of flight camera, allowing for a robust and real time depth map generation, along with the capturing and translation of a variety of predefined gestures from different simultaneous users. By incorporating these features into our system architecture, we attempt to create a natural way for users to operate on GIS data. Apart from the conventional pan and zoom features, the key functions addressed for the 3-D user interface is the ability to pinpoint particular points, lines and areas of interest, such as destinations, waypoints, landmarks, closed areas, etc. The first results shown, concern a projected GIS representation where the user selects points
Gastelum, Cristhopper Jacobo Armenta
Advances in the physical sciences have progressively delivered ever increasing, already extremely large data sets to be analyzed. High performance volume rendering has become critical to the scientists for a better understanding of the massive amounts of data to be visualized. Cluster based rendering systems have become the base line to achieve the power and flexibility required to perform such task. Furthermore, display arrays have become the most suitable solution to display these data sets at their natural size and resolution which can be critical for human perception and evaluation. The work in this thesis aims at improving the scalability and usability of volume rendering systems that target visualization on display arrays. The first part deals with improving the performance by introducing the implementations of two parallel compositing algorithms for volume rendering: direct send and binary swap. The High quality Volume Rendering (HVR) framework has been extended to accommodate parallel compositing where previously only serial compositing was possible. The preliminary results show improvements in the compositing times for direct send even for a small number of processors. Unfortunately, the results of binary swap exhibit a negative behavior. This is due to the naive use of the graphics hardware blending mechanism. The expensive transfers account for the lengthy compositing times. The second part targets the development of scalable and intuitive interaction mechanisms. It introduces the development of a new client application for multitouch tablet devices, like the Apple iPad. The main goal is to provide the HVR framework, that has been extended to use tiled displays, a more intuitive and portable interaction mechanism that can get advantage of the new environment. The previous client is a PC application for the typical desktop settings that use a mouse and keyboard as sources of interaction. The current implementation of the client lets the user steer and
We report on a controlled user study comparing three visualization environments for common 3D exploration. Our environments differ in how they exploit natural human perception and interaction capabilities. We compare an augmented-reality head-mounted display (Microsoft HoloLens), a handheld tablet, and a desktop setup. The novel head-mounted HoloLens display projects stereoscopic images of virtual content into a user\\'s real world and allows for interaction in-situ at the spatial position of the 3D hologram. The tablet is able to interact with 3D content through touch, spatial positioning, and tangible markers, however, 3D content is still presented on a 2D surface. Our hypothesis is that visualization environments that match human perceptual and interaction capabilities better to the task at hand improve understanding of 3D visualizations. To better understand the space of display and interaction modalities in visualization environments, we first propose a classification based on three dimensions: perception, interaction, and the spatial and cognitive proximity of the two. Each technique in our study is located at a different position along these three dimensions. We asked 15 participants to perform four tasks, each task having different levels of difficulty for both spatial perception and degrees of freedom for interaction. Our results show that each of the tested environments is more effective for certain tasks, but that generally the desktop environment is still fastest and most precise in almost all cases.
Bach, Benjamin; Sicat, Ronell; Beyer, Johanna; Cordeil, Maxime; Pfister, Hanspeter
We report on a controlled user study comparing three visualization environments for common 3D exploration. Our environments differ in how they exploit natural human perception and interaction capabilities. We compare an augmented-reality head-mounted display (Microsoft HoloLens), a handheld tablet, and a desktop setup. The novel head-mounted HoloLens display projects stereoscopic images of virtual content into a user's real world and allows for interaction in-situ at the spatial position of the 3D hologram. The tablet is able to interact with 3D content through touch, spatial positioning, and tangible markers, however, 3D content is still presented on a 2D surface. Our hypothesis is that visualization environments that match human perceptual and interaction capabilities better to the task at hand improve understanding of 3D visualizations. To better understand the space of display and interaction modalities in visualization environments, we first propose a classification based on three dimensions: perception, interaction, and the spatial and cognitive proximity of the two. Each technique in our study is located at a different position along these three dimensions. We asked 15 participants to perform four tasks, each task having different levels of difficulty for both spatial perception and degrees of freedom for interaction. Our results show that each of the tested environments is more effective for certain tasks, but that generally the desktop environment is still fastest and most precise in almost all cases.
Li, Hui; Liu, Chunmei
3DProIN is a computational tool to visualize protein-protein interaction networks in both two dimensional (2D) and three dimensional (3D) view. It models protein-protein interactions in a graph and explores the biologically relevant features of the tertiary structures of each protein in the network. Properties such as color, shape and name of each node (protein) of the network can be edited in either 2D or 3D views. 3DProIN is implemented using 3D Java and C programming languages. The internet crawl technique is also used to parse dynamically grasped protein interactions from protein data bank (PDB). It is a java applet component that is embedded in the web page and it can be used on different platforms including Linux, Mac and Window using web browsers such as Firefox, Internet Explorer, Chrome and Safari. It also was converted into a mac app and submitted to the App store as a free app. Mac users can also download the app from our website. 3DProIN is available for academic research at http://bicompute.appspot.com.
Full Text Available To achieve more realistic simulations, meteorologists develop and use models with increasing spatial and temporal resolution. The analyzing, comparing, and visualizing of resulting simulations becomes more and more challenging due to the growing amounts and multifaceted character of the data. Various data sources, numerous variables and multiple simulations lead to a complex database. Although a variety of software exists suited for the visualization of meteorological data, none of them fulfills all of the typical domain-specific requirements: support for quasi-standard data formats and different grid types, standard visualization techniques for scalar and vector data, visualization of the context (e.g., topography and other static data, support for multiple presentation devices used in modern sciences (e.g., virtual reality, a user-friendly interface, and suitability for cooperative work.Instead of attempting to develop yet another new visualization system to fulfill all possible needs in this application domain, our approach is to provide a flexible workflow that combines different existing state-of-the-art visualization software components in order to hide the complexity of 3D data visualization tools from the end user. To complete the workflow and to enable the domain scientists to interactively visualize their data without advanced skills in 3D visualization systems, we developed a lightweight custom visualization application (MEVA - multifaceted environmental data visualization application that supports the most relevant visualization and interaction techniques and can be easily deployed. Specifically, our workflow combines a variety of different data abstraction methods provided by a state-of-the-art 3D visualization application with the interaction and presentation features of a computer-games engine. Our customized application includes solutions for the analysis of multirun data, specifically with respect to data uncertainty and
Lau, Adela S M
Web 2.0 provides a platform or a set of tools such as blogs, wikis, really simple syndication (RSS), podcasts, tags, social bookmarks, and social networking software for knowledge sharing, learning, social interaction, and the production of collective intelligence in a virtual environment. Web 2.0 is also becoming increasingly popular in e-learning and e-social communities. The objectives were to investigate how Web 2.0 tools can be applied for knowledge sharing, learning, social interaction, and the production of collective intelligence in the nursing domain and to investigate what behavioral perceptions are involved in the adoption of Web 2.0 tools by nurses. The decomposed technology acceptance model was applied to construct the research model on which the hypotheses were based. A questionnaire was developed based on the model and data from nurses (n = 388) were collected from late January 2009 until April 30, 2009. Pearson's correlation analysis and t tests were used for data analysis. Intention toward using Web 2.0 tools was positively correlated with usage behavior (r = .60, P Web 2.0 tools and enable them to better plan the strategy of implementation of Web 2.0 tools for knowledge sharing, learning, social interaction, and the production of collective intelligence.
Background Web 2.0 provides a platform or a set of tools such as blogs, wikis, really simple syndication (RSS), podcasts, tags, social bookmarks, and social networking software for knowledge sharing, learning, social interaction, and the production of collective intelligence in a virtual environment. Web 2.0 is also becoming increasingly popular in e-learning and e-social communities. Objectives The objectives were to investigate how Web 2.0 tools can be applied for knowledge sharing, learning, social interaction, and the production of collective intelligence in the nursing domain and to investigate what behavioral perceptions are involved in the adoption of Web 2.0 tools by nurses. Methods The decomposed technology acceptance model was applied to construct the research model on which the hypotheses were based. A questionnaire was developed based on the model and data from nurses (n = 388) were collected from late January 2009 until April 30, 2009. Pearson’s correlation analysis and t tests were used for data analysis. Results Intention toward using Web 2.0 tools was positively correlated with usage behavior (r = .60, P Web 2.0 tools and enable them to better plan the strategy of implementation of Web 2.0 tools for knowledge sharing, learning, social interaction, and the production of collective intelligence. PMID:22079851
Krishnan, Heamalatha; Awang, Siti Rahmah
In this study, developing a fit measurement model and identifying the best fitting items to represent Howard Gardner's nine intelligences namely, musical intelligence, bodily-kinaesthetic intelligence, mathematical/logical intelligence, visual/spatial intelligence, verbal/linguistic intelligence, interpersonal intelligence, intrapersonal intelligence, naturalist intelligence and spiritual intelligence are the main interest in order to enhance the opportunities of the management graduates for employability. In order to develop a fit measurement model, Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) was applied. A psychometric test which is the Ability Test in Employment (ATIEm) was used as the instrument to measure the existence of nine types of intelligence of 137 University Teknikal Malaysia Melaka (UTeM) management graduates for job placement purposes. The initial measurement model contains nine unobserved variables and each unobserved variable is measured by ten observed variables. Finally, the modified measurement model deemed to improve the Normed chi-square (NC) = 1.331; Incremental Fit Index (IFI) = 0.940 and Root Mean Square of Approximation (RMSEA) = 0.049 was developed. The findings showed that the UTeM management graduates possessed all nine intelligences either high or low. Musical intelligence, mathematical/logical intelligence, naturalist intelligence and spiritual intelligence contributed highest loadings on certain items. However, most of the intelligences such as bodily kinaesthetic intelligence, visual/spatial intelligence, verbal/linguistic intelligence interpersonal intelligence and intrapersonal intelligence possessed by UTeM management graduates are just at the borderline.
Gourley, Christopher S.; Abidi, Mongi A.
Virtual reality has become a tool for use in many areas of research. We have designed and built a VR system for use in range data fusion and visualization. One major VR tool is the CAVE. This is the ultimate visualization tool, but comes with a large price tag. Our design uses a unique CAVE whose graphics are powered by a desktop computer instead of a larger rack machine making it much less costly. The system consists of a screen eight feet tall by twenty-seven feet wide giving a variable field-of-view currently set at 160 degrees. A silicon graphics Indigo2 MaxImpact with the impact channel option is used for display. This gives the capability to drive three projectors at a resolution of 640 by 480 for use in displaying the virtual environment and one 640 by 480 display for a user control interface. This machine is also the first desktop package which has built-in hardware texture mapping. This feature allows us to quickly fuse the range and intensity data and other multi-sensory data. The final goal is a complete 3D texture mapped model of the environment. A dataglove, magnetic tracker, and spaceball are to be used for manipulation of the data and navigation through the virtual environment. This system gives several users the ability to interactively create 3D models from multiple range images.
Pembroke, A. D.; Colbert, J. A.
The Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC) provides hosting for many of the simulations used by the space weather community of scientists, educators, and forecasters. CCMC users may submit model runs through the Runs on Request system, which produces static visualizations of model output in the browser, while further analysis may be performed off-line via Kameleon, CCMC's cross-language access and interpolation library. Off-line analysis may be suitable for power-users, but storage and coding requirements present a barrier to entry for non-experts. Moreover, a lack of a consistent framework for analysis hinders reproducibility of scientific findings. To that end, we have developed Kameleon Live, a cloud based interactive analysis and visualization platform. Kameleon Live allows users to create scientific studies built around selected runs from the Runs on Request database, perform analysis on those runs, collaborate with other users, and disseminate their findings among the space weather community. In addition to showcasing these novel collaborative analysis features, we invite feedback from CCMC users as we seek to advance and improve on the new platform.
Cernea, Daniel; Weber, Christopher; Ebert, Achim; Kerren, Andreas
Emotions are one of the unique aspects of human nature, and sadly at the same time one of the elements that our technological world is failing to capture and consider due to their subtlety and inherent complexity. But with the current dawn of new technologies that enable the interpretation of emotional states based on techniques involving facial expressions, speech and intonation, electrodermal response (EDS) and brain-computer interfaces (BCIs), we are finally able to access real-time user emotions in various system interfaces. In this paper we introduce emotion-prints, an approach for visualizing user emotional valence and arousal in the context of multi-touch systems. Our goal is to offer a standardized technique for representing user affective states in the moment when and at the location where the interaction occurs in order to increase affective self-awareness, support awareness in collaborative and competitive scenarios, and offer a framework for aiding the evaluation of touch applications through emotion visualization. We show that emotion-prints are not only independent of the shape of the graphical objects on the touch display, but also that they can be applied regardless of the acquisition technique used for detecting and interpreting user emotions. Moreover, our representation can encode any affective information that can be decomposed or reduced to Russell's two-dimensional space of valence and arousal. Our approach is enforced by a BCI-based user study and a follow-up discussion of advantages and limitations.
Hansen, Dana; Siakaluk, Paul D; Pexman, Penny M
We examined the influence of print exposure on the body-object interaction (BOI) effect in visual word recognition. High print exposure readers and low print exposure readers either made semantic categorizations ("Is the word easily imageable?"; Experiment 1) or phonological lexical decisions ("Does the item sound like a real English word?"; Experiment 2). The results from Experiment 1 showed that there was a larger BOI effect for the low print exposure readers than for the high print exposure readers in semantic categorization, though an effect was observed for both print exposure groups. However, the results from Experiment 2 showed that the BOI effect was observed only for the high print exposure readers in phonological lexical decision. The results of the present study suggest that print exposure does influence the BOI effect, and that this influence varies as a function of task demands.
Full Text Available We examined the influence of print exposure on the body-object interaction (BOI effect in visual word recognition. High print exposure readers and low print exposure readers either made semantic categorizations (Is the word easily imageable?; Experiment 1 or phonological lexical decisions (Does the item sound like a real English word?; Experiment 2. The results from Experiment 1 showed that there was a larger facilitatory BOI effect for the low print exposure readers than for the high print exposure readers in semantic categorization, though an effect was observed for both print exposure groups. However, the results from Experiment 2 showed that a facilitatory BOI effect was observed only for the high print exposure readers in phonological lexical decision. The results of the present study suggest that print exposure does influence the BOI effect, and that this influence varies as a function of task demands.
Full Text Available While mobile devices have experienced important accessibility advances in the past years, people with visual impairments still face important barriers, especially in specific contexts when both their hands are not free to hold the mobile device, like when walking outside. By resorting to a multimodal combination of body based gestures and voice, we aim to achieve full hands and vision free interaction with mobile devices. In this article, we describe this vision and present the design of a prototype, inspired by that vision, of a text messaging application. The article also presents a user study where the suitability of the proposed approach was assessed, and a performance comparison between our prototype and existing SMS applications was conducted. Study participants received positively the prototype, which also supported better performance in tasks that involved text editing.
Bzezyan Anastasia Ambarcumovna
Full Text Available The article focuses on the application of social psychology, and visual technologies, such as photography. It stresses that this type of visual technology is used in research aimed at the study of communication, interpersonal knowledge, and inter-ethnic relations. Within these areas of research we apply photos of human appearance with the status of the criterion of categorization, identification, classification, the mechanism of recognition of certain social and ethnic groups, and attitudes. So far visual technology was insufficiently applied in studying relationships in various discriminatory practices including discrimination, which is designated as ethnic-lookism. The work discusses researches that studied identification and assessment of the man's face of different races through the application of visual technologies. The authors come to the conclusion, that the visual experience in the mainstreaming of discriminatory practices including ethnic-lookism becomes a promising direction in studying the attitudes to discriminatory behaviour in various situations of interaction.
Panta, Sandeep R.; Wang, Runtang; Fries, Jill; Kalyanam, Ravi; Speer, Nicole; Banich, Marie; Kiehl, Kent; King, Margaret; Milham, Michael; Wager, Tor D.; Turner, Jessica A.; Plis, Sergey M.; Calhoun, Vince D.
In this paper we propose a web-based approach for quick visualization of big data from brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans using a combination of an automated image capture and processing system, nonlinear embedding, and interactive data visualization tools. We draw upon thousands of MRI scans captured via the COllaborative Imaging and Neuroinformatics Suite (COINS). We then interface the output of several analysis pipelines based on structural and functional data to a t-distributed ...
System visualization, airspace visualization, air traffic visualization, air traffic management tools, airspace analysis tools 16. SECURITY ...the last visualization display up while the user creates and starts the next one; And, of course, the wringing out of every possible iota of
Weld, Daniel S.; Bansal, Gagan
Since Artificial Intelligence (AI) software uses techniques like deep lookahead search and stochastic optimization of huge neural networks to fit mammoth datasets, it often results in complex behavior that is difficult for people to understand. Yet organizations are deploying AI algorithms in many mission-critical settings. In order to trust their behavior, we must make it intelligible --- either by using inherently interpretable models or by developing methods for explaining otherwise overwh...
Schurz, Matthias; Sturm, Denise; Richlan, Fabio; Kronbichler, Martin; Ladurner, Gunther; Wimmer, Heinz
Based on our previous work, we expected the Visual Word Form Area (VWFA) in the left ventral visual pathway to be engaged by both whole-word recognition and by serial sublexical coding of letter strings. To examine this double function, a phonological lexical decision task (i.e., "Does xxx sound like an existing word?") presented short and long letter strings of words, pseudohomophones, and pseudowords (e.g., Taxi, Taksi and Tazi). Main findings were that the length effect for words was limited to occipital regions and absent in the VWFA. In contrast, a marked length effect for pseudowords was found throughout the ventral visual pathway including the VWFA, as well as in regions presumably engaged by visual attention and silent-articulatory processes. The length by lexicality interaction on brain activation corresponds to well-established behavioral findings of a length by lexicality interaction on naming latencies and speaks for the engagement of the VWFA by both lexical and sublexical processes. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Retinitis pigmentosa (RP is a highly heterogeneous genetic visual disorder with more than 70 known causative genes, some of them shared with other non-syndromic retinal dystrophies (e.g. Leber congenital amaurosis, LCA. The identification of RP genes has increased steadily during the last decade, and the 30% of the cases that still remain unassigned will soon decrease after the advent of exome/genome sequencing. A considerable amount of genetic and functional data on single RD genes and mutations has been gathered, but a comprehensive view of the RP genes and their interacting partners is still very fragmentary. This is the main gap that needs to be filled in order to understand how mutations relate to progressive blinding disorders and devise effective therapies.We have built an RP-specific network (RPGeNet by merging data from different sources: high-throughput data from BioGRID and STRING databases, manually curated data for interactions retrieved from iHOP, as well as interactions filtered out by syntactical parsing from up-to-date abstracts and full-text papers related to the RP research field. The paths emerging when known RP genes were used as baits over the whole interactome have been analysed, and the minimal number of connections among the RP genes and their close neighbors were distilled in order to simplify the search space.In contrast to the analysis of single isolated genes, finding the networks linking disease genes renders powerful etiopathological insights. We here provide an interactive interface, RPGeNet, for the molecular biologist to explore the network centered on the non-syndromic and syndromic RP and LCA causative genes. By integrating tissue-specific expression levels and phenotypic data on top of that network, a more comprehensive biological view will highlight key molecular players of retinal degeneration and unveil new RP disease candidates.
Sung, Kyongje; Gordon, Barry
Whether transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) affects mental functions, and how any such effects arise from its neural effects, continue to be debated. We investigated whether tDCS applied over the visual cortex (Oz) with a vertex (Cz) reference might affect response times (RTs) in a visual search task. We also examined whether any significant tDCS effects would interact with task factors (target presence, discrimination difficulty, and stimulus brightness) that are known to selectively influence one or the other of the two information processing stages posited by current models of visual search. Based on additive factor logic, we expected that the pattern of interactions involving a significant tDCS effect could help us colocalize the tDCS effect to one (or both) of the processing stages. In Experiment 1 (n = 12), anodal tDCS improved RTs significantly; cathodal tDCS produced a nonsignificant trend toward improvement. However, there were no interactions between the anodal tDCS effect and target presence or discrimination difficulty. In Experiment 2 (n = 18), we manipulated stimulus brightness along with target presence and discrimination difficulty. Anodal and cathodal tDCS both produced significant improvements in RTs. Again, the tDCS effects did not interact with any of the task factors. In Experiment 3 (n = 16), electrodes were placed at Cz and on the upper arm, to test for a possible effect of incidental stimulation of the motor regions under Cz. No effect of tDCS on RTs was found. These findings strengthen the case for tDCS having real effects on cerebral information processing. However, these effects did not clearly arise from either of the two processing stages of the visual search process. We suggest that this is because tDCS has a DIFFUSE, pervasive action across the task-relevant neuroanatomical region(s), not a discrete effect in terms of information processing stages.
Vartak, Manasi; Rahman, Sajjadur; Madden, Samuel; Parameswaran, Aditya; Polyzotis, Neoklis
Data analysts often build visualizations as the first step in their analytical workflow. However, when working with high-dimensional datasets, identifying visualizations that show relevant or desired trends in data can be laborious. We propose SeeDB, a visualization recommendation engine to facilitate fast visual analysis: given a subset of data to be studied, SeeDB intelligently explores the space of visualizations, evaluates promising visualizations for trends, and recommends those it deems most "useful" or "interesting". The two major obstacles in recommending interesting visualizations are (a) scale : evaluating a large number of candidate visualizations while responding within interactive time scales, and (b) utility : identifying an appropriate metric for assessing interestingness of visualizations. For the former, SeeDB introduces pruning optimizations to quickly identify high-utility visualizations and sharing optimizations to maximize sharing of computation across visualizations. For the latter, as a first step, we adopt a deviation-based metric for visualization utility, while indicating how we may be able to generalize it to other factors influencing utility. We implement SeeDB as a middleware layer that can run on top of any DBMS. Our experiments show that our framework can identify interesting visualizations with high accuracy. Our optimizations lead to multiple orders of magnitude speedup on relational row and column stores and provide recommendations at interactive time scales. Finally, we demonstrate via a user study the effectiveness of our deviation-based utility metric and the value of recommendations in supporting visual analytics.
Kashima, N; Nakamura, H; Kubo, S; Tamura, Y; Ito, A M
We have simulated distribution of electromagnetic waves through the system composed of miter bends by Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) simulation. We develop the interactive visualization system using a new interactive GUI system which is composed of the virtual reality system and android tablet to analyze the FDTD simulation. The effect of the waveguide system with grooves have been investigated to quantitatively by visualization system. Comparing waveguide system with grooves and without grooves, grooves have been confirmed to suppress the surface current at the metal surface. The surface current at complex shape such as the miter bend have been investigated
Putri Soraya; Yudi Irawan Chandra, SKom, MMSI
In the current era of globalization developments in science, technology and information increasingly fast and sophisticated. Many all fields associated with a computer because with a variety of computer knowledge can be searched here. With the convenience to gain that knowledge then the authors are interested in creating applications using the mathematical formula set Ms Visual Basic 6.0. This application is made to meet the needs of the learning process for students because the authors saw ...
Putri Soraya; Yudi Irawan Chandra, SKom, MMSI
In the current era of globalization developments in science, technology and information increasingly fast and sophisticated. Many all fields associated with the computer because with knowledge of various computer performance is sought here. With easy to obtain such knowledge, the authors are interested in creating a collection of mathematical applications using Visual Basic 6.0. This application is made to meet the learning needs of students bagiu because the author saw the students are still...
Lin, Hsien-Cheng; Chiu, Yu-Hsien; Chen, Yenming J; Wuang, Yee-Pay; Chen, Chiu-Ping; Wang, Chih-Chung; Huang, Chien-Ling; Wu, Tang-Meng; Ho, Wen-Hsien
This study developed an interactive computer game-based visual perception learning system for special education children with developmental delay. To investigate whether perceived interactivity affects continued use of the system, this study developed a theoretical model of the process in which learners decide whether to continue using an interactive computer game-based visual perception learning system. The technology acceptance model, which considers perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness, and perceived playfulness, was extended by integrating perceived interaction (i.e., learner-instructor interaction and learner-system interaction) and then analyzing the effects of these perceptions on satisfaction and continued use. Data were collected from 150 participants (rehabilitation therapists, medical paraprofessionals, and parents of children with developmental delay) recruited from a single medical center in Taiwan. Structural equation modeling and partial-least-squares techniques were used to evaluate relationships within the model. The modeling results indicated that both perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness were positively associated with both learner-instructor interaction and learner-system interaction. However, perceived playfulness only had a positive association with learner-system interaction and not with learner-instructor interaction. Moreover, satisfaction was positively affected by perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness, and perceived playfulness. Thus, satisfaction positively affects continued use of the system. The data obtained by this study can be applied by researchers, designers of computer game-based learning systems, special education workers, and medical professionals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Walter, Sabrina; Quigley, Cliodhna; Mueller, Matthias M
Performing a task across the left and right visual hemifields results in better performance than in a within-hemifield version of the task, termed the different-hemifield advantage. Although recent studies used transient stimuli that were presented with long ISIs, here we used a continuous objective electrophysiological (EEG) measure of competitive interactions for attentional processing resources in early visual cortex, the steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP). We frequency-tagged locations in each visual quadrant and at central fixation by flickering light-emitting diodes (LEDs) at different frequencies to elicit distinguishable SSVEPs. Stimuli were presented for several seconds, and participants were cued to attend to two LEDs either in one (Within) or distributed across left and right visual hemifields (Across). In addition, we introduced two reference measures: one for suppressive interactions between the peripheral LEDs by using a task at fixation where attention was withdrawn from the periphery and another estimating the upper bound of SSVEP amplitude by cueing participants to attend to only one of the peripheral LEDs. We found significantly greater SSVEP amplitude modulations in Across compared with Within hemifield conditions. No differences were found between SSVEP amplitudes elicited by the peripheral LEDs when participants attended to the centrally located LEDs compared with when peripheral LEDs had to be ignored in Across and Within trials. Attending to only one LED elicited the same SSVEP amplitude as Across conditions. Although behavioral data displayed a more complex pattern, SSVEP amplitudes were well in line with the predictions of the different-hemifield advantage account during sustained visuospatial attention.
Yu, Bowen; Doraiswamy, Harish; Chen, Xi; Miraldi, Emily; Arrieta-Ortiz, Mario Luis; Hafemeister, Christoph; Madar, Aviv; Bonneau, Richard; Silva, Cláudio T
Elucidation of transcriptional regulatory networks (TRNs) is a fundamental goal in biology, and one of the most important components of TRNs are transcription factors (TFs), proteins that specifically bind to gene promoter and enhancer regions to alter target gene expression patterns. Advances in genomic technologies as well as advances in computational biology have led to multiple large regulatory network models (directed networks) each with a large corpus of supporting data and gene-annotation. There are multiple possible biological motivations for exploring large regulatory network models, including: validating TF-target gene relationships, figuring out co-regulation patterns, and exploring the coordination of cell processes in response to changes in cell state or environment. Here we focus on queries aimed at validating regulatory network models, and on coordinating visualization of primary data and directed weighted gene regulatory networks. The large size of both the network models and the primary data can make such coordinated queries cumbersome with existing tools and, in particular, inhibits the sharing of results between collaborators. In this work, we develop and demonstrate a web-based framework for coordinating visualization and exploration of expression data (RNA-seq, microarray), network models and gene-binding data (ChIP-seq). Using specialized data structures and multiple coordinated views, we design an efficient querying model to support interactive analysis of the data. Finally, we show the effectiveness of our framework through case studies for the mouse immune system (a dataset focused on a subset of key cellular functions) and a model bacteria (a small genome with high data-completeness).
Rivest, Sonia; Bédard, Yvan; Proulx, Marie-Josée; Nadeau, Martin; Hubert, Frederic; Pastor, Julien
To support their analytical processes, today's organizations deploy data warehouses and client tools such as OLAP (On-Line Analytical Processing) to access, visualize, and analyze their integrated, aggregated and summarized data. Since a large part of these data have a spatial component, better client tools are required to take full advantage of the geometry of the spatial phenomena or objects being analyzed. With this regard, Spatial OLAP (SOLAP) technology offers promising possibilities. A SOLAP tool can be defined as "a type of software that allows rapid and easy navigation within spatial databases and that offers many levels of information granularity, many themes, many epochs and many display modes synchronized or not: maps, tables and diagrams" [Bédard, Y., Proulx, M.J., Rivest, S., 2005. Enrichissement du OLAP pour l'analyse géographique: exemples de réalisation et différentes possibilités technologiques. In: Bentayeb, F., Boussaid, O., Darmont, J., Rabaseda, S. (Eds.), Entrepôts de Données et Analyse en ligne, RNTI B_1. Paris: Cépaduès, pp. 1-20]. SOLAP tools offer a new user interface and are meant to be client applications sitting on top of multi-scale spatial data warehouses or datacubes. As they are based on the multidimensional paradigm, they facilitate the interactive spatio-temporal exploration of data. The purpose of this paper is to discuss how SOLAP concepts support spatio-temporal exploration of data and then to present the geovisualization, interactivity, and animation features of the SOLAP software developed by our research group. This paper first reviews the general concepts behind OLAP and SOLAP systems. This is followed by a discussion of how these SOLAP concepts support spatio-temporal exploration of data. In the subsequent section, SOLAP software is introduced along with features that enable geovisualization, interactivity and animation.
Full Text Available Audio-visual speech recognition is a natural and robust approach to improving human-robot interaction in noisy environments. Although multi-stream Dynamic Bayesian Network and coupled HMM are widely used for audio-visual speech recognition, they fail to learn the shared features between modalities and ignore the dependency of features among the frames within each discrete state. In this paper, we propose a Deep Dynamic Bayesian Network (DDBN to perform unsupervised extraction of spatial-temporal multimodal features from Tibetan audio-visual speech data and build an accurate audio-visual speech recognition model under a no frame-independency assumption. The experiment results on Tibetan speech data from some real-world environments showed the proposed DDBN outperforms the state-of-art methods in word recognition accuracy.
Zuhrie, M. S.; Basuki, I.; Asto B, I. G. P.; Anifah, L.
The focus of the research is the teaching module which incorporates manufacturing, planning mechanical designing, controlling system through microprocessor technology and maneuverability of the robot. Computer interactive and computer-assisted learning is strategies that emphasize the use of computers and learning aids (computer assisted learning) in teaching and learning activity. This research applied the 4-D model research and development. The model is suggested by Thiagarajan, et.al (1974). 4-D Model consists of four stages: Define Stage, Design Stage, Develop Stage, and Disseminate Stage. This research was conducted by applying the research design development with an objective to produce a tool of learning in the form of intelligent robot modules and kit based on Computer Interactive Learning and Computer Assisted Learning. From the data of the Indonesia Robot Contest during the period of 2009-2015, it can be seen that the modules that have been developed confirm the fourth stage of the research methods of development; disseminate method. The modules which have been developed for students guide students to produce Intelligent Robot Tool for Teaching Based on Computer Interactive Learning and Computer Assisted Learning. Results of students’ responses also showed a positive feedback to relate to the module of robotics and computer-based interactive learning.
Pruett, Jake A; Zúñiga-Vega, J Jaime; Campos, Stephanie M; Soini, Helena A; Novotny, Milos V; Vital-García, Cuauhcihuatl; Martins, Emília P; Hews, Diana K
Animals rely on multimodal signals to obtain information from conspecifics through alternative sensory systems, and the evolutionary loss of a signal in one modality may lead to compensation through increased use of signals in an alternative modality. We investigated associations between chemical signaling and evolutionary loss of abdominal color patches in males of four species (two plain-bellied and two colorful-bellied) of Sceloporus lizards. We conducted field trials to compare behavioral responses of male lizards to swabs with femoral gland (FG) secretions from conspecific males and control swabs (clean paper). We also analyzed the volatile organic compound (VOC) composition of male FG secretions by stir bar extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to test the hypothesis that loss of the visual signal is associated with elaboration of the chemical signal. Males of plain-bellied, but not colorful-bellied species exhibited different rates of visual displays when exposed to swabs of conspecific FG secretions relative to control swabs. The VOC composition of male Sceloporus FG secretions was similar across all four species, and no clear association between relative abundances of VOCs and evolutionary loss of abdominal color patches was observed. The emerging pattern is that behavioral responses to conspecific chemical signals are species- and context-specific in male Sceloporus, and compensatory changes in receivers, but not signalers may be involved in mediating increased responsiveness to chemical signals in males of plain-bellied species.
Chou, Pao-Nan; Chang, Chi-Cheng; Chen, Mei-Yin
Compared to other academic disciplines, interactive white board (IWB) research in early childhood education is still in its infancy. To add more knowledge base regarding the instructional effectiveness of IWB for young children, this study aimed to investigate educational phenomenon of using an IWB to teach visual art to kindergarten students. The…
Davis, Pryce; Horn, Michael; Block, Florian; Phillips, Brenda; Evans, E. Margaret; Diamond, Judy; Shen, Chia
In this paper we present a qualitative analysis of natural history museum visitor interaction around a multi-touch tabletop exhibit called "DeepTree" that we designed around concepts of evolution and common descent. DeepTree combines several large scientific datasets and an innovative visualization technique to display a phylogenetic…
Dynamic Assessment of Microbial Ecology (DAME) is a shiny-based web application for interactive analysis and visualization of microbial sequencing data. DAME provides researchers not familiar with R programming the ability to access the most current R functions utilized for ecology and gene sequenci...
Hashimoto, H. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Institute of Industrial Science
Intelligent mechatronics (IM) was explained as follows: a study of IM essentially targets realization of a robot namely, but in the present stage the target is a creation of new values by intellectualization of machine, that is, a combination of the information infrastructure and the intelligent machine system. IM is also thought to be constituted of computers positively used and micromechatronics. The paper next introduces examples of IM study, mainly those the author is concerned with as shown below: sensor gloves, robot hands, robot eyes, tele operation, three-dimensional object recognition, mobile robot, magnetic bearing, construction of remote controlled unmanned dam, robot network, sensitivity communication using neuro baby, etc. 27 figs.
Nelson, David R.
A Visual Basic program for flexible, interactive processing of ion-microprobe data acquired for quantitative trace element, 26Al- 26Mg, 53Mn- 53Cr, 60Fe- 60Ni and U-Th-Pb geochronology applications is described. Default but editable run-tables enable software identification of secondary ion species analyzed and for characterization of the standard used. Counts obtained for each species may be displayed in plots against analysis time and edited interactively. Count outliers can be automatically identified via a set of editable count-rejection criteria and displayed for assessment. Standard analyses are distinguished from Unknowns by matching of the analysis label with a string specified in the Set-up dialog, and processed separately. A generalized routine writes background-corrected count rates, ratios and uncertainties, plus weighted means and uncertainties for Standards and Unknowns, to a spreadsheet that may be saved as a text-delimited file. Specialized routines process trace-element concentration, 26Al- 26Mg, 53Mn- 53Cr, 60Fe- 60Ni, and Th-U disequilibrium analysis types, and U-Th-Pb isotopic data obtained for zircon, titanite, perovskite, monazite, xenotime and baddeleyite. Correction to measured Pb-isotopic, Pb/U and Pb/Th ratios for the presence of common Pb may be made using measured 204Pb counts, or the 207Pb or 208Pb counts following subtraction from these of the radiogenic component. Common-Pb corrections may be made automatically, using a (user-specified) common-Pb isotopic composition appropriate for that on the sample surface, or for that incorporated within the mineral at the time of its crystallization, depending on whether the 204Pb count rate determined for the Unknown is substantially higher than the average 204Pb count rate for all session standards. Pb/U inter-element fractionation corrections are determined using an interactive log e-log e plot of common-Pb corrected 206Pb/ 238U ratios against any nominated fractionation-sensitive species pair
This book consists of essays covering issues in visual cognition presenting experimental techniques from cognitive psychology, methods of modeling cognitive processes on computers from artificial intelligence, and methods of studying brain organization from neuropsychology. Topics considered include: parts of recognition; visual routines; upward direction; mental rotation, and discrimination of left and right turns in maps; individual differences in mental imagery, computational analysis and the neurological basis of mental imagery: componental analysis.
Full Text Available Ewa Sawosz1, André Chwalibog2, Jacek Szeliga3, Filip Sawosz2, Marta Grodzik1, Marlena Rupiewicz1, Tomasz Niemiec1, Katarzyna Kacprzyk11Division of Biotechnology and Biochemistry of Nutrition, Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Warsaw, Poland; 2Department of Basic Animal and Veterinary Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark; 3Division of Microbiology of Analytical Centre, Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Warsaw, PolandPurpose: Rapid development of nanotechnology has recently brought significant attention to the extraordinary biological features of nanomaterials. The objective of the present investigation was to evaluate morphological characteristics of the assembles of gold and platinum nanoparticles (nano-Au and nano-Pt respectively, with Salmonella Enteritidis (Gram-negative and Listeria monocytogenes (Gram-positive, to reveal possibilities of constructing bacteria-nanoparticle vehicles.Methods: Hydrocolloids of nano-Au or nano-Pt were added to two bacteria suspensions in the following order: nano-Au + Salmonella Enteritidis; nano-Au + Listeria monocytogenes; nano-Pt + Salmonella Enteritidis; nano-Pt + Listeria monocytogenes. Samples were inspected by transmission electron microscope.Results: Visualization of morphological interaction between nano-Au and Salmonella Enteritidis and Listeria monocytogenes, showed that nano-Au were aggregated within flagella or biofilm network and did not penetrate the bacterial cell. The analysis of morphological effects of interaction of nano-Pt with bacteria revealed that nano-Pt entered cells of Listeria monocytogenes and were removed from the cells. In the case of Salmonella Enteritidis, nano-Pt were seen inside bacteria cells, probably bound to DNA and partly left bacterial cells. After washing and centrifugation, some of the nano-Pt-DNA complexes were observed within Salmonella Enteritidis.Conclusion: The results indicate that the bacteria could be used as a vehicle to deliver nano
Nelissen, Natalie; Stokes, Mark; Nobre, Anna C; Rushworth, Matthew F S
Using multivoxel pattern analysis (MVPA), we studied how distributed visual representations in human occipitotemporal cortex are modulated by attention and link their modulation to concurrent activity in frontal and parietal cortex. We detected similar occipitotemporal patterns during a simple visuoperceptual task and an attention-to-working-memory task in which one or two stimuli were cued before being presented among other pictures. Pattern strength varied from highest to lowest when the stimulus was the exclusive focus of attention, a conjoint focus, and when it was potentially distracting. Although qualitatively similar effects were seen inside regions relatively specialized for the stimulus category and outside, the former were quantitatively stronger. By regressing occipitotemporal pattern strength against activity elsewhere in the brain, we identified frontal and parietal areas exerting top-down control over, or reading information out from, distributed patterns in occipitotemporal cortex. Their interactions with patterns inside regions relatively specialized for that stimulus category were higher than those with patterns outside those regions and varied in strength as a function of the attentional condition. One area, the frontal operculum, was distinguished by selectively interacting with occipitotemporal patterns only when they were the focus of attention. There was no evidence that any frontal or parietal area actively inhibited occipitotemporal representations even when they should be ignored and were suppressed. Using MVPA to decode information within these frontal and parietal areas showed that they contained information about attentional context and/or readout information from occipitotemporal cortex to guide behavior but that frontal regions lacked information about category identity.
Stokes, Mark; Nobre, Anna C.; Rushworth, Matthew F. S.
Using multivoxel pattern analysis (MVPA), we studied how distributed visual representations in human occipitotemporal cortex are modulated by attention and link their modulation to concurrent activity in frontal and parietal cortex. We detected similar occipitotemporal patterns during a simple visuoperceptual task and an attention-to-working-memory task in which one or two stimuli were cued before being presented among other pictures. Pattern strength varied from highest to lowest when the stimulus was the exclusive focus of attention, a conjoint focus, and when it was potentially distracting. Although qualitatively similar effects were seen inside regions relatively specialized for the stimulus category and outside, the former were quantitatively stronger. By regressing occipitotemporal pattern strength against activity elsewhere in the brain, we identified frontal and parietal areas exerting top-down control over, or reading information out from, distributed patterns in occipitotemporal cortex. Their interactions with patterns inside regions relatively specialized for that stimulus category were higher than those with patterns outside those regions and varied in strength as a function of the attentional condition. One area, the frontal operculum, was distinguished by selectively interacting with occipitotemporal patterns only when they were the focus of attention. There was no evidence that any frontal or parietal area actively inhibited occipitotemporal representations even when they should be ignored and were suppressed. Using MVPA to decode information within these frontal and parietal areas showed that they contained information about attentional context and/or readout information from occipitotemporal cortex to guide behavior but that frontal regions lacked information about category identity. PMID:24133250
Chang, Chia-Hu; Wu, Ja-Ling
With the development of content-based multimedia analysis, virtual content insertion has been widely used and studied for video enrichment and multimedia advertising. However, how to automatically insert a user-selected virtual content into personal videos in a less-intrusive manner, with an attractive representation, is a challenging problem. In this chapter, we present an evolution-based virtual content insertion system which can insert virtual contents into videos with evolved animations according to predefined behaviors emulating the characteristics of evolutionary biology. The videos are considered not only as carriers of message conveyed by the virtual content but also as the environment in which the lifelike virtual contents live. Thus, the inserted virtual content will be affected by the videos to trigger a series of artificial evolutions and evolve its appearances and behaviors while interacting with video contents. By inserting virtual contents into videos through the system, users can easily create entertaining storylines and turn their personal videos into visually appealing ones. In addition, it would bring a new opportunity to increase the advertising revenue for video assets of the media industry and online video-sharing websites.
Chatterjee, Alok; Worlton, T.; Hammonds, J.; Loong, C.K.; Mikkelson, D.; Mikkelson, R.; Chen, D.
An Integrated Spectral Analysis Workbench, ISAW has been developed at IPNS with the goal of providing a flexible and powerful tool to visualize and analyze neutron scattering time-of-flight data. The software, written in Java, is platform independent, object oriented and modular, making it easier to maintain and add features. The graphical user interface (GUI) for ISAW allows intuitive and interactive loading and manipulation of multiple spectra from different 'runs'. ISAW provides multiple displays of the spectra in a Runfile' and most of the functions can be performed through the GUI menu bar as well as through command scripts. All displays are simultaneously updated when the data is changed using the Observable-observer object-model pattern. All displays are observers of the Dataset (observable) and respond to changes or selections in it simultaneously. A 'tree' display of the spectra in run files is provided for a detailed view of detector elements and easy selection of spectra. The operations menu is instrument sensitive so that it displays the appropriate set of operators accordingly. Automatic menu generation is made possible by the ability of the DataSet objects to furnish a list of operations contained in the particular DataSet selected at the time the menu bar is accessed. The transformed and corrected data can be saved to a disk in different file formats for further analyses (e.g., GSAS for structure refinement). (author)
Mishima, K.; Hibiki, T.; Saito, Y.; Moriyama, Kiyofumi; Sugimoto, Jun
In relation to severe accident research of a nuclear reactor, an experiment was performed to simulate the premixing process in the vapor explosion by dropping hot stainless-steel particle into heavy water filled in a rectangular tank. The test rig consisted of a furnace and a rectangular tank (400 mm in height, 100 mm in width and 30 mm in depth) filled with heavy water kept at 4degC. The particle diameter used in the experiment were 6, 9 and 12 mm, and the initial temperature of the particle ranged from 600 to 1000degC. The behavior of gas dome generated by heated particle-subcooled water interaction was successfully visualized by high-frame-rate neutron radiography at the recording speed of 500 frames/s. Temporal and spatial variations of void fraction in the gas dome were measured by processing the images obtained. The void fraction measurement indicated the possibility that the ambient fluid was superheated by the hot particle-water contact and the vapor was generated in proportion to the particle size and temperature. Preliminary calculations of heat transfer from hot particle to water were conducted by using and empirical correlation for steady film boiling. Comparison between experimental and calculated results suggested that the transient heat transfer around the hot particle could not be explained only by steady film boiling but some other heat transfer mechanisms such as unsteady film boiling or hear transfer due to direct contact may be needed. (author)
Yuen, D. A.; McArthur, E.; Weiss, R. M.; Zhou, J.; Yao, B.
We discuss the thesis that the implementation of a moral code in the behaviour of artificial intelligent systems needs a specific form of human and artificial intelligence, not just an abstract intelligence. We present intelligence as a system with an internal structure and the structural levels of the moral system, as well as certain characteristics of artificial intelligent agents which can/must be treated as 1- individual entities (with a complex, specialized, autonomous or selfdetermined,...
Jochum, Elizabeth; Borggreen, Gunhild; Murphey, TD
This paper considers the impact of visual art and performance on robotics and human-computer interaction and outlines a research project that combines puppetry and live performance with robotics. Kinesics—communication through movement—is the foundation of many theatre and performance traditions ...
Balconi, Michela; Vanutelli, Maria Elide
The present research explored the effect of cross-modal integration of emotional cues (auditory and visual (AV)) compared with only visual (V) emotional cues in observing interspecies interactions. The brain activity was monitored when subjects processed AV and V situations, which represented an emotional (positive or negative), interspecies (human-animal) interaction. Congruence (emotionally congruous or incongruous visual and auditory patterns) was also modulated. electroencephalography brain oscillations (from delta to beta) were analyzed and the cortical source localization (by standardized Low Resolution Brain Electromagnetic Tomography) was applied to the data. Frequency band (mainly low-frequency delta and theta) showed a significant brain activity increasing in response to negative compared to positive interactions within the right hemisphere. Moreover, differences were found based on stimulation type, with an increased effect for AV compared with V. Finally, delta band supported a lateralized right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) activity in response to negative and incongruous interspecies interactions, mainly for AV. The contribution of cross-modality, congruence (incongruous patterns), and lateralization (right DLPFC) in response to interspecies emotional interactions was discussed at light of a "negative lateralized effect."
Zijlmans, L. J. M.; Embregts, P. J. C. M.; Gerits, L.; Bosman, A. M. T.; Derksen, J. J. L.
Background: Recent research addressed the relationship between staff behaviour and challenging behaviour of individuals with an intellectual disability (ID). Consequently, research on interventions aimed at staff is warranted. The present study focused on the effectiveness of a staff training aimed at emotional intelligence and interactions…
Steif, Paul S.; Fu, Luoting; Kara, Levent Burak
Problems faced by engineering students involve multiple pathways to solution. Students rarely receive effective formative feedback on handwritten homework. This paper examines the potential for computer-based formative assessment of student solutions to multipath engineering problems. In particular, an intelligent tutor approach is adopted and…
Usaj, Matej; Tan, Yizhao; Wang, Wen; VanderSluis, Benjamin; Zou, Albert; Myers, Chad L; Costanzo, Michael; Andrews, Brenda; Boone, Charles
Providing access to quantitative genomic data is key to ensure large-scale data validation and promote new discoveries. TheCellMap.org serves as a central repository for storing and analyzing quantitative genetic interaction data produced by genome-scale Synthetic Genetic Array (SGA) experiments with the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae In particular, TheCellMap.org allows users to easily access, visualize, explore, and functionally annotate genetic interactions, or to extract and reorganize subnetworks, using data-driven network layouts in an intuitive and interactive manner. Copyright © 2017 Usaj et al.
Weiss, R. M.; McLane, J. C.; Yuen, D. A.; Wang, S.
Full Text Available The attribute framing bias is a well-established phenomenon, in which an object or an event is evaluated more favorably when presented in a positive frame such as ``the half full glass'' than when presented in the complementary negative framing. Given that previous research showed that visual aids can attenuate this bias, the current research explores the factors underlying the attenuating effect of visual aids. In a series of three experiments, we examined how attribute framing bias is affected by two factors: (a The display mode---verbal versus visual; and (b the representation of the critical attribute---whether one outcome, either the positive or the negative, is represented or both outcomes are represented. In Experiment 1 a marginal attenuation of attribute framing bias was obtained when verbal description of either positive or negative information was accompanied by corresponding visual representation. In Experiment 2 similar marginal attenuation was obtained when both positive and negative outcomes were verbally represented. In Experiment 3, where the verbal description represented both positive and negative outcomes, significant attenuation was obtained when it was accompanied by a visual display that represented a single outcome, and complete attenuation, totally eliminating the framing bias, was obtained when it was accompanied by a visual display that represented both outcomes. Thus, our findings showed that interaction between the display mode and the representation of the critical attribute attenuated the framing bias. Theoretical and practical implications of the interaction between verbal description, visual aids and representation of the critical attribute are discussed, and future research is suggested.
in a mesopsammic gastropod, though functionally not yet fully understood. Such organ complexity as shown herein by interactive 3D visualization is not plesiomorphically maintained from a larger, benthic ancestor, but newly evolved within small marine hedylopsacean ancestors of P. cornuta. The common picture of general organ regression within mesopsammic acochlidians thus is valid for microhedylacean species only.
How do people make sense of the sequential images in visual narratives like comics? A growing literature of recent research has suggested that this comprehension involves the interaction of multiple systems: The creation of meaning across sequential images relies on a "narrative grammar" that packages conceptual information into categorical roles organized in hierarchic constituents. These images are encapsulated into panels arranged in the layout of a physical page. Finally, how panels frame information can impact both the narrative structure and page layout. Altogether, these systems operate in parallel to construct the Gestalt whole of comprehension of this visual language found in comics.
Monshizadeh, Leila; Vameghi, Roshanak; Sajedi, Firoozeh; Yadegari, Fariba; Hashemi, Seyed Basir; Kirchem, Petra; Kasbi, Fatemeh
A cochlear implant is a device that helps hearing-impaired children by transmitting sound signals to the brain and helping them improve their speech, language, and social interaction. Although various studies have investigated the different aspects of speech perception and language acquisition in cochlear-implanted children, little is known about their social skills, particularly Persian-speaking cochlear-implanted children. Considering the growing number of cochlear implants being performed in Iran and the increasing importance of developing near-normal social skills as one of the ultimate goals of cochlear implantation, this study was performed to compare the social interaction between Iranian cochlear-implanted children who have undergone rehabilitation (auditory verbal therapy) after surgery and normal-hearing children. This descriptive-analytical study compared the social interaction level of 30 children with normal hearing and 30 with cochlear implants who were conveniently selected. The Raven test was administered to the both groups to ensure normal intelligence quotient. The social interaction status of both groups was evaluated using the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale, and statistical analysis was performed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 21. After controlling age as a covariate variable, no significant difference was observed between the social interaction scores of both the groups (p > 0.05). In addition, social interaction had no correlation with sex in either group. Cochlear implantation followed by auditory verbal rehabilitation helps children with sensorineural hearing loss to have normal social interactions, regardless of their sex.
Solano-Román, Antonio; Alfaro-Arias, Verónica; Cruz-Castillo, Carlos; Orozco-Solano, Allan
Tost, Jordi; Olen, Stephanie M.; Bookhagen, Bodo; Heidmann, Frank
The DIGENTI project ("DIGitaler ENtscheiderTIsch für das Naturgefahrenmanagement auf Basis von Satellitendaten und Volunteered Geographic Information") has the goal of quantifying and communicating the threat of natural hazards in the Cesar and La Guajira departments of northeast Colombia. The end-goal of the project is to provide an interactive guide for policy and decision makers, and for disaster relief coordination. Over the last years, abundant research has been done in order to analyze risk and to provide relevant information that improves effectiveness in disaster management. The communication of natural hazards risk has traditionally been built upon the estimation of hazard maps. In the context of landslides, hazard maps are used to depict potential danger from landslides and visualize the possibility of future landsliding throughout a given area. Such hazard maps provide a static snapshot of the local estimated threat in a region. However, in mountainous regions, a sufficiently large landslide in remote mountainous areas may represent a potential threat to settlements located downstream of a landslide event. The research presented here proposes an approach to visualize and interactively explore landslide risk by combining static hazard maps, hydrologic networks, and OpenStreetMap data. We estimated the potential for hillslope instabilities scenarios in the region of interest by using the TanDEM-X World DEM to calculate a suite Factor of Safety (FOS) maps. The FOS estimates the ratio of total resisting and driving forces to hillslope mass movements. By combining the World DEM with other environmental data (e.g., the Harmonized World Soil Database), we were able to create a suite of high-resolution landslide potential maps for the region of interest. The suite of FOS maps are calculated based on user-selectable parameters (e.g, total mass sliding thickness) that are not well constrained by field observations. We additionally use the TanDEM-X World DEM to
Parés, Narcís; Carreras, Anna; Durany, Jaume; Ferrer, Jaume; Freixa, Pere; Gómez, David; Kruglanski, Orit; Parés, Roc; Ribas, J Ignasi; Soler, Miquel; Sanjurjo, Alex
On starting to think about interaction design for low-functioning persons in the autistic spectrum (PAS), especially children, one finds a number of questions that are difficult to answer: Can we typify the PAS user? Can we engage the user in interactive communication without generating frustrating or obsessive situations? What sort of visual stimuli can we provide? Will they prefer representational or abstract visual stimuli? Will they understand three-dimensional (3D) graphic representation? What sort of interfaces will they accept? Can we set ambitious goals such as education or therapy? Unfortunately, most of these questions have no answer yet. Hence, we decided to set an apparently simple goal: to design a "fun application," with no intention to reach the level of education or therapy. The goal was to be attained by giving the users a sense of agency--by providing first a sense of control in the interaction dialogue. Our approach to visual stimuli design has been based on the use of geometric, abstract, two-dimensional (2D), real-time computer graphics in a full-body, non-invasive, interactive space. The results obtained within the European-funded project MultiSensory Environment Design for an Interface between Autistic and Typical Expressiveness (MEDIATE) have been extremely encouraging.
Rutter, D R
Several reports have suggested that schizophrenic patients engage in very little Looking and eye-contact. However, previous work, much of it methodologically unsatisfactory, has been based almost always on the clinical psychiatric interview, with the result that several important questions remain unanswered. In particular, we do not know how schizophrenic patients behave in free conversation, how their behaviour with another patient may differ from their behaviour with a psychiatrically normal partner, nor even whether they show individual consistency across encounters. The first study was designed to examine these questions, by observing recently admitted schizophrenic patients in two free dyadic conversations, one with a schizophrenic partner and one with a psychiatrically normal partner, and comparing them with three control groups: depressive patients; patients suffering from neurotic or personality disorders; and psychiatrically normal chest patients. The second study went on to test whether the early descriptions of gross abnormality may be more appropriate to chronic long-stay patients than to recently admitted patients, and the design consisted of a comparison between the two groups. The first study revealed a quite unexpected pattern of results. Consistently across their two encounters, schizophrenic subjects behaved similarly for the most part to all three control groups, normal and abnormal alike. Moreover, the few differences which did emerge conflicted sharply with previous findings, including the writer's, and were no more marked in patient-patient than patient-normal encounters. The second study revealed no differences between chronic long-stay and recently admitted schizophrenic patients. It is suggested that the differences in findings between the present two studies and previous reports are most likely to be attributable to differences in verbal content: schizophrenic patients show abnormalities of visual interaction when talking about personal
Masumoto, Kouhei; Yaguchi, Takaharu; Matsuda, Hiroshi; Tani, Hideaki; Tozuka, Keisuke; Kondo, Narihiko; Okada, Shuichi
A number of interventions have been undertaken to develop and promote social networks among community-dwelling older adults. However, it has been difficult to examine the effects of these interventions, because of problems in assessing interactions. The present study was designed to quantitatively measure and visualize face-to-face interactions among elderly participants in an exercise program. We also examined relationships among interactional variables, personality and interest in community involvement, including interactions with the local community. Older adults living in the same community were recruited to participate in an exercise program that consisted of four sessions. We collected data on face-to-face interactions of the participants by using a wearable sensor technology device. Network analysis identified the communication networks of participants in the exercise program, as well as changes in these networks. Additionally, there were significant correlations between the number of people involved in face-to-face interactions and changes in both interest in community involvement and interactions with local community residents, as well as personality traits, including agreeableness. Social networks in the community are essential for solving problems caused by the aging society. We showed the possible applications of face-to-face interactional data for identifying core participants having many interactions, and isolated participants having only a few interactions within the community. Such data would be useful for carrying out efficient interventions for increasing participants' involvement with their community. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 1752-1758. © 2017 Japan Geriatrics Society.
Aarts, E.H.L.; Roovers, R.L.J.
The vision of ambient intelligence opens a world of unprecedented experiences: the interaction of people with electronic devices is changed as contextual awareness, natural interfaces and ubiquitous availability of information are realized. We analyze the consequences of the ambient intelligence
Nijholt, Antinus; Reidsma, Dennis; Poppe, Ronald Walter; Aghajan, H.; López-Cózar Delgado, R.; Augusto, J.C.
In future ambient intelligence (AmI) environments we assume intelligence embedded in the environment and its objects (floors, furniture, mobile robots). These environments support their human inhabitants in their activities and interactions by perceiving them through sensors (proximity sensors,
In many early childhood classrooms, visual arts experiences occur around a communal arts table. A shared workspace allows for spontaneous conversation and exploration of the art-making process of peers and teachers. In this setting, conversation can play an important role in visual arts experiences as children explore new media, skills, and ideas.…
Lommerse, Gerard; Nossin, Freek; Voinea, Lucian; Telea, Alexandru
We present the Visual Code Navigator, a set of three interrelated visual tools that we developed for exploring large source code software projects from three different perspectives, or views: The syntactic view shows the syntactic constructs in the source code. The symbol view shows the objects a
Dib, Hazar; Adamo-Villani, Nicoletta; Garver, Stephen
Many benefits have been claimed for visualizations, a general assumption being that learning is facilitated. However, several researchers argue that little is known about the cognitive value of graphical representations, be they schematic visualizations, such as diagrams or more realistic, such as virtual reality. The study reported in the paper…
Information Technology Quarterly, 1985
This issue of "Information Technology Quarterly" is devoted to the theme of "Artificial Intelligence." It contains two major articles: (1) Artificial Intelligence and Law" (D. Peter O'Neill and George D. Wood); (2) "Artificial Intelligence: A Long and Winding Road" (John J. Simon, Jr.). In addition, it contains two sidebars: (1) "Calculating and…
Bergeron, Pierrette; Hiller, Christine A.
Reviews the evolution of competitive intelligence since 1994, including terminology and definitions and analytical techniques. Addresses the issue of ethics; explores how information technology supports the competitive intelligence process; and discusses education and training opportunities for competitive intelligence, including core competencies…
Vicente, Natalin S; Halloy, Monique
Multimodal communication involves the use of signals and cues across two or more sensory modalities. The genus Liolaemus (Iguania: Liolaemidae) offers a great potential for studies on the ecology and evolution of multimodal communication, including visual and chemical signals. In this study, we analyzed the response of male and female Liolaemus pacha to chemical, visual and combined (multimodal) stimuli. Using cue-isolation tests, we registered the number of tongue flicks and headbob displays from exposure to signals in each modality. Number of tongue flicks was greater when a chemical stimulus was presented alone than in the presence of visual or multimodal stimuli. In contrast, headbob displays were fewer in number with visual and chemical stimuli alone, but significantly higher in number when combined. Female signallers triggered significantly more tongue flicks than male signallers, suggesting that chemical cues are involved in sexual recognition. We did not find an inhibition between chemical and visual cues. On the contrary, we observed a dominance of the chemical modality, because when presented with visual stimuli, lizards also responded with more tongue flicks than headbob displays. The total response produced by multimodal stimuli was similar to that of the chemical stimuli alone, possibly suggesting non-redundancy. We discuss whether the visual component of a multimodal signal could attract attention at a distance, increasing the effectiveness of transmission and reception of the information in chemical cues. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Zhang, Yiye; Padman, Rema
Sowpati, Divya Tej; Srivastava, Surabhi; Dhawan, Jyotsna; Mishra, Rakesh K
Paneri, Sofia; Gregoriou, Georgia G.
The ability to select information that is relevant to current behavioral goals is the hallmark of voluntary attention and an essential part of our cognition. Attention tasks are a prime example to study at the neuronal level, how task related information can be selectively processed in the brain while irrelevant information is filtered out. Whereas, numerous studies have focused on elucidating the mechanisms of visual attention at the single neuron and population level in the visual cortices, considerably less work has been devoted to deciphering the distinct contribution of higher-order brain areas, which are known to be critical for the employment of attention. Among these areas, the prefrontal cortex (PFC) has long been considered a source of top-down signals that bias selection in early visual areas in favor of the attended features. Here, we review recent experimental data that support the role of PFC in attention. We examine the existing evidence for functional specialization within PFC and we discuss how long-range interactions between PFC subregions and posterior visual areas may be implemented in the brain and contribute to the attentional modulation of different measures of neural activity in visual cortices. PMID:29033784
Bucci, Maria Pia; Nassibi, Naziha; Gerard, Christophe-Loic; Bui-Quoc, Emmanuel; Seassau, Magali
Studies comparing binocular eye movements during reading and visual search in dyslexic children are, at our knowledge, inexistent. In the present study we examined ocular motor characteristics in dyslexic children versus two groups of non dyslexic children with chronological/reading age-matched. Binocular eye movements were recorded by an infrared system (mobileEBT®, e(ye)BRAIN) in twelve dyslexic children (mean age 11 years old) and a group of chronological age-matched (N = 9) and reading age-matched (N = 10) non dyslexic children. Two visual tasks were used: text reading and visual search. Independently of the task, the ocular motor behavior in dyslexic children is similar to those reported in reading age-matched non dyslexic children: many and longer fixations as well as poor quality of binocular coordination during and after the saccades. In contrast, chronological age-matched non dyslexic children showed a small number of fixations and short duration of fixations in reading task with respect to visual search task; furthermore their saccades were well yoked in both tasks. The atypical eye movement's patterns observed in dyslexic children suggest a deficiency in the visual attentional processing as well as an immaturity of the ocular motor saccade and vergence systems interaction. PMID:22438934
Full Text Available The ability to select information that is relevant to current behavioral goals is the hallmark of voluntary attention and an essential part of our cognition. Attention tasks are a prime example to study at the neuronal level, how task related information can be selectively processed in the brain while irrelevant information is filtered out. Whereas, numerous studies have focused on elucidating the mechanisms of visual attention at the single neuron and population level in the visual cortices, considerably less work has been devoted to deciphering the distinct contribution of higher-order brain areas, which are known to be critical for the employment of attention. Among these areas, the prefrontal cortex (PFC has long been considered a source of top-down signals that bias selection in early visual areas in favor of the attended features. Here, we review recent experimental data that support the role of PFC in attention. We examine the existing evidence for functional specialization within PFC and we discuss how long-range interactions between PFC subregions and posterior visual areas may be implemented in the brain and contribute to the attentional modulation of different measures of neural activity in visual cortices.
Gullberg, Marianne; Holmqvist, Kenneth
This study investigates whether addressees visually attend to speakers’ gestures in interaction and whether attention is modulated by changes in social setting and display size. We compare a live face-to-face setting to two video conditions. In all conditions, the face dominates as a fixation target and only a minority of gestures draw fixations. The social and size parameters affect gaze mainly when combined and in the opposite direction from the predicted with fewer gestures fixated on vide...
Cowgill, E.; Bernardin, T. S.; Oskin, M. E.; Bowles, C. J.; Yikilmaz, M. B.; Kreylos, O.; Elliott, A. J.; Bishop, M. S.; Gold, R. D.; Morelan, A.; Bawden, G. W.; Hamann, B.; Kellogg, L. H.
The Mw 7.0 January 12, 2010 Haiti earthquake ended 240 years of relative quiescence following earthquakes that destroyed Port-au-Prince in 1751 and 1770. We place the 2010 rupture in the context of past earthquakes and future hazards by using remote analysis of airborne LiDAR to observe the topographic expression of active faulting and develop a new conceptual model for the earthquake behavior of the eastern Enriquillo fault zone (EFZ). In this model, the 2010 event occupies a long-lived segment boundary at a stepover within the EFZ separating fault segments that likely ruptured in 1751 and 1770, explaining both past clustering and the lack of 2010 surface rupture. Immediately following the 2010 earthquake, an airborne LiDAR point cloud containing over 2.7 billion point measurements of surface features was collected by the Rochester Inst. of Technology. To analyze these data, we capitalize on the human capacity to visually identify meaningful patterns embedded in noisy data by conducting interactive visual analysis of the entire 66.8 GB Haiti terrain data in a 4-sided, 800 ft3 immersive virtual-reality environment at the UC Davis KeckCAVES using the software tools LiDAR Viewer (to analyze point cloud data) and Crusta (for 3D surficial geologic mapping on DEM data). We discovered and measured landforms displaced by past surface-rupturing earthquakes and remotely characterized the regional fault geometry. Our analysis of the ~50 km long reach of EFZ spanning the 2010 epicenter indicates that geomorphic evidence of active faulting is clearer east of the epicenter than to the west. West of the epicenter, and in the region of the 2010 rupture, the fault is poorly defined along an embayed, low-relief range front, with little evidence of recent surface rupture. In contrast, landform offsets of 6 to 50 m along the reach of the EFZ east of the epicenter and closest to Port-au-Prince attest to repeated recent surface-rupturing earthquakes here. Specifically, we found and
Full Text Available Mobile phones are used in almost all aspects of life by people. But in the case of visually impaired, they are still a step behind in using smart phones for various purposes. Having interactive android OS, navigation and travel aiding apps using sensors and voice user interfaces (VUI or the voice response systems, we are still a step lagging in giving them an application for educational purposes. This paper proposes a complete new idea of having a portal where they can store audio books aided with interactive system so that they can use them whenever needed.
Na, Young Su; Hong, Seong Ho; Song, Jin Ho; Hong, Seong Wan [Severe Accident and PHWR Safety Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
A visualization test of the fuel-coolant interaction in the Test for Real cOrium Interaction with water (TROI) test facility was carried out. To experimentally simulate the In-Vessel corium Retention (IVR)- External Reactor Vessel Cooling (ERVC) conditions, prototypic corium was released directly into the coolant water without a free fall in a gas phase before making contact with the coolant. Corium (34.39 kg) consisting of uranium oxide and zirconium oxide with a weight ratio of 8:2 was superheated, and 22.54 kg of the 34.39 kg corium was passed through water contained in a transparent interaction vessel. An image of the corium jet behavior in the coolant was taken by a high-speed camera every millisecond. Thermocouple junctions installed in the vertical direction of the coolant were cut sequentially by the falling corium jet. It was clearly observed that the visualization image of the corium jet taken during the fuel-coolant interaction corresponded with the temperature variations in the direction of the falling melt. The corium penetrated through the coolant, and the jet leading edge velocity was 2.0 m/s. Debris smaller than 1 mm was 15% of the total weight of the debris collected after a fuel-coolant interaction test, and the mass median diameter was 2.9 mm.
Lleras, Alejandro; Rensink, Ronald A; Enns, James T
A modified visual search task demonstrates that humans are very good at resuming a search after it has been momentarily interrupted. This is shown by exceptionally rapid response time to a display that reappears after a brief interruption, even when an entirely different visual display is seen during the interruption and two different visual searches are performed simultaneously. This rapid resumption depends on the stability of the visual scene and is not due to display or response anticipations. These results are consistent with the existence of an iterative hypothesis-testing mechanism that compares information stored in short-term memory (the perceptual hypothesis) with information about the display (the sensory pattern). In this view, rapid resumption occurs because a hypothesis based on a previous glance of the scene can be tested very rapidly in a subsequent glance, given that the initial hypothesis-generation step has already been performed.
Wooten, Hasani Omar [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Aslam, Tariq Dennis [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Whitley, Von Howard [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
A graphical user interface (GUI) tool has been developed that facilitates the visualization and analysis of the Chapman-Jouguet state for high explosives gaseous products using the Jones- Wilkins-Lee equation of state.
Morhac, M. [Institute of Physics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dubravska cesta 9, 845 11 Bratislava (Slovakia)]. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Matousek, V. [Institute of Physics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dubravska cesta 9, 845 11 Bratislava (Slovakia); Turzo, I. [Institute of Physics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dubravska cesta 9, 845 11 Bratislava (Slovakia); Kliman, J. [Institute of Physics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dubravska cesta 9, 845 11 Bratislava (Slovakia)
Multidimensional data acquisition, processing and visualization system to analyze experimental data in nuclear physics is described. It includes a large number of sophisticated algorithms of the multidimensional spectra processing, including background elimination, deconvolution, peak searching and fitting.
Palma, Gianpaolo; Siotto, Eliana; Proesmans, Marc; Baldassarri, Monica; Baracchini, Clara; Batino, Sabrina; Scopigno, Roberto
Methodologies for virtual examination of Cultural Heritage artifacts through Reflectance Transformation Imaging (RTI) are gaining interest. Although at the beginning this techniques were designed to aid Cultural Heritage specialists in the inspection and interpretation process, the recent advances of 3D web visualization platforms are increasing our capability to open this type of visual inspection to the ordinary public. We present the design and implementation of a system that provide the a...
Full Text Available The visualization of the progression of brain tissue loss, which occurs in neurodegenerative diseases like corticobasal syndrome (CBS, is an important prerequisite to understand the course and the causes of this neurodegenerative disorder. Common workflows for visual analysis are often based on single 2D sections since in 3D visualizations more internally situated structures may be occluded by structures near the surface. The reduction of dimensions from 3D to 2D allows for an holistic view onto internal and external structures, but results in a loss of spatial information. Here, we present an application with two 3D visualization designs to resolve these challenges. First, in addition to the volume changes, the semi-transparent anatomy is displayed with an anatomical section and cortical areas for spatial orientation. Second, the principle of importance-driven volume rendering is adapted to give an unrestricted line-of-sight to relevant structures by means of a frustum-like cutout. To strengthen the benefits of the 3D visualization, we decided to provide the application next to standard desktop environments in immersive virtual environments with stereoscopic viewing as well. This improves the depth perception in general and in particular for the second design. Thus, the application presented in this work allows for aneasily comprehensible visual analysis of the extent of brain degeneration and the corresponding affected regions.
radiation. Several industrial and scientific procedures give rise to facilities with ionizing radiation. Most technical and scientific facilities also need maintenance operations. In the spirit of ALARA, these interventions need to be optimized in terms of the exposure of the maintenance workers to ionizing radiation. This optimization cannot be automated since the feasibility of the intervention tasks requires human assessment. The intervention planning could however be facilitated by technical-scientific means, e.g. software tools. In the context sketched above, this thesis provides technical-scientific considerations and the development of technical-scientific methodologies and software tools for the implementation of radiation protection.In particular, this thesis addresses the need for an interactive visual intervention planning tool in the context of high energy particle accelerator facilities. (author)
Rønn, Kira Vrist
Questions concerning what constitutes a morally justified conduct of intelligence activities have received increased attention in recent decades. However, intelligence ethics is not yet homogeneous or embedded as a solid research field. The aim of this article is to sketch the state of the art...... of intelligence ethics and point out subjects for further scrutiny in future research. The review clusters the literature on intelligence ethics into two groups: respectively, contributions on external topics (i.e., the accountability of and the public trust in intelligence agencies) and internal topics (i.......e., the search for an ideal ethical framework for intelligence actions). The article concludes that there are many holes to fill for future studies on intelligence ethics both in external and internal discussions. Thus, the article is an invitation – especially, to moral philosophers and political theorists...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Graph drawing is an integral part of many systems biology studies, enabling visual exploration and mining of large-scale biological networks. While a number of layout algorithms are available in popular network analysis platforms, such as Cytoscape, it remains poorly understood how well their solutions reflect the underlying biological processes that give rise to the network connectivity structure. Moreover, visualizations obtained using conventional layout algorithms, such as those based on the force-directed drawing approach, may become uninformative when applied to larger networks with dense or clustered connectivity structure. Methods We implemented a modified layout plug-in, named Multilevel Layout, which applies the conventional layout algorithms within a multilevel optimization framework to better capture the hierarchical modularity of many biological networks. Using a wide variety of real life biological networks, we carried out a systematic evaluation of the method in comparison with other layout algorithms in Cytoscape. Results The multilevel approach provided both biologically relevant and visually pleasant layout solutions in most network types, hence complementing the layout options available in Cytoscape. In particular, it could improve drawing of large-scale networks of yeast genetic interactions and human physical interactions. In more general terms, the biological evaluation framework developed here enables one to assess the layout solutions from any existing or future graph drawing algorithm as well as to optimize their performance for a given network type or structure. Conclusions By making use of the multilevel modular organization when visualizing biological networks, together with the biological evaluation of the layout solutions, one can generate convenient visualizations for many network biology applications.
Tuikkala, Johannes; Vähämaa, Heidi; Salmela, Pekka; Nevalainen, Olli S; Aittokallio, Tero
Graph drawing is an integral part of many systems biology studies, enabling visual exploration and mining of large-scale biological networks. While a number of layout algorithms are available in popular network analysis platforms, such as Cytoscape, it remains poorly understood how well their solutions reflect the underlying biological processes that give rise to the network connectivity structure. Moreover, visualizations obtained using conventional layout algorithms, such as those based on the force-directed drawing approach, may become uninformative when applied to larger networks with dense or clustered connectivity structure. We implemented a modified layout plug-in, named Multilevel Layout, which applies the conventional layout algorithms within a multilevel optimization framework to better capture the hierarchical modularity of many biological networks. Using a wide variety of real life biological networks, we carried out a systematic evaluation of the method in comparison with other layout algorithms in Cytoscape. The multilevel approach provided both biologically relevant and visually pleasant layout solutions in most network types, hence complementing the layout options available in Cytoscape. In particular, it could improve drawing of large-scale networks of yeast genetic interactions and human physical interactions. In more general terms, the biological evaluation framework developed here enables one to assess the layout solutions from any existing or future graph drawing algorithm as well as to optimize their performance for a given network type or structure. By making use of the multilevel modular organization when visualizing biological networks, together with the biological evaluation of the layout solutions, one can generate convenient visualizations for many network biology applications.
Cet article présente une approche systémique du concept d’intelligence naturelle en ayant pour objectif de créer une intelligence artificielle. Ainsi, l’intelligence naturelle, humaine et animale non-humaine, est une fonction composée de facultés permettant de connaître et de comprendre. De plus, l'intelligence naturelle reste indissociable de la structure, à savoir les organes du cerveau et du corps. La tentation est grande de doter les systèmes informatiques d’une intelligence artificielle ...
Ohla, Kathrin; Toepel, Ulrike; le Coutre, Johannes; Hudry, Julie
Vision provides a primary sensory input for food perception. It raises expectations on taste and nutritional value and drives acceptance or rejection. So far, the impact of visual food cues varying in energy content on subsequent taste integration remains unexplored. Using electrical neuroimaging, we assessed whether high- and low-calorie food cues differentially influence the brain processing and perception of a subsequent neutral electric taste. When viewing high-calorie food images, participants reported the subsequent taste to be more pleasant than when low-calorie food images preceded the identical taste. Moreover, the taste-evoked neural activity was stronger in the bilateral insula and the adjacent frontal operculum (FOP) within 100 ms after taste onset when preceded by high- versus low-calorie cues. A similar pattern evolved in the anterior cingulate (ACC) and medial orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) around 180 ms, as well as, in the right insula, around 360 ms. The activation differences in the OFC correlated positively with changes in taste pleasantness, a finding that is an accord with the role of the OFC in the hedonic evaluation of taste. Later activation differences in the right insula likely indicate revaluation of interoceptive taste awareness. Our findings reveal previously unknown mechanisms of cross-modal, visual-gustatory, sensory interactions underlying food evaluation.
TÂNIA REGINA VIEIRA
Full Text Available The need for audiovisual materials in the EFL classroom arises from the factthat the association of visual aids with the new language makes meaning moredirect and quick to understand than through verbal explanation, attracts thestudents’ attention and aids concentration. Learning a language through visualaids in collaboration with other peers makes the experience more productiveand profitable. Therefore, this work discusses how the use of visual aids in asocio-interactive environment can improve students’ ability to learn a language.A necessidade do uso de recursos visuais em uma aula de língua estrangeiraderiva do fato de que a associação de imagens à nova língua torna o significadomais direto e fácil de compreender do que por explicações verbais, atrai a atençãodos alunos e ajuda na concentração. Aprender uma língua através de recursosvisuais em colaboração com outros colegas torna a experiência mais produtivae proveitosa. Assim, este trabalho discute como o uso de recursos visuais emum contexto sociointerativo pode melhorar a capacidade dos alunos paraaprender uma língua.
Dong, Ping; Zhong, Chen-Bo
We examined the psychological impact of visual darkness on people's perceived risk of contagious-disease transmission. We posited that darkness triggers an abstract construal level and increases perceived social distance from others, rendering threats from others to seem less relevant to the self. We found that participants staying in a dimly lit room (Studies 1 and 3-5) or wearing sunglasses (Study 2) tended to estimate a lower risk of catching contagious diseases from others than did those staying in a brightly lit room or wearing clear glasses. The effect persisted in both laboratory (Studies 1-4) and real-life settings (Study 5). The effect arises because visual darkness elevates perceived social distance from the contagion (Study 3) and is attenuated among abstract (vs. concrete) thinkers (Study 4). These findings delineate a systematic, unconscious influence of visual darkness-a subtle yet pervasive situational factor-on perceived risk of contagion. Theoretical contributions and policy implications are discussed.
Wilbert A. McClay
Full Text Available Ecumenically, the fastest growing segment of Big Data is human biology-related data and the annual data creation is on the order of zetabytes. The implications are global across industries, of which the treatment of brain related illnesses and trauma could see the most significant and immediate effects. The next generation of health care IT and sensory devices are acquiring and storing massive amounts of patient related data. An innovative Brain-Computer Interface (BCI for interactive 3D visualization is presented utilizing the Hadoop Ecosystem for data analysis and storage. The BCI is an implementation of Bayesian factor analysis algorithms that can distinguish distinct thought actions using magneto encephalographic (MEG brain signals. We have collected data on five subjects yielding 90% positive performance in MEG mid- and post-movement activity. We describe a driver that substitutes the actions of the BCI as mouse button presses for real-time use in visual simulations. This process has been added into a flight visualization demonstration. By thinking left or right, the user experiences the aircraft turning in the chosen direction. The driver components of the BCI can be compiled into any software and substitute a user’s intent for specific keyboard strikes or mouse button presses. The BCI’s data analytics OPEN ACCESS Brain. Sci. 2015, 5 420 of a subject’s MEG brainwaves and flight visualization performance are stored and analyzed using the Hadoop Ecosystem as a quick retrieval data warehouse.
Baker, Ryan S.
The initial vision for intelligent tutoring systems involved powerful, multi-faceted systems that would leverage rich models of students and pedagogies to create complex learning interactions. But the intelligent tutoring systems used at scale today are much simpler. In this article, I present hypotheses on the factors underlying this development,…
structures. Furthermore, we introduce a new approach to glyph visualization—constant visual angle (CVA) glyphs—which has the potential to mitigate the effect of clutter at the cost of dispensing with the common real-world depth cue of relative size. In a controlled experiment where test subjects had...... to locate and select visualized structures in an immersive virtual environment, we identified several significant results. One result is that CVA glyphs ease perception of structures in cluttered environments while not deteriorating it when clutter is absent. Another is the existence of threshold densities...
Tobin, Michael J.; Hill, Eileen W.
The article discusses some problems confronting teachers and psychologists when making decisions as to how to use the currently available test procedures. It reports data gathered on three separate occasions on the performance of a group of blind and partially sighted children on the Williams Intelligence Test which is the only specialist IQ test…
Full Text Available Objective: Assessment of cognitive functions in schizophrenia patients is very important. Because the cognitive deficiencies in memory and intelligence are the fundamental and underlying aspects. Both indicate from a structural and neurological similar deficits. The present study sought to examine the impact of severity and prognosis of schizophrenia on cognitive function, such as memory and intelligence and the relationship between intelligence and memory. Material & Methods: In this study, 60 schizophrenia patients participate, who had at least 2 years of their diagnosis. Based on interviews by the PANSS scale in the two groups of 30 persons including the first group with mild symptoms (stable group and the second group with severe symptoms (deteriorate group, were studied. Two groups by age, literacy, lack of mental retardation before diagnosis of disease, the use of ECT, the lack of anti-psychotic drug treatment more than three months during the past year were cloning. the Wechsler memory test and the raven IQ test for adults were used, the results were analyzed with using independent t-test, correlation and regression. Results: Average of memory quotient in stable group with 77.4 and in deteriorated group with 65.93 had significant difference (P=0.002. Average of IQ in stable group with 84.26 and in deteriorated group with 76.9 had significant difference (P=0.015. Regression test showed that the memory can be predicted from IQ (P=0.001. Conclusion: with severity of disease and deteriorated of schizophrenia and negative symptoms, deficiency in memory, has increased. In these patients, there was a positive relationship between intelligence and memory. The level of intelligence was in deteriorated group significantly lower than from stable group
Bresnahan, Patricia A.; Pukinskis, Madeleine; Wiggins, Michael
Image quality assessment systems differ greatly with respect to the number and types of mags they need to evaluate, and their overall architectures. Managers of these systems, however, all need to be able to tune and evaluate system performance, requirements often overlooked or under-designed during project planning. Performance tuning tools allow users to define acceptable quality standards for image features and attributes by adjusting parameter settings. Performance analysis tools allow users to evaluate and/or predict how well a system performs in a given parameter state. While image assessment algorithms are becoming quite sophisticated, duplicating or surpassing the human decision making process in their speed and reliability, they often require a greater investment in 'training' or fine tuning of parameters in order to achieve optimum performance. This process may involve the analysis of hundreds or thousands of images, generating a large database of files and statistics that can be difficult to sort through and interpret. Compounding the difficulty is the fact that personnel charged with tuning and maintaining the production system may not have the statistical or analytical background required for the task. Meanwhile, hardware innovations have greatly increased the volume of images that can be handled in a given time frame, magnifying the consequences of running a production site with an inadequately tuned system. In this paper, some general requirements for a performance evaluation and tuning data visualization system are discussed. A custom engineered solution to the tuning and evaluation problem is then presented, developed within the context of a high volume image quality assessment, data entry, OCR, and image archival system. A key factor influencing the design of the system was the context-dependent definition of image quality, as perceived by a human interpreter. This led to the development of a five-level, hierarchical approach to image quality
Vladusich, T; Hemmi, JM; Srinivasan, MV; Zeil, J
How do honeybees use visual odometry and goal-defining landmarks to guide food search? In one experiment, bees were trained to forage in an optic-flow-rich tunnel with a landmark positioned directly above the feeder. Subsequent food-search tests indicated that bees searched much more accurately when
Muller, Thomas; Frauendiener, Jorg
In a first course in general relativity, the Schwarzschild spacetime is the most discussed analytic solution to Einstein's field equations. Unfortunately, there is rarely enough time to study the optical consequences of the bending of light for some advanced examples. In this paper, we present how the visual appearance of a thin disc around a…